WorldWideScience

Sample records for cancer translational research

  1. Novel translational strategies in colorectal cancer research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Defining translational research is still a complex task. In oncology, translational research implies using our basic knowledge learnt from in vitro and in vivo experiments to directly improve diagnostic tools and therapeutic approaches in cancer patients. Moreover, the better understanding of human cancer and its use to design more reliable tumor models and more accurate experimental systems also has to be considered a good example of translational research. The identification and characterization of new molecular markers and the discovery of novel targeted therapies are two main goals in colorectal cancer translational research. However, the straightforward translation of basic research findings, specifically into colorectal cancer treatment and vice versa is still underway. In the present paper, a summarized view of some of the new available approaches on colorectal cancer translational research is provided. Pros and cons are discussed for every approach exposed.

  2. Institutional shared resources and translational cancer research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Paoli Paolo

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The development and maintenance of adequate shared infrastructures is considered a major goal for academic centers promoting translational research programs. Among infrastructures favoring translational research, centralized facilities characterized by shared, multidisciplinary use of expensive laboratory instrumentation, or by complex computer hardware and software and/or by high professional skills are necessary to maintain or improve institutional scientific competitiveness. The success or failure of a shared resource program also depends on the choice of appropriate institutional policies and requires an effective institutional governance regarding decisions on staffing, existence and composition of advisory committees, policies and of defined mechanisms of reporting, budgeting and financial support of each resource. Shared Resources represent a widely diffused model to sustain cancer research; in fact, web sites from an impressive number of research Institutes and Universities in the U.S. contain pages dedicated to the SR that have been established in each Center, making a complete view of the situation impossible. However, a nation-wide overview of how Cancer Centers develop SR programs is available on the web site for NCI-designated Cancer Centers in the U.S., while in Europe, information is available for individual Cancer centers. This article will briefly summarize the institutional policies, the organizational needs, the characteristics, scientific aims, and future developments of SRs necessary to develop effective translational research programs in oncology. In fact, the physical build-up of SRs per se is not sufficient for the successful translation of biomedical research. Appropriate policies to improve the academic culture in collaboration, the availability of educational programs for translational investigators, the existence of administrative facilitations for translational research and an efficient organization

  3. Translating basic research in cancer patient care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcello Maugeri-Saccà

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available With the advent of molecular targeted therapies and the development of high-throughput biotechnologies, it has become evident that progress in cancer research is largely due to the creation of multidisciplinary teams able to plan clinical trials supported by appropriate molecular hypotheses. These efforts have culminated in the identification and validation of biomarkers predictive of response, as well as in the generation of more accurate prognostic tools. The identification of cancer stem cells has provided further insights into mechanisms of cancer, and many studies have tried to translate this biological notion into prognostic and predictive information. In this regard, new agents targeting key stemness-related pathways have entered the clinical development, and preliminary data suggested an encouraging antitumor activity.

  4. The cancer translational research informatics platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnson Kimberly

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite the pressing need for the creation of applications that facilitate the aggregation of clinical and molecular data, most current applications are proprietary and lack the necessary compliance with standards that would allow for cross-institutional data exchange. In line with its mission of accelerating research discoveries and improving patient outcomes by linking networks of researchers, physicians, and patients focused on cancer research, caBIG (cancer Biomedical Informatics Grid™ has sponsored the creation of the caTRIP (Cancer Translational Research Informatics Platform tool, with the purpose of aggregating clinical and molecular data in a repository that is user-friendly, easily accessible, as well as compliant with regulatory requirements of privacy and security. Results caTRIP has been developed as an N-tier architecture, with three primary tiers: domain services, the distributed query engine, and the graphical user interface, primarily making use of the caGrid infrastructure to ensure compatibility with other tools currently developed by caBIG. The application interface was designed so that users can construct queries using either the Simple Interface via drop-down menus or the Advanced Interface for more sophisticated searching strategies to using drag-and-drop. Furthermore, the application addresses the security concerns of authentication, authorization, and delegation, as well as an automated honest broker service for deidentifying data. Conclusion Currently being deployed at Duke University and a few other centers, we expect that caTRIP will make a significant contribution to further the development of translational research through the facilitation of its data exchange and storage processes.

  5. Network for Translational Research - Cancer Imaging Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooperative agreement (U54) awards to establish Specialized Research Resource Centers that will participate as members of a network of inter-disciplinary, inter-institutional research teams for the purpose of supporting translational research in optical imaging and/or spectroscopy in vivo, with an emphasis on multiple modalities.

  6. [Research progression of translational medicine in gastric cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Maoran; Zhao, Gang; Zhu, Chunchao

    2014-02-01

    Gastric cancer is one of the most common malignant tumors which is a great threat to human health. In recent years, the reform of surgical mordalities and the optimization of radiation and chemotherapy is still far from reducing morbidity and mortality of gastric cancer. As a new research pattern, translational medicine has emerged in various clinical subjects, which leads to remarkable effects. In this paper, the definition and development of translational medicine, molecular markers and drug treatment of gastric cancer will be discussed and the feasibility of translational medicine in the treatment of gastric cancer will be explained. In our opinion, the intervention of translational medicine could change the current situation that scientific researches is severely disconnected with clinical practice and increase the detection rate of gastric cancer and the effective rate of adjuvant therapy after surgery to improve the prognosis of patients with gastric cancer.

  7. Towards discovery-driven translational research in breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2005-01-01

    Discovery-driven translational research in breast cancer is moving steadily from the study of cell lines to the analysis of clinically relevant samples that, together with the ever increasing number of novel and powerful technologies available within genomics, proteomics and functional genomics......, promise to have a major impact on the way breast cancer will be diagnosed, treated and monitored in the future. Here we present a brief report on long-term ongoing strategies at the Danish Centre for Translational Breast Cancer Research to search for markers for early detection and targets for therapeutic...... biology approach to fight breast cancer....

  8. Graphic Evolution Witness the Development of Lung Cancer Translational Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao ZHANG

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Lung cancer treatment has altered from conventional chemotherapy to targeted treatment, which now has been turned to the immunotherapy. Translational research has played an irreplaceable role during this progression which graphic evolution has witnessed. The evolution has gone through forest plot, KM-curve, waterfall plot, spider plot and timeline-area, showing us the refining concept and gradual process of lung cancer treatment undergoing from community towards individual. Even though the latest immunotherapy is getting increasingly hot, the result isn’t quite expected. Meanwhile, the limitations of conventional treatment still exist which require further research. This article will primarily illustrate the development of translational research of lung cancer via the aspect of curve evolution and analysis some abortive clinical trials in lung cancer surgery for inspiring the next graphic style and lung cancer treatment.

  9. Breast Cancer Translational Research Center of Excellence

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    the standard of care for treating breast diseases and breast cancer. This approach integrates prevention , screening, diagnosis, treatment and...follow a healthy lifestyle ?” (submitted for publication clearance April 2015). Ellsworth RE, Mamula KA, Costantino NS, Deyarmin B, Kostyniak PJ, Chi...disorders. The project will continue utilizing a multidisciplinary approach as the standard of care for treating breast diseases and breast cancer. This

  10. Pancreatic Cancer: Updates on Translational Research and Future Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evangelos G Sarris

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Pancreatic cancer is one of the most lethal malignancies with a mortality rate almost equal to its incidence. It is ranked as the fourth leading cause of cancer-related deaths in the United States, and despite intensive basic and clinical research over the last few years, the survival benefit for the majority of patients with pancreatic cancer is still disappointing. Due to the absence of specific symptoms and the lack of early detection tests, pancreatic cancer is usually diagnosed at an advanced inoperrable stage and palliative chemotherapy with the purine analogue gemcitabine in combination with the targeted agent erlotinib, remains the mainstay method in the management of these patients. Therefore, there is an imperative need for new findings in the translational research field with prognostic, predictive and therapeutic value. In this paper we summarize five most interesting research abstracts as presented at the 2013 American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO Gastrointestinal Cancers Symposium. In particular, we focus on Abstract #141 which investigates the interaction between liver and pancreatic organ damage in patients with pancreatic cancer and the potential contribution of the patatin-like phospholipase domain containing 3 (PNPLA3 gene variation in pancreatic cancer development and on Abstract #149, in which, the prognostic and predictive role of SWI/SNF complex, a chromatin-remodeling complex, is examined. The key role of pharmacogenomics, in terms of predicting response and resistance to chemotherapy in pancreatic cancer patients, is analyzed in Abstract #142 and the contribution of circulating tumor cell detection in the early diagnosis of pancreatic cancer, allowing the avoidance of more invasive procedures like EUS-FNA, is discussed in Abstract #157. Lastly, in Abstract #164, the diagnostic utility of YKL-40 and IL-6 in pancreatic cancer patients is investigated.

  11. Barrett's Esophagus Translational Research Network (BETRNet) | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The goal of BETRNet is to reduce the incidence, morbidity, and mortality of esophageal adenocarcinoma by answering key questions related to the progression of the disease, especially in the premalignant stage. In partnership with NCI’s Division of Cancer Biology, multidisciplinary translational research centers collaborate to better understand the biology of Barrett's esophagus and esophageal adenocarcinoma to improve risk stratification and develop prevention strategies.  | Multi-disciplinary, multi-institutional collaboration to enhance understanding of Barrett's esophagus and to prevent esophageal adenocarcinoma.

  12. Translational genomics in cancer research:converting proifles into personalized cancer medicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lalit Patel; Brittany Parker; Da Yang; Wei Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Cancer genomics is a rapidly growing discipline in which the genetic molecular basis of malignancy is studied at the scale of whole genomes. While the discipline has been successful with respect to identifying specific oncogenes and tumor suppressors involved in oncogenesis, it is also challenging our approach to managing patients suffering from this deadly disease. Speciifcally cancer genomics is driving clinical oncology to take a more molecular approach to diagnosis, prognostication, and treatment selection. We review here recent work undertaken in cancer genomics with an emphasis on translation of genomic ifndings. Finally, we discuss scientiifc challenges and research opportunities emerging from ifndings derived through analysis of tumors with high-depth sequencing.

  13. Pancreatic cancer: Translational research aspects and clinical implications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Daniel Ansari; Bi-Cheng Chen; Lei Dong; Meng-Tao Zhou; Roland Andersson

    2012-01-01

    Despite improvements in surgical techniques and adjuvant chemotherapy,the overall mortality rates in pancreatic cancer have generally remained relatively unchanged and the 5-year survival rate is actually below 2%.This paper will address the importance of achieving an early diagnosis and identifying markers for prognosis and response to therapy such as genes,proteins,microRNAs or epigenetic modifications.However,there are still major hurdles when translating investigational biomarkers into routine clinical practice.Furthermore,novel ways of secondary screening in high-risk individuals,such as artificial neural networks and modern imaging,will be discussed.Drug resistance is ubiquitous in pancreatic cancer.Several mechanisms of drug resistance have already been revealed,including human equilibrative nucleoside transporter-1 status,multidrug resistance proteins,aberrant signaling pathways,microRNAs,stromal influence,epithelial-mesenchymal transition-type cells and recently the presence of cancer stem cells/cancer-initiating cells.These factors must be considered when developing more customized types of intervention ("personalized medicine").In the future,multifunctional nanoparticles that combine a specific targeting agent,an imaging probe,a cell-penetrating agent,a biocompatible polymer and an anti-cancer drug may become valuable for the management of patients with pancreatic cancer.

  14. Critical appraisal of the suitability of translational research models for performance assessment of cancer institutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rajan, A.; Sullivan, R.; Bakker, S.; Harten, van W.H.

    2012-01-01

    Background. Translational research is a complex cumulative process that takes time. However, the operating environment for cancer centers engaged in translational research is now financially insecure. Centers are challenged to improve results and reduce time from discovery to practice innovations. P

  15. Critical Appraisal of Translational Research Models for Suitability in Performance Assessment of Cancer Centers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rajan, Abinaya; Sullivan, Richard; Bakker, Suzanne; Harten, van Wim H.

    2012-01-01

    Background. Translational research is a complex cumulative process that takes time. However, the operating environment for cancer centers engaged in translational research is now financially insecure. Centers are challenged to improve results and reduce time from discovery to practice innovations. P

  16. In vitro models of pancreatic cancer for translational oncology research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldmann, Georg; Rauenzahn, Sherri; Maitra, Anirban

    2009-01-01

    Background Pancreatic cancer is a disease of near uniform fatality and the overwhelming majority of patients succumb to their advanced malignancy within a few months of diagnosis. Despite considerable advances in our understanding of molecular mechanisms underlying pancreatic carcinogenesis, this knowledge has not yet been fully translated into clinically available treatment strategies that yield significant improvements in disease free or overall survival. Objective Cell line-based in vitro model systems provide powerful tools to identify potential molecular targets for therapeutic intervention as well as for initial pre-clinical evaluation of novel drug candidates. Here we provide a brief overview of recent literature on cell line-based model systems of pancreatic cancer and their application in the search for novel therapeutics against this vicious disease. Conclusion While in vitro models of pancreatic cancer are of tremendous value for genetic studies and initial functional screenings in drug discovery, they carry several imanent drawbacks and are often poor in predicting therapeutic response in humans. Therefore, in most instances they are successfully exploited to generate hypothesis and identify molecular targets for novel therapeutics, which are subsequently subject to further in-depth characterization using more advanced in vivo model systems and clinical trials. PMID:20160967

  17. Multi-targeted approach to cancer treatment: an international translational cancer research symposium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Kapil; Gandhi, Varsha; Pathak, Sen; Aggarwal, Bharat B; Grover, Rajesh K

    2014-11-01

    Whether it is chronic myeloid leukemia, ALK-expressing malignancies, or HER2-positive breast cancer, targeted-therapies for treatment of human cancers have shown great promise. However, as they hit a single molecule expressed in neoplastic cells, their use is frequently associated with development of resistance. In cancer cells many signaling pathways operate in parallel, hence the idea of multi-targeted therapy is prevailing. The Society of Translational Cancer Research held its biennial meeting in the capital city of India, Delhi from February 6th through 9th, 2014 to discuss 'Multi-targeted Approach to Treatment of Cancer'. Over 200 scientists, clinicians, trainees, and industry representatives from different countries gathered in Vigyan Bhavan, the hotspot of Delhi for four days to talk and discuss on a variety of topics related to multi-targeted therapeutic approaches. Talks were presented by leaders in the cancer research field from various countries. It became clear from this conference that coupling multiple targeted-agents or using an agent that hits an individual target in several independent locations in the disease-causing pathway(s) may be the best approach to treat different cancers.

  18. Prevention and Treatment of Cancer: Hypes and Hopes 6th International Translational Cancer Research Conference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Prabhudas; Vora, Hemangini; Aggarwal, Bharat B; Gandhi, Varsha; Mehta, Kapil; Pathak, Sen

    2016-09-01

    Cancer is primarily an "old-age" disease that has an "age-old" history. The overall incidence of cancer is much higher in Western countries, but is rapidly growing in Eastern countries perhaps due to change in life-style. Almost three million studies published to date indicate that cancer is a hyperproliferative disorder that arises from dysregulation of multiple cell signaling pathways. The cancer genome landscape indicates that approximately 140 genes and 12 cell signaling pathways drive almost all cancers. "Targeted therapy," a buzz word in cancer treatment for the past two decades, has provided antibodies, as well as small-molecule inhibitors. These therapies have been successful only in few instances. However, in most cases, minor increase in overall survival has been reported at the cost of huge expense. An alternative strategy is to prevent cancer or to diagnose and treat the disease at an early stage to gain survival benefits. Such interventions are also cost-effective. To address some of these issues, the 6th International Translational Cancer Research Conference was held during February 4-7th, 2016, in Ahmedabad, Gujarat, India; the homeland of Mahatma Gandhi. This conference was focused on utilizing multidisciplinary approaches for prevention and early treatment that would likely simultaneously or sequentially target many key pathways. Several distinguished speakers were invited from around the world. This article highlights primary features of this conference.

  19. Health psychology and translational genomic research: bringing innovation to cancer-related behavioral interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBride, Colleen M; Birmingham, Wendy C; Kinney, Anita Y

    2015-01-01

    The past decade has witnessed rapid advances in human genome sequencing technology and in the understanding of the role of genetic and epigenetic alterations in cancer development. These advances have raised hopes that such knowledge could lead to improvements in behavioral risk reduction interventions, tailored screening recommendations, and treatment matching that together could accelerate the war on cancer. Despite this optimism, translation of genomic discovery for clinical and public health applications has moved relatively slowly. To date, health psychologists and the behavioral sciences generally have played a very limited role in translation research. In this report we discuss what we mean by genomic translational research and consider the social forces that have slowed translational research, including normative assumptions that translation research must occur downstream of basic science, thus relegating health psychology and other behavioral sciences to a distal role. We then outline two broad priority areas in cancer prevention, detection, and treatment where evidence will be needed to guide evaluation and implementation of personalized genomics: (a) effective communication, to broaden dissemination of genomic discovery, including patient-provider communication and familial communication, and (b) the need to improve the motivational impact of behavior change interventions, including those aimed at altering lifestyle choices and those focusing on decision making regarding targeted cancer treatments and chemopreventive adherence. We further discuss the role that health psychologists can play in interdisciplinary teams to shape translational research priorities and to evaluate the utility of emerging genomic discoveries for cancer prevention and control.

  20. Critical research gaps and translational priorities for the successful prevention and treatment of breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Eccles, Suzanne A.; Aboagye, Eric O; Ali, Simak; Anderson, Annie S; Armes, Jo; Berditchevski, Fedor; Blaydes, Jeremy P.; Brennan, Keith; Brown, Nicola J; Bryant, Helen E; Bundred, Nigel J; Burchell, Joy M; Campbell, Anna M; Carroll, Jason S.; Clarke, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Breast cancer remains a significant scientific, clinical and societal challenge. This gap analysis has reviewed and critically assessed enduring issues and new challenges emerging from recent research, and proposes strategies for translating solutions into practice.Methods: More than 100 internationally recognised specialist breast cancer scientists, clinicians and healthcare professionals collaborated to address nine thematic areas: genetics, epigenetics and epidemiology; molec...

  1. Critical Appraisal of Translational Research Models for Suitability in Performance Assessment of Cancer Centers

    OpenAIRE

    Rajan, Abinaya; Sullivan, Richard; Bakker, Suzanne; van Harten, Wim H.

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to critically appraise translational research models for suitability in performance assessment of cancer centers. Process models, such as the Process Marker Model and Lean and Six Sigma applications, seem to be suitable for performance assessment of cancer centers. However, they must be thoroughly tested in practice.

  2. A cloud-based data network approach for translational cancer research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Wei; Tsoumakos, Dimitrios; Ghanem, Moustafa

    2015-01-01

    We develop a new model and associated technology for constructing and managing self-organizing data to support translational cancer research studies. We employ a semantic content network approach to address the challenges of managing cancer research data. Such data is heterogeneous, large, decentralized, growing and continually being updated. Moreover, the data originates from different information sources that may be partially overlapping, creating redundancies as well as contradictions and inconsistencies. Building on the advantages of elasticity of cloud computing, we deploy the cancer data networks on top of the CELAR Cloud platform to enable more effective processing and analysis of Big cancer data.

  3. Translational Research on Esophageal Cancer: From Cell Line to Clinic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.J. Boonstra (Jurjen)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractWorldwide esophageal cancer is a signifi cant and an increasing health problem. In 2005, there were 497,700 new cases, and the prevalence is expected to increase by approximately 140% by 2025. Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) accounts for most of the cases of esophageal cancer w

  4. Integrating proteomic and functional genomic technologies in discovery-driven translational breast cancer research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Celis, Julio E; Gromov, Pavel; Gromova, Irina

    2003-01-01

    The application of state-of-the-art proteomics and functional genomics technologies to the study of cancer is rapidly shifting toward the analysis of clinically relevant samples derived from patients, as the ultimate aim of translational research is to bring basic discoveries closer to the bedsid...

  5. A Federated Network for Translational Cancer Research Using Clinical Data and Biospecimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Rebecca S; Becich, Michael J; Bollag, Roni J; Chavan, Girish; Corrigan, Julia; Dhir, Rajiv; Feldman, Michael D; Gaudioso, Carmelo; Legowski, Elizabeth; Maihle, Nita J; Mitchell, Kevin; Murphy, Monica; Sakthivel, Mayurapriyan; Tseytlin, Eugene; Weaver, JoEllen

    2015-12-15

    Advances in cancer research and personalized medicine will require significant new bridging infrastructures, including more robust biorepositories that link human tissue to clinical phenotypes and outcomes. In order to meet that challenge, four cancer centers formed the Text Information Extraction System (TIES) Cancer Research Network, a federated network that facilitates data and biospecimen sharing among member institutions. Member sites can access pathology data that are de-identified and processed with the TIES natural language processing system, which creates a repository of rich phenotype data linked to clinical biospecimens. TIES incorporates multiple security and privacy best practices that, combined with legal agreements, network policies, and procedures, enable regulatory compliance. The TIES Cancer Research Network now provides integrated access to investigators at all member institutions, where multiple investigator-driven pilot projects are underway. Examples of federated search across the network illustrate the potential impact on translational research, particularly for studies involving rare cancers, rare phenotypes, and specific biologic behaviors. The network satisfies several key desiderata including local control of data and credentialing, inclusion of rich phenotype information, and applicability to diverse research objectives. The TIES Cancer Research Network presents a model for a national data and biospecimen network.

  6. Patient-derived xenografts: A platform for accelerating translational research in prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Alastair H; Wang, Yuzhuo; Zoubeidi, Amina

    2017-03-15

    Recently, there has been renewed interest in the development and characterization of patient-derived tumour xenograft (PDX) models. Numerous PDX models have been established for prostate cancer and, importantly, retain the principal molecular, genetic, and histological characteristics of the donor tumour. As such, these models provide significant improvements over standard cell line xenograft models for biological studies, preclinical drug development, and personalized medicine strategies. This review summarizes the current state of the art in this field, illustrating the opportunities and limitations of PDX models in translational prostate cancer research.

  7. Types of Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    An infographic from the National Cancer Institute (NCI) describing the four broad categories of cancer research: basic research, clinical research, population-based research, and translational research.

  8. Impact of the Cancer Prevention and Control Research Network: Accelerating the Translation of Research Into Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribisl, Kurt M; Fernandez, Maria E; Friedman, Daniela B; Hannon, Peggy A; Leeman, Jennifer; Moore, Alexis; Olson, Lindsay; Ory, Marcia; Risendal, Betsy; Sheble, Laura; Taylor, Vicky M; Williams, Rebecca S; Weiner, Bryan J

    2017-03-01

    The Cancer Prevention and Control Research Network (CPCRN) is a thematic network dedicated to accelerating the adoption of evidence-based cancer prevention and control practices in communities by advancing dissemination and implementation science. Funded by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and National Cancer Institute, CPCRN has operated at two levels: Each participating network center conducts research projects with primarily local partners as well as multicenter collaborative research projects with state and national partners. Through multicenter collaboration, thematic networks leverage the expertise, resources, and partnerships of participating centers to conduct research projects collectively that might not be feasible individually. Although multicenter collaboration is often advocated, it is challenging to promote and assess. Using bibliometric network analysis and other graphical methods, this paper describes CPCRN's multicenter publication progression from 2004 to 2014. Searching PubMed, Scopus, and Web of Science in 2014 identified 249 peer-reviewed CPCRN publications involving two or more centers out of 6,534 total. The research and public health impact of these multicenter collaborative projects initiated by CPCRN during that 10-year period were then examined. CPCRN established numerous workgroups around topics such as: 2-1-1, training and technical assistance, colorectal cancer control, federally qualified health centers, cancer survivorship, and human papillomavirus. This paper discusses the challenges that arise in promoting multicenter collaboration and the strategies that CPCRN uses to address those challenges. The lessons learned should broadly interest those seeking to promote multisite collaboration to address public health problems, such as cancer prevention and control.

  9. Accommodating Translational Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giles, Howard

    2008-01-01

    This is an article in a series illustrating the way scholars in communication have pursued translating their research into practice. The translational nature of communication accommodation theory and examples of its application are the focus of this contribution.

  10. Stimulating translational research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentires-Alj, Mohamed; Rajan, Abinaya; van Harten, Wim;

    2015-01-01

    Translational research leaves no-one indifferent and everyone expects a particular benefit. We as EU-LIFE (www.eu-life.eu), an alliance of 13 research institutes in European life sciences, would like to share our experience in an attempt to identify measures to promote translational research with...... without undermining basic exploratory research and academic freedom.......Translational research leaves no-one indifferent and everyone expects a particular benefit. We as EU-LIFE (www.eu-life.eu), an alliance of 13 research institutes in European life sciences, would like to share our experience in an attempt to identify measures to promote translational research...

  11. Research progress for translational medicine in cancer%肿瘤转化医学研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田玲; 汪楠; 陈丹霞; 安嘉璐

    2014-01-01

    Cancer translational research has become a key priority of medical research in developed countries. Cancer translational research has been conducted with support from translational centers with basic research priorities covering cancer genome, gene expression and regulation, tumor microenvironment, anti-cancer mechanism, cancer biomarkers in the field of leukemia, melanoma, lung cancer, prostate cancer, breast cancer, cerebral cancer, colorectal cancer, etc. Translation research has been integrated into the national science and technology plan in China. Disease classification, individualized diagnosis and treatment technologies, and genome technologies have been identified as the priorities of cancer translational research in China, with growing research outputs. Literature metrology, Induction and deduction and aggregate analysis were applied for comprehensive statistics and analysis of key research projects, research priorities and outputs of international cancer translational researches, and the national science and technology plan, research priorities and outputs of cancer translational researches in China. The study provides important data basis and reference for translational medicine development and cancer prevention and control in China based on retrospective statistical analysis of the status quo of cancer translational research in China and abroad.%肿瘤转化研究是发达国家医学研究领域资助的重点,以转化中心为依托开展肿瘤转化研究,基础研究的重点包括肿瘤基因组、相关基因的转录与调控、肿瘤微环境、抑癌机制、肿瘤分子标记物等,涉及白血病、黑色素瘤、肺癌、前列腺癌、乳腺癌、脑癌、结肠癌等。我国转化医学研究已纳入国家科技规划,重点支持“重大疾病的分子分型与个体化诊疗技术”和“重大疾病的基因组技术”的肿瘤转化研究,相关研究产出不断增多。本研究采用文献计量、归纳演绎以

  12. Translational Bioinformatics and Clinical Research (Biomedical) Informatics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirintrapun, S Joseph; Zehir, Ahmet; Syed, Aijazuddin; Gao, JianJiong; Schultz, Nikolaus; Cheng, Donavan T

    2016-03-01

    Translational bioinformatics and clinical research (biomedical) informatics are the primary domains related to informatics activities that support translational research. Translational bioinformatics focuses on computational techniques in genetics, molecular biology, and systems biology. Clinical research (biomedical) informatics involves the use of informatics in discovery and management of new knowledge relating to health and disease. This article details 3 projects that are hybrid applications of translational bioinformatics and clinical research (biomedical) informatics: The Cancer Genome Atlas, the cBioPortal for Cancer Genomics, and the Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center clinical variants and results database, all designed to facilitate insights into cancer biology and clinical/therapeutic correlations.

  13. "Triple negative breast cancer": Translational research and the (re)assembling of diseases in post-genomic medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keating, Peter; Cambrosio, Alberto; Nelson, Nicole C

    2016-10-01

    The paper examines the debate about the nature and status of "Triple-negative breast cancer", a controversial biomedical entity whose existence illustrates a number of features of post-genomic translational research. The emergence of TNBC is intimately linked to the rise of molecular oncology, and, more generally, to the changing configuration of the life sciences at the turn of the new century. An unprecedented degree of integration of biological and clinical practices has led to the proliferation of bio-clinical entities emerging from translational research. These translations take place between platforms rather than between clinical and laboratory settings. The complexity and heterogeneity of TNBC, its epistemic and technical, biological and clinical dualities, result from its multiple instantiations via different platforms, and from the uneven distribution of biological materials, techniques, and objects across clinical research settings. The fact that TNBC comes in multiple forms, some of which seem to be incompatible or, at least, only partially overlapping, appears to be less a threat to the whole endeavor, than an aspect of an ongoing translational research project. Discussions of translational research that rest on a distinction between basic research and its applications fail to capture the dynamics of this new domain of activity, insofar as application is built-in from the very beginning in the bio-clinical entities that emerge from the translational research domain.

  14. Active Barrett's Esophagus Translational Research Network Grants | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  15. Leveraging epidemiology and clinical studies of cancer outcomes: recommendations and opportunities for translational research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elena, Joanne W; Travis, Lois B; Simonds, Naoko I; Ambrosone, Christine B; Ballard-Barbash, Rachel; Bhatia, Smita; Cerhan, James R; Hartge, Patricia; Heist, Rebecca S; Kushi, Lawrence H; Lash, Timothy L; Morton, Lindsay M; Onel, Kenan; Pierce, John P; Robison, Leslie L; Rowland, Julia H; Schrag, Deborah; Sellers, Thomas A; Seminara, Daniela; Shu, Xiao Ou; Thomas, Nancy E; Ulrich, Cornelia M; Freedman, Andrew N

    2013-01-16

    As the number of cancer survivors continues to grow, research investigating the factors that affect cancer outcomes, such as disease recurrence, risk of second malignant neoplasms, and the late effects of cancer treatments, becomes ever more important. Numerous epidemiologic studies have investigated factors that affect cancer risk, but far fewer have addressed the extent to which demographic, lifestyle, genomic, clinical, and psychosocial factors influence cancer outcomes. To identify research priorities as well as resources and infrastructure needed to advance the field of cancer outcomes and survivorship research, the National Cancer Institute sponsored a workshop titled "Utilizing Data from Cancer Survivor Cohorts: Understanding the Current State of Knowledge and Developing Future Research Priorities" on November 3, 2011, in Washington, DC. This commentary highlights recent findings presented at the workshop, opportunities to leverage existing data, and recommendations for future research, data, and infrastructure needed to address high priority clinical and research questions. Multidisciplinary teams that include epidemiologists, clinicians, biostatisticians, and bioinformaticists will be essential to facilitate future cancer outcome studies focused on improving clinical care of cancer patients, identifying those at high risk of poor outcomes, and implementing effective interventions to ultimately improve the quality and duration of survival.

  16. Translating genomics in cancer care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bombard, Yvonne; Bach, Peter B; Offit, Kenneth

    2013-11-01

    There is increasing enthusiasm for genomics and its promise in advancing personalized medicine. Genomic information has been used to personalize health care for decades, spanning the fields of cardiovascular disease, infectious disease, endocrinology, metabolic medicine, and hematology. However, oncology has often been the first test bed for the clinical translation of genomics for diagnostic, prognostic, and therapeutic applications. Notable hereditary cancer examples include testing for mutations in BRCA1 or BRCA2 in unaffected women to identify those at significantly elevated risk for developing breast and ovarian cancers, and screening patients with newly diagnosed colorectal cancer for mutations in 4 mismatch repair genes to reduce morbidity and mortality in their relatives. Somatic genomic testing is also increasingly used in oncology, with gene expression profiling of breast tumors and EGFR testing to predict treatment response representing commonly used examples. Health technology assessment provides a rigorous means to inform clinical and policy decision-making through systematic assessment of the evidentiary base, along with precepts of clinical effectiveness, cost-effectiveness, and consideration of risks and benefits for health care delivery and society. Although this evaluation is a fundamental step in the translation of any new therapeutic, procedure, or diagnostic test into clinical care, emerging developments may threaten this standard. These include "direct to consumer" genomic risk assessment services and the challenges posed by incidental results generated from next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies. This article presents a review of the evidentiary standards and knowledge base supporting the translation of key cancer genomic technologies along the continuum of validity, utility, cost-effectiveness, health service impacts, and ethical and societal issues, and offers future research considerations to guide the responsible introduction of

  17. On the path to translation: Highlights from the 2010 Canadian Conference on Ovarian Cancer Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thériault Brigitte L

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Ovarian cancer continues to be the most lethal of the gynaecologic malignancies due to the lack of early detection, screening strategies and ineffective therapeutics for late-stage metastatic disease, particularly in the recurrent setting. The gathering of researchers investigating fundamental pathobiology of ovarian cancer and the clinicians who treat patients with this insidious disease is paramount to meeting the challenges we face. Since 2002, the Canadian Conference on Ovarian Cancer Research, held every two years, has served this essential purpose. The objectives of this conference have been to disseminate new information arising from the most recent ovarian cancer research and identify the most pressing challenges we still face as scientists and clinicians. This is best accomplished through direct encounters and exchanges of innovative ideas among colleagues and trainees from the realms of basic science and clinical disciplines. This meeting has and continues to successfully facilitate rapid networking and establish new collaborations from across Canada. This year, more guest speakers and participants from other countries have extended the breadth of the research on ovarian cancer that was discussed at the meeting. This report summarizes the key findings presented at the fifth biennial Canadian Conference on Ovarian Cancer Research held in Toronto, Ontario, and includes the important issues and challenges we still face in the years ahead to make a significant impact on this devastating disease.

  18. Translational research in melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Madhury; Farma, Jeffrey M; Hsu, Cary

    2013-10-01

    Recent breakthroughs in the fundamental understanding of the cellular and molecular basis of melanoma have culminated in new therapies with unquestionable efficacy. Immunotherapy and targeted therapy strategies have completely transformed the contemporary management of advanced melanoma. The translational research behind these developments is discussed, with an emphasis on immune checkpoint blockade and inhibition of the mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathway.

  19. Breast Cancer Translational Research Center of Excellence FY12-14

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    identifiers are removed, and flash-frozen in liquid nitrogen. It will then be placed into the BC-COE Tissue Bank freezer at temperatures down to...frozen in liquid nitrogen; it will then be placed into the BC-COE Tissue Bank freezer which has temperatures down to – 180 o C. Blood samples will...in risk reduction, biomedical informatics, tissue banking and translational research. The project is based on a Discovery Science paradigm

  20. Translational research in retinology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siqueira RC

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Rubens Camargo Siqueira1,2, Rodrigo Jorge21Rubens Siqueira Research Center, São José do Rio Preto, São Paulo, Brazil; 2Retina and Vitreous Section, Department of Ophthalmology, School of Medicine of Ribeirão Preto, University of São Paulo, BrazilAbstract: Clinical laboratories are strong, integral partners in personalized health care. Laboratory databases hold a vast amount of data on human phenotypes, genotypes, biomarkers, progression of disease, and response to therapy. These structured and unstructured free text data are critical for patient care and a resource for personalized medicine and translational research. Laboratory data are integrated into many electronic medical records that provide “summary reports” and “trending” to visualize longitudinal patient data. Recent advances in ophthalmology such as gene therapy, cell therapy using stem cells, and also retinal prosthesis explore the potential of translational research marking a new era in research into the diagnosis and treatment of eye diseases.Keywords: translational, retinal diseases, stem cell, gene therapy

  1. Research progression of translational medicine in gastric cancer%胃癌转化医学研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李茂然; 赵刚; 朱纯超

    2014-01-01

    胃癌是威胁人类健康的常见恶性肿瘤之一.近年来,手术方式的改革和放化疗方案的优化仍远未达到降低胃癌发病率和病死率的目标.转化医学作为一种全新的研究模式,已经悄然出现在各个临床课题之中,效果斐然.本文就转化医学的定义及发展、胃癌分子标志物以及胃癌的药物治疗展开讨论,阐述转化医学在胃癌治疗中的作用,探讨其可行性.我们认为,转化医学的介入或可改变现今科研与临床严重脱节的现状,提高胃癌患者的术前检出率以及手术后辅助治疗的有效率,最终改善胃癌患者预后,提高其生存率.%Gastric cancer is one of the most common malignant tumors which is a great threat to human health.In recent years,the reform of surgical mordalities and the optimization of radiation and chemotherapy is still far from reducing morbidity and mortality of gastric cancer.As a new research pattern,translational medicine has emerged in various clinical subjects,which leads to remarkable effects.In this paper,the definition and development of translational medicine,molecular markers and drug treatment of gastric cancer will be discussed and the feasibility of translational medicine in the treatment of gastric cancer will be explained.In our opinion,the intervention of translational medicine could change the current situation that scientific researches is severely disconnected with clinical practice and increase the detection rate of gastric cancer and the effective rate of adjuvant therapy after surgery to improve the prognosis of patients with gastric cancer.

  2. Patient-Derived Xenograft Models : An Emerging Platform for Translational Cancer Research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hidalgo, Manuel; Amant, Frederic; Biankin, Andrew V.; Budinska, Eva; Byrne, Annette T.; Caldas, Carlos; Clarke, Robert B.; de Jong, Steven; Jonkers, Jos; Maelandsmo, Gunhild Mari; Roman-Roman, Sergio; Seoane, Joan; Trusolino, Livio; Villanueva, Alberto

    2014-01-01

    Recently, there has been an increasing interest in the development and characterization of patient-derived tumor xenograft (PDX) models for cancer research. PDX models mostly retain the principal histologic and genetic characteristics of their donor tumor and remain stable across passages. These mod

  3. Methodological challenges in quality of life research among Turkish and Moroccan ethnic minority cancer patients: translation, recruitment and ethical issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoopman, Rianne; Terwee, Caroline B; Muller, Martin J; Ory, Ferko G; Aaronson, Neil K

    2009-06-01

    The large population of first generation Turkish and Moroccan immigrants who moved to Western Europe in the 1960s and 1970s is now reaching an age at which the incidence of chronic diseases, including cancer, rises sharply. To date, little attention has been paid to the health-related quality of life (HRQOL) of these ethnic minority groups, primarily due to the paucity of well translated and validated measures, but also because of a range of methodological and logistical barriers. The primary objective of this paper is to describe the methodological challenges in conducting HRQOL research among these patient populations, based on experience gained in a project in which four widely used HRQOL questionnaires were translated into Turkish, Moroccan-Arabic and Tarifit, and administered to a sample of 90 Turkish and 79 Moroccan cancer patients in the Netherlands. Problems encountered in translating and administering the questionnaires included achieving semantic equivalence (use of loanwords), use of numerical rating scales, lengthy questions and response scales, and culturally sensitive and/or inappropriate questions. Privacy laws that prohibit hospitals from registering the ethnicity of patients hampered efficient identification of eligible patients. Recruiting patients to studies is often difficult due to low literacy levels, lack of familiarity with and distrust of research, concerns about immigration status, and inaccurate or missing contact information. This can lead to lower response rates than is the case with the population of Dutch cancer patients. Additional ethical issues that arise in such studies concern patients' problems with communicating with their health care providers, their lack of understanding of their diagnosis, treatment and prognosis, and the potential role conflict experienced by bilingual research assistants who may wish or be asked to intervene on the patients' behalf. Practical approaches to resolving these issues are presented.

  4. Translational research on advanced therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belardelli, Filippo; Rizza, Paola; Moretti, Franca; Carella, Cintia; Galli, Maria Cristina; Migliaccio, Giovanni

    2011-01-01

    Fostering translational research of advanced therapies has become a major priority of both scientific community and national governments. Advanced therapy medicinal products (ATMP) are a new medicinal product category comprising gene therapy and cell-based medicinal products as well as tissue engineered medicinal products. ATMP development opens novel avenues for therapeutic approaches in numerous diseases, including cancer and neurodegenerative and cardiovascular diseases. However, there are important bottlenecks for their development due to the complexity of the regulatory framework, the high costs and the needs for good manufacturing practice (GMP) facilities and new end-points for clinical experimentation. Thus, a strategic cooperation between different stakeholders (academia, industry and experts in regulatory issues) is strongly needed. Recently, a great importance has been given to research infrastructures dedicated to foster translational medicine of advanced therapies. Some ongoing European initiatives in this field are presented and their potential impact is discussed.

  5. Translational research on advanced therapies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filippo Belardelli

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Fostering translational research of advanced therapies has become a major priority of both scientific community and national governments. Advanced therapy medicinal products (ATMP are a new medicinal product category comprising gene therapy and cell-based medicinal products as well as tissue engineered medicinal products. ATMP development opens novel avenues for therapeutic approaches in numerous diseases, including cancer and neurodegenerative and cardiovascular diseases. However, there are important bottlenecks for their development due to the complexity of the regulatory framework, the high costs and the needs for good manufacturing practice (GMP facilities and new end-points for clinical experimentation. Thus, a strategic cooperation between different stakeholders (academia, industry and experts in regulatory issues is strongly needed. Recently, a great importance has been given to research infrastructures dedicated to foster translational medicine of advanced therapies. Some ongoing European initiatives in this field are presented and their potential impact is discussed.

  6. What’s in a slogan? Translational science and the rhetorical work of cancer researchers in a UK university

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Rushforth

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Translational science is currently proving a highly influential term in framing how biomedical research is promoted and evaluated in a great number of countries. Although there has been a steady trickle of scholarly literature on the topic, the performative uses effects of the term in practices of academic researchers has been under-researched. Drawing on interviews with members of a cancer laboratory and research institute in a UK research university, the paper analyzes various uses and contexts in which the slogan is deployed. The findings demonstrate the multi-dimensional uses of the term across different levels of the organisation, acting at one level as a managerial function for formulating an ‘impact’ narrative, whilst also fulfilling researcher requirements to satisfy demands made of them in pursuing funding and positions. Analyzing how this specific slogan functions in this site evokes a wider set of considerations about the kinds of rhetoric invoked and increasingly expected of cancer scientists in academic settings.

  7. Translation Theory 'Translated': Three Perspectives on Translation in Organizational Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wæraas, Arild; Nielsen, Jeppe

    2016-01-01

    Translation theory has proved to be a versatile analytical lens used by scholars working from different traditions. On the basis of a systematic literature review, this study adds to our understanding of the ‘translations’ of translation theory by identifying the distinguishing features of the mo......, but also overlapping. We discuss the ways in which the three versions of translation theory may be combined and enrich each other so as to inform future research, thereby offering a more complete understanding of translation in and across organizational settings.......Translation theory has proved to be a versatile analytical lens used by scholars working from different traditions. On the basis of a systematic literature review, this study adds to our understanding of the ‘translations’ of translation theory by identifying the distinguishing features of the most...... common theoretical approaches to translation within the organization and management discipline: actor-network theory, knowledge-based theory, and Scandinavian institutionalism. Although each of these approaches already has borne much fruit in research, the literature is diverse and somewhat fragmented...

  8. Translating clinical research of Molecular Biology into a personalized, multidisciplinary approach of colorectal cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strambu, V; Garofil, D; Pop, F; Radu, P; Bratucu, M; Popa, F

    2014-03-15

    Although multimodal treatment has brought important benefit, there is still great heterogeneity regarding the indication and response to chemotherapy in Stage II and III, and individual variations related to both overall survival and toxicity of new therapies in metastatic disease or tumor relapse. Recent research in molecular biology led to the development of a large scale of genetic biomarkers, but their clinical use is not concordant with the high expectations. The Aim of this review is to identify and discuss the molecular markers with proven clinical applicability as prognostic and/or predictive factors in CRC and also to establish a feasible algorithm of molecular testing, as routine practice, in the personalized, multidisciplinary approach of colorectal cancer patients in our country. Despite the revolution that occurred in the field of molecular marker research, only Serum CEA, Immunohistochemical analysis of mismatch repair proteins and PCR testing for KRAS and BRAF mutations have confirmed their clinical utility in the management of colorectal cancer. Their implementation in the current practice should partially resolve some of the controversies related to this heterogenic pathology, in matters of prognosis in different TNM stages, stage II patient risk stratification, diagnosis of hereditary CRC and likelihood of benefit from anti EGFR therapy in metastatic disease. The proposed algorithms of molecular testing are very useful but still imperfect and require further validation and constant optimization.

  9. Translation-Memory (TM) Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schjoldager, Anne Gram; Christensen, Tina Paulsen

    2010-01-01

    of much research. Our paper attempts to find out what we know about the nature, applications and influences of TM technology, including translators' interaction with TMs, and also how we know it. An essential part of the analysis is based on a selection of empirical TM studies, which we assume...... to be representative of the research field as a whole. Our analysis suggests that, while considerable knowledge is available about the technical side of TMs, more research is needed to understand how translators interact with TM technology and how TMs influence translators' cognitive translation processes....

  10. Immunotherapy for human papillomavirus-associated disease and cervical cancer: review of clinical and translational research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sung Jong; Yang, Andrew; Wu, T C; Hung, Chien Fu

    2016-09-01

    Cervical cancer is the fourth most lethal women's cancer worldwide. Current treatments against cervical cancer include surgery, radiotherapy, chemotherapy, and anti-angiogenic agents. However, despite the various treatments utilized for the treatment of cervical cancer, its disease burden remains a global issue. Persistent infection of human papillomavirus (HPV) has been identified as an essential step of pathogenesis of cervical cancer and many other cancers, and nation-wide HPV screening as well as preventative HPV vaccination program have been introduced globally. However, even though the commercially available prophylactic HPV vaccines, Gardasil (Merck) and Cervarix (GlaxoSmithKline), are effective in blocking the entry of HPV into the epithelium of cervix through generation of HPV-specific neutralizing antibodies, they cannot eliminate the pre-existing HPV infection. For these reason, other immunotherapeutic options against HPV-associated diseases, including therapeutic vaccines, have been continuously explored. Therapeutic HPV vaccines enhance cell-mediated immunity targeting HPV E6 and E7 antigens by modulating primarily dendritic cells and cytotoxic T lymphocyte. Our review will cover various therapeutic vaccines in development for the treatment of HPV-associated lesions and cancers. Furthermore, we will discuss the potential of immune checkpoint inhibitors that have recently been adopted and tested for their treatment efficacy against HPV-induced cervical cancer.

  11. Integration of Translational Research in the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Research (EORTC) Clinical Trial Cooperative Group Mechanisms.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F. Lehmann (Frederick); D. Lacombe (Denis); A.M.M. Eggermont (Alexander)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractThe landscape for cancer research is profoundly different today from that only one decade ago. Basic science is moving rapidly and biotechnological revolutions in molecular targeting and immunology have completely modified the opportunities and concepts for cancer treat

  12. Knowledge translation of research findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grimshaw Jeremy M

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background One of the most consistent findings from clinical and health services research is the failure to translate research into practice and policy. As a result of these evidence-practice and policy gaps, patients fail to benefit optimally from advances in healthcare and are exposed to unnecessary risks of iatrogenic harms, and healthcare systems are exposed to unnecessary expenditure resulting in significant opportunity costs. Over the last decade, there has been increasing international policy and research attention on how to reduce the evidence-practice and policy gap. In this paper, we summarise the current concepts and evidence to guide knowledge translation activities, defined as T2 research (the translation of new clinical knowledge into improved health. We structure the article around five key questions: what should be transferred; to whom should research knowledge be transferred; by whom should research knowledge be transferred; how should research knowledge be transferred; and, with what effect should research knowledge be transferred? Discussion We suggest that the basic unit of knowledge translation should usually be up-to-date systematic reviews or other syntheses of research findings. Knowledge translators need to identify the key messages for different target audiences and to fashion these in language and knowledge translation products that are easily assimilated by different audiences. The relative importance of knowledge translation to different target audiences will vary by the type of research and appropriate endpoints of knowledge translation may vary across different stakeholder groups. There are a large number of planned knowledge translation models, derived from different disciplinary, contextual (i.e., setting, and target audience viewpoints. Most of these suggest that planned knowledge translation for healthcare professionals and consumers is more likely to be successful if the choice of knowledge

  13. Translating cancer 'omics' to improved outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vucic, Emily A; Thu, Kelsie L; Robison, Keith; Rybaczyk, Leszek A; Chari, Raj; Alvarez, Carlos E; Lam, Wan L

    2012-02-01

    The genomics era has yielded great advances in the understanding of cancer biology. At the same time, the immense complexity of the cancer genome has been revealed, as well as a striking heterogeneity at the whole-genome (or omics) level that exists between even histologically similar tumors. The vast accrual and public availability of multi-omics databases with associated clinical annotation including tumor histology, patient response, and outcome are a rich resource that has the potential to lead to rapid translation of high-throughput omics to improved overall survival. We focus on the unique advantages of a multidimensional approach to genomic analysis in this new high-throughput omics age and discuss the implications of the changing cancer demographic to translational omics research.

  14. Of mice and humans: Are they the same? - Implications in cancer translational research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. de Jong (Marion); T. Maina (Theodosia)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractAnimal models have been instrumental in elucidating key biochemical and physiologic processes of cancer onset and propagation in a living organism. Most importantly, they have served as a surrogate for patients in the evaluation of novel diagnostic and therapeutic anticancer drugs, inclu

  15. A Novel Cross-Disciplinary Multi-Institute Approach to Translational Cancer Research: Lessons Learned from Pennsylvania Cancer Alliance Bioinformatics Consortium (PCABC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashokkumar A. Patel

    2007-01-01

    property/tech transfer agreements, and material transfer agreements that have been approved by each of the member institutions. This was the foundational work that has led to the development of a centralized data warehouse that has met each of the institutions’ IRB/HIPAA standards.Results: Currently, this “virtual biorepository” has over 58,000 annotated samples from 11,467 cancer patients available for research purposes. The clinical annotation of tissue samples is either done manually over the internet or semiautomated batch modes through mapping of local data elements with PCABC common data elements. The database currently holds information on 7188 cases (associated with 9278 specimens and 46,666 annotated blocks and blood samples of prostate cancer, 2736 cases (associated with 3796 specimens and 9336 annotated blocks and blood samples of breast cancer and 1543 cases (including 1334 specimens and 2671 annotated blocks and blood samples of melanoma. These numbers continue to grow, and plans to integrate new tumor sites are in progress. Furthermore, the group has also developed a central web-based tool that allows investigators to share their translational (genomics/proteomics experiment data on research evaluating potential biomarkers via a central location on the Consortium’s web site.Conclusions: The technological achievements and the statewide informatics infrastructure that have been established by the Consortium will enable robust and efficient studies of biomarkers and their relevance to the clinical course of cancer. Studies resulting from the creation of the Consortium may allow for better classification of cancer types, more accurate assessment of disease prognosis, a better ability to identify the most appropriate individuals for clinical trial participation, and better surrogate markers of disease progression and/or response to therapy.

  16. Translational Research and Youth Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Stephen F.

    2015-01-01

    Borrowing the term "translational research" (TR) from medicine, along with some of the ideas and practices that define it, holds promise as a way of linking research more closely to the practice of youth development. However, doing so entails substantial adaptation. TR is more than a new name for applied research. It comprehends the…

  17. Network structure and the role of key players in a translational cancer research network: a study protocol

    OpenAIRE

    Long, Janet C; Cunningham, Frances C.; Braithwaite, Jeffrey

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Translational research networks are a deliberate strategy to bridge the gulf between biomedical research and clinical practice through interdisciplinary collaboration, supportive funding and infrastructure. The social network approach examines how the structure of the network and players who hold important positions within it constrain or enable function. This information can be used to guide network management and optimise its operations. The aim of this study was to describe th...

  18. Knowledge translation: translating research into policy and practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelly Donszelmann Oelke

    Full Text Available Objective: This paper provides a theoretical-reflective study of knowledge translation concepts and their implementation processes for using research evidence in policy and practice.Results: The process of translating research into practice is iterative and dynamic, with fluid boundaries between knowledge creation and action development. Knowledge translation focuses on co-creating knowledge with stakeholders and sharing that knowledge to ensure uptake of relevant research to facilitate informed decisions and changes in policy, practice, and health services delivery. In Brazil, many challenges exist in implementing knowledge translation: lack of awareness, lack of partnerships between researchers and knowledge-users, and low research budgets.Conclusions: An emphasis on knowledge translation has the potential to positively impact health outcomes. Future research in Brazil is needed to study approaches to improve the uptake of research results in the Brazilian context.

  19. Health systems, quality of health care, and translational cancer research: the role of the Istituto Superiore Sanità - Rome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricciardi, Walter

    2015-01-01

    Faced with the challenge of ensuring high-quality and cost-effective health systems in the context of persistent financial crisis, a global strategy for cancer prevention and treatment represents a priority for public health bodies and governments. The key goals for the initiative are to define standards of cancer prevention and care while leveraging the continuous progress of biomedical research in the interest of public health. In Italy, the establishment of a network of Comprehensive Cancer Centres (CCC) named the Alliance Against Cancer (ACC) is an important initiative taken by the Ministry of Health to foster common strategies for enhancing the quality of oncology research and care at the national level. The Istituto Superiore di Sanità (ISS) has played an important role in supporting ACC activities through a special national program called ISS for ACC, launched by the Italian Ministry of Health in 2006. A similar role has been pursued in subsequent initiatives, including ISS support for a project aimed at providing international accreditation of the CCC of the ACC, funded by the Italian Ministry of Health. The results of this initiative, reported in the current issue of Tumori, are especially significant since specific indicators of quality for research and cancer care have been successfully defined for all the participating institutes. As the leading technical and scientific body of the Italian National Health Service, the ISS will continue to play a proactive role in supporting national networks and strategic national and international initiatives aimed at promoting public health.

  20. geneCBR: a translational tool for multiple-microarray analysis and integrative information retrieval for aiding diagnosis in cancer research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fdez-Riverola Florentino

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bioinformatics and medical informatics are two research fields that serve the needs of different but related communities. Both domains share the common goal of providing new algorithms, methods and technological solutions to biomedical research, and contributing to the treatment and cure of diseases. Although different microarray techniques have been successfully used to investigate useful information for cancer diagnosis at the gene expression level, the true integration of existing methods into day-to-day clinical practice is still a long way off. Within this context, case-based reasoning emerges as a suitable paradigm specially intended for the development of biomedical informatics applications and decision support systems, given the support and collaboration involved in such a translational development. With the goals of removing barriers against multi-disciplinary collaboration and facilitating the dissemination and transfer of knowledge to real practice, case-based reasoning systems have the potential to be applied to translational research mainly because their computational reasoning paradigm is similar to the way clinicians gather, analyze and process information in their own practice of clinical medicine. Results In addressing the issue of bridging the existing gap between biomedical researchers and clinicians who work in the domain of cancer diagnosis, prognosis and treatment, we have developed and made accessible a common interactive framework. Our geneCBR system implements a freely available software tool that allows the use of combined techniques that can be applied to gene selection, clustering, knowledge extraction and prediction for aiding diagnosis in cancer research. For biomedical researches, geneCBR expert mode offers a core workbench for designing and testing new techniques and experiments. For pathologists or oncologists, geneCBR diagnostic mode implements an effective and reliable system that can

  1. Translation from research to applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunziker, Ernst; Spector, Myron; Libera, Jeanette; Gertzman, Arthur; Woo, Savio L-Y; Ratcliffe, Anthony; Lysaght, Michael; Coury, Arthur; Kaplan, David; Vunjak-Novakovic, Gordana

    2006-12-01

    The article summarizes the collective views expressed at the fourth session of the workshop Tissue Engineering--the Next Generation, which was devoted to the translation of results of tissue engineering research into applications. Ernst Hunziker described the paradigm of a dual translational approach, and argued that tissue engineering should be guided by the dimensions and physiological setting of the bodily compartment to be repaired. Myron Spector discussed collagen-glycosaminoglycan (GAG) scaffolds for musculoskeletal tissue engineering. Jeanette Libera focused on the biological and clinical aspects of cartilage tissue engineering, and described a completely autologous procedure for engineering cartilage using the patient's own chondrocytes and blood serum. Arthur Gertzman reviewed the applications of allograft tissues in orthopedic surgery, and outlined the potential of allograft tissues as models for biological and medical studies. Savio Woo discussed a list of functional tissue engineering approaches designed to restore the biochemical and biomechanical properties of injured ligaments and tendons to be closer to that of the normal tissues. Specific examples of using biological scaffolds that have chemoattractants as well as growth factors with unique contact guidance properties to improve their healing process were shown. Anthony Ratcliffe discussed the translation of the results of research into products that are profitable and meet regulatory requirements. Michael Lysaght challenged the proposition that commercial and clinical failures of early tissue engineering products demonstrate a need for more focus on basic research. Arthur Coury described the evolution of tissue engineering products based on the example of Genzyme, and how various definitions of success and failure can affect perceptions and policies relative to the status and advancement of the field of tissue engineering.

  2. Bastyr/UW Oncomycology Translational Research Center

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Research Area: Fungi Program: Partnerships for CAM Clinical Translational Research Description: Trametes versicolor is an immunologically active medicinal mushroom...

  3. Bastyr/UW Oncomycology Translational Research Center

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Research Area: FungiProgram: Partnerships for CAM Clinical Translational ResearchDescription:Trametes versicolor is an immunologically active medicinal mushroom that...

  4. Translational Research in Oncology Research & Development and Its Impact on Early Development in China: report of the 5th Annual Meeting of the US Chinese Anti-Cancer Association (USCACA) at 2013 AACR Annual Meeting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lingjie Guan; Yun Dai; Roger Luo

    2013-01-01

    In April 2013,the US Chinese Anti-Cancer Association (USCACA) held its 5th annual meeting in conjunction with the American Association for Cancer Research (AACR) 2013 Annual Meeting in Washington DC.The USCACA executive committee reported activities and programs and highlighted the partnership and collaboration between USCACA and other major organizations.The key initiatives and programs of USCACA included 1) USCACA-TIGM Esophageal Cancer Program that funds translational research of esophageal cancer prevention and treatment at the Xinxiang Medical University in Henan province,China; 2) the USCACA-NFCR-AFCR Scholarship Program,which has supported 10 young outstanding Chinese cancer researchers and will award 4 fellowships at the Guangzhou International Symposium on Oncology in November this year; 3) USCACA-Hengrui Training Program for Early Phase Clinical Research,which has supported the training of a Chinese scholar at two major cancer centers in the US; and 4) USCACA has continued its partnership with the Chinese Journal of Cancer,which has reached significant international impact.

  5. The development and deployment of Common Data Elements for tissue banks for translational research in cancer – An emerging standard based approach for the Mesothelioma Virtual Tissue Bank

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farhat Ghada

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent advances in genomics, proteomics, and the increasing demands for biomarker validation studies have catalyzed changes in the landscape of cancer research, fueling the development of tissue banks for translational research. A result of this transformation is the need for sufficient quantities of clinically annotated and well-characterized biospecimens to support the growing needs of the cancer research community. Clinical annotation allows samples to be better matched to the research question at hand and ensures that experimental results are better understood and can be verified. To facilitate and standardize such annotation in bio-repositories, we have combined three accepted and complementary sets of data standards: the College of American Pathologists (CAP Cancer Checklists, the protocols recommended by the Association of Directors of Anatomic and Surgical Pathology (ADASP for pathology data, and the North American Association of Central Cancer Registry (NAACCR elements for epidemiology, therapy and follow-up data. Combining these approaches creates a set of International Standards Organization (ISO – compliant Common Data Elements (CDEs for the mesothelioma tissue banking initiative supported by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH of the Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC. Methods The purpose of the project is to develop a core set of data elements for annotating mesothelioma specimens, following standards established by the CAP checklist, ADASP cancer protocols, and the NAACCR elements. We have associated these elements with modeling architecture to enhance both syntactic and semantic interoperability. The system has a Java-based multi-tiered architecture based on Unified Modeling Language (UML. Results Common Data Elements were developed using controlled vocabulary, ontology and semantic modeling methodology. The CDEs for each case are of different types: demographic

  6. Translational Approaches towards Cancer Gene Therapy: Hurdles and Hopes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yadollah Omidi

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Of the cancer gene therapy approaches, gene silencing, suicide/apoptosis inducing gene therapy, immunogene therapy and targeted gene therapy are deemed to sub­stantially control the biological consequences of genomic changes in cancerous cells. Thus, a large number of clinical trials have been conducted against various malignancies. In this review, we will discuss recent translational progresses of gene and cell therapy of cancer. Methods: Essential information on gene therapy of cancer were reviewed and discussed towards their clinical translations. Results: Gene transfer has been rigorously studied in vitro and in vivo, in which some of these gene therapy endeavours have been carried on towards translational investigations and clinical applications. About 65% of gene therapy trials are related to cancer therapy. Some of these trials have been combined with cell therapy to produce personalized medicines such as Sipuleucel-T (Provenge®, marketed by Dendreon, USA for the treatment of asymptomatic/minimally symptomatic metastatic hormone-refractory prostate cancer. Conclusion: Translational approach links two diverse boundaries of basic and clinical researches. For successful translation of geno­medicines into clinical applications, it is essential 1 to have the guidelines and standard operating procedures for development and application of the genomedicines specific to clinically relevant biomarker(s; 2 to conduct necessary animal experimental studies to show the “proof of concept” for the proposed genomedicines; 3 to perform an initial clinical investigation; and 4 to initiate extensive clinical trials to address all necessary requirements. In short, translational researches need to be refined to accelerate the geno­medicine development and clinical applications.

  7. DW4TR: A Data Warehouse for Translational Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Hai; Correll, Mick; Kvecher, Leonid; Osmond, Michelle; Clark, Jim; Bekhash, Anthony; Schwab, Gwendolyn; Gao, De; Gao, Jun; Kubatin, Vladimir; Shriver, Craig D; Hooke, Jeffrey A; Maxwell, Larry G; Kovatich, Albert J; Sheldon, Jonathan G; Liebman, Michael N; Mural, Richard J

    2011-12-01

    The linkage between the clinical and laboratory research domains is a key issue in translational research. Integration of clinicopathologic data alone is a major task given the number of data elements involved. For a translational research environment, it is critical to make these data usable at the point-of-need. Individual systems have been developed to meet the needs of particular projects though the need for a generalizable system has been recognized. Increased use of Electronic Medical Record data in translational research will demand generalizing the system for integrating clinical data to support the study of a broad range of human diseases. To ultimately satisfy these needs, we have developed a system to support multiple translational research projects. This system, the Data Warehouse for Translational Research (DW4TR), is based on a light-weight, patient-centric modularly-structured clinical data model and a specimen-centric molecular data model. The temporal relationships of the data are also part of the model. The data are accessed through an interface composed of an Aggregated Biomedical-Information Browser (ABB) and an Individual Subject Information Viewer (ISIV) which target general users. The system was developed to support a breast cancer translational research program and has been extended to support a gynecological disease program. Further extensions of the DW4TR are underway. We believe that the DW4TR will play an important role in translational research across multiple disease types.

  8. Utility and translatability of mathematical modeling, cell culture and small and large animal models in magnetic nanoparticle hyperthermia cancer treatment research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoopes, P. J.; Petryk, Alicia A.; Misra, Adwiteeya; Kastner, Elliot J.; Pearce, John A.; Ryan, Thomas P.

    2015-03-01

    For more than 50 years, hyperthermia-based cancer researchers have utilized mathematical models, cell culture studies and animal models to better understand, develop and validate potential new treatments. It has been, and remains, unclear how and to what degree these research techniques depend on, complement and, ultimately, translate accurately to a successful clinical treatment. In the past, when mathematical models have not proven accurate in a clinical treatment situation, the initiating quantitative scientists (engineers, mathematicians and physicists) have tended to believe the biomedical parameters provided to them were inaccurately determined or reported. In a similar manner, experienced biomedical scientists often tend to question the value of mathematical models and cell culture results since those data typically lack the level of biologic and medical variability and complexity that are essential to accurately study and predict complex diseases and subsequent treatments. Such quantitative and biomedical interdependence, variability, diversity and promise have never been greater than they are within magnetic nanoparticle hyperthermia cancer treatment. The use of hyperthermia to treat cancer is well studied and has utilized numerous delivery techniques, including microwaves, radio frequency, focused ultrasound, induction heating, infrared radiation, warmed perfusion liquids (combined with chemotherapy), and, recently, metallic nanoparticles (NP) activated by near infrared radiation (NIR) and alternating magnetic field (AMF) based platforms. The goal of this paper is to use proven concepts and current research to address the potential pathobiology, modeling and quantification of the effects of treatment as pertaining to the similarities and differences in energy delivered by known external delivery techniques and iron oxide nanoparticles.

  9. Methodological challenges in quality of life research among Turkish and Moroccan ethnic minority cancer patients: translation, recruitment and ethical issues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoopman, R.; Terwee, C.B.; Muller, M.T.; Ory, F.; Aaronson, N.K.

    2009-01-01

    The large population of first generation Turkish and Moroccan immigrants who moved to Western Europe in the 1960s and 1970s is now reaching an age at which the incidence of chronic diseases, including cancer, rises sharply. To date, little attention has been paid to the health-related quality of lif

  10. Breast Cancer Research Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... JavaScript on. Feature: Breast Cancer Breast Cancer Research Update Winter 2017 Table of Contents National Cancer Institute ... Addressing Breast Cancer's Unequal Burden / Breast Cancer Research Update Winter 2017 Issue: Volume 11 Number 4 Page ...

  11. Advances in Translational Medical Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-25

    Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia Research Program Tuberous Sclerosis Complex Research Program National Prion Research Program Myeloproliferative Disorders...OEF/OIF Veterans  Randomized Controlled Trial of Galantamine, Methylphenidate , and Placebo for the Treatment of Cognitive Symptoms in Patients...Research Organization Network Guiding Studies on Trauma and Resilience External Advisory Board Genetics Core NeuroimagingCore CR Darnall Army Medical

  12. Translational research: Lessons from past research, growing up nowadays, and development goal in future

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG ZhuQin; CHEN HouZao; LIU DePei

    2011-01-01

    Recently,with coming of the "omics" era and rapid development of basic research in biology and medicine,huge information about biology and life has been achieved.However,many research results cannot be translated into clinical practice.Under this circumstance,the concept of "translational research" is raised [1-4] and widely spread."Translational research" is patient-oriented research which connects basic medicine and clinical medicine [2].It means more directly and quickly raising questions from clinical practice to basic research and translating findings in basic research into clinical practice.The process of translational research can be summarized as follows:first,according to clinical practice,raising clinical problems and refining scientific questions;then,systematic and in-depth research,which integrates diverse disciplines,including epidemic study,basic research and drug discovery,is carried out;last,through research,the potentially effective strategies or methods for diagnosing,treating or preventing diseases are achieved and translated into clinical practice.Translational research has been developed rapidly in recent years.It is used to direct research in cardiovascular diseases (CVD),cancer,infectious diseases,metabolic diseases,etc.

  13. Advances in Translational Medicine of Breast Cancer:From Bench to Bedside

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Xin-en

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer is one of the most common malignant tumors in women, and its incidence increases year by year. With the rapid development of human genomics, proteomics and bioinformatics, the basic and clinical results of breast cancer have emerged in endlessly. Translational medicine is a hot ifeld of international medicine, biological interdisciplinary science and many research funding projects at present, committed to establishing an academic exchange platform for global scientiifc researchers. In this study, the translational medicine of breast cancer was summarized and reviewed from the following aspects, including molecular markers related to breast cancer, molecular typing, individualized and molecular targeted therapies, relationship between molecular biology and imagiology of breast cancer.

  14. Translational research on reprogramming of somatic cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yanhua Li; Jiahui Yin; Bingbing Zhang; Ping Zhou; Bin Feng; Fangyi Zhang; Yongzhong Lin; Zhanhua Liang; Jianling Du; Minghui Lü; Tiezheng Zheng; Jie Lin; Siyu Liu; Hao Hong; Xing Meng; Dandan Xia; Yang Sun; Pan Wei; Nan Cai; Hongye Li; Shuang Wu; Hui Zhao; Changkai Sun; Yuyuan Li; Changyu Gao; Wei Li; Ye Dai; Junde Wang; Hui Zhao; Xiaoxin Tan; Lili Men; Hui Ma; Jun Xu; Xiaohan Yang; Zengchun Hu; Ling Wang; Hong Wang; Pin Sun; Huifang Guo; Guirong Song; Hui Liu1; Baoshuai Shan; Lu Han; Linlang Liang; Min Wang; Xiaochen Wang; Dan Wang; Guihua Chen; Jianting Chen; Xiangyou Sun; Jun Xue; Zhiqi Wang; Jing Wang; Yongqing Zhang; Dongfeng Cai; Mozhen Liu; Guiping Zhang; Guoming Luan; Jianli Wang; Ming Fan; Xuetao Cao; Chao Wan; Qigui Liu; Anchun Yin

    2014-01-01

    Cerebrovascular diseases,dementia,diabetes,malignant tumors and degenerative bone diseases remain high prevalence,incidence,disability and mortality rates.One important reason might be the slow or stagnated progress in translating and applying cytoprotection and cellular repair researches into clinical practice.Based on collaboration among biomedical re-searchers,database experts,computer programmers,statisticians and management engineers,this is the first study to apply quanti-tative comparison on the overall characteristics and partial correlation analysis on the large-scale complex information and data regarding the topic“mature cells can be reprogrammed to become pluripotent”proposed by Sir John B.Gurdon and Shinya Yamanaka who were jointly awarded with 2012 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine,as well as articles that cited publications of the two Nobel Laureates to discuss the prospects of translating somatic cell reprogramming researches into clinical practice and cor-responding implementation strategies.The study found that there was statistically significant difference between the two Nobel Laureates with regard to the number,publication date,subject categories and scientific and technological focuses of their origi-nal researches.The study revealed the importance,objectives,approaches and research trends of translational medicine,especially translational neuroscience.The study also identified the challenges that China should overcome to improve its medical research management scheme.

  15. Mission Connect Mild TBI Translational Research Consortium

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-31

    TBI Translational Research Consortium Executive Committee Steering Committee Model of Injury Working Group Neuroprotection Working Group Regeneration ...Report, Holcomb Page 22 Specific aim #3.1: To study neuroprotection and enhanced neurological recovery with erythropoietin ( Epo ) and Epo ...derivatives after MTBI. - #3.1.1 To study the effects of Epo and Epo derivatives on neurogenesis, angiogenesis, and outcome after experimental MTBI

  16. Problems of Translation in Cross-Cultural Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sechrest, Lee; And Others

    1972-01-01

    Various types of translation problems in cross-cultural research are translation of questions or other verbal stimuli, vocabulary equivalence, equivalence in idiom, grammar, syntax, and back-translation. (Author/SB)

  17. Reengineering Biomedical Translational Research with Engineering Ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunderland, Mary E; Nayak, Rahul Uday

    2015-08-01

    It is widely accepted that translational research practitioners need to acquire special skills and knowledge that will enable them to anticipate, analyze, and manage a range of ethical issues. While there is a small but growing literature that addresses the ethics of translational research, there is a dearth of scholarship regarding how this might apply to engineers. In this paper we examine engineers as key translators and argue that they are well positioned to ask transformative ethical questions. Asking engineers to both broaden and deepen their consideration of ethics in their work, however, requires a shift in the way ethics is often portrayed and perceived in science and engineering communities. Rather than interpreting ethics as a roadblock to the success of translational research, we suggest that engineers should be encouraged to ask questions about the socio-ethical dimensions of their work. This requires expanding the conceptual framework of engineering beyond its traditional focus on "how" and "what" questions to also include "why" and "who" questions to facilitate the gathering of normative, socially-situated information. Empowering engineers to ask "why" and "who" questions should spur the development of technologies and practices that contribute to improving health outcomes.

  18. Translation research: from accurate diagnosis to appropriate treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pass Harvey I

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This review article focuses on the various aspects of translational research, where research on human subjects can ultimately enhance the diagnosis and treatment of future patients. While we will use specific examples relating to the asbestos related cancer mesothelioma, it should be stressed that the general approach outlined throughout this review is readily applicable to other diseases with an underlying molecular basis. Through the integration of molecular-based technologies, systematic tissue procurement and medical informatics, we now have the ability to identify clinically applicable "genotype"-"phenotype" associations across cohorts of patients that can rapidly be translated into useful diagnostic and treatment strategies. This review will touch on the various steps in the translational pipeline, and highlight some of the most essential elements as well as possible roadblocks that can impact success of the program. Critical issues with regard to Institutional Review Board (IRB and Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA compliance, data standardization, sample procurement, quality control (QC, quality assurance (QA, data analysis, preclinical models and clinical trials are addressed. The various facets of the translational pipeline have been incorporated into a fully integrated computational system, appropriately named Dx2Tx. This system readily allows for the identification of new diagnostic tests, the discovery of biomarkers and drugable targets, and prediction of optimal treatments based upon the underlying molecular basis of the disease.

  19. The Research on English News Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石磊

    2014-01-01

    With the development of the whole world, news has become an essential part in our daily life. Therefore, it is very necessary to do some research on news. In view of the distinctive features of news itself and cultural differences between the West and the East, the thesis tries to discuss that to convey an accurate translation Nida ’s functional equivalence theory can be applied to compare the accuracy between the source language and the target language. A brief introduction of this theory is given at the beginning. The author puts more efforts to investigate how the theory is feasible to guide the news translation at lexical level in the next section.

  20. Translational research in thoracic surgery-the National Taiwan University Hospital experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Mong-Wei; Yang, Pei-Wen; Lee, Jang-Ming

    2016-08-01

    Thoracic surgeons should be more aware of the latest information about histopathological, genetic and epigenetic alterations that may influence treatment policy and patient outcome in the biomolecular era. Translational research studies often produce a promising diagnostic tool or new treatment that can be used clinically. The results of these translational studies may even change the practical guidelines and current staging system in thoracic malignancies. The following article summarizes the experiences of translational research in esophageal cancer and non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) at National Taiwan University Hospital in Taiwan.

  1. Translational research in thoracic surgery—the National Taiwan University Hospital experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Mong-Wei; Yang, Pei-Wen

    2016-01-01

    Thoracic surgeons should be more aware of the latest information about histopathological, genetic and epigenetic alterations that may influence treatment policy and patient outcome in the biomolecular era. Translational research studies often produce a promising diagnostic tool or new treatment that can be used clinically. The results of these translational studies may even change the practical guidelines and current staging system in thoracic malignancies. The following article summarizes the experiences of translational research in esophageal cancer and non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) at National Taiwan University Hospital in Taiwan. PMID:27651941

  2. The Development and Current State of Translation Process Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lykke Jakobsen, Arnt

    2014-01-01

    The development and current state of translation process research ch Arnt Lykke Jakobsen Copenhagen Business School lInterest in process-oriented translation studies has been intense for the past almost half a century. Translation process research (TPR) is the label we have used to refer to a spe......The development and current state of translation process research ch Arnt Lykke Jakobsen Copenhagen Business School lInterest in process-oriented translation studies has been intense for the past almost half a century. Translation process research (TPR) is the label we have used to refer...... which simultaneously tracks the translator’s eye movements across a screen displaying both a source text and the translator’s emerging translation. This research method was developed as a means of qualifying and strengthening translation process hypotheses based on verbal reports by providing additional...

  3. Research Advances of Atherosclerosis in Translational Medicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Zhuo-xin; DENG Rong; PI Min; YU Hai-bo

    2015-01-01

    Atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases (ASCVD) are defined as a series of diseases caused by atherosclerosis (AS), including coronary heart disease (CHD), myocardial infarction (MI), stable or unstable angina pectoris, revascularization of coronary artery or other arteries, stroke, transient cerebral ischemic onset or atherosclerotic peripheral arterial disease. AS has common pathological basis with ASCVD as it is a general arterial regressive disease of human beings. With the industrialization progression, AS morbidity increases annually and it also leads to coronary atherosclerotic heart disease, cerebral stroke and peripheral artery stenosed occlusion or dilation, thus becoming the main cause for high disability and mortality. The main purpose of translational medicine is to break the intrinsic barrier between basic medicine with drug research and development as well as clinical and public healthcare, and establish a direct connection between them. It is also can rapidly transform basic research results to new clinical preventive and therapeutic methods. This study mainly reviewed AS from the aspect of translational medicine, aiming to provide a reliable basis for the prevention and treatment of AS.

  4. The Development and Current State of Translation Process Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lykke Jakobsen, Arnt

    2014-01-01

    The development and current state of translation process research ch Arnt Lykke Jakobsen Copenhagen Business School lInterest in process-oriented translation studies has been intense for the past almost half a century. Translation process research (TPR) is the label we have used to refer to a spe......The development and current state of translation process research ch Arnt Lykke Jakobsen Copenhagen Business School lInterest in process-oriented translation studies has been intense for the past almost half a century. Translation process research (TPR) is the label we have used to refer...... to a special descriptive, empirical, experimental approach to translation studies based on close, technology-supported observation of translational (micro)behaviour. Fundamentally, TPR is based on software which logs a translator’s keystrokes on a computer keyboard in time in combination with an eyetracker...

  5. Translating the cancer genome: Going beyond p values

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chin, Lynda; Chin, Lynda; Gray, Joe W.

    2008-04-03

    Cancer cells are endowed with diverse biological capabilities driven by myriad inherited and somatic genetic and epigenetic aberrations that commandeer key cancer-relevant pathways. Efforts to elucidate these aberrations began with Boveri's hypothesis of aberrant mitoses causing cancer and continue today with a suite of powerful high-resolution technologies that enable detailed catalogues of genomic aberrations and epigenomic modifications. Tomorrow will likely bring the complete atlas of reversible and irreversible alteration in individual cancers. The challenge now is to discern causal molecular abnormalities from genomic and epigenomic 'noise', to understand how the ensemble of these aberrations collaborate to drive cancer pathophysiology. Here, we highlight lessons learned from now classical examples of successful translation of genomic discoveries into clinical practice, lessons that may be used to guide and accelerate translation of emerging genomic insights into practical clinical endpoints that can impact on practice of cancer medicine.

  6. Timing of translation in cross-language qualitative research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Hudson P O; Black, Amanda M; Sandelowski, Margarete

    2015-01-01

    Although there is increased understanding of language barriers in cross-language studies, the point at which language transformation processes are applied in research is inconsistently reported, or treated as a minor issue. Differences in translation timeframes raise methodological issues related to the material to be translated, as well as for the process of data analysis and interpretation. In this article we address methodological issues related to the timing of translation from Portuguese to English in two international cross-language collaborative research studies involving researchers from Brazil, Canada, and the United States. One study entailed late-phase translation of a research report, whereas the other study involved early phase translation of interview data. The timing of translation in interaction with the object of translation should be considered, in addition to the language, cultural, subject matter, and methodological competencies of research team members.

  7. Engaging basic scientists in translational research: identifying opportunities, overcoming obstacles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hobin Jennifer A

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This report is based on the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology’s symposium, “Engaging basic Scientists in Translational Research: Identifying Opportunities, Overcoming Obstacles,” held in Chevy Chase, MD, March 24–25, 2011. Meeting participants examined the benefits of engaging basic scientists in translational research, the challenges to their participation in translational research, and the roles that research institutions, funding organizations, professional societies, and scientific publishers can play to address these challenges.

  8. Promote translational medical research and report high quality medical studies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAORI Getu

    2011-01-01

    @@ Translational medical research, an emerging new important component of medical research, is now attracting attention of more and more researchers, experts and physicians in universities, medical research institutes,hospitals and relevant officers in government agencies.

  9. Advancing translational research with the Semantic Web

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marshall M Scott

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A fundamental goal of the U.S. National Institute of Health (NIH "Roadmap" is to strengthen Translational Research, defined as the movement of discoveries in basic research to application at the clinical level. A significant barrier to translational research is the lack of uniformly structured data across related biomedical domains. The Semantic Web is an extension of the current Web that enables navigation and meaningful use of digital resources by automatic processes. It is based on common formats that support aggregation and integration of data drawn from diverse sources. A variety of technologies have been built on this foundation that, together, support identifying, representing, and reasoning across a wide range of biomedical data. The Semantic Web Health Care and Life Sciences Interest Group (HCLSIG, set up within the framework of the World Wide Web Consortium, was launched to explore the application of these technologies in a variety of areas. Subgroups focus on making biomedical data available in RDF, working with biomedical ontologies, prototyping clinical decision support systems, working on drug safety and efficacy communication, and supporting disease researchers navigating and annotating the large amount of potentially relevant literature. Results We present a scenario that shows the value of the information environment the Semantic Web can support for aiding neuroscience researchers. We then report on several projects by members of the HCLSIG, in the process illustrating the range of Semantic Web technologies that have applications in areas of biomedicine. Conclusion Semantic Web technologies present both promise and challenges. Current tools and standards are already adequate to implement components of the bench-to-bedside vision. On the other hand, these technologies are young. Gaps in standards and implementations still exist and adoption is limited by typical problems with early technology, such as the need

  10. A RATional choice for translational research?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim Aitman

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Future prospects continue to be strong for research using the rat as a model organism. New technology has enabled the proliferation of many new transgenic and knockout rat strains, the genomes of more than 40 rat strains have been sequenced, publications using the rat as a model continue to be produced at a steady rate, and discoveries of disease-associated genes and mechanisms from rat experiments abound, frequently with conservation of function between rats and humans. However, advances in genome technology have led to increasing insights into human disease directly from human genetic studies, pulling more and more researchers into the human genetics arena and placing funding for model organisms and their databases under threat. This, therefore, is a pivotal time for rat-based biomedical research – a timely moment to review progress and prospects – providing the inspiration for a new Special Collection focused on the impact of the model on translational science, launched in this issue of Disease Models & Mechanisms. What disease areas are most appropriate for research using rats? Why should the rat be favoured over other model organisms, and should the present levels of funding be continued? Which approaches should we expect to yield biologically and medically useful insights in the coming years? These are key issues that are addressed in the original Research Articles and reviews published in this Special Collection, and in this introductory Editorial. These exemplar articles serve as a landmark for the present status quo after a decade of major advances using the rat model and could help to guide the direction of rat research in the coming decade.

  11. A RATional choice for translational research?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhillon, Paraminder

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Future prospects continue to be strong for research using the rat as a model organism. New technology has enabled the proliferation of many new transgenic and knockout rat strains, the genomes of more than 40 rat strains have been sequenced, publications using the rat as a model continue to be produced at a steady rate, and discoveries of disease-associated genes and mechanisms from rat experiments abound, frequently with conservation of function between rats and humans. However, advances in genome technology have led to increasing insights into human disease directly from human genetic studies, pulling more and more researchers into the human genetics arena and placing funding for model organisms and their databases under threat. This, therefore, is a pivotal time for rat-based biomedical research – a timely moment to review progress and prospects – providing the inspiration for a new Special Collection focused on the impact of the model on translational science, launched in this issue of Disease Models & Mechanisms. What disease areas are most appropriate for research using rats? Why should the rat be favoured over other model organisms, and should the present levels of funding be continued? Which approaches should we expect to yield biologically and medically useful insights in the coming years? These are key issues that are addressed in the original Research Articles and reviews published in this Special Collection, and in this introductory Editorial. These exemplar articles serve as a landmark for the present status quo after a decade of major advances using the rat model and could help to guide the direction of rat research in the coming decade. PMID:27736742

  12. Evolution of the "drivers" of translational cancer epidemiology: analysis of funded grants and the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Tram Kim; Chang, Christine Q; Rogers, Scott D; Khoury, Muin J; Schully, Sheri D

    2015-04-01

    Concurrently with a workshop sponsored by the National Cancer Institute, we identified key "drivers" for accelerating cancer epidemiology across the translational research continuum in the 21st century: emerging technologies, a multilevel approach, knowledge integration, and team science. To map the evolution of these "drivers" and translational phases (T0-T4) in the past decade, we analyzed cancer epidemiology grants funded by the National Cancer Institute and published literature for 2000, 2005, and 2010. For each year, we evaluated the aims of all new/competing grants and abstracts of randomly selected PubMed articles. Compared with grants based on a single institution, consortium-based grants were more likely to incorporate contemporary technologies (P = 0.012), engage in multilevel analyses (P = 0.010), and incorporate elements of knowledge integration (P = 0.036). Approximately 74% of analyzed grants and publications involved discovery (T0) or characterization (T1) research, suggesting a need for more translational (T2-T4) research. Our evaluation indicated limited research in 1) a multilevel approach that incorporates molecular, individual, social, and environmental determinants and 2) knowledge integration that evaluates the robustness of scientific evidence. Cancer epidemiology is at the cusp of a paradigm shift, and the field will need to accelerate the pace of translating scientific discoveries in order to impart population health benefits. While multi-institutional and technology-driven collaboration is happening, concerted efforts to incorporate other key elements are warranted for the discipline to meet future challenges.

  13. Lost in translation: animal models and clinical trials in cancer treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mak, Isabella Wy; Evaniew, Nathan; Ghert, Michelle

    2014-01-01

    Due to practical and ethical concerns associated with human experimentation, animal models have been essential in cancer research. However, the average rate of successful translation from animal models to clinical cancer trials is less than 8%. Animal models are limited in their ability to mimic the extremely complex process of human carcinogenesis, physiology and progression. Therefore the safety and efficacy identified in animal studies is generally not translated to human trials. Animal models can serve as an important source of in vivo information, but alternative translational approaches have emerged that may eventually replace the link between in vitro studies and clinical applications. This review summarizes the current state of animal model translation to clinical practice, and offers some explanations for the general lack of success in this process. In addition, some alternative strategies to the classic in vivo approach are discussed.

  14. Recent progress in translational research on neurovascular and neurodegenerative disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Demuth, Hans-Ulrich; Dijkhuizen, Rick M; Farr, Tracy D

    2017-01-01

    translational research on stroke and dementia, thereby spurring the entire field of translational neuroscience. Moreover, they may also pave the way for the renaissance of classical neuroprotective paradigms.This review reports and summarizes some of the most interesting and promising recent achievements...... in neurovascular and dementia research. It highlights sessions from the 9th International Symposium on Neuroprotection and Neurorepair that have been discussed from April 19th to 22nd in Leipzig, Germany. To acknowledge the emerging culture of interdisciplinary collaboration and research, special emphasis is given...... on translational stories ranging from fundamental research on neurode- and -regeneration to late stage translational or early stage clinical investigations....

  15. Cancer stem cells in basic science and in translational oncology: can we translate into clinical application?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulenburg, Axel; Blatt, Katharina; Cerny-Reiterer, Sabine; Sadovnik, Irina; Herrmann, Harald; Marian, Brigitte; Grunt, Thomas W; Zielinski, Christoph C; Valent, Peter

    2015-02-25

    Since their description and identification in leukemias and solid tumors, cancer stem cells (CSC) have been the subject of intensive research in translational oncology. Indeed, recent advances have led to the identification of CSC markers, CSC targets, and the preclinical and clinical evaluation of the CSC-eradicating (curative) potential of various drugs. However, although diverse CSC markers and targets have been identified, several questions remain, such as the origin and evolution of CSC, mechanisms underlying resistance of CSC against various targeted drugs, and the biochemical basis and function of stroma cell-CSC interactions in the so-called 'stem cell niche.' Additional aspects that have to be taken into account when considering CSC elimination as primary treatment-goal are the genomic plasticity and extensive subclone formation of CSC. Notably, various cell fractions with different combinations of molecular aberrations and varying proliferative potential may display CSC function in a given neoplasm, and the related molecular complexity of the genome in CSC subsets is considered to contribute essentially to disease evolution and acquired drug resistance. In the current article, we discuss new developments in the field of CSC research and whether these new concepts can be exploited in clinical practice in the future.

  16. Research on the Translation of Public Signs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiannan, Ma

    2012-01-01

    Because of the increasing international image of China, the translation of public signs in city has become the very important issue. From the point of view of cross-cultural communication, the public signs have crucial influence on the image of the city, even for the whole China. However, there exist many translation errors of the public signs in…

  17. Design and Statistics in Quantitative Translation (Process) Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balling, Laura Winther; Hvelplund, Kristian Tangsgaard

    2015-01-01

    is unfamiliar. In this article, we attempt to mitigate these problems by outlining our approach to good quantitative research, all the way from research questions and study design to data preparation and statistics. We concentrate especially on the nature of the variables involved, both in terms of their scale...... and their role in the design; this has implications for both design and choice of statistics. Although we focus on quantitative research, we also argue that such research should be supplemented with qualitative analyses and considerations of the translation product.......Traditionally, translation research has been qualitative, but quantitative research is becoming increasingly important, especially in translation process research but also in other areas of translation studies. This poses problems to many translation scholars since this way of thinking...

  18. Research and comprehensive cancer control coalitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinson, Cynthia; La Porta, Madeline; Todd, William; Palafox, Neal A; Wilson, Katherine M; Fairley, Temeika

    2010-12-01

    The goal of cancer control research is "to generate basic knowledge about how to monitor and change individual and collective behavior and to ensure that knowledge is translated into practice and policy rapidly, effectively, and efficiently" (Division of Cancer Control and Population Sciences in Cancer control framework and synthese rationale, 2010). Research activities span the cancer control continuum from prevention to early detection and diagnosis through treatment and survivorship (Division of Cancer Control and Population Sciences in Cancer control framework and synthese rationale, 2010). While significant advancements have been made in understanding, preventing and treating cancer in the past few decades, these benefits have yielded disproportionate results in cancer morbidity and mortality across various socioeconomic and racial/ethnic subgroups (Ozols et al in J Clin Oncol, 25(1):146-1622, 2007). It has been a high priority since the beginning of the Comprehensive Cancer Control (CCC) movement to utilize research in the development and implementation of cancer plans in the states, tribes and tribal organizations, territories and US Pacific Island Jurisdictions. Nevertheless, dissemination and implementation of research in coalition activities has been challenging for many programs. Lessons learned from programs and coalitions in the implementation and evaluation of CCC activities, as well as resources provided by national partners, can assist coalitions with the translation of research into practice.

  19. Rare diseases research: expanding collaborative translational research opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groft, Stephen C

    2013-07-01

    Extensive public-private partnerships, including the National Institutes of Health (NIH) and the rare diseases community, which is seeing a renewed industry interest in smaller niche markets, have resulted in an increase of interventions for rare diseases. Significant collaborative efforts are required among the pharmaceutical industry, foundations, patient-advocacy groups, academic and government investigators and funding programs, regulatory scientists, and reimbursement agencies to meet the unmet diagnostic and treatment needs for approximately 25 million people in the United States with 7,000 rare diseases. The expanding role and outreach activities of patient-advocacy groups have increased public awareness. In the United States, a rare disease is defined as a disorder or condition with a prevalence of $3.5 billion for rare diseases research, including $750 million for orphan product development activities, nearly 11.4% of the NIH research budget. Several research institutes and centers of the NIH, including the National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences, have initiated varied translational research efforts to address the absence of preclinical and clinical data required for regulatory review purposes. Clinicians can expect to see significant increases in requests from patients and their families to participate in patient registries and natural history or observational studies to gather specific information from a larger pool of patients on the progression of the disease or response to treatments. An expanding emphasis on rare diseases provides hope for the millions of patients with rare diseases.

  20. Ethical considerations in tissue engineering research: Case studies in translation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Hannah B; McQuilling, John P; King, Nancy M P

    2016-04-15

    Tissue engineering research is a complex process that requires investigators to focus on the relationship between their research and anticipated gains in both knowledge and treatment improvements. The ethical considerations arising from tissue engineering research are similarly complex when addressing the translational progression from bench to bedside, and investigators in the field of tissue engineering act as moral agents at each step of their research along the translational pathway, from early benchwork and preclinical studies to clinical research. This review highlights the ethical considerations and challenges at each stage of research, by comparing issues surrounding two translational tissue engineering technologies: the bioartificial pancreas and a tissue engineered skeletal muscle construct. We present relevant ethical issues and questions to consider at each step along the translational pathway, from the basic science bench to preclinical research to first-in-human clinical trials. Topics at the bench level include maintaining data integrity, appropriate reporting and dissemination of results, and ensuring that studies are designed to yield results suitable for advancing research. Topics in preclinical research include the principle of "modest translational distance" and appropriate animal models. Topics in clinical research include key issues that arise in early-stage clinical trials, including selection of patient-subjects, disclosure of uncertainty, and defining success. The comparison of these two technologies and their ethical issues brings to light many challenges for translational tissue engineering research and provides guidance for investigators engaged in development of any tissue engineering technology.

  1. Amplified in Breast Cancer Regulates Transcription and Translation in Breast Cancer Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra M. Ochnik

    2016-02-01

    Conclusion: The oncogenic transcription factor AIB1 has a novel role in the regulation of polyribosome recruitment and formation of the translational complex. Combinatorial therapies targeting IGF signaling and mRNA translation in AIB1 expressing breast cancers may have clinical benefit and warrants further investigation.

  2. Group Organization and Communities of Practice in Translational Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor J. Krawczyk

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The collective lived experience of translational research teams requires further appreciation, particularly at the stages of group formation. To achieve this, we conducted a case study of a translational research team (n = 16. Through the case description and then discussing case-based themes with community of practice theory, themes such as “Being Open” and “Working as a Group” found that this team’s mutual respect, cooperation, and their sharing of knowledge uncovered an alternative way that professionals organize themselves for translational research projects. In conjunction to this finding, our analysis showed that the team has qualities of a community of practice.

  3. Therapeutic Potential, Challenges and Future Perspective of Cancer Stem Cells in Translational Oncology: A Critical Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Gaurav; Khera, Harvinder Kour; Srivastava, Amit Kumar; Khare, Piush; Patidar, Rahul; Saxena, Rajiv

    2017-01-01

    Stem cell research is a rapidly developing field that offers effective treatment for a variety of malignant and non-malignant diseases. Stem cell is a regenerative medicine associated with the replacement, repair, and restoration of injured tissue. Stem cell research is a promising field having maximum therapeutic potential. Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are the cells within the tumor that posses capacity of selfrenewal and have a root cause for the failure of traditional therapies leading to re-occurrence of cancer. CSCs have been identified in blood, breast, brain, and colon cancer. Traditional therapies target only fast growing tumor mass, but not slow-dividing cancer stem cells. It has been shown that embryonic pathways such as Wnt, Hedgehog and Notch, control self-renewal capacity and involved in cancer stem cell maintenance. Targeting of these pathways may be effective in eradicating cancer stem cells and preventing chemotherapy and radiotherapy resistance. Targeting CSCs has become one of the most effective approaches to improve the cancer survival by eradicating the main root cause of cancer. The present review will address, in brief, the importance of cancer stem cells in targeting cancer as better and effective treatment along with a concluding outlook on the scope and challenges in the implication of cancer stem cells in translational oncology.

  4. Global cancer research initiative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard R Love

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Richard R LoveThe Ohio State University Comprehensive Cancer Center, Columbus, OH, USAAbstract: Cancer is an increasing problem for low- and middle-income countries undergoing an epidemiologic transition from dominantly acute communicable disease to more frequent chronic disease with increased public health successes in the former domain. Progress against cancer in high-income countries has been modest and has come at enormous expense. There are several well-conceived global policy and planning initiatives which, with adequate political will, can favorably impact the growing global cancer challenges. Most financial resources for cancer, however, are spent on diagnosis and management of patients with disease in circumstances where specific knowledge about effective approaches is significantly limited, and the majority of interventions, other than surgery, are not cost-effective in resource-limited countries by global standards. In summary, how to intervene effectively on a global scale for the majority of citizens who develop cancer is poorly defined. In contrast to technology-transfer approaches, markedly increased clinical research activities are more likely to benefit cancer sufferers. In these contexts, a global cancer research initiative is proposed, and mechanisms for realizing such an effort are suggested.Keywords: breast cancer, research, global, international, low-income, middle-income

  5. Translating genomics: cancer genetics, public health and the making of the (de)molecularised body in Cuba and Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbon, Sahra

    2016-01-01

    This article examines how cancer genetics has emerged as a focus for research and healthcare in Cuba and Brazil. Drawing on ethnographic research undertaken in community genetics clinics and cancer genetics services, the article examines how the knowledge and technologies associated with this novel area of healthcare are translated and put to work by researchers, health professionals, patients and their families in these two contexts. It illuminates the comparative similarities and differences in how cancer genetics is emerging in relation to transnational research priorities, the history and contemporary politics of public health and embodied vulnerability to cancer that reconfigures the scope and meaning of genomics as "personalised" medicine.

  6. Profiles in Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    These articles put a face to some of the thousands of individuals who contribute to NCI’s cancer research efforts. The profiles highlight the work of scientists and clinicians and describe the circumstances and motivation behind their work.

  7. Translational research-the need of a new bioethics approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hostiuc, Sorin; Moldoveanu, Alin; Dascălu, Maria-Iuliana; Unnthorsson, Runar; Jóhannesson, Ómar I; Marcus, Ioan

    2016-01-15

    Translational research tries to apply findings from basic science to enhance human health and well-being. Many phases of the translational research may include non-medical tasks (information technology, engineering, nanotechnology, biochemistry, animal research, economy, sociology, psychology, politics, and so on). Using common bioethics principles to these areas might sometimes be not feasible, or even impossible. However, the whole process must respect some fundamental, moral principles. The purpose of this paper is to argument the need for a different approach to the morality in translational bioethics, and to suggest some directions that might be followed when constructing such a bioethics. We will show that a new approach is needed and present a few ethical issues that are specific to the translational research.

  8. The Continuing Challenges of Translational Research: Clinician-Scientists’ Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shervanthi Homer-Vanniasinkam

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the last twenty years, revolutionary advances in biomedicine including gene therapy, stem cell research, proteomics, genomics and nanotechnology have highlighted the progressive need to restructure traditional approaches to basic and clinical research in order to facilitate the rapid, efficient integration and translation of these new technologies into novel effective therapeutics. Over the past ten years, funding bodies in the USA and UK such as the National Institutes of Health (NIH and the Medical Research Council (MRC have been driving translational research by defining and tackling the hurdles but more still remains to be achieved. This article discusses the ongoing challenges translational researchers face and outlines recent initiatives to tackle these including the new changes to translational funding schemes proposed by the NIH and the MRC and the launch of the “European Advanced Translational Research InfraStructure in Medicine” (EATRIS. It is anticipated that initiatives such as these will not only strengthen translational biomedical research programmes already initiated but should lead to rapid benefits to patients and society.

  9. Bioprinting for cancer research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowlton, Stephanie; Onal, Sevgi; Yu, Chu Hsiang; Zhao, Jean J; Tasoglu, Savas

    2015-09-01

    Bioprinting offers the ability to create highly complex 3D architectures with living cells. This cutting-edge technique has significantly gained popularity and applicability in several fields. Bioprinting methods have been developed to effectively and rapidly pattern living cells, biological macromolecules, and biomaterials. These technologies hold great potential for applications in cancer research. Bioprinted cancer models represent a significant improvement over previous 2D models by mimicking 3D complexity and facilitating physiologically relevant cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions. Here we review bioprinting methods based on inkjet, microextrusion, and laser technologies and compare 3D cancer models with 2D cancer models. We discuss bioprinted models that mimic the tumor microenvironment, providing a platform for deeper understanding of cancer pathology, anticancer drug screening, and cancer treatment development.

  10. Quantifying complexity in translational research: an integrated approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munoz, David A.; Nembhard, Harriet Black; Kraschnewski, Jennifer L.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose This article quantifies complexity in translational research. The impact of major operational steps and technical requirements (TR) is calculated with respect to their ability to accelerate moving new discoveries into clinical practice. Design/Methodology/Approach A three-phase integrated Quality Function Deployment (QFD) and Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) method was used to quantify complexity in translational research. A case study in obesity was used to usability. Findings Generally, the evidence generated was valuable for understanding various components in translational research. Particularly, we found that collaboration networks, multidisciplinary team capacity and community engagement are crucial for translating new discoveries into practice. Research limitations/implications As the method is mainly based on subjective opinion, some argue that the results may be biased. However, a consistency ratio is calculated and used as a guide to subjectivity. Alternatively, a larger sample may be incorporated to reduce bias. Practical implications The integrated QFD-AHP framework provides evidence that could be helpful to generate agreement, develop guidelines, allocate resources wisely, identify benchmarks and enhance collaboration among similar projects. Originality/value Current conceptual models in translational research provide little or no clue to assess complexity. The proposed method aimed to fill this gap. Additionally, the literature review includes various features that have not been explored in translational research. PMID:25417380

  11. TRANSFORMATIONS IN TRANSLATION AS A SOURCE OF LINGUISTIC RESEARCHES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liudmila Tazretovna Kalabekova

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with some transformations in translation that arise inevitably during the transfer of information from one language to another and provides to the researchers wide empirical material for linguistic analysis. In order to achieve a pragmatic adaptation of the text, translators, invariably, have to resort to all sorts of translation «tricks». However, no matter what the transformation a translator carried, they should always be motivated and do not lead to the changes in the pragmatic aspect of speech. The researcher who has chosen for himself this way of the analysis when the translations are used as the language material must always remember that between the texts of the original language and the translation there is only «conditional equivalence» due to the mismatch of semantic systems of being compared linguocultures. It sometimes happens that the translation which is a secondary type of information surpasses the original text in the form of presentation of the material. An experienced translator can express more logically a passage of the original text, sometimes even unknowingly, maintaining the maximum value of the source text.When using the translation as a source of linguistic researches it is necessary to overcome occasional error and subjectivity allowed by the author. This overcoming will be achieved by basing on the statistical data. And only in the situation when some phenomena, forms, meanings, categories are found enough frequency in the translated texts of different authors (moreover in relatively identical terms, we can talk about the correspondence between the system and structural arrangements of two languages.

  12. The Multidisciplinary Translational Team (MTT) Model for Training and Development of Translational Research Investigators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ameredes, Bill T; Hellmich, Mark R; Cestone, Christina M; Wooten, Kevin C; Ottenbacher, Kenneth J; Chonmaitree, Tasnee; Anderson, Karl E; Brasier, Allan R

    2015-10-01

    Multiinstitutional research collaborations now form the most rapid and productive project execution structures in the health sciences. Effective adoption of a multidisciplinary team research approach is widely accepted as one mechanism enabling rapid translation of new discoveries into interventions in human health. Although the impact of successful team-based approaches facilitating innovation has been well-documented, its utility for training a new generation of scientists has not been thoroughly investigated. We describe the characteristics of how multidisciplinary translational teams (MTTs) promote career development of translational research scholars through competency building, interprofessional integration, and team-based mentoring approaches. Exploratory longitudinal and outcome assessments from our experience show that MTT membership had a positive effect on the development of translational research competencies, as determined by a self-report survey of 32 scholars. We also observed that all trainees produced a large number of collaborative publications that appeared to be associated with their CTSA association and participation with MTTs. We conclude that the MTT model provides a unique training environment for translational and team-based learning activities, for investigators at early stages of career development.

  13. Translational research and its effects on medicine in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUAN Jian; CHEN Jie

    2011-01-01

    Translational research has become a globally recognized model of medical research. Chinese government and doctors have begun to discuss the plan for its development. But most articles are focusing on the advantages rather than its pros and cons. In this essay, the authors discuss the disadvantages of translational research, its effects on clinical work and medical education, highlighting some potential problems and risks in theory and practice on case basis. Some important research management requirements are summarized in this essay to help bring the therapy from the research laboratory to the patient's bedside.

  14. Characterization of novel peptide-specific antibodies against the translation elongation factor eEF1A2 and their application for cancer research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shalak V. F.

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Aim. We intend to characterize the new peptide-specific antibodies against the isoform 2 of translation elongation factor 1A (eEF1A2 and determine its presence in the postoperative samples of human breast, lung and stomach tumor tissues. Methods. The analysis of antibody specificity was performed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, immunoblotting and immunohistochemistry. Immunoblotting and immunohistochemistry were used for the determination of the eEF1A2 in the human tumor samples, as well as in the samples of normal tissues surrounding tumors. Results. The antibodies obtained against the eEF1A2 specifically recognized this protein in the cell extracts and histological sections and did not cross-react with the elongation factor 1A isoform 1. eEF1A2 was revealed in the postoperative samples of breast, lung and stomach tumors as well as in the putative normal tissues surrounding tumors. Conclusions. The antibodies obtained against eEF1A2 are highly specific for the antigen and can be used for the immunological studies of tumors.

  15. Translational research of optical molecular imaging for personalized medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, C; Ma, X; Tian, J

    2013-12-01

    In the medical imaging field, molecular imaging is a rapidly developing discipline and forms many imaging modalities, providing us effective tools to visualize, characterize, and measure molecular and cellular mechanisms in complex biological processes of living organisms, which can deepen our understanding of biology and accelerate preclinical research including cancer study and medicine discovery. Among many molecular imaging modalities, although the penetration depth of optical imaging and the approved optical probes used for clinics are limited, it has evolved considerably and has seen spectacular advances in basic biomedical research and new drug development. With the completion of human genome sequencing and the emergence of personalized medicine, the specific drug should be matched to not only the right disease but also to the right person, and optical molecular imaging should serve as a strong adjunct to develop personalized medicine by finding the optimal drug based on an individual's proteome and genome. In this process, the computational methodology and imaging system as well as the biomedical application regarding optical molecular imaging will play a crucial role. This review will focus on recent typical translational studies of optical molecular imaging for personalized medicine followed by a concise introduction. Finally, the current challenges and the future development of optical molecular imaging are given according to the understanding of the authors, and the review is then concluded.

  16. Neurogenetics in Peru, example of translational research

    OpenAIRE

    Mazzetti, Pilar; Centro de Investigación Básica en Neurogenética, Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Neurológicas, Lima, Perú. Facultad de Medicina Humana, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos. Lima, Perú.; Inca-Martínez, Miguel; Centro de Investigación Básica en Neurogenética, Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Neurológicas, Lima, Perú.; Tirado-Hurtado, Indira; Centro de Investigación Básica en Neurogenética, Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Neurológicas, Lima, Perú.; Milla-Neyra, Karina; Centro de Investigación Básica en Neurogenética, Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Neurológicas, Lima, Perú.; Silva-Paredes, Gustavo; Centro de Investigación Básica en Neurogenética, Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Neurológicas, Lima, Perú.; Vishnevetsky, Anastasia; Centro de Investigación Básica en Neurogenética, Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Neurológicas, Lima, Perú. Northern Pacific Global Health Research Fellows Training Consortium. Bethesda, Maryland, EE. UU. Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania. Philadelphia, EE. UU.; Cornejo-Olivas, Mario; Centro de Investigación Básica en Neurogenética, Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Neurológicas, Lima, Perú.

    2015-01-01

    Neurogenetics is an emerging discipline in Peru that links basic research with clinical practice. The Neurogenetics ResearchCenter located in Lima, Peru is the only unit dedicated to the specialized care of neurogenetic diseases in the country. Fromthe beginning, neurogenetics research has been closely linked to the study of Huntington’s Disease (HD), from the PCRgenotyping of the HTT gene, to the current haplogroup studies in HD. Research in other monogenic diseases led to theimplementation ...

  17. Patterns of collaboration in complex networks: the example of a translational research network

    OpenAIRE

    Long, Janet C; Cunningham, Frances C.; Carswell, Peter; Braithwaite, Jeffrey

    2014-01-01

    Background This paper examines collaboration in a complex translational cancer research network (TRN) made up of a range of hospital-based clinicians and university-based researchers. We examine the phenomenon of close-knit and often introspective clusters of people (silos) and test the extent that factors associated with this clustering (geography, profession and past experience) influence patterns of current and future collaboration on TRN projects. Understanding more of these patterns, esp...

  18. Structuring successful collaboration: a longitudinal social network analysis of a translational research network

    OpenAIRE

    Long, Janet C; Hibbert, Peter; Braithwaite, Jeffrey

    2016-01-01

    Background In 2012 and 2013, we conducted a social network survey of a new translational research network (TRN) designed to deliver better care to cancer patients. Results of these two surveys showed that silos of researchers and clinicians existed before the TRN was established but that the network had mediated collaborative relationships. This paper reports on a third social network survey of the TRN and focusses on the structure of the collaborative arrangements among members. Methods Memb...

  19. (Very) Early technology assessment and translation of predictive biomarkers in breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miquel-Cases, Anna; Schouten, Philip C; Steuten, Lotte M G; Retèl, Valesca P; Linn, Sabine C; van Harten, Wim H

    2017-01-01

    Predictive biomarkers can guide treatment decisions in breast cancer. Many studies are undertaken to discover and translate these biomarkers, yet few biomarkers make it to practice. Before use in clinical decision making, predictive biomarkers need to demonstrate analytical validity, clinical validity and clinical utility. While attaining analytical and clinical validity is relatively straightforward, by following methodological recommendations, the achievement of clinical utility is extremely challenging. It requires demonstrating three associations: the biomarker with the outcome (prognostic association), the effect of treatment independent of the biomarker, and the differential treatment effect between the prognostic and the predictive biomarker (predictive association). In addition, economical, ethical, regulatory, organizational and patient/doctor-related aspects are hampering the translational process. Traditionally, these aspects do not receive much attention until formal approval or reimbursement of a biomarker test (informed by Health Technology Assessment (HTA)) is at stake, at which point the clinical utility and sometimes price of the test can hardly be influenced anymore. When HTA analyses are performed earlier, during biomarker research and development, they may prevent further development of those biomarkers unlikely to ever provide sufficient added value to society, and rather facilitate translation of the promising ones. Early HTA is particularly relevant for the predictive biomarker field, as expensive medicines are under pressure and the need for biomarkers to guide their appropriate use is huge. Closer interaction between clinical researchers and HTA experts throughout the translational research process will ensure that available data and methodologies will be used most efficiently to facilitate biomarker translation.

  20. Implications of translating research into practice: a medication management intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkema, Gretchen E; Frey, Dennee

    2006-01-01

    Through programs such as the Administration on Aging's Evidence-Based Prevention Initiative, researchers and practitioners are developing translational research studies seeking to implement rigorously tested, evidence-based interventions in new practice settings and evaluate the continuing effectiveness of these interventions. One such translational study is the Community-Based Medications Management Intervention (CBM Intervention), a collaborative effort to implement a medication management screening and intervention protocol in community-based waiver care management programs. The overall goals of the CBM Intervention are to implement an evidence-based medication management intervention in a California Medicaid waiver care management program, and to evaluate the effect of client-, intervention-, and organizational-level characteristics on resolving identified medication problems. This article presents the need for improved medication management in a frail, community-dwelling, older adult population and describes the CBM Intervention as an example of translating an evidence-based practice beyond its original efficacy trial in a home healthcare program into a care management program. It discusses critical factors involved in translating research into practice using a translational research framework, Promoting Action on Research Implementation in Health Services (PARIHS). Our experience suggests that although implementing research into practice can positively impact client care, professional skill enhancement and organizational effectiveness, this is very challenging work requiring signification facilitation for successful outcomes.

  1. Translational Research on Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Gene Mutations in Targeted Therapy for Patients with Advanced Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xiao-yan; ZHOU Er-xi

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To explore the significance of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) gene mutations in targeted therapy for patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Methods:One hundred and seventeen patients with advanced NSCLC admitted in Maternal and Child Health Care Center of Zibo City from Jan., 2011 to Jan., 2014 were performed with EGFR gene detection and then divided into 3 groups according to the detecting results. Patients in group A and group B were given oral geiftinib, 250 mg/d while patients in Group C with docetaxel, 75 mg/m2. Chemotherapy for 3 groups was discontinued until severe adverse reactions or disease progression occurred, or continuous treatment was considered to be unfavorable by the doctors, or patients asked for withdrawal from the study. The relationship between clinicopathological features and EGFR mutations were analyzed. The short-term and long-term efifcacy and adverse reactions of 3 groups were observed. Results:Of the 31 cases with EGFR mutations, there were 16 cases (51.6%) of mutations in exon 19, 14 (45.2%) in exon 21 and 2 (6.45%) in exon 18. No EGFR mutation was found in exon 20. EGFR mutations were associated with histological types of tumors and whether patients were smoking. The median follow-up time was 26 months and 62 patients were dead. None of CR was in 3 groups. The disease control rate (DCR) in group A was obviously higher than that in group B (χ2=9.382,P=0.002), which was also higher in group C than that in group B (χ2=4.674,P=0.031). The 1-year survival rate in group A was obviously higher than that in group B and group C (P Conclusion:EGFR mutations are the main indicators for guiding the targeted therapy for patients with advanced NSCLC.

  2. Biobanking informatics infrastructure to support clinical and translational research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasalle, Bernie; Varner, Michael; Botkin, Jeff; Jackson, Marc; Stark, Louisa; Cessna, Melissa; Orthner, Carolyn; Hulse, Nathan; Bernasconi, Aldo; Madsen, Randy; Schultz, Dustin; Bradshaw, Richard; Mitchell, Joyce

    2013-01-01

    The University of Utah Health Sciences (UUHSC) and Intermountain Healthcare (IH) support high value clinical and translational research programs. The Utah Biohealth Initiative will facilitate next generation research by leveraging the combined resources of both institutions through an infrastructure which links biospecimens and electronic health records (EHR). During phase I of the Utah BioHealth Initiative (UBI) the participating institutions developed a legal, regulatory and information technology infrastructure that supports clinical and translational research, and advances our understanding of health and disease, improves healthcare value and health for current and future generations of Utahns. We used the Federated Utah Research and Translational Health electronic Repository (FURTHeR) 1 to combine EHR and biospecimen data from an actual study populated by both institutions to demonstrate the robustness of the infrastructure.

  3. Promoting translational research in human and veterinary medical virology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yi-Wei

    2013-07-26

    Translational research serves as a bench-to-field "translation" of basic scientific research into practical diagnostic procedures and therapies useful in human and veterinary clinical services. The productivity of translational research involving infectious diseases relevant to both human and animal health (e.g., influenza diagnosis and epidemiology using emerging molecular detection and identification methods) can be maximized when both human and veterinary medical virology disciplines are integrated. Influenza viruses are continually evolving through site-specific mutation and segment reassortment, and these processes occur in all potential carrier species - including birds, humans, and many agriculturally important animals. This evolutionary plasticity occasionally allows "novel" influenzas to move from animal hosts to humans, potentially causing destructive pandemics; therefore, a rapid laboratory technique that can detect and identify "novel" influenza viruses is clinically and epidemiologically desirable. A technique-focused translational research approach is pursued to enhance detection and characterization of emerging influenza viruses circulating in both humans and other animal hosts. The PLEX-ID System, which incorporates multi-locus PCR and electrospray ionization/mass spectrometry, uses deliberately nonspecific primers that amplify all known variants (all H/N subtypes) of influenza virus, including human, other mammalian, and avian influenzas, and is therefore likely to generate analyzable amplicons from any novel influenza that might emerge in any host. Novel technology development and implementation such as the PLEX-ID System forms a key component of human and veterinary medical virology translational research.

  4. Tobacco Causes Human Cancers--A Concept Founded on Epidemiology and an Insightful Experiment Now Requires Translation Worldwide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loeb, Lawrence A

    2016-02-15

    The recognition that tobacco smoke is carcinogenic led to the most significant and successful effort at reducing cancer incidence in human history. A major milestone of this effort was the publication in Cancer Research by Wynder and colleagues, which demonstrated the ability of tobacco tars to produce tumors in mice. This study provided a powerful link between the epidemiology of cancer and mechanisms of carcinogenesis. This commentary asserts that we have a moral obligation to translate our success in reducing lung cancer in the United States to the 1.25 billion smokers throughout the rest of the world. See related article by Wynder et al., Cancer Res 1953;13:855-64.

  5. Research's Practice and Barriers of Knowledge Translation in Iran.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saharnaz Nedjat

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge Translation is a process that includes synthesis, dissemination, exchange and application of knowledge to improve the health, services and products In this study we have attempted to examine the knowledge translation practice and its perceived barriers on the universalities and research institutes (research sector in Iran.Both qualitative and quantitative approaches were used. In the quantitative section, a questionnaire had prepared for this study was completed by 88 authors country wide from randomly selected papers. In the qualitative section 13 in-depth interviews and 6 focus group discussions were held with managers and policy makers, clinical and health service providers, and researchers.Twenty four percent of the authors had no interaction whatsoever with the target audience. Lack of expectation toward creating change in the target audience, researchers' incentives, low level of trust among researchers and decision makers, absence of a predefined mechanism for delivery of research results and inappropriate research priorities were among the most important barriers identified in the qualitative section.Translation of research findings into some concrete outputs which can affect health of people is not in mandate of researchers and subsequently they are not prepared for this as well. Based on the barriers identified, it seems that the following interventions are necessary: cooperation among policy makers at macro and meso (organizational level and the research sector; establishing networks for researchers and decision makers in choosing the research topic, priority setting, and building trust among researchers and policy makers.

  6. Ascorbic acid in cancer chemoprevention: translational perspectives and efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullah, Mohammad F; Bhat, Showket H; Hussain, Eram; Abu-Duhier, Faisel; Ahmad, Aamir; Hadi, S M

    2012-12-01

    Chemoprevention, which is referred to as the use of nontoxic natural or synthetic chemicals to intervene in multistage carcinogenesis has since decades attracted a considerable interest in plant-derived chemical constituents often termed as "phytochemicals" or sometimes as "Nutraceuticals" in case they are derived from dietary sources. A comprehensive search of the literature show that such an interest in natural product pharmacology has surged in the last 25 years and particularly risen at exponential rates since the last one decade. Phytochemicals such as curcumin (from spice turmeric), resveratrol (from red wine) and genistein (from soy) share the major efforts as indicated by overwhelming publications, despite skepticism concerning their bioavailability. Ascorbic acid (AA), the popular anti-oxidant in fruits and vegetables, has even a longer historical perspective than these dietary agents as for more than 35 years; there had been lingering questions about the efficacy of AA in cancer therapy. The footprints of AA from "scurvy" to "cancer" though complex seems to carry potential provided the puzzle could be set right. The use of AA in cancer treatment has been debated extensively as evident from the literature but surprisingly the complementing early phase bench work on the mechanistic studies for anticancer action was rather retarded. Proposed mechanisms of action for AA in the prevention and treatment of cancer includes antioxidant as well as pro-oxidant properties, stimulation of the immune system, altering carcinogen metabolism, enhancement of collagen synthesis necessary for tumor encapsulation and interference with cancer cell signaling. The observation that the intravenous administration of AA enhances its bioavailability to the extent of deriving pharmacological benefits against cancer has in recent years partially supported the clinical plausibility (efficacy) of AA towards realizing its translational advantage. Here, we provide an overview of AA with

  7. Aptamer nanomedicine for cancer therapeutics: barriers and potential for translation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lao, Yeh-Hsing; Phua, Kyle K L; Leong, Kam W

    2015-03-24

    Aptamer nanomedicine, including therapeutic aptamers and aptamer nanocomplexes, is beginning to fulfill its potential in both clinical trials and preclinical studies. Especially in oncology, aptamer nanomedicine may perform better than conventional or antibody-based chemotherapeutics due to specificity compared to the former and stability compared to the latter. Many proof-of-concept studies on applying aptamers to drug delivery, gene therapy, and cancer imaging have shown promising efficacy and impressive safety in vivo toward translation. Yet, there remains ample room for improvement and critical barriers to be addressed. In this review, we will first introduce the recent progress in clinical trials of aptamer nanomedicine, followed by a discussion of the barriers at the design and in vivo application stages. We will then highlight recent advances and engineering strategies proposed to tackle these barriers. Aptamer cancer nanomedicine has the potential to address one of the most important healthcare issues of the society.

  8. Translational research platforms integrating clinical and omics data: a review of publicly available solutions

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    The rise of personalized medicine and the availability of high-throughput molecular analyses in the context of clinical care have increased the need for adequate tools for translational researchers to manage and explore these data. We reviewed the biomedical literature for translational platforms allowing the management and exploration of clinical and omics data, and identified seven platforms: BRISK, caTRIP, cBio Cancer Portal, G-DOC, iCOD, iDASH and tranSMART. We analyzed these platforms al...

  9. Disease Advocacy Organizations Catalyze Translational Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharon Fontaine Terry

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Disease advocacy organizations have long played an important role in the continuum from basic science to therapy development in rare disease research. PXE International has sometimes led the field in innovative ways, venturing into specific activities that have traditionally been conducted by scientists. As lay founders, we have engaged in gene discovery, gene patenting, diagnostic development, epidemiological studies, clinical trials and therapy research and development. This article will describe the steps that we took, and the ways in which we have scaled these efforts for the larger community.

  10. Translating Research into a Seamless Transition Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luecking, Debra Martin; Luecking, Richard G.

    2015-01-01

    Recently, consensus among researchers and professionals has emerged about factors that contribute to postschool success of youth with disabilities. Prominent among these factors are targeted academic preparation, family involvement, youth empowerment, and service collaboration and linkages. Work experience and paid employment have been identified…

  11. Understanding the Processes of Translation and Transliteration in Qualitative Research

    OpenAIRE

    Regmi, Krishna; Naidoo, Jennie; Pilkington, Paul

    2010-01-01

    There has been growing interest in the use of qualitative methods in health research amongst health and social care professionals. Good qualitative cross-cultural research analysis is not an easy task as it involves knowledge of different approaches, techniques and command of the appropriate languages. This article aims to discuss and explore some of the key processes and concepts involved in conducting translation and transliteration of qualitative research.

  12. Understanding the Processes of Translation and Transliteration in Qualitative Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishna Regmi FHEA, MPH, PGDip, PGCert. PhD Researcher

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available There has been growing interest in the use of qualitative methods in health research amongst health and social care professionals. Good qualitative cross-cultural research analysis is not an easy task as it involves knowledge of different approaches, techniques and command of the appropriate languages. This article aims to discuss and explore some of the key processes and concepts involved in conducting translation and transliteration of qualitative research.

  13. Biomarkers in translational research of Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarawneh, Rawan; Holtzman, David M

    2010-01-01

    The identification and characterization of amyloid-beta (Abeta) and tau as the main pathological substrates of Alzheimer's disease (AD) have driven many efforts in search for suitable biomarkers for AD. In the last decade, research in this area has focused on developing a better understanding of the principles that govern protein deposition, mechanisms that link aggregation to toxicity and neuronal death, and a better understanding of protein dynamics in brain tissue, interstitial fluid and CSF. While Abeta and tau represent the two key pathological mediators of disease, other aspects of this multifaceted disease (e.g. oxidative stress, calcium-mediated toxicity, and neuroinflammation) are being unraveled, with the hope to develop a more comprehensive approach in exploring disease mechanisms. This has not only expanded possible areas for disease-modifying therapies, but has also allowed the introduction of novel, and potentially useful, fluid and radiological markers for the presence and progression of AD pathology. There is no doubt that the identification of several fluid and imaging biomarkers that can reliably detect the early stages of AD will have great implications in the design of clinical trials, in the selection of homogenous research populations, and in the assessment of disease outcomes. Markers with good diagnostic specificity will aid researchers in differentiating individuals with preclinical and probable AD from individuals who do not have AD pathology or have other dementing disorders. Markers that change with disease progression may offer utility in assessing the rates of disease progression and the efficacy of potential therapeutic agents on AD pathology. For both of these purposes, CSF Abeta42, amyloid imaging, and CSF tau appear to be very good markers of the presence of AD pathology as well as predictive of who will progress from MCI to AD. Volumetric MRI is also good at separating individuals with MCI and AD from controls and is predictive of

  14. Integrating Heterogeneous Biomedical Data for Cancer Research: the CARPEM infrastructure

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Summary Cancer research involves numerous disciplines. The multiplicity of data sources and their heterogeneous nature render the integration and the exploration of the data more and more complex. Translational research platforms are a promising way to assist scientists in these tasks. In this article, we identify a set of scientific and technical principles needed to build a translational research platform compatible with ethical requirements, data protection and data-integration problems. W...

  15. Estimating return on investment in translational research: methods and protocols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grazier, Kyle L; Trochim, William M; Dilts, David M; Kirk, Rosalind

    2013-12-01

    Assessing the value of clinical and translational research funding on accelerating the translation of scientific knowledge is a fundamental issue faced by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) and its Clinical and Translational Awards (CTSAs). To address this issue, the authors propose a model for measuring the return on investment (ROI) of one key CTSA program, the clinical research unit (CRU). By estimating the economic and social inputs and outputs of this program, this model produces multiple levels of ROI: investigator, program, and institutional estimates. A methodology, or evaluation protocol, is proposed to assess the value of this CTSA function, with specific objectives, methods, descriptions of the data to be collected, and how data are to be filtered, analyzed, and evaluated. This article provides an approach CTSAs could use to assess the economic and social returns on NIH and institutional investments in these critical activities.

  16. Translational research challenges: finding the right animal models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabhakar, Sharma

    2012-12-01

    Translation of scientific discoveries into meaningful human applications, particularly novel therapies of human diseases, requires development of suitable animal models. Experimental approaches to test new drugs in preclinical phases often necessitated animal models that not only replicate human disease in etiopathogenesis and pathobiology but also biomarkers development and toxicity prediction. Whereas the transgenic and knockout techniques have revolutionized manipulation of rodents and other species to get greater insights into human disease pathogenesis, we are far from generating ideal animal models of most human disease states. The challenges in using the currently available animal models for translational research, particularly for developing potentially new drugs for human disease, coupled with the difficulties in toxicity prediction have led some researchers to develop a scoring system for translatability. These aspects and the challenges in selecting an animal model among those that are available to study human disease pathobiology and drug development are the topics covered in this detailed review.

  17. A One Health overview, facilitating advances in comparative medicine and translational research

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Table of contents A1 One health advances and successes in comparative medicine and translational research Cheryl Stroud A2 Dendritic cell-targeted gorilla adenoviral vector for cancer vaccination for canine melanoma Igor Dmitriev, Elena Kashentseva, Jeffrey N. Bryan, David T. Curiel A3 Viroimmunotherapy for malignant melanoma in the companion dog model Jeffrey N. Bryan, David Curiel, Igor Dmitriev, Elena Kashentseva, Hans Rindt, Carol Reinero, Carolyn J. Henry A4 Of mice and men (and dogs!): ...

  18. Nanomedicine applied to translational oncology: A future perspective on cancer treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bregoli, Lisa; Movia, Dania; Gavigan-Imedio, James D; Lysaght, Joanne; Reynolds, John; Prina-Mello, Adriele

    2016-01-01

    The high global incidence of cancer is associated with high rates of mortality and morbidity worldwide. By taking advantage of the properties of matter at the nanoscale, nanomedicine promises to develop innovative drugs with greater efficacy and less side effects than standard therapies. Here, we discuss both clinically available anti-cancer nanomedicines and those en route to future clinical application. The properties, therapeutic value, advantages and limitations of these nanomedicine products are highlighted, with a focus on their increased performance versus conventional molecular anticancer therapies. The main regulatory challenges toward the translation of innovative, clinically effective nanotherapeutics are discussed, with a view to improving current approaches to the clinical management of cancer. Ultimately, it becomes clear that the critical steps for clinical translation of nanotherapeutics require further interdisciplinary and international effort, where the whole stakeholder community is involved from bench to bedside. From the Clinical Editor: Cancer is a leading cause of mortality worldwide and finding a cure remains the holy-grail for many researchers and clinicians. The advance in nanotechnology has enabled novel strategies to develop in terms of cancer diagnosis and therapy. In this concise review article, the authors described current capabilities in this field and outlined comparisons with existing drugs. The difficulties in bringing new drugs to the clinics were also discussed.

  19. Assessing dentists' knowledge about oral cancer: translation and linguistic validation of a standardized questionnaire from American English into German.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertrampf, Katrin; Wenz, Hans-Jürgen; Koller, Michael; Springer, Ingo; Jargot, Anke; Wiltfang, Jörg

    2009-10-01

    Oral cancer represents a considerable health problem with more than 10,000 new cases each year in Germany. Nevertheless, little information is available on the knowledge of dentists and the public on oral cancer. This project aims at investigating the knowledge and opinions of dentists via a questionnaire. The present article describes the translation process of an internationally accepted instrument into German. The translation was carried out by the Mapi Research Institute, Lyon, France. The translation procedure followed an established linguistic validation process, consisting of the conceptual analysis of the source instrument, a forward and backward translation, the clinicians' review, proofreading, and the finalization. The institute identified nine cultural adaptations. After forward and backward translations, the clinical reviewers suggested 16 stylistic changes, four alternative wordings, two more cultural adaptations, and five changes of nomenclature. After debriefing, the translated questionnaire involved nine stylistic changes, four alternative wordings, and 11 changes for cultural adaptation. The described translation and validation procedure guarantees a high-quality standard instrument for the evaluation of dentists' knowledge and opinions on oral cancer in Germany and prevents misinterpretations due to cultural differences, which allows an international comparison of the data.

  20. Translating research to practice in bullying prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradshaw, Catherine P

    2015-01-01

    Bullying continues to be a concern in schools and communities across the United States and worldwide, yet there is uncertainty regarding the most effective approaches for preventing it and addressing its impacts on children and youth. This paper synthesizes findings from a series of studies and meta-analyses examining the efficacy of bullying prevention programs. This paper considers some methodological issues encountered when testing the efficacy and effectiveness of bullying prevention and intervention approaches. It also identifies several areas requiring additional research in order to increase the effectiveness of bullying prevention efforts in real-world settings. Drawing upon a public health perspective and findings from the field of prevention science, this paper aims to inform potential future directions for enhancing the adoption, high quality implementation, and dissemination of evidence-based bullying prevention programs. It is concluded that although bullying prevention programs can be effective in reducing bullying and victimization among school-aged youth, there is a great need for more work to increase the acceptability, fidelity, and sustainability of the existing programs in order to improve bullying-related outcomes for youth. The findings from this review are intended to inform both policy and public health practice related to bullying prevention.

  1. A unified framework for managing provenance information in translational research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahoo Satya S

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A critical aspect of the NIH Translational Research roadmap, which seeks to accelerate the delivery of "bench-side" discoveries to patient's "bedside," is the management of the provenance metadata that keeps track of the origin and history of data resources as they traverse the path from the bench to the bedside and back. A comprehensive provenance framework is essential for researchers to verify the quality of data, reproduce scientific results published in peer-reviewed literature, validate scientific process, and associate trust value with data and results. Traditional approaches to provenance management have focused on only partial sections of the translational research life cycle and they do not incorporate "domain semantics", which is essential to support domain-specific querying and analysis by scientists. Results We identify a common set of challenges in managing provenance information across the pre-publication and post-publication phases of data in the translational research lifecycle. We define the semantic provenance framework (SPF, underpinned by the Provenir upper-level provenance ontology, to address these challenges in the four stages of provenance metadata: (a Provenance collection - during data generation (b Provenance representation - to support interoperability, reasoning, and incorporate domain semantics (c Provenance storage and propagation - to allow efficient storage and seamless propagation of provenance as the data is transferred across applications (d Provenance query - to support queries with increasing complexity over large data size and also support knowledge discovery applications We apply the SPF to two exemplar translational research projects, namely the Semantic Problem Solving Environment for Trypanosoma cruzi (T.cruzi SPSE and the Biomedical Knowledge Repository (BKR project, to demonstrate its effectiveness. Conclusions The SPF provides a unified framework to effectively manage provenance

  2. Recent progress in translational research on neurovascular and neurodegenerative disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demuth, Hans-Ulrich; Dijkhuizen, Rick M; Farr, Tracy D; Gelderblom, Mathias; Horsburgh, Karen; Iadecola, Costantino; Mcleod, Damian D; Michalski, Dominik; Murphy, Tim H; Orbe, Josune; Otte, Willem M; Petzold, Gabor C; Plesnila, Nikolaus; Reiser, Georg; Reymann, Klaus G; Rueger, Maria A; Saur, Dorothee; Savitz, Sean I; Schilling, Stephan; Spratt, Neil J; Turner, Renée J; Vemuganti, Raghu; Vivien, Denis; Yepes, Manuel; Zille, Marietta; Boltze, Johannes

    2017-01-01

    The already established and widely used intravenous application of recombinant tissue plasminogen activator as a re-opening strategy for acute vessel occlusion in ischemic stroke was recently added by mechanical thrombectomy, representing a fundamental progress in evidence-based medicine to improve the patient's outcome. This has been paralleled by a swift increase in our understanding of pathomechanisms underlying many neurovascular diseases and most prevalent forms of dementia. Taken together, these current advances offer the potential to overcome almost two decades of marginally successful translational research on stroke and dementia, thereby spurring the entire field of translational neuroscience. Moreover, they may also pave the way for the renaissance of classical neuroprotective paradigms.This review reports and summarizes some of the most interesting and promising recent achievements in neurovascular and dementia research. It highlights sessions from the 9th International Symposium on Neuroprotection and Neurorepair that have been discussed from April 19th to 22nd in Leipzig, Germany. To acknowledge the emerging culture of interdisciplinary collaboration and research, special emphasis is given on translational stories ranging from fundamental research on neurode- and -regeneration to late stage translational or early stage clinical investigations.

  3. Situated learning in translation research training: academic research as a reflection of practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risku, Hanna

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Situated learning has become a dominant goal in the translation classroom: translation didactics is being developed in a learner-, situation- and experience-based direction, following constructivist and participatory teaching philosophies. However, the explicit use of situated approaches has, so far, not been the centre of attention in translation theory teaching and research training. As a consequence, translation theory often remains unconnected to the skills learned and topics tackled in language-specific translation teaching and the challenges experienced in real-life translation practice. This article reports on the results of an exploratory action research project into the teaching of academic research skills in translation studies at Master’s level. The goal of the project is to develop and test possibilities for employing situated learning in translation research training. The situatedness perspective has a double relevance for the teaching project: the students are involved in an authentic, ongoing research project, and the object of the research project itself deals with authentic translation processes at the workplace. Thus, the project has the potential to improve the expertise of the students as both researchers and reflective practitioners. PMID:27499805

  4. Situated learning in translation research training: academic research as a reflection of practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risku, Hanna

    2016-01-02

    Situated learning has become a dominant goal in the translation classroom: translation didactics is being developed in a learner-, situation- and experience-based direction, following constructivist and participatory teaching philosophies. However, the explicit use of situated approaches has, so far, not been the centre of attention in translation theory teaching and research training. As a consequence, translation theory often remains unconnected to the skills learned and topics tackled in language-specific translation teaching and the challenges experienced in real-life translation practice. This article reports on the results of an exploratory action research project into the teaching of academic research skills in translation studies at Master's level. The goal of the project is to develop and test possibilities for employing situated learning in translation research training. The situatedness perspective has a double relevance for the teaching project: the students are involved in an authentic, ongoing research project, and the object of the research project itself deals with authentic translation processes at the workplace. Thus, the project has the potential to improve the expertise of the students as both researchers and reflective practitioners.

  5. Translational Cellular Research on the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, John; Cooley, Vic

    2016-01-01

    The emerging field of Translational Research aims to coalesce interdisciplinary findings from basic science for biomedical applications. To complement spaceflight research using human subjects, translational studies can be designed to address aspects of space-related human health risks and help develop countermeasures to prevent or mitigate them, with therapeutical benefits for analogous conditions experienced on Earth. Translational research with cells and model organisms is being conducted onboard the International Space Station (ISS) in connection with various human systems impacted by spaceflight, such as the cardiovascular, musculoskeletal, and immune systems. Examples of recent cell-based translational investigations on the ISS include the following. The JAXA investigation Cell Mechanosensing seeks to identify gravity sensors in skeletal muscle cells to develop muscle atrophy countermeasures by analyzing tension fluctuations in the plasma membrane, which changes the expression of key proteins and genes. Earth applications of this study include therapeutic approaches for some forms of muscular dystrophy, which appear to parallel aspects of muscle wasting in space. Spheroids is an ESA investigation examining the system of endothelial cells lining the inner surface of all blood vessels in terms of vessel formation, cellular proliferation, and programmed cell death, because injury to the endothelium has been implicated as underpinning various cardiovascular and musculoskeletal problems arising during spaceflight. Since endothelial cells are involved in the functional integrity of the vascular wall, this research has applications to Earth diseases such as atherosclerosis, diabetes, and hypertension. The goal of the T-Cell Activation in Aging NASA investigation is to understand human immune system depression in microgravity by identifying gene expression patterns of candidate molecular regulators, which will provide further insight into factors that may play a

  6. The Continuing Challenges of Translational Research: Clinician-Scientists’ Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Shervanthi Homer-Vanniasinkam; Janice Tsui

    2012-01-01

    Over the last twenty years, revolutionary advances in biomedicine including gene therapy, stem cell research, proteomics, genomics and nanotechnology have highlighted the progressive need to restructure traditional approaches to basic and clinical research in order to facilitate the rapid, efficient integration and translation of these new technologies into novel effective therapeutics. Over the past ten years, funding bodies in the USA and UK such as the National Institutes of Health (NIH) a...

  7. Research on Public Signs and the Importance of this Research to C-E Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐燕

    2012-01-01

    There is increasing recognition of the importance and usefulness of doing research in C-E translation of public signs. As bilingual signs are increasingly popular, considerable attention should be paid to the study of C-E translation of public signs. It is theoretically and practically urgent to make a further study and research on public signs systematically.

  8. Translating social work research for social justice: focusing translational research on equity rather than the market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMillin, Stephen Edward

    2014-01-01

    Management of the dissemination of effective interventions in social work is often uncertain, and even when attention is paid to diffusing effective, innovative interventions, the focus is often disproportionately on a marketplace orientation of increasing the market share of branded, manualized interventions and social service treatment products. Public health frameworks of dissemination can improve knowledge translation in social interventions by focusing dissemination efforts on achieving equity and increasing the availability of effective interventions to all those who can benefit from them rather than simply focusing on commercial processes. This article identifies three equity-focused translation frameworks that can aid the dissemination of effective social interventions at the macro-, meso-, and micro-levels. Implications for policy and practice are discussed.

  9. Nursing informatics, ethics and decisions: implications for translational research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaltoft, Mette Kjer; Nielsen, Jesper Bo; Dowie, Jack

    -calculation with evidence-based ratings for option performance on those criteria to produce a preference-sensitive assessment or opinion. Results: The first example shows the framework connecting nursing informatics and nursing ethics in the clinical context of a nurse’s decision to disclose or not disclose information...... and tool for translating research findings into practice. It also can identify weaknesses in the current evidence base in order to influence research priorities. The optimal decision in each case depends on both the weights attached to the selected criteria and the performance ratings for the options...... into practice which can simultaneously identify and communicate the needs for backward translation from practice to research. Method: Web-based decision analytic software is used to demonstrate how the weights for multiple person/patient-important criteria can be combined in an expected value...

  10. Efficacy of Female Rat Models in Translational Cardiovascular Aging Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. M. Rice

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death in women in the United States. Aging is a primary risk factor for the development of cardiovascular disease as well as cardiovascular-related morbidity and mortality. Aging is a universal process that all humans undergo; however, research in aging is limited by cost and time constraints. Therefore, most research in aging has been done in primates and rodents; however it is unknown how well the effects of aging in rat models translate into humans. To compound the complication of aging gender has also been indicated as a risk factor for various cardiovascular diseases. This review addresses the systemic pathophysiology of the cardiovascular system associated with aging and gender for aging research with regard to the applicability of rat derived data for translational application to human aging.

  11. Fostering Cooperation in Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thursday, June 25, 2015 Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) was signed between US National Cancer Institute and three agencies of the Indian government - the Department of Biotechnology, the Indian Council of Medical Research, and the Indian National Cancer Institute, a part of the All India Institute of Medical Sciences to foster cooperation in cancer research.

  12. Pre-clinical research in small animals using radiotherapy technology. A bidirectional translational approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tillner, Falk; Buetof, Rebecca [Technische Univ. Dresden (Germany). OncoRay - National Center for Radiation Research in Oncology; Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Dresden (Germany); Technische Univ. Dresden (Germany). Dept. of Radiation Oncology; Thute, Prasad [Technische Univ. Dresden (Germany). OncoRay - National Center for Radiation Research in Oncology; Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Dresden (Germany); Krause, Mechthild [Technische Univ. Dresden (Germany). OncoRay - National Center for Radiation Research in Oncology; Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Dresden (Germany); Technische Univ. Dresden (Germany). Dept. of Radiation Oncology; German Cancer Consortium (DKTK), Dresden (Germany); German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Heidelberg (Germany); Enghardt, Wolfgang [Technische Univ. Dresden (Germany). OncoRay - National Center for Radiation Research in Oncology; Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Dresden (Germany); Technische Univ. Dresden (Germany). Dept. of Radiation Oncology; Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Dresden (Germany). Inst. of Radiooncology

    2014-07-01

    For translational cancer research, pre-clinical in-vivo studies using small animals have become indispensable in bridging the gap between in-vitro cell experiments and clinical implementation. When setting up such small animal experiments, various biological, technical and methodical aspects have to be considered. In this work we present a comprehensive topical review based on relevant publications on irradiation techniques used for pre-clinical cancer research in mice and rats. Clinical radiotherapy treatment devices for the application of external beam radiotherapy and brachytherapy as well as dedicated research irradiation devices are feasible for small animal irradiation depending on the animal model and the experimental goals. In this work, appropriate solutions for the technological transfer of human radiation oncology to small animal radiation research are summarised. Additionally, important information concerning the experimental design is provided such that reliable and clinically relevant results can be attained.

  13. A Metadata based Knowledge Discovery Methodology for Seeding Translational Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kothari, Cartik R; Payne, Philip R O

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we present a semantic, metadata based knowledge discovery methodology for identifying teams of researchers from diverse backgrounds who can collaborate on interdisciplinary research projects: projects in areas that have been identified as high-impact areas at The Ohio State University. This methodology involves the semantic annotation of keywords and the postulation of semantic metrics to improve the efficiency of the path exploration algorithm as well as to rank the results. Results indicate that our methodology can discover groups of experts from diverse areas who can collaborate on translational research projects.

  14. Mission Connect Mild TBI Translational Research Consortium, Post Traumatic Hypopituitarism

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-01

    10 Aug 2010 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE The Mission Connect MTBI Translational Research Consortium 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Post traumatic hypopituitarism 5b...distribution unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT The purpose of this project is to identify the incidence of post traumatic hypopituitarism ...June 21, 2010; however, none have reached the six month milestone for blood testing 15. SUBJECT TERMS post traumatic hypopituitarism 16. SECURITY

  15. Risk Belief and Attitude Formation From Translated Scientific Messages About PFOA, an Environmental Risk Associated With Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Sandi W; Hitt, Rose; Russell, Jessica; Nazione, Samantha; Silk, Kami; Atkin, Charles K; Keating, David

    2017-03-01

    Evidence regarding possible environmental causes of breast cancer is advancing. Often, however, the public is not informed about these advances in a manner that is easily understandable. This research translates findings from biologists into messages at two literacy levels about perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), a possible environmental contributor to breast cancer. The Heuristic Systematic Model (HSM) was used to investigate how ability, motivation, and systematic and heuristic processing lead to risk beliefs and, ultimately, to negative attitudes for individuals receiving translated scientific messages about PFOA. Participants (N = 1,389) came from the Dr. Susan Love Research Foundation's Army of Women. Findings indicated that ability, in the form of translated messages, predicted systematic processing, operationalized as knowledge gain, which was negatively associated with formation of risk beliefs that led to negative attitudes toward PFOA. Heuristic processing cues, operationalized as perceived message quality and source credibility, were positively associated with risk beliefs, which predicted negative attitudes about PFOA. Overall, more knowledge and lower literacy messages led to lower perceived risk, while greater involvement and ratings of heuristic cues led to greater risk perceptions. This is an example of a research, translation, and dissemination team effort in which biologists created knowledge, communication scholars translated and tested messages, and advocates were participants and those who disseminated messages.

  16. A meta-composite software development approach for translational research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadasivam, Rajani S; Tanik, Murat M

    2013-06-01

    Translational researchers conduct research in a highly data-intensive and continuously changing environment and need to use multiple, disparate tools to achieve their goals. These researchers would greatly benefit from meta-composite software development or the ability to continuously compose and recompose tools together in response to their ever-changing needs. However, the available tools are largely disconnected, and current software approaches are inefficient and ineffective in their support for meta-composite software development. Building on the composite services development approach, the de facto standard for developing integrated software systems, we propose a concept-map and agent-based meta-composite software development approach. A crucial step in composite services development is the modeling of users' needs as processes, which can then be specified in an executable format for system composition. We have two key innovations. First, our approach allows researchers (who understand their needs best) instead of technicians to take a leadership role in the development of process models, reducing inefficiencies and errors. A second innovation is that our approach also allows for modeling of complex user interactions as part of the process, overcoming the technical limitations of current tools. We demonstrate the feasibility of our approach using a real-world translational research use case. We also present results of usability studies evaluating our approach for future refinements.

  17. [Research in metagenomics and its applications in translational medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiahuan, Chen; Zheng, Sun; Xiaojun, Wang; Xiaoquan, Su; Kang, Ning

    2015-07-01

    Humans are born with microbiota, which have accompanied us through our life-span. There is an important symbiotic relationship between us and the microbial communities, thus microbial communities are of great importance to our health. All genomic information within this microbiota is referered to as "metagenomics" (also referred to as "human's second genome"). The analysis of high throughput metagenomic data generated from biomedical experiments would provide new approaches for translational research, and it have several applications in clinics. With the help of next generation sequencing technology and the emerging metagenomic approach (analysis of all genomic information in microbiota as a whole), we can overcome the pitfalls of tedious traditional method of isolation and cultivation of single microbial species. The metagenomic approach can also help us to analyze the whole microbial community efficiently and offer deep insights in human-microbe relationships as well as new ideas on many biomedical problems. In this review, we summarize frontiers in metagenomic research, including new concepts and methods. Then, we focus on the applications of metagenomic research in medical researches and clinical applications in recent years, which would clearly show the importance of metagenomic research in the field of translational medicine.

  18. A novel series of conferences tackling the hurdles confronting the translation of novel cancer immunotherapies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bot Adrian

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract While there has been significant progress in advancing novel immune therapies to the bedside, much more needs to be done to fully tap into the potential of the immune system. It has become increasingly clear that besides practical and operational challenges, the heterogeneity of cancer and the limited efficacy profile of current immunotherapy platforms are the two main hurdles. Nevertheless, the promising clinical data of several approaches point to a roadmap that carries the promise to significantly advance cancer immunotherapy. A new annual series sponsored by Arrowhead Publishers and Conferences aims at bringing together scientific and business leadership from academia and industry, to identify, share and discuss most current priorities in research and translation of novel immune interventions. This Editorial provides highlights of the first event held earlier this year and outlines the focus of the second meeting to be held in 2013 that will be dedicated to stem cells and immunotherapy.

  19. Research in Danish cancer rehabilitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høybye, Mette Terp; Dalton, Susanne Oksbjerg; Christensen, Jane

    2008-01-01

    of the cancer survivors with respect to cancer site, sociodemographic variables, social network, lifestyle, self-rated health and the prevalence of cancer-related late effects. The study is part of the FOCARE research project, in which the long-term effects of the rehabilitation programme are evaluated...

  20. Basic research in kidney cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosterwijk, E.; Rathmell, W.K.; Junker, K.; Brannon, A.R.; Pouliot, F.; Finley, D.S.; Mulders, P.F.A.; Kirkali, Z.; Uemura, H.; Belldegrun, A.

    2011-01-01

    CONTEXT: Advances in basic research will enhance prognosis, diagnosis, and treatment of renal cancer patients. OBJECTIVE: To discuss advances in our understanding of the molecular basis of renal cancer, targeted therapies, renal cancer and immunity, and genetic factors and renal cell carcinoma (RCC)

  1. Translation

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    "Translation" is a life narrative about the ways in which cultural histories shape personal stories, and the capacity of the imagination to develop alternative narratives about oneself and the world. It can also be read a way of addressing the effects of what Ato Quayson calls the global process of postcolonializing. Quaysons critical perspective might be used as an interpretive lens for seeing some of the ways in which  this autobiographical narrative complicates the jargon of race, cl...

  2. Translation

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    "Translation" is a life narrative about the ways in which cultural histories shape personal stories, and the capacity of the imagination to develop alternative narratives about oneself and the world. It can also be read a way of addressing the effects of what Ato Quayson calls the global process of postcolonializing. Quaysons critical perspective might be used as an interpretive lens for seeing some of the ways in which  this autobiographical narrative complicates the jargon of race, class, ...

  3. Increasing Health Research Literacy through Outreach and Networking: Why Translational Research Should Matter to Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwyer-White, Molly; Choate, Celeste; Markel, Dorene S

    2015-01-01

    Background: Increasingly clinical and health research awareness is a priority for health and medical research communities. Translational research, including the prevention and treatment of conditions, relies upon proper funding as well as public participation in research studies. This requires executing more effective communication strategies to…

  4. Bench, Bedside, Curbside, and Home: Translational Research to Include Transformative Change Using Educational Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felege, Christopher; Hahn, Emily; Hunter, Cheryl

    2016-01-01

    Translational research originated in the medical field during the 1990s to describe taking discovery based research through the steps of applying it to clinical research and patient-oriented care. This model is implicitly linear, depicting the flow of information from researchers' bench, to a clinical trial bedside, to a primary care physician's…

  5. Perspectives on sensory processing disorder: a call for translational research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucy J Miller

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the convergence of two fields, which have similar theoretical origins: a clinical field originally known as sensory integration and a branch of neuroscience that conducts research in an area also called sensory integration. Clinically, the term was used to identify a pattern of dysfunction in children and adults, as well as a related theory, assessment, and treatment method for children who have atypical responses to ordinary sensory stimulation. Currently the term for the disorder is Sensory Processing Disorder (SPD. In neuroscience, the term sensory integration refers to converging information in the brain from one or more sensory domains. A recent subspecialty in neuroscience labeled multisensory integration (MSI refers to the neural process that occurs when sensory input from two or more different sensory modalities converge. Understanding the specific meanings of the term sensory integration intended by the clinical and neuroscience fields and the term multisensory integration in neuroscience is critical. A translational research approach would improve exploration of crucial research questions in both the basic science and clinical science. Refinement of the conceptual model of the disorder and the related treatment approach would help prioritize which specific hypotheses should be studied in both the clinical and neuroscience fields. The issue is how we can facilitate a translational approach between researchers in the two fields. Multidisciplinary, collaborative studies would increase knowledge of brain function and could make a significant contribution to alleviating the impairments of individuals with SPD and their families.

  6. Translation of clinical problems in osteoarthritis into pathophysiological research goals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Kraan, Peter M; Berenbaum, Francis; Blanco, Francisco J; Cosimo, de Bari; Lafeber, Floris; Hauge, Ellen; Higginbottom, Adele; Ioan-Facsinay, Andreea; Loughlin, John; Meulenbelt, Ingrid; Moilanen, Eeva; Pitsillidou, Irene; Tsezou, Aspasia; van Meurs, Joyce; Vincent, Tonia; Wittoek, Ruth; Lories, Rik

    2016-01-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) accounts for more disability among the elderly than any other disease and is associated with an increased mortality rate. The prevalence in Europe will rise in the future since this continent has a strongly ageing population and an obesity epidemic; obesity and age both being major risk factors for OA. No adequate therapeutic options, besides joint replacement, are available, although they are greatly needed and should be acquired by adequate research investments. However, the perspective on OA from a researcher's point of view is not always aligned with the perspective of a patient with OA. Researchers base their views on OA mainly on abnormalities in structure and function while patients consider OA as a collection of symptoms. In this viewpoint paper, we discuss the possibility of translating the most important clinical problems into pathophysiological research goals to facilitate the translation from bench to bedside and vice versa. This viewpoint is the outcome of a dialogue within the 'European League Against Rheumatism study group on OA' and People with Arthritis/Rheumatism across Europe (PARE) representatives.

  7. The translational significance of epithelial-mesenchymal transition in head and neck cancer

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Positive markers of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in head and neck cancers complicate clinical management and are associated with reduced survival. We discuss recent translational discoveries in EMT and suggest additional actionable molecular pathways, biomarkers, and clinical agents.

  8. Liposomes versus metallic nanostructures: differences in the process of knowledge translation in cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fajardo-Ortiz D

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available David Fajardo-Ortiz,1 Luis Duran,1 Laura Moreno,1 Héctor Ochoa,2 Víctor M Castaño1,3,41Faculty of Medicine of the National Autonomous University of Mexico, Mexico City, Mexico; 2El Colegio de la Frontera Sur, San Cristobal de las Casas, Mexico; 3Molecular Material Department, Applied Physics and Advanced Technology Center, National Autonomous University of Mexico, Juriquilla, Mexico; 4Advanced Technology Center, CIATEQ, Queretaro, MexicoAbstract: This research maps the knowledge translation process for two different types of nanotechnologies applied to cancer: liposomes and metallic nanostructures (MNs. We performed a structural analysis of citation networks and text mining supported in controlled vocabularies. In the case of liposomes, our results identify subnetworks (invisible colleges associated with different therapeutic strategies: nanopharmacology, hyperthermia, and gene therapy. Only in the pharmacological strategy was an organized knowledge translation process identified, which, however, is monopolized by the liposomal doxorubicins. In the case of MNs, subnetworks are not differentiated by the type of therapeutic strategy, and the content of the documents is still basic research. Research on MNs is highly focused on developing a combination of molecular imaging and photothermal therapy.Keywords: nanotechnology, citation network analysis, basic research, clinics, health care

  9. Contemporary research on parenting: conceptual, methodological, and translational issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Power, Thomas G; Sleddens, Ester F C; Berge, Jerica; Connell, Lauren; Govig, Bert; Hennessy, Erin; Liggett, Leanne; Mallan, Kimberley; Santa Maria, Diane; Odoms-Young, Angela; St George, Sara M

    2013-08-01

    Researchers over the last decade have documented the association between general parenting style and numerous factors related to childhood obesity (e.g., children's eating behaviors, physical activity, and weight status). Many recent childhood obesity prevention programs are family focused and designed to modify parenting behaviors thought to contribute to childhood obesity risk. This article presents a brief consideration of conceptual, methodological, and translational issues that can inform future research on the role of parenting in childhood obesity. They include: (1) General versus domain specific parenting styles and practices; (2) the role of ethnicity and culture; (3) assessing bidirectional influences; (4) broadening assessments beyond the immediate family; (5) novel approaches to parenting measurement; and (6) designing effective interventions. Numerous directions for future research are offered.

  10. Cognitive testing of pigs (Sus scrofa) in translational biobehavioral research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kornum, Birgitte R; Knudsen, Gitte M

    2011-01-01

    Within neuroscience and biobehavioral research, the pig (Sus scrofus) is increasingly being acknowledged as a valuable large animal species. Compared to the rodent brain, the pig brain more closely resembles the human brain in terms of both anatomy and biochemistry, which associates the pig...... with a higher translational value. Several brain disorders have been fully or partially modeled in the pig and this has further spurred an interest in having access to behavioral tasks for pigs, and in particular to cognitive tasks. Cognitive testing of pigs has been conducted for several years by a small group...... of farm animal welfare researchers, but it has only recently received interest in the wider neuroscience community. Several behavioral tasks have successfully been adapted to the pig, and valuable results have been produced. However, most tasks have only been established at a single research facility...

  11. Taspase1: a 'misunderstood' protease with translational cancer relevance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wünsch, D; Hahlbrock, A; Jung, S; Schirmeister, T; van den Boom, J; Schilling, O; Knauer, S K; Stauber, R H

    2016-06-30

    Proteolysis is not only a critical requirement for life, but the executing enzymes also play important roles in numerous pathological conditions, including cancer. Therefore, targeting proteases is clearly relevant for improving cancer patient care. However, to effectively control proteases, a profound knowledge of their mechanistic function as well as their regulation and downstream signalling in health and disease is required. The highly conserved protease Threonine Aspartase1 (Taspase1) is overexpressed in numerous liquid and solid malignancies and was characterized as a 'non-oncogene addiction' protease. Although Taspase1 was shown to cleave various regulatory proteins in humans as well as leukaemia provoking mixed lineage leukaemia fusions, our knowledge on its detailed functions and the underlying mechanisms contributing to cancer is still incomplete. Despite superficial similarity to type 2 asparaginases as well as Ntn proteases, such as the proteasome, Taspase1-related research so far gives us the picture of a unique protease exhibiting special features. Moreover, neither effective genetic nor chemical inhibitors for this enzyme are available so far, thus hampering not only to further dissect Taspase1's pathobiological functions but also precluding the assessment of its clinical impact. Based on recent insights, we here critically review the current knowledge of Taspase1's structure-function relationship and its mechanistic relevance for tumorigenesis obtained from in vitro and in vivo cancer models. We provide a comprehensive overview of tumour entities for which Taspase1 might be of predictive and therapeutic value, and present the respective experimental evidence. To stimulate progress in the field, a comprehensive overview of Taspase1 targeting approaches is presented, including coverage of Taspase1-related patents. We conclude by discussing future inhibition strategies and relevant challenges, which need to be resolved by the field.

  12. "Interventions for Promoting Research Knowledge Translation: An Introduction"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Majdzadeh

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available "nAnnually, multiple research projects are implemented in medical universities, but their results are not efficiently utilized. This condition has resulted in an increased focus on promoting the status of research-based knowledge transfer in the university. It was in response to this need that certain studies were conducted to determine the interventions required for efficiently utilizing research-based knowledge. The results of these studies were multiple measures and interventions that can collectively promote the status of research-based knowledge translation."nSome of these interventions were as follows: designing an algorithm for selection of research projects which are legible for knowledge transfer, compiling a code of ethics for observing research stakeholders' intellectual property rights, modifying faculty members' promotion criteria to create incentives for knowledge transfer, modifications in presentation of articles, modifying proposal and final report formats, and designing a backing database. The impact of each hypothesis (intervention will be evaluated through a study appropriate to it's content. The results of this study can be beneficial to research policy makers to utilizing research-based knowledge efficiently.

  13. Knowledge Translation Research: The Science of Moving Research into Policy and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curran, Janet A.; Grimshaw, Jeremy M.; Hayden, Jill A.; Campbell, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    Research findings will not change health outcomes unless health care organizations, systems, and professionals adopt them in practice. Knowledge translation research is the scientific study of the methods to promote the uptake of research findings by patients, health care providers, managers, and policy makers. Many forms of enquiry addressing…

  14. Current concepts in cancer research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Kok Seng Yap

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Cancer research is an extremely broadtopic covering many scientific disciplines includingbiology (e.g. biochemistry and signal transduction,chemistry (e.g. drug discover and development,physics (e.g. diagnostic devices and even computerscience (e.g. bioinformatics. Some would argue thatcancer research will continue in much the same wayas it is by adding further layers of complexity to thescientific knowledge that is already complex and almostbeyond measure. But we anticipate that cancer researchwill undergo a dramatic paradigm shift due to therecent explosion of new discoveries in cancer biology.This review article focuses on the latest horizons incancer research concerning cancer epigenetics, cancerstem cells, cancer immunology and cancer metabolism.

  15. FES in Europe and Beyond: Current Translational Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coste, Christine Azevedo; Mayr, Winfried; Bijak, Manfred; Musarò, Antonio; Carraro, Ugo

    2016-01-01

    Capacity of adult neural and muscle tissues to respond to external Electrical Stimulation (ES) is the biological basis for the development and implementation of mobility impairment physiotherapy protocols and of related assistive technologies, e.g, Functional Electrical Stimulation (FES). All body tissues, however, respond to electrical stimulation and, indeed, the most successful application of FES is electrical stimulation of the heart to revert or limit effects of arrhythmias (Pace-makers and Defibrillators). Here, we list and discuss results of FES current research activities, in particular those presented at 2016 Meetings: the PaduaMuscleDays, the Italian Institute of Myology Meeting, the 20th International Functional Electrical Stimulation Society (IFESS) conference held in Montpellier and the Vienna Workshop on FES. Several papers were recently e-published in the European Journal of Translational Myology as reports of meeting presentations. All the events and publications clearly show that FES research in Europe and beyond is alive and promisses translation of results into clinical management of a very large population of persons with deficiencies. PMID:28078074

  16. FES in Europe and beyond: Current Translational Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Azevedo Coste

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Capacity of adult neural and muscle tissues to respond to external Electrical Stimulation (ES is the biological basis for the development and implementation of mobility impairment physiotherapy protocols and of related assistive technologies, e.g, Functional Electrical Stimulation (FES. All body tissues, however, respond to electrical stimulation and, indeed, the most successful application of FES is electrical stimulation of the heart to revert or limit effects of arrhythmias (Pace-makers and Defibrillators. Here, we list and discuss results of FES current research activities, in particular those presented at 2016 Meetings: the PaduaMuscleDays, the Italian Institute of Myology Meeting, the 20th International Functional Electrical Stimulation Society (IFESS conference held in Montpellier and the Vienna Workshop on FES. Several papers were recently e-published in the European Journal of Translational Myology as reports of meeting presentations. All the events and publications clearly show that FES research in Europe and beyond is alive and promisses translation of results into clinical management of a very large population of persons with deficiencies.

  17. Translational Research for Pediatric Lower Urinary Tract Dysfunction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    This review provides a comprehensive view of translational research aimed at elucidating the pathophysiology of pediatric lower urinary tract dysfunction (LUTD). A web search was conducted according to combinations of keywords, and the significance of each article was defined by the author. The dramatic evolution of the mass analysis method of genomes, transcripts, and proteins has enabled a comprehensive analysis of molecular events underlying diseases, and these methodologies have also been applied to pediatric LUTD. In genetic analyses of syndromes underlying daytime incontinence, urofacial (Ochoa) syndrome may be creating a prototype of a new research approach. Nocturnal enuresis has long been studied genetically, and several candidate loci have been reported. However, the pursuit for enuresis genes has been abandoned partly because genetic association and enuresis phenotype (bladder or renal type) could not be linked. Enuresis associated with diabetes insipidus has provided new insights into the etiology of the diseases. A chronobiological approach may shed new light on this area. Posterior urethral valves and neurogenic bladders have attracted the interest of pediatric urologists to the smooth muscle biology of the bladder. Bladder exstrophy and cloacal anomalies are rare but major anomalies caused by defective urorectal development and have recently been studied from a genetic standpoint. Translational studies for pediatric LUTD may be extended to adult bladder disease, or to application of precision medicine for diseased children. PMID:27915476

  18. IPRs in biobanking- risks and opportunities for translational research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Minssen, Timo; Verlinden, Michiel; Huys, Isabelle

    2015-01-01

    The gradual shift from traditional closed innovation systems to more “open” and “transparent” innovation models, rapid technological advances and bio-pharmaceutical innovation gaps have highlighted the importance of an effective governance and use of biobanks. This raises important legal questions...... an overview and analysis of the most relevant IPRs in biobanking and to discuss the challenges and opportunities associated with an effective use of biobanks in translational research and innovation. Section 1 specifies challenges in finding a balance between an open and a close collaboration model. Section 2...... such as how to deal with intellectual property rights (‘IPRs’) that might arise out of the collection and use of samples and data in research. Only a few projects highlighted the opportunities and potential benefits of user-generated solutions and proper governance of IPRs. This paper aims to provide...

  19. Nebraska Prostate Cancer Research Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-01

    2011.  LaTayia Aaron and Joann Powell. (2012). Dioxin exposure enhances nuclear localization of androgen receptor...to be trained in different areas of prostate cancer research. For example, the focus areas or research include Biomarkers , Therapy, Genetics, and...example, the focus areas or research include Biomarkers , Therapy, Genetics, and Tumor Biology as outlined by the laboratory research descriptions in the

  20. American Institute for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... About Cancer By Cancer Site What Is Cancer Foods That Fight Cancer Tools You Can Use Cancer Infographics & Multimedia Studying ... About Cancer By Cancer Site What Is Cancer Foods That Fight Cancer Tools You Can Use Cancer Infographics & Multimedia Studying ...

  1. YKL-40—A Protein in the Field of Translational Medicine: A Role as a Biomarker in Cancer Patients?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schultz, Nicolai A. [Departments of Surgical Gastroenterology, Herlev Hospital, University of Copenhagen, Herlev Ringvej 75, DK-2730 Herlev (Denmark); Johansen, Julia S., E-mail: julia.johansen@post3.tele.dk [Departments of Oncology, Herlev Hospital, University of Copenhagen, Herlev Ringvej 75, DK-2730 Herlev (Denmark); Departments of Medicine, Herlev Hospital, University of Copenhagen, Herlev Ringvej 75, DK-2730 Herlev (Denmark)

    2010-07-12

    YKL-40 is a 40 kDa glycoprotein produced by cancer cells, inflammatory cells and stem cells. It probably has a role in cell proliferation and differentiation, inflammation, protection against apoptosis, stimulation of angiogenesis, and regulation of extracellular tissue remodelling. Plasma levels of YKL-40 are often elevated in patients with localized or advanced cancer compared to age-matched healthy subjects. Several studies have demonstrated that high plasma YKL-40 is an independent prognostic biomarker of short survival in patients with different types of cancer. However, there is not yet sufficient data to support determination of plasma YKL-40 outside research projects as a biomarker for screening of gastrointestinal cancer and determination of treatment response and poor prognosis before or during treatment and follow-up. Plasma YKL-40 is also elevated in patients with other diseases than cancer, e.g., severe infections, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, chronic obstructive lung disease, asthma, liver fibrosis and rheumatoid arthritis. Co-morbidity should therefore always be considered in patients with cancer, since other sources than cancer cells can increase plasma YKL-40 levels. Future focused translational research projects combining basic and clinical research are needed in a joint effort to answer questions of the complex function and regulation of YKL-40 and the question if plasma YKL-40 is a clinical useful biomarker in patients with cancer.

  2. Multiplexed electrochemical protein detection and translation to personalized cancer diagnostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusling, James F

    2013-06-04

    Measuring diagnostic panels of multiple proteins promises a new, personalized approach to early detection and therapy of diseases like cancer. Levels of biomarker proteins in patient serum can provide a continually updated record of disease status. Research in electrochemical detection of proteins has produced exquisitely sensitive approaches. Most utilize ELISA-like sandwich immunoassays incorporating various aspects of nanotechnology. Several of these ultrasensitive methodologies have been extended to microfluidic multiplexed protein detection, but engineered solutions are needed to measure more proteins in a single device from a small patient sample such as a drop of blood or tissue lysate. To achieve clinical or point-of-care (POC) use, simplicity and low cost are essential. In multiplexed microfluidic immunoassays, required reagent additions and washing steps pose a significant problem calling for creative engineering. A grand challenge is to develop a general cancer screening device to accurately measure 50-100 proteins in a simple, cost-effective fashion. This will require creative solutions to simplified reagent addition and multiplexing.

  3. How should we assess knowledge translation in research organizations; designing a knowledge translation self-assessment tool for research institutes (SATORI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nedjat Sima

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The knowledge translation self-assessment tool for research institutes (SATORI was designed to assess the status of knowledge translation in research institutes. The objective was, to identify the weaknesses and strengths of knowledge translation in research centres and faculties associated with Tehran University of Medical Sciences (TUMS. Methods The tool, consisting of 50 statements in four main domains, was used in 20 TUMS-affiliated research centres and departments after its reliability was established. It was completed in a group discussion by the members of the research council, researchers and research users' representatives from each centre and/or department. Results The mean score obtained in the four domains of 'The question of research', 'Knowledge production', 'Knowledge transfer' and 'Promoting the use of evidence' were 2.26, 2.92, 2 and 1.89 (out of 5 respectively. Nine out of 12 interventional priorities with the lowest quartile score were related to knowledge transfer resources and strategies, whereas eight of them were in the highest quartile and related to 'The question of research' and 'Knowledge production'. Conclusions The self-assessment tool identifies the gaps in capacity and infrastructure of knowledge translation support within research organizations. Assessment of research institutes using SATORI pointed out that strengthening knowledge translation through provision of financial support for knowledge translation activities, creating supportive and facilitating infrastructures, and facilitating interactions between researchers and target audiences to exchange questions and research findings are among the priorities of research centres and/or departments.

  4. Research on Translation Strategy of English Subtitle Television Drama for College Students based on Cultural Differences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Gang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Translation strategy is closely-tied with the translation of ESTD (English Subtitle Television Drama. The research of translation strategy is to serve translations of ESTD in earlier days. The 21 S century is the information times. The development of science and technology is quick. Quantities of ESTD grow explosively. Translations of English Subtitle Television Dramas play a significant role in the progress of Chinese science and technology. Although the quality of traditional manual translations is very good, the speed of translation is too slow. Traditional manual translations can not meet the need of translations of ESTD day by day. It is a new topic to face the new stern challenge and follow the development's steps of the times for technical translators. The paper will discuss the transformation of translation idea, and suggest carrying on translation strategy, web page translation and software translation. Finally, the author states her views on the implementation of computer assistant translation, the managements of translation projects and information-shared platform.

  5. Environmental Research Translation: Enhancing Interactions with Communities at Contaminated Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez-Andreotta, M.; Brusseau, M. L. L.; Artiola, J. F.; Maier, R. M.; Gandolfi, A. J.

    2015-12-01

    The characterization and remediation of contaminated sites are complex endeavors fraught with numerous challenges. One particular challenge that is receiving increased attention is the development and encouragement of full participation by communities and community members affected by a given site in all facets of decision-making. Many disciplines have been grappling with the challenges associated with environmental and risk communication, public participation in environmental data generation and decision-making, and increasing community capacity. The concepts and methods developed by these disciplines are reviewed, with a focus on their relevance to the specific dynamics associated with contaminated sites. The contributions of these disciplines are then synthesized and integrated to help develop Environmental Research Translation (ERT), a proposed framework for environmental scientists to promote interaction and communication among involved parties at contaminated sites. This holistic approach is rooted in public participation approaches to science, which includes: a transdisciplinary team, effective collaboration, information transfer, public participation in environmental projects, and a cultural model of risk communication. Although there are challenges associated with the implementation of ERT, it is anticipated that application of this proposed translational science method could promote more robust community participation at contaminated sites.

  6. Environmental Research Translation: Enhancing Interactions with Communities at Contaminated Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez-Andreotta, Monica D.; Brusseau, Mark L.; Artiola, Janick F.; Maier, Raina M.; Gandolfi, A. Jay

    2014-01-01

    The characterization and remediation of contaminated sites are complex endeavors fraught with numerous challenges. One particular challenge that is receiving increased attention is the development and encouragement of full participation by communities and community members affected by a given site in all facets of decision-making. Many disciplines have been grappling with the challenges associated with environmental and risk communication, public participation in environmental data generation, and decision-making and increasing community capacity. The concepts and methods developed by these disciplines are reviewed, with a focus on their relevance to the specific dynamics associated with environmental contamination sites. The contributions of these disciplines are then synthesized and integrated to help develop Environmental Research Translation (ERT), a proposed framework for environmental scientists to promote interaction and communication among involved parties at contaminated sites. This holistic approach is rooted in public participation approaches to science, which includes: a transdisciplinary team, effective collaboration, information transfer, public participation in environmental projects, and a cultural model of risk communication. Although there are challenges associated with the implementation of ERT, it is anticipated that application of this proposed translational science method could promote more robust community participation at contaminated sites. PMID:25173762

  7. Translational Research: From Biological Discovery to Public Benefit (or Not

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael R. Emmert-Buck

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Advances in biology are occurring at a breathtaking pace today, from genetic insights facilitated by the Human Genome Project and next generation DNA sequencing technologies, to global nucleic acid and proteomic expression measurement using new high-throughput methods. Less publicized in recent years, yet still the central driver of progress, are the steadily proceeding biological insights gained through tried and true hypothesis-driven investigation into the complex worlds of metabolism, growth, development, and regulation. Certainly, the basic science ecosystem is productive and this portends well for the myriad new applications that will benefit mankind; drugs, vaccines, devices, and related economic growth—or perhaps not—in stark contrast to the generation of fundamental biological knowledge are inefficiencies in applying this information to real-world problems, especially those of the clinic. While investigation hums along at light speed, translation often does not. The good news is that obstacles to progress are tractable. The bad news, however, is that these problems are difficult. The present paper examines translational research from multiple perspectives, beginning with a historical account and proceeding to the current state of the art. Included are descriptions of successes and challenges, along with conjecture on how the field may need to evolve in the future.

  8. Bridging the Divide: Translating Landsat Research Into Usable Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocchio, L. E.; Davis, A. L.

    2006-12-01

    Science has long served humankind. Breakthroughs in medicine have increased longevity and advances in technology have made modern-day conveniences possible. Yet, social benefits begotten by the environmental sciences, although critical for the survival of humanity, have not always been as widely recognized or used. To benefit today's rapidly growing population, the divides between environmental research, applied environmental science, and use of this information by decision makers must be bridged. Lessons about the translation from research to usable science can be learned from the four decades of Landsat history, and these lessons can serve as useful models for bridging the gaps between new technology, scientific research, and the use of that research and technology in real-world problem solving. In 1965, William Pecora, then-director of the U.S. Geological Survey, proposed the idea of a remote sensing satellite program to gather facts about natural resources of Earth. For the next seven years, an intense campaign showing the depth and diversity of satellite imagery applications was waged. This led to the 1972 launch of the first civilian land-observing satellite, Landsat 1. By 1975, successful application research based on Landsat 1 imagery prompted then-NASA Administrator Dr. James Fletcher to proclaim that if one space age development would save the world, it would be Landsat and its successor satellites. Thirty-four years of continual Landsat imaging and related-research has lead to the implementation of many socially beneficial applications, such as improved water management techniques, crop insurance fraud reduction, illicit crop inventories, natural disaster relief planning, continent-scale carbon estimates, and extensive cartographic advances. Despite these successes, the challenge of translating Landsat research into realized social benefits remains. Even in this geospatially-savvy era, the utility of Landsat largely escapes policymakers. Here, in an

  9. What's New in Thyroid Cancer Research and Treatment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Thyroid Cancer About Thyroid Cancer What’s New in Thyroid Cancer Research and Treatment? Important research into thyroid cancer ... in Thyroid Cancer Research and Treatment? More In Thyroid Cancer About Thyroid Cancer Causes, Risk Factors, and Prevention ...

  10. What's New in Testicular Cancer Research and Treatment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Testicular Cancer About Testicular Cancer What’s New in Testicular Cancer Research and Treatment? Important research into testicular cancer ... in Testicular Cancer Research and Treatment? More In Testicular Cancer About Testicular Cancer Causes, Risk Factors, and Prevention ...

  11. Prostate Cancer Research Training Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-01

    evaluate medication safety. Examples of HERCe research include recent publications on breast cancer treatments, complications of chemotherapy for...with specific interest in minimally invasive procedures, new techniques, and outcomes. Dr. Brown initiated many of the laparoscopic and robotic ... surgery as it is one of the main areas of his clinical expertise. Currently, he performs more prostate cancer surgery than any other physician in

  12. Translating Research into Improved Patient Care in Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnet, Sebastien; Provencher, Steeve; Guignabert, Christophe; Perros, Frédéric; Boucherat, Olivier; Schermuly, Ralph Theo; Hassoun, Paul M; Rabinovitch, Marlene; Nicolls, Mark R; Humbert, Marc

    2016-09-20

    Despite important advances in its therapeutic management, pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) remains an incurable disease. Although numerous drugs exhibited beneficial effects in preclinical settings, only few have reached clinical trial phases, highlighting the challenges of translating preclinical investigations into clinical trials. Potential reasons for delayed PAH drug development may include the inherent limitations of the currently available animal and in vitro models, potential lack of appropriate standardization of the experimental design, regulatory agencies requirements, competing clinical trials and insufficient funding. Although this is not unique to PAH, there is urgency for reducing the number of false positive signals in preclinical studies and optimizing the development of innovative therapeutic targets through performance of clinical trials based on more robust experimental data. The current review discusses the challenges and opportunities in preclinical research to foster drug development in PAH.

  13. A Comparative Research of English Translation about Chinese Historical Relics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘晓萌

    2016-01-01

    Nowadays, China, with a long history and great culture, appeal to more and more foreign travelers come for a visit. In tourism, English is the most essential language in tourism. Tourist materials play important roles for travelers to understand and enjoy Chinese historical sites, but now many mistakes and problems appear in the tourist materials and many introductions of historical sites are not translated appropriately. The present paper presents the current condition and problems in tourism translation. Some tourist materials and translations are adopted to analyze the main differences in Chinese and western culture. This thesis put forward some translation techniques for those who face the translation of tourism materials.

  14. Action Mechanisms of MicroRNAs in Gastric Cancer and its Application in Translational Medicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Xin-en

    2015-01-01

    Translational medicine is a new concept proposed in the field of international medicine and emphasizes a two-sided way from bench to beside and from beside to bench. Gastric canceris a commonly encountered malignant tumor in the digestive system all over the world, with high morbidity and mortality. Although its incidence is decreasing, the outcomes of this disease are among the poorest in all solid tumors. Therefore, it is very urgent to seek new preventive and therapeutic targets for gastric cancer and to make basic research results apply in clinic. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a classification of endogenous non-coding RNA with the function of regulating the expression of target genes. More and more studies have revealed that miRNAs are intimately associated with the occurrence, development, treatment and prognosis of gastric cancer. Therefore, this review provides an overview of the effects of miRNAs in gastric cancer on the cell cycle, apoptosis, invasion, metastasis, radiosensitivity and chemosensitivity.

  15. Mouse models for cancer research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Zhang; Lynette Moore; Ping Ji

    2011-01-01

    Mouse models of cancer enable researchers to leamn about tumor biology in complicated and dynamic physiological systems. Since the development of gene targeting in mice, cancer biologists have been among the most frequent users of transgenic mouse models, which have dramatically increased knowledge about how cancers form and grow. The Chinese Joumnal of Cancer will publish a series of papers reporting the use of mouse models in studying genetic events in cancer cases. This editorial is an overview of the development and applications of mouse models of cancer and directs the reader to upcoming papers describing the use of these models to be published in coming issues, beginning with three articles in the current issue.

  16. Nebraska Prostate Cancer Research Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    Annual National Symposium on Prostate Cancer by CCRTD, CAU, March 16-19, 2014. 15. Appendix #15: Peer- reviewed scientific publication with inputs...and  Immunology Y. Tu CU Regulation of G‐Protein‐Coupled  Receptors in Prostate  Cancer     Acknowledgements: DOD CDMRP PCa Research Program PC121645...AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-13-1-0264 TITLE: Nebraska Prostate Cancer Research Program PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Ming-Fong Lin, Ph.D

  17. Cognitive testing of pigs (Sus scrofa) in translational biobehavioral research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornum, Birgitte R; Knudsen, Gitte M

    2011-01-01

    Within neuroscience and biobehavioral research, the pig (Sus scrofus) is increasingly being acknowledged as a valuable large animal species. Compared to the rodent brain, the pig brain more closely resembles the human brain in terms of both anatomy and biochemistry, which associates the pig with a higher translational value. Several brain disorders have been fully or partially modeled in the pig and this has further spurred an interest in having access to behavioral tasks for pigs, and in particular to cognitive tasks. Cognitive testing of pigs has been conducted for several years by a small group of farm animal welfare researchers, but it has only recently received interest in the wider neuroscience community. Several behavioral tasks have successfully been adapted to the pig, and valuable results have been produced. However, most tasks have only been established at a single research facility, and would benefit from further validation. This review presents the cognitive tasks that have been developed for pigs, their validation, and their current use.

  18. mTOR Signaling in Protein Translation Regulation: Implications in Cancer Genesis and Therapeutic Interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehvish Showkat

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available mTOR is a central nutrient sensor that signals a cell to grow and proliferate. Through distinct protein complexes it regulates different levels of available cellular energy substrates required for cell growth. One of the important functions of the complex is to maintain available amino acid pool by regulating protein translation. Dysregulation of mTOR pathway leads to aberrant protein translation which manifests into various pathological states. Our review focuses on the role mTOR signaling plays in protein translation and its physiological role. It also throws some light on available data that show translation dysregulation as a cause of pathological complexities like cancer and the available drugs that target the pathway for cancer treatment.

  19. Building capacity for knowledge translation in occupational therapy: learning through participatory action research

    OpenAIRE

    Bennett, Sally; Whitehead, Mary; Eames, Sally; Fleming, Jennifer,; Low, Shanling; Caldwell, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    Background There has been widespread acknowledgement of the need to build capacity in knowledge translation however much of the existing work focuses on building capacity amongst researchers rather than with clinicians directly. This paper’s aim is to describe a research project for developing a knowledge translation capacity building program for occupational therapy clinicians. Methods Participatory action research methods were used to both develop and evaluate the knowledge translation capa...

  20. Breast Cancer Research Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    tion of tumor cells with red indicating the highest density of tumor cells at the primary tumor (4th mammary fat pad ) and purple/blue showing the...Idea Award Elaine Hardman and Philippe Georgel “ Maternal Consumption of Omega 3 Fatty Acids to Reduce Breast Cancer Risk in Offspring” FY09

  1. Establishment of research-oriented hospital: an important way for translational medicine development in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MEINA LI

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Globally, one of the major trends is the development of translational medicine. The traditional hospital structure could not meet the demands of translational medicine development any longer and to explore a novel hospital structure is imperative. Following the times, China proposed and implemented a development strategy for a first-class modern research-oriented hospital. To establish a research-oriented hospital has become an important strategy to guide the scientific development of high-quality medical institutions and to advance translational medicine development. To facilitate translational medicine by developing research-oriented hospital, the Chinese Research Hospital Association (CRHA has been established, which provides service of medicine, talents cultivation, scientific research and clinical teaching and covers areas of theoretical research, academic exchange, translational medicine, talents training and practice guiding. On the whole, research-oriented hospital facilitated translational medicine by developing interdisciplinary platform, training core competencies in clinical and translational research, providing financial support of translational research, and hosting journals on translational medicine, etc.

  2. Supporting knowledge translation through collaborative translational research initiatives: 'bridging' versus 'blurring' boundary-spanning approaches in the UK CLAHRC initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Sarah; Scarbrough, Harry

    2014-04-01

    Recent policy initiatives in the UK and internationally have sought to promote knowledge translation between the 'producers' and 'users' of research. Within this paper we explore how boundary-spanning interventions used within such initiatives can support knowledge translation between diverse groups. Using qualitative data from a 3-year research study conducted from January 2010 to December 2012 of two case-sites drawn from the CLAHRC initiative in the UK, we distinguish two different approaches to supporting knowledge translation; a 'bridging' approach that involves designated roles, discrete events and activities to span the boundaries between communities, and a 'blurring' approach that de-emphasises the boundaries between groups, enabling a more continuous process of knowledge translation as part of day-to-day work-practices. In this paper, we identify and differentiate these boundary-spanning approaches and describe how they emerged from the context defined by the wider CLAHRC networks. This highlights the need to develop a more contextualised analysis of the boundary-spanning that underpins knowledge translation processes, relating this to the distinctive features of a particular case.

  3. Interprofessional collaborative practice within cancer teams: Translating evidence into action. A mixed methods study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberge Danièle

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A regional integrated cancer network has implemented a program (educational workshops, reflective and mentoring activities designed to support the uptake of evidence-informed interprofessional collaborative practices (referred to in this text as EIPCP within cancer teams. This research project, which relates to the Registered Nurses' Association of Ontario (RNAO Best Practice Guidelines and other sources of research evidence, represents a unique opportunity to learn more about the factors and processes involved in the translation of evidence-based recommendations into professional practices. The planned study seeks to address context-specific challenges and the concerns of nurses and other stakeholders regarding the uptake of evidence-based recommendations to effectively promote and support interprofessional collaborative practices. Aim This study aims to examine the uptake of evidence-based recommendations from best practice guidelines intended to enhance interprofessional collaborative practices within cancer teams. Design The planned study constitutes a practical trial, defined as a trial designed to provide comprehensive information that is grounded in real-world healthcare dynamics. An exploratory mixed methods study design will be used. It will involve collecting quantitative data to assess professionals' knowledge and attitudes, as well as practice environment factors associated with effective uptake of evidence-based recommendations. Semi-structured interviews will be conducted concurrently with care providers to gather qualitative data for describing the processes involved in the translation of evidence into action from both the users' (n = 12 and providers' (n = 24 perspectives. The Graham et al. Ottawa Model of Research Use will serve to construct operational definitions of concepts, and to establish the initial coding labels to be used in the thematic analysis of the qualitative data. Quantitative and qualitative

  4. Open access to large scale datasets is needed to translate knowledge of cancer heterogeneity into better patient outcomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew H Beck

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In this guest editorial, Andrew Beck discusses the importance of open access to big data for translating knowledge of cancer heterogeneity into better outcomes for cancer patients.

  5. Translational Environmental Research: Improving the Usefulness and Usability of Research Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garfin, G.

    2008-12-01

    In recent years, requests for proposals more frequently emphasize outreach to stakeholder communities, decision support, and science that serves societal needs. Reports from the National Academy of Sciences and Western States Water Council emphasize the need for science translation and outreach, in order to address societal concerns with climate extremes, such as drought, the use of climate predictions, and the growing challenges of climate change. In the 1990s, the NOAA Climate Program Office developed its Regional Integrated Sciences and Asssessments program to help bridge the gap between climate science (notably, seasonal predictions) and society, to improve the flow of information to stakeholders, and to increase the relevance of climate science to inform decisions. During the same time period, the National Science Foundation initiated multi-year Science and Technology Centers and Decision Making Under Uncertainty Centers, with similar goals, but different metrics of success. Moreover, the combination of population growth, climate change, and environmental degradation has prompted numerous research initiatives on linking knowledge and action for sustainable development. This presentation reviews various models and methodologies for translating science results from field, lab, or modeling work to use by society. Lessons and approaches from cooperative extension, boundary organizations, co-production of science and policy, and medical translational research are examined. In particular, multi-step translation as practiced within the health care community is examined. For example, so- called "T1" (translation 1) research moves insights from basic science to clinical research; T2 research evaluates the effectiveness of clinical practice, who benefits from promising care regimens, and develops tools for clinicians, patients, and policy makers. T3 activities test the implementation, delivery, and spread of research results and clinical practices in order to foster

  6. Toward translational incremental similarity-based reasoning in breast cancer grading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tutac, Adina E.; Racoceanu, Daniel; Leow, Wee-Keng; Müller, Henning; Putti, Thomas; Cretu, Vladimir

    2009-02-01

    One of the fundamental issues in bridging the gap between the proliferation of Content-Based Image Retrieval (CBIR) systems in the scientific literature and the deficiency of their usage in medical community is based on the characteristic of CBIR to access information by images or/and text only. Yet, the way physicians are reasoning about patients leads intuitively to a case representation. Hence, a proper solution to overcome this gap is to consider a CBIR approach inspired by Case-Based Reasoning (CBR), which naturally introduces medical knowledge structured by cases. Moreover, in a CBR system, the knowledge is incrementally added and learned. The purpose of this study is to initiate a translational solution from CBIR algorithms to clinical practice, using a CBIR/CBR hybrid approach. Therefore, we advance the idea of a translational incremental similarity-based reasoning (TISBR), using combined CBIR and CBR characteristics: incremental learning of medical knowledge, medical case-based structure of the knowledge (CBR), image usage to retrieve similar cases (CBIR), similarity concept (central for both paradigms). For this purpose, three major axes are explored: the indexing, the cases retrieval and the search refinement, applied to Breast Cancer Grading (BCG), a powerful breast cancer prognosis exam. The effectiveness of this strategy is currently evaluated over cases provided by the Pathology Department of Singapore National University Hospital, for the indexing. With its current accuracy, TISBR launches interesting perspectives for complex reasoning in future medical research, opening the way to a better knowledge traceability and a better acceptance rate of computer-aided diagnosis assistance among practitioners.

  7. Post-translational regulation of COX2 activity by FYN in prostate cancer cells

    OpenAIRE

    Alexanian, Anna; Miller, Bradley; Chesnik, Marla; Mirza, Shama; Sorokin, Andrey

    2014-01-01

    While increased COX2 expression and prostaglandin levels are elevated in human cancers, the mechanisms of COX2 regulation at the post-translational level are unknown. Initial observation that COX2 forms adduct with non-receptor tyrosine kinase FYN, prompted us to study FYN-mediated post-translational regulation of COX2. We found that FYN increased COX2 activity in prostate cancer cells DU145, independent of changes in COX2 or COX1 protein expression levels. We report that FYN phosphorylates h...

  8. Cancer cachexia pathophysiology and translational aspect of herbal medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Hajime; Asakawa, Akihiro; Amitani, Haruka; Fujitsuka, Naoki; Nakamura, Norifumi; Inui, Akio

    2013-07-01

    About half of all cancer patients show a syndrome of cachexia, characterized by anorexia and loss of adipose tissue and skeletal muscle mass. Numerous cytokines have been postulated to play a role in the etiology of cancer cachexia. Cytokines can elicit effects that mimic leptin signaling and suppress orexigenic ghrelin and neuropeptide Y signaling, inducing sustained anorexia and cachexia not accompanied by the usual compensatory response. Furthermore, cytokines have been implicated in the induction of cancer-related muscle wasting. In particular, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin-1, interleukin-6 and interferon-gamma have been implicated in the induction of cancer-related muscle wasting. Cytokine-induced skeletal muscle wasting is probably a multifactorial process, which involves a depression in protein synthesis, an increase in protein degradation or a combination of both. Cancer patients suffer from the reduction in physical function, tolerance to anti-cancer therapy and survival, while many effective chemotherapeutic agents for cancer are burdened by toxicities that can reduce patient's quality of life or hinder their effective use. Herbal medicines have been widely used to help improve such conditions. Recent studies have shown that herbal medicines such as rikkunshito enhance ghrelin signaling and consequently improve nausea, appetite loss and cachexia associated with cancer or cancer chemotherapy, which worsens the quality of life and life expectancy of the patients. The multicomponent herbal medicines capable of targeting multiple sites could be useful for future drug discovery. Mechanistic studies and identification of active compounds could lead to new discoveries in biological and biomedical sciences.

  9. Roles of contract research organizations in translational medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mei-Shu Shih

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Transitional medicine/science is shifting the medical research paradigm from compound-based to evidence-based drug/device discovery. It is increasing interdisciplinary collaborations, enhancing usage of advanced technologies, and facilitating therapeutics reaching patients faster. The fundamental theme of evidence-based discovery is to apply what is revealed in preclinical experimentation and to bring the resulting safety and efficacy to clinics. In the medical fields, a contract research organization (CRO works like a hired agent who has corresponding knowledge and experience to conduct and complete tasks for a sponsor. The relationship is business, and the contract is for deliverables. The increasingly high volume of sponsored outsourcing work has made this for-profit business boom in the past decade. Location boundaries are being blurred under globalization in the sciences and cross-border regulatory reviews. Getting from bench to bedside is a winding road with many obstacles and high hurdles. Efficient teamwork becomes essential to materialize ideas and bring them to the market. The professionals within team communities include drug/device makers and CROs. It has become increasingly obvious that CROs play pivotal roles in the chain of discovery/design, developing product to market through in vitro, in vivo, and ex vivo testing during preclinical experimentations and clinical trials. Project management teams are responsible for nurturing the materialization in a collaborative manner and enhancing the productivity of the pipelines. CROs have many functional aspects and specialties, and no one organization is fully capable of serving, i.e., integrated services, with expertise in each step of the chain to the needs of a variety of sponsors. Instead of competition among the CROs themselves, the continuously expanding market demands can be shared by Expertise-Based Integrated Services among allied CROs, in contrast to the few large CROs

  10. MO-C-BRB-00: President’s Symposium: Revitalizing Scientific Excellence: Turning Research Into Clinical Reality Through Translational Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2015-06-15

    Diagnostic radiology and radiation oncology are arguably two of the most technologically advanced specialties in medicine. The imaging and radiation medicine technologies in clinical use today have been continuously improved through new advances made in the commercial and academic research arenas. This symposium explores the translational path from research through clinical implementation. Dr. Pettigrew will start this discussion by sharing his perspectives as director of the National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering (NIBIB). The NIBIB has focused on promoting research that is technological in nature and has high clinical impact. We are in the age of precision medicine, and the technological innovations and quantitative tools developed by engineers and physicists working with physicians are providing innovative tools that increase precision and improve outcomes in health care. NIBIB funded grants lead to a very high patenting rate (per grant dollar), and these patents have higher citation rates by other patents, suggesting greater clinical impact, as well. Two examples of clinical translation resulting from NIH-funded research will be presented, in radiation therapy and diagnostic imaging. Dr. Yu will describe a stereotactic radiotherapy device developed in his laboratory that is designed for treating breast cancer with the patient in the prone position. It uses 36 rotating Cobalt-60 sources positioned in an annular geometry to focus the radiation beam at the system’s isocenter. The radiation dose is delivered throughout the target volume in the breast by constantly moving the patient in a planned trajectory relative to the fixed isocenter. With this technique, the focal spot dynamically paints the dose distribution throughout the target volume in three dimensions. Dr. Jackson will conclude this symposium by describing the RSNA Quantitative Imaging Biomarkers Alliance (QIBA), which is funded in part by NIBIB and is a synergistic collaboration

  11. Global histone post-translational modifications and cancer:Biomarkers for diagnosis,prognosis and treatment?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shafqat; Ali; Khan; Divya; Reddy; Sanjay; Gupta

    2015-01-01

    Global alterations in epigenetic landscape are now recognized as a hallmark of cancer. Epigenetic mechanismssuch as DNA methylation,histone modifications,nucleosome positioning and non-coding RNAs are proven to have strong association with cancer. In particular,covalent post-translational modifications of histone proteins are known to play an important role in chromatin remodeling and thereby in regulation of gene expression. Further,histone modifications have also been associated with different aspects of carcinogenesis and have been studied for their role in the better management of cancer patients. In this review,we will explore and discuss how histone modifications are involved in cancer diagnosis,prognosis and treatment.

  12. Ames Life Science Data Archive: Translational Rodent Research at Ames

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Alan E.; French, Alison J.; Ngaotheppitak, Ratana; Leung, Dorothy M.; Vargas, Roxana S.; Maese, Chris; Stewart, Helen

    2014-01-01

    The Life Science Data Archive (LSDA) office at Ames is responsible for collecting, curating, distributing and maintaining information pertaining to animal and plant experiments conducted in low earth orbit aboard various space vehicles from 1965 to present. The LSDA will soon be archiving data and tissues samples collected on the next generation of commercial vehicles; e.g., SpaceX & Cygnus Commercial Cargo Craft. To date over 375 rodent flight experiments with translational application have been archived by the Ames LSDA office. This knowledge base of fundamental research can be used to understand mechanisms that affect higher organisms in microgravity and help define additional research whose results could lead the way to closing gaps identified by the Human Research Program (HRP). This poster will highlight Ames contribution to the existing knowledge base and how the LSDA can be a resource to help answer the questions surrounding human health in long duration space exploration. In addition, it will illustrate how this body of knowledge was utilized to further our understanding of how space flight affects the human system and the ability to develop countermeasures that negate the deleterious effects of space flight. The Ames Life Sciences Data Archive (ALSDA) includes current descriptions of over 700 experiments conducted aboard the Shuttle, International Space Station (ISS), NASA/MIR, Bion/Cosmos, Gemini, Biosatellites, Apollo, Skylab, Russian Foton, and ground bed rest studies. Research areas cover Behavior and Performance, Bone and Calcium Physiology, Cardiovascular Physiology, Cell and Molecular Biology, Chronobiology, Developmental Biology, Endocrinology, Environmental Monitoring, Gastrointestinal Physiology, Hematology, Immunology, Life Support System, Metabolism and Nutrition, Microbiology, Muscle Physiology, Neurophysiology, Pharmacology, Plant Biology, Pulmonary Physiology, Radiation Biology, Renal, Fluid and Electrolyte Physiology, and Toxicology. These

  13. Role of STAT3 in Cancer Metastasis and Translational Advances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Zahid Kamran

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3 is a latent cytoplasmic transcription factor, originally discovered as a transducer of signal from cell surface receptors to the nucleus. It is activated by tyrosine phosphorylation at position 705 leading to its dimerization, nuclear translocation, DNA binding, and activation of gene transcription. Under normal physiological conditions, STAT3 activation is tightly regulated. However, compelling evidence suggests that STAT3 is constitutively activated in many cancers and plays a pivotal role in tumor growth and metastasis. It regulates cellular proliferation, invasion, migration, and angiogenesis that are critical for cancer metastasis. In this paper, we first describe the mechanism of STAT3 regulation followed by how STAT3 is involved in cancer metastasis, then we summarize the various small molecule inhibitors that inhibit STAT3 signaling.

  14. Role of STAT3 in Cancer Metastasis and Translational Advances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Prachi; Gude, Rajiv P.

    2013-01-01

    Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) is a latent cytoplasmic transcription factor, originally discovered as a transducer of signal from cell surface receptors to the nucleus. It is activated by tyrosine phosphorylation at position 705 leading to its dimerization, nuclear translocation, DNA binding, and activation of gene transcription. Under normal physiological conditions, STAT3 activation is tightly regulated. However, compelling evidence suggests that STAT3 is constitutively activated in many cancers and plays a pivotal role in tumor growth and metastasis. It regulates cellular proliferation, invasion, migration, and angiogenesis that are critical for cancer metastasis. In this paper, we first describe the mechanism of STAT3 regulation followed by how STAT3 is involved in cancer metastasis, then we summarize the various small molecule inhibitors that inhibit STAT3 signaling. PMID:24199193

  15. Molecular Profiling to Optimize Treatment in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer: A Review of Potential Molecular Targets for Radiation Therapy by the Translational Research Program of the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ausborn, Natalie L. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, Tennessee (United States); Le, Quynh Thu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University, Palo Alto, California (United States); Bradley, Jeffrey D. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri (United States); Choy, Hak [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas (United States); Dicker, Adam P. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Jefferson Medical College of Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Saha, Debabrata [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas (United States); Simko, Jeff [Department of Urology, University of California, San Francisco, California (United States); Story, Michael D. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas (United States); Torossian, Artour [Department of Radiation Oncology, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, Tennessee (United States); Lu, Bo, E-mail: bo.lu@jeffersonhospital.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, Jefferson Medical College of Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States)

    2012-07-15

    Therapeutic decisions in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) have been mainly based on disease stage, performance status, and co-morbidities, and rarely on histological or molecular classification. Rather than applying broad treatments to unselected patients that may result in survival increase of only weeks to months, research efforts should be, and are being, focused on identifying predictive markers for molecularly targeted therapy and determining genomic signatures that predict survival and response to specific therapies. The availability of such targeted biologics requires their use to be matched to tumors of corresponding molecular vulnerability for maximum efficacy. Molecular markers such as epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), K-ras, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), and anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) represent potential parameters guide treatment decisions. Ultimately, identifying patients who will respond to specific therapies will allow optimal efficacy with minimal toxicity, which will result in more judicious and effective application of expensive targeted therapy as the new paradigm of personalized medicine develops.

  16. What's New in Liver Cancer Research and Treatment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Liver Cancer About Liver Cancer What's New in Liver Cancer Research and Treatment? Because there are only a ... in Liver Cancer Research and Treatment? More In Liver Cancer About Liver Cancer Causes, Risk Factors, and Prevention ...

  17. What's New in Ovarian Cancer Research and Treatment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Ovarian Cancer About Ovarian Cancer What's New in Ovarian Cancer Research and Treatment? Risk factors and causes Scientists ... in Ovarian Cancer Research and Treatment? More In Ovarian Cancer About Ovarian Cancer Causes, Risk Factors, and Prevention ...

  18. Research progress in protein post-translational modification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Protein post-translational modification plays an important role in organism. It makes the protein obtain more complicated structures, perfect functions, more accurate regulations and more specific operations. The most common protein post- translational modifications include ubiquitylation, phosphorylation, glycosylation, lipodation, methylation, and acetylation and so on. Ubiquitylation plays an essential role in cellular functions such as cellular differentiation, apoptosis, DNA repair, antigen processing, and stress response. Phosphorylation is related to physiological and pathological processes including cellular signal conduction, nervous activity, muscle contraction and proliferation, development and differentiation of cells. Protein glycosylation is of great importance for many cell processes like immunoprotection, virus replication, cell growth, and occurrence of inflammation and so on. Lipodation is vital to signal conduction. Histone methylation and acetylation are responsible for transcription regulation. In vivo, different post-translational modifications do not occur isolatedly, but influence each other's function and cooperate with each other. Understanding what influences the post-translational modifications will help to uncover cellular processes and protein network in molecular level and finally direct more precise drug design targeting molecules. Post-translational modification mimics are set to dominate the next wave of protein therapeutics and become powerful medicinal tools in the 21st century.

  19. Research on Applying Pun in Translating English into Chinese

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韦盛乾

    2010-01-01

    The interpretation of pun is a branch of applied linguistics,at the mean time; it is a rhetorical approach in our daily communication.Sometimes it is compared to an art and varies from one another.Meanwhile it brings the charming of language into full play,which can demonstrate the complicated meanings with the simple language.Pun is humorous and vivid; sometimes it looks like a puzzle and makes people feel confused with blurry color.My thesis mainly focuses on lexical pun,homograph homophony pun and imitation pun.In terms of literal translation and free translation by idea.I sincerely hope it can help people to better understand the pans translation to attain our expectations.

  20. Research of Linear Translation Devices with Stepper Motor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitrij Komissarov

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to ensure accuracy of motorized linear translation stages theoretical and experimental investigations were performed, that allow to establish moving platform vibration level depending of operating modes (different velocities and used lubricant in the system. Lubricants had different viscosity, which has effect to the system moving smoothness, sound level and vibration level of the stage. Such work gives possibility to done conclusions: with what lubricant or with what viscosity of the lubricant motorized linear translation stage works smoother, with less noise and vib-ration level, and also show best movement characteristics.

  1. Advance of Cellular Immunotherapy in Clinical and Translational Medicine of Lung Cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Fei; YU Shao-rong; FENG Ji-feng

    2016-01-01

    Lung cancer is one of the most common cancers and ranks the ifrst in the mortality worldwide. The core of immunotherapy, especially cellular immunotherapy, is to activate the T cell-mediated tumor-killing effect in patients with tumors, so as to increase their anti-tumor effect. Surgery and radio- and chemotherapy cannot radically eliminate cancerous cells, but immunotherapy is an important supplementary method in killing tumor stem cells and non-proliferating cells. Cellular immunotherapy contains dendritic cells (DC), cytokine-induced killer (CIK), DC-CIK, natural killer T cells (NKT) and γδ T cells, which provides new techniques for the comprehensive treatment of lung cancer. Using CIK combined with DC, radiochemotherapy, radiofrequency ablation and monomers of Chinese medicine to induce CIK cells that directionally migrate to cancerous nest can increase tumor-killing ability and immunoregulatory ability of CIK cells, reduce adverse and toxic reactions and increase patients’ quality of life, and NKT cell and γδ T cell therapies have also been gradually perfected and promoted in clinical translation. This study mainly introduced the clinical translation of DC vaccines, CIK cells and DC-CIK treatment for lung cancer, hoping to provide new pathways and reference for the clinical treatment of lung cancer.

  2. Gene-Environment Research and Cancer Epidemiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Epidemiology and Genomics Research Program supports extramural research that investigates both genetic and environmental factors that may contribute to the etiology of cancer and/or impact cancer outcomes.

  3. Center for Herbal Research on Colorectal Cancer

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Research Area: Herbs Program:Centers of Excellence for Research on CAM Description:Colorectal cancer is the third most common cancer and the third leading cause of...

  4. Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Among the many cancer research laboratories operated by NCI, the Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research(FNLCR) is unique in that it is a Federally Funded...

  5. Pioneer Valley Life Sciences Institute Translational Biomedical Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, Sallie; Shao, Rong; Schwartz, Lawrence; Jerry, D Joseph

    2012-09-20

    1. Analysis of angiogenic factors in breast cancer angiogenesis. Determine whether Acheron and YKL-40 were elevated in subsets of primary breast cancers and if they participated directly in determining the behavior of tumors. 2. Use of polymers for chemotherapeutic delivery to breast cancer tumors. The experiments were designed to define the utility of biocompatible polymers for addressing certain limitations and establish a flexible platform for delivery of diverse compound.

  6. What's New in Research and Treatment for Thymus Cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cancer What’s New in Research and Treatment for Thymus Cancer? There is always research going on in ... Research and Treatment for Thymus Cancer? More In Thymus Cancer About Thymus Cancer Causes, Risk Factors, and ...

  7. Research Networking Systems: The State of Adoption at Institutions Aiming to Augment Translational Research Infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obeid, Jihad S; Johnson, Layne M; Stallings, Sarah; Eichmann, David

    2015-01-01

    Fostering collaborations across multiple disciplines within and across institutional boundaries is becoming increasingly important with the growing emphasis on translational research. As a result, Research Networking Systems that facilitate discovery of potential collaborators have received significant attention by institutions aiming to augment their research infrastructure. We have conducted a survey to assess the state of adoption of these new tools at the Clinical and Translational Science Award (CTSA) funded institutions. Survey results demonstrate that most CTSA funded institutions have either already adopted or were planning to adopt one of several available research networking systems. Moreover a good number of these institutions have exposed or plan to expose the data on research expertise using linked open data, an established approach to semantic web services. Preliminary exploration of these publically-available data shows promising utility in assessing cross-institutional collaborations. Further adoption of these technologies and analysis of the data are needed, however, before their impact on cross-institutional collaboration in research can be appreciated and measured. PMID:26491707

  8. Translational research into sexual disorders : Pharmacology and genomics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chan, Johnny S. W.; Olivier, Berend; de Jong, Trynke R.; Snoeren, Eelke M. S.; Kooijman, Elke; van Hasselt, Felisa N.; Limpens, Jules H. W.; Kas, Martien J. H.; Waldinger, Marcel D.; Oosting, Ronald S.

    2008-01-01

    The existence of sexual dysfunctions in men, including premature and retarded ejaculation poses challenges to develop translational models in rats that may help in improving treatment and delineate the neural mechanisms of action. Most of our current understanding of the neurobiology, neuroanatomy a

  9. Translational research into sexual disorders : pharmacology and genomics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chan, Johnny S W; Olivier, Berend; de Jong, Trynke R; Snoeren, Eelke M S; Kooijman, Elke; van Hasselt, Felisa N; Limpens, Jules H W; Kas, Martien J H; Waldinger, Marcel D; Oosting, Ronald S

    2008-01-01

    The existence of sexual dysfunctions in men, including premature and retarded ejaculation poses challenges to develop translational models in rats that may help in improving treatment and delineate the neural mechanisms of action. Most of our current understanding of the neurobiology, neuroanatomy a

  10. Enhancing translational research in paediatric rheumatology through standardization.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yeung, Rae S M; Albani, S.; Feldman, B.M.; Mellins, Elizabeth D; Prakken, ABJ; Wedderburn, Lucy R.

    2016-01-01

    The past decade has seen many successes in translational rheumatology, from dramatic improvements in outcomes brought about by novel biologic therapies, to the discovery of new monogenic inflammatory disorders. Advances in molecular medicine, combined with progress towards precision care, provide an

  11. Measuring behaviour in rodents: towards translational neuropsychiatric research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Homberg, J.R.

    2013-01-01

    Rodent behavioural tasks are indispensable to advance the understanding of gene x environment interactions in neuropsychiatric disorders and the discovery of new therapeutic strategies. Yet, the actual translation of rodent data to humans, and thereby the understanding of the pathophysiology of neur

  12. Beyond bench and bedside: disentangling the concept of translational research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laan, van der Anna Laura; Boenink, Marianne

    2015-01-01

    The label ‘Translational Research’ (TR) has become ever more popular in the biomedical domain in recent years. It is usually presented as an attempt to bridge a supposed gap between knowledge produced at the lab bench and its use at the clinical bedside. This is claimed to help society harvest the b

  13. Symbolic Interaction and Applied Social Research: A FOCUS ON TRANSLATIONAL SCIENCE RESEARCH(1.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotarba, Joseph A

    2014-08-01

    In symbolic interaction, a traditional yet unfortunate and unnecessary distinction has been made between basic and applied research. The argument has been made that basic research is intended to generate new knowledge, whereas applied research is intended to apply knowledge to the solution of practical (social and organizational) problems. I will argue that the distinction between basic and applied research in symbolic interaction is outdated and dysfunctional. The masters of symbolic interactionist thought have left us a proud legacy of shaping their scholarly thinking and inquiry in response to and in light of practical issues of the day (e.g., Znaniecki, and Blumer). Current interactionist work continues this tradition in topical areas such as social justice studies. Applied research, especially in term of evaluation and needs assessment studies, can be designed to serve both basic and applied goals. Symbolic interaction provides three great resources to do this. The first is its orientation to dynamic sensitizing concepts that direct research and ask questions instead of supplying a priori and often impractical answers. The second is its orientation to qualitative methods, and appreciation for the logic of grounded theory. The third is interactionism's overall holistic approach to interfacing with the everyday life world. The primary illustrative case here is the qualitative component of the evaluation of an NIH-funded, translational medical research program. The qualitative component has provided interactionist-inspired insights into translational research, such as examining cultural change in medical research in terms of changes in the form and content of formal and informal discourse among scientists; delineating the impact of significant symbols such as "my lab" on the social organization of science; and appreciating the essence of the self-concept "scientist" on the increasingly bureaucratic and administrative identities of medical researchers. This

  14. Academic Perspectives and Experiences of Knowledge Translation: A Qualitative Study of Public Health Researchers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collie, Alex; Zardo, Pauline; McKenzie, Donna Margaret; Ellis, Niki

    2016-01-01

    This study explores the views and experiences of knowledge translation of 14 Australian public health academics. Capacity to engage in knowledge translation is influenced by factors within the academic context and the interaction of the academic and policy environments. Early and mid-career researchers reported a different set of experiences and…

  15. Research on Translation of Campus Public Signs in Wuhan University of Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Hui; XIANG Qing-ling

    2015-01-01

    Based on Eugene Nida's "dynamic equivalence" translation theory as well as current situations for the translation of campus public signs in Wuhan University of Technology, this paper aimed at investigating and researching the standard transla⁃tion methods for campus public signs. Moreover, through the collection and analysis of the current situation about the public signs in the University, this paper also intended to provide an internationally recognized version of translation for campus public signs. Finally, the paper suggests practical ways for the promotion of the translated version in order to realize its application in oth⁃er universities of China.

  16. New Funding Opportunity: Tissue Purchase Order Acquisitions - Office of Cancer Clinical Proteomics Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    The National Cancer Institute (NCI) is expanding its basic and translational research programs that rely heavily on sufficient availability of high quality, well annotated biospecimens suitable for use in genomic and proteomic studies. The NCI’s overarching goal with such programs is to improve the ability to diagnose, treat, and prevent cancer.

  17. Translational cancer vaccine: from mouse to human to cat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levenson, Richard

    2015-03-01

    Acanthomatous ameloblastoma is a locally invasive tumor arising in the gingiva that can progress rapidly, invade and destroy bone. If the lesion involves the upper jaw, surgical excision may not be possible and while local control is imperative, other therapies have not been fully evaluated. The primary author's personal cat, Gabriella, developed this tumor, with gingival masses around teeth in the upper jaw and evidence of widespread bony destruction of the hard palate. Because of his involvement with Immunophotonics Inc. as an advisor, the author was aware of an in situ autologous cancer vaccine (inCVAX) that is currently under development by the company. One session was performed in a veterinary clinic in Arkansas, and two follow-up sessions at the small animal hospital at the UC Davis veterinary school. No other therapy was provided. As of this writing, 3+ years after first treatment and 3 years, 4 months after presentation, Gabriella is well, with no evidence of disease.

  18. CPTAC Scientific Symposium - Office of Cancer Clinical Proteomics Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    On behalf of the National Cancer Institute and the Office of Cancer Clinical Proteomics Research, you are invited to the First Annual CPTAC Scientific Symposium on Wednesday, November 13, 2013. The purpose of this symposium, which consists of plenary and poster sessions, is for investigators from CPTAC community and beyond to share and discuss novel biological discoveries, analytical methods, and translational approaches using CPTAC data. All scientists who use, or wish to use CPTAC data are welcome to participate at this free event. The symposium will be held at the Natcher Conference Facility on the main campus of the National Institutes of Health in Bethesda, Maryland.

  19. Realizing Our Potential in Biobanking: Disease Advocacy Organizations Enliven Translational Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Kelly A; Terry, Sharon F; Gold, Dana; Horn, Elizabeth J; Schwartz, Mary; Stuart, Molly; Vernon, Suzanne D

    2016-08-01

    Biobanks are increasingly powerful tools used in translational research, and disease advocacy organizations (DAOs) are making their presence known as research drivers and partners. We examined DAO approaches to biobanking to inform how the enterprise of biobanking can grow and become even more impactful in human health. In this commentary, we outline overarching approaches from successful DAO biobanks. These lessons learned suggest principles that can create a more participant-centric approach and illustrate the key roles DAOs can play as partners in research initiatives. DAO approaches to biobanking for translational research include the following: be outcome driven; forge alliances that are unexpected-build bridges to enhance translation; come ready for success; be nimble, flexible, and adaptable; and remember that people matter. Each of these principles led to particular practices that have increased the translational impact of biobank collections. The research practices discussed can inform partnerships in all sectors going forward.

  20. Translational educational research: a necessity for effective health-care improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGaghie, William C; Issenberg, S Barry; Cohen, Elaine R; Barsuk, Jeffrey H; Wayne, Diane B

    2012-11-01

    Medical education research contributes to translational science (TS) when its outcomes not only impact educational settings, but also downstream results, including better patient-care practices and improved patient outcomes. Simulation-based medical education (SBME) has demonstrated its role in achieving such distal results. Effective TS also encompasses implementation science, the science of health-care delivery. Educational, clinical, quality, and safety goals can only be achieved by thematic, sustained, and cumulative research programs, not isolated studies. Components of an SBME TS research program include motivated learners, curriculum grounded in evidence-based learning theory, educational resources, evaluation of downstream results, a productive research team, rigorous research methods, research resources, and health-care system acceptance and implementation. National research priorities are served from translational educational research. National funding priorities should endorse the contribution and value of translational education research.

  1. Machine Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张严心

    2015-01-01

    As a kind of ancillary translation tool, Machine Translation has been paid increasing attention to and received different kinds of study by a great deal of researchers and scholars for a long time. To know the definition of Machine Translation and to analyse its benefits and problems are significant for translators in order to make good use of Machine Translation, and helpful to develop and consummate Machine Translation Systems in the future.

  2. Using Multicriteria Decision Analysis to Support Research Priority Setting in Biomedical Translational Research Projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gimon de Graaf

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Translational research is conducted to achieve a predefined set of economic or societal goals. As a result, investment decisions on where available resources have the highest potential in achieving these goals have to be made. In this paper, we first describe how multicriteria decision analysis can assist in defining the decision context and in ensuring that all relevant aspects of the decision problem are incorporated in the decision making process. We then present the results of a case study to support priority setting in a translational research consortium aimed at reducing the burden of disease of type 2 diabetes. During problem structuring, we identified four research alternatives (primary, secondary, tertiary microvascular, and tertiary macrovascular prevention and a set of six decision criteria. Scoring of these alternatives against the criteria was done using a combination of expert judgement and previously published data. Lastly, decision analysis was performed using stochastic multicriteria acceptability analysis, which allows for the combined use of numerical and ordinal data. We found that the development of novel techniques applied in secondary prevention would be a poor investment of research funds. The ranking of the remaining alternatives was however strongly dependent on the decision maker’s preferences for certain criteria.

  3. The Applicability of Lean and Six Sigma Techniques to Clinical and Translational Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweikhart, Sharon A.; Dembe, Allard E

    2010-01-01

    Background Lean and Six Sigma are business management strategies commonly used in production industries to improve process efficiency and quality. During the past decade, these process improvement techniques increasingly have been applied outside of the manufacturing sector, for example, in health care and in software development. This article concerns the potential use of Lean and Six Sigma to improve the processes involved in clinical and translational research. Improving quality, avoiding delays and errors, and speeding up the time to implementation of biomedical discoveries are prime objectives of the NIH Roadmap for Biomedical Research and the NIH Clinical and Translational Science Award (CTSA) program. Methods This article presents a description of the main principles, practices, and methodologies used in Lean and Six Sigma. Available literature involving applications of Lean and Six Sigma to health care, laboratory science, and clinical and translational research is reviewed. Specific issues concerning the use of these techniques in different phases of translational research are identified. Results Examples are provided of Lean and Six Sigma applications that are being planned at a current CTSA site, which could potentially be replicated elsewhere. We describe how different process improvement approaches are best adapted for particularly translational research phases. Conclusions Lean and Six Sigma process improvement methodologies are well suited to help achieve NIH’s goal of making clinical and translational research more efficient and cost-effective, enhancing the quality of the research, and facilitating the successful adoption of biomedical research findings into practice. PMID:19730130

  4. Translating Science into Survival: Report on the Inaugural International Cancer Immunotherapy Conference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbard-Lucey, Vanessa M; Tontonoz, Matthew J

    2016-01-01

    The inaugural International Cancer Immunotherapy Conference, cohosted by the Cancer Research Institute (CRI), the American Association for Cancer Research (AACR), the Association for Cancer Immunotherapy (CIMT), and the European Academy of Tumor Immunology (EATI), was held in New York City on September 16–19, 2015. The conference brought together nearly 1,400 scientists, clinicians, regulators, patient advocates, and other stakeholders to discuss the latest scientific developments in cancer immunology and immunotherapy, as well as the regulatory hurdles facing new drug development. This conference report summarizes the main themes that emerged during the 4-day meeting.

  5. Drosophila models for cancer research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal, Marcos; Cagan, Ross L

    2006-02-01

    Drosophila is a model system for cancer research. Investigation with fruit flies has facilitated a number of important recent discoveries in the field: the hippo signaling pathway, which coordinates cell proliferation and death to achieve normal tissue size; 'social' behaviors of cells, including cell competition and apoptosis-induced compensatory proliferation, that help ensure normal tissue size; and a growing understanding of how oncogenes and tumor suppressors cooperate to achieve tumor growth and metastasis in situ. In the future, Drosophila models can be extended beyond basic research in the search for human therapeutics.

  6. Identifying gaps and relative opportunities for discovering membrane proteomic biomarkers of triple-negative breast cancer as a translational priority

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhooma Venkatraman

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC remains a significant clinical and scientific challenge. The classification of TNBC is based on the lack of expression of the human epidermal growth factor 2, the estrogen receptor, and the progesterone receptor. TNBC accounts for more than 20% of all breast cancers (BCs, has a poorer prognosis compared to other BC subtypes, and has no targeted therapeutics. Primarily, this review focuses on the heterogeneity of BC and the importance of molecular subtyping for the accurate classification of TNBC. Further, it seeks to identify the molecular "omic" gaps in subtyping TNBC and the role of membrane protein biomarkers that could potentially advance clinical and translational research in BC.

  7. Modeling menopause: The utility of rodents in translational behavioral endocrinology research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koebele, Stephanie V; Bimonte-Nelson, Heather A

    2016-05-01

    The human menopause transition and aging are each associated with an increase in a variety of health risk factors including, but not limited to, cardiovascular disease, osteoporosis, cancer, diabetes, stroke, sexual dysfunction, affective disorders, sleep disturbances, and cognitive decline. It is challenging to systematically evaluate the biological underpinnings associated with the menopause transition in the human population. For this reason, rodent models have been invaluable tools for studying the impact of gonadal hormone fluctuations and eventual decline on a variety of body systems. While it is essential to keep in mind that some of the mechanisms associated with aging and the transition into a reproductively senescent state can differ when translating from one species to another, animal models provide researchers with opportunities to gain a fundamental understanding of the key elements underlying reproduction and aging processes, paving the way to explore novel pathways for intervention associated with known health risks. Here, we discuss the utility of several rodent models used in the laboratory for translational menopause research, examining the benefits and drawbacks in helping us to better understand aging and the menopause transition in women. The rodent models discussed are ovary-intact, ovariectomy, and 4-vinylcylohexene diepoxide for the menopause transition. We then describe how these models may be implemented in the laboratory, particularly in the context of cognition. Ultimately, we aim to use these animal models to elucidate novel perspectives and interventions for maintaining a high quality of life in women, and to potentially prevent or postpone the onset of negative health consequences associated with these significant life changes during aging.

  8. Health research funding agencies' support and promotion of knowledge translation: an international study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tetroe, J.M.; Graham, I.D.; Foy, R.; Robinson, N.; Eccles, M.P.; Wensing, M.J.P.; Durieux, P.; Legare, F.; Nielson, C.P.; Adily, A.; Ward, J.E.; Porter, C.; Shea, B.; Grimshaw, J.M.

    2008-01-01

    CONTEXT: The process of knowledge translation (KT) in health research depends on the activities of a wide range of actors, including health professionals, researchers, the public, policymakers, and research funders. Little is known, however, about health research funding agencies' support and promot

  9. Riding the knowledge translation roundabout: lessons learned from the Canadian Institutes of Health Research Summer Institute in knowledge translation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kho Michelle E

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Funding the education and training of the next generation of health researchers is a key mandate of the Canadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR knowledge translation (KT portfolio. The field of KT is growing daily; thus, the training and development of a new generation of KT researchers is essential. Methods Using curriculum documents, participant evaluations, and self-reflection, this paper describes a unique Summer Institute hosted by the CIHR in Cornwall, Ontario, Canada. We outline the key aspects of a successful training initiative that could inform organizations and agencies worldwide with an interest in or who have a mandate for KT. Results This work provides potential funders, faculty, and students with an inside look into the purpose, process, and outcomes of such training initiatives. Conclusion National and international KT organizations, research institutions, and funding agencies are encouraged to consider replicating the training model employed here, as investment into KT personnel will foster the advancement of the field within and beyond local borders. 'To the individual who devotes his/her life to science, nothing can give more happiness than when the results immediately find practical application. There are not two sciences. There is science and the application of science, and these two are linked as the fruit is to the tree.' – Louis Pasteur, 1871 (from presentation by Ian Graham, 2008 CIHR Knowledge Translation Summer Institute

  10. Post-translational regulation of COX2 activity by FYN in prostate cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexanian, Anna; Miller, Bradley; Chesnik, Marla; Mirza, Shama; Sorokin, Andrey

    2014-06-30

    While increased COX2 expression and prostaglandin levels are elevated in human cancers, the mechanisms of COX2 regulation at the post-translational level are unknown. Initial observation that COX2 forms adduct with non-receptor tyrosine kinase FYN, prompted us to study FYN-mediated post-translational regulation of COX2. We found that FYN increased COX2 activity in prostate cancer cells DU145, independent of changes in COX2 or COX1 protein expression levels. We report that FYN phosphorylates human COX2 on Tyr 446, and while corresponding phospho-mimetic COX2 mutation promotes COX2 activity, the phosphorylation blocking mutation prevents FYN-mediated increase in COX2 activity.

  11. Translational potential of cancer stem cells: A review of the detection of cancer stem cells and their roles in cancer recurrence and cancer treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Farhadul; Gopalan, Vinod; Smith, Robert A; Lam, Alfred K-Y

    2015-07-01

    Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are a subpopulation of cancer cells with many clinical implications in most cancer types. One important clinical implication of CSCs is their role in cancer metastases, as reflected by their ability to initiate and drive micro and macro-metastases. The other important contributing factor for CSCs in cancer management is their function in causing treatment resistance and recurrence in cancer via their activation of different signalling pathways such as Notch, Wnt/β-catenin, TGF-β, Hedgehog, PI3K/Akt/mTOR and JAK/STAT pathways. Thus, many different therapeutic approaches are being tested for prevention and treatment of cancer recurrence. These may include treatment strategies targeting altered genetic signalling pathways by blocking specific cell surface molecules, altering the cancer microenvironments that nurture cancer stem cells, inducing differentiation of CSCs, immunotherapy based on CSCs associated antigens, exploiting metabolites to kill CSCs, and designing small interfering RNA/DNA molecules that especially target CSCs. Because of the huge potential of these approaches to improve cancer management, it is important to identify and isolate cancer stem cells for precise study and application of prior the research on their role in cancer. Commonly used methodologies for detection and isolation of CSCs include functional, image-based, molecular, cytological sorting and filtration approaches, the use of different surface markers and xenotransplantation. Overall, given their significance in cancer biology, refining the isolation and targeting of CSCs will play an important role in future management of cancer.

  12. Regulating Prostate Cancer Sensitivity to Chemotherapy through Translational Control of CCAAT Enhancer Binding Proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-01

    as a result of multiple adaptations, including AR gene amplification, abnormal AR activation or enhanced steroidogenesis.2 These changes are acquired...AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-14-1-0209 TITLE: Regulating Prostate Cancer Sensitivity to Chemotherapy through Translational Control of CCAAT Enhancer ... Enhancer Binding Proteins 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER W81XWH-14-1-0209 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) David J. Barakat, Samuel R

  13. Implementing Knowledge Translation Strategies in Funded Research in Canada and Australia: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Moore

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available There is an emerging literature describing the use of knowledge translation strategies to increase the relevance and usability of research, yet there are few real-world examples of how this works in practice. This case study reports on the steps taken to embed knowledge translation strategies in the Movember Foundation's Men’s Mental Health Grant Rounds in 2013–14, which were implemented in Australia and Canada, and on the support provided to the applicants in developing their knowledge translation plans. It identifies the challenges faced by the Men’s Mental Health Program Team and how these were resolved. The strategies explored include articulating knowledge translation requirements, ensuring a common understanding of knowledge translation, assessing knowledge translation plans, methods of engaging end users, and building capacity with applicants. An iterative approach to facilitating knowledge translation planning within project development was rolled out in Australia just prior to Canada so that lessons learned were immediately available to refine the second roll out. Implementation included the use of external knowledge translation expertise, the development of knowledge translation plans, and the need for internal infrastructure to support monitoring and reporting. Differences in the Australian and Canadian contexts may point to differential exposure to the concepts and practices of knowledge translation. This case study details an example of designing and implementing an integrated knowledge translation strategy that moves beyond traditional dissemination models. Lessons learned point to the importance of a long lead-up time, the use of knowledge translation expertise for capacity building, the need for flexible implementation, and the need for efficiencies in supporting applicants.

  14. Gastric cancer research in Mexico: a public health priority.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampieri, Clara Luz; Mora, Mauricio

    2014-04-28

    This study aimed review studies conducted on Mexican patients diagnosed with gastric cancer and/or diseases associated with its development, in which at least one Mexican institute has participated, and to assess their contributions to the primary and secondary prevention of this disease. A search of the Medline database was conducted using the following keywords: gastric/stomach cancer, Mexico. Studies of the Mexican population were selected in which at least one Mexican Institute had participated and where the findings could support public policy proposals directed towards the primary or secondary prevention of gastric cancer. Of the 148 studies found in the Medline database, 100 were discarded and 48 were reviewed. According to the analysis presented, these studies were classified as: epidemiology of gastric cancer (5/48); risk factors and protectors relating to gastric cancer (9/48); relationship between Helicobacter pylori and pathologies associated with gastric cancer and the development of the disease (16/48); relationship between the Epstein-Barr virus and pathologies associated with gastric cancer and the development of the disease (3/48); molecular markers for the development of diseases associated with gastric cancer and gastric cancer (15/48). Mexico requires a program for the prevention and control of gastric cancer based on national health indicators. This should be produced by a multidisciplinary committee of experts who can propose actions that are relevant in the current national context. The few studies of gastric cancer conducted on the Mexican population in national institutes highlight the poor connection that currently exists between the scientific community and the health sector in terms of resolving this health issue. Public policies for health research should support projects with findings that can be translated into benefits for the population. This review serves to identify national research groups studying gastric cancer in the Mexican

  15. Gastric cancer research in Mexico: A public health priority

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampieri, Clara Luz; Mora, Mauricio

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed review studies conducted on Mexican patients diagnosed with gastric cancer and/or diseases associated with its development, in which at least one Mexican institute has participated, and to assess their contributions to the primary and secondary prevention of this disease. A search of the Medline database was conducted using the following keywords: gastric/stomach cancer, Mexico. Studies of the Mexican population were selected in which at least one Mexican Institute had participated and where the findings could support public policy proposals directed towards the primary or secondary prevention of gastric cancer. Of the 148 studies found in the Medline database, 100 were discarded and 48 were reviewed. According to the analysis presented, these studies were classified as: epidemiology of gastric cancer (5/48); risk factors and protectors relating to gastric cancer (9/48); relationship between Helicobacter pylori and pathologies associated with gastric cancer and the development of the disease (16/48); relationship between the Epstein-Barr virus and pathologies associated with gastric cancer and the development of the disease (3/48); molecular markers for the development of diseases associated with gastric cancer and gastric cancer (15/48). Mexico requires a program for the prevention and control of gastric cancer based on national health indicators. This should be produced by a multidisciplinary committee of experts who can propose actions that are relevant in the current national context. The few studies of gastric cancer conducted on the Mexican population in national institutes highlight the poor connection that currently exists between the scientific community and the health sector in terms of resolving this health issue. Public policies for health research should support projects with findings that can be translated into benefits for the population. This review serves to identify national research groups studying gastric cancer in the Mexican

  16. Knowledge translation in health research: a novel approach to health sciences education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reitmanova, Sylvia

    2009-08-18

    The salient role of knowledge translation process, by which knowledge is put into practice, is increasingly recognized by various research stakeholders. However, medical schools are slow in providing medical students and health professionals engaged in research with the sufficient opportunities to examine more closely the facilitators and barriers to utilization of research evidence in policymaking and implementation, or the effectiveness of their research communication strategies. Memorial University of Newfoundland now offers a knowledge translation course that equips students of community health and applied health research with the knowledge and skills necessary for conducting research, that responds more closely to the needs of their communities, and for improving the utilization of their research by a variety of research consumers. This case study illustrates how the positive research outcomes resulted from implementing the knowledge translation strategies learned in the course. Knowledge translation can be useful also in attracting more funding and support from research agencies, industry, government agencies and the public. These reasons offer a compelling rationale for the standard inclusion of knowledge translation courses in health sciences education.

  17. Knowledge translation research in population health: establishing a collaborative research agenda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurendeau Marie-Claire

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite the increasing mobilization of researchers and funding organizations around knowledge translation (KT in Canada and elsewhere, many questions have been only partially answered, particularly in the field of population health. This article presents the results of a systematic process to draw out possible avenues of collaboration for researchers, practitioners and decision-makers who work in the area of KT. The main objective was to establish a research agenda on knowledge translation in population health. Methods Using the Concept Mapping approach, the research team wanted to identify priority themes for the development of research on KT in population health. Mapping is based on multivariate statistical analyses (multidimensional scaling and hierarchical cluster analysis in which statements produced during a brainstorming session are grouped in weighted clusters. The final maps are a visual representation of the priority themes of research on KT. Especially designed for facilitating consensus in the understanding and organization of various concepts, the Concept Mapping method proved suitable for achieving this objective. Results The maps were produced by 19 participants from university settings, and from institutions within the health and social services network. Three main perspectives emerge from this operation: (1 The evaluation of the effectiveness of KT efforts is one of the main research priorities; (2 The importance of taking into consideration user contexts in any KT effort; (3 The challenges related to sharing power for decision-making and action-taking among various stakeholder groups. These perspectives open up avenues of collaboration for stakeholders who are involved in research on KT. Besides these three main perspectives, the concept maps reveal three other trends which should be emphasized. Conclusion The Concept Mapping process reported in this article aimed to provoke collective reflection on the

  18. Why is it crucial to reintegrate pathology into cancer research?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Canales, Jaime; Eberle, Franziska C; Jaffe, Elaine S; Emmert-Buck, Michael R

    2011-07-01

    The integration of pathology with molecular biology is vital if we are to enhance the translational value of cancer research. Pathology represents a bridge between medicine and basic biology, it remains the gold standard for cancer diagnosis, and it plays an important role in discovery studies. In the past, pathology and cancer research were closely associated; however, the molecular biology revolution has shifted the focus of investigators toward the molecular alterations of tumors. The reductionist approach taken in molecular studies is producing great insight into the inner workings of neoplasia, but it can also minimize the importance of histopathology and of understanding the disease as a whole. In turn, pathologists can underestimate the role of molecular studies in developing new ancillary techniques for clinical diagnosis. A multidisciplinary approach that integrates pathology and molecular biology within a translational research system is needed. This process will require overcoming cultural barriers and can be achieved through education, a more effective incorporation of pathology into biological research, and conversely an integration of biological research into the pathology laboratory.

  19. Interdisciplinary Research Training in Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-07-01

    University. An Internet-Based Low- Literacy Cancer Communication Intervention. $1,500, funded. * 2004- Pfizer Clear Health Communication Program. An...Internet-Based Low- Literacy Cancer Communication Intervention. $195,000, not funded. 0 2004- DOD Breast Cancer Research Program, Multidisciplinary...of Connecticut and Yale University. While providing didactic experience in advanced research, methodology, it allows the candidate to have sustained

  20. Repression of protein translation and mTOR signaling by proteasome inhibitor in colon cancer cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, William Ka Kei, E-mail: wukakei@cuhk.edu.hk [Institute of Digestive Diseases, Faculty of Medicine, The Chinese University of Hong Kong (Hong Kong); Department of Medicine and Therapeutics, Faculty of Medicine, The Chinese University of Hong Kong (Hong Kong); Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, The Chinese University of Hong Kong (Hong Kong); Volta, Viviana [Molecular Histology and Cellular Growth Unit, DiBiT-San Raffaele Scientific Institute (Italy); Dipartimento di Scienze dell' Ambiente e della Vita (DiSAV), University of Eastern Piedmont (Italy); Cho, Chi Hin, E-mail: chcho@cuhk.edu.hk [Institute of Digestive Diseases, Faculty of Medicine, The Chinese University of Hong Kong (Hong Kong); Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, The Chinese University of Hong Kong (Hong Kong); Wu, Ya Chun; Li, Hai Tao [Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, The Chinese University of Hong Kong (Hong Kong); Yu, Le [Institute of Digestive Diseases, Faculty of Medicine, The Chinese University of Hong Kong (Hong Kong); Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, The Chinese University of Hong Kong (Hong Kong); Li, Zhi Jie [Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, The Chinese University of Hong Kong (Hong Kong); Sung, Joseph Jao Yiu, E-mail: joesung@cuhk.edu.hk [Institute of Digestive Diseases, Faculty of Medicine, The Chinese University of Hong Kong (Hong Kong); Department of Medicine and Therapeutics, Faculty of Medicine, The Chinese University of Hong Kong (Hong Kong)

    2009-09-04

    Protein homeostasis relies on a balance between protein synthesis and protein degradation. The ubiquitin-proteasome system is a major catabolic pathway for protein degradation. In this respect, proteasome inhibition has been used therapeutically for the treatment of cancer. Whether inhibition of protein degradation by proteasome inhibitor can repress protein translation via a negative feedback mechanism, however, is unknown. In this study, proteasome inhibitor MG-132 lowered the proliferation of colon cancer cells HT-29 and SW1116. In this connection, MG-132 reduced the phosphorylation of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) at Ser2448 and Ser2481 and the phosphorylation of its downstream targets 4E-BP1 and p70/p85 S6 kinases. Further analysis revealed that MG-132 inhibited protein translation as evidenced by the reductions of {sup 35}S-methionine incorporation and polysomes/80S ratio. Knockdown of raptor, a structural component of mTOR complex 1, mimicked the anti-proliferative effect of MG-132. To conclude, we demonstrate that the inhibition of protein degradation by proteasome inhibitor represses mTOR signaling and protein translation in colon cancer cells.

  1. Language translation challenges with Arabic speakers participating in qualitative research studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Amer, Rasmieh; Ramjan, Lucie; Glew, Paul; Darwish, Maram; Salamonson, Yenna

    2016-02-01

    This paper discusses how a research team negotiated the challenges of language differences in a qualitative study that involved two languages. The lead researcher shared the participants' language and culture, and the interviews were conducted using the Arabic language as a source language, which was then translated and disseminated in the English language (target language). The challenges in relation to translation in cross-cultural research were highlighted from a perspective of establishing meaning as a vital issue in qualitative research. The paper draws on insights gained from a study undertaken among Arabic-speaking participants involving the use of in-depth semi-structured interviews. The study was undertaken using a purposive sample of 15 participants with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and co-existing depression and explored their perception of self-care management behaviours. Data analysis was performed in two phases. The first phase entailed translation and transcription of the data, and the second phase entailed thematic analysis of the data to develop categories and themes. In this paper there is discussion on the translation process and its inherent challenges. As translation is an interpretive process and not merely a direct message transfer from a source language to a target language, translators need to systematically and accurately capture the full meaning of the spoken language. This discussion paper highlights difficulties in the translation process, specifically in managing data in relation to metaphors, medical terminology and connotation of the text, and importantly, preserving the meaning between the original and translated data. Recommendations for future qualitative studies involving interviews with non-English speaking participants are outlined, which may assist researchers maintain the integrity of the data throughout the translation process.

  2. Medical education and research environment in Qatar: a new epoch for translational research in the Middle East

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ameduri Marco

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Recent advances in medical technology and key discoveries in biomedical research have the potential to improve human health in an unprecedented fashion. As a result, many of the Arab Gulf countries, particularly Qatar are devoting increasing resources toward establishing centers of excellence in biomedical research. However, there are challenges that must be overcome. The low profile of private medical institutions and their negligible endowments in the region are examples of such challenges. Business-type government controlled universities are not the solution for overcoming the challenges facing higher education and research programs in the Middle East. During the last decade, Qatar Foundation for Education, Science and Community Development has attracted six branch campuses of American Institutions of higher learning to the Education City in Qatar, a 2500-acre area, which is rapidly becoming a model of integrating higher education and research in the region. Not-for profit, time-tested education institutions from abroad in public-private partnership with local organizations offer favorable conditions to build robust research programs in the region. Weill Cornell Medical College in Qatar (WCMC-Q of Cornell University is an example such an institution. It is the first and only medical school in Qatar. WCMC-Q's interwoven education, research and public health based framework lays a sturdy foundation for developing and implementing translational medicine research programs of importance to the State of Qatar and Middle Eastern nations. This approach is yielding positive results. Discoveries from this program should influence public policy in a positive fashion toward reducing premature mortality and morbidity due to diabetes, obesity, heart disease and cancer, examples of health conditions commonly encountered in Qatar.

  3. Medical education and research environment in Qatar: a new epoch for translational research in the Middle East.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chouchane, Lotfi; Mamtani, Ravinder; Al-Thani, Mohammed H; Al-Thani, Al-Anoud M; Ameduri, Marco; Sheikh, Javaid I

    2011-01-27

    Recent advances in medical technology and key discoveries in biomedical research have the potential to improve human health in an unprecedented fashion. As a result, many of the Arab Gulf countries, particularly Qatar are devoting increasing resources toward establishing centers of excellence in biomedical research. However, there are challenges that must be overcome. The low profile of private medical institutions and their negligible endowments in the region are examples of such challenges. Business-type government controlled universities are not the solution for overcoming the challenges facing higher education and research programs in the Middle East.During the last decade, Qatar Foundation for Education, Science and Community Development has attracted six branch campuses of American Institutions of higher learning to the Education City in Qatar, a 2500-acre area, which is rapidly becoming a model of integrating higher education and research in the region. Not-for profit, time-tested education institutions from abroad in public-private partnership with local organizations offer favorable conditions to build robust research programs in the region. Weill Cornell Medical College in Qatar (WCMC-Q) of Cornell University is an example such an institution. It is the first and only medical school in Qatar.WCMC-Q's interwoven education, research and public health based framework lays a sturdy foundation for developing and implementing translational medicine research programs of importance to the State of Qatar and Middle Eastern nations. This approach is yielding positive results. Discoveries from this program should influence public policy in a positive fashion toward reducing premature mortality and morbidity due to diabetes, obesity, heart disease and cancer, examples of health conditions commonly encountered in Qatar.

  4. Prostate cancer research in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shan-Cheng Ren; Rui Chen; Ying-Hao Sun

    2013-01-01

    Prostate cancer (PCa) research in China has been on a rocketing trend in recent years.The first genome-wide association study (GWAS)in China identified two new PCa risk associated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs).Next generation sequencing is beginning to be used,yielding novel findings:gene fusions,long non-coding RNAs and other variations.Mechanisms of PCa progression have been illustrated while various diagnosis biomarkers have been investigated extensively.Personalized therapy based on genetic factors,nano-medicine and traditional Chinese medicine has been the focus of experimental therapeutic research for PCa.This review intends to shed light upon the recent progress in PCa research in China and points out the possible breakthroughs in the future.

  5. Translational research: precision medicine, personalized medicine, targeted therapies: marketing or science?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquet, Pierre; Longeray, Pierre-Henry; Barlesi, Fabrice; Ameye, Véronique; Augé, Pascale; Cazeneuve, Béatrice; Chatelut, Etienne; Diaz, Isabelle; Diviné, Marine; Froguel, Philippe; Goni, Sylvia; Gueyffier, François; Hoog-Labouret, Natalie; Mourah, Samia; Morin-Surroca, Michèle; Perche, Olivier; Perin-Dureau, Florent; Pigeon, Martine; Tisseau, Anne; Verstuyft, Céline

    2015-01-01

    Personalized medicine is based on: 1) improved clinical or non-clinical methods (including biomarkers) for a more discriminating and precise diagnosis of diseases; 2) targeted therapies of the choice or the best drug for each patient among those available; 3) dose adjustment methods to optimize the benefit-risk ratio of the drugs chosen; 4) biomarkers of efficacy, toxicity, treatment discontinuation, relapse, etc. Unfortunately, it is still too often a theoretical concept because of the lack of convenient diagnostic methods or treatments, particularly of drugs corresponding to each subtype of pathology, hence to each patient. Stratified medicine is a component of personalized medicine employing biomarkers and companion diagnostics to target the patients likely to present the best benefit-risk balance for a given active compound. The concept of targeted therapy, mostly used in cancer treatment, relies on the existence of a defined molecular target, involved or not in the pathological process, and/or on the existence of a biomarker able to identify the target population, which should logically be small as compared to the population presenting the disease considered. Targeted therapies and biomarkers represent important stakes for the pharmaceutical industry, in terms of market access, of return on investment and of image among the prescribers. At the same time, they probably represent only the first generation of products resulting from the combination of clinical, pathophysiological and molecular research, i.e. of translational research.

  6. Bridging the Great Divide: Translating Research into Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullin, Christopher M.; McKeown-Moak, Mary

    2015-01-01

    How to make research relevant to policymakers is an enduring question in academe. Building upon the experience of the authors, this article examines the issue of research relevance to policymakers and provides suggestions for researchers interested in connecting their research to policy at the institutional, state, and federal levels.

  7. Inside the "Black Box" of a Knowledge Translation Program in Applied Health Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heaton, Janet; Day, Jo; Britten, Nicky

    2015-11-01

    In this article, we present the findings of a participatory realistic evaluation of a 5-year program of health care research intended to promote the translation of knowledge into routine clinical practice. The program was one of the nine pilot Collaborations for Leadership in Applied Health Research and Care funded by the English National Institute for Health Research between 2008 and 2013. Our aim was to delineate the mechanisms by which, and circumstances in which, some projects carried out under the program achieved success in knowledge translation while others were frustrated. Using qualitative methods, we examined how closer collaboration between academics and clinicians worked in four purposefully chosen case studies. In a synthesis of the findings, we produced a "black box" model of how knowledge translation was enabled by the activation of nine mechanisms. These are summarized in the form of five simple rules for promoting knowledge translation through collaborations based on principles of coproduction.

  8. Breast Cancer and the Environment Research Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Breast Cancer and the Environment Research Program supports a multidisciplinary network of scientists, clinicians, and community partners to examine the effects of environmental exposures that may predispose a woman to breast cancer throughout her life.

  9. Research on cancer diagnosis in Malaysia: current status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Looi, L M; Zubaidah, Z; Cheah, P L; Cheong, S K; Gudum, H R; Iekhsan, O; Ikram, S I; Jamal, R; Mak, J W; Othman, N H; Puteri, J N; Rosline, H; Sabariah, A R; Seow, H F; Sharifah, N A

    2004-06-01

    diagnosis, accounting for 65.6% (RM 9.7 million) of cancer project funds. The 8th Malaysia Plan saw a change in research strategy. The IRPA agency fielded several top-down projects which encouraged a multicentre and multidisciplinary approach. This resulted in larger funding per project i.e. RM32 million for 49 projects. There was also a surge of interest in drug development and natural products. Because of this shift in direction, cancer diagnosis projects constituted only 51% of IRPA-funded cancer projects. Nonetheless funding for cancer diagnosis research has exceeded that of the 7th Malaysia Plan, being RM12.5 million by March 2004. The majority of such research is carried out at the Universities, engaging a large number of young scientists and postgraduate students (51 MSc and 21 PhD). A lot of research findings presented at scientific meetings have not yet been published and there is a glaring shortage of patents and commercialization of research findings (such as creation of test kits). Because diagnosis is very much a part of clinical practice, many researchers felt satisfied and confident that their work will be translated into practice and will significantly improve diagnostic services in Malaysia. National guidelines and consensus development on at least three malignancies i.e. breast cancer, oral cancer and lymphoma, have substantial basis in local R&D work. Problems encountered in research included (1) insufficient funding to realize research objectives, (2) lack of local expertise (most research assistants are inexperienced BSc graduates with no or minimal research experience), (3) inadequate technical support from vendors during equipment failure, (4) inexperienced Institutional development units to assist in product development, (5) lack of venture capital for commercialization of findings, and (6) inadequate incentives to undertake research. Researchers pointed out that plans to promote research should include the establishment of (1) regional and national

  10. (The Need for A Model of Translational Mind Science Justice Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phillip Atiba Goff

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Despite the historical importance of translational research to social psychological investigations of social justice issues, the culture and incentives of contemporary social psychology are ambivalent towards non-experimental field research. This ambivalence poses a significant impediment to social psychology’s role in societal change. This paper offers a brief history of how the field evolved from a relative emphasis on translating social psychology from the laboratory to the field (and back to the present moment. In doing so, we enumerate the most significant impediments to contemporary translational social psychology, namely that conducting translational research often involves greater cost, greater difficulty advancing psychological theory, and more time navigating logistics compared with basic laboratory research. Finally, using the example of recent multi-investigator research on race and gender equity in policing, we outline emerging strategies for how to conduct translational research amidst contemporary impediments, and offer modest suggestions for how the field can better facilitate this kind of research in the future. Taken together this review offers a set of theoretical and practical suggestions for easing the path from research to societal change.

  11. Clinical and translational research capacity building needs in minority medical and health science Hispanic institutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estapé-Garrastazu, Estela S; Noboa-Ramos, Carlamarie; De Jesús-Ojeda, Lizbelle; De Pedro-Serbiá, Zulmarie; Acosta-Pérez, Edna; Camacho-Feliciano, Delia M

    2014-10-01

    A preliminary needs assessment was conducted among faculty and students of three minority medical and health science institutions comprising the Puerto Rico Clinical and Translational Research Consortium (PRCTRC). The Web-based survey was focused on evaluating the training interests in the clinical and translational research core areas and competencies developed by the National Institutes of Health-Clinical and Translational Sciences Award. The survey was the result of a team effort of three PRCTRC key function's leaderships: Multidisciplinary Training and Career Development, Tracking and Evaluation and Community Research and Engagement. The questionnaire included 45 items distributed across five content areas including demographics, research training needs, training activities coordination and knowledge about the services offered by the PRCTRC. Analysis of research needs includes a sample distribution according to professor, assistant/associate professor and graduate students. The thematic area with highest response rate among the three groups was: "Identify major clinical/public health problems and relevant translational research questions," with the competency "Identify basic and preclinical studies that are potential testable clinical research hypothesis." These preliminary results will guide the training and professional development of the new generation of clinical and translational researchers needed to eliminate health disparities.

  12. Knowledge Translation Case Study: A Rural Community Collaborates with Researchers to Investigate Health Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmons, Vianne; Critchley, Kim; Campbell, Barbara Ruth; McAuley, Alexander; Taylor, Jennifer P.; Walton, Fiona

    2007-01-01

    Introduction: Knowledge translation implies the exchange and synthesis of knowledge between researchers and research users, employing a high level of communication and participation, not only to share the knowledge found through research, but also to implement subsequent strategies. Prince Edward Island, a rural province in Canada, provided the…

  13. Distributed cognition and process management enabling individualized translational research: The NIH Undiagnosed Diseases Program experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda E Links

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The National Institutes of Health Undiagnosed Diseases Program (NIH UDP applies translational research systematically to diagnose patients with undiagnosed diseases. The challenge is to implement an information system enabling scalable translational research. The authors hypothesized that similarly complex problems are resolvable through process management and the distributed cognition of communities. The team therefore built the NIH UDP Integrated Collaboration System (UDPICS to form virtual collaborative multidisciplinary research networks or communities. UDPICS supports these communities through integrated process management, ontology-based phenotyping, biospecimen management, cloud-based genomic analysis, and an electronic laboratory notebook. UDPICS provided a mechanism for efficient, transparent, and scalable translational research and thereby addressed many of the complex and diverse research and logistical problems of the NIH UDP. Full definition of the strengths and deficiencies of UDPICS will require formal qualitative and quantitative usability and process improvement measurement.

  14. MO-C-BRB-05: Translating NIH funding to a [potential] clinical device in breast cancer radiation therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, C. [Univ Maryland School of Medicine (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Diagnostic radiology and radiation oncology are arguably two of the most technologically advanced specialties in medicine. The imaging and radiation medicine technologies in clinical use today have been continuously improved through new advances made in the commercial and academic research arenas. This symposium explores the translational path from research through clinical implementation. Dr. Pettigrew will start this discussion by sharing his perspectives as director of the National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering (NIBIB). The NIBIB has focused on promoting research that is technological in nature and has high clinical impact. We are in the age of precision medicine, and the technological innovations and quantitative tools developed by engineers and physicists working with physicians are providing innovative tools that increase precision and improve outcomes in health care. NIBIB funded grants lead to a very high patenting rate (per grant dollar), and these patents have higher citation rates by other patents, suggesting greater clinical impact, as well. Two examples of clinical translation resulting from NIH-funded research will be presented, in radiation therapy and diagnostic imaging. Dr. Yu will describe a stereotactic radiotherapy device developed in his laboratory that is designed for treating breast cancer with the patient in the prone position. It uses 36 rotating Cobalt-60 sources positioned in an annular geometry to focus the radiation beam at the system’s isocenter. The radiation dose is delivered throughout the target volume in the breast by constantly moving the patient in a planned trajectory relative to the fixed isocenter. With this technique, the focal spot dynamically paints the dose distribution throughout the target volume in three dimensions. Dr. Jackson will conclude this symposium by describing the RSNA Quantitative Imaging Biomarkers Alliance (QIBA), which is funded in part by NIBIB and is a synergistic collaboration

  15. PERSPECTIVE: Translational neural engineering: multiple perspectives on bringing benchtop research into the clinical domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rousche, Patrick; Schneeweis, David M.; Perreault, Eric J.; Jensen, Winnie

    2008-03-01

    A half-day forum to address a wide range of issues related to translational neural engineering was conducted at the annual meeting of the Biomedical Engineering Society. Successful practitioners of translational neural engineering from academics, clinical medicine and industry were invited to share a diversity of perspectives and experiences on the translational process. The forum was targeted towards traditional academic researchers who may be interested in the expanded funding opportunities available for translational research that emphasizes product commercialization and clinical implementation. The seminar was funded by the NIH with support from the Rehabilitation Institute of Chicago. We report here a summary of the speaker viewpoints with particular focus on extracting successful strategies for engaging in or conducting translational neural engineering research. Daryl Kipke, PhD, (Department of Biomedical Engineering at the University of Michigan) and Molly Shoichet, PhD, (Department of Chemical Engineering at the University of Toronto) gave details of their extensive experience with product commercialization while holding primary appointments in academic departments. They both encouraged strong clinical input at very early stages of research. Neurosurgeon Fady Charbel, MD, (Department of Neurosurgery at the University of Illinois at Chicago) discussed his role in product commercialization as a clinician. Todd Kuiken, MD, PhD, (Director of the Neural Engineering for Artificial Limbs at the Rehabilitation Institute of Chicago, affiliated with Northwestern University) also a clinician, described a model of translational engineering that emphasized the development of clinically relevant technology, without a strong commercialization imperative. The clinicians emphasized the importance of communicating effectively with engineers. Representing commercial neural engineering was Doug Sheffield, PhD, (Director of New Technology at Vertis Neuroscience, Inc.) who

  16. Product- and Process Units in the CRITT Translation Process Research Database

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carl, Michael

    The first version of the "Translation Process Research Database" (TPR DB v1.0) was released In August 2012, containing logging data of more than 400 translation and text production sessions. The current version of the TPR DB, (v1.4), contains data from more than 940 sessions, which represents more...... than 300 hours of text production. The database provides the raw logging data, as well as Tables of pre-processed product- and processing units. The TPR-DB includes various types of simple and composed product and process units that are intended to support the analysis and modelling of human text...... reception, production, and translation processes. In this talk I describe some of the functions and features of the TPR-DB v1.4, and how they can be deployed in empirical human translation process research....

  17. Androgen signaling promotes translation of TMEFF2 in prostate cancer cells via phosphorylation of the α subunit of the translation initiation factor 2.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan F Overcash

    Full Text Available The type I transmembrane protein with epidermal growth factor and two follistatin motifs 2 (TMEFF2, is expressed mainly in brain and prostate. Expression of TMEFF2 is deregulated in prostate cancer, suggesting a role in this disease, but the molecular mechanism(s involved in this effect are not clear. Although androgens promote tmeff2 transcription, androgen delivery to castrated animals carrying CWR22 xenografts increases TMEFF2 protein levels in the absence of mRNA changes, suggesting that TMEFF2 may also be post-transcriptionally regulated. Here we show that translation of TMEFF2 is regulated by androgens. Addition of physiological concentrations of dihydrotestosterone (DHT to prostate cancer cell lines increases translation of endogenous TMEFF2 or transfected TMEFF2-Luciferase fusions, and this effect requires the presence of upstream open reading frames (uORFs in the 5'-untranslated region (5'-UTR of TMEFF2. Using chemical and siRNA inhibition of the androgen receptor (AR, we show that the androgen effect on TMEFF2 translation is mediated by the AR. Importantly, DHT also promotes phosphorylation of the α subunit of the translation initiation factor 2 (eIF2α in an AR-dependent manner, paralleling the effect on TMEFF2 translation. Moreover, endoplasmic reticulum (ER stress conditions, which promote eIF2α phosphorylation, also stimulate TMEFF2 translation. These results indicate that androgen signaling promotes eIF2α phosphorylation and subsequent translation of TMEFF2 via a mechanism that requires uORFs in the 5'-UTR of TMEFF2.

  18. Translational research in thoracic surgery—the National Taiwan University Hospital experience

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Mong-Wei; Yang, Pei-Wen; Lee, Jang-Ming

    2016-01-01

    Thoracic surgeons should be more aware of the latest information about histopathological, genetic and epigenetic alterations that may influence treatment policy and patient outcome in the biomolecular era. Translational research studies often produce a promising diagnostic tool or new treatment that can be used clinically. The results of these translational studies may even change the practical guidelines and current staging system in thoracic malignancies. The following article summarizes th...

  19. Deep and quantitative top-down proteomics in clinical and translational research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelleher, Neil L; Thomas, Paul M; Ntai, Ioanna; Compton, Philip D; LeDuc, Richard D

    2014-12-01

    It has long been understood that it is proteins, expressed and post-translationally modified, that are the primary regulators of both the fate and the function of cells. The ability to measure differences in the expression of the constellation of unique protein forms (proteoforms) with complete molecular specificity has the potential to sharply improve the return on investment for mass spectrometry-based proteomics in translational research and clinical diagnostics.

  20. Implementing Knowledge Translation Strategies in Funded Research in Canada and Australia: A Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    Gabriel Moore; Therese Fitzpatrick; Ivy Lim-Carter; Abby Haynes; Anna Flego; Barbara Snelgrove

    2016-01-01

    There is an emerging literature describing the use of knowledge translation strategies to increase the relevance and usability of research, yet there are few real-world examples of how this works in practice. This case study reports on the steps taken to embed knowledge translation strategies in the Movember Foundation's Men’s Mental Health Grant Rounds in 2013–14, which were implemented in Australia and Canada, and on the support provided to the applicants in developing their knowledge trans...

  1. Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Brain questionnaire: translation and linguistic adaptation to Brazilian Portuguese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Rodrigues Gazzotti

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Quality of life assessment among patients with brain tumors is important, given that new treatments have increased patient survival. The aim of this study was to translate the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Brain (FACT-Br questionnaire (version 4 into Portuguese, carry out cross-cultural adaptation and assess its reproducibility. DESIGN AND SETTING: Cohort at the Universidade Federal de São Paulo (Unifesp. METHODS: Forty patients with a brain tumor seen at the neuro-oncology outpatient clinic participated in the study. The process of translation and back-translation was carried out, along with adaptation to the Portuguese language and Brazilian culture. The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC was used to test the reproducibility of the FACT-Br (version 4. RESULTS: The reproducibility of the questionnaire was excellent (ICC = 0.95; 95% confidence interval, CI: 0.89-0.97. The ICC with a mean interval of 15 days between applications of the questionnaire was very good in all domains (ICC = 0.87 to 0.95. The mean time taken to answer the questionnaire was 6.27 ± 2.26 minutes, ranging from 3 to 11 minutes. CONCLUSION: The translated version of the FACT-Br questionnaire (version 4 adapted to the Portuguese language and Brazilian culture proved to be easily understood and achieved very good reproducibility among patients with diagnoses of brain tumors.

  2. Naturally occurring cancers in dogs: insights for translational genetics and medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Carlos E

    2014-01-01

    Here, we briefly review the state of knowledge of human cancer genetics to elaborate on the need for different types of mammalian models, highlighting the strengths of the dog. Mouse models are unparalleled for their experimental tractability and rapid genetic manipulation but have some key limitations in the area of human relevance. Companion dog models are attractive, because they are genetically more similar to humans, share environmental exposures with their owners, suffer from the same diseases as humans, and receive a high level of health care. They are ideal for the study of chronic diseases, because they age five to eight times faster than humans and generally live to old age. In addition, each dog breed is on the order of 100-fold genetically simpler than the whole human or dog population. These traits make the dog ideal for the study of complex genetics of naturally occurring cancers. Here, we contrast the relative strengths of cancer genetics in humans and dogs. We propose that humans are most ideal for the study of somatic cancer genetics, whereas dogs are most ideal for germline genetics. That proposition is supported by comparison of genome-wide association studies (GWASs) in human and canine cancer. One of the advantages of dog cancer GWASs is the ability to rapidly map complex traits, conduct fine mapping and identification of causative variation, and thus be in a position to move on to functional studies. We mention how these strengths of dog models will lead to rapid advances in translational medicine.

  3. A blended knowledge translation initiative to improve colorectal cancer staging [ISRCTN56824239

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan David P

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A significant gap has been documented between best practice and the actual practice of surgery. Our group identified that colorectal cancer staging in Ontario was suboptimal and subsequently developed a knowledge translation strategy using the principles of social marketing and the influence of expert and local opinion leaders for colorectal cancer. Methods/Design Opinion leaders were identified using the Hiss methodology. Hospitals in Ontario were cluster-randomized to one of two intervention arms. Both groups were exposed to a formal continuing medical education session given by the expert opinion leader for colorectal cancer. In the treatment group the local Opinion Leader for colorectal cancer was detailed by the expert opinion leader for colorectal cancer and received a toolkit. Forty-two centres agreed to have the expert opinion leader for colorectal cancer come and give a formal continuing medical education session that lasted between 50 minutes and 4 hours. No centres refused the intervention. These sessions were generally well attended by most surgeons, pathologists and other health care professionals at each centre. In addition all but one of the local opinion leaders for colorectal cancer met with the expert opinion leader for colorectal cancer for the academic detailing session that lasted between 15 and 30 minutes. Discussion We have enacted a unique study that has attempted to induce practice change among surgeons and pathologists using an adapted social marketing model that utilized the influence of both expert and local opinion leaders for colorectal cancer in a large geographic area with diverse practice settings.

  4. A translational research framework for enhanced validity of mouse models of psychopathological states in depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pryce, Christopher R; Seifritz, Erich

    2011-04-01

    Depression presents as a disorder of feelings and thoughts that debilitate daily functioning and can be life threatening. Increased understanding of these specific emotional-cognitive pathological states and their underlying pathophysiologies and neuropathologies is fundamental to an increased understanding of the disorder and, therefore, to development of much-needed improved therapies. Despite this, there is a current lack of emphasis on development and application of translational (i.e. valid) neuropsychological measures in depression research. The appropriate strategy is neuropsychological research translated, bi-directionally, between epidemiological and clinical human research and in vivo - ex vivo preclinical research conducted, primarily, with mice. This paper presents a translational framework to stimulate and inform such research, in four inter-dependent sections. (1) A depression systems-model describes the pathway between human environment-gene (E-G) epidemiology, pathophysiology, psycho- and neuropathology, symptoms, and diagnosis. This model indicates that G→emotional-cognitive endophenotypes and E-G/endophenotype→emotional-cognitive state markers are central to experimental and translational depression research. (2) Human neuropsychological tests with (potential) translational value for the quantitative study of these endophenotypes and state markers are presented. (3) The analogous rodent behavioural tests are presented and their translational validity in terms of providing analogue emotional-cognitive endophenotypes and state markers are discussed. (4) The need for aetiological validity of mouse models in terms of G→endophenotypes and E-G→state markers is presented. We conclude that the informed application of the proposed neuropsychological translational framework will yield mouse models of high face, construct and aetiological validity with respect to emotional-cognitive dysfunction in depression. These models, together with the available

  5. The role of imaging for translational research in bone tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benassi, Maria Serena, E-mail: mariaserena.benassi@ior.it [Laboratory of Experimental Oncology, Istituto Ortopedico Rizzoli, Via di Barbiano 1/10, 40136 Bologna (Italy); Rimondi, Eugenio, E-mail: eugenio.rimondi@ior.it [Radiology, Istituto Ortopedico Rizzoli, Bologna (Italy); Balladelli, Alba, E-mail: alba.balladelli@ior.it [Laboratory of Experimental Oncology, Istituto Ortopedico Rizzoli, Via di Barbiano 1/10, 40136 Bologna (Italy); Ghinelli, Cristina, E-mail: cristina.ghinelli@ior.it [Laboratory of Experimental Oncology, Istituto Ortopedico Rizzoli, Via di Barbiano 1/10, 40136 Bologna (Italy); Magagnoli, Giovanna, E-mail: giovanna.magagnoli@ior.it [Laboratory of Experimental Oncology, Istituto Ortopedico Rizzoli, Via di Barbiano 1/10, 40136 Bologna (Italy); Vanel, Daniel, E-mail: daniel.vanel@ior.it [Bone Tumor Center, Istituto Ortopedico Rizzoli, Bologna (Italy)

    2013-12-01

    Sarcomas are a heterogeneous group of rare connective tissue tumors, representing 1% of adult and 15% of childhood cancers for which biological and pathological information is still incomplete. In bone tumors patients with metastatic disease at onset, those who relapse and those with post-surgical secondary lesions still have a dismal outcome because of poor response to current therapies. Different molecular biology approaches have identified activated cell signalling pathways or specific molecular endpoints that may be considered potential drug targets or markers useful for diagnosis/prognosis in musculoskeletal pathology. Recently, advances in the field of molecular imaging allow visualization of cell and metabolic functions with the use of targets that include cell membrane receptors, enzymes of intracellular transport. Moreover advanced non-invasive newer imaging techniques like 18-FDG PET, quantitative dynamic-contrast MR imaging, diffusion weighted imaging have all shown a potential in distinguish malignant from benign lesions, in revealing the efficacy of therapy in tumors, the onset of recurrence and a good reliability in reckoning the percentage of necrosis in Ewing sarcoma and osteosarcoma. Thus, in vivo detection of imaging cancer biomarkers may be useful to better characterize those complex pathologic processes, such as apoptosis, proliferation and angiogenesis that determine tumor aggressiveness, providing not only complementary information of prognostic metabolic indicators, but also data in real-time on the efficacy of the treatment through the modulation of the cell metabolism.

  6. Translational research on crizotinib in EML4-ALK positive advanced non-small cell lung cancer%Crizotinib治疗EML4-ALK阳性晚期非小细胞肺癌的临床转化研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李嘉瑜; 李雪飞; 周彩存

    2012-01-01

    棘皮动物微管相关蛋白样4(echinoderm microtubule associated protein like 4,EMLA)间变性淋巴瘤激酶(anaplastic lymphoma kinase,ALK)融合基因(EML4-ALK)是近年来新发现的癌变驱动基因,该融合基因阳性的非小细胞肺癌(non-small cell lung cancer,NSCLC)患者有其独特的临床特征,可能与表皮生长因子受体(epidermal growth factor receptor,EGFR)酪氨酸激酶抑制剂(tyrosine kinase inhibitor,TKI)耐药相关.针对EML4-ALK基因突变的新靶向药物-ALK抑制剂crizotinib,现已经进入Ⅲ期临床试验.Ⅰ期及Ⅱ期临床试验均证实,crizotinib治疗EML4-ALK阳性晚期NSCLC患者有效,能够改善肿瘤患者症状,患者的无进展生存期(progression free survival,PFS)延长,总体有效率(overall response rate,ORR)提高.且crizotinib的毒性作用较小,与传统化疗相比,患者耐受性较好.与其他TKI一样,crizotinib也存在获得性耐药现象,其耐药机制有待进一步研究.本文就crizotinib从基础研究向治疗EML4-ALK阳性晚期NSCLC患者临床应用的转化过程作一回顾.

  7. Mentoring in Clinical-Translational Research: A Study of Participants in Master's Degree Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGinn, Aileen P; Lee, Linda S; Baez, Adriana; Zwanziger, Jack; Anderson, Karl E; Seely, Ellen W; Schoenbaum, Ellie

    2015-12-01

    Research projects in translational science are increasingly complex and require interdisciplinary collaborations. In the context of training translational researchers, this suggests that multiple mentors may be needed in different content areas. This study explored mentoring structure as it relates to perceived mentoring effectiveness and other characteristics of master's-level trainees in clinical-translational research training programs. A cross-sectional online survey of recent graduates of clinical research master's program was conducted. Of 73 surveys distributed, 56.2% (n = 41) complete responses were analyzed. Trainees were overwhelmingly positive about participation in their master's programs and the impact it had on their professional development. Overall the majority (≥75%) of trainees perceived they had effective mentoring in terms of developing skills needed for conducting clinical-translational research. Fewer trainees perceived effective mentoring in career development and work-life balance. In all 15 areas of mentoring effectiveness assessed, higher rates of perceived mentor effectiveness was seen among trainees with ≥2 mentors compared to those with solo mentoring (SM). In addition, trainees with ≥2 mentors perceived having effective mentoring in more mentoring aspects (median: 14.0; IQR: 12.0-15.0) than trainees with SM (median: 10.5; IQR: 8.0-14.5). Results from this survey suggest having ≥2 mentors may be beneficial in fulfilling trainee expectations for mentoring in clinical-translational training.

  8. Next generation distributed computing for cancer research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Pankaj; Owzar, Kouros

    2014-01-01

    Advances in next generation sequencing (NGS) and mass spectrometry (MS) technologies have provided many new opportunities and angles for extending the scope of translational cancer research while creating tremendous challenges in data management and analysis. The resulting informatics challenge is invariably not amenable to the use of traditional computing models. Recent advances in scalable computing and associated infrastructure, particularly distributed computing for Big Data, can provide solutions for addressing these challenges. In this review, the next generation of distributed computing technologies that can address these informatics problems is described from the perspective of three key components of a computational platform, namely computing, data storage and management, and networking. A broad overview of scalable computing is provided to set the context for a detailed description of Hadoop, a technology that is being rapidly adopted for large-scale distributed computing. A proof-of-concept Hadoop cluster, set up for performance benchmarking of NGS read alignment, is described as an example of how to work with Hadoop. Finally, Hadoop is compared with a number of other current technologies for distributed computing.

  9. Alliance Against Cancer, the network of Italian cancer centers bridging research and care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Paoli, Paolo; Ciliberto, Gennaro; Ferrarini, Manlio; Pelicci, PierGiuseppe; Dellabona, Paolo; De Lorenzo, Francesco; Mantovani, Alberto; Musto, Pellegrino; Opocher, Giuseppe; Picci, Piero; Ricciardi, Walter; De Maria, Ruggero

    2015-11-14

    Alliance Against Cancer (ACC) was established in Rome in 2002 as a consortium of six Italian comprehensive cancer centers (Founders). The aims of ACC were to promote a network among Italian oncologic institutions in order to develop specific, advanced projects in clinical and translational research. During the following years, many additional full and associate members joined ACC, that presently includes the National Institute of Health, 17 research-oriented hospitals, scientific and patient organizations. Furthermore, in the last three years ACC underwent a reorganization process that redesigned the structure, governance and major activities. The present goal of ACC is to achieve high standards of care across Italy, to implement and harmonize principles of modern personalized and precision medicine, by developing cost effective processes and to provide tailored information to cancer patients. We herein summarize some of the major initiatives that ACC is currently developing to reach its goal, including tumor genetic screening programs, establishment of clinical trial programs for cancer patients treated in Italian cancer centers, facilitate their access to innovative drugs under development, improve quality through an European accreditation process (European Organization of Cancer Institutes), and develop international partnerships. In conclusion, ACC is a growing organization, trying to respond to the need of networking in Italy and may contribute significantly to improve the way we face cancer in Europe.

  10. Lysyl oxidase in cancer research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perryman, Lara; Erler, Janine T

    2014-01-01

    Metastasis is the main reason for cancer-associated deaths and therapies are desperately needed to target the progression of cancer. Lysyl oxidase (LOX) plays a pivotal role in cancer progression, including metastasis, and is therefore is an attractive therapeutic target. In this review we will breakdown the process of cancer progression and the various roles that LOX plays has in the advancement of cancer. We will highlight why LOX is an exciting therapeutic target for the future.

  11. Distinguishing between exploratory and confirmatory preclinical research will improve translation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimmelman, Jonathan; Mogil, Jeffrey S; Dirnagl, Ulrich

    2014-05-01

    Preclinical researchers confront two overarching agendas related to drug development: selecting interventions amid a vast field of candidates, and producing rigorous evidence of clinical promise for a small number of interventions. We suggest that each challenge is best met by two different, complementary modes of investigation. In the first (exploratory investigation), researchers should aim at generating robust pathophysiological theories of disease. In the second (confirmatory investigation), researchers should aim at demonstrating strong and reproducible treatment effects in relevant animal models. Each mode entails different study designs, confronts different validity threats, and supports different kinds of inferences. Research policies should seek to disentangle the two modes and leverage their complementarity. In particular, policies should discourage the common use of exploratory studies to support confirmatory inferences, promote a greater volume of confirmatory investigation, and customize design and reporting guidelines for each mode.

  12. A Collaborative Translational Autism Research Program for the Military

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-26

    enrolled in the study and enhance biomedical research on the diagnosis, causes, and treatment of autism spectrum disorders (ASD), in general. With...involved in cholesterol synthesis, we demonstrated behavioral abnormalities consistent with a role for the pathway in neural development and, perhaps...the military will result in the improved diagnosis and care of those enrolled in the study and enhance biomedical research on the diagnosis, causes

  13. Integrating research, clinical practice and translation: the Singapore experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jiang; Wong, Damon Wing Kee; Zhang, Zhuo; Lee, Beng-Hai; Gao, Xinting; Yin, Fengshou; Zhang, Jielin; Htoo, Min Thet

    2013-01-01

    We introduce the experiences of the Singapore ocular imaging team, iMED, in integrating image processing and computer-aided diagnosis research with clinical practice and knowledge, towards the development of ocular image processing technologies for clinical usage with potential impact. In this paper, we outline key areas of research with their corresponding image modalities, as well as providing a systematic introduction of the datasets used for validation.

  14. Global Relevance of Translational Research in Engineering and Project Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kriengsak Panuwatwanich

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In this issue of the EPPM journal, we include five interesting papers reporting on the research undertaken within the contexts of five different countries: Italy, Norway, Saudi Arabia, Romania and Iran. These papers address various key issues in engineering and project management, including green building rating system, agile project management, construction delays, awarding process of public construction projects and Building Information Modelling (BIM. A good mixture of both quantitative and qualitative research methods is also worth noting in this issue.

  15. Translating active living research into policy and practice: one important pathway to chronic disease prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giles-Corti, Billie; Sallis, James F; Sugiyama, Takemi; Frank, Lawrence D; Lowe, Melanie; Owen, Neville

    2015-05-01

    Global concerns about rising levels of chronic disease make timely translation of research into policy and practice a priority. There is a need to tackle common risk factors: tobacco use, unhealthy diets, physical inactivity, and harmful alcohol use. Using evidence to inform policy and practice is challenging, often hampered by a poor fit between academic research and the needs of policymakers and practitioners--notably for active living researchers whose objective is to increase population physical activity by changing the ways cities are designed and built. We propose 10 strategies that may facilitate translation of research into health-enhancing urban planning policy. Strategies include interdisciplinary research teams of policymakers and practitioners; undertaking explicitly policy-relevant research; adopting appropriate study designs and methodologies (evaluation of policy initiatives as 'natural experiments'); and adopting dissemination strategies that include knowledge brokers, advocates, and lobbyists. Conducting more policy-relevant research will require training for researchers as well as different rewards in academia.

  16. Intra-professional dynamics in translational health research: the perspective of social scientists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currie, Graeme; El Enany, Nellie; Lockett, Andy

    2014-08-01

    In contrast to previous studies, which focus upon the professional dynamics of translational health research between clinician scientists and social scientists (inter-professional contestation), we focus upon contestation within social science (intra-professional contestation). Drawing on the empirical context of Collaborations for Leadership in Applied Health Research and Care (CLAHRCs) in England, we highlight that although social scientists accept subordination to clinician scientists, health services researchers attempt to enhance their position in translational health research vis-à-vis organisation scientists, whom they perceive as relative newcomers to the research domain. Health services researchers do so through privileging the practical impact of their research, compared to organisation scientists' orientation towards development of theory, which health services researchers argue is decoupled from any concern with healthcare improvement. The concern of health services researchers lies with maintaining existing patterns of resource allocation to support their research endeavours, working alongside clinician scientists, in translational health research. The response of organisation scientists is one that might be considered ambivalent, since, unlike health services researchers, they do not rely upon a close relationship with clinician scientists to carry out research, or more generally, garner resource.

  17. The Ripples and Waves of Educational Effectiveness Research: Some Comments to "Getting Lost in Translation"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheerens, Jaap

    2013-01-01

    The article "Getting lost in translation" by Harris, Chapman, Muijs and Reynolds addresses the engagement of policy-makers and educational practitioners with (the results of) educational effectiveness and improvement research. In this commentary the article is discussed from the perspectives of research utilisation, the solidity of the educational…

  18. The role of quantitative mass spectrometry in the discovery of pancreatic cancer biomarkers for translational science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansari, Daniel; Aronsson, Linus; Sasor, Agata; Welinder, Charlotte; Rezeli, Melinda; Marko-Varga, György; Andersson, Roland

    2014-04-05

    In the post-genomic era, it has become evident that genetic changes alone are not sufficient to understand most disease processes including pancreatic cancer. Genome sequencing has revealed a complex set of genetic alterations in pancreatic cancer such as point mutations, chromosomal losses, gene amplifications and telomere shortening that drive cancerous growth through specific signaling pathways. Proteome-based approaches are important complements to genomic data and provide crucial information of the target driver molecules and their post-translational modifications. By applying quantitative mass spectrometry, this is an alternative way to identify biomarkers for early diagnosis and personalized medicine. We review the current quantitative mass spectrometric technologies and analyses that have been developed and applied in the last decade in the context of pancreatic cancer. Examples of candidate biomarkers that have been identified from these pancreas studies include among others, asporin, CD9, CXC chemokine ligand 7, fibronectin 1, galectin-1, gelsolin, intercellular adhesion molecule 1, insulin-like growth factor binding protein 2, metalloproteinase inhibitor 1, stromal cell derived factor 4, and transforming growth factor beta-induced protein. Many of these proteins are involved in various steps in pancreatic tumor progression including cell proliferation, adhesion, migration, invasion, metastasis, immune response and angiogenesis. These new protein candidates may provide essential information for the development of protein diagnostics and targeted therapies. We further argue that new strategies must be advanced and established for the integration of proteomic, transcriptomic and genomic data, in order to enhance biomarker translation. Large scale studies with meta data processing will pave the way for novel and unexpected correlations within pancreatic cancer, that will benefit the patient, with targeted treatment.

  19. Basic research on cancer related to radiation associated medical researches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jong In; Hwang, Dae Yong; Bang, Ho Yoon [and others

    2000-12-01

    Basic Research on Cancer related to Radiation Associated Medical Researches including 1. Establishment of animal model of colorectal cancer liver metastasis and measurement of angiogenesis, 2. Tissue expression of Tie-1 and Tie-2 in human colorectal cancer, 3. Enhancement of G2/Mphase Cell Fraction by Adenovirus-mediated p53 Gene Transfer in Ovarian Cancer Cell Lines, 4. Clinical Characteristics of the patients with Non-B Non-C Hepatocellular Carcinoma and Frequency of HBV, HCV and TTV Viremia in these Patients, 5. Significance of serum iron and ferritin in patients with stomach cancer, 6. Telomerase assay for early detection of lung cancer, 7. Study on the Usefulness of Aldehyde dehydrogenase-2 Genotyping for Risk Group of Alcohol-related Cancer Screening, 8. Gene therapy using hepatoma specific promoter, 9. Study on the Influence of DNA repair gene, XRCC1 Genotypes on the Risk of Head and Neck Cancer were performed.

  20. The translation research in a dental setting (TRiaDS programme protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McKee Lorna

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is well documented that the translation of knowledge into clinical practice is a slow and haphazard process. This is no less true for dental healthcare than other types of healthcare. One common policy strategy to help promote knowledge translation is the production of clinical guidance, but it has been demonstrated that the simple publication of guidance is unlikely to optimise practice. Additional knowledge translation interventions have been shown to be effective, but effectiveness varies and much of this variation is unexplained. The need for researchers to move beyond single studies to develop a generalisable, theory based, knowledge translation framework has been identified. For dentistry in Scotland, the production of clinical guidance is the responsibility of the Scottish Dental Clinical Effectiveness Programme (SDCEP. TRiaDS (Translation Research in a Dental Setting is a multidisciplinary research collaboration, embedded within the SDCEP guidance development process, which aims to establish a practical evaluative framework for the translation of guidance and to conduct and evaluate a programme of integrated, multi-disciplinary research to enhance the science of knowledge translation. Methods Set in General Dental Practice the TRiaDS programmatic evaluation employs a standardised process using optimal methods and theory. For each SDCEP guidance document a diagnostic analysis is undertaken alongside the guidance development process. Information is gathered about current dental care activities. Key recommendations and their required behaviours are identified and prioritised. Stakeholder questionnaires and interviews are used to identify and elicit salient beliefs regarding potential barriers and enablers towards the key recommendations and behaviours. Where possible routinely collected data are used to measure compliance with the guidance and to inform decisions about whether a knowledge translation intervention is

  1. Lost and Found in Translation: An Ecological Approach to Bilingual Research Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin Jagosh PhD

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Translation issues emerged from a qualitative study, conducted in French and English, that gathered patient perspectives on a newly implemented undergraduate medical curriculum entitled Physicianship: The Physician as Professional and Healer. French-speaking participants were interviewed using a translated interview guide, originally developed in English. A major finding that francophone participants contested the idea of the physician-healer in a manner not witnessed among the anglophone participants. Consultation with multilingual health professionals was undertaken to explore whether the contestation was the result of poor translation of the word healer. This process confirmed that no appropriate French equivalent could be found. With hindsight, the authors emphasize the importance of pretesting translated research instrumentation. An ecological perspective on language equivalency is also emphasized, in which emergent linguistic discrepancies are viewed as opportunities for learning about the culture-language relationship.

  2. The CTSA Consortium's Catalog of Assets for Translational and Clinical Health Research (CATCHR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirey-Rice, Jana; Mapes, Brandy; Basford, Melissa; Zufelt, Anneliese; Wehbe, Firas; Harris, Paul; Alcorn, Michael; Allen, David; Arnim, Margaret; Autry, Susan; Briggs, Michael S; Carnegie, Andrea; Chavis-Keeling, Deborah; De La Pena, Carlos; Dworschak, Doris; Earnest, Julie; Grieb, Terri; Guess, Marilyn; Hafer, Nathaniel; Johnson, Tesheia; Kasper, Amanda; Kopp, Janice; Lockie, Timothy; Lombardo, Vincetta; McHale, Leslie; Minogue, Andrea; Nunnally, Beth; O'Quinn, Deanna; Peck, Kelly; Pemberton, Kieran; Perry, Cheryl; Petrie, Ginny; Pontello, Andria; Posner, Rachel; Rehman, Bushra; Roth, Deborah; Sacksteder, Paulette; Scahill, Samantha; Schieri, Lorri; Simpson, Rosemary; Skinner, Anne; Toussant, Kim; Turner, Alicia; Van der Put, Elaine; Wasser, June; Webb, Chris D; Williams, Maija; Wiseman, Lori; Yasko, Laurel; Pulley, Jill

    2014-04-01

    The 61 CTSA Consortium sites are home to valuable programs and infrastructure supporting translational science and all are charged with ensuring that such investments translate quickly to improved clinical care. Catalog of Assets for Translational and Clinical Health Research (CATCHR) is the Consortium's effort to collect and make available information on programs and resources to maximize efficiency and facilitate collaborations. By capturing information on a broad range of assets supporting the entire clinical and translational research spectrum, CATCHR aims to provide the necessary infrastructure and processes to establish and maintain an open-access, searchable database of consortium resources to support multisite clinical and translational research studies. Data are collected using rigorous, defined methods, with the resulting information made visible through an integrated, searchable Web-based tool. Additional easy-to-use Web tools assist resource owners in validating and updating resource information over time. In this paper, we discuss the design and scope of the project, data collection methods, current results, and future plans for development and sustainability. With increasing pressure on research programs to avoid redundancy, CATCHR aims to make available information on programs and core facilities to maximize efficient use of resources.

  3. Molecular imaging of prostate cancer: translating molecular biology approaches into the clinical realm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vargas, Hebert Alberto; Sala, Evis; Hricak, Hedvig [Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, Department of Radiology, New York, NY (United States); Grimm, Jan [Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, Department of Radiology, New York, NY (United States); Program in Molecular Pharmacology and Chemistry, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York (United States); Donati, Olivio F. [Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, Department of Radiology, New York, NY (United States); University Hospital Zurich, Institute of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Zurich (Switzerland)

    2015-05-01

    The epidemiology of prostate cancer has dramatically changed since the introduction of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) screening in the 1980's. Most prostate cancers today are detected at early stages of the disease and are considered 'indolent'; however, some patients' prostate cancers demonstrate a more aggressive behaviour which leads to rapid progression and death. Increasing understanding of the biology underlying the heterogeneity that characterises this disease has led to a continuously evolving role of imaging in the management of prostate cancer. Functional and metabolic imaging techniques are gaining importance as the impact on the therapeutic paradigm has shifted from structural tumour detection alone to distinguishing patients with indolent tumours that can be managed conservatively (e.g., by active surveillance) from patients with more aggressive tumours that may require definitive treatment with surgery or radiation. In this review, we discuss advanced imaging techniques that allow direct visualisation of molecular interactions relevant to prostate cancer and their potential for translation to the clinical setting in the near future. The potential use of imaging to follow molecular events during drug therapy as well as the use of imaging agents for therapeutic purposes will also be discussed. (orig.)

  4. Nutrition and Cancer Prevention Research Practicum | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Nutritional Science Research Group in the Division of Cancer Prevention at the National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health and the Department of Nutrition at the Clinical Center, National Institutes of Health are offering a one week educational opportunity in "Nutrition and Cancer Prevention Research" for individuals with a sustained commitment to nutrition and health promotion. This one-week intense learning session provides specialized instruction in the role of diet and bioactive food components as modifiers of cancer incidence and tumor behavior. |

  5. From Comparison to Translation: Extending the Research Imagination?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dale, Roger

    2006-01-01

    This paper addresses Appadurai's challenge to expand the research imagination. It follows Boaventura de Sousa Santos in suggesting a need to separate analytically the trajectories of capitalism and modernity. For Santos, this involves the recognition that we cannot solve the problems of postmodernity with the tools of modernity. The paper…

  6. The Mindful Teacher: Translating Research into Daily Well-Being

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eva, Amy L.; Thayer, Natalie M.

    2017-01-01

    This article features a stress management approach that is becoming increasingly influential in schools: mindfulness-based stress reduction. The authors describe what it is, provide research-based evidence of its usefulness, and highlight mindfulness resources that educators can use to manage stress and improve their well-being (including…

  7. Research Dissemination and Diffusion: Translation within Science and Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerner, Jon F.; Hall, Kara L.

    2009-01-01

    In moving health and social service programs from planning into action, it is essential to understand the extent to which the knowledge gained from research should influence the actions taken by organizations and agencies that provide services (e.g., government, nongovernment organizations [NGOs]). The complexity of the challenges in translating…

  8. Lost in Translation: Aligning Strategies for Research in New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billot, Jennie; Codling, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    In New Zealand, the funding of higher education research has been influenced by revised policy-driven imperatives. Amidst the institutional reactions to new criteria for governmental funding, individual academics are being asked to increase their productivity in order for their employing institution to access public funding. For this to occur,…

  9. Translating University Biosensor Research to a High School Laboratory Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heldt, Caryn L.; Bank, Alex; Turpeinen, Dylan; King, Julia A.

    2016-01-01

    The need to increase science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) graduates is great. To interest more students into STEM degrees, we made our graphene biosensor research portable, inexpensive, and safe to demonstrate technology development to high school students. The students increased their knowledge of biosensors and proteins, and…

  10. The Translators: The Media and School Choice Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotherham, Andrew J.

    2008-01-01

    The media play a pivotal role in determining how and why research influences public opinion with regard to policy. Prominent columns and articles, especially in the big East Coast papers, influence political behavior among the policy and political elites and offer signals about elite thought and opinion on key issues. The debates about the…

  11. Cognitive testing of pigs (Sus scrofa) in translational biobehavioral research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kornum, Birgitte R; Knudsen, Gitte M

    2011-01-01

    Within neuroscience and biobehavioral research, the pig (Sus scrofus) is increasingly being acknowledged as a valuable large animal species. Compared to the rodent brain, the pig brain more closely resembles the human brain in terms of both anatomy and biochemistry, which associates the pig with ...

  12. Translational Research in Aphasia: From Neuroscience to Neurorehabilitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymer, Anastasia M.; Beeson, Pelagie; Holland, Audrey; Kendall, Diane; Maher, Lynn M.; Martin, Nadine; Murray, Laura; Rose, Miranda; Thompson, Cynthia K.; Turkstra, Lyn; Altmann, Lori; Boyle, Mary; Conway, Tim; Hula, William; Kearns, Kevin; Rapp, Brenda; Simmons-Mackie, Nina; Gonzalez Rothi, Leslie J.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: In this article, the authors encapsulate discussions of the Language Work Group that took place as part of the Workshop in Plasticity/NeuroRehabilitation Research at the University of Florida in April 2005. Method: In this narrative review, they define neuroplasticity and review studies that demonstrate neural changes associated with…

  13. Using knowledge translation as a framework for the design of a research protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredericks, Suzanne; Martorella, Géraldine; Catallo, Cristina

    2015-05-01

    Knowledge translation has been defined as the synthesis, dissemination, exchange and ethically sound application of knowledge to improve health, resulting in a stronger health-care system. Using KT activities to aid in the adoption of evidence into practice can address current health-care challenges such as increasing organizational practice standards, alleviating the risk for adverse events and meeting practitioner needs for evidence at the bedside. Two general forms of KT have been identified. These being integrated KT and end-of-grant KT. Integrated KT involves the knowledge users in the research team and in the majority of stages of the research process. End-of-grant KT relates to the translation of findings through a well-developed dissemination plan. This paper describes the process of using an integrated knowledge translation approach to design a research protocol that will examine the effectiveness of a web-based patient educational intervention. It begins with a description of integrated knowledge translation, followed by the presentation of a specific case example in which integrated knowledge translation is used to develop a nursing intervention. The major elements of integrated knowledge translation pertain to need for a knowledge user who represents the broad target user group, and who is knowledgeable in the area under investigation and who as authority to enact changes to practice. Use of knowledge users as equal partners within the research team; exploring all feasible opportunities for knowledge exchange; and working with knowledge users to identify all outcomes related to knowledge translation are the other major elements of integrated knowledge translation that are addressed throughout this paper. Furthermore, the relevance of psychosocial or educational interventions to knowledge translation is also discussed as a source of knowledge. In summary, integrated knowledge translation is an important tool for the development of new interventions, as

  14. Research on Usages of “of” in the Translation of Song Lyrics:A Corpus-based Study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴佩

    2015-01-01

    This paper analyses the usages of “of” in Xu Yuanchong’s English version of translated Song Lyrics with a smal self-built corpus. The goal of this research is to conclude the most frequent usages of “of” in translating Song Lyrics and to find some special usages of “of” in translating Chinese Classics.

  15. Genomic Datasets for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    A variety of datasets from genome-wide association studies of cancer and other genotype-phenotype studies, including sequencing and molecular diagnostic assays, are available to approved investigators through the Extramural National Cancer Institute Data Access Committee.

  16. IPRs in biobanking- risks and opportunities for translational research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Minssen, Timo; Verlinden, Michiel; Huys, Isabelle

    2015-01-01

    will analyze and discuss potential strategies and options to stimulate the exchange of HBM, data and research results. It will also look into the question of how to address, govern and manage IPRs directed to biobank material and data. This will ultimately allow us to draw conclusions in section 3.......The gradual shift from traditional closed innovation systems to more “open” and “transparent” innovation models, rapid technological advances and bio-pharmaceutical innovation gaps have highlighted the importance of an effective governance and use of biobanks. This raises important legal questions...... such as how to deal with intellectual property rights (‘IPRs’) that might arise out of the collection and use of samples and data in research. Only a few projects highlighted the opportunities and potential benefits of user-generated solutions and proper governance of IPRs. This paper aims to provide...

  17. Translating health research evidence into policy and practice in Uganda

    OpenAIRE

    Mbonye, Anthony K; Magnussen, Pascal

    2013-01-01

    Background Uganda experiences a high disease burden of malaria, infectious and non-communicable diseases. Recent data shows that malaria is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality among all age groups, while HIV prevalence is on the increase and there is re-emergence of viral haemorrhagic fevers and cholera epidemics. In order to respond to the above situation, a team of researchers, policy makers, civil society and the media was formed in order to build a collaboration that would help i...

  18. Translational systems biology using an agent-based approach for dynamic knowledge representation: An evolutionary paradigm for biomedical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Gary C

    2010-01-01

    The greatest challenge facing the biomedical research community is the effective translation of basic mechanistic knowledge into clinically effective therapeutics. This challenge is most evident in attempts to understand and modulate "systems" processes/disorders, such as sepsis, cancer, and wound healing. Formulating an investigatory strategy for these issues requires the recognition that these are dynamic processes. Representation of the dynamic behavior of biological systems can aid in the investigation of complex pathophysiological processes by augmenting existing discovery procedures by integrating disparate information sources and knowledge. This approach is termed Translational Systems Biology. Focusing on the development of computational models capturing the behavior of mechanistic hypotheses provides a tool that bridges gaps in the understanding of a disease process by visualizing "thought experiments" to fill those gaps. Agent-based modeling is a computational method particularly well suited to the translation of mechanistic knowledge into a computational framework. Utilizing agent-based models as a means of dynamic hypothesis representation will be a vital means of describing, communicating, and integrating community-wide knowledge. The transparent representation of hypotheses in this dynamic fashion can form the basis of "knowledge ecologies," where selection between competing hypotheses will apply an evolutionary paradigm to the development of community knowledge.

  19. An informatics supported web-based data annotation and query tool to expedite translational research for head and neck malignancies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ridge-Hetrick Jennifer

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Specialized Program of Research Excellence (SPORE in Head and Neck Cancer neoplasm virtual biorepository is a bioinformatics-supported system to incorporate data from various clinical, pathological, and molecular systems into a single architecture based on a set of common data elements (CDEs that provides semantic and syntactic interoperability of data sets. Results The various components of this annotation tool include the Development of Common Data Elements (CDEs that are derived from College of American Pathologists (CAP Checklist and North American Association of Central Cancer Registries (NAACR standards. The Data Entry Tool is a portable and flexible Oracle-based data entry device, which is an easily mastered web-based tool. The Data Query Tool helps investigators and researchers to search de-identified information within the warehouse/resource through a "point and click" interface, thus enabling only the selected data elements to be essentially copied into a data mart using a multi dimensional model from the warehouse's relational structure. The SPORE Head and Neck Neoplasm Database contains multimodal datasets that are accessible to investigators via an easy to use query tool. The database currently holds 6553 cases and 10607 tumor accessions. Among these, there are 965 metastatic, 4227 primary, 1369 recurrent, and 483 new primary cases. The data disclosure is strictly regulated by user's authorization. Conclusion The SPORE Head and Neck Neoplasm Virtual Biorepository is a robust translational biomedical informatics tool that can facilitate basic science, clinical, and translational research. The Data Query Tool acts as a central source providing a mechanism for researchers to efficiently find clinically annotated datasets and biospecimens that are relevant to their research areas. The tool protects patient privacy by revealing only de-identified data in accordance with regulations and approvals of the IRB and

  20. Nebraska Prostate Cancer Research Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-01

    MacDonald, Richard G; Mehta, Parmender P; Mott, Justin L; Naslavsky, Naava; Palanimuthu Ponnusamy, Moorthy; Ramaley, Robert F; Sorgen, Paul L; Steinke...feedback regulation of PI3K and androgen receptor signaling in PTEN-deficient prostate cancer, Cancer Cell 19 (2011) 575–586. [29] B.J. Feldman , D... Feldman , The development of androgen-independent prostate cancer, Nat. Rev. Cancer 1 (2001) 34–45. [30] J.D. Debes, D.J. Tindall, Mechanisms of androgen

  1. Translating research findings to promote peace: moving from "field to forum" with verbatim theatre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liehr, Patricia; Morris, Kate; Leavitt, Mary Ann; Takahashi, Ryutaro

    2013-01-01

    Peace, both personal and global, resides in understanding. Verbatim theatre is introduced as a vehicle for translating research findings to promote understanding and thereby, promote health. By shifting our translation lens from "bench to bedside" to "field to forum," new opportunities arise for moving nursing research-findings to an engaged audience. Stories from Pearl Harbor and Hiroshima survivors were woven into the verbatim performance, With Their Voices Raised. Analysis of audience members' reflections after the performance suggests that verbatim theatre created a connection based in openness, engagement, and trust that informed understanding and raised awareness about peace processes.

  2. The emerging immunological role of post-translational modifications by reactive nitrogen species in cancer microenvironment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco eDe Sanctis

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Under many inflammatory contexts, such as tumor progression, systemic and peripheral immune response is tailored by reactive nitrogen species (RNS-dependent post-translational modifications, suggesting a biological function for these chemical alterations. RNS modify both soluble factors and receptors essential to induce and maintain a tumor-specific immune response, creating a chemical barrier that impairs effector T cell infiltration and functionality in tumor microenvironment and supports the escape phase of cancer. RNS generation during tumor growth mainly depends on nitric oxide production by both tumor cells and tumor-infiltrating myeloid cells that constitutively activate essential metabolic pathways of L-arginine catabolism. This review provides an overview of the potential immunological and biological role of RNS-induced modifications and addresses new approaches targeting RNS either in search of novel biomarkers or to improve anti-cancer treatment.

  3. The emerging immunological role of post-translational modifications by reactive nitrogen species in cancer microenvironment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Sanctis, Francesco; Sandri, Sara; Ferrarini, Giovanna; Pagliarello, Irene; Sartoris, Silvia; Ugel, Stefano; Marigo, Ilaria; Molon, Barbara; Bronte, Vincenzo

    2014-01-01

    Under many inflammatory contexts, such as tumor progression, systemic and peripheral immune response is tailored by reactive nitrogen species (RNS)-dependent post-translational modifications, suggesting a biological function for these chemical alterations. RNS modify both soluble factors and receptors essential to induce and maintain a tumor-specific immune response, creating a "chemical barrier" that impairs effector T cell infiltration and functionality in tumor microenvironment and supports the escape phase of cancer. RNS generation during tumor growth mainly depends on nitric oxide production by both tumor cells and tumor-infiltrating myeloid cells that constitutively activate essential metabolic pathways of l-arginine catabolism. This review provides an overview of the potential immunological and biological role of RNS-induced modifications and addresses new approaches targeting RNS either in search of novel biomarkers or to improve anti-cancer treatment.

  4. Multi-modality molecular imaging for gastric cancer research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Jimin; Chen, Xueli; Liu, Junting; Hu, Hao; Qu, Xiaochao; Wang, Fu; Nie, Yongzhan

    2011-12-01

    Because of the ability of integrating the strengths of different modalities and providing fully integrated information, multi-modality molecular imaging techniques provide an excellent solution to detecting and diagnosing earlier cancer, which remains difficult to achieve by using the existing techniques. In this paper, we present an overview of our research efforts on the development of the optical imaging-centric multi-modality molecular imaging platform, including the development of the imaging system, reconstruction algorithms and preclinical biomedical applications. Primary biomedical results show that the developed optical imaging-centric multi-modality molecular imaging platform may provide great potential in the preclinical biomedical applications and future clinical translation.

  5. African Organization for Research and Training in Cancer: position and vision for cancer research on the African Continent

    OpenAIRE

    Ogunbiyi, J. Olufemi; Stefan, D. Cristina; Timothy R. Rebbeck

    2016-01-01

    The African Organization for Research and training in Cancer (AORTIC) bases the following position statements on a critical appraisal of the state on cancer research and cancer care in Africa including information on the availability of data on cancer burden, screening and prevention for cancer in Africa, cancer care personnel, treatment modalities, and access to cancer care.

  6. Recalibrating intellectual property rights to enhance translational research collaborations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bubela, Tania; FitzGerald, Garret A; Gold, E Richard

    2012-02-22

    Multisectoral collaborative models for drug and therapeutic research and development (R&D) are emerging, requiring a recalibration of how intellectual property rights (IPRs) are used. Although these models appear promising, little study has been conducted on the optimal blend of sharing and exclusion as mediated through the proactive use or nonuse of IPRs. This Commentary is a call for a combination of theoretical and empirical analyses to build a comprehensive understanding of the interplay between formal IP laws, institutions that administer and manage IPRs, and the use of IPRs in practice to better construct and manage collaborations. Such analyses require outcome metrics formulated to measure the success of therapeutic outcomes and to capture the complexity of a highly networked R&D environment.

  7. Lost in Translation? On Mind and Matter in Management Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline Fendt

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Again and again scholars evoke a seriously dysfunctional relationship between management research and education on the one hand, and the practice of management on the other. We share this viewpoint, and with this appraisal intend to (re-open the debate. We expose some views on the intellectual and sociological roots of the malaise, advocating a philosophical stance rooted in pragmatism and particularly in John Dewey’s pragmatic stance. We outline a number of essentially workable, albeit for debate’s sake provocative and unpolished proposals for the redesign of academic institutions and of their publishing process. We sketch out radical redesign of academia—with, inter alia, (a permeable academic and practical careers, so that executives and scholars could move between and act within each others’ realities; (b a focus of management education on post-experience graduate level; and (c an academic publishing process worthy of the real-time era of the Internet.

  8. Translating health research evidence into policy and practice in Uganda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mbonye, Anthony K; Magnussen, Pascal

    2013-01-01

    Uganda experiences a high disease burden of malaria, infectious and non-communicable diseases. Recent data shows that malaria is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality among all age groups, while HIV prevalence is on the increase and there is re-emergence of viral haemorrhagic fevers and ch...... and cholera epidemics. In order to respond to the above situation, a team of researchers, policy makers, civil society and the media was formed in order to build a collaboration that would help in discussing appropriate strategies to mitigate the high disease burden in Uganda.......Uganda experiences a high disease burden of malaria, infectious and non-communicable diseases. Recent data shows that malaria is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality among all age groups, while HIV prevalence is on the increase and there is re-emergence of viral haemorrhagic fevers...

  9. Insights from Ayurveda for translational stem cell research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Kalpana S; Bhonde, Ramesh

    2014-01-01

    Ayurveda, the traditional Indian system of medicine has given great emphasis to the promotion of health. Ayurveda therapies are based on restoration of body balance and nourishment of dhatus or tissues. Rasayana concept of Ayurveda explains tissue regeneration and cell renewal. The drugs and therapies explained as rasayana provide research opportunities for biology of regeneration. Specific rasayana stimulate and nourish respective dhatus. Interpretation of this description offers clues for specific differentiation of stem cells with appropriate extract. The preliminary experiments on Medhya drugs suggest neuronal stem cells differentiation. Authors highlight the potential of Ayurveda and its possible contributions in regenerative medicine. Authors propose a protocol based on integrative approach derived from Ayurveda concepts and current understanding of regenerative medicine. The advanced understanding about adult and embryonic stem cells along with concepts of regeneration in Ayurveda has immense potential in the development of regenerative medicine.

  10. Financing prevention: opportunities for economic analysis across the translational research cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowley, D Max; Jones, Damon

    2016-03-01

    Prevention advocates often make the case that preventive intervention not only improves public health and welfare but also can save public resources. Increasingly, evidence-based policy efforts considering prevention are focusing on how programs can save taxpayer resources from reduced burden on health, criminal justice, and social service systems. Evidence of prevention's return has begun to draw substantial investments from the public and private sector. Yet, translating prevention effectiveness into economic impact requires specific economic analyses to be employed across the stages of translational research. This work discusses the role of economic analysis in prevention science and presents key translational research opportunities to meet growing demand for estimates of prevention's economic and fiscal impact.

  11. Enacting the 'neuro' in practice: translational research, adhesion and the promise of porosity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brosnan, Caragh; Michael, Mike

    2014-10-01

    This article attends to the processes through which neuroscience and the neuro are enacted in a specific context: a translational neuroscience research group that was the setting of an ethnographic study. The article therefore provides a close-up perspective on the intersection of neuroscience and translational research. In the scientific setting we studied, the neuro was multiple and irreducible to any particular entity or set of practices across a laboratory and clinical divide. Despite this multiplicity, the group's work was held together through the 'promise of porosity'--that one day there would be translation of lab findings into clinically effective intervention. This promise was embodied in the figure of the Group Leader whose expertise spanned clinical and basic neurosciences. This is theorized in terms of a contrast between cohesion and adhesion in interdisciplinary groupings. We end by speculating on the role of 'vivification'--in our case mediated by the Group Leader--in rendering 'alive' the expectations of interdisciplinary collaboration.

  12. Developing a multidisciplinary model of comparative effectiveness research within a clinical and translational science award.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marantz, Paul R; Strelnick, A Hal; Currie, Brian; Bhalla, Rohit; Blank, Arthur E; Meissner, Paul; Selwyn, Peter A; Walker, Elizabeth A; Hsu, Daphne T; Shamoon, Harry

    2011-06-01

    The Clinical and Translational Science Awards (CTSAs) were initiated to improve the conduct and impact of the National Institutes of Health's research portfolio, transforming training programs and research infrastructure at academic institutions and creating a nationwide consortium. They provide a model for translating research across disciplines and offer an efficient and powerful platform for comparative effectiveness research (CER), an effort that has long struggled but enjoys renewed hope under health care reform. CTSAs include study design and methods expertise, informatics, and regulatory support; programs in education, training, and career development in domains central to CER; and programs in community engagement.Albert Einstein College of Medicine of Yeshiva University and Montefiore Medical Center have entered a formal partnership that places their CTSA at a critical intersection for clinical and translational research. Their CTSA leaders were asked to develop a strategy for enhancing CER activities, and in 2010 they developed a model that encompasses four broadly defined "compartments" of research strength that must be coordinated for this enterprise to succeed: evaluation and health services research, biobehavioral research and prevention, efficacy studies and clinical trials, and social science and implementation research.This article provides historical context for CER, elucidates Einstein-Montefiore's CER model and strategic planning efforts, and illustrates how a CTSA can provide vision, leadership, coordination, and services to support an academic health center's collaborative efforts to develop a robust CER portfolio and thus contribute to the national effort to improve health and health care.

  13. SY 18-1 TRANSLATIONAL RESEARCH IN PAH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Wook-Jin

    2016-09-01

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a life-threatening disorder with a poor prognosis and causes pulmonary vascular remodeling accompanied with increased pulmonary arterial medial wall thickness and fibrosis, which leads to vascular and right ventricular (RV) dysfunction. Despite treatment with prostacyclin, endothelin antagonist, and phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitors the 1-year mortality rate of PAH still remains high. Recent registries, clinical trials, and basic researches have been increasing the knowledge of PAH and it would contribute to potential therapeutic strategies and better clinical outcome.Korean Registry of Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension (KORPAH) is the first modern PAH registries in Asian ethnicity. Total 39 centers participated and 625 patients were enrolled. This study evaluated the incidence, prevalence, epidemiology, therapeutic modalities and survival data of Korean patients with PAH."Gachon experiences" was to characterize the clinical outcomes and evaluate the factors influencing survival time of the PAH patients in Korean. This study compared the cumulative survival of total 43 PAH patients who received targeted or conventional therapy.PAH Ilopost BMPR-2 gene in Korea IIT Multi-institutional (PILGRIM) is a prospective, investigator-initiative, and multi-institutional clinical trials. This study was recently completed in March by 7 institutes, and aimed to investigate (1) the prevalence of BMPR-2 gene mutations in the Korean PAH patients and (2) the effect of iloprost inhalation solution on hemodynamic response, and exercise echocardiography.PAH basic research focuses on two major themes: (1) Systematic comparison of the effects of adipose tissue, bone marrow and umbilical cord blood-derived mesenchymal stem cell transplantation on MCT-induced PAH in rats and (2) investigation of the effect of human UCB-derived MSC (hUCB-MSC) transplantation combined with apelin-13 administration on MCT-induced PAH in rats. Data suggests that, although the

  14. In support of descriptive studies; relevance to translational research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marincola Francesco M

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The contemporary scientific establishment equates hypothesis testing to good science. This stance bypasses the preliminary need to identify a worthwhile hypothesis through rigorous observation of natural processes. If alleviation of human suffering is claimed as the goal of a scientific undertaking, it would be unfair to test a hypothesis whose relevance to human disease has not been satisfactorily proven. Here, we argue that descriptive investigations based on direct human observation should be highly valued and regarded essential for the selection of worthwhile hypotheses while the pursuit of costly scientific investigations without such evidence is a desecration of the cause upon which biomedical research is grounded. There are good things so in the tide pools and interesting thoughts to be generated from the seeing. Every new eye applied to the peephole which looks out at the world may fish in some new beauty and some new pattern, and the world of the human mind must be enriched by such fishing. John Steinbeck – Foreword to the Third Edition of Ed Ricketts' "Tides".

  15. Translating advances in reading comprehension research to educational practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle S. McNAMARA

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The authors review five major findings in reading comprehension and their implications for educational practice. First, research suggests that comprehension skills are separable from decodingprocesses and important at early ages, suggesting that comprehension skills should be targeted early, even before the child learns to read. Second, there is an important distinction between readingprocesses and products, as well as their causal relationship: processes lead to certain products. Hence, instructional approaches and strategies focusing on processes are needed to improve students’reading performance (i.e., product. Third, inferences are a crucial component of skilled comprehension. Hence, children need scaffolding and remediation to learn to generate inferences, even when they know little about the text topic. Fourth, comprehension depends on a complex interaction between the reader, the characteristics of the text, and the instructional task, highlighting the need for careful selection of instructional materials for individual students and specific groups of students. Finally, educators may benefit from heightened awareness of the limitations and inadequacies of standardized reading comprehension assessments, as well as the multidimensionality of comprehension to better understand their students’ particular strengths and weaknesses.

  16. Translational Creativity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sandro

    2010-01-01

    A long-established approach to legal translation focuses on terminological equivalence making translators strictly follow the words of source texts. Recent research suggests that there is room for some creativity allowing translators to deviate from the source texts. However, little attention...... is given to genre conventions in source texts and the ways in which they can best be translated. I propose that translators of statutes with an informative function in expert-to-expert communication may be allowed limited translational creativity when translating specific types of genre convention....... This creativity is a result of translators adopting either a source-language or a target-language oriented strategy and is limited by the pragmatic principle of co-operation. Examples of translation options are provided illustrating the different results in target texts. The use of a target-language oriented...

  17. Proteomic analysis of tissue samples in translational breast cancer research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gromov, Pavel; Moreira, José; Gromova, Irina

    2014-01-01

    , and both prognosis and prediction of outcome of chemotherapy. The purpose of this review is to critically appraise what has been achieved to date using proteomic technologies and to bring forward novel strategies - based on the analysis of clinically relevant samples - that promise to accelerate......In the last decade, many proteomic technologies have been applied, with varying success, to the study of tissue samples of breast carcinoma for protein expression profiling in order to discover protein biomarkers/signatures suitable for: characterization and subtyping of tumors; early diagnosis...

  18. Translating Volcano Hazards Research in the Cascades Into Community Preparedness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewert, J. W.; Driedger, C. L.

    2015-12-01

    Research by the science community into volcanic histories and physical processes at Cascade volcanoes in the states of Washington, Oregon, and California has been ongoing for over a century. Eruptions in the 20th century at Lassen Peak and Mount St. Helen demonstrated the active nature of Cascade volcanoes; the 1980 eruption of Mount St. Helens was a defining moment in modern volcanology. The first modern volcano hazards assessments were produced by the USGS for some Cascade volcanoes in the 1960s. A rich scientific literature exists, much of which addresses hazards at these active volcanoes. That said community awareness, planning, and preparation for eruptions generally do not occur as a result of a hazard analyses published in scientific papers, but by direct communication with scientists. Relative to other natural hazards, volcanic eruptions (or large earthquakes, or tsunami) are outside common experience, and the public and many public officials are often surprised to learn of the impacts volcanic eruptions could have on their communities. In the 1980s, the USGS recognized that effective hazard communication and preparedness is a multi-faceted, long-term undertaking and began working with federal, state, and local stakeholders to build awareness and foster community action about volcano hazards. Activities included forming volcano-specific workgroups to develop coordination plans for volcano emergencies; a concerted public outreach campaign; curriculum development and teacher training; technical training for emergency managers and first responders; and development of hazard information that is accessible to non-specialists. Outcomes include broader ownership of volcano hazards as evidenced by bi-national exchanges of emergency managers, community planners, and first responders; development by stakeholders of websites focused on volcano hazards mitigation; and execution of table-top and functional exercises, including evacuation drills by local communities.

  19. Gut Microbiota: From Fundamental Research to Translational Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yujing Bi

    2015-12-01

    aroused strong interest in recent years, is reported to be a highly successful therapy for recurrent Clostridium difficile infection. These studies support novel research ideas that are no longer focused solely on the host, but rather on the intimacy of the host-microbiota relationship. Considering the relative ease of regulating the gut microbiota[1], targeting these organisms through diet, prebiotics, probiotics, or other methods may become a useful strategy for curing diseases. To date, a large number of studies have been devoted to uncovering the relationship between microbial metabolites and human diseases, and it is highly likely that more bacterial or related pathways involved in human disease will be identified. In the future, targeting the microbiome may represent an effective and complementary strategy to current approaches for preventing and treating diseases.

  20. Technology-Enabled Knowledge Translation: Frameworks to Promote Research and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Kendall; Bloch, Ralph; Gondocz, Tunde; Laprise, Rejean; Perrier, Laure; Ryan, David; Thivierge, Robert; Wenghofer, Elizabeth

    2004-01-01

    Knowledge translation articulates how new scientific insights can be implemented efficiently into clinical practice to reap maximal health benefits. Modern information and communication technologies can be effective tools to help in the collection, processing, and targeted distribution of information from which clinicians, researchers,…

  1. Four Generations of Machine Translation Research and Prospects for the Future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilks, Yorick

    This paper begins with a description of four generations of research in machine translation: the original efforts of 1957 to 1965 and three types of surviving and sometimes competing present projects. The three types of present projects include those relying on "brute force" methods involving larger and faster computers; those based on a…

  2. 78 FR 8546 - National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences (NCATS) and National Human Genome Research...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-06

    ... Gaucher and Other Diseases SUMMARY: The National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences (NCATS) and...-inhibitory chaperones of glucocerebrosidase (GCase) for the treatment of Gaucher and other diseases... for inventions arising from the performance of the CRADA research plan. Gaucher disease, the...

  3. From the Form to the Face to Face: IRBs, Ethnographic Researchers, and Human Subjects Translate Consent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metro, Rosalie

    2014-01-01

    Based on my fieldwork with Burmese teachers in Thailand, I describe the drawbacks of using IRB-mandated written consent procedures in my cross-cultural collaborative ethnographic research on education. Drawing on theories of intersubjectivity (Mikhail Bakhtin), ethics (Emmanuel Levinas), and translation (Naoki Sakai), I describe face-to-face…

  4. What Does It Mean to Be Pragmatic? Pragmatic Methods, Measures, and Models to Facilitate Research Translation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glasgow, Russell E.

    2013-01-01

    Background: One of the reasons for the slow and uncertain translation of research into practice is likely due to the emphasis in science on explanatory models and efficacy designs rather than more pragmatic approaches. Methods: Following a brief definition of what constitutes a pragmatic approach, I provide examples of pragmatic methods, measures,…

  5. Translational medicine promising personalized therapy in oncology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yi-Xin ZENG; Xiao-Shi ZHANG; Qiang LIU

    2010-01-01

    @@ Translational medicine has newly emerged to bridge the gap between bench-related basic science research and bedside clinical practice. From early diagnosis to late-stage disease treatment, translational medicine has transformed the clinical practice by making personalized medicine possible. Attributing to the progress in translational medical research, cancer therapy has evolved from non-specific cytotoxic drugs against both tumor and normal proliferating cells to more specific small molecule chemical and immunotherapy approaches.

  6. caTIES: a grid based system for coding and retrieval of surgical pathology reports and tissue specimens in support of translational research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowley, Rebecca S; Castine, Melissa; Mitchell, Kevin; Chavan, Girish; McSherry, Tara; Feldman, Michael

    2010-01-01

    The authors report on the development of the Cancer Tissue Information Extraction System (caTIES)--an application that supports collaborative tissue banking and text mining by leveraging existing natural language processing methods and algorithms, grid communication and security frameworks, and query visualization methods. The system fills an important need for text-derived clinical data in translational research such as tissue-banking and clinical trials. The design of caTIES addresses three critical issues for informatics support of translational research: (1) federation of research data sources derived from clinical systems; (2) expressive graphical interfaces for concept-based text mining; and (3) regulatory and security model for supporting multi-center collaborative research. Implementation of the system at several Cancer Centers across the country is creating a potential network of caTIES repositories that could provide millions of de-identified clinical reports to users. The system provides an end-to-end application of medical natural language processing to support multi-institutional translational research programs.

  7. Applying Process Improvement Methods to Clinical and Translational Research: Conceptual Framework and Case Examples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daudelin, Denise H; Selker, Harry P; Leslie, Laurel K

    2015-12-01

    There is growing appreciation that process improvement holds promise for improving quality and efficiency across the translational research continuum but frameworks for such programs are not often described. The purpose of this paper is to present a framework and case examples of a Research Process Improvement Program implemented at Tufts CTSI. To promote research process improvement, we developed online training seminars, workshops, and in-person consultation models to describe core process improvement principles and methods, demonstrate the use of improvement tools, and illustrate the application of these methods in case examples. We implemented these methods, as well as relational coordination theory, with junior researchers, pilot funding awardees, our CTRC, and CTSI resource and service providers. The program focuses on capacity building to address common process problems and quality gaps that threaten the efficient, timely and successful completion of clinical and translational studies.

  8. Translating stem cell research to the clinic: a primer on translational considerations for your first stem cell protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Timothy; Creane, Michael; Windebank, Anthony J; Terzic, Andre; Dietz, Allan B

    2015-08-22

    Over the last two decades, a new therapeutic paradigm has emerged which has changed the way debilitating diseases may be treated in the future. Instead of using small-molecule drugs and devices to ameliorate the symptoms of disease, clinicians may harness the therapeutic power of cells to regenerate and cure diseases which currently represent a major unmet medical need. Advancements in the scientific knowledge of stem cell biology, along with highly encouraging preclinical proof-of-concept studies, in the last several years have served as a launch pad for testing such therapeutics in humans with life-threatening diseases. However, translating basic research findings into human therapy has not been straightforward and has presented many scientific, clinical, and regulatory challenges for scientists and clinicians. In this article, we provide a guidance framework for investigators for the design of early-phase clinical studies using stem cell-based therapeutics. Furthermore, important trial parameters and design features which must be considered before regulatory submission of such studies are highlighted.

  9. Learner corpora, corpora of professional translations and creative writing in a course on translation of general texts: an action research project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Teresa Sánchez Nieto

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the design of a small action research project conducted in a course on translation of general texts from German into Spanish. The project methodology combines creative writing techniques with those of data-driven learning put forward by Johns (1991 for foreign language learning and applied by Laviosa (2014, in press to translator training, as well as with the methods of corpus use for learning to translate proposed by Marco and Van Lawick (2009. The aim of the project is threefold: (i raising the students’ awareness on the possibility of interference between German and Spanish past tenses when translating narrative sequences; (ii allowing the students practicing data-driven learning about translation issues, and (iii observing if these interventions bring about a qualitative change in their translation performance, specifically in the decrease of interference when translating narrative sequences with past tenses from German into Spanish. In the paper, special attention will be paid to the theoretical basis of the project, as well as to the methodological decisions involved in its design.

  10. A proposal to speed translation of healthcare research into practice: dramatic change is needed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessler, Rodger; Glasgow, Russell E

    2011-06-01

    Efficacy trials have generated interventions to improve health behaviors and biomarkers. However, these efforts have had limited impact on practice and policy. It is suggested that key methodologic and contextual issues have contributed to this state of affairs. Current research paradigms generally have not provided the answers needed for more probable and more rapid translation. A major shift is proposed to produce research with more rapid clinical, public health, and policy impact.

  11. Toward the commoditization of translational genomic research: Design and implementation features of the Galaxy genomic workbench.

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    Although there is now plenty of genomic data and no shortage of analysis methods for translational genomic research, many biologists do not have efficient and transparent access to the computational resources they need. No single data resource or analysis application is ever likely to efficiently address all aspects of any individual researcher’s needs, so most researchers are forced to manually integrate data and outputs from multiple resources. The inevitable heterogeneity of data formats a...

  12. Mapping the Ethics of Translational Genomics: Situating Return of Results and Navigating the Research-Clinical Divide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Susan M; Burke, Wylie; Koenig, Barbara A

    2015-01-01

    Both bioethics and law have governed human genomics by distinguishing research from clinical practice. Yet the rise of translational genomics now makes this traditional dichotomy inadequate. This paper pioneers a new approach to the ethics of translational genomics. It maps the full range of ethical approaches needed, proposes a "layered" approach to determining the ethics framework for projects combining research and clinical care, and clarifies the key role that return of results can play in advancing translation.

  13. Placental lactogen is expressed but is not translated into protein in breast cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Traci R Tuttle

    Full Text Available Several studies reported that the pregnancy-specific hormone placental lactogen (hPL is expressed at both mRNA and protein levels in breast cancer. The overall objective was to establish hPL, the product of the CSH1 and CSH2 genes, as a biomarker for breast cancer.CSH expression was determined at the mRNA level in breast cancer cell lines (BCC and primary carcinomas by real-time and conventional PCR and the products verified as CSH1 by sequencing. Expression of hPL protein was examined by western blots and immuno-histochemistry, using commercial and custom-made polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies.Variable levels of CSH mRNA were detected in several BCC, and in some primary tumors. We detected a protein, slightly larger than recombinant hPL by western blotting using several antibodies, leading us to postulate that it represents an hPL variant ('hPL'. Furthermore, some monoclonal antibodies detected 'hPL' by immunohistochemistry in breast carcinomas but not in normal breast. However, further examination revealed that these antibodies were non-specific, as efficient suppression of CSH mRNA by shRNA did not abolish the 'hPL' band. Custom-made monoclonal antibodies against recombinant hPL detected hPL of the correct size in placental lysate and hPL-overexpressing BCC, but not in unmodified cells or primary carcinomas. hPL protein was detected only when mRNA was increased several thousand fold.We call into question previous reports of hPL expression in breast cancer which relied on mRNA levels as surrogates for protein and/or used improperly validated antibodies to measure hPL protein levels. Our data suggests that an inhibitory mechanism(s prevents translation of CSH mRNA in breast cancer when not highly expressed. The mechanism by which translation of CSH mRNA is inhibited is intriguing and should be further investigated.

  14. Placental Lactogen Is Expressed but Is Not Translated into Protein in Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuttle, Traci R.; Hugo, Eric R.; Tong, Wilson S.; Ben-Jonathan, Nira

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Several studies reported that the pregnancy-specific hormone placental lactogen (hPL) is expressed at both mRNA and protein levels in breast cancer. The overall objective was to establish hPL, the product of the CSH1 and CSH2 genes, as a biomarker for breast cancer. Methods CSH expression was determined at the mRNA level in breast cancer cell lines (BCC) and primary carcinomas by real-time and conventional PCR and the products verified as CSH1 by sequencing. Expression of hPL protein was examined by western blots and immuno-histochemistry, using commercial and custom-made polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies. Results Variable levels of CSH mRNA were detected in several BCC, and in some primary tumors. We detected a protein, slightly larger than recombinant hPL by western blotting using several antibodies, leading us to postulate that it represents an hPL variant (‘hPL’). Furthermore, some monoclonal antibodies detected ‘hPL’ by immunohistochemistry in breast carcinomas but not in normal breast. However, further examination revealed that these antibodies were non-specific, as efficient suppression of CSH mRNA by shRNA did not abolish the ‘hPL’ band. Custom-made monoclonal antibodies against recombinant hPL detected hPL of the correct size in placental lysate and hPL-overexpressing BCC, but not in unmodified cells or primary carcinomas. hPL protein was detected only when mRNA was increased several thousand fold. Conclusions We call into question previous reports of hPL expression in breast cancer which relied on mRNA levels as surrogates for protein and/or used improperly validated antibodies to measure hPL protein levels. Our data suggests that an inhibitory mechanism(s) prevents translation of CSH mRNA in breast cancer when not highly expressed. The mechanism by which translation of CSH mRNA is inhibited is intriguing and should be further investigated. PMID:24475273

  15. Translating discovery in zebrafish pancreatic development to human pancreatic cancer: biomarkers, targets, pathogenesis, and therapeutics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yee, Nelson S; Kazi, Abid A; Yee, Rosemary K

    2013-06-01

    Abstract Experimental studies in the zebrafish have greatly facilitated understanding of genetic regulation of the early developmental events in the pancreas. Various approaches using forward and reverse genetics, chemical genetics, and transgenesis in zebrafish have demonstrated generally conserved regulatory roles of mammalian genes and discovered novel genetic pathways in exocrine pancreatic development. Accumulating evidence has supported the use of zebrafish as a model of human malignant diseases, including pancreatic cancer. Studies have shown that the genetic regulators of exocrine pancreatic development in zebrafish can be translated into potential clinical biomarkers and therapeutic targets in human pancreatic adenocarcinoma. Transgenic zebrafish expressing oncogenic K-ras and zebrafish tumor xenograft model have emerged as valuable tools for dissecting the pathogenetic mechanisms of pancreatic cancer and for drug discovery and toxicology. Future analysis of the pancreas in zebrafish will continue to advance understanding of the genetic regulation and biological mechanisms during organogenesis. Results of those studies are expected to provide new insights into how aberrant developmental pathways contribute to formation and growth of pancreatic neoplasia, and hopefully generate valid biomarkers and targets as well as effective and safe therapeutics in pancreatic cancer.

  16. Translational research strategy: an essential approach to fight the spread of antimicrobial resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tacconelli, Evelina; Peschel, Andreas; Autenrieth, Ingo B

    2014-11-01

    Translation research strategy in infectious diseases, combining the results from basic research with patient-orientated research, aims to bridge the gap between laboratory findings and clinical infectious disease practice to improve disease management. In an era of increasing antimicrobial resistance, there are four main areas of clinical and scientific uncertainty that need to be urgently addressed by translational research: (i) early diagnosis of antibiotic-resistant infections and the appropriateness of empirical antibiotic therapy; (ii) the identification of reservoirs of antibiotic-resistant pathogens; (iii) the development of new antibiotics with lower propensities to evoke resistance; and (iv) the development of new non-antibiotic drugs to be used in the prevention of the spread of resistant bacterial strains. Strict European collaboration among major stakeholders is therefore essential. Appropriate educational tools to train a new generation of scientists with regard to a multifaceted approach to antimicrobial resistance research should be developed. Key areas include the support and implementation of European networks focused on translational research and related education activities, making potential therapeutics more attractive to investors and helping academic investigators to determine whether new molecules can be developed with clinical applicability.

  17. Community engagement and knowledge translation: progress and challenge in autism research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsabbagh, Mayada; Yusuf, Afiqah; Prasanna, Shreya; Shikako-Thomas, Keiko; Ruff, Crystal A; Fehlings, Michael G

    2014-10-01

    The last decade has seen significant growth in scientific understanding and public awareness of autism. There is still a long road ahead before this awareness can be matched with parallel improvements in evidence-based practice. The process of translating evidence into community care has been hampered by the seeming disconnect between the mainstream scientific research agenda and the immediate priorities of many communities. The need for community engagement in the process of translating knowledge into impact has been recognized. However, there remains little consensus or empirical data regarding the process of such engagement and how to measure its impact. We shed light on a number of engagement models and tools, previously advocated in health research, as they apply to autism research. Furthermore, we illustrate the utility of such tools in supporting identification of knowledge gaps and priorities, using two community-based case studies. The case studies illustrate that information generated from research is indeed relevant and critical for knowledge users in the community. Simple and systematic methods can support the translation and uptake of knowledge in diverse communities, therefore enhancing engagement with research and bridging research findings with immediate community needs.

  18. DCB - Cancer Immunology, Hematology, and Etiology Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Part of NCI’s Division of Cancer Biology’s research portfolio, studies supported include the characterization of basic mechanisms relevant to anti-tumor immune responses and hematologic malignancies.

  19. Health researchers in Alberta: an exploratory comparison of defining characteristics and knowledge translation activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birdsell Judy M

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Canadian funding agencies are no longer content to support research that solely advances scientific knowledge, and key directives are now in place to promote research transfer to policy- and decision-makers. Therefore, it is necessary to improve our understanding of how researchers are trained and supported to facilitate knowledge translation activities. In this study, we investigated differences in health researcher characteristics and knowledge translation activities. Methods Our sample consisted of 240 health researchers from three Alberta universities. Respondents were classified by research domain [basic (n = 72 or applied (n = 168] and faculty [medical school (n = 128 or other health science (n = 112]. We examined our findings using Mode I and Mode II archetypes of knowledge production, which allowed us to consider the scholarly and social contexts of knowledge production and translation. Results Differences among health researcher professional characteristics were not statistically significant. There was a significant gender difference in the applied researcher faculty group, which was predominantly female (p p p = .01; Mode II, p p = .025 and number of publications (medical school > other faculties; p = .004. There was an interaction effect for research domain and faculty group for number of publications (p = .01, in that applied researchers in medical faculties published more than their peers in other faculty groups. Conclusion Our findings illustrate important differences between health researchers and provide beginning insights into their professional characteristics and engagement in Mode I and Mode II activities. A future study designed to examine these dimensions in greater detail, including potential covariates across more varied institutions, would yield richer insights and enable an examination of relative influences, needs and costs of each mode of activity.

  20. Setting Global Standards for Stem Cell Research and Clinical Translation: The 2016 ISSCR Guidelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Q. Daley

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The International Society for Stem Cell Research (ISSCR presents its 2016 Guidelines for Stem Cell Research and Clinical Translation (ISSCR, 2016. The 2016 guidelines reflect the revision and extension of two past sets of guidelines (ISSCR, 2006; ISSCR, 2008 to address new and emerging areas of stem cell discovery and application and evolving ethical, social, and policy challenges. These guidelines provide an integrated set of principles and best practices to drive progress in basic, translational, and clinical research. The guidelines demand rigor, oversight, and transparency in all aspects of practice, providing confidence to practitioners and public alike that stem cell science can proceed efficiently and remain responsive to public and patient interests. Here, we highlight key elements and recommendations in the guidelines and summarize the recommendations and deliberations behind them.

  1. Research Areas: Causes of Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Understanding the exposures and risk factors that cause cancer, as well as the genetic abnormalities associated with the disease, has helped us to reduce certain exposures and to ameliorate their harmful effects.

  2. From bench to bedside and to health policies (and back: ethics in translational research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Petrini

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The medical aim of translational research is to smooth the transition of discoveries made through basic research from the laboratory bench to their diagnostic or therapeutic applications for patients. These applications may be extended to current clinical practice and to health policies. AIM: The converse is also important: health policies should provide a point of departure when identifying research priorities. Translational research poses the same ethical problems as trials with human subjects - albeit in different ways. One of the more significant problems is the risk for participants in trials: it is thus necessary to ensure that the risks to which these subjects are exposed are not out of proportion to the expected benefits. DISCUSSION: Translational research does not require new ethical principles, but existing biomedical principles need to be adjusted to the specific context. The well-being of participants should always be the primary objective; these persons should never be considered as means for the advancement of knowledge or for the improvement of applications.

  3. Cancer systems biology: signal processing for cancer research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Olli Yli-Harja; Antti Ylip(a)(a); Matti Nykter; Wei Zhang

    2011-01-01

    In this editorial we introduce the research paradigms of signal processing in the era of systems biology. Signal processing is a field of science traditionally focused on modeling electronic and communications systems, but recently it has turned to biological applications with astounding results. The essence of signal processing is to describe the natural world by mathematical models and then, based on these models, develop efficient computational tools for solving engineering problems. Here, we underline, with examples, the endless possibilities which arise when the battle-hardened tools of engineering are applied to solve the problems that have tormented cancer researchers. Based on this approach, a new field has emerged, called cancer systems biology. Despite its short history, cancer systems biology has already produced several success stories tackling previously impracticable problems. Perhaps most importantly, it has been accepted as an integral part of the major endeavors of cancer research, such as analyzing the genomic and epigenomic data produced by The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) project. Finally, we show that signal processing and cancer research, two fields that are seemingly distant from each other, have merged into a field that is indeed more than the sum of its parts.

  4. Cancer systems biology: signal processing for cancer research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yli-Harja, Olli; Ylipää, Antti; Nykter, Matti; Zhang, Wei

    2011-04-01

    In this editorial we introduce the research paradigms of signal processing in the era of systems biology. Signal processing is a field of science traditionally focused on modeling electronic and communications systems, but recently it has turned to biological applications with astounding results. The essence of signal processing is to describe the natural world by mathematical models and then, based on these models, develop efficient computational tools for solving engineering problems. Here, we underline, with examples, the endless possibilities which arise when the battle-hardened tools of engineering are applied to solve the problems that have tormented cancer researchers. Based on this approach, a new field has emerged, called cancer systems biology. Despite its short history, cancer systems biology has already produced several success stories tackling previously impracticable problems. Perhaps most importantly, it has been accepted as an integral part of the major endeavors of cancer research, such as analyzing the genomic and epigenomic data produced by The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) project. Finally, we show that signal processing and cancer research, two fields that are seemingly distant from each other, have merged into a field that is indeed more than the sum of its parts.

  5. Model for bridging the translational "valleys of death" in spinal cord injury research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barrable B

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Bill Barrable,1 Nancy Thorogood,1 Vanessa Noonan,1,2 Jocelyn Tomkinson,1 Phalgun Joshi,1 Ken Stephenson,1 John Barclay,1 Katharina Kovacs Burns3 1Rick Hansen Institute, 2Division of Spine, Department of Orthopaedics, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, 3Health Sciences Council, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, Canada Abstract: To improve health care outcomes with cost-effective treatments and prevention initiatives, basic health research must be translated into clinical application and studied during implementation, a process commonly referred to as translational research. It is estimated that only 14% of health-related scientific discoveries enter into medical practice and that it takes an average of 17 years for them to do so. The transition from basic research to clinical knowledge and from clinical knowledge to practice or implementation is so fraught with obstacles that these transitions are often referred to as “valleys of death”. The Rick Hansen Institute has developed a unique praxis model for translational research in the field of spinal cord injury (SCI. The praxis model involves three components. The first is a coordinated program strategy of cure, care, consumer engagement, and commercialization. The second is a knowledge cycle that consists of four phases, ie, environmental scanning, knowledge generation and synthesis, knowledge validation, and implementation. The third is the provision of relevant resources and infrastructure to overcome obstacles in the “valleys of death”, ie, funding, clinical research operations, informatics, clinical research and best practice implementation, consumer engagement, collaborative networks, and strategic partnerships. This model, which is to be independently evaluated in 2018 to determine its strengths and limitations, has been used to advance treatments for pressure ulcers in SCI. The Rick Hansen Institute has developed an innovative solution to move knowledge into action by

  6. TCGA researchers identify 4 subtypes of stomach cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stomach cancers fall into four distinct molecular subtypes, researchers with The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) Network have found. Scientists report that this discovery could change how researchers think about developing treatments for stomach cancer, also c

  7. Infectious Agents and Cancer Epidemiology Research Webinar Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Infectious Agents and Cancer Epidemiology Research Webinar Series highlights emerging and cutting-edge research related to infection-associated cancers, shares scientific knowledge about technologies and methods, and fosters cross-disciplinary discussions on infectious agents and cancer epidemiology.

  8. A Preliminary Research on Errors in the English Translation of《The Analects of Confucious》)by James Legge%A Preliminary Research on Errors in the English Translation 0f《The Analects of Confucious》)by James Legge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU xia

    2009-01-01

    (The Analects of Confucious)is hard to undersmnd even to Chinese,the foreign translators with different culturetions although his translation of The Analects in 1861 is regarded as the first authorized English version continuing untilthis day.The aim to analyze the errors in James Legge'S version is to show that "misundeTstanding many sometimesprove to be extraordinarily valuable in research field in that misunderstanding reflects the translator's misconceiving ofanother culture.the blockade in cultural exchange".

  9. Advancing Transdisciplinary and Translational Research Practice: Issues and Models of Doctoral Education in Public Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Neuhauser

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Finding solutions to complex health problems, such as obesity, violence, and climate change, will require radical changes in cross-disciplinary education, research, and practice. The fundamental determinants of health include many interrelated factors such as poverty, culture, education, environment, and government policies. However, traditional public health training has tended to focus more narrowly on diseases and risk factors, and has not adequately leveraged the rich contributions of sociology, anthropology, economics, geography, communication, political science, and other disciplines. Further, students are often not sufficiently trained to work across sectors to translate research findings into effective, large-scale sustainable actions.During the past 2 decades, national and international organizations have called for more effective interdisciplinary, transdisciplinary, and translational approaches to graduate education. Although it has been difficult to work across traditional academic boundaries, some promising models draw on pedagogical theory and feature cross-disciplinary training focused on real-world problems, linkage between research, professional practice, community action, and cultivation of leadership skills.We describe the development the Doctor of Public Health program at the University of California, Berkeley, USA and its efforts to improve transdisciplinary and translational research education. We stress the need for international collaboration to improve educational approaches and better evaluate their impact.

  10. A model of study for human cancer: Spontaneous occurring tumors in dogs. Biological features and translation for new anticancer therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranieri, G; Gadaleta, C D; Patruno, R; Zizzo, N; Daidone, M G; Hansson, M G; Paradiso, A; Ribatti, D

    2013-10-01

    Murine cancer models have been extremely useful for analyzing the biology of pathways involved in cancer initiation, promotion, and progression. Interestingly, several murine cancer models also exhibit heterogeneity, genomic instability and an intact immune system. However, they do not adequately represent several features that define cancer in humans, including long periods of latency, the complex biology of cancer recurrence and metastasis and outcomes to novel therapies. Therefore, additional models that better investigate the human disease are needed. In the pet population, with special references to the dog, cancer is a spontaneous disease and dogs naturally develop cancers that share many characteristics with human malignancies. More than 40 years ago, optimization of bone marrow transplantation protocols was undertaken in dogs and recently novel targeted therapies such as liposomal muramyl tripeptide phosphatidylethanolamine and several tyrosine kinase inhibitors, namely masitinib (AB1010) and toceranib phosphate (SU11654), have been developed to treat dog tumors which have then been translated to human clinical trials. In this review article, we will analyze biological data from dog tumors and comparative features with human tumors, and new therapeutic approaches translated from dog to human cancer.

  11. Innovating in the medical device industry - challenges & opportunities ESB 2015 translational research symposium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayon, Y; Bohner, M; Eglin, D; Procter, P; Richards, R G; Weber, J; Zeugolis, D I

    2016-09-01

    The European Society for Biomaterials 2015 Translational Research Symposium focused on 'Innovating in the Medical Device Industry - Challenges & Opportunities' from different perspectives, i.e., from a non-profit research organisation to a syndicate of small and medium-sized companies and large companies. Lecturers from regulatory consultants, industry and research institutions described the innovation process and regulatory processes (e.g., 510K, PMA, combination product) towards market approval. The aim of the present article is to summarise and explain the main statements made during the symposium, in terms of challenges and opportunities for medical device industries, in a constantly changing customer and regulatory environment.

  12. Integration of Web 2.0 technologies in the translational research environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Kristi L; Dubinsky, Ellen K

    2009-10-01

    Recent advancements in translational medicine have created an urgent need for solutions that support information dissemination and facilitate a fluid exchange of data from the research laboratory to the clinical environment and on to the broader community. Medical libraries can help meet this need by incorporating emerging Web-based technologies in support of educational, research, and patient care objectives. Web 2.0 resources facilitate creativity, collaboration, and sharing among users. Integration of Web 2.0 resources allows scientists, students, and medical professionals to efficiently organize and manage the information and resources that are critical in today's quickly changing biomedical research environment.

  13. Translation of questionnaires measuring health related quality of life is not standardized: a literature based research study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Kjaergaard Danielsen

    Full Text Available There is growing awareness of the need to explore patient reported outcomes in clinical trials. In the Scandinavian Surgical Outcomes Research Group we are conducting several clinical trials in cooperation between Danish and Swedish surgical researchers, and we use questionnaires aimed at patients from both countries. In relation to this and similar international cooperation, the validity and reliability of translated questionnaires are central aspects.The purpose of this study was to explore which methodological measures were used in studies reporting translation of questionnaires. Furthermore, we wanted to make some methodological suggestions for clinical researchers who are faced with having to translate a questionnaire.We designed a research study based on a survey of the literature and extracted data from published studies reporting the methodological process when translating questionnaires on health related quality of life for different diseases.We retrieved 187 studies and out of theses we included 52 studies. The psychometric properties of the translated versions were validated using different tests. The focus was on internal validity (96%, reliability (67% criterion validity (81%, and construct validity (62%. For internal validity Cronbach's alpha was used in 94% of the studies.This study shows that there seems to be a consensus regarding the translation process (especially for internal validity although most researchers did not use a translation guide. Moreover, we recommended that clinical researchers should consider three steps covering the process of translation, the qualitative validation as well as the quantitative validation.

  14. About the Breast and Gynecologic Cancer Research Group | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Breast and Gynecologic Cancer Research Group conducts and fosters the development of research on the prevention and early detection of breast cancer, cervix and human papillomavirus (HPV)-related cancers, endometrial cancers, ovarian cancers, and precursor conditions related to these cancers. |

  15. Improving intermittent androgen deprivation therapy: lessons learned from basic and translational research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahul A Parikh

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Intermittent androgen deprivation therapy (IADT is an alternative to continuous androgen deprivation therapy (ADT in prostate cancer patients with nonmetastatic disease. ADT is associated with numerous side effects such as hot flashes, sexual dysfunction, anemia, fatigue, loss of muscle mass, osteoporosis, metabolic syndrome and premature cardiovascular disease. IADT was developed with the intention of improving the quality of life and to delay progression of prostate cancer to castration resistance. The benefits of slightly improved quality of life by IADT compared to ADT were demonstrated in multiple clinical trials. IADT was noted to be noninferior to ADT in patients with biochemical recurrence of prostate cancer but in studies performed in patients with metastatic prostate cancer, the results were inconclusive. Our recent studies suggested that the administration of 5 alpha-reductase inhibitors during the off-cycle of IADT can significantly prolong the survival of mice bearing androgen-sensitive prostate tumors when off-cycle duration was short. This review discusses the survival benefit of 5 alpha-reductase inhibition in IADT in animal models and the potential translation of this finding into clinic.

  16. Supporting knowledge translation through collaborative translational research initiatives: ‘Bridging’ versus ‘blurring’ boundary-spanning approaches in the UK CLAHRC initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Sarah; Scarbrough, Harry

    2014-01-01

    Recent policy initiatives in the UK and internationally have sought to promote knowledge translation between the ‘producers’ and ‘users’ of research. Within this paper we explore how boundary-spanning interventions used within such initiatives can support knowledge translation between diverse groups. Using qualitative data from a 3-year research study conducted from January 2010 to December 2012 of two case-sites drawn from the CLAHRC initiative in the UK, we distinguish two different approaches to supporting knowledge translation; a ‘bridging’ approach that involves designated roles, discrete events and activities to span the boundaries between communities, and a ‘blurring’ approach that de-emphasises the boundaries between groups, enabling a more continuous process of knowledge translation as part of day-to-day work-practices. In this paper, we identify and differentiate these boundary-spanning approaches and describe how they emerged from the context defined by the wider CLAHRC networks. This highlights the need to develop a more contextualised analysis of the boundary-spanning that underpins knowledge translation processes, relating this to the distinctive features of a particular case. PMID:24561773

  17. 76 FR 66932 - The National Cancer Institute (NCI) Announces the Initiation of a Public Private Industry...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-28

    ... promising opportunities based on nanotechnology from academic research to the clinical environment; 4... Initiation of a Public Private Industry Partnership on Translation of Nanotechnology in Cancer (TONIC) To Promote Translational Research and Development Opportunities of Nanotechnology-Based Cancer...

  18. Phenomenology in pediatric cancer nursing research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fochtman, Dianne

    2008-01-01

    What does it mean to have cancer as a child or adolescent? To understand this, researchers must study the illness from the child's point of view and listen to these children's descriptions of their "lived world." Phenomenology is a qualitative research methodology that can be used to discover and interpret meaning. To use phenomenology congruently, the philosophical background must be understood as well as the adaptation of the philosophical basis to research in the caring sciences. Only when clinicians truly understand the meaning of this illness to the child can they design nursing interventions to ease suffering and increase quality of life in children and adolescents with cancer.

  19. NIH Research Leads to Cervical Cancer Vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Current Issue Past Issues Sexually Transmitted Diseases NIH Research Leads to Cervical Cancer Vaccine Past Issues / Fall 2008 Table of Contents For ... mystery. Most important, however, is to have a vaccine which potentially can ... focusing their research on helping to produce second-generation HPV vaccines ...

  20. Antiproton radiation found effective in cancer research

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    "An international collaboration of scientists has completed the first ever antiproton beam experiments designed to reveal the biological effectiveness of antiproton radiation in terminating cells used for cancer research...PBar Labs assembled the collaboration at CERN (European Organization for Nuclear Research in Geneva) to perform the measurements" (1 page).

  1. RB1 deficiency in triple-negative breast cancer induces mitochondrial protein translation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Robert A.; Robinson, Tyler J.; Liu, Jeff C.; Shrestha, Mariusz; Voisin, Veronique; Ju, YoungJun; Chung, Philip E.D.; Pellecchia, Giovanna; Fell, Victoria L.; Bae, SooIn; Muthuswamy, Lakshmi; Egan, Sean E.; Jiang, Zhe; Leone, Gustavo; Bader, Gary D.; Schimmer, Aaron

    2016-01-01

    Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) includes basal-like and claudin-low subtypes for which no specific treatment is currently available. Although the retinoblastoma tumor-suppressor gene (RB1) is frequently lost together with TP53 in TNBC, it is not directly targetable. There is thus great interest in identifying vulnerabilities downstream of RB1 that can be therapeutically exploited. Here, we determined that combined inactivation of murine Rb and p53 in diverse mammary epithelial cells induced claudin-low–like TNBC with Met, Birc2/3-Mmp13-Yap1, and Pvt1-Myc amplifications. Gene set enrichment analysis revealed that Rb/p53-deficient tumors showed elevated expression of the mitochondrial protein translation (MPT) gene pathway relative to tumors harboring p53 deletion alone. Accordingly, bioinformatic, functional, and biochemical analyses showed that RB1-E2F complexes bind to MPT gene promoters to regulate transcription and control MPT. Additionally, a screen of US Food and Drug Administration–approved (FDA-approved) drugs identified the MPT antagonist tigecycline (TIG) as a potent inhibitor of Rb/p53-deficient tumor cell proliferation. TIG preferentially suppressed RB1-deficient TNBC cell proliferation, targeted both the bulk and cancer stem cell fraction, and strongly attenuated xenograft growth. It also cooperated with sulfasalazine, an FDA-approved inhibitor of cystine xCT antiporter, in culture and xenograft assays. Our results suggest that RB1 deficiency promotes cancer cell proliferation in part by enhancing mitochondrial function and identify TIG as a clinically approved drug for RB1-deficient TNBC. PMID:27571409

  2. Translating research into practice in Leeds and Bradford (TRiPLaB: a protocol for a programme of research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bibby John

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The National Institute for Health Research (NIHR has funded nine Collaborations for Leadership in Applied Health Research and Care (CLAHRCs. Each CLAHRC is a partnership between higher education institutions (HEIs and the NHS in nine UK regional health economies. The CLAHRC for Leeds, York, and Bradford comprises two 'research themes' and three 'implementation themes.' One of these implementation themes is Translating Research into Practice in Leeds and Bradford (TRiPLaB. TRiPLaB aims to develop, implement, and evaluate methods for inducing and sustaining the uptake of research knowledge into practice in order to improve the quality of health services for the people of Leeds and Bradford. Methods TRiPLaB is built around a three-stage, sequential, approach using separate, longitudinal case studies conducted with collaborating NHS organisations, TRiPLaB will select robust innovations to implement, conduct a theory-informed exploration of the local context using a variety of data collection and analytic methods, and synthesise the information collected to identify the key factors influencing the uptake and adoption of targeted innovations. This synthesis will inform the development of tailored, multifaceted, interventions designed to increase the translation of research findings into practice. Mixed research methods, including time series analysis, quasi-experimental comparison, and qualitative process evaluation, will be used to evaluate the impact of the implementation strategies deployed. Conclusion TRiPLaB is a theory-informed, systematic, mixed methods approach to developing and evaluating tailored implementation strategies aimed at increasing the translation of research-based findings into practice in one UK health economy. Through active collaboration with its local NHS, TRiPLaB aims to improve the quality of health services for the people of Leeds and Bradford and to contribute to research knowledge regarding the

  3. Stakeholder engagement for comparative effectiveness research in cancer care: experience of the DEcIDE Cancer Consortium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, Caprice C; Wind, Jennifer K; Chang, George J; Chen, Ronald C; Schrag, Deborah

    2013-03-01

    Stakeholder input is a critical component of comparative effectiveness research. To ensure that the research activities of the Developing Evidence to Inform Decisions about Effectiveness (DEcIDE) Network, supported by the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, translate into the greatest impact for everyday practice and policy-making in cancer, we were tasked with soliciting stakeholder input regarding priority areas in cancer-related comparative effectiveness research for the DEcIDE Cancer Consortium. Given the increasing emphasis on stakeholder engagement in research, many investigators are facing a similar task, yet there is limited literature to guide such efforts, particularly in cancer care. To help fill this gap, we present our approach to operationalizing stakeholder engagement and discuss it in the context of other recent developments in the area. We describe challenges encountered in convening stakeholders from multiple vantage points to prioritize topics and strategies used to mitigate these barriers. We offer several recommendations regarding how to best solicit stakeholder input to inform comparative effectiveness research in cancer care. These recommendations can inform other initiatives currently facing the challenges of engaging stakeholders in priority setting for cancer.

  4. A decade of experience in the development and implementation of tissue banking informatics tools for intra and inter-institutional translational research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waqas Amin

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Tissue banking informatics deals with standardized annotation, collection and storage of biospecimens that can further be shared by researchers. Over the last decade, the Department of Biomedical Informatics (DBMI at the University of Pittsburgh has developed various tissue banking informatics tools to expedite translational medicine research. In this review, we describe the technical approach and capabilities of these models. Design: Clinical annotation of biospecimens requires data retrieval from various clinical information systems and the de-identification of the data by an honest broker. Based upon these requirements, DBMI, with its collaborators, has developed both Oracle-based organ-specific data marts and a more generic, model-driven architecture for biorepositories. The organ-specific models are developed utilizing Oracle 9.2.0.1 server tools and software applications and the model-driven architecture is implemented in a J2EE framework. Result: The organ-specific biorepositories implemented by DBMI include the Cooperative Prostate Cancer Tissue Resource (http://www.cpctr.info/ , Pennsylvania Cancer Alliance Bioinformatics Consortium (http://pcabc.upmc.edu/main.cfm , EDRN Colorectal and Pancreatic Neoplasm Database (http://edrn.nci.nih.gov/ and Specialized Programs of Research Excellence (SPORE Head and Neck Neoplasm Database (http://spores.nci.nih.gov/current/hn/index.htm. The model-based architecture is represented by the National Mesothelioma Virtual Bank (http://mesotissue.org/. These biorepositories provide thousands of well annotated biospecimens for the researchers that are searchable through query interfaces available via the Internet. Conclusion: These systems, developed and supported by our institute, serve to form a common platform for cancer research to accelerate progress in clinical and translational research. In addition, they provide a tangible infrastructure and resource for exposing research resources and

  5. A fat option for the pig: Hepatocytic differentiated mesenchymal stem cells for translational research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brückner, Sandra, E-mail: sandra.brueckner@medizin.uni-leipzig.de [University Hospital Leipzig, Department of Visceral, Transplantation, Thoracic and Vascular Surgery, Liebigstraße 21, Leipzig D-04103 (Germany); Tautenhahn, Hans-Michael, E-mail: hans-michael.tautenhahn@medizin.uni-leipzig.de [University Hospital Leipzig, Department of Visceral, Transplantation, Thoracic and Vascular Surgery, Liebigstraße 21, Leipzig D-04103 (Germany); TRM, Translational Centre for Regenerative Medicine, Philipp-Rosenthal-Str. 55, Leipzig D-04103 (Germany); Winkler, Sandra, E-mail: sandra.pelz@medizin.uni-leipzig.de [University Hospital Leipzig, Department of Visceral, Transplantation, Thoracic and Vascular Surgery, Liebigstraße 21, Leipzig D-04103 (Germany); Stock, Peggy, E-mail: peggy.stock@medizin.uni-leipzig.de [University Hospital Leipzig, Department of Visceral, Transplantation, Thoracic and Vascular Surgery, Liebigstraße 21, Leipzig D-04103 (Germany); Dollinger, Matthias, E-mail: matthias.dollinger@uniklinik-ulm.de [University Hospital Ulm, First Department of Medicine, Albert-Einstein-Allee 23, Ulm D-89081 (Germany); Christ, Bruno, E-mail: bruno.christ@medizin.uni-leipzig.de [University Hospital Leipzig, Department of Visceral, Transplantation, Thoracic and Vascular Surgery, Liebigstraße 21, Leipzig D-04103 (Germany); TRM, Translational Centre for Regenerative Medicine, Philipp-Rosenthal-Str. 55, Leipzig D-04103 (Germany)

    2014-02-15

    Study background: Extended liver resection is the only curative treatment option of liver cancer. Yet, the residual liver may not accomplish the high metabolic and regenerative capacity needed, which frequently leads to acute liver failure. Because of their anti-inflammatory and -apoptotic as well as pro-proliferative features, mesenchymal stem cells differentiated into hepatocyte-like cells might provide functional and regenerative compensation. Clinical translation of basic research requires pre-clinical approval in large animals. Therefore, we characterized porcine mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) from adipose tissue and bone marrow and their hepatocyte differentiation potential for future assessment of functional liver support after surgical intervention in the pig model. Methods: Mesenchymal surface antigens and multi-lineage differentiation potential of porcine MSC isolated by collagenase digestion either from bone marrow or adipose tissue (subcutaneous/visceral) were assessed by flow cytometry. Morphology and functional properties (urea-, glycogen synthesis and cytochrome P450 activity) were determined during culture under differentiation conditions and compared with primary porcine hepatocytes. Results: MSC from porcine adipose tissue and from bone marrow express the typical mesenchymal markers CD44, CD29, CD90 and CD105 but not haematopoietic markers. MSC from both sources displayed differentiation into the osteogenic as well as adipogenic lineage. After hepatocyte differentiation, expression of CD105 decreased significantly and cells adopted the typical polygonal morphology of hepatocytes. Glycogen storage was comparable in adipose tissue- and bone marrow-derived cells. Urea synthesis was about 35% lower in visceral than in subcutaneous adipose tissue-derived MSC. Cytochrome P450 activity increased significantly during differentiation and was twice as high in hepatocyte-like cells generated from bone marrow as from adipose tissue. Conclusion: The hepatocyte

  6. Crosstalk: public cafés as places for knowledge translation concerning health care research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reimer-Kirkham, Sheryl; Jule, Allyson

    2015-01-01

    This article explores the use of public cafés as a model for knowledge translation and community engagement. We base our discussion on a public café series organized around the theme of access to health care and held in three neighborhoods in the Lower Mainland of British Columbia, Canada. The cafés were part of the Canadian Institutes of Health Research Café Scientifique program. Our purposes for this series of cafés were threefold: (a) to provide a site of communication to connect research with members of the public, (b) to build a network among participants based on common connections to the local community, and (c) to explore through discussion how gendered and raced perspectives concerning access to health care may influence the lived experiences of Canadians today. We intended to promote an intergroup conversation, based on the assumption that people of First Nations descent, newcomers to Canada (whether through immigration or resettlement), and settlers (such as Euro-Canadians) would all benefit from hearing each other's perspectives on access to health care, as well as presentations by invited academics about their research on access to health care. A form of "crosstalk" emerged in the cafés, mediated by gender and ethnicity, where social differences and geographical distances between various groups were not easily bridged, and yet where opportunity was created for inclusive dialogic spaces. We conclude that knowledge translation is not easily accomplished with the café format, at least not with the type of critical knowledge we were aiming to translate and the depth of engagement we were hoping for. Our experiences highlighted three strategies that facilitate knowledge translation: relationships and shared goals; involvement of policymakers and decision makers; and tending to social relations of power.

  7. Knowledge Translation for Research Utilization: Design of a Knowledge Translation Model at Tehran University of Medical Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majdzadeh, Reza; Sadighi, Jila; Nejat, Saharnaz; Mahani, Ali Shahidzade; Gholami, Jaleh

    2008-01-01

    Introduction: The present study aimed to generate a model that would provide a conceptual framework for linking disparate components of knowledge translation. A theoretical model of such would enable the organization and evaluation of attempts to analyze current conditions and to design interventions on the transfer and utilization of research…

  8. Updates in colorectal cancer stem cell research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Jie Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Colorectal cancer (CRC is one of the world most common malignant tumors, also is the main disease, which cause tumor-associated death. Surgery and chemotherapy are the most used treatment of CRC. Recent research reported that, cancer stem cells (CSCs are considered as the origin of tumor genesis, development, metastasis and recurrence in theory. At present, it has been proved that, CSCs existed in many tumors including CRC. In this review, we summary the identification of CSCs according to the cell surface markers, and the development of drugs that target colorectal cancer stem cells.

  9. What's missing? Discussing stem cell translational research in educational information on stem cell "tourism".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Master, Zubin; Zarzeczny, Amy; Rachul, Christen; Caulfield, Timothy

    2013-01-01

    Stem cell tourism is a growing industry in which patients pursue unproven stem cell therapies for a wide variety of illnesses and conditions. It is a challenging market to regulate due to a number of factors including its international, online, direct-to-consumer approach. Calls to provide education and information to patients, their families, physicians, and the general public about the risks associated with stem cell tourism are mounting. Initial studies examining the perceptions of patients who have pursued stem cell tourism indicate many are highly critical of the research and regulatory systems in their home countries and believe them to be stagnant and unresponsive to patient needs. We suggest that educational material should include an explanation of the translational research process, in addition to other aspects of stem cell tourism, as one means to help promote greater understanding and, ideally, curb patient demand for unproven stem cell interventions. The material provided must stress that strong scientific research is required in order for therapies to be safe and have a greater chance at being effective. Through an analysis of educational material on stem cell tourism and translational stem cell research from patient groups and scientific societies, we describe essential elements that should be conveyed in educational material provided to patients. Although we support the broad dissemination of educational material on stem cell translational research, we also acknowledge that education may simply not be enough to engender patient and public trust in domestic research and regulatory systems. However, promoting patient autonomy by providing good quality information to patients so they can make better informed decisions is valuable in itself, irrespective of whether it serves as an effective deterrent of stem cell tourism.

  10. Radiation related basic cancer research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Seung Hoon; Yoo, Young Do; Hong, Seok Il [and others

    2000-04-01

    We studied the mechanism of radiation-induced apoptosis, the factors involved signaling, and the establishment of radiation-resistant cell lines in this study. During the TGF beta-stimulated epithelial mesenchymal transition(EMT), actin rearrangement occurred first and fibronectin matrix assembly followed. These two events were considered independent since cytochalasin-D did not inhibit TGF stimulated matrix assembly and fibronectin supplementation did not induce EMT. During EMT, alpha 5 beta 1 integrin and alpha v integrin have increased but MMP activation was not accompanied, which suggest that induction of extracellular matrix and activation of integrins may be main contributor for the EMT. Serum depriving induced apoptosis of HUVECs was prevented by vascular endothelial growth factor(VEGF) and PMA. The apoptosis prevention by VEGF and PMA were conformed by DNA fragmentation assay. The p53 expression level was down regulated by VEGF and PMA compared with serum deprived HUVECs. However, VEGF and PMA induces c-Myc expression level on these cells. We made the 5 radiation-resistant clones from breast, lung and cervical cancer cells. More than 70%, 100% and 50% increased resistance was detected in breast cancer cells, lung cancer cells, and cervical cells, respectively. We carried out differential display-PCR to clone the radiation-resistant genes. 9 out of 10 genes were analyzed their sequence.

  11. Bridging the gap between clinical research and knowledge translation in pediatric emergency medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartling, Lisa; Scott-Findlay, Shannon; Johnson, David; Osmond, Martin; Plint, Amy; Grimshaw, Jeremy; Klassen, Terry P

    2007-11-01

    In 2006, a multidisciplinary group of researchers from across Canada submitted a successful application to the Canadian Institutes for Health Research for a Canadian Institutes for Health Research Team in Pediatric Emergency Medicine. The conceptual foundation for the proposal was to bring together two areas deemed critical for optimizing health outcomes: clinical research and knowledge translation (KT). The framework for the proposed work is an iterative figure-eight model that provides logical steps for research and a seamless flow between the development and evaluation of therapeutic interventions (clinical research) and the implementation and uptake of those interventions that prove to be effective (KT). Under the team grant, we will conduct seven distinct projects relating to the two most common medical problems affecting children in the emergency department: respiratory illness and injury. The projects span the research continuum, with some projects targeting problems for which there is little evidence, while other projects involve problems with a strong evidence base but require further work in the KT realm. In this article, we describe the history of the research team, the research framework, the individual research projects, and the structure of the team, including coordination and administration. We also highlight some of the many advantages of bringing this research program together under the umbrella of a team grant, including opportunities for cross-fertilization of ideas, collaboration among multiple disciplines and centers, training of students and junior researchers, and advancing a methodological research agenda.

  12. Radioprotectors and Radiomitigators for Improving Radiation Therapy: The Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) Gateway for Accelerating Clinical Translation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasanna, Pataje G S; Narayanan, Deepa; Hallett, Kory; Bernhard, Eric J; Ahmed, Mansoor M; Evans, Gregory; Vikram, Bhadrasain; Weingarten, Michael; Coleman, C Norman

    2015-09-01

    Although radiation therapy is an important cancer treatment modality, patients may experience adverse effects. The use of a radiation-effect modulator may help improve the outcome and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) of patients undergoing radiation therapy either by enhancing tumor cell killing or by protecting normal tissues. Historically, the successful translation of radiation-effect modulators to the clinic has been hindered due to the lack of focused collaboration between academia, pharmaceutical companies and the clinic, along with limited availability of support for such ventures. The U.S. Government has been developing medical countermeasures against accidental and intentional radiation exposures to mitigate the risk and/or severity of acute radiation syndrome (ARS) and the delayed effects of acute radiation exposures (DEARE), and there is now a drug development pipeline established. Some of these medical countermeasures could potentially be repurposed for improving the outcome of radiation therapy and HRQOL of cancer patients. With the objective of developing radiation-effect modulators to improve radiotherapy, the Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) Development Center at the National Cancer Institute (NCI), supported by the Radiation Research Program (RRP), provided funding to companies from 2011 to 2014 through the SBIR contracts mechanism. Although radiation-effect modulators collectively refer to radioprotectors, radiomitigators and radiosensitizers, the focus of this article is on radioprotection and mitigation of radiation injury. This specific SBIR contract opportunity strengthened existing partnerships and facilitated new collaborations between academia and industry. In this commentary, we assess the impact of this funding opportunity, outline the review process, highlight the organ/site-specific disease needs in the clinic for the development of radiation-effect modulators, provide a general understanding of a framework for gathering

  13. The clinical translation gap in child health exercise research: a call for disruptive innovation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashish, Naveen; Bamman, Marcas M; Cerny, Frank J; Cooper, Dan M; D'Hemecourt, Pierre; Eisenmann, Joey C; Ericson, Dawn; Fahey, John; Falk, Bareket; Gabriel, Davera; Kahn, Michael G; Kemper, Han C G; Leu, Szu-Yun; Liem, Robert I; McMurray, Robert; Nixon, Patricia A; Olin, J Tod; Pianosi, Paolo T; Purucker, Mary; Radom-Aizik, Shlomit; Taylor, Amy

    2015-02-01

    In children, levels of play, physical activity, and fitness are key indicators of health and disease and closely tied to optimal growth and development. Cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) provides clinicians with biomarkers of disease and effectiveness of therapy, and researchers with novel insights into fundamental biological mechanisms reflecting an integrated physiological response that is hidden when the child is at rest. Yet the growth of clinical trials utilizing CPET in pediatrics remains stunted despite the current emphasis on preventative medicine and the growing recognition that therapies used in children should be clinically tested in children. There exists a translational gap between basic discovery and clinical application in this essential component of child health. To address this gap, the NIH provided funding through the Clinical and Translational Science Award (CTSA) program to convene a panel of experts. This report summarizes our major findings and outlines next steps necessary to enhance child health exercise medicine translational research. We present specific plans to bolster data interoperability, improve child health CPET reference values, stimulate formal training in exercise medicine for child health care professionals, and outline innovative approaches through which exercise medicine can become more accessible and advance therapeutics across the broad spectrum of child health.

  14. Enacting the ‘neuro’ in practice: Translational research, adhesion and the promise of porosity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael, Mike

    2014-01-01

    This article attends to the processes through which neuroscience and the neuro are enacted in a specific context: a translational neuroscience research group that was the setting of an ethnographic study. The article therefore provides a close-up perspective on the intersection of neuroscience and translational research. In the scientific setting we studied, the neuro was multiple and irreducible to any particular entity or set of practices across a laboratory and clinical divide. Despite this multiplicity, the group’s work was held together through the ‘promise of porosity’ – that one day there would be translation of lab findings into clinically effective intervention. This promise was embodied in the figure of the Group Leader whose expertise spanned clinical and basic neurosciences. This is theorized in terms of a contrast between cohesion and adhesion in interdisciplinary groupings. We end by speculating on the role of ‘vivification’ – in our case mediated by the Group Leader – in rendering ‘alive’ the expectations of interdisciplinary collaboration. PMID:25362829

  15. Advancing Translational Space Research Through Biospecimen Sharing: Amplified Impact of Studies Utilizing Analogue Space Platforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staten, B.; Moyer, E.; Vizir, V.; Gompf, H.; Hoban-Higgins, T.; Lewis, L.; Ronca, A.; Fuller, C. A.

    2016-01-01

    Biospecimen Sharing Programs (BSPs) have been organized by NASA Ames Research Center since the 1960s with the goal of maximizing utilization and scientific return from rare, complex and costly spaceflight experiments. BSPs involve acquiring otherwise unused biological specimens from primary space research experiments for distribution to secondary experiments. Here we describe a collaboration leveraging Ames expertise in biospecimen sharing to magnify the scientific impact of research informing astronaut health funded by the NASA Human Research Program (HRP) Human Health Countermeasures (HHC) Element. The concept expands biospecimen sharing to one-off ground-based studies utilizing analogue space platforms (e.g., Hindlimb Unloading (HLU), Artificial Gravity) for rodent experiments, thereby significantly broadening the range of research opportunities with translational relevance for protecting human health in space and on Earth.

  16. Accelerating translational research by clinically driven development of an informatics platform--a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abugessaisa, Imad; Saevarsdottir, Saedis; Tsipras, Giorgos; Lindblad, Staffan; Sandin, Charlotta; Nikamo, Pernilla; Ståhle, Mona; Malmström, Vivianne; Klareskog, Lars; Tegnér, Jesper

    2014-01-01

    Translational medicine is becoming increasingly dependent upon data generated from health care, clinical research, and molecular investigations. This increasing rate of production and diversity in data has brought about several challenges, including the need to integrate fragmented databases, enable secondary use of patient clinical data from health care in clinical research, and to create information systems that clinicians and biomedical researchers can readily use. Our case study effectively integrates requirements from the clinical and biomedical researcher perspectives in a translational medicine setting. Our three principal achievements are (a) a design of a user-friendly web-based system for management and integration of clinical and molecular databases, while adhering to proper de-identification and security measures; (b) providing a real-world test of the system functionalities using clinical cohorts; and (c) system integration with a clinical decision support system to demonstrate system interoperability. We engaged two active clinical cohorts, 747 psoriasis patients and 2001 rheumatoid arthritis patients, to demonstrate efficient query possibilities across the data sources, enable cohort stratification, extract variation in antibody patterns, study biomarker predictors of treatment response in RA patients, and to explore metabolic profiles of psoriasis patients. Finally, we demonstrated system interoperability by enabling integration with an established clinical decision support system in health care. To assure the usefulness and usability of the system, we followed two approaches. First, we created a graphical user interface supporting all user interactions. Secondly we carried out a system performance evaluation study where we measured the average response time in seconds for active users, http errors, and kilobits per second received and sent. The maximum response time was found to be 0.12 seconds; no server or client errors of any kind were detected

  17. Accelerating translational research by clinically driven development of an informatics platform--a case study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imad Abugessaisa

    Full Text Available Translational medicine is becoming increasingly dependent upon data generated from health care, clinical research, and molecular investigations. This increasing rate of production and diversity in data has brought about several challenges, including the need to integrate fragmented databases, enable secondary use of patient clinical data from health care in clinical research, and to create information systems that clinicians and biomedical researchers can readily use. Our case study effectively integrates requirements from the clinical and biomedical researcher perspectives in a translational medicine setting. Our three principal achievements are (a a design of a user-friendly web-based system for management and integration of clinical and molecular databases, while adhering to proper de-identification and security measures; (b providing a real-world test of the system functionalities using clinical cohorts; and (c system integration with a clinical decision support system to demonstrate system interoperability. We engaged two active clinical cohorts, 747 psoriasis patients and 2001 rheumatoid arthritis patients, to demonstrate efficient query possibilities across the data sources, enable cohort stratification, extract variation in antibody patterns, study biomarker predictors of treatment response in RA patients, and to explore metabolic profiles of psoriasis patients. Finally, we demonstrated system interoperability by enabling integration with an established clinical decision support system in health care. To assure the usefulness and usability of the system, we followed two approaches. First, we created a graphical user interface supporting all user interactions. Secondly we carried out a system performance evaluation study where we measured the average response time in seconds for active users, http errors, and kilobits per second received and sent. The maximum response time was found to be 0.12 seconds; no server or client errors of any

  18. Translating Research Into E/PO That Addresses Real Needs in K-12 Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Veen, Wil E.; Belbruno, E. A.; Roelofsen Moody, T.

    2009-01-01

    One of the challenges in NASA ROSES E/PO is translating cutting edge research into products for which there is a demonstrated need. Rather than working from the premise that the "research is so cool’ that K-12 students or the public should learn about it, it is key to consult with the target audience to identify what their needs really are. The partnership between NJACE, Innovative Orbital Design, Inc., and Princeton offered a unique opportunity to translate intriguing but theoretical and mathematical research related to low energy orbits into a valuable education product. NJACE worked with educators to identify several needs with an intellectual link to this research: 1) Understanding of Gravity and Newton's Laws, 2) Understanding of Energy and Energy Transformations, 3) Integration of the sciences with math and technology, and 4) Knowledge of NASA's past accomplishments (such as the moon landings). Based on these identified needs, two science units were developed for students in grades 5-12 that integrate astronomy, physics, and the life sciences with math and technology. In addition an engaging public lecture was developed that tells a personal story of the quest for more economic space travel. In the past year, the workshops have been presented on three occasions, reaching over 75 teachers and demand exceeded available space with numerous teachers on waiting lists. The lecture has been presented numerous times at planetariums, museums, amateur astronomy and other clubs. We hope that our partnership will serve as a useful example of how to translate cutting edge research into valuable education products with an identified need. We will provide handouts with links to a website where the products and training can be downloaded in hope that others will help disseminate our product.

  19. Automation of Technology for Cancer Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Ent, Wietske; Veneman, Wouter J; Groenewoud, Arwin; Chen, Lanpeng; Tulotta, Claudia; Hogendoorn, Pancras C W; Spaink, Herman P; Snaar-Jagalska, B Ewa

    2016-01-01

    Zebrafish embryos can be obtained for research purposes in large numbers at low cost and embryos develop externally in limited space, making them highly suitable for high-throughput cancer studies and drug screens. Non-invasive live imaging of various processes within the larvae is possible due to their transparency during development, and a multitude of available fluorescent transgenic reporter lines.To perform high-throughput studies, handling large amounts of embryos and larvae is required. With such high number of individuals, even minute tasks may become time-consuming and arduous. In this chapter, an overview is given of the developments in the automation of various steps of large scale zebrafish cancer research for discovering important cancer pathways and drugs for the treatment of human disease. The focus lies on various tools developed for cancer cell implantation, embryo handling and sorting, microfluidic systems for imaging and drug treatment, and image acquisition and analysis. Examples will be given of employment of these technologies within the fields of toxicology research and cancer research.

  20. Frederick W. Alt received the 2015 Szent-Györgi Prize forProgress inCancer Research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PeterScully; JieZhao; SujuanBa

    2016-01-01

    The Szent-Györgyi Prize for Progress in Cancer Research is a prestigious scientiifc award established by the National Foundation for Cancer Research (NFCR)—a leading cancer research charitable organization in the United States that is committed to supporting scientiifc research and public education relating to the prevention, early diagnosis, better treatments, and ultimately, a cure for cancer. Each year, the Szent-Györgyi Prize honors an outstanding researcher, nominated by colleagues or peers, who has contributed outstanding, signiifcant research to the ifght against cancer, and whose accomplishments have helped improve treatment options for cancer patients. The Prize also promotes public awareness of the importance of basic cancer research and encourages the sustained investment needed to accelerate the translation of these research discoveries into new cancer treatments. This report highlights the pio-neering work led by the 2015 Prize winner, Dr. Frederick Alt. Dr. Alt’s work in the area of cancer genetics over four decades has helped to shape the very roots of modern cancer research. His work continues to profoundly impact the approaches that doctors around the globe use to diagnose and treat cancer. In particular, his seminal discoveries of gene ampliifcation and his pioneering work on molecular mechanisms of DNA damage repair have helped to usher in the era of genetically targeted therapy and personalized medicine.

  1. Eurocan plus report: feasibility study for coordination of national cancer research activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    The EUROCAN+PLUS Project, called for by the European Parliament, was launched in October 2005 as a feasibility study for coordination of national cancer research activities in Europe. Over the course of the next two years, the Project process organized over 60 large meetings and countless smaller meetings that gathered in total over a thousand people, the largest Europe-wide consultation ever conducted in the field of cancer research.Despite a strong tradition in biomedical science in Europe, fragmentation and lack of sustainability remain formidable challenges for implementing innovative cancer research and cancer care improvement. There is an enormous duplication of research effort in the Member States, which wastes time, wastes money and severely limits the total intellectual concentration on the wide cancer problem. There is a striking lack of communication between some of the biggest actors on the European scene, and there are palpable tensions between funders and those researchers seeking funds.It is essential to include the patients' voice in the establishment of priority areas in cancer research at the present time. The necessity to have dialogue between funders and scientists to establish the best mechanisms to meet the needs of the entire community is evident. A top priority should be the development of translational research (in its widest form), leading to the development of effective and innovative cancer treatments and preventive strategies. Translational research ranges from bench-to-bedside innovative cancer therapies and extends to include bringing about changes in population behaviours when a risk factor is established.The EUROCAN+PLUS Project recommends the creation of a small, permanent and independent European Cancer Initiative (ECI). This should be a model structure and was widely supported at both General Assemblies of the project. The ECI should assume responsibility for stimulating innovative cancer research and facilitating processes

  2. Creating a Knowledge Translation Platform: nine lessons from the Zambia Forum for Health Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kasonde Joseph M

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The concept of the Knowledge Translation Platform (KTP provides cohesion and leadership for national–level knowledge translation efforts. In this review, we discuss nine key lessons documenting the experience of the Zambia Forum for Health Research, primarily to inform and exchange experience with the growing community of African KTPs. Lessons from ZAMFOHR’s organizational development include the necessity of selecting a multi-stakeholder and -sectoral Board of Directors; performing comprehensive situation analyses to understand not only the prevailing research-and-policy dynamics but a precise operational niche; and selecting a leader that bridges the worlds of research and policy. Programmatic lessons include focusing on building the capacity of both policy-makers and researchers; building a database of local evidence and national-level actors involved in research and policy; and catalyzing work in particular issue areas by identifying leaders from the research community, creating policy-maker demand for research evidence, and fostering the next generation by mentoring both up-and-coming researchers and policy–makers. Ultimately, ZAMFOHR’s experience shows that an African KTP must pay significant attention to its organizational details. A KTP must also invest in the skill base of the wider community and, more importantly, of its own staff. Given the very real deficit of research-support skills in most low-income countries – in synthesis, in communications, in brokering, in training – a KTP must spend significant time and resources in building these types of in-house expertise. And lastly, the role of networking cannot be underestimated. As a fully-networked KTP, ZAMFOHR has benefited from the innovations of other KTPs, from funding opportunities and partnerships, and from invaluable technical support from both African and northern colleagues.

  3. Accelerating Progress in Eating Disorders Prevention: A Call for Policy Translation Research and Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, S Bryn

    2016-01-01

    The public health burden of eating disorders is well documented, and over the past several decades, researchers have made important advances in the prevention of eating disorders and related problems with body image. Despite these advances, however, several critical limitations to the approaches developed to date leave the field far from achieving the large-scale impact that is needed. This commentary provides a brief review of what achievements in prevention have been made and identifies the gaps that limit the potential for greater impact on population health. A plan is then offered with specific action steps to accelerate progress in high-impact prevention, most compellingly by promoting a shift in priorities to policy translation research and training for scholars through the adoption of a triggers-to-action framework. Finally, the commentary provides an example of the application of the triggers-to-action framework as practiced at the Strategic Training Initiative for the Prevention of Eating Disorders, a program based at the Harvard T. H. Chan School of Public Health and Boston Children's Hospital. Much has been achieved in the nearly 30 years of research carried out for the prevention of eating disorders and body image problems, but several critical limitations undermine the field's potential for meaningful impact. Through a shift in the field's priorities to policy translation research and training with an emphasis on macro-environmental influences, the pace of progress in prevention can be accelerated and the potential for large-scale impact substantially improved.

  4. James P. Allison received the 2014 Szent-Györgi Prize for Progress in Cancer Research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jie Zhao,Peter Scully; Sujuan Ba

    2014-01-01

    The Szent-Györgyi Prize for Progress in Cancer Research is a prestigious scientific award established by the National Foundation for Cancer Research (NFCR)-a leading cancer research charitable organization in the United States that is committed to supporting innovative cancer research on the global scale that aims to cure cancer. Each year, the Szent-Györgyi Prize honors an outstanding researcher whose original discoveries have expanded our understanding of cancer and resulted in notable advances in cancer prevention, diagnosis, or treatment. The prize also promotes public awareness of the importance of basic cancer research and encourages the sustained investment needed to accelerate the translation of these research discoveries into new cancer treatments. This report highlights the history and mission of the Szent-Györgyi Prize, its role in promoting discovery-oriented cancer research, and the pioneering work led by the 2014 prize winner, Dr. James Alison. Dr. Alison’s work in the area of cancer immunotherapy led to the successful development of immune checkpoint therapy, and the first drug approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of metastatic melanoma.

  5. Balancing truth-telling: relatives acting as translators for older adult cancer patients of Turkish or northwest African origin in Belgium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Eechoud, I; Grypdonck, M; Leman, J; Van Den Noortgate, N; Deveugele, M; Verhaeghe, S

    2016-05-01

    The first generation of Turkish and Northwest African immigrants in Belgium are ageing and at risk for developing cancer. Relatives play an important role and provide both emotional and practical care, including mental support and acting as a contact person and/or a translator for improving access to healthcare, as most patients and their spouses have only a limited command of the language. Although access to professional interpreters has shown to be the best guarantee for qualitative healthcare, oncology health providers working with relatives as interpreters is much more common than professional interpreters. The aim of this study was to provide insight into the process wherein relatives balance truth-telling in translating for an older family member diagnosed with cancer. This was a qualitative research study, with elements of constructivist grounded theory. Twenty-eight loosely structured interviews were conducted. Most relatives consider it their responsibility to contribute to a positive attitude of the patient. Relatives decided to what extent they inform the patient, based on several motives and embedded in their assessment of the patient's emotional strength, understanding and need to be informed. What they decide influences the way they act as a translator and/or a contact person between the patient and health professional(s). Some considered it best to omit medical information while others considered it best to inform the patient fully. The results emphasise the importance for healthcare providers to take into account the complexity and unpredictable character of the process of balancing truth-telling when family members translate for their ill older relative.

  6. Assessment of and Response to Data Needs of Clinical and Translational Science Researchers and Beyond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannah F. Norton

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective and Setting: As universities and libraries grapple with data management and “big data,” the need for data management solutions across disciplines is particularly relevant in clinical and translational science (CTS research, which is designed to traverse disciplinary and institutional boundaries. At the University of Florida Health Science Center Library, a team of librarians undertook an assessment of the research data management needs of CTS researchers, including an online assessment and follow-up one-on-one interviews. Design and Methods: The 20-question online assessment was distributed to all investigators affiliated with UF’s Clinical and Translational Science Institute (CTSI and 59 investigators responded. Follow-up in-depth interviews were conducted with nine faculty and staff members. Results: Results indicate that UF’s CTS researchers have diverse data management needs that are often specific to their discipline or current research project and span the data lifecycle. A common theme in responses was the need for consistent data management training, particularly for graduate students; this led to localized training within the Health Science Center and CTSI, as well as campus-wide training. Another campus-wide outcome was the creation of an action-oriented Data Management/Curation Task Force, led by the libraries and with participation from Research Computing and the Office of Research. Conclusions: Initiating conversations with affected stakeholders and campus leadership about best practices in data management and implications for institutional policy shows the library’s proactive leadership and furthers our goal to provide concrete guidance to our users in this area.

  7. Impact of proteomics on bladder cancer research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Celis, Julio E; Gromova, Irina; Moreira, José Manuel Alfonso

    2004-01-01

    Detecting bladder cancer at an early stage and predicting how a tumor will behave and act in response to therapy, as well as the identification of new targets for therapeutic intervention, are among the main areas of research that will benefit from the current explosion in the number of powerful ...

  8. Synthesizing Marketing, Community Engagement, and Systems Science Approaches for Advancing Translational Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kneipp, Shawn M; Leeman, Jennifer; McCall, Pamela; Hassmiller-Lich, Kristen; Bobashev, Georgiy; Schwartz, Todd A; Gilmore, Robert; Riggan, Scott; Gil, Benjamin

    2015-01-01

    The adoption and implementation of evidence-based interventions (EBIs) are the goals of translational research; however, potential end-users' perceptions of an EBI value have contributed to low rates of adoption. In this article, we describe our application of emerging dissemination and implementation science theoretical perspectives, community engagement, and systems science principles to develop a novel EBI dissemination approach. Using consumer-driven, graphics-rich simulation, the approach demonstrates predicted implementation effects on health and employment outcomes for socioeconomically disadvantaged women at the local level and is designed to increase adoption interest of county program managers accountable for improving these outcomes in their communities.

  9. Post-translational modifications of the extracellular matrix are key events in cancer progression: opportunities for biochemical marker development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leeming, D J; Bay-Jensen, A C; Vassiliadis, E;

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this review is to discuss the potential usefulness of a novel class of biochemical markers, designated neoepitopes. Neoepitopes are post-translational modifications (PTMs) of proteins and are derived by processes, such as protease cleavage, citrullination, nitrosylation, glycosylation...... and isomerization. Each PTM results from a specific local physiological or pathobiological process. Identification of each modification to a tissue-specific protein may reveal a unique disease-specific biochemical marker. During cancer metastasis, the host tissue is extensively degraded and replaced by cancer...

  10. A Translational Approach to Validate In Vivo Anti-Tumor Effects of Chloroquine on Breast Cancer Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-01

    birth control pills or other hormonal contraceptives for at least one month for any reason? These include pills , injections, implants, and patches...Question 50. r Refuse to answer Skip to Question 50. 48. How old were you when you started taking birth control pills /hormonal contraceptives ...AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-12-1-0144 TITLE: A Translational Approach to Validate In Vivo Anti-Tumor Effects of Chloroquine on Breast Cancer Risk

  11. Prostate Cancer Research Training Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-01

    Associate, Department of Internal Medicine (319-356-4159) http://www.int- med.uiowa.edu/Divisions/ Cardiology /Directory/Micha elSchultz.html Dr. Schultz’s...Core, DNA Core, Flow Cytometry Core, to name but a few. For research that includes laboratory animals, professional, humane veterinary care is

  12. Raising awareness of research evidence among health professionals delivering dementia care: Are knowledge translation workshops useful?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodenough, Belinda; Fleming, Richard; Young, Michael; Burns, Kim; Jones, Cindy; Forbes, Fallon

    2016-10-24

    Providing information about the latest research via educational sessions to health professionals caring for people with dementia may be insufficient to drive change. This project explored self-reported impacts on practice change of adding information about knowledge translation (KT) to a national dementia education program. Six national workshop days were held. Each provided the option of participating in a Principles of KT and innovation implementation seminar in addition to a clinical topic update (sexualities and dementia, or managing behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia). Six months postworkshop, 321 participants were invited to complete a research utilization survey. Seventy-five responded. KT seminar participants were more likely to report instrumental outcomes (e.g. changed policies, procedures) than those who did not participate in the KT seminar. Including KT information in educational sessions for health professionals may increase the likelihood of practice change in the field of dementia care and warrants further research.

  13. Research based empathic knowledge for nursing: a translational strategy for disseminating phenomenological research findings to provide evidence for caring practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galvin, Kathleen T; Todres, Les

    2011-04-01

    We are interested in the kind of knowledge that is particularly relevant to caring practice and the way in which qualitative research findings can serve such knowledge. As phenomenological researchers we have been engaged with the question of how findings from such research can be re-presented and expressed more aesthetically. Such a movement towards a more aesthetic phenomenology may serve the communicative concern to express phenomena relevant to caring practice in ways that appeal to the 'head, hand and heart'. The paper first offers some thoughts about the complex kind of knowledge relevant to caring that is not only technical or propositional, but actionable and aesthetically moving as well. We call this kind of knowledge 'embodied relational understanding'. Further, the paper outlines the development of one way of serving a more aesthetic phenomenology whereby research findings can be faithfully and evocatively translated into more empathically impactful expressions. We call this process 'embodied interpretation'. It is guided by an epistemological framework grounded in the philosophies of Gadamer and Gendlin. We finally illustrate the process with reference to the experience of living after Stroke, and consider the value of this translational process for nursing education and practice.

  14. New Memorandum of Understanding in Clinical Proteogenomics Between the United States and Australia - Office of Cancer Clinical Proteomics Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    The White House Office of the Vice President has announced the signing of three Memoranda of Understanding (MOUs) that will make available an unprecedented international dataset to advance cancer research and care. An MOU between the National Cancer Institute (NCI) at the National Institutes of Health (NIH) in the United States, and Macquarie University (MU), Children's Medical Research Institute (CMRI), Garvan Institute of Medical Research (GIMR), and Bioplatforms Australia Limited (BPA) in Australia will facilitate scientific collaborations in the field of clinical proteogenomic studies and their translation to cancer care.

  15. Scientific reasons for including persons with disabilities in clinical and translational diabetes research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Shirley M

    2012-03-01

    Despite disparities in health problems and outcomes, people with disabilities are underrepresented in diabetes research. This results in a lack of evidence-based knowledge regarding best approaches in caring for this population. This article addresses the need for research that includes people with disabilities and describes the common reasons persons with disabilities are not included in research, including scientists' concerns regarding threats to a study's internal validity and cost. Arguments are provided as to how involving people with disabilities in research will improve our science and reduce disparities in this population. In addition to the ethical reasons for including persons with disabilities in research, the ability to generalize study findings to this population and thus speed our development and translation of this knowledge for use by clinicians is discussed. The bias in study conclusions that arise from study samples that do not include persons with disabilities and its possible effect on care delivery are presented. Two strategies that researchers can use to increase the inclusion of persons with disabilities in research are described: (1) Universal Design of Research and (2) intervention optimization study designs. Universal Design of Research includes research design processes such as the use of multisensory formats for recruiting participants, approaches to designing and presenting research instruments and interventions, and methods of data collection to promote the inclusion of participants with a wide range of abilities in research studies. Intervention optimization study designs offer an efficient way for scientists to rapidly build the most potent interventions for a wide range of people, including those with disabilities participating in mainstream research.

  16. Science Translational Medicine – improving human health care worldwide by providing an interdisciplinary forum for idea exchange between basic scientists and clinical research practitioners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Forsythe, Katherine

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Science Translational Medicine’s mission is to improve human health care worldwide by providing a forum for communication and interdisciplinary idea exchange between basic scientists and clinical research practitioners from all relevant established and emerging disciplines. The weekly journal debuted in October 2009 and is published by the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS, the publisher of Science and Science Signaling. The journal features peer-reviewed research articles, perspectives and commentary, and is guided by an international Advisory Board, led by Chief Scientific Adviser, Elias A. Zerhouni, M.D., former Director of the National Institutes of Health, and Senior Scientific Adviser, Elazer R. Edelman, M.D., Ph.D., Thomas D. and Virginia W. Cabot Professor of Health Sciences and Technology, Massachusetts Institute of Technology. The Science Translational Medicine editorial team is led by Katrina L. Kelner, Ph.D., AAAS. A profound transition is required for the science of translational medicine. Despite 50 years of advances in our fundamental understanding of human biology and the emergence of powerful new technologies, the rapid transformation of this knowledge into effective health measures is not keeping pace with the challenges of global health care. Creative experimental approaches, novel technologies, and new ways of conducting scientific explorations at the interface of established and emerging disciplines are now required to an unprecedented degree if real progress is to be made. To aid in this reinvention, Science and AAAS have created a new interdisciplinary journal, Science Translational Medicine. The following interview exemplefies the pioneering content found in Science Translational Medicine. It is an excerpt from a Podcast interview with Dr. Samuel Broder, former director of the National Cancer Institute and current Chief Medical Officer at Celera. The Podcast was produced in tangent with Dr

  17. Prostate Cancer Research Training Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-01

    Iowa. It is conveniently located on the northern edge of the campus and is served by the free Cambus transportation system. The Mayflower has...and museums (art, natural history, and sports). In addition, there are a large number of restaurants ranging from fast food to fine dining...of Iowa. It is conveniently located on the west campus near the research labs and is served by the free Cambus transportation system. The

  18. Equivalence in Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李良杰

    2013-01-01

    There are many researches about translation theories and methods in western translation history. Equivalence in transla⁃tion has always been the central issue for discussion. This paper gives a general review and comment on equivalence in translation in terms of three representative translation theorists and their views about equivalence in translation.

  19. Implementation of tissue microarrays technique for cancer research in Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tania Lahera-Sánchez

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The tissue microarray (TMA technique is based on making cylindrical cores from paraffin donor blocks and transfer to a single recipient block. The TMA has revolutionized the field of pathology for the possibility to evaluate multiple samples in one slide. There is no precedent of this subject in Cuba, so the objective of this research was to implement the TMA technique. The concordance of the results obtained by complete section and the TMA were evaluated for this purpose, in the evaluation of the estrogen receptors (ER, progesterone (PR and epidermal growth factor type 2 (HER2 in samples of breast cancer. Forty-five paraffin-embedded samples from women diagnosed with breast cancer at the Institute of Oncology in 2012 were studied. Two TMA blocks were constructed, and subsequently the expression of markers ER, PR and HER2 was determined by immunohistochemistry, in the complete section of tissue and in the TMA. Kappa index was used for concordance analysis. A good concordance was obtained for all three markers (ER k=0.8272; PR k=0.793 and HER2 k=0.716. This study constitutes the first report on the TMA technique in Cuba and shows that it is a valuable tool, suggesting its potential use in translational research and clinical trials on vaccines.

  20. Networks of Collaboration among Scientists in a Center for Diabetes Translation Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Jenine K.; Wong, Roger; Thompson, Kellie; Haire-Joshu, Debra; Hipp, J. Aaron

    2015-01-01

    Background Transdisciplinary collaboration is essential in addressing the translation gap between scientific discovery and delivery of evidence-based interventions to prevent and treat diabetes. We examined patterns of collaboration among scientists at the Washington University Center for Diabetes Translation Research. Methods Members (n = 56) of the Washington University Center for Diabetes Translation Research were surveyed about collaboration overall and on publications, presentations, and grants; 87.5% responded (n = 49). We used traditional and network descriptive statistics and visualization to examine the networks and exponential random graph modeling to identify predictors of collaboration. Results The 56 network members represented nine disciplines. On average, network members had been affiliated with the center for 3.86 years (s.d. = 1.41). The director was by far the most central in all networks. The overall and publication networks were the densest, while the overall and grant networks were the most centralized. The grant network was the most transdisciplinary. The presentation network was the least dense, least centralized, and least transdisciplinary. For every year of center affiliation, network members were 10% more likely to collaborate (OR: 1.10; 95% CI: 1.00–1.21) and 13% more likely to write a paper together (OR: 1.13; 95% CI: 1.02–1.25). Network members in the same discipline were over twice as likely to collaborate in the overall network (OR: 2.10; 95% CI: 1.40–3.15); however, discipline was not associated with collaboration in the other networks. Rank was not associated with collaboration in any network. Conclusions As transdisciplinary centers become more common, it is important to identify structural features, such as a central leader and ongoing collaboration over time, associated with scholarly productivity and, ultimately, with advancing science and practice. PMID:26301873

  1. Ubiquitin proteasome system research in gastrointestinal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Jia-Ling; Huang, Chang-Zhi

    2016-02-15

    The ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS) is important for the degradation of proteins in eukaryotic cells. It is involved in nearly every cellular process and plays an important role in maintaining body homeostasis. An increasing body of evidence has linked alterations in the UPS to gastrointestinal malignancies, including esophageal, gastric and colorectal cancers. Here, we summarize the current literature detailing the involvement of the UPS in gastrointestinal cancer, highlighting its role in tumor occurrence and development, providing information for therapeutic targets research and anti-gastrointestinal tumor drug design.

  2. Orientations and outcome of interdisciplinary research: the case of research behaviour in translational medical science

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valentin, Finn; Norn, Maria Theresa; Alkærsig, Lars

    2016-01-01

    The importance of interdisciplinary research in accelerating the progress and commercialization of science is widely recognized, yet little is known about how academic research self-organizes towards interdisciplinarity. In this paper, we therefore explore the micro-level behavior of researchers ...

  3. Animal Models and Bone Histomorphometry: Translational Research for the Human Research Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibonga, Jean D.

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the use of animal models to research and inform bone morphology, in particular relating to human research in bone loss as a result of low gravity environments. Reasons for use of animal models as tools for human research programs include: time-efficient, cost-effective, invasive measures, and predictability as some model are predictive for drug effects.

  4. From bench to clinic and back: Perspective on the 1st IQPC Translational Research conference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hörig Heidi

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Translational Research (TR provides a set of tools and communication context for scientists and clinicians to optimize the drug discovery and development process. In the proceedings of a Princeton conference on this timely topic, the strengths and needs of this developing field were debated. Outcomes and key points from these discussions are summarized in this article which covers the topics of defining what we mean by translational research (both theoretically and in operational terms, ways in which to engender the TR mindset and embed it in organizations such as the pharmaceutical industry in order to optimize the impact of available technologies (including imaging methods, the scientific basis and under-pinnings of TR including genomics knowledge, information sharing, as well as examples of application to drug discovery and development. Importantly, it should be noted that collaborations and communications between the stakeholders in this field, namely academia, industry and regulatory authorities, must be strengthened in order for the promise of TR to be delivered as better therapies to patients.

  5. AIBench: a rapid application development framework for translational research in biomedicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glez-Peña, D; Reboiro-Jato, M; Maia, P; Rocha, M; Díaz, F; Fdez-Riverola, F

    2010-05-01

    Applied research in both biomedical discovery and translational medicine today often requires the rapid development of fully featured applications containing both advanced and specific functionalities, for real use in practice. In this context, new tools are demanded that allow for efficient generation, deployment and reutilization of such biomedical applications as well as their associated functionalities. In this context this paper presents AIBench, an open-source Java desktop application framework for scientific software development with the goal of providing support to both fundamental and applied research in the domain of translational biomedicine. AIBench incorporates a powerful plug-in engine, a flexible scripting platform and takes advantage of Java annotations, reflection and various design principles in order to make it easy to use, lightweight and non-intrusive. By following a basic input-processing-output life cycle, it is possible to fully develop multiplatform applications using only three types of concepts: operations, data-types and views. The framework automatically provides functionalities that are present in a typical scientific application including user parameter definition, logging facilities, multi-threading execution, experiment repeatability and user interface workflow management, among others. The proposed framework architecture defines a reusable component model which also allows assembling new applications by the reuse of libraries from past projects or third-party software.

  6. Translational atherosclerosis research: From experimental models to coronary artery disease in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleissner, Christian A

    2016-05-01

    Atherosclerosis is the leading cause of death worldwide. Research on the pathophysiological mechanisms of atherogenesis has made tremendous progress over the past two decades. However, despite great advances there is still a lack of therapies that reduce adverse cardiovascular events to an acceptable degree. This review addresses successes, but also questions, challenges, and chances regarding the translation of basic science results into clinical practice, i.e. the capability to apply the results of basic and/or clinical research in order to design therapies suitable to improve patient outcome. Specifically, it discusses problems in translating findings from the most broadly used murine models of atherosclerosis into clinically feasible therapies and strategies potentially improving the results of clinical trials. Most likely, the key to success will be a multimodal approach employing novel imaging methods as well as large scale screening tools-summarized as "omics" approach. Using individually tailored therapies, plaque stabilization and regression could prevent adverse cardiovascular events thereby improving outcome of a large number of patients.

  7. 翻译伦理研究之再思%A Reconsideration of Research of Translation Ethics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄培清

    2013-01-01

    Translation is a cross-cultural communication activity, which means that translation and its researches need ethics as their guidance. This essay first expounds the relationship between ethics and translation studies, and then sorts out and analyzes the achieve-ments about the study of translation ethics. We hold that ethics can provide a new perspective for translation studies, and translation stud-ies can borrow the basic concepts and ideas of ethics for reference, and finally establish an ethics of translation as a branch of translation studies.%翻译活动的跨文化性和交际性决定了翻译实践和翻译研究需要伦理学的指导。首先阐述了翻译研究和伦理学的关系,然后梳理了翻译伦理研究现有的成果,指出伦理学可以为翻译研究提供新的视角,翻译研究可以借鉴伦理学的一些基本概念和基本理论,最终建立翻译伦理学。

  8. A Preliminary Research on Errors in the English Translation of 《 The Analects of Confucious》 by James Legge%A Preliminary Research on Errors in the English Translation of 《The Analects of Confucious》 by James Legge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LiuXia

    2008-01-01

    is hard to understand even to Chinese, the foreign translators with different culture are bound to produce diverse"fusion of horizons". As a result, misunderstandings are seen in James Legge's interpretations. Nevertheless, just as Xie Tianzhen points out, "misunderstanding many sometimes prove to be extraordinarily valuable in research field in that misunderstanding reflects the translator's misconceiving of another culture, the blockade in cultural exchange".

  9. The knowledge translation status in selected Eastern-Mediterranean universities and research institutes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katayoun Maleki

    Full Text Available A serious worldwide effort to strengthen research based knowledge translation (KT has begun in recent years and some countries, particularly developed ones, are trying to incorporate KT in their health and health research systems. Keeping in mind the recent economic depression and the need to perform more efficient research, we aimed to assess and compare the KT status of selected health research institutes in the Eastern Mediterranean Regions' countries, and to identify their strengths and weaknesses in the field.After finding the focal points that would steer the focus group discussions (FGDs and help complete the 'Self Assessment Tool for Research Institutes' (SATORI tool, each focal point held two FGDs in which researchers, research authorities and other individuals specified in detail further in the study were held. The scores obtained by each institute were evaluated quantitatively, and the transcriptions were analyzed qualitatively with OpenCode software.For ease of analysis the 50 items of the SATORI were classified into 7 main domains: 'priority setting', 'research quality and timeliness', 'researchers' KT capacities', 'facilities and pre-requisites of KT', 'processes and regulations supporting KT', 'interaction with research users', and 'promoting and evaluating the use of knowledge'. Based on the scoring system, the strongest domain was 'research quality and timeliness'. 'Priority setting' was the weakest domain of all. The remaining domains were more or less equal in strength and were not in a favorable state. The qualitative findings confirmed the quantitative findings.The main problem, it seems, is that a KT climate does not exist in the region. And despite the difference in the contexts, there are many similarities in the region's institutes included in this study. Collaborative efforts can play a role in creating this climate by steering countries towards KT and suggesting regional strategic directions according to their needs.

  10. Microarray Applications in Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Il-Jin; Kang, Hio Chung

    2004-01-01

    DNA microarray technology permits simultaneous analysis of thousands of DNA sequences for genomic research and diagnostics applications. Microarray technology represents the most recent and exciting advance in the application of hybridization-based technology for biological sciences analysis. This review focuses on the classification (oligonucleotide vs. cDNA) and application (mutation-genotyping vs. gene expression) of microarrays. Oligonucleotide microarrays can be used both in mutation-genotyping and gene expression analysis, while cDNA microarrays can only be used in gene expression analysis. We review microarray mutation analysis, including examining the use of three oligonucleotide microarrays developed in our laboratory to determine mutations in RET, β-catenin and K-ras genes. We also discuss the use of the Affymetrix GeneChip in mutation analysis. We review microarray gene expression analysis, including the classifying of such studies into four categories: class comparison, class prediction, class discovery and identification of biomarkers. PMID:20368836

  11. Hepatic differentiation of porcine embryonic stem cells for translational research of hepatocyte transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, K M; Hussein, K H; Ghim, J H; Ahn, C; Cha, S H; Lee, G S; Hong, S H; Yang, S; Woo, H M

    2015-04-01

    Porcine embryonic stem cells (ES) are considered attractive preclinical research tools for human liver diseases. Although several studies previously reported generation of porcine ES, none of these studies has described hepatic differentiation from porcine ES. The aim of this study was to generate hepatocytes from porcine ES and analyze their characteristics. We optimized conditions for definitive endoderm induction and developed a 4-step hepatic differentiation protocol. A brief serum-free condition with activin A efficiently induced definitive endoderm differentiation from porcine ES. The porcine ES-derived hepatocyte-like cells highly expressed hepatic markers including albumin and α-fetoprotein, and displayed liver characteristics such as glycogen storage, lipid production, and low-density lipoprotein uptake. For the first time, we describe a highly efficient protocol for hepatic differentiation from porcine ES. Our findings provide valuable information for translational liver research using porcine models, including hepatic regeneration and transplant studies, drug screening, and toxicology.

  12. Genome elimination: translating basic research into a future tool for plant breeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comai, Luca

    2014-06-01

    During the course of our history, humankind has been through different periods of agricultural improvement aimed at enhancing our food supply and the performance of food crops. In recent years, it has become apparent that future crop improvement efforts will require new approaches to address the local challenges of farmers while empowering discovery across industry and academia. New plant breeding approaches are needed to meet this challenge to help feed a growing world population. Here I discuss how a basic research discovery is being translated into a potential future tool for plant breeding, and share the story of researcher Simon Chan, who recognized the potential application of this new approach--genome elimination--for the breeding of staple food crops in Africa and South America.

  13. Genome elimination: translating basic research into a future tool for plant breeding.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Comai

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available During the course of our history, humankind has been through different periods of agricultural improvement aimed at enhancing our food supply and the performance of food crops. In recent years, it has become apparent that future crop improvement efforts will require new approaches to address the local challenges of farmers while empowering discovery across industry and academia. New plant breeding approaches are needed to meet this challenge to help feed a growing world population. Here I discuss how a basic research discovery is being translated into a potential future tool for plant breeding, and share the story of researcher Simon Chan, who recognized the potential application of this new approach--genome elimination--for the breeding of staple food crops in Africa and South America.

  14. Translating Population Difference: The Use and Re-Use of Genetic Ancestry in Brazilian Cancer Genetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbon, Sahra

    2016-01-01

    In the past ten years, there has been an expansion of scientific interest in population genetics linked to both understanding histories of human migration and the way that population difference and diversity may account for and/or be implicated in health and disease. In this article, I examine how particular aspects of a globalizing research agenda related to population differences and genetic ancestry are taken up in locally variant ways in the nascent field of Brazilian cancer genetics. Drawing on a broad range of ethnographic data from clinical and nonclinical contexts in the south of Brazil, I examine the ambiguities that attention to genetic ancestry generates, so revealing the disjunctured and diverse ways a global research agenda increasingly orientated to questions of population difference and genetic ancestry is being used and reused.

  15. "Interventions for Promoting Research Knowledge Translation: Selection and Grading of Research Projects for Decision Makers"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saharnaz Nedjat

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available "nResearch-based knowledge transfer is considered an important principle in health. The status of knowledge transfer was studied in earlier studies and accordingly certain interventions were designed on the basis of its weaknesses. The idea was to design an algorithm for selection of research projects which are legible for knowledge transfer."nUsing literature review, grading of research projects was examined for its design and methodology. A decision was then made on the method of grading projects using relevant expert opinions. In the next stage, considering the validity of the aforementioned grading, and contextual examination, an algorithm was designed to define the method of selecting projects and their result transfer."nSince articles usually don't convey all the research findings, and don't reach decision makers on time, article writing doesn't seem sufficient for knowledge transfer. It is therefore necessary to adopt a mechanism that will convey valid research findings to target audiences. The algorithm presented in this article will help research authorities systematically decide about selecting research projects for knowledge transfer. Evaluation of this intervention was suggested for future researches. The results of this study can be beneficial to research policy makers in the university.

  16. Translating research for health policy: researchers' perceptions and use of social media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grande, David; Gollust, Sarah E; Pany, Maximilian; Seymour, Jane; Goss, Adeline; Kilaru, Austin; Meisel, Zachary

    2014-07-01

    As the United States moves forward with health reform, the communication gap between researchers and policy makers will need to be narrowed to promote policies informed by evidence. Social media represent an expanding channel for communication. Academic journals, public health agencies, and health care organizations are increasingly using social media to communicate health information. For example, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention now regularly tweets to 290,000 followers. We conducted a survey of health policy researchers about using social media and two traditional channels (traditional media and direct outreach) to disseminate research findings to policy makers. Researchers rated the efficacy of the three dissemination methods similarly but rated social media lower than the other two in three domains: researchers' confidence in their ability to use the method, peers' respect for its use, and how it is perceived in academic promotion. Just 14 percent of our participants reported tweeting, and 21 percent reported blogging about their research or related health policy in the past year. Researchers described social media as being incompatible with research, of high risk professionally, of uncertain efficacy, and an unfamiliar technology that they did not know how to use. Researchers will need evidence-based strategies, training, and institutional resources to use social media to communicate evidence.

  17. Harnessing the social web for health and wellness: issues for research and knowledge translation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Kendall

    2014-02-11

    Social media is a powerful, rapid, and popular way of communication amongst people around the world. How can health professionals and patients use this strategy to achieve optimal disease management and prevention and attainment of wellness? An interdisciplinary group at University of British Columbia, supported by a grant from UBC Peter Wall Institute of Advanced Studies, conducted a research workshop in February 2013 to explore what is known and yet to be researched in using social media for nurturing the growth of virtual communities of people for health and wellness. This two and a half day workshop brought together a group of 30 multidisciplinary experts in closed discussions to reflect on five research themes in detail: (1) individual information acquisition and application, (2) community genesis and sustainability, (3) technological design issues, (4) knowledge management, dissemination, and renewal, and (5) research designs. In addition, a public forum for the general public, which attracted over 195 live participants, over 100 participants via Web casting, 1004 tweets, and 1,124,886 impressions following the #HCSMForum hash tag on Twitter, demonstrated the keen interest of the general public in this topic. Key concepts were captured in JMIR publications in this issue, and future directions, including research, knowledge translation approaches, and strategic partnerships of interdisciplinary researchers with policy makers and industries emerged from the workshop proceedings.

  18. Taking power, politics, and policy problems seriously: the limits of knowledge translation for urban health research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Kelly; Fafard, Patrick

    2012-08-01

    Knowledge translation (KT) is a growing movement in clinical and health services research, aimed to help make research more relevant and to move research into practice and policy. This paper examines the conventional model of policy change presented in KT and assesses its applicability for increasing the impact of urban health research on urban health policy. In general, KT conceptualizes research utilization in terms of the technical implementation of scientific findings, on the part of individual decision-makers who can be "targeted" for a KT intervention, in a context that is absent of political interests. However, complex urban health problems and interventions infrequently resemble this single decision, single decision-maker model posited by KT. In order to clarify the conditions under which urban health research is more likely or not to have an influence on public policy development, we propose to supplement the conventional model with three concepts drawn from the social science: policy stages, policy networks, and a discourse analysis approach for theorizing power in policy-making.

  19. Translator awareness Translator awareness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfram Wilss

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available If we want to encompass adequately the wide-ranging field of human translation, it is necessary to include in translation studies (TS the concept of translator awareness (or translator consciousness, for that matter. However, this is more easily said than done, because this concept does not easily lend itself to definition, let alone to measurement, e. g., by investigating translator behaviour. To put it bluntly: Translator awareness is a fuzzy concept. Like many obviously difficult-to-define concepts, with which dialogue in TS is burdened, translator awareness lacks an articulated theory within which different forms of translator behaviour can be convincingly related to, or distinguished from, one another. Hence, TS has so far not tackled, at least not systematically, the issue of translator awareness. If we want to encompass adequately the wide-ranging field of human translation, it is necessary to include in translation studies (TS the concept of translator awareness (or translator consciousness, for that matter. However, this is more easily said than done, because this concept does not easily lend itself to definition, let alone to measurement, e. g., by investigating translator behaviour. To put it bluntly: Translator awareness is a fuzzy concept. Like many obviously difficult-to-define concepts, with which dialogue in TS is burdened, translator awareness lacks an articulated theory within which different forms of translator behaviour can be convincingly related to, or distinguished from, one another. Hence, TS has so far not tackled, at least not systematically, the issue of translator awareness.

  20. ADVANTAGES AND APPLICATIONS OF TISSUE MICROARRAY TECHNOLOGY ON CANCER RESEARCH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张喜平; 苏丹; 程琪辉

    2003-01-01

    S To provide evidences for exploiting tissue microarray (TMA) technology, we reviewed advantages and applications of TMA on tumor research. TMA has many advantages, including (1) section from TMA blocks can be utilized for the simultaneous analysis of up to 1,000 different tumors at DNA, RNA or protein level; (2) TMA is highly representative of their donor tissues; (3) TMA can improve conservation of tissue resources and experimental reagents, improve internal experimental control, and increase sample numbers per experiment, and can be used for large-scale, massively parallel in situ analysis; (4) TMA facilitates rapid translation of molecular discoveries to clinical applications. TMA has been applied to tumor research, such as glioma, breast tumor, lung cancer and so on. The development of novel biochip technologies has opened up new possibilities for the high-throughput molecular profiling of human tumors. Novel molecular markers emerging from high-throughput expression surveys could be analyzed on tumor TMA. It is anticipated that TMA, a new member of biochip, will soon become a widely used tool for all types of tissue-based research. TMA will lead to a significant acceleration of the transition of basic research findings into clinical applications.

  1. Phosphorylation of group I metabotropic glutamate receptors in drug addiction and translational research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Limin Mao; John Q Wang∗

    2016-01-01

    Protein phosphorylation is an impor-tant posttranslational modification of group I metabo-tropic glutamate receptors ( mGluR1 and mGluR5 subtypes, mGluR1/5 ) which are widely distributed throughout the mammalian brain. Several common protein kinases are involved in this type of modifica-tion, including protein kinase A, protein kinase C, and extracellular signal-regulated kinase. Through con-stitutive and activity-dependent phosphorylation of mGluR1/5 at specific residues, protein kinases regu-late trafficking, subcellular/subsynaptic distribution, and function of modified receptors. Increasing evi-dence demonstrates that mGluR1/5 phosphorylation in the mesolimbic reward circuitry is sensitive to chro-nic psychostimulant exposure and undergoes adaptive changes in its abundance and activity. These changes contribute to long-term excitatory synaptic plasticity related to the addictive property of drugs of abuse. The rapid progress in uncovering the neurochemical basis of addiction has fostered bench-to-bed translation-al research by targeting mGluR1/5 for developing ef-fective pharmacotherapies for treating addiction in hu-mans. This review summarizes recent data from the studies analyzing mGluR1/5 phosphorylation. Phos-phorylation-dependent mechanisms in stimulant-in-duced mGluR1/5 and behavioral plasticity are also dis-cussed in association with increasing interest in mGluR1/5 in translational medicine.

  2. Introduction: Epidemiologic research and prevention of occupational cancer in Europe.

    OpenAIRE

    Boffetta, P.; Kogevinas, M.

    1999-01-01

    Research on occupational cancer epidemiology has been an important area of occupational health in Europe since the early studies were conducted in the United Kingdom in the 1950s and 1960s. During the last decade, occupational cancer research in Europe has gained an international dimension and become increasingly interdisciplinary in nature. At present, occupational exposures might be responsible for 13 to 18% of lung cancers, 2 to 10% of bladder cancers, and 2 to 8% of laryngeal cancers in E...

  3. Transcriptional and post-translational regulation of Bim controls apoptosis in melatonin-treated human renal cancer Caki cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Eun Jung; Woo, Seon Min; Min, Kyoung-Jin; Kwon, Taeg Kyu

    2014-01-01

    Melatonin (N-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine) has recently gained attention as an anticancer agent and for combined cancer therapy. In this study, we investigated the underlying molecular mechanisms of the effects of melatonin on cancer cell death. Treatment with melatonin induced apoptosis and upregulated the expression of the pro-apoptotic protein Bcl-2-interacting mediator of cell death (Bim) in renal cancer Caki cells. Furthermore, downregulation of Bim expression by siRNA markedly reduced melatonin-mediated apoptosis. Melatonin increased Bim mRNA expression through the induction of Sp1 and E2F1 expression and transcriptional activity. We found that melatonin also modulated Bim protein stability through the inhibition of proteasome activity. However, melatonin-induced Bim upregulation was independent of melatonin's antioxidant properties and the melatonin receptor. Taken together, our results suggest that melatonin induces apoptosis through the upregulation of Bim expression at the transcriptional level and at the post-translational level.

  4. The challenge and importance of standardizing pre-analytical variables in surgical pathology specimens for clinical care and translational research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, D G; Boyce, B F

    2012-01-01

    The introduction of targeted cancer therapies into clinical practice, in which patients are selected for novel treatments based on results of companion molecular testing of their tumor specimens, has created significant new challenges for the surgical pathology laboratory. These include standardization of tissue handling and sample preparation with accurate documentation to ensure optimal quality of clinical samples to reduce the risk of errors in molecular biology tests. The assay of tumor tissues for biomarkers that can provide predictive data for prognosis or treatment should enable selection of the most appropriate therapies (Yaziji et al. 2008, Hicks and Kulkarni 2008). Major advances have been made in the ability to profile clinical samples for research at the DNA, RNA and protein levels. To translate this new information into the clinical setting, however, the quality of the starting material, in this case the tumor tissue, determines the accuracy and reliability of companion diagnostic assay results and therefore optimal therapeutic strategies. Inaccurate results owing to compromised tissue quality can lead to false positive or false negative results with therapeutic consequences that can harm patients and affect their eventual outcome.

  5. Translating cell-based regenerative medicines from research to successful products: challenges and solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayon, Yves; Vertès, Alain A; Ronfard, Vincent; Egloff, Matthieu; Snykers, Sarah; Salinas, Gabriella Franco; Thomas, Robert; Girling, Alan; Lilford, Richard; Clermont, Gaelle; Kemp, Paul

    2014-08-01

    The Tissue Engineering & Regenerative Medicine International Society-Europe (TERMIS-EU) Industry Committee as well as its TERMIS-Americas (AM) counterpart intend to address the specific challenges and needs facing the industry in translating academic research into commercial products. Over the last 3 years, the TERMIS-EU Industry Committee has worked with commercial bodies to deliver programs that encourage academics to liaise with industry in proactive collaborations. The TERMIS-EU 2013 Industry Symposium aimed to build on this commercial agenda by focusing on two topics: Operations Management (How to move a process into the good manufacturing practice [GMP] environment) and Clinical Translation (Moving a GMP process into robust trials). These topics were introduced by providing the synergistic business perspective of partnering between the multiple regenerative medicine stakeholders, throughout the life cycle of product development. Seven industry leaders were invited to share their experience, expertise, and strategies. Due to the complex nature of regenerative medicine products, partnering for their successful commercial development seems inevitable to overcome all obstacles by sharing experiences and expertise of all stakeholders. When ideally implemented, the "innovation quotient" of a virtual team resulting from the combination of internal and external project teams can be maximized through maximizing the three main dimensions: core competences, technology portfolio, and alliance management.

  6. Serodiagnosis of Mycobacterium avium complex disease in humans: translational research from basic mycobacteriology to clinical medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Kazuo

    2014-01-01

    Rapid and accurate diagnosis of infectious diseases, including mycobacterial disease such as tuberculosis (TB) and diseases due to nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM), is a very important element of global health. The gold standard in diagnosis of mycobacterial diseases remains clinical examination, combined with direct microscopic examination of sputum and culture of bacteria. Culture of slowly growing mycobacteria, including Mycobacterium tuberculosis and NTM (such as M. avium complex: MAC), can take up to 4 to 6 weeks, and in 10-20% of cases the bacillus is not successfully cultivated. Diagnosis of MAC pulmonary disease (MAC-PD) is complicated and time-consuming (usually at least 1 month). I have characterized the nature of MAC antigens and immune responses from the aspect of basic mycobacteriology, and then translated to clinical science. My multicenter study in Japan has demonstrated the usefulness of a serodiagnostic test to determine serum IgA antibodies against mycobacterial glycopeptidolipid (GPL) core antigen for diagnosing MAC-PD within a few hours. To validate in a larger number of patients, at diverse geographic locations, and among other races, the test was also assessed the usefulness internationally in the United States and Taiwan. In this review, I discuss development of serodiagnosis of MAC-PD by translational research and international collaboration study.

  7. Translating social and behavioral science research to the AIDS epidemic: a center for AIDS research perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curran, James W; Hoxie, James A

    2013-06-01

    Integration of innovative social and behavioral science with public health approaches for HIV prevention and treatment is of critical importance for slowing the global HIV epidemic. Strengthening and focusing social and behavioral research linking testing and treatment strategies to populations at greatest risk for HIV is crucial. The Social and Behavioral Science Research Network(SBSRN), originated in 2006, involves twenty NIH-funded CFAR Centers and is responding to this challenge.

  8. Improving Cancer Care Through Nursing Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Deborah K

    2015-09-01

    Nursing research and nurse researchers have been an integral and significant part of the Oncology Nursing Society's (ONS's) history, as evidenced by the development of the Nursing Research Committee within a few years of ONS's establishment. Ruth McCorkle, PhD, RN, FAAN, was the committee's first chairperson in 1979. This was followed by the creation of the Advanced Nursing Research Special Interest Group in 1989 under the leadership of Jean Brown, PhD, RN, FAAN. ONS also began to recognize nurse researchers in 1994 by creating the annual ONS Distinguished Researcher Award to recognize the contributions of a member who has conducted or promoted research that has enhanced the science and practice of oncology nursing. The list of recipients and of their work is impressive and reflects the wide range of our practice areas (see http://bit.ly/1MTC5cp for the recipient list). In addition, the ONS Foundation began funding research in 1981 and has distributed more than $24 million in research grants, research fellowships, and other scholarships, lectures, public education projects, and career development awards (ONS Foundation, 2015). And, in 2006, the Putting Evidence Into Practice resource was unveiled, which provides evidence-based intervention reviews for the 20 most common problems experienced by patients with cancer and their caregivers (www.ons
.org/practice-resources/pep)
.

  9. Gaps in nutritional research among older adults with cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Presley, Carolyn J.; Dotan, Efrat; Soto-Perez-de-Celis, Enrique; Jatoi, Aminah; Mohile, Supriya G.; Won, Elizabeth; Alibhai, Shabbir; Kilari, Deepak; Harrison, Robert; Klepin, Heidi D.; Wildes, Tanya M.; Mustian, Karen; Demark-Wahnefried, Wendy

    2016-01-01

    Nutritional issues among older adults with cancer are an understudied area of research despite significant prognostic implications for treatment side effects, cancer-specific mortality, and overall survival. In May of 2015, the National Cancer Institute and the National Institute on Aging co-sponsored a conference focused on future directions in geriatric oncology research. Nutritional research among older adults with cancer was highlighted as a major area of concern as most nutritional cance...

  10. A Milestone in Cancer Research and Treatment in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tata Memorial Center is celebrating 75 years of leadership service towards cancer control and research in India. In honor of this anniversary, TMC is hosting A Conference of New Ideas in Cancer – Challenging Dogmas on February 26-28th, 2016 as part of its platinum jubilee events. CGH Director, Dr. Ted Trimble, will give a plenary talk: "Thinking Outside the Box in Cancer Research - Perspectives from the US NCI” in the session titled: Future of Cancer Research: US and European perspectives.

  11. Phenethyl isothiocyanate, a cancer chemopreventive constituent of cruciferous vegetables, inhibits cap-dependent translation by regulating the level and phosphorylation of 4E-BP1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jing; Straub, Jonathan; Xiao, Dong; Singh, Shivendra V; Yang, Hsin-Sheng; Sonenberg, Nahum; Vatsyayan, Jaya

    2007-04-15

    Phenethyl isothiocyanate (PEITC), a constituent of many edible cruciferous vegetables, exerts significant protection against chemically induced cancer in animal models and inhibits growth of cancer cells in culture and in vivo by causing cell cycle arrest and apoptosis induction. In this study, we report a novel response to PEITC involving the regulation of translation initiation at pharmacologically achievable concentrations. Treatment of human colorectal cancer HCT-116 cells and human prostate cancer PC-3 cells, but not a normal prostate epithelial cell line (PrEC), with PEITC caused an increase in expression of the eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E (eIF4E) binding protein (4E-BP1) and inhibition of 4E-BP1 phosphorylation. Results from pull-down assay using 7-methyl-GTP Sepharose 4B beads indicated that PEITC treatment reduced cap-bound eIF4E, confirming that increased 4E-BP1 expression and inhibition of 4E-BP1 phosphorylation indeed reduced the availability of eIF4E for translation initiation. Accordingly, results from in vivo translation using luciferase reporter assay indicated that PEITC treatment inhibited cap-dependent translation, in particular the translation of mRNA with secondary structure (stem-loop structure). Ectopic expression of eIF4E prevented PEITC-induced translation inhibition and conferred significant protection against PEITC-induced apoptosis. These results indicate that PEITC modulates availability of eIF4E for translation initiation leading to inhibition of cap-dependent translation. The present study also suggests that inhibition of cap-dependent translation may be an important mechanism in PEITC-induced apoptosis.

  12. The Traumatic Brain Injury Model Systems: a longitudinal database, research, collaboration and knowledge translation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, F M; Malec, J F

    2010-12-01

    In 1988, the National Institute on Disability and Rehabilitation Research (NIDRR) launched the Traumatic Brain Injury Model Systems (TBIMS) program, creating the longest and largest longitudinal database on individuals with moderate-to-severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) available today. In addition to sustaining the longitudinal database, centers that successfully compete to be part of the TBIMS centers are also expected to complete local and collaborative research projects to further scientific knowledge about TBI. The research has focused on areas of the NIDRR Long Range Plan which emphasizes employment, health and function, technology for access and function, independent living and community integration, and other associated disability research areas. Centers compete for funded participation in the TBIMS on a 5-year cycle. Dissemination of scientific knowledge gained through the TBIMS is the responsibility of both individual centers and the TBIMS as a whole. This is accomplished through multiple venues that target a broad audience of those who need to receive the information and learn how to best apply it to practice. The sites produce many useful websites, manuals, publications and other materials to accomplish this translation of knowledge to practice.

  13. Anti-translational research: from the bedside back to the bench for reflectance confocal microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gareau, Daniel

    2014-03-01

    The reflectance confocal microscope has made translational progress in dermatology. 0.5 micrometer lateral resolution, 0.75mm field-of-view and excellent temporal resolution at ~15 frames/second serve the VivaScope well in the clinic, but it may be overlooked in basic research. This work reviews high spatiotemporal confocal microscopy and presents images acquired of various samples: zebra fish embryo where melanocytes with excellent contrast overly the spinal column, chicken embryo, where myocardium is seen moving at 15 frames/ second, calcium spikes in dendrites (fluorescence mode) just beyond the temporal resolution, and human skin where blood cells race through the artereovenous microvasculature. For an introduction to confocal microscopy, see: http://dangareau.net.s69818.gridserver.com/science/confocal-microscopy

  14. Translational Research in Enteral and Parenteral Nutrition Support for Patients with Severe Head Injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIN Fa-liang; CHI Nan; LI Wei; XIE Lin; WANG Xue-xin

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To explore the key points of the translational research in enteral and pareenteral nutrition support for patients with severe head injury (SHI), and to analyze the influence of different nutritional support routes on the prognosis of SHI patients. Methods: Totally 141 patients with severe craniocerebral injury were selected as study subjects, 47 cases for each group, and were given early enteral nutrition (EEN), delayed enteral nutrition (DEN), and parenteral nutrition (PN), respectively. The effect of different nutritional support routes on SHI patients was observed. Results: After 14 d of treatment, Glasgow comascale (GCS) scores of 3 groups were higher than treatment before (P Conclusion: EEN support is more conductive to the improvement of the nutrition status, reduction of the incidence of complications, and promotion of the prognosis of SHI patients than DEN and PN.

  15. Cancer research in need of a scientific revolution: Using 'paradigm shift' as a method of investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wion, Didier; Appaix, Florence; Burruss, Meriwether; Berger, Francois; van der Sanden, Boudewijn

    2015-09-01

    Despite important human and financial resources and considerable accumulation of scientific publications, patents, and clinical trials, cancer research has been slow in achieving a therapeutic revolution similar to the one that occurred in the last century for infectious diseases. It has been proposed that science proceeds not only by accumulating data but also through paradigm shifts. Here, we propose to use the concept of 'paradigm shift' as a method of investigation when dominant paradigms fail to achieve their promises. The first step in using the 'paradigm shift' method in cancer research requires identifying its founding paradigms. In this review, two of these founding paradigms will be discussed: (i) the reification of cancer as a tumour mass and (ii) the translation of the concepts issued from infectious disease in cancer research. We show how these founding paradigms can generate biases that lead to over-diagnosis and over-treatment and also hamper the development of curative cancer therapies. We apply the 'paradigm shift' method to produce perspective reversals consistent with current experimental evidence. The 'paradigm shift' method enlightens the existence of a tumour physiologic-prophylactic-pathologic continuum. It integrates the target/antitarget concept and that cancer is also an extracellular disease. The 'paradigm shift' method has immediate implications for cancer prevention and therapy. It could be a general method of investigation for other diseases awaiting therapy.

  16. Education in health research methodology: use of a wiki for knowledge translation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele P Hamm

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: A research-practice gap exists between what is known about conducting methodologically rigorous randomized controlled trials (RCTs and what is done. Evidence consistently shows that pediatric RCTs are susceptible to high risk of bias; therefore novel methods of influencing the design and conduct of trials are required. The objective of this study was to develop and pilot test a wiki designed to educate pediatric trialists and trainees in the principles involved in minimizing risk of bias in RCTs. The focus was on preliminary usability testing of the wiki. METHODS: The wiki was developed through adaptation of existing knowledge translation strategies and through tailoring the site to the identified needs of the end-users. The wiki was evaluated for usability and user preferences regarding the content and formatting. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 15 trialists and systematic reviewers, representing varying levels of experience with risk of bias or the conduct of trials. Data were analyzed using content analysis. RESULTS: Participants found the wiki to be well organized, easy to use, and straightforward to navigate. Suggestions for improvement tended to focus on clarification of the text or on esthetics, rather than on the content or format. Participants liked the additional features of the site that were supplementary to the text, such as the interactive examples, and the components that focused on practical applications, adding relevance to the theory presented. While the site could be used by both trialists and systematic reviewers, the lack of a clearly defined target audience caused some confusion among participants. CONCLUSIONS: Participants were supportive of using a wiki as a novel educational tool. The results of this pilot test will be used to refine the risk of bias wiki, which holds promise as a knowledge translation intervention for education in medical research methodology.

  17. Linguistic and Cultural Challenges in Communication and Translation in US-Sponsored HIV Prevention Research in Emerging Economies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanrahan, Donna; Sexton, Patrina; Hui, Katrina; Teitcher, Jennifer; Sugarman, Jeremy; London, Alex John; Barnes, Mark; Purpura, James; Klitzman, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Linguistic and cultural differences can impede comprehension among potential research participants during the informed consent process, but how researchers and IRBs respond to these challenges in practice is unclear. We conducted in-depth interviews with 15 researchers, research ethics committee (REC) chairs and members from 8 different countries with emerging economies, involved in HIV-related research sponsored by HIV Prevention Trials Network (HPTN), regarding the ethical and regulatory challenges they face in this regard. In the interviews, problems with translating study materials often arose as major concerns. Four sets of challenges were identified concerning linguistic and cultural translations of informed consent documents and other study materials, related to the: (1) context, (2) process, (3) content and (4) translation of these documents. Host country contextual issues included low literacy rates, education (e.g., documents may need to be written below 5th grade reading level), and experiences with research, and different views of written documentation. Certain terms and concepts may not exist in other languages, or have additional connotations that back translations do not always reveal. Challenges arise because of not only the content of word-for-word, literal translation, but the linguistic form of the language, such as tone (e.g., appropriate forms of politeness vs. legalese, seen as harsh), syntax, manner of questions posed, and the concept of the consent); and the contexts of use affect meaning. Problems also emerged in bilateral communications--US IRBs may misunderstand local practices, or communicate insufficiently the reasons for their decisions to foreign RECs. In sum, these data highlight several challenges that have received little, if any, attention in past literature on translation of informed consent and study materials, and have crucial implications for improving practice, education, research and policy, suggesting several strategies

  18. Linguistic and Cultural Challenges in Communication and Translation in US-Sponsored HIV Prevention Research in Emerging Economies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donna Hanrahan

    Full Text Available Linguistic and cultural differences can impede comprehension among potential research participants during the informed consent process, but how researchers and IRBs respond to these challenges in practice is unclear. We conducted in-depth interviews with 15 researchers, research ethics committee (REC chairs and members from 8 different countries with emerging economies, involved in HIV-related research sponsored by HIV Prevention Trials Network (HPTN, regarding the ethical and regulatory challenges they face in this regard. In the interviews, problems with translating study materials often arose as major concerns. Four sets of challenges were identified concerning linguistic and cultural translations of informed consent documents and other study materials, related to the: (1 context, (2 process, (3 content and (4 translation of these documents. Host country contextual issues included low literacy rates, education (e.g., documents may need to be written below 5th grade reading level, and experiences with research, and different views of written documentation. Certain terms and concepts may not exist in other languages, or have additional connotations that back translations do not always reveal. Challenges arise because of not only the content of word-for-word, literal translation, but the linguistic form of the language, such as tone (e.g., appropriate forms of politeness vs. legalese, seen as harsh, syntax, manner of questions posed, and the concept of the consent; and the contexts of use affect meaning. Problems also emerged in bilateral communications--US IRBs may misunderstand local practices, or communicate insufficiently the reasons for their decisions to foreign RECs. In sum, these data highlight several challenges that have received little, if any, attention in past literature on translation of informed consent and study materials, and have crucial implications for improving practice, education, research and policy, suggesting several

  19. Survivorship conference highlights research for survivor care

    Science.gov (United States)

    More than 400 leading experts in cancer survivorship convened today for a conference, Cancer Survivorship Research: Translating Science to Care, to focus on such current concerns as how obesity might not have the same effects on all cancer survivors, and

  20. Integrating clinical medicine into biomedical graduate education to promote translational research: strategies from two new PhD programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Carolyn L; Jarrett, Marcia; Bierer, S Beth

    2013-01-01

    For several decades, a barrier has existed between research and clinical medicine, making it difficult for aspiring scientists to gain exposure to human pathophysiology and access to clinical/translational research mentors during their graduate training. In 2005, the Howard Hughes Medical Institute announced the Med Into Grad initiative to support graduate programs that integrate clinical knowledge into PhD biomedical training, with the goal of preparing a new cadre of translational researchers to work at the interface of the basic sciences and clinical medicine. Two institutions, Baylor College of Medicine and the Cleveland Clinic/Case Western Reserve University, developed new PhD programs in translational biology and/or molecular medicine. These programs teach the topics and skills that today's translational researchers must learn and expose students to clinical medicine. In this article, the authors compare and contrast the history, implementation, and evaluation of the Translational Biology and Molecular Medicine program at Baylor College of Medicine and the Molecular Medicine program at the Cleveland Clinic/Case Western Reserve University. The authors also demonstrate the feasibility of creating a multidisciplinary graduate program in molecular medicine that integrates pathophysiology and clinical medicine without extending training time. They conclude with a discussion of the similarities in training approaches that exist despite the fact that each program was independently developed and offer observations that emerged during their collaboration that may benefit others who are considering developing similar programs.

  1. Literature review on financial translation: A first overview of the research landscape in this area of specialization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Alcalde Peñalver

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to look at the main studies published on financial translation to show the research landscape in this area of specialization. For the literature review, a classification model will be applied depending on the research objectives of the publications. First of all, this classification will be explained and then different publications will be analyzed in accordance with each category of the classification. The aim of this article is, as Fink (2005: 3 stated, to identify, evaluate, and synthesize existing literature on the topic and provide a first overview of what has been published to date in financial translation, which is considered an under-researched area compared to other specializations in the field of translation.

  2. [AFNET. A translational research network develops into an academic research organization].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirchhof, Paulus; Goette, Andreas; Näbauer, Michael; Schotten, Ulrich

    2016-04-01

    "The whole is greater than the sum of its parts" (Aristotle).Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common sustained arrhythmia and affects 1-2 % of the population in developed countries, especially the elderly. We expect that the prevalence of AF will double in the next few decades. The last decades have seen important improvements in the management of atrial fibrillation, but many questions remain regarding the optimal diagnosis and management of the condition. The German Atrial Fibrillation NETwork (AFNET) was one of three cardiovascular competence networks in medicine funded by the German Ministry of Education and Research between 2003-2014. AFNET has contributed to the understanding of atrial fibrillation, and AFNET-led studies have led to improved clinical practices and practice guidelines in Germany and in Europe. This work has been expanded and is continuing in the AFNET association (AFNET e. V.). The AFNET association, founded in 2010 and continuing to this day, has developed into a small but fully formed academic research organisation that conducts investigator-initiated clinical trials as the responsible sponsor in Germany, Europe, and beyond. The AFNET association currently cooperates with EHRA (The European Heart Rhythm Association), ESC (The European Society of Cardiology) and DZHK (The German Centre for Cardiovascular Research) and receives funding from the European Union to generate evidence that can in the future lead to better prevention and management of AF.

  3. About the Prostate and Urologic Cancer Research Group | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Prostate and Urologic Cancer Research Group conducts and supports research on prostate and bladder cancers, and new approaches to clinical prevention studies including cancer immunoprevention. The group develops, implements and monitors research efforts in chemoprevention, nutrition, genetic, and immunologic interventions, screening, early detection and other prevention strategies. |

  4. Summary of the 6th Annual Bladder Cancer Think Tank: new directions in urologic research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svatek, Robert S; Rosenberg, Jonathan E; Galsky, Matthew D; Lee, Cheryl T; Latini, David M; Bochner, Bernard H; Weizer, Alon Z; Apolo, Andrea B; Sridhar, Srikala S; Kamat, Ashish M; Hansel, Donna; Flaig, Thomas W; Smith, Norm D; Lotan, Yair

    2013-10-01

    The 6th Annual Bladder Cancer Think Tank brought together a multidisciplinary group of clinicians, researchers, and representatives from the National Cancer Institute and Industry in an effort to advance bladder cancer research efforts. This year's meeting comprised panel discussions and research involving 5 separate working groups, including the Survivorship, Clinical Trials, Standardization of Care, Data Mining, and Translational Science working groups. In this manuscript, the accomplishments and objectives of the working groups are summarized. Notable efforts include: (1) the development of a survivorship care plan for early and late-stage bladder cancer; (2) the development of consensus criteria for eligibility and endpoints for bladder cancer clinical trials; (3) an improved understanding of current practice patterns regarding the use of perioperative chemotherapy in an effort to standardize care; (4) creation of a comprehensive handbook to assist researchers with developing bladder cancer databases; and (5) identification of response to therapy of high-grade non muscle invasive disease through a collaborative exchange of expertise and resources.

  5. NCI Community Oncology Research Program Approved | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    On June 24, 2013, the National Cancer Institute (NCI) Board of Scientific Advisors approved the creation of the NCI Community Oncology Research Program (NCORP). NCORP will bring state-of-the art cancer prevention, control, treatment and imaging clinical trials, cancer care delivery research, and disparities studies to individuals in their own communities. |

  6. Association of Protein Translation and Extracellular Matrix Gene Sets with Breast Cancer Metastasis: Findings Uncovered on Analysis of Multiple Publicly Available Datasets Using Individual Patient Data Approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilotpal Chowdhury

    Full Text Available Microarray analysis has revolutionized the role of genomic prognostication in breast cancer. However, most studies are single series studies, and suffer from methodological problems. We sought to use a meta-analytic approach in combining multiple publicly available datasets, while correcting for batch effects, to reach a more robust oncogenomic analysis.The aim of the present study was to find gene sets associated with distant metastasis free survival (DMFS in systemically untreated, node-negative breast cancer patients, from publicly available genomic microarray datasets.Four microarray series (having 742 patients were selected after a systematic search and combined. Cox regression for each gene was done for the combined dataset (univariate, as well as multivariate - adjusted for expression of Cell cycle related genes and for the 4 major molecular subtypes. The centre and microarray batch effects were adjusted by including them as random effects variables. The Cox regression coefficients for each analysis were then ranked and subjected to a Gene Set Enrichment Analysis (GSEA.Gene sets representing protein translation were independently negatively associated with metastasis in the Luminal A and Luminal B subtypes, but positively associated with metastasis in Basal tumors. Proteinaceous extracellular matrix (ECM gene set expression was positively associated with metastasis, after adjustment for expression of cell cycle related genes on the combined dataset. Finally, the positive association of the proliferation-related genes with metastases was confirmed.To the best of our knowledge, the results depicting mixed prognostic significance of protein translation in breast cancer subtypes are being reported for the first time. We attribute this to our study combining multiple series and performing a more robust meta-analytic Cox regression modeling on the combined dataset, thus discovering 'hidden' associations. This methodology seems to yield new and

  7. Brüstle v. Greenpeace: Implications for Commercialisation of Translational Stem Cell Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansnérus, Juli

    2015-04-01

    The lack of consensus on a common definition of the term 'embryo' has resulted in legal uncertainty affecting the permissibility of human embryonic stem cell (hESC) research and the commercialisation prospects and patenting of inventions of hESC origin in the EU. The Brüstle v. Greenpeace case, which by providing a very broad definition of a human embryo restricts the patentability of hESC-based inventions, aims at harmonising the patenting practices regarding interpretation of Article 6.2.c of Directive 98/44/ EC. It fills the gaps in national laws by providing binding interpretation guidelines for national courts. As currently no marketing authorisations have been granted to hESC-based products, implications of this judgment for translational hESC research together with other barriers to commercialisation of such research need to be analysed. In addition, whether the main obstacles relate to patenting restrictions or whether something else in the innovation system is impeding the market entry of these innovative products is discussed.

  8. Adherence to the World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute for Cancer Research recommendations and breast cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Holly R; Bergkvist, Leif; Wolk, Alicja

    2016-06-01

    The World Cancer Research Fund/American Association for Cancer Research (WCRF/AICR) has published eight nutrition-related recommendations for the prevention of cancer. However, few prospective studies have examined these recommendations by breast cancer hormone receptor subtype and only one case-control study has included the dietary supplements recommendation in their evaluation. We investigated whether adherence to the WCRF/AICR cancer prevention recommendations was associated with breast cancer incidence, overall and by hormone receptor subtype, in the Swedish Mammography Cohort. Among 31,514 primarily postmenopausal women diet and lifestyle factors were assessed with a self-administered food frequency questionnaire. A score was constructed based on adherence to the recommendations for body fatness, physical activity, energy density, plant foods, animal foods, alcoholic drinks and dietary supplements (score range 0-7). Cox proportional hazard models were used to calculate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs). During 15 years of follow-up 1,388 cases of breast cancer were identified. Women who met six to seven recommendations had a 51% decreased risk of breast cancer compared to women meeting only zero to two recommendations (95% CI = 0.35-0.70). The association between each additional recommendation met and breast cancer risk was strongest for the ER-positive/PR-positive subtype (HR = 0.86; 95% CI = 0.79-0.94), while for the ER-negative/PR-negative subtype the individual recommendations regarding plant and animal foods were most strongly associated with reduced risk. Our findings support that adherence to the WCRF/AICR recommendations reduces breast cancer risk in a population of primarily postmenopausal women. Promoting these recommendations to the public could help reduce breast cancer incidence.

  9. Cancer survivorship research: a review of the literature and summary of current NCI-designated cancer center projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrop, J Phil; Dean, Julie A; Paskett, Electra D

    2011-10-01

    The number of cancer survivors and the amount of cancer survivorship research have grown substantially during the past three decades. This article provides a review of interventional and observational cancer survivorship research efforts as well as a summary of current cancer survivorship research projects being conducted by National Cancer Institute-designated cancer centers in an effort to identify areas that need further attention.

  10. Comparative wound healing--are the small animal veterinarian's clinical patients an improved translational model for human wound healing research?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volk, Susan W; Bohling, Mark W

    2013-01-01

    Despite intensive research efforts into understanding the pathophysiology of both chronic wounds and scar formation, and the development of wound care strategies to target both healing extremes, problematic wounds in human health care remain a formidable challenge. Although valuable fundamental information regarding the pathophysiology of problematic wounds can be gained from in vitro investigations and in vivo studies performed in laboratory animal models, the lack of concordance with human pathophysiology has been cited as a major impediment to translational research in human wound care. Therefore, the identification of superior clinical models for both chronic wounds and scarring disorders should be a high priority for scientists who work in the field of human wound healing research. To be successful, translational wound healing research should function as an intellectual ecosystem in which information flows from basic science researchers using in vitro and in vivo models to clinicians and back again from the clinical investigators to the basic scientists. Integral to the efficiency of this process is the incorporation of models which can accurately predict clinical success. The aim of this review is to describe the potential advantages and limitations of using clinical companion animals (primarily dogs and cats) as translational models for cutaneous wound healing research by describing comparative aspects of wound healing in these species, common acute and chronic cutaneous wounds in clinical canine and feline patients, and the infrastructure that currently exists in veterinary medicine which may facilitate translational studies and simultaneously benefit both veterinary and human wound care patients.

  11. Stylistic Requirement for Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HOU Yin-zhen

    2016-01-01

    Stylistic research is subordinate to language use research. The fast maturing modern stylistics has greatly boosted trans-lation studies. Translation has a close relationship with stylistics. Many problems can be solved in translation practice by stylis-tic theories and analysis methods. Based on a brief introduction of stylistics and the relationship between stylistics and transla-tion, this paper will give a specific analysis of the stylistic requirement for translation.

  12. Progress through Collaboration - Office of Cancer Clinical Proteomics Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    The National Cancer Institute (NCI), through the Office of Cancer Clinical Proteomics Research (OCCPR), has signed two Memorandums of Understanding (MOUs) in the areas of sharing proteomics reagents and protocols and also in regulatory science.

  13. COLLABORATING WITH THE COMMUNITY: THE EXTRA-TERRITORIAL TRANSLATIONAL RESEARCH TEAM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotarba, Joseph A; Croisant, Sharon A; Elferink, Cornelis; Scott, Lauren E

    2014-12-05

    The purpose of the present study is to suggest a revision of the team science concept to the more inclusive extra-territorial research team (ETRT). Translational thinking is largely marked by the perception of the team as a thing-like structure at the center of the scientific activity. Collaboration accordingly involves bringing external others (e.g., scientists, community members, and clinicians) into the team through limited or dependent participation. We suggest that a promising and innovative way to see the team is as an idea: a schema for assembling and managing relationships among otherwise disparate individuals with vested interests in the problem at hand. Thus, the ETRT can be seen as a process as well as an object. We provide a case study derived from a qualitative analysis of the impact of the logic of translational science on a team assessment of environmental health following an off-coast oil disaster. The ETRT in question displayed the following principles of constructive relationship management: a high sense of adventure given the quick pace and timeliness given the relevance of the oil spill to all team members; regular meetings in the community to avoid the appearance of academic hegemony; open access by lay as well as institutional scientists; integration of emergency management coordinators into the group; and the languages of public health, environmental pharmacology/toxicology and coastal culture seamlessly interwoven in discussion. The ETRT model is an appropriate strategy for mobilizing and integrating the knowledge and skills needed for comprehensive science and service responses, especially during crisis.

  14. Create a translational medicine knowledge repository--research downsizing, mergers and increased outsourcing have reduced the depth of in-house translational medicine expertise and institutional memory at many pharmaceutical and biotech companies: how will they avoid relearning old lessons?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littman, Bruce H; Marincola, Francesco M

    2011-05-10

    Pharmaceutical industry consolidation and overall research downsizing threatens the ability of companies to benefit from their previous investments in translational research as key leaders with the most knowledge of the successful use of biomarkers and translational pharmacology models are laid off or accept their severance packages. Two recently published books may help to preserve this type of knowledge but much of this type of information is not in the public domain. Here we propose the creation of a translational medicine knowledge repository where companies can submit their translational research data and access similar data from other companies in a precompetitive environment. This searchable repository would become an invaluable resource for translational scientists and drug developers that could speed and reduce the cost of new drug development.

  15. Create a translational medicine knowledge repository - Research downsizing, mergers and increased outsourcing have reduced the depth of in-house translational medicine expertise and institutional memory at many pharmaceutical and biotech companies: how will they avoid relearning old lessons?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marincola Francesco M

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Pharmaceutical industry consolidation and overall research downsizing threatens the ability of companies to benefit from their previous investments in translational research as key leaders with the most knowledge of the successful use of biomarkers and translational pharmacology models are laid off or accept their severance packages. Two recently published books may help to preserve this type of knowledge but much of this type of information is not in the public domain. Here we propose the creation of a translational medicine knowledge repository where companies can submit their translational research data and access similar data from other companies in a precompetitive environment. This searchable repository would become an invaluable resource for translational scientists and drug developers that could speed and reduce the cost of new drug development.

  16. U.S. Army Research Laboratory (ARL) Corporate Dari Document Transcription and Translation Guidelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    text file format. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Transcription, Translation, guidelines, ground truth, Optical character recognition, OCR, Machine Translation, MT...foreign language into a target language in order to train, test, and evaluate optical character recognition (OCR) and machine translation (MT) embedded...the final word in this sequence). 5. Spacing: When printed words give the illusion of having a space in between letters in the word due to

  17. Aquatic invasive species: Lessons from cancer research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepulveda, Adam; Ray, Andrew; Al-Chokhachy, Robert K.; Muhlfeld, Clint C.; Gresswell, Robert E.; Gross, Jackson A.; Kershner, Jeffrey L.

    2014-01-01

    Aquatic invasive species are disrupting ecosystems with increasing frequency. Successful control of these invasions has been rare: Biologists and managers have few tools for fighting aquatic invaders. In contrast, the medical community has long worked to develop tools for preventing and fighting cancer. Its successes are marked by a coordinated research approach with multiple steps: prevention, early detection, diagnosis, treatment options and rehabilitation. The authors discuss how these steps can be applied to aquatic invasive species, such as the American bullfrog (Lithobates catesbeianus), in the Northern Rocky Mountain region of the United States, to expedite tool development and implementation along with achievement of biodiversity conservation goals.

  18. LSP Translation in the New Millenium - A Cross-Baltic Symposium on Didactics and Research. Hermes Skriftserie

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    application. Secondly, this volume aims at giving an insight into a current catalogue of issues, questions and problems of LSP translation; as seen from the varying points of view of the different contributors. Essentially, this is a book of extracts, as it were, from scientific, didactic and professional......The compilation of articles found in this volume is a selection of the papers given at "LSP Translation in the New Millennium - a Cross-Baltic Symposium on Didactics and Research". A symposium sponsored by The Royal Danish Ministry of Foreign Affairs, arranged by the Aarhus School of Business......, Denmark, and hosted by the University of Tartu, Estonia, in November of 2001. The aim of this volume is twofold: First of all it aims at reflecting current trends within the LSP translation communities of these countries; both in terms of research interests and didactics as well as professional...

  19. Roles of the WHHL Rabbit in Translational Research on Hypercholesterolemia and Cardiovascular Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsutomu Kobayashi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Conquering cardiovascular diseases is one of the most important problems in human health. To overcome cardiovascular diseases, animal models have played important roles. Although the prevalence of genetically modified animals, particularly mice and rats, has contributed greatly to biomedical research, not all human diseases can be investigated in this way. In the study of cardiovascular diseases, mice and rats are inappropriate because of marked differences in lipoprotein metabolism, pathophysiological findings of atherosclerosis, and cardiac function. On the other hand, since lipoprotein metabolism and atherosclerotic lesions in rabbits closely resemble those in humans, several useful animal models for these diseases have been developed in rabbits. One of the most famous of these is the Watanabe heritable hyperlipidemic (WHHL rabbit, which develops hypercholesterolemia and atherosclerosis spontaneously due to genetic and functional deficiencies of the low-density lipoprotein (LDL receptor. The WHHL rabbit has been improved to develop myocardial infarction, and the new strain was designated the myocardial infarction-prone WHHL (WHHLMI rabbit. This review summarizes the importance of selecting animal species for translational research in biomedical science, the development of WHHL and WHHLMI rabbits, their application to the development of hypocholesterolemic and/or antiatherosclerotic drugs, and future prospects regarding WHHL and WHHLMI rabbits.

  20. Translating Research on Myoelectric Control into Clinics—Are the Performance Assessment Methods Adequate?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vujaklija, Ivan; Roche, Aidan D.; Hasenoehrl, Timothy; Sturma, Agnes; Amsuess, Sebastian; Farina, Dario; Aszmann, Oskar C.

    2017-01-01

    Missing an upper limb dramatically impairs daily-life activities. Efforts in overcoming the issues arising from this disability have been made in both academia and industry, although their clinical outcome is still limited. Translation of prosthetic research into clinics has been challenging because of the difficulties in meeting the necessary requirements of the market. In this perspective article, we suggest that one relevant factor determining the relatively small clinical impact of myocontrol algorithms for upper limb prostheses is the limit of commonly used laboratory performance metrics. The laboratory conditions, in which the majority of the solutions are being evaluated, fail to sufficiently replicate real-life challenges. We qualitatively support this argument with representative data from seven transradial amputees. Their ability to control a myoelectric prosthesis was tested by measuring the accuracy of offline EMG signal classification, as a typical laboratory performance metrics, as well as by clinical scores when performing standard tests of daily living. Despite all subjects reaching relatively high classification accuracy offline, their clinical scores varied greatly and were not strongly predicted by classification accuracy. We therefore support the suggestion to test myocontrol systems using clinical tests on amputees, fully fitted with sockets and prostheses highly resembling the systems they would use in daily living, as evaluation benchmark. Agreement on this level of testing for systems developed in research laboratories would facilitate clinically relevant progresses in this field. PMID:28261085

  1. Translating Research on Myoelectric Control into Clinics-Are the Performance Assessment Methods Adequate?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vujaklija, Ivan; Roche, Aidan D; Hasenoehrl, Timothy; Sturma, Agnes; Amsuess, Sebastian; Farina, Dario; Aszmann, Oskar C

    2017-01-01

    Missing an upper limb dramatically impairs daily-life activities. Efforts in overcoming the issues arising from this disability have been made in both academia and industry, although their clinical outcome is still limited. Translation of prosthetic research into clinics has been challenging because of the difficulties in meeting the necessary requirements of the market. In this perspective article, we suggest that one relevant factor determining the relatively small clinical impact of myocontrol algorithms for upper limb prostheses is the limit of commonly used laboratory performance metrics. The laboratory conditions, in which the majority of the solutions are being evaluated, fail to sufficiently replicate real-life challenges. We qualitatively support this argument with representative data from seven transradial amputees. Their ability to control a myoelectric prosthesis was tested by measuring the accuracy of offline EMG signal classification, as a typical laboratory performance metrics, as well as by clinical scores when performing standard tests of daily living. Despite all subjects reaching relatively high classification accuracy offline, their clinical scores varied greatly and were not strongly predicted by classification accuracy. We therefore support the suggestion to test myocontrol systems using clinical tests on amputees, fully fitted with sockets and prostheses highly resembling the systems they would use in daily living, as evaluation benchmark. Agreement on this level of testing for systems developed in research laboratories would facilitate clinically relevant progresses in this field.

  2. Translational pain research: Evaluating analgesic effect in experimental visceral pain models

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Anne Estrup Olesen; Trine Andresen; Lona Louring Christrup; Richard N Upton

    2009-01-01

    Deep visceral pain is frequent and presents major challenges in pain management, since its pathophysiology is still poorly understood. One way to optimize treatment of visceral pain is to improve knowledge of the mechanisms behind the pain and the mode of action of analgesic substances. This can be achieved through standardized experimental human pain models. Experimental pain models in healthy volunteers are advantageous forevaluation of analgesic action, as this is often difficult to assess in the clinic because of confounding factors such as sedation, nausea and general malaise. These pain models facilitate minimizing the gap between knowledge gained in animal and human clinical studies. Combining experimental pain studies and pharmacokinetic studies can improve understanding of the pharmacokineticpharmacodynamic relationship of analgesics and, thus, provide valuable insight into optimal clinical treatment of visceral pain. To improve treatment of visceral pain, it is important to study the underlying mechanisms of pain and the action of analgesics used for its treatment. An experimental pain model activates different modalities and can be used to investigate the mechanism of action of different analgesics in detail. In combination with pharmacokinetic studies and objective assessment such as electroencephalography, new information re- garding a given drug substance and its effects can be obtained. Results from experimental human visceral pain research can bridge the gap in knowledge between animal studies and clinical condition in patients suffering from visceral pain, and thus constitute the missing link in translational pain research.

  3. Gaps in nutritional research among older adults with cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presley, Carolyn J; Dotan, Efrat; Soto-Perez-de-Celis, Enrique; Jatoi, Aminah; Mohile, Supriya G; Won, Elizabeth; Alibhai, Shabbir; Kilari, Deepak; Harrison, Robert; Klepin, Heidi D; Wildes, Tanya M; Mustian, Karen; Demark-Wahnefried, Wendy

    2016-07-01

    Nutritional issues among older adults with cancer are an understudied area of research despite significant prognostic implications for treatment side effects, cancer-specific mortality, and overall survival. In May of 2015, the National Cancer Institute and the National Institute on Aging co-sponsored a conference focused on future directions in geriatric oncology research. Nutritional research among older adults with cancer was highlighted as a major area of concern as most nutritional cancer research has been conducted among younger adults, with limited evidence to guide the care of nutritional issues among older adults with cancer. Cancer diagnoses among older adults are increasing, and the care of the older adult with cancer is complicated due to multimorbidity, heterogeneous functional status, polypharmacy, deficits in cognitive and mental health, and several other non-cancer factors. Due to this complexity, nutritional needs are dynamic, multifaceted, and dependent on the clinical scenario. This manuscript outlines the proceedings of this conference including knowledge gaps and recommendations for future nutritional research among older adults with cancer. Three common clinical scenarios encountered by oncologists include (1) weight loss during anti-cancer therapy, (2) malnutrition during advanced disease, and (3) obesity during survivorship. In this manuscript, we provide a brief overview of relevant cancer literature within these three areas, knowledge gaps that exist, and recommendations for future research.

  4. No longer lost in translation: the art and science of sports injury prevention implementation research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finch, Caroline F

    2011-12-01

    It is now understood that sports injury interventions will not have significant public health impact if they are not widely accepted and adopted by target sports participants. Although there has been increasing recognition of the need for intervention studies conducted within the real-world context of sports delivery, very few studies have been conducted in this important area. A major reason for this is that there are significant challenges in conducting implementation research; the more traditional sports medicine approaches may not be fully appropriate and new ways of thinking about how to design, conduct and report such research is needed. Moreover, real-world implementation of sports injury interventions and evaluation of their effectiveness needs to start to take into account the broad ecological context in which they are introduced, as well as considering the best way to translate this knowledge to reach the audiences who most need to benefit from such research. This overview paper provides perspectives and guidance on the design, conduct and evaluation of sports injury intervention implementation studies, including better understanding of the complexity of the ecological settings for intervention delivery. Some conceptual approaches that could be adopted in future implementation studies are discussed; particular emphasis is given to intervention mapping as a tool to assist intervention development, diffusion of innovations theory to guide the planning of intervention strategies and the RE-AIM (reach, effectiveness, adoption, implementation and maintenance) framework for programme evaluation and programme design. Finally, a broad agenda for this emerging important field of sports medicine research is outlined.

  5. Dendritic cell vaccines in cancer immunotherapy: from biology to translational medicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hongmei Xu; Xuetao Cao

    2011-01-01

    According to the GLOBOCAN reports,there were about 12.7 million cancer cases and 7.6 million cancer deaths in 2008,and the cancer burden continues to increase worldwide [1].At present,the common treatments for cancer include surgery,chemotherapy,radiotherapy,and immunotherapy.Immunotherapy aims to enhance or regulate the patient's own immune response to fight against tumors.It represents a novel and effective strategy in cancer treatments,but,generally,its efficacy needs to be improved [2].Cancer vaccination is an important and promising approach in cancer immunotherapy.For many years,prophylactic vaccines have exhibited profound accomplishment in preventing serious infectious diseases in humankind,including polio,small pox,and diphtheria.However,cancer vaccines are vastly different from the prophylactic vaccines in that they are aimed to eliminate preexisting tumors.Furthermore,the immune system is immunosuppressed in most cancer patients,so it is much more difficult to develop effective cancer vaccines.

  6. Translations and Translators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nida, Eugene A.

    1979-01-01

    The necessity for stylistic appropriateness in translation as well as correct content is discussed. To acquire this skill, translators must be trained in stylistics through close examination of their own language and must have practice in translating for different audiences at different levels. (PMJ)

  7. Current Research and Management of Ovarian Cancer in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUMeijiao; SHIWei

    2002-01-01

    Ovarian cancer is ne of the most lethal malignant tumors in China,represents the third most common cancer after cervical cancer and endometrial cancer,and the first leading cause of death from hynaecological cancers.Due to the lack of effective screening strategies and the absence of symptoms in early-stage of disease,over 70% of patients present at an advanced stage.Despite the advances in surgical techniques and conventional chemotheraphy,the prognosis of ovarian cancer has not been improved significantly,and indeed the long-term survival for patients with advanced disease does not exceed 20%.The aetiology of ovarian cancer temains poorly understood.In China,the major focus of research is to clarify the mechanism underlying ovarian cancer,develop more effective life-saving diagnostic and therapeutic measures,and undertake more population-based studies.This article summarizes current research,diagnosis and management of ovarian cancer in China.

  8. Preclinical imaging and translational animal models of cancer for accelerated clinical implementation of nanotechnologies and macromolecular agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Souza, Raquel; Spence, Tara; Huang, Huang; Allen, Christine

    2015-12-10

    The majority of animal models of cancer have performed poorly in terms of predicting clinical performance of new therapeutics, which are most often first evaluated in patients with advanced, metastatic disease. The development and use of metastatic models of cancer may enhance clinical translatability of preclinical studies focused on the development of nanotechnology-based drug delivery systems and macromolecular therapeutics, potentially accelerating their clinical implementation. It is recognized that the development and use of such models are not without challenge. Preclinical imaging tools offer a solution by allowing temporal and spatial characterization of metastatic lesions. This paper provides a review of imaging methods applicable for evaluation of novel therapeutics in clinically relevant models of advanced cancer. An overview of currently utilized models of oncology in small animals is followed by image-based development and characterization of visceral metastatic cancer models. Examples of imaging tools employed for metastatic lesion detection, evaluation of anti-tumor and anti-metastatic potential and biodistribution of novel therapies, as well as the co-development and/or use of imageable surrogates of response, are also discussed. While the focus is on development of macromolecular and nanotechnology-based therapeutics, examples with small molecules are included in some cases to illustrate concepts and approaches that can be applied in the assessment of nanotechnologies or macromolecules.

  9. Translational approaches targeting the p53 pathway for anti-cancer therapy

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    The p53 tumour suppressor blocks cancer development by triggering apoptosis or cellular senescence in response to oncogenic stress or DNA damage. Consequently, the p53 signalling pathway is virtually always inactivated in human cancer cells. This unifying feature has commenced tremendous efforts to develop p53-based anti-cancer therapies. Different strategies exist that are adapted to the mechanisms of p53 inactivation. In p53-mutated tumours, delivery of wild-type p53 by adenovirus-based gen...

  10. Public-private partnership: a new engine for translational research in neurosciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Declan G M; Goldman, Michel; Loth, Eva; Spooren, Will

    2014-11-05

    We have made little recent progress developing effective new treatments for neuropsychiatric and neurodevelopmental disorders. Novel molecular mechanisms have been identified, but have not translated into the clinic. We suggest an alternative: combinations of treatments targeting different aspects of final common pathways in biologically defined clinical subgroups. This will require integrated translational neuroscience and international public-private partnerships.

  11. Working on the 3 Rs: Utilization of refinement to enhance the value of translational research in nonhuman primates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graham, M.L.

    2011-01-01

    Studies in nonhuman primates are indicated in translating research results towards a clinical application, in particular to assess the safety and efficacy of immunosuppressives and cell therapy products. This requires a thorough consideration of animal well-being, i.e., the 3 Rs refinement, reductio

  12. An overview of models, methods, and reagents developed for translational autoimmunity research in the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.A. Jagessar (Anwar); M.P.M. Vierboom (Michel); E. Blezer (Erwin); J. Bauer; B.A. 't Hart (Bert); Y.S. Kap (Yolanda)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractThe common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) is a small-bodied Neotropical primate and a useful preclinical animal model for translational research into autoimmune-mediated inflammatory diseases (AIMID), such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and multiple sclerosis (MS). The animal model for MS e

  13. An Overview of Models, Methods, and Reagents Developed for Translational Autoimmunity Research in the Common Marmoset (Callithrix jacchus)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jagessar, S. Anwar; Vierboom, Michel; Blezer, Erwin L. A.; Bauer, Jan; 't Hart, Bert A.; Kap, Yolanda S.

    2013-01-01

    The common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) is a small-bodied Neotropical primate and a useful preclinical animal model for translational research into autoimmune-mediated inflammatory diseases (AIMID), such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and multiple sclerosis (MS). The animal model for MS established i

  14. Is belief larger than fact: expectations, optimism and reality for translational stem cell research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bubela Tania

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Stem cell (SC therapies hold remarkable promise for many diseases, but there is a significant gulf between public expectations and the reality of progress toward clinical application. Public expectations are fueled by stakeholder arguments for research and public funding, coupled with intense media coverage in an ethically charged arena. We examine media representations in light of the expanding global landscape of SC clinical trials, asking what patients may realistically expect by way of timelines for the therapeutic and curative potential of regenerative medicine? Methods We built 2 international datasets: (1 3,404 clinical trials (CT containing 'stem cell*' from ClinicalTrials.gov and the World Health Organization's International Clinical Trials Registry Search Portal; and (2 13,249 newspaper articles on SC therapies using Factiva.com. We compared word frequencies between the CT descriptions and full-text newspaper articles for the number containing terms for SC type and diseases/conditions. We also developed inclusion and exclusion criteria to identify novel SC CTs, mainly regenerative medicine applications. Results Newspaper articles focused on human embryonic SCs and neurological conditions with significant coverage as well of cardiovascular disease and diabetes. In contrast, CTs used primarily hematopoietic SCs, with an increase in CTs using mesenchymal SCs since 2007. The latter dominated our novel classification for CTs, most of which are in phases I and II. From the perspective of the public, expecting therapies for neurological conditions, there is limited activity in what may be considered novel applications of SC therapies. Conclusions Given the research, regulatory, and commercialization hurdles to the clinical translation of SC research, it seems likely that patients and political supporters will become disappointed and disillusioned. In this environment, proponents need to make a concerted effort to temper

  15. Ethical issues in the translation of social neuroscience: a policy analysis of current guidelines for public dialogue in human research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Emma; Racine, Eric

    2012-01-01

    Social neuroscience and its potential implications create an interesting case study for examining human research ethics policies on the topic of public communication of research. We reviewed mainstream national and international human research ethics guidelines and policies on issues of public communication of research. Our analysis relied on five thematic nets to capture the interactions between research and the public: public understanding, knowledge translation, public participation, social outcomes, and dual use. Coverage of these topics is sparse and inconsistent in mainstream policies and guidelines. We identify three options to address these gaps and analyze their strengths and weaknesses.

  16. Synergies and distinctions between computational disciplines in biomedical research: perspective from the Clinical andTranslational Science Award programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstam, Elmer V; Hersh, William R; Johnson, Stephen B; Chute, Christopher G; Nguyen, Hien; Sim, Ida; Nahm, Meredith; Weiner, Mark G; Miller, Perry; DiLaura, Robert P; Overcash, Marc; Lehmann, Harold P; Eichmann, David; Athey, Brian D; Scheuermann, Richard H; Anderson, Nick; Starren, Justin; Harris, Paul A; Smith, Jack W; Barbour, Ed; Silverstein, Jonathan C; Krusch, David A; Nagarajan, Rakesh; Becich, Michael J

    2009-07-01

    Clinical and translational research increasingly requires computation. Projects may involve multiple computationally oriented groups including information technology (IT) professionals, computer scientists, and biomedical informaticians. However, many biomedical researchers are not aware of the distinctions among these complementary groups, leading to confusion, delays, and suboptimal results. Although written from the perspective of Clinical and Translational Science Award (CTSA) programs within academic medical centers, this article addresses issues that extend beyond clinical and translational research. The authors describe the complementary but distinct roles of operational IT, research IT, computer science, and biomedical informatics using a clinical data warehouse as a running example. In general, IT professionals focus on technology. The authors distinguish between two types of IT groups within academic medical centers: central or administrative IT (supporting the administrative computing needs of large organizations) and research IT (supporting the computing needs of researchers). Computer scientists focus on general issues of computation such as designing faster computers or more efficient algorithms, rather than specific applications. In contrast, informaticians are concerned with data, information, and knowledge. Biomedical informaticians draw on a variety of tools, including but not limited to computers, to solve information problems in health care and biomedicine. The paper concludes with recommendations regarding administrative structures that can help to maximize the benefit of computation to biomedical research within academic health centers.

  17. Translating Words, Translating Cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Whitaker

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available What exactly does (or should translation from one language into another try to do? Attempt to convey to readers of the target language (the language into which one is translating something of the strangeness, difference and historicity of the original in the source language (the language from which one is translating? Or must translation try to bridge the gap between source and target language, by rendering the original in a thoroughly contemporary style and diction, as if this were a work being written now for the first time? And related to these the further questions: how closely should a translation render the genre, language, metre, style and content of the original? How far can a translation depart from the original without ceasing to be a translation – in other words, where is one to situate the border between “translation”, “version” and “adaptation”?

  18. Understanding the performance and impact of public knowledge translation funding interventions: Protocol for an evaluation of Canadian Institutes of Health Research knowledge translation funding programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McLean Robert K D

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Canadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR has defined knowledge translation (KT as a dynamic and iterative process that includes the synthesis, dissemination, exchange, and ethically-sound application of knowledge to improve the health of Canadians, provide more effective health services and products, and strengthen the healthcare system. CIHR, the national health research funding agency in Canada, has undertaken to advance this concept through direct research funding opportunities in KT. Because CIHR is recognized within Canada and internationally for leading and funding the advancement of KT science and practice, it is essential and timely to evaluate this intervention, and specifically, these funding opportunities. Design The study will employ a novel method of participatory, utilization-focused evaluation inspired by the principles of integrated KT. It will use a mixed methods approach, drawing on both quantitative and qualitative data, and will elicit participation from CIHR funded researchers, knowledge users, KT experts, as well as other health research funding agencies. Lines of inquiry will include an international environmental scan, document/data reviews, in-depth interviews, targeted surveys, case studies, and an expert review panel. The study will investigate how efficiently and effectively the CIHR model of KT funding programs operates, what immediate outcomes these funding mechanisms have produced, and what impact these programs have had on the broader state of health research, health research uptake, and health improvement. Discussion The protocol and results of this evaluation will be of interest to those engaged in the theory, practice, and evaluation of KT. The dissemination of the study protocol and results to both practitioners and theorists will help to fill a gap in knowledge in three areas: the role of a public research funding agency in facilitating KT, the outcomes and impacts KT funding

  19. Spinal neuronal correlates of tapentadol analgesia in cancer pain: A back-translational approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Falk, Sarah; Patel, Ryan; Heegaard, Anne-Marie

    2015-01-01

    α-2 adrenoceptor. It has been demonstrated to treat effectively both acute and chronic pain. We here demonstrate the efficacy in a model of cancer-induced bone pain. Methods MRMT-1 mammary carcinoma cells were inoculated into the tibia of 6-week-old rats and 2 weeks after, the neuronal responses......Background Pain is a common and highly debilitating complication for cancer patients significantly compromising their quality of life. Cancer-induced bone pain involves a complex interplay of multiple mechanisms including both inflammatory and neuropathic processes and also some unique changes...... to the mechanistic understanding of cancer-induced bone pain and support the sparse clinical data indicating a possible use of the drug as a therapeutic alternative for cancer patients with metastatic pain complication....

  20. Delivering happiness: translating positive psychology intervention research for treating major and minor depressive disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Layous, Kristin; Chancellor, Joseph; Lyubomirsky, Sonja; Wang, Lihong; Doraiswamy, P Murali

    2011-08-01

    Despite the availability of many treatment options, depressive disorders remain a global public health problem. Even in affluent nations, 70% of reported cases either do not receive the recommended level of treatment or do not get treated at all, and this percentage does not reflect cases of depression that go unreported due to lack of access to health care, stigma, or other reasons. In developing countries, the World Health Organization estimates that depression care due to poverty, stigma, and lack of governmental mental health resources and providers. Current treatments do not work for everyone, and even people who achieve remission face a high risk of recurrence and residual disability. The development of low-cost effective interventions that can serve either as initial therapy for mild symptoms or as adjunctive therapy for partial responders to medication is an immense unmet need. Positive activity interventions (PAIs) teach individuals ways to increase their positive thinking, positive affect, and positive behaviors. The majority of such interventions, which have obtained medium-size effect sizes, have been conducted with nondepressed individuals, but two randomized controlled studies in patients with mild clinical depression have reported promising initial findings. In this article, the authors review the relevant literature on the effectiveness of various types of PAIs, draw on social psychology, affective neuroscience and psychophamacology research to propose neural models for how PAIs might relieve depression, and discuss the steps needed to translate the potential promise of PAIs as clinical treatments for individuals with major and minor depressive disorders.