WorldWideScience

Sample records for cancer translational research

  1. Translational Research in Pancreatic Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexios S Strimpakos

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The high mortality rate of pancreatic cancer places this uncommon malignancy quite high as a cause of cancer related deaths. Compared to other solid tumors, there is a lag in the development of new effective drugs and the actual clinical benefit remains poor over the last decade or so. The lack of therapeutic options necessitates the invention of the important molecules playing role in pancreatic carcinogenesis and the development of specific targeted therapies. Treatment advances have to be proven first in the bench before applying them at the bedside, thus why translational research is so needed. At the 2011 American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO Gastrointestinal Cancers Symposium, preclinical evidence was presented regarding the efficacy of C4 compound against focal adhesion kinase (FAK (Abstract #214, the role of the cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2 inhibitor apricoxib in enhancing the efficacy of gemcitabine and erlotinib (Abstract #227 and the role of curcumin and ABT-888 (a poly-ADP ribose polymerase (PARP inhibitor as potent radiosensitizers (Abstracts #222 and #203. Interestingly, the invention of a novel monoclonal antibody (ensituximab against the mucin epitope NPC-1C in pancreatic and colon cancer cell lines exhibited notable antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (Abstract #235. Finally, enhanced selective targeting of pancreatic tumors was achieved by combining antibody-drug conjugates (ADC with radioimmunotherapy (Abstract #206.

  2. Novel translational strategies in colorectal cancer research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Defining translational research is still a complex task. In oncology, translational research implies using our basic knowledge learnt from in vitro and in vivo experiments to directly improve diagnostic tools and therapeutic approaches in cancer patients. Moreover, the better understanding of human cancer and its use to design more reliable tumor models and more accurate experimental systems also has to be considered a good example of translational research. The identification and characterization of new molecular markers and the discovery of novel targeted therapies are two main goals in colorectal cancer translational research. However, the straightforward translation of basic research findings, specifically into colorectal cancer treatment and vice versa is still underway. In the present paper, a summarized view of some of the new available approaches on colorectal cancer translational research is provided. Pros and cons are discussed for every approach exposed.

  3. Novel translational strategies in colorectal cancer research

    OpenAIRE

    Gil-Bazo, Ignacio

    2007-01-01

    Defining translational research is still a complex task. In oncology, translational research implies using our basic knowledge learnt from in vitro and in vivo experiments to directly improve diagnostic tools and therapeutic approaches in cancer patients. Moreover, the better understanding of human cancer and its use to design more reliable tumor models and more accurate experimental systems also has to be considered a good example of translational research. The identification and characteriz...

  4. Institutional shared resources and translational cancer research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Paoli, Paolo

    2009-01-01

    The development and maintenance of adequate shared infrastructures is considered a major goal for academic centers promoting translational research programs. Among infrastructures favoring translational research, centralized facilities characterized by shared, multidisciplinary use of expensive laboratory instrumentation, or by complex computer hardware and software and/or by high professional skills are necessary to maintain or improve institutional scientific competitiveness. The success or failure of a shared resource program also depends on the choice of appropriate institutional policies and requires an effective institutional governance regarding decisions on staffing, existence and composition of advisory committees, policies and of defined mechanisms of reporting, budgeting and financial support of each resource. Shared Resources represent a widely diffused model to sustain cancer research; in fact, web sites from an impressive number of research Institutes and Universities in the U.S. contain pages dedicated to the SR that have been established in each Center, making a complete view of the situation impossible. However, a nation-wide overview of how Cancer Centers develop SR programs is available on the web site for NCI-designated Cancer Centers in the U.S., while in Europe, information is available for individual Cancer centers. This article will briefly summarize the institutional policies, the organizational needs, the characteristics, scientific aims, and future developments of SRs necessary to develop effective translational research programs in oncology.In fact, the physical build-up of SRs per se is not sufficient for the successful translation of biomedical research. Appropriate policies to improve the academic culture in collaboration, the availability of educational programs for translational investigators, the existence of administrative facilitations for translational research and an efficient organization supporting clinical trial recruitment

  5. Institutional shared resources and translational cancer research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Paoli Paolo

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The development and maintenance of adequate shared infrastructures is considered a major goal for academic centers promoting translational research programs. Among infrastructures favoring translational research, centralized facilities characterized by shared, multidisciplinary use of expensive laboratory instrumentation, or by complex computer hardware and software and/or by high professional skills are necessary to maintain or improve institutional scientific competitiveness. The success or failure of a shared resource program also depends on the choice of appropriate institutional policies and requires an effective institutional governance regarding decisions on staffing, existence and composition of advisory committees, policies and of defined mechanisms of reporting, budgeting and financial support of each resource. Shared Resources represent a widely diffused model to sustain cancer research; in fact, web sites from an impressive number of research Institutes and Universities in the U.S. contain pages dedicated to the SR that have been established in each Center, making a complete view of the situation impossible. However, a nation-wide overview of how Cancer Centers develop SR programs is available on the web site for NCI-designated Cancer Centers in the U.S., while in Europe, information is available for individual Cancer centers. This article will briefly summarize the institutional policies, the organizational needs, the characteristics, scientific aims, and future developments of SRs necessary to develop effective translational research programs in oncology. In fact, the physical build-up of SRs per se is not sufficient for the successful translation of biomedical research. Appropriate policies to improve the academic culture in collaboration, the availability of educational programs for translational investigators, the existence of administrative facilitations for translational research and an efficient organization

  6. Translating basic research in cancer patient care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcello Maugeri-Saccà

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available With the advent of molecular targeted therapies and the development of high-throughput biotechnologies, it has become evident that progress in cancer research is largely due to the creation of multidisciplinary teams able to plan clinical trials supported by appropriate molecular hypotheses. These efforts have culminated in the identification and validation of biomarkers predictive of response, as well as in the generation of more accurate prognostic tools. The identification of cancer stem cells has provided further insights into mechanisms of cancer, and many studies have tried to translate this biological notion into prognostic and predictive information. In this regard, new agents targeting key stemness-related pathways have entered the clinical development, and preliminary data suggested an encouraging antitumor activity.

  7. The cancer translational research informatics platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnson Kimberly

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite the pressing need for the creation of applications that facilitate the aggregation of clinical and molecular data, most current applications are proprietary and lack the necessary compliance with standards that would allow for cross-institutional data exchange. In line with its mission of accelerating research discoveries and improving patient outcomes by linking networks of researchers, physicians, and patients focused on cancer research, caBIG (cancer Biomedical Informatics Grid™ has sponsored the creation of the caTRIP (Cancer Translational Research Informatics Platform tool, with the purpose of aggregating clinical and molecular data in a repository that is user-friendly, easily accessible, as well as compliant with regulatory requirements of privacy and security. Results caTRIP has been developed as an N-tier architecture, with three primary tiers: domain services, the distributed query engine, and the graphical user interface, primarily making use of the caGrid infrastructure to ensure compatibility with other tools currently developed by caBIG. The application interface was designed so that users can construct queries using either the Simple Interface via drop-down menus or the Advanced Interface for more sophisticated searching strategies to using drag-and-drop. Furthermore, the application addresses the security concerns of authentication, authorization, and delegation, as well as an automated honest broker service for deidentifying data. Conclusion Currently being deployed at Duke University and a few other centers, we expect that caTRIP will make a significant contribution to further the development of translational research through the facilitation of its data exchange and storage processes.

  8. Institutional shared resources and translational cancer research

    OpenAIRE

    De Paoli Paolo

    2009-01-01

    Abstract The development and maintenance of adequate shared infrastructures is considered a major goal for academic centers promoting translational research programs. Among infrastructures favoring translational research, centralized facilities characterized by shared, multidisciplinary use of expensive laboratory instrumentation, or by complex computer hardware and software and/or by high professional skills are necessary to maintain or improve institutional scientific competitiveness. The s...

  9. Network for Translational Research - Cancer Imaging Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooperative agreement (U54) awards to establish Specialized Research Resource Centers that will participate as members of a network of inter-disciplinary, inter-institutional research teams for the purpose of supporting translational research in optical imaging and/or spectroscopy in vivo, with an emphasis on multiple modalities.

  10. Canine cancer patients are included in translational research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Børresen, Betina; Clausen, Malene Martini; Hansen, Anders Elias; Engelholm, Svend Aage; Kjær, Andreas; Kristensen, Annemarie Thuri; Zornhagen, Kamilla Westarp

    2014-01-01

    Cancer bearing dogs represent a unique clinical cancer model with a direct potential for accelerating translation into human patients. A research collaboration between the veterinary and human medical facilities at Copenhagen University and Rigshospitalet has taken offset in this. Canine cancer...

  11. Towards discovery-driven translational research in breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Celis, Julio E; Moreira, José M A; Gromova, Irina;

    2005-01-01

    , promise to have a major impact on the way breast cancer will be diagnosed, treated and monitored in the future. Here we present a brief report on long-term ongoing strategies at the Danish Centre for Translational Breast Cancer Research to search for markers for early detection and targets for therapeutic......Discovery-driven translational research in breast cancer is moving steadily from the study of cell lines to the analysis of clinically relevant samples that, together with the ever increasing number of novel and powerful technologies available within genomics, proteomics and functional genomics...... biology approach to fight breast cancer....

  12. Graphic Evolution Witness the Development of Lung Cancer Translational Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao ZHANG

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Lung cancer treatment has altered from conventional chemotherapy to targeted treatment, which now has been turned to the immunotherapy. Translational research has played an irreplaceable role during this progression which graphic evolution has witnessed. The evolution has gone through forest plot, KM-curve, waterfall plot, spider plot and timeline-area, showing us the refining concept and gradual process of lung cancer treatment undergoing from community towards individual. Even though the latest immunotherapy is getting increasingly hot, the result isn’t quite expected. Meanwhile, the limitations of conventional treatment still exist which require further research. This article will primarily illustrate the development of translational research of lung cancer via the aspect of curve evolution and analysis some abortive clinical trials in lung cancer surgery for inspiring the next graphic style and lung cancer treatment.

  13. [Graphic Evolution Witness the Development of Lung Cancer Translational Research].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chao; Zhong, Wenzhao

    2016-06-20

    Lung cancer treatment has altered from conventional chemotherapy to targeted treatment, which now has been turned to the immunotherapy. Translational research has played an irreplaceable role during this progression which graphic evolution has witnessed. The evolution has gone through forest plot, KM-curve, waterfall plot, spider plot and timeline-area, showing us the refining concept and gradual process of lung cancer treatment undergoing from community towards individual. Even though the latest immunotherapy is getting increasingly hot, the result isn't quite expected. Meanwhile, the limitations of conventional treatment still exist which require further research. This article will primarily illustrate the development of translational research of lung cancer via the aspect of curve evolution and analysis some abortive clinical trials in lung cancer surgery for inspiring the next graphic style and lung cancer treatment. PMID:27335306

  14. An Update on Immunohistochemistry in Translational Cancer Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zonggao Shi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Immunohistochemistry (IHC takes advantage of the specific binding between antigen and antibody to measure the presence and abundance of antigen while simultaneously providing morphologic context on a tissue section. Since the revolutionary application of heat-induced epitope retrieval methods on formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues, which started in early 1990s, IHC has been routinely used in diagnostic pathology. This approach has also enabled mining of the rich archives of pathologic specimens for exploration in translational cancer research. Newer IHC biomarkers are being continuously found as aids in differential diagnosis, prediction of outcome or response to molecular-targeted therapies. These are prime examples for translational cancer research. The last decade has witnessed some significant improvements in the use of this technology. This review provides an overview on the current status of IHC as applied in translational cancer research, commenting on the underlying principles in specimen preparation, reagent choice, staining procedure, and results evaluation so that both beginners and seasoned users could appreciate the key factors and benefit from this update.

  15. [Current status of castration-resistant prostate cancer translational research].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeno, Atsushi; Habuchi, Tomonori

    2016-01-01

    Recently, new drugs including abiraterone and enzalutamide have been able to be used for castration resistant prostate cancer(CRPC) patients. However, a subset of these patients who receive the new drugs does not response to the therapies. Furthermore, most patients who initially response to the drugs, progress to secondary resistance eventually. Therefore, it is important to investigate a novel therapeutic target and a novel treatment-selection marker for CRPC. In this review, we focused on AR-V7, TMPRSS2-ERG fusion gene and EP4 antagonist as representative translational researches. PMID:26793877

  16. Recent translational research: computational studies of breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Retsky, Michael; Demicheli, Romano; Hrushesky, William; Speer, John; Swartzendruber, Douglas; Wardwell, Robert

    2005-01-01

    The combination of mathematics--queen of sciences--and the general utility of computers has been used to make important inroads into insight-providing breast cancer research and clinical aids. These developments are in two broad areas. First, they provide useful prognostic guidelines for individual patients based on historic evidence. Second, by suggesting numeric tumor growth laws that are correlated to clinical parameters, they permit development of biologically relevant theories and comparison with patient data to help us understand complex biologic processes. These latter studies have produced many new ideas that are testable in clinical trials. In this review we discuss these developments from a clinical perspective, and ask whether and how they translate into useful tools for patient treatment. PMID:15642181

  17. Detection and characterization of translational research in cancer and cardiovascular medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cambrosio Alberto

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Scientists and experts in science policy have become increasingly interested in strengthening translational research. Efforts to understand the nature of translational research and monitor policy interventions face an obstacle: how can translational research be defined in order to facilitate analysis of it? We describe methods of scientometric analysis that can do this. Methods We downloaded bibliographic and citation data from all articles published in 2009 in the 75 leading journals in cancer and in cardiovascular medicine (roughly 15,000 articles for each field. We calculated citation relationships between journals and between articles and we extracted the most prevalent natural language concepts. Results Network analysis and mapping revealed polarization between basic and clinical research, but with translational links between these poles. The structure of the translational research in cancer and cardiac medicine is, however, quite different. In the cancer literature the translational interface is composed of different techniques (e.g., gene expression analysis that are used across the various subspecialties (e.g., specific tumor types within cancer research and medicine. In the cardiac literature, the clinical problems are more disparate (i.e., from congenital anomalies to coronary artery disease; although no distinctive translational interface links these fields, translational research does occur in certain subdomains, especially in research on atherosclerosis and hypertension. Conclusions These techniques can be used to monitor the continuing evolution of translational research in medicine and the impact of interventions designed to enhance it.

  18. Proteomic analysis of tissue samples in translational breast cancer research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gromov, Pavel; Moreira, José; Gromova, Irina

    2014-01-01

    In the last decade, many proteomic technologies have been applied, with varying success, to the study of tissue samples of breast carcinoma for protein expression profiling in order to discover protein biomarkers/signatures suitable for: characterization and subtyping of tumors; early diagnosis, ...... translation of basic discoveries into the daily breast cancer clinical practice. In particular, we address major issues in experimental design by reviewing the strengths and weaknesses of current proteomic strategies in the context of the analysis of human breast tissue specimens....

  19. Science, Science Signaling, and Science Translational Medicine – AAAS Special Collection on Cancer Research, March 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Forsythe, Katherine H.

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The National Cancer Act, signed in 1971, aimed to eliminate cancer deaths through a massive increase in research funding. The American Association for the Advancement of Science, the publisher of Science, Science Signaling, and Science Translational Medicine, observed the 40th anniversary of the Cancer Act in 2011, with special research articles and features, found in all three journals, on the state of cancer research 40 years later. This collection of articles explores both breakthroughs and the challenges in cancer research over the last four decades, and lets us know what we might expect in the future.

  20. Recent translational research: computational studies of breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Demicheli, Romano; Hrushesky, William; Speer, John; Swartzendruber, Douglas; Wardwell, Robert; Retsky, Michael W

    2004-01-01

    The combination of mathematics – queen of sciences – and the general utility of computers has been used to make important inroads into insight-providing breast cancer research and clinical aids. These developments are in two broad areas. First, they provide useful prognostic guidelines for individual patients based on historic evidence. Second, by suggesting numeric tumor growth laws that are correlated to clinical parameters, they permit development of biologically relevant theories and comp...

  1. Critical Appraisal of Translational Research Models for Suitability in Performance Assessment of Cancer Centers

    OpenAIRE

    Rajan, Abinaya; Sullivan, Richard; Bakker, Suzanne; van Harten, Wim H.

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to critically appraise translational research models for suitability in performance assessment of cancer centers. Process models, such as the Process Marker Model and Lean and Six Sigma applications, seem to be suitable for performance assessment of cancer centers. However, they must be thoroughly tested in practice.

  2. IT behind a platform for Translational Cancer Research - concept and objectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steffens, Michael; Husmann, Gabriele; Koca, Mithat; Lablans, Martin; Komor, Martina; Zeissig, Sylke; Emrich, Katharina; Brandts, Christian; Serve, Hubert; Blettner, Maria; Uckert, Frank

    2012-01-01

    The German Consortium for Translational Cancer Research (DKTK) and the Rhine-Main Translational Cancer Research Network (RM-TCRN) are designed to exploit large population cohorts of cancer patients for the purpose of bio-banking, clinical trials, and clinical cancer registration. Hence, the success of these platforms is heavily dependent on the close interlinking of clinical data from cancer patients, information from study registries, and data from bio-banking systems of different laboratories and scientific institutions. This article referring to the poster discusses the main challenges of the platforms from an information technology point of view, legal and data security issues, and outlines an integrative IT-concept concerning a decentralized, distributed search approach where data management and search is in compliance with existing legislative rules. PMID:22874378

  3. Integrating proteomic and functional genomic technologies in discovery-driven translational breast cancer research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Celis, Julio E; Gromov, Pavel; Gromova, Irina;

    2003-01-01

    . Here we describe the essence of a long-term initiative undertaken by The Danish Centre for Translational Breast Cancer Research and currently underway for cancer biomarker discovery using fresh tissue biopsies and bio-fluids. The Centre is a virtual hub that brings together scientists working......The application of state-of-the-art proteomics and functional genomics technologies to the study of cancer is rapidly shifting toward the analysis of clinically relevant samples derived from patients, as the ultimate aim of translational research is to bring basic discoveries closer to the bedside...... in various areas of basic cancer research such as cell cycle control, invasion and micro-environmental alterations, apoptosis, cell signaling, and immunology, with clinicians (oncologists, surgeons), pathologists, and epidemiologists, with the aim of understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying breast...

  4. Translating cancer prevention and control research into the community setting: workforce implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrop, J Phil; Nelson, David E; Kuratani, Darrah Goo; Mullen, Patricia Dolan; Paskett, Electra D

    2012-05-01

    A gap exists between cancer prevention research and its translation into community practice. Two strategies to reduce this gap are community-based participatory research (CBPR) and dissemination research. CBPR offers an avenue to engage academic and community partners, thereby providing mechanisms for joint learning and application of knowledge. Dissemination research examines the movement of evidence-based public health and clinical innovations to practice settings. While applying these approaches may reduce the gap between research and practice, the cancer prevention workforce may be inadequate in size, insufficiently trained, lack resources and incentives, or face structural barriers to effectively participate in CBPR and disseminate evidence-based research findings into practice. Information on translating cancer prevention information to communities and workforce implications was obtained from a panel of experts and through a review of the literature on CBPR and dissemination research. The expert panel and literature review identified major barriers to successfully conducting CBPR and dissemination research in community settings. Barriers included inadequate policies; insufficient networking and communication infrastructures; unsupportive research cultures, climates, and mindsets; inadequate researcher and practitioner education; and limited CBPR and dissemination research with adequate study designs. No specific estimates of the cancer prevention workforce were found; however, indirect evidence for a shortfall were identified. We recommend expanding CBPR training for academic and community partners; increasing funding for dissemination research and practice; supporting proven partnerships; and providing strategic coordination for government agencies, research institutions, nongovernmental organizations, and the private sector to foster better dissemination of information and integration of community-based cancer prevention and control programs and practices

  5. Anticoagulation, ferrotoxicity and the future of translational lung cancer research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zacharski, Leo R

    2016-06-01

    Numerous studies have shown that elements of coagulation reactions mediate tumor cell proliferation, motility (invasiveness), tissue remodeling and metastasis. Coagulation activation is virtually a universal feature of human malignancy that differs from the clotting response to injury in that it is self-perpetuating rather than self-attenuating. Coagulation activation participates in tumor matrix deposition and local inflammation, and predicts subsequent cancer risk and adverse cancer outcomes. Several clinical trials of anticoagulants have shown improved outcomes in small cell carcinoma of the lung (SCCL) that have been correlated with assembly on the tumor cells of an intact coagulation pathway. However, variable efficacy of anticoagulant therapy has raised doubts about the coagulation hypothesis. Recently, initiators of coagulation and fibrinolytic pathways have been identified that mediate tumor inception and progression. Notable among these is oxidative stress driven by iron-catalyzed reactive oxygen species that may be the basis for local coagulation activation, tumor matrix deposition, inflammation and aberrant properties characteristic of the malignant phenotype. Recognition of important biological characteristics of individual tumor types, disease stage, choice of standard therapy including chemotherapy and the iron status of the host may clarify mechanisms. All of these are subject to modification based on controlled clinical trial design. Further tests of the coagulation hypothesis may lead to novel, low cost and relatively non-toxic approaches to treatment of malignancy including lung cancer that contrast with certain current cancer treatment paradigms. PMID:27413710

  6. Anticoagulation, ferrotoxicity and the future of translational lung cancer research

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Numerous studies have shown that elements of coagulation reactions mediate tumor cell proliferation, motility (invasiveness), tissue remodeling and metastasis. Coagulation activation is virtually a universal feature of human malignancy that differs from the clotting response to injury in that it is self-perpetuating rather than self-attenuating. Coagulation activation participates in tumor matrix deposition and local inflammation, and predicts subsequent cancer risk and adverse cancer outcomes. Several clinical trials of anticoagulants have shown improved outcomes in small cell carcinoma of the lung (SCCL) that have been correlated with assembly on the tumor cells of an intact coagulation pathway. However, variable efficacy of anticoagulant therapy has raised doubts about the coagulation hypothesis. Recently, initiators of coagulation and fibrinolytic pathways have been identified that mediate tumor inception and progression. Notable among these is oxidative stress driven by iron-catalyzed reactive oxygen species that may be the basis for local coagulation activation, tumor matrix deposition, inflammation and aberrant properties characteristic of the malignant phenotype. Recognition of important biological characteristics of individual tumor types, disease stage, choice of standard therapy including chemotherapy and the iron status of the host may clarify mechanisms. All of these are subject to modification based on controlled clinical trial design. Further tests of the coagulation hypothesis may lead to novel, low cost and relatively non-toxic approaches to treatment of malignancy including lung cancer that contrast with certain current cancer treatment paradigms.

  7. Strategic Plans to Promote Head and Neck Cancer Translational Research Within the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group: A Report From the Translational Research Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Head and neck cancer is the fifth most common cancer in the United States, with an overall survival rate of approximately 40-50%. In an effort to improve patient outcomes, research efforts designed to maximize benefit and reduce toxicities of therapy are in progress. Basic research in cancer biology has accelerated this endeavor and provided preclinical data and technology to support clinically relevant advances in early detection, prognostic and predictive biomarkers. Recent completion of the Human Genome Project has promoted the rapid development of novel 'omics' technologies that allow more broad based study from a systems biology perspective. However, clinically relevant application of resultant gene signatures to clinical trials within cooperative groups has advanced slowly. In light of the large numbers of variables intrinsic to biomarker studies, validation of preliminary data for clinical implementation presents a significant challenge and may only be realized with large trials that involve significant patient numbers. The Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) Head and Neck Cancer Translational Research Program recognizes this problem and brings together three unique features to facilitate this research: (1) availability of large numbers of clinical specimens from homogeneously treated patients through multi-institutional clinical trials; (2) a team of physicians, scientists, and staff focused on patient-oriented head-and-neck cancer research with the common goal of improving cancer care; and (3) a funding mechanism through the RTOG Seed Grant Program. In this position paper we outline strategic plans to further promote translational research within the framework of the RTOG

  8. A Federated Network for Translational Cancer Research Using Clinical Data and Biospecimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Rebecca S; Becich, Michael J; Bollag, Roni J; Chavan, Girish; Corrigan, Julia; Dhir, Rajiv; Feldman, Michael D; Gaudioso, Carmelo; Legowski, Elizabeth; Maihle, Nita J; Mitchell, Kevin; Murphy, Monica; Sakthivel, Mayurapriyan; Tseytlin, Eugene; Weaver, JoEllen

    2015-12-15

    Advances in cancer research and personalized medicine will require significant new bridging infrastructures, including more robust biorepositories that link human tissue to clinical phenotypes and outcomes. In order to meet that challenge, four cancer centers formed the Text Information Extraction System (TIES) Cancer Research Network, a federated network that facilitates data and biospecimen sharing among member institutions. Member sites can access pathology data that are de-identified and processed with the TIES natural language processing system, which creates a repository of rich phenotype data linked to clinical biospecimens. TIES incorporates multiple security and privacy best practices that, combined with legal agreements, network policies, and procedures, enable regulatory compliance. The TIES Cancer Research Network now provides integrated access to investigators at all member institutions, where multiple investigator-driven pilot projects are underway. Examples of federated search across the network illustrate the potential impact on translational research, particularly for studies involving rare cancers, rare phenotypes, and specific biologic behaviors. The network satisfies several key desiderata including local control of data and credentialing, inclusion of rich phenotype information, and applicability to diverse research objectives. The TIES Cancer Research Network presents a model for a national data and biospecimen network. PMID:26670560

  9. Types of Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    An infographic from the National Cancer Institute (NCI) describing the four broad categories of cancer research: basic research, clinical research, population-based research, and translational research.

  10. Translation and validation of European organization for research and treatment of cancer quality of life Questionnaire -C30 into Moroccan version for cancer patients in Morocco

    OpenAIRE

    Nejjari, Chakib; El Fakir, Samira; Bendahhou, Karima; El Rhazi, Karima; Abda, Naima; Zidouh, Ahmed; Benider, Abdelatif; Errihani, Hassan; Bekkali, Rachid

    2014-01-01

    Background Understanding the effects of cancer on the quality of life of affected patients is critical to clinical research as well as to optimal management and care. The aim of this study was to adapt the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire-C30 (EORTC QLQ-C30) questionnaire into Moroccan Arabic and to determine its psychometric properties. After translation, back translation and pretesting of the pre-final version, the translated version w...

  11. Detection and characterization of translational research in cancer and cardiovascular medicine

    OpenAIRE

    Cambrosio Alberto; Jones David S; Mogoutov Andrei

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Scientists and experts in science policy have become increasingly interested in strengthening translational research. Efforts to understand the nature of translational research and monitor policy interventions face an obstacle: how can translational research be defined in order to facilitate analysis of it? We describe methods of scientometric analysis that can do this. Methods We downloaded bibliographic and citation data from all articles published in 2009 in the 75 lead...

  12. Stimulating translational research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentires-Alj, Mohamed; Rajan, Abinaya; van Harten, Wim; van Luenen, Henri G A M; Kubicek, Stefan; Andersen, Jesper B; Saarela, Janna; Cook, Simon J; Van Minnebruggen, Geert; Roman-Roman, Sergio; Maurer, Cornelia; Erler, Janine T; Bertero, Michela G

    2015-01-01

    Translational research leaves no-one indifferent and everyone expects a particular benefit. We as EU-LIFE (www.eu-life.eu), an alliance of 13 research institutes in European life sciences, would like to share our experience in an attempt to identify measures to promote translational research...... without undermining basic exploratory research and academic freedom....

  13. Using Concept Mapping to Develop a Conceptual Framework for Creating Virtual Communities of Practice to Translate Cancer Research into Practice

    OpenAIRE

    Vinson, Cynthia A

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Translating government-funded cancer research into clinical practice can be accomplished via virtual communities of practice that include key players in the process: researchers, health care practitioners, and intermediaries. This study, conducted from November 2012 through January 2013, examined issues that key stakeholders believed should be addressed to create and sustain government-sponsored virtual communities of practice to integrate cancer control research, practice, and p...

  14. Analysis of Cancer Metabolism by Imaging Hyperpolarized Nuclei: Prospects for Translation to Clinical Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Kurhanewicz

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available A major challenge in cancer biology is to monitor and understand cancer metabolism in vivo with the goal of improved diagnosis and perhaps therapy. Because of the complexity of biochemical pathways, tracer methods are required for detecting specific enzyme-catalyzed reactions. Stable isotopes such as 13C or 15N with detection by nuclear magnetic resonance provide the necessary information about tissue biochemistry, but the crucial metabolites are present in low concentration and therefore are beyond the detection threshold of traditional magnetic resonance methods. A solution is to improve sensitivity by a factor of 10,000 or more by temporarily redistributing the populations of nuclear spins in a magnetic field, a process termed hyperpolarization. Although this effect is short-lived, hyperpolarized molecules can be generated in an aqueous solution and infused in vivo where metabolism generates products that can be imaged. This discovery lifts the primary constraint on magnetic resonance imaging for monitoring metabolism—poor sensitivity—while preserving the advantage of biochemical information. The purpose of this report was to briefly summarize the known abnormalities in cancer metabolism, the value and limitations of current imaging methods for metabolism, and the principles of hyperpolarization. Recent preclinical applications are described. Hyperpolarization technology is still in its infancy, and current polarizer equipment and methods are suboptimal. Nevertheless, there are no fundamental barriers to rapid translation of this exciting technology to clinical research and perhaps clinical care.

  15. Translational Bioinformatics and Clinical Research (Biomedical) Informatics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirintrapun, S Joseph; Zehir, Ahmet; Syed, Aijazuddin; Gao, JianJiong; Schultz, Nikolaus; Cheng, Donavan T

    2016-03-01

    Translational bioinformatics and clinical research (biomedical) informatics are the primary domains related to informatics activities that support translational research. Translational bioinformatics focuses on computational techniques in genetics, molecular biology, and systems biology. Clinical research (biomedical) informatics involves the use of informatics in discovery and management of new knowledge relating to health and disease. This article details 3 projects that are hybrid applications of translational bioinformatics and clinical research (biomedical) informatics: The Cancer Genome Atlas, the cBioPortal for Cancer Genomics, and the Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center clinical variants and results database, all designed to facilitate insights into cancer biology and clinical/therapeutic correlations. PMID:26851671

  16. Translating Alcohol Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batman, Angela M.; Miles, Michael F.

    2015-01-01

    Alcohol use disorder (AUD) and its sequelae impose a major burden on the public health of the United States, and adequate long-term control of this disorder has not been achieved. Molecular and behavioral basic science research findings are providing the groundwork for understanding the mechanisms underlying AUD and have identified multiple candidate targets for ongoing clinical trials. However, the translation of basic research or clinical findings into improved therapeutic approaches for AUD must become more efficient. Translational research is a multistage process of streamlining the movement of basic biomedical research findings into clinical research and then to the clinical target populations. This process demands efficient bidirectional communication across basic, applied, and clinical science as well as with clinical practitioners. Ongoing work suggests rapid progress is being made with an evolving translational framework within the alcohol research field. This is helped by multiple interdisciplinary collaborative research structures that have been developed to advance translational work on AUD. Moreover, the integration of systems biology approaches with collaborative clinical studies may yield novel insights for future translational success. Finally, appreciation of genetic variation in pharmacological or behavioral treatment responses and optimal communication from bench to bedside and back may strengthen the success of translational research applications to AUD. PMID:26259085

  17. Integration of Translational Research in the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Research (EORTC Clinical Trial Cooperative Group Mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eggermont Alexander MM

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The landscape for cancer research is profoundly different today from that only one decade ago. Basic science is moving rapidly and biotechnological revolutions in molecular targeting and immunology have completely modified the opportunities and concepts for cancer treatment. In contrast to the recent past where cytotoxic molecules were screened in the laboratory and then tested in early clinical studies with toxicity as endpoint instead of the often poorly defined mechanism for its potential anti-tumor effect, we now have entered the age of molecular therapeutics, rationally designed to target "strategic" checkpoints that underlie the malignant phenotype. Translational research in early clinical trials (Phase I and II is an integral aspect of the development of the new generation of cancer drugs as it is necessary to implement radically different early phase clinical trial design and to validate new biological end-points if the full potential of these new agents is to be realized. The "proof of principle with mechanistic analysis" strategy will allow optimisation of therapy from the beginning, and provide important feedback to pre-clinical drug developers. Translational research is also essential in late (phase III clinical trials in defining different patient populations that may benefit to differing degrees from new treatments, and thus provide further insight and refine clinical practice in a more and more patient-tailored approach. In this editorial we will discuss the integration of Translational Research in the Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC.

  18. Mouse Models in Prostate Cancer Translational Research: From Xenograft to PDX.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rea, Domenica; Del Vecchio, Vitale; Palma, Giuseppe; Barbieri, Antonio; Falco, Michela; Luciano, Antonio; De Biase, Davide; Perdonà, Sisto; Facchini, Gaetano; Arra, Claudio

    2016-01-01

    Despite the advancement of clinical and preclinical research on PCa, which resulted in the last five years in a decrement of disease incidence by 3-4%, it remains the most frequent cancer in men and the second for mortality rate. Based on this evidence we present a brief dissertation on numerous preclinical models, comparing their advantages and disadvantages; among this we report the PDX mouse models that show greater fidelity to the disease, in terms of histopathologic features of implanted tumor, gene and miRNA expression, and metastatic pattern, well describing all tumor progression stages; this characteristic encourages the translation of preclinical results. These models become particularly useful in meeting the need of new treatments identification that eradicate PCa bone metastases growing, clarifying pathway of angiogenesis, identifying castration-resistant stem-like cells, and studying the antiandrogen therapies. Also of considerable interest are the studies of 3D cell cultures derived from PDX, which have the ability to maintain PDX cell viability with continued native androgen receptor expression, also showing a differential sensitivity to drugs. 3D PDX PCa may represent a diagnostic platform for the rapid assessment of drugs and push personalized medicine. Today the development of preclinical models in vitro and in vivo is necessary in order to obtain increasingly reliable answers before reaching phase III of the drug discovery. PMID:27294148

  19. Mouse Models in Prostate Cancer Translational Research: From Xenograft to PDX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domenica Rea

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite the advancement of clinical and preclinical research on PCa, which resulted in the last five years in a decrement of disease incidence by 3-4%, it remains the most frequent cancer in men and the second for mortality rate. Based on this evidence we present a brief dissertation on numerous preclinical models, comparing their advantages and disadvantages; among this we report the PDX mouse models that show greater fidelity to the disease, in terms of histopathologic features of implanted tumor, gene and miRNA expression, and metastatic pattern, well describing all tumor progression stages; this characteristic encourages the translation of preclinical results. These models become particularly useful in meeting the need of new treatments identification that eradicate PCa bone metastases growing, clarifying pathway of angiogenesis, identifying castration-resistant stem-like cells, and studying the antiandrogen therapies. Also of considerable interest are the studies of 3D cell cultures derived from PDX, which have the ability to maintain PDX cell viability with continued native androgen receptor expression, also showing a differential sensitivity to drugs. 3D PDX PCa may represent a diagnostic platform for the rapid assessment of drugs and push personalized medicine. Today the development of preclinical models in vitro and in vivo is necessary in order to obtain increasingly reliable answers before reaching phase III of the drug discovery.

  20. Mouse Models in Prostate Cancer Translational Research: From Xenograft to PDX

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Vecchio, Vitale; Palma, Giuseppe; Barbieri, Antonio; Falco, Michela; Luciano, Antonio; De Biase, Davide; Perdonà, Sisto; Facchini, Gaetano; Arra, Claudio

    2016-01-01

    Despite the advancement of clinical and preclinical research on PCa, which resulted in the last five years in a decrement of disease incidence by 3-4%, it remains the most frequent cancer in men and the second for mortality rate. Based on this evidence we present a brief dissertation on numerous preclinical models, comparing their advantages and disadvantages; among this we report the PDX mouse models that show greater fidelity to the disease, in terms of histopathologic features of implanted tumor, gene and miRNA expression, and metastatic pattern, well describing all tumor progression stages; this characteristic encourages the translation of preclinical results. These models become particularly useful in meeting the need of new treatments identification that eradicate PCa bone metastases growing, clarifying pathway of angiogenesis, identifying castration-resistant stem-like cells, and studying the antiandrogen therapies. Also of considerable interest are the studies of 3D cell cultures derived from PDX, which have the ability to maintain PDX cell viability with continued native androgen receptor expression, also showing a differential sensitivity to drugs. 3D PDX PCa may represent a diagnostic platform for the rapid assessment of drugs and push personalized medicine. Today the development of preclinical models in vitro and in vivo is necessary in order to obtain increasingly reliable answers before reaching phase III of the drug discovery. PMID:27294148

  1. On the path to translation: Highlights from the 2010 Canadian Conference on Ovarian Cancer Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thériault Brigitte L

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Ovarian cancer continues to be the most lethal of the gynaecologic malignancies due to the lack of early detection, screening strategies and ineffective therapeutics for late-stage metastatic disease, particularly in the recurrent setting. The gathering of researchers investigating fundamental pathobiology of ovarian cancer and the clinicians who treat patients with this insidious disease is paramount to meeting the challenges we face. Since 2002, the Canadian Conference on Ovarian Cancer Research, held every two years, has served this essential purpose. The objectives of this conference have been to disseminate new information arising from the most recent ovarian cancer research and identify the most pressing challenges we still face as scientists and clinicians. This is best accomplished through direct encounters and exchanges of innovative ideas among colleagues and trainees from the realms of basic science and clinical disciplines. This meeting has and continues to successfully facilitate rapid networking and establish new collaborations from across Canada. This year, more guest speakers and participants from other countries have extended the breadth of the research on ovarian cancer that was discussed at the meeting. This report summarizes the key findings presented at the fifth biennial Canadian Conference on Ovarian Cancer Research held in Toronto, Ontario, and includes the important issues and challenges we still face in the years ahead to make a significant impact on this devastating disease.

  2. Translational research in retinology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siqueira RC

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Rubens Camargo Siqueira1,2, Rodrigo Jorge21Rubens Siqueira Research Center, São José do Rio Preto, São Paulo, Brazil; 2Retina and Vitreous Section, Department of Ophthalmology, School of Medicine of Ribeirão Preto, University of São Paulo, BrazilAbstract: Clinical laboratories are strong, integral partners in personalized health care. Laboratory databases hold a vast amount of data on human phenotypes, genotypes, biomarkers, progression of disease, and response to therapy. These structured and unstructured free text data are critical for patient care and a resource for personalized medicine and translational research. Laboratory data are integrated into many electronic medical records that provide “summary reports” and “trending” to visualize longitudinal patient data. Recent advances in ophthalmology such as gene therapy, cell therapy using stem cells, and also retinal prosthesis explore the potential of translational research marking a new era in research into the diagnosis and treatment of eye diseases.Keywords: translational, retinal diseases, stem cell, gene therapy

  3. Translational research on advanced therapies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filippo Belardelli

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Fostering translational research of advanced therapies has become a major priority of both scientific community and national governments. Advanced therapy medicinal products (ATMP are a new medicinal product category comprising gene therapy and cell-based medicinal products as well as tissue engineered medicinal products. ATMP development opens novel avenues for therapeutic approaches in numerous diseases, including cancer and neurodegenerative and cardiovascular diseases. However, there are important bottlenecks for their development due to the complexity of the regulatory framework, the high costs and the needs for good manufacturing practice (GMP facilities and new end-points for clinical experimentation. Thus, a strategic cooperation between different stakeholders (academia, industry and experts in regulatory issues is strongly needed. Recently, a great importance has been given to research infrastructures dedicated to foster translational medicine of advanced therapies. Some ongoing European initiatives in this field are presented and their potential impact is discussed.

  4. Translation Theory 'Translated': Three Perspectives on Translation in Organizational Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wæraas, Arild; Nielsen, Jeppe

    2016-01-01

    Translation theory has proved to be a versatile analytical lens used by scholars working from different traditions. On the basis of a systematic literature review, this study adds to our understanding of the ‘translations’ of translation theory by identifying the distinguishing features of the most...... common theoretical approaches to translation within the organization and management discipline: actor-network theory, knowledge-based theory, and Scandinavian institutionalism. Although each of these approaches already has borne much fruit in research, the literature is diverse and somewhat fragmented......, but also overlapping. We discuss the ways in which the three versions of translation theory may be combined and enrich each other so as to inform future research, thereby offering a more complete understanding of translation in and across organizational settings....

  5. Cancer Research UK Centre for Drug Development: translating 21st-century science into the cancer medicines of tomorrow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritchie, James W A; Williams, Robert J

    2015-08-01

    The Cancer Research UK Centre (CRUK) for Drug Development (CDD) can trace its origins back to the Cancer Research Campaign Phase I/II Committee (created in 1980) and to date has tested over 120 potential cancer medicines in early-phase clinical trials. Five drugs are now registered, providing benefit to thousands of patients with cancer as part of their routine standard of care. In recent years, the CDD has established several different business and operating models that provide it with access to the pipelines of pharmaceutical and biotechnology companies. This has enabled potential new treatments to be taken into clinical development that might have otherwise languished on companies' shelves and has increased the number of drug combinations being explored in early-phase clinical trials. PMID:25794601

  6. Translation and validation of European organization for research and treatment of cancer quality of life Questionnaire -C30 into Moroccan version for cancer patients in Morocco

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Understanding the effects of cancer on the quality of life of affected patients is critical to clinical research as well as to optimal management and care. The aim of this study was to adapt the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire-C30 (EORTC QLQ-C30) questionnaire into Moroccan Arabic and to determine its psychometric properties. After translation, back translation and pretesting of the pre-final version, the translated version was submitted to a committee of professionals composed by oncologists and epidemiologists. The psychometric properties were tested in patients with cancer. Internal consistency was tested using Cronbach’s alpha and the test-retest reliability using interclass correlation coefficients. Construct validity was assessed by examining item-convergent and divergent validity. It was also tested using Spearman’s correlation between QLQ-C30 scales and EQ-5D. Results The study was conducted in 125 patients. The Moroccan version was internally reliable, Cronbach’s α was 0.87 for the total scale and ranged from 0.34 to 0.97 for the subscales. The intraclass correlation coefficient of the test-retest reliability ranged from 0.64 for “social functioning” to 0.89 for “physical activities” subscales. The instrument demonstrated a good construct and concomitant validity. Conclusions We have developed a semantically equivalent translation with cultural adaptation of EORTC QLQ-C30 questionnaire. The assessment of its measurement properties showed that it is quite reliable and a valid measure of the effect of cancer on the quality of life in Moroccan patients. PMID:24721384

  7. Translation initiation in colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsyan, Armen; Hernández, Greco; Meterissian, Sarkis

    2012-06-01

    Colorectal cancers (CRC) are one of the most common causes of morbidity and mortality in high-income countries. Targeted screening programs have resulted in early treatment and a substantial decrease in mortality. However, treatment strategies for CRC still require improvement. Understanding the etiology and pathogenesis of CRC would provide tools for improving treatment of patients with this disease. It is only recently that deregulation of the protein synthesis apparatus has begun to gain attention as a major player in cancer development and progression. Among the numerous steps of protein synthesis, deregulation of the process of translation initiation appears to play a key role in cancer growth and proliferation. This manuscript discusses a fascinating and rapidly growing field exploring translation initiation as a fundamental component in CRC development and progression and summarizing CRC treatment perspectives based on agents targeting translation initiation. PMID:22418835

  8. Translation-Memory (TM) Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schjoldager, Anne Gram; Christensen, Tina Paulsen

    2010-01-01

      It is no exaggeration to say that the advent of translation-memory (TM) systems in the translation profession has led to drastic changes in translators' processes and workflow, and yet, though many professional translators nowadays depend on some form of TM system, this has not been the object of...... much research. Our paper attempts to find out what we know about the nature, applications and influences of TM technology, including translators' interaction with TMs, and also how we know it. An essential part of the analysis is based on a selection of empirical TM studies, which we assume to be...

  9. Immunotherapy for human papillomavirus-associated disease and cervical cancer: review of clinical and translational research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sung Jong; Yang, Andrew; Wu, T C; Hung, Chien Fu

    2016-09-01

    Cervical cancer is the fourth most lethal women's cancer worldwide. Current treatments against cervical cancer include surgery, radiotherapy, chemotherapy, and anti-angiogenic agents. However, despite the various treatments utilized for the treatment of cervical cancer, its disease burden remains a global issue. Persistent infection of human papillomavirus (HPV) has been identified as an essential step of pathogenesis of cervical cancer and many other cancers, and nation-wide HPV screening as well as preventative HPV vaccination program have been introduced globally. However, even though the commercially available prophylactic HPV vaccines, Gardasil (Merck) and Cervarix (GlaxoSmithKline), are effective in blocking the entry of HPV into the epithelium of cervix through generation of HPV-specific neutralizing antibodies, they cannot eliminate the pre-existing HPV infection. For these reason, other immunotherapeutic options against HPV-associated diseases, including therapeutic vaccines, have been continuously explored. Therapeutic HPV vaccines enhance cell-mediated immunity targeting HPV E6 and E7 antigens by modulating primarily dendritic cells and cytotoxic T lymphocyte. Our review will cover various therapeutic vaccines in development for the treatment of HPV-associated lesions and cancers. Furthermore, we will discuss the potential of immune checkpoint inhibitors that have recently been adopted and tested for their treatment efficacy against HPV-induced cervical cancer. PMID:27329199

  10. Recent translational research: stem cells as the roots of breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Chang, Chia-Cheng

    2006-01-01

    Common phenotypes of cancer and stem cells suggest that breast cancers arise from stem cells. Breast epithelial cells with stem cell phenotypes have been shown to be more susceptible to immortalization and neoplastic transformation. Breast tumor stem cells with CD44+/CD24-/lowLineage- markers have been isolated. The role of these cells in tumor progression and clinical outcome is not clear. The relationship between breast stem cell and tumor stem cell may be elucidated by further studies of c...

  11. Knowledge translation of research findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grimshaw Jeremy M

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background One of the most consistent findings from clinical and health services research is the failure to translate research into practice and policy. As a result of these evidence-practice and policy gaps, patients fail to benefit optimally from advances in healthcare and are exposed to unnecessary risks of iatrogenic harms, and healthcare systems are exposed to unnecessary expenditure resulting in significant opportunity costs. Over the last decade, there has been increasing international policy and research attention on how to reduce the evidence-practice and policy gap. In this paper, we summarise the current concepts and evidence to guide knowledge translation activities, defined as T2 research (the translation of new clinical knowledge into improved health. We structure the article around five key questions: what should be transferred; to whom should research knowledge be transferred; by whom should research knowledge be transferred; how should research knowledge be transferred; and, with what effect should research knowledge be transferred? Discussion We suggest that the basic unit of knowledge translation should usually be up-to-date systematic reviews or other syntheses of research findings. Knowledge translators need to identify the key messages for different target audiences and to fashion these in language and knowledge translation products that are easily assimilated by different audiences. The relative importance of knowledge translation to different target audiences will vary by the type of research and appropriate endpoints of knowledge translation may vary across different stakeholder groups. There are a large number of planned knowledge translation models, derived from different disciplinary, contextual (i.e., setting, and target audience viewpoints. Most of these suggest that planned knowledge translation for healthcare professionals and consumers is more likely to be successful if the choice of knowledge

  12. Of mice and humans: Are they the same? - Implications in cancer translational research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. de Jong (Marion); T. Maina (Theodosia)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractAnimal models have been instrumental in elucidating key biochemical and physiologic processes of cancer onset and propagation in a living organism. Most importantly, they have served as a surrogate for patients in the evaluation of novel diagnostic and therapeutic anticancer drugs, inclu

  13. Leadership in complex networks: the importance of network position and strategic action in a translational cancer research network

    OpenAIRE

    Long, Janet C; Cunningham, Frances C; Wiley, Janice; Carswell, Peter; Braithwaite, Jeffrey

    2013-01-01

    Background Leadership behaviour in complex networks is under-researched, and little has been written concerning leadership of translational research networks (TRNs) that take discoveries made ‘at the bench’ and translate them into practices used ‘at the bedside.’ Understanding leaders’ opportunities and behaviours within TRNs working to solve this key problem in implementing evidence into clinical practice is therefore important. This study explored the network position of governing body memb...

  14. Of mice and humans: Are they the same? - Implications in cancer translational research

    OpenAIRE

    de Jong, Marion; Maina, Theodosia

    2010-01-01

    textabstractAnimal models have been instrumental in elucidating key biochemical and physiologic processes of cancer onset and propagation in a living organism. Most importantly, they have served as a surrogate for patients in the evaluation of novel diagnostic and therapeutic anticancer drugs, including radiopharmaceuticals. Experimental tumors raised in rodents constitute the major preclinical tool of new-agent screening before clinical testing. Such models for oncologic applications today i...

  15. Pancreatic Cancer Chemoprevention Translational Workshop: Meeting Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Mark Steven; Allen, Peter; Brentnall, Teresa A; Goggins, Michael; Hruban, Ralph H; Petersen, Gloria M; Rao, Chinthalapally V; Whitcomb, David C; Brand, Randall E; Chari, Suresh T; Klein, Alison P; Lubman, David M; Rhim, Andrew D; Simeone, Diane M; Wolpin, Brian M; Umar, Asad; Srivastava, Sudhir; Steele, Vernon E; Rinaudo, Jo Ann S

    2016-09-01

    Pancreatic cancer is the fourth leading cause of cancer related deaths in the United States with a 5-year survival rate of less than 10%. The Division of Cancer Prevention of the National Cancer Institute sponsored the Pancreatic Cancer Chemoprevention Translational Workshop on September 10 to 11, 2015. The goal of the workshop was to obtain information regarding the current state of the science and future scientific areas that should be prioritized for pancreatic cancer prevention research, including early detection and intervention for high-risk precancerous lesions. The workshop addressed the molecular/genetic landscape of pancreatic cancer and precursor lesions, high-risk populations and criteria to identify a high-risk population for potential chemoprevention trials, identification of chemopreventative/immunopreventative agents, and use of potential biomarkers and imaging for assessing short-term efficacy of a preventative agent. The field of chemoprevention for pancreatic cancer is emerging, and this workshop was organized to begin to address these important issues and promote multi-institutional efforts in this area. The meeting participants recommended the development of an National Cancer Institute working group to coordinate efforts, provide a framework, and identify opportunities for chemoprevention of pancreatic cancer. PMID:27518363

  16. A Novel Cross-Disciplinary Multi-Institute Approach to Translational Cancer Research: Lessons Learned from Pennsylvania Cancer Alliance Bioinformatics Consortium (PCABC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashokkumar A. Patel

    2007-01-01

    property/tech transfer agreements, and material transfer agreements that have been approved by each of the member institutions. This was the foundational work that has led to the development of a centralized data warehouse that has met each of the institutions’ IRB/HIPAA standards.Results: Currently, this “virtual biorepository” has over 58,000 annotated samples from 11,467 cancer patients available for research purposes. The clinical annotation of tissue samples is either done manually over the internet or semiautomated batch modes through mapping of local data elements with PCABC common data elements. The database currently holds information on 7188 cases (associated with 9278 specimens and 46,666 annotated blocks and blood samples of prostate cancer, 2736 cases (associated with 3796 specimens and 9336 annotated blocks and blood samples of breast cancer and 1543 cases (including 1334 specimens and 2671 annotated blocks and blood samples of melanoma. These numbers continue to grow, and plans to integrate new tumor sites are in progress. Furthermore, the group has also developed a central web-based tool that allows investigators to share their translational (genomics/proteomics experiment data on research evaluating potential biomarkers via a central location on the Consortium’s web site.Conclusions: The technological achievements and the statewide informatics infrastructure that have been established by the Consortium will enable robust and efficient studies of biomarkers and their relevance to the clinical course of cancer. Studies resulting from the creation of the Consortium may allow for better classification of cancer types, more accurate assessment of disease prognosis, a better ability to identify the most appropriate individuals for clinical trial participation, and better surrogate markers of disease progression and/or response to therapy.

  17. Application of proteomics to translational research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deriving public benefit from basic biomedical research requires a dedicated and highly coordinated effort between basic scientists, physicians, bioinformaticians, clinical trial coordinators, MD and PhD trainees and fellows, and a host of other skilled participants. The Istituto Superiore di Sanita/George Mason University US-Italy Oncoproteomics program, established in 2005, is a successful example of a synergistic creative collaboration between basic scientists and clinical investigators conducting translational research. This program focuses on the application of the new field of proteomics to three urgent and fundamental clinical needs in cancer medicine: 1.) Biomarkers for early diagnosis of cancer, when it is still treatable, 2.) Individualizing patient therapy for molecular targeted inhibitors that block signal pathways driving cancer pathogenesis and 3.) Cancer Progenitor Cells (CSCs): When do the lethal progenitors of cancer first emerge, and how can we treat these CSCs with molecular targeted inhibitors

  18. TRANSLATIONAL RESEARCH IN NEUROLOGY: DEMENTIA

    OpenAIRE

    Honig, Lawrence S.

    2012-01-01

    Dementia disorders are characterized by clinicopathological criteria. Molecular understandings of these disorders, based on immunohistochemical studies, biochemical investigations, genetic approaches, and animal models have resulted in advances in diagnosis. Likewise translational research has allowed application of increasing basic scientific knowledge regarding neurodegeneration, to the rational development of new investigational therapies based on current understanding of disease pathogene...

  19. Estrogen-mediated mechanisms to control the growth and apoptosis of breast cancer cells: a translational research success story.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDaniel, Russell E; Maximov, Philipp Y; Jordan, V Craig

    2013-01-01

    The treatment and prevention of solid tumors have proved to be a major challenge for medical science. The paradigms for success in the treatment of childhood leukemia, Hodgkin's disease, Burkett's lymphoma, and testicular carcinoma with cytotoxic chemotherapy did not translate to success in solid tumors--the majority of cancers that kill. In contrast, significant success has accrued for patients with breast cancer with antihormone treatments (tamoxifen or aromatase inhibitors) that are proved to enhance survivorship, and remarkably, there are now two approved prevention strategies using either tamoxifen or raloxifene. This was considered impossible 40 years ago. We describe the major clinical advances with nonsteroidal antiestrogens that evolved into selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs) which successfully exploited the ER target selectively inside a woman's body. The standard paradigm that estrogen stimulates breast cancer growth has been successfully exploited for over 4 decades with therapeutic strategies that block (tamoxifen, raloxifene) or reduce (aromatase inhibitors) circulating estrogens in patients to stop breast tumor growth. But this did not explain why high-dose estrogen treatment that was the standard of care to treat postmenopausal breast cancer for 3 decades before tamoxifen caused tumor regression. This paradox was resolved with the discovery that breast cancer resistance to long-term estrogen deprivation causes tumor regression with physiologic estrogen through apoptosis. The new biology of estrogen action has been utilized to explain the findings in the Women's Health Initiative that conjugated equine estrogen alone given to postmenopausal women, average age 68, will produce a reduction of breast cancer incidence and mortality compared to no treatment. Estrogen is killing nascent breast cancer cells in the ducts of healthy postmenopausal women. The modulation of the ER using multifunctional medicines called SERMs has provided not only

  20. Phosphoproteomics in translational research: a sarcoma perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noujaim, J; Payne, L S; Judson, I; Jones, R L; Huang, P H

    2016-05-01

    Phosphoproteomics has been extensively used as a preclinical research tool to characterize the phosphorylated components of the cancer proteome. Advances in the field have yielded insights into new drug targets, mechanisms of disease progression and drug resistance, and biomarker discovery. However, application of this technology to clinical research has been challenging because of practical issues relating to specimen integrity and tumour heterogeneity. Beyond these limitations, phosphoproteomics has the potential to play a pivotal role in translational studies and contribute to advances in different tumour groups, including rare disease sites like sarcoma. In this review, we propose that deploying phosphoproteomic technologies in translational research may facilitate the identification of better defined predictive biomarkers for patient stratification, inform drug selection in umbrella trials and identify new combinations to overcome drug resistance. We provide an overview of current phosphoproteomic technologies, such as affinity-based assays and mass spectrometry-based approaches, and discuss their advantages and limitations. We use sarcoma as an example to illustrate the current challenges in evaluating targeted kinase therapies in clinical trials. We then highlight useful lessons from preclinical studies in sarcoma biology to demonstrate how phosphoproteomics may address some of these challenges. Finally, we conclude by offering a perspective and list the key measures required to translate and benchmark a largely preclinical technology into a useful tool for translational research. PMID:26802162

  1. Towards an animal model of ovarian cancer: cataloging chicken blood proteins using combinatorial peptide ligand libraries coupled with shotgun proteomic analysis for translational research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yingying; Sun, Zeyu; de Matos, Ricardo; Zhang, Jing; Odunsi, Kunle; Lin, Biaoyang

    2014-05-01

    Epithelial ovarian cancer is the most deadly gynecological cancer around the world, with high morbidity in industrialized countries. Early diagnosis is key in reducing its morbidity rate. Yet, robust biomarkers, diagnostics, and animal models are still limited for ovarian cancer. This calls for broader omics and systems science oriented diagnostics strategies. In this vein, the domestic chicken has been used as an ovarian cancer animal model, owing to its high rate of developing spontaneous epithelial ovarian tumors. Chicken blood has thus been considered a surrogate reservoir from which cancer biomarkers can be identified. However, the presence of highly abundant proteins in chicken blood has compromised the applicability of proteomics tools to study chicken blood owing to a lack of immunodepletion methods. Here, we demonstrate that a combinatorial peptide ligand library (CPLL) can efficiently remove highly abundant proteins from chicken blood samples, consequently doubling the number of identified proteins. Using an integrated CPLL-1DGE-LC-MSMS workflow, we identified a catalog of 264 unique proteins. Functional analyses further suggested that most proteins were coagulation and complement factors, blood transport and binding proteins, immune- and defense-related proteins, proteases, protease inhibitors, cellular enzymes, or cell structure and adhesion proteins. Semiquantitative spectral counting analysis identified 10 potential biomarkers from the present chicken ovarian cancer model. Additionally, many human homologs of chicken blood proteins we have identified have been independently suggested as diagnostic biomarkers for ovarian cancer, further triangulating our novel observations reported here. In conclusion, the CPLL-assisted proteomic workflow using the chicken ovarian cancer model provides a feasible platform for translational research to identify ovarian cancer biomarkers and understand ovarian cancer biology. To the best of our knowledge, we report here

  2. Is translational research compatible with preclinical publication strategies?

    OpenAIRE

    Shoshan Maria C; Linder Stig

    2006-01-01

    Abstract The term "translational research" is used to describe the transfer of basic biological knowledge into practical medicine, a process necessary for motivation of public spending. In the area of cancer therapeutics, it is becoming increasingly evident that results obtained in vitro and in animal models are difficult to translate into clinical medicine. We here argue that a number of factors contribute to making the translation process inefficient. These factors include the use of sensit...

  3. Bastyr/UW Oncomycology Translational Research Center

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Research Area: Fungi Program: Partnerships for CAM Clinical Translational Research Description: Trametes versicolor is an immunologically active medicinal mushroom...

  4. Assessment in translation studies : research needs

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez, Nicole; Hurtado Albir, Amparo

    2001-01-01

    On the whole, most research into assessment in translation only concentrates on one area — evaluation of translations of literary and sacred texts — and other areas are ignored. In fact, this field of research includes two other areas, each with its own characteristics: assessment of professionals at work and assessment of trainee translators.Starting with this presupposition, we describe the three areas and analyze the notion of translation assessment, so as to define the characteristics of ...

  5. Translational Research from an Informatics Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstam, Elmer; Meric-Bernstam, Funda; Johnson-Throop, Kathy A.; Turley, James P.; Smith, Jack W.

    2007-01-01

    Clinical and translational research (CTR) is an essential part of a sustainable global health system. Informatics is now recognized as an important en-abler of CTR and informaticians are increasingly called upon to help CTR efforts. The US National Institutes of Health mandated biomedical informatics activity as part of its new national CTR grant initiative, the Clinical and Translational Science Award (CTSA). Traditionally, translational re-search was defined as the translation of laboratory discoveries to patient care (bench to bedside). We argue, however, that there are many other kinds of translational research. Indeed, translational re-search requires the translation of knowledge dis-covered in one domain to another domain and is therefore an information-based activity. In this panel, we will expand upon this view of translational research and present three different examples of translation to illustrate the point: 1) bench to bedside, 2) Earth to space and 3) academia to community. We will conclude with a discussion of our local translational research efforts that draw on each of the three examples.

  6. The development and deployment of Common Data Elements for tissue banks for translational research in cancer – An emerging standard based approach for the Mesothelioma Virtual Tissue Bank

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farhat Ghada

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent advances in genomics, proteomics, and the increasing demands for biomarker validation studies have catalyzed changes in the landscape of cancer research, fueling the development of tissue banks for translational research. A result of this transformation is the need for sufficient quantities of clinically annotated and well-characterized biospecimens to support the growing needs of the cancer research community. Clinical annotation allows samples to be better matched to the research question at hand and ensures that experimental results are better understood and can be verified. To facilitate and standardize such annotation in bio-repositories, we have combined three accepted and complementary sets of data standards: the College of American Pathologists (CAP Cancer Checklists, the protocols recommended by the Association of Directors of Anatomic and Surgical Pathology (ADASP for pathology data, and the North American Association of Central Cancer Registry (NAACCR elements for epidemiology, therapy and follow-up data. Combining these approaches creates a set of International Standards Organization (ISO – compliant Common Data Elements (CDEs for the mesothelioma tissue banking initiative supported by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH of the Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC. Methods The purpose of the project is to develop a core set of data elements for annotating mesothelioma specimens, following standards established by the CAP checklist, ADASP cancer protocols, and the NAACCR elements. We have associated these elements with modeling architecture to enhance both syntactic and semantic interoperability. The system has a Java-based multi-tiered architecture based on Unified Modeling Language (UML. Results Common Data Elements were developed using controlled vocabulary, ontology and semantic modeling methodology. The CDEs for each case are of different types: demographic

  7. Translational Research in Oncology Research & Development and Its Impact on Early Development in China: report of the 5th Annual Meeting of the US Chinese Anti-Cancer Association (USCACA at 2013 AACR Annual Meeting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LingjieGuan

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In April 2013, the US Chinese Anti-Cancer Association (USCACA held its 5th annual meeting in conjunction with the American Association for Cancer Research (AACR 2013 Annual Meeting in Washington DC. The USCACA executive committee reported activities and programs and highlighted the partnership and collaboration between USCACA and other major organizations. The key initiatives and programs of USCACA included 1 USCACA-TIGM Esophageal Cancer Program that funds translational research of esophageal cancer prevention and treatment at the Xinxiang Medical University in Henan province, China; 2 the USCACA-NFCR-AFCR Scholarship Program, which has supported 10 young outstanding Chinese cancer researchers and will award 4 fellowships at the Guangzhou International Symposium on Oncology in November this year; 3 USCACA-Hengrui Training Program for Early Phase Clinical Research, which has supported the training of a Chinese scholar at two major cancer centers in the US; and 4 USCACA has continued its partnership with the Chinese Journal of Cancer, which has reached significant international impact.

  8. Translational Research in Oncology Research & Development and Its Impact on Early Development in China: report of the 5th Annual Meeting of the US Chinese Anti-Cancer Association (USCACA) at 2013 AACR Annual Meeting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lingjie Guan; Yun Dai; Roger Luo

    2013-01-01

    In April 2013,the US Chinese Anti-Cancer Association (USCACA) held its 5th annual meeting in conjunction with the American Association for Cancer Research (AACR) 2013 Annual Meeting in Washington DC.The USCACA executive committee reported activities and programs and highlighted the partnership and collaboration between USCACA and other major organizations.The key initiatives and programs of USCACA included 1) USCACA-TIGM Esophageal Cancer Program that funds translational research of esophageal cancer prevention and treatment at the Xinxiang Medical University in Henan province,China; 2) the USCACA-NFCR-AFCR Scholarship Program,which has supported 10 young outstanding Chinese cancer researchers and will award 4 fellowships at the Guangzhou International Symposium on Oncology in November this year; 3) USCACA-Hengrui Training Program for Early Phase Clinical Research,which has supported the training of a Chinese scholar at two major cancer centers in the US; and 4) USCACA has continued its partnership with the Chinese Journal of Cancer,which has reached significant international impact.

  9. The 13th Annual Meeting of the Translational Research Cancer Centers Consortium (TrC3); Immune Suppression and the Tumor Microenvironment, Columbus, Ohio; March 1–2, 2010

    OpenAIRE

    Lesinski, Gregory B.; Carson, William E.; Repasky, Elizabeth A.; Wei, Weizen; Kalinski, Pawel; Lotze, Michael T; June, Carl H.; Petros, William; Muthusamy, Natarajan; Olencki, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    The Translational Research Cancer Centers Consortium (TrC3) is a cancer immunotherapy network, established to promote biologic therapeutics in the Midwestern and Northeastern regions of The United States. The 13th Annual Meeting of the TrC3 was hosted by The Ohio State University Comprehensive Cancer Center—Arthur G. James Cancer Hospital and Richard J. Solove Research Institute and took place at The Blackwell Hotel and Conference Center in Columbus, OH on March 1–2, 2010 (http://www.osuccc.o...

  10. Translational Approaches towards Cancer Gene Therapy: Hurdles and Hopes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yadollah Omidi

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Of the cancer gene therapy approaches, gene silencing, suicide/apoptosis inducing gene therapy, immunogene therapy and targeted gene therapy are deemed to sub­stantially control the biological consequences of genomic changes in cancerous cells. Thus, a large number of clinical trials have been conducted against various malignancies. In this review, we will discuss recent translational progresses of gene and cell therapy of cancer. Methods: Essential information on gene therapy of cancer were reviewed and discussed towards their clinical translations. Results: Gene transfer has been rigorously studied in vitro and in vivo, in which some of these gene therapy endeavours have been carried on towards translational investigations and clinical applications. About 65% of gene therapy trials are related to cancer therapy. Some of these trials have been combined with cell therapy to produce personalized medicines such as Sipuleucel-T (Provenge®, marketed by Dendreon, USA for the treatment of asymptomatic/minimally symptomatic metastatic hormone-refractory prostate cancer. Conclusion: Translational approach links two diverse boundaries of basic and clinical researches. For successful translation of geno­medicines into clinical applications, it is essential 1 to have the guidelines and standard operating procedures for development and application of the genomedicines specific to clinically relevant biomarker(s; 2 to conduct necessary animal experimental studies to show the “proof of concept” for the proposed genomedicines; 3 to perform an initial clinical investigation; and 4 to initiate extensive clinical trials to address all necessary requirements. In short, translational researches need to be refined to accelerate the geno­medicine development and clinical applications.

  11. Utility and translatability of mathematical modeling, cell culture and small and large animal models in magnetic nanoparticle hyperthermia cancer treatment research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoopes, P. J.; Petryk, Alicia A.; Misra, Adwiteeya; Kastner, Elliot J.; Pearce, John A.; Ryan, Thomas P.

    2015-03-01

    For more than 50 years, hyperthermia-based cancer researchers have utilized mathematical models, cell culture studies and animal models to better understand, develop and validate potential new treatments. It has been, and remains, unclear how and to what degree these research techniques depend on, complement and, ultimately, translate accurately to a successful clinical treatment. In the past, when mathematical models have not proven accurate in a clinical treatment situation, the initiating quantitative scientists (engineers, mathematicians and physicists) have tended to believe the biomedical parameters provided to them were inaccurately determined or reported. In a similar manner, experienced biomedical scientists often tend to question the value of mathematical models and cell culture results since those data typically lack the level of biologic and medical variability and complexity that are essential to accurately study and predict complex diseases and subsequent treatments. Such quantitative and biomedical interdependence, variability, diversity and promise have never been greater than they are within magnetic nanoparticle hyperthermia cancer treatment. The use of hyperthermia to treat cancer is well studied and has utilized numerous delivery techniques, including microwaves, radio frequency, focused ultrasound, induction heating, infrared radiation, warmed perfusion liquids (combined with chemotherapy), and, recently, metallic nanoparticles (NP) activated by near infrared radiation (NIR) and alternating magnetic field (AMF) based platforms. The goal of this paper is to use proven concepts and current research to address the potential pathobiology, modeling and quantification of the effects of treatment as pertaining to the similarities and differences in energy delivered by known external delivery techniques and iron oxide nanoparticles.

  12. Conflicts of interest in translational research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Disis Mary L

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Translational research requires a team approach to scientific inquiry and product development. Translational research teams consist of basic and clinical scientists who can be members of both academic and industrial communities. The conception, pre-clinical testing, and clinical evaluation of a diagnostic or therapeutic approach demands an intense interaction between investigators with diverse backgrounds. As the barriers between industry and academia are removed, issues of potential conflict of interest become more complex. Translational researchers must become aware of the situations which constitute conflict of interest and understand how such conflicts can impact their research programs. Finally, the translational research community must participate in the dialogue ongoing in the public and private sectors and help shape the rules that will govern conflicts that arise during the evolution of their research programs.

  13. Research Methods in Translation Studies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭芳芳; 常利娜; 李冬媛; 郝继亭

    2008-01-01

    My essay will present an analysis ofthe features of a text that may be parficular]y challenging for translation into Chinese.Though various text-linguistic models can be used to analyze the source text,I would concentrate on the aspects of collocation and idiomaticity.Furthermore,the difficulties encountered as a result of differences in the lexicaI patterning of the source and target languages would be explored

  14. PALB2 and breast cancer: ready for clinical translation!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Southey MC

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Melissa C Southey,1 Zhi L Teo,1 Ingrid Winship2 1Genetic Epidemiology Laboratory, Department of Pathology, The University of Melbourne, Victoria, Australia; 2The Department of Medicine, The University of Melbourne, Victoria, Australia and The Royal Melbourne Hospital, Parkville, Victoria, Australia Abstract: For almost two decades, breast cancer clinical genetics has operated in an environment where a heritable cause of breast cancer susceptibility is identified in the vast minority of women seeking advice about their personal and/or family history of breast and/or ovarian cancer. A new wave of genetic information is upon us that promises to provide an explanation for the greater proportion of current missing heritability of breast cancer. Whilst researchers refine bioinformatic and analytic methodology necessary to interpret the new genetic data, attention needs to be paid to defining appropriate and coordinated pathways for the translation of this information so that it can be applied in clinical genetic services for the benefit of the majority of women who currently have no explanation for their breast cancer susceptibility. The search for additional breast cancer susceptibility genes remains a very active area of research. Exhausting the power of linkage studies that identified BRCA1 and BRCA2, the research community moved to candidate gene studies that led to the identification of ATM, BRIP1, CHEK2, and PALB2 as so-called "moderate-risk" breast cancer susceptibility genes. Mutations in these genes are rare and although early reports suggested that, on average, they are associated with moderate risks of breast cancer; population-based studies have demonstrated that at least some mutations in these genes are associated with breast cancer risks that are comparable to the average risk associated with BRCA2 mutations. The search for additional breast cancer susceptibility genes has now moved onto research platforms applying massively parallel

  15. Methodological challenges in quality of life research among Turkish and Moroccan ethnic minority cancer patients: translation, recruitment and ethical issues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoopman, R.; Terwee, C.B.; Muller, M.T.; Ory, F.; Aaronson, N.K.

    2009-01-01

    The large population of first generation Turkish and Moroccan immigrants who moved to Western Europe in the 1960s and 1970s is now reaching an age at which the incidence of chronic diseases, including cancer, rises sharply. To date, little attention has been paid to the health-related quality of lif

  16. 如何开展胰腺癌早期诊断与综合治疗的转化医学研究%Translational medicine research of early diagnosis and comprehensive treatment of pancreatic cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵玉沛

    2012-01-01

    For decades,the improvement of diagnosis and treatment of pancreatic cancer is being extremely difficult,and the survival rates remain extremely low.The primary objective of translational medicine is to remove the barriers among basic medical research,clinical medicine,new therapies and pharmaceutical research and development,to realize the actual combination of laboratory,clinical and other related departments,and accelerate the translation of acquired knowledge and achievements in basic research into clinical diagnosis,evaluation and treatment of diseases,promoting the spread of scientific clinical notion and methods.To strengthen the translational medical research in pancreatic cancer,the establishment of professional team and research platform of translational medicine is necessary.Based on this platform,comprehensive research on early diagnosis and pathogenesis of pancreatic cancer can be carried out to screen highly efficient tumor markers and treatment targets.For these tumor markers and targeted drugs need to be further verified in clinics.At the same time,through appropriate animal model,the chemotherapy regimen can be optimized to improve the chemotherapy sensitivity,and individual treatment can truly be achieved.

  17. Translating Alcohol Research: Opportunities and Challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batman, Angela M; Miles, Michael F

    2015-01-01

    Alcohol use disorder (AUD) and its sequelae impose a major burden on the public health of the United States, and adequate long-term control of this disorder has not been achieved. Molecular and behavioral basic science research findings are providing the groundwork for understanding the mechanisms underlying AUD and have identified multiple candidate targets for ongoing clinical trials. However, the translation of basic research or clinical findings into improved therapeutic approaches for AUD must become more efficient. Translational research is a multistage process of stream-lining the movement of basic biomedical research findings into clinical research and then to the clinical target populations. This process demands efficient bidirectional communication across basic, applied, and clinical science as well as with clinical practitioners. Ongoing work suggests rapid progress is being made with an evolving translational framework within the alcohol research field. This is helped by multiple interdisciplinary collaborative research structures that have been developed to advance translational work on AUD. Moreover, the integration of systems biology approaches with collaborative clinical studies may yield novel insights for future translational success. Finally, appreciation of genetic variation in pharmacological or behavioral treatment responses and optimal communication from bench to bedside and back may strengthen the success of translational research applications to AUD. PMID:26259085

  18. Cancer stem cells in basic science and in translational oncology: can we translate into clinical application?

    OpenAIRE

    Schulenburg, Axel; Blatt, Katharina; Cerny-Reiterer, Sabine; Sadovnik, Irina; Herrmann, Harald; Marian, Brigitte; Grunt, Thomas W.; Zielinski, Christoph C.; Valent, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Since their description and identification in leukemias and solid tumors, cancer stem cells (CSC) have been the subject of intensive research in translational oncology. Indeed, recent advances have led to the identification of CSC markers, CSC targets, and the preclinical and clinical evaluation of the CSC-eradicating (curative) potential of various drugs. However, although diverse CSC markers and targets have been identified, several questions remain, such as the origin and evolution of CSC,...

  19. PALB2 and breast cancer: ready for clinical translation!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southey, Melissa C; Teo, Zhi L; Winship, Ingrid

    2013-01-01

    For almost two decades, breast cancer clinical genetics has operated in an environment where a heritable cause of breast cancer susceptibility is identified in the vast minority of women seeking advice about their personal and/or family history of breast and/or ovarian cancer. A new wave of genetic information is upon us that promises to provide an explanation for the greater proportion of current missing heritability of breast cancer. Whilst researchers refine bioinformatic and analytic methodology necessary to interpret the new genetic data, attention needs to be paid to defining appropriate and coordinated pathways for the translation of this information so that it can be applied in clinical genetic services for the benefit of the majority of women who currently have no explanation for their breast cancer susceptibility. The search for additional breast cancer susceptibility genes remains a very active area of research. Exhausting the power of linkage studies that identified BRCA1 and BRCA2, the research community moved to candidate gene studies that led to the identification of ATM, BRIP1, CHEK2, and PALB2 as so-called "moderate-risk" breast cancer susceptibility genes. Mutations in these genes are rare and although early reports suggested that, on average, they are associated with moderate risks of breast cancer; population-based studies have demonstrated that at least some mutations in these genes are associated with breast cancer risks that are comparable to the average risk associated with BRCA2 mutations. The search for additional breast cancer susceptibility genes has now moved onto research platforms applying massively parallel sequencing capable of sequencing whole human exomes and genomes in single instrument runs. These programs are identifying a large number of additional putative breast cancer susceptibility genes, many of which are currently undergoing validation. It is highly anticipated that the remaining missing heritability of breast cancer

  20. Translational mini-screw implant research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossouw, Emile

    2014-09-01

    It is important to thoroughly test new materials as well as techniques when these innovations are to be utilized in the human clinical situation. Translational research fills this important niche. The purpose of translational research is to establish the continuity of evidence from the laboratory to the clinic and in so-doing, provide evidence that the material is functioning appropriately and that the process in the human will be successful. This concept applies to the mini-screw implant; which, has been very successfully introduced into the orthodontic armamentarium over the last decade for application as a temporary anchorage device. The examples of translational research that will be illustrated in this paper have paved the way to ensure that clinicians have evidence to confidently utilize mini-screw implants in orthodontic practice. Needless to say, more studies are needed to ensure a safe, effective and efficient manner to practice orthodontics. PMID:25138369

  1. Translational research: Lessons from past research, growing up nowadays, and development goal in future

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG ZhuQin; CHEN HouZao; LIU DePei

    2011-01-01

    Recently,with coming of the "omics" era and rapid development of basic research in biology and medicine,huge information about biology and life has been achieved.However,many research results cannot be translated into clinical practice.Under this circumstance,the concept of "translational research" is raised [1-4] and widely spread."Translational research" is patient-oriented research which connects basic medicine and clinical medicine [2].It means more directly and quickly raising questions from clinical practice to basic research and translating findings in basic research into clinical practice.The process of translational research can be summarized as follows:first,according to clinical practice,raising clinical problems and refining scientific questions;then,systematic and in-depth research,which integrates diverse disciplines,including epidemic study,basic research and drug discovery,is carried out;last,through research,the potentially effective strategies or methods for diagnosing,treating or preventing diseases are achieved and translated into clinical practice.Translational research has been developed rapidly in recent years.It is used to direct research in cardiovascular diseases (CVD),cancer,infectious diseases,metabolic diseases,etc.

  2. Type 2 translational research for CKD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuttle, Katherine R; Tuot, Delphine S; Corbett, Cynthia L; Setter, Stephen M; Powe, Neil R

    2013-10-01

    Strategies to effectively treat people with CKD have been identified by conventional clinical research. Despite this evidence, awareness, screening, detection, diagnosis, risk factor control, treatment, and outcomes remain substandard. Translating clinical evidence into actionable measures that reduce the burden of CKD is a pressing need. Expansion from a "bench-to-bedside" paradigm (conventional type 1 translation) to research that encompasses "clinic and community" is the core concept of type 2 translation. Specifically, this is the discipline of identifying factors and using strategies that lead to adoption, maintenance, and sustainability of science-based interventions in practice. This review identifies key elements of type 2 translational research and highlights the current scope of this type of research for CKD. For type 2 translation to achieve the goals of providing high-quality care and better health outcomes, key facilitators (e.g., theory-based frameworks, adaptable interventions, and inclusion of sustainability and evaluation metrics) and essential elements (e.g., multidisciplinary team care, health information technology, and stakeholder engagement) must be integrated. The National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases recently funded five proposals that aim to improve outcomes for people with CKD, focusing on diverse components of the healthcare continuum: patient safety and transitions; delivery of high-quality, evidence-based CKD care; and elimination of disparities. The need for type 2 translational research in CKD is urgent because of preventable human suffering and unsustainable costs of providing care. Focus on the theory, framework, and approaches we have suggested may help us meet that challenge. PMID:23620444

  3. Collaborative software for traditional and translational research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berman Ari E

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Biomedical research has entered a period of renewed vigor with the introduction and rapid development of genomic technologies and next-generation sequencing methods. This research paradigm produces extremely large datasets that are both difficult to store and challenging to mine for relevant data. Additionally, the thorough exploration of such datasets requires more resources, personnel, and multidisciplinary expertise to properly analyze and interpret the data. As a result, modern biomedical research practices are increasingly designed to include multi-laboratory collaborations that effectively distribute the scientific workload and expand the pool of expertise within a project. The scope of biomedical research is further complicated by increased efforts in translational research, which mandates the translation of basic laboratory research results into the human medical application space, adding to the complexity of potential collaborations. This increase in multidisciplinary, multi-laboratory, and biomedical translational research identifies a specific need for formalized collaboration practices and software applications that support such efforts. Here, we describe formal technological requirements for such efforts and we review several software solutions that can effectively improve the organization, communication, and formalization of collaborations in biomedical research today.

  4. The Translation of Health Research in Kinesiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ainsworth, Barbara E.

    2009-01-01

    The translation of health research is a process of transforming scientific discoveries arising from laboratory, clinical, or population studies into clinical or population-based applications to improve health by reducing disease incidence, morbidity, and mortality. Initiated by the National Institutes for Health Roadmap Initiative and the U.S.…

  5. Is translational research compatible with preclinical publication strategies?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The term 'translational research' is used to describe the transfer of basic biological knowledge into practical medicine, a process necessary for motivation of public spending. In the area of cancer therapeutics, it is becoming increasingly evident that results obtained in vitro and in animal models are difficult to translate into clinical medicine. We here argue that a number of factors contribute to making the translation process inefficient. These factors include the use of sensitive cell lines and fast growing experimental tumors as targets for novel therapies, and the use of unrealistic drug concentrations and radiation doses. We also argue that aggressive interpretation of data, successful in hypothesis-building biological research, does not form a solid base for development of clinically useful treatment modalities. We question whether 'clean' results obtained in simplified models, expected for publication in high-impact journals, represent solid foundations for improved treatment of patients. Open-access journals such as Radiation Oncology have a large mission to fulfill by publishing relevant data to be used for making actual progress in translational cancer research

  6. Is translational research compatible with preclinical publication strategies?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shoshan Maria C

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The term "translational research" is used to describe the transfer of basic biological knowledge into practical medicine, a process necessary for motivation of public spending. In the area of cancer therapeutics, it is becoming increasingly evident that results obtained in vitro and in animal models are difficult to translate into clinical medicine. We here argue that a number of factors contribute to making the translation process inefficient. These factors include the use of sensitive cell lines and fast growing experimental tumors as targets for novel therapies, and the use of unrealistic drug concentrations and radiation doses. We also argue that aggressive interpretation of data, successful in hypothesis-building biological research, does not form a solid base for development of clinically useful treatment modalities. We question whether "clean" results obtained in simplified models, expected for publication in high-impact journals, represent solid foundations for improved treatment of patients. Open-access journals such as Radiation Oncology have a large mission to fulfill by publishing relevant data to be used for making actual progress in translational cancer research.

  7. Advances in Translational Medicine of Breast Cancer:From Bench to Bedside

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Xin-en

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer is one of the most common malignant tumors in women, and its incidence increases year by year. With the rapid development of human genomics, proteomics and bioinformatics, the basic and clinical results of breast cancer have emerged in endlessly. Translational medicine is a hot ifeld of international medicine, biological interdisciplinary science and many research funding projects at present, committed to establishing an academic exchange platform for global scientiifc researchers. In this study, the translational medicine of breast cancer was summarized and reviewed from the following aspects, including molecular markers related to breast cancer, molecular typing, individualized and molecular targeted therapies, relationship between molecular biology and imagiology of breast cancer.

  8. Targeting inflammation in pancreatic cancer: Clinical translation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, Colin William; Kaur Gill, Nina Angharad; Jamieson, Nigel Balfour; Carter, Christopher Ross

    2016-04-15

    Preclinical modelling studies are beginning to aid development of therapies targeted against key regulators of pancreatic cancer progression. Pancreatic cancer is an aggressive, stromally-rich tumor, from which few people survive. Within the tumor microenvironment cellular and extracellular components exist, shielding tumor cells from immune cell clearance, and chemotherapy, enhancing progression of the disease. The cellular component of this microenvironment consists mainly of stellate cells and inflammatory cells. New findings suggest that manipulation of the cellular component of the tumor microenvironment is possible to promote immune cell killing of tumor cells. Here we explore possible immunogenic therapeutic strategies. Additionally extracellular stromal elements play a key role in protecting tumor cells from chemotherapies targeted at the pancreas. We describe the experimental findings and the pitfalls associated with translation of stromally targeted therapies to clinical trial. Finally, we discuss the key inflammatory signal transducers activated subsequent to driver mutations in oncogenic Kras in pancreatic cancer. We present the preclinical findings that have led to successful early trials of STAT3 inhibitors in pancreatic adenocarcinoma. PMID:27096033

  9. Reengineering Biomedical Translational Research with Engineering Ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunderland, Mary E; Nayak, Rahul Uday

    2015-08-01

    It is widely accepted that translational research practitioners need to acquire special skills and knowledge that will enable them to anticipate, analyze, and manage a range of ethical issues. While there is a small but growing literature that addresses the ethics of translational research, there is a dearth of scholarship regarding how this might apply to engineers. In this paper we examine engineers as key translators and argue that they are well positioned to ask transformative ethical questions. Asking engineers to both broaden and deepen their consideration of ethics in their work, however, requires a shift in the way ethics is often portrayed and perceived in science and engineering communities. Rather than interpreting ethics as a roadblock to the success of translational research, we suggest that engineers should be encouraged to ask questions about the socio-ethical dimensions of their work. This requires expanding the conceptual framework of engineering beyond its traditional focus on "how" and "what" questions to also include "why" and "who" questions to facilitate the gathering of normative, socially-situated information. Empowering engineers to ask "why" and "who" questions should spur the development of technologies and practices that contribute to improving health outcomes. PMID:24928281

  10. An analysis of the psychometric properties of the translated versions of the European Organisation for the Research and Treatment of Cancer QLQ CX24 questionnaire in the two South African indigenous languages of Xhosa and Afrikaans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    du Toit, G C; Kidd, M

    2016-09-01

    This study evaluates the psychometric properties of the Xhosa and Afrikaans version, the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) of the Quality of Life Questionnaire Cervical Cancer Module (QLQ-CX24). Translated Xhosa and Afrikaans versions, EORTC QLQ-CX24 and the core questionnaire (the EORTC QLQ-C30) were completed by 66 Xhosa and 142 Afrikaans speaking women newly diagnosed with cervical cancer. Construct reliability and validity of the EORTC QLQ-CX24 questionnaire were assessed via factor analysis, multi-trait scaling analyses and known group comparisons. The mean age was similar in the groups with a mean age of the Xhosa group (52 year) and Afrikaans group (49.2 year) (P = 0.25). The study groups had a high unemployment rate of, respectively, 52% (Xhosa) and 51% (Afrikaans) (P = 0.35). The Xhosa group had a statistically significant higher incidence of advanced stage (III and IV) disease (P = 0.006). Scale reliability was confirmed by Cronbach's α coefficients for internal consistency, which ranged from 0.73 to 0.81 (Xhosa) and 0.73 to 0.76 (Afrikaans). Clinical validity of both language versions was demonstrated by the ability to discriminate among different stages of cervical cancer. The translated Xhosa and Afrikaans versions of the EORTC QLQ-CX24 were found to be reliable and valid measure of quality of life of women with cervical cancer. PMID:26052872

  11. Health systems, quality of health care, and translational cancer research: the role of the Istituto Superiore Sanità -Rome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricciardi, Walter

    2015-12-31

    Faced with the challenge of ensuring high-quality and cost-effective health systems in the context of persistent financial crisis, a global strategy for cancer prevention and treatment represents a priority for public health bodies and governments. The key goals for the initiative are to define standards of cancer prevention and care while leveraging the continuous progress of biomedical research in the interest of public health. In Italy, the establishment of a network of Comprehensive Cancer Centres (CCC) named the Alliance Against Cancer (ACC) is an important initiative taken by the Ministry of Health to foster common strategies for enhancing the quality of oncology research and care at the national level. The Istituto Superiore di Sanità (ISS) has played an important role in supporting ACC activities through a special national program called ISS for ACC, launched by the Italian Ministry of Health in 2006. A similar role has been pursued in subsequent initiatives, including ISS support for a project aimed at providing international accreditation of the CCC of the ACC, funded by the Italian Ministry of Health. The results of this initiative, reported in the current issue of Tumori, are especially significant since specific indicators of quality for research and cancer care have been successfully defined for all the participating institutes. As the leading technical and scientific body of the Italian National Health Service, the ISS will continue to play a proactive role in supporting national networks and strategic national and international initiatives aimed at promoting public health. PMID:27096278

  12. Lost in translation: animal models and clinical trials in cancer treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Mak, Isabella WY; Evaniew, Nathan; Ghert, Michelle

    2014-01-01

    Due to practical and ethical concerns associated with human experimentation, animal models have been essential in cancer research. However, the average rate of successful translation from animal models to clinical cancer trials is less than 8%. Animal models are limited in their ability to mimic the extremely complex process of human carcinogenesis, physiology and progression. Therefore the safety and efficacy identified in animal studies is generally not translated to human trials. Animal mo...

  13. Integrating descriptive case study research in translation curricula

    OpenAIRE

    van Doorslaer, Luc

    2012-01-01

    Academic curricula in translation and interpreting (studies) show significant differences in the position attributed to translation theory or translation research. Although the epithet ‘academic’ seems to presuppose a central position, the research character is sometimes limited to the application of TS terminology. The outline of the European Master’s in Translation for instance considers it particularly important for students to use the „conceptual tools provided by translation theory, text...

  14. Translation research: from accurate diagnosis to appropriate treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pass Harvey I

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This review article focuses on the various aspects of translational research, where research on human subjects can ultimately enhance the diagnosis and treatment of future patients. While we will use specific examples relating to the asbestos related cancer mesothelioma, it should be stressed that the general approach outlined throughout this review is readily applicable to other diseases with an underlying molecular basis. Through the integration of molecular-based technologies, systematic tissue procurement and medical informatics, we now have the ability to identify clinically applicable "genotype"-"phenotype" associations across cohorts of patients that can rapidly be translated into useful diagnostic and treatment strategies. This review will touch on the various steps in the translational pipeline, and highlight some of the most essential elements as well as possible roadblocks that can impact success of the program. Critical issues with regard to Institutional Review Board (IRB and Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA compliance, data standardization, sample procurement, quality control (QC, quality assurance (QA, data analysis, preclinical models and clinical trials are addressed. The various facets of the translational pipeline have been incorporated into a fully integrated computational system, appropriately named Dx2Tx. This system readily allows for the identification of new diagnostic tests, the discovery of biomarkers and drugable targets, and prediction of optimal treatments based upon the underlying molecular basis of the disease.

  15. Research Advances of Atherosclerosis in Translational Medicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Zhuo-xin; DENG Rong; PI Min; YU Hai-bo

    2015-01-01

    Atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases (ASCVD) are defined as a series of diseases caused by atherosclerosis (AS), including coronary heart disease (CHD), myocardial infarction (MI), stable or unstable angina pectoris, revascularization of coronary artery or other arteries, stroke, transient cerebral ischemic onset or atherosclerotic peripheral arterial disease. AS has common pathological basis with ASCVD as it is a general arterial regressive disease of human beings. With the industrialization progression, AS morbidity increases annually and it also leads to coronary atherosclerotic heart disease, cerebral stroke and peripheral artery stenosed occlusion or dilation, thus becoming the main cause for high disability and mortality. The main purpose of translational medicine is to break the intrinsic barrier between basic medicine with drug research and development as well as clinical and public healthcare, and establish a direct connection between them. It is also can rapidly transform basic research results to new clinical preventive and therapeutic methods. This study mainly reviewed AS from the aspect of translational medicine, aiming to provide a reliable basis for the prevention and treatment of AS.

  16. Research Advances of Atherosclerosis in Translational Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhuo-xin YANG

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases (ASCVD are defined as a series of diseases caused by atherosclerosis (AS, including coronary heart disease (CHD, myocardial infarction (MI, stable or unstable angina pectoris, revascularization of coronary artery or other arteries, stroke, transient cerebral ischemic onset or atherosclerotic peripheral arterial disease. AS has common pathological basis with ASCVD as it is a general arterial regressive disease of human beings. With the industrialization progression, AS morbidity increases annually and it also leads to coronary atherosclerotic heart disease, cerebral stroke and peripheral artery stenosed occlusion or dilation, thus becoming the main cause for high disability and mortality. The main purpose of translational medicine is to break the intrinsic barrier between basic medicine with drug research and development as well as clinical and public healthcare, and establish a direct connection between them. It is also can rapidly transform basic research results to new clinical preventive and therapeutic methods. This study mainly reviewed AS from the aspect of translational medicine, aiming to provide a reliable basis for the prevention and treatment of AS.

  17. Phosphoproteomics and Lung Cancer Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William C. S. Cho

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Massive evidence suggests that genetic abnormalities contribute to the development of lung cancer. These molecular abnormalities may serve as diagnostic, prognostic and predictive biomarkers for this deadly disease. It is imperative to search these biomarkers in different tumorigenesis pathways so as to provide the most appropriate therapy for each individual patient with lung malignancy. Phosphoproteomics is a promising technology for the identification of biomarkers and novel therapeutic targets for cancer. Thousands of proteins interact via physical and chemical association. Moreover, some proteins can covalently modify other proteins post-translationally. These post-translational modifications ultimately give rise to the emergent functions of cells in sequence, space and time. Phosphoproteomics clinical researches imply the comprehensive analysis of the proteins that are expressed in cells or tissues and can be employed at different stages. In addition, understanding the functions of phosphorylated proteins requires the study of proteomes as linked systems rather than collections of individual protein molecules. In fact, proteomics approaches coupled with affinity chromatography strategies followed by mass spectrometry have been used to elucidate relevant biological questions. This article will discuss the relevant clues of post-translational modifications, phosphorylated proteins, and useful proteomics approaches to identify molecular cancer signatures. The recent progress in phosphoproteomics research in lung cancer will be also discussed.

  18. Advancing translational research with the Semantic Web

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marshall M Scott

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A fundamental goal of the U.S. National Institute of Health (NIH "Roadmap" is to strengthen Translational Research, defined as the movement of discoveries in basic research to application at the clinical level. A significant barrier to translational research is the lack of uniformly structured data across related biomedical domains. The Semantic Web is an extension of the current Web that enables navigation and meaningful use of digital resources by automatic processes. It is based on common formats that support aggregation and integration of data drawn from diverse sources. A variety of technologies have been built on this foundation that, together, support identifying, representing, and reasoning across a wide range of biomedical data. The Semantic Web Health Care and Life Sciences Interest Group (HCLSIG, set up within the framework of the World Wide Web Consortium, was launched to explore the application of these technologies in a variety of areas. Subgroups focus on making biomedical data available in RDF, working with biomedical ontologies, prototyping clinical decision support systems, working on drug safety and efficacy communication, and supporting disease researchers navigating and annotating the large amount of potentially relevant literature. Results We present a scenario that shows the value of the information environment the Semantic Web can support for aiding neuroscience researchers. We then report on several projects by members of the HCLSIG, in the process illustrating the range of Semantic Web technologies that have applications in areas of biomedicine. Conclusion Semantic Web technologies present both promise and challenges. Current tools and standards are already adequate to implement components of the bench-to-bedside vision. On the other hand, these technologies are young. Gaps in standards and implementations still exist and adoption is limited by typical problems with early technology, such as the need

  19. Translating the cancer genome: Going beyond p values

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chin, Lynda; Chin, Lynda; Gray, Joe W.

    2008-04-03

    Cancer cells are endowed with diverse biological capabilities driven by myriad inherited and somatic genetic and epigenetic aberrations that commandeer key cancer-relevant pathways. Efforts to elucidate these aberrations began with Boveri's hypothesis of aberrant mitoses causing cancer and continue today with a suite of powerful high-resolution technologies that enable detailed catalogues of genomic aberrations and epigenomic modifications. Tomorrow will likely bring the complete atlas of reversible and irreversible alteration in individual cancers. The challenge now is to discern causal molecular abnormalities from genomic and epigenomic 'noise', to understand how the ensemble of these aberrations collaborate to drive cancer pathophysiology. Here, we highlight lessons learned from now classical examples of successful translation of genomic discoveries into clinical practice, lessons that may be used to guide and accelerate translation of emerging genomic insights into practical clinical endpoints that can impact on practice of cancer medicine.

  20. Promote translational medical research and report high quality medical studies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAORI Getu

    2011-01-01

    @@ Translational medical research, an emerging new important component of medical research, is now attracting attention of more and more researchers, experts and physicians in universities, medical research institutes,hospitals and relevant officers in government agencies.

  1. Translational Approaches towards Cancer Gene Therapy: Hurdles and Hopes

    OpenAIRE

    Yadollah Omidi; Jaleh Barar

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Of the cancer gene therapy approaches, gene silencing, suicide/apoptosis inducing gene therapy, immunogene therapy and targeted gene therapy are deemed to sub­stantially control the biological consequences of genomic changes in cancerous cells. Thus, a large number of clinical trials have been conducted against various malignancies. In this review, we will discuss recent translational progresses of gene and cell therapy of cancer. Methods: Essential information on gene therapy o...

  2. Research on the Translation of Public Signs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiannan, Ma

    2012-01-01

    Because of the increasing international image of China, the translation of public signs in city has become the very important issue. From the point of view of cross-cultural communication, the public signs have crucial influence on the image of the city, even for the whole China. However, there exist many translation errors of the public signs in…

  3. Nursing informatics, ethics and decisions: implications for translational research

    OpenAIRE

    Kaltoft, Mette Kjer; Nielsen, Jesper Bo; Dowie, Jack

    2014-01-01

    Nursing informatics, ethics and decisions: implications for translational research Objective: To introduce, in the multi-disciplinary contexts of clinical decision making and policy formation, a theory-based decision-analytic framework for the transparent forward translation of research into practice which can simultaneously identify and communicate the needs for backward translation from practice to research.Method:Web-based decision analytic software is used to demonstrate how the weights f...

  4. Advances in Translational Medicine of Breast Cancer: From Bench to Bedside

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin-en HUANG

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer is one of the most common malignant tumors in women, and its incidence increases year by year. With the rapid development of human genomics, proteomics and bioinformatics, the basic and clinical results of breast cancer have emerged in endlessly. Translational medicine is a hot field of international medicine, biological interdisciplinary science and many research funding projects at present, committed to establishing an academic exchange platform for global scientific researchers. In this study, the translational medicine of breast cancer was summarized and reviewed from the following aspects, including molecular markers related to breast cancer, molecular typing, individualized and molecular targeted therapies, relationship between molecular biology and imagiology of breast cancer.

  5. Peralta Cancer Research Institute

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The investigators in the cell biology program at PCRI have pioneered in the development of techniques for culturing human epithelial cells. The cancer diagnosis program has been concerned with researching new techniques for early diagnosis of breast cancer in women. The cancer treatment program has been concerned with applying cell biology and biochemistry advances to improve cancer management

  6. Some important issues in the translational medical research of radiofrequency ablation of liver cancer%浅述肝癌射频消融转化医学研究的几个重要问题

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙文兵

    2013-01-01

    射频消融在肝癌综合治疗中应用越来越多,临床问题越来越多,转化医学研究越来越重要.本文浅述现阶段肝癌射频消融转化医学研究的几个重要问题,包括:(1)射频针功能特性的相关研究;(2)射频消融相关的肝癌病理学研究;(3)肝癌不完全热消融后残留癌细胞侵袭和转移能力的改变及其机制;(4)肝癌不完全热消融后残留癌组织内肿瘤相关内皮细胞功能的改变及其机制;(5)肝癌射频消融后残留癌发生和发展的预防和治疗策略;(6)肝癌射频消融后机体抗肿瘤免疫功能的改变.%With increasing use of radiofrequency (RF) ablation in the treatment of liver cancer,more clinical problems are encountered.Translational research is urgently needed to solve these problems which include:(1) RF needle functional characteristics; (2) effects of RF ablation on liver cancer related changes in pathology; (3) changes in invasive ness and metastatic potential of residual liver cancer cells after incomplete ablation,and their mechanisms; (4) changes in tumor-associated endothelial cell function in residual liver cancer tissues after incomplete ablation,and their mechanisms; (5) prevention and treatment of residual liver cancer after RF ablation; (6) changes in the host's antitumor immunity after RF ablation of liver cancer.

  7. The Development and Current State of Translation Process Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lykke Jakobsen, Arnt

    2014-01-01

    The development and current state of translation process research ch Arnt Lykke Jakobsen Copenhagen Business School lInterest in process-oriented translation studies has been intense for the past almost half a century. Translation process research (TPR) is the label we have used to refer to a spe......The development and current state of translation process research ch Arnt Lykke Jakobsen Copenhagen Business School lInterest in process-oriented translation studies has been intense for the past almost half a century. Translation process research (TPR) is the label we have used to refer......, different, quantitative data from the same events, on the basis of which supplementary analyses and interpretations could be derived. With this method, many processes can be directly observed at different levels of granularity and can be compared with reported features of the mental process, which itself...

  8. Design and Statistics in Quantitative Translation (Process) Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balling, Laura Winther; Hvelplund, Kristian Tangsgaard

    2015-01-01

    Traditionally, translation research has been qualitative, but quantitative research is becoming increasingly important, especially in translation process research but also in other areas of translation studies. This poses problems to many translation scholars since this way of thinking is...... unfamiliar. In this article, we attempt to mitigate these problems by outlining our approach to good quantitative research, all the way from research questions and study design to data preparation and statistics. We concentrate especially on the nature of the variables involved, both in terms of their scale...... and their role in the design; this has implications for both design and choice of statistics. Although we focus on quantitative research, we also argue that such research should be supplemented with qualitative analyses and considerations of the translation product....

  9. Design and Statistics in Quantitative Translation (Process) Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balling, Laura Winther; Hvelplund, Kristian Tangsgaard

    2015-01-01

    and their role in the design; this has implications for both design and choice of statistics. Although we focus on quantitative research, we also argue that such research should be supplemented with qualitative analyses and considerations of the translation product.......Traditionally, translation research has been qualitative, but quantitative research is becoming increasingly important, especially in translation process research but also in other areas of translation studies. This poses problems to many translation scholars since this way of thinking is...... unfamiliar. In this article, we attempt to mitigate these problems by outlining our approach to good quantitative research, all the way from research questions and study design to data preparation and statistics. We concentrate especially on the nature of the variables involved, both in terms of their scale...

  10. From Translational Research to Translational Effectiveness: The “Patient-Centered Dental Home” Model

    OpenAIRE

    Francesco Chiappelli

    2011-01-01

    Toward revitalizing the Nation’s primary medical care system, the Agency for Health Research & Quality (AHRQ) stated that new foundational measures must be crafted for achieving high-quality, accessible, efficient health care for all Americans. The efficiency of medical care is viewed along two dimensions: first, we must continue to pursue translational research; and second, we must translate research to optimize effectiveness in specific clinical settings. It is increasingly evident that th...

  11. Translational Research: How Social Psychology Can Improve Psychotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tashiro, Ty; Mortensen, Laura

    2006-01-01

    In an effort to generate innovative treatments, the National Institute of Mental Health has made translational research for alleviating mental illness a major funding priority. Although translational research is a powerful approach for moving basic science findings into novel treatments, it remains ambiguous and rarely implemented in psychology.…

  12. RADIATION THERAPY ONCOLOGY GROUP TRANSLATIONAL RESEARCH PROGRAM STEM CELL SYMPOSIUM : INCORPORATING STEM CELL HYPOTHESES INTO CLINICAL TRIALS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woodward, Wendy A.; Bristow, Robert G.; Clarke, Michael F.; Coppes, Robert P.; Cristofanilli, Massimo; Duda, Dan G.; Fike, John R.; Hambardzumyan, Dolores; Hill, Richard P.; Jordan, Craig T.; Milas, Luka; Pajonk, Frank; Curran, Walter J.; Dicker, Adam P.; Chen, Yuhchyau

    2009-01-01

    At a meeting of the Translation Research Program of the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group held in early 2008, attendees focused on updating the current state of knowledge in cancer stem cell research and discussing ways in which this knowledge can be translated into clinical use across all disease si

  13. Challenges in Translational Research: The Views of Addiction Scientists

    OpenAIRE

    Ostergren, Jenny E; Hammer, Rachel R.; Dingel, Molly J.; Koenig, Barbara A.; McCormick, Jennifer B

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To explore scientists' perspectives on the challenges and pressures of translating research findings into clinical practice and public health policy. Methods We conducted semi-structured interviews with a purposive sample of 20 leading scientists engaged in genetic research on addiction. We asked participants for their views on how their own research translates, how genetic research addresses addiction as a public health problem and how it may affect the public's view of addiction....

  14. Challenges in Translational Research: The Views of Addiction Scientists

    OpenAIRE

    Ostergren, Jenny E.; Rachel R Hammer; Dingel, Molly J; Koenig, Barbara A.; McCormick, Jennifer B.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To explore scientists' perspectives on the challenges and pressures of translating research findings into clinical practice and public health policy. METHODS: We conducted semi-structured interviews with a purposive sample of 20 leading scientists engaged in genetic research on addiction. We asked participants for their views on how their own research translates, how genetic research addresses addiction as a public health problem and how it may affect the public's view of addictio...

  15. The Cancer Prevention and Control Research Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey R. Harris, MD, MPH, MBA

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The Cancer Prevention and Control Research Network is a national network recently established to focus on developing new interventions and disseminating and translating proven interventions into practice to reduce cancer burden and disparities, especially among minority and medically underserved populations. Jointly funded by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the National Cancer Institute, the Cancer Prevention and Control Research Network consists of sites administered through Prevention Research Centers funded by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The five sites are located in Kentucky, Massachusetts, South Carolina, Texas, Washington State, and West Virginia. The Cancer Prevention and Control Research Network’s intervention areas include primary prevention of cancer through healthy eating, physical activity, sun avoidance, tobacco control, and early detection of cancer through screening. The Cancer Prevention and Control Research Network uses the methods of community-based participatory research and seeks to build on the cancer-relevant systematic reviews of the Guide to Community Preventive Services. Initial foci for the Cancer Prevention and Control Research Network’s research work groups include projects to increase screening for breast, cervical, and colorectal cancers; to promote informed decision making for prostate cancer screening; and to validate educational materials developed for low-literacy populations.

  16. Ethical considerations in tissue engineering research: Case studies in translation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Hannah B; McQuilling, John P; King, Nancy M P

    2016-04-15

    Tissue engineering research is a complex process that requires investigators to focus on the relationship between their research and anticipated gains in both knowledge and treatment improvements. The ethical considerations arising from tissue engineering research are similarly complex when addressing the translational progression from bench to bedside, and investigators in the field of tissue engineering act as moral agents at each step of their research along the translational pathway, from early benchwork and preclinical studies to clinical research. This review highlights the ethical considerations and challenges at each stage of research, by comparing issues surrounding two translational tissue engineering technologies: the bioartificial pancreas and a tissue engineered skeletal muscle construct. We present relevant ethical issues and questions to consider at each step along the translational pathway, from the basic science bench to preclinical research to first-in-human clinical trials. Topics at the bench level include maintaining data integrity, appropriate reporting and dissemination of results, and ensuring that studies are designed to yield results suitable for advancing research. Topics in preclinical research include the principle of "modest translational distance" and appropriate animal models. Topics in clinical research include key issues that arise in early-stage clinical trials, including selection of patient-subjects, disclosure of uncertainty, and defining success. The comparison of these two technologies and their ethical issues brings to light many challenges for translational tissue engineering research and provides guidance for investigators engaged in development of any tissue engineering technology. PMID:26282436

  17. Bench to bedside molecular functional imaging in translational cancer medicine: to image or to imagine?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ongoing research on malignant and normal cell biology has substantially enhanced the understanding of the biology of cancer and carcinogenesis. This has led to the development of methods to image the evolution of cancer, target specific biological molecules, and study the anti-tumour effects of novel therapeutic agents. At the same time, there has been a paradigm shift in the field of oncological imaging from purely structural or functional imaging to combined multimodal structure–function approaches that enable the assessment of malignancy from all aspects (including molecular and functional level) in a single examination. The evolving molecular functional imaging using specific molecular targets (especially with combined positron-emission tomography [PET] computed tomography [CT] using 2- [18F]-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose [FDG] and other novel PET tracers) has great potential in translational research, giving specific quantitative information with regard to tumour activity, and has been of pivotal importance in diagnoses and therapy tailoring. Furthermore, molecular functional imaging has taken a key place in the present era of translational cancer research, producing an important tool to study and evolve newer receptor-targeted therapies, gene therapies, and in cancer stem cell research, which could form the basis to translate these agents into clinical practice, popularly termed “theranostics”. Targeted molecular imaging needs to be developed in close association with biotechnology, information technology, and basic translational scientists for its best utility. This article reviews the current role of molecular functional imaging as one of the main pillars of translational research. -- Highlights: •Molecular functional imaging (MFI) gives insight into the tumor biology and intratumoral heterogeneity. •It has potential role in identifying radiomic signatures associated with underlying gene-expression. •Radiomics can be used to create a road map

  18. Translational research-the need of a new bioethics approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hostiuc, Sorin; Moldoveanu, Alin; Dascălu, Maria-Iuliana; Unnthorsson, Runar; Jóhannesson, Ómar I; Marcus, Ioan

    2016-01-01

    Translational research tries to apply findings from basic science to enhance human health and well-being. Many phases of the translational research may include non-medical tasks (information technology, engineering, nanotechnology, biochemistry, animal research, economy, sociology, psychology, politics, and so on). Using common bioethics principles to these areas might sometimes be not feasible, or even impossible. However, the whole process must respect some fundamental, moral principles. The purpose of this paper is to argument the need for a different approach to the morality in translational bioethics, and to suggest some directions that might be followed when constructing such a bioethics. We will show that a new approach is needed and present a few ethical issues that are specific to the translational research. PMID:26767499

  19. Clinical Translation of Neuroimaging Research in Mood Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Konarski, Jakub Z.; McIntyre, Roger S; Joanna K. Soczynska; Bottas, Alexandra; Kennedy, Sidney H

    2006-01-01

    Background: Practitioners are increasingly presented with data procured from studies employing advanced neuroimaging techniques. The central role that neuroimaging occupies in contemporary psychiatric research highlights the need for practitioner familiarity with the neuroimaging technology and its clinical translation.

  20. The Continuing Challenges of Translational Research: Clinician-Scientists’ Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shervanthi Homer-Vanniasinkam

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the last twenty years, revolutionary advances in biomedicine including gene therapy, stem cell research, proteomics, genomics and nanotechnology have highlighted the progressive need to restructure traditional approaches to basic and clinical research in order to facilitate the rapid, efficient integration and translation of these new technologies into novel effective therapeutics. Over the past ten years, funding bodies in the USA and UK such as the National Institutes of Health (NIH and the Medical Research Council (MRC have been driving translational research by defining and tackling the hurdles but more still remains to be achieved. This article discusses the ongoing challenges translational researchers face and outlines recent initiatives to tackle these including the new changes to translational funding schemes proposed by the NIH and the MRC and the launch of the “European Advanced Translational Research InfraStructure in Medicine” (EATRIS. It is anticipated that initiatives such as these will not only strengthen translational biomedical research programmes already initiated but should lead to rapid benefits to patients and society.

  1. Amplified in Breast Cancer Regulates Transcription and Translation in Breast Cancer Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra M. Ochnik

    2016-02-01

    Conclusion: The oncogenic transcription factor AIB1 has a novel role in the regulation of polyribosome recruitment and formation of the translational complex. Combinatorial therapies targeting IGF signaling and mRNA translation in AIB1 expressing breast cancers may have clinical benefit and warrants further investigation.

  2. Phase II study of gemcitabine, doxorubicin and paclitaxel (GAT) as first-line chemotherapy for metastatic breast cancer: a translational research experience

    OpenAIRE

    Maltoni Roberta; Nanni Oriana; Zumaglini Federica; Milandri Carlo; Gianni Lorenzo; Zoli Wainer; Massa Ilaria; Passardi Alessandro; Frassineti Giovanni; Amadori Dino

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background Patients with metastatic breast cancer are frequently treated with anthracyclines and taxanes, which are among the most active agents in this disease. Gemcitabine is an interesting candidate for a three-drug combination because of its different mechanism of action and non-overlapping toxicity with respect to the other two drugs. We aimed to evaluate the activity and toxicity of the GAT (gemcitabine, doxorubicin and paclitaxel) regimen, derived from experimental preclinical...

  3. Phase II study of gemcitabine, doxorubicin and paclitaxel (GAT as first-line chemotherapy for metastatic breast cancer: a translational research experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maltoni Roberta

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patients with metastatic breast cancer are frequently treated with anthracyclines and taxanes, which are among the most active agents in this disease. Gemcitabine is an interesting candidate for a three-drug combination because of its different mechanism of action and non-overlapping toxicity with respect to the other two drugs. We aimed to evaluate the activity and toxicity of the GAT (gemcitabine, doxorubicin and paclitaxel regimen, derived from experimental preclinical studies, as first-line chemotherapy in patients with stage IIIB-IV breast cancer. Methods Patients with locally advanced or metastatic breast cancer and at least one bidimensionally measurable lesion were included in the present study. Adequate bone marrow reserve, normal cardiac, hepatic and renal function, and an ECOG performance status of 0 to 2 were required. Only prior adjuvant non anthracycline-based chemotherapy was permitted. Treatment consisted of doxorubicin 50 mg/m2 on day 1, paclitaxel 160 mg/m2 on day 2 and gemcitabine 800 mg/m2 on day 6, repeated every 21–28 days. Results Thirty-three consecutive breast cancer patients were enrolled onto the trial (7 stage IIIB and 26 stage IV. All patients were evaluable for toxicity and 29 were assessable for response. A total of 169 cycles were administered, with a median of 6 cycles per patient (range 1–8 cycles. Complete and partial responses were observed in 6.9% and 48.3% of patients, respectively, for an overall response rate of 55.2%. A response was reported in all metastatic sites, with a median duration of 16.4 months. Median time to progression and overall survival were 10.2 and 36.4 months, respectively. The most important toxicity was hematological, with grade III-IV neutropenia observed in 69% of patients, sometimes requiring the use of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (27%. Non hematological toxicity was rare and mild. One patient died from sepsis during the first treatment cycle before

  4. Phase II study of gemcitabine, doxorubicin and paclitaxel (GAT) as first-line chemotherapy for metastatic breast cancer: a translational research experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patients with metastatic breast cancer are frequently treated with anthracyclines and taxanes, which are among the most active agents in this disease. Gemcitabine is an interesting candidate for a three-drug combination because of its different mechanism of action and non-overlapping toxicity with respect to the other two drugs. We aimed to evaluate the activity and toxicity of the GAT (gemcitabine, doxorubicin and paclitaxel) regimen, derived from experimental preclinical studies, as first-line chemotherapy in patients with stage IIIB-IV breast cancer. Patients with locally advanced or metastatic breast cancer and at least one bidimensionally measurable lesion were included in the present study. Adequate bone marrow reserve, normal cardiac, hepatic and renal function, and an ECOG performance status of 0 to 2 were required. Only prior adjuvant non anthracycline-based chemotherapy was permitted. Treatment consisted of doxorubicin 50 mg/m2 on day 1, paclitaxel 160 mg/m2 on day 2 and gemcitabine 800 mg/m2 on day 6, repeated every 21–28 days. Thirty-three consecutive breast cancer patients were enrolled onto the trial (7 stage IIIB and 26 stage IV). All patients were evaluable for toxicity and 29 were assessable for response. A total of 169 cycles were administered, with a median of 6 cycles per patient (range 1–8 cycles). Complete and partial responses were observed in 6.9% and 48.3% of patients, respectively, for an overall response rate of 55.2%. A response was reported in all metastatic sites, with a median duration of 16.4 months. Median time to progression and overall survival were 10.2 and 36.4 months, respectively. The most important toxicity was hematological, with grade III-IV neutropenia observed in 69% of patients, sometimes requiring the use of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (27%). Non hematological toxicity was rare and mild. One patient died from sepsis during the first treatment cycle before the administration of gemcitabine. The strong

  5. BRCA1-Dependent Translational Regulation in Breast Cancer Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Estelle Dacheux

    Full Text Available BRCA1 (Breast Cancer 1 has been implicated in a number of cellular processes, including transcription regulation, DNA damage repair and protein ubiquitination. We previously demonstrated that BRCA1 interacts with PABP1 (Poly(A-Binding Protein 1 and that BRCA1 modulates protein synthesis through this interaction. To identify the mRNAs that are translationally regulated by BRCA1, we used a microarray analysis of polysome-bound mRNAs in BRCA1-depleted and non-depleted MCF7 cells. Our findings show that BRCA1 modifies the translational efficiency of approximately 7% of the mRNAs expressed in these cells. Further analysis revealed that several processes contributing to cell surveillance such as cell cycle arrest, cell death, cellular growth and proliferation, DNA repair and gene expression, are largely enriched for the mRNAs whose translation is impacted by BRCA1. The BRCA1-dependent translation of these species of mRNAs therefore uncovers a novel mechanism through which BRCA1 exerts its onco-suppressive role. In addition, the BRCA1-dependent translation of mRNAs participating in unexpected functions such as cellular movement, nucleic acid metabolism or protein trafficking is indicative of novel functions for BRCA1. Finally, this study contributes to the identification of several markers associated with BRCA1 deficiency and to the discovery of new potential anti-neoplastic therapeutic targets.

  6. The Multidisciplinary Translational Team (MTT) Model for Training and Development of Translational Research Investigators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ameredes, Bill T; Hellmich, Mark R; Cestone, Christina M; Wooten, Kevin C; Ottenbacher, Kenneth J; Chonmaitree, Tasnee; Anderson, Karl E; Brasier, Allan R

    2015-10-01

    Multiinstitutional research collaborations now form the most rapid and productive project execution structures in the health sciences. Effective adoption of a multidisciplinary team research approach is widely accepted as one mechanism enabling rapid translation of new discoveries into interventions in human health. Although the impact of successful team-based approaches facilitating innovation has been well-documented, its utility for training a new generation of scientists has not been thoroughly investigated. We describe the characteristics of how multidisciplinary translational teams (MTTs) promote career development of translational research scholars through competency building, interprofessional integration, and team-based mentoring approaches. Exploratory longitudinal and outcome assessments from our experience show that MTT membership had a positive effect on the development of translational research competencies, as determined by a self-report survey of 32 scholars. We also observed that all trainees produced a large number of collaborative publications that appeared to be associated with their CTSA association and participation with MTTs. We conclude that the MTT model provides a unique training environment for translational and team-based learning activities, for investigators at early stages of career development. PMID:26010046

  7. Chemoradiotherapy: successes and problems in translational research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development of mechanistic-based clinical regimens which combine radiation and chemotherapy to improve local control and cure in solid malignancies has proven to be a difficult problem. Studies with human and animal cell lines in culture provide valuable data on the effects and mechanisms of action of radiation and anticancer drugs. They can also suggest mechanisms of interaction between drugs and radiation that might be used to obtain therapeutic gain. Studies with syngeneic rodent tumors or human tumor cell lines xenografted into immune-deficient rodents can be used to test the effects of combined modality regimens on tumors in vivo. Studies of normal tissues in rodents can be used to evaluate potential toxicities. However, at each step in this process of preclinical evaluation there are limitations of the model systems and gaps in the knowledge obtainable from the models. There are also gaps in our understanding of the biology of malignancies in human patients both before treatment and to an even greater extent during protracted therapeutic regimens. Our knowledge of the mechanisms producing dose-limiting injuries in patients is also limited, as is our understanding of the factors which influence the risk to individual patients and the interactions of drug and radiation injury in patients. The limitations of our models and our knowledge generally preclude the direct translation of preclinical findings into rationally designed, effective clinical trials, and can lead to either unexpectedly positive or disappointing results when clinical trials are developed, performed and analyzed. Successes and problems in the translation of preclinical studies of radiation/drug combinations into effective clinical regimens will be discussed and will be illustrated using our laboratory and clinical experience with agents designed to modulate tumor oxygenation and with regimens combining radiation therapy with radiosensitizers or with the mitomycins

  8. Pancreatic Cancer Chemoprevention Translational Workshop | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thursday, September 10th (6:00 to 9:30 PM) Welcome Barnett Kramer, MD, MPH (6:00 to 6:10 PM) Director of the Division of Cancer Prevention, NCI Introduction – Goals of the Workshop: ABCs of Cancer Prevention (Agents, Biomarkers, Cohorts) Mark Miller, PhD (6:10 to 6:25 PM) Program Director Division of Cancer Prevention, NCI |

  9. Translational research and its effects on medicine in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUAN Jian; CHEN Jie

    2011-01-01

    Translational research has become a globally recognized model of medical research. Chinese government and doctors have begun to discuss the plan for its development. But most articles are focusing on the advantages rather than its pros and cons. In this essay, the authors discuss the disadvantages of translational research, its effects on clinical work and medical education, highlighting some potential problems and risks in theory and practice on case basis. Some important research management requirements are summarized in this essay to help bring the therapy from the research laboratory to the patient's bedside.

  10. Integrative computational biology for cancer research

    OpenAIRE

    Fortney, Kristen; Jurisica, Igor

    2011-01-01

    Over the past two decades, high-throughput (HTP) technologies such as microarrays and mass spectrometry have fundamentally changed clinical cancer research. They have revealed novel molecular markers of cancer subtypes, metastasis, and drug sensitivity and resistance. Some have been translated into the clinic as tools for early disease diagnosis, prognosis, and individualized treatment and response monitoring. Despite these successes, many challenges remain: HTP platforms are often noisy and ...

  11. Profiles in Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    These articles put a face to some of the thousands of individuals who contribute to NCI’s cancer research efforts. The profiles highlight the work of scientists and clinicians and describe the circumstances and motivation behind their work.

  12. Research status and funding trends of lung cancer biomarkers

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Cui; Hong, Wei

    2013-01-01

    Lung cancer is one of malignant tumors with the highest morbidity and mortality in the world. At present, research of early diagnosis, treatment, prognosis, and metastasis associated biomarkers is most active. This article reviewed the research status of lung cancer biomarkers and analyzed the funding situation in the field of lung cancer markers in recent 10 years in China and abroad, to provide a reference for the future basic and clinical translational research of lung cancer biomarkers.

  13. Molecular Dimensions of Gastric Cancer: Translational and Clinical Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Yoon Young; Noh, Sung Hoon; Cheong, Jae-Ho

    2016-01-01

    Gastric cancer is a global health burden and has the highest incidence in East Asia. This disease is complex in nature because it arises from multiple interactions of genetic, local environmental, and host factors, resulting in biological heterogeneity. This genetic intricacy converges on molecular characteristics reflecting the pathophysiology, tumor biology, and clinical outcome. Therefore, understanding the molecular characteristics at a genomic level is pivotal to improving the clinical care of patients with gastric cancer. A recent landmark study, The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) project, showed the molecular landscape of gastric cancer through a comprehensive molecular evaluation of 295 primary gastric cancers. The proposed molecular classification divided gastric cancer into four subtypes: Epstein-Barr virus-positive, microsatellite unstable, genomic stable, and chromosomal instability. This information will be taken into account in future clinical trials and will be translated into clinical therapeutic decisions. To fully realize the clinical benefit, many challenges must be overcome. Rapid growth of high-throughput biology and functional validation of molecular targets will further deepen our knowledge of molecular dimensions of this cancer, allowing for personalized precision medicine. PMID:26498010

  14. Translating psychosocial research findings into practice guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinds, Pamela S; Gattuso, Jami S; Barnwell, Elizabeth; Cofer, Mary; Kellum, La-Kenya; Mattox, Sandy; Norman, Gina; Powell, Brent; Randall, Elizabeth; Sanders, Cathy

    2003-01-01

    Evidence-based practice guidelines are increasingly used by healthcare professionals to guide patient care and effect positive patient outcomes. These guidelines are usually based on laboratory-based parameters and lack the psychosocial dimensions of patient care. The authors describe the process used by a hospital-based interdisciplinary team to successfully develop evidence-based psychosocial guidelines designed to foster hopefulness in pediatric patients with cancer, their families, and their healthcare providers. From these guidelines, 4 clinical care projects were developed and are described in this article. PMID:12909791

  15. Translation through argumentation in medical research and physician-citizenship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Gordon R; McTigue, Kathleen M

    2012-06-01

    While many "benchtop-to-bedside" research pathways have been developed in "Type I" translational medicine, vehicles to facilitate "Type II" and "Type III" translation that convert scientific data into clinical and community interventions designed to improve the health of human populations remain elusive. Further, while a high percentage of physicians endorse the principle of citizen leadership, many have difficulty practicing it. This discrepancy has been attributed, in part, to lack of training and preparation for public advocacy, time limitation, and institutional resistance. As translational medicine and physician-citizenship implicate social, political, economic and cultural factors, both enterprises require "integrative" research strategies that blend insights from multiple fields of study, as well as rhetorical acumen in adapting messages to reach multiple audiences. This article considers how argumentation theory's epistemological flexibility, audience attentiveness, and heuristic qualities, combined with concepts from classical rhetoric, such as rhetorical invention, the synecdoche, and ethos, yield tools to facilitate translational medicine and enable physician-citizenship. PMID:22392535

  16. Translating genomics: cancer genetics, public health and the making of the (de)molecularised body in Cuba and Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbon, Sahra

    2016-03-01

    This article examines how cancer genetics has emerged as a focus for research and healthcare in Cuba and Brazil. Drawing on ethnographic research undertaken in community genetics clinics and cancer genetics services, the article examines how the knowledge and technologies associated with this novel area of healthcare are translated and put to work by researchers, health professionals, patients and their families in these two contexts. It illuminates the comparative similarities and differences in how cancer genetics is emerging in relation to transnational research priorities, the history and contemporary politics of public health and embodied vulnerability to cancer that reconfigures the scope and meaning of genomics as "personalised" medicine. PMID:27008076

  17. [Neurogenetics in Peru, example of translational research].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzetti, Pilar; Inca-Martínez, Miguel; Tirado-Hurtado, Indira; Milla-Neyra, Karina; Silva-Paredes, Gustavo; Vishnevetsky, Anastasia; Cornejo-Olivas, Mario

    2015-10-01

    Neurogenetics is an emerging discipline in Peru that links basic research with clinical practice. The Neurogenetics Research Center located in Lima, Peru is the only unit dedicated to the specialized care of neurogenetic diseases in the country. From the beginning, neurogenetics research has been closely linked to the study of Huntington’s Disease (HD), from the PCR genotyping of the HTT gene, to the current haplogroup studies in HD. Research in other monogenic diseases led to the implementation of alternative methodologies for the genotyping of Fragile X and Myotonic Dystrophy Type 1. Both, national and international collaborative efforts have facilitated the discovery of new genetic variants in complex multigenic diseases such as Parkinson’s disease and Alzheimer’s disease. Additionally, multidisciplinary education and mentoring have allowed for the training of new neurogenetics specialists, supporting the sustained growth of the discipline in the country. The promotion of research in Peru has spurred the growth of neurogenetics research, although limitations in infrastructure, technology, and education remain a challenge for the further growth of research in this field. PMID:26732930

  18. Challenges of Translating Basic Research Into Therapeutics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smoliga, James M.; Vang, Ole; Baur, Joseph A.

    2012-01-01

    Basic science literature abounds with molecules that promise to ameliorate almost any disease, from curing cancer to slowing the aging process itself. However, most of these compounds will never even be evaluated in humans, let alone proven effective. Here, we use resveratrol as an example to...... highlight the enormous difficulties in understanding pharmacokinetics, determining side effects, and, ultimately, establishing mechanisms of action for a natural compound. Despite extensive interest and effort, and continuing promising results from basic science groups, very little is known even today about...... the effects of resveratrol in humans. Part of the problem is the unattractiveness of natural compounds to large, well-funded companies that could run clinical trials because developing their own molecules affords much greater protection for their intellectual property. In fact, selling unpatentable...

  19. Collaborative software for traditional and translational research

    OpenAIRE

    Berman Ari E; Barnett William K; Mooney Sean D

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Biomedical research has entered a period of renewed vigor with the introduction and rapid development of genomic technologies and next-generation sequencing methods. This research paradigm produces extremely large datasets that are both difficult to store and challenging to mine for relevant data. Additionally, the thorough exploration of such datasets requires more resources, personnel, and multidisciplinary expertise to properly analyze and interpret the data. As a result, modern b...

  20. Translational Research on Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Gene Mutations in Targeted Therapy for Patients with Advanced Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xiao-yan; ZHOU Er-xi

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To explore the significance of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) gene mutations in targeted therapy for patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Methods:One hundred and seventeen patients with advanced NSCLC admitted in Maternal and Child Health Care Center of Zibo City from Jan., 2011 to Jan., 2014 were performed with EGFR gene detection and then divided into 3 groups according to the detecting results. Patients in group A and group B were given oral geiftinib, 250 mg/d while patients in Group C with docetaxel, 75 mg/m2. Chemotherapy for 3 groups was discontinued until severe adverse reactions or disease progression occurred, or continuous treatment was considered to be unfavorable by the doctors, or patients asked for withdrawal from the study. The relationship between clinicopathological features and EGFR mutations were analyzed. The short-term and long-term efifcacy and adverse reactions of 3 groups were observed. Results:Of the 31 cases with EGFR mutations, there were 16 cases (51.6%) of mutations in exon 19, 14 (45.2%) in exon 21 and 2 (6.45%) in exon 18. No EGFR mutation was found in exon 20. EGFR mutations were associated with histological types of tumors and whether patients were smoking. The median follow-up time was 26 months and 62 patients were dead. None of CR was in 3 groups. The disease control rate (DCR) in group A was obviously higher than that in group B (χ2=9.382,P=0.002), which was also higher in group C than that in group B (χ2=4.674,P=0.031). The 1-year survival rate in group A was obviously higher than that in group B and group C (P Conclusion:EGFR mutations are the main indicators for guiding the targeted therapy for patients with advanced NSCLC.

  1. Disease Advocacy Organizations Catalyze Translational Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharon Fontaine Terry

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Disease advocacy organizations have long played an important role in the continuum from basic science to therapy development in rare disease research. PXE International has sometimes led the field in innovative ways, venturing into specific activities that have traditionally been conducted by scientists. As lay founders, we have engaged in gene discovery, gene patenting, diagnostic development, epidemiological studies, clinical trials and therapy research and development. This article will describe the steps that we took, and the ways in which we have scaled these efforts for the larger community.

  2. Translational Research on Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Gene Mutations in Targeted Therapy for Patients with Advanced Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-yan WANG

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: To explore the significance of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR gene mutations in targeted therapy for patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC. Methods: One hundred and seventeen patients with advanced NSCLC admitted in Maternal and Child Health Care Center of Zibo City from Jan., 2011 to Jan., 2014 were performed with EGFR gene detection and then divided into 3 groups according to the detecting results. Patients in group A and group B were given oral gefitinib, 250 mg/d while patients in Group C with docetaxel, 75 mg/m2. Chemotherapy for 3 groups was discontinued until severe adverse reactions or disease progression occurred, or continuous treatment was considered to be unfavorable by the doctors, or patients asked for withdrawal from the study. The relationship between clinicopathological features and EGFR mutations were analyzed. The short-term and long-term efficacy and adverse drug reactions of 3 groups were observed. Results: Of the 31 cases with EGFR mutations, there were 16 cases (51.6% of mutations in exon 19, 14 (45.2% in exon 21 and 2 (6.45% in exon 18. No EGFR mutation was found in exon 20. EGFR mutations were associated with histological types of tumors and whether patients were smoking. The median follow-up time was 26 months and 62 patients were dead. None of CR was in 3 groups. The disease control rate (DCR in Group A was obviously higher than that in Group B ( χ 2 =9.382, P=0.002, which was also higher in Group C than that in Group B ( χ 2 =4.674, P=0.031. The 1-year survival rate in Group A was obviously higher than that in group B and group C ( P <0.05, or P<0.01 , which was prominently higher in Group C than that in Group B ( P <0.01 . The median progression-free survival (PFS and median overall survival (OS were the longest in Group A was and the shortest in Group B. The adverse reactions of two kinds of

  3. A cybersecurity primer for translational research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perakslis, Eric D; Stanley, Martin

    2016-01-20

    Virtually all health care organizations have had at least one data breach since 2012. Most of the largest data breaches and Health Care Information Privacy and Accountability Act fines could have been prevented by the simplest of strategies. Each researcher must clearly understand his or her responsibilities and liability. PMID:26791947

  4. From Translational Research to Translational Effectiveness: The “Patient-Centered Dental Home” Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Chiappelli

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Toward revitalizing the Nation’s primary medical care system, the Agency for Health Research & Quality (AHRQ stated that new foundational measures must be crafted for achieving high-quality, accessible, efficient health care for all Americans. The efficiency of medical care is viewed along two dimensions: first, we must continue to pursue translational research; and second, we must translate research to optimize effectiveness in specific clinical settings. It is increasingly evident that the efficiency of both translational processes is critical to the revitalization of health care, and that it rests on the practical functionality of the nexus among three cardinal entities: the researcher, the clinician, and the patient. A novel model has evolved that encapsulates this notion, and that proposes the advanced pri-mary care “medical home”, more commonly referred to as the “patient-centered medical home” (PCMH. It is a promising model for transforming the organization and delivery of primary medical care, because it is not simply a place per se, but it is a function-ing unit that delivers medical care along the fundamental principles of being patient-centered, comprehensive, coordinated, and accessible. It is energized by translational research, and its principal aim and ultimate goal is translational effectiveness. The PCMH is a model that works well within the priorities set by the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009, and the Health Care Reform Act of 2010. However, while dentistry has a clearly defined place in both Acts, the PCMH is designed for medical and nursing care. A parallel model of the “patient-centered dental home” (PCDH must be realized.

  5. Research's Practice and Barriers of Knowledge Translation in Iran.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saharnaz Nedjat

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge Translation is a process that includes synthesis, dissemination, exchange and application of knowledge to improve the health, services and products In this study we have attempted to examine the knowledge translation practice and its perceived barriers on the universalities and research institutes (research sector in Iran.Both qualitative and quantitative approaches were used. In the quantitative section, a questionnaire had prepared for this study was completed by 88 authors country wide from randomly selected papers. In the qualitative section 13 in-depth interviews and 6 focus group discussions were held with managers and policy makers, clinical and health service providers, and researchers.Twenty four percent of the authors had no interaction whatsoever with the target audience. Lack of expectation toward creating change in the target audience, researchers' incentives, low level of trust among researchers and decision makers, absence of a predefined mechanism for delivery of research results and inappropriate research priorities were among the most important barriers identified in the qualitative section.Translation of research findings into some concrete outputs which can affect health of people is not in mandate of researchers and subsequently they are not prepared for this as well. Based on the barriers identified, it seems that the following interventions are necessary: cooperation among policy makers at macro and meso (organizational level and the research sector; establishing networks for researchers and decision makers in choosing the research topic, priority setting, and building trust among researchers and policy makers.

  6. CURRENT CHALLENGES IN TRANSLATIONAL PAIN RESEARCH

    OpenAIRE

    Mao, Jianren

    2012-01-01

    The current gap between basic science research and new analgesic development presents a serious challenge for the future of pain medicine. This challenge is particularly difficult in the search for better treatment for comorbid chronic pain conditions because i) animal “pain” models do not simulate multi-dimensional clinical pain conditions; ii) animal behavioral testing does not assess subjective pain experience; iii) preclinical data provide little assurance regarding the direction of new a...

  7. Liposomes versus metallic nanostructures: differences in the process of knowledge translation in cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Fajardo-Ortiz, David; Duran, Luis; Moreno, Laura; Ochoa, Hector; Castano, Victor-M

    2016-01-01

    This research maps the knowledge translation process for two different types of nanotechnologies applied to cancer: liposomes and metallic nanostructures (MNs). We performed a structural analysis of citation networks and text mining supported in controlled vocabularies. In the case of liposomes, our results identify subnetworks (invisible colleges) associated with different therapeutic strategies: nanopharmacology, hyperthermia, and gene therapy. Only in the pharmacological strategy was an or...

  8. An analysis for status of lung cancer translational research based on science citation index database%基于科学引文索引数据库的肺癌转化医学研究文献计量学分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    应倩; 夏庆民; 狄笛; 汪媛

    2015-01-01

    目的:分析近10年来有关肺癌转化医学研究的现状。方法以Web of Science 数据库为数据来源,全文采用文献计量学方法分析2004—2014年肺癌转化医学文献的情况。结果2004—2014年被科学引文索引收录有关肺癌转化医学文献9523篇,近10年来收录的文献呈逐年上升趋势。发文量居前10位的国家依次为美国、英国、德国、中国、加拿大、意大利、日本、法国、荷兰和澳大利亚。发文量排在前20位的研究机构中,除了加拿大多伦多大学外,其他研究机构均在美国。发文量5篇以上的期刊共497种,Translational Research、Stem Cells Translational Medicine、PLoS One、Cts Clinical and Translational Science和Science Translational Medicine居前5位。 Web of Science 类别中医学实验研究学科居第1位,占12.202%;肿瘤学科居第2位,占9.010%。结论肺癌转化医学迅速发展,基础研究仍是转化医学的热点,对于临床研究项目支持力度需不断增强,才能真正实现肺癌转化医学成果应用于临床治疗。%Objective To investigate the status of translational research in lung cancer in the past decade .Methods The papers of lung cancer translational research from the Web of Science database were analyzed by bibliometrics methods .Results A total of 9 523 papers of translational medicine related lung cancer were indexed by science citation index ( SCI) from 2004 to 2014.The number of papers showed an upward trend .The top 10 countries were the United States , England , Germany, China, Canada, Italy, Japan, France, Netherlands and Australia .The top 20 research institutions were in the United States except Canada Toronto University .A total of 497 journals pos-ted more than 5 articles.Translational Research, Stem Cells Translational Medicine, PLoS One, Cts Clinical and Translational Science and Science Translational Medicine ranked the top 5 journals which issued a volume of

  9. Pragmatic medicine in solid cancer: a translational alternative to precision medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brábek J

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Jan Brábek,1 Daniel Rosel,1 Michael Fernandes21Department of Cell Biology, Faculty of Science, Charles University in Prague, Prague 2, Czech Republic; 2Medbase, Chapel Hill, NC, USAAbstract: The precision medicine (PM initiative is a response to the dismal outlook in solid cancer. Despite heterogeneity, common mechanistic denominators may exist across the spectrum of solid cancer. A shift from conventional research and development (R&D toward PM will require conceptual and structural change. As individuals and as a society, we welcome innovation, but question change. We ask: In solid cancer, does PM identify and address the causes of prior failures, and, if so, are the proposed solutions feasible? And, when may we expect safer, more effective and affordable drugs in the clinic? Considerations that prompt a pragmatic rethink include a failure analysis of translational R&D in solid cancer suggesting that trials and regulations need to be aligned with the natural history of the disease. In successful therapeutic interventions in chronic, complex disease, surrogate markers and endpoints should be consistent with the Prentice’s criteria. In solid cancer, drug induced tumor shrinkage, is a drug effect and not a disease response; tumor shrinkage does not reflect nor predict interruption of the disease. Overall, we support a pragmatic, multidisciplinary, and collaborative R&D, and suggest that direction be set by clinical need and utility, and by questions, not answers. PM will prove worthwhile if it could improve clinical outcomes. The lag in therapeutics relative to diagnostics is a cause for confusion. Overdiagnosis adds to fear and harm, especially in the absence of effective interventions. A revised initiative that prioritizes metastasis research could replicate the successful HIV/AIDS model in solid cancer. A pragmatic approach may further translational efforts toward meaningfully effective, generally available, and affordable solutions

  10. Nursing informatics, ethics and decisions: implications for translational research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaltoft, Mette Kjer; Nielsen, Jesper Bo; Dowie, Jack

    Nursing informatics, ethics and decisions: implications for translational research Objective: To introduce, in the multi-disciplinary contexts of clinical decision making and policy formation, a theory-based decision-analytic framework for the transparent forward translation of research into...... evidence-based ratings for option performance on those criteria to produce a preference-sensitive assessment or opinion. Results: The first example shows the framework connecting nursing informatics and nursing ethics in the clinical context of a nurse’s decision to disclose or not disclose information to...

  11. Translating research to practice in bullying prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradshaw, Catherine P

    2015-01-01

    Bullying continues to be a concern in schools and communities across the United States and worldwide, yet there is uncertainty regarding the most effective approaches for preventing it and addressing its impacts on children and youth. This paper synthesizes findings from a series of studies and meta-analyses examining the efficacy of bullying prevention programs. This paper considers some methodological issues encountered when testing the efficacy and effectiveness of bullying prevention and intervention approaches. It also identifies several areas requiring additional research in order to increase the effectiveness of bullying prevention efforts in real-world settings. Drawing upon a public health perspective and findings from the field of prevention science, this paper aims to inform potential future directions for enhancing the adoption, high quality implementation, and dissemination of evidence-based bullying prevention programs. It is concluded that although bullying prevention programs can be effective in reducing bullying and victimization among school-aged youth, there is a great need for more work to increase the acceptability, fidelity, and sustainability of the existing programs in order to improve bullying-related outcomes for youth. The findings from this review are intended to inform both policy and public health practice related to bullying prevention. PMID:25961313

  12. The Borrowers: Researching the cognitive aspects of translation

    OpenAIRE

    O'Brien, Sharon

    2013-01-01

    The paper considers the interdisciplinary interaction of research on the cognitive aspects of translation. Examples of influence from linguistics, psychology, neuroscience, cognitive science, reading and writing research and language technology are given, with examples from specific sub-disciplines within each one. The breadth of borrowing by researchers in cognitive translatology is made apparent, but the minimal influence of cognitive translatology on the respective disciplines themselves i...

  13. Translating Sweetness: Type 2 Diabetes, Race, Research, and Outreach

    OpenAIRE

    Battle, James

    2012-01-01

    Through the lens of Type 2 diabetes this dissertation considers race and problems of difference and risk with developments in treatment, genomic science, and the conduct of research and research priorities. Based primarily on fieldwork in New York and California, I interrogate public health notions of outreach with biotechnology and clinical research concepts of biomedical translation as synonymous practices. Institutional relationships and marketing drivers, I argue, reflect relatedness back...

  14. Translation of EPDS Questionnaire into Kiswahili: Understanding the Cross-Cultural and Translation Issues in Mental Health Research

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar, Manasi; Ongeri, Linnet; Mathai, Muthoni; Mbwayo, Anne

    2015-01-01

    The need for a suitable tool for assessing postpartum depression in Kenya led to the process of translation of the 10 items Edinburgh Postnatal Scale into Kiswahili. The idea was to seek semantic, conceptual as well as normative equivalence in this translation. The paper discusses issues and the process of translation and provides in depth discussions around translation from the point of view of cross-cultural mental health research and practice. The English version of the EPDS screening tool...

  15. Integrated Knowledge Translation: illustrated with outcome research in mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preyde, Michele; Carter, Jeff; Penney, Randy; Lazure, Kelly; Vanderkooy, John; Chevalier, Pat

    2015-01-01

    Through this article the authors present a case summary of the early phases of research conducted with an Integrated Knowledge Translation (iKT) approach utilizing four factors: research question, research approach, feasibility, and outcome. iKT refers to an approach for conducting research in which community partners, referred to as knowledge users, are engaged in the entire research process. In this collaborative approach, knowledge users and researchers jointly devise the entire research agenda beginning with the development of the research question(s), determination of a feasible research design and feasible methods, interpretation of the results, dissemination of the findings, and the translation of knowledge into practice or policy decisions. Engaging clinical or community partners in the research enterprise can enhance the utility of the research results and facilitate its uptake. This collaboration can be a complex arrangement and flexibility may be required to accommodate the various configurations that the collaboration can take. For example, the research question can be jointly determined and refined; however, one person must take the responsibility for orchestrating the project, including preparing the proposal and application to the Research Ethics Board. This collaborative effort also requires the simultaneous navigation of barriers and facilitators to the research enterprise. Navigating these elements becomes part of the conduct of research with the potential for rewarding results, including an enriched work experience for clinical partners and investigators. One practice implication is that iKT may be considered of great utility to service providers due to its field friendly nature. PMID:25661889

  16. A departmental initiative for clinical and translational research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombo, Christopher J; Baer, Stephanie; Blake, Lindsay; Bollag, Wendy B; Colombo, Rhonda; Diamond, Matthew; George, Varghese; Huber, Lu; Merchen, Lee; Miles, Kathy; Yang, Frances; Nahman, N Stanley

    2016-06-01

    To encourage departmental research activities, the Department of Medicine of the Medical College of Georgia (MCG) introduced an internally funded Translational Research Program (TRP) in 2014. Patterned after the Vanderbilt Institute for Clinical and Translational Research, the program offers research studios for project guidance, research mentoring and the availability of limited financial support through research vouchers. Additional academic services include abstract reviewing, conducting research conferences, organizing departmental research programs for students, and offering courses in biostatistics. During the first 15 months of its existence, the TRP working group addressed 132 distinct activities. Research mentoring, publications, and the conduct of research studios or voucher approvals encompassed 49% of working group activities. Other academic services constituted the remaining 51%. Twenty-four per cent of TRP committee activities involved research mentoring of 32 investigators (25% faculty and 75% trainees). Mentored projects generated 17 abstracts, 2 manuscripts and $87,000 in funds. The TRP conducted 13 research studios; trainees presented 54%. The TRP reviewed 36 abstracts for local and state organizations. Monthly research conferences and statistical courses were conducted and well attended. Our experience thus far indicates that a departmental TRP may serve to facilitate the growth of patient-oriented research with minimal financial support. It requires active engagement of volunteer faculty and departmental leadership willing to balance research with the other demands of the academic mission. PMID:27073213

  17. Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Translational Research Program Stem Cell Symposium: Incorporating Stem Cell Hypotheses into Clinical Trials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At a meeting of the Translation Research Program of the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group held in early 2008, attendees focused on updating the current state of knowledge in cancer stem cell research and discussing ways in which this knowledge can be translated into clinical use across all disease sites. This report summarizes the major topics discussed and the future directions that research should take. Major conclusions of the symposium were that the flow cytometry of multiple markers in fresh tissue would remain the standard technique of evaluating cancer-initiating cells and that surrogates need to be developed for both experimental and clinical use.

  18. A unified framework for managing provenance information in translational research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahoo Satya S

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A critical aspect of the NIH Translational Research roadmap, which seeks to accelerate the delivery of "bench-side" discoveries to patient's "bedside," is the management of the provenance metadata that keeps track of the origin and history of data resources as they traverse the path from the bench to the bedside and back. A comprehensive provenance framework is essential for researchers to verify the quality of data, reproduce scientific results published in peer-reviewed literature, validate scientific process, and associate trust value with data and results. Traditional approaches to provenance management have focused on only partial sections of the translational research life cycle and they do not incorporate "domain semantics", which is essential to support domain-specific querying and analysis by scientists. Results We identify a common set of challenges in managing provenance information across the pre-publication and post-publication phases of data in the translational research lifecycle. We define the semantic provenance framework (SPF, underpinned by the Provenir upper-level provenance ontology, to address these challenges in the four stages of provenance metadata: (a Provenance collection - during data generation (b Provenance representation - to support interoperability, reasoning, and incorporate domain semantics (c Provenance storage and propagation - to allow efficient storage and seamless propagation of provenance as the data is transferred across applications (d Provenance query - to support queries with increasing complexity over large data size and also support knowledge discovery applications We apply the SPF to two exemplar translational research projects, namely the Semantic Problem Solving Environment for Trypanosoma cruzi (T.cruzi SPSE and the Biomedical Knowledge Repository (BKR project, to demonstrate its effectiveness. Conclusions The SPF provides a unified framework to effectively manage provenance

  19. The benefits of patient involvement for translational research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheer, van der Lieke; Garcia, Elisa; Laan, van der Anna Laura; Burg, van der Simone; Boenink, Marianne

    2014-01-01

    The question we raise in this paper is, whether patient involvement might be a beneficial way to help determine and achieve the aims of translational (TR) research and, if so, how to proceed. TR is said to ensure a more effective movement (‘translation’) of basic scientific findings to relevant and

  20. Successfully accelerating translational research at an academic medical center: The University of Michigan-Coulter Translational Research Partnership Program.

    OpenAIRE

    Kenneth J Pienta

    2010-01-01

    Translational research encompasses the effective movement of new knowledge and discoveries into new approaches for prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of disease. There are many roadblocks to successful bench to bedside research, but few have received as much recent attention as the “valley of death”. The valley of death refers to the lack of funding and support for research that moves basic science discoveries into diagnostics, devices, and treatments in humans, and is ascribed to be the re...

  1. Situated learning in translation research training: academic research as a reflection of practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risku, Hanna

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Situated learning has become a dominant goal in the translation classroom: translation didactics is being developed in a learner-, situation- and experience-based direction, following constructivist and participatory teaching philosophies. However, the explicit use of situated approaches has, so far, not been the centre of attention in translation theory teaching and research training. As a consequence, translation theory often remains unconnected to the skills learned and topics tackled in language-specific translation teaching and the challenges experienced in real-life translation practice. This article reports on the results of an exploratory action research project into the teaching of academic research skills in translation studies at Master’s level. The goal of the project is to develop and test possibilities for employing situated learning in translation research training. The situatedness perspective has a double relevance for the teaching project: the students are involved in an authentic, ongoing research project, and the object of the research project itself deals with authentic translation processes at the workplace. Thus, the project has the potential to improve the expertise of the students as both researchers and reflective practitioners.

  2. Translating social work research for social justice: focusing translational research on equity rather than the market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMillin, Stephen Edward

    2014-01-01

    Management of the dissemination of effective interventions in social work is often uncertain, and even when attention is paid to diffusing effective, innovative interventions, the focus is often disproportionately on a marketplace orientation of increasing the market share of branded, manualized interventions and social service treatment products. Public health frameworks of dissemination can improve knowledge translation in social interventions by focusing dissemination efforts on achieving equity and increasing the availability of effective interventions to all those who can benefit from them rather than simply focusing on commercial processes. This article identifies three equity-focused translation frameworks that can aid the dissemination of effective social interventions at the macro-, meso-, and micro-levels. Implications for policy and practice are discussed. PMID:24405139

  3. American Institute for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Order Publications Shop AICR Health @ Work Healthy Recipes Cancer Research Update AICR eNews AICR Newsletter ScienceNow CancerResource Where ... Patients and Survivors Materials for Health Professionals Our Cancer Research Research Grants Conference Continuous Update Project Research Progress ...

  4. Translational Research Education and Training Needs in Hawai‘i

    OpenAIRE

    Kataoka-Yahiro, Merle R; Inouye, Jillian; Seto, Todd B.; Braun, Kathryn L.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this needs assessment was to identify the translational research education and training needs of researchers and administrators working in Hawai‘i's communities and to use the finding to develop an education and training plan. The assessment was led by a community advisory board with members from community health centers, social agencies, hospitals, and academia on O‘ahu. The survey, developed with input of the community advisory board, was sent to 94 administrators and researc...

  5. The Continuing Challenges of Translational Research: Clinician-Scientists’ Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Shervanthi Homer-Vanniasinkam; Janice Tsui

    2012-01-01

    Over the last twenty years, revolutionary advances in biomedicine including gene therapy, stem cell research, proteomics, genomics and nanotechnology have highlighted the progressive need to restructure traditional approaches to basic and clinical research in order to facilitate the rapid, efficient integration and translation of these new technologies into novel effective therapeutics. Over the past ten years, funding bodies in the USA and UK such as the National Institutes of Health (NIH) a...

  6. Efficacy of Female Rat Models in Translational Cardiovascular Aging Research

    OpenAIRE

    Rice, K.M.; J. C. Fannin; Gillette, C.; E. R. Blough

    2014-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death in women in the United States. Aging is a primary risk factor for the development of cardiovascular disease as well as cardiovascular-related morbidity and mortality. Aging is a universal process that all humans undergo; however, research in aging is limited by cost and time constraints. Therefore, most research in aging has been done in primates and rodents; however it is unknown how well the effects of aging in rat models translate into h...

  7. Gaining translational momentum: more zebrafish models for neuroscience research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalueff, Allan V; Echevarria, David J; Stewart, Adam Michael

    2014-12-01

    Zebrafish (Danio rerio) are rapidly becoming a popular model organism in translational neuroscience and biological psychiatry research. Here we discuss conceptual, practical and other related aspects of using zebrafish in this field ("from tank to bedside"), and critically evaluate both advantages and limitations of zebrafish models of human brain disorders. We emphasize the need to more actively develop zebrafish models for neuroscience research focusing on complex traits. PMID:24593944

  8. A unified framework for managing provenance information in translational research

    OpenAIRE

    Sahoo Satya S; Nguyen Vinh; Bodenreider Olivier; Parikh Priti; Minning Todd; Sheth Amit P

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background A critical aspect of the NIH Translational Research roadmap, which seeks to accelerate the delivery of "bench-side" discoveries to patient's "bedside," is the management of the provenance metadata that keeps track of the origin and history of data resources as they traverse the path from the bench to the bedside and back. A comprehensive provenance framework is essential for researchers to verify the quality of data, reproduce scientific results published in peer-reviewed ...

  9. Academic-industry Collaborations in Translational Stroke Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boltze, Johannes; Wagner, Daniel-Christoph; Barthel, Henryk; Gounis, Matthew J

    2016-08-01

    Academic-industry collaborations are an emerging format of translational stroke research. Next to classic contract research models, a multitude of collaboration models has been developed, some of which even allowing for multinational or intercontinental research programs. This development has recently been paralleled by first successful attempts to overcome the translational stroke research road block, such as the unprecedented success of novel endovascular approaches or the advent of the multicenter preclinical trial concept. While the first underlines the role of the industry as a major innovation driver in stroke research, the latter will require enrollment of industrial partners for optimal output. Moreover, academic-industry partnerships are invaluable to bridge the translational "valley of death" as well as funding gaps in times of dwindling public funding and declining high risk capital investments. However, these collaborations are also subject to relevant challenges because interests, values, and aims often significantly differ between cademia and industry. Here, we describe common academic-industry collaboration models as well as associated benefits and challenges in the stroke research arena. We also suggest strategies for improved planning, implementation, guidance, and utilization of academic-industry collaborations to the maximum mutual benefit. PMID:27301976

  10. Clinical and translational research studios: a multidisciplinary internal support program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, Daniel W; Biaggioni, Italo; Bernard, Gordon R; Helmer, Tara T; Boone, Leslie R; Pulley, Jill M; Edwards, Terri; Dittus, Robert S

    2012-08-01

    The Vanderbilt Institute for Clinical and Translational Research implemented the "Studio" Program in 2007 to bring together experts to provide free, structured, project-specific feedback for medical researchers. Studios are a series of integrated, dynamic, and interactive roundtable discussions that bring relevant research experts from diverse academic disciplines together to focus on a specific research project at a specific stage. Vanderbilt's Clinical and Translational Science Award supports the program, which is designed to improve the quality and impact of biomedical research. In this article, the authors describe the program's design, and they provide an evaluation of its first four years.After an investigator completes a brief online Studio application, a Studio "manager" reviews the request, assembles a panel of three to six experts (research faculty from multiple disciplines), and circulates the pre-review materials electronically. Investigators can request one of seven Studio formats: hypothesis generation, study design, grant review, implementation, analysis and interpretation, manuscript review, or translation. A Studio moderator leads each Studio session, managing the time (90 minutes) and discussion to optimize the usefulness of the session for the investigator.Feedback from the 157 Studio sessions in the first four years has been overwhelmingly positive. Investigators have indicated that their Studios have improved the quality of their science (99%; 121/122 responses), and experts have reported that the Studios have been a valuable use of their time (98%; 398/406 responses). PMID:22722360

  11. Research on Public Signs and the Importance of this Research to C-E Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐燕

    2012-01-01

    There is increasing recognition of the importance and usefulness of doing research in C-E translation of public signs. As bilingual signs are increasingly popular, considerable attention should be paid to the study of C-E translation of public signs. It is theoretically and practically urgent to make a further study and research on public signs systematically.

  12. Next Generation Distributed Computing for Cancer Research

    OpenAIRE

    Pankaj Agarwal; Kouros Owzar

    2015-01-01

    Advances in next generation sequencing (NGS) and mass spectrometry (MS) technologies have provided many new opportunities and angles for extending the scope of translational cancer research while creating tremendous challenges in data management and analysis. The resulting informatics challenge is invariably not amenable to the use of traditional computing models. Recent advances in scalable computing and associated infrastructure, particularly distributed computing for Big Data, can provide ...

  13. Optimising Translational Research Opportunities: A Systematic Review and Narrative Synthesis of Basic and Clinician Scientists' Perspectives of Factors Which Enable or Hinder Translational Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadler, Euan; Fisher, Helen R.; Maher, John; Wolfe, Charles D. A.; McKevitt, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Translational research is central to international health policy, research and funding initiatives. Despite increasing use of the term, the translation of basic science discoveries into clinical practice is not straightforward. This systematic search and narrative synthesis aimed to examine factors enabling or hindering translational research from the perspective of basic and clinician scientists, a key stakeholder group in translational research, and to draw policy-relevant implications for organisations seeking to optimise translational research opportunities. Methods and Results We searched SCOPUS and Web of Science from inception until April 2015 for papers reporting scientists’ views of the factors they perceive as enabling or hindering the conduct of translational research. We screened 8,295 papers from electronic database searches and 20 papers from hand searches and citation tracking, identifying 26 studies of qualitative, quantitative or mixed method designs. We used a narrative synthesis approach and identified the following themes: 1) differing concepts of translational research 2) research processes as a barrier to translational research; 3) perceived cultural divide between research and clinical care; 4) interdisciplinary collaboration as enabling translation research, but dependent on the quality of prior and current social relationships; 5) translational research as entrepreneurial science. Across all five themes, factors enabling or hindering translational research were largely shaped by wider social, organisational, and structural factors. Conclusion To optimise translational research, policy could consider refining translational research models to better reflect scientists’ experiences, fostering greater collaboration and buy in from all types of scientists. Organisations could foster cultural change, ensuring that organisational practices and systems keep pace with the change in knowledge production brought about by the

  14. Workshop on Cancer Research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On April, 22-24 April 1991, the Hungarian National Institute of Oncology and the Commission of the European Communities have organized a workshop on Cancer Research. The aim of the meeting was to provide the participants information on the ongoing research in Hungary and in Member States. The topic is of importance for Hungary and it was also considered that the meeting could contribute to identify subjects of possible collaboration between Hungarian and Member State laboratories in the case financial support would become available. Three papers about new therapies under development were presented proton therapy and Boron neutron capture therapy

  15. Contemporary Research on Parenting: Conceptual, Methodological, and Translational Issues

    OpenAIRE

    Power, Thomas G.; Sleddens, Ester F.C.; Berge, Jerica; Connell, Lauren; Govig, Bert; Hennessy, Erin; Liggett, Leanne; Mallan, Kimberley; Santa Maria, Diane; Odoms-Young, Angela; St. George, Sara M.

    2013-01-01

    Researchers over the last decade have documented the association between general parenting style and numerous factors related to childhood obesity (e.g., children's eating behaviors, physical activity, and weight status). Many recent childhood obesity prevention programs are family focused and designed to modify parenting behaviors thought to contribute to childhood obesity risk. This article presents a brief consideration of conceptual, methodological, and translational issues that can infor...

  16. Parkinson’s disease mouse models in translational research

    OpenAIRE

    Antony, Paul; Diederich, Nico; Balling, Rudi

    2011-01-01

    Animal models with high predictive power are a prerequisite for translational research. The closer the similarity of a model to Parkinson’s disease (PD), the higher is the predictive value for clinical trials. An ideal PD model should present behavioral signs and pathology that resemble the human disease. The increasing understanding of PD stratification and etiology, however, complicates the choice of adequate animal models for preclinical studies. An ultimate mouse model, relevant to addres...

  17. Unraveling the autoimmune translational research process layer by layer

    OpenAIRE

    Blumberg, Richard S.; Dittel, Bonnie; Hafler, David; von Herrath, Matthias; Nestle, Frank O.

    2012-01-01

    Autoimmune diseases have a complex etiology and despite great progress having been made in our comprehension of these disorders, there has been limited success in the development of approved medications based on these insights. Development of drugs and strategies for application in translational research and medicine are hampered by an inadequate molecular definition of the human autoimmune phenotype and the organizational models that are necessary to clarify this definition.

  18. Muc1 based breast cancer vaccines: role of post translational modifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaccine development is one of the most promising fields in cancer research. After autologous transplantation, due to low tumour burden, patients are more likely to respond immunologically to a cancer vaccine. MUC1 with its adhesive and anti adhesive functions, immunostimulatory and immunosuppressive activities, is therefore a good candidate for breast cancer vaccine. A structure-based insight into the immunogenicity of natural MUC1 glyco forms, of its sub-domains, motifs and post translational modification like glycosylation and myriostoylation may aid the design of tumour vaccines. Primary sequences of human MUC1 were retrieved from the SWISSPROT data bank. Protein pattern search: The primary sequence of Human MUC1 was searched at PROSITE (a dictionary of protein sites and patterns) database. Our study observes that post-translational modifications play an important role in presenting MUC1 as a candidate for breast cancer vaccine. It is found that the phosphorylation and glycosylation of important functional motifs of MUC1 may take part in the production of cytokines that may provide immunization. (author)

  19. Pragmatic medicine in solid cancer: a translational alternative to precision medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brábek, Jan; Rosel, Daniel; Fernandes, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The precision medicine (PM) initiative is a response to the dismal outlook in solid cancer. Despite heterogeneity, common mechanistic denominators may exist across the spectrum of solid cancer. A shift from conventional research and development (R&D) toward PM will require conceptual and structural change. As individuals and as a society, we welcome innovation, but question change. We ask: In solid cancer, does PM identify and address the causes of prior failures, and, if so, are the proposed solutions feasible? And, when may we expect safer, more effective and affordable drugs in the clinic? Considerations that prompt a pragmatic rethink include a failure analysis of translational R&D in solid cancer suggesting that trials and regulations need to be aligned with the natural history of the disease. In successful therapeutic interventions in chronic, complex disease, surrogate markers and endpoints should be consistent with the Prentice’s criteria. In solid cancer, drug induced tumor shrinkage, is a drug effect and not a disease response; tumor shrinkage does not reflect nor predict interruption of the disease. Overall, we support a pragmatic, multidisciplinary, and collaborative R&D, and suggest that direction be set by clinical need and utility, and by questions, not answers. PM will prove worthwhile if it could improve clinical outcomes. The lag in therapeutics relative to diagnostics is a cause for confusion. Overdiagnosis adds to fear and harm, especially in the absence of effective interventions. A revised initiative that prioritizes metastasis research could replicate the successful HIV/AIDS model in solid cancer. A pragmatic approach may further translational efforts toward meaningfully effective, generally available, and affordable solutions. PMID:27103822

  20. Pragmatic medicine in solid cancer: a translational alternative to precision medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brábek, Jan; Rosel, Daniel; Fernandes, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The precision medicine (PM) initiative is a response to the dismal outlook in solid cancer. Despite heterogeneity, common mechanistic denominators may exist across the spectrum of solid cancer. A shift from conventional research and development (R&D) toward PM will require conceptual and structural change. As individuals and as a society, we welcome innovation, but question change. We ask: In solid cancer, does PM identify and address the causes of prior failures, and, if so, are the proposed solutions feasible? And, when may we expect safer, more effective and affordable drugs in the clinic? Considerations that prompt a pragmatic rethink include a failure analysis of translational R&D in solid cancer suggesting that trials and regulations need to be aligned with the natural history of the disease. In successful therapeutic interventions in chronic, complex disease, surrogate markers and endpoints should be consistent with the Prentice's criteria. In solid cancer, drug induced tumor shrinkage, is a drug effect and not a disease response; tumor shrinkage does not reflect nor predict interruption of the disease. Overall, we support a pragmatic, multidisciplinary, and collaborative R&D, and suggest that direction be set by clinical need and utility, and by questions, not answers. PM will prove worthwhile if it could improve clinical outcomes. The lag in therapeutics relative to diagnostics is a cause for confusion. Overdiagnosis adds to fear and harm, especially in the absence of effective interventions. A revised initiative that prioritizes metastasis research could replicate the successful HIV/AIDS model in solid cancer. A pragmatic approach may further translational efforts toward meaningfully effective, generally available, and affordable solutions. PMID:27103822

  1. Prostate Cancer Research Trial Helps John Spencer Treat His Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Prostate Cancer Prostate Cancer Research Trial Helps John Spencer Treat His ... Read More "Prostate Cancer" Articles Progress Against Prostate Cancer / Prostate Cancer Research Trial Helps John Spencer Treat His ...

  2. Pre-clinical research in small animals using radiotherapy technology. A bidirectional translational approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For translational cancer research, pre-clinical in-vivo studies using small animals have become indispensable in bridging the gap between in-vitro cell experiments and clinical implementation. When setting up such small animal experiments, various biological, technical and methodical aspects have to be considered. In this work we present a comprehensive topical review based on relevant publications on irradiation techniques used for pre-clinical cancer research in mice and rats. Clinical radiotherapy treatment devices for the application of external beam radiotherapy and brachytherapy as well as dedicated research irradiation devices are feasible for small animal irradiation depending on the animal model and the experimental goals. In this work, appropriate solutions for the technological transfer of human radiation oncology to small animal radiation research are summarised. Additionally, important information concerning the experimental design is provided such that reliable and clinically relevant results can be attained.

  3. Research on American English Translation of Chinese Signs in Baoding from the Perspective of Cultural Differences

    OpenAIRE

    Nan Zhao; Ruixian Ma; Xiaomei Du

    2015-01-01

    This thesis aims at analyzing the American English translation of Chinese signs in Baoding from the perspective of cultural differences. The thesis researches on signs translation from a new angle by separating American English translation from British English translation and puts special emphasis on American English signs translation, which may be helpful to the standardization of signs translation in China. Through digging out the cultural differences from different thinking mode, value, an...

  4. How should we assess knowledge translation in research organizations; designing a knowledge translation self-assessment tool for research institutes (SATORI)

    OpenAIRE

    Nedjat Sima; Nedjat Saharnaz; Majdzadeh Reza; Gholami Jaleh; Maleki Katayoun; Ashoorkhani Mahnaz; Yazdizadeh Bahareh

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background The knowledge translation self-assessment tool for research institutes (SATORI) was designed to assess the status of knowledge translation in research institutes. The objective was, to identify the weaknesses and strengths of knowledge translation in research centres and faculties associated with Tehran University of Medical Sciences (TUMS). Methods The tool, consisting of 50 statements in four main domains, was used in 20 TUMS-affiliated research centres and departments a...

  5. Generation of Comprehensive Thoracic Oncology Database - Tool for Translational Research

    OpenAIRE

    Surati, Mosmi; Robinson, Matthew; Nandi, Suvobroto; Faoro, Leonardo; Demchuk, Carley; Kanteti, Rajani; Ferguson, Benjamin; Gangadhar, Tara; Hensing, Thomas; Hasina, Rifat; Husain, Aliya; Ferguson, Mark; Karrison, Theodore; Salgia, Ravi

    2011-01-01

    The Thoracic Oncology Program Database Project was created to serve as a comprehensive, verified, and accessible repository for well-annotated cancer specimens and clinical data to be available to researchers within the Thoracic Oncology Research Program. This database also captures a large volume of genomic and proteomic data obtained from various tumor tissue studies. A team of clinical and basic science researchers, a biostatistician, and a bioinformatics expert was convened to design the ...

  6. Risk and resistance perspectives in translation-oriented etiology research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanyukov, Michael M; Tarter, Ralph E; Conway, Kevin P; Kirillova, Galina P; Chandler, Redonna K; Daley, Dennis C

    2016-03-01

    Risk for a disorder and the mechanisms that determine its elevation, risk factors, are the focus of medical research. Targeting risk factors should serve the goal of prevention and treatment intervention. Risk, however, is but one of the aspects of liability to a disorder, a latent trait that encompasses effects of all factors leading to or from the diagnostic threshold. The coequal but opposite aspect of liability is resistance to a disorder. The factors that increase resistance and thus enable prevention or recovery may differ from those that elevate risk. Accordingly, there are nontrivial differences between research perspectives that focus on risk and on resistance. This article shows how this distinction translates into goals and methods of research and practice, from the choice of potential mechanisms tested to the results sought in intervention. The resistance concept also differs from those of "resilience" and "protective factors," subsuming but not limited to them. The implications of the concept are discussed using substance use disorder as an example and substantiate the need for biomedical research and its translation to shift to the resistance perspective. PMID:27012252

  7. Farm Safety: A Tale of Translational Research and Collaboration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClune, Amy J; Conway, Alice

    2016-01-01

    Children who live or work on farms are at a high risk for injury and death, yet few resources are available to reduce the danger of injury. Research findings establish the need for farm safety in preschool children. However, barriers to interventional research have limited the development of established strategies to help reduce the risk. For this project, Pender's Health Promotion Model served as the theoretical framework to support the prevention aspect of farm safety. Findings from two surveys of primary health care providers practicing in rural areas in Pennsylvania indicated a lack of materials to educate preschool children about farm safety. Using Woods and Magyary's translational model for research, this identified need resulted in a multidisciplinary team collaboration to develop an animated film entitled A Barnyard Story: Adventures in Farm Safety. The eight-minute film is an innovative child-centered intervention that addresses the gap in strategies to reduce farm injuries in preschool children. The development of this film illustrates the product development stage of research translation and is an example of diverse disciplines coming together for an important cause. PMID:27019939

  8. Perspectives on sensory processing disorder: a call for translational research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucy J Miller

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the convergence of two fields, which have similar theoretical origins: a clinical field originally known as sensory integration and a branch of neuroscience that conducts research in an area also called sensory integration. Clinically, the term was used to identify a pattern of dysfunction in children and adults, as well as a related theory, assessment, and treatment method for children who have atypical responses to ordinary sensory stimulation. Currently the term for the disorder is Sensory Processing Disorder (SPD. In neuroscience, the term sensory integration refers to converging information in the brain from one or more sensory domains. A recent subspecialty in neuroscience labeled multisensory integration (MSI refers to the neural process that occurs when sensory input from two or more different sensory modalities converge. Understanding the specific meanings of the term sensory integration intended by the clinical and neuroscience fields and the term multisensory integration in neuroscience is critical. A translational research approach would improve exploration of crucial research questions in both the basic science and clinical science. Refinement of the conceptual model of the disorder and the related treatment approach would help prioritize which specific hypotheses should be studied in both the clinical and neuroscience fields. The issue is how we can facilitate a translational approach between researchers in the two fields. Multidisciplinary, collaborative studies would increase knowledge of brain function and could make a significant contribution to alleviating the impairments of individuals with SPD and their families.

  9. Reengineering Clinical Research Science: A Focus on Translational Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrell, Courtney B.

    2009-01-01

    The burden of disease in the United States is high. Mental illness is currently the leading cause of disease burden among 15- to 44-year-olds. This phenomenon is occurring despite the many advances that have been made in clinical research. Several efficacious interventions are available to treat many of these disorders; however, they are greatly…

  10. Important steps to improve translation from medical research to health policy

    OpenAIRE

    Jiang Fan; Zhang Jun; Wang Xiangdong; Shen Xiaoming

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Translational medicine entails not only “from-bench-to-bedside” but also preventive medicine. The present article proposes a conceptual framework of translational research from scientific research to health care policy and public health policy. We highlight the importance of translational medicine to bridge between research and policy and share our experience of translating medical research to public health policy in China as well as obstacles and challenges we are facing in the tran...

  11. Limb-girdle muscular dystrophies - international collaborations for translational research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Rachel; Straub, Volker

    2016-05-01

    The limb-girdle muscular dystrophies (LGMDs) are a diverse group of genetic neuromuscular conditions that usually manifest in the proximal muscles of the hip and shoulder girdles. Since the identification of the first gene associated with the phenotype in 1994, an extensive body of research has identified the genetic defects responsible for over 30 LGMD subtypes, revealed an increasingly varied phenotypic spectrum, and exposed the need to move towards a systems-based understanding of the molecular pathways affected. New sequencing technologies, including whole-exome and whole-genome sequencing, are continuing to expand the range of genes and phenotypes associated with the LGMDs, and new computational approaches are helping clinicians to adapt to this new genomic medicine paradigm. However, 60 years on from the first description of LGMD, no curative therapies exist, and systematic exploration of the natural history is still lacking. To enable rapid translation of basic research to the clinic, well-phenotyped and genetically characterized patient cohorts are a necessity, and appropriate outcome measures and biomarkers must be developed through natural history studies. Here, we review the international collaborations that are addressing these translational research issues, and the lessons learned from large-scale LGMD sequencing programmes. PMID:27033376

  12. Cognitive testing of pigs (Sus scrofa) in translational biobehavioral research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kornum, Birgitte R; Knudsen, Gitte M

    2011-01-01

    Within neuroscience and biobehavioral research, the pig (Sus scrofus) is increasingly being acknowledged as a valuable large animal species. Compared to the rodent brain, the pig brain more closely resembles the human brain in terms of both anatomy and biochemistry, which associates the pig with a...... higher translational value. Several brain disorders have been fully or partially modeled in the pig and this has further spurred an interest in having access to behavioral tasks for pigs, and in particular to cognitive tasks. Cognitive testing of pigs has been conducted for several years by a small group...... of farm animal welfare researchers, but it has only recently received interest in the wider neuroscience community. Several behavioral tasks have successfully been adapted to the pig, and valuable results have been produced. However, most tasks have only been established at a single research facility...

  13. Contemporary research on parenting: conceptual, methodological, and translational issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Power, Thomas G; Sleddens, Ester F C; Berge, Jerica; Connell, Lauren; Govig, Bert; Hennessy, Erin; Liggett, Leanne; Mallan, Kimberley; Santa Maria, Diane; Odoms-Young, Angela; St George, Sara M

    2013-08-01

    Researchers over the last decade have documented the association between general parenting style and numerous factors related to childhood obesity (e.g., children's eating behaviors, physical activity, and weight status). Many recent childhood obesity prevention programs are family focused and designed to modify parenting behaviors thought to contribute to childhood obesity risk. This article presents a brief consideration of conceptual, methodological, and translational issues that can inform future research on the role of parenting in childhood obesity. They include: (1) General versus domain specific parenting styles and practices; (2) the role of ethnicity and culture; (3) assessing bidirectional influences; (4) broadening assessments beyond the immediate family; (5) novel approaches to parenting measurement; and (6) designing effective interventions. Numerous directions for future research are offered. PMID:23944927

  14. Initiating tumor banking for translational research: MD Anderson and Liverpool experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, A; Pandey, A; Shaw, R

    2007-01-01

    The ultimate progress in the cancer diagnosis and therapy has only been possible with the ongoing translational research that is likely to play a very important role in future as well. Hence the importance of such translation from bedside to bench and vis versa cannot be over-emphasized. Accordingly it has become more important to collect tumor samples along with the clinical information in a systematic manner to perform a good basic science research in future. With a population of over a billion and a heavy burden of cancer, India has the 'biggest' potential to establish the 'largest' tumor bank across the globe. Establishing a tumor bank involves money and manpower that may not be feasible across most of the centers in India. Taking into the considering the model of tumor banking of the two leading institutions of the world (MD Anderson Cancer Center, USA and University Hospital Aintree, Liverpool UK), this article presents the salient tips for a center in India to get started with tumor banking with minimal investment. Furthermore a simplified form of ethical consent is presented for the centers to adapt unanimously. PMID:17401220

  15. Orientations and outcome of interdisciplinary research: the case of research behaviour in translational medical science

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valentin, Finn; Norn, Maria Theresa; Alkærsig, Lars

    2016-01-01

    The importance of interdisciplinary research in accelerating the progress and commercialization of science is widely recognized, yet little is known about how academic research self-organizes towards interdisciplinarity. In this paper, we therefore explore the micro-level behavior of researchers as...... they venture into a promising space for interdisciplinary research, namely translational research—a bridge between basic and applied biomedical research. More specifically, we ask (1) whether the researchers who choose to engage in translational research have a strong scientific record, (2) how...... interdisciplinary research spanning basic and applied research influences the output of academic research, and (3) how different disciplinary distance in interdisciplinary research contributes to reputational benefits of researchers. We find that for some types of collaboration, interdisciplinarity results in more...

  16. "Interventions for Promoting Research Knowledge Translation: An Introduction"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Majdzadeh

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available "nAnnually, multiple research projects are implemented in medical universities, but their results are not efficiently utilized. This condition has resulted in an increased focus on promoting the status of research-based knowledge transfer in the university. It was in response to this need that certain studies were conducted to determine the interventions required for efficiently utilizing research-based knowledge. The results of these studies were multiple measures and interventions that can collectively promote the status of research-based knowledge translation."nSome of these interventions were as follows: designing an algorithm for selection of research projects which are legible for knowledge transfer, compiling a code of ethics for observing research stakeholders' intellectual property rights, modifying faculty members' promotion criteria to create incentives for knowledge transfer, modifications in presentation of articles, modifying proposal and final report formats, and designing a backing database. The impact of each hypothesis (intervention will be evaluated through a study appropriate to it's content. The results of this study can be beneficial to research policy makers to utilizing research-based knowledge efficiently.

  17. International Meeting on Needs and Challenges in Translational Medicine: filling the gap between basic research and clinical applications. Book of abstract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This multidisciplinary international meeting is organized by the Istituto Superiore di Sanita, in collaboration with Alleanza Contro il Cancro (Alliance Against Cancer, the Network of the Italian Comprehensive Cancer Centres) and EATRIS (European Advanced Translational Research Infrastructure in Medicine). The primary goal of the meeting is to provide a scientific forum to discuss the recent progress in translational research. Moreover, a particular focus will be devoted to the identification of needs, obstacles and new opportunities to promote translational research in biomedicine. The scientific programme will cover a broad range of fields including: cancer; neurosciences; rare diseases; cardiovascular diseases and infectious and autoimmune diseases. Furthermore, special attention will be given to the discussion of how comprehensive initiatives for addressing critical regulatory issues for First-In-Man - Phase I clinical studies can potentially improve the efficiency and quality of biomedical and translational research at an international level

  18. Research in Danish cancer rehabilitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høybye, Mette Terp; Dalton, Susanne Oksbjerg; Christensen, Jane;

    2008-01-01

    cancer survivors with respect to cancer site, sociodemographic variables, social network, lifestyle, self-rated health and the prevalence of cancer-related late effects. The study is part of the FOCARE research project, in which the long-term effects of the rehabilitation programme are evaluated...... rate at baseline was 86% (n = 1876). Most participants were younger women with breast cancer. They were generally well educated and working. The cancer survivors reported having comprehensive social networks and being physically active. Several cancer-related symptoms were reported by women with...... site, sex, age, family, working status and social position. These challenges might be addressed optimally in multi-dimensional rehabilitation programmes....

  19. Knowledge Translation Research: The Science of Moving Research into Policy and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curran, Janet A.; Grimshaw, Jeremy M.; Hayden, Jill A.; Campbell, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    Research findings will not change health outcomes unless health care organizations, systems, and professionals adopt them in practice. Knowledge translation research is the scientific study of the methods to promote the uptake of research findings by patients, health care providers, managers, and policy makers. Many forms of enquiry addressing…

  20. Translating Patient Involvement into Clinical Practice: An Example from Psychosocial Cancer Rehabilitation in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ledderer, Loni; Nissen, Nina

    We examine meanings and practices of patient involvement, using a psychosocial cancer rehabilitation intervention in Denmark as an example. Drawing on Scandinavian sociological institutionalism and the concepts of translation and editing, we analyse three contexts in which understandings and inte...

  1. The Centre for Oncology Education and Research Translation (CONCERT) Biobank

    OpenAIRE

    Caixeiro, Nicole J.; Aghmesheh, Morteza; De Souza, Paul; Lee, C. Soon

    2015-01-01

    The CONCERT Biobank was established as an open-access, multiple collection site biorepository designed to collect, process, store, retrieve and disseminate biological samples and health information for research projects following informed consent from participants diagnosed with cancer. Informed consent is obtained prior to surgery by either the nursing, medical or biobank staff. Tissues for biobanking are examined within the diagnostic anatomical pathology department of the participating hos...

  2. Environmental Research Translation: Enhancing Interactions with Communities at Contaminated Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez-Andreotta, M.; Brusseau, M. L. L.; Artiola, J. F.; Maier, R. M.; Gandolfi, A. J.

    2015-12-01

    The characterization and remediation of contaminated sites are complex endeavors fraught with numerous challenges. One particular challenge that is receiving increased attention is the development and encouragement of full participation by communities and community members affected by a given site in all facets of decision-making. Many disciplines have been grappling with the challenges associated with environmental and risk communication, public participation in environmental data generation and decision-making, and increasing community capacity. The concepts and methods developed by these disciplines are reviewed, with a focus on their relevance to the specific dynamics associated with contaminated sites. The contributions of these disciplines are then synthesized and integrated to help develop Environmental Research Translation (ERT), a proposed framework for environmental scientists to promote interaction and communication among involved parties at contaminated sites. This holistic approach is rooted in public participation approaches to science, which includes: a transdisciplinary team, effective collaboration, information transfer, public participation in environmental projects, and a cultural model of risk communication. Although there are challenges associated with the implementation of ERT, it is anticipated that application of this proposed translational science method could promote more robust community participation at contaminated sites.

  3. The Translation Evidence Mechanism. The Compact between Researcher and Clinician.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Janet G; Chiappelli, Francesco

    2010-01-01

    Currently, best evidence is a concentrated effort by researchers. Researchers produce information and expect that clinicians will implement their advances in improving patient care. However, difficulties exist in maximizing cooperation and coordination between the producers, facilitators, and users (patients) of best evidence outcomes. The Translational Evidence Mechanism is introduced to overcome these difficulties by forming a compact between researcher, clinician and patient. With this compact, best evidence may become an integral part of private practice when uncertainties arise in patient health status, treatments, and therapies. The mechanism is composed of an organization, central database, and decision algorithm. Communication between the translational evidence organization, clinicians and patients is through the electronic chart. Through the chart, clinical inquiries are made, patient data from provider assessments and practice cost schedules are collected and encrypted (HIPAA standards), then inputted into the central database. Outputs are made within a timeframe suitable to private practice and patient flow. The output consists of a clinical practice guideline that responds to the clinical inquiry with decision, utility and cost data (based on the "average patient") for shared decision-making within informed consent. This shared decision-making allows for patients to "game" treatment scenarios using personal choice inputs. Accompanying the clinical practice guideline is a decision analysis that explains the optimized clinical decision. The resultant clinical decision is returned to the central database using the clinical practice guideline. The result is subsequently used to update current best evidence, indicate the need for new evidence, and analyze the changes made in best evidence implementation. When updates in knowledge occur, these are transmitted to the provider as alerts or flags through patient charts and other communication modalities. PMID

  4. Chronic Myeloid Leukemia (CML) Mouse Model in Translational Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Cong; Li, Shaoguang

    2016-01-01

    Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) is a myeloproliferative disorder characterized by increased proliferation of granulocytic cells without the loss of their capability to differentiate. CML is a clonal disease, originated at the level of Hematopoietic Stem Cells with the Philadelphia chromosome resulting from a reciprocal translocation between the chromosomes 9 and 22t(9;22)-(q34;q11). This translocation produces a fusion gene known as BCR-ABL which acquires uncontrolled tyrosine kinase activity, constantly turning on its downstream signaling molecules/pathways, and promoting proliferation of leukemia cell through anti-apoptosis and acquisition of additional mutations. To evaluate the role of each critical downstream signaling molecule of BCR-ABL and test therapeutic drugs in vivo, it is important to use physiological mouse disease models. Here, we describe a mouse model of CML induced by BCR-ABL retrovirus (MSCV-BCR-ABL-GFP; MIG-BCR-ABL) and how to use this model in translational research.Moreover, to expand the application of this retrovirus induced CML model in a lot of conditional knockout mouse strain, we modified this vector to a triple gene coexpression vector in which we can co-express BCR-ABL, GFP, and a third gene which will be tested in different systems. To apply this triple gene system in conditional gene knockout strains, we can validate the CML development in the knockout mice and trace the leukemia cell following the GFP marker. In this protocol, we also describe how we utilize this triple gene system to prove the function of Pten as a tumor suppressor in leukemogenesis. Overall, this triple gene system expands our research spectrum in current conditional gene knockout strains and benefits our CML translational research. PMID:27150093

  5. Bridging the Divide: Translating Landsat Research Into Usable Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocchio, L. E.; Davis, A. L.

    2006-12-01

    Science has long served humankind. Breakthroughs in medicine have increased longevity and advances in technology have made modern-day conveniences possible. Yet, social benefits begotten by the environmental sciences, although critical for the survival of humanity, have not always been as widely recognized or used. To benefit today's rapidly growing population, the divides between environmental research, applied environmental science, and use of this information by decision makers must be bridged. Lessons about the translation from research to usable science can be learned from the four decades of Landsat history, and these lessons can serve as useful models for bridging the gaps between new technology, scientific research, and the use of that research and technology in real-world problem solving. In 1965, William Pecora, then-director of the U.S. Geological Survey, proposed the idea of a remote sensing satellite program to gather facts about natural resources of Earth. For the next seven years, an intense campaign showing the depth and diversity of satellite imagery applications was waged. This led to the 1972 launch of the first civilian land-observing satellite, Landsat 1. By 1975, successful application research based on Landsat 1 imagery prompted then-NASA Administrator Dr. James Fletcher to proclaim that if one space age development would save the world, it would be Landsat and its successor satellites. Thirty-four years of continual Landsat imaging and related-research has lead to the implementation of many socially beneficial applications, such as improved water management techniques, crop insurance fraud reduction, illicit crop inventories, natural disaster relief planning, continent-scale carbon estimates, and extensive cartographic advances. Despite these successes, the challenge of translating Landsat research into realized social benefits remains. Even in this geospatially-savvy era, the utility of Landsat largely escapes policymakers. Here, in an

  6. Mass spectrometry based translational proteomics for biomarker discovery and application in colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Hong; Chen, Guilin; Guo, Mingquan

    2016-04-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a leading cause of cancer-related death in the world. Clinically, early detection of the disease is the most effective approach to tackle this tough challenge. Discovery and development of reliable and effective diagnostic tools for the assessment of prognosis and prediction of response to drug therapy are urgently needed for personalized therapies and better treatment outcomes. Among many ongoing efforts in search for potential CRC biomarkers, MS-based translational proteomics provides a unique opportunity for the discovery and application of protein biomarkers toward better CRC early detection and treatment. This review updates most recent studies that use preclinical models and clinical materials for the identification of CRC-related protein markers. Some new advances in the development of CRC protein markers such as CRC stem cell related protein markers, SRM/MRM-MS and MS cytometry approaches are also discussed in order to address future directions and challenges from bench translational research to bedside clinical application of CRC biomarkers. PMID:26616366

  7. Action Mechanisms of MicroRNAs in Gastric Cancer and its Application in Translational Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin-en HUANG

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Translational medicine is a new concept proposed in the field of international medicine and emphasizes a two-sided way from bench to beside and from beside to bench. Gastric cancer is a commonly encountered malignant tumor in the digestive system all over the world, with high morbidity and mortality. Although its incidence is decreasing, the outcomes of this disease are among the poorest in all solid tumors. Therefore, it is very urgent to seek new preventive and therapeutic targets for gastric cancer and to make basic research results apply in clinic. MicroRNAs (miRNAs are a classification of endogenous non-coding RNA with the function of regulating the expression of target genes. More and more studies have revealed that miRNAs are intimately associated with the occurrence, development, treatment and prognosis of gastric cancer. Therefore, this review provides an overview of the effects of miRNAs in gastric cancer on the cell cycle, apoptosis, invasion, metastasis, radiosensitivity and chemosensitivity.

  8. Some experiences and opportunities for big data in translational research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chute, Christopher G; Ullman-Cullere, Mollie; Wood, Grant M; Lin, Simon M; He, Min; Pathak, Jyotishman

    2013-10-01

    Health care has become increasingly information intensive. The advent of genomic data, integrated into patient care, significantly accelerates the complexity and amount of clinical data. Translational research in the present day increasingly embraces new biomedical discovery in this data-intensive world, thus entering the domain of "big data." The Electronic Medical Records and Genomics consortium has taught us many lessons, while simultaneously advances in commodity computing methods enable the academic community to affordably manage and process big data. Although great promise can emerge from the adoption of big data methods and philosophy, the heterogeneity and complexity of clinical data, in particular, pose additional challenges for big data inferencing and clinical application. However, the ultimate comparability and consistency of heterogeneous clinical information sources can be enhanced by existing and emerging data standards, which promise to bring order to clinical data chaos. Meaningful Use data standards in particular have already simplified the task of identifying clinical phenotyping patterns in electronic health records. PMID:24008998

  9. Translational research in primary mitochondrial diseases: challenges and opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moraes, Carlos T; Anderson, Vernon; Mohan, Charles

    2013-11-01

    On March 8–9, 2012, the NIH intramural and extramural research communities as well as representatives from industries and foundations with a common interest in primary mitochondrial diseases met in Bethesda to identify the major barriers to the development of better treatment for mitochondrial diseases. Besides the importance to the patient population, it has become clear in the last decade that advances in understanding and treating primary mitochondrial diseases will impact research into a large number of degenerative conditions known to have a significant mitochondrial dysfunction component in their pathogenic mechanisms (secondary mitochondrial diseases) that affect millions of people, including Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease,diabetes, ALS, autism spectrum disorders, and many others. We would like to make this discussion available to the scientific community, as it provides a framework on how patient advocacy groups, individual academic units, pharmaceutical companies, and the NIH can interact to address problems related to mitochondrial diseases.The main goals of this workshop were as follows: (1) to share information related to primary mitochondrial disease among the NIH Intramural and Extramural Research Program Investigators, (2) to develop and/or enhance systems to facilitate future collaboration and sharing of information, (3) to survey obstacles, needs and priorities of primary mitochondrial diseases research, and (4) to develop mechanisms to enhance translation of basic science discoveries to diagnostics and therapeutics. PMID:23962609

  10. Reengineering the national clinical and translational research enterprise: the strategic plan of the National Clinical and Translational Science Awards Consortium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, Steven E; Berglund, Lars; Bernard, Gordon R; Califf, Robert M; Fitzgerald, Garret A; Johnson, Peter C

    2010-03-01

    Advances in human health require the efficient and rapid translation of scientific discoveries into effective clinical treatments; this process, in turn, depends on observational data gathered from patients, communities, and public health research that can be used to guide basic scientific investigation. Such bidirectional translational science, however, faces unprecedented challenges due to the rapid pace of scientific and technological development, as well as the difficulties of negotiating increasingly complex regulatory and commercial environments that overlap the research domain. Further, numerous barriers to translational science have emerged among the nation's academic research centers, including basic structural and cultural impediments to innovation and collaboration, shortages of trained investigators, and inadequate funding.To address these serious and systemic problems, in 2006 the National Institutes of Health created the Clinical and Translational Science Awards (CTSA) program, which aims to catalyze the transformation of biomedical research at a national level, speeding the discovery and development of therapies, fostering collaboration, engaging communities, and training succeeding generations of clinical and translational researchers. The authors report in detail on the planning process, begun in 2008, that was used to engage stakeholders and to identify, refine, and ultimately implement the CTSA program's overarching strategic goals. They also discuss the implications and likely impact of this strategic planning process as it is applied among the nation's academic health centers. PMID:20182119

  11. Multiplexed electrochemical protein detection and translation to personalized cancer diagnostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusling, James F

    2013-06-01

    Measuring diagnostic panels of multiple proteins promises a new, personalized approach to early detection and therapy of diseases like cancer. Levels of biomarker proteins in patient serum can provide a continually updated record of disease status. Research in electrochemical detection of proteins has produced exquisitely sensitive approaches. Most utilize ELISA-like sandwich immunoassays incorporating various aspects of nanotechnology. Several of these ultrasensitive methodologies have been extended to microfluidic multiplexed protein detection, but engineered solutions are needed to measure more proteins in a single device from a small patient sample such as a drop of blood or tissue lysate. To achieve clinical or point-of-care (POC) use, simplicity and low cost are essential. In multiplexed microfluidic immunoassays, required reagent additions and washing steps pose a significant problem calling for creative engineering. A grand challenge is to develop a general cancer screening device to accurately measure 50-100 proteins in a simple, cost-effective fashion. This will require creative solutions to simplified reagent addition and multiplexing. PMID:23635325

  12. Translational nutrition research at UC-Davis – the key role of the clinical and translational science center

    Science.gov (United States)

    To better understand the facility and equipment needs for human clinical nutrition research the New York Academy of Sciences presented a symposium. This paper is the result of that symposium and provides information into how clinical nutrition research is conducted at the Clinical and Translational ...

  13. YKL-40—A Protein in the Field of Translational Medicine: A Role as a Biomarker in Cancer Patients?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    YKL-40 is a 40 kDa glycoprotein produced by cancer cells, inflammatory cells and stem cells. It probably has a role in cell proliferation and differentiation, inflammation, protection against apoptosis, stimulation of angiogenesis, and regulation of extracellular tissue remodelling. Plasma levels of YKL-40 are often elevated in patients with localized or advanced cancer compared to age-matched healthy subjects. Several studies have demonstrated that high plasma YKL-40 is an independent prognostic biomarker of short survival in patients with different types of cancer. However, there is not yet sufficient data to support determination of plasma YKL-40 outside research projects as a biomarker for screening of gastrointestinal cancer and determination of treatment response and poor prognosis before or during treatment and follow-up. Plasma YKL-40 is also elevated in patients with other diseases than cancer, e.g., severe infections, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, chronic obstructive lung disease, asthma, liver fibrosis and rheumatoid arthritis. Co-morbidity should therefore always be considered in patients with cancer, since other sources than cancer cells can increase plasma YKL-40 levels. Future focused translational research projects combining basic and clinical research are needed in a joint effort to answer questions of the complex function and regulation of YKL-40 and the question if plasma YKL-40 is a clinical useful biomarker in patients with cancer

  14. YKL-40—A Protein in the Field of Translational Medicine: A Role as a Biomarker in Cancer Patients?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schultz, Nicolai A. [Departments of Surgical Gastroenterology, Herlev Hospital, University of Copenhagen, Herlev Ringvej 75, DK-2730 Herlev (Denmark); Johansen, Julia S., E-mail: julia.johansen@post3.tele.dk [Departments of Oncology, Herlev Hospital, University of Copenhagen, Herlev Ringvej 75, DK-2730 Herlev (Denmark); Departments of Medicine, Herlev Hospital, University of Copenhagen, Herlev Ringvej 75, DK-2730 Herlev (Denmark)

    2010-07-12

    YKL-40 is a 40 kDa glycoprotein produced by cancer cells, inflammatory cells and stem cells. It probably has a role in cell proliferation and differentiation, inflammation, protection against apoptosis, stimulation of angiogenesis, and regulation of extracellular tissue remodelling. Plasma levels of YKL-40 are often elevated in patients with localized or advanced cancer compared to age-matched healthy subjects. Several studies have demonstrated that high plasma YKL-40 is an independent prognostic biomarker of short survival in patients with different types of cancer. However, there is not yet sufficient data to support determination of plasma YKL-40 outside research projects as a biomarker for screening of gastrointestinal cancer and determination of treatment response and poor prognosis before or during treatment and follow-up. Plasma YKL-40 is also elevated in patients with other diseases than cancer, e.g., severe infections, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, chronic obstructive lung disease, asthma, liver fibrosis and rheumatoid arthritis. Co-morbidity should therefore always be considered in patients with cancer, since other sources than cancer cells can increase plasma YKL-40 levels. Future focused translational research projects combining basic and clinical research are needed in a joint effort to answer questions of the complex function and regulation of YKL-40 and the question if plasma YKL-40 is a clinical useful biomarker in patients with cancer.

  15. YKL-40—A Protein in the Field of Translational Medicine: A Role as a Biomarker in Cancer Patients?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia S. Johansen

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available YKL-40 is a 40 kDa glycoprotein produced by cancer cells, inflammatory cells and stem cells. It probably has a role in cell proliferation and differentiation, inflammation, protection against apoptosis, stimulation of angiogenesis, and regulation of extracellular tissue remodelling. Plasma levels of YKL-40 are often elevated in patients with localized or advanced cancer compared to age-matched healthy subjects. Several studies have demonstrated that high plasma YKL-40 is an independent prognostic biomarker of short survival in patients with different types of cancer. However, there is not yet sufficient data to support determination of plasma YKL-40 outside research projects as a biomarker for screening of gastrointestinal cancer and determination of treatment response and poor prognosis before or during treatment and follow-up. Plasma YKL-40 is also elevated in patients with other diseases than cancer, e.g., severe infections, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, chronic obstructive lung disease, asthma, liver fibrosis and rheumatoid arthritis. Co-morbidity should therefore always be considered in patients with cancer, since other sources than cancer cells can increase plasma YKL-40 levels. Future focused translational research projects combining basic and clinical research are needed in a joint effort to answer questions of the complex function and regulation of YKL-40 and the question if plasma YKL-40 is a clinical useful biomarker in patients with cancer.

  16. RESEARCH ON IMAGE TRANSLATION BETWEEN SAR AND OPTICAL IMAGERY

    OpenAIRE

    Fu; Zhang,

    2012-01-01

    Compare to optical sensors, Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) sensors can work at all time and under all weather conditions. However, SAR images are less intuitive and more difficult to understand. To complement advantages of optical and SAR sensors, a technique of image translation is put forward. Firstly, the concept named as remote sensing image translation is presented, and a set of technology thinking for multi-source remote sensing image translation is also given. Image understand...

  17. Knowledge translation research in population health: establishing a collaborative research agenda

    OpenAIRE

    Laurendeau Marie-Claire; Ridde Valéry; Dagenais Christian; Souffez Karine

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Despite the increasing mobilization of researchers and funding organizations around knowledge translation (KT) in Canada and elsewhere, many questions have been only partially answered, particularly in the field of population health. This article presents the results of a systematic process to draw out possible avenues of collaboration for researchers, practitioners and decision-makers who work in the area of KT. The main objective was to establish a research agenda on kno...

  18. Translating evidence into practice: the role of health research funders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holmes Bev

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A growing body of work on knowledge translation (KT reveals significant gaps between what is known to improve health, and what is done to improve health. The literature and practice also suggest that KT has the potential to narrow those gaps, leading to more evidence-informed healthcare. In response, Canadian health research funders and agencies have made KT a priority. This article describes how one funding agency determined its KT role and in the process developed a model that other agencies could use when considering KT programs. Discussion While ‘excellence’ is an important criterion by which to evaluate and fund health research, it alone does not ensure relevance to societal health priorities. There is increased demand for return on investments in health research in the form of societal and health system benefits. Canadian health research funding agencies are responding to these demands by emphasizing relevance as a funding criterion and supporting researchers and research users to use the evidence generated. Based on recommendations from the literature, an environmental scan, broad circulation of an iterative discussion paper, and an expert working group process, our agency developed a plan to maximize our role in KT. Key to the process was development of a model comprising five key functional areas that together create the conditions for effective KT: advancing KT science; building KT capacity; managing KT projects; funding KT activities; and advocating for KT. Observations made during the planning process of relevance to the KT enterprise are: the importance of delineating KT and communications, and information and knowledge; determining responsibility for KT; supporting implementation and evaluation; and promoting the message that both research and KT take time to realize results. Summary Challenges exist in fulfilling expectations that research evidence results in beneficial impacts for society. However, health

  19. Mouse models for cancer research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Zhang; Lynette Moore; Ping Ji

    2011-01-01

    Mouse models of cancer enable researchers to leamn about tumor biology in complicated and dynamic physiological systems. Since the development of gene targeting in mice, cancer biologists have been among the most frequent users of transgenic mouse models, which have dramatically increased knowledge about how cancers form and grow. The Chinese Joumnal of Cancer will publish a series of papers reporting the use of mouse models in studying genetic events in cancer cases. This editorial is an overview of the development and applications of mouse models of cancer and directs the reader to upcoming papers describing the use of these models to be published in coming issues, beginning with three articles in the current issue.

  20. Researchers Identify Early Sign of Pancreatic Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of pancreatic cancer Researchers identify early sign of pancreatic cancer September 28, 2014 Tags: PancreaticCancer Brian Wolpin, MD ... discovered a sign of the early development of pancreatic cancer – an upsurge in certain amino acids that occurs ...

  1. Proteomics in Pancreatic Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Ruihui; Li, Zhaoshen; Li, Shude; Gao, Jun

    2011-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer is a highly aggressive malignancy with a poor prognosis and deeply affects the life of people. Therefore, the earlier diagnosis and better treatments are urgently needed. In recent years, the proteomic technologies are well established and growing rapidly and have been widely applied in clinical applications, especially in pancreatic cancer research. In this paper, we attempt to discuss the development of current proteomic technologies and the application of proteomics to the field of pancreatic cancer research. This will explore the potential perspective in revealing pathogenesis, making the diagnosis earlier and treatment. PMID:22084685

  2. Roles of contract research organizations in translational medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mei-Shu Shih

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Transitional medicine/science is shifting the medical research paradigm from compound-based to evidence-based drug/device discovery. It is increasing interdisciplinary collaborations, enhancing usage of advanced technologies, and facilitating therapeutics reaching patients faster. The fundamental theme of evidence-based discovery is to apply what is revealed in preclinical experimentation and to bring the resulting safety and efficacy to clinics. In the medical fields, a contract research organization (CRO works like a hired agent who has corresponding knowledge and experience to conduct and complete tasks for a sponsor. The relationship is business, and the contract is for deliverables. The increasingly high volume of sponsored outsourcing work has made this for-profit business boom in the past decade. Location boundaries are being blurred under globalization in the sciences and cross-border regulatory reviews. Getting from bench to bedside is a winding road with many obstacles and high hurdles. Efficient teamwork becomes essential to materialize ideas and bring them to the market. The professionals within team communities include drug/device makers and CROs. It has become increasingly obvious that CROs play pivotal roles in the chain of discovery/design, developing product to market through in vitro, in vivo, and ex vivo testing during preclinical experimentations and clinical trials. Project management teams are responsible for nurturing the materialization in a collaborative manner and enhancing the productivity of the pipelines. CROs have many functional aspects and specialties, and no one organization is fully capable of serving, i.e., integrated services, with expertise in each step of the chain to the needs of a variety of sponsors. Instead of competition among the CROs themselves, the continuously expanding market demands can be shared by Expertise-Based Integrated Services among allied CROs, in contrast to the few large CROs

  3. mTOR Signaling in Protein Translation Regulation: Implications in Cancer Genesis and Therapeutic Interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehvish Showkat

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available mTOR is a central nutrient sensor that signals a cell to grow and proliferate. Through distinct protein complexes it regulates different levels of available cellular energy substrates required for cell growth. One of the important functions of the complex is to maintain available amino acid pool by regulating protein translation. Dysregulation of mTOR pathway leads to aberrant protein translation which manifests into various pathological states. Our review focuses on the role mTOR signaling plays in protein translation and its physiological role. It also throws some light on available data that show translation dysregulation as a cause of pathological complexities like cancer and the available drugs that target the pathway for cancer treatment.

  4. Translating Research into Clinical Scale Manufacturing of Mesenchymal Stromal Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Bieback

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available It sounds simple to obtain sufficient numbers of cells derived from fetal or adult human tissues, isolate and/or expand the stem cells, and then transplant an appropriate number of these cells into the patient at the correct location. However, translating basic research into routine therapies is a complex multistep process which necessitates product regulation. The challenge relates to managing the expected therapeutic benefits with the potential risks and to balance the fast move to clinical trials with time-consuming cautious risk assessment. This paper will focus on the definition of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs, and challenges and achievements in the manufacturing process enabling their use in clinical studies. It will allude to different cellular sources, special capacities of MSCs, but also to current regulations, with a special focus on accessory material of human or animal origin, like media supplements. As cellular integrity and purity, formulation and lot release testing of the final product, validation of all procedures, and quality assurance are of utmost necessity, these topics will be addressed.

  5. Integrative oncology drug discovery accompanied by preclinical translational research as prerequisite for clinical development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Jens

    2014-06-01

    The molecular heterogeneity of cancer calls for individualized therapies to become the standard of care. It is now generally accepted that target-specific compounds require specific new development programs. But, even for new drugs with general mode of action (i.e., chemotherapy), tailored treatment approaches, such as specific schedules or combinations, have been shown to improve the therapeutic outcome. Therefore, the preclinical development of new therapeutic agents needs, next to the "classical pharmacodynamic studies", the implementation of integrative translational research (TR) as early as possible. New TR approaches, starting already at target identification and validation (TIV) will allow to defining the optimal patient population for clinical development, to tailor individual treatment of the tumor disease and to choose a rational basis among the manifold options for treatment combinations. We will discuss several examples from TR studies, which have initially been started to evaluate the molecular mode of action and to recognize mechanisms which can lead to resistance. Research was extended later to identify predictive response biomarkers and establish a rationale for combination with different therapies. A detailed gene expression analysis of lung cancer cells and apoptotic pathway interference studies in colon cancer cells provided insight in the molecular mechanisms of action. These new findings are correlated with results from other studies performed during the preclinical development program. We discuss pros and cons, successes and failures of our integrative preclinical development program and provide recommendations for future oncology projects. PMID:25841411

  6. Ames Life Science Data Archive: Translational Rodent Research at Ames

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Alan E.; French, Alison J.; Ngaotheppitak, Ratana; Leung, Dorothy M.; Vargas, Roxana S.; Maese, Chris; Stewart, Helen

    2014-01-01

    The Life Science Data Archive (LSDA) office at Ames is responsible for collecting, curating, distributing and maintaining information pertaining to animal and plant experiments conducted in low earth orbit aboard various space vehicles from 1965 to present. The LSDA will soon be archiving data and tissues samples collected on the next generation of commercial vehicles; e.g., SpaceX & Cygnus Commercial Cargo Craft. To date over 375 rodent flight experiments with translational application have been archived by the Ames LSDA office. This knowledge base of fundamental research can be used to understand mechanisms that affect higher organisms in microgravity and help define additional research whose results could lead the way to closing gaps identified by the Human Research Program (HRP). This poster will highlight Ames contribution to the existing knowledge base and how the LSDA can be a resource to help answer the questions surrounding human health in long duration space exploration. In addition, it will illustrate how this body of knowledge was utilized to further our understanding of how space flight affects the human system and the ability to develop countermeasures that negate the deleterious effects of space flight. The Ames Life Sciences Data Archive (ALSDA) includes current descriptions of over 700 experiments conducted aboard the Shuttle, International Space Station (ISS), NASA/MIR, Bion/Cosmos, Gemini, Biosatellites, Apollo, Skylab, Russian Foton, and ground bed rest studies. Research areas cover Behavior and Performance, Bone and Calcium Physiology, Cardiovascular Physiology, Cell and Molecular Biology, Chronobiology, Developmental Biology, Endocrinology, Environmental Monitoring, Gastrointestinal Physiology, Hematology, Immunology, Life Support System, Metabolism and Nutrition, Microbiology, Muscle Physiology, Neurophysiology, Pharmacology, Plant Biology, Pulmonary Physiology, Radiation Biology, Renal, Fluid and Electrolyte Physiology, and Toxicology. These

  7. The Role of Translational Research in Addressing Health Disparities: a Conceptual Framework

    OpenAIRE

    Fleming, Erik S.; Perkins, James; Easa, David; Conde, Jose G.; Richard S. Baker; Southerland, William M.; Dottin, Robert; Benabe, Julio E.; Ofili, Elizabeth O.; Bond, Vincent C; McClure, Shelia A.; Sayre, Michael H.; Beanan, Maureen J.; Norris, Keith C.

    2008-01-01

    Translational research has tremendous potential as a tool to reduce health disparities in the United States, but a lack of common understanding about the scope of this dynamic, multidisciplinary approach to research has limited its use. The term “translational research” is often associated with the phrase “bench to bedside,” but the expedited movement of biomedical advances from the laboratory to clinical trials is only the first phase of the translational process. The second phase of transla...

  8. An Analysis of Research Production in Corpus Linguistics Applied to Translation

    OpenAIRE

    Candel-Mora, Miguel Ángel; Vargas Sierra, Chelo

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the paper is to analyze with data the consolidation of corpus methods in translation and to specify which issues are under research and the features that characterize these studies. To that end, different contributions to corpus linguistics research, teaching and practice of translation were compiled to build a sufficiently representative sample: 389 bibliographic records on corpus linguistics applied to translation. This study deals with the identification and analysis of differen...

  9. Vimentin and post-translational modifications in cell motility during cancer - a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, A-M; Tao, Z-Q; Li, R; Wang, Y-Q; Wang, X; Zhao, J

    2016-07-01

    The post-translational modifications (PTMs) are defined as the covalent modification or enzymatic modification of proteins during or after protein biosynthesis. Proteins are synthesized by ribosomes translating mRNA into polypeptide chains, which may then undergo PTM to form the mature protein product. PTMs are important components in cell signaling. Moreover, it is a known fact that PTM regulation offers an immense array and depth of regulatory possibilities. The present review article will focus on their possible role in cancer cell motility with special reference to vimentin, an intermediate filament (IF), as the later is an important process responsible for life-threatening state viz. cancer metastasis. PMID:27383311

  10. Interprofessional collaborative practice within cancer teams: Translating evidence into action. A mixed methods study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberge Danièle

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A regional integrated cancer network has implemented a program (educational workshops, reflective and mentoring activities designed to support the uptake of evidence-informed interprofessional collaborative practices (referred to in this text as EIPCP within cancer teams. This research project, which relates to the Registered Nurses' Association of Ontario (RNAO Best Practice Guidelines and other sources of research evidence, represents a unique opportunity to learn more about the factors and processes involved in the translation of evidence-based recommendations into professional practices. The planned study seeks to address context-specific challenges and the concerns of nurses and other stakeholders regarding the uptake of evidence-based recommendations to effectively promote and support interprofessional collaborative practices. Aim This study aims to examine the uptake of evidence-based recommendations from best practice guidelines intended to enhance interprofessional collaborative practices within cancer teams. Design The planned study constitutes a practical trial, defined as a trial designed to provide comprehensive information that is grounded in real-world healthcare dynamics. An exploratory mixed methods study design will be used. It will involve collecting quantitative data to assess professionals' knowledge and attitudes, as well as practice environment factors associated with effective uptake of evidence-based recommendations. Semi-structured interviews will be conducted concurrently with care providers to gather qualitative data for describing the processes involved in the translation of evidence into action from both the users' (n = 12 and providers' (n = 24 perspectives. The Graham et al. Ottawa Model of Research Use will serve to construct operational definitions of concepts, and to establish the initial coding labels to be used in the thematic analysis of the qualitative data. Quantitative and qualitative

  11. Research on cancer diagnosis in Malaysia: current status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Looi, L M; Zubaidah, Z; Cheah, P L; Cheong, S K; Gudum, H R; Iekhsan, O; Ikram, S I; Jamal, R; Mak, J W; Othman, N H; Puteri, J N; Rosline, H; Sabariah, A R; Seow, H F; Sharifah, N A

    2004-06-01

    diagnosis, accounting for 65.6% (RM 9.7 million) of cancer project funds. The 8th Malaysia Plan saw a change in research strategy. The IRPA agency fielded several top-down projects which encouraged a multicentre and multidisciplinary approach. This resulted in larger funding per project i.e. RM32 million for 49 projects. There was also a surge of interest in drug development and natural products. Because of this shift in direction, cancer diagnosis projects constituted only 51% of IRPA-funded cancer projects. Nonetheless funding for cancer diagnosis research has exceeded that of the 7th Malaysia Plan, being RM12.5 million by March 2004. The majority of such research is carried out at the Universities, engaging a large number of young scientists and postgraduate students (51 MSc and 21 PhD). A lot of research findings presented at scientific meetings have not yet been published and there is a glaring shortage of patents and commercialization of research findings (such as creation of test kits). Because diagnosis is very much a part of clinical practice, many researchers felt satisfied and confident that their work will be translated into practice and will significantly improve diagnostic services in Malaysia. National guidelines and consensus development on at least three malignancies i.e. breast cancer, oral cancer and lymphoma, have substantial basis in local R&D work. Problems encountered in research included (1) insufficient funding to realize research objectives, (2) lack of local expertise (most research assistants are inexperienced BSc graduates with no or minimal research experience), (3) inadequate technical support from vendors during equipment failure, (4) inexperienced Institutional development units to assist in product development, (5) lack of venture capital for commercialization of findings, and (6) inadequate incentives to undertake research. Researchers pointed out that plans to promote research should include the establishment of (1) regional and national

  12. Toward translational incremental similarity-based reasoning in breast cancer grading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tutac, Adina E.; Racoceanu, Daniel; Leow, Wee-Keng; Müller, Henning; Putti, Thomas; Cretu, Vladimir

    2009-02-01

    One of the fundamental issues in bridging the gap between the proliferation of Content-Based Image Retrieval (CBIR) systems in the scientific literature and the deficiency of their usage in medical community is based on the characteristic of CBIR to access information by images or/and text only. Yet, the way physicians are reasoning about patients leads intuitively to a case representation. Hence, a proper solution to overcome this gap is to consider a CBIR approach inspired by Case-Based Reasoning (CBR), which naturally introduces medical knowledge structured by cases. Moreover, in a CBR system, the knowledge is incrementally added and learned. The purpose of this study is to initiate a translational solution from CBIR algorithms to clinical practice, using a CBIR/CBR hybrid approach. Therefore, we advance the idea of a translational incremental similarity-based reasoning (TISBR), using combined CBIR and CBR characteristics: incremental learning of medical knowledge, medical case-based structure of the knowledge (CBR), image usage to retrieve similar cases (CBIR), similarity concept (central for both paradigms). For this purpose, three major axes are explored: the indexing, the cases retrieval and the search refinement, applied to Breast Cancer Grading (BCG), a powerful breast cancer prognosis exam. The effectiveness of this strategy is currently evaluated over cases provided by the Pathology Department of Singapore National University Hospital, for the indexing. With its current accuracy, TISBR launches interesting perspectives for complex reasoning in future medical research, opening the way to a better knowledge traceability and a better acceptance rate of computer-aided diagnosis assistance among practitioners.

  13. Open access to large scale datasets is needed to translate knowledge of cancer heterogeneity into better patient outcomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew H Beck

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In this guest editorial, Andrew Beck discusses the importance of open access to big data for translating knowledge of cancer heterogeneity into better outcomes for cancer patients.

  14. Global histone post-translational modifications and cancer:Biomarkers for diagnosis,prognosis and treatment?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shafqat; Ali; Khan; Divya; Reddy; Sanjay; Gupta

    2015-01-01

    Global alterations in epigenetic landscape are now recognized as a hallmark of cancer. Epigenetic mechanismssuch as DNA methylation,histone modifications,nucleosome positioning and non-coding RNAs are proven to have strong association with cancer. In particular,covalent post-translational modifications of histone proteins are known to play an important role in chromatin remodeling and thereby in regulation of gene expression. Further,histone modifications have also been associated with different aspects of carcinogenesis and have been studied for their role in the better management of cancer patients. In this review,we will explore and discuss how histone modifications are involved in cancer diagnosis,prognosis and treatment.

  15. Integrating Heterogeneous Biomedical Data for Cancer Research: the CARPEM infrastructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rance, Bastien; Canuel, Vincent; Countouris, Hector; Laurent-Puig, Pierre; Burgun, Anita

    2016-01-01

    Cancer research involves numerous disciplines. The multiplicity of data sources and their heterogeneous nature render the integration and the exploration of the data more and more complex. Translational research platforms are a promising way to assist scientists in these tasks. In this article, we identify a set of scientific and technical principles needed to build a translational research platform compatible with ethical requirements, data protection and data-integration problems. We describe the solution adopted by the CARPEM cancer research program to design and deploy a platform able to integrate retrospective, prospective, and day-to-day care data. We designed a three-layer architecture composed of a data collection layer, a data integration layer and a data access layer. We leverage a set of open-source resources including i2b2 and tranSMART. PMID:27437039

  16. Integrating Heterogeneous Biomedical Data for Cancer Research: the CARPEM infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canuel, Vincent; Countouris, Hector; Laurent-Puig, Pierre; Burgun, Anita

    2016-01-01

    Summary Cancer research involves numerous disciplines. The multiplicity of data sources and their heterogeneous nature render the integration and the exploration of the data more and more complex. Translational research platforms are a promising way to assist scientists in these tasks. In this article, we identify a set of scientific and technical principles needed to build a translational research platform compatible with ethical requirements, data protection and data-integration problems. We describe the solution adopted by the CARPEM cancer research program to design and deploy a platform able to integrate retrospective, prospective, and day-to-day care data. We designed a three-layer architecture composed of a data collection layer, a data integration layer and a data access layer. We leverage a set of open-source resources including i2b2 and tranSMART. PMID:27437039

  17. Metformin inhibits mammalian target of rapamycin-dependent translation initiation in breast cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowling, Ryan J O; Zakikhani, Mahvash; Fantus, I George; Pollak, Michael; Sonenberg, Nahum

    2007-11-15

    Metformin is used for the treatment of type 2 diabetes because of its ability to lower blood glucose. The effects of metformin are explained by the activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), which regulates cellular energy metabolism. Recently, we showed that metformin inhibits the growth of breast cancer cells through the activation of AMPK. Here, we show that metformin inhibits translation initiation. In MCF-7 breast cancer cells, metformin treatment led to a 30% decrease in global protein synthesis. Metformin caused a dose-dependent specific decrease in cap-dependent translation, with a maximal inhibition of 40%. Polysome profile analysis showed an inhibition of translation initiation as metformin treatment of MCF-7 cells led to a shift of mRNAs from heavy to light polysomes and a concomitant increase in the amount of 80S ribosomes. The decrease in translation caused by metformin was associated with mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibition, and a decrease in the phosphorylation of S6 kinase, ribosomal protein S6, and eIF4E-binding protein 1. The effects of metformin on translation were mediated by AMPK, as treatment of cells with the AMPK inhibitor compound C prevented the inhibition of translation. Furthermore, translation in MDA-MB-231 cells, which lack the AMPK kinase LKB1, and in tuberous sclerosis complex 2 null (TSC2(-/-)) mouse embryonic fibroblasts was unaffected by metformin, indicating that LKB1 and TSC2 are involved in the mechanism of action of metformin. These results show that metformin-mediated AMPK activation leads to inhibition of mTOR and a reduction in translation initiation, thus providing a possible mechanism of action of metformin in the inhibition of cancer cell growth. PMID:18006825

  18. Research progress in protein post-translational modification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Protein post-translational modification plays an important role in organism. It makes the protein obtain more complicated structures, perfect functions, more accurate regulations and more specific operations. The most common protein post- translational modifications include ubiquitylation, phosphorylation, glycosylation, lipodation, methylation, and acetylation and so on. Ubiquitylation plays an essential role in cellular functions such as cellular differentiation, apoptosis, DNA repair, antigen processing, and stress response. Phosphorylation is related to physiological and pathological processes including cellular signal conduction, nervous activity, muscle contraction and proliferation, development and differentiation of cells. Protein glycosylation is of great importance for many cell processes like immunoprotection, virus replication, cell growth, and occurrence of inflammation and so on. Lipodation is vital to signal conduction. Histone methylation and acetylation are responsible for transcription regulation. In vivo, different post-translational modifications do not occur isolatedly, but influence each other's function and cooperate with each other. Understanding what influences the post-translational modifications will help to uncover cellular processes and protein network in molecular level and finally direct more precise drug design targeting molecules. Post-translational modification mimics are set to dominate the next wave of protein therapeutics and become powerful medicinal tools in the 21st century.

  19. An Australasian perspective on sarcoma research, translational biology and clinical trials: the Australasian Sarcoma Study Group (ASSG).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Susie; Caruso, Denise; Desai, Jayesh

    2014-02-01

    Each year approximately 800 Australians are diagnosed with sarcoma, accounting for less than 1% of cancer diagnoses overall. A significant proportion of these sarcoma cases are in children and adolescents. The rarity and heterogeneity of this group of tumours, coupled with Australasia's relative geographical isolation, pose significant challenges in developing locoregional basic, translational and clinical research. The Australasian Sarcoma Study Group (ASSG) was established in 2008 as a Cooperative Cancer Clinical Research Group and is now the peak body for sarcoma research in Australasia, providing a mechanism to drive and coordinate collaborative research, promote education and assist with advocating for sarcoma within the region. This paper describes the development of ASSG and examines the current state of play with regard to sarcoma research in Australasia. PMID:24378392

  20. Molecular Profiling to Optimize Treatment in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer: A Review of Potential Molecular Targets for Radiation Therapy by the Translational Research Program of the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Therapeutic decisions in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) have been mainly based on disease stage, performance status, and co-morbidities, and rarely on histological or molecular classification. Rather than applying broad treatments to unselected patients that may result in survival increase of only weeks to months, research efforts should be, and are being, focused on identifying predictive markers for molecularly targeted therapy and determining genomic signatures that predict survival and response to specific therapies. The availability of such targeted biologics requires their use to be matched to tumors of corresponding molecular vulnerability for maximum efficacy. Molecular markers such as epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), K-ras, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), and anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) represent potential parameters guide treatment decisions. Ultimately, identifying patients who will respond to specific therapies will allow optimal efficacy with minimal toxicity, which will result in more judicious and effective application of expensive targeted therapy as the new paradigm of personalized medicine develops.

  1. Molecular Profiling to Optimize Treatment in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer: A Review of Potential Molecular Targets for Radiation Therapy by the Translational Research Program of the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ausborn, Natalie L. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, Tennessee (United States); Le, Quynh Thu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University, Palo Alto, California (United States); Bradley, Jeffrey D. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri (United States); Choy, Hak [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas (United States); Dicker, Adam P. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Jefferson Medical College of Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Saha, Debabrata [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas (United States); Simko, Jeff [Department of Urology, University of California, San Francisco, California (United States); Story, Michael D. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas (United States); Torossian, Artour [Department of Radiation Oncology, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, Tennessee (United States); Lu, Bo, E-mail: bo.lu@jeffersonhospital.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, Jefferson Medical College of Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States)

    2012-07-15

    Therapeutic decisions in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) have been mainly based on disease stage, performance status, and co-morbidities, and rarely on histological or molecular classification. Rather than applying broad treatments to unselected patients that may result in survival increase of only weeks to months, research efforts should be, and are being, focused on identifying predictive markers for molecularly targeted therapy and determining genomic signatures that predict survival and response to specific therapies. The availability of such targeted biologics requires their use to be matched to tumors of corresponding molecular vulnerability for maximum efficacy. Molecular markers such as epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), K-ras, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), and anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) represent potential parameters guide treatment decisions. Ultimately, identifying patients who will respond to specific therapies will allow optimal efficacy with minimal toxicity, which will result in more judicious and effective application of expensive targeted therapy as the new paradigm of personalized medicine develops.

  2. What's New in Testicular Cancer Research and Treatment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... resources for testicular cancer What’s new in testicular cancer research and treatment? Important research into testicular cancer is ... Your Doctor After Treatment What`s New in Testicular Cancer Research? Other Resources and References Cancer Information Cancer Basics ...

  3. What's New in Anal Cancer Research and Treatment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... resources for anal cancer What’s new in anal cancer research and treatment? Important research into anal cancer is ... Your Doctor After Treatment What`s New in Anal Cancer Research? Other Resources and References Cancer Information Cancer Basics ...

  4. Breast Cancer Research at NASA

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    Isolation of human mammary epithelial cells (HMEC) from breast cancer susceptible tissue. Outgrowth of cells from duct element in upper right corner cultured in a standard dish; most cells spontaneously die during early cell divisions, but a few will establish long-term growth. NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is sponsoring research with Bioreactors, rotating wall vessels designed to grow tissue samples in space, to understand how breast cancer works. This ground-based work studies the growth and assembly of human mammary epithelial cell (HMEC) from breast cancer susceptible tissue. Radiation can make the cells cancerous, thus allowing better comparisons of healthy vs. tunorous tissue. Credit: Dr. Robert Tichmond, NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC).

  5. Pioneer Valley Life Sciences Institute Translational Biomedical Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, Sallie; Shao, Rong; Schwartz, Lawrence; Jerry, D Joseph

    2012-09-20

    1. Analysis of angiogenic factors in breast cancer angiogenesis. Determine whether Acheron and YKL-40 were elevated in subsets of primary breast cancers and if they participated directly in determining the behavior of tumors. 2. Use of polymers for chemotherapeutic delivery to breast cancer tumors. The experiments were designed to define the utility of biocompatible polymers for addressing certain limitations and establish a flexible platform for delivery of diverse compound.

  6. Translational neural engineering: multiple perspectives on bringing benchtop research into the clinical domain

    OpenAIRE

    Rousche, Patrick; Schneeweis, David M.; Perreault, Eric J.; Jensen, Winnie

    2008-01-01

    A half-day forum to address a wide range of issues related to translational neural engineering was conducted at the annual meeting of the Biomedical Engineering Society. Successful practitioners of translational neural engineering from academics, clinical medicine and industry were invited to share a diversity of perspectives and experiences on the translational process. The forum was targeted towards traditional academic researchers who may be interested in the expanded funding opportunities...

  7. Research trends in language industries in AESLA’s translation and interpretation panel

    OpenAIRE

    Candel-Mora, Miguel Ángel; RUBIO DONAT, TAMARA MARÍA

    2015-01-01

    As a result of the widespread use of computer applications after years of research in the field of natural language processing, language technologies and machine translation, the notion of language industries consolidates in the professional translation sector from the standpoint of the increase in performance and efficiency while reducing costs, improving quality and automating processes. This work studies the trends of the approach to translation technologies by means of systematic cont...

  8. RET fusion gene: translation to personalized lung cancer therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohno, Takashi; Tsuta, Koji; Tsuchihara, Katsuya; Nakaoku, Takashi; Yoh, Kiyotaka; Goto, Koichi

    2013-11-01

    Development of lung adenocarcinoma (LADC), the most frequent histological type of lung cancer, depends in many cases on the activation of "driver" oncogenes such as KRAS, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), and anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK). Inhibitors that target the EGFR and ALK tyrosine kinases show therapeutic effects against LADCs containing EGFR gene mutations and ALK gene fusions, respectively. Recently, we and others identified the RET fusion gene as a new targetable driver gene in LADC. The RET fusions occur in 1-2% of LADCs. Existing US Food and Drug Administration-approved inhibitors of RET tyrosine kinase show promising therapeutic effects both in vitro and in vivo, as well as in a few patients. Clinical trials are underway to investigate the therapeutic effects of RET tyrosine kinase inhibitors, such as vandetanib (ZD6474) and cabozantinib (XL184), in patients with RET fusion-positive non-small-cell lung cancer. PMID:23991695

  9. On using ethical principles of community-engaged research in translational science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khodyakov, Dmitry; Mikesell, Lisa; Schraiber, Ron; Booth, Marika; Bromley, Elizabeth

    2016-05-01

    The transfer of new discoveries into both clinical practice and the wider community calls for reliance on interdisciplinary translational teams that include researchers with different areas of expertise, representatives of health care systems and community organizations, and patients. Engaging new stakeholders in research, however, calls for a reconsideration or expansion of the meaning of ethics in translational research. We explored expert opinion on the applicability of ethical principles commonly practiced in community-engaged research (CEnR) to translational research. To do so, we conducted 2 online, modified-Delphi panels with 63 expert stakeholders who iteratively rated and discussed 9 ethical principles commonly used in CEnR in terms of their importance and feasibility for use in translational research. The RAND/UCLA appropriateness method was used to analyze the data and determine agreement and disagreement among participating experts. Both panels agreed that ethical translational research should be "grounded in trust." Although the academic panel endorsed "culturally appropriate" and "forthcoming with community about study risks and benefits," the mixed academic-community panel endorsed "scientifically valid" and "ready to involve community in interpretation and dissemination" as important and feasible principles of ethical translational research. These findings suggest that in addition to protecting human subjects, contemporary translational science models need to account for the interests of, and owe ethical obligations to, members of the investigative team and the community at large. PMID:26773561

  10. 'New and translational perspectives of oestrogen deprivation in breast cancer'

    OpenAIRE

    Dunbier, Anita K.; Martin, Lesley-Ann; Dowsett, Mitch

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Over the last 20 years, aromatase inhibitors have been developed to become a highly effective treatment strategy for treatment of hormone receptor positive breast cancer. Despite their success, poor response and resistance limit the effectiveness of these agents in up to 50% of patients. In recent years, studies using highly sensitive hormone assays have provided insight into the source of oestrogen production for the stimulation of oestrogen receptor positive breast cance...

  11. Research on Translation of Campus Public Signs in Wuhan University of Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Hui; XIANG Qing-ling

    2015-01-01

    Based on Eugene Nida's "dynamic equivalence" translation theory as well as current situations for the translation of campus public signs in Wuhan University of Technology, this paper aimed at investigating and researching the standard transla⁃tion methods for campus public signs. Moreover, through the collection and analysis of the current situation about the public signs in the University, this paper also intended to provide an internationally recognized version of translation for campus public signs. Finally, the paper suggests practical ways for the promotion of the translated version in order to realize its application in oth⁃er universities of China.

  12. Advance of Cellular Immunotherapy in Clinical and Translational Medicine of Lung Cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Fei; YU Shao-rong; FENG Ji-feng

    2016-01-01

    Lung cancer is one of the most common cancers and ranks the ifrst in the mortality worldwide. The core of immunotherapy, especially cellular immunotherapy, is to activate the T cell-mediated tumor-killing effect in patients with tumors, so as to increase their anti-tumor effect. Surgery and radio- and chemotherapy cannot radically eliminate cancerous cells, but immunotherapy is an important supplementary method in killing tumor stem cells and non-proliferating cells. Cellular immunotherapy contains dendritic cells (DC), cytokine-induced killer (CIK), DC-CIK, natural killer T cells (NKT) and γδ T cells, which provides new techniques for the comprehensive treatment of lung cancer. Using CIK combined with DC, radiochemotherapy, radiofrequency ablation and monomers of Chinese medicine to induce CIK cells that directionally migrate to cancerous nest can increase tumor-killing ability and immunoregulatory ability of CIK cells, reduce adverse and toxic reactions and increase patients’ quality of life, and NKT cell and γδ T cell therapies have also been gradually perfected and promoted in clinical translation. This study mainly introduced the clinical translation of DC vaccines, CIK cells and DC-CIK treatment for lung cancer, hoping to provide new pathways and reference for the clinical treatment of lung cancer.

  13. Exploring the Neurochemical Basis of Alcohol Addiction-Related Behaviors: Translational Research

    OpenAIRE

    Budygin, EA; Weiner, JL

    2015-01-01

    This Editorial presents the position that translational research continues to play a vital role in the field of alcohol addiction research. Using diverse animal models that mimic fundamental features of the disease, tremendous progress has been made in our understanding of alcohol actions in the brain and in identifying key neurobiological adaptations that may contribute to the pathophysiology of alcohol addiction. Current translational research in this field is now focusing on identifying th...

  14. Advances in prostate cancer chemoprevention: a translational perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nambiar, Dhanya; Singh, Rana P

    2013-01-01

    Chemopreventive interventions are steadily emerging as an important aspect of cancer management and control. Herein, we have discussed the major epidemiological and clinical studies advocating the role of androgen inhibitors, flavonoids and antioxidants in preventing prostate cancer (PCa). Androgen inhibitors have lately been discussed not only in treatment of PCa, but also as preventive agents especially after trials with Finasteride and Dutasteride. Flavonoids such as silibinin, green tea polyphenols, genistein, curcumin have shown great promise, but avenues to improve their bioavailability are requisite. Agents with antioxidant potentials like lycopene, selenium, and vitamin E have also been explored. Antioxidant trials have yielded mixed results or benefitted only a subgroup of population, although further studies are needed to establish them as preventive agent. Although a majority of the trials resulted in positive outcomes supporting their role as preventive agents; one should be cautious of neutral or negative results as well. For clinical applicability of these agents, we need to identify the ideal target population, time of intervention, appropriate dosage, and extent of intervention required. Incoherency of data with these agents urges for a stringent study design and thorough interpretation to accurately judge the necessity and feasibility of the preventive measures. PMID:23682779

  15. Using multicriteria decision analysis to support research priority setting in biomedical translational research projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Graaf, Gimon; Postmus, Douwe; Buskens, Erik

    2015-01-01

    Translational research is conducted to achieve a predefined set of economic or societal goals. As a result, investment decisions on where available resources have the highest potential in achieving these goals have to be made. In this paper, we first describe how multicriteria decision analysis can assist in defining the decision context and in ensuring that all relevant aspects of the decision problem are incorporated in the decision making process. We then present the results of a case study to support priority setting in a translational research consortium aimed at reducing the burden of disease of type 2 diabetes. During problem structuring, we identified four research alternatives (primary, secondary, tertiary microvascular, and tertiary macrovascular prevention) and a set of six decision criteria. Scoring of these alternatives against the criteria was done using a combination of expert judgement and previously published data. Lastly, decision analysis was performed using stochastic multicriteria acceptability analysis, which allows for the combined use of numerical and ordinal data. We found that the development of novel techniques applied in secondary prevention would be a poor investment of research funds. The ranking of the remaining alternatives was however strongly dependent on the decision maker's preferences for certain criteria. PMID:26495288

  16. Realizing Our Potential in Biobanking: Disease Advocacy Organizations Enliven Translational Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Kelly A; Terry, Sharon F; Gold, Dana; Horn, Elizabeth J; Schwartz, Mary; Stuart, Molly; Vernon, Suzanne D

    2016-08-01

    Biobanks are increasingly powerful tools used in translational research, and disease advocacy organizations (DAOs) are making their presence known as research drivers and partners. We examined DAO approaches to biobanking to inform how the enterprise of biobanking can grow and become even more impactful in human health. In this commentary, we outline overarching approaches from successful DAO biobanks. These lessons learned suggest principles that can create a more participant-centric approach and illustrate the key roles DAOs can play as partners in research initiatives. DAO approaches to biobanking for translational research include the following: be outcome driven; forge alliances that are unexpected-build bridges to enhance translation; come ready for success; be nimble, flexible, and adaptable; and remember that people matter. Each of these principles led to particular practices that have increased the translational impact of biobank collections. The research practices discussed can inform partnerships in all sectors going forward. PMID:27058463

  17. RNA G-quadruplexes cause eIF4A-dependent oncogene translation in cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Wolfe, Andrew L.; Singh, Kamini; Zhong, Yi; Drewe, Philipp; Vinagolu K. Rajasekhar; Sanghvi, Viraj R.; Mavrakis, Konstantinos J; Jiang, Man; Roderick, Justine E.; Van Der Meulen, Joni; Schatz, Jonathan H.; Rodrigo, Christina M.; Zhao, Chunying; Rondou, Pieter; de Stanchina, Elisa

    2014-01-01

    The translational control of oncoprotein expression is implicated in many cancers. Here we report an eIF4A/DDX2 RNA helicase-dependent mechanism of translational control that contributes to oncogenesis and underlies the anticancer effects of Silvestrol and related compounds. For example, eIF4A promotes T-ALL development in vivo and is required for leukaemia maintenance. Accordingly, inhibition of eIF4A with Silvestrol has powerful therapeutic effects in vitro and in vivo. We use transcriptome...

  18. What's New in Bile Duct Cancer Research and Treatment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... bile duct cancer What’s new in bile duct cancer research and treatment? Bile duct cancer is an uncommon ... Doctor After Treatment What`s New in Bile Duct Cancer Research? Other Resources and References Cancer Information Cancer Basics ...

  19. What's New in Endometrial Cancer Research and Treatment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... resources for endometrial cancer What`s new in endometrial cancer research and treatment? Molecular pathology of endometrial cancer For ... Your Doctor After Treatment What`s New in Endometrial Cancer Research? Other Resources and References Cancer Information Cancer Basics ...

  20. 76 FR 66932 - The National Cancer Institute (NCI) Announces the Initiation of a Public Private Industry...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-28

    ... Initiation of a Public Private Industry Partnership on Translation of Nanotechnology in Cancer (TONIC) To Promote Translational Research and Development Opportunities of Nanotechnology-Based Cancer Solutions... industry partnership called TONIC (Translation Of Nanotechnology In Cancer) to promote...

  1. Honoring Pioneers in Breast Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Current Issue Past Issues Honoring Pioneers in Breast Cancer Research Past Issues / Spring 2007 Table of Contents For ... Distinguished Medical Service Award for their pioneering breast cancer research. Photo courtesy of Bill Branson, NIH In this ...

  2. Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Among the many cancer research laboratories operated by NCI, the Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research(FNLCR) is unique in that it is a Federally Funded...

  3. Gene-Environment Research and Cancer Epidemiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Epidemiology and Genomics Research Program supports extramural research that investigates both genetic and environmental factors that may contribute to the etiology of cancer and/or impact cancer outcomes.

  4. Center for Herbal Research on Colorectal Cancer

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Research Area: Herbs Program:Centers of Excellence for Research on CAM Description:Colorectal cancer is the third most common cancer and the third leading cause of...

  5. [Shining light on translational research in deep brain stimulation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lüscher, Christian; Davoine, Elise; Bellone, Carmilla

    2015-04-29

    For the last decade, optogenetics has revolutionised the neurosciences by enabling an unprecedented characterisation of the circuits involved in brain diseases, in particular addiction, depression, and obsessive compulsive disorders (OCD) and other anxiety disorders. Recently, the technique has also been used to propose blueprints for novel treatments of these diseases. For many reasons, optogenetics cannot be applied to humans applications anytime soon; we therefore argue that an intermediate step would be novel deep brain stimulation (DBS) protocols that emulate successful optogenetic "treatments" in animal models. Here we provide a roadmap of a translational path to rational, optogenetically inspired DBS protocols to refine existing approaches and expand it to novel indications. PMID:26062226

  6. Machine Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张严心

    2015-01-01

    As a kind of ancillary translation tool, Machine Translation has been paid increasing attention to and received different kinds of study by a great deal of researchers and scholars for a long time. To know the definition of Machine Translation and to analyse its benefits and problems are significant for translators in order to make good use of Machine Translation, and helpful to develop and consummate Machine Translation Systems in the future.

  7. Modeling menopause: The utility of rodents in translational behavioral endocrinology research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koebele, Stephanie V; Bimonte-Nelson, Heather A

    2016-05-01

    The human menopause transition and aging are each associated with an increase in a variety of health risk factors including, but not limited to, cardiovascular disease, osteoporosis, cancer, diabetes, stroke, sexual dysfunction, affective disorders, sleep disturbances, and cognitive decline. It is challenging to systematically evaluate the biological underpinnings associated with the menopause transition in the human population. For this reason, rodent models have been invaluable tools for studying the impact of gonadal hormone fluctuations and eventual decline on a variety of body systems. While it is essential to keep in mind that some of the mechanisms associated with aging and the transition into a reproductively senescent state can differ when translating from one species to another, animal models provide researchers with opportunities to gain a fundamental understanding of the key elements underlying reproduction and aging processes, paving the way to explore novel pathways for intervention associated with known health risks. Here, we discuss the utility of several rodent models used in the laboratory for translational menopause research, examining the benefits and drawbacks in helping us to better understand aging and the menopause transition in women. The rodent models discussed are ovary-intact, ovariectomy, and 4-vinylcylohexene diepoxide for the menopause transition. We then describe how these models may be implemented in the laboratory, particularly in the context of cognition. Ultimately, we aim to use these animal models to elucidate novel perspectives and interventions for maintaining a high quality of life in women, and to potentially prevent or postpone the onset of negative health consequences associated with these significant life changes during aging. PMID:27013283

  8. Knowledge translation research in population health: establishing a collaborative research agenda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurendeau Marie-Claire

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite the increasing mobilization of researchers and funding organizations around knowledge translation (KT in Canada and elsewhere, many questions have been only partially answered, particularly in the field of population health. This article presents the results of a systematic process to draw out possible avenues of collaboration for researchers, practitioners and decision-makers who work in the area of KT. The main objective was to establish a research agenda on knowledge translation in population health. Methods Using the Concept Mapping approach, the research team wanted to identify priority themes for the development of research on KT in population health. Mapping is based on multivariate statistical analyses (multidimensional scaling and hierarchical cluster analysis in which statements produced during a brainstorming session are grouped in weighted clusters. The final maps are a visual representation of the priority themes of research on KT. Especially designed for facilitating consensus in the understanding and organization of various concepts, the Concept Mapping method proved suitable for achieving this objective. Results The maps were produced by 19 participants from university settings, and from institutions within the health and social services network. Three main perspectives emerge from this operation: (1 The evaluation of the effectiveness of KT efforts is one of the main research priorities; (2 The importance of taking into consideration user contexts in any KT effort; (3 The challenges related to sharing power for decision-making and action-taking among various stakeholder groups. These perspectives open up avenues of collaboration for stakeholders who are involved in research on KT. Besides these three main perspectives, the concept maps reveal three other trends which should be emphasized. Conclusion The Concept Mapping process reported in this article aimed to provoke collective reflection on the

  9. Translating colorectal cancer genetics into clinically useful biomarkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morley-Bunker, A; Walker, L C; Currie, M J; Pearson, J; Eglinton, T

    2016-08-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a major health problem worldwide accounting for over a million deaths annually. While many patients with Stage II and III CRC can be cured with combinations of surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy, this is morbid costly treatment and a significant proportion will suffer recurrence and eventually die of CRC. Increased understanding of the molecular pathogenesis of CRC has the potential to identify high risk patients and target therapy more appropriately. Despite increased understanding of the molecular events underlying CRC development, established molecular techniques have only produced a limited number of biomarkers suitable for use in routine clinical practice to predict risk, prognosis and response to treatment. Recent rapid technological developments, however, have made genomic sequencing of CRC more economical and efficient, creating potential for the discovery of genetic biomarkers that have greater diagnostic, prognostic and therapeutic capabilities for the management of CRC. This paper reviews the current understanding of the molecular pathogenesis of CRC, and summarizes molecular biomarkers that surgeons will encounter in current clinical use as well as those under development in clinical and preclinical trials. New molecular technologies are reviewed together with their potential impact on the understanding of the molecular pathogenesis of CRC and their potential clinical utility in classification, diagnosis, prognosis and targeting of therapy. PMID:26990814

  10. What's New in Nasopharyngeal Cancer Research and Treatment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... resources for nasopharyngeal cancer What`s new in nasopharyngeal cancer research and treatment? Research into the causes, prevention, and ... Your Doctor After Treatment What`s New in Nasopharyngeal Cancer Research? Other Resources and References Cancer Information Cancer Basics ...

  11. What's New in Gallbladder Cancer Research and Treatment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... resources for gallbladder cancer What’s new in gallbladder cancer research and treatment? Research into the causes, diagnosis, and ... Your Doctor After Treatment What`s New in Gallbladder Cancer Research? Other Resources and References Cancer Information Cancer Basics ...

  12. What's New in Vulvar Cancer Research and Treatment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... resources for vulvar cancer What`s new in vulvar cancer research and treatment? Research is being done to find ... Your Doctor After Treatment What`s New in Vulvar Cancer Research? Other Resources and References Cancer Information Cancer Basics ...

  13. A translational research approach to poor treatment response in patients with schizophrenia: clozapine–antipsychotic polypharmacy

    OpenAIRE

    Honer, William G.; Procyshyn, Ric M.; Eric Y. H. Chen; MacEwan, G. William; Barr, Alasdair M.

    2009-01-01

    Poor treatment response in patients with schizophrenia is an important clinical problem, and one possible strategy is concurrent treatment with more than one antipsychotic (polypharmacy). We analyzed the evidence base for this strategy using a translational research model focused on clozapine-antipsychotic polypharmacy (CAP). We considered 3 aspects of the existing knowledge base and translational research: the link between basic science and clinical studies of efficacy, the evidence for effe...

  14. (The Need for) A Model of Translational Mind Science Justice Research

    OpenAIRE

    Phillip Atiba Goff; Avital Mentovich; Martin, Karin D.

    2013-01-01

    Despite the historical importance of translational research to social psychological investigations of social justice issues, the culture and incentives of contemporary social psychology are ambivalent towards non-experimental field research. This ambivalence poses a significant impediment to social psychology’s role in societal change. This paper offers a brief history of how the field evolved from a relative emphasis on translating social psychology from the laboratory to the field (and back...

  15. From Didactas to Ecolingua: an ongoing research project on translation and corpus lingiustics

    OpenAIRE

    Baldry, Anthony; Pavesi, Maria; Taylor Toresello, Carol; Taylor, Christopher

    2012-01-01

    From Didactas to Ecolingua: an ongoing research project on translation and corpus linguistics takes us from the end of the ministry-financed Didactas project in 2005 to its successor Ecolingua. The book contains twelve articles submitted by members of the research group from the universities of Trieste, Padova, Pavia and Pisa. From the title it can be seen that the topics covered belong essentially to the fields of translation, text analysis and corpus linguistics. The contents range from the...

  16. Mapping knowledge translation and innovation processes in Cancer Drug Development: the case of liposomal doxorubicin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fajardo-Ortiz, David; Duran, Luis; Moreno, Laura; Ochoa, Hector; Castaño, Victor M

    2014-01-01

    We explored how the knowledge translation and innovation processes are structured when theyresult in innovations, as in the case of liposomal doxorubicin research. In order to map the processes, a literature network analysis was made through Cytoscape and semantic analysis was performed by GOPubmed which is based in the controlled vocabularies MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) and GO (Gene Ontology). We found clusters related to different stages of the technological development (invention, innovation and imitation) and the knowledge translation process (preclinical, translational and clinical research), and we were able to map the historic emergence of Doxil as a paradigmatic nanodrug. This research could be a powerful methodological tool for decision-making and innovation management in drug delivery research. PMID:25182125

  17. Language translation challenges with Arabic speakers participating in qualitative research studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Amer, Rasmieh; Ramjan, Lucie; Glew, Paul; Darwish, Maram; Salamonson, Yenna

    2016-02-01

    This paper discusses how a research team negotiated the challenges of language differences in a qualitative study that involved two languages. The lead researcher shared the participants' language and culture, and the interviews were conducted using the Arabic language as a source language, which was then translated and disseminated in the English language (target language). The challenges in relation to translation in cross-cultural research were highlighted from a perspective of establishing meaning as a vital issue in qualitative research. The paper draws on insights gained from a study undertaken among Arabic-speaking participants involving the use of in-depth semi-structured interviews. The study was undertaken using a purposive sample of 15 participants with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and co-existing depression and explored their perception of self-care management behaviours. Data analysis was performed in two phases. The first phase entailed translation and transcription of the data, and the second phase entailed thematic analysis of the data to develop categories and themes. In this paper there is discussion on the translation process and its inherent challenges. As translation is an interpretive process and not merely a direct message transfer from a source language to a target language, translators need to systematically and accurately capture the full meaning of the spoken language. This discussion paper highlights difficulties in the translation process, specifically in managing data in relation to metaphors, medical terminology and connotation of the text, and importantly, preserving the meaning between the original and translated data. Recommendations for future qualitative studies involving interviews with non-English speaking participants are outlined, which may assist researchers maintain the integrity of the data throughout the translation process. PMID:25936733

  18. CPTAC Scientific Symposium - Office of Cancer Clinical Proteomics Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    On behalf of the National Cancer Institute and the Office of Cancer Clinical Proteomics Research, you are invited to the First Annual CPTAC Scientific Symposium on Wednesday, November 13, 2013. The purpose of this symposium, which consists of plenary and poster sessions, is for investigators from CPTAC community and beyond to share and discuss novel biological discoveries, analytical methods, and translational approaches using CPTAC data. All scientists who use, or wish to use CPTAC data are welcome to participate at this free event. The symposium will be held at the Natcher Conference Facility on the main campus of the National Institutes of Health in Bethesda, Maryland.

  19. New Funding Opportunity: Tissue Purchase Order Acquisitions - Office of Cancer Clinical Proteomics Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    The National Cancer Institute (NCI) is expanding its basic and translational research programs that rely heavily on sufficient availability of high quality, well annotated biospecimens suitable for use in genomic and proteomic studies. The NCI’s overarching goal with such programs is to improve the ability to diagnose, treat, and prevent cancer.

  20. From bench to bedside and to health policies: ethics in translational research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrini, C

    2011-01-01

    Translation of biomedical research knowledge to effective clinical treatment is essential to the public good. The first level of translation ("from bench to bedside") corresponds to efficacy studies under controlled conditions with careful attention to internal validity (clinical research). The second level is the translation of results from clinical studies into everyday clinical practice and health decision making. The article summarises the ethical issues involved in the translation of biomedical research advances to clinical applications and to clinical practice. In particular, the article synthesizes theory from clinical ethics, operational design, and philosophy to examine the unique bioethical issues raised by the recent focus on translational research. In this framework safety of study participants and balancing of risk due to treatment with the potential benefits of the research are crucial: in clinical research there is a danger that the emphasis on advancements in scientific knowledge might prevail over the protection of the people who participate in research. These issues involve basic scientists, clinicians and bioethicists because of their application to comparative effectiveness research, clinical trials and evidence-based medicine, as well basic biomedical research. PMID:21448547

  1. Repression of protein translation and mTOR signaling by proteasome inhibitor in colon cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Protein homeostasis relies on a balance between protein synthesis and protein degradation. The ubiquitin-proteasome system is a major catabolic pathway for protein degradation. In this respect, proteasome inhibition has been used therapeutically for the treatment of cancer. Whether inhibition of protein degradation by proteasome inhibitor can repress protein translation via a negative feedback mechanism, however, is unknown. In this study, proteasome inhibitor MG-132 lowered the proliferation of colon cancer cells HT-29 and SW1116. In this connection, MG-132 reduced the phosphorylation of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) at Ser2448 and Ser2481 and the phosphorylation of its downstream targets 4E-BP1 and p70/p85 S6 kinases. Further analysis revealed that MG-132 inhibited protein translation as evidenced by the reductions of 35S-methionine incorporation and polysomes/80S ratio. Knockdown of raptor, a structural component of mTOR complex 1, mimicked the anti-proliferative effect of MG-132. To conclude, we demonstrate that the inhibition of protein degradation by proteasome inhibitor represses mTOR signaling and protein translation in colon cancer cells.

  2. (The Need for A Model of Translational Mind Science Justice Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phillip Atiba Goff

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Despite the historical importance of translational research to social psychological investigations of social justice issues, the culture and incentives of contemporary social psychology are ambivalent towards non-experimental field research. This ambivalence poses a significant impediment to social psychology’s role in societal change. This paper offers a brief history of how the field evolved from a relative emphasis on translating social psychology from the laboratory to the field (and back to the present moment. In doing so, we enumerate the most significant impediments to contemporary translational social psychology, namely that conducting translational research often involves greater cost, greater difficulty advancing psychological theory, and more time navigating logistics compared with basic laboratory research. Finally, using the example of recent multi-investigator research on race and gender equity in policing, we outline emerging strategies for how to conduct translational research amidst contemporary impediments, and offer modest suggestions for how the field can better facilitate this kind of research in the future. Taken together this review offers a set of theoretical and practical suggestions for easing the path from research to societal change.

  3. Validation of the Korean version of the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer brain cancer module (EORTC QLQ-BN20) in patients with brain tumors

    OpenAIRE

    Shin, Yong Soon; Kim, Jeong Hoon

    2013-01-01

    Background The European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Brain Cancer Module has been translated into Korean, but to date, its reliability and validity have been evaluated in a pilot study alone. The European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Core Questionnaire is, overall, a valid instrument to assess the health-related quality of life in Korean cancer patients, although its reliability and validity have not yet been evaluated ...

  4. A study of gene expression markers for predictive significance for bevacizumab benefit in patients with metastatic colon cancer: a translational research study of the Hellenic Cooperative Oncology Group (HeCOG)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bevacizumab, an antibody neutralizing Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF), is licensed for the management of patients with advanced colon cancer. However, tumor biomarkers identifying the molecular tumor subsets most amenable to angiogenesis modulation are lacking. We profiled expession of 24526 genes by means of whole genome 24 K DASL (c-DNA-mediated, Annealing, Selection and Ligation) arrays, (Illumina, CA) in 16 bevacizumab-treated patients with advanced colon cancer (Test set). Genes with correlation to 8-month Progression-free status were studied by means of qPCR in two independent colon cancer cohorts: 49 patients treated with bevacizumab + chemotherapy (Bevacizumab qPCR set) and 72 patients treated with chemotherapy only (Control qPCR set). Endpoints were best tumor response before metastasectomy (ORR) and progression-free survival (PFS). Five genes were significantly correlated to 8-month progression-free status in the Test set: overexpression of KLF12 and downregulation of AGR2, ALDH6A1, MCM5, TFF2. In the two independent datasets, irinotecan- or oxaliplatin-based chemotherapy was administered as first-line treatment and metastasectomies were subsequently applied in 8-14% of patients. No prognostically significant gene classifier encompassing all five genes could be validated in the Bevacizumab or Control qPCR sets. The complex gene expression profile of all-low tumor (ALDH6A1 + TFF2 + MCM5) was strongly associated with ORR in the Bevacizumab qPCR set (ORR 85.7%, p = 0.007), but not in the Control set (ORR 36.4%, p = 0.747). The Odds Ratio for response for the all-low tumor (ALDH6A1 + TFF2 + MCM5) profile versus any other ALDH6A1 + TFF2 + MCM5 profile was 15 (p = 0.018) in the Bevacizumab qPCR set but only 0.72 (p = 0.63) in the Control set. The tumor expression profile of (KLF12-high + TFF2-low) was significantly associated with PFS only in the Bevacizumab qPCR set: bevacizumab-treated patients with (KLF12-high + TFF2-low) tumors had superior PFS

  5. Project Development Teams: A Novel Mechanism for Accelerating Translational Research

    OpenAIRE

    Sajdyk, Tammy J.; Sors, Thomas G.; Hunt, Joe D.; Murray, Mary E.; Deford, Melanie E.; Shekhar, Anantha; Denne, Scott C.

    2015-01-01

    The trend in conducting successful biomedical research is shifting from individual academic labs to coordinated collaborative research teams. Teams of experienced investigators with a wide variety of expertise are now critical for developing and maintaining a successful, productive research program. However, assembling a team whose members have the right expertise requires a great deal of time and many resources. To assist investigators seeking such resources, the Indiana Clinical and Transla...

  6. Prostate cancer research in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shan-Cheng Ren; Rui Chen; Ying-Hao Sun

    2013-01-01

    Prostate cancer (PCa) research in China has been on a rocketing trend in recent years.The first genome-wide association study (GWAS)in China identified two new PCa risk associated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs).Next generation sequencing is beginning to be used,yielding novel findings:gene fusions,long non-coding RNAs and other variations.Mechanisms of PCa progression have been illustrated while various diagnosis biomarkers have been investigated extensively.Personalized therapy based on genetic factors,nano-medicine and traditional Chinese medicine has been the focus of experimental therapeutic research for PCa.This review intends to shed light upon the recent progress in PCa research in China and points out the possible breakthroughs in the future.

  7. The not-for-profit form and translational research: Kerr revisited?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joiner Keith A

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Translational research conducted in academic health centers is confounded by the organizational structure in which the work is performed. Investigators must obtain research funding and appropriate recognition as a part of a research team in a not-for-profit environment which has more readily rewarded basic work, and individual accomplishments. What results is a unique form of conflict of interest, best understood by relating the basic principles underlying the not-for-profit form to the conduct of translational research in the AHC setting.

  8. The role of imaging for translational research in bone tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarcomas are a heterogeneous group of rare connective tissue tumors, representing 1% of adult and 15% of childhood cancers for which biological and pathological information is still incomplete. In bone tumors patients with metastatic disease at onset, those who relapse and those with post-surgical secondary lesions still have a dismal outcome because of poor response to current therapies. Different molecular biology approaches have identified activated cell signalling pathways or specific molecular endpoints that may be considered potential drug targets or markers useful for diagnosis/prognosis in musculoskeletal pathology. Recently, advances in the field of molecular imaging allow visualization of cell and metabolic functions with the use of targets that include cell membrane receptors, enzymes of intracellular transport. Moreover advanced non-invasive newer imaging techniques like 18-FDG PET, quantitative dynamic-contrast MR imaging, diffusion weighted imaging have all shown a potential in distinguish malignant from benign lesions, in revealing the efficacy of therapy in tumors, the onset of recurrence and a good reliability in reckoning the percentage of necrosis in Ewing sarcoma and osteosarcoma. Thus, in vivo detection of imaging cancer biomarkers may be useful to better characterize those complex pathologic processes, such as apoptosis, proliferation and angiogenesis that determine tumor aggressiveness, providing not only complementary information of prognostic metabolic indicators, but also data in real-time on the efficacy of the treatment through the modulation of the cell metabolism

  9. Translational neural engineering: multiple perspectives on bringing benchtop research into the clinical domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rousche, Patrick; Schneeweis, David M; Perreault, Eric J; Jensen, Winnie

    2008-03-01

    A half-day forum to address a wide range of issues related to translational neural engineering was conducted at the annual meeting of the Biomedical Engineering Society. Successful practitioners of translational neural engineering from academics, clinical medicine and industry were invited to share a diversity of perspectives and experiences on the translational process. The forum was targeted towards traditional academic researchers who may be interested in the expanded funding opportunities available for translational research that emphasizes product commercialization and clinical implementation. The seminar was funded by the NIH with support from the Rehabilitation Institute of Chicago. We report here a summary of the speaker viewpoints with particular focus on extracting successful strategies for engaging in or conducting translational neural engineering research. Daryl Kipke, PhD, (Department of Biomedical Engineering at the University of Michigan) and Molly Shoichet, PhD, (Department of Chemical Engineering at the University of Toronto) gave details of their extensive experience with product commercialization while holding primary appointments in academic departments. They both encouraged strong clinical input at very early stages of research. Neurosurgeon Fady Charbel, MD, (Department of Neurosurgery at the University of Illinois at Chicago) discussed his role in product commercialization as a clinician. Todd Kuiken, MD, PhD, (Director of the Neural Engineering for Artificial Limbs at the Rehabilitation Institute of Chicago, affiliated with Northwestern University) also a clinician, described a model of translational engineering that emphasized the development of clinically relevant technology, without a strong commercialization imperative. The clinicians emphasized the importance of communicating effectively with engineers. Representing commercial neural engineering was Doug Sheffield, PhD, (Director of New Technology at Vertis Neuroscience, Inc.) who

  10. PERSPECTIVE: Translational neural engineering: multiple perspectives on bringing benchtop research into the clinical domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rousche, Patrick; Schneeweis, David M.; Perreault, Eric J.; Jensen, Winnie

    2008-03-01

    A half-day forum to address a wide range of issues related to translational neural engineering was conducted at the annual meeting of the Biomedical Engineering Society. Successful practitioners of translational neural engineering from academics, clinical medicine and industry were invited to share a diversity of perspectives and experiences on the translational process. The forum was targeted towards traditional academic researchers who may be interested in the expanded funding opportunities available for translational research that emphasizes product commercialization and clinical implementation. The seminar was funded by the NIH with support from the Rehabilitation Institute of Chicago. We report here a summary of the speaker viewpoints with particular focus on extracting successful strategies for engaging in or conducting translational neural engineering research. Daryl Kipke, PhD, (Department of Biomedical Engineering at the University of Michigan) and Molly Shoichet, PhD, (Department of Chemical Engineering at the University of Toronto) gave details of their extensive experience with product commercialization while holding primary appointments in academic departments. They both encouraged strong clinical input at very early stages of research. Neurosurgeon Fady Charbel, MD, (Department of Neurosurgery at the University of Illinois at Chicago) discussed his role in product commercialization as a clinician. Todd Kuiken, MD, PhD, (Director of the Neural Engineering for Artificial Limbs at the Rehabilitation Institute of Chicago, affiliated with Northwestern University) also a clinician, described a model of translational engineering that emphasized the development of clinically relevant technology, without a strong commercialization imperative. The clinicians emphasized the importance of communicating effectively with engineers. Representing commercial neural engineering was Doug Sheffield, PhD, (Director of New Technology at Vertis Neuroscience, Inc.) who

  11. Translational Research in Behavior Analysis: Historical Traditions and Imperative for the Future

    OpenAIRE

    Mace, F. Charles; Critchfield, Thomas S

    2010-01-01

    “Pure basic” science can become detached from the natural world that it is supposed to explain. “Pure applied” work can become detached from fundamental processes that shape the world it is supposed to improve. Neither demands the intellectual support of a broad scholarly community or the material support of society. Translational research can do better by seeking innovation in theory or practice through the synthesis of basic and applied questions, literatures, and methods. Although translat...

  12. What's New In Eye Cancer Research and Treatment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... resources for eye cancer What’s new in eye cancer research and treatment? Many medical centers around the world ... Your Doctor After Treatment What`s New in Eye Cancer Research? Other Resources and References Cancer Information Cancer Basics ...

  13. What's New in Salivary Gland Cancer Research and Treatment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... salivary gland cancer What’s new in salivary gland cancer research and treatment? Medical centers throughout the world are ... Doctor After Treatment What`s New in Salivary Gland Cancer Research? Other Resources and References Cancer Information Cancer Basics ...

  14. Distinguishing between exploratory and confirmatory preclinical research will improve translation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Kimmelman

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Preclinical researchers confront two overarching agendas related to drug development: selecting interventions amid a vast field of candidates, and producing rigorous evidence of clinical promise for a small number of interventions. We suggest that each challenge is best met by two different, complementary modes of investigation. In the first (exploratory investigation, researchers should aim at generating robust pathophysiological theories of disease. In the second (confirmatory investigation, researchers should aim at demonstrating strong and reproducible treatment effects in relevant animal models. Each mode entails different study designs, confronts different validity threats, and supports different kinds of inferences. Research policies should seek to disentangle the two modes and leverage their complementarity. In particular, policies should discourage the common use of exploratory studies to support confirmatory inferences, promote a greater volume of confirmatory investigation, and customize design and reporting guidelines for each mode.

  15. Breast Cancer and the Environment Research Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Breast Cancer and the Environment Research Program supports a multidisciplinary network of scientists, clinicians, and community partners to examine the effects of environmental exposures that may predispose a woman to breast cancer throughout her life.

  16. Global Relevance of Translational Research in Engineering and Project Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kriengsak Panuwatwanich

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In this issue of the EPPM journal, we include five interesting papers reporting on the research undertaken within the contexts of five different countries: Italy, Norway, Saudi Arabia, Romania and Iran. These papers address various key issues in engineering and project management, including green building rating system, agile project management, construction delays, awarding process of public construction projects and Building Information Modelling (BIM. A good mixture of both quantitative and qualitative research methods is also worth noting in this issue.

  17. Contributions of attachment theory and research: a framework for future research, translation, and policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassidy, Jude; Jones, Jason D; Shaver, Phillip R

    2013-11-01

    Attachment theory has been generating creative and impactful research for almost half a century. In this article we focus on the documented antecedents and consequences of individual differences in infant attachment patterns, suggesting topics for further theoretical clarification, research, clinical interventions, and policy applications. We pay particular attention to the concept of cognitive "working models" and to neural and physiological mechanisms through which early attachment experiences contribute to later functioning. We consider adult caregiving behavior that predicts infant attachment patterns, and the still-mysterious "transmission gap" between parental Adult Attachment Interview classifications and infant Strange Situation classifications. We also review connections between attachment and (a) child psychopathology; (b) neurobiology; (c) health and immune function; (d) empathy, compassion, and altruism; (e) school readiness; and (f) culture. We conclude with clinical-translational and public policy applications of attachment research that could reduce the occurrence and maintenance of insecure attachment during infancy and beyond. Our goal is to inspire researchers to continue advancing the field by finding new ways to tackle long-standing questions and by generating and testing novel hypotheses. PMID:24342848

  18. Collaborations in Proteomics Research - Office of Cancer Clinical Proteomics Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    The National Cancer Institute (NCI), through the Office of Cancer Clinical Proteomics Research (OCCPR), has signed two Memorandums of Understanding (MOUs) in the sharing of proteomics reagents and protocols

  19. Cognitive testing of pigs (Sus scrofa) in translational biobehavioral research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kornum, Birgitte R; Knudsen, Gitte M

    2011-01-01

    Within neuroscience and biobehavioral research, the pig (Sus scrofus) is increasingly being acknowledged as a valuable large animal species. Compared to the rodent brain, the pig brain more closely resembles the human brain in terms of both anatomy and biochemistry, which associates the pig with a...... of farm animal welfare researchers, but it has only recently received interest in the wider neuroscience community. Several behavioral tasks have successfully been adapted to the pig, and valuable results have been produced. However, most tasks have only been established at a single research facility......, and would benefit from further validation. This review presents the cognitive tasks that have been developed for pigs, their validation, and their current use....

  20. Scientific Message Translation and the Heuristic Systematic Model: Insights for Designing Educational Messages About Progesterone and Breast Cancer Risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hitt, Rose; Perrault, Evan; Smith, Sandi; Keating, David M; Nazione, Samantha; Silk, Kami; Russell, Jessica

    2016-06-01

    Results of ongoing scientific research on environmental determinants of breast cancer are not typically presented to the public in ways they can easily understand and use to take preventive actions. In this study, results of scientific studies on progesterone exposure as a risk factor for breast cancer were translated into high and low literacy level messages. Using the heuristic systematic model, this study examined how ability, motivation, and message processing (heuristic and systematic) influenced perceptions of risk beliefs and negative attitudes about progesterone exposure among women who read the translated scientific messages. Among the 1254 participants, those given the higher literacy level message had greater perceptions of risk about progesterone. Heuristic message cues of source credibility and perceived message quality, as well as motivation, also predicted risk beliefs. Finally, risk beliefs were a strong predictor of negative attitudes about exposure to progesterone. The results can help improve health education message design in terms of practitioners having better knowledge of message features that are the most persuasive to the target audiences on this topic. PMID:25903053

  1. Loss of Scribble Promotes Snail Translation through Translocation of HuR and Enhances Cancer Drug Resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yi; Chang, Renxu; Ji, Weiwei; Wang, Na; Qi, Meiyan; Xu, Yi; Guo, Jingyu; Zhan, Lixing

    2016-01-01

    Drug resistance of cancer cells to various therapeutic agents and molecular targets is a major problem facing current cancer research. The tumor suppressor gene Scribble encodes a polarity protein that is conserved between Drosophila and mammals; loss of the locus disrupts cell polarity, inhibits apoptosis, and mediates cancer process. However, the role of Scribble in drug resistance remains unknown. We show here that knockdown of Scribble enhances drug resistance by permitting accumulation of Snail, which functions as a transcription factor during the epithelial-mesenchymal transition. Then, loss of Scribble activates the mRNA-binding protein human antigen R (HuR) by facilitating translocation of HuR from the nucleus to the cytoplasm. Furthermore, we demonstrate HuR can recognize AU-rich elements of the Snail-encoding mRNA, thereby regulating Snail translation. Moreover, loss of Scribble-induced HuR translocation mediates the accumulation of Snail via activation of the p38 MAPK pathway. Thus, this work clarifies the role of polarity protein Scribble, which is directly implicated in the regulation of developmental transcription factor Snail, and suggesting a mechanism for Scribble mediating cancer drug resistance. PMID:26527679

  2. The Ripples and Waves of Educational Effectiveness Research: Some Comments to "Getting Lost in Translation"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheerens, Jaap

    2013-01-01

    The article "Getting lost in translation" by Harris, Chapman, Muijs and Reynolds addresses the engagement of policy-makers and educational practitioners with (the results of) educational effectiveness and improvement research. In this commentary the article is discussed from the perspectives of research utilisation, the solidity of the educational…

  3. Transforming our approach to translational neuroscience: the role and impact of charitable nonprofits in research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joyce, Cynthia

    2014-11-01

    From mental health to rare diseases, charitable nonprofits and foundations are bringing energy, perspective, and leadership to the process of translational research. In challenging researchers to become more connected-to each other and to patients-charities are helping neuroscience deliver innovation that is relevant to real people in the real world. PMID:25442929

  4. A blended knowledge translation initiative to improve colorectal cancer staging [ISRCTN56824239

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan David P

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A significant gap has been documented between best practice and the actual practice of surgery. Our group identified that colorectal cancer staging in Ontario was suboptimal and subsequently developed a knowledge translation strategy using the principles of social marketing and the influence of expert and local opinion leaders for colorectal cancer. Methods/Design Opinion leaders were identified using the Hiss methodology. Hospitals in Ontario were cluster-randomized to one of two intervention arms. Both groups were exposed to a formal continuing medical education session given by the expert opinion leader for colorectal cancer. In the treatment group the local Opinion Leader for colorectal cancer was detailed by the expert opinion leader for colorectal cancer and received a toolkit. Forty-two centres agreed to have the expert opinion leader for colorectal cancer come and give a formal continuing medical education session that lasted between 50 minutes and 4 hours. No centres refused the intervention. These sessions were generally well attended by most surgeons, pathologists and other health care professionals at each centre. In addition all but one of the local opinion leaders for colorectal cancer met with the expert opinion leader for colorectal cancer for the academic detailing session that lasted between 15 and 30 minutes. Discussion We have enacted a unique study that has attempted to induce practice change among surgeons and pathologists using an adapted social marketing model that utilized the influence of both expert and local opinion leaders for colorectal cancer in a large geographic area with diverse practice settings.

  5. Effects and potential mechanisms of exercise training on cancer progression: a translational perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betof, Allison S; Dewhirst, Mark W; Jones, Lee W

    2013-03-01

    Over the past decade there has been increasing research and clinical interest in the role of exercise therapy/rehabilitation as an adjunct therapy to improve symptom control and management following a cancer diagnosis. More recently, the field of 'exercise - oncology' has broadened in scope to investigate whether the benefits extend beyond symptom control to modulate cancer-specific outcomes (i.e., cancer progression and metastasis). Here we review the extant epidemiological evidence examining the association between exercise behavior, functional capacity/exercise capacity, and cancer-specific recurrence and mortality as well as all-cause mortality individuals following a cancer diagnosis. We also evaluate evidence from clinical studies investigating the effects of structured exercise on blood-based biomarkers associated with cancer progression/metastasis as well findings from preclinical investigations examining the effects and molecular mechanisms of exercise in mouse models of cancer. Current gaps in knowledge are also discussed. PMID:22610066

  6. The translation research in a dental setting (TRiaDS programme protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McKee Lorna

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is well documented that the translation of knowledge into clinical practice is a slow and haphazard process. This is no less true for dental healthcare than other types of healthcare. One common policy strategy to help promote knowledge translation is the production of clinical guidance, but it has been demonstrated that the simple publication of guidance is unlikely to optimise practice. Additional knowledge translation interventions have been shown to be effective, but effectiveness varies and much of this variation is unexplained. The need for researchers to move beyond single studies to develop a generalisable, theory based, knowledge translation framework has been identified. For dentistry in Scotland, the production of clinical guidance is the responsibility of the Scottish Dental Clinical Effectiveness Programme (SDCEP. TRiaDS (Translation Research in a Dental Setting is a multidisciplinary research collaboration, embedded within the SDCEP guidance development process, which aims to establish a practical evaluative framework for the translation of guidance and to conduct and evaluate a programme of integrated, multi-disciplinary research to enhance the science of knowledge translation. Methods Set in General Dental Practice the TRiaDS programmatic evaluation employs a standardised process using optimal methods and theory. For each SDCEP guidance document a diagnostic analysis is undertaken alongside the guidance development process. Information is gathered about current dental care activities. Key recommendations and their required behaviours are identified and prioritised. Stakeholder questionnaires and interviews are used to identify and elicit salient beliefs regarding potential barriers and enablers towards the key recommendations and behaviours. Where possible routinely collected data are used to measure compliance with the guidance and to inform decisions about whether a knowledge translation intervention is

  7. Risk and resistance perspectives in translation-oriented etiology research

    OpenAIRE

    Vanyukov, Michael M.; Tarter, Ralph E.; Conway, Kevin P.; Kirillova, Galina P.; Chandler, Redonna K.; Daley, Dennis C.

    2015-01-01

    Risk for a disorder and the mechanisms that determine its elevation, risk factors, are the focus of medical research. Targeting risk factors should serve the goal of prevention and treatment intervention. Risk, however, is but one of the aspects of liability to a disorder, a latent trait that encompasses effects of all factors leading to or from the diagnostic threshold. The coequal but opposite aspect of liability is resistance to a disorder. The factors that increase resistance and thus ena...

  8. Translational science and the hidden research system in universities and academic hospitals: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lander, Bryn; Atkinson-Grosjean, Janet

    2011-02-01

    Innovation systems (IS) and science policy scholarship predominantly focus on linkages between universities and industry, and the commercial translation of academic discoveries. Overlooked in such analyses are important connections between universities and academic hospitals, and the non-commercial aspects of translational science. The two types of institutions tend to be collapsed into a single entity-'the university'-and relational flows are lost. Yet the distinctions and flows between the two are crucial elements of translational science and the biomedical innovation system. This paper explores what has been called the 'hidden research system' that connects hospitals, universities, and their resources, with the clinical and scientific actors who make the linkages possible. Then, using a novel conceptual model of translational science, we examine the individual interactions and dynamics involved in a particular example of the biomedical innovation system at work: the diagnosis of IRAK-4 deficiency, a rare immunological disorder, and the translational flows that result. Contra to conventional IS analyses, we are able to point to the strong role of public-sector institutions, and the weak role of the private-sector, in the translational processes described here. Our research was conducted within a Canadian network of scientists and clinician-scientists studying the pathogenomics of immunological disorders and innate immunity. PMID:21168250

  9. Effects and potential mechanisms of exercise training on cancer progression: A translational perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Betof, Allison S.; Dewhirst, Mark W.; Jones, Lee W.

    2012-01-01

    Over the past decade there has been increasing research and clinical interest in the role of exercise therapy/rehabilitation as an adjunct therapy to improve symptom control and management following a cancer diagnosis. More recently, the field of ‘exercise – oncology’ has broadened in scope to investigate whether the benefits extend beyond symptom control to modulate cancer-specific outcomes (i.e., cancer progression and metastasis). Here we review the extant epidemiological evidence examinin...

  10. Knowledge translation in health research: A novel approach to health sciences education

    OpenAIRE

    REITMANOVA, SYLVIA

    2009-01-01

    The salient role of knowledge translation process, by which knowledge is put into practice, is increasingly recognized by various research stakeholders. However, medical schools are slow in providing medical students and health professionals engaged in research with the sufficient opportunities to examine more closely the facilitators and barriers to utilization of research evidence in policymaking and implementation, or the effectiveness of their research communication strategies. Memorial U...

  11. Evaluation of radiosensitivity of nasopharyngeal cancer cells by in situ nick translation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radiosensitivity of two nasopharyngeal cell lines was evaluated, which had been treated with γ-rays by in situ nick translation (ISNT). The results indicated that the incorporation rate of dNTP of the two cell lines increased with the radiation dose. Good correlations were found between the radiosensitivity determined by the in situ nick translation assay and confirmed by the colony-forming assay in CNE and CNE-2Z cell lines. Although this report deals with cultured cells, the described technique of detecting DNA nick in situ without destruction of morphology seems to be applicable to tissue section. It may be possible to use it as a tool for predicting radiosensitivity of cancerous tissues treated with γ-rays

  12. Bridging the Research-Practice Gap: Research Translation and/or Research Transformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirschkorn, Mark; Geelan, David

    2008-01-01

    The issue of the "research-practice gap"--the problematic relationship between research in education and educational practice--has been widely reported in the literature. This critical literature review explores some of the causes and features of the gap and suggests some possible approaches for addressing it. These solutions involve changes in…

  13. IPRs in biobanking- risks and opportunities for translational research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Minssen, Timo; Verlinden, Michiel; Huys, Isabelle

    2015-01-01

    The gradual shift from traditional closed innovation systems to more “open” and “transparent” innovation models, rapid technological advances and bio-pharmaceutical innovation gaps have highlighted the importance of an effective governance and use of biobanks. This raises important legal questions....... Section 2 will analyze and discuss potential strategies and options to stimulate the exchange of HBM, data and research results. It will also look into the question of how to address, govern and manage IPRs directed to biobank material and data. This will ultimately allow us to draw conclusions in section...

  14. Translating health research evidence into policy and practice in Uganda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mbonye, Anthony K; Magnussen, Pascal

    2013-01-01

    Uganda experiences a high disease burden of malaria, infectious and non-communicable diseases. Recent data shows that malaria is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality among all age groups, while HIV prevalence is on the increase and there is re-emergence of viral haemorrhagic fevers and...... cholera epidemics. In order to respond to the above situation, a team of researchers, policy makers, civil society and the media was formed in order to build a collaboration that would help in discussing appropriate strategies to mitigate the high disease burden in Uganda....

  15. Cardiovascular science: opportunities for translating research into improved care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braunwald, Eugene

    2013-01-01

    Cardiovascular research is progressing on many fronts, as highlighted in the collection of Reviews in this issue of the JCI. MicroRNAs that regulate cardiac function have been implicated in cardiac disorders, and efforts to develop therapeutic antagomirs are underway. The genetic bases of several cardiac disorders, including cardiomyopathies that cause heart failure and channelopathies that underlie cardiac arrhythmias, have been elucidated. Genetic testing can identify asymptomatic individuals at risk, potentially leading to effective preventative measures. Growing evidence supports the role of chronic inflammation in atherosclerosis, providing new opportunities for therapeutic intervention. For heart failure, recent work suggests that cardiac regeneration using stem/progenitor cells, gene transfer, new drugs that restore normal Ca2+ cycling, and agents that reduce reperfusion injury following myocardial infarction are all viable new approaches to managing disease. Cumulatively, it seems likely that the clinical advances emerging from ongoing research will, in the foreseeable future, reduce the number of deaths in the industrialized world from cardiovascular disease. PMID:23281404

  16. First Clinical Experience with the Magnetic Resonance Imaging Contrast Agent and Superoxide Dismutase Mimetic Mangafodipir as an Adjunct in Cancer Chemotherapy—A Translational Study12

    OpenAIRE

    Karlsson, Jan Olof G; Adolfsson, Karin; Thelin, Bo; Jynge, Per; Andersson, Rolf GG; Falkmer, Ursula G

    2012-01-01

    Preclinical research suggests that the clinically approved magnetic resonance imaging contrast agent mangafodipir may protect against adverse events (AEs) caused by chemotherapy, without interfering negatively with the anticancer efficacy. The present translational study tested if pretreatment with mangafodipir lowers AEs during curative (adjuvant) FOLFOX6 chemotherapy in stage III colon cancer (Dukes' C). The study was originally scheduled to include 20 patients, but because of the unforesee...

  17. Next generation distributed computing for cancer research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Pankaj; Owzar, Kouros

    2014-01-01

    Advances in next generation sequencing (NGS) and mass spectrometry (MS) technologies have provided many new opportunities and angles for extending the scope of translational cancer research while creating tremendous challenges in data management and analysis. The resulting informatics challenge is invariably not amenable to the use of traditional computing models. Recent advances in scalable computing and associated infrastructure, particularly distributed computing for Big Data, can provide solutions for addressing these challenges. In this review, the next generation of distributed computing technologies that can address these informatics problems is described from the perspective of three key components of a computational platform, namely computing, data storage and management, and networking. A broad overview of scalable computing is provided to set the context for a detailed description of Hadoop, a technology that is being rapidly adopted for large-scale distributed computing. A proof-of-concept Hadoop cluster, set up for performance benchmarking of NGS read alignment, is described as an example of how to work with Hadoop. Finally, Hadoop is compared with a number of other current technologies for distributed computing. PMID:25983539

  18. Ageing, Drama, and Creativity: Translating Research Into Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Jackie; Bernard, Miriam; Rezzano, Jill; Rickett, Michelle

    2016-01-01

    Ageing, Drama, and Creativity was a pilot six-session interprofessional training course delivered collaboratively by Keele University and the New Vic Theatre, Newcastle-under-Lyme, as part of our Arts and Humanities Research Council (AHRC) funded Ages and Stages follow-on project. The course brought together a critical gerontological approach with arts-based educational practices and was designed to develop practice capabilities and age awareness among a diverse group of professionals working in arts organizations, the voluntary sector, local government, health and social services, and housing. This article describes how the course was developed and how participants were selected, details its aims and objectives, provides an overview of the sessions and a flavor of some of the exercises that were used, and considers findings from the structured evaluation alongside written reflections from participants. PMID:26905617

  19. Translating comparative effectiveness research into clinical practice: the UK experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walley, Tom

    2012-01-22

    Comparative effectiveness research (CER) is not new but its potential to improve the effectiveness of healthcare has not yet been exploited in the US. Other countries such as the UK have more experience of this. Key points of the UK experience are summarized here and some possible pointers for the US are drawn. These include the following: how to go beyond the evidence and apply judgements to make recommendations with authority and in a timely manner; how to implement these recommendations; how to identify suitable topics; and how to be open and transparently fair to all stakeholders. The quality of the science of CER is key but this needs developing, and not just in biomedical or statistical terms but also in how to understand public expectations, and how to implement its recommendations. A key issue is the role of health economics, which seems to have been marginalized by the CER legislation, but perhaps this is more apparent than real. Clearly this is a matter for much further debate. It is hard to see how CER can deliver its potential without active consideration of both benefits and costs. Although other countries have more experience of this than does the US, the context for such work is always very specific and the US will have to find its own way, while trying to avoid some of the errors made elsewhere. PMID:22268389

  20. Translating advances in reading comprehension research to educational practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle S. McNAMARA

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The authors review five major findings in reading comprehension and their implications for educational practice. First, research suggests that comprehension skills are separable from decodingprocesses and important at early ages, suggesting that comprehension skills should be targeted early, even before the child learns to read. Second, there is an important distinction between readingprocesses and products, as well as their causal relationship: processes lead to certain products. Hence, instructional approaches and strategies focusing on processes are needed to improve students’reading performance (i.e., product. Third, inferences are a crucial component of skilled comprehension. Hence, children need scaffolding and remediation to learn to generate inferences, even when they know little about the text topic. Fourth, comprehension depends on a complex interaction between the reader, the characteristics of the text, and the instructional task, highlighting the need for careful selection of instructional materials for individual students and specific groups of students. Finally, educators may benefit from heightened awareness of the limitations and inadequacies of standardized reading comprehension assessments, as well as the multidimensionality of comprehension to better understand their students’ particular strengths and weaknesses.

  1. Molecular imaging of prostate cancer: translating molecular biology approaches into the clinical realm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vargas, Hebert Alberto; Sala, Evis; Hricak, Hedvig [Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, Department of Radiology, New York, NY (United States); Grimm, Jan [Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, Department of Radiology, New York, NY (United States); Program in Molecular Pharmacology and Chemistry, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York (United States); Donati, Olivio F. [Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, Department of Radiology, New York, NY (United States); University Hospital Zurich, Institute of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Zurich (Switzerland)

    2015-05-01

    The epidemiology of prostate cancer has dramatically changed since the introduction of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) screening in the 1980's. Most prostate cancers today are detected at early stages of the disease and are considered 'indolent'; however, some patients' prostate cancers demonstrate a more aggressive behaviour which leads to rapid progression and death. Increasing understanding of the biology underlying the heterogeneity that characterises this disease has led to a continuously evolving role of imaging in the management of prostate cancer. Functional and metabolic imaging techniques are gaining importance as the impact on the therapeutic paradigm has shifted from structural tumour detection alone to distinguishing patients with indolent tumours that can be managed conservatively (e.g., by active surveillance) from patients with more aggressive tumours that may require definitive treatment with surgery or radiation. In this review, we discuss advanced imaging techniques that allow direct visualisation of molecular interactions relevant to prostate cancer and their potential for translation to the clinical setting in the near future. The potential use of imaging to follow molecular events during drug therapy as well as the use of imaging agents for therapeutic purposes will also be discussed. (orig.)

  2. Basic research on cancer related to radiation associated medical researches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jong In; Hwang, Dae Yong; Bang, Ho Yoon [and others

    2000-12-01

    Basic Research on Cancer related to Radiation Associated Medical Researches including 1. Establishment of animal model of colorectal cancer liver metastasis and measurement of angiogenesis, 2. Tissue expression of Tie-1 and Tie-2 in human colorectal cancer, 3. Enhancement of G2/Mphase Cell Fraction by Adenovirus-mediated p53 Gene Transfer in Ovarian Cancer Cell Lines, 4. Clinical Characteristics of the patients with Non-B Non-C Hepatocellular Carcinoma and Frequency of HBV, HCV and TTV Viremia in these Patients, 5. Significance of serum iron and ferritin in patients with stomach cancer, 6. Telomerase assay for early detection of lung cancer, 7. Study on the Usefulness of Aldehyde dehydrogenase-2 Genotyping for Risk Group of Alcohol-related Cancer Screening, 8. Gene therapy using hepatoma specific promoter, 9. Study on the Influence of DNA repair gene, XRCC1 Genotypes on the Risk of Head and Neck Cancer were performed.

  3. Basic research on cancer related to radiation associated medical researches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basic Research on Cancer related to Radiation Associated Medical Researches including 1. Establishment of animal model of colorectal cancer liver metastasis and measurement of angiogenesis, 2. Tissue expression of Tie-1 and Tie-2 in human colorectal cancer, 3. Enhancement of G2/Mphase Cell Fraction by Adenovirus-mediated p53 Gene Transfer in Ovarian Cancer Cell Lines, 4. Clinical Characteristics of the patients with Non-B Non-C Hepatocellular Carcinoma and Frequency of HBV, HCV and TTV Viremia in these Patients, 5. Significance of serum iron and ferritin in patients with stomach cancer, 6. Telomerase assay for early detection of lung cancer, 7. Study on the Usefulness of Aldehyde dehydrogenase-2 Genotyping for Risk Group of Alcohol-related Cancer Screening, 8. Gene therapy using hepatoma specific promoter, 9. Study on the Influence of DNA repair gene, XRCC1 Genotypes on the Risk of Head and Neck Cancer were performed

  4. Translating Volcano Hazards Research in the Cascades Into Community Preparedness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewert, J. W.; Driedger, C. L.

    2015-12-01

    Research by the science community into volcanic histories and physical processes at Cascade volcanoes in the states of Washington, Oregon, and California has been ongoing for over a century. Eruptions in the 20th century at Lassen Peak and Mount St. Helen demonstrated the active nature of Cascade volcanoes; the 1980 eruption of Mount St. Helens was a defining moment in modern volcanology. The first modern volcano hazards assessments were produced by the USGS for some Cascade volcanoes in the 1960s. A rich scientific literature exists, much of which addresses hazards at these active volcanoes. That said community awareness, planning, and preparation for eruptions generally do not occur as a result of a hazard analyses published in scientific papers, but by direct communication with scientists. Relative to other natural hazards, volcanic eruptions (or large earthquakes, or tsunami) are outside common experience, and the public and many public officials are often surprised to learn of the impacts volcanic eruptions could have on their communities. In the 1980s, the USGS recognized that effective hazard communication and preparedness is a multi-faceted, long-term undertaking and began working with federal, state, and local stakeholders to build awareness and foster community action about volcano hazards. Activities included forming volcano-specific workgroups to develop coordination plans for volcano emergencies; a concerted public outreach campaign; curriculum development and teacher training; technical training for emergency managers and first responders; and development of hazard information that is accessible to non-specialists. Outcomes include broader ownership of volcano hazards as evidenced by bi-national exchanges of emergency managers, community planners, and first responders; development by stakeholders of websites focused on volcano hazards mitigation; and execution of table-top and functional exercises, including evacuation drills by local communities.

  5. Metagenomics: A new horizon in cancer research

    OpenAIRE

    Joyita Banerjee; Neetu Mishra; Yogita Dhas

    2015-01-01

    Metagenomics has broadened the scope of targeting microbes responsible for inducing various types of cancers. About 16.1% of cancers are associated with microbial infection. Metagenomics is an equitable way of identifying and studying micro-organisms within their habitat. In cancer research, this approach has revolutionized the way of identifying, analyzing and targeting the microbial diversity present in the tissue specimens of cancer patients. The genomic analyses of these micro-organisms t...

  6. An informatics supported web-based data annotation and query tool to expedite translational research for head and neck malignancies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ridge-Hetrick Jennifer

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Specialized Program of Research Excellence (SPORE in Head and Neck Cancer neoplasm virtual biorepository is a bioinformatics-supported system to incorporate data from various clinical, pathological, and molecular systems into a single architecture based on a set of common data elements (CDEs that provides semantic and syntactic interoperability of data sets. Results The various components of this annotation tool include the Development of Common Data Elements (CDEs that are derived from College of American Pathologists (CAP Checklist and North American Association of Central Cancer Registries (NAACR standards. The Data Entry Tool is a portable and flexible Oracle-based data entry device, which is an easily mastered web-based tool. The Data Query Tool helps investigators and researchers to search de-identified information within the warehouse/resource through a "point and click" interface, thus enabling only the selected data elements to be essentially copied into a data mart using a multi dimensional model from the warehouse's relational structure. The SPORE Head and Neck Neoplasm Database contains multimodal datasets that are accessible to investigators via an easy to use query tool. The database currently holds 6553 cases and 10607 tumor accessions. Among these, there are 965 metastatic, 4227 primary, 1369 recurrent, and 483 new primary cases. The data disclosure is strictly regulated by user's authorization. Conclusion The SPORE Head and Neck Neoplasm Virtual Biorepository is a robust translational biomedical informatics tool that can facilitate basic science, clinical, and translational research. The Data Query Tool acts as a central source providing a mechanism for researchers to efficiently find clinically annotated datasets and biospecimens that are relevant to their research areas. The tool protects patient privacy by revealing only de-identified data in accordance with regulations and approvals of the IRB and

  7. An informatics supported web-based data annotation and query tool to expedite translational research for head and neck malignancies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Specialized Program of Research Excellence (SPORE) in Head and Neck Cancer neoplasm virtual biorepository is a bioinformatics-supported system to incorporate data from various clinical, pathological, and molecular systems into a single architecture based on a set of common data elements (CDEs) that provides semantic and syntactic interoperability of data sets. The various components of this annotation tool include the Development of Common Data Elements (CDEs) that are derived from College of American Pathologists (CAP) Checklist and North American Association of Central Cancer Registries (NAACR) standards. The Data Entry Tool is a portable and flexible Oracle-based data entry device, which is an easily mastered web-based tool. The Data Query Tool helps investigators and researchers to search de-identified information within the warehouse/resource through a 'point and click' interface, thus enabling only the selected data elements to be essentially copied into a data mart using a multi dimensional model from the warehouse's relational structure. The SPORE Head and Neck Neoplasm Database contains multimodal datasets that are accessible to investigators via an easy to use query tool. The database currently holds 6553 cases and 10607 tumor accessions. Among these, there are 965 metastatic, 4227 primary, 1369 recurrent, and 483 new primary cases. The data disclosure is strictly regulated by user's authorization. The SPORE Head and Neck Neoplasm Virtual Biorepository is a robust translational biomedical informatics tool that can facilitate basic science, clinical, and translational research. The Data Query Tool acts as a central source providing a mechanism for researchers to efficiently find clinically annotated datasets and biospecimens that are relevant to their research areas. The tool protects patient privacy by revealing only de-identified data in accordance with regulations and approvals of the IRB and scientific review committee

  8. Financing prevention: opportunities for economic analysis across the translational research cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowley, D Max; Jones, Damon

    2016-03-01

    Prevention advocates often make the case that preventive intervention not only improves public health and welfare but also can save public resources. Increasingly, evidence-based policy efforts considering prevention are focusing on how programs can save taxpayer resources from reduced burden on health, criminal justice, and social service systems. Evidence of prevention's return has begun to draw substantial investments from the public and private sector. Yet, translating prevention effectiveness into economic impact requires specific economic analyses to be employed across the stages of translational research. This work discusses the role of economic analysis in prevention science and presents key translational research opportunities to meet growing demand for estimates of prevention's economic and fiscal impact. PMID:27012262

  9. Genomic Datasets for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    A variety of datasets from genome-wide association studies of cancer and other genotype-phenotype studies, including sequencing and molecular diagnostic assays, are available to approved investigators through the Extramural National Cancer Institute Data Access Committee.

  10. Alliance Against Cancer, the network of Italian cancer centers bridging research and care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Paoli, Paolo; Ciliberto, Gennaro; Ferrarini, Manlio; Pelicci, PierGiuseppe; Dellabona, Paolo; De Lorenzo, Francesco; Mantovani, Alberto; Musto, Pellegrino; Opocher, Giuseppe; Picci, Piero; Ricciardi, Walter; De Maria, Ruggero

    2015-01-01

    Alliance Against Cancer (ACC) was established in Rome in 2002 as a consortium of six Italian comprehensive cancer centers (Founders). The aims of ACC were to promote a network among Italian oncologic institutions in order to develop specific, advanced projects in clinical and translational research. During the following years, many additional full and associate members joined ACC, that presently includes the National Institute of Health, 17 research-oriented hospitals, scientific and patient organizations. Furthermore, in the last three years ACC underwent a reorganization process that redesigned the structure, governance and major activities. The present goal of ACC is to achieve high standards of care across Italy, to implement and harmonize principles of modern personalized and precision medicine, by developing cost effective processes and to provide tailored information to cancer patients. We herein summarize some of the major initiatives that ACC is currently developing to reach its goal, including tumor genetic screening programs, establishment of clinical trial programs for cancer patients treated in Italian cancer centers, facilitate their access to innovative drugs under development, improve quality through an European accreditation process (European Organization of Cancer Institutes), and develop international partnerships. In conclusion, ACC is a growing organization, trying to respond to the need of networking in Italy and may contribute significantly to improve the way we face cancer in Europe. PMID:26578263

  11. Lysyl oxidase in cancer research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perryman, Lara; Erler, Janine Terra

    2014-01-01

    Metastasis is the main reason for cancer-associated deaths and therapies are desperately needed to target the progression of cancer. Lysyl oxidase (LOX) plays a pivotal role in cancer progression, including metastasis, and is therefore is an attractive therapeutic target. In this review we will...

  12. Biology panel: coming to a clinic near you. Translational research in radiation biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The explosion of knowledge in molecular biology coupled with the rapid and continuing development of molecular techniques allow a new level of research in radiation biology aimed at understanding the processes that govern radiation damage and response in both tumors and normal tissues. The challenge to radiation biologists and radiation oncologists is to use this knowledge to improve the therapeutic ratio in the management of human tumors by rapidly translating these new findings into clinical practice. This panel will focus on both sides of the therapeutic ratio coin, the manipulation of tumor control by manipulating the processes that control cell cycle regulation and apoptosis, and the reduction of normal tissue morbidity by applying the emerging information on the genetic basis of radiosensitivity. Apoptosis is a form of cell death believed to represent a minor component of the clinical effects of radiation. However, if apoptosis is regulated by anti-apoptotic mechanisms, then it may be possible to produce a pro-apoptotic phenotype in the tumor cell population by modulating the balance between pro- and anti-apoptotic mechanisms by pharmacological intervention. Thus signaling-based apoptosis therapy, designed to overcome the relative resistance to radiation-induced apoptosis, may improve the therapeutic ratio in the management of human tumors. The explosion of information concerning cell cycle regulation in both normal and tumor cells has provided the opportunity for insights into the mechanism of action of chemotherapeutic agents that can act as radiosensitizers. The second talk will explore the hypothesis that the dysregulation of cell cycle checkpoints in some cancers can be exploited to improve the therapeutic index of radiation sensitizers, specifically the fluoropyrimidines which appear to act at the G1/S transition. Finally, efforts to increase tumor control will be translated into clinical practice only if such treatments do not increase the complication

  13. Nutrition and Cancer Prevention Research Practicum | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Nutritional Science Research Group in the Division of Cancer Prevention at the National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health and the Department of Nutrition at the Clinical Center, National Institutes of Health are offering a one week educational opportunity in "Nutrition and Cancer Prevention Research" for individuals with a sustained commitment to nutrition and health promotion. This one-week intense learning session provides specialized instruction in the role of diet and bioactive food components as modifiers of cancer incidence and tumor behavior. |

  14. Research Networks Map | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Division of Cancer Prevention supports major scientific collaborations and research networks at more than 100 sites across the United States.  Five Major Programs' sites are shown on this map. | The Division of Cancer Prevention supports major scientific collaborations and research networks at more than 100 sites across the United States.

  15. From the Form to the Face to Face: IRBs, Ethnographic Researchers, and Human Subjects Translate Consent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metro, Rosalie

    2014-01-01

    Based on my fieldwork with Burmese teachers in Thailand, I describe the drawbacks of using IRB-mandated written consent procedures in my cross-cultural collaborative ethnographic research on education. Drawing on theories of intersubjectivity (Mikhail Bakhtin), ethics (Emmanuel Levinas), and translation (Naoki Sakai), I describe face-to-face…

  16. Translational research combining orthologous genes and human diseases with the OGOLOD dataset

    OpenAIRE

    Miñarro-Giménez, José Antonio; Egaña Aranguren, Mikel; Villazón-Terrazas, Boris; Fernández-Breis, Jesualdo Tomás

    2012-01-01

    OGOLOD is a Linked Open Data dataset derived from different biomedical resources by an automated pipeline, using a tailored ontology as a scaffold. The key contribution of OGOLOD is that it links, in new RDF triples, genetic human diseases and orthologous genes, paving the way for a more efficient translational biomedical research exploiting the Linked Open Data cloud.

  17. Translational Researches Require Effective Protocols for Knowledge and Technology Transfer and Integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yadollah Omidi

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Integration of several disciplines (nonclinical, preclinical and clinical researches during drug discovery and development through learn and confirm process need a dynamic process “translational medicine” (TM to give a holistic understanding of the entire process. To achieve the highest impacts, however, effective standard protocols need to be performed.

  18. Some questions concerning teaching ,research and translating modern Hindi literture in the Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Marková, Dagmar

    Praha: Acta Universitatis Carolinae, Philologica 1-2011, 2011 - (Vacek, J.; Mukhia, H.), s. 155-159. (Studia Orientalia Pragensia. 27). ISBN 978-80-246-2031-2 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z90210515 Keywords : India * literature * teaching * translating Subject RIV: AJ - Letters, Mass-media, Audiovision

  19. Progress in using systematic reviews of animal studies to improve translational research

    OpenAIRE

    C R Hooijmans; Ritskes-Hoitinga, M.

    2013-01-01

    Carlijn Hooijmans and colleagues discuss developments that might improve the quality and translation of animal research, focusing on the importance of systematic reviews, the role of an international register of animal studies, and cooperation across the scientific community. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary

  20. The Translation of Basic Behavioral Research to School Psychology: A Citation Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Derek D.

    2008-01-01

    In recent years, school psychology has become increasingly grounded in data-based decision making and intervention design, based upon behavior analytic principles. This paradigm shift has occurred in part by recent federal legislation, as well as through advances in experimental research replicating laboratory based studies. Translating basic…

  1. Translational Creativity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sandro

    2010-01-01

    A long-established approach to legal translation focuses on terminological equivalence making translators strictly follow the words of source texts. Recent research suggests that there is room for some creativity allowing translators to deviate from the source texts. However, little attention is...... given to genre conventions in source texts and the ways in which they can best be translated. I propose that translators of statutes with an informative function in expert-to-expert communication may be allowed limited translational creativity when translating specific types of genre convention. This...... creativity is a result of translators adopting either a source-language or a target-language oriented strategy and is limited by the pragmatic principle of co-operation. Examples of translation options are provided illustrating the different results in target texts. The use of a target-language oriented...

  2. RNA G-quadruplexes cause eIF4A-dependent oncogene translation in cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, Andrew L.; Singh, Kamini; Zhong, Yi; Drewe, Philipp; Rajasekhar, Vinagolu K.; Sanghvi, Viraj R.; Mavrakis, Konstantinos J.; Jiang, Man; Roderick, Justine E.; van der Meulen, Joni; Schatz, Jonathan H.; Rodrigo, Christina M.; Zhao, Chunying; Rondou, Pieter; de Stanchina, Elisa; Teruya-Feldstein, Julie; Kelliher, Michelle A.; Speleman, Frank; Porco, John A.; Pelletier, Jerry; Rätsch, Gunnar; Wendel, Hans-Guido

    2014-09-01

    The translational control of oncoprotein expression is implicated in many cancers. Here we report an eIF4A RNA helicase-dependent mechanism of translational control that contributes to oncogenesis and underlies the anticancer effects of silvestrol and related compounds. For example, eIF4A promotes T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukaemia development in vivo and is required for leukaemia maintenance. Accordingly, inhibition of eIF4A with silvestrol has powerful therapeutic effects against murine and human leukaemic cells in vitro and in vivo. We use transcriptome-scale ribosome footprinting to identify the hallmarks of eIF4A-dependent transcripts. These include 5' untranslated region (UTR) sequences such as the 12-nucleotide guanine quartet (CGG)4 motif that can form RNA G-quadruplex structures. Notably, among the most eIF4A-dependent and silvestrol-sensitive transcripts are a number of oncogenes, superenhancer-associated transcription factors, and epigenetic regulators. Hence, the 5' UTRs of select cancer genes harbour a targetable requirement for the eIF4A RNA helicase.

  3. Merging Person-Centered Care with Translational Research to Improve the Lives of Older Adults: Creating Community Based Nursing Research Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Hill, Nikki L.; Penrod, Janice; Milone-Nuzzo, Paula

    2014-01-01

    Translational research is a leading trend in science with the aim of bridging the research-practice gap in order to significantly speed the implementation of effective interventions in clinical practice. Integrating the values and preferences of older adults and their families in this process is critical to the success of translational research. Engaging communities in meaningful research is an important part of advancing translational science in which the older adult is a partner in developi...

  4. From animal cage to aircraft cabin: an overview of evidence translation in jet lag research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, Greg; Batterham, Alan M; Dowdall, Nigel; Thompson, Andrew; van Drongelen, Alwin

    2014-12-01

    Recent laboratory experiments on rodents have increased our understanding of circadian rhythm mechanisms. Typically, circadian biologists attempt to translate their laboratory-based findings to treatment of jet lag symptoms in humans. We aimed to scrutinise the strength of the various links in the translational pathway from animal model to human traveller. First, we argue that the translation of findings from pre-clinical studies to effective jet lag treatments and knowledge regarding longer-term population health is not robust, e.g. the association between circadian disruption and cancer found in animal models does not translate well to cabin crew and pilots, who have a lower risk of most cancers. Jet lag symptoms are heterogeneous, making the true prevalence and the effects of any intervention difficult to quantify precisely. The mechanistic chain between in vitro and in vivo treatment effects has weak links, especially between circadian rhythm disruption in animals and the improvement of jet lag symptoms in humans. While the number of animal studies has increased exponentially between 1990 and 2014, only 1-2 randomised controlled trials on jet lag treatments are published every year. There is one relevant Cochrane review, in which only 2-4 studies on melatonin, without baseline measures, were meta-analysed. Study effect sizes reduced substantially between 1987, when the first paper on melatonin was published, and 2000. We suggest that knowledge derived from a greater number of human randomised controlled trials would provide a firmer platform for circadian biologists to cite jet lag treatment as an important application of their findings. PMID:25342081

  5. [Chinese translation of "nerve" and its influences on research of meridians and collaterals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Su-Yun; Zhao, Jing-Sheng

    2011-05-01

    Authors investigated the whole introduction and translation course of the word "nerve" into China during the Ming dynasty (1368-1644), Qing dynasty(1644-1911) and the Republic of China (1912-1949), when western medicine was introduced into the East, as well as its influences on the cognition and researches of meridians and collaterals. The result shows that "nerve" was once translated into "Xijin" and "Naoqijin" in the Ming and Qing dynasties. Only until the period of the late Qing dynasty and the early stage of the Republic of China, the word "Shenjing", which is known as the unique Chinese translation of nerve nowadays, was introduced from Japan. From that time on, the Chinese physicians started to explore the relation between nerves and meridians, which led to the transform of the academic methodology on essence of meridian. Thus, profound as well as prolong influences were made on study of meridians and collaterals until nowadays. PMID:21692303

  6. Translational Research and Medicine at NASA: From Earth to Space and Back Again

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, Thomas J.; Cohrs, Randall; Crucian, Brian A,; Levine Benjamin; Otto, Christian; Ploutz-Schneider, Lori; Shackelford, Linda C.

    2014-01-01

    The Space Environment provides many challenges to the human physiology and therefore to extended habitation and exploration. Translational research and medical strategies are meeting these challenges by combining Earth based medical solutions with innovative and developmental engineering approaches. Translational methodologies are current applied to spaceflight related dysregulations in the areas of: (1) cardiovascular fluid shifts, intracranial hypertension and neuro-ocular impairment 2) immune insufficiency and suppression/viral re-expression, 3) bone loss and fragility (osteopenia/osteoporosis) and muscle wasting, and finally 4) radiation sensitivity and advanced ageing. Over 40 years of research into these areas have met with limited success due to lack of tools and basic understanding of central issues that cause physiologic maladaptaion and distrupt homeostatis. I will discuss the effects of living in space (reduced gravity, increased radiation and varying atmospheric conditions [EVA]) during long-duration, exploration-class missions and how translational research has benefited not only space exploration but also Earth based medicine. Modern tools such as telemedicine advances in genomics, proteomics, and metabolomics (Omicssciences) has helped address syndromes, at the systemic level by enlisting a global approach to assessing spaceflight physiology and to develop countermeasures thereby permitting our experience in space to be translated to the Earth's medical community.

  7. Constraint-induced movement therapy as a paradigm of translational research in neurorehabilitation: Reviews and prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wei-Chao; Chen, Yun-Ju; Chien, Chung-Liang; Kashima, Haruo; Lin, Keh-Chung

    2010-01-01

    There is an increasing awareness about the importance of translation from basic scientific findings into practical application for efficiently improving human health, especially in the pharmaceutical industry. In the field of neurorehabilitation, however, the bench-to-bedside process continues to be developing, and thus most of the therapeutic interventions have encountered barriers during exploration of evidence-based effectiveness. Despite this immaturity, constraint-induced movement therapy (CIT), a well-evidenced treatment evolved from research in nonhuman primates, is suggested to be an ideal paradigm of translational research in the field of neurorehabilitation. This article reviews the evolvement of CIT with regards to its behavioral efficacy and neuroimaging evidence through the translation roadmap developed by the National Institutes of Health. We also discuss prospects for the application of combined interventions, such as stem cell therapy or pharmaceutical prescription, with appropriate screening of patients beforehand, as well as an efficient delivery mode after the treatment. To achieve such goals and consolidate evidenced-based neurorehabilitation, we provide a framework for applications into the translational research of other therapeutic interventions aside from CIT. PMID:21139805

  8. An exploratory investigation of the influence of publication on translational medicine research

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas Vaughan; Preedy Danielle; Douet Lisa J; Cree Ian A

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Changes in clinical practice are brought about by the weight of clinical evidence for and against an intervention. Clinical evidence of efficacy relies on the dissemination of research results, usually by publication in medical journals which is often seen as a pre-requisite for progression of an intervention through further clinical trials or implementation studies. How far has research progressed along the translational pathway? We undertook an exploratory exercise to de...

  9. What's New in Bone Cancer Research and Treatment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... resources for bone cancer What’s new in bone cancer research and treatment? Research on bone cancer is now ... Your Doctor After Treatment What`s New in Bone Cancer Research? AdditionalResources Other Resources and References Cancer Information Cancer ...

  10. A multiinstitutional, multidisciplinary model for developing and teaching translational research in health disparities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estape, Estela; Laurido, Lourdes E Soto de; Shaheen, Magda; Quarshie, Alexander; Frontera, Walter; Mays, Mary Helen; Harrigan, Rosanne; White, Richard

    2011-12-01

    Health disparities may affect any person in any community in the world, resulting from a multitude of factors including socioeconomic status, race, ethnicity, environment, and genetics. The impact of health disparities is felt by affected individuals, their families, communities, and the greater health care system. There is a critical need to increase health disparities research activities. This may be achieved by expanding and strengthening the training, education and career development of motivated clinicians, physicians and basic scientists, engaging them in clinical and translational research. Translational research relies on collaboration across disciplines, facilitating the dissemination and transfer of knowledge to populations for the overall improvement of health while decreasing the economic burden of health care. The University of Puerto Rico Medical Sciences Campus (UPR-MSC), Schools of Health Professions and Medicine joint initiatives, Clinical Research Education and Career Development (CRECD) and Hispanics in Research Capability (HiREC) programs, convened health disparities experts, faculty and scholars from multiple disciplines, cultural backgrounds and institutions. Together, they created a model for teaching translational research in health disparities that spans disciplines without boundaries. PMID:22212225

  11. Pragmatic medicine in solid cancer: a translational alternative to precision medicine

    OpenAIRE

    Brábek J; Rosel D; Fernandes M

    2016-01-01

    Jan Brábek,1 Daniel Rosel,1 Michael Fernandes21Department of Cell Biology, Faculty of Science, Charles University in Prague, Prague 2, Czech Republic; 2Medbase, Chapel Hill, NC, USAAbstract: The precision medicine (PM) initiative is a response to the dismal outlook in solid cancer. Despite heterogeneity, common mechanistic denominators may exist across the spectrum of solid cancer. A shift from conventional research and development (R&D) toward PM will require conceptual and struct...

  12. Data mining in cancer research

    OpenAIRE

    Paulo J G Lisboa; Vellido Alcacena, Alfredo; Tagliaferri, Roberto; Napolitano, Francesco; Ceccarelli, Michelle; Martín Guerrero, José D.; Biganzoli, Elia

    2010-01-01

    This article is not intended as a comprehensive survey of data mining applications in cancer. Rather, it provides starting points for further, more targeted, literature searches, by embarking on a guided tour of computational intelligence applications in cancer medicine, structured in increasing order of the physical scales of biological processes.

  13. caTIES: a grid based system for coding and retrieval of surgical pathology reports and tissue specimens in support of translational research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowley, Rebecca S; Castine, Melissa; Mitchell, Kevin; Chavan, Girish; McSherry, Tara; Feldman, Michael

    2010-01-01

    The authors report on the development of the Cancer Tissue Information Extraction System (caTIES)--an application that supports collaborative tissue banking and text mining by leveraging existing natural language processing methods and algorithms, grid communication and security frameworks, and query visualization methods. The system fills an important need for text-derived clinical data in translational research such as tissue-banking and clinical trials. The design of caTIES addresses three critical issues for informatics support of translational research: (1) federation of research data sources derived from clinical systems; (2) expressive graphical interfaces for concept-based text mining; and (3) regulatory and security model for supporting multi-center collaborative research. Implementation of the system at several Cancer Centers across the country is creating a potential network of caTIES repositories that could provide millions of de-identified clinical reports to users. The system provides an end-to-end application of medical natural language processing to support multi-institutional translational research programs. PMID:20442142

  14. Gene therapy and stem cell therapy for cardiovascular diseases today: a model for translational research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuster, Valentin; Sanz, Javier

    2007-02-01

    Clinical trials looking at ways to promote myocardial regeneration have reported that the administered therapies have either neutral effects or modest benefits of questionable impact. These somewhat disappointing results should emphasize the need for translational research, with bidirectional feedback between the basic research laboratory and the clinical arena. Such a translational pathway is illustrated by the quest to find an effective therapy for restenosis, which culminated in the development of sirolimus. At this point a move away from the bedside and a return to the bench seems necessary to better understand the mechanisms of action of progenitor cells and stimulating factors. Without such basic knowledge research might be prematurely discouraged and the opportunity to fully understand the true potential of cardiovascular regenerative therapy might be missed. PMID:17230204

  15. Setting Global Standards for Stem Cell Research and Clinical Translation: The 2016 ISSCR Guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daley, George Q; Hyun, Insoo; Apperley, Jane F; Barker, Roger A; Benvenisty, Nissim; Bredenoord, Annelien L; Breuer, Christopher K; Caulfield, Timothy; Cedars, Marcelle I; Frey-Vasconcells, Joyce; Heslop, Helen E; Jin, Ying; Lee, Richard T; McCabe, Christopher; Munsie, Megan; Murry, Charles E; Piantadosi, Steven; Rao, Mahendra; Rooke, Heather M; Sipp, Douglas; Studer, Lorenz; Sugarman, Jeremy; Takahashi, Masayo; Zimmerman, Mark; Kimmelman, Jonathan

    2016-06-14

    The International Society for Stem Cell Research (ISSCR) presents its 2016 Guidelines for Stem Cell Research and Clinical Translation (ISSCR, 2016). The 2016 guidelines reflect the revision and extension of two past sets of guidelines (ISSCR, 2006; ISSCR, 2008) to address new and emerging areas of stem cell discovery and application and evolving ethical, social, and policy challenges. These guidelines provide an integrated set of principles and best practices to drive progress in basic, translational, and clinical research. The guidelines demand rigor, oversight, and transparency in all aspects of practice, providing confidence to practitioners and public alike that stem cell science can proceed efficiently and remain responsive to public and patient interests. Here, we highlight key elements and recommendations in the guidelines and summarize the recommendations and deliberations behind them. PMID:27185282

  16. Setting Global Standards for Stem Cell Research and Clinical Translation: The 2016 ISSCR Guidelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Q. Daley

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The International Society for Stem Cell Research (ISSCR presents its 2016 Guidelines for Stem Cell Research and Clinical Translation (ISSCR, 2016. The 2016 guidelines reflect the revision and extension of two past sets of guidelines (ISSCR, 2006; ISSCR, 2008 to address new and emerging areas of stem cell discovery and application and evolving ethical, social, and policy challenges. These guidelines provide an integrated set of principles and best practices to drive progress in basic, translational, and clinical research. The guidelines demand rigor, oversight, and transparency in all aspects of practice, providing confidence to practitioners and public alike that stem cell science can proceed efficiently and remain responsive to public and patient interests. Here, we highlight key elements and recommendations in the guidelines and summarize the recommendations and deliberations behind them.

  17. Health researchers in Alberta: an exploratory comparison of defining characteristics and knowledge translation activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birdsell Judy M

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Canadian funding agencies are no longer content to support research that solely advances scientific knowledge, and key directives are now in place to promote research transfer to policy- and decision-makers. Therefore, it is necessary to improve our understanding of how researchers are trained and supported to facilitate knowledge translation activities. In this study, we investigated differences in health researcher characteristics and knowledge translation activities. Methods Our sample consisted of 240 health researchers from three Alberta universities. Respondents were classified by research domain [basic (n = 72 or applied (n = 168] and faculty [medical school (n = 128 or other health science (n = 112]. We examined our findings using Mode I and Mode II archetypes of knowledge production, which allowed us to consider the scholarly and social contexts of knowledge production and translation. Results Differences among health researcher professional characteristics were not statistically significant. There was a significant gender difference in the applied researcher faculty group, which was predominantly female (p p p = .01; Mode II, p p = .025 and number of publications (medical school > other faculties; p = .004. There was an interaction effect for research domain and faculty group for number of publications (p = .01, in that applied researchers in medical faculties published more than their peers in other faculty groups. Conclusion Our findings illustrate important differences between health researchers and provide beginning insights into their professional characteristics and engagement in Mode I and Mode II activities. A future study designed to examine these dimensions in greater detail, including potential covariates across more varied institutions, would yield richer insights and enable an examination of relative influences, needs and costs of each mode of activity.

  18. From bench to bedside and to health policies (and back: ethics in translational research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Petrini

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The medical aim of translational research is to smooth the transition of discoveries made through basic research from the laboratory bench to their diagnostic or therapeutic applications for patients. These applications may be extended to current clinical practice and to health policies. AIM: The converse is also important: health policies should provide a point of departure when identifying research priorities. Translational research poses the same ethical problems as trials with human subjects - albeit in different ways. One of the more significant problems is the risk for participants in trials: it is thus necessary to ensure that the risks to which these subjects are exposed are not out of proportion to the expected benefits. DISCUSSION: Translational research does not require new ethical principles, but existing biomedical principles need to be adjusted to the specific context. The well-being of participants should always be the primary objective; these persons should never be considered as means for the advancement of knowledge or for the improvement of applications.

  19. A review of diabetes prevention program translations: use of cultural adaptation and implementation research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabak, Rachel G; Sinclair, Kàimi A; Baumann, Ana A; Racette, Susan B; Sebert Kuhlmann, Anne; Johnson-Jennings, Michelle D; Brownson, Ross C

    2015-12-01

    The Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP) has been shown to prevent type 2 diabetes through lifestyle modification. The purpose of this study was to describe the literature on DPP translation, synthesizing studies using cultural adaptation and implementation research. A systematic search was conducted. Original studies evaluating DPP implementation and/or cultural adaptation were included. Data about cultural adaptation, implementation outcomes, and translation strategies was abstracted. A total of 44 were included, of which 15 reported cultural adaptations and 38 explored implementation. Many studies shortened the program length and reported a group format. The most commonly reported cultural adaptation (13 of 15) was with content. At the individual level, the most frequently assessed implementation outcome (n = 30) was adoption. Feasibility was most common (n = 32) at the organization level. The DPP is being tested in a variety of settings and populations, using numerous translational strategies and cultural adaptations. Implementation research that identifies, evaluates, and reports efforts to translate the DPP into practice is crucial. PMID:26622913

  20. Databases and QSAR for Cancer Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adeel Malik

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In this review, we take a survey of bioinformatics databases and quantitative structure-activity relationship studies reported in published literature. Databases from the most general to special cancer-related ones have been included. Most commonly used methods of structure-based analysis of molecules have been reviewed, along with some case studies where they have been used in cancer research. This article is expected to be of use for general bioinformatics researchers interested in cancer and will also provide an update to those who have been actively pursuing this field of research.

  1. Translational medicine promising personalized therapy in oncology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yi-Xin ZENG; Xiao-Shi ZHANG; Qiang LIU

    2010-01-01

    @@ Translational medicine has newly emerged to bridge the gap between bench-related basic science research and bedside clinical practice. From early diagnosis to late-stage disease treatment, translational medicine has transformed the clinical practice by making personalized medicine possible. Attributing to the progress in translational medical research, cancer therapy has evolved from non-specific cytotoxic drugs against both tumor and normal proliferating cells to more specific small molecule chemical and immunotherapy approaches.

  2. Model for bridging the translational "valleys of death" in spinal cord injury research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barrable B

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Bill Barrable,1 Nancy Thorogood,1 Vanessa Noonan,1,2 Jocelyn Tomkinson,1 Phalgun Joshi,1 Ken Stephenson,1 John Barclay,1 Katharina Kovacs Burns3 1Rick Hansen Institute, 2Division of Spine, Department of Orthopaedics, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, 3Health Sciences Council, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, Canada Abstract: To improve health care outcomes with cost-effective treatments and prevention initiatives, basic health research must be translated into clinical application and studied during implementation, a process commonly referred to as translational research. It is estimated that only 14% of health-related scientific discoveries enter into medical practice and that it takes an average of 17 years for them to do so. The transition from basic research to clinical knowledge and from clinical knowledge to practice or implementation is so fraught with obstacles that these transitions are often referred to as “valleys of death”. The Rick Hansen Institute has developed a unique praxis model for translational research in the field of spinal cord injury (SCI. The praxis model involves three components. The first is a coordinated program strategy of cure, care, consumer engagement, and commercialization. The second is a knowledge cycle that consists of four phases, ie, environmental scanning, knowledge generation and synthesis, knowledge validation, and implementation. The third is the provision of relevant resources and infrastructure to overcome obstacles in the “valleys of death”, ie, funding, clinical research operations, informatics, clinical research and best practice implementation, consumer engagement, collaborative networks, and strategic partnerships. This model, which is to be independently evaluated in 2018 to determine its strengths and limitations, has been used to advance treatments for pressure ulcers in SCI. The Rick Hansen Institute has developed an innovative solution to move knowledge into action by

  3. Milestones in Cancer Research and Discovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    During the past 250 years, we have witnessed many landmark discoveries in our efforts to make progress against cancer, an affliction known to humanity for thousands of years. This timeline shows a few key milestones in the history of cancer research.

  4. Research Areas: Causes of Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Understanding the exposures and risk factors that cause cancer, as well as the genetic abnormalities associated with the disease, has helped us to reduce certain exposures and to ameliorate their harmful effects.

  5. Advancing Transdisciplinary and Translational Research Practice: Issues and Models of Doctoral Education in Public Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Neuhauser

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Finding solutions to complex health problems, such as obesity, violence, and climate change, will require radical changes in cross-disciplinary education, research, and practice. The fundamental determinants of health include many interrelated factors such as poverty, culture, education, environment, and government policies. However, traditional public health training has tended to focus more narrowly on diseases and risk factors, and has not adequately leveraged the rich contributions of sociology, anthropology, economics, geography, communication, political science, and other disciplines. Further, students are often not sufficiently trained to work across sectors to translate research findings into effective, large-scale sustainable actions.During the past 2 decades, national and international organizations have called for more effective interdisciplinary, transdisciplinary, and translational approaches to graduate education. Although it has been difficult to work across traditional academic boundaries, some promising models draw on pedagogical theory and feature cross-disciplinary training focused on real-world problems, linkage between research, professional practice, community action, and cultivation of leadership skills.We describe the development the Doctor of Public Health program at the University of California, Berkeley, USA and its efforts to improve transdisciplinary and translational research education. We stress the need for international collaboration to improve educational approaches and better evaluate their impact.

  6. Innovating in the medical device industry - challenges & opportunities ESB 2015 translational research symposium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayon, Y; Bohner, M; Eglin, D; Procter, P; Richards, R G; Weber, J; Zeugolis, D I

    2016-09-01

    The European Society for Biomaterials 2015 Translational Research Symposium focused on 'Innovating in the Medical Device Industry - Challenges & Opportunities' from different perspectives, i.e., from a non-profit research organisation to a syndicate of small and medium-sized companies and large companies. Lecturers from regulatory consultants, industry and research institutions described the innovation process and regulatory processes (e.g., 510K, PMA, combination product) towards market approval. The aim of the present article is to summarise and explain the main statements made during the symposium, in terms of challenges and opportunities for medical device industries, in a constantly changing customer and regulatory environment. PMID:27552808

  7. Assessment of Cancer-Related Fatigue: Role of the Oncology Nurse in Translating NCCN Assessment Guidelines into Practice

    OpenAIRE

    Piper, Barbara F.; Borneman, Tami; Sun, Virginia Chih-Yi; Koczywas, Marianna; Uman, Gwen; Ferrell, Betty; James, Raysenia L.

    2008-01-01

    Despite the availability of the National Comprehensive Cancer Network’s (NCCN) evidence-based practice guidelines for the assessment and management of Cancer-Related Fatigue (CRF), assessment of CRF still is not routinely performed at many institutions and oncology practice settings. Numerous patient-, provider-, and system-related barriers exist that hinder the translation of these guidelines into practice by oncology nurses and other health care providers. Oncology nurses can play vital rol...

  8. [Translational/regulatory science researches of NIHS for regenerative medicine and cellular therapy products].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Yoji

    2014-01-01

    In 2013, the Japanese Diet passed the Regenerative Medicine Promotion Act and the revisions to the Pharmaceutical Affairs Act, which was also renamed as the Therapeutic Products Act (TPA). One of the aims of the new/revised Acts is to promote the development and translation of and access to regenerative/cellular therapies. In the TPA, a product derived from processing cells is categorized as a subgroup of "regenerative medicine, cellular therapy and gene therapy products" (RCGPs), products distinct from pharmaceuticals and medical devices, allowing RCGPs to obtain a conditional and time- limited marketing authorization much earlier than that under the conventional system. To foster not only RCGPs, but also innovative pharmaceuticals and medical devices, the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare recently launched Translational Research Program for Innovative Pharmaceuticals, Medical Devices and RCGPs. This mini-review introduces contributions of the National Institute of Health Sciences (NIHS) to research projects on RCGPs in the Program. PMID:25707195

  9. Improving intermittent androgen deprivation therapy: lessons learned from basic and translational research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahul A Parikh

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Intermittent androgen deprivation therapy (IADT is an alternative to continuous androgen deprivation therapy (ADT in prostate cancer patients with nonmetastatic disease. ADT is associated with numerous side effects such as hot flashes, sexual dysfunction, anemia, fatigue, loss of muscle mass, osteoporosis, metabolic syndrome and premature cardiovascular disease. IADT was developed with the intention of improving the quality of life and to delay progression of prostate cancer to castration resistance. The benefits of slightly improved quality of life by IADT compared to ADT were demonstrated in multiple clinical trials. IADT was noted to be noninferior to ADT in patients with biochemical recurrence of prostate cancer but in studies performed in patients with metastatic prostate cancer, the results were inconclusive. Our recent studies suggested that the administration of 5 alpha-reductase inhibitors during the off-cycle of IADT can significantly prolong the survival of mice bearing androgen-sensitive prostate tumors when off-cycle duration was short. This review discusses the survival benefit of 5 alpha-reductase inhibition in IADT in animal models and the potential translation of this finding into clinic.

  10. DCB - Cancer Immunology, Hematology, and Etiology Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Part of NCI’s Division of Cancer Biology’s research portfolio, studies supported include the characterization of basic mechanisms relevant to anti-tumor immune responses and hematologic malignancies.

  11. NIH Research Leads to Cervical Cancer Vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Transmitted Diseases NIH Research Leads to Cervical Cancer Vaccine Past Issues / Fall 2008 Table of Contents For ... Douglas Lowy (left) and John Schiller developed the vaccine to prevent HPV infection in women, the cause ...

  12. COLLABORATING WITH THE COMMUNITY: THE EXTRA-TERRITORIAL TRANSLATIONAL RESEARCH TEAM

    OpenAIRE

    Kotarba, Joseph A.; Croisant, Sharon A.; Elferink, Cornelis; Scott, Lauren E.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is to suggest a revision of the team science concept to the more inclusive extra-territorial research team (ETRT). Translational thinking is largely marked by the perception of the team as a thing-like structure at the center of the scientific activity. Collaboration accordingly involves bringing external others (e.g., scientists, community members, and clinicians) into the team through limited or dependent participation. We suggest that a promising and innova...

  13. Knowledge exchange in the Pacific: The TROPIC (Translational Research into Obesity Prevention Policies for Communities) project

    OpenAIRE

    Mavoa Helen; Waqa Gade; Moodie Marj; Kremer Peter; McCabe Marita; Snowdon Wendy; Swinburn Boyd

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Policies targeting obesogenic environments and behaviours are critical to counter rising obesity rates and lifestyle-related non-communicable diseases (NCDs). Policies are likely to be most effective and enduring when they are based on the best available evidence. Evidence-informed policy making is especially challenging in countries with limited resources. The Pacific TROPIC (Translational Research for Obesity Prevention in Communities) project aims to implement and evalu...

  14. Experimental liver fibrosis research: update on animal models, legal issues and translational aspects

    OpenAIRE

    Liedtke, Christian; Luedde, Tom; Sauerbruch, Tilman; Scholten, David; Streetz, Konrad; Tacke, Frank; Tolba, René; Trautwein, Christian; Trebicka, Jonel; Weiskirchen, Ralf

    2013-01-01

    Liver fibrosis is defined as excessive extracellular matrix deposition and is based on complex interactions between matrix-producing hepatic stellate cells and an abundance of liver-resident and infiltrating cells. Investigation of these processes requires in vitro and in vivo experimental work in animals. However, the use of animals in translational research will be increasingly challenged, at least in countries of the European Union, because of the adoption of new animal welfare rules in 20...

  15. Breaking Free of Sample Size Dogma to Perform Innovative Translational Research

    OpenAIRE

    Bacchetti, Peter; Steven G Deeks; McCune, Joseph M.

    2011-01-01

    Innovative clinical and translational research is often delayed or prevented by reviewers’ expectations that any study performed in humans must be shown in advance to have high statistical power. This supposed requirement is not justifiable and is contradicted by the reality that increasing sample size produces diminishing marginal returns. Studies of new ideas often must start small (sometimes even with an N of 1) because of cost and feasibility concerns, and recent statistical work shows th...

  16. Balancing exploration and exploitation in transferring research into practice: a comparison of five knowledge translation entity archetypes

    OpenAIRE

    Oborn, Eivor; Barrett, Michael; Prince, Karl; Racko, Girts

    2013-01-01

    Background Translating knowledge from research into clinical practice has emerged as a practice of increasing importance. This has led to the creation of new organizational entities designed to bridge knowledge between research and practice. Within the UK, the Collaborations for Leadership in Applied Health Research and Care (CLAHRC) have been introduced to ensure that emphasis is placed in ensuring research is more effectively translated and implemented in clinical practice. Knowledge transl...

  17. Metagenomics: A new horizon in cancer research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joyita Banerjee

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Metagenomics has broadened the scope of targeting microbes responsible for inducing various types of cancers. About 16.1% of cancers are associated with microbial infection. Metagenomics is an equitable way of identifying and studying micro-organisms within their habitat. In cancer research, this approach has revolutionized the way of identifying, analyzing and targeting the microbial diversity present in the tissue specimens of cancer patients. The genomic analyses of these micro-organisms through next generation sequencing techniques invariably facilitate in recognizing the microbial population in biopsies and their evolutionary relationships with each other. In this review an attempt has been made to generate current metagenomic view on cancer microbiota. Different types of micro-organisms have been found to be linked to various types of cancers, thus, contributing significantly in understanding the disease at molecular level.

  18. Knowledge Translation for Research Utilization: Design of a Knowledge Translation Model at Tehran University of Medical Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majdzadeh, Reza; Sadighi, Jila; Nejat, Saharnaz; Mahani, Ali Shahidzade; Gholami, Jaleh

    2008-01-01

    Introduction: The present study aimed to generate a model that would provide a conceptual framework for linking disparate components of knowledge translation. A theoretical model of such would enable the organization and evaluation of attempts to analyze current conditions and to design interventions on the transfer and utilization of research…

  19. Cancer systems biology: signal processing for cancer research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Olli Yli-Harja; Antti Ylip(a)(a); Matti Nykter; Wei Zhang

    2011-01-01

    In this editorial we introduce the research paradigms of signal processing in the era of systems biology. Signal processing is a field of science traditionally focused on modeling electronic and communications systems, but recently it has turned to biological applications with astounding results. The essence of signal processing is to describe the natural world by mathematical models and then, based on these models, develop efficient computational tools for solving engineering problems. Here, we underline, with examples, the endless possibilities which arise when the battle-hardened tools of engineering are applied to solve the problems that have tormented cancer researchers. Based on this approach, a new field has emerged, called cancer systems biology. Despite its short history, cancer systems biology has already produced several success stories tackling previously impracticable problems. Perhaps most importantly, it has been accepted as an integral part of the major endeavors of cancer research, such as analyzing the genomic and epigenomic data produced by The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) project. Finally, we show that signal processing and cancer research, two fields that are seemingly distant from each other, have merged into a field that is indeed more than the sum of its parts.

  20. Translating research into practice in Leeds and Bradford (TRiPLaB: a protocol for a programme of research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bibby John

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The National Institute for Health Research (NIHR has funded nine Collaborations for Leadership in Applied Health Research and Care (CLAHRCs. Each CLAHRC is a partnership between higher education institutions (HEIs and the NHS in nine UK regional health economies. The CLAHRC for Leeds, York, and Bradford comprises two 'research themes' and three 'implementation themes.' One of these implementation themes is Translating Research into Practice in Leeds and Bradford (TRiPLaB. TRiPLaB aims to develop, implement, and evaluate methods for inducing and sustaining the uptake of research knowledge into practice in order to improve the quality of health services for the people of Leeds and Bradford. Methods TRiPLaB is built around a three-stage, sequential, approach using separate, longitudinal case studies conducted with collaborating NHS organisations, TRiPLaB will select robust innovations to implement, conduct a theory-informed exploration of the local context using a variety of data collection and analytic methods, and synthesise the information collected to identify the key factors influencing the uptake and adoption of targeted innovations. This synthesis will inform the development of tailored, multifaceted, interventions designed to increase the translation of research findings into practice. Mixed research methods, including time series analysis, quasi-experimental comparison, and qualitative process evaluation, will be used to evaluate the impact of the implementation strategies deployed. Conclusion TRiPLaB is a theory-informed, systematic, mixed methods approach to developing and evaluating tailored implementation strategies aimed at increasing the translation of research-based findings into practice in one UK health economy. Through active collaboration with its local NHS, TRiPLaB aims to improve the quality of health services for the people of Leeds and Bradford and to contribute to research knowledge regarding the

  1. What's New in Prostate Cancer Research and Treatment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... SEE A LIST » What’s new in prostate cancer research? Previous Topic Second cancers after prostate cancer Next Topic Additional resources for prostate cancer What’s new in prostate cancer research? Research into the causes , prevention , detection , and treatment ...

  2. A fat option for the pig: Hepatocytic differentiated mesenchymal stem cells for translational research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brückner, Sandra, E-mail: sandra.brueckner@medizin.uni-leipzig.de [University Hospital Leipzig, Department of Visceral, Transplantation, Thoracic and Vascular Surgery, Liebigstraße 21, Leipzig D-04103 (Germany); Tautenhahn, Hans-Michael, E-mail: hans-michael.tautenhahn@medizin.uni-leipzig.de [University Hospital Leipzig, Department of Visceral, Transplantation, Thoracic and Vascular Surgery, Liebigstraße 21, Leipzig D-04103 (Germany); TRM, Translational Centre for Regenerative Medicine, Philipp-Rosenthal-Str. 55, Leipzig D-04103 (Germany); Winkler, Sandra, E-mail: sandra.pelz@medizin.uni-leipzig.de [University Hospital Leipzig, Department of Visceral, Transplantation, Thoracic and Vascular Surgery, Liebigstraße 21, Leipzig D-04103 (Germany); Stock, Peggy, E-mail: peggy.stock@medizin.uni-leipzig.de [University Hospital Leipzig, Department of Visceral, Transplantation, Thoracic and Vascular Surgery, Liebigstraße 21, Leipzig D-04103 (Germany); Dollinger, Matthias, E-mail: matthias.dollinger@uniklinik-ulm.de [University Hospital Ulm, First Department of Medicine, Albert-Einstein-Allee 23, Ulm D-89081 (Germany); Christ, Bruno, E-mail: bruno.christ@medizin.uni-leipzig.de [University Hospital Leipzig, Department of Visceral, Transplantation, Thoracic and Vascular Surgery, Liebigstraße 21, Leipzig D-04103 (Germany); TRM, Translational Centre for Regenerative Medicine, Philipp-Rosenthal-Str. 55, Leipzig D-04103 (Germany)

    2014-02-15

    Study background: Extended liver resection is the only curative treatment option of liver cancer. Yet, the residual liver may not accomplish the high metabolic and regenerative capacity needed, which frequently leads to acute liver failure. Because of their anti-inflammatory and -apoptotic as well as pro-proliferative features, mesenchymal stem cells differentiated into hepatocyte-like cells might provide functional and regenerative compensation. Clinical translation of basic research requires pre-clinical approval in large animals. Therefore, we characterized porcine mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) from adipose tissue and bone marrow and their hepatocyte differentiation potential for future assessment of functional liver support after surgical intervention in the pig model. Methods: Mesenchymal surface antigens and multi-lineage differentiation potential of porcine MSC isolated by collagenase digestion either from bone marrow or adipose tissue (subcutaneous/visceral) were assessed by flow cytometry. Morphology and functional properties (urea-, glycogen synthesis and cytochrome P450 activity) were determined during culture under differentiation conditions and compared with primary porcine hepatocytes. Results: MSC from porcine adipose tissue and from bone marrow express the typical mesenchymal markers CD44, CD29, CD90 and CD105 but not haematopoietic markers. MSC from both sources displayed differentiation into the osteogenic as well as adipogenic lineage. After hepatocyte differentiation, expression of CD105 decreased significantly and cells adopted the typical polygonal morphology of hepatocytes. Glycogen storage was comparable in adipose tissue- and bone marrow-derived cells. Urea synthesis was about 35% lower in visceral than in subcutaneous adipose tissue-derived MSC. Cytochrome P450 activity increased significantly during differentiation and was twice as high in hepatocyte-like cells generated from bone marrow as from adipose tissue. Conclusion: The hepatocyte

  3. A fat option for the pig: Hepatocytic differentiated mesenchymal stem cells for translational research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Study background: Extended liver resection is the only curative treatment option of liver cancer. Yet, the residual liver may not accomplish the high metabolic and regenerative capacity needed, which frequently leads to acute liver failure. Because of their anti-inflammatory and -apoptotic as well as pro-proliferative features, mesenchymal stem cells differentiated into hepatocyte-like cells might provide functional and regenerative compensation. Clinical translation of basic research requires pre-clinical approval in large animals. Therefore, we characterized porcine mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) from adipose tissue and bone marrow and their hepatocyte differentiation potential for future assessment of functional liver support after surgical intervention in the pig model. Methods: Mesenchymal surface antigens and multi-lineage differentiation potential of porcine MSC isolated by collagenase digestion either from bone marrow or adipose tissue (subcutaneous/visceral) were assessed by flow cytometry. Morphology and functional properties (urea-, glycogen synthesis and cytochrome P450 activity) were determined during culture under differentiation conditions and compared with primary porcine hepatocytes. Results: MSC from porcine adipose tissue and from bone marrow express the typical mesenchymal markers CD44, CD29, CD90 and CD105 but not haematopoietic markers. MSC from both sources displayed differentiation into the osteogenic as well as adipogenic lineage. After hepatocyte differentiation, expression of CD105 decreased significantly and cells adopted the typical polygonal morphology of hepatocytes. Glycogen storage was comparable in adipose tissue- and bone marrow-derived cells. Urea synthesis was about 35% lower in visceral than in subcutaneous adipose tissue-derived MSC. Cytochrome P450 activity increased significantly during differentiation and was twice as high in hepatocyte-like cells generated from bone marrow as from adipose tissue. Conclusion: The hepatocyte

  4. Process Research Methods and Their Application in the Didactics of Text Production and Translation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dam-Jensen, Helle; Heine, Carmen

    2009-01-01

    not only as learners, but also as thinkers and problem solvers. This can be achieved by systematically applying knowledge from process research as this can give insight into mental and physical processes of text production. This article provides an overview of methods commonly used in process research......Teaching of translation and writing in the university classroom tends to focus on task knowledge by practicing text production and analyzing and discussing the quality of products. In this article, we will argue that the outcome of teaching may be increased if students are taught to see themselves...

  5. Translation of rare disease research into orphan drug development: disease matters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heemstra, Harald E; van Weely, Sonja; Büller, Hans A; Leufkens, Hubert G M; de Vrueh, Remco L A

    2009-12-01

    More than 25 years of orphan drug regulations have yielded several new treatments for patients with rare diseases. Here, we show that successful translation of rare disease research into an orphan drug discovery and development programme is dependent on the disease class, its prevalence and the disease-specific scientific output. Our findings indicate that current orphan drug legislation alone is not sufficient to stimulate orphan drug development for diseases with a very low prevalence. Consequently, additional incentives should focus on stimulating the specific needs of rare disease research at disease class level. PMID:19818412

  6. TCGA researchers identify 4 subtypes of stomach cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stomach cancers fall into four distinct molecular subtypes, researchers with The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) Network have found. Scientists report that this discovery could change how researchers think about developing treatments for stomach cancer, also c

  7. What's New in Liver Cancer Research and Treatment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... resources for liver cancer What`s new in liver cancer research and treatment? Because there are only a few ... or treat hepatitis infections before they cause liver cancers. Research into developing a vaccine to prevent hepatitis C ...

  8. Infectious Agents and Cancer Epidemiology Research Webinar Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Infectious Agents and Cancer Epidemiology Research Webinar Series highlights emerging and cutting-edge research related to infection-associated cancers, shares scientific knowledge about technologies and methods, and fosters cross-disciplinary discussions on infectious agents and cancer epidemiology.

  9. Addressing Core Challenges for the Next Generation of Type 2 Translation Research and Systems: The Translation Science to Population Impact (TSci Impact) Framework

    OpenAIRE

    Spoth, Richard; Rohrbach, Louise A.; Greenberg, Mark; Leaf, Philip; Brown, C Hendricks; Fagan, Abigail; Catalano, Richard F.; Pentz, Mary Ann; Sloboda, Zili; Hawkins, J. David; ,

    2013-01-01

    Evidence-based preventive interventions developed over the past two decades represent great potential for enhancing public health and well-being. Research confirming the limited extent to which these interventions have been broadly and effectively implemented, however, indicates much progress is needed to achieve population-level impact. In part, progress requires Type 2 translation research that investigates the complex processes and systems through which evidence-based interventions are ado...

  10. Translating Research Into E/PO That Addresses Real Needs in K-12 Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Veen, Wil E.; Belbruno, E. A.; Roelofsen Moody, T.

    2009-01-01

    One of the challenges in NASA ROSES E/PO is translating cutting edge research into products for which there is a demonstrated need. Rather than working from the premise that the "research is so cool’ that K-12 students or the public should learn about it, it is key to consult with the target audience to identify what their needs really are. The partnership between NJACE, Innovative Orbital Design, Inc., and Princeton offered a unique opportunity to translate intriguing but theoretical and mathematical research related to low energy orbits into a valuable education product. NJACE worked with educators to identify several needs with an intellectual link to this research: 1) Understanding of Gravity and Newton's Laws, 2) Understanding of Energy and Energy Transformations, 3) Integration of the sciences with math and technology, and 4) Knowledge of NASA's past accomplishments (such as the moon landings). Based on these identified needs, two science units were developed for students in grades 5-12 that integrate astronomy, physics, and the life sciences with math and technology. In addition an engaging public lecture was developed that tells a personal story of the quest for more economic space travel. In the past year, the workshops have been presented on three occasions, reaching over 75 teachers and demand exceeded available space with numerous teachers on waiting lists. The lecture has been presented numerous times at planetariums, museums, amateur astronomy and other clubs. We hope that our partnership will serve as a useful example of how to translate cutting edge research into valuable education products with an identified need. We will provide handouts with links to a website where the products and training can be downloaded in hope that others will help disseminate our product.

  11. Integrating Clinical Medicine into Biomedical Graduate Education to Promote Translational Research: Strategies from Two New PhD Programs

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Carolyn L; Jarrett, Marcia; Bierer, S. Beth

    2013-01-01

    For several decades, a barrier has existed between research and clinical medicine, making it difficult for aspiring scientists to gain exposure to human pathophysiology and access to clinical/translational research mentors during their graduate training. In 2005, the Howard Hughes Medical Institute announced the Med Into Grad initiative to support graduate programs that integrate clinical knowledge into PhD biomedical training, with the goal of preparing a new cadre of translational researche...

  12. Radioprotectors and Radiomitigators for Improving Radiation Therapy: The Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) Gateway for Accelerating Clinical Translation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasanna, Pataje G S; Narayanan, Deepa; Hallett, Kory; Bernhard, Eric J; Ahmed, Mansoor M; Evans, Gregory; Vikram, Bhadrasain; Weingarten, Michael; Coleman, C Norman

    2015-09-01

    Although radiation therapy is an important cancer treatment modality, patients may experience adverse effects. The use of a radiation-effect modulator may help improve the outcome and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) of patients undergoing radiation therapy either by enhancing tumor cell killing or by protecting normal tissues. Historically, the successful translation of radiation-effect modulators to the clinic has been hindered due to the lack of focused collaboration between academia, pharmaceutical companies and the clinic, along with limited availability of support for such ventures. The U.S. Government has been developing medical countermeasures against accidental and intentional radiation exposures to mitigate the risk and/or severity of acute radiation syndrome (ARS) and the delayed effects of acute radiation exposures (DEARE), and there is now a drug development pipeline established. Some of these medical countermeasures could potentially be repurposed for improving the outcome of radiation therapy and HRQOL of cancer patients. With the objective of developing radiation-effect modulators to improve radiotherapy, the Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) Development Center at the National Cancer Institute (NCI), supported by the Radiation Research Program (RRP), provided funding to companies from 2011 to 2014 through the SBIR contracts mechanism. Although radiation-effect modulators collectively refer to radioprotectors, radiomitigators and radiosensitizers, the focus of this article is on radioprotection and mitigation of radiation injury. This specific SBIR contract opportunity strengthened existing partnerships and facilitated new collaborations between academia and industry. In this commentary, we assess the impact of this funding opportunity, outline the review process, highlight the organ/site-specific disease needs in the clinic for the development of radiation-effect modulators, provide a general understanding of a framework for gathering

  13. Radiation related basic cancer research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Seung Hoon; Yoo, Young Do; Hong, Seok Il [and others

    2000-04-01

    We studied the mechanism of radiation-induced apoptosis, the factors involved signaling, and the establishment of radiation-resistant cell lines in this study. During the TGF beta-stimulated epithelial mesenchymal transition(EMT), actin rearrangement occurred first and fibronectin matrix assembly followed. These two events were considered independent since cytochalasin-D did not inhibit TGF stimulated matrix assembly and fibronectin supplementation did not induce EMT. During EMT, alpha 5 beta 1 integrin and alpha v integrin have increased but MMP activation was not accompanied, which suggest that induction of extracellular matrix and activation of integrins may be main contributor for the EMT. Serum depriving induced apoptosis of HUVECs was prevented by vascular endothelial growth factor(VEGF) and PMA. The apoptosis prevention by VEGF and PMA were conformed by DNA fragmentation assay. The p53 expression level was down regulated by VEGF and PMA compared with serum deprived HUVECs. However, VEGF and PMA induces c-Myc expression level on these cells. We made the 5 radiation-resistant clones from breast, lung and cervical cancer cells. More than 70%, 100% and 50% increased resistance was detected in breast cancer cells, lung cancer cells, and cervical cells, respectively. We carried out differential display-PCR to clone the radiation-resistant genes. 9 out of 10 genes were analyzed their sequence.

  14. Radiation related basic cancer research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We studied the mechanism of radiation-induced apoptosis, the factors involved signaling, and the establishment of radiation-resistant cell lines in this study. During the TGF beta-stimulated epithelial mesenchymal transition(EMT), actin rearrangement occurred first and fibronectin matrix assembly followed. These two events were considered independent since cytochalasin-D did not inhibit TGF stimulated matrix assembly and fibronectin supplementation did not induce EMT. During EMT, alpha 5 beta 1 integrin and alpha v integrin have increased but MMP activation was not accompanied, which suggest that induction of extracellular matrix and activation of integrins may be main contributor for the EMT. Serum depriving induced apoptosis of HUVECs was prevented by vascular endothelial growth factor(VEGF) and PMA. The apoptosis prevention by VEGF and PMA were conformed by DNA fragmentation assay. The p53 expression level was down regulated by VEGF and PMA compared with serum deprived HUVECs. However, VEGF and PMA induces c-Myc expression level on these cells. We made the 5 radiation-resistant clones from breast, lung and cervical cancer cells. More than 70%, 100% and 50% increased resistance was detected in breast cancer cells, lung cancer cells, and cervical cells, respectively. We carried out differential display-PCR to clone the radiation-resistant genes. 9 out of 10 genes were analyzed their sequence

  15. Diet and cancer: future etiologic research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schatzkin, A; Dorgan, J; Swanson, C; Potischman, N

    1995-01-01

    In light of several credible diet and cancer hypotheses, we suggest strategies for advancing our understanding in this area. Two conceptual approaches can be taken in defining dietary exposure: the decompositional approach focuses on specific nutrients and other chemical constituents of food, whereas the integrative approach emphasizes the action of whole foods or food patterns (cuisines). Diet-cancer hypotheses can be organized according to this conceptual framework. We review four types of scientific investigation available to us for advancing the diet and cancer field: metabolic (clinical nutrition) studies; animal studies; observational epidemiologic investigations; and clinical trials. Each of these designs has its strengths and limitations. Observational epidemiologic studies and trials have the particular advantage of examining explicit cancer end points in humans. Results from metabolic and animal research, however, can complement the findings from epidemiologic studies and trials. Finally, we briefly review strategies for evaluating promising hypotheses linking diet to cancers of the large bowel, lung, breast, and prostate. PMID:8741779

  16. Antiproton radiation found effective in cancer research

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    "An international collaboration of scientists has completed the first ever antiproton beam experiments designed to reveal the biological effectiveness of antiproton radiation in terminating cells used for cancer research...PBar Labs assembled the collaboration at CERN (European Organization for Nuclear Research in Geneva) to perform the measurements" (1 page).

  17. About the Breast and Gynecologic Cancer Research Group | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Breast and Gynecologic Cancer Research Group conducts and fosters the development of research on the prevention and early detection of breast cancer, cervix and human papillomavirus (HPV)-related cancers, endometrial cancers, ovarian cancers, and precursor conditions related to these cancers. |

  18. Creating a Knowledge Translation Platform: nine lessons from the Zambia Forum for Health Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kasonde Joseph M

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The concept of the Knowledge Translation Platform (KTP provides cohesion and leadership for national–level knowledge translation efforts. In this review, we discuss nine key lessons documenting the experience of the Zambia Forum for Health Research, primarily to inform and exchange experience with the growing community of African KTPs. Lessons from ZAMFOHR’s organizational development include the necessity of selecting a multi-stakeholder and -sectoral Board of Directors; performing comprehensive situation analyses to understand not only the prevailing research-and-policy dynamics but a precise operational niche; and selecting a leader that bridges the worlds of research and policy. Programmatic lessons include focusing on building the capacity of both policy-makers and researchers; building a database of local evidence and national-level actors involved in research and policy; and catalyzing work in particular issue areas by identifying leaders from the research community, creating policy-maker demand for research evidence, and fostering the next generation by mentoring both up-and-coming researchers and policy–makers. Ultimately, ZAMFOHR’s experience shows that an African KTP must pay significant attention to its organizational details. A KTP must also invest in the skill base of the wider community and, more importantly, of its own staff. Given the very real deficit of research-support skills in most low-income countries – in synthesis, in communications, in brokering, in training – a KTP must spend significant time and resources in building these types of in-house expertise. And lastly, the role of networking cannot be underestimated. As a fully-networked KTP, ZAMFOHR has benefited from the innovations of other KTPs, from funding opportunities and partnerships, and from invaluable technical support from both African and northern colleagues.

  19. Accelerating Progress in Eating Disorders Prevention: A Call for Policy Translation Research and Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, S Bryn

    2016-01-01

    The public health burden of eating disorders is well documented, and over the past several decades, researchers have made important advances in the prevention of eating disorders and related problems with body image. Despite these advances, however, several critical limitations to the approaches developed to date leave the field far from achieving the large-scale impact that is needed. This commentary provides a brief review of what achievements in prevention have been made and identifies the gaps that limit the potential for greater impact on population health. A plan is then offered with specific action steps to accelerate progress in high-impact prevention, most compellingly by promoting a shift in priorities to policy translation research and training for scholars through the adoption of a triggers-to-action framework. Finally, the commentary provides an example of the application of the triggers-to-action framework as practiced at the Strategic Training Initiative for the Prevention of Eating Disorders, a program based at the Harvard T. H. Chan School of Public Health and Boston Children's Hospital. Much has been achieved in the nearly 30 years of research carried out for the prevention of eating disorders and body image problems, but several critical limitations undermine the field's potential for meaningful impact. Through a shift in the field's priorities to policy translation research and training with an emphasis on macro-environmental influences, the pace of progress in prevention can be accelerated and the potential for large-scale impact substantially improved. PMID:25880718

  20. Prostate Cancer Research Trial Helps John Spencer Treat His Cancer | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Prostate Cancer Prostate Cancer Research Trial Helps John Spencer Treat His Cancer ... because of timely detection and treatment of his prostate cancer. He participated in an NIH-sponsored clinical trial. ...

  1. Multiplex assays for biomarker research and clinical application: translational science coming of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Qin; Schoenhoff, Florian S; Savage, William J; Zhang, Pingbo; Van Eyk, Jennifer E

    2010-03-01

    Over the last decade, translational science has come into the focus of academic medicine, and significant intellectual and financial efforts have been made to initiate a multitude of bench-to-bedside projects. The quest for suitable biomarkers that will significantly change clinical practice has become one of the biggest challenges in translational medicine. Quantitative measurement of proteins is a critical step in biomarker discovery. Assessing a large number of potential protein biomarkers in a statistically significant number of samples and controls still constitutes a major technical hurdle. Multiplexed analysis offers significant advantages regarding time, reagent cost, sample requirements and the amount of data that can be generated. The two contemporary approaches in multiplexed and quantitative biomarker validation, antibody-based immunoassays and MS-based multiple (or selected) reaction monitoring, are based on different assay principles and instrument requirements. Both approaches have their own advantages and disadvantages and therefore have complementary roles in the multi-staged biomarker verification and validation process. In this review, we discuss quantitative immunoassay and multiple reaction monitoring/selected reaction monitoring assay principles and development. We also discuss choosing an appropriate platform, judging the performance of assays, obtaining reliable, quantitative results for translational research and clinical applications in the biomarker field. PMID:21137048

  2. 转化研究的多层次分析%The multiple dimensions of translational research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Garnette R Sutherland

    2012-01-01

    @@ While the pursuit of knowledge for its own sake is admirable, many medical researchers hope that their ideas, opinions, and research results will be used to improve health care in some capacity.The role of translational research is to construct the bridge between research and application.Translational research implies that the body of knowledge has matured to the point where successful application could result in a clinical, economic or procedural benefit to the health care system.This generally takes the form of the clinical introduction of innovative therapeutic agents, technologies, techniques and processes; in other words, the products of research.

  3. Translatress, Translator, Translation

    OpenAIRE

    Margala, Miriam

    2009-01-01

    I still manage to surprise a few scholars from other fields when they hear that there is such a thing as research of gender issues within the field of translation studies. It may seem as such a narrow niche – but only deceivingly so. It is language, linguistics, pragmatics, culture, history, literature, anthropology, gender metaphorics, communication, interpreting, cultural politics, social studies and politics, psychology and I can go on and on. History seems to be a very appropriate startin...

  4. Merging person-centered care with translational research to improve the lives of older adults: creating community-based nursing research networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Nikki L; Penrod, Janice; Milone-Nuzzo, Paula

    2014-10-01

    Translational research is a leading trend in science with the aim of bridging the research-practice gap to significantly speed the implementation of effective interventions in clinical practice. Integrating the values and preferences of older adults and their families into this process is critical to the success of translational research. Engaging communities in meaningful research is an important part of advancing translational science in which older adults are partners in developing solutions to the health needs of individuals within communities. The current article describes one approach to developing an infrastructure (i.e., community-based nursing research network) to support patient-centered care within translational research. Nurses are uniquely poised and prepared to assume leadership roles in community-based research networks to support a true collaboration among stakeholders that prizes the voices of older adults and integrates them into practice efforts. PMID:25275784

  5. Social determinants of drug use--barriers to translating research into policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spooner, Catherine

    2009-12-01

    Our understanding of the causes of alcohol and other drug (AOD) use and harms has expanded in the past 20 years. In particular, aetiological theories have become substantially more complex, incorporating research on human development and social determinants of health. In this paper, factors that present challenges to the AOD sector translating this research into policy are considered. These include a) the complexity of social determinants, b) community attitudes, and c) governance and funding structures. It is concluded that the challenges are substantial, but not insurmountable. Research on social determinants of AOD use and harms is building an evidence base to inform policy. However, leadership is needed to transform funding priorities from single-issue, short-term projects focusing on individual-level changes to broader, longer-term approaches. PMID:19951237

  6. In-Place Translation in Software Development : A Design Science Research Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Hermelin Leidefors, Madelen

    2016-01-01

    Computers have been used for natural language translation sincethe 1940s. The role for computers to support translation work has expandedsince the commercialisation of the Internet in the early 1990s.As an implication of ’crowd sourcing’, translation is now supportedby users through community translation, meaning that people - usersof web sites - actively translate web sites into different languages. Inthis thesis we will present Babbler - a novel concept for communitytranslation. Following a...

  7. Integration in Specialisation. The GENTT Research Group: Genre as an Integrative Concept in Translation Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Ordóñez López, Pilar

    2009-01-01

    The interdisciplinary and complexity of translation have led to a diversity of co-existing approaches in Translation Studies. Translation can be studied from a range of perspectives, and every approach tends to focus on a limited number of aspects. In the area of specialised translation, the integrative nature of translation is frequently neglected, which may lead to overly narrow analyses. In this paper, it is shown how the concept of ‘genre’ incorporates a wider range of the defining aspect...

  8. What's New in Pancreatic Cancer Research and Treatment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... SEE A LIST » What’s new in pancreatic cancer research? Previous Topic Living as a pancreatic cancer survivor Next Topic Additional resources for pancreatic cancer What’s new in pancreatic cancer research? Research into the causes , diagnosis , and treatment of ...

  9. Animal Models and Bone Histomorphometry: Translational Research for the Human Research Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibonga, Jean D.

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the use of animal models to research and inform bone morphology, in particular relating to human research in bone loss as a result of low gravity environments. Reasons for use of animal models as tools for human research programs include: time-efficient, cost-effective, invasive measures, and predictability as some model are predictive for drug effects.

  10. Intermediate markers as surrogate endpoints in cancer research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schatzkin, A

    2000-08-01

    given surrogate for one intervention or exposure vis-à-vis cancer does not necessarily translate into validity for another intervention or exposure. One can enhance the inferential strength of surrogacy by using further "downstream" markers. Results of trials with CIN3 as an endpoint are arguably more persuasive than those from intervention studies with HPV infection endpoints. Similarly, one could consider only the advanced adenoma (> or = 1 cm, villous elements, or high-grade dysplasia) as the primary endpoint in adenoma recurrence trials. The inferential gain, however, comes with substantial costs: studies with CIN3 endpoints must be much larger than those with HPV infection endpoints; adenoma recurrence trials with sufficient rates of recurrence of advanced adenomas must be five or six times larger than trials with any recurrent adenomas as endpoints. A law emerges here: in using surrogate endpoints, inferential certainty is directly associated with study cost. In other words, one gets what one pays for. The problems inherent in using surrogate endpoints need not be regarded as a cause for pessimism in cancer research. If anything, the limitations of surrogacy are reminders of the complexity of cancer causation and affirm the continued importance of large clinical trials and observational epidemiologic studies with explicit cancer endpoints. PMID:10949779

  11. Eurocan plus report: feasibility study for coordination of national cancer research activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    The EUROCAN+PLUS Project, called for by the European Parliament, was launched in October 2005 as a feasibility study for coordination of national cancer research activities in Europe. Over the course of the next two years, the Project process organized over 60 large meetings and countless smaller meetings that gathered in total over a thousand people, the largest Europe-wide consultation ever conducted in the field of cancer research.Despite a strong tradition in biomedical science in Europe, fragmentation and lack of sustainability remain formidable challenges for implementing innovative cancer research and cancer care improvement. There is an enormous duplication of research effort in the Member States, which wastes time, wastes money and severely limits the total intellectual concentration on the wide cancer problem. There is a striking lack of communication between some of the biggest actors on the European scene, and there are palpable tensions between funders and those researchers seeking funds.It is essential to include the patients' voice in the establishment of priority areas in cancer research at the present time. The necessity to have dialogue between funders and scientists to establish the best mechanisms to meet the needs of the entire community is evident. A top priority should be the development of translational research (in its widest form), leading to the development of effective and innovative cancer treatments and preventive strategies. Translational research ranges from bench-to-bedside innovative cancer therapies and extends to include bringing about changes in population behaviours when a risk factor is established.The EUROCAN+PLUS Project recommends the creation of a small, permanent and independent European Cancer Initiative (ECI). This should be a model structure and was widely supported at both General Assemblies of the project. The ECI should assume responsibility for stimulating innovative cancer research and facilitating processes

  12. Defining the optimal animal model for translational research using gene set enrichment analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weidner, Christopher; Steinfath, Matthias; Opitz, Elisa; Oelgeschläger, Michael; Schönfelder, Gilbert

    2016-01-01

    The mouse is the main model organism used to study the functions of human genes because most biological processes in the mouse are highly conserved in humans. Recent reports that compared identical transcriptomic datasets of human inflammatory diseases with datasets from mouse models using traditional gene-to-gene comparison techniques resulted in contradictory conclusions regarding the relevance of animal models for translational research. To reduce susceptibility to biased interpretation, all genes of interest for the biological question under investigation should be considered. Thus, standardized approaches for systematic data analysis are needed. We analyzed the same datasets using gene set enrichment analysis focusing on pathways assigned to inflammatory processes in either humans or mice. The analyses revealed a moderate overlap between all human and mouse datasets, with average positive and negative predictive values of 48 and 57% significant correlations. Subgroups of the septic mouse models (i.e., Staphylococcus aureus injection) correlated very well with most human studies. These findings support the applicability of targeted strategies to identify the optimal animal model and protocol to improve the success of translational research. PMID:27311961

  13. Translational atherosclerosis research: From experimental models to coronary artery disease in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleissner, Christian A

    2016-05-01

    Atherosclerosis is the leading cause of death worldwide. Research on the pathophysiological mechanisms of atherogenesis has made tremendous progress over the past two decades. However, despite great advances there is still a lack of therapies that reduce adverse cardiovascular events to an acceptable degree. This review addresses successes, but also questions, challenges, and chances regarding the translation of basic science results into clinical practice, i.e. the capability to apply the results of basic and/or clinical research in order to design therapies suitable to improve patient outcome. Specifically, it discusses problems in translating findings from the most broadly used murine models of atherosclerosis into clinically feasible therapies and strategies potentially improving the results of clinical trials. Most likely, the key to success will be a multimodal approach employing novel imaging methods as well as large scale screening tools-summarized as "omics" approach. Using individually tailored therapies, plaque stabilization and regression could prevent adverse cardiovascular events thereby improving outcome of a large number of patients. PMID:26999293

  14. Experimental liver fibrosis research: update on animal models, legal issues and translational aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liedtke, Christian; Luedde, Tom; Sauerbruch, Tilman; Scholten, David; Streetz, Konrad; Tacke, Frank; Tolba, René; Trautwein, Christian; Trebicka, Jonel; Weiskirchen, Ralf

    2013-01-01

    Liver fibrosis is defined as excessive extracellular matrix deposition and is based on complex interactions between matrix-producing hepatic stellate cells and an abundance of liver-resident and infiltrating cells. Investigation of these processes requires in vitro and in vivo experimental work in animals. However, the use of animals in translational research will be increasingly challenged, at least in countries of the European Union, because of the adoption of new animal welfare rules in 2013. These rules will create an urgent need for optimized standard operating procedures regarding animal experimentation and improved international communication in the liver fibrosis community. This review gives an update on current animal models, techniques and underlying pathomechanisms with the aim of fostering a critical discussion of the limitations and potential of up-to-date animal experimentation. We discuss potential complications in experimental liver fibrosis and provide examples of how the findings of studies in which these models are used can be translated to human disease and therapy. In this review, we want to motivate the international community to design more standardized animal models which might help to address the legally requested replacement, refinement and reduction of animals in fibrosis research. PMID:24274743

  15. Issues in solid-organ transplantation in children: translational research from bench to bedside

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven E. Lipshultz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this review, we identify important challenges facing physicians responsible for renal and cardiac transplantation in children based on a review of the contemporary medical literature. Regarding pediatric renal transplantation, we discuss the challenge of antibody-mediated rejection, focusing on both acute and chronic antibody-mediated rejection. We review new diagnostic approaches to antibody-mediated rejection, such as panel-reactive antibodies, donor-specific cross-matching, antibody assays, risk assessment and diagnosis of antibody-mediated rejection, the pathology of antibody-mediated rejection, the issue of ABO incompatibility in renal transplantation, new therapies for antibody-mediated rejection, inhibiting of residual antibodies, the suppression or depletion of B-cells, genetic approaches to treating acute antibody-mediated rejection, and identifying future translational research directions in kidney transplantation in children. Regarding pediatric cardiac transplantation, we discuss the mechanisms of cardiac transplant rejection, including the role of endomyocardial biopsy in detecting graft rejection and the role of biomarkers in detecting cardiac graft rejection, including biomarkers of inflammation, cardiomyocyte injury, or stress. We review cardiac allograft vasculopathy. We also address the role of genetic analyses, including genome-wide association studies, gene expression profiling using entities such as AlloMap®, and adenosine triphosphate release as a measure of immune function using the Cylex® ImmuKnow™ cell function assay. Finally, we identify future translational research directions in heart transplantation in children.

  16. From bench to clinic and back: Perspective on the 1st IQPC Translational Research conference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hörig Heidi

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Translational Research (TR provides a set of tools and communication context for scientists and clinicians to optimize the drug discovery and development process. In the proceedings of a Princeton conference on this timely topic, the strengths and needs of this developing field were debated. Outcomes and key points from these discussions are summarized in this article which covers the topics of defining what we mean by translational research (both theoretically and in operational terms, ways in which to engender the TR mindset and embed it in organizations such as the pharmaceutical industry in order to optimize the impact of available technologies (including imaging methods, the scientific basis and under-pinnings of TR including genomics knowledge, information sharing, as well as examples of application to drug discovery and development. Importantly, it should be noted that collaborations and communications between the stakeholders in this field, namely academia, industry and regulatory authorities, must be strengthened in order for the promise of TR to be delivered as better therapies to patients.

  17. From what we know to what we do: translating stroke rehabilitation research into practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Marion F; Fisher, Rebecca J; Korner-Bitensky, Nicol; McCluskey, Annie; Carey, Leeanne M

    2013-01-01

    Despite the recent advances in stroke rehabilitation research, the translation of research evidence into practice remains a challenge. The purpose of this article is to communicate practical experience and describe research methodologies used to promote change and implementation of stroke rehabilitation research in three international settings. In England, the development of an evidence-based consensus document, combined with qualitative and quantitative methods, was used to promote practice change in community-based stroke services. The Canadian research program involved synthesis of evidence, creation of user friendly information, and development of multimodal knowledge transfer strategies to promote change at an individual clinician level. Australian researchers followed a multistep process, involving audit and feedback, identification of barriers, and tailored education to improve implementation of one clinical guideline recommendation. Reducing the evidence-practice gap requires the development of active management strategies. This article highlights the importance of close collaboration between stakeholders - both in terms of the transfer of evidence into clinical practice and for optimizing future Phase IV implementation research endeavours. PMID:23280264

  18. Bridging the Gap: Supporting Translational Research Careers Through an Integrated Research Track Within Residency Training

    OpenAIRE

    Arbuckle, Melissa R.; Gordon, Joshua A.; Pincus, Harold A; Oquendo, Maria A

    2013-01-01

    In the setting of traditional residency training programs, physician–scientists are often limited in their ability to pursue research training goals while meeting clinical training requirements. This creates a gap in research training at a critical developmental stage. In response, Columbia University Medical Center’s Department of Psychiatry, in partnership with the New York State Psychiatric Institute, has created a formal Research Track Program (RTP) for psychiatry residents so that intere...

  19. "Interventions for Promoting Research Knowledge Translation: Selection and Grading of Research Projects for Decision Makers"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saharnaz Nedjat

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available "nResearch-based knowledge transfer is considered an important principle in health. The status of knowledge transfer was studied in earlier studies and accordingly certain interventions were designed on the basis of its weaknesses. The idea was to design an algorithm for selection of research projects which are legible for knowledge transfer."nUsing literature review, grading of research projects was examined for its design and methodology. A decision was then made on the method of grading projects using relevant expert opinions. In the next stage, considering the validity of the aforementioned grading, and contextual examination, an algorithm was designed to define the method of selecting projects and their result transfer."nSince articles usually don't convey all the research findings, and don't reach decision makers on time, article writing doesn't seem sufficient for knowledge transfer. It is therefore necessary to adopt a mechanism that will convey valid research findings to target audiences. The algorithm presented in this article will help research authorities systematically decide about selecting research projects for knowledge transfer. Evaluation of this intervention was suggested for future researches. The results of this study can be beneficial to research policy makers in the university.

  20. Frederick W. Alt received the 2015 Szent-Györgi Prize for Progress in Cancer Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scully, Peter; Zhao, Jie; Ba, Sujuan

    2016-01-01

    The Szent-Györgyi Prize for Progress in Cancer Research is a prestigious scientific award established by the National Foundation for Cancer Research (NFCR)-a leading cancer research charitable organization in the United States that is committed to supporting scientific research and public education relating to the prevention, early diagnosis, better treatments, and ultimately, a cure for cancer. Each year, the Szent-Györgyi Prize honors an outstanding researcher, nominated by colleagues or peers, who has contributed outstanding, significant research to the fight against cancer, and whose accomplishments have helped improve treatment options for cancer patients. The Prize also promotes public awareness of the importance of basic cancer research and encourages the sustained investment needed to accelerate the translation of these research discoveries into new cancer treatments. This report highlights the pioneering work led by the 2015 Prize winner, Dr. Frederick Alt. Dr. Alt's work in the area of cancer genetics over four decades has helped to shape the very roots of modern cancer research. His work continues to profoundly impact the approaches that doctors around the globe use to diagnose and treat cancer. In particular, his seminal discoveries of gene amplification and his pioneering work on molecular mechanisms of DNA damage repair have helped to usher in the era of genetically targeted therapy and personalized medicine. PMID:26843073

  1. Frederick W. Alt received the 2015 Szent-Györgi Prize forProgress inCancer Research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PeterScully; JieZhao; SujuanBa

    2016-01-01

    The Szent-Györgyi Prize for Progress in Cancer Research is a prestigious scientiifc award established by the National Foundation for Cancer Research (NFCR)—a leading cancer research charitable organization in the United States that is committed to supporting scientiifc research and public education relating to the prevention, early diagnosis, better treatments, and ultimately, a cure for cancer. Each year, the Szent-Györgyi Prize honors an outstanding researcher, nominated by colleagues or peers, who has contributed outstanding, signiifcant research to the ifght against cancer, and whose accomplishments have helped improve treatment options for cancer patients. The Prize also promotes public awareness of the importance of basic cancer research and encourages the sustained investment needed to accelerate the translation of these research discoveries into new cancer treatments. This report highlights the pio-neering work led by the 2015 Prize winner, Dr. Frederick Alt. Dr. Alt’s work in the area of cancer genetics over four decades has helped to shape the very roots of modern cancer research. His work continues to profoundly impact the approaches that doctors around the globe use to diagnose and treat cancer. In particular, his seminal discoveries of gene ampliifcation and his pioneering work on molecular mechanisms of DNA damage repair have helped to usher in the era of genetically targeted therapy and personalized medicine.

  2. Science Translational Medicine – improving human health care worldwide by providing an interdisciplinary forum for idea exchange between basic scientists and clinical research practitioners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Forsythe, Katherine

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Science Translational Medicine’s mission is to improve human health care worldwide by providing a forum for communication and interdisciplinary idea exchange between basic scientists and clinical research practitioners from all relevant established and emerging disciplines. The weekly journal debuted in October 2009 and is published by the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS, the publisher of Science and Science Signaling. The journal features peer-reviewed research articles, perspectives and commentary, and is guided by an international Advisory Board, led by Chief Scientific Adviser, Elias A. Zerhouni, M.D., former Director of the National Institutes of Health, and Senior Scientific Adviser, Elazer R. Edelman, M.D., Ph.D., Thomas D. and Virginia W. Cabot Professor of Health Sciences and Technology, Massachusetts Institute of Technology. The Science Translational Medicine editorial team is led by Katrina L. Kelner, Ph.D., AAAS. A profound transition is required for the science of translational medicine. Despite 50 years of advances in our fundamental understanding of human biology and the emergence of powerful new technologies, the rapid transformation of this knowledge into effective health measures is not keeping pace with the challenges of global health care. Creative experimental approaches, novel technologies, and new ways of conducting scientific explorations at the interface of established and emerging disciplines are now required to an unprecedented degree if real progress is to be made. To aid in this reinvention, Science and AAAS have created a new interdisciplinary journal, Science Translational Medicine. The following interview exemplefies the pioneering content found in Science Translational Medicine. It is an excerpt from a Podcast interview with Dr. Samuel Broder, former director of the National Cancer Institute and current Chief Medical Officer at Celera. The Podcast was produced in tangent with Dr

  3. Impact of proteomics on bladder cancer research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Celis, Julio E; Gromova, Irina; Moreira, José Manuel Alfonso;

    2004-01-01

    Detecting bladder cancer at an early stage and predicting how a tumor will behave and act in response to therapy, as well as the identification of new targets for therapeutic intervention, are among the main areas of research that will benefit from the current explosion in the number of powerful ...

  4. Vaccine research, development, and innovation in Brazil: a translational science perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homma, Akira; Tanuri, Amilcar; Duarte, Alberto J S; Marques, Ernesto; de Almeida, Alexandre; Martins, Reinaldo; Silva-Junior, Jarbas B; Possas, Cristina

    2013-04-18

    This article examines the Brazilian innovation policy for vaccines and its impact on infectious diseases, with emphasis on advances in translational science. The results indicate significant progress, with a rapid increase over the past two decades in the number of vaccine research groups, indicating scientific excellence. Advances and gaps in technological development and in public-private partnership initiatives were also identified. We stress the crucial role of partnerships, technology transfer, and targeted policies that could accelerate Brazil's participation in global vaccine research and development. We propose that new strategies should be urgently conceived to strengthen the links between the scientific and technological policies, the National Health System, and the National Immunizations Program in Brazil to provide access to low-cost vaccines to address major public health challenges. We also discuss the lessons learned from the Brazilian experience in the implementation of governmental policies on vaccine innovation that could be applicable to other developing countries. PMID:23598493

  5. Role of French teams in the development of clinical and translational research in radiation oncology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many clinical studies have showed the key role of radiotherapy in anticancer treatment strategy. Radiations are delivered alone or in combination with systemic therapies. In recent years, the main goal of all clinical developments has focused on improving clinical benefit, with an increased tumour control and a higher normal tissue protection. This research was designed to reduce local recurrences, to increase recurrence-free or overall survival and to decrease acute and late effects. Technological and biological evolutions (or revolutions) accompanied clinicians to improve clinical benefit, namely with strong progress in radiology and better understanding of radiobiology, particularly at the molecular level. Differences in tumour and normal tissues radiosensitivity are nowadays integrated in daily clinical practice of radiation oncologists. The current report details the last 5-year developments of clinical and translational research in radiation oncology, especially the role of French teams in the development of personalized treatment. (authors)

  6. The knowledge translation status in selected Eastern-Mediterranean universities and research institutes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katayoun Maleki

    Full Text Available A serious worldwide effort to strengthen research based knowledge translation (KT has begun in recent years and some countries, particularly developed ones, are trying to incorporate KT in their health and health research systems. Keeping in mind the recent economic depression and the need to perform more efficient research, we aimed to assess and compare the KT status of selected health research institutes in the Eastern Mediterranean Regions' countries, and to identify their strengths and weaknesses in the field.After finding the focal points that would steer the focus group discussions (FGDs and help complete the 'Self Assessment Tool for Research Institutes' (SATORI tool, each focal point held two FGDs in which researchers, research authorities and other individuals specified in detail further in the study were held. The scores obtained by each institute were evaluated quantitatively, and the transcriptions were analyzed qualitatively with OpenCode software.For ease of analysis the 50 items of the SATORI were classified into 7 main domains: 'priority setting', 'research quality and timeliness', 'researchers' KT capacities', 'facilities and pre-requisites of KT', 'processes and regulations supporting KT', 'interaction with research users', and 'promoting and evaluating the use of knowledge'. Based on the scoring system, the strongest domain was 'research quality and timeliness'. 'Priority setting' was the weakest domain of all. The remaining domains were more or less equal in strength and were not in a favorable state. The qualitative findings confirmed the quantitative findings.The main problem, it seems, is that a KT climate does not exist in the region. And despite the difference in the contexts, there are many similarities in the region's institutes included in this study. Collaborative efforts can play a role in creating this climate by steering countries towards KT and suggesting regional strategic directions according to their needs.

  7. A Preliminary Research on Errors in the English Translation of 《 The Analects of Confucious》 by James Legge%A Preliminary Research on Errors in the English Translation of 《The Analects of Confucious》 by James Legge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LiuXia

    2008-01-01

    is hard to understand even to Chinese, the foreign translators with different culture are bound to produce diverse"fusion of horizons". As a result, misunderstandings are seen in James Legge's interpretations. Nevertheless, just as Xie Tianzhen points out, "misunderstanding many sometimes prove to be extraordinarily valuable in research field in that misunderstanding reflects the translator's misconceiving of another culture, the blockade in cultural exchange".

  8. Motivating Subjects: Data Sharing in Cancer Research

    OpenAIRE

    Tucker, Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    This dissertation explores motivation in decision-making and action in science and technology, through the lens of a case study: scientific data sharing in cancer research. The research begins with the premise that motivation and emotion are key elements of what it means to be human, and consequently, are important variables in how individuals make decisions and take action. At the same time, institutional controls and social messaging send a variety of signals intended to motivate specific ...

  9. Equivalence in Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李良杰

    2013-01-01

    There are many researches about translation theories and methods in western translation history. Equivalence in transla⁃tion has always been the central issue for discussion. This paper gives a general review and comment on equivalence in translation in terms of three representative translation theorists and their views about equivalence in translation.

  10. Selected National Cancer Institute Breast Cancer Research Topics | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... For Breast Cancer Selected National Cancer Institute Breast Cancer Research Topics Past Issues / Summer 2014 Table of Contents ... Trials www.cancer.gov/clinicaltrials/Taking-Part-in-Cancer-Treatment-Research-Studies MedlinePlus tutorial www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ ...

  11. Why is Physics Important to Cancer Research?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Anna D.

    Cancer is increasingly described as a ''disease of the genes'', and while the genome (in fact all of the ``omes'') are important information molecules that drive aspects of the initiation and progression of cancer, they are far from the whole story. Cancer is an extraordinarily complex system (in fact a complex of systems) that occurs in three-dimensional space, across multiple scales - and often over extended periods of time. The most challenging issues that plague the cancer field such as metastasis, cellular heterogeneity and resistance to therapy are in large part more rationally explained in the context of the physics of these systems vs. genomics. For example, the biology of metastasis has been studied extensively for decades with little progress. Metastatic disease depends on cells acquiring (or expressing innate information) new properties that enable and sustain their ability to migrate to distant sites. Developing a fundamental understanding of key cancer processes ranging from metastasis to immunotherapeutic responses requires that physicists (and mathematicians and engineers) be integrated into a new generation of cancer research - period! The presentation will focus on those areas where physics is essential - and the how's and whose of achieving the integration required.

  12. Sustaining Transfers through Affordable Research Translation (START): study protocol to assess knowledge translation interventions in continuing care settings

    OpenAIRE

    Slaughter, Susan E; Estabrooks, Carole A; Jones, C Allyson; Adrian S. Wagg; Eliasziw, Misha

    2013-01-01

    Background Bridging the research-practice gap is an important research focus in continuing care facilities, because the population of older adults (aged 65 years and over) requiring continuing care services is the fastest growing demographic among countries in the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). Unlicensed practitioners, known as health care aides, provide the majority of care for residents living in continuing care facilities. However, little research examines ...

  13. Contributions of Attachment Theory and Research: A Framework for Future Research, Translation, and Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Cassidy, Jude; Jones, Jason D.; Shaver, Phillip R.

    2013-01-01

    Attachment theory has been generating creative and impactful research for almost half a century. In this article we focus on the documented antecedents and consequences of individual differences in infant attachment patterns, suggesting topics for further theoretical clarification, research, clinical interventions, and policy applications. We pay particular attention to the concept of cognitive “working models” and to neural and physiological mechanisms through which early attachment experien...

  14. James P. Allison received the 2014 Szent-Györgi Prize for Progress in Cancer Research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jie Zhao,Peter Scully; Sujuan Ba

    2014-01-01

    The Szent-Györgyi Prize for Progress in Cancer Research is a prestigious scientific award established by the National Foundation for Cancer Research (NFCR)-a leading cancer research charitable organization in the United States that is committed to supporting innovative cancer research on the global scale that aims to cure cancer. Each year, the Szent-Györgyi Prize honors an outstanding researcher whose original discoveries have expanded our understanding of cancer and resulted in notable advances in cancer prevention, diagnosis, or treatment. The prize also promotes public awareness of the importance of basic cancer research and encourages the sustained investment needed to accelerate the translation of these research discoveries into new cancer treatments. This report highlights the history and mission of the Szent-Györgyi Prize, its role in promoting discovery-oriented cancer research, and the pioneering work led by the 2014 prize winner, Dr. James Alison. Dr. Alison’s work in the area of cancer immunotherapy led to the successful development of immune checkpoint therapy, and the first drug approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of metastatic melanoma.

  15. What's New in Esophageal Cancer Research and Treatment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Download Printable Version [PDF] » What`s New in Esophagus Cancer Research? TOPICS Document Topics GO » SEE A LIST » What’s ... Your Doctor After Treatment What`s New in Esophagus Cancer Research? Other Resources and References Cancer Information Cancer Basics ...

  16. Application of Metabolomics in Thyroid Cancer Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Wojakowska

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Thyroid cancer is the most common endocrine malignancy with four major types distinguished on the basis of histopathological features: papillary, follicular, medullary, and anaplastic. Classification of thyroid cancer is the primary step in the assessment of prognosis and selection of the treatment. However, in some cases, cytological and histological patterns are inconclusive; hence, classification based on histopathology could be supported by molecular biomarkers, including markers identified with the use of high-throughput “omics” techniques. Beside genomics, transcriptomics, and proteomics, metabolomic approach emerges as the most downstream attitude reflecting phenotypic changes and alterations in pathophysiological states of biological systems. Metabolomics using mass spectrometry and magnetic resonance spectroscopy techniques allows qualitative and quantitative profiling of small molecules present in biological systems. This approach can be applied to reveal metabolic differences between different types of thyroid cancer and to identify new potential candidates for molecular biomarkers. In this review, we consider current results concerning application of metabolomics in the field of thyroid cancer research. Recent studies show that metabolomics can provide significant information about the discrimination between different types of thyroid lesions. In the near future, one could expect a further progress in thyroid cancer metabolomics leading to development of molecular markers and improvement of the tumor types classification and diagnosis.

  17. Anti-translational research: from the bedside back to the bench for reflectance confocal microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gareau, Daniel

    2014-03-01

    The reflectance confocal microscope has made translational progress in dermatology. 0.5 micrometer lateral resolution, 0.75mm field-of-view and excellent temporal resolution at ~15 frames/second serve the VivaScope well in the clinic, but it may be overlooked in basic research. This work reviews high spatiotemporal confocal microscopy and presents images acquired of various samples: zebra fish embryo where melanocytes with excellent contrast overly the spinal column, chicken embryo, where myocardium is seen moving at 15 frames/ second, calcium spikes in dendrites (fluorescence mode) just beyond the temporal resolution, and human skin where blood cells race through the artereovenous microvasculature. For an introduction to confocal microscopy, see: http://dangareau.net.s69818.gridserver.com/science/confocal-microscopy

  18. A Strategic Framework for Utilizing Late-Stage (T4) Translation Research to Address Health Inequities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Class, Maria; Peprah, Emmanuel; Zhang, Xinzhi; Kaufmann, Peter G; Engelgau, Michael M

    2016-01-01

    Achieving health equity requires that every person has the opportunity to attain their full health potential and no one is disadvantaged from achieving this potential because of social position or other socially determined circumstances. Inequity experienced by populations of lower socioeconomic status is reflected in differences in health status and mortality rates, as well as in the distribution of disease, disability and illness across these population groups. This article gives an overview of the health inequities literature associated with heart, lung, blood and sleep (HLBS) disorders. We present an ecological framework that provides a theoretical foundation to study late-stage T4 translation research that studies implementation strategies for proven effective interventions to address health inequities. PMID:27440979

  19. Site Characteristics Influencing the Translation of Clinical Research Into Clinical Practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smed, Marie; Getz, Kenneth A.

    2014-01-01

    to sponsor companies and may ultimately assist in positioning new products and driving commercialization success. This study evaluates site characteristics that influence the acquisition and sharing of knowledge gained through clinical trial experience. The impact of 2 central site characteristics on...... the process of translating drug experience is assessed: site location (North America/rest of the world) and site type or setting (academic/independent). The results show that investigative sites located outside North America generate and share more knowledge than those within North America....... Furthermore, although both academic and independent sites generate the same level of knowledge, academic sites share more of this knowledge with sponsor companies. This study suggests new strategies that sponsors can leverage to drive greater transfer of clinical research knowledge into clinical practice and...

  20. Real Time Web-based Data Monitoring and Manipulation System to Improve Translational Research Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Nwokejizie Anyanwu, Venkateswara Ra Nagisetty, Emin Kuscu, Teeradache Viangteeravat

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The use of the internet technology and web browser capabilities of the internethas provided researchers/scientists with many advantages, which includes butnot limited to ease of access, platform independence of computer systems,relatively low cost of web access etc. Hence online collaboration like socialnetworks and information/data exchange among individuals and organizationscan now be done seamlessly. In practice, many investigators rely heavily ondifferent data modalities for studying and analyzing their research/study and alsofor producing quality reports. The lack of coherency and inconsistencies in datasets can dramatically reduce the quality of research data. Thus to prevent loss ofdata quality and value and provide the needed functionality of data, we haveproposed a novel approach as an ad-hoc component for data monitoring andmanipulation called RTWebDMM (Real-Time Web-based Data Monitoring andManipulation system to improve the quality of translational research data. TheRTWebDMM is proposed as an auditor, monitor, and explorer for improving theway in which investigators access and interact with the data sets in real-timeusing a web browser. The performance of the proposed approach was evaluatedwith different data sets from various studies. It is demonstrated that the approachyields very promising results for data quality improvement while leveraging on aweb-enabled environment.

  1. What's New in Colorectal Cancer Research and Treatment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... escape to close saved articles window. My Saved Articles » My ACS ... in colorectal cancer research? Research is always going on in the area of colorectal cancer. Scientists are looking for causes and ways to prevent ...

  2. [AFNET. A translational research network develops into an academic research organization].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirchhof, Paulus; Goette, Andreas; Näbauer, Michael; Schotten, Ulrich

    2016-04-01

    "The whole is greater than the sum of its parts" (Aristotle).Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common sustained arrhythmia and affects 1-2 % of the population in developed countries, especially the elderly. We expect that the prevalence of AF will double in the next few decades. The last decades have seen important improvements in the management of atrial fibrillation, but many questions remain regarding the optimal diagnosis and management of the condition. The German Atrial Fibrillation NETwork (AFNET) was one of three cardiovascular competence networks in medicine funded by the German Ministry of Education and Research between 2003-2014. AFNET has contributed to the understanding of atrial fibrillation, and AFNET-led studies have led to improved clinical practices and practice guidelines in Germany and in Europe. This work has been expanded and is continuing in the AFNET association (AFNET e. V.). The AFNET association, founded in 2010 and continuing to this day, has developed into a small but fully formed academic research organisation that conducts investigator-initiated clinical trials as the responsible sponsor in Germany, Europe, and beyond. The AFNET association currently cooperates with EHRA (The European Heart Rhythm Association), ESC (The European Society of Cardiology) and DZHK (The German Centre for Cardiovascular Research) and receives funding from the European Union to generate evidence that can in the future lead to better prevention and management of AF. PMID:26979716

  3. D-Glucosamine down-regulates HIF-1{alpha} through inhibition of protein translation in DU145 prostate cancer cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jee-Young; Park, Jong-Wook; Suh, Seong-Il [Chronic Disease Research Center, School of Medicine, Keimyung University, 194 Dongsan-Dong, Jung-Gu, Daegu 700-712 (Korea, Republic of); Baek, Won-Ki, E-mail: wonki@dsmc.or.kr [Chronic Disease Research Center, School of Medicine, Keimyung University, 194 Dongsan-Dong, Jung-Gu, Daegu 700-712 (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-04-24

    D-Glucosamine has been reported to inhibit proliferation of cancer cells in culture and in vivo. In this study we report a novel response to D-glucosamine involving the translation regulation of hypoxia inducible factor (HIF)-1{alpha} expression. D-Glucosamine caused a decreased expression of HIF-1{alpha} under normoxic and hypoxic conditions without affecting HIF-1{alpha} mRNA expression in DU145 prostate cancer cells. D-Glucosamine inhibited HIF-1{alpha} accumulation induced by proteasome inhibitor MG132 and prolyl hydroxylase inhibitor DMOG suggesting D-glucosamine reduces HIF-1{alpha} protein expression through proteasome-independent pathway. Metabolic labeling assays indicated that D-glucosamine inhibits translation of HIF-1{alpha} protein. In addition, D-glucosamine inhibited HIF-1{alpha} expression induced by serum stimulation in parallel with inhibition of p70S6K suggesting D-glucosamine inhibits growth factor-induced HIF-1{alpha} expression, at least in part, through p70S6K inhibition. Taken together, these results suggest that D-glucosamine inhibits HIF-1{alpha} expression through inhibiting protein translation and provide new insight into a potential mechanism of the anticancer properties of D-glucosamine.

  4. D-Glucosamine down-regulates HIF-1α through inhibition of protein translation in DU145 prostate cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D-Glucosamine has been reported to inhibit proliferation of cancer cells in culture and in vivo. In this study we report a novel response to D-glucosamine involving the translation regulation of hypoxia inducible factor (HIF)-1α expression. D-Glucosamine caused a decreased expression of HIF-1α under normoxic and hypoxic conditions without affecting HIF-1α mRNA expression in DU145 prostate cancer cells. D-Glucosamine inhibited HIF-1α accumulation induced by proteasome inhibitor MG132 and prolyl hydroxylase inhibitor DMOG suggesting D-glucosamine reduces HIF-1α protein expression through proteasome-independent pathway. Metabolic labeling assays indicated that D-glucosamine inhibits translation of HIF-1α protein. In addition, D-glucosamine inhibited HIF-1α expression induced by serum stimulation in parallel with inhibition of p70S6K suggesting D-glucosamine inhibits growth factor-induced HIF-1α expression, at least in part, through p70S6K inhibition. Taken together, these results suggest that D-glucosamine inhibits HIF-1α expression through inhibiting protein translation and provide new insight into a potential mechanism of the anticancer properties of D-glucosamine.

  5. ADVANTAGES AND APPLICATIONS OF TISSUE MICROARRAY TECHNOLOGY ON CANCER RESEARCH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张喜平; 苏丹; 程琪辉

    2003-01-01

    S To provide evidences for exploiting tissue microarray (TMA) technology, we reviewed advantages and applications of TMA on tumor research. TMA has many advantages, including (1) section from TMA blocks can be utilized for the simultaneous analysis of up to 1,000 different tumors at DNA, RNA or protein level; (2) TMA is highly representative of their donor tissues; (3) TMA can improve conservation of tissue resources and experimental reagents, improve internal experimental control, and increase sample numbers per experiment, and can be used for large-scale, massively parallel in situ analysis; (4) TMA facilitates rapid translation of molecular discoveries to clinical applications. TMA has been applied to tumor research, such as glioma, breast tumor, lung cancer and so on. The development of novel biochip technologies has opened up new possibilities for the high-throughput molecular profiling of human tumors. Novel molecular markers emerging from high-throughput expression surveys could be analyzed on tumor TMA. It is anticipated that TMA, a new member of biochip, will soon become a widely used tool for all types of tissue-based research. TMA will lead to a significant acceleration of the transition of basic research findings into clinical applications.

  6. About the Lung and Upper Aerodigestive Cancer Research Group | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Lung and Upper Aerodigestive Cancer Research Group conducts and supports research on the prevention and early detection of lung and head and neck cancers, as well as new approaches to clinical prevention studies including cancer immunoprevention.Phase 0/I/II Cancer Prevention Clinical Trials ProgramThe group jointly administers the Phase 0/I/II Cancer Prevention Clinical Trials Program evaluating new agents, surrogate biomarkers, and technologies to identify premalignant lesions, and related cancers.  |

  7. Knowledge translation in rehabilitation engineering research and development: a knowledge ecosystem framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chau, Tom; Moghimi, Saba; Popovic, Milos R

    2013-01-01

    Rehabilitation engineering is concerned with technology innovations and technology-mediated treatments for the improvement of quality of care and quality of life of individuals with disability. Unlike many other fields of health research, the knowledge translation (KT) cycle of rehabilitation engineering research and development (R&D) is often considered incomplete until a technology product or technology-facilitated therapy is available to target clientele. As such, the KT journey of rehabilitation engineering R&D is extremely challenging, necessarily involving knowledge exchange among numerous players across multiple sectors. In this article, we draw on recent literature about the knowledge trichotomy in technology-based rehabilitation R&D and propose a knowledge ecosystem to frame the rehabilitation engineering KT process from need to product. Identifying the principal process of the ecosystem as one of knowledge flow, we elucidate the roles of repository and networked knowledge, identify key consumers and producers in a trinity of communities of practice, and draw on knowledge management literature to describe different knowledge flows. The article concludes with instantiations of this knowledge ecosystem for 2 local rehabilitation engineering research-development-commercialization endeavors. PMID:23260777

  8. [Translational research in gestational diabetes mellitus and mild gestational hyperglycemia: current knowledge and our experience].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudge, Marilza Vieira Cunha; Piculo, Fernanda; Marini, Gabriela; Damasceno, Débora Cristina; Calderon, Iracema Mattos Paranhos; Barbosa, Angélica Pascon

    2013-10-01

    Maternal diabetes constitutes an unfavorable environment for fetal-placental and embryonic development. It is has important repercussion in modern obstetrics, since it is associated to an increased risk of neonatal and maternal morbidity, and it still is a significant medical challenge. The increased occurrence of diabetes worldwide, the increase in diabetes type 2 in women at reproductive age and the crossed generation of intrauterine programming for diabetes type 2 are the bases for the growing interest in utilization of diabetic experimental samples, with the aim to acquire knowledge about the mechanisms that induce development alterations in gestational diabetes. Several studies have shown the benefits of diabetes prevention, with interventions in lifestyle, metabolic improvement and control of cardiovascular risk factors to substantially prevent the complications of this devastating disease. Despite these findings, the recent revolution in the scientific knowledge, and the infinite number of new therapies for diabetes, there is still a large gap between what was learned through research and what is really done in public, clinical and community health. The negative economic impact of this complacency in people, families, and national economies is alarming. It is expected that translational research in the binomial diabetes and pregnancy are implemented in centers of excellence, in both basic and applied research, and complemented by multicenter clinical studies, conducted in a pragmatic way to increase the level of scientific evidence with more reliable diagnostic and propaedeutic resources. PMID:24232813

  9. The Translational Genomics Core at Partners Personalized Medicine: Facilitating the Transition of Research towards Personalized Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blau, Ashley; Brown, Alison; Mahanta, Lisa; Amr, Sami S

    2016-01-01

    The Translational Genomics Core (TGC) at Partners Personalized Medicine (PPM) serves as a fee-for-service core laboratory for Partners Healthcare researchers, providing access to technology platforms and analysis pipelines for genomic, transcriptomic, and epigenomic research projects. The interaction of the TGC with various components of PPM provides it with a unique infrastructure that allows for greater IT and bioinformatics opportunities, such as sample tracking and data analysis. The following article describes some of the unique opportunities available to an academic research core operating within PPM, such the ability to develop analysis pipelines with a dedicated bioinformatics team and maintain a flexible Laboratory Information Management System (LIMS) with the support of an internal IT team, as well as the operational challenges encountered to respond to emerging technologies, diverse investigator needs, and high staff turnover. In addition, the implementation and operational role of the TGC in the Partners Biobank genotyping project of over 25,000 samples is presented as an example of core activities working with other components of PPM. PMID:26927185

  10. Brüstle v. Greenpeace: Implications for Commercialisation of Translational Stem Cell Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansnérus, Juli

    2015-04-01

    The lack of consensus on a common definition of the term 'embryo' has resulted in legal uncertainty affecting the permissibility of human embryonic stem cell (hESC) research and the commercialisation prospects and patenting of inventions of hESC origin in the EU. The Brüstle v. Greenpeace case, which by providing a very broad definition of a human embryo restricts the patentability of hESC-based inventions, aims at harmonising the patenting practices regarding interpretation of Article 6.2.c of Directive 98/44/ EC. It fills the gaps in national laws by providing binding interpretation guidelines for national courts. As currently no marketing authorisations have been granted to hESC-based products, implications of this judgment for translational hESC research together with other barriers to commercialisation of such research need to be analysed. In addition, whether the main obstacles relate to patenting restrictions or whether something else in the innovation system is impeding the market entry of these innovative products is discussed. PMID:26399054

  11. Basic and technical research on lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In association with clinical study of carbon beam therapy for lung cancer, the basic research for lung cancer and the patients with this disease has been carried out for the past 10 years. With regard to lung damage by the carbon beams, firstly pulmonary function was measured and analyzed for the patients with stage I non-small cell lung cancer. Force expiratory volume in 1 second (FVE 1.0) and TLC (total lung capacity) was found to be reduced significantly at 6 and 12 months after therapy but the reduction rate was a little, which can support the safety of this treatment modality. Secondly, the regional lung damage by the beams was investigated by using correct fusion of CT images with carbon beam dose distribution, diagnostic follow-up CT images and blood flow and ventilation spect images. It demonstrated the graded decrease blood flow by dose and the compensatory increase of blood flow in the adjacent lobe of lung unexposed to irradiation. On the other hand, the biological study of carbon beam effects on lung cancer cells and tumors line was conducted. Firstly, by using 7 or 4 human lung cancer cell line, the radiosensitivity of carbon beams was compared with that of photons by different histological patterns. It was found that there was no essential difference in the sensitivity pattern for lung cancer histology between the carbon beams and photons though the former doubled the later in power. Secondly, by using IA cell lines among them, the dynamic of clonogenic cells (clonogen) in a nude tumor and the changes in its morphology following irradiation was investigated, clarifying that the clonogen proliferating under anoxic or hypoxic conditions played a pivotal role for tumor regrowth and stemmed from the different clone which had been genetically selected and developed under these conditions. The finding of clonogen becomes one of the evidence supporting the superiority of a single-dose radiotherapy to fractionated radiotherapy. (author)

  12. Improving Cancer Care Through Nursing Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Deborah K

    2015-09-01

    Nursing research and nurse researchers have been an integral and significant part of the Oncology Nursing Society's (ONS's) history, as evidenced by the development of the Nursing Research Committee within a few years of ONS's establishment. Ruth McCorkle, PhD, RN, FAAN, was the committee's first chairperson in 1979. This was followed by the creation of the Advanced Nursing Research Special Interest Group in 1989 under the leadership of Jean Brown, PhD, RN, FAAN. ONS also began to recognize nurse researchers in 1994 by creating the annual ONS Distinguished Researcher Award to recognize the contributions of a member who has conducted or promoted research that has enhanced the science and practice of oncology nursing. The list of recipients and of their work is impressive and reflects the wide range of our practice areas (see http://bit.ly/1MTC5cp for the recipient list). In addition, the ONS Foundation began funding research in 1981 and has distributed more than $24 million in research grants, research fellowships, and other scholarships, lectures, public education projects, and career development awards (ONS Foundation, 2015). And, in 2006, the Putting Evidence Into Practice resource was unveiled, which provides evidence-based intervention reviews for the 20 most common problems experienced by patients with cancer and their caregivers (www.ons
.org/practice-resources/pep)
. PMID:26302272

  13. Cancer-associated DDX3X mutations drive stress granule assembly and impair global translation

    OpenAIRE

    Valentin-Vega, Yasmine A.; Yong-Dong Wang; Matthew Parker; Patmore, Deanna M.; Anderson Kanagaraj; Jennifer Moore; Michael Rusch; David Finkelstein; Ellison, David W.; Gilbertson, Richard J.; Jinghui Zhang; Hong Joo Kim; J. Paul Taylor

    2016-01-01

    DDX3X is a DEAD-box RNA helicase that has been implicated in multiple aspects of RNA metabolism including translation initiation and the assembly of stress granules (SGs). Recent genomic studies have reported recurrent DDX3X mutations in numerous tumors including medulloblastoma (MB), but the physiological impact of these mutations is poorly understood. Here we show that a consistent feature of MB-associated mutations is SG hyper-assembly and concomitant translation impairment. We used CLIP-s...

  14. Translating tumor biology into personalized treatment planning: analytical performance characteristics of the Oncotype DX® Colon Cancer Assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Oncotype DX® Colon Cancer Assay is a new diagnostic test for determining the likelihood of recurrence in stage II colon cancer patients after surgical resection using fixed paraffin embedded (FPE) primary colon tumor tissue. Like the Oncotype DX Breast Cancer Assay, this is a high complexity, multi-analyte, reverse transcription (RT) polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay that measures the expression levels of specific cancer-related genes. By capturing the biology underlying each patient's tumor, the Oncotype DX Colon Cancer Assay provides a Recurrence Score (RS) that reflects an individualized risk of disease recurrence. Here we describe its analytical performance using pre-determined performance criteria, which is a critical component of molecular diagnostic test validation. All analytical measurements met pre-specified performance criteria. PCR amplification efficiency for all 12 assays was high, ranging from 96% to 107%, while linearity was demonstrated over an 11 log2 concentration range for all assays. Based on estimated components of variance for FPE RNA pools, analytical reproducibility and precision demonstrated low SDs for individual genes (0.16 to 0.32 CTs), gene groups (≤0.05 normalized/aggregate CTs) and RS (≤1.38 RS units). Analytical performance characteristics shown here for both individual genes and gene groups in the Oncotype DX Colon Cancer Assay demonstrate consistent translation of specific biology of individual tumors into clinically useful diagnostic information. The results of these studies illustrate how the analytical capability of the Oncotype DX Colon Cancer Assay has enabled clinical validation of a test to determine individualized recurrence risk after colon cancer surgery

  15. Roles of the WHHL Rabbit in Translational Research on Hypercholesterolemia and Cardiovascular Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsutomu Kobayashi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Conquering cardiovascular diseases is one of the most important problems in human health. To overcome cardiovascular diseases, animal models have played important roles. Although the prevalence of genetically modified animals, particularly mice and rats, has contributed greatly to biomedical research, not all human diseases can be investigated in this way. In the study of cardiovascular diseases, mice and rats are inappropriate because of marked differences in lipoprotein metabolism, pathophysiological findings of atherosclerosis, and cardiac function. On the other hand, since lipoprotein metabolism and atherosclerotic lesions in rabbits closely resemble those in humans, several useful animal models for these diseases have been developed in rabbits. One of the most famous of these is the Watanabe heritable hyperlipidemic (WHHL rabbit, which develops hypercholesterolemia and atherosclerosis spontaneously due to genetic and functional deficiencies of the low-density lipoprotein (LDL receptor. The WHHL rabbit has been improved to develop myocardial infarction, and the new strain was designated the myocardial infarction-prone WHHL (WHHLMI rabbit. This review summarizes the importance of selecting animal species for translational research in biomedical science, the development of WHHL and WHHLMI rabbits, their application to the development of hypocholesterolemic and/or antiatherosclerotic drugs, and future prospects regarding WHHL and WHHLMI rabbits.

  16. Translational pain research: Evaluating analgesic effect in experimental visceral pain models

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Anne Estrup Olesen; Trine Andresen; Lona Louring Christrup; Richard N Upton

    2009-01-01

    Deep visceral pain is frequent and presents major challenges in pain management, since its pathophysiology is still poorly understood. One way to optimize treatment of visceral pain is to improve knowledge of the mechanisms behind the pain and the mode of action of analgesic substances. This can be achieved through standardized experimental human pain models. Experimental pain models in healthy volunteers are advantageous forevaluation of analgesic action, as this is often difficult to assess in the clinic because of confounding factors such as sedation, nausea and general malaise. These pain models facilitate minimizing the gap between knowledge gained in animal and human clinical studies. Combining experimental pain studies and pharmacokinetic studies can improve understanding of the pharmacokineticpharmacodynamic relationship of analgesics and, thus, provide valuable insight into optimal clinical treatment of visceral pain. To improve treatment of visceral pain, it is important to study the underlying mechanisms of pain and the action of analgesics used for its treatment. An experimental pain model activates different modalities and can be used to investigate the mechanism of action of different analgesics in detail. In combination with pharmacokinetic studies and objective assessment such as electroencephalography, new information re- garding a given drug substance and its effects can be obtained. Results from experimental human visceral pain research can bridge the gap in knowledge between animal studies and clinical condition in patients suffering from visceral pain, and thus constitute the missing link in translational pain research.

  17. Advances take stage - Office of Cancer Clinical Proteomics Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regulatory advances in proteomics will be taking center stage at a Symposia scheduled to occur at the 2011 American Association for Clinical Chemistry (AACC) Annual Meeting. The symposium entitled "Enabling Translational Proteomics with NCI's Clinical Proteomic Technologies for Cancer" is scheduled for July 25, 2011 at AACC's annual Meeting.

  18. YKL-40—A Protein in the Field of Translational Medicine: A Role as a Biomarker in Cancer Patients?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz, Nicolai A; Johansen, Julia S

    2010-01-01

    sufficient data to support determination of plasma YKL-40 outside research projects as a biomarker for screening of gastrointestinal cancer and determination of treatment response and poor prognosis before or during treatment and follow-up. Plasma YKL-40 is also elevated in patients with other diseases than...... cancer, e.g., severe infections, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, chronic obstructive lung disease, asthma, liver fibrosis and rheumatoid arthritis. Co-morbidity should therefore always be considered in patients with cancer, since other sources than cancer cells can increase plasma YKL-40 levels. Future...

  19. Evidence and research in rectal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main evidences of epidemiology, diagnostic imaging, pathology, surgery, radiotherapy, chemotherapy and follow-up are reviewed to optimize the routine treatment of rectal cancer according to a multidisciplinary approach. This paper reports on the knowledge shared between different specialists involved in the design and management of the multidisciplinary ESTRO Teaching Course on Rectal Cancer. The scenario of ongoing research is also addressed. In this time of changing treatments, it clearly appears that a common standard for large heterogeneous patient groups have to be substituted by more individualised therapies based on clinical-pathological features and very soon on molecular and genetic markers. Only trained multidisciplinary teams can face this new challenge and tailor the treatments according to the best scientific evidence for each patient

  20. Create a translational medicine knowledge repository - Research downsizing, mergers and increased outsourcing have reduced the depth of in-house translational medicine expertise and institutional memory at many pharmaceutical and biotech companies: how will they avoid relearning old lessons?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marincola Francesco M

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Pharmaceutical industry consolidation and overall research downsizing threatens the ability of companies to benefit from their previous investments in translational research as key leaders with the most knowledge of the successful use of biomarkers and translational pharmacology models are laid off or accept their severance packages. Two recently published books may help to preserve this type of knowledge but much of this type of information is not in the public domain. Here we propose the creation of a translational medicine knowledge repository where companies can submit their translational research data and access similar data from other companies in a precompetitive environment. This searchable repository would become an invaluable resource for translational scientists and drug developers that could speed and reduce the cost of new drug development.

  1. Medical translation in arabic

    OpenAIRE

    Didouche - Zidi, Fayza

    2013-01-01

    The present thesis is based on the translation of International Union against Cancer’s report “Protection Against Cancer-causing Infections” in the framework of World Cancer Campaign 2010. It deals with the specificities of specialized language and difficulties of translation in specialized field of medical science from the Interpretative theory perspective.

  2. Methodological Issues in Cross-Cultural Counseling Research: Equivalence, Bias, and Translations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aegisdottir, Stefania; Gerstein, Lawrence A.; Cinarbas, Deniz Canel

    2008-01-01

    Concerns about the cross-cultural validity of constructs are discussed, including equivalence, bias, and translation procedures. Methods to enhance equivalence are described, as are strategies to evaluate and minimize types of bias. Recommendations for translating instruments are also presented. To illustrate some challenges of cross-cultural…

  3. Adherence to the World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute for Cancer Research recommendations and breast cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Holly R; Bergkvist, Leif; Wolk, Alicja

    2016-06-01

    The World Cancer Research Fund/American Association for Cancer Research (WCRF/AICR) has published eight nutrition-related recommendations for the prevention of cancer. However, few prospective studies have examined these recommendations by breast cancer hormone receptor subtype and only one case-control study has included the dietary supplements recommendation in their evaluation. We investigated whether adherence to the WCRF/AICR cancer prevention recommendations was associated with breast cancer incidence, overall and by hormone receptor subtype, in the Swedish Mammography Cohort. Among 31,514 primarily postmenopausal women diet and lifestyle factors were assessed with a self-administered food frequency questionnaire. A score was constructed based on adherence to the recommendations for body fatness, physical activity, energy density, plant foods, animal foods, alcoholic drinks and dietary supplements (score range 0-7). Cox proportional hazard models were used to calculate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs). During 15 years of follow-up 1,388 cases of breast cancer were identified. Women who met six to seven recommendations had a 51% decreased risk of breast cancer compared to women meeting only zero to two recommendations (95% CI = 0.35-0.70). The association between each additional recommendation met and breast cancer risk was strongest for the ER-positive/PR-positive subtype (HR = 0.86; 95% CI = 0.79-0.94), while for the ER-negative/PR-negative subtype the individual recommendations regarding plant and animal foods were most strongly associated with reduced risk. Our findings support that adherence to the WCRF/AICR recommendations reduces breast cancer risk in a population of primarily postmenopausal women. Promoting these recommendations to the public could help reduce breast cancer incidence. PMID:26804371

  4. NCI Community Oncology Research Program Approved | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    On June 24, 2013, the National Cancer Institute (NCI) Board of Scientific Advisors approved the creation of the NCI Community Oncology Research Program (NCORP). NCORP will bring state-of-the art cancer prevention, control, treatment and imaging clinical trials, cancer care delivery research, and disparities studies to individuals in their own communities. |

  5. [Experience of stroke prevention-Enlightenment for cancer research].

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Weicheng

    2015-08-01

    Cancer, stroke and heart diseases are most common causes of death. This paper summarized the experience of stroke prevention, which is an enlightenment for cancer research. In addition, this paper also described the progress of cancer epidemiological research, particular the primary and second preventions in China. PMID:26733022

  6. Is belief larger than fact: expectations, optimism and reality for translational stem cell research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bubela Tania

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Stem cell (SC therapies hold remarkable promise for many diseases, but there is a significant gulf between public expectations and the reality of progress toward clinical application. Public expectations are fueled by stakeholder arguments for research and public funding, coupled with intense media coverage in an ethically charged arena. We examine media representations in light of the expanding global landscape of SC clinical trials, asking what patients may realistically expect by way of timelines for the therapeutic and curative potential of regenerative medicine? Methods We built 2 international datasets: (1 3,404 clinical trials (CT containing 'stem cell*' from ClinicalTrials.gov and the World Health Organization's International Clinical Trials Registry Search Portal; and (2 13,249 newspaper articles on SC therapies using Factiva.com. We compared word frequencies between the CT descriptions and full-text newspaper articles for the number containing terms for SC type and diseases/conditions. We also developed inclusion and exclusion criteria to identify novel SC CTs, mainly regenerative medicine applications. Results Newspaper articles focused on human embryonic SCs and neurological conditions with significant coverage as well of cardiovascular disease and diabetes. In contrast, CTs used primarily hematopoietic SCs, with an increase in CTs using mesenchymal SCs since 2007. The latter dominated our novel classification for CTs, most of which are in phases I and II. From the perspective of the public, expecting therapies for neurological conditions, there is limited activity in what may be considered novel applications of SC therapies. Conclusions Given the research, regulatory, and commercialization hurdles to the clinical translation of SC research, it seems likely that patients and political supporters will become disappointed and disillusioned. In this environment, proponents need to make a concerted effort to temper

  7. Dendritic cell vaccines in cancer immunotherapy: from biology to translational medicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hongmei Xu; Xuetao Cao

    2011-01-01

    According to the GLOBOCAN reports,there were about 12.7 million cancer cases and 7.6 million cancer deaths in 2008,and the cancer burden continues to increase worldwide [1].At present,the common treatments for cancer include surgery,chemotherapy,radiotherapy,and immunotherapy.Immunotherapy aims to enhance or regulate the patient's own immune response to fight against tumors.It represents a novel and effective strategy in cancer treatments,but,generally,its efficacy needs to be improved [2].Cancer vaccination is an important and promising approach in cancer immunotherapy.For many years,prophylactic vaccines have exhibited profound accomplishment in preventing serious infectious diseases in humankind,including polio,small pox,and diphtheria.However,cancer vaccines are vastly different from the prophylactic vaccines in that they are aimed to eliminate preexisting tumors.Furthermore,the immune system is immunosuppressed in most cancer patients,so it is much more difficult to develop effective cancer vaccines.

  8. About the Prostate and Urologic Cancer Research Group | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Prostate and Urologic Cancer Research Group conducts and supports research on prostate and bladder cancers, and new approaches to clinical prevention studies including cancer immunoprevention. The group develops, implements and monitors research efforts in chemoprevention, nutrition, genetic, and immunologic interventions, screening, early detection and other prevention strategies. |

  9. LSP Translation in the New Millenium - A Cross-Baltic Symposium on Didactics and Research. Hermes Skriftserie

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The compilation of articles found in this volume is a selection of the papers given at "LSP Translation in the New Millennium - a Cross-Baltic Symposium on Didactics and Research". A symposium sponsored by The Royal Danish Ministry of Foreign Affairs, arranged by the Aarhus School of Business, De...

  10. Translation and Cross-Cultural Adaptation of Assessment Instruments Used in Psychological Research with Children and Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Widenfelt, Brigit M.; Treffers, Philip D. A.; de Beurs, Edwin; Siebelink, Bart M.; Koudijs, Els

    2005-01-01

    With the increased globalization of psychology and related fields, having reliable and valid measures that can be used in a number of languages and cultures is critical. Few guidelines or standards have been established in psychology for the translation and cultural adaptation of instruments. Usually little is reported in research publications…

  11. Working on the 3 Rs: Utilization of refinement to enhance the value of translational research in nonhuman primates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graham, M.L.

    2011-01-01

    Studies in nonhuman primates are indicated in translating research results towards a clinical application, in particular to assess the safety and efficacy of immunosuppressives and cell therapy products. This requires a thorough consideration of animal well-being, i.e., the 3 Rs refinement, reductio

  12. Aquatic invasive species: Lessons from cancer research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepulveda, Adam; Ray, Andrew; Al-Chokhachy, Robert K.; Muhlfeld, Clint C.; Gresswell, Robert E.; Gross, Jackson A.; Kershner, Jeffrey L.

    2014-01-01

    Aquatic invasive species are disrupting ecosystems with increasing frequency. Successful control of these invasions has been rare: Biologists and managers have few tools for fighting aquatic invaders. In contrast, the medical community has long worked to develop tools for preventing and fighting cancer. Its successes are marked by a coordinated research approach with multiple steps: prevention, early detection, diagnosis, treatment options and rehabilitation. The authors discuss how these steps can be applied to aquatic invasive species, such as the American bullfrog (Lithobates catesbeianus), in the Northern Rocky Mountain region of the United States, to expedite tool development and implementation along with achievement of biodiversity conservation goals.

  13. High dimensional flow cytometry for comprehensive leukocyte immunophenotyping (CLIP) in translational research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biancotto, Angélique; Fuchs, John C; Williams, Ann; Dagur, Pradeep K; McCoy, J Philip

    2011-01-01

    New paradigms in translational research are focused on deep understanding of all aspects of the human immune system in response to diseases or perturbations such as vaccination or therapy. To obtain this knowledge, coordinated, comprehensive assessments by genomics, proteomics, and cytomics are necessary. One component of this assessment is comprehensive leukocyte immunophenotyping (CLIP) that not only provides a deep and broad description of the entire immune system at any given moment, but also encompasses all leukocyte lineages, including activation states, functional markers, and signaling molecules. As envisioned, a CLIP panel could study nearly 400 antigens utilizing 17-parameter flow cytometry. The CLIP panel is structured in a manner that tubes are grouped by lineage and, within lineage each of the tubes, while having some redundant markers, characterize distinct populations. To date, a preliminary 10 tube CLIP panel has been developed with the following 17 parameter tubes: T(reg), T(h₁₇), T(h₁/₂), B(general), B(naive/memory), B(intracellular), NK₁, NK₂, myeloid/monocyte, and dendritic cells (DC). Together these tubes have the potential to identify over 28,000 subsets of leukocytes. The feasibility of developing these tubes has been demonstrated, as well as their utility in describing complex alterations of the immune system in the context of disease and vaccination. The plethora of data accrued in the preliminary CLIP panel highlights the need for novel data analysis and reduction strategies, while at the same time illustrates the power of CLIP. PMID:20600079

  14. Strongyloides stercoralis: a model for translational research on parasitic nematode biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lok, James B

    2007-01-01

    Because of their free-living life cycle alternatives, Strongyloides and related nematode parasites may represent the best models for translating C. elegans science to the study of nematode parasitism. S. stercoralis, a significant pathogen of humans, can be maintained in laboratory dogs and gerbils. Biosafety precautions necessary for work with S. stercoralis, though unfamiliar to many C. elegans researchers, are straightforward and easily accomplished. Although specialized methods are necessary for large-scale culture of the free-living stages of S. stercoralis, small-scale cultures for experimental purposes may be undertaken using minor modifications of standard C. elegans methods. Similarly, the morphological similarities between C. elegans and the free-living stages of S. stercoralis allow investigational methods such as laser cell ablation and DNA transformation by gonadal microinjection to be easily adapted from C. elegans to S. stercoralis. Comparative studies employing these methods have yielded new insights into the neuronal control of the infective process in parasites and its similarity to regulation of dauer development in C. elegans. Furthermore, we have developed a practical method for transient transformation of S. stercoralis with vector constructs having various tissue- and cell-specific expression patterns and have assembled these into a modular vector kit for distribution to the community. PMID:18050500

  15. Synergy of image analysis for animal and human neuroimaging supports translational research on drug abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guido eGerig

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The use of structural magnetic resonance imaging (sMRI and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI in animals models of neuropathology is of increasing interest to the neuroscience community. In this work, we present our approach to create optimal translational studies that include both animal and human neuroimaging data within the frameworks of a study of postnatal neuro-development in intra-uterine cocaine exposure. We propose the use of non-invasive neuroimaging to study developmental brain structural and white matter pathway abnormalities via sMRI and DTI, as advanced MR imaging technology is readily available and automated image analysis methodology have recently been transferred from the human to animal imaging setting. For this purpose, we developed a synergistic, parallel approach to imaging and image analysis for the human and the rodent branch of our study. We propose an equivalent design in both the selection of the developmental assessment stage and the neuroimaging setup. This approach brings significant advantages to study neurobiological features of early brain development that are common to animals and humans but also preserve analysis capabilities only possible in animal research. This paper presents the main framework and individual methods for the proposed cross-species study design, as well as preliminary DTI cross-species comparative results in the intra-uterine cocaine exposure study.

  16. Diagnostic Biomarkers for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: Promising Horizons from Translational Neuroscience Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michopoulos, Vasiliki; Norrholm, Seth Davin; Jovanovic, Tanja

    2015-09-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a heterogeneous disorder that affects individuals exposed to trauma (e.g., combat, interpersonal violence, and natural disasters). Although its diagnostic features have been recently reclassified with the emergence of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition, the disorder remains characterized by hyperarousal, intrusive reminders of the trauma, avoidance of trauma-related cues, and negative cognition and mood. This heterogeneity indicates the presence of multiple neurobiological mechanisms underlying the etiology and maintenance of PTSD. Translational research spanning the past few decades has revealed several potential avenues for the identification of diagnostic biomarkers for PTSD. These include, but are not limited to, monoaminergic transmitter systems, the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, metabolic hormonal pathways, inflammatory mechanisms, psychophysiological reactivity, and neural circuits. The current review provides an update to the literature with regard to the most promising putative PTSD biomarkers, with specific emphasis on the interaction between neurobiological influences on disease risk and symptom progression. Such biomarkers will most likely be identified by multi-dimensional models derived from comprehensive descriptions of molecular, neurobiological, behavioral, and clinical phenotypes. PMID:25727177

  17. Cancer Research from Molecular Discovery to Global Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    A science writers' seminar to discuss the latest research in cancer genetics and global health efforts, including talks from leaders of NCI’s new centers of cancer genomics and global health will be held Dec. 13, 2011, at NCI.

  18. Progress through Collaboration - Office of Cancer Clinical Proteomics Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    The National Cancer Institute (NCI), through the Office of Cancer Clinical Proteomics Research (OCCPR), has signed two Memorandums of Understanding (MOUs) in the areas of sharing proteomics reagents and protocols and also in regulatory science.

  19. Translational approaches targeting the p53 pathway for anti-cancer therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Essmann, Frank; Schulze-Osthoff, Klaus

    2012-01-01

    The p53 tumour suppressor blocks cancer development by triggering apoptosis or cellular senescence in response to oncogenic stress or DNA damage. Consequently, the p53 signalling pathway is virtually always inactivated in human cancer cells. This unifying feature has commenced tremendous efforts to develop p53-based anti-cancer therapies. Different strategies exist that are adapted to the mechanisms of p53 inactivation. In p53-mutated tumours, delivery of wild-type p53 by adenovirus-based gen...

  20. Insights into the key roles of proteoglycans in breast cancer biology and translational medicine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Theocharis, Achilleas D.; Skandalis, Spyros S.; Neill, Thomas;

    2015-01-01

    Proteoglycans control numerous normal and pathological processes, among which are morphogenesis, tissue repair, inflammation, vascularization and cancer metastasis. During tumor development and growth, proteoglycan expression is markedly modified in the tumor microenvironment. Altered expression of...... proteoglycans on tumor and stromal cell membranes affects cancer cell signaling, growth and survival, cell adhesion, migration and angiogenesis. Despite the high complexity and heterogeneity of breast cancer, the rapid evolution in our knowledge that proteoglycans are among the key players in the breast tumor...

  1. Increasing Underrepresented Scientists in Cancer Research: The UCSD CURE Program

    OpenAIRE

    Alfred, Lawrence; Beerman, Paula R.; Tahir, Zunera; LaHousse, Sheila F.; Russell, Percy; Sadler, Georgia Robins

    2010-01-01

    The Moores UCSD Cancer Center’s Continuing Umbrella of Research Experiences program aims to increase the number of underrepresented students pursuing careers in cancer research, cancer care, and health disparities research. Participants receive 8 weeks of laboratory and classroom training during the summer followed by participation in research mentors’ laboratories. Of the 82 CURE students accrued (2002 and 2008), 91% persisted in science after 1 year. Of the 63 students eligible to graduate ...

  2. Understanding the performance and impact of public knowledge translation funding interventions: Protocol for an evaluation of Canadian Institutes of Health Research knowledge translation funding programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McLean Robert K D

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Canadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR has defined knowledge translation (KT as a dynamic and iterative process that includes the synthesis, dissemination, exchange, and ethically-sound application of knowledge to improve the health of Canadians, provide more effective health services and products, and strengthen the healthcare system. CIHR, the national health research funding agency in Canada, has undertaken to advance this concept through direct research funding opportunities in KT. Because CIHR is recognized within Canada and internationally for leading and funding the advancement of KT science and practice, it is essential and timely to evaluate this intervention, and specifically, these funding opportunities. Design The study will employ a novel method of participatory, utilization-focused evaluation inspired by the principles of integrated KT. It will use a mixed methods approach, drawing on both quantitative and qualitative data, and will elicit participation from CIHR funded researchers, knowledge users, KT experts, as well as other health research funding agencies. Lines of inquiry will include an international environmental scan, document/data reviews, in-depth interviews, targeted surveys, case studies, and an expert review panel. The study will investigate how efficiently and effectively the CIHR model of KT funding programs operates, what immediate outcomes these funding mechanisms have produced, and what impact these programs have had on the broader state of health research, health research uptake, and health improvement. Discussion The protocol and results of this evaluation will be of interest to those engaged in the theory, practice, and evaluation of KT. The dissemination of the study protocol and results to both practitioners and theorists will help to fill a gap in knowledge in three areas: the role of a public research funding agency in facilitating KT, the outcomes and impacts KT funding

  3. Research and Implementation of Client-server Based E-m ail Translator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The design and implementation of EATS, a machine translation system for e-mail, are presented. It first puts forward the notion of "instan t machine trans lation service" and illustrates how it is provided through client-server mode i n EATS. Then this paper gives a panoramic view of the realization of Chinese-En glish bi-directional translation module through multi-engine strategy. The pro totype of the system has been successfully demonstrated in campus net in PPP mod e, with 70%~80% translation accuracy.

  4. Cancer Prevention Health Services Research: An Emerging Field

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Hui; Tektiridis, Jennifer H.; Zhang, Ning; Chamberlain, Robert M.

    2012-01-01

    In October 2009, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center hosted a symposium, “Future Directions in Cancer Prevention and Control: Workforce Implications for Training, Practice, and Policy.” This article summarizes discussions and an Internet and literature review by the symposium's Health Services Infrastructure Working Group. We agree on the need for the recognition of Cancer Prevention Health Services Research (CP-HSR) as a unified research field. With advances in cancer screening...

  5. The George W. Comstock Center for Public Health Research and Prevention: A Century of Collaboration, Innovation, and Translation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coresh, Josef; Platz, Elizabeth A

    2016-03-01

    The Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health has been engaged in public health research and practice in Washington County, Maryland, nearly since its inception a century ago. In 2005, the center housing this work was renamed the George W. Comstock Center for Public Health Research and Prevention to honor its pioneering leader. Principles that guided innovation and translation well in the past included: research synergies and opportunities for translation realized through longstanding connection with the community; integration of training with public health research; lifelong learning, mentorship, and teamwork; and efficiency through economies of scale. These principles are useful to consider as we face the challenges of improving the health of the population over the next 100 years. PMID:26872712

  6. Cancer Survivorship Research: A Review of the Literature and Summary of Current NCI-Designated Cancer Center Projects

    OpenAIRE

    Harrop, J. Phil; Dean, Julie A.; Paskett, Electra D.

    2011-01-01

    The number of cancer survivors and amount of cancer survivorship research has grown substantially during the past three decades. This paper provides a review of interventional and observational cancer survivorship research efforts as well as a summary of current cancer survivorship research projects being conducted by National Cancer Institute-designated cancer centers in an effort to identify areas that need further attention.

  7. New concepts and challenges in the clinical translation of cancer preventive therapies: the role of pharmacodynamic biomarkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Karen; Rufini, Alessandro

    2015-01-01

    Implementation of therapeutic cancer prevention strategies has enormous potential for reducing cancer incidence and related mortality. Trials of drugs including tamoxifen and aspirin have led the way in demonstrating proof-of-principle that prevention of breast and colorectal cancer is feasible. Many other compounds ranging from drugs in widespread use for various indications, including metformin, bisphosphonates, and vitamin D, to dietary agents such as the phytochemicals resveratrol and curcumin, show preventive activity against several cancers in preclinical models. Notwithstanding the wealth of opportunities, major challenges have hindered the development process and only a handful of therapies are currently approved for cancer risk reduction. One of the major obstacles to successful clinical translation of promising preventive agents is a lack of pharmacodynamic biomarkers to provide an early read out of biological activity in humans and for optimising doses to take into large scale randomised clinical trials. A further confounding factor is a lack of consideration of clinical pharmacokinetics in the design of preclinical experiments, meaning results are frequently reported from studies that use irrelevant or unachievable concentrations. This article focuses on recent findings from investigations with dietary-derived agents to illustrate how a thorough understanding of the mechanisms of action, using models that mimic the clinical scenario, together with the development of compound-specific accompanying pharmacodynamic biomarkers could accelerate the developmental pipeline for preventive agents and maximise the chances of success in future clinical trials. Moreover, the concept of a bell-shaped dose-response curve for therapeutic cancer prevention is discussed, along with the need to rethink the traditional 'more is better' approach for dose selection. PMID:26635905

  8. Preparing for new solar cells through integrated research: challenges in translating social robustness into the selection of materials

    OpenAIRE

    Åm, Heidrun; Sørensen, Knut Holtan

    2015-01-01

    Research policy and research councils increasingly demand responsible innovation and socially robust knowledge. But what does that imply? Theories say little about how to translate social robustness into practice. In this chapter, we report from an integrated project on solar cells where Ethical, Legal and Social Aspects (ELSA) oriented scholars interacted with material scientists. The aim of the project was twofold. First, to achieve social robustness in the selection of ma...

  9. Gaps in nutritional research among older adults with cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presley, Carolyn J.; Dotan, Efrat; Soto-Perez-de-Celis, Enrique; Jatoi, Aminah; Mohile, Supriya G.; Won, Elizabeth; Alibhai, Shabbir; Kilari, Deepak; Harrison, Robert; Klepin, Heidi D.; Wildes, Tanya M.; Mustian, Karen; Demark-Wahnefried, Wendy

    2016-01-01

    Nutritional issues among older adults with cancer are an understudied area of research despite significant prognostic implications for treatment side effects, cancer-specific mortality, and overall survival. In May of 2015, the National Cancer Institute and the National Institute on Aging co-sponsored a conference focused on future directions in geriatric oncology research. Nutritional research among older adults with cancer was highlighted as a major area of concern as most nutritional cancer research has been conducted among younger adults, with limited evidence to guide the care of nutritional issues among older adults with cancer. Cancer diagnoses among older adults are increasing, and the care of the older adult with cancer is complicated due to multimorbidity, heterogeneous functional status, polypharmacy, deficits in cognitive and mental health, and several other non-cancer factors. Due to this complexity, nutritional needs are dynamic, multifaceted, and dependent on the clinical scenario. This manuscript outlines the proceedings of this conference including knowledge gaps and recommendations for future nutritional research among older adults with cancer. Three common clinical scenarios encountered by oncologists include (1) weight loss during anti-cancer therapy, (2) malnutrition during advanced disease, and (3) obesity during survivorship. In this manuscript, we provide a brief overview of relevant cancer literature within these three areas, knowledge gaps that exist, and recommendations for future research. PMID:27197919

  10. Gaps in nutritional research among older adults with cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presley, Carolyn J; Dotan, Efrat; Soto-Perez-de-Celis, Enrique; Jatoi, Aminah; Mohile, Supriya G; Won, Elizabeth; Alibhai, Shabbir; Kilari, Deepak; Harrison, Robert; Klepin, Heidi D; Wildes, Tanya M; Mustian, Karen; Demark-Wahnefried, Wendy

    2016-07-01

    Nutritional issues among older adults with cancer are an understudied area of research despite significant prognostic implications for treatment side effects, cancer-specific mortality, and overall survival. In May of 2015, the National Cancer Institute and the National Institute on Aging co-sponsored a conference focused on future directions in geriatric oncology research. Nutritional research among older adults with cancer was highlighted as a major area of concern as most nutritional cancer research has been conducted among younger adults, with limited evidence to guide the care of nutritional issues among older adults with cancer. Cancer diagnoses among older adults are increasing, and the care of the older adult with cancer is complicated due to multimorbidity, heterogeneous functional status, polypharmacy, deficits in cognitive and mental health, and several other non-cancer factors. Due to this complexity, nutritional needs are dynamic, multifaceted, and dependent on the clinical scenario. This manuscript outlines the proceedings of this conference including knowledge gaps and recommendations for future nutritional research among older adults with cancer. Three common clinical scenarios encountered by oncologists include (1) weight loss during anti-cancer therapy, (2) malnutrition during advanced disease, and (3) obesity during survivorship. In this manuscript, we provide a brief overview of relevant cancer literature within these three areas, knowledge gaps that exist, and recommendations for future research. PMID:27197919

  11. Third-generation neuroimaging in early schizophrenia: translating research evidence into clinical utility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borgwardt, Stefan; Fusar-Poli, Paolo

    2012-04-01

    Psychiatric imaging needs to move away from simple investigations of the neurobiology underlying the early phases of schizophrenia to translate imaging findings in the clinical field, targeting clinical outcomes including transition, remission and response to preventive interventions. PMID:22474231

  12. Current Research and Management of Ovarian Cancer in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUMeijiao; SHIWei

    2002-01-01

    Ovarian cancer is ne of the most lethal malignant tumors in China,represents the third most common cancer after cervical cancer and endometrial cancer,and the first leading cause of death from hynaecological cancers.Due to the lack of effective screening strategies and the absence of symptoms in early-stage of disease,over 70% of patients present at an advanced stage.Despite the advances in surgical techniques and conventional chemotheraphy,the prognosis of ovarian cancer has not been improved significantly,and indeed the long-term survival for patients with advanced disease does not exceed 20%.The aetiology of ovarian cancer temains poorly understood.In China,the major focus of research is to clarify the mechanism underlying ovarian cancer,develop more effective life-saving diagnostic and therapeutic measures,and undertake more population-based studies.This article summarizes current research,diagnosis and management of ovarian cancer in China.

  13. Cancer Research Repository for Individuals With Cancer Diagnosis and High Risk Individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-12

    Pancreatic Cancer; Thyroid Cancer; Lung Cancer; Esophageal Cancer; Thymus Cancer; Colon Cancer; Rectal Cancer; GIST; Anal Cancer; Bile Duct Cancer; Duodenal Cancer; Gallbladder Cancer; Gastric Cancer; Liver Cancer; Small Intestine Cancer; Peritoneal Surface Malignancies; Familial Adenomatous Polyposis; Lynch Syndrome; Bladder Cancer; Kidney Cancer; Penile Cancer; Prostate Cancer; Testicular Cancer; Ureter Cancer; Urethral Cancer; Hypopharyngeal Cancer; Laryngeal Cancer; Lip Cancer; Oral Cavity Cancer; Nasopharyngeal Cancer; Oropharyngeal Cancer; Paranasal Sinus Cancer; Nasal Cavity Cancer; Salivary Gland Cancer; Skin Cancer; CNS Tumor; CNS Cancer; Mesothelioma

  14. Measuring translation competence acquisition

    OpenAIRE

    Orozco Jutorán, Mariana; Hurtado Albir, Amparo

    2002-01-01

    The following article describes the development of instruments for measuring the process of acquiring translation competence in written translation. Translation competence and its process of acquisition are firstly described, and then the lack of empirical research in our field is tackled. Thirdly, three measuring instruments especially developed to measure translation competence acquisition are presented: (i) to measure notions about translation, (ii) to measure students’ behaviour when face...

  15. Translation Quality Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Malcolm Williams

    2009-01-01

    The relevance of, and justification for, translation quality assessment (TQA) is stronger than ever: professional translators, their clients, translatological researchers and trainee translators all rely on TQA for different reasons. Yet whereas there is general agreement about the need for a translation to be "good," "satisfactory" or "acceptable," the definition of acceptability and of the means of determining it are matters of ongoing debate. National and international translation standard...

  16. Screen translations in Rango

    OpenAIRE

    Jensen, Xenia Østerby

    2012-01-01

    This project investigates two Danish screen translations of the animated film “Rango” (2011) centrering on translational strategies. The focus of the project is to research to what extent the two translations, subtitles and dubbing, appear to have been produced with specific translational micro- and macrostrategies in mind, and whether the identified patterns can be said to reflect deliberate choices on the part of the translators, or if they rather seem to be influenced by media constraints....

  17. Advances in Experimental and Translational Research in the Treatment of Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Kidner, Travis; Dai, Menghua; Adusumilli, Prasad S.; Fong, Yuman

    2008-01-01

    Hepatocellular cancer (HCC) is the fifth-leading cause of cancer and the third-leading cause of cancer related deaths worldwide. Current treatment options are limited as HCC has been shown to be a highly resistant type of cancer to most current treatment modalities. Novel approaches are being explored in the fields of gene therapy, viral oncolytics, radioembolization, and several new biologic therapies. This chapter serves to summarize these recent clinical findings and to discuss what role t...

  18. People, organizational, and leadership factors impacting informatics support for clinical and translational research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Payne Philip RO

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In recent years, there have been numerous initiatives undertaken to describe critical information needs related to the collection, management, analysis, and dissemination of data in support of biomedical research (J Investig Med 54:327-333, 2006; (J Am Med Inform Assoc 16:316–327, 2009; (Physiol Genomics 39:131-140, 2009; (J Am Med Inform Assoc 18:354–357, 2011. A common theme spanning such reports has been the importance of understanding and optimizing people, organizational, and leadership factors in order to achieve the promise of efficient and timely research (J Am Med Inform Assoc 15:283–289, 2008. With the emergence of clinical and translational science (CTS as a national priority in the United States, and the corresponding growth in the scale and scope of CTS research programs, the acuity of such information needs continues to increase (JAMA 289:1278–1287, 2003; (N Engl J Med 353:1621–1623, 2005; (Sci Transl Med 3:90, 2011. At the same time, systematic evaluations of optimal people, organizational, and leadership factors that influence the provision of data, information, and knowledge management technologies and methods are notably lacking. Methods In response to the preceding gap in knowledge, we have conducted both: 1 a structured survey of domain experts at Academic Health Centers (AHCs; and 2 a subsequent thematic analysis of public-domain documentation provided by those same organizations. The results of these approaches were then used to identify critical factors that may influence access to informatics expertise and resources relevant to the CTS domain. Results A total of 31 domain experts, spanning the Biomedical Informatics (BMI, Computer Science (CS, Information Science (IS, and Information Technology (IT disciplines participated in a structured surveyprocess. At a high level, respondents identified notable differences in theaccess to BMI, CS, and IT expertise and services depending on the

  19. Privacy and security in the era of digital health: what should translational researchers know and do about it?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filkins, Barbara L; Kim, Ju Young; Roberts, Bruce; Armstrong, Winston; Miller, Mark A; Hultner, Michael L; Castillo, Anthony P; Ducom, Jean-Christophe; Topol, Eric J; Steinhubl, Steven R

    2016-01-01

    The rapid growth in the availability and incorporation of digital technologies in almost every aspect of our lives creates extraordinary opportunities but brings with it unique challenges. This is especially true for the translational researcher, whose work has been markedly enhanced through the capabilities of big data aggregation and analytics, wireless sensors, online study enrollment, mobile engagement, and much more. At the same time each of these tools brings distinctive security and privacy issues that most translational researchers are inadequately prepared to deal with despite accepting overall responsibility for them. For the researcher, the solution for addressing these challenges is both simple and complex. Cyber-situational awareness is no longer a luxury-it is fundamental in combating both the elite and highly organized adversaries on the Internet as well as taking proactive steps to avoid a careless turn down the wrong digital dark alley. The researcher, now responsible for elements that may/may not be beyond his or her direct control, needs an additional level of cyber literacy to understand the responsibilities imposed on them as data owner. Responsibility lies with knowing what you can do about the things you can control and those you can't. The objective of this paper is to describe the data privacy and security concerns that translational researchers need to be aware of, and discuss the tools and techniques available to them to help minimize that risk. PMID:27186282

  20. Understanding coping with cancer: How can qualitative research help?

    OpenAIRE

    Mahati Chittem

    2014-01-01

    Research in psycho-oncology investigates the psycho-social and emotional aspects of cancer and how this is related to health, well-being and overall patient care. Coping with cancer is a prime focus for researchers owing to its impact on patients′ psychological processing and life in general. Research so far has focused mainly on quantitative study designs such as questionnaires to examine the coping strategies used by cancer patients. However, in order to gain a rich and deep understanding o...