WorldWideScience

Sample records for cancer survivorship research

  1. Cancer survivorship research: a review of the literature and summary of current NCI-designated cancer center projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrop, J Phil; Dean, Julie A; Paskett, Electra D

    2011-10-01

    The number of cancer survivors and the amount of cancer survivorship research have grown substantially during the past three decades. This article provides a review of interventional and observational cancer survivorship research efforts as well as a summary of current cancer survivorship research projects being conducted by National Cancer Institute-designated cancer centers in an effort to identify areas that need further attention.

  2. Testicular Cancer Survivorship : Research Strategies and Recommendations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Travis, Lois B.; Beard, Clair; Allan, James M.; Dahl, Alv A.; Feldman, Darren R.; Oldenburg, Jan; Daugaard, Gedske; Kelly, Jennifer L.; Dolan, M. Eileen; Hannigan, Robyn; Constine, Louis S.; Oeffinger, Kevin C.; Okunieff, Paul; Armstrong, Greg; Wiljer, David; Miller, Robert C.; Gietema, Jourik A.; van Leeuwen, Flora E.; Williams, Jacqueline P.; Nichols, Craig R.; Einhorn, Lawrence H.; Fossa, Sophie D.

    2010-01-01

    Testicular cancer represents the most curable solid tumor, with a 10-year survival rate of more than 95%. Given the young average age at diagnosis, it is estimated that effective treatment approaches, in particular, platinum-based chemotherapy, have resulted in an average gain of several decades of

  3. Collaborative Research in Childhood Cancer Survivorship: The Current Landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatia, Smita; Armenian, Saro H; Armstrong, Gregory T; van Dulmen-den Broeder, Eline; Hawkins, Michael M; Kremer, Leontien C M; Kuehni, Claudia E; Olsen, Jørgen H; Robison, Leslie L; Hudson, Melissa M

    2015-09-20

    Survivors of childhood cancer carry a substantial burden of morbidity and are at increased risk for premature death. Furthermore, clear associations exist between specific therapeutic exposures and the risk for a variety of long-term complications. The entire landscape of health issues encountered for decades after successful completion of treatment is currently being explored in various collaborative research settings. These settings include large population-based or multi-institutional cohorts and single-institution studies. The ascertainment of outcomes has depended on self-reporting, linkage to registries, or clinical assessments. Survivorship research in the cooperative group setting, such as the Children's Oncology Group, has leveraged the clinical trials infrastructure to explore the molecular underpinnings of treatment-related adverse events, and to understand specific complications in the setting of randomized risk-reduction strategies. This review highlights the salient findings from these large collaborative initiatives, emphasizing the need for life-long follow-up of survivors of childhood cancer, and describing the development of several guidelines and efforts toward harmonization. Finally, the review reinforces the need to identify populations at highest risk, facilitating the development of risk prediction models that would allow for targeted interventions across the entire trajectory of survivorship.

  4. Survivorship conference highlights research for survivor care

    Science.gov (United States)

    More than 400 leading experts in cancer survivorship convened today for a conference, Cancer Survivorship Research: Translating Science to Care, to focus on such current concerns as how obesity might not have the same effects on all cancer survivors, and

  5. Recruiting Chinese- and Korean-Americans in Cancer Survivorship Research: Challenges and Lessons Learned.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Jung-Won; Paek, Min-So

    2016-03-01

    This paper describes Asian-American recruitment experiences using data from the cancer survivorship study involving Chinese- and Korean-American breast cancer survivors specifically. The article discusses challenges to the successful recruitment of Asian-American populations for cancer survivorship research and provides recommendations for future recruitment efforts. The study investigated the role of family communication in coping and quality of life for survivors from Chinese- and Korean-American groups diagnosed with breast cancer. Participants were primarily recruited through cancer registries and community outreach. A total of 157 breast cancer survivors (86 Chinese-Americans and 71 Korean-Americans) completed the final survey, yielding a final response rate of 62.8 % of the accessible samples. Chinese-Americans were more likely to agree to participate but less frequently completed the survey, and Korean-Americans were more likely to refuse to participate. Common reasons for refusal were "too busy or too painful to recall," followed by "not interested," "too old," "distrust of the research," or "health issue." Participants were more likely to be young and Korean-American compared to non-participants. Cultural and linguistic barriers, distrust, and lack of awareness about cancer research should be considered to recruit more Asian-American cancer survivors. Community participatory research is required to ensure participation by sufficient numbers of ethnic minorities in cancer survivorship research. PMID:25619194

  6. Survivorship

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cancer Survivorship Follow-up Care After Cancer Treatment Life After Cancer Long-Term Side Effects of Cancer Treatment ... cancer treatment along with tips for healthier living. Life After Cancer This section outlines a wide variety of ...

  7. Public Health Action Model for Cancer Survivorship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Angela R; Buchanan, Natasha D; Fairley, Temeika L; Lee Smith, Judith

    2015-12-01

    Long-term objectives associated with cancer survivors have been suggested by Healthy People 2020, including increasing the proportion of survivors living beyond 5 years after diagnosis and improving survivors' mental and physical health-related quality of life. Prior to reaching these objectives, several intermediate steps must be taken to improve the physical, social, emotional, and financial well-being of cancer survivors. Public health has a role in developing strategic, actionable, and measurable approaches to facilitate change at multiple levels to improve the lives of survivors and their families. The social ecological model has been used by the public health community as the foundation of multilevel intervention design and implementation, encouraging researchers and practitioners to explore methods that promote internal and external changes at the individual, interpersonal, organizational, community, and policy levels. The survivorship community, including public health professionals, providers, policymakers, survivors, advocates, and caregivers, must work collaboratively to identify, develop, and implement interventions that benefit cancer survivors. The National Action Plan for Cancer Survivorship highlights public health domains and associated strategies that can be the impetus for collaboration between and among the levels in the social ecological model and are integral to improving survivor outcomes. This paper describes the Public Health Action Model for Cancer Survivorship, an integrative framework that combines the National Action Plan for Cancer Survivorship with the social ecological model to demonstrate how interaction among the various levels may promote better outcomes for survivors. PMID:26590641

  8. Lung Cancer Survivorship

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2016-10-20

    A lung cancer survivor shares her story about diagnosis, treatment, and community support. She also gives advice for other cancer survivors.  Created: 10/20/2016 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 10/20/2016.

  9. Pain management in cancer survivorship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kurita, Geana Paula; Sjøgren, Per

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The number of patients surviving cancer disease has increased in last decades. Consequently, an emerging population with different needs due to long-term or late effects of cancer disease and/or treatment, e.g. chronic pain, is of major concern. EPIDEMIOLOGY: Chronic pain is one of th...... survivors. Pain management strategies are discussed according to the biopsychosocial model and with the rapidly growing number of cancer survivors the establishment of multidisciplinary clinics as a part of comprehensive cancer centers are proposed....

  10. Breast Cancer Survivorship: Why, What and When?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gass, Jennifer; Dupree, Beth; Pruthi, Sandhya; Radford, Diane; Wapnir, Irene; Antoszewska, Reza; Curtis, Audrey; Johnson, Nathalie

    2016-10-01

    Survivorship medicine is fairly new in the realm of oncology. As we broaden our focus from treatment and prevention to include survivorship there is substantial opportunity to enhance the care of the patient. Important in successful management of recovery after cancer treatment is managing the side effects of therapy and improving quality of life. This ranges from sexual dysfunction, depression to lymphedema. Guideline-based surveillance after treatment with clear communication of care plans to the patient and their providers, especially primary care, is paramount. Thoughtful pre-surgical treatment planning, which may include neoadjuvant approaches or consideration of fertility preservation, results in superior long-term patient outcomes. Understanding the importance of the teachable moment in effecting behavioral and lifestyle changes that reduce risk of recurrence is also an essential component of excellent cancer survivor patient care. We identified the following areas for focus as they represent the key areas for accreditation and patient driven needs. Development of survivorship plans, post treatment surveillance, sexuality and fertility preservation, lymphedema management and risk reduction lifestyle and behavioral changes. PMID:27431417

  11. About Survivorship

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cancer Survivorship Follow-up Care After Cancer Treatment Life After Cancer Long-Term Side Effects of Cancer Treatment ... Cancer Survivorship Follow-up Care After Cancer Treatment Life After Cancer Long-Term Side Effects of Cancer Treatment ...

  12. Survivorship care for older adults with cancer: U13 conference report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerard, Emily J; Nightingale, Ginah; Bellizzi, Keith; Burhenn, Peggy; Rosko, Ashley; Artz, Andrew S; Korc-Grodzicki, Beatriz; Canin, Beverly; Dale, William; Ferrell, Betty

    2016-07-01

    Older adult cancer survivors currently account for almost 60% of all cancer survivors. The number of older cancer survivors will continue to increase as the population ages and as patients' live longer after a cancer diagnosis. As part of cancer center accreditation, the American College of Surgeons Commission on Cancer® (CoC) has placed great importance on survivorship care planning. While the CoC has set standards for general survivorship care, there is sparse evidence on how to best care for older adult cancer survivors. Concern exists among the medical community that survivorship care plans could increase paperwork without improving outcomes. Given the diverse and unique needs of older adult cancer survivors, the inter-professional team provides a structure and process for survivorship care built around the particular needs of older adults. The Cancer and Aging Research Group (CARG), in partnership with the NIA/NCI, held a U13 conference in May 2015 in part to discuss survivorship care for older adults with cancer. This report discusses four themes that emerged from one section of the conference: (1) survivorship care is a process that continually evolves to meet the needs of older adults; (2) older adult cancer survivors have unique needs and care plans should be tailored to meet these needs; (3) the inter-professional team is ideally suited to structure survivorship care of older adults; (4) patient advocacy must be encouraged throughout the cancer care continuum. As evidence based survivorship practices develop, the unique needs of older adults need to be given substantial attention.

  13. A Patient-Centered Perspective on Cancer Survivorship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brad Zebrack

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Survivorship is a complicated notion because people often confuse a process of survivorship with a mythic identity of being a cancer survivor. This confusion may be a distraction to addressing the real-life struggles and challenges experienced by all people diagnosed with cancer. A more expansive perspective of survivorship, one that attends to patients’ physical, psychological, social, spiritual, and existential challenges throughout a continuum of care, would be more in line with what is known empirically about people’s experiences with cancer. In an effort to gain a patient-centered perspective on cancer, and one that emphasizes multiple dimensions of cancer survivorship, the author reports findings from a non-scientific social media poll (via Facebook and personal emails in which survivors and colleagues working in the field of cancer survivorship answered the question: What does cancer survivorship mean to you? The comments are enlightening and useful for guiding the development of a patient-centered, and, thus, more comprehensive, approach to caring for people affected by cancer.

  14. Cancer survivorship: A positive side-effect of more successful cancer treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Charlotte Moser

    2014-06-01

    In 2012, the European Organisation of Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC Survivorship Task Force was created to focus research efforts on late morbidity of cancer treatment and its impact on society. On 30–31st January 2014, the 1st EORTC Cancer Survivorship Summit was organised to facilitate interaction between clinicians, researchers, social workers, patients, insurers, bankers and policy makers. This important event addressed the needs of cancer survivors, and new collaborations between academic groups, patient advocates, financial and political representatives were formed to guide future European research and health policies in this field. This special issue of the European Journal of Cancer is entirely dedicated to this Summit and addresses, respectively, second malignancies, cardiovascular disease, cognitive dysfunction, infertility/sexuality and psycho-social problems following cancer treatment.

  15. Nutrition and cancer: issues related to treatment and survivorship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witham, Gary

    2013-10-01

    This paper reviews nutritional issues related to cancer treatment and further explores nutritional needs pertinent to cancer survivorship. It examines the major problems with nutrition when patients undergo the main cancer treatment modalities of chemotherapy, radiotherapy and surgery. Particular attention is paid to long-term dietary advice in acknowledgement of the improved effectiveness of cancer treatment and the chronic nature of the condition.

  16. Process of diffusing cancer survivorship care into oncology practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tessaro, Irene; Campbell, Marci K; Golden, Shannon; Gellin, Mindy; McCabe, Mary; Syrjala, Karen; Ganz, Patricia A; Jacobs, Linda; Baker, Scott; Miller, Kenneth D; Rosenstein, Donald L

    2013-06-01

    The LIVESTRONG Centers of Excellence were funded to increase the effectiveness of survivorship care in oncology practice. This study describes the ongoing process of adopting and implementing survivorship care using the framework of the diffusion of innovation theory of change. Primary data collection included telephone interviews with 39 members from the eight centers and site visits. Organizational characteristics, overall progress, and challenges for implementation were collected from proposals and annual reports. Creating an awareness of cancer survivorship care was a major accomplishment (relative advantage). Adoption depended on the fit within the cancer center (compatibility), and changed over time based on trial and error (trialability). Implementing survivorship care within the existing culture of oncology and breaking down resistance to change was a lengthy process (complexity). Survivorship care became sustainable as it became reimbursed, and more new patients were seen (observability). Innovators and early adopters were crucial to success. Diffusion of innovation theory can provide a strategy to evaluate adoption and implementation of cancer survivorship programs into clinical practice. PMID:24073165

  17. Cancer Survivorship: A New Challenge for Surgical and Medical Oncologists

    OpenAIRE

    Gusani, Niraj J; Schubart, Jane R.; Wise, James; Farace, Elana; Green, Michael J.; Jiang, Yixing; Eric T Kimchi; Kevin F. Staveley-O’Carroll

    2009-01-01

    Increasingly, oncology practitioners are realizing that despite the “success” of cancer therapies, cancer survivors are facing previously unrecognized issues related to survivorship, including physical and psychosocial side-effects of the cancer and its treatment, second cancers, and practical and economic issues related to adjusting to life after their cancer diagnosis. In gastrointestinal cancers, traditionally, the medical and surgical oncologists charged with the care of the patient are n...

  18. Advancing breast cancer survivorship among African-American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coughlin, Steven S; Yoo, Wonsuk; Whitehead, Mary S; Smith, Selina A

    2015-09-01

    Advances have occurred in breast cancer survivorship but, for many African-American women, challenges and gaps in relevant information remain. This article identifies opportunities to address disparities in breast cancer survival and quality of life, and thereby to increase breast cancer survivorship among African-American women. For breast cancer survivors, common side effects, lasting for long periods after cancer treatment, include fatigue, loss of strength, difficulty sleeping, and sexual dysfunction. For addressing physical and mental health concerns, a variety of interventions have been evaluated, including exercise and weight training, dietary interventions, yoga and mindfulness-based stress reduction, and support groups or group therapy. Obesity has been associated with breast cancer recurrence and poorer survival. Relative to white survivors, African-American breast cancer survivors are more likely to be obese and less likely to engage in physical activity, although exercise improves overall quality of life and cancer-related fatigue. Considerable information exists about the effectiveness of such interventions for alleviating distress and improving quality of life among breast cancer survivors, but few studies have focused specifically on African-American women with a breast cancer diagnosis. Studies have identified a number of personal factors that are associated with resilience, increased quality of life, and positive adaptation to a breast cancer diagnosis. There is a need for a better understanding of breast cancer survivorship among African-American women. Additional evaluations of interventions for improving the quality of life and survival of African-American breast cancer survivors are desirable. PMID:26303657

  19. Cancer survivorship: A positive side-effect of more successful cancer treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moser, Elizabeth Charlotte; Meunier, Françoise

    2014-06-01

    Over the past decades, early diagnosis, new drugs and more personalised multi-modality treatment have led to impressive increases in survival rates of patients with cancer. This success in treating cancer has resulted in a large and rapidly increasing number of cancer survivors, yet life after cancer is often compromised by a broad spectrum of late adverse treatment effects. Some encounter cardiovascular, second malignancies, cognitive or other morbidities which impair normal life in an important way. Some patients are confronted with societal discrimination due to slower performance, chronic fatigue or partial inability and these things can adversely affect employment, education, insurance or mortgage opportunities. In 2012, the European Organisation of Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) Survivorship Task Force was created to focus research efforts on late morbidity of cancer treatment and its impact on society. On 30-31st January 2014, the 1st EORTC Cancer Survivorship Summit was organised to facilitate interaction between clinicians, researchers, social workers, patients, insurers, bankers and policy makers. This important event addressed the needs of cancer survivors, and new collaborations between academic groups, patient advocates, financial and political representatives were formed to guide future European research and health policies in this field. This special issue of the European Journal of Cancer is entirely dedicated to this Summit and addresses, respectively, second malignancies, cardiovascular disease, cognitive dysfunction, infertility/sexuality and psycho-social problems following cancer treatment. PMID:26217161

  20. American Cancer Society Head and Neck Cancer Survivorship Care Guideline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Ezra E W; LaMonte, Samuel J; Erb, Nicole L; Beckman, Kerry L; Sadeghi, Nader; Hutcheson, Katherine A; Stubblefield, Michael D; Abbott, Dennis M; Fisher, Penelope S; Stein, Kevin D; Lyman, Gary H; Pratt-Chapman, Mandi L

    2016-05-01

    Answer questions and earn CME/CNE The American Cancer Society Head and Neck Cancer Survivorship Care Guideline was developed to assist primary care clinicians and other health practitioners with the care of head and neck cancer survivors, including monitoring for recurrence, screening for second primary cancers, assessment and management of long-term and late effects, health promotion, and care coordination. A systematic review of the literature was conducted using PubMed through April 2015, and a multidisciplinary expert workgroup with expertise in primary care, dentistry, surgical oncology, medical oncology, radiation oncology, clinical psychology, speech-language pathology, physical medicine and rehabilitation, the patient perspective, and nursing was assembled. While the guideline is based on a systematic review of the current literature, most evidence is not sufficient to warrant a strong recommendation. Therefore, recommendations should be viewed as consensus-based management strategies for assisting patients with physical and psychosocial effects of head and neck cancer and its treatment. CA Cancer J Clin 2016;66:203-239. © 2016 American Cancer Society. PMID:27002678

  1. Early breast cancer: diagnosis, treatment and survivorship.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Meade, Elizabeth

    2013-01-11

    Breast cancer is the most common female cancer and globally remains a major public health concern. The diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer continues to develop. Diagnosis is now more precise, surgery is less mutilating and women now have the option of breast conserving therapy with better cosmesis, and without sacrificing survival. Radiotherapy is more targeted and the selection of patients for adjuvant chemotherapy is based not only on prognostic and predictive factors, but also on newer molecular profiling that will ensure that chemotherapy is given to the patients who need and respond to it. These developments all provide a more tailored approach to the treatment of breast cancer. Management now involves a multidisciplinary team approach in order to provide the highest standard of care for patients throughout their cancer journey from diagnosis through treatment and into follow-up care.

  2. A qualitative investigation of cancer survivorship experiences among rural Hispanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livaudais, Jennifer C; Thompson, Beti; Godina, Ruby; Islas, Ilda; Ibarra, Genoveva; Coronado, Gloria D

    2010-01-01

    Cancer survivorship experiences were explored among Hispanic men and women with cancer and family members of cancer survivors, recruited from two rural Washington communities in the Lower Yakima Valley. Five focus groups were conducted from February 2006 to October 2007 with 31 women and 10 men. Disbelief, fear, sadness, strength, courage, faith, and hope were common reactions to diagnosis. Concerns about family/children, losing medical coupons, and feelings of depression/isolation were identified as challenges faced after diagnosis. Participants identified smoking and environmental exposures as causes of cancer, but many believed operating on tumors caused cancer to spread. Participants used conventional treatments but identified herbal/natural remedies as cures. Most participants reported negative experiences with physicians and believed their community would benefit from language-appropriate information regarding prevention and treatment. The importance of linking survivors through support groups was emphasized and information elicited from sessions has been used to organize survivor support groups in these two communities. PMID:20623413

  3. Survivorship care planning in a comprehensive cancer center using an implementation framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Sofia F; Kircher, Sheetal M; Oden, Megan; Veneruso, Aubri; McKoy, June M; Pearman, Timothy; Penedo, Frank J

    2016-05-01

    Cancer survivorship care plans (SCPs) have been recommended to improve clinical care and patient outcomes. Research is needed to establish their efficacy and identify best practices. Starting in 2015, centers accredited by the American College of Surgeons Commission on Cancer must deliver SCPs to patients completing primary cancer treatment with curative intent. We describe how we established routine SCP delivery at the Robert H Lurie Comprehensive Cancer Center in Chicago, Illinois, using the Quality Implementation Framework. We evaluated local practices, gathered clinician and patient stakeholder input, developed customized SCP templates within the electronic health record (EHR), and implemented 2 complementary delivery models. Clinician interviews (n = 41) and survey responses (n = 12), along with input from patients (n = 68) and a patient advisory board (n = 15), indicated support for SCPs and survivorship services. To promote feasible implementation and leverage existing workflows, we harmonized 2 SCP delivery models: integrated care within clinics where patients received treatment, and referral to a centralized survivorship clinic. We are implementing SCP delivery with prominent disease sites and will extend services to survivors of other cancers in the future. We developed four electronic disease-specific SCP templates for breast, colorectal, lung, and prostate cancers and a fifth, generic template that can be used for other malignancies. The templates reduced free-text clinician entry by auto-populating 20% of the fields from existing EHR data, and using drop-down menus for another 65%. Mean SCP completion time is 12 minutes (range, 10-15; n = 64). We designed our framework to facilitate ongoing evaluation of implementation and quality improvement. Funding/sponsorship Robert H Lurie Comprehensive Cancer Center, the Coleman Foundation, and the Lynn Sage Cancer Research Foundation. PMID:27258051

  4. Survivorship services for adult cancer populations: a pan-Canadian guideline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, D.; Hack, T.F.; Oliver, T.K.; Chulak, T.; Mayo, S.; Aubin, M.; Chasen, M.; Earle, C.C.; Friedman, A.J.; Green, E.; Jones, G.W.; Jones, J.M.; Parkinson, M.; Payeur, N.; Sabiston, C.M.; Sinclair, S.

    2011-01-01

    by the members of Cancer Journey Survivorship Expert Panel. Fourteen practice guidelines, eight systematic reviews, and sixty-thee randomized controlled trials form the evidence base for this guidance document. These publications demonstrate that survivors benefit from coordinated post-treatment care, including interventions to address specific psychosocial, supportive care, and rehabilitative concerns. Conclusions Ongoing high-quality research is essential to optimize services for cancer survivors. Interventions that promote healthy lifestyle behaviours or that address psychosocial concerns and distress appear to improve physical functioning, psychosocial well-being, and quality of life for survivors. PMID:22184494

  5. Omega-3 fatty acids for breast cancer prevention and survivorship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabian, Carol J; Kimler, Bruce F; Hursting, Stephen D

    2015-05-04

    Women with evidence of high intake ratios of the marine omega-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) relative to the omega-6 arachidonic acid have been found to have a reduced risk of breast cancer compared with those with low ratios in some but not all case-control and cohort studies. If increasing EPA and DHA relative to arachidonic acid is effective in reducing breast cancer risk, likely mechanisms include reduction in proinflammatory lipid derivatives, inhibition of nuclear factor-κB-induced cytokine production, and decreased growth factor receptor signaling as a result of alteration in membrane lipid rafts. Primary prevention trials with either risk biomarkers or cancer incidence as endpoints are underway but final results of these trials are currently unavailable. EPA and DHA supplementation is also being explored in an effort to help prevent or alleviate common problems after a breast cancer diagnosis, including cardiac and cognitive dysfunction and chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy. The insulin-sensitizing and anabolic properties of EPA and DHA also suggest supplementation studies to determine whether these omega-3 fatty acids might reduce chemotherapy-associated loss of muscle mass and weight gain. We will briefly review relevant omega-3 fatty acid metabolism, and early investigations in breast cancer prevention and survivorship.

  6. Process of diffusing cancer survivorship care into oncology practice

    OpenAIRE

    Tessaro, Irene; Campbell, Marci K.; Golden, Shannon; Gellin, Mindy; McCabe, Mary; Syrjala, Karen; Ganz, Patricia A.; Jacobs, Linda; Baker, Scott; Miller, Kenneth D.; Rosenstein, Donald L.

    2012-01-01

    The LIVESTRONG Centers of Excellence were funded to increase the effectiveness of survivorship care in oncology practice. This study describes the ongoing process of adopting and implementing survivorship care using the framework of the diffusion of innovation theory of change. Primary data collection included telephone interviews with 39 members from the eight centers and site visits. Organizational characteristics, overall progress, and challenges for implementation were collected from prop...

  7. Developing a Cancer Survivorship Curriculum for Family Medicine Residents: A Needs Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubart, Jane R.; Gusani, Niraj J.; Kass, Rena; Lewis, Peter

    2013-01-01

    With the increasing survival of cancer patients, primary care residents must be familiar with the late effects of cancer treatment and be able to offer appropriate survivorship care in partnership with cancer care specialists. To address these paired public health and educational needs, an interdisciplinary group at our institution is developing,…

  8. Breast Cancer Survivorship Care: Targeting a Colorectal Cancer Education Intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sherri G. Homan

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer survivors are at risk of developing a second primary cancer. Colorectal cancer (CRC is one of the leading second primary cancers, and it is often preventable. We developed a multi-component educational tool to inform and encourage women breast cancer survivors to engage in CRC screening. To assess the strengths and weakness of the tool and to improve the relevancy to the target audience, we convened four focus groups of women breast cancer survivors in Missouri. We also assessed the potential impact of the tool on the knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs regarding CRC and collected information on the barriers to CRC screening through pre- and post-focus groups’ questionnaires. A total of 43 women breast cancer survivors participated and provided very valuable suggestions on design and content to update the tool. Through the process and comparing pre- and post-focus group assessments, a significantly higher proportion of breast cancer survivors strongly agreed or agreed that CRC is preventable (78.6% vs. 96.9%, p = 0.02 and became aware that they were at a slightly increased risk for CRC (18.6% vs. 51.7%, p = 0.003. The most cited barrier was the complexity of preparation for colonoscopy.

  9. Perspectives of the Breast Cancer Survivorship Continuum: Diagnosis through 30 Months Post-Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer M. Hulett

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This study explored breast cancer survivors’ perspectives regarding their experiences of the survivorship continuum from diagnosis through 30 months post-treatment. The sample included women (N = 379 with newly-diagnosed breast cancer undergoing treatment at a Midwestern university-affiliated cancer center. Semi-structured interviews were conducted using the Lymphedema and Breast Cancer Questionnaire at time of diagnosis, post-operatively, quarterly during the first year, and then semi-annually thereafter through 30 months post-treatment. A mixed-methodology was used to analyze participants’ comments. Themes central to long-term survivorship experiences included social support, positive worldviews, breast cancer and lymphedema health literacy, religious/spiritual beliefs, self-empowerment, and recovery expectations. These themes were consistent with a psychoneuroimmunological model of health in which psychosocial variables mediate stress and influence health outcomes. Qualitative data showed that social support and positive worldviews were the two themes with the most significant impact on long-term breast cancer survivorship experiences. Survivors expressed a need to advance their health care literacy in order to share ownership of breast cancer and lymphedema treatment decisions. Since breast cancer is an immune-mediated disease, long-term survivorship planning should address psychosocial factors that influence the long-term psychological distress associated with immune dysfunction.

  10. American Cancer Society/American Society of Clinical Oncology Breast Cancer Survivorship Care Guideline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runowicz, Carolyn D; Leach, Corinne R; Henry, N Lynn; Henry, Karen S; Mackey, Heather T; Cowens-Alvarado, Rebecca L; Cannady, Rachel S; Pratt-Chapman, Mandi L; Edge, Stephen B; Jacobs, Linda A; Hurria, Arti; Marks, Lawrence B; LaMonte, Samuel J; Warner, Ellen; Lyman, Gary H; Ganz, Patricia A

    2016-01-01

    Answer questions and earn CME/CNE The purpose of the American Cancer Society/American Society of Clinical Oncology Breast Cancer Survivorship Care Guideline is to provide recommendations to assist primary care and other clinicians in the care of female adult survivors of breast cancer. A systematic review of the literature was conducted using PubMed through April 2015. A multidisciplinary expert workgroup with expertise in primary care, gynecology, surgical oncology, medical oncology, radiation oncology, and nursing was formed and tasked with drafting the Breast Cancer Survivorship Care Guideline. A total of 1073 articles met inclusion criteria; and, after full text review, 237 were included as the evidence base. Patients should undergo regular surveillance for breast cancer recurrence, including evaluation with a cancer-related history and physical examination, and should be screened for new primary breast cancer. Data do not support performing routine laboratory tests or imaging tests in asymptomatic patients to evaluate for breast cancer recurrence. Primary care clinicians should counsel patients about the importance of maintaining a healthy lifestyle, monitor for post-treatment symptoms that can adversely affect quality of life, and monitor for adherence to endocrine therapy. Recommendations provided in this guideline are based on current evidence in the literature and expert consensus opinion. Most of the evidence is not sufficient to warrant a strong evidence-based recommendation. Recommendations on surveillance for breast cancer recurrence, screening for second primary cancers, assessment and management of physical and psychosocial long-term and late effects of breast cancer and its treatment, health promotion, and care coordination/practice implications are made.

  11. American Cancer Society/American Society of Clinical Oncology Breast Cancer Survivorship Care Guideline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runowicz, Carolyn D; Leach, Corinne R; Henry, N Lynn; Henry, Karen S; Mackey, Heather T; Cowens-Alvarado, Rebecca L; Cannady, Rachel S; Pratt-Chapman, Mandi L; Edge, Stephen B; Jacobs, Linda A; Hurria, Arti; Marks, Lawrence B; LaMonte, Samuel J; Warner, Ellen; Lyman, Gary H; Ganz, Patricia A

    2016-02-20

    The purpose of the American Cancer Society/American Society of Clinical Oncology Breast Cancer Survivorship Care Guideline is to provide recommendations to assist primary care and other clinicians in the care of female adult survivors of breast cancer. A systematic review of the literature was conducted using PubMed through April 2015. A multidisciplinary expert workgroup with expertise in primary care, gynecology, surgical oncology, medical oncology, radiation oncology, and nursing was formed and tasked with drafting the Breast Cancer Survivorship Care Guideline. A total of 1,073 articles met inclusion criteria; and, after full text review, 237 were included as the evidence base. Patients should undergo regular surveillance for breast cancer recurrence, including evaluation with a cancer-related history and physical examination, and should be screened for new primary breast cancer. Data do not support performing routine laboratory tests or imaging tests in asymptomatic patients to evaluate for breast cancer recurrence. Primary care clinicians should counsel patients about the importance of maintaining a healthy lifestyle, monitor for post-treatment symptoms that can adversely affect quality of life, and monitor for adherence to endocrine therapy. Recommendations provided in this guideline are based on current evidence in the literature and expert consensus opinion. Most of the evidence is not sufficient to warrant a strong evidence-based recommendation. Recommendations on surveillance for breast cancer recurrence, screening for second primary cancers, assessment and management of physical and psychosocial long-term and late effects of breast cancer and its treatment, health promotion, and care coordination/practice implications are made.This guideline was developed through a collaboration between the American Cancer Society and the American Society of Clinical Oncology and has been published jointly by invitation and consent in both CA: A Cancer Journal for

  12. American Cancer Society/American Society of Clinical Oncology Breast Cancer Survivorship Care Guideline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runowicz, Carolyn D; Leach, Corinne R; Henry, N Lynn; Henry, Karen S; Mackey, Heather T; Cowens-Alvarado, Rebecca L; Cannady, Rachel S; Pratt-Chapman, Mandi L; Edge, Stephen B; Jacobs, Linda A; Hurria, Arti; Marks, Lawrence B; LaMonte, Samuel J; Warner, Ellen; Lyman, Gary H; Ganz, Patricia A

    2016-02-20

    The purpose of the American Cancer Society/American Society of Clinical Oncology Breast Cancer Survivorship Care Guideline is to provide recommendations to assist primary care and other clinicians in the care of female adult survivors of breast cancer. A systematic review of the literature was conducted using PubMed through April 2015. A multidisciplinary expert workgroup with expertise in primary care, gynecology, surgical oncology, medical oncology, radiation oncology, and nursing was formed and tasked with drafting the Breast Cancer Survivorship Care Guideline. A total of 1,073 articles met inclusion criteria; and, after full text review, 237 were included as the evidence base. Patients should undergo regular surveillance for breast cancer recurrence, including evaluation with a cancer-related history and physical examination, and should be screened for new primary breast cancer. Data do not support performing routine laboratory tests or imaging tests in asymptomatic patients to evaluate for breast cancer recurrence. Primary care clinicians should counsel patients about the importance of maintaining a healthy lifestyle, monitor for post-treatment symptoms that can adversely affect quality of life, and monitor for adherence to endocrine therapy. Recommendations provided in this guideline are based on current evidence in the literature and expert consensus opinion. Most of the evidence is not sufficient to warrant a strong evidence-based recommendation. Recommendations on surveillance for breast cancer recurrence, screening for second primary cancers, assessment and management of physical and psychosocial long-term and late effects of breast cancer and its treatment, health promotion, and care coordination/practice implications are made.This guideline was developed through a collaboration between the American Cancer Society and the American Society of Clinical Oncology and has been published jointly by invitation and consent in both CA: A Cancer Journal for

  13. Electronic patient self-assessment and management (SAM): A novel framework for cancer survivorship

    OpenAIRE

    Tighe Foss; Carroll Peter R; Cooperberg Matthew R; Basch Ethan; Salz Talya; Vickers Andrew J; Eastham James; Rosen Raymond C

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background We propose a novel framework for management of cancer survivorship: electronic patient Self-Assessment and Management (SAM). SAM is a framework for transfer of information to and from patients in such a way as to increase both the patient's and the health care provider's understanding of the patient's progress, and to help ensure that patient care follows best practice. Methods Patients who participate in the SAM system are contacted by email at regular intervals and asked...

  14. Statistical Inference under Latent Class Models, with Application to Risk Assessment in Cancer Survivorship Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Huijing

    2015-01-01

    Motivated by a cancer survivorship program, this PhD thesis aims to develop methodology for risk assessment, classification, and prediction. We formulate the primary data collected from a cohort with two underlying categories, the at-risk and not-at-risk classes, using latent class models, and we conduct both cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses. We begin with a maximum pseudo-likelihood estimator (pseudo-MLE) as an alternative to the maximum likelihood estimator (MLE) under a mixture Po...

  15. Treatment-related Cardiovascular Late-effects and Exercise Training Countermeasures in Testicular Germ Cell Cancer Survivorship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Jesper F; Bandak, Mikkel; Campbell, Anna; Jones, Lee W.; Højman, Pernille

    2016-01-01

    Background Treatment of testicular germ cell cancer constitutes a major success story in modern oncology. Today, the vast majority of patients are cured by a therapeutic strategy using one or more highly effective components including surgery (orchiectomy), radiotherapy and/or chemotherapy. However, the excellent cancer specific survival comes at considerable costs, as individuals with a history of germ cell cancer experience serious long-term complications, including markedly increased risk of cardiovascular morbidities and premature cardiovascular death. The factors responsible, as well as their mode of action, are not fully understood and there is a lack of knowledge concerning optimal evidence-based long-term follow-up strategies. Results Here, we present the growing body of evidence suggesting that germ cell cancer patients as a consequence of the different treatment components, are subjected to toxicities, which individually, and synergistically, can cause physiological impairments leading to sub-clinical or clinical cardiovascular disorders the ‘multiple-hit hypothesis’). Furthermore, we discuss the efficacy and utility of structured exercise training to ameliorate treatment-induced cardiovascular dysfunction to prevent premature onset of clinical cardiovascular disease in germ cell cancer survivors, with a view towards highlighting future directions of exercise-based survivorship research in the germ cell cancer setting. Conclusion Since exercise training may have the potential to ameliorate and/or reverse long-term cardiovascular disease sequelae in germ cell cancer survivors, a strong rationale exists for the promotion of exercise-oncology research in this setting, in order to provide exercise-recommendations for optimal germ cell cancer survivorship. PMID:25751759

  16. Breast Cancer Survivorship—A Personal Story

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2016-09-26

    Pam Bryant, a breast cancer survivor, talks about her personal journey and how being diagnosed with breast cancer under the age of 45 has impacted her life. .  Created: 9/26/2016 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP), Division of Cancer Prevention and Control (DCPC).   Date Released: 9/26/2016.

  17. Work Disability Associated with Cancer Survivorship and Other Chronic Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Short, Pamela Farley; Vasey, Joseph J; Belue, Rhonda

    2008-01-01

    The long-term effects of cancer and its treatment on employment and productivity are a major concern for the 40% of cancer survivors in the U.S. who are working age. This study’s objectives were (1) to quantify the increase in work disability attributable to cancer in a cohort of adult survivors who were an average of 46 months post-diagnosis and (2) to compare disability rates in cancer survivors to individuals with other chronic conditions. Data from the Penn State Cancer Survivor Study (PS...

  18. One-Year Experience Managing a Cancer Survivorship Clinic Using a Shared-Care Model for Gastric Cancer Survivors in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ji Eun; Shin, Dong Wook; Lee, Hyejin; Son, Ki Young; Kim, Warrick Junsuk; Suh, Yun-Suhk; Kong, Seong-Ho; Lee, Hyuk Joon; Cho, Belong; Yang, Han-Kwang

    2016-06-01

    Given the rapid growth of the population of cancer survivors, increased attention has been paid to their health problems. Although gastric cancer is one of the most common cancers, empirical evidence of survivorship care is limited. The objectives of this study were to describe the health care status of gastric cancer survivors and to report the experience of using the shared-care model during a one-year experience at the cancer survivorship clinic in Seoul National University Hospital. This is a descriptive, single-center study of 250 long-term gastric cancer survivors who were referred to the survivorship clinic. The status of their health behaviors, comorbid conditions, secondary cancer screenings, and survivorship care status were investigated through questionnaires and examining the medical records. Among the survivors, 7.2% were current smokers, 8.8% were at-risk drinkers, and 32.4% were physically inactive. Among the patients who did not know their bone density status, the majority were in the osteopenic (37.1%) or osteoporotic range (24.1%). Screening among the eligible population within the recommended time intervals were 76.3% for colorectal cancer, but only 13.6% for lung cancer. All of the survivors were provided with counseling and medical management at the survivorship clinic, as appropriate. In conclusion, Long-term gastric cancer survivors have various unmet needs. Shared-care through survivorship clinics can be an effective solution for providing comprehensive care to cancer survivors.

  19. Atrophic Vaginitis in Breast Cancer Survivors: A Difficult Survivorship Issue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanne Lester

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Management of breast cancer includes systematic therapies including chemotherapy and endocrine therapy can lead to a variety of symptoms that can impair the quality of life of many breast cancer survivors. Atrophic vaginitis, caused by decreased levels of circulating estrogen to urinary and vaginal receptors, is commonly experienced by this group. Chemotherapy induced ovarian failure and endocrine therapies including aromatase inhibitors and selective estrogen receptor modulators can trigger the onset of atrophic vaginitis or exacerbate existing symptoms. Symptoms of atrophic vaginitis include vaginal dryness, dyspareunia, and irritation of genital skin, pruritus, burning, vaginal discharge, and soreness. The diagnosis of atrophic vaginitis is confirmed through patient-reported symptoms and gynecological examination of external structures, introitus, and vaginal mucosa. Lifestyle modifications can be helpful but are usually insufficient to significantly improve symptoms. Non-hormonal vaginal therapies may provide additional relief by increasing vaginal moisture and fluid. Systemic estrogen therapy is contraindicated in breast cancer survivors. Continued investigations of various treatments for atrophic vaginitis are necessary. Local estrogen-based therapies, DHEA, testosterone, and pH-balanced gels continue to be evaluated in ongoing studies. Definitive results are needed pertaining to the safety of topical estrogens in breast cancer survivors.

  20. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Self Image & Sexuality Day-to-Day Life For Family & Friends Survivorship Questions to Ask About Cancer Research ... Image & Sexuality Day to Day Life Survivorship For Family & Friends Questions to Ask About Cancer Advanced Cancer ...

  1. Electronic patient self-assessment and management (SAM: a novel framework for cancer survivorship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tighe Foss

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We propose a novel framework for management of cancer survivorship: electronic patient Self-Assessment and Management (SAM. SAM is a framework for transfer of information to and from patients in such a way as to increase both the patient's and the health care provider's understanding of the patient's progress, and to help ensure that patient care follows best practice. Methods Patients who participate in the SAM system are contacted by email at regular intervals and asked to complete validated questionnaires online. Patient responses on these questionnaires are then analyzed in order to provide patients with real-time, online information about their progress and to provide them with tailored and standardized medical advice. Patient-level data from the questionnaires are ported in real time to the patient's health care provider to be uploaded to clinic notes. An initial version of SAM has been developed at Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center (MSKCC and the University of California, San Francisco (UCSF for aiding the clinical management of patients after surgery for prostate cancer. Results Pilot testing at MSKCC and UCSF suggests that implementation of SAM systems are feasible, with no major problems with compliance (> 70% response rate or security. Conclusion SAM is a conceptually simple framework for passing information to and from patients in such a way as to increase both the patient's and the health care provider's understanding of the patient's progress, and to help ensure that patient care follows best practice.

  2. Ambulatory Medical Assistance - After Cancer (AMA-AC): A model for an early trajectory survivorship survey of lymphoma patients treated with anthracycline-based chemotherapy

    OpenAIRE

    Compaci, Gisèle; Rueter, Manuela; Lamy, Sébastien; Oberic, Lucie; Recher, Christian; Lapeyre-Mestre, Maryse; LAURENT, GUY; Despas, Fabien

    2015-01-01

    Background Cancer survivorship has emerged as an important aspect of oncology due to the possibility of physical and psychosocial complications. The purpose of this study was to assess the feasibility of the Ambulatory Medical Assistance for After Cancer (AMA-AC) procedure for monitoring lymphoma survivorship during the first year after chemotherapy. Methods AMA-AC is based on systematic general practitioner (GP) consultations and telephone interventions conducted by a nurse coordinator (NC) ...

  3. Pay attention to the rehabilitation of cancer patients--Excerpts of the 2013 NCCN Guidelines for Survivorship

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaoming Wu

    2014-01-01

    For some survivors, the consequences of cancer are minimal;these patients can return to a normal life after the completion of treatment. In fact, a majority of cancer survivors report being in good general health and experience good to excellent quality of life. A recent review suggests that at least 50%of survivors suf er from some late ef ects of cancer treat-ment. The most common problems in cancer survivors are depression, pain, and fatigue. The guidelines suggest the fol owing standards for survivorship care:(1) prevention of new and recurrent cancers and other late ef ects;(2) surveil ance for cancer spread, recurrence, or second cancers;(3) assessment of late psychosocial and medical ef ects;(4) intervention for conse-quences of cancer and treatment (eg, medical problems, symptoms, psychologic distress, financial and social concerns);and (5) coordination of care between primary care providers and specialists to ensure that al of the survivor’s health needs are met. The NCCN Survivorship Panel hopes that these guidelines can help both oncologic and primary health care profession-als lessen the burden left on survivors by their cancer experience so they can transition back to a rewarding life.

  4. Cancer survivorship: A positive side-effect of more successful cancer treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Elizabeth Charlotte Moser; Françoise Meunier

    2014-01-01

    Over the past decades, early diagnosis, new drugs and more personalised multi-modality treatment have led to impressive increases in survival rates of patients with cancer. This success in treating cancer has resulted in a large and rapidly increasing number of cancer survivors, yet life after cancer is often compromised by a broad spectrum of late adverse treatment effects. Some encounter cardiovascular, second malignancies, cognitive or other morbidities which impair normal life in an impor...

  5. Survivorship Care Planning in Improving Quality of Life in Survivors of Ovarian Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-19

    Cancer Survivor; Stage IA Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IB Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IC Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIA Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIB Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIC Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIIA Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIIB Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIIC Ovarian Epithelial Cancer

  6. Supporting families with Cancer: A patient centred survivorship model of care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craft, Emily Victoria; Billington, Caron; O'Sullivan, Rory; Watson, Wendy; Suter-Giorgini, Nicola; Singletary, Joanne; King, Elizabeth; Perfirgines, Matthew; Cashmore, Annette; Barwell, Julian

    2015-12-01

    In 2011, the Leicestershire Clinical Genetics Department in collaboration with Macmillan Cancer Support initiated a project called Supporting Families with Cancer (SFWC). The project aimed to raise awareness of inherited cancers amongst both healthcare professionals and the general public and develop a patient-centred collaborative approach to cancer treatment and support services. This paper describes the project's development of a range of community outreach events and a training scheme for primary healthcare professionals designed to improve familial cancer referral rates in Leicester. Following consultation with patients and support groups, a series of interactive 'medical supermarket' events were held in Leicester. These events focused on providing patients with a forum for sharing research data, information about diagnosis and treatments and access to support groups and other allied healthcare services with additional information being made available digitally via SFWC webpages and a series of short videos available on a YouTube channel. Qualitative and quantitative data presented here indicate that the SFWC medical supermarket model has been well received by patients and offers a patient-centred, holistic approach to cancer treatment. PMID:26077135

  7. The interface between primary and oncology specialty care: treatment through survivorship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grunfeld, Eva; Earle, Craig C

    2010-01-01

    The period after completing primary and adjuvant cancer treatment until recurrence or death is now recognized as a unique phase in the cancer control continuum. The term "survivorship" has been adopted to connote this phase. Survivorship is a time of transition: Issues related to diagnosis and treatment diminish in importance, and concerns related to long-term follow-up care, management of late effects, rehabilitation, and health promotion predominate. In this article, we explore the unique challenges of care and health service delivery in terms of the interface between primary care and specialist care during the survivorship period. The research literature points to problems of communication between primary and specialist providers, as well as lack of clarity about the respective roles of different members of the health-care team. Survivorship care plans are recommended as an important tool to facilitate communication and allocation of responsibility during the transition from active treatment to survivorship. Research questions that remain to be answered with respect to survivorship care plans and other aspects of survivorship care are discussed. PMID:20386051

  8. Advancing Cancer Survivorship in a Country with 1.35 Billion People: The China Lymphoma Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coughlin, Steven; Reno, Jamie

    2016-01-01

    Rates of lymphoma are rising rapidly and lymphoma is now the ninth most common cancer among Chinese males. The China Lymphoma Project was founded to increase awareness of lymphoma in China, including the survivability of the disease and the availability of potentially life-saving treatments, and to provide social support for men, women, and children in China who are living with the disease. The project is working with China government officials, several of the top cancer hospitals in China and the U.S., internationally known oncologists and cancer researchers, pharmaceutical and biotech companies in China and the U.S., healthcare and environmental companies, the Confucius Institute at San Diego State University, and the Asian Heritage Society. Advances in e-Health are being utilized to provide patient education and social support. The project will provide free e-books that profile lymphoma survivors (e.g., Kai-Fu Lee, creator of Google China), new videos, websites, pamphlets, blogs, video logs (vlogs), peer-to-peer counseling and support, and information about the latest treatments and oncology clinical trials.

  9. Lifestyle Factors in Cancer Survivorship: Where We Are and Where We Are Headed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Namrata Vijayvergia

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Advances in early detection and curative therapies have led to an increased number of cancer survivors over the last twenty years. With this population comes the need to evaluate the late and long term effects of cancer treatment and develop recommendations about how to optimally care for these survivors. Lifestyle factors (diet, body weight, physical activity, and smoking have been linked to a higher risk of many medical comorbidities (cardiovascular, metabolic, etc.. There is increasing evidence linking these factors to the risk of developing cancer and likely cancer-related outcomes. This link has been studied extensively in common cancers like breast, colon, prostate, and lung cancers through observational studies and is now being prospectively evaluated in interventional studies. Realizing that survivors are highly motivated to improve their overall health after a diagnosis of cancer, healthy lifestyle recommendations from oncology providers can serve as a strong tool to motivate survivors to adopt health behavior changes. Our article aims to review the evidence that links lifestyle factors to cancer outcomes and provides clinical recommendations for cancer survivors.

  10. Cancer Survivorship in the Age of YouTube and Social Media: A Narrative Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Chou, Wen-Ying Sylvia; Hunt, Yvonne; Folkers, Anna; Augustson, Erik

    2011-01-01

    Background As evidenced by the increasing popularity of YouTube (www.youtube.com), personal narratives shared through social media are an area of rapid development in communication among cancer survivors. Identifying the thematic and linguistic characteristics of YouTube cancer stories can provide a better understanding of this naturally occurring communication channel and inform social media communication efforts aiming to use personal stories to reach individuals with serious illnesses. Obj...

  11. Prostate Cancer Survivorship: Prevention and Treatment of the Adverse Effects of Androgen Deprivation Therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Saylor, Philip J.; Keating, Nancy Lynn; Smith, Matthew Raymond

    2009-01-01

    ABSTRACT BACKGROUND More than one-third of the estimated 2 million prostate cancer survivors in the United States receive androgen deprivation therapy (ADT). This population of mostly older men is medically vulnerable to a variety of treatment-associated adverse effects. MEASUREMENTS AND RESULTS Androgen-deprivation therapy (ADT) causes loss of libido, vasomotor flushing, anemia, and fatigue. More recently, ADT has been shown to accelerate bone loss, increase fat mass, increase cholesterol an...

  12. Treatment-related cardiovascular late effects and exercise training countermeasures in testicular germ cell cancer survivorship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Jesper F; Bandak, Mikkel; Campbell, Anna;

    2015-01-01

    , are subjected to toxicities, which individually, and synergistically, can cause physiological impairments leading to sub-clinical or clinical cardiovascular disorders (i.e. the 'multiple-hit hypothesis'). Furthermore, we discuss the efficacy and utility of structured exercise training to ameliorate treatment......BACKGROUND: Treatment of testicular germ cell cancer constitutes a major success story in modern oncology. Today, the vast majority of patients are cured by a therapeutic strategy using one or more highly effective components including surgery (orchiectomy), radiotherapy and/or chemotherapy...

  13. Types of Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    An infographic from the National Cancer Institute (NCI) describing the four broad categories of cancer research: basic research, clinical research, population-based research, and translational research.

  14. Moving survivorship care plans forward: focus on care coordination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salz, Talya; Baxi, Shrujal

    2016-07-01

    After completing treatment for cancer, the coordination of oncology and primary care presents a challenge for cancer survivors. Many survivors need continued oncology follow-up, and all survivors require primary care. Coordinating the shared care of a cancer survivor, or facilitating an informed handoff from oncology to primary care, is essential for cancer survivors. Survivorship care plans are personalized documents that summarize cancer treatment and outline a plan of recommended ongoing care, with the goal of facilitating the coordination of post-treatment care. Despite their face validity, five trials have failed to demonstrate the effectiveness of survivorship care plans. We posit that these existing trials have critical shortcomings and do not adequately address whether survivorship care plans improve care coordination. Moving forward, we propose four criteria for future trials of survivorship care plans: focusing on high-needs survivor populations, tailoring the survivorship care plan to the care setting, facilitating implementation of the survivorship care plan in clinical practice, and selecting appropriate trial outcomes to assess care coordination. When trials meet these criteria, we can finally assess whether survivorship care plans help cancer survivors receive optimal oncology and primary care.

  15. Gaps in nutritional research among older adults with cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presley, Carolyn J.; Dotan, Efrat; Soto-Perez-de-Celis, Enrique; Jatoi, Aminah; Mohile, Supriya G.; Won, Elizabeth; Alibhai, Shabbir; Kilari, Deepak; Harrison, Robert; Klepin, Heidi D.; Wildes, Tanya M.; Mustian, Karen; Demark-Wahnefried, Wendy

    2016-01-01

    Nutritional issues among older adults with cancer are an understudied area of research despite significant prognostic implications for treatment side effects, cancer-specific mortality, and overall survival. In May of 2015, the National Cancer Institute and the National Institute on Aging co-sponsored a conference focused on future directions in geriatric oncology research. Nutritional research among older adults with cancer was highlighted as a major area of concern as most nutritional cancer research has been conducted among younger adults, with limited evidence to guide the care of nutritional issues among older adults with cancer. Cancer diagnoses among older adults are increasing, and the care of the older adult with cancer is complicated due to multimorbidity, heterogeneous functional status, polypharmacy, deficits in cognitive and mental health, and several other non-cancer factors. Due to this complexity, nutritional needs are dynamic, multifaceted, and dependent on the clinical scenario. This manuscript outlines the proceedings of this conference including knowledge gaps and recommendations for future nutritional research among older adults with cancer. Three common clinical scenarios encountered by oncologists include (1) weight loss during anti-cancer therapy, (2) malnutrition during advanced disease, and (3) obesity during survivorship. In this manuscript, we provide a brief overview of relevant cancer literature within these three areas, knowledge gaps that exist, and recommendations for future research. PMID:27197919

  16. Gaps in nutritional research among older adults with cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presley, Carolyn J; Dotan, Efrat; Soto-Perez-de-Celis, Enrique; Jatoi, Aminah; Mohile, Supriya G; Won, Elizabeth; Alibhai, Shabbir; Kilari, Deepak; Harrison, Robert; Klepin, Heidi D; Wildes, Tanya M; Mustian, Karen; Demark-Wahnefried, Wendy

    2016-07-01

    Nutritional issues among older adults with cancer are an understudied area of research despite significant prognostic implications for treatment side effects, cancer-specific mortality, and overall survival. In May of 2015, the National Cancer Institute and the National Institute on Aging co-sponsored a conference focused on future directions in geriatric oncology research. Nutritional research among older adults with cancer was highlighted as a major area of concern as most nutritional cancer research has been conducted among younger adults, with limited evidence to guide the care of nutritional issues among older adults with cancer. Cancer diagnoses among older adults are increasing, and the care of the older adult with cancer is complicated due to multimorbidity, heterogeneous functional status, polypharmacy, deficits in cognitive and mental health, and several other non-cancer factors. Due to this complexity, nutritional needs are dynamic, multifaceted, and dependent on the clinical scenario. This manuscript outlines the proceedings of this conference including knowledge gaps and recommendations for future nutritional research among older adults with cancer. Three common clinical scenarios encountered by oncologists include (1) weight loss during anti-cancer therapy, (2) malnutrition during advanced disease, and (3) obesity during survivorship. In this manuscript, we provide a brief overview of relevant cancer literature within these three areas, knowledge gaps that exist, and recommendations for future research. PMID:27197919

  17. Gaps in nutritional research among older adults with cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presley, Carolyn J; Dotan, Efrat; Soto-Perez-de-Celis, Enrique; Jatoi, Aminah; Mohile, Supriya G; Won, Elizabeth; Alibhai, Shabbir; Kilari, Deepak; Harrison, Robert; Klepin, Heidi D; Wildes, Tanya M; Mustian, Karen; Demark-Wahnefried, Wendy

    2016-07-01

    Nutritional issues among older adults with cancer are an understudied area of research despite significant prognostic implications for treatment side effects, cancer-specific mortality, and overall survival. In May of 2015, the National Cancer Institute and the National Institute on Aging co-sponsored a conference focused on future directions in geriatric oncology research. Nutritional research among older adults with cancer was highlighted as a major area of concern as most nutritional cancer research has been conducted among younger adults, with limited evidence to guide the care of nutritional issues among older adults with cancer. Cancer diagnoses among older adults are increasing, and the care of the older adult with cancer is complicated due to multimorbidity, heterogeneous functional status, polypharmacy, deficits in cognitive and mental health, and several other non-cancer factors. Due to this complexity, nutritional needs are dynamic, multifaceted, and dependent on the clinical scenario. This manuscript outlines the proceedings of this conference including knowledge gaps and recommendations for future nutritional research among older adults with cancer. Three common clinical scenarios encountered by oncologists include (1) weight loss during anti-cancer therapy, (2) malnutrition during advanced disease, and (3) obesity during survivorship. In this manuscript, we provide a brief overview of relevant cancer literature within these three areas, knowledge gaps that exist, and recommendations for future research.

  18. Fostering Growth in the Survivorship Experience: Investigating Breast Cancer Survivors' Lived Experiences Scaling Mt. Kilimanjaro from a Posttraumatic Growth Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Shaunna M.; Sabiston, Catherine M.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to use an ethnographic case study approach to explore breast cancer survivors' experiences scaling Mt. Kilimanjaro from a posttraumatic growth perspective. Three breast cancer survivors who participated in interviews and observations during a nine-day climb on the mountain were included in this study. Findings are…

  19. NCCN Guidelines Insights: Survivorship, Version 1.2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denlinger, Crystal S; Ligibel, Jennifer A; Are, Madhuri; Baker, K Scott; Broderick, Gregory; Demark-Wahnefried, Wendy; Friedman, Debra L; Goldman, Mindy; Jones, Lee W; King, Allison; Ku, Grace H; Kvale, Elizabeth; Langbaum, Terry S; McCabe, Mary S; Melisko, Michelle; Montoya, Jose G; Mooney, Kathi; Morgan, Mary Ann; Moslehi, Javid J; O'Connor, Tracey; Overholser, Linda; Paskett, Electra D; Peppercorn, Jeffrey; Rodriguez, M Alma; Ruddy, Kathryn J; Sanft, Tara; Silverman, Paula; Smith, Sophia; Syrjala, Karen L; Urba, Susan G; Wakabayashi, Mark T; Zee, Phyllis; McMillian, Nicole R; Freedman-Cass, Deborah A

    2016-06-01

    The NCCN Guidelines for Survivorship provide screening, evaluation, and treatment recommendations for common consequences of cancer and cancer treatment. They are intended to aid health care professionals who work with survivors of adult-onset cancer in the posttreatment period, including those in general oncology, specialty cancer survivor clinics, and primary care practices. Guidance is also provided to help promote physical activity, weight management, and proper immunizations in survivors. This article summarizes the NCCN Survivorship panel's discussions for the 2016 update of the guidelines regarding the management of anxiety, depression, posttraumatic stress disorder-related symptoms, and emotional distress in survivors. PMID:27283164

  20. Psychological Factors Associated with Head and Neck Cancer Treatment and Survivorship: Evidence and Opportunities for Behavioral Medicine

    OpenAIRE

    Howren, M. Bryant; Christensen, Alan J; Karnell, Lucy Hynds; Funk, Gerry F.

    2012-01-01

    Individuals diagnosed with head and neck cancer (HNC) face not only a potentially life-threatening diagnosis, but must endure treatment that often results in significant, highly visible disfigurement and disruptions of essential functioning, such as deficits or complications in eating, swallowing, breathing, and speech. Each year, approximately 650,000 new cases are diagnosed, making HNC the sixth most common type of cancer in the world. Despite this, however, HNC remains understudied in beha...

  1. Adherence to Survivorship Care Guidelines in Health Care Providers for Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer and Colorectal Cancer Survivor Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    Adenocarcinoma of the Lung; Mucinous Adenocarcinoma of the Colon; Mucinous Adenocarcinoma of the Rectum; Signet Ring Adenocarcinoma of the Colon; Signet Ring Adenocarcinoma of the Rectum; Squamous Cell Lung Cancer; Stage I Colon Cancer; Stage I Rectal Cancer; Stage IA Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IB Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIA Colon Cancer; Stage IIA Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIA Rectal Cancer; Stage IIB Colon Cancer; Stage IIB Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIB Rectal Cancer; Stage IIC Colon Cancer; Stage IIC Rectal Cancer; Stage IIIA Colon Cancer; Stage IIIA Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIIA Rectal Cancer; Stage IIIB Colon Cancer; Stage IIIB Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIIB Rectal Cancer; Stage IIIC Colon Cancer; Stage IIIC Rectal Cancer

  2. Psychological Factors Associated with Head and Neck Cancer Treatment and Survivorship : Evidence and Opportunities for Behavioral Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howren, M. Bryant; Christensen, Alan J.; Karnell, Lucy Hynds; Funk, Gerry F.

    2013-01-01

    Individuals diagnosed with head and neck cancer (HNC) not only face a potentially life-threatening diagnosis but must endure treatment that often results in significant, highly visible disfigurement and disruptions of essential functioning, such as deficits or complications in eating, swallowing, breathing, and speech. Each year, approximately…

  3. Survivorship: cognitive function, version 1.2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denlinger, Crystal S; Ligibel, Jennifer A; Are, Madhuri; Baker, K Scott; Demark-Wahnefried, Wendy; Friedman, Debra L; Goldman, Mindy; Jones, Lee; King, Allison; Ku, Grace H; Kvale, Elizabeth; Langbaum, Terry S; Leonardi-Warren, Kristin; McCabe, Mary S; Melisko, Michelle; Montoya, Jose G; Mooney, Kathi; Morgan, Mary Ann; Moslehi, Javid J; O'Connor, Tracey; Overholser, Linda; Paskett, Electra D; Raza, Muhammad; Syrjala, Karen L; Urba, Susan G; Wakabayashi, Mark T; Zee, Phyllis; McMillian, Nicole R; Freedman-Cass, Deborah A

    2014-07-01

    Cognitive impairment is a common complaint among cancer survivors and may be a consequence of the tumors themselves or direct effects of cancer-related treatment (eg, chemotherapy, endocrine therapy, radiation). For some survivors, symptoms persist over the long term and, when more severe, can impact quality of life and function. This section of the NCCN Guidelines for Survivorship provides assessment, evaluation, and management recommendations for cognitive dysfunction in survivors. Nonpharmacologic interventions (eg, instruction in coping strategies; management of distress, pain, sleep disturbances, and fatigue; occupational therapy) are recommended, with pharmacologic interventions as a last line of therapy in survivors for whom other interventions have been insufficient. PMID:24994918

  4. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and Cancer Adjusting to Cancer Self Image & Sexuality Day-to-Day Life Support for Caregivers Survivorship Questions to Ask ... Feelings & Cancer Adjusting to Cancer Self Image & Sexuality Day to Day Life Survivorship Support for Caregivers Questions ...

  5. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and Cancer Adjusting to Cancer Self Image & Sexuality Day-to-Day Life For Family & Friends Survivorship Questions to Ask ... Feelings & Cancer Adjusting to Cancer Self Image & Sexuality Day to Day Life Survivorship For Family & Friends Questions ...

  6. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Feelings and Cancer Adjusting to Cancer Self Image & Sexuality Day-to-Day Life Support for Caregivers Survivorship ... Coping Feelings & Cancer Adjusting to Cancer Self Image & Sexuality Day to Day Life Survivorship Support for Caregivers ...

  7. Towards meeting the research needs of Australian cancer consumers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saunders Carla

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is a growing amount of literature to support the view that active involvement in research by consumers, especially informed and networked consumers, benefits the quality and direction of research itself, the research process and, most importantly, people affected by cancer. Our exploratory project focuses on identifying their priorities and developing a process to assess the research needs of Australian cancer consumers which may be useful beyond the cancer scenario. Methods This project was consumer initiated, developed and implemented, with the assistance of a leading Australian cancer consumer advocacy group, Cancer Voices NSW (CVN. Such direct involvement is unusual and ensures that the priorities identified, and the process itself, are not influenced by other interests, regardless how well-intentioned they may be. The processes established, and data collection via a workshop, followed by a questionnaire to confirm and prioritise findings, and comparison with a similar UK exercise, are detailed in this paper. Results Needs across five topic areas reflecting cancer control domains (prevention and risk; screening and diagnosis; treatment; survivorship; and end of life were identified. Cancer consumers high priority research needs were found to be: earlier diagnosis of metastatic cancers; the extent of use of best practice palliative care guidelines; identifying barriers to cancer risk behaviour change; and environmental, nutrition and lifestyle risk factors for people with cancer. A process for identifying consumers’ research priorities was developed and applied; this may be useful for further investigation in this under-studied area. Conclusion The findings provide a model for developing a consumer derived research agenda in Australia which can be used to inform the strategic direction of cancer research. Consumers have been seeking a workable method to achieve this and have worked in collaboration with a major

  8. National Coalition for Cancer Survivorship

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Positive Family Hope Resources for Care Providers Toolbox Facilitator’s Manual Hoping for Health Care Professionals Health Insurance ... over the last year, and we support the role [...] Read More » Highlights from the 2016 CPAT Symposium ...

  9. American Institute for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Our Blog: How to make kid-friendly, tasty fruit leather with 4 ingredients Study: Now is the Lowest Weight You’ll Be All Year Cancer Research Our Cancer Research Cancer Sites Research Conference ...

  10. Global cancer research initiative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard R Love

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Richard R LoveThe Ohio State University Comprehensive Cancer Center, Columbus, OH, USAAbstract: Cancer is an increasing problem for low- and middle-income countries undergoing an epidemiologic transition from dominantly acute communicable disease to more frequent chronic disease with increased public health successes in the former domain. Progress against cancer in high-income countries has been modest and has come at enormous expense. There are several well-conceived global policy and planning initiatives which, with adequate political will, can favorably impact the growing global cancer challenges. Most financial resources for cancer, however, are spent on diagnosis and management of patients with disease in circumstances where specific knowledge about effective approaches is significantly limited, and the majority of interventions, other than surgery, are not cost-effective in resource-limited countries by global standards. In summary, how to intervene effectively on a global scale for the majority of citizens who develop cancer is poorly defined. In contrast to technology-transfer approaches, markedly increased clinical research activities are more likely to benefit cancer sufferers. In these contexts, a global cancer research initiative is proposed, and mechanisms for realizing such an effort are suggested.Keywords: breast cancer, research, global, international, low-income, middle-income

  11. Profiles in Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    These articles put a face to some of the thousands of individuals who contribute to NCI’s cancer research efforts. The profiles highlight the work of scientists and clinicians and describe the circumstances and motivation behind their work.

  12. Recruiting young adult cancer survivors for behavioral research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabin, Carolyn; Horowitz, Santina; Marcus, Bess

    2013-03-01

    Young adults have been dramatically underrepresented in cancer survivorship research. One contributing factor is the difficulty recruiting this population. To identify effective recruitment strategies, the current study assessed the yield of strategies used to recruit young survivors for an exercise intervention including: clinic-based recruitment, recruitment at cancer-related events, mailings, telephone-based recruitment, advertising on the internet, radio, television and social networking media, distributing brochures and word-of-mouth referrals. When taking into account the strategies for which we could track the number of survivors approached, recruitment at an oncology clinic was the most productive: 38 % of those approached were screened and 8 % enrolled. When evaluating which strategy yielded the greatest percentage of the sample, however, mailings were the most productive. Given widespread use of the internet and social networking by young adults, investigators should also consider these low-cost recruitment strategies.

  13. Recruiting young adult cancer survivors for behavioral research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabin, Carolyn; Horowitz, Santina; Marcus, Bess

    2013-03-01

    Young adults have been dramatically underrepresented in cancer survivorship research. One contributing factor is the difficulty recruiting this population. To identify effective recruitment strategies, the current study assessed the yield of strategies used to recruit young survivors for an exercise intervention including: clinic-based recruitment, recruitment at cancer-related events, mailings, telephone-based recruitment, advertising on the internet, radio, television and social networking media, distributing brochures and word-of-mouth referrals. When taking into account the strategies for which we could track the number of survivors approached, recruitment at an oncology clinic was the most productive: 38 % of those approached were screened and 8 % enrolled. When evaluating which strategy yielded the greatest percentage of the sample, however, mailings were the most productive. Given widespread use of the internet and social networking by young adults, investigators should also consider these low-cost recruitment strategies. PMID:22810954

  14. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to Cancer Self Image & Sexuality Day-to-Day Life Support for Caregivers Survivorship Questions to Ask About ... to Cancer Self Image & Sexuality Day to Day Life Survivorship Support for Caregivers Questions to Ask About ...

  15. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to Cancer Self Image & Sexuality Day-to-Day Life For Family & Friends Survivorship Questions to Ask About ... to Cancer Self Image & Sexuality Day to Day Life Survivorship For Family & Friends Questions to Ask About ...

  16. Prostate Cancer Research Trial Helps John Spencer Treat His Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Prostate Cancer Prostate Cancer Research Trial Helps John Spencer Treat His ... Read More "Prostate Cancer" Articles Progress Against Prostate Cancer / Prostate Cancer Research Trial Helps John Spencer Treat His ...

  17. Workshop on Cancer Research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On April, 22-24 April 1991, the Hungarian National Institute of Oncology and the Commission of the European Communities have organized a workshop on Cancer Research. The aim of the meeting was to provide the participants information on the ongoing research in Hungary and in Member States. The topic is of importance for Hungary and it was also considered that the meeting could contribute to identify subjects of possible collaboration between Hungarian and Member State laboratories in the case financial support would become available. Three papers about new therapies under development were presented proton therapy and Boron neutron capture therapy

  18. Research in Danish cancer rehabilitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høybye, Mette Terp; Dalton, Susanne Oksbjerg; Christensen, Jane;

    2008-01-01

    of the cancer survivors with respect to cancer site, sociodemographic variables, social network, lifestyle, self-rated health and the prevalence of cancer-related late effects. The study is part of the FOCARE research project, in which the long-term effects of the rehabilitation programme are evaluated...... systematically. The study is based on data from a self-administered baseline questionnaire filled in by 2 174 cancer survivors who registered for a 1-week, publicly paid rehabilitation retreat and were invited to participate in the FOCARE study in the period 25 November 2002 to 31 December 2005. The response...... experience considerably reduced physical health, possibly as late physical effects of treatment. The problems reported by the cancer survivors suggest that cancer rehabilitation should include these aspects of living after cancer and take account of differences among cancer survivors with regard to cancer...

  19. Protocol for a cluster randomised trial of a communication skills intervention for physicians to facilitate survivorship transition in patients with lymphoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Patricia A; Banerjee, Smita C; Matasar, Matthew J; Bylund, Carma L; Franco, Kara; Li, Yuelin; Levin, Tomer T; Jacobsen, Paul B; Astrow, Alan B; Leventhal, Howard; Horwitz, Steven; Kissane, David W

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Survivors of cancer often describe a sense of abandonment post-treatment, with heightened worry, uncertainty, fear of recurrence and limited understanding of what lies ahead. This study examines the efficacy of a communication skills training (CST) intervention to help physicians address survivorship issues and introduce a new consultation focused on the use of a survivorship care plan for patients with Hodgkin's lymphoma and diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. Methods and analysis Specifically, this randomised, 4-site trial will test the efficacy of a survivorship planning consultation (physicians receive CST and apply these skills in a new survivorship-focused office visit using a survivorship plan) with patients who have achieved complete remission after completion of first-line therapy versus a control arm in which physicians are trained to subsequently provide a time-controlled, manualised wellness rehabilitation consultation focused only on discussion of healthy nutrition and exercise as rehabilitation postchemotherapy. The primary outcome for physicians will be uptake and usage of communication skills and maintenance of these skills over time. The primary outcome for patients is changes in knowledge about lymphoma and adherence to physicians’ recommendations (eg, pneumococcus and influenza vaccinations); secondary outcomes will include perceptions of the doctor–patient relationship, decreased levels of cancer worry and depression, quality of life changes, satisfaction with care and usage of healthcare. This study will also examine the moderators and mediators of change within our theoretical model derived from Leventhal's Common-Sense Model of health beliefs. Ethics and dissemination This study was approved by the Institutional Review Boards at Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Centers and all other participating sites. This work is funded by the National Cancer Institute (R01 CA 151899 awarded to DWK and SH as coprincipal investigators). The

  20. Supervivencia al cáncer de mama: Una historia personal (Breast Cancer Survivorship—A Personal Story)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2016-10-18

    Pam Bryant, una sobreviviente de cáncer de mama, habla sobre su viaje personal y cómo impactó su vida el recibir un diagnóstico de cáncer de mama antes de los 45 años. .  Created: 10/18/2016 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP), Division of Cancer Prevention and Control (DCPC).   Date Released: 10/18/2016.

  1. Researchers Identify Early Sign of Pancreatic Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of pancreatic cancer Researchers identify early sign of pancreatic cancer September 28, 2014 Tags: PancreaticCancer Brian Wolpin, MD ... discovered a sign of the early development of pancreatic cancer – an upsurge in certain amino acids that occurs ...

  2. Mouse models for cancer research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Zhang; Lynette Moore; Ping Ji

    2011-01-01

    Mouse models of cancer enable researchers to leamn about tumor biology in complicated and dynamic physiological systems. Since the development of gene targeting in mice, cancer biologists have been among the most frequent users of transgenic mouse models, which have dramatically increased knowledge about how cancers form and grow. The Chinese Joumnal of Cancer will publish a series of papers reporting the use of mouse models in studying genetic events in cancer cases. This editorial is an overview of the development and applications of mouse models of cancer and directs the reader to upcoming papers describing the use of these models to be published in coming issues, beginning with three articles in the current issue.

  3. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Side Effects Clinical Trials Cancer Drugs Complementary & Alternative Medicine Coping Feelings & Cancer Adjusting to Cancer Self Image & Sexuality Day to Day Life Survivorship For Family & Friends Questions to Ask About Cancer Advanced Cancer ...

  4. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... with Cancer Feelings and Cancer Adjusting to Cancer Self Image & Sexuality Day-to-Day Life Support for ... Alternative Medicine Coping Feelings & Cancer Adjusting to Cancer Self Image & Sexuality Day to Day Life Survivorship Support ...

  5. Chemobrain Experienced by Breast Cancer Survivors: A Meta-Ethnography Study Investigating Research and Care Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selamat, Maryam Hafsah; Loh, Siew Yim; Mackenzie, Lynette; Vardy, Janette

    2014-01-01

    Background Cognitive impairment, colloquially termed “chemobrain”, occurs in 10–40% of all cancer patients, and is an emerging target of cancer survivorship research. Aim This study reviews published qualitative studies to explore cognitive impairments or chemobrain among breast cancer survivors, with particular attention given to the impact on quality of life. Method Using keywords, we searched ten electronic databases (CINAHL, EMBASE, Proquest, OVID SP, MEDLINE, Oxford Journal, Science Direct, PubMED). Findings Of 457 papers, seven relevant papers were included. Data was extracted and concepts were analysed using a meta ethnography approach. Four second order intepretations were identified, on the basis of which, four third order intrepretations were constructed. Linked together in a line of argument, was a consistent account on their struggles to self-manage the chemobrain impairments that impact their daily lives. Five concepts emerged from the analysis of the primary findings: i) real experiences of cognitive changes, ii) calls for help, iii) impact of cognitive impairments, iv) coping and v) survivorship and meaning. Further synthesis resulted in four new order intepretations: i) The chemobrain struggle, ii) The substantial impact of chemobrain on life domains, iii) The struggle to readjust and to self manage, and iv) ‘thankful yet fearful’ representation. Discussion Awareness of cognitive changes were context-dependent on healthcare settings and cultural contexts as strong determinants. Subjects verified the existence of chemobrain but healthcare providers mis-recognised, under-recognised, and sometimes negated it perhaps due to its unknown aetiology. Asian breast cancer survivors appear less vocal than their western counterparts. Conclusion The current literature on the lived experiences of how women experienced chemobrain provides a consistent report that chemobrain is real, persistent and with detrimental impacts on quality of life - manifested

  6. Survivorship analysis of pedicle spinal instrumentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAfee, P C; Weiland, D J; Carlow, J J

    1991-08-01

    Between 1985 and 1989, the senior author performed 120 consecutive pedicle instrumentation cases--78 Steffee (VSP) procedures and 42 procedures using Cotrel-Dubousset instrumentation. Posterolateral or posterior fusions using autogenous iliac bone graft were performed across the instrumented vertebrae in all cases. Survivorship analysis was used to calculate a predicted cumulative rate of success for this series of patients over 10 years postoperative follow-up. The criteria of failure of pedicular instrumentation or "death" of an implant were defined as 1) screw bending, 2) screw breakage, 3) infection, 4) loosening of implants, 5) any rod or plate hardware problems, or 6) removal of hardware due to a neurologic complication. Out of 526 pedicle screws (175 Cotrel-Dubousset screws, 351 VSP screws) there were 22 problem screws (22/526 = 4.18%). Six screws had bent, none were infected, 16 screws had broken, and none were loose. The 22 problem screw events occurred in 12 patients. In seven patients, the instrumentation failure was an incidental radiographic finding, in that patients had a solid posterolateral fusion. The remaining five patients had screw breakage in association with a pseudarthrosis. Life table calculations predicted the survivorship of instrumentation without complications would be 80% at 10 years postoperative follow-up. Actuarial analysis predicted the survivorship of solid posterolateral fusion at 90% at 10 years follow-up. This survivorship rate is similar to those predicted at 10 years follow-up for other more widely used orthopedic surgical implants such as total hip arthroplasty components.

  7. The Interface Between Primary and Oncology Specialty Care: Treatment Through Survivorship

    OpenAIRE

    Grunfeld, Eva; Earle, Craig C.

    2010-01-01

    The period after completing primary and adjuvant cancer treatment until recurrence or death is now recognized as a unique phase in the cancer control continuum. The term “survivorship” has been adopted to connote this phase. Survivorship is a time of transition: Issues related to diagnosis and treatment diminish in importance, and concerns related to long-term follow-up care, management of late effects, rehabilitation, and health promotion predominate. In this article, we explore the unique c...

  8. Geriatric assessment with management in cancer care: Current evidence and potential mechanisms for future research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnuson, Allison; Allore, Heather; Cohen, Harvey Jay; Mohile, Supriya G.; Williams, Grant R.; Chapman, Andrew; Extermann, Martine; Olin, Rebecca L.; Targia, Valerie; Mackenzie, Amy; Holmes, Holly M.; Hurria, Arti

    2016-01-01

    Older adults with cancer represent a complex patient population. Geriatric assessment (GA) is recommended to evaluate the medical and supportive care needs of this group. “GA with management” is a term encompassing the resultant medical decisions and interventions implemented in response to vulnerabilities identified on GA. In older, non-cancer patients, GA with management has been shown to improve a variety of outcomes, such as reducing functional decline and health care utilization. However, the role of GA with management in the older adult with cancer is less well established. Rigorous clinical trials of GA with management are necessary to develop an evidence base and support its use in the routine oncology care of older adults. At the recent U-13 conference, “Design and Implementation of Intervention Studies to Improve or Maintain Quality of Survivorship in Older and/or Frail Adults with Cancer,” a session was dedicated to developing research priorities in GA with management. Here we summarize identified knowledge gaps in GA with management studies for older patients with cancer and propose areas for future research. PMID:27197915

  9. Geriatric assessment with management in cancer care: Current evidence and potential mechanisms for future research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnuson, Allison; Allore, Heather; Cohen, Harvey Jay; Mohile, Supriya G; Williams, Grant R; Chapman, Andrew; Extermann, Martine; Olin, Rebecca L; Targia, Valerie; Mackenzie, Amy; Holmes, Holly M; Hurria, Arti

    2016-07-01

    Older adults with cancer represent a complex patient population. Geriatric assessment (GA) is recommended to evaluate the medical and supportive care needs of this group. "GA with management" is a term encompassing the resultant medical decisions and interventions implemented in response to vulnerabilities identified on GA. In older, non-cancer patients, GA with management has been shown to improve a variety of outcomes, such as reducing functional decline and health care utilization. However, the role of GA with management in the older adult with cancer is less well established. Rigorous clinical trials of GA with management are necessary to develop an evidence base and support its use in the routine oncology care of older adults. At the recent U-13 conference, "Design and Implementation of Intervention Studies to Improve or Maintain Quality of Survivorship in Older and/or Frail Adults with Cancer," a session was dedicated to developing research priorities in GA with management. Here we summarize identified knowledge gaps in GA with management studies for older patients with cancer and propose areas for future research. PMID:27197915

  10. Center for Herbal Research on Colorectal Cancer

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Research Area: Herbs Program:Centers of Excellence for Research on CAM Description:Colorectal cancer is the third most common cancer and the third leading cause of...

  11. Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Among the many cancer research laboratories operated by NCI, the Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research(FNLCR) is unique in that it is a Federally Funded...

  12. Gene-Environment Research and Cancer Epidemiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Epidemiology and Genomics Research Program supports extramural research that investigates both genetic and environmental factors that may contribute to the etiology of cancer and/or impact cancer outcomes.

  13. Predictive 5-Year Survivorship Model of Cystic Fibrosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liou, Theodore G.; Adler, Frederick R.; FitzSimmons, Stacey C.; Cahill, Barbara C.; Hibbs, Jonathan R.; Marshall, Bruce C.

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this study was to create a 5-year survivorship model to identify key clinical features of cystic fibrosis. Such a model could help researchers and clinicians to evaluate therapies, improve the design of prospective studies, monitor practice patterns, counsel individual patients, and determine the best candidates for lung transplantation. The authors used information from the Cystic Fibrosis Foundation Patient Registry (CFFPR), which has collected longitudinal data on approximately 90% of cystic fibrosis patients diagnosed in the United States since 1986. They developed multivariate logistic regression models by using data on 5,820 patients randomly selected from 11,630 in the CFFPR in 1993. Models were tested for goodness of fit and were validated for the remaining 5,810 patients for 1993. The validated 5-year survivorship model included age, forced expiratory volume in 1 second as a percentage of predicted normal, gender, weight-for-age z score, pancreatic sufficiency, diabetes mellitus, Staphylococcus aureus infection, Burkerholderia cepacia infection, and annual number of acute pulmonary exacerbations. The model provides insights into the complex nature of cystic fibrosis and supplies a rigorous tool for clinical practice and research. PMID:11207152

  14. Phosphoproteomics and Lung Cancer Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William C. S. Cho

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Massive evidence suggests that genetic abnormalities contribute to the development of lung cancer. These molecular abnormalities may serve as diagnostic, prognostic and predictive biomarkers for this deadly disease. It is imperative to search these biomarkers in different tumorigenesis pathways so as to provide the most appropriate therapy for each individual patient with lung malignancy. Phosphoproteomics is a promising technology for the identification of biomarkers and novel therapeutic targets for cancer. Thousands of proteins interact via physical and chemical association. Moreover, some proteins can covalently modify other proteins post-translationally. These post-translational modifications ultimately give rise to the emergent functions of cells in sequence, space and time. Phosphoproteomics clinical researches imply the comprehensive analysis of the proteins that are expressed in cells or tissues and can be employed at different stages. In addition, understanding the functions of phosphorylated proteins requires the study of proteomes as linked systems rather than collections of individual protein molecules. In fact, proteomics approaches coupled with affinity chromatography strategies followed by mass spectrometry have been used to elucidate relevant biological questions. This article will discuss the relevant clues of post-translational modifications, phosphorylated proteins, and useful proteomics approaches to identify molecular cancer signatures. The recent progress in phosphoproteomics research in lung cancer will be also discussed.

  15. The Cancer Prevention and Control Research Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey R. Harris, MD, MPH, MBA

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The Cancer Prevention and Control Research Network is a national network recently established to focus on developing new interventions and disseminating and translating proven interventions into practice to reduce cancer burden and disparities, especially among minority and medically underserved populations. Jointly funded by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the National Cancer Institute, the Cancer Prevention and Control Research Network consists of sites administered through Prevention Research Centers funded by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The five sites are located in Kentucky, Massachusetts, South Carolina, Texas, Washington State, and West Virginia. The Cancer Prevention and Control Research Network’s intervention areas include primary prevention of cancer through healthy eating, physical activity, sun avoidance, tobacco control, and early detection of cancer through screening. The Cancer Prevention and Control Research Network uses the methods of community-based participatory research and seeks to build on the cancer-relevant systematic reviews of the Guide to Community Preventive Services. Initial foci for the Cancer Prevention and Control Research Network’s research work groups include projects to increase screening for breast, cervical, and colorectal cancers; to promote informed decision making for prostate cancer screening; and to validate educational materials developed for low-literacy populations.

  16. Prostate cancer research in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shan-Cheng Ren; Rui Chen; Ying-Hao Sun

    2013-01-01

    Prostate cancer (PCa) research in China has been on a rocketing trend in recent years.The first genome-wide association study (GWAS)in China identified two new PCa risk associated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs).Next generation sequencing is beginning to be used,yielding novel findings:gene fusions,long non-coding RNAs and other variations.Mechanisms of PCa progression have been illustrated while various diagnosis biomarkers have been investigated extensively.Personalized therapy based on genetic factors,nano-medicine and traditional Chinese medicine has been the focus of experimental therapeutic research for PCa.This review intends to shed light upon the recent progress in PCa research in China and points out the possible breakthroughs in the future.

  17. Breast Cancer and the Environment Research Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Breast Cancer and the Environment Research Program supports a multidisciplinary network of scientists, clinicians, and community partners to examine the effects of environmental exposures that may predispose a woman to breast cancer throughout her life.

  18. Collaborations in Proteomics Research - Office of Cancer Clinical Proteomics Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    The National Cancer Institute (NCI), through the Office of Cancer Clinical Proteomics Research (OCCPR), has signed two Memorandums of Understanding (MOUs) in the sharing of proteomics reagents and protocols

  19. Survivorship During Starvation for Cimex lectularius L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlyle C. Brewster

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Four bed bug strains (Cimex lectularius with different levels of pyrethroid resistance were evaluated to determine their ability to survive extended periods of starvation. First instar bed bugs of all strains were the most vulnerable to starvation (13.8–36.3 days mean survival time. Fifth instars and adults survived the longest during starvation (41.5–142.6 days. Significant differences in survivorship during starvation were observed between resistant and susceptible strains of bed bugs. Overall, all immature and adult stages of the resistant bed bug strains had significantly shorter survival times than those of the susceptible strains (P < 0.05.

  20. Psychoneuroimmunology and cancer: a decade of discovery, paradigm shifts, and methodological innovations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green McDonald, Paige; O'Connell, Mary; Lutgendorf, Susan K

    2013-03-01

    This article introduces the supplement Advances in Cancer and Brain, Behavior, and Immunity and outlines important discoveries, paradigm shifts, and methodological innovations that have emerged in the past decade to advance mechanistic and translational understanding of biobehavioral influences on tumor biology, cancer treatment-related sequelae, and cancer outcomes. We offer a heuristic framework for research on biobehavioral pathways in cancer. The shifting survivorship landscape is highlighted, and we propose that the changing demographics suggest prudent adoption of a life course perspective of cancer and cancer survivorship. We note opportunities for psychoneuroimmunology (PNI) research to ameliorate the long-term, unintended consequences of aggressive curative intent and call attention to the critical role of reciprocal translational pathways between animal and human studies. Lastly, we briefly summarize the articles included in this compilation and offer our perspectives on future research directions.

  1. Metagenomics: A new horizon in cancer research

    OpenAIRE

    Joyita Banerjee; Neetu Mishra; Yogita Dhas

    2015-01-01

    Metagenomics has broadened the scope of targeting microbes responsible for inducing various types of cancers. About 16.1% of cancers are associated with microbial infection. Metagenomics is an equitable way of identifying and studying micro-organisms within their habitat. In cancer research, this approach has revolutionized the way of identifying, analyzing and targeting the microbial diversity present in the tissue specimens of cancer patients. The genomic analyses of these micro-organisms t...

  2. Basic research on cancer related to radiation associated medical researches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basic Research on Cancer related to Radiation Associated Medical Researches including 1. Establishment of animal model of colorectal cancer liver metastasis and measurement of angiogenesis, 2. Tissue expression of Tie-1 and Tie-2 in human colorectal cancer, 3. Enhancement of G2/Mphase Cell Fraction by Adenovirus-mediated p53 Gene Transfer in Ovarian Cancer Cell Lines, 4. Clinical Characteristics of the patients with Non-B Non-C Hepatocellular Carcinoma and Frequency of HBV, HCV and TTV Viremia in these Patients, 5. Significance of serum iron and ferritin in patients with stomach cancer, 6. Telomerase assay for early detection of lung cancer, 7. Study on the Usefulness of Aldehyde dehydrogenase-2 Genotyping for Risk Group of Alcohol-related Cancer Screening, 8. Gene therapy using hepatoma specific promoter, 9. Study on the Influence of DNA repair gene, XRCC1 Genotypes on the Risk of Head and Neck Cancer were performed

  3. Basic research on cancer related to radiation associated medical researches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jong In; Hwang, Dae Yong; Bang, Ho Yoon [and others

    2000-12-01

    Basic Research on Cancer related to Radiation Associated Medical Researches including 1. Establishment of animal model of colorectal cancer liver metastasis and measurement of angiogenesis, 2. Tissue expression of Tie-1 and Tie-2 in human colorectal cancer, 3. Enhancement of G2/Mphase Cell Fraction by Adenovirus-mediated p53 Gene Transfer in Ovarian Cancer Cell Lines, 4. Clinical Characteristics of the patients with Non-B Non-C Hepatocellular Carcinoma and Frequency of HBV, HCV and TTV Viremia in these Patients, 5. Significance of serum iron and ferritin in patients with stomach cancer, 6. Telomerase assay for early detection of lung cancer, 7. Study on the Usefulness of Aldehyde dehydrogenase-2 Genotyping for Risk Group of Alcohol-related Cancer Screening, 8. Gene therapy using hepatoma specific promoter, 9. Study on the Influence of DNA repair gene, XRCC1 Genotypes on the Risk of Head and Neck Cancer were performed.

  4. Nutrition and Cancer Prevention Research Practicum | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Nutritional Science Research Group in the Division of Cancer Prevention at the National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health and the Department of Nutrition at the Clinical Center, National Institutes of Health are offering a one week educational opportunity in "Nutrition and Cancer Prevention Research" for individuals with a sustained commitment to nutrition and health promotion. This one-week intense learning session provides specialized instruction in the role of diet and bioactive food components as modifiers of cancer incidence and tumor behavior. |

  5. Novel translational strategies in colorectal cancer research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Defining translational research is still a complex task. In oncology, translational research implies using our basic knowledge learnt from in vitro and in vivo experiments to directly improve diagnostic tools and therapeutic approaches in cancer patients. Moreover, the better understanding of human cancer and its use to design more reliable tumor models and more accurate experimental systems also has to be considered a good example of translational research. The identification and characterization of new molecular markers and the discovery of novel targeted therapies are two main goals in colorectal cancer translational research. However, the straightforward translation of basic research findings, specifically into colorectal cancer treatment and vice versa is still underway. In the present paper, a summarized view of some of the new available approaches on colorectal cancer translational research is provided. Pros and cons are discussed for every approach exposed.

  6. Gompertz' survivorship law as an intrinsic principle of aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sas, Arthur A; Snieder, Harold; Korf, Jakob

    2012-05-01

    We defend the hypothesis that life-spanning population survivorship curves, as described by Gompertz' law and composed from cross-sectional data (here mortality), reflect an intrinsic aging principle active in each subject of that population. In other words Gompertz' law reflects aging of a prototypical subject, provided minimal (or no) external causes of death (i.e. fatal infections, starvation, accidents). Our approach deviates from the traditional (exponential) Gompertz' hazard function. For instance, the here formulated Gompertz' law accurately describes old-age deceleration of both all-cause mortality and the incidence of some ageing-associated cancers, as illustrated for the Dutch population. We consider the possibility that the old-age expression and progression of cancer and other pathologies becomes suppressed, because of random (and exponential) accumulation of damage during life. Gompertz' law may trigger new concepts and models describing life-spanning physiological and pathological processes of aging. We discuss (and reject) various aging models (e.g. a predominant role of individual variations at birth; reliability theory) and point to the explanatory potential of network models and systemic regulatory models.

  7. Genomic Datasets for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    A variety of datasets from genome-wide association studies of cancer and other genotype-phenotype studies, including sequencing and molecular diagnostic assays, are available to approved investigators through the Extramural National Cancer Institute Data Access Committee.

  8. NIH Research Leads to Cervical Cancer Vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... NIH researchers Drs. Douglas Lowy (left) and John Schiller developed the vaccine to prevent HPV infection in ... But thanks to Drs. Douglas Lowy and John Schiller, senior research scientists at NIH's National Cancer Institute, ...

  9. Lysyl oxidase in cancer research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perryman, Lara; Erler, Janine Terra

    2014-01-01

    Metastasis is the main reason for cancer-associated deaths and therapies are desperately needed to target the progression of cancer. Lysyl oxidase (LOX) plays a pivotal role in cancer progression, including metastasis, and is therefore is an attractive therapeutic target. In this review we will...

  10. Research Networks Map | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Division of Cancer Prevention supports major scientific collaborations and research networks at more than 100 sites across the United States.  Five Major Programs' sites are shown on this map. | The Division of Cancer Prevention supports major scientific collaborations and research networks at more than 100 sites across the United States.

  11. Novel translational strategies in colorectal cancer research

    OpenAIRE

    Gil-Bazo, Ignacio

    2007-01-01

    Defining translational research is still a complex task. In oncology, translational research implies using our basic knowledge learnt from in vitro and in vivo experiments to directly improve diagnostic tools and therapeutic approaches in cancer patients. Moreover, the better understanding of human cancer and its use to design more reliable tumor models and more accurate experimental systems also has to be considered a good example of translational research. The identification and characteriz...

  12. Epoetin and Darbepoetin Treatment for Adults with Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health Disparities and Cancer For Patient Advocates Public Policy Advocacy Cancer Awareness Dates Survivorship Blog About Us You ... Health Disparities and Cancer For Patient Advocates Public Policy Advocacy Cancer Awareness Dates Cancer.Net provides timely, comprehensive, ...

  13. Data mining in cancer research

    OpenAIRE

    Paulo J G Lisboa; Vellido Alcacena, Alfredo; Tagliaferri, Roberto; Napolitano, Francesco; Ceccarelli, Michelle; Martín Guerrero, José D.; Biganzoli, Elia

    2010-01-01

    This article is not intended as a comprehensive survey of data mining applications in cancer. Rather, it provides starting points for further, more targeted, literature searches, by embarking on a guided tour of computational intelligence applications in cancer medicine, structured in increasing order of the physical scales of biological processes.

  14. Databases and QSAR for Cancer Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adeel Malik

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In this review, we take a survey of bioinformatics databases and quantitative structure-activity relationship studies reported in published literature. Databases from the most general to special cancer-related ones have been included. Most commonly used methods of structure-based analysis of molecules have been reviewed, along with some case studies where they have been used in cancer research. This article is expected to be of use for general bioinformatics researchers interested in cancer and will also provide an update to those who have been actively pursuing this field of research.

  15. Milestones in Cancer Research and Discovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    During the past 250 years, we have witnessed many landmark discoveries in our efforts to make progress against cancer, an affliction known to humanity for thousands of years. This timeline shows a few key milestones in the history of cancer research.

  16. Research Areas: Causes of Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Understanding the exposures and risk factors that cause cancer, as well as the genetic abnormalities associated with the disease, has helped us to reduce certain exposures and to ameliorate their harmful effects.

  17. DCB - Cancer Immunology, Hematology, and Etiology Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Part of NCI’s Division of Cancer Biology’s research portfolio, studies supported include the characterization of basic mechanisms relevant to anti-tumor immune responses and hematologic malignancies.

  18. Cancer systems biology: signal processing for cancer research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Olli Yli-Harja; Antti Ylip(a)(a); Matti Nykter; Wei Zhang

    2011-01-01

    In this editorial we introduce the research paradigms of signal processing in the era of systems biology. Signal processing is a field of science traditionally focused on modeling electronic and communications systems, but recently it has turned to biological applications with astounding results. The essence of signal processing is to describe the natural world by mathematical models and then, based on these models, develop efficient computational tools for solving engineering problems. Here, we underline, with examples, the endless possibilities which arise when the battle-hardened tools of engineering are applied to solve the problems that have tormented cancer researchers. Based on this approach, a new field has emerged, called cancer systems biology. Despite its short history, cancer systems biology has already produced several success stories tackling previously impracticable problems. Perhaps most importantly, it has been accepted as an integral part of the major endeavors of cancer research, such as analyzing the genomic and epigenomic data produced by The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) project. Finally, we show that signal processing and cancer research, two fields that are seemingly distant from each other, have merged into a field that is indeed more than the sum of its parts.

  19. Cancer systems biology: signal processing for cancer research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yli-Harja, Olli; Ylipää, Antti; Nykter, Matti; Zhang, Wei

    2011-04-01

    In this editorial we introduce the research paradigms of signal processing in the era of systems biology. Signal processing is a field of science traditionally focused on modeling electronic and communications systems, but recently it has turned to biological applications with astounding results. The essence of signal processing is to describe the natural world by mathematical models and then, based on these models, develop efficient computational tools for solving engineering problems. Here, we underline, with examples, the endless possibilities which arise when the battle-hardened tools of engineering are applied to solve the problems that have tormented cancer researchers. Based on this approach, a new field has emerged, called cancer systems biology. Despite its short history, cancer systems biology has already produced several success stories tackling previously impracticable problems. Perhaps most importantly, it has been accepted as an integral part of the major endeavors of cancer research, such as analyzing the genomic and epigenomic data produced by The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) project. Finally, we show that signal processing and cancer research, two fields that are seemingly distant from each other, have merged into a field that is indeed more than the sum of its parts.

  20. Infectious Agents and Cancer Epidemiology Research Webinar Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Infectious Agents and Cancer Epidemiology Research Webinar Series highlights emerging and cutting-edge research related to infection-associated cancers, shares scientific knowledge about technologies and methods, and fosters cross-disciplinary discussions on infectious agents and cancer epidemiology.

  1. TCGA researchers identify 4 subtypes of stomach cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stomach cancers fall into four distinct molecular subtypes, researchers with The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) Network have found. Scientists report that this discovery could change how researchers think about developing treatments for stomach cancer, also c

  2. The National LGBT Cancer Action Plan: A White Paper of the 2014 National Summit on Cancer in the LGBT Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margolies, Liz; Sigurdsson, Hrafn Oli; Walland, Jonathan; Radix, Asa; Rice, David; Buchting, Francisco O.; Sanchez, Nelson F.; Bare, Michael G.; Boehmer, Ulrike; Cahill, Sean; Griebling, Tomas L.; Bruessow, Diane; Maingi, Shail

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Despite growing social acceptance of lesbians, gay men, bisexuals, and transgender (LGBT) persons and the extension of marriage rights for same-sex couples, LGBT persons experience stigma and discrimination, including within the healthcare system. Each population within the LGBT umbrella term is likely at elevated risk for cancer due to prevalent, significant cancer risk factors, such as tobacco use and human immunodeficiency virus infection; however, cancer incidence and mortality data among LGBT persons are lacking. This absence of cancer incidence data impedes research and policy development, LGBT communities' awareness and activation, and interventions to address cancer disparities. In this context, in 2014, a 2-day National Summit on Cancer in the LGBT Communities was convened by a planning committee for the purpose of accelerating progress in identifying and addressing the LGBT communities' concerns and needs in the spheres of cancer research, clinical cancer care, healthcare policy, and advocacy for cancer survivorship and LGBT health equity. Summit participants were 56 invited persons from the United States, United Kingdom, and Canada, representatives of diverse identities, experiences, and knowledge about LGBT communities and cancer. Participants shared lessons learned and identified gaps and remedies regarding LGBT cancer concerns across the cancer care continuum from prevention to survivorship. This white paper presents background on each of the Summit themes and 16 recommendations covering the following: sexual orientation and gender identity data collection in national and state health surveys and research on LGBT communities and cancer, the clinical care of LGBT persons, and the education and training of healthcare providers.

  3. Antiproton radiation found effective in cancer research

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    "An international collaboration of scientists has completed the first ever antiproton beam experiments designed to reveal the biological effectiveness of antiproton radiation in terminating cells used for cancer research...PBar Labs assembled the collaboration at CERN (European Organization for Nuclear Research in Geneva) to perform the measurements" (1 page).

  4. Radiation related basic cancer research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We studied the mechanism of radiation-induced apoptosis, the factors involved signaling, and the establishment of radiation-resistant cell lines in this study. During the TGF beta-stimulated epithelial mesenchymal transition(EMT), actin rearrangement occurred first and fibronectin matrix assembly followed. These two events were considered independent since cytochalasin-D did not inhibit TGF stimulated matrix assembly and fibronectin supplementation did not induce EMT. During EMT, alpha 5 beta 1 integrin and alpha v integrin have increased but MMP activation was not accompanied, which suggest that induction of extracellular matrix and activation of integrins may be main contributor for the EMT. Serum depriving induced apoptosis of HUVECs was prevented by vascular endothelial growth factor(VEGF) and PMA. The apoptosis prevention by VEGF and PMA were conformed by DNA fragmentation assay. The p53 expression level was down regulated by VEGF and PMA compared with serum deprived HUVECs. However, VEGF and PMA induces c-Myc expression level on these cells. We made the 5 radiation-resistant clones from breast, lung and cervical cancer cells. More than 70%, 100% and 50% increased resistance was detected in breast cancer cells, lung cancer cells, and cervical cells, respectively. We carried out differential display-PCR to clone the radiation-resistant genes. 9 out of 10 genes were analyzed their sequence

  5. Radiation related basic cancer research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Seung Hoon; Yoo, Young Do; Hong, Seok Il [and others

    2000-04-01

    We studied the mechanism of radiation-induced apoptosis, the factors involved signaling, and the establishment of radiation-resistant cell lines in this study. During the TGF beta-stimulated epithelial mesenchymal transition(EMT), actin rearrangement occurred first and fibronectin matrix assembly followed. These two events were considered independent since cytochalasin-D did not inhibit TGF stimulated matrix assembly and fibronectin supplementation did not induce EMT. During EMT, alpha 5 beta 1 integrin and alpha v integrin have increased but MMP activation was not accompanied, which suggest that induction of extracellular matrix and activation of integrins may be main contributor for the EMT. Serum depriving induced apoptosis of HUVECs was prevented by vascular endothelial growth factor(VEGF) and PMA. The apoptosis prevention by VEGF and PMA were conformed by DNA fragmentation assay. The p53 expression level was down regulated by VEGF and PMA compared with serum deprived HUVECs. However, VEGF and PMA induces c-Myc expression level on these cells. We made the 5 radiation-resistant clones from breast, lung and cervical cancer cells. More than 70%, 100% and 50% increased resistance was detected in breast cancer cells, lung cancer cells, and cervical cells, respectively. We carried out differential display-PCR to clone the radiation-resistant genes. 9 out of 10 genes were analyzed their sequence.

  6. Integrative computational biology for cancer research

    OpenAIRE

    Fortney, Kristen; Jurisica, Igor

    2011-01-01

    Over the past two decades, high-throughput (HTP) technologies such as microarrays and mass spectrometry have fundamentally changed clinical cancer research. They have revealed novel molecular markers of cancer subtypes, metastasis, and drug sensitivity and resistance. Some have been translated into the clinic as tools for early disease diagnosis, prognosis, and individualized treatment and response monitoring. Despite these successes, many challenges remain: HTP platforms are often noisy and ...

  7. Institutional shared resources and translational cancer research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Paoli Paolo

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The development and maintenance of adequate shared infrastructures is considered a major goal for academic centers promoting translational research programs. Among infrastructures favoring translational research, centralized facilities characterized by shared, multidisciplinary use of expensive laboratory instrumentation, or by complex computer hardware and software and/or by high professional skills are necessary to maintain or improve institutional scientific competitiveness. The success or failure of a shared resource program also depends on the choice of appropriate institutional policies and requires an effective institutional governance regarding decisions on staffing, existence and composition of advisory committees, policies and of defined mechanisms of reporting, budgeting and financial support of each resource. Shared Resources represent a widely diffused model to sustain cancer research; in fact, web sites from an impressive number of research Institutes and Universities in the U.S. contain pages dedicated to the SR that have been established in each Center, making a complete view of the situation impossible. However, a nation-wide overview of how Cancer Centers develop SR programs is available on the web site for NCI-designated Cancer Centers in the U.S., while in Europe, information is available for individual Cancer centers. This article will briefly summarize the institutional policies, the organizational needs, the characteristics, scientific aims, and future developments of SRs necessary to develop effective translational research programs in oncology. In fact, the physical build-up of SRs per se is not sufficient for the successful translation of biomedical research. Appropriate policies to improve the academic culture in collaboration, the availability of educational programs for translational investigators, the existence of administrative facilitations for translational research and an efficient organization

  8. Motivating Subjects: Data Sharing in Cancer Research

    OpenAIRE

    Tucker, Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    This dissertation explores motivation in decision-making and action in science and technology, through the lens of a case study: scientific data sharing in cancer research. The research begins with the premise that motivation and emotion are key elements of what it means to be human, and consequently, are important variables in how individuals make decisions and take action. At the same time, institutional controls and social messaging send a variety of signals intended to motivate specific ...

  9. Why is Physics Important to Cancer Research?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Anna D.

    Cancer is increasingly described as a ''disease of the genes'', and while the genome (in fact all of the ``omes'') are important information molecules that drive aspects of the initiation and progression of cancer, they are far from the whole story. Cancer is an extraordinarily complex system (in fact a complex of systems) that occurs in three-dimensional space, across multiple scales - and often over extended periods of time. The most challenging issues that plague the cancer field such as metastasis, cellular heterogeneity and resistance to therapy are in large part more rationally explained in the context of the physics of these systems vs. genomics. For example, the biology of metastasis has been studied extensively for decades with little progress. Metastatic disease depends on cells acquiring (or expressing innate information) new properties that enable and sustain their ability to migrate to distant sites. Developing a fundamental understanding of key cancer processes ranging from metastasis to immunotherapeutic responses requires that physicists (and mathematicians and engineers) be integrated into a new generation of cancer research - period! The presentation will focus on those areas where physics is essential - and the how's and whose of achieving the integration required.

  10. Post-settlement survivorship in two Caribbean broadcasting corals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Margaret W.

    2014-12-01

    The post-settlement phase of broadcast-spawned coral life histories is poorly known due to its almost complete undetectability and, hence, presumed low abundance in the field. We used lab-cultured settled polyps of two important Caribbean reef-building species with negligible larval recruitment to quantify early post-settlement survivorship (6-9 weeks) over multiple years/cohorts and differing orientation on a reef in the Florida Keys. Orbicella faveolata showed significantly and consistently better survivorship in vertical rather than horizontal orientation, but no discernable growth overall. Meanwhile, Acropora palmata showed no significant difference in survivorship between orientations, but significantly greater growth in the horizontal orientation. Both species showed significant variation in mean survivorship between cohorts of different years; 0-47 % for O. faveolata and 12-49 % for A. palmata over the observed duration. These results demonstrate wide variation in success of cohorts and important differences in the larval recruitment capacities of these two important but imperiled reef-building species.

  11. Gompertz' survivorship law as an intrinsic principle of aging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sas, Arthur A.; Snieder, Harold; Korf, Jakob

    2012-01-01

    We defend the hypothesis that life-spanning population survivorship curves, as described by Gompertz' law and composed from cross-sectional data (here mortality), reflect an intrinsic aging principle active in each subject of that population. In other words Gompertz' law reflects aging of a prototyp

  12. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Diagnosis Staging Prognosis Treatment Types of Treatment Side Effects Clinical Trials Cancer Drugs Complementary & Alternative Medicine Coping Feelings & Cancer Adjusting to Cancer Self Image & Sexuality Day to Day Life Survivorship For Family & Friends Questions to Ask About Cancer Advanced Cancer ...

  13. What's New in Colorectal Cancer Research and Treatment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... escape to close saved articles window. My Saved Articles » My ACS ... in colorectal cancer research? Research is always going on in the area of colorectal cancer. Scientists are looking for causes and ways to prevent ...

  14. Translating basic research in cancer patient care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcello Maugeri-Saccà

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available With the advent of molecular targeted therapies and the development of high-throughput biotechnologies, it has become evident that progress in cancer research is largely due to the creation of multidisciplinary teams able to plan clinical trials supported by appropriate molecular hypotheses. These efforts have culminated in the identification and validation of biomarkers predictive of response, as well as in the generation of more accurate prognostic tools. The identification of cancer stem cells has provided further insights into mechanisms of cancer, and many studies have tried to translate this biological notion into prognostic and predictive information. In this regard, new agents targeting key stemness-related pathways have entered the clinical development, and preliminary data suggested an encouraging antitumor activity.

  15. Application of Metabolomics in Thyroid Cancer Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Wojakowska

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Thyroid cancer is the most common endocrine malignancy with four major types distinguished on the basis of histopathological features: papillary, follicular, medullary, and anaplastic. Classification of thyroid cancer is the primary step in the assessment of prognosis and selection of the treatment. However, in some cases, cytological and histological patterns are inconclusive; hence, classification based on histopathology could be supported by molecular biomarkers, including markers identified with the use of high-throughput “omics” techniques. Beside genomics, transcriptomics, and proteomics, metabolomic approach emerges as the most downstream attitude reflecting phenotypic changes and alterations in pathophysiological states of biological systems. Metabolomics using mass spectrometry and magnetic resonance spectroscopy techniques allows qualitative and quantitative profiling of small molecules present in biological systems. This approach can be applied to reveal metabolic differences between different types of thyroid cancer and to identify new potential candidates for molecular biomarkers. In this review, we consider current results concerning application of metabolomics in the field of thyroid cancer research. Recent studies show that metabolomics can provide significant information about the discrimination between different types of thyroid lesions. In the near future, one could expect a further progress in thyroid cancer metabolomics leading to development of molecular markers and improvement of the tumor types classification and diagnosis.

  16. Introduction: Epidemiologic research and prevention of occupational cancer in Europe.

    OpenAIRE

    Boffetta, P.; Kogevinas, M.

    1999-01-01

    Research on occupational cancer epidemiology has been an important area of occupational health in Europe since the early studies were conducted in the United Kingdom in the 1950s and 1960s. During the last decade, occupational cancer research in Europe has gained an international dimension and become increasingly interdisciplinary in nature. At present, occupational exposures might be responsible for 13 to 18% of lung cancers, 2 to 10% of bladder cancers, and 2 to 8% of laryngeal cancers in E...

  17. Basic and technical research on lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In association with clinical study of carbon beam therapy for lung cancer, the basic research for lung cancer and the patients with this disease has been carried out for the past 10 years. With regard to lung damage by the carbon beams, firstly pulmonary function was measured and analyzed for the patients with stage I non-small cell lung cancer. Force expiratory volume in 1 second (FVE 1.0) and TLC (total lung capacity) was found to be reduced significantly at 6 and 12 months after therapy but the reduction rate was a little, which can support the safety of this treatment modality. Secondly, the regional lung damage by the beams was investigated by using correct fusion of CT images with carbon beam dose distribution, diagnostic follow-up CT images and blood flow and ventilation spect images. It demonstrated the graded decrease blood flow by dose and the compensatory increase of blood flow in the adjacent lobe of lung unexposed to irradiation. On the other hand, the biological study of carbon beam effects on lung cancer cells and tumors line was conducted. Firstly, by using 7 or 4 human lung cancer cell line, the radiosensitivity of carbon beams was compared with that of photons by different histological patterns. It was found that there was no essential difference in the sensitivity pattern for lung cancer histology between the carbon beams and photons though the former doubled the later in power. Secondly, by using IA cell lines among them, the dynamic of clonogenic cells (clonogen) in a nude tumor and the changes in its morphology following irradiation was investigated, clarifying that the clonogen proliferating under anoxic or hypoxic conditions played a pivotal role for tumor regrowth and stemmed from the different clone which had been genetically selected and developed under these conditions. The finding of clonogen becomes one of the evidence supporting the superiority of a single-dose radiotherapy to fractionated radiotherapy. (author)

  18. Improving Cancer Care Through Nursing Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Deborah K

    2015-09-01

    Nursing research and nurse researchers have been an integral and significant part of the Oncology Nursing Society's (ONS's) history, as evidenced by the development of the Nursing Research Committee within a few years of ONS's establishment. Ruth McCorkle, PhD, RN, FAAN, was the committee's first chairperson in 1979. This was followed by the creation of the Advanced Nursing Research Special Interest Group in 1989 under the leadership of Jean Brown, PhD, RN, FAAN. ONS also began to recognize nurse researchers in 1994 by creating the annual ONS Distinguished Researcher Award to recognize the contributions of a member who has conducted or promoted research that has enhanced the science and practice of oncology nursing. The list of recipients and of their work is impressive and reflects the wide range of our practice areas (see http://bit.ly/1MTC5cp for the recipient list). In addition, the ONS Foundation began funding research in 1981 and has distributed more than $24 million in research grants, research fellowships, and other scholarships, lectures, public education projects, and career development awards (ONS Foundation, 2015). And, in 2006, the Putting Evidence Into Practice resource was unveiled, which provides evidence-based intervention reviews for the 20 most common problems experienced by patients with cancer and their caregivers (www.ons
.org/practice-resources/pep)
. PMID:26302272

  19. The cancer translational research informatics platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnson Kimberly

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite the pressing need for the creation of applications that facilitate the aggregation of clinical and molecular data, most current applications are proprietary and lack the necessary compliance with standards that would allow for cross-institutional data exchange. In line with its mission of accelerating research discoveries and improving patient outcomes by linking networks of researchers, physicians, and patients focused on cancer research, caBIG (cancer Biomedical Informatics Grid™ has sponsored the creation of the caTRIP (Cancer Translational Research Informatics Platform tool, with the purpose of aggregating clinical and molecular data in a repository that is user-friendly, easily accessible, as well as compliant with regulatory requirements of privacy and security. Results caTRIP has been developed as an N-tier architecture, with three primary tiers: domain services, the distributed query engine, and the graphical user interface, primarily making use of the caGrid infrastructure to ensure compatibility with other tools currently developed by caBIG. The application interface was designed so that users can construct queries using either the Simple Interface via drop-down menus or the Advanced Interface for more sophisticated searching strategies to using drag-and-drop. Furthermore, the application addresses the security concerns of authentication, authorization, and delegation, as well as an automated honest broker service for deidentifying data. Conclusion Currently being deployed at Duke University and a few other centers, we expect that caTRIP will make a significant contribution to further the development of translational research through the facilitation of its data exchange and storage processes.

  20. About the Prostate and Urologic Cancer Research Group | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Prostate and Urologic Cancer Research Group conducts and supports research on prostate and bladder cancers, and new approaches to clinical prevention studies including cancer immunoprevention. The group develops, implements and monitors research efforts in chemoprevention, nutrition, genetic, and immunologic interventions, screening, early detection and other prevention strategies. |

  1. Evidence and research in rectal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main evidences of epidemiology, diagnostic imaging, pathology, surgery, radiotherapy, chemotherapy and follow-up are reviewed to optimize the routine treatment of rectal cancer according to a multidisciplinary approach. This paper reports on the knowledge shared between different specialists involved in the design and management of the multidisciplinary ESTRO Teaching Course on Rectal Cancer. The scenario of ongoing research is also addressed. In this time of changing treatments, it clearly appears that a common standard for large heterogeneous patient groups have to be substituted by more individualised therapies based on clinical-pathological features and very soon on molecular and genetic markers. Only trained multidisciplinary teams can face this new challenge and tailor the treatments according to the best scientific evidence for each patient

  2. Adherence to the World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute for Cancer Research recommendations and breast cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Holly R; Bergkvist, Leif; Wolk, Alicja

    2016-06-01

    The World Cancer Research Fund/American Association for Cancer Research (WCRF/AICR) has published eight nutrition-related recommendations for the prevention of cancer. However, few prospective studies have examined these recommendations by breast cancer hormone receptor subtype and only one case-control study has included the dietary supplements recommendation in their evaluation. We investigated whether adherence to the WCRF/AICR cancer prevention recommendations was associated with breast cancer incidence, overall and by hormone receptor subtype, in the Swedish Mammography Cohort. Among 31,514 primarily postmenopausal women diet and lifestyle factors were assessed with a self-administered food frequency questionnaire. A score was constructed based on adherence to the recommendations for body fatness, physical activity, energy density, plant foods, animal foods, alcoholic drinks and dietary supplements (score range 0-7). Cox proportional hazard models were used to calculate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs). During 15 years of follow-up 1,388 cases of breast cancer were identified. Women who met six to seven recommendations had a 51% decreased risk of breast cancer compared to women meeting only zero to two recommendations (95% CI = 0.35-0.70). The association between each additional recommendation met and breast cancer risk was strongest for the ER-positive/PR-positive subtype (HR = 0.86; 95% CI = 0.79-0.94), while for the ER-negative/PR-negative subtype the individual recommendations regarding plant and animal foods were most strongly associated with reduced risk. Our findings support that adherence to the WCRF/AICR recommendations reduces breast cancer risk in a population of primarily postmenopausal women. Promoting these recommendations to the public could help reduce breast cancer incidence. PMID:26804371

  3. Adherence to the World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute for Cancer Research recommendations and breast cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Holly R; Bergkvist, Leif; Wolk, Alicja

    2016-06-01

    The World Cancer Research Fund/American Association for Cancer Research (WCRF/AICR) has published eight nutrition-related recommendations for the prevention of cancer. However, few prospective studies have examined these recommendations by breast cancer hormone receptor subtype and only one case-control study has included the dietary supplements recommendation in their evaluation. We investigated whether adherence to the WCRF/AICR cancer prevention recommendations was associated with breast cancer incidence, overall and by hormone receptor subtype, in the Swedish Mammography Cohort. Among 31,514 primarily postmenopausal women diet and lifestyle factors were assessed with a self-administered food frequency questionnaire. A score was constructed based on adherence to the recommendations for body fatness, physical activity, energy density, plant foods, animal foods, alcoholic drinks and dietary supplements (score range 0-7). Cox proportional hazard models were used to calculate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs). During 15 years of follow-up 1,388 cases of breast cancer were identified. Women who met six to seven recommendations had a 51% decreased risk of breast cancer compared to women meeting only zero to two recommendations (95% CI = 0.35-0.70). The association between each additional recommendation met and breast cancer risk was strongest for the ER-positive/PR-positive subtype (HR = 0.86; 95% CI = 0.79-0.94), while for the ER-negative/PR-negative subtype the individual recommendations regarding plant and animal foods were most strongly associated with reduced risk. Our findings support that adherence to the WCRF/AICR recommendations reduces breast cancer risk in a population of primarily postmenopausal women. Promoting these recommendations to the public could help reduce breast cancer incidence.

  4. Extinction, diversity and survivorship of taxa in the fossil record

    OpenAIRE

    Newman, M. E. J.; Sibani, P.

    1999-01-01

    Using data drawn from large-scale databases, a number of interesting trends in the fossil record have been observed in recent years. These include the average decline in extinction rates throughout the Phanerozoic, the average increase in standing diversity, correlations between rates of origination and extinction, and simple laws governing the form of survivorship curves and the distribution of the lifetimes of taxa. In this paper we derive a number of mathematical relationships between thes...

  5. [Experience of stroke prevention-Enlightenment for cancer research].

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Weicheng

    2015-08-01

    Cancer, stroke and heart diseases are most common causes of death. This paper summarized the experience of stroke prevention, which is an enlightenment for cancer research. In addition, this paper also described the progress of cancer epidemiological research, particular the primary and second preventions in China. PMID:26733022

  6. NCI Community Oncology Research Program Approved | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    On June 24, 2013, the National Cancer Institute (NCI) Board of Scientific Advisors approved the creation of the NCI Community Oncology Research Program (NCORP). NCORP will bring state-of-the art cancer prevention, control, treatment and imaging clinical trials, cancer care delivery research, and disparities studies to individuals in their own communities. |

  7. Connecting the Dots: Linking the National Program of Cancer Registries and the Needs of Survivors and Clinicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryerson, A Blythe; Eheman, Christie; Styles, Timothy; Rycroft, Randi; Snyder, Claire

    2015-12-01

    Cancer survivors, the medical community, public health professionals, researchers, and policymakers all need information about newly diagnosed cancer cases and deaths to better understand and address the disease burden. CDC collects cancer data on 96% of the U.S. population through the National Program of Cancer Registries. The National Program of Cancer Registries routinely collects data on all cancer occurrences, deaths, and the types of initial treatment received by the patients, and recently CDC has made advances in its cancer surveillance activities that have direct applicability to cancer survivorship research and care. This article examines CDC's innovative uses of the National Program of Cancer Registries infrastructure and data as a recruitment source for survivorship research studies and behavioral interventions; comparative effectiveness and patient-centered outcomes research; and the collection, consolidation, and dissemination of treatment summaries for cancer survivors and their providers. This paper also discusses long-term, idealistic plans for additional data linkages and sharing among public health, providers, and the cancer survivor through innovative concepts such as patient portals and rapid-learning health care. PMID:26590648

  8. Cancer Research from Molecular Discovery to Global Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    A science writers' seminar to discuss the latest research in cancer genetics and global health efforts, including talks from leaders of NCI’s new centers of cancer genomics and global health will be held Dec. 13, 2011, at NCI.

  9. Progress through Collaboration - Office of Cancer Clinical Proteomics Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    The National Cancer Institute (NCI), through the Office of Cancer Clinical Proteomics Research (OCCPR), has signed two Memorandums of Understanding (MOUs) in the areas of sharing proteomics reagents and protocols and also in regulatory science.

  10. Research on cancer diagnosis in Malaysia: current status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Looi, L M; Zubaidah, Z; Cheah, P L; Cheong, S K; Gudum, H R; Iekhsan, O; Ikram, S I; Jamal, R; Mak, J W; Othman, N H; Puteri, J N; Rosline, H; Sabariah, A R; Seow, H F; Sharifah, N A

    2004-06-01

    Cancer is a major morbidity and mortality concern in Malaysia. Based on National Cancer Registry data, the Malaysian population is estimated to bear a cancer burden of about 40,000 new cases per year, and a cumulative lifetime risk of about 1:4. Cancer research in Malaysia has to consider needs relevant to our population, and resources constraints. Hence, funding bodies prioritise cancers of high prevalence, unique to our community and posing specific clinical problems. Cancer diagnosis is crucial to cancer management. While cancer diagnosis research largely aims at improvements in diagnostic information towards more appropriate therapy, it also impacts upon policy development and other areas of cancer management. The scope of cancer diagnosis upon which this paper is based, and their possible impact on other R&D areas, has been broadly categorized into: (1) identification of aetiological agents and their linkages to the development of precancer and cancer (impact on policy development, cancer prevention and treatment), (2) cancer biology and pathogenesis (impact on cancer prevention, treatment strategies and product development), (3) improvements in accuracy, sensitivity and specificity in cancer detection, monitoring and classification (impact on technology development) and (4) prognostic and predictive parameters (impact on treatment strategies). This paper is based on data collected by the Working Group on Cancer Diagnosis Research for the First National Conference on Cancer Research Coordination in April 2004. Data was collated from the databases of Institutions/Universities where the authors are employed, the Ministry of Science, Technology and Innovation (MOSTI) and targeted survey feedback from key cancer researchers. Under the 7th Malaysia Plan, 76 cancer projects were funded through the Intensified Research in Priority Areas (IRPA) scheme of MOSTI, amounting to almost RM15 million of grant money. 47(61.8%) of these projects were substantially in cancer

  11. Aquatic invasive species: Lessons from cancer research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepulveda, Adam; Ray, Andrew; Al-Chokhachy, Robert K.; Muhlfeld, Clint C.; Gresswell, Robert E.; Gross, Jackson A.; Kershner, Jeffrey L.

    2014-01-01

    Aquatic invasive species are disrupting ecosystems with increasing frequency. Successful control of these invasions has been rare: Biologists and managers have few tools for fighting aquatic invaders. In contrast, the medical community has long worked to develop tools for preventing and fighting cancer. Its successes are marked by a coordinated research approach with multiple steps: prevention, early detection, diagnosis, treatment options and rehabilitation. The authors discuss how these steps can be applied to aquatic invasive species, such as the American bullfrog (Lithobates catesbeianus), in the Northern Rocky Mountain region of the United States, to expedite tool development and implementation along with achievement of biodiversity conservation goals.

  12. Impact of proteomics on bladder cancer research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Celis, Julio E; Gromova, Irina; Moreira, José Manuel Alfonso;

    2004-01-01

    Detecting bladder cancer at an early stage and predicting how a tumor will behave and act in response to therapy, as well as the identification of new targets for therapeutic intervention, are among the main areas of research that will benefit from the current explosion in the number of powerful...... technologies emerging within proteomics. The purpose of this article is to briefly review what has been achieved to date using proteomic technologies and to bring forward novel strategies - based on the analysis of clinically relevant samples - that promise to accelerate the translation of basic discoveries...

  13. Cancer Research Repository for Individuals With Cancer Diagnosis and High Risk Individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-12

    Pancreatic Cancer; Thyroid Cancer; Lung Cancer; Esophageal Cancer; Thymus Cancer; Colon Cancer; Rectal Cancer; GIST; Anal Cancer; Bile Duct Cancer; Duodenal Cancer; Gallbladder Cancer; Gastric Cancer; Liver Cancer; Small Intestine Cancer; Peritoneal Surface Malignancies; Familial Adenomatous Polyposis; Lynch Syndrome; Bladder Cancer; Kidney Cancer; Penile Cancer; Prostate Cancer; Testicular Cancer; Ureter Cancer; Urethral Cancer; Hypopharyngeal Cancer; Laryngeal Cancer; Lip Cancer; Oral Cavity Cancer; Nasopharyngeal Cancer; Oropharyngeal Cancer; Paranasal Sinus Cancer; Nasal Cavity Cancer; Salivary Gland Cancer; Skin Cancer; CNS Tumor; CNS Cancer; Mesothelioma

  14. Improving diversity in cancer research trials: the story of the Cancer Disparities Research Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Melissa A; de la Riva, Erika E; Bergan, Raymond; Norbeck, Carrie; McKoy, June M; Kulesza, Piotr; Dong, XinQi; Schink, Julian; Fleisher, Linda

    2014-06-01

    The participation of racial and ethnic minorities and underserved populations in clinical trials is a critical link between scientific innovation and improvements in health care delivery and health outcomes. However, these population groups continue to be underrepresented in research. We describe the development of the Cancer Disparities Research Network (CDRN) to improve minority and underserved populations' participation in biobanking research. Between February and October 2011, we conducted a regional assessment to identify challenges and opportunities for cancer trials and biobanking research across the CDRN. Representatives from ten CDRN biorepository facilities completed an online survey assessing their facilities' minority biospecimen collection, biobanking practices, and education/outreach initiatives. Representatives of eight facilities also participated in stakeholder interviews. The majority (70%) of facilities reported that specimens were available for research, although only one tenth of these specimens were from non-White patients. Most facilities collected a patient's age, gender, race, medical history, and ethnicity with samples; however, less than half also collected family health history, education level, household income, or primary language spoken. In addition, few institutions collected Asian or Hispanic subgroup information. Only a few reported biospecimen collection outreach programs specifically targeting minority and underserved populations. Biospecimen directors and administrators indicated that funding, biospecimen sharing procedures, and standardization barriers limited their facilities from collaborating in biospecimen collection programs, despite their great interest. These findings suggest that the CDRN can provide opportunities for collaboration, resource sharing, and fostering of research ideas to address cancer disparities in biospecimen research. PMID:24519744

  15. Survivorship in micro fungi and crustacean resting stages during ultraviolet (UV) and vacuum land testing of EXPOSE unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alekseev, Victor; Alekseev, Victor; Novikova, Nataliya; Sychev, Vladimir; Levinskikh, Margarita; Deshevaya, Elena; Brancelj, Anton; Malyavin, Stanislav

    Dormancy protects animals and plants in harsh environmental conditions within a special resting phases of life cycle lasting from months up to hundred years. This phenomenon is perspective for space researches on interplanetary quarantine within space missions. Direct experiments in open space supported in principle the fact of survivorship of bacteria and fungi spores in open space during long time experiments (Novikova et al. 2007). The rate of survivorship in long-term mission was low but enough to conclude that biological invasion to Mars is a real danger. The possibility for resting stages to survive under UV treatment in vacuum without some protection was not clear. To test it dormant stages (spores) of primitive fungi Aspergillus versicolor, Aspergillus sydowii, Penicillium expansum, and Penicillium aurantiogriseum derived from ISS environment were used in the land EXPOSE imitation of outside space station UV and vacuum conditions. Survivorship in resting eggs of some crustaceans with dried (cladoceran Daphnia magna, fair-shrimp Streptocephalus torvicornis and ostracode Eucypris ornate from hemi desert Caspian area) and wet diapause state (copepod Mixodiaptomus tatricus from the Tatra mountains, altitude 1510 m) was tested also. The total UV dose of 9,1x10 to the 4th KJ/m2 during this imitation was accomplished with a SOL 2000 sun simulator lamp. The final vacuum value achieved during EST was 10 to the minus 6 Pa. Temperature during the experiment fluctuated in the range 19-25 o C. Micro fungi showed a high level of survivorship in samples treated with UV samples varied from 95 till 100 Supported by RFBR grant 07-04-00006.

  16. Current Research and Management of Ovarian Cancer in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUMeijiao; SHIWei

    2002-01-01

    Ovarian cancer is ne of the most lethal malignant tumors in China,represents the third most common cancer after cervical cancer and endometrial cancer,and the first leading cause of death from hynaecological cancers.Due to the lack of effective screening strategies and the absence of symptoms in early-stage of disease,over 70% of patients present at an advanced stage.Despite the advances in surgical techniques and conventional chemotheraphy,the prognosis of ovarian cancer has not been improved significantly,and indeed the long-term survival for patients with advanced disease does not exceed 20%.The aetiology of ovarian cancer temains poorly understood.In China,the major focus of research is to clarify the mechanism underlying ovarian cancer,develop more effective life-saving diagnostic and therapeutic measures,and undertake more population-based studies.This article summarizes current research,diagnosis and management of ovarian cancer in China.

  17. Mouse models for cancer stem cell research

    OpenAIRE

    Cheng, Le; Ramesh, Anirudh V.; Flesken-Nikitin, Andrea; Choi, Jinhyang; Nikitin, Alexander Yu.

    2009-01-01

    Cancer stem cell concept assumes that cancers are mainly sustained by a small pool of neoplastic cells, known as cancer stem cells or tumor initiating cells, which are able to reproduce themselves and produce phenotypically heterogeneous cells with lesser tumorigenic potential. Cancer stem cells represent an appealing target for development of more selective and efficient therapies. However, direct testing of the cancer stem cell concept and assessment of its therapeutic implications in human...

  18. Prostate Cancer Stem Cells: Research Advances

    OpenAIRE

    Dagmara Jaworska; Wojciech Król; Ewelina Szliszka

    2015-01-01

    Cancer stem cells have been defined as cells within a tumor that possesses the capacity to self-renew and to cause the heterogeneous lineages of cancer cells that comprise the tumor. Experimental evidence showed that these highly tumorigenic cells might be responsible for initiation and progression of cancer into invasive and metastatic disease. Eradicating prostate cancer stem cells, the root of the problem, has been considered as a promising target in prostate cancer treatment to improve th...

  19. Cancer survivors' experience of exercise-based cancer rehabilitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Midtgaard, Julie; Hammer, Nanna Maria; Andersen, Christina;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Evidence for the safety and benefits of exercise training as a therapeutic and rehabilitative intervention for cancer survivors is accumulating. However, whereas the evidence for the efficacy of exercise training has been established in several meta-analyses, synthesis of qualitative...... research is lacking. In order to extend healthcare professionals' understanding of the meaningfulness of exercise in cancer survivorship care, this paper aims to identify, appraise and synthesize qualitative studies on cancer survivors' experience of participation in exercise-based rehabilitation. MATERIAL......-based rehabilitation according to cancer survivors. Accordingly, the potential of rebuilding structure in everyday life, creating a normal context and enabling the individual to re-establish confidentiality and trust in their own body and physical potential constitute substantial qualities fundamental...

  20. Differential network analysis in human cancer research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Ryan; Datta, Somnath; Datta, Susmita

    2014-01-01

    A complex disease like cancer is hardly caused by one gene or one protein singly. It is usually caused by the perturbation of the network formed by several genes or proteins. In the last decade several research teams have attempted to construct interaction maps of genes and proteins either experimentally or reverse engineer interaction maps using computational techniques. These networks were usually created under a certain condition such as an environmental condition, a particular disease, or a specific tissue type. Lately, however, there has been greater emphasis on finding the differential structure of the existing network topology under a novel condition or disease status to elucidate the perturbation in a biological system. In this review/tutorial article we briefly mention some of the research done in this area; we mainly illustrate the computational/statistical methods developed by our team in recent years for differential network analysis using publicly available gene expression data collected from a well known cancer study. This data includes a group of patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia and a group with acute myeloid leukemia. In particular, we describe the statistical tests to detect the change in the network topology based on connectivity scores which measure the association or interaction between pairs of genes. The tests under various scores are applied to this data set to perform a differential network analysis on gene expression for human leukemia. We believe that, in the future, differential network analysis will be a standard way to view the changes in gene expression and protein expression data globally and these types of tests could be useful in analyzing the complex differential signatures.

  1. Cancer immunoinformatics: a new assistant tool for malignant disease research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Weijia; Zhang Rupeng; Liang Han; Zhang Hui; Li Fangxuan; Yu Jinpu; Li Hui

    2014-01-01

    Objective To introduce the recent developments in cancer immunoinformatics with an emphasis on the latest trends and future direction.Data sources All related articles in this review were searched from PubMed published in English from 1992 to 2013.The search terms were cancer,immunoinformatics,immunological databases,and computational vaccinology.Study selection Original articles and reviews those were related to application of cancer immunoinformatics about tumor basic and clinical research were selected.Results Cancer immunoinformatics has been widely researched and applied in a series of fields of cancer research,including computational tools for cancer,cancer immunological databases,computational vaccinology,and cancer diagnostic workflows.Furthermore,the improvement of its theory and technology brings an enlightening insight into understanding and researching cancer and helps expound more deep and complete mechanisms of tumorigenesis and progression.Conclusion Cancer immunoinformatics provides promising methods and novel strategies for the discovery and development of tumor basic and clinical research.

  2. Lung Cancer:Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatments & Research | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Lung Cancer Lung Cancer: Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatments & Research Past Issues / Winter 2013 ... lung cancer are given intravenously or by mouth. Lung Cancer Research The large-scale National Lung Screening Trial, ...

  3. Lung Cancer:Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatments & Research | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Lung Cancer Lung Cancer: Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatments & Research Past Issues / Winter ... lung cancer are given intravenously or by mouth. Lung Cancer Research The large-scale National Lung Screening ...

  4. Educating Cancer Prevention Researchers in Emerging Biobehavioral Models: Lessons Learned

    OpenAIRE

    Correa-Fernández, Virmarie; Davila, Marivel; Kamrudin, Samira A.; Li, Dennis H.; Noor, Syed W.; Oluyomi, Abiodun O; Chang, Shine; Cameron, Carrie

    2011-01-01

    To increase the adoption of transdisciplinary research methods among future cancer prevention investigators, faculty members from The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center developed a graduate-level course in biobehavioral methods in cancer prevention research. Two instructors paired by topic and area of expertise offered an hour-long lecture-based seminar every week for 15 weeks during the spring semester of 2010. Students and presenters both evaluated the overall course content and ...

  5. Next generation sequencing in cancer research and clinical application

    OpenAIRE

    Shyr, Derek; Liu, Qi

    2013-01-01

    The wide application of next-generation sequencing (NGS), mainly through whole genome, exome and transcriptome sequencing, provides a high-resolution and global view of the cancer genome. Coupled with powerful bioinformatics tools, NGS promises to revolutionize cancer research, diagnosis and therapy. In this paper, we review the recent advances in NGS-based cancer genomic research as well as clinical application, summarize the current integrative oncogenomic projects, resources and computatio...

  6. Adherence to the World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute for Cancer Research lifestyle recommendations in colorectal cancer survivors : Results of the PROFILES registry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winkels, Renate M; van Lee, Linde; Beijer, Sandra; Bours, Martijn J; van Duijnhoven, Fränzel J B; Geelen, Anouk; Hoedjes, Meeke; Mols, F.; de Vries, Jeanne; Weijenberg, Matty P; Kampman, Ellen

    2016-01-01

    We examined adherence to the eight The World Cancer Research Foundation/American Institute for Cancer Research (WCRF/AICR) recommendations on diet, physical activity, and body weight among colorectal cancer survivors, and whether adherence was associated with intention to eat healthy and with the ne

  7. The John Milner Nutrition and Cancer Prevention Research Practicum | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Nutritional Science Research Group in the Division of Cancer Prevention at the National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health and the Department of Nutrition at the Clinical Center, National Institutes of Health, and the U.S. Department of Agriculture’s Beltsville Human Nutrition Research Center are offering a one-week educational opportunity in Nutrition and Cancer Prevention Research for individuals with a sustained commitment to nutrition and health promotion. |

  8. The John Milner Nutrition and Cancer Prevention Research Practicum | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Nutritional Science Research Group in the Division of Cancer Prevention at the National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health and the Department of Nutrition at the Clinical Center, National Institutes of Health, and the US Department of Agriculture's Beltsville Human Nutrition Research Center are offering a one week educational opportunity in "Nutrition and Cancer Prevention Research" for individuals with a sustained commitment to nutrition and health promotion. |

  9. Prostate Cancer Stem Cells: Research Advances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaworska, Dagmara; Król, Wojciech; Szliszka, Ewelina

    2015-01-01

    Cancer stem cells have been defined as cells within a tumor that possesses the capacity to self-renew and to cause the heterogeneous lineages of cancer cells that comprise the tumor. Experimental evidence showed that these highly tumorigenic cells might be responsible for initiation and progression of cancer into invasive and metastatic disease. Eradicating prostate cancer stem cells, the root of the problem, has been considered as a promising target in prostate cancer treatment to improve the prognosis for patients with advanced stages of the disease.

  10. Prostate Cancer Stem Cells: Research Advances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dagmara Jaworska

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Cancer stem cells have been defined as cells within a tumor that possesses the capacity to self-renew and to cause the heterogeneous lineages of cancer cells that comprise the tumor. Experimental evidence showed that these highly tumorigenic cells might be responsible for initiation and progression of cancer into invasive and metastatic disease. Eradicating prostate cancer stem cells, the root of the problem, has been considered as a promising target in prostate cancer treatment to improve the prognosis for patients with advanced stages of the disease.

  11. The University of Michigan Sarcoma Survivorship Clinic: Preventing, Diagnosing, and Treating Chronic Illness for Improved Survival and Long-Term Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobowski, Nina P; Baker, Laurence H

    2016-09-01

    The Children's Cancer Survivorship Study reports more chronic illnesses in sarcoma survivors than other pediatric cancers. Chemotherapy and radiation put survivors at risk for developing chronic illnesses, including heart disease, diabetes, hypertension, and kidney failure. Sarcoma survivors may have a reduced life expectancy and signs of heart disease in their 30s and 40s. Since these medical problems occur much later in the general population, they often go undetected or misdiagnosed in sarcoma survivors, creating delays in intervention and treatment. The good news is that these chronic illnesses can often be prevented or minimized. The most common adverse effect of chemotherapy and radiation is coronary artery disease (CAD). CAD has a number of risk factors, including hypertension, diabetes, obesity, and dyslipidemia. These risk factors are modifiable with lifestyle changes, including diet and exercise, and/or pharmacological intervention. By identifying and managing risk factors like hypertension early, we in turn reduce the risk for CAD and prolong survival. This is well established in the general population; there is no reason a priori not to apply it to sarcoma survivors. Sarcoma survivors should be followed by physicians who understand the late effects and outcomes of sarcoma treatment. The University of Michigan Sarcoma Survivorship Clinic provides long-term care for sarcoma survivors by preventing, diagnosing, and treating the adverse long-term physical and psychological effects associated with sarcoma survivorship. PMID:27116634

  12. Advanced research on separating prostate cancer stem cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prostate cancer is a common malignant tumor in male urinary system,and may easily develop into the hormone refractory prostate cancer which can hardly be cured. Recent studies had found that the prostate cancer stem cells may be the source of the prostate cancer's occurrence,development, metastasis and recurrence. The therapy targeting the prostate cancer stem cells may be the effective way to cure prostate cancer. But these cells is too low to be detected. The difficulty lies in the low separation efficiency of prostate cancer stem cell, so the effectively separating prostate cancer stem cells occupied the main position for the more in-depth research of prostate cancer stem cells. This paper reviews the research progress and existing problems on the several main separating methods of prostate cancer stem cells, includes the fluorescence activated cells sorting and magnetic activated cells sorting based on prostate cancer stem cell surface markers, the side-population sorting and serum-free medium sphere forming sorting based on prostate cancer stem cell's biology. (authors)

  13. Cancer complementary and alternative medicine research at the US National Cancer Institute.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Libin

    2012-05-01

    The United States National Cancer Institute (NCI) supports complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) research which includes different methods and practices (such as nutrition therapies) and other medical systems (such as Chinese medicine). In recent years, NCI has spent around $120 million each year on various CAM-related research projects on cancer prevention, treatment, symptom/side effect management and epidemiology. The categories of CAM research involved include nutritional therapeutics, pharmacological and biological treatments, mind-body interventions, manipulative and body based methods, alternative medical systems, exercise therapies, spiritual therapies and energy therapies on a range of types of cancer. The NCI Office of Cancer Complementary and Alternative Medicine (OCCAM) supports various intramural and extramural cancer CAM research projects. Examples of these cancer CAM projects are presented and discussed. In addition, OCCAM also supports international research projects.

  14. Contributions to Cancer Research: Finding a Niche in Communication | Office of Cancer Genomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    This past July, I started a journey into the fields of communications and cancer research when I joined the Office of Cancer Genomics (OCG) as a fellow in the National Cancer Institute (NCI) Health Communications Internship Program (HCIP). Cancer genomics and working in an office were new and uncharted territory for me: before I came to OCG, I was finishing a Ph.D. in cell biology at Vanderbilt University in Dr. Matthew Tyska’s laboratory.

  15. Research on cancer diagnosis in Malaysia: current status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Looi, L M; Zubaidah, Z; Cheah, P L; Cheong, S K; Gudum, H R; Iekhsan, O; Ikram, S I; Jamal, R; Mak, J W; Othman, N H; Puteri, J N; Rosline, H; Sabariah, A R; Seow, H F; Sharifah, N A

    2004-06-01

    Cancer is a major morbidity and mortality concern in Malaysia. Based on National Cancer Registry data, the Malaysian population is estimated to bear a cancer burden of about 40,000 new cases per year, and a cumulative lifetime risk of about 1:4. Cancer research in Malaysia has to consider needs relevant to our population, and resources constraints. Hence, funding bodies prioritise cancers of high prevalence, unique to our community and posing specific clinical problems. Cancer diagnosis is crucial to cancer management. While cancer diagnosis research largely aims at improvements in diagnostic information towards more appropriate therapy, it also impacts upon policy development and other areas of cancer management. The scope of cancer diagnosis upon which this paper is based, and their possible impact on other R&D areas, has been broadly categorized into: (1) identification of aetiological agents and their linkages to the development of precancer and cancer (impact on policy development, cancer prevention and treatment), (2) cancer biology and pathogenesis (impact on cancer prevention, treatment strategies and product development), (3) improvements in accuracy, sensitivity and specificity in cancer detection, monitoring and classification (impact on technology development) and (4) prognostic and predictive parameters (impact on treatment strategies). This paper is based on data collected by the Working Group on Cancer Diagnosis Research for the First National Conference on Cancer Research Coordination in April 2004. Data was collated from the databases of Institutions/Universities where the authors are employed, the Ministry of Science, Technology and Innovation (MOSTI) and targeted survey feedback from key cancer researchers. Under the 7th Malaysia Plan, 76 cancer projects were funded through the Intensified Research in Priority Areas (IRPA) scheme of MOSTI, amounting to almost RM15 million of grant money. 47(61.8%) of these projects were substantially in cancer

  16. Towards discovery-driven translational research in breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2005-01-01

    Discovery-driven translational research in breast cancer is moving steadily from the study of cell lines to the analysis of clinically relevant samples that, together with the ever increasing number of novel and powerful technologies available within genomics, proteomics and functional genomics......, promise to have a major impact on the way breast cancer will be diagnosed, treated and monitored in the future. Here we present a brief report on long-term ongoing strategies at the Danish Centre for Translational Breast Cancer Research to search for markers for early detection and targets for therapeutic...... biology approach to fight breast cancer....

  17. Cancer in Europe: Death sentence or life sentence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lifang; O'Donnell, Peter; Sullivan, Richard; Katalinic, Alexander; Moser, Lotte; de Boer, Angela; Meunier, Francoise

    2016-09-01

    With so many adults and children receiving successful treatment for their cancer, survivorship is now a 'new' and critical issue. It is increasingly recognised that the growing numbers of survivors face new challenges in their bid to return to 'normal' life. What is not yet so widely recognised is the need for a broad response to help them cope-with stigmatisation, misunderstanding, lifelong issues of confidence and social adaptation, and even access to employment and to financial services. As a further stage in its programme of attention to this aspect of cancer, the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) brought survivors, researchers, carers, authorities and policymakers together at a meeting in Brussels in March/April 2016, to learn at first hand about the posttreatment experience of cancer survivors. The meeting demonstrated that while research is well advanced in many of the medical consequences of survivorship, understanding is still lacking of many non-clinical, personal and administrative issues. The meeting raised the discussion of survivorship research beyond the individual to a population-based approach, exploring the related socioeconomic issues. Its exploration of initiatives across Europe countries provoked new thinking on the need for effective collaboration, with a new focus on non-clinical issues, including effective dialogue with financial service providers and employers, improvements in collecting, exchanging and accessing data, and above all, ways of translating research outcomes into action. This will require wider recognition that, as Françoise Meunier, Director Special Projects, EORTC, said, 'It is time for a new mind set'. PMID:27498140

  18. Next generation distributed computing for cancer research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Pankaj; Owzar, Kouros

    2014-01-01

    Advances in next generation sequencing (NGS) and mass spectrometry (MS) technologies have provided many new opportunities and angles for extending the scope of translational cancer research while creating tremendous challenges in data management and analysis. The resulting informatics challenge is invariably not amenable to the use of traditional computing models. Recent advances in scalable computing and associated infrastructure, particularly distributed computing for Big Data, can provide solutions for addressing these challenges. In this review, the next generation of distributed computing technologies that can address these informatics problems is described from the perspective of three key components of a computational platform, namely computing, data storage and management, and networking. A broad overview of scalable computing is provided to set the context for a detailed description of Hadoop, a technology that is being rapidly adopted for large-scale distributed computing. A proof-of-concept Hadoop cluster, set up for performance benchmarking of NGS read alignment, is described as an example of how to work with Hadoop. Finally, Hadoop is compared with a number of other current technologies for distributed computing. PMID:25983539

  19. Future possibilities in the prevention of breast cancer: Fat and fiber and breast cancer research

    OpenAIRE

    Prentice, Ross L.

    2000-01-01

    The potential for a reduction in dietary fat or for an increase in dietary fiber to reduce breast cancer risk has been debated for some years. It is argued here that available research data, even though extensive, leave open hypotheses ranging from little or no potential to major public health potential for breast cancer prevention by means of these dietary maneuvers. Some elements of a research strategy for testing these and other dietary breast cancer prevention hypotheses are described.

  20. Major clinical research advances in gynecologic cancer in 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    In 2015, fourteen topics were selected as major research advances in gynecologic oncology. For ovarian cancer, high-level evidence for annual screening with multimodal strategy which could reduce ovarian cancer deaths was reported. The best preventive strategies with current status of evidence level were also summarized. Final report of chemotherapy or upfront surgery (CHORUS) trial of neoadjuvant chemotherapy in advanced stage ovarian cancer and individualized therapy based on gene characteristics followed. There was no sign of abating in great interest in immunotherapy as well as targeted therapies in various gynecologic cancers. The fifth Ovarian Cancer Consensus Conference which was held in November 7–9 in Tokyo was briefly introduced. For cervical cancer, update of human papillomavirus vaccines regarding two-dose regimen, 9-valent vaccine, and therapeutic vaccine was reviewed. For corpus cancer, the safety concern of power morcellation in presumed fibroids was explored again with regard to age and prevalence of corpus malignancy. Hormone therapy and endometrial cancer risk, trabectedin as an option for leiomyosarcoma, endometrial cancer and Lynch syndrome, and the radiation therapy guidelines were also discussed. In addition, adjuvant therapy in vulvar cancer and the updated of targeted therapy in gynecologic cancer were addressed. For breast cancer, palbociclib in hormone-receptor-positive advanced disease, oncotype DX Recurrence Score in low-risk patients, regional nodal irradiation to internal mammary, supraclavicular, and axillary lymph nodes, and cavity shave margins were summarized as the last topics covered in this review. PMID:27775259

  1. [Research progression of translational medicine in gastric cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Maoran; Zhao, Gang; Zhu, Chunchao

    2014-02-01

    Gastric cancer is one of the most common malignant tumors which is a great threat to human health. In recent years, the reform of surgical mordalities and the optimization of radiation and chemotherapy is still far from reducing morbidity and mortality of gastric cancer. As a new research pattern, translational medicine has emerged in various clinical subjects, which leads to remarkable effects. In this paper, the definition and development of translational medicine, molecular markers and drug treatment of gastric cancer will be discussed and the feasibility of translational medicine in the treatment of gastric cancer will be explained. In our opinion, the intervention of translational medicine could change the current situation that scientific researches is severely disconnected with clinical practice and increase the detection rate of gastric cancer and the effective rate of adjuvant therapy after surgery to improve the prognosis of patients with gastric cancer.

  2. The Changing Landscape of Lung Cancer Research and Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Along with the Lung Cancer Social Media (#LCSM) community, the National Cancer Institute will be co-hosting a lively and interactive Google Hangout on Air about the changing landscape of lung cancer research and treatment. During the chat, viewers will have the opportunity to pose questions to a panel of lung cancer experts including NCI's Dr. Shakun Malik, the head of thoracic oncology therapeutics, Roy S. Herbst, MD, PhD, Chief of Medical Oncology, Yale Cancer Center and Smilow Cancer Hospital at Yale-New Haven and David Tom Cooke MD FACS, Head, Section of General Thoracic Surgery University of California, Davis. You can also learn more and follow along on the #LCSM Chat page. The chat will be moderated by lung cancer advocate and #LCSM co-founder, Janet Freeman-Daily. To ask questions of our experts, simply use the #LCSM hashtag during the chat.

  3. Clinical perspectives of cancer stem cell research in radiation oncology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiotherapy has a proven potential to eradicate cancer stem cells which is reflected by its curative potential in many cancer types. Considerable progress has been made in identification and biological characterisation of cancer stem cells during the past years. Recent biological findings indicate significant inter- and intratumoural and functional heterogeneity of cancer stem cells and lead to more complex models which have potential implications for radiobiology and radiotherapy. Clinical evidence is emerging that biomarkers of cancer stem cells may be prognostic for the outcome of radiotherapy in some tumour entities. Perspectives of cancer stem cell based research for radiotherapy reviewed here include their radioresistance compared to the mass of non-cancer stem cells which form the bulk of all tumour cells, implications for image- and non-image based predictive bio-assays of the outcome of radiotherapy and a combination of novel systemic treatments with radiotherapy

  4. Biomedical text mining and its applications in cancer research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Fei; Patumcharoenpol, Preecha; Zhang, Cheng; Yang, Yang; Chan, Jonathan; Meechai, Asawin; Vongsangnak, Wanwipa; Shen, Bairong

    2013-04-01

    Cancer is a malignant disease that has caused millions of human deaths. Its study has a long history of well over 100years. There have been an enormous number of publications on cancer research. This integrated but unstructured biomedical text is of great value for cancer diagnostics, treatment, and prevention. The immense body and rapid growth of biomedical text on cancer has led to the appearance of a large number of text mining techniques aimed at extracting novel knowledge from scientific text. Biomedical text mining on cancer research is computationally automatic and high-throughput in nature. However, it is error-prone due to the complexity of natural language processing. In this review, we introduce the basic concepts underlying text mining and examine some frequently used algorithms, tools, and data sets, as well as assessing how much these algorithms have been utilized. We then discuss the current state-of-the-art text mining applications in cancer research and we also provide some resources for cancer text mining. With the development of systems biology, researchers tend to understand complex biomedical systems from a systems biology viewpoint. Thus, the full utilization of text mining to facilitate cancer systems biology research is fast becoming a major concern. To address this issue, we describe the general workflow of text mining in cancer systems biology and each phase of the workflow. We hope that this review can (i) provide a useful overview of the current work of this field; (ii) help researchers to choose text mining tools and datasets; and (iii) highlight how to apply text mining to assist cancer systems biology research. PMID:23159498

  5. feature - Office of Cancer Clinical Proteomics Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    "Cancer is a disease of the genome," noted Lynda Chin, M.D., professor of dermatology, Harvard Medical School and Dana-Farber Cancer Institute. "And understanding the impact of genomic changes in the proteome is critically important for converting genomic knowledge into something that a clinician can use on their patients."

  6. Towards research-tested smartphone applications for preventing breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Coughlin, Steven S; Thind, Herpreet; Liu, Benyuan; Wilson, Lt Col Candy

    2016-01-01

    Efforts to prevent breast cancer and other chronic illnesses have focused on promoting physical activity, healthy diet and nutrition, and avoidance of excessive alcohol consumption. Smartphone applications (apps) offer a low-cost, effective strategy for breast cancer prevention in women through behavioral change. However, there are currently no research-tested smartphone apps for breast cancer prevention that are suitable for women with varying levels of health literacy and eHealth literacy. ...

  7. Left behind: cancer disparities in the developed world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixit, Niharika; Crawford, Gregory B; Lemonde, Manon; Rittenberg, Cynthia N; Fernández-Ortega, Paz

    2016-08-01

    Huge advances have been made in cancer treatments over recent decades; however, significant disparities still exist in the developed world on the basis of race, socioeconomic status, education level, geographical location, and immigration status and in the United States, insurance status. Cancer disparities persist in the continuum of cancer care from risk factors, screening, diagnosis, treatment, survivorship, and end-of-life care. The causes of disparities are complex and multifactorial. The MASCC (Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer) Education Study Group would like to propose a framework of cancer disparities from a social perspective utilizing "social determinants of health" as delineated by the World Health Organization and highlight an unmet need for research and policy innovations to address cancer disparities in developed world.

  8. Left behind: cancer disparities in the developed world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixit, Niharika; Crawford, Gregory B; Lemonde, Manon; Rittenberg, Cynthia N; Fernández-Ortega, Paz

    2016-08-01

    Huge advances have been made in cancer treatments over recent decades; however, significant disparities still exist in the developed world on the basis of race, socioeconomic status, education level, geographical location, and immigration status and in the United States, insurance status. Cancer disparities persist in the continuum of cancer care from risk factors, screening, diagnosis, treatment, survivorship, and end-of-life care. The causes of disparities are complex and multifactorial. The MASCC (Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer) Education Study Group would like to propose a framework of cancer disparities from a social perspective utilizing "social determinants of health" as delineated by the World Health Organization and highlight an unmet need for research and policy innovations to address cancer disparities in developed world. PMID:27052305

  9. Graphic Evolution Witness the Development of Lung Cancer Translational Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao ZHANG

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Lung cancer treatment has altered from conventional chemotherapy to targeted treatment, which now has been turned to the immunotherapy. Translational research has played an irreplaceable role during this progression which graphic evolution has witnessed. The evolution has gone through forest plot, KM-curve, waterfall plot, spider plot and timeline-area, showing us the refining concept and gradual process of lung cancer treatment undergoing from community towards individual. Even though the latest immunotherapy is getting increasingly hot, the result isn’t quite expected. Meanwhile, the limitations of conventional treatment still exist which require further research. This article will primarily illustrate the development of translational research of lung cancer via the aspect of curve evolution and analysis some abortive clinical trials in lung cancer surgery for inspiring the next graphic style and lung cancer treatment.

  10. [Graphic Evolution Witness the Development of Lung Cancer Translational Research].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chao; Zhong, Wenzhao

    2016-06-20

    Lung cancer treatment has altered from conventional chemotherapy to targeted treatment, which now has been turned to the immunotherapy. Translational research has played an irreplaceable role during this progression which graphic evolution has witnessed. The evolution has gone through forest plot, KM-curve, waterfall plot, spider plot and timeline-area, showing us the refining concept and gradual process of lung cancer treatment undergoing from community towards individual. Even though the latest immunotherapy is getting increasingly hot, the result isn't quite expected. Meanwhile, the limitations of conventional treatment still exist which require further research. This article will primarily illustrate the development of translational research of lung cancer via the aspect of curve evolution and analysis some abortive clinical trials in lung cancer surgery for inspiring the next graphic style and lung cancer treatment. PMID:27335306

  11. NCI Community Oncology Research Program (NCORP) | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The NCI Community Oncology Research Program (NCORP) is a national network of cancer care investigators, providers, academia, and other organizations that care for diverse populations in health systems. View the list of publications from NCORP. | Clinical Trials network of cancer care professionals who care for diverse populations across the U.S.

  12. Psychological Issues in Cancer Genetics: Current Research and Future Priorities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopwood, Penelope

    1997-01-01

    Data concerning the psychological impact of high risk of cancer are reviewed, including implications of genetic testing, breast screening,and accuracy of women's risk estimates. Work in progress on prophylactic mastectomy and chemoprevention is reviewed. Research on cancer families, and interventions and prevention strategies for high-risk…

  13. Biospecimen Core Resource - Office of Cancer Clinical Proteomics Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    The purpose of this notice is to notify the community that the National Cancer Institute's (NCI’s) Office of Cancer Clinical Proteomics Research (OCCPR) is seeking sources to establish a Biospecimen Core Resource (BCR), capable of receiving, qualifying, processing, and distributing annotated biospecimens.

  14. Does cancer research focus on areas of importance to patients?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moorcraft, Sing Yu; Sangha, Amrit; Peckitt, Clare; Sanchez, Rodrigo; Lee, Martin; Pattison, Natalie; Wiseman, Theresa

    2016-01-01

    The majority of research ideas are proposed by clinicians or scientists and little is currently known about which areas of research patients feel are important. We performed a 4 week pilot patient survey at the Royal Marsden (a specialist cancer centre) to investigate patients' views on priorities for cancer research. A total of 780 patients completed the survey and the top research priorities were identified as: detection and prevention of cancer, scientific understanding, curative treatment and personalised treatment. The top research priorities were remarkably consistent across age, gender and a variety of tumour types. We believe that patients' views should be considered alongside those of clinicians and researchers when devising research proposals and strategies.

  15. Development, implementation and evaluation of a multidisciplinary cancer rehabilitation programme : The CANSURVIVOR Project : meeting post-treatment cancer survivors’ needs

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ivers, Mary E.

    2009-01-01

    Cancer survivor numbers in Ireland are increasing due to the success of modern treatments. Although most survivors have a good quality of life not all survivors return to \\'normal\\' after treatment. The HSE funded CANSURVIVOR research project has found that many survivors have difficulties and need help to recover and adjust after cancer treatment. Over a number of exploratory studies using interviews, focus groups and a survey of 262 breast, prostate, colorectal and lung cancer survivors, the researchers found that over 25% of survivors experienced significant difficulties with physical, emotional and social functioning, including symptoms such as insomnia and fatigue, while 33% experienced high levels of anxiety. Of particular concern were the findings that over 50% of survivors were overweight, 35% had reduced their physical activity levels and 13% continued to smoke after cancer, putting them at risk for further health problems. This evidence led to the development of an 8-week multi-disciplinary pilot rehabilitation programme. Significant quality of life improvements were achieved with increases in strength and fitness as well as a reduction in anxiety levels and dietary improvements. The researchers highlight the need for a structured, co-ordinated survivorship service, education of health professionals about survivorship and the provision of high quality information to survivors. This research was led by the School of Psychology at UCD in collaboration with the Physiotherapy and Nutrition departments of St. Vincent\\'s hospital.

  16. Statistical study on cancer patients of cancer research hospital

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The total number of malignant neoplasms included on this study 7,787 cases(10.4%) among 74,928 cases for 2 years. On sex, females with 57.6% were much more than males with 42.4%. The highest proportion of cancer 50-59 age group. The most frequent primary site among males was found to be stomach with 36.2%, followed by liver(12.3%), lung(12.2%), esophagus(15.5%) and larynx(4.9%). In females, the first order was uterine cervix with 47.3%, followed most common type of morphology of malignant neoplasms was adenocarcinoma(39.0%) in males an squamous cell carcinoma(56.2%) in females. Among the cancer patients initially diagnosed in this hospital, the proportion of malignant neoplasms by the extent of disease was 4.6% for patient with carcinoma-in-situ, 76.3% for patients with localized involvement, 11.6% for patients with regional involvement and 7.5% for patients with distant involvement. Among,the cancer patients initially treatment in this hospital, the proportion of malignant neoplasms by the method of treatment was 19.0% for surgery, 27.7 for radiotherapy and 24.2% for chemotherapy. Among the cancer patients confirmed by medical records, 11.2% was traced more than 5 years. (Author)

  17. Building capacity for sustainable research programmes for cancer in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adewole, Isaac; Martin, Damali N; Williams, Makeda J; Adebamowo, Clement; Bhatia, Kishor; Berling, Christine; Casper, Corey; Elshamy, Karima; Elzawawy, Ahmed; Lawlor, Rita T; Legood, Rosa; Mbulaiteye, Sam M; Odedina, Folakemi T; Olopade, Olufunmilayo I; Olopade, Christopher O; Parkin, Donald M; Rebbeck, Timothy R; Ross, Hana; Santini, Luiz A; Torode, Julie; Trimble, Edward L; Wild, Christopher P; Young, Annie M; Kerr, David J

    2014-05-01

    Cancer research in Africa will have a pivotal role in cancer control planning in this continent. However, environments (such as those in academic or clinical settings) with limited research infrastructure (laboratories, biorespositories, databases) coupled with inadequate funding and other resources have hampered African scientists from carrying out rigorous research. In September 2012, over 100 scientists with expertise in cancer research in Africa met in London to discuss the challenges in performing high-quality research, and to formulate the next steps for building sustainable, comprehensive and multi-disciplinary programmes relevant to Africa. This was the first meeting among five major organizations: the African Organisation for Research and Training in Africa (AORTIC), the Africa Oxford Cancer Foundation (AfrOx), and the National Cancer Institutes (NCI) of Brazil, France and the USA. This article summarizes the discussions and recommendations of this meeting, including the next steps required to create sustainable and impactful research programmes that will enable evidenced-based cancer control approaches and planning at the local, regional and national levels.

  18. Researchers Find 8 Immune Genes in Aggressive Brain Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 159031.html Researchers Find 8 Immune Genes in Aggressive Brain Cancer Discovery might eventually lead to better ... tissue samples from 170 people with a less aggressive type of brain tumor. This led to the ...

  19. What's New in Ovarian Cancer Research and Treatment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... escape to close saved articles window. My Saved Articles » My ACS ... new in ovarian cancer research and treatment? Risk factors and causes Scientists continue to study the genes responsible for familial ...

  20. A Review of Barriers to Minorities' Participation in Cancer Clinical Trials: Implications for Future Cancer Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salman, Ali; Nguyen, Claire; Lee, Yi-Hui; Cooksey-James, Tawna

    2016-04-01

    To enhance nurses' awareness and competencies in practice and research by reporting the common barriers to participation of minorities in cancer clinical trials and discussing facilitators and useful strategies for recruitment. Several databases were searched for articles published in peer reviewed journals. Some of the barriers to minorities' participation in clinical trials were identified within the cultural social-context of cancer patients. The involvement of community networking was suggested as the most effective strategy for the recruitment of minorities in cancer clinical trials. Using culturally sensitive approaches to enhance ethnic minorities' participation is important for advancing cancer care and eliminating health disparities. Awareness of barriers and potential facilitators to the enrollment of ethnic minority cancer patients may contribute to enhancing nurses' competencies of recruiting ethnic minorities in nursing research, playing efficient roles in cancer clinical trials team, and providing culturally competent quality care. PMID:25822567

  1. Gastric cancer research in Mexico: a public health priority.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampieri, Clara Luz; Mora, Mauricio

    2014-04-28

    This study aimed review studies conducted on Mexican patients diagnosed with gastric cancer and/or diseases associated with its development, in which at least one Mexican institute has participated, and to assess their contributions to the primary and secondary prevention of this disease. A search of the Medline database was conducted using the following keywords: gastric/stomach cancer, Mexico. Studies of the Mexican population were selected in which at least one Mexican Institute had participated and where the findings could support public policy proposals directed towards the primary or secondary prevention of gastric cancer. Of the 148 studies found in the Medline database, 100 were discarded and 48 were reviewed. According to the analysis presented, these studies were classified as: epidemiology of gastric cancer (5/48); risk factors and protectors relating to gastric cancer (9/48); relationship between Helicobacter pylori and pathologies associated with gastric cancer and the development of the disease (16/48); relationship between the Epstein-Barr virus and pathologies associated with gastric cancer and the development of the disease (3/48); molecular markers for the development of diseases associated with gastric cancer and gastric cancer (15/48). Mexico requires a program for the prevention and control of gastric cancer based on national health indicators. This should be produced by a multidisciplinary committee of experts who can propose actions that are relevant in the current national context. The few studies of gastric cancer conducted on the Mexican population in national institutes highlight the poor connection that currently exists between the scientific community and the health sector in terms of resolving this health issue. Public policies for health research should support projects with findings that can be translated into benefits for the population. This review serves to identify national research groups studying gastric cancer in the Mexican

  2. Gastric cancer research in Mexico: A public health priority

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampieri, Clara Luz; Mora, Mauricio

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed review studies conducted on Mexican patients diagnosed with gastric cancer and/or diseases associated with its development, in which at least one Mexican institute has participated, and to assess their contributions to the primary and secondary prevention of this disease. A search of the Medline database was conducted using the following keywords: gastric/stomach cancer, Mexico. Studies of the Mexican population were selected in which at least one Mexican Institute had participated and where the findings could support public policy proposals directed towards the primary or secondary prevention of gastric cancer. Of the 148 studies found in the Medline database, 100 were discarded and 48 were reviewed. According to the analysis presented, these studies were classified as: epidemiology of gastric cancer (5/48); risk factors and protectors relating to gastric cancer (9/48); relationship between Helicobacter pylori and pathologies associated with gastric cancer and the development of the disease (16/48); relationship between the Epstein-Barr virus and pathologies associated with gastric cancer and the development of the disease (3/48); molecular markers for the development of diseases associated with gastric cancer and gastric cancer (15/48). Mexico requires a program for the prevention and control of gastric cancer based on national health indicators. This should be produced by a multidisciplinary committee of experts who can propose actions that are relevant in the current national context. The few studies of gastric cancer conducted on the Mexican population in national institutes highlight the poor connection that currently exists between the scientific community and the health sector in terms of resolving this health issue. Public policies for health research should support projects with findings that can be translated into benefits for the population. This review serves to identify national research groups studying gastric cancer in the Mexican

  3. Statistical study on cancer patients of cancer research hospital

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The total number of malignant neoplasms included in this study 15,737 cases(11.8%) among 133,251 cases for 3 years. On sex, females with 52.9% were much more than males with 47.1%. The highest proportion of cancer patients by age was 33.7% in males and 28.5% in females, respectivelty for 50-59 age group. The most frequent primary site among males was found to be stomach with 35.5%, followed by liver(14.7%), lung(13.0%), esophagus(5.4%) and colon (3.2%). In females, the first order was uterine cervix with 40.6%, followed by stomach(17.2%), breast(14.4), rectum(3.7%) and lung(3.4%). The most common type of morphology of malignant neoplasms was adenocarcinoma(47.4%) in males an squamous cell carcinoma(58.0%) in females. Among the cancer patients initially diagnosed in this hospital, the proportion of malignant neoplasms by the exent of disease was 2.5% for patient with carcinoma-in-situ, 54.1% for patients with localized involvement, 13.3% for patients with regional involvement and 8.5% for patients with distant involvement. Among the cancer patients initially treatment in this hospital, the proportion of malignant neoplasms by the method of treatment was 23.6% for surgery, 25.3% for radiotherapy and 30.3% for chemotherapy. Among the cancer patients confirmed by medical records, 7.7% was traced more than 5 years. (Author)

  4. The Continuing Umbrella of Research Experiences (CURE): A Model for Training Underserved Scientists in Cancer Research

    OpenAIRE

    Franco, Idalid; Bailey, LeeAnn O.; Bakos, Alexis D.; Springfield, Sanya A.

    2010-01-01

    Mentoring is a critical aspect of research and training; and the adoption of a successful mentoring model for guiding researchers through the educational pipeline is lacking. The Continuing Umbrella of Research Experiences (CURE) program was established in the Comprehensive Minority Biomedical Branch; which is part of the National Cancer Institute. This program offers unique training and career development opportunities to enhance diversity in cancer research. The CURE initiative focuses on b...

  5. “Psychosocial Interventions for Cancer Survivors, Caregivers and Family Members—One Size Does Not Fit All: My Perspective as a Young Adult Survivor, Advocate and Oncology Social Worker” a personal reflection by Mary Grace Bontempo - Office of Cancer Survivorship

    Science.gov (United States)

    “Psychosocial Interventions for Cancer Survivors, Caregivers and Family Members—One Size Does Not Fit All: My Perspective as a Young Adult Survivor, Advocate and Oncology Social Worker” a personal reflection by Mary Grace Bontempo page

  6. Expose-R experiment on effects of open space condition on survivorship in dormant stages of aquatic invertebrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alekseev, Victor; Novikova, Nataliya; Levinskikh, Margarita; Sychev, Vladimir; Yusoff, Fatimah; Azuraidi, Osman

    2012-07-01

    Dormancy protects animals and plants in harsh environmental conditions from months up to hundred years. This phenomenon is perspective for space researches especially for interplanetary missions. Direct experiments in open space BYORYSK supported in principle the fact of survivorship of bacteria, fungi spores, seed of plants and crustacean dormant cysts. Even though the rate of survivorship in long-term treatments was low but good enough to conclude that biological invasion even to Mars is a real danger. As soon as the BYORYSK lunch was made of metal the possibility for resting stages to survive under UV treatment in vacuum without some protection was not clear. To test it an ESA and RSA equipment titled EXPOSE-R was applied. The EXPOSE-R facility was an external facility attached to the outside of the Zvezda Service Module in ISS in the end of November 2008. It had glace windows transparent for UV-radiation and possibility to measure temperature, space- and UV-radiation. Among a number of experiments requiring exposure to the open space environment it had a biological launch containing resting stages of terrestrial and aquatic organisms. These stages included dried ephippia of cladoceran Daphnia magna differentiated on size, dormant eggs of ostracode Eucypris ornate, cysts of fair-shrimp Streptocephalus torvicornis ( all from hemi desert Caspian area) and Artemis salina from salt lake Crimean populations. All dormant stages were kept in transparent to UV plastic bags placed in three layers. After about two years of exposing in open space dormant stages of 3 species A. salina, D. magna, S. torvicornis successfully survived at different scales but in second and third layers only . The highest level of survivorship was found in A. salina cysts. In preliminary land experiments that imitated land EXPOSE imitation of outside space station UV and vacuum conditions survivorship in resting eggs of D .magna, S. torvicornis and E. ornate was tested also. The total UV dose of

  7. Advances in cancer research. Volume 41

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klein, G.; Weinhouse, S.

    1984-01-01

    This book contains seven chapters. They are: The Epidemiology of Diet and Cancer; Molecular Aspects of Immunoglobin Expression by Human B Cell Leukemias and Lymphomas; Mouse Mammary Tumor Virus: Transcriptional Control and Involvement in Tumorigenesis; Dominant Susceptibility to Cancer in Man; Multiple Myeloma; Waldenstreom's Macroglobulinemia, and Benign Monoclonal Gammopathy: Characteristics of the B Cell Clone, Immunoregulatory Cell Populations and Clinical Implications; Idiotype Network Interactions in Tumor Immunity; and Chromosomal Location of Immunoglobulin Genes: Partial Mapping of these Genes in the Rabbit and Comparison with Ig Genes Carrying Chromosomes of Man and Mouse.

  8. Selected National Cancer Institute Breast Cancer Research Topics | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Find Out More MedlinePlus: Breast Cancer medlineplus.gov/breastcancer.html National Cancer Institute, NIH, HHS Phone Number(s): ( ... Treatment-Research-Studies MedlinePlus tutorial medlineplus.gov/tutorials/breastcancer/htm/index.htm NIH Senior Health http://nihseniorhealth. ...

  9. Brain Cancer in Workers Employed at a Laboratory Research Facility.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James J Collins

    Full Text Available An earlier study of research facility workers found more brain cancer deaths than expected, but no workplace exposures were implicated.Adding four additional years of vital-status follow-up, we reassessed the risk of death from brain cancer in the same workforce, including 5,284 workers employed between 1963, when the facility opened, and 2007. We compared the work histories of the brain cancer decedents in relationship to when they died and their ages at death.As in most other studies of laboratory and research workers, we found low rates of total mortality, total cancers, accidents, suicides, and chronic conditions such as heart disease and diabetes. We found no new brain cancer deaths in the four years of additional follow-up. Our best estimate of the brain cancer standardized mortality ratio (SMR was 1.32 (95% confidence interval [95% CI] 0.66-2.37, but the SMR might have been as high as 1.69. Deaths from benign brain tumors and other non-malignant diseases of the nervous system were at or below expected levels.With the addition of four more years of follow-up and in the absence of any new brain cancers, the updated estimate of the risk of brain cancer death is smaller than in the original study. There was no consistent pattern among the work histories of decedents that indicated a common causative exposure.

  10. Pancreatic Cancer: Updates on Translational Research and Future Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evangelos G Sarris

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Pancreatic cancer is one of the most lethal malignancies with a mortality rate almost equal to its incidence. It is ranked as the fourth leading cause of cancer-related deaths in the United States, and despite intensive basic and clinical research over the last few years, the survival benefit for the majority of patients with pancreatic cancer is still disappointing. Due to the absence of specific symptoms and the lack of early detection tests, pancreatic cancer is usually diagnosed at an advanced inoperrable stage and palliative chemotherapy with the purine analogue gemcitabine in combination with the targeted agent erlotinib, remains the mainstay method in the management of these patients. Therefore, there is an imperative need for new findings in the translational research field with prognostic, predictive and therapeutic value. In this paper we summarize five most interesting research abstracts as presented at the 2013 American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO Gastrointestinal Cancers Symposium. In particular, we focus on Abstract #141 which investigates the interaction between liver and pancreatic organ damage in patients with pancreatic cancer and the potential contribution of the patatin-like phospholipase domain containing 3 (PNPLA3 gene variation in pancreatic cancer development and on Abstract #149, in which, the prognostic and predictive role of SWI/SNF complex, a chromatin-remodeling complex, is examined. The key role of pharmacogenomics, in terms of predicting response and resistance to chemotherapy in pancreatic cancer patients, is analyzed in Abstract #142 and the contribution of circulating tumor cell detection in the early diagnosis of pancreatic cancer, allowing the avoidance of more invasive procedures like EUS-FNA, is discussed in Abstract #157. Lastly, in Abstract #164, the diagnostic utility of YKL-40 and IL-6 in pancreatic cancer patients is investigated.

  11. Estrogen-mediated mechanisms to control the growth and apoptosis of breast cancer cells: a translational research success story.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDaniel, Russell E; Maximov, Philipp Y; Jordan, V Craig

    2013-01-01

    The treatment and prevention of solid tumors have proved to be a major challenge for medical science. The paradigms for success in the treatment of childhood leukemia, Hodgkin's disease, Burkett's lymphoma, and testicular carcinoma with cytotoxic chemotherapy did not translate to success in solid tumors--the majority of cancers that kill. In contrast, significant success has accrued for patients with breast cancer with antihormone treatments (tamoxifen or aromatase inhibitors) that are proved to enhance survivorship, and remarkably, there are now two approved prevention strategies using either tamoxifen or raloxifene. This was considered impossible 40 years ago. We describe the major clinical advances with nonsteroidal antiestrogens that evolved into selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs) which successfully exploited the ER target selectively inside a woman's body. The standard paradigm that estrogen stimulates breast cancer growth has been successfully exploited for over 4 decades with therapeutic strategies that block (tamoxifen, raloxifene) or reduce (aromatase inhibitors) circulating estrogens in patients to stop breast tumor growth. But this did not explain why high-dose estrogen treatment that was the standard of care to treat postmenopausal breast cancer for 3 decades before tamoxifen caused tumor regression. This paradox was resolved with the discovery that breast cancer resistance to long-term estrogen deprivation causes tumor regression with physiologic estrogen through apoptosis. The new biology of estrogen action has been utilized to explain the findings in the Women's Health Initiative that conjugated equine estrogen alone given to postmenopausal women, average age 68, will produce a reduction of breast cancer incidence and mortality compared to no treatment. Estrogen is killing nascent breast cancer cells in the ducts of healthy postmenopausal women. The modulation of the ER using multifunctional medicines called SERMs has provided not only

  12. Advances in cancer research. Volume 48

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klein, G.; Weinhouse, S.

    1987-01-01

    This book contains the following five selections: Oncotrophoblast Gene Expression: Placental Alkaline Phosphatase; Cellular Events during Hepatocarcinogenesis in Rats and the Questions of Premalignancy; Human Papillomaviruses and Genital Cancer; Herpes Simplex Type 2 Virus and Cervical Neoplasia; and Transforming Genes and Target Cells of Murine Spleen Focus-Forming Viruses.

  13. Lower Breast Cancer Risk among Women following the World Cancer Research Fund and American Institute for Cancer Research Lifestyle Recommendations: EpiGEICAM Case-Control Study

    OpenAIRE

    Adela Castelló; Miguel Martín; Amparo Ruiz; Casas, Ana M.; Baena-Cañada, Jose M; Virginia Lope; Silvia Antolín; Pedro Sánchez; Manuel Ramos; Antonio Antón; Montserrat Muñoz; Begoña Bermejo; Ana De Juan-Ferré; Carlos Jara; José I Chacón

    2015-01-01

    Background According to the “World Cancer Research Fund” and the “American Institute of Cancer Research” (WCRF/AICR) one in four cancer cases could be prevented through a healthy diet, weight control and physical activity. Objective To explore the association between the WCRF/AICR recommendations and risk of breast cancer. Methods During the period 2006 to 2011 we recruited 973 incident cases of breast cancer and 973 controls from 17 Spanish Regions. We constructed a score based on 9 of the W...

  14. Advancing cancer control research in an emerging news media environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Katherine C; Niederdeppe, Jeff; Blake, Kelly D; Cappella, Joseph N

    2013-12-01

    Cancer is both highly feared and highly newsworthy, and there is a robust body of research documenting the content and effects of cancer news coverage on health behaviors and policy. Recent years have witnessed ongoing, transformative shifts in American journalism alongside rapid advances in communication technology and the public information environment. These changes create a pressing need to consider a new set of research questions, sampling strategies, measurement techniques, and theories of media effects to ensure continued relevance and adaptation of communication research to address critical cancer control concerns. This paper begins by briefly reviewing what we know about the role of cancer news in shaping cancer-related beliefs, attitudes, behaviors, and policies. We then outline challenges and opportunities, both theoretical and methodological, posed by the rapidly changing news media environment and the nature of audience engagement. We organize our discussion around three major shifts associated with the emerging news media environment as it relates to health communication: 1) speed and dynamism of news diffusion, 2) increased narrowcasting of media content for specialized audiences, and 3) broadened participation in shaping media content. In so doing, we articulate a set of questions for future theory and research, in an effort to catalyze innovative communication scholarship to improve cancer prevention and control. PMID:24395988

  15. NIH researchers complete whole-exome sequencing of skin cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    A team led by researchers at NIH is the first to systematically survey the landscape of the melanoma genome, the DNA code of the deadliest form of skin cancer. The researchers have made surprising new discoveries using whole-exome sequencing, an approach that decodes the 1-2 percent of the genome that contains protein-coding genes.

  16. Work stress and cancer researchers: an exploration of the challenges, experiences and training needs of UK cancer researchers

    OpenAIRE

    Kennedy, F; Hicks, B.; Yarker, J

    2014-01-01

    Work stress is a significant issue for many UK healthcare professionals, in particular those working in the field of oncology. However, there have been very few attempts to explore the challenges, experiences or training needs of researchers working in cancer research. In doing so, we will be better positioned to support and develop these researchers. 18 UK oncology researchers from a variety of backgrounds took part in a semi-structured interview. Interviews were transcribed and analysed...

  17. Implementation of proteomics for cancer research: past, present, and future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi, Parisa; Shahrokni, Armin; Ranjbar, Mohammad R Nezami

    2014-01-01

    Cancer is the leading cause of the death, accounts for about 13% of all annual deaths worldwide. Many different fields of science are collaborating together studying cancer to improve our knowledge of this lethal disease, and find better solutions for diagnosis and treatment. Proteomics is one of the most recent and rapidly growing areas in molecular biology that helps understanding cancer from an omics data analysis point of view. The human proteome project was officially initiated in 2008. Proteomics enables the scientists to interrogate a variety of biospecimens for their protein contents and measure the concentrations of these proteins. Current necessary equipment and technologies for cancer proteomics are mass spectrometry, protein microarrays, nanotechnology and bioinformatics. In this paper, we provide a brief review on proteomics and its application in cancer research. After a brief introduction including its definition, we summarize the history of major previous work conducted by researchers, followed by an overview on the role of proteomics in cancer studies. We also provide a list of different utilities in cancer proteomics and investigate their advantages and shortcomings from theoretical and practical angles. Finally, we explore some of the main challenges and conclude the paper with future directions in this field. PMID:24761843

  18. Network for Translational Research - Cancer Imaging Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooperative agreement (U54) awards to establish Specialized Research Resource Centers that will participate as members of a network of inter-disciplinary, inter-institutional research teams for the purpose of supporting translational research in optical imaging and/or spectroscopy in vivo, with an emphasis on multiple modalities.

  19. Cancer immunotherapy out of the gate: the 22nd annual Cancer Research Institute International Immunotherapy Symposium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tontonoz, Matthew; Gee, Connie E

    2015-05-01

    The 22nd annual Cancer Research Institute (CRI) International Immunotherapy Symposium was held from October 5-8, 2014, in New York City. Titled "Cancer Immunotherapy: Out of the Gate," the symposium began with a Cancer Immunotherapy Consortium satellite meeting focused on issues in immunotherapy drug development, followed by five speaker sessions and a poster session devoted to basic and clinical cancer immunology research. The second annual William B. Coley lecture was delivered by Lieping Chen, one of the four recipients of the 2014 William B. Coley Award for Distinguished Research in Tumor Immunology; the other three recipients were Gordon Freeman, Tasuku Honjo, and Arlene Sharpe. Prominent themes of the conference were the use of genomic technologies to identify neoantigens and the emergence of new immune modulatory molecules, beyond CTLA-4 and PD-1/PD-L1, as new therapeutic targets for immunotherapy. PMID:25941356

  20. Cancer immunotherapy out of the gate: the 22nd annual Cancer Research Institute International Immunotherapy Symposium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tontonoz, Matthew; Gee, Connie E

    2015-05-01

    The 22nd annual Cancer Research Institute (CRI) International Immunotherapy Symposium was held from October 5-8, 2014, in New York City. Titled "Cancer Immunotherapy: Out of the Gate," the symposium began with a Cancer Immunotherapy Consortium satellite meeting focused on issues in immunotherapy drug development, followed by five speaker sessions and a poster session devoted to basic and clinical cancer immunology research. The second annual William B. Coley lecture was delivered by Lieping Chen, one of the four recipients of the 2014 William B. Coley Award for Distinguished Research in Tumor Immunology; the other three recipients were Gordon Freeman, Tasuku Honjo, and Arlene Sharpe. Prominent themes of the conference were the use of genomic technologies to identify neoantigens and the emergence of new immune modulatory molecules, beyond CTLA-4 and PD-1/PD-L1, as new therapeutic targets for immunotherapy.

  1. Multimorbidity and cancer outcomes: a need for more research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sørensen HT

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Henrik Toft Sørensen Editor in Chief Department of Clinical Epidemiology, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus, DenmarkCancer incidence increases with age, and about 43% of men and 30% of women aged 65 will develop cancer in their remaining lifetimes.1 The global population is rapidly aging, and by 2030 about 70% of cancer in, for example, the US, will be diagnosed in older patients.2 Fortunately, cancer survival has improved and 5-year survival exceeds 80% for many common cancers.3 As a result of these two complementary trends, the population of cancer survivors is growing at a rate of almost 2% per year.4As comorbidities accumulate with age, the number of patients with multimorbidity, ie, the coexistence of several chronic diseases, is increasing dramatically.5 In the US, about 80% of Medicare funds are spent on patients with four or more chronic conditions. Multimorbidity is associated with mortality, disability, low functional status, and risks of adverse drug events.6,7Clinical and epidemiological research on cancer prognosis has mainly focused on cancers in isolation, ignoring the impact of comorbidity and co-medication on the risk of complications and mortality. Comorbidity is a medical condition that exists at the time of diagnosis of the cancer or later, but which is not a consequence of the cancer itself.8Comorbidity is common in cancer patients, who often have adverse lifestyle factors such as alcohol use, obesity, and smoking, which cause other chronic diseases. Thus, many cancer patients have chronic disorders such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, acute myocardial infarction, stroke, metabolic syndrome, and osteoporosis.9–13 With the growing population of elderly patients with cancer and other chronic diseases, modern medicine will need to address multiple medical problems at once, focusing on mortality, treatment complications, quality of life, and implications for screening.7,14 In this issue of Clinical Epidemiology

  2. Mortality of western corn rootworm larvae on MIR604 transgenic maize roots: field survivorship has no significant impact on survivorship of F1 progeny on MIR604.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hibbard, Bruce E; Clark, Thomas L; Ellersieck, Mark R; Meihls, Lisa N; El Khishen, Ahmed A; Kaster, Von; Steiner, Henry-York; Kurtz, Ryan

    2010-12-01

    Mortality of western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte, larvae due to MIR604 transgenic corn, Zea mays L., expressing the modified Cry3A (mCry3A) protein relative to survivorship on corn with the same genetic background without the gene (isoline corn) was evaluated at three Missouri sites in both 2005 and 2006. We made these comparisons by using wild-type western corn rootworm at three different egg densities (6,000, 3,000, and 1,500 eggs per m) so that the role of density-dependent mortality would be known. The mortality due to the mCry3A protein was 94.88% when averaged across all environments and both years. Fifty percent emergence of beetles was delayed approximately 5.5 d. Beetles were kept alive and their progeny evaluated on MIR604 and isoline corn in the greenhouse to determine whether survivorship on MIR604 in the field for one generation increased survivorship on MIR604 in the greenhouse in the subsequent generation. There was no significant difference in survivorship on MIR604 in greenhouse assays between larvae whose parents survived isoline and larvae whose parents survived MIR604 in the field the previous generation, indicating that many susceptible beetles survived MIR604 in the field the previous season along with any potentially resistant beetles. The data are discussed in terms of rootworm insect resistance management.

  3. Mortality of western corn rootworm larvae on MIR604 transgenic maize roots: field survivorship has no impact on survivorship of F1 progeny on MIR604

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortality of western corn rootworm (Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte) larvae due to MIR604 transgenic corn (Zea mays L.) expressing the modified Cry3A (mCry3A) protein relative to survivorship on corn with the same genetic background without the gene (isoline corn) was evaluated at three Misso...

  4. Exercise and cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knobf, M Tish; Winters-Stone, Kerri

    2013-01-01

    There are an estimated 13.7 million cancer survivors in the United States. Persistent and late effects of cancer therapy have contributed to an increased risk for co-morbid illness and higher all-cause mortality. Physical exercise is a targeted rehabilitative intervention following cancer therapy and a health promotion risk reduction intervention for patients as they transition into survivorship. This chapter provides a brief overview of the research on exercise and cancer survivor outcomes with a specific focus on randomized controlled trials (RCT) on the effects of exercise on body composition and bone health. There were 17 RCT trials that were identified with body composition outcomes. There was no change in weight in 16/17 trials, 4 reported decreases in percent fat mass and 2 reported increases in lean mass. Eight exercise trials were identified with bone outcomes, two of which had pharmacologic comparison arms. These trials demonstrated preservation of bone in the intervention group compared with loss in the usual care or placebo control group. The majority of trials were with breast cancer survivors, the largest survivor group. Many are overweight or obese at diagnosis; weight gain continues to increase after therapy; and treatment is associated with bone loss. The findings of the 25 trials reviewed suggest that exercise maintains weight and bone mass in a high risk population. However, differences in design, measurement of body composition and bone mass and lack of targeted exercise to the specific outcomes warrants additional research to improve the quality of life for survivors.

  5. Public figure announcements about cancer and opportunities for cancer communication: a review and research agenda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noar, Seth M; Willoughby, Jessica Fitts; Myrick, Jessica Gall; Brown, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    Announcements by public figures and celebrities about cancer diagnosis or death represent significant events in public life. But what are the substantive effects of such events, if any? The purpose of this article is to systematically review studies that examined the impact of public figure cancer announcements on cancer-oriented outcomes. Using comprehensive search procedures, we identified k = 19 studies that examined 11 distinct public figures. The most commonly studied public figures were Jade Goody, Kylie Minogue, Nancy Reagan, and Steve Jobs, with the most common cancers studied being breast (53%), cervical (21%), and pancreatic (21%) cancer. Most studies assessed multiple outcome variables, including behavioral outcomes (k = 15), media coverage (k = 10), information seeking (k = 8), cancer incidence (k = 3), and interpersonal communication (k = 2). Results fairly consistently indicated that cancer announcements from public figures had meaningful effects on many, if not most, of these outcome variables. While such events essentially act as naturally occurring interventions, the effects tend to be relatively short term. Gaps in this literature include few contemporary studies of high-profile public figures in the United States and a general lack of theory-based research. Directions for future research as well as implications for cancer communication and prevention are discussed. PMID:23845155

  6. Public figure announcements about cancer and opportunities for cancer communication: a review and research agenda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noar, Seth M; Willoughby, Jessica Fitts; Myrick, Jessica Gall; Brown, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    Announcements by public figures and celebrities about cancer diagnosis or death represent significant events in public life. But what are the substantive effects of such events, if any? The purpose of this article is to systematically review studies that examined the impact of public figure cancer announcements on cancer-oriented outcomes. Using comprehensive search procedures, we identified k = 19 studies that examined 11 distinct public figures. The most commonly studied public figures were Jade Goody, Kylie Minogue, Nancy Reagan, and Steve Jobs, with the most common cancers studied being breast (53%), cervical (21%), and pancreatic (21%) cancer. Most studies assessed multiple outcome variables, including behavioral outcomes (k = 15), media coverage (k = 10), information seeking (k = 8), cancer incidence (k = 3), and interpersonal communication (k = 2). Results fairly consistently indicated that cancer announcements from public figures had meaningful effects on many, if not most, of these outcome variables. While such events essentially act as naturally occurring interventions, the effects tend to be relatively short term. Gaps in this literature include few contemporary studies of high-profile public figures in the United States and a general lack of theory-based research. Directions for future research as well as implications for cancer communication and prevention are discussed.

  7. The Aurora kinase inhibitors in cancer research and therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cicenas, Jonas

    2016-09-01

    Compounds that affect enzymatic function of kinases are valuable for the understanding of the complex biochemical processes in cells. Aurora kinases (AURKs) play a key role in the control of the mitosis. These kinases are frequently deregulated in different human cancers: overexpression, amplifications, translocations and deletions were reported in many cancer cell lines as well as patient tissues. These findings steered a rigorous hunt for small-molecule AURK inhibitors not only for research purposes as well as for therapeutic uses. In this review, we describe a number of AURK inhibitors and their use in cancer research and/or therapy. We hope to assist researchers and clinicians in deciding which inhibitor is most appropriate for their specific purpose. The review will also provide a broad overview of the clinical studies performed with some of these inhibitors (if such studies have been performed). PMID:26932147

  8. 78 FR 25448 - Announcement of Requirements and Registration for “Crowds Care for Cancer: Supporting Survivors...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-01

    ... coordination can help improve end-of-treatment consultations and care planning for cancer survivors. Innovative... from their providers and survivorship care plans to improve communication and coordination within their... from their providers and survivorship care plans to improve ] communication and coordination...

  9. A review of cervical cancer research in malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaridah, S

    2014-08-01

    Despite cervical cancer being potentially preventable, it is the second most common cancer among women in Malaysia. One hundred and five articles related to Cervical Cancer were found in a search through a database dedicated to indexing all original data relevant to medicine published in Malaysia between the years 2000-2013. Fifty seven articles were selected and reviewed for the articles' clinical relevance and future research implications. This article reviews the various aspects of cervical cancer in Malaysia, mainly persistent infection of high risk human papillomavirus (HPV), primary prevention (HPV vaccination), screening method (Pap smear issues), and the attitude and knowledge of various groups of Malaysian women that contributed to the failure to reduce the incidence and mortality of cervical cancer. Most of the studies focused on prevention, Pap smear issues, HPV DNA testing, HPV vaccination and various recommendations for prevention of cervical cancer. Secondary prevention by screening is still an important aspect because even with HPV vaccination, screening still plays an important role as vaccination does not cover all high risk HPVs. There is a need to seriously consider a properly organised screening programme, taking into consideration what we already know about the attitude and knowledge of Malaysian women, economic factors and psychosocial issues of the screening method. There is also a large gap in clinical studies on the outcome, management and survival of cervical cancer patients in Malaysia. PMID:25417949

  10. Advanced Research on Circulating Tumor Cells in Lung Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui LI

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Lung cancer is the malignant disease with the highest rate in terms of incidence and mortality in China. Early diagnosis and timely monitoring tumor recurrence and metastasis are extremely important for improving 5-year survival rate of lung cancer patients. Circulating tumor cells (CTCs, as a "liquid biopsy specimens” for the primary tumor, provide the possibility to perform real-time, non-invasive histological identification for lung cancer patients. The detection of CTCs contributes to early diagnosis, surveillance of tumor recurrence and metastasis, and prediction of therapeutic efficacy and prognosis. Furthermore, CTCs-dependent detection emerges as a new approach for molecularly pathologic examination, study of molecular mechanisms involved in drug resistance, and resolution for tumor heterogeneity. This study reviewed the recent progress of CTCs in lung cancer research field.

  11. Research advances in traditional Chinese medicine syndromes in cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Qing; Luo, Yun-quan; Wang, Wen-hai; Liu, Xuan; Li, Qi; Su, Shi-bing

    2016-01-01

    Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) syndrome, also known as TCM ZHENG or TCM pattern, is an integral and essential part of TCM theory that helps to guide the design of individualized treatments. A TCM syndrome, in essence, is a characteristic profile of all clinical manifestations in one patient that can be readily identified by a TCM practitioner. In this article, the authors reviewed the presentations of TCM syndromes in seven common malignancies (liver, lung, gastric, breast, colorectal, pancreatic and esophageal cancers), the objectivity and the standardization of TCM syndrome differentiation, the evaluation of TCM syndrome modeling in cancer research, and syndrome differentiation-guided TCM treatment of cancers. A better understanding of TCM syndrome theory, as well as its potential biological basis, may contribute greatly to the clinical TCM diagnosis and the treatment of cancer.

  12. Cancer therapies in HIV cure research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Thomas A; Anderson, Jenny L; Wightman, Fiona;

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This article provides an overview of anticancer therapies in various stages of clinical development as potential interventions to target HIV persistence. RECENT FINDINGS: Epigenetic drugs developed for cancer have been investigated in vitro, ex vivo and in clinical trials...... as interventions aimed at reversing HIV latency and depleting the amount of virus that persists on antiretroviral therapy. Treatment with histone deacetylase inhibitors induced HIV expression in patients on antiretroviral therapy but did not reduce the frequency of infected cells. Other interventions that may...... accelerate the decay of latently infected cells, in the presence or absence of latency-reversing therapy, are now being explored. These include apoptosis-promoting agents, nonhistone deacetylase inhibitor compounds to reverse HIV latency and immunotherapy interventions to enhance antiviral immunity...

  13. Research Donor Program Needs Your Help to Advance Cancer and AIDS Research | Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    NCI at Frederick employees have a unique opportunity to contribute directly to cancer and AIDS research by donating blood, saliva, and other samples through the Research Donor Program (RDP). Donors are compensated for their time, which is typically between 10 and 30 minutes. The RDP, which is administered by Occupational Health Services (OHS), Leidos Biomedical Research, provides samples from healthy donors for use in in vitro research conducted at NCI at Frederick and Fort Detrick. Samples are provided anonymously to researchers.

  14. Applications of slow positrons to cancer research: Search for selectivity of positron annihilation to skin cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jean, Y.C. [Department of Chemistry, University of Missouri-Kansas City, 205 Spenscer Chemistry Building, 5009 Rockhill Road, Kansas City, MO 64110 (United States)]. E-mail: jeany@umkc.edu; Li Ying [Department of Chemistry, University of Missouri-Kansas City, 205 Spenscer Chemistry Building, 5009 Rockhill Road, Kansas City, MO 64110 (United States); Liu Gaung [Department of Chemistry, University of Missouri-Kansas City, 205 Spenscer Chemistry Building, 5009 Rockhill Road, Kansas City, MO 64110 (United States); Chen, Hongmin [Department of Chemistry, University of Missouri-Kansas City, 205 Spenscer Chemistry Building, 5009 Rockhill Road, Kansas City, MO 64110 (United States); Zhang Junjie [Department of Chemistry, University of Missouri-Kansas City, 205 Spenscer Chemistry Building, 5009 Rockhill Road, Kansas City, MO 64110 (United States); Gadzia, Joseph E. [Dermatology, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, KS 66103 (United States); Kansas Medical Clinic, Topeka, KS 66614 (United States)

    2006-02-28

    Slow positrons and positron annihilation spectroscopy (PAS) have been applied to medical research in searching for positron annihilation selectivity to cancer cells. We report the results of positron lifetime and Doppler broadening energy spectroscopies in human skin samples with and without cancer as a function of positron incident energy (up to 8 {mu}m depth) and found that the positronium annihilates at a significantly lower rate and forms at a lower probability in the samples having either basal cell carcinoma (BCC) or squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) than in the normal skin. The significant selectivity of positron annihilation to skin cancer may open a new research area of developing positron annihilation spectroscopy as a novel medical tool to detect cancer formation externally and non-invasively at the early stages.

  15. Self-esteem and hopefulness in adolescents with cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritchie, M A

    2001-02-01

    Increased survivorship in childhood cancer has raised questions about adolescents' psychosocial functioning during the treatment experience and long-term adaptation as cancer survivors. This descriptive correlation study examines the relationships among the stages of adolescence, gender, self-esteem, and hopefulness in a sample of 45 adolescents with cancer. The perceived level of self-esteem was measured by using the Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory; the amount of hopefulness was measured by using the Hopefulness Scale for Adolescents. Mean scores for self-esteem and hopefulness were comparable to normative data reported for healthy adolescents on each scale. Perceived level of self-esteem and hopefulness did not significantly differ between boys and girls overall; early, middle, and late adolescents; or between boys and girls within each stage of adolescence. A stepwise multiple regression analysis showed self-esteem and the early stage of adolescence accounted for 27.3% (R2 = .306) of the variance in hopefulness scores. Self-esteem was the most significant predictor (F = 12.456, p = .001), explaining 20.7% of the variance (R2 = .225, p = .001). This study contributes to nursing the knowledge of the psychosocial response and the treatment experience in adolescents with cancer. These results can be used in future research to develop and test nursing actions that can influence a perceived sense of self-esteem and hopefulness and potentially allow for continued psychosocial development and effective coping among these adolescents during treatment and into survivorship. PMID:11247523

  16. Translational genomics in cancer research:converting proifles into personalized cancer medicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lalit Patel; Brittany Parker; Da Yang; Wei Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Cancer genomics is a rapidly growing discipline in which the genetic molecular basis of malignancy is studied at the scale of whole genomes. While the discipline has been successful with respect to identifying specific oncogenes and tumor suppressors involved in oncogenesis, it is also challenging our approach to managing patients suffering from this deadly disease. Speciifcally cancer genomics is driving clinical oncology to take a more molecular approach to diagnosis, prognostication, and treatment selection. We review here recent work undertaken in cancer genomics with an emphasis on translation of genomic ifndings. Finally, we discuss scientiifc challenges and research opportunities emerging from ifndings derived through analysis of tumors with high-depth sequencing.

  17. Prevention and Treatment of Cancer: Hypes and Hopes 6th International Translational Cancer Research Conference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Prabhudas; Vora, Hemangini; Aggarwal, Bharat B; Gandhi, Varsha; Mehta, Kapil; Pathak, Sen

    2016-09-01

    Cancer is primarily an "old-age" disease that has an "age-old" history. The overall incidence of cancer is much higher in Western countries, but is rapidly growing in Eastern countries perhaps due to change in life-style. Almost three million studies published to date indicate that cancer is a hyperproliferative disorder that arises from dysregulation of multiple cell signaling pathways. The cancer genome landscape indicates that approximately 140 genes and 12 cell signaling pathways drive almost all cancers. "Targeted therapy," a buzz word in cancer treatment for the past two decades, has provided antibodies, as well as small-molecule inhibitors. These therapies have been successful only in few instances. However, in most cases, minor increase in overall survival has been reported at the cost of huge expense. An alternative strategy is to prevent cancer or to diagnose and treat the disease at an early stage to gain survival benefits. Such interventions are also cost-effective. To address some of these issues, the 6th International Translational Cancer Research Conference was held during February 4-7th, 2016, in Ahmedabad, Gujarat, India; the homeland of Mahatma Gandhi. This conference was focused on utilizing multidisciplinary approaches for prevention and early treatment that would likely simultaneously or sequentially target many key pathways. Several distinguished speakers were invited from around the world. This article highlights primary features of this conference. PMID:27630358

  18. Prevention and Treatment of Cancer: Hypes and Hopes 6th International Translational Cancer Research Conference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Prabhudas; Vora, Hemangini; Aggarwal, Bharat B; Gandhi, Varsha; Mehta, Kapil; Pathak, Sen

    2016-09-01

    Cancer is primarily an "old-age" disease that has an "age-old" history. The overall incidence of cancer is much higher in Western countries, but is rapidly growing in Eastern countries perhaps due to change in life-style. Almost three million studies published to date indicate that cancer is a hyperproliferative disorder that arises from dysregulation of multiple cell signaling pathways. The cancer genome landscape indicates that approximately 140 genes and 12 cell signaling pathways drive almost all cancers. "Targeted therapy," a buzz word in cancer treatment for the past two decades, has provided antibodies, as well as small-molecule inhibitors. These therapies have been successful only in few instances. However, in most cases, minor increase in overall survival has been reported at the cost of huge expense. An alternative strategy is to prevent cancer or to diagnose and treat the disease at an early stage to gain survival benefits. Such interventions are also cost-effective. To address some of these issues, the 6th International Translational Cancer Research Conference was held during February 4-7th, 2016, in Ahmedabad, Gujarat, India; the homeland of Mahatma Gandhi. This conference was focused on utilizing multidisciplinary approaches for prevention and early treatment that would likely simultaneously or sequentially target many key pathways. Several distinguished speakers were invited from around the world. This article highlights primary features of this conference.

  19. Mapping cancer, cardiovascular and malaria research in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.S. Rodrigues

    2000-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents performance indicators for the Brazilian cancer, cardiovascular and malaria research areas from 1981 to 1995. The data show an increasing number of papers since 1981 and author numbers indicate a continuous growth of the scientific community and suggest an expected impact of scientific activity on biomedical education. The data also characterize cardiovascular research as a well-established area and cancer research as a faster growing consolidating field. The 1989-1994 share of Brazilian articles among world publications shows a growing trend for the cancer (1.61 and cardiovascular (1.59 areas, and a decrease for the malaria area (0.89. The burden of the three diseases on society is contrasted by the small number of consolidated Brazilian research groups, and a questionable balance of thematic activity, especially with regard to malaria. Brazilian periodicals play an important role in increasing the international visibility of science produced in the country. Cancer and cardiovascular research is strongly concentrated in the Southeastern and in Southern regions of Brazil, especially in São Paulo (at least one address from São Paulo in 64.5% of the 962 cancer articles and in 66.9% of the 2250 cardiovascular articles, the second state being Rio de Janeiro with at least one address in 14.1 and 11% of those articles, respectively. Malaria research (468 articles is more evenly distributed across the country, following the pattern of the endemic distribution of the disease. Surveying these national indicator trends can be useful to establish policies in the decision process about health sciences, medical education and public health.

  20. Integrating Heterogeneous Biomedical Data for Cancer Research: the CARPEM infrastructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rance, Bastien; Canuel, Vincent; Countouris, Hector; Laurent-Puig, Pierre; Burgun, Anita

    2016-01-01

    Cancer research involves numerous disciplines. The multiplicity of data sources and their heterogeneous nature render the integration and the exploration of the data more and more complex. Translational research platforms are a promising way to assist scientists in these tasks. In this article, we identify a set of scientific and technical principles needed to build a translational research platform compatible with ethical requirements, data protection and data-integration problems. We describe the solution adopted by the CARPEM cancer research program to design and deploy a platform able to integrate retrospective, prospective, and day-to-day care data. We designed a three-layer architecture composed of a data collection layer, a data integration layer and a data access layer. We leverage a set of open-source resources including i2b2 and tranSMART. PMID:27437039

  1. Integrating Heterogeneous Biomedical Data for Cancer Research: the CARPEM infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canuel, Vincent; Countouris, Hector; Laurent-Puig, Pierre; Burgun, Anita

    2016-01-01

    Summary Cancer research involves numerous disciplines. The multiplicity of data sources and their heterogeneous nature render the integration and the exploration of the data more and more complex. Translational research platforms are a promising way to assist scientists in these tasks. In this article, we identify a set of scientific and technical principles needed to build a translational research platform compatible with ethical requirements, data protection and data-integration problems. We describe the solution adopted by the CARPEM cancer research program to design and deploy a platform able to integrate retrospective, prospective, and day-to-day care data. We designed a three-layer architecture composed of a data collection layer, a data integration layer and a data access layer. We leverage a set of open-source resources including i2b2 and tranSMART. PMID:27437039

  2. Educating cancer prevention researchers in emerging biobehavioral models: lessons learned.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correa-Fernández, Virmarie; Davila, Marivel; Kamrudin, Samira A; Li, Dennis H; Noor, Syed W; Oluyomi, Abiodun O; Chang, Shine; Cameron, Carrie

    2011-12-01

    To increase the adoption of transdisciplinary research methods among future cancer prevention investigators, faculty members from The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center developed a graduate-level course in biobehavioral methods in cancer prevention research. Two instructors paired by topic and area of expertise offered an hour-long lecture-based seminar every week for 15 weeks during the spring semester of 2010. Students and presenters both evaluated the overall course content and delivery method, as well as each session. A total of 11 students and 22 presenters participated in the course. In each class session, one presenter was from a behavioral science background,and the other was from a biological sciences background. Both presenters and students expressed overall satisfaction with the content and format of the course. The presentation of topics from a transdisciplinary perspective and interaction with presenters from both biological and behavioral sciences are valuable and can help junior researchers prepare to meet the emerging challenges in cancer prevention research. PMID:21720937

  3. Tumor Cold Ischemia - Office of Cancer Clinical Proteomics Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    In a recently published manuscript in the journal of Molecular and Cellular Proteomics, researchers from the National Cancer Institutes (NCI) Clinical Proteomic Tumor Analysis Consortium (CPTAC) investigated the effect of cold ischemia on the proteome of fresh frozen tumors.

  4. About the Nutritional Science Research Group | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Nutritional Science Research Group (NSRG) promotes and supports studies establishing a comprehensive understanding of the precise role of diet and food components in modulating cancer risk and tumor cell behavior. This focus includes approaches to characterize molecular targets and variability in individual responses to nutrients and dietary patterns. |

  5. Systems biology in the frontier of cancer research:a report of the Second International Workshop of Cancer Systems Biology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Juan Cui; Yan-Chun Liang; Ying Xu

    2012-01-01

    The report summarizes the Second International Workshop of Cancer Systems Biology held on July 5-6,2012 in Changchun,China.The goal of the workshop was to bring together cancer researchers with different backgrounds to share their views about cancer and their experiences in fighting against cancer,and to gain new and systems-level understanding about cancer formation,progression,diagnosis,and treatment through exchanging ideas.

  6. Systems biology in the frontier of cancer research: a report of the Second International Workshop of Cancer Systems Biology

    OpenAIRE

    Ying Xu; Yan-Chun Liang; Juan Cui

    2012-01-01

    The report summarizes the Second International Workshop of Cancer Systems Biology held on July 5-6, 2012 in Changchun, China. The goal of the workshop was to bring together cancer researchers with different backgrounds to share their views about cancer and their experiences in fighting against cancer, and to gain new and systems-level understanding about cancer formation, progression, diagnosis, and treatment through exchanging ideas.

  7. Donation Intentions for Cancer Genetics Research Among African Americans

    OpenAIRE

    McDonald, Jasmine A; Weathers, Benita; Barg, Frances K.; Troxel, Andrea B; Shea, Judy A; Bowen, Deborah; Guerra, Carmen E.; Halbert, Chanita Hughes

    2012-01-01

    Aims: Scientific agencies rely on individuals to donate their DNA to support research on chronic conditions that disproportionately affect African Americans; however, donation is variable in this population. The purpose of this study was to identify sociodemographic characteristics, health care variables, and cultural values having significant independent associations with intentions to donate blood or saliva samples for cancer genetics research among African American adults. Method: Cross-se...

  8. Targeting hedgehog signaling in cancer: research and clinical developments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xie J

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Jingwu Xie, Christopher M Bartels, Scott W Barton, Dongsheng GuWells Center for Pediatric Research, Division of Hematology and Oncology, Department of Pediatrics, Indiana University Simon Cancer Center, Indiana University, Indianapolis, IN, USAAbstract: Since its first description in Drosophila by Drs Nusslein-Volhard and Wieschaus in 1980, hedgehog (Hh signaling has been implicated in regulation of cell differentiation, proliferation, tissue polarity, stem cell maintenance, and carcinogenesis. The first link of Hh signaling to cancer was established through studies of Gorlin syndrome in 1996 by two independent teams. Later, it was shown that Hh signaling may be involved in many types of cancer, including skin, leukemia, lung, brain, and gastrointestinal cancers. In early 2012, the US Food and Drug Administration approved the clinical use of Hh inhibitor Erivedge/vismodegib for treatment of locally advanced and metastatic basal cell carcinomas. With further investigation, it is possible to see more clinical applications of Hh signaling inhibitors. In this review, we will summarize major advances in the last 3 years in our understanding of Hh signaling activation in human cancer, and recent developments in preclinical and clinical studies using Hh signaling inhibitors.Keywords: hedgehog, smoothened, PTCH1, cancer, signal transduction, clinical trials, animal model

  9. Studying the process of clinical communication: issues of context, concepts, and research directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albrecht, Terrance L; Penner, Louis A; Cline, Rebecca J W; Eggly, Susan S; Ruckdeschel, John C

    2009-01-01

    Much cancer-related health communication research has involved studies of the effects of media campaigns and strategies on secondary prevention. Cancer diagnosis rates, however, continue to affect millions of people. The need exists for communication studies to address the quality of the clinical interaction, the point of actual care delivery in addressing diagnosis, treatment, and survivorship. Using examples from a 6-year communication and behavioral oncology research program established at the Karmanos Cancer Institute (KCI) in Detroit, Michigan, we describe selected empirical issues; models, particularly the "convergence model" (adapted from Rogers & Kincaid, 1981); and associated constructs that are relevant and promising foundations for building future research in cancer clinical settings. Two examples from our empirical research program are described. PMID:19449268

  10. Cooperative research and development opportunities with the National Cancer Institute

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sybert, Kathleen

    1991-01-01

    The Office of Technology Development (OTD) of the National Cancer Institute (NCI) is responsible for negotiating Cooperative Research and Development Agreements (CRADAs), whereby the knowledge resulting from NCI investigators' government-sponsored research is developed in collaboration with universities and/or industry into new products of importance for the diagnosis and treatment of cancer and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). The NCI has recently executed a unique 'clinical trials' CRADA and is developing a model agreement based upon it for the development and commercialization of products for the diagnosis and treatment of cancer and AIDS. NCI drug screening, preclinical testing, clinical trials, and AIDS program capabilities form the basis for this new technology development/technology transfer vehicle. NCI's extensive drug screening program and 'designer foods' program serve as potential sources of investigational new drugs (INDs) and cancer preventatives. Collaborations between NCI and pharmaceutical companies having the facilities, experience, and expertise necessary to develop INDs into approved drugs available to the public are being encouraged where the companies have proprietary rights to INDs, or where NCI has proprietary rights to INDs and invites companies to respond to a collaborator announcement published in the Federal Register. The joint efforts of the NCI and the chosen collaborator are designed to generate the data necessary to obtain pharmaceutic regulatory approval from the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to market the drugs developed, and thereby make them available to health care providers for the diagnosis and treatment of cancer and AIDS.

  11. Cancer research and therapy: Where are we today?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sampada Sawant

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Till date scientists are struggling to understand the complete mechanism of carcinogenesis. In future, the real time detection of cancer may help scientists to identify some of the complicated biological mechanisms. Certain special features of cancer cells enable researchers to deliver the drug or to develop the right drug therapy. These cell properties include over expression or over activity in uptake of certain nutrients e.g. folic acid and increased permeability. Listed properties might vary depending upon the type of cancer and can be fully exploited by using nanoparticles either to detect the site of cancer or to direct the drug at the affected site. Product approach like drug conjugates, complexes serves as a good platform to solve issues like solubility, toxicity, poor penetration and stability related to cancer drugs. Beside this, several drug delivery platforms are under development by researchers in academia as well as in industry to deliver therapeutic molecules and new chemical entities to the targeted site in body. Amongst them, nanotechnology both at molecular and supramolecular level is a leading platform and can help to image, detect and treat cancer. Surface modification of nanoparticles by coating or anchoring their surface with special markers, materials, peptide, proteins, antibodies or antigens add extra feature and thereby can enhance the effectiveness. These treatments can be used individually or in combined form. In this review, advances on nanotechnological platform are discussed together with some assisting techniques like magnetic field, photo or light field, sonic rays are touched upon. New biological therapies that are advancing in this direction include the antisense therapy, cell therapy, gene therapy, radiation therapy and SiRNA interfaces which are discussed in brief in this article. This article gives short overview on use of complementary and alternative medicine for treatment of cancer such as traditional

  12. Leveraging the power of pooled data for cancer outcomes research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kiara Hugh-Yeun; Winson Y. Cheung

    2016-01-01

    Background: Clinical trials continue to be the gold standard for determining the effcacy of novel cancer treatments, but they may also expose participants to the potential risks of unpredictable or severe toxicities. The development of validated tools that better inform patients of the beneifts and risks associated with clinical trial participation can facilitate the informed consent process. The design and validation of such instruments are strengthened when we leverage the power of pooled data analysis for cancer outcomes research. Main body: In a recent study published in the Journal of Clinical Oncology entitled“Determinants of early mortal‑ity among 37,568 patients with colon cancer who participated in 25 clinical trials from the adjuvant colon cancer endpoints database,”using a large pooled analysis of over 30,000 study participants who were enrolled in clinical trials of adjuvant therapy for early‑stage colon cancer, we developed and validated a nomogram depicting the predictors of early cancer mortality. This database of pooled individual‑level data allowed for a comprehensive analysis of poor prognostic factors associated with early death;furthermore, it enabled the creation of a nomogram that was able to reliably capture and quantify the beneift‑to‑risk proifle for patients who are considering clinical trial participation. This tool can facilitate treatment decision‑making discussions. Conclusion: As China and other Asian countries continue to conduct oncology clinical trials, efforts to collate patient‑level information from these studies into a large data repository should be strongly considered since pooled data can increase future capacity for cancer outcomes research, which, in turn, can enhance patient‑physician discus‑sions and optimize clinical care.

  13. Collaboration - Office of Cancer Clinical Proteomics Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Despite great strides in proteomics and the growing number of articles citing the discovery of potential biomarkers, the actual rate of introduction of Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved protein analytes has been relatively unchanged over the past 10 years. One of reasons for the lack of new protein-based biomarkers approved has been a lack of information and understanding by the proteomics research community to the regulatory process used by the FDA.

  14. CPTAC Scientific Symposium - Office of Cancer Clinical Proteomics Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    On behalf of the National Cancer Institute and the Office of Cancer Clinical Proteomics Research, you are invited to the First Annual CPTAC Scientific Symposium on Wednesday, November 13, 2013. The purpose of this symposium, which consists of plenary and poster sessions, is for investigators from CPTAC community and beyond to share and discuss novel biological discoveries, analytical methods, and translational approaches using CPTAC data. All scientists who use, or wish to use CPTAC data are welcome to participate at this free event. The symposium will be held at the Natcher Conference Facility on the main campus of the National Institutes of Health in Bethesda, Maryland.

  15. Quality of life among immigrant Latina breast cancer survivors: realities of culture and enhancing cancer care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Class, Maria; Perret-Gentil, Monique; Kreling, Barbara; Caicedo, Larisa; Mandelblatt, Jeanne; Graves, Kristi D

    2011-12-01

    Breast cancer is the most common cancer among Latinas. This study examined social, cultural, and health care system factors that impact the quality of life and survivorship experiences of Latina immigrant breast cancer survivors. We interviewed Latina breast cancer survivors (n = 19) and, based on the interview findings, conducted two focus groups (n = 9). Research staff translated transcripts from Spanish into English. Two trained raters reviewed the content and identified themes. Thematic content analysis was used to categorize and organize data. Participants were largely monolingual in Spanish, predominantly from Central and South America and most (68%) had lived in the U.S. for ten or more years. All women were diagnosed and treated in the U.S. and were an average of 3.1 years from diagnosis. Women's survivorship experiences appeared to be shaped by cultural beliefs and experiences as immigrants such as secrecy/shame about a breast cancer diagnosis, feelings of isolation, importance of family support (familism), challenges with developing social relationships in the U.S. (less personalismo), and, for some, their partner's difficulty with showing emotional support (machismo). Navigating the U.S. medical system and language barriers were additional challenges in the participants' health care interactions. Latina breast cancer survivors adhere to certain cultural values and face unique issues as immigrants, potentially influencing overall quality of life and doctor-patient communication. Efforts to improve Latina immigrant breast cancer survivors' quality of life could include increased assessment of psychosocial functioning and referral to social support services, culturally sensitive navigation programs, and consistent use of appropriately trained interpreters.

  16. ENRICH Forum: Ethical aNd Regulatory Issues in Cancer ResearcH

    Science.gov (United States)

    ENRICH Forum: Ethical aNd Regulatory Issues in Cancer ResearcH, designed to stimulate dialogue on ethical and regulatory issues in cancer research and promote awareness of developing policies and best practices.

  17. Stages of Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Renal Cell) Cancer Leukemia Lung Cancer Lymphoma Pancreatic Cancer Prostate Cancer Skin Cancer Thyroid Cancer Uterine Cancer All ... Cancer Treatment Prostate Cancer Prevention Genetics of Prostate Cancer Prostate Cancer Screening Research Prostate Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient ...

  18. Addressing future challenges for cancer services: part II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maher, Jane; Radford, Gina

    2016-02-01

    Jane Maher & Gina Radford speak to Gemma Westcott, Commissioning Editor Jane Maher has been Macmillan's Chief Medical Officer since 1999 and now shares the role as Joint Chief Medical Officer with general practitioner Rosie Loftus, reflecting the growing need for specialists and generalists to work more effectively together. She has been an National Health Service (NHS) improvement clinical leader for over 10 years and is a Consultant Clinical Oncologist at Mount Vernon Cancer Centre and Hillingdon Hospital where she has worked for more than 20 years, during which she helped develop nonsurgical oncology services in five district general hospitals. She is a senior Clinical Lecturer at University College London and Visiting Professor in Cancer and Supportive Care at the Centre for Complexity Management at the University of Hertfordshire. Jane chaired the Maher Committee for the Department of Health in 1995, led the UK National Audit of Late Effects Pelvic Radiotherapy for the Royal College of Radiologists (RCR) in 2000 and, most recently, chaired the National Cancer Survivorship Initiative Consequences of Treatment work stream. She co-founded one of the first Cancer Support and Information services in the UK, winning the Nye Bevan award in 1992 and there are now more than 60 units based on this model. She is a member of the Older People and Cancer Clinical Advisory Group. She has written more than 100 published articles and is a UK representative for cancer survivorship in Europe and advises on cancer survivorship programs in Denmark and Canada. Gina Radford is Deputy Chief Medical Officer for England, a post she took up in January 2015. Prior to that, she has held a number of roles in public health, at local and regional level. Most recently she was Centre Director for Anglia and Essex for Public Health England, and as a part of that role helped lead nationally on the public health response to Ebola. She was until very recently Chair of one of the NICE public health

  19. Clinical Cancer Registries - Are They Up for Health Services Research?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pobiruchin, Monika; Bochum, Sylvia; Martens, Uwe M; Schramm, Wendelin

    2016-01-01

    Clinical cancer registries are a valuable data source for health services research (HSR). HSR is in need of high quality routine care data for its evaluations. However, the secondary use of routine data - such as documented cancer cases in a disease registry - poses new challenges in terms of data quality, IT-management, documentation processes and data privacy. In the clinical cancer registry Heilbronn-Franken, real-world data from the Giessen Tumor Documentation System (GTDS) was utilized for analyses of patients' disease processes and guideline adherence in follow-up care. A process was developed to map disease state definitions to fields of the GTDS database and extract patients' disease progress information. Thus, the disease process of sub-cohorts could be compared to each other, e.g., comparison of disease free survival of HER2 (human epidermal growth factor receptor 2)-positive and -negative women who were treated with Trastuzumab, a targeted therapy applied in breast cancer. In principle, such comparisons are feasible and of great value for HSR as they depict a routine care setting of a diverse patient cohort. Yet, local documentation practice, missing flow of information from external health care providers or small sub-cohorts impede the analyses of clinical cancer registries data bases and usage for HSR. PMID:27577380

  20. Tissue-engineered models of human tumors for cancer research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villasante, Aranzazu; Vunjak-Novakovic, Gordana

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Drug toxicity often goes undetected until clinical trials, which are the most costly and dangerous phase of drug development. Both the cultures of human cells and animal studies have limitations that cannot be overcome by incremental improvements in drug-testing protocols. A new generation of bioengineered tumors is now emerging in response to these limitations, with potential to transform drug screening by providing predictive models of tumors within their tissue context, for studies of drug safety and efficacy. An area that could greatly benefit from these models is cancer research. Areas covered In this review, the authors first describe the engineered tumor systems, using Ewing's sarcoma as an example of human tumor that cannot be predictably studied in cell culture and animal models. Then, they discuss the importance of the tissue context for cancer progression and outline the biomimetic principles for engineering human tumors. Finally, they discuss the utility of bioengineered tumor models for cancer research and address the challenges in modeling human tumors for use in drug discovery and testing. Expert opinion While tissue models are just emerging as a new tool for cancer drug discovery, they are already demonstrating potential for recapitulating, in vitro, the native behavior of human tumors. Still, numerous challenges need to be addressed before we can have platforms with a predictive power appropriate for the pharmaceutical industry. Some of the key needs include the incorporation of the vascular compartment, immune system components, and mechanical signals that regulate tumor development and function. PMID:25662589

  1. Funding Opportunities Available for Innovative SBIR Development - Office of Cancer Clinical Proteomics Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Does your small business need early-stage financing to take its cancer research to the next level? The National Cancer Institute Small Business Innovation Research (NCI SBIR) Development Center has released $5 million for new contract funding opportunities to support cancer research and technology development in key emerging areas of need.

  2. Cognitive Impairment in Men With Testicular Cancer Prior to Adjuvant Therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wefel, Jeffrey S.; Vidrine, Damon J.; Veramonti, Tracy L.; Meyers, Christina A.; Marani, Salma K.; Hoekstra, Harald J.; Hoekstra-Weebers, Josette E. H. M.; Shahani, Lokesh; Gritz, Ellen R.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cognitive dysfunction experienced by individuals with cancer represents an important survivorship issue because of its potential to affect occupational, scholastic, and social activities. Whereas early efforts to characterize cognitive dysfunction primarily focused on the effects of chem

  3. Frederick National Lab and the Pancreatic Cancer Action Network Award Fellowships for KRAS Research | Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    By Nancy Parrish, Staff Writer The Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research (FNLCR) recently formed a partnership with the Pancreatic Cancer Action Network (PanCAN) to award a one-year fellowship to two scientists whose research will help lead to new therapies for pancreatic cancer. The scientists will focus on KRAS, a gene in the RAS family that is mutated in 95 percent of pancreatic cancers, according to the National Cancer Institute (NCI).

  4. Follow-up after treatment for breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sisler, Jeffrey; Chaput, Genevieve; Sussman, Jonathan; Ozokwelu, Emmanuel

    2016-01-01

    Objective To offer FPs a summary of evidence-based recommendations to guide their follow-up survivorship care of women treated for breast cancer. Quality of evidence A literature search was conducted in MEDLINE from 2000 to 2016 using the search words breast cancer, survivorship, follow-up care, aftercare, guidelines, and survivorship care plans, with a focus on review of recent guidelines published by national cancer organizations. Evidence ranges from level I to level III. Main message Survivorship care involves 4 main tasks: surveillance and screening, management of long-term effects, health promotion, and care coordination. Surveillance for recurrence involves only annual mammography, and screening for other cancers should be done according to population guidelines. Management of the long-term effects of cancer and its treatment addresses common issues of pain, fatigue, lymphedema, distress, and medication side effects, as well as longer-term concerns for cardiac and bone health. Health promotion emphasizes the benefits of active lifestyle change in cancer survivors, with an emphasis on physical activity. Survivorship care is enhanced by the involvement of various health professionals and services, and FPs play an important role in care coordination. Conclusion Family physicians are increasingly the main providers of follow-up care after breast cancer treatment. Breast cancer should be viewed as a chronic medical condition even in women who remain disease free, and patients benefit from the approach afforded other chronic conditions in primary care. PMID:27737976

  5. Cancer Treatment-Related Cardiotoxicity: Understanding the Current State of Knowledge and Developing Future Research Priorities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancer Treatment-Related Cardiotoxicity: Understanding the Current State of Knowledge and Developing Future Research Priorities, a 2013 workshop sponsored by the Epidemiology and Genomics Research Program.

  6. Selection as a Factor in Human Survivorship over the Past Three Centuries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Hans Oluf

    relevance is justified by its documented capacity to fit a substantial portion of the knowledge, observations and theoretical circumstances about human survivorship over the past two or three centuries, in particular prior to the latter decades of the 19th century when improved prophylaxis and artificial...

  7. Acute survivorship of the deep-sea coral Lophelia pertusa from the Gulf of Mexico under acidification, warming, and deoxygenation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunden, Jay J.; McNicholl, Conall G.; Sears, Christopher R.; Morrison, Cheryl; Cordes, Erik E.

    2014-01-01

    Changing global climate due to anthropogenic emissions of CO2 are driving rapid changes in the physical and chemical environment of the oceans via warming, deoxygenation, and acidification. These changes may threaten the persistence of species and populations across a range of latitudes and depths, including species that support diverse biological communities that in turn provide ecological stability and support commercial interests. Worldwide, but particularly in the North Atlantic and deep Gulf of Mexico, Lophelia pertusa forms expansive reefs that support biological communities whose diversity rivals that of tropical coral reefs. In this study, L. pertusa colonies were collected from the Viosca Knoll region in the Gulf of Mexico (390 to 450 m depth), genotyped using microsatellite markers, and exposed to a series of treatments testing survivorship responses to acidification, warming, and deoxygenation. All coral nubbins survived the acidification scenarios tested, between pH of 7.67 and 7.90 and aragonite saturation states of 0.92 and 1.47. However, net calcification generally declined with respect to pH, though a disparate response was evident where select individuals net calcified and others exhibited net dissolution near a saturation state of 1. Warming and deoxygenation both had negative effects on survivorship, with up to 100% mortality observed at temperatures above 14°C and oxygen concentrations of approximately 1.5 ml· l−1. These results suggest that, over the short-term, climate change and OA may negatively impact L. pertusa in the Gulf of Mexico, though the potential for acclimation and the effects of genetic background should be considered in future research.

  8. Acute survivorship of the deep-sea coral Lophelia pertusa from the Gulf of Mexico under acidification, warming, and deoxygenation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jay J Lunden

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Changing global climate due to anthropogenic emissions of CO2 are driving rapid changes in the physical and chemical environment of the oceans via warming, deoxygenation, and acidification. These changes may threaten the persistence of species and populations across a range of latitudes and depths, including species that support diverse biological communities that in turn provide ecological stability and support commercial interests. Worldwide, but particularly in the North Atlantic and deep Gulf of Mexico, Lophelia pertusa forms expansive reefs that support biological communities whose diversity rivals that of tropical coral reefs. In this study, L. pertusa colonies were collected from the Viosca Knoll region in the Gulf of Mexico (390 to 450 m depth, genotyped using microsatellite markers, and exposed to a series of treatments testing survivorship responses to acidification, warming, and deoxygenation. All coral nubbins survived the acidification scenarios tested, between pH of 7.67 and 7.90 and aragonite saturation states of 0.92 and 1.47. However, calcification generally declined with respect to pH, though a disparate response was evident where select individuals net calcified and others exhibited net dissolution near a saturation state of 1. Warming and deoxygenation both had negative effects on survivorship, with up to 100% mortality observed at temperatures above 14ºC and oxygen concentrations of approximately 1.5 ml·l-1. These results suggest that, over the short-term, climate change and OA may negatively impact L. pertusa in the Gulf of Mexico, though the potential for acclimation and the effects of genetic background should be considered in future research.

  9. Technical phosphoproteomic and bioinformatic tools useful in cancer research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Elena; Wesselink, Jan-Jaap; López, Isabel; Mendieta, Jesús; Gómez-Puertas, Paulino; Muñoz, Sarbelio Rodríguez

    2011-01-01

    Reversible protein phosphorylation is one of the most important forms of cellular regulation. Thus, phosphoproteomic analysis of protein phosphorylation in cells is a powerful tool to evaluate cell functional status. The importance of protein kinase-regulated signal transduction pathways in human cancer has led to the development of drugs that inhibit protein kinases at the apex or intermediary levels of these pathways. Phosphoproteomic analysis of these signalling pathways will provide important insights for operation and connectivity of these pathways to facilitate identification of the best targets for cancer therapies. Enrichment of phosphorylated proteins or peptides from tissue or bodily fluid samples is required. The application of technologies such as phosphoenrichments, mass spectrometry (MS) coupled to bioinformatics tools is crucial for the identification and quantification of protein phosphorylation sites for advancing in such relevant clinical research. A combination of different phosphopeptide enrichments, quantitative techniques and bioinformatic tools is necessary to achieve good phospho-regulation data and good structural analysis of protein studies. The current and most useful proteomics and bioinformatics techniques will be explained with research examples. Our aim in this article is to be helpful for cancer research via detailing proteomics and bioinformatic tools. PMID:21967744

  10. Addressing future challenges for cancer services: part I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maher, Jane; Radford, Gina

    2016-02-01

    Jane Maher & Gina Radford speak to Gemma Westcott, Commissioning Editor Jane Maher has been Macmillan's Chief Medical Officer since 1999 and now shares the role as Joint Chief Medical Officer with general practitioner Rosie Loftus, reflecting the growing need for specialists and generalists to work more effectively together. She has been a National Health Service (NHS) Improvement Clinical Leader for over 10 years and is a Consultant Clinical Oncologist at Mount Vernon Cancer Centre where she has worked for more than 20 years, during which she helped develop nonsurgical oncology services in five district general hospitals. Jane chaired the Maher Committee for the Department of Health in 1995, led the UK National Audit of Late Effects Pelvic Radiotherapy for the Royal College Of Radiologists (RCR) in 2000 and, most recently, chaired the 'National Cancer Survivorship Initiative, consequences of treatment work stream'. She co-founded one of the first Cancer Support and Information services in the UK, winning the Nye Bevan award in 1992 and there are now more than 60 units based on this model. She is a member of the Older People and Cancer Clinical Advisory Group. She has written more than 100 published articles and is a UK representative for cancer survivorship in Europe and advises on Cancer survivorship programs in Denmark and Canada. Gina Radford is Deputy Chief Medical Officer for England, a post she took up in January 2015. Prior to that, she has held a number of roles in public health, at local and regional level. Most recently she was as Centre Director for Anglia and Essex for Public Health England, and as part of that role helped lead nationally on the public health response to Ebola. She was until very recently Chair of one of the NICE public health advisory committees. She has previously worked on a number of national projects, including leading the Department of Health's response to the Shipman Enquiry, undertaking a review of specialist public health for

  11. Consumer input into research: the Australian Cancer Trials website

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Butow Phyllis N

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Australian Cancer Trials website (ACTO was publicly launched in 2010 to help people search for cancer clinical trials recruiting in Australia, provide information about clinical trials and assist with doctor-patient communication about trials. We describe consumer involvement in the design and development of ACTO and report our preliminary patient evaluation of the website. Methods Consumers, led by Cancer Voices NSW, provided the impetus to develop the website. Consumer representative groups were consulted by the research team during the design and development of ACTO which combines a search engine, trial details, general information about trial participation and question prompt lists. Website use was analysed. A patient evaluation questionnaire was completed at one hospital, one week after exposure to the website. Results ACTO's main features and content reflect consumer input. In February 2011, it covered 1, 042 cancer trials. Since ACTO's public launch in November 2010, until the end of February 2011, the website has had 2, 549 new visits and generated 17, 833 page views. In a sub-study of 47 patient users, 89% found the website helpful for learning about clinical trials and all respondents thought patients should have access to ACTO. Conclusions The development of ACTO is an example of consumers working with doctors, researchers and policy makers to improve the information available to people whose lives are affected by cancer and to help them participate in their treatment decisions, including consideration of clinical trial enrolment. Consumer input has ensured that the website is informative, targets consumer priorities and is user-friendly. ACTO serves as a model for other health conditions.

  12. A research on the enhancement of research management efficiency for the division of research, Korea cancer center hospital

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The research activities of Korea Cancer Center Hospital have increased for the past a few years just in proportion to the increase of research budget, but the assisting manpower of the office of research management has never been increased and the indications are that the internal and external circumstances will not allow the recruitment for a fairly long time. It has, therefore, become inevitable to enhance the work efficiency of the office by analyzing the administrative research assistance system, finding out problems and inefficiency factors, and suggesting possible answers to them. The office of research management and international cooperation has conducted this research to suggest possible ways to facilitate the administrative support for the research activities of Korea Cancer Center Hospital By analyzing the change of research budget, organization of the division of research and administrative support, manpower, and the administrative research supporting system of other institutes, we suggested possible ways to enhance the work efficiency for administrative research support and developed a relative database program. The research report will serve as a data for the organization of research support division when the Radiation Medicine Research Center is established. The database program has already been used for research budget management

  13. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Treatment Pediatric Supportive Care Unusual Cancers of Childhood Treatment Research Metastatic Cancer Metastatic Cancer Research Common Cancer Types Recurrent Cancer Common Cancer Types Bladder Cancer Breast Cancer Colorectal Cancer Kidney (Renal Cell) Cancer Leukemia ...

  14. Active Barrett's Esophagus Translational Research Network Grants | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  15. Ethical challenges in conducting clinical research in lung cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tod, Angela M.

    2016-01-01

    The article examines ethical challenges that arise with clinical lung cancer research focusing on design, recruitment, conduct and dissemination. Design: problems related to equipoise can arise in lung cancer studies. Equipoise is an ethics precondition for RCTs and exists where there is insufficient evidence to decide which of two or more treatments is best. Difficulties arise in deciding what level of uncertainty constitutes equipoise and who should be in equipoise, for example, patients might not be even where clinicians are. Patient and public involvement (PPI) can reduce but not remove the problems. Recruitment: (I) lung cancer studies can be complex, making it difficult to obtain good quality consent. Some techniques can help, such as continuous consent. But researchers should not expect consent to be the sole protection for participants’ welfare. This protection is primarily done elsewhere in the research process, for example, in ethics review; (II) the problem of desperate volunteers: some patients only consent to a trial because it gives them a 50/50 option of the treatment they want and can be disappointed or upset if randomised to the other arm. This is not necessarily unfair, given clinical equipoise. However, it should be avoided where possible, for example, by using alternative trial designs; (III) the so-called problem of therapeutic misconception: this is the idea that patients are mistaken if they enter trials believing this to be in their clinical best interest. We argue the problem is misconceived and relates only to certain health systems. Conduct: lung cancer trials face standard ethical challenges with regard to trial conduct. PPI could be used in decisions about criteria for stopping rules. Dissemination: as in other trial areas, it is important that all results, including negative ones, are reported. We argue also that the role of PPI with regard to dissemination is currently under-developed.

  16. Clinical trials update of the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Breast Cancer Group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present clinical trial update consists of a review of two of eight current studies (the 10981-22023 AMAROS trial and the 10994 p53 trial) of the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Breast Cancer Group, as well as a preview of the MIND-ACT trial. The AMAROS trial is designed to prove equivalent local/regional control for patients with proven axillary lymph node metastasis by sentinel node biopsy if treated with axillary radiotherapy instead of axillary lymph node dissection, with reduced morbidity. The p53 trial started to assess the potential predictive value of p53 using a functional assay in yeast in patients with locally advanced/inflammatory or large operable breast cancer prospectively randomised to a taxane regimen versus a nontaxane regimen

  17. Lower Breast Cancer Risk among Women following the World Cancer Research Fund and American Institute for Cancer Research Lifestyle Recommendations: EpiGEICAM Case-Control Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adela Castelló

    Full Text Available According to the "World Cancer Research Fund" and the "American Institute of Cancer Research" (WCRF/AICR one in four cancer cases could be prevented through a healthy diet, weight control and physical activity.To explore the association between the WCRF/AICR recommendations and risk of breast cancer.During the period 2006 to 2011 we recruited 973 incident cases of breast cancer and 973 controls from 17 Spanish Regions. We constructed a score based on 9 of the WCRF/AICR recommendations for cancer prevention:: 1Maintain adequate body weight; 2Be physically active; 3Limit the intake of high density foods; 4Eat mostly plant foods; 5Limit the intake of animal foods; 6Limit alcohol intake; 7Limit salt and salt preserved food intake; 8Meet nutritional needs through diet; S1Breastfeed infants exclusively up to 6 months. We explored its association with BC by menopausal status and by intrinsic tumor subtypes (ER+/PR+ & HER2-; HER2+; ER&PR-&HER2- using conditional and multinomial logistic models respectively.Our results point to a linear association between the degree of noncompliance and breast cancer risk. Taking women who met 6 or more recommendations as reference, those meeting less than 3 showed a three-fold excess risk (OR=2.98(CI95%:1.59-5.59, especially for postmenopausal women (OR=3.60(CI95%:1.24;10.47 and ER+/PR+&HER2- (OR=3.60(CI95%:1.84;7.05 and HER2+ (OR=4.23(CI95%:1.66;10.78 tumors. Noncompliance of recommendations regarding the consumption of foods and drinks that promote weight gain in premenopausal women (OR=2.24(CI95%:1.18;4.28; p for interaction=0.014 and triple negative tumors (OR=2.93(CI95%:1.12-7.63; the intake of plant foods in postmenopausal women (OR=2.35(CI95%:1.24;4.44 and triple negative tumors (OR=3.48(CI95%:1.46-8.31; and the alcohol consumption in ER+/PR+&HER2- tumors (OR=1.52 (CI95%:1.06-2.19 showed the strongest associations.Breast cancer prevention might be possible by following the "World Cancer Research Fund" and the

  18. Improving breast cancer survivors’ knowledge using a patient-centered intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulloa, Jesus G.; Hemmelgarn, Marian; Viveros, Lori; Odele, Patience; Feldman, Nancy R.; Ganz, Patricia A.; Maggard-Gibbons, Melinda

    2016-01-01

    Background Low-income, minority women with breast cancer experience a range of barriers to receiving survivorship information. Our objective was to test a novel, patient-centered intervention aimed at improving communication about survivorship care. Methods We developed a wallet card to provide oncologic and follow-up care survivorship information to breast cancer patients. We used a prospective, pre–post design to assess the intervention at a safety net hospital. The intervention was given by a patient navigator or community health worker. Results Patient knowledge (n = 130) of personal cancer history improved from baseline pretest to 1 week after the intervention for stage (66–93%; P < .05), treatment (79–92%; P < .05), and symptoms of recurrence (48–89%; P <.05), which was retained at 3 months. The intervention reduced the number of patients who were unsure when their mammogram was due (15–5% at 1 week and 6%at 3 months; P <.05). Nearly 90% reported they would be likely to share their survivorship card with their providers. Conclusion A patient-centered survivorship card improved short-term recall of key survivorship care knowledge and seems to be effective at reducing communication barriers for this population. Further studies are warranted to assess long-term retention and the impact on receipt of appropriate survivorship follow-up care. PMID:26032819

  19. Cancer Research Participation Beliefs and Behaviors of a Southern Black Population: A Quantitative Analysis of the Role of Structural Factors in Cancer Research Participation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farr, Deeonna E; Brandt, Heather M; Comer, Kimberly D; Jackson, Dawnyéa D; Pandya, Kinjal; Friedman, Daniela B; Ureda, John R; Williams, Deloris G; Scott, Dolores B; Green, Wanda; Hébert, James R

    2015-09-01

    Increasing the participation of Blacks in cancer research is a vital component of a strategy to reduce racial inequities in cancer burden. Community-based participatory research (CBPR) is especially well-suited to advancing our knowledge of factors that influence research participation to ultimately address cancer-related health inequities. A paucity of literature focuses on the role of structural factors limiting participation in cancer research. As part of a larger CBPR project, we used survey data from a statewide cancer needs assessment of a Black faith community to examine the influence of structural factors on attitudes toward research and the contributions of both structural and attitudinal factors on whether individuals participate in research. Regression analyses and non-parametric statistics were conducted on data from 727 adult survey respondents. Structural factors, such as having health insurance coverage, experiencing discrimination during health care encounters, and locale, predicted belief in the benefits, but not the risks, of research participation. Positive attitudes toward research predicted intention to participate in cancer research. Significant differences in structural and attitudinal factors were found between cancer research participants and non-participants; however, directionality is confounded by the cross-sectional survey design and causality cannot be determined. This study points to complex interplay of structural and attitudinal factors on research participation as well as need for additional quantitative examinations of the various types of factors that influence research participation in Black communities.

  20. Long-Term Follow-Up and Survivorship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsirou, Aimilia; Hjorth, Lars

    2016-01-01

    Within this chapter, we begin with the invaluable context of the experience of living after cancer as a young person. Then we move to describe the growing body of data indicating the consequences of cancer in patients diagnosed aged as teenagers and young adults (YAs). We identify that, while the variation in definitions used in the literature hamper firm conclusions, specific patterns of substantial morbidity are observed which are distinct from those seen in younger children. When combined with the epidemiology, the overall burden of late effects of adolescents and YA cancer and its treatment are a substantial public health problem. The progress in parts of Europe and the US in bringing together outcomes into medium-sized data sets, combined with the gaps in the data and remaining uncertainties, mean that the time is right for international epidemiological ascertainment of these adverse effects. There are potential benefits for commencing prospective clinical as well retrospective epidemiological study designs. PMID:27595354

  1. Head and neck cancer: from research to therapy and cure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varelas, Xaralabos; Kukuruzinska, Maria A

    2014-12-01

    Cumulative findings from many research groups have identified new signaling mechanisms associated with head and neck cancers. We summarize these findings, including discussion of aberrant NOTCH, PI3K, STAT3, immune recognition, oxidative pathway, and regulation of cell cycle and cell death. The genomic landscape of head and neck cancers has been shown to differ depending on human papillomavirus (HPV) status. We discuss studies examining the integration of HPV into genomic regions, as well as the epigenetic alterations that occur in response to HPV infection, and how these may help reveal new biomarker and treatment predictors. The characterization of premalignant lesions is also highlighted, as is evidence indicating that the surgical removal of these lesions is associated with better clinical outcomes. Current surgical methods are also discussed, including several less aggressive approaches such as minimal invasive robotic surgery. While much remains to be done in the fight against head and neck cancer, continued integration of basic research with new treatment options will likely lead to more effective therapeutic strategies directed against this disease. PMID:25532687

  2. A New Phase in Cancer Research at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    The first meeting of the ENLIGHT network, set up to co-ordinate the development of light ion cancer therapy projects in Europe, took place at CERN last week. This is a form of therapy ideally suited to the treatment of deep-seated tumours and those near critical organs. Hans Hoffmann, Director for Technology transfer and scientific computing, and Director General Luciano Maiani during the opening of the first meeting of the ENLIGHT network that was held at CERN last week. The fruit of several years of work, this meeting offers new hope for the treatment of certain types of cancer. Around 70 specialists, including radiotherapists, oncologists, physicists and engineers, got together at CERN for the first meeting of a European cancer therapy research network named ENLIGHT (European Network for research in LIGHt ion Therapy(1)). This initiative, headed by oncologists and funded by the European Commission, aims to promote the development of light ion (hadron) therapy projects. The choice of CERN as a venue for ...

  3. Mindfulness-based interventions for coping with cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Linda E

    2016-06-01

    Work in the development and evaluation of mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs) for cancer care has been underway for the last 20 years, and a growing body of literature now supports their efficacy. MBIs are particularly helpful in dealing with common experiences related to cancer diagnosis, treatment, and survivorship, including loss of control, uncertainty about the future, and fears of recurrence, as well as a range of physical and psychological symptoms, including depression, anxiety, insomnia, and fatigue. Our adaptation, mindfulness-based cancer recovery (MBCR), has resulted in improvements across a range of psychological and biological outcomes, including cortisol slopes, blood pressure, and telomere length, in various groups of cancer survivors. In this paper, I review the rationale for MBIs in cancer care and provide an overview of the state of the current literature, with a focus on results from three recent clinical trials conducted by our research group. These include a comparative efficacy trial comparing MBCR to supportive-expressive therapy in distressed breast cancer survivors, a non-inferiority trial comparing MBCR to cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia in cancer survivors with clinical insomnia, and an online adaptation of MBCR for rural and remote cancer survivors without access to in-person groups. I conclude by outlining work in progress and future directions for MBI research and applications in cancer care. PMID:26963792

  4. Recent progress in 8igenomic research of liver cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Along the course of occurrence and development of liver cancer,the corresponding somatic cells accumulate some important genetic variations.These variations may be divided into two categories.For the genetic changes closely related to etiology of liver cancer,the well-known cases include insertion and integration of the hepatitis B virus(HBV) DNA after infection,and mutations at site 249 of the tumor suppressor gene p53 induced by exposure to aflatoxin B1.The secondary genetic changes include amplification and deletion of certain chromosome regions,mutations in p53 at the sites other than 249,as well as the mutational activation of the Wnt/β-catenin signal pathway.The tumor cells with these genetic variations may gradually become the dominant clones under evolutionary selection.Besides,identification of genetic susceptible against risk of liver malignancy is also an important aspect of research in this field.

  5. Recent progress in 8igenomic research of liver cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAN ZeGuang

    2009-01-01

    Along the course of occurrence and development of liver cancer, the corresponding somatic cells ac-cumulate some important genetic variations. These variations may be divided into two categories. For the genetic changes closely related to etiology of liver cancer, the well-known cases include insertion and integration of the hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA after infection, and mutations at site 249 of the tumor suppressor gene p53 induced by exposure to aflatoxin B1. The secondary genetic changes include amplification and deletion of certain chromosome regions, mutations in p53 at the sites other than 249, as well as the mutational activation of the Wnt/β-catenin signal pathway. The tumor cells with these genetic variations may gradually become the dominant clones under evolutionary selection. Besides, identification of genetic susceptible against risk of liver malignancy is also an important aspect of re-search in this field.

  6. A survey of etiologic hypotheses among testicular cancer researchers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stang, A; Trabert, B; Rusner, C;

    2015-01-01

    the plausibility of the suggested etiologic hypotheses on a scale of 1 (very implausible) to 10 (very plausible). This report describes the methodology of the survey, the score distributions by individual hypotheses, hypothesis group, and the participants' major research fields, and discuss the hypotheses...... that scored as most plausible. We also present plans for improving the survey that may be repeated at a next international meeting of experts in testicular cancer. Overall 52 of 99 (53%) registered participants of the 8th Copenhagen Testis Cancer Workshop submitted the plausibility rating form. Fourteen of 27...... hypotheses were related to exposures during pregnancy. Hypotheses with the highest mean plausibility ratings were either related to pre-natal exposures or exposures that might have an effect during pregnancy and in post-natal life. The results of the survey may be helpful for triggering more specific...

  7. Maintaining success, reducing treatment burden, focusing on survivorship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beyer, Jürgen; Albers, Peter Hjorth; Altena, R;

    2013-01-01

    In November 2011, the Third European Consensus Conference on Diagnosis and Treatment of Germ-Cell Cancer (GCC) was held in Berlin, Germany. This third conference followed similar meetings in 2003 (Essen, Germany) and 2006 (Amsterdam, The Netherlands) [Schmoll H-J, Souchon R, Krege S et al. Europe...

  8. Survivorship after Arthroscopic Management of Glenohumeral Osteoarthritis with a Minimum 5 year Follow-up

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Justin; Horan, Marilee P.; Greenspoon, Joshua A.; Menge, Travis; Tahal, Dimitri S.; Millett, Peter J.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: We previously reported clinical improvement and pain relief following arthroscopic management of glenohumeral osteoarthritis (GHOA) at 2 years. The purpose of this study was to determine 5 year survivorship for the comprehensive arthroscopic management (CAM) procedure for the treatment of GHOA. Methods: This study had prior IRB approval. The CAM procedure was performed on a consecutive series of 42 young patients (44 shoulders) with GHOA who otherwise met criteria for shoulder arthroplasty but instead opted for joint preservation. The procedure included glenohumeral chondroplasty, capsular release, and synovectomy, humeral osteoplasty, axillary nerve neurolysis, subacromial decompression, loose body removal, microfracture and biceps tenodesis. Only patients who were a minimum of 5 years out from surgery were included in the study. Patients completed a subjective questionnaire, and further surgical intervention of the index shoulder was noted for survivorship analysis. Failure was defined as progression to TSA. Kaplan Meier survivorship analysis was performed. Results: Forty-two patients (with 44 shoulders) underwent a CAM procedure between 1/2006-12/2009 and were included. All patients were self-described recreational athletes. Seven patients were former collegiate or professional athletes. Mean follow-up was 5.9 years (range, 5 years to 8.1 years). Mean age at surgery was 52 (range 27- 68) years old in 13 women and 29 men. Eleven shoulders (26%) failed and progressed to TSA at a mean of 2.9 years (1.0-5.4 years). Shoulder status (progression to TSA or not) at minimum 5 years (range 5.3 - 9.4 years) was known for 95% (42/44). One patient progressed to another surgery for stiffness at a mean of 5.6 months and another patient underwent a revision CAM procedure at 7.9 years. From this cohort, Kaplan Meier survivorship was 92% at 1 year, 85.7% at 3 years, and 75.3% survivorship at 5 years. Conclusion: The long term durability of arthroscopic management for

  9. Integration of Translational Research in the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Research (EORTC) Clinical Trial Cooperative Group Mechanisms.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F. Lehmann (Frederick); D. Lacombe (Denis); A.M.M. Eggermont (Alexander)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractThe landscape for cancer research is profoundly different today from that only one decade ago. Basic science is moving rapidly and biotechnological revolutions in molecular targeting and immunology have completely modified the opportunities and concepts for cancer treat

  10. Bioinformatics resources for cancer research with an emphasis on gene function and structure prediction tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daisuke Kihara

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The immensely popular fields of cancer research and bioinformatics overlap in many different areas, e.g. large data repositories that allow for users to analyze data from many experiments (data handling, databases, pattern mining, microarray data analysis, and interpretation of proteomics data. There are many newly available resources in these areas that may be unfamiliar to most cancer researchers wanting to incorporate bioinformatics tools and analyses into their work, and also to bioinformaticians looking for real data to develop and test algorithms. This review reveals the interdependence of cancer research and bioinformatics, and highlight the most appropriate and useful resources available to cancer researchers. These include not only public databases, but general and specific bioinformatics tools which can be useful to the cancer researcher. The primary foci are function and structure prediction tools of protein genes. The result is a useful reference to cancer researchers and bioinformaticians studying cancer alike.

  11. Mouse Monoclonal Antibodies for Liver Cancer Research | NCI Technology Transfer Center | TTC

    Science.gov (United States)

    The National Cancer Institute Laboratory of Molecular Biology seeks parties for collaborative research to co-develop and commercialize antibody drug/toxin conjugates as liver cancer therapy and diagnostics.

  12. Adherence to the World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute for Cancer Research guidelines and risk of death in Europe: results from the European Prospective Investigation into Nutrition and Cancer cohort study1,4

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vergnaud, A.C.; Romaguera, D.; Peeters, P.H.M.; Gils, C.H. van; Chan, D.S.; Romieu, I.; Freisling, H.; Ferrari, P.; Clavel-Chapelon, F.; Fagherazzi, G.; Dartois, L.; Li, K.; Tikk, K.; Bergmann, M.M.; Boeing, H.; Tjonneland, A.; Olsen, A.; Overvad, K.; Dahm, C.C.; Redondo, M.L.; Agudo, A.; Sanchez, M.J.; Amiano, P.; Chirlaque, M.D.; Ardanaz, E.; Khaw, K.T.; Wareham, N.J.; Crowe, F.; Trichopoulou, A.; Orfanos, P.; Trichopoulos, D.; Masala, G.; Sieri, S.; Tumino, R.; Vineis, P.; Panico, S.; Bueno-De-Mesquita, H.B.; Ros, M.M.; May, A.; Wirfalt, E.; Sonestedt, E.; Johansson, I.; Hallmans, G.; Lund, E.; Weiderpass, E.; Parr, C.L.; Riboli, E.; Norat, T.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In 2007, the World Cancer Research Fund (WCRF) and the American Institute for Cancer Research (AICR) issued recommendations on diet, physical activity, and weight management for cancer prevention on the basis of the most comprehensive collection of available evidence. OBJECTIVE: We inves

  13. Adherence to the World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute for Cancer Research guidelines and risk of death in Europe : results from the European Prospective Investigation into Nutrition and Cancer cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vergnaud, Anne-Claire; Romaguera, Dora; Peeters, Petra H.; van Gils, Carla H.; Chan, Doris S. M.; Romieu, Isabelle; Freisling, Heinz; Ferrari, Pietro; Clavel-Chapelon, Francoise; Fagherazzi, Guy; Dartois, Laureen; Li, Kuanrong; Tikk, Kaja; Bergmann, Manuela M.; Boeing, Heiner; Tjonneland, Anne; Olsen, Anja; Overvad, Kim; Dahm, Christina C.; Luisa Redondo, Maria; Agudo, Antonio; Sanchez, Maria-Jose; Amiano, Pilar; Chirlaque, Maria-Dolores; Ardanaz, Eva; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nick J.; Crowe, Francesca; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Orfanos, Philippos; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Masala, Giovanna; Sieri, Sabina; Tumino, Rosario; Vineis, Paolo; Panico, Salvatore; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. Bas; Ros, Martine M.; May, Anne; Wirfalt, Elisabet; Sonestedt, Emily; Johansson, Ingegerd; Hallmans, Goeran; Lund, Eiliv; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Parr, Christine L.; Riboli, Elio; Norat, Teresa

    2013-01-01

    Background: In 2007, the World Cancer Research Fund (WCRF) and the American Institute for Cancer Research (AICR) issued recommendations on diet, physical activity, and weight management for cancer prevention on the basis of the most comprehensive collection of available evidence. Objective: We inves

  14. Differential Regulatory Analysis Based on Coexpression Network in Cancer Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Junyi; Li, Yi-Xue; Li, Yuan-Yuan

    2016-01-01

    With rapid development of high-throughput techniques and accumulation of big transcriptomic data, plenty of computational methods and algorithms such as differential analysis and network analysis have been proposed to explore genome-wide gene expression characteristics. These efforts are aiming to transform underlying genomic information into valuable knowledges in biological and medical research fields. Recently, tremendous integrative research methods are dedicated to interpret the development and progress of neoplastic diseases, whereas differential regulatory analysis (DRA) based on gene coexpression network (GCN) increasingly plays a robust complement to regular differential expression analysis in revealing regulatory functions of cancer related genes such as evading growth suppressors and resisting cell death. Differential regulatory analysis based on GCN is prospective and shows its essential role in discovering the system properties of carcinogenesis features. Here we briefly review the paradigm of differential regulatory analysis based on GCN. We also focus on the applications of differential regulatory analysis based on GCN in cancer research and point out that DRA is necessary and extraordinary to reveal underlying molecular mechanism in large-scale carcinogenesis studies. PMID:27597964

  15. Differential Regulatory Analysis Based on Coexpression Network in Cancer Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junyi Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available With rapid development of high-throughput techniques and accumulation of big transcriptomic data, plenty of computational methods and algorithms such as differential analysis and network analysis have been proposed to explore genome-wide gene expression characteristics. These efforts are aiming to transform underlying genomic information into valuable knowledges in biological and medical research fields. Recently, tremendous integrative research methods are dedicated to interpret the development and progress of neoplastic diseases, whereas differential regulatory analysis (DRA based on gene coexpression network (GCN increasingly plays a robust complement to regular differential expression analysis in revealing regulatory functions of cancer related genes such as evading growth suppressors and resisting cell death. Differential regulatory analysis based on GCN is prospective and shows its essential role in discovering the system properties of carcinogenesis features. Here we briefly review the paradigm of differential regulatory analysis based on GCN. We also focus on the applications of differential regulatory analysis based on GCN in cancer research and point out that DRA is necessary and extraordinary to reveal underlying molecular mechanism in large-scale carcinogenesis studies.

  16. Barrett's Esophagus Translational Research Network (BETRNet) | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The goal of BETRNet is to reduce the incidence, morbidity, and mortality of esophageal adenocarcinoma by answering key questions related to the progression of the disease, especially in the premalignant stage. In partnership with NCI’s Division of Cancer Biology, multidisciplinary translational research centers collaborate to better understand the biology of Barrett's esophagus and esophageal adenocarcinoma to improve risk stratification and develop prevention strategies.  | Multi-disciplinary, multi-institutional collaboration to enhance understanding of Barrett's esophagus and to prevent esophageal adenocarcinoma.

  17. Research output and the public health burden of cancer: is there any relationship?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patafio, F.M.; Brooks, S.C.; Wei, X.; Peng, Y.; Biagi, J.; Booth, C.M.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The relative distribution of research output across cancer sites is not well described. Here, we evaluate whether the volume of published research is proportional to the public health burden of individual cancers. We also explore whether research output is proportional to research funding. Methods Statistics from the Canadian and American cancer societies were used to identify the top ten causes of cancer death in 2013. All journal articles and clinical trials published in 2013 by Canadian or U.S. authors for those cancers were identified. Total research funding in Canada by cancer site was obtained from the Canadian Cancer Research Alliance. Descriptive statistics and Pearson correlation coefficients were used to describe the relationship between research output, cancer mortality, and research funding. Results We identified 19,361 publications and 2661 clinical trials. The proportion of publications and clinical trials was substantially lower than the proportion of deaths for lung (41% deaths, 15% publications, 16% clinical trials), colorectal (14%, 7%, 6%), pancreatic (10%, 7%, 5%), and gastroesophageal (7%, 5%, 3%) cancers. Conversely, research output was substantially greater than the proportion of deaths for breast cancer (10% deaths, 29% publications, 30% clinical trials) and prostate cancer (8%, 15%, 17%). We observed a stronger correlation between research output and funding (publications r = 0.894, p < 0.001; clinical trials r = 0.923, p < 0.001) than between research output and cancer mortality (r = 0.363, p = 0.303; r = 0.340, p = 0.337). Conclusions Research output is not well correlated with the public health burden of individual cancers, but is correlated with the relative level of research funding. PMID:27122971

  18. Turbines and Terrestrial Vertebrates: Variation in Tortoise Survivorship Between a Wind Energy Facility and an Adjacent Undisturbed Wildland Area in the Desert Southwest (USA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agha, Mickey; Lovich, Jeffrey E; Ennen, Joshua R; Augustine, Benjamin; Arundel, Terence R; Murphy, Mason O; Meyer-Wilkins, Kathie; Bjurlin, Curtis; Delaney, David; Briggs, Jessica; Austin, Meaghan; Madrak, Sheila V; Price, Steven J

    2015-08-01

    With the recent increase in utility-scale wind energy development, researchers have become increasingly concerned how this activity will affect wildlife and their habitat. To understand the potential impacts of wind energy facilities (WEF) post-construction (i.e., operation and maintenance) on wildlife, we compared differences in activity centers and survivorship of Agassiz's desert tortoises (Gopherus agassizii) inside or near a WEF to neighboring tortoises living near a wilderness area (NWA) and farther from the WEF. We found that the size of tortoise activity centers varied, but not significantly so, between the WEF (6.25 ± 2.13 ha) and adjacent NWA (4.13 ± 1.23 ha). However, apparent survival did differ significantly between the habitat types: over the 18-year study period apparent annual survival estimates were 0.96 ± 0.01 for WEF tortoises and 0.92 ± 0.02 for tortoises in the NWA. High annual survival suggests that operation and maintenance of the WEF has not caused considerable declines in the adult population over the past two decades. Low traffic volume, enhanced resource availability, and decreased predator populations may influence annual survivorship at this WEF. Further research on these proximate mechanisms and population recruitment would be useful for mitigating and managing post-development impacts of utility-scale wind energy on long-lived terrestrial vertebrates.

  19. Turbines and Terrestrial Vertebrates: Variation in Tortoise Survivorship Between a Wind Energy Facility and an Adjacent Undisturbed Wildland Area in the Desert Southwest (USA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agha, Mickey; Lovich, Jeffrey E.; Ennen, Joshua R.; Augustine, Benjamin; Arundel, Terence R.; Murphy, Mason O.; Meyer-Wilkins, Kathie; Bjurlin, Curtis; Delaney, David; Briggs, Jessica; Austin, Meaghan; Madrak, Sheila V.; Price, Steven J.

    2015-08-01

    With the recent increase in utility-scale wind energy development, researchers have become increasingly concerned how this activity will affect wildlife and their habitat. To understand the potential impacts of wind energy facilities (WEF) post-construction (i.e., operation and maintenance) on wildlife, we compared differences in activity centers and survivorship of Agassiz's desert tortoises ( Gopherus agassizii) inside or near a WEF to neighboring tortoises living near a wilderness area (NWA) and farther from the WEF. We found that the size of tortoise activity centers varied, but not significantly so, between the WEF (6.25 ± 2.13 ha) and adjacent NWA (4.13 ± 1.23 ha). However, apparent survival did differ significantly between the habitat types: over the 18-year study period apparent annual survival estimates were 0.96 ± 0.01 for WEF tortoises and 0.92 ± 0.02 for tortoises in the NWA. High annual survival suggests that operation and maintenance of the WEF has not caused considerable declines in the adult population over the past two decades. Low traffic volume, enhanced resource availability, and decreased predator populations may influence annual survivorship at this WEF. Further research on these proximate mechanisms and population recruitment would be useful for mitigating and managing post-development impacts of utility-scale wind energy on long-lived terrestrial vertebrates.

  20. Letter from the Director - Office of Cancer Clinical Proteomics Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    The NCI’s Clinical Proteomic Technologies for Cancer (CPTC) initiative is focused on developing a better understanding of cancer biology through the proteomic interrogation of genomically characterized tumors from sources such as The Cancer Genome Atlas.

  1. We are all angels: acting, reclaiming and moving beyond survivorship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Ariane B

    2014-01-01

    This article aspires to an embodiment of dynamic living versus mere survival. The term cancer survivor, including a survivor who is in remission, has been legitimated (Berger and Luckmann, The social construction of reality, p. 94 1967) by language which creates knowledge of what a cancer survivor is and does. Because we act under descriptions (Hacking, The social construction of what?, p. 103 1999), those of us who have passed through illnesses such as cancer not only have been given the name and the idea of survivor, we have assumed and conform to some or most of the characteristics assigned to it; examples of some of those characteristics are discussed throughout this project. Whether or not we choose to enact all that falls under the grammar of the classification of survivor, we still live with, create, and experience ourselves and others as legitimated by such a classification. The term survivor operates through a number of institutions (medical, capitalism, and media) resulting in individuals' awareness of such classifications about themselves and others. Many, if not most, who are aware of being classified as survivors may wish to modify or resist the constraining aspects of those classifications and their descriptions. Through layered accounts of interviews and prose, I interact with this term as one who is both caught in and wants to go against the stream of classification and description. I want to transcend what I know, yet I am aware that whatever story I make and tell is a part of the whole-my story is part of two other survivor's stories which I include in the following telling of my own. All of our stories matter. Still, I want to look beyond what is in front of me, move beyond it, dream. I do so with a desire to tell my story as part of other survivors' stories. PMID:25400898

  2. Stem cell research: paths to cancer therapies and regenerative medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weissman, Irving

    2005-09-21

    Most tissues in complex metazoans contain a rare subset of cells that, at the single-cell level, can self-renew and also give rise to mature daughter cells. Such stem cells likely in development build tissues and are retained in adult life to regenerate them. Cancers and leukemias are apparently not an exception: rare leukemia stem cells and cancer stem cells have been isolated that contain all of the tumorigenicity of the whole tumor, and it is their properties that will guide future therapies. None of this was apparent just 20 years ago, yet this kind of stem cell thinking already provides new perspectives in medical science and could usher in new therapies. Today, political, religious, and ethical issues surround embryonic stem cell and patient-specific pluripotent stem cell research and are center stage in the attempts by governments to ban these fields for discovery and potential therapies. These interventions require physicians and physician-scientists to determine for themselves whether patient welfare or personal ethics will dominate in their practices, and whether all aspects of stem cell research can be pursued in a safe and regulated fashion.

  3. Implementation of tissue microarrays technique for cancer research in Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tania Lahera-Sánchez

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The tissue microarray (TMA technique is based on making cylindrical cores from paraffin donor blocks and transfer to a single recipient block. The TMA has revolutionized the field of pathology for the possibility to evaluate multiple samples in one slide. There is no precedent of this subject in Cuba, so the objective of this research was to implement the TMA technique. The concordance of the results obtained by complete section and the TMA were evaluated for this purpose, in the evaluation of the estrogen receptors (ER, progesterone (PR and epidermal growth factor type 2 (HER2 in samples of breast cancer. Forty-five paraffin-embedded samples from women diagnosed with breast cancer at the Institute of Oncology in 2012 were studied. Two TMA blocks were constructed, and subsequently the expression of markers ER, PR and HER2 was determined by immunohistochemistry, in the complete section of tissue and in the TMA. Kappa index was used for concordance analysis. A good concordance was obtained for all three markers (ER k=0.8272; PR k=0.793 and HER2 k=0.716. This study constitutes the first report on the TMA technique in Cuba and shows that it is a valuable tool, suggesting its potential use in translational research and clinical trials on vaccines.

  4. Head-started desert tortoises (Gopherus agassizii): Movements, survivorship and mortality causes following their release

    OpenAIRE

    Nagy, KA; Scott Hillard, L; Tuma, MW; Morafka, DJ

    2015-01-01

    © 2015, Universidad Nacional de Colombia. All Rights Reserved. We released and monitored 53 juvenile Agassiz’s Desert Tortoises (Gopherus agassizii), aged two to 15 y, that were hatched and head-started inside predator-resistant field enclosures. We set free these tortoises under a variety of conditions to evaluate effects of release distance, season of release, and age/body size on homing behavior and survivorship. Some juveniles moved large distances following release, but homing itself was...

  5. Midterm survivorship and clinical outcome of INDUS knee prosthesis: 5 year followup study

    OpenAIRE

    Sancheti, Kantilal H; Sancheti, Parag K; Rajeev S Joshi; Kailash R Patil; Shyam, Ashok K; Bhaskar, Raja R

    2016-01-01

    Background: INDUS knee implant has been designed as per the anatomical morphology of the Indian population and has shown good clinical outcome in short term studies. The purpose of the present study was to report the midterm survivorship and clinical outcome of this implant. Materials and Methods: Two hundred and twenty three primary total knee arthroplasties in 209 consecutive patients using the INDUS knee prosthesis were prospectively enrolled. There were 145 females (155 knees) and 64 male...

  6. Effects of intraspecific diversity on survivorship, growth, and recruitment of the eastern oyster across sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanley, Torrance C; Hughes, A Randall; Williams, Bethany; Garland, Hanna; Kimbro, David L

    2016-06-01

    Intraspecific diversity, particularly of foundation species, can significantly affect population, community, and ecosystem processes. Examining how genetic diversity relates to demographic traits provides a key mechanistic link from genotypic and phenotypic variation of taxa with complex life histories to their population dynamics. We conducted a field experiment to assess how two metrics of intraspecific diversity (cohort diversity, the number of independent juvenile cohorts created from different adult source populations, and genetic relatedness, genetic similarity among individuals within and across cohorts) affect the survivorship, growth, and recruitment of the foundation species Crassostrea virginica. To assess the effects of both cohort diversity and genetic relatedness on oyster demographic traits under different environmental conditions, we manipulated juvenile oyster diversity and predator exposure (presence/absence of a cage) at two sites differing in resource availability and predation intensity. Differences in predation pressure between sites overwhelmingly determined post-settlement survivorship of oysters. However, in the absence of predation (i.e., cage treatment), one or both metrics of intraspecific diversity, in addition to site, influenced long-term survivorship, growth, and recruitment. While both cohort diversity and genetic relatedness were negatively associated with long-term survivorship, genetic relatedness alone showed a positive association with growth and cohort diversity alone showed a positive association with recruitment. Thus, our results demonstrate that in the absence of predation, intraspecific diversity can affect multiple demographic traits of a foundation species, but the relative importance of these effects depends on the environmental context. Moreover, the magnitude and direction of these effects vary depending on the diversity metric, cohort diversity or genetic relatedness, suggesting that although they are inversely

  7. Current perspectives and emerging issues on cancer rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stubblefield, Michael D; Hubbard, Gill; Cheville, Andrea; Koch, Uwe; Schmitz, Kathryn H; Dalton, Susanne Oksbjerg

    2013-06-01

    Cancer rehabilitation is a rapidly emerging and evolving medical field in both Europe and the United States, in large part because of increases in the number of cancer survivors. Although few argue with the need to restore function and quality of life to patients affected by cancer and its treatments, differences exist between European countries with regard to the funding, accessibility, and even the definition of cancer rehabilitation services. In the United States, there is tremendous variability in the provision of rehabilitation services resulting from a variety of factors, including a lack of highly trained cancer rehabilitation physicians and therapists as well as a lack of comprehensive cancer rehabilitation programs, even at the majority of top cancer centers. Although studies evaluating the effectiveness of rehabilitation programs in the cancer setting, particularly exercise, have influenced clinical decision-making in both Europe and the United States for some time, this emerging evidence base also is now starting to influence guideline and policy making. Coordinated research efforts are essential to establish a robust framework to support future investigation and establish shared initiatives. Determining the best way forward for cancer survivors will require investment in large-scale prospective cohort studies that sufficiently describe their rehabilitation needs through the continuum of the survivorship experience.

  8. Researchers Use a Kinome Screen to Identify New Therapeutic Targets | Office of Cancer Genomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    The tumor suppressor p53 is mutated in over 50% of head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCC), yet there are currently no available therapies to target it. CTD2 researchers at the Fred Hutchison Cancer Research Center hypothesized that HNSCC cancer cells with p53 mutations are dependent on particular kinases for survival. In a study published in Clinical Cancer Research, they sought to identify these kinases using RNAi against known kinase genes in mouse and human cell lines.

  9. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Role in Cancer Research Intramural Research Extramural Research Bioinformatics and Cancer NCI-Designated Cancer Centers Frederick National ... Role in Cancer Research Intramural Research Extramural Research Bioinformatics and Cancer NCI-Designated Cancer Centers Frederick National ...

  10. The European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) Quality-of-Life questionnaire cervical cancer module

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greimel, Elfriede R; Kuljanic Vlasic, Karin; Waldenstrom, Ann-Charlotte;

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The authors report on the development and validation of a cervical cancer module for the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) Quality-of-Life (QoL) questionnaire (QLQ), which was designed to assess disease-specific and treatment-specific aspects of Qo...

  11. ADVANTAGES AND APPLICATIONS OF TISSUE MICROARRAY TECHNOLOGY ON CANCER RESEARCH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张喜平; 苏丹; 程琪辉

    2003-01-01

    S To provide evidences for exploiting tissue microarray (TMA) technology, we reviewed advantages and applications of TMA on tumor research. TMA has many advantages, including (1) section from TMA blocks can be utilized for the simultaneous analysis of up to 1,000 different tumors at DNA, RNA or protein level; (2) TMA is highly representative of their donor tissues; (3) TMA can improve conservation of tissue resources and experimental reagents, improve internal experimental control, and increase sample numbers per experiment, and can be used for large-scale, massively parallel in situ analysis; (4) TMA facilitates rapid translation of molecular discoveries to clinical applications. TMA has been applied to tumor research, such as glioma, breast tumor, lung cancer and so on. The development of novel biochip technologies has opened up new possibilities for the high-throughput molecular profiling of human tumors. Novel molecular markers emerging from high-throughput expression surveys could be analyzed on tumor TMA. It is anticipated that TMA, a new member of biochip, will soon become a widely used tool for all types of tissue-based research. TMA will lead to a significant acceleration of the transition of basic research findings into clinical applications.

  12. Redes En Acción. Increasing Hispanic participation in cancer research, training, and awareness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, Amelie G; Talavera, Gregory A; Marti, Jose; Penedo, Frank J; Medrano, Martha A; Giachello, Aida L; Pérez-Stable, Eliseo J

    2006-10-15

    Hispanics are affected by many health care disparities. The National Cancer Institute (NCI), through its Special Populations Branch, is supporting networking and capacity-building activities designed to increase Hispanic participation and leadership in cancer research. Redes En Acción established a national network of cancer research centers, community-based organizations, and federal partners to facilitate opportunities for junior Hispanic scientists to participate in training and research projects on cancer control. Since 2000, Redes En Acción has established a network of more than 1800 Hispanic leaders involved in cancer research and education. The project has sustained 131 training positions and submitted 29 pilot projects to NCI for review, with 16 awards for a total of $800,000, plus an additional $8.8 million in competing grant funding based on pilot study results to date. Independent research has leveraged an additional $32 million in non-Redes funding, and together the national and regional network sites have participated in more than 1400 community and professional awareness events. In addition, the program conducted extensive national survey research that provided the basis for the Redes En Acción Latino Cancer Report, a national agenda on Hispanic cancer issues. Redes En Acción has increased participation in cancer control research, training, and awareness among Hispanic scientists and within Hispanic communities. Cancer 2006. (c) 2006 American Cancer Society. PMID:16958026

  13. Redes En Acción. Increasing Hispanic participation in cancer research, training, and awareness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, Amelie G; Talavera, Gregory A; Marti, Jose; Penedo, Frank J; Medrano, Martha A; Giachello, Aida L; Pérez-Stable, Eliseo J

    2006-10-15

    Hispanics are affected by many health care disparities. The National Cancer Institute (NCI), through its Special Populations Branch, is supporting networking and capacity-building activities designed to increase Hispanic participation and leadership in cancer research. Redes En Acción established a national network of cancer research centers, community-based organizations, and federal partners to facilitate opportunities for junior Hispanic scientists to participate in training and research projects on cancer control. Since 2000, Redes En Acción has established a network of more than 1800 Hispanic leaders involved in cancer research and education. The project has sustained 131 training positions and submitted 29 pilot projects to NCI for review, with 16 awards for a total of $800,000, plus an additional $8.8 million in competing grant funding based on pilot study results to date. Independent research has leveraged an additional $32 million in non-Redes funding, and together the national and regional network sites have participated in more than 1400 community and professional awareness events. In addition, the program conducted extensive national survey research that provided the basis for the Redes En Acción Latino Cancer Report, a national agenda on Hispanic cancer issues. Redes En Acción has increased participation in cancer control research, training, and awareness among Hispanic scientists and within Hispanic communities. Cancer 2006. (c) 2006 American Cancer Society.

  14. Cancer patient and survivor research from the cancer information service research consortium: a preview of three large randomized trials and initial lessons learned.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcus, Alfred C; Diefenbach, Michael A; Stanton, Annette L; Miller, Suzanne M; Fleisher, Linda; Raich, Peter C; Morra, Marion E; Perocchia, Rosemarie Slevin; Tran, Zung Vu; Bright, Mary Anne

    2013-01-01

    The authors describe 3 large randomized trials from the Cancer Information Service Research Consortium. Three web-based multimedia programs are being tested to help newly diagnosed prostate (Project 1) and breast cancer patients (Project 2) make informed treatment decisions and breast cancer patients prepare for life after treatment (Project 3). Project 3 also tests a telephone callback intervention delivered by a cancer information specialist. All participants receive standard print material specific to each project. Preliminary results from the 2-month follow-up interviews are reported for the initial wave of enrolled participants, most of whom were recruited from the Cancer Information Service (1-800-4-CANCER) telephone information program (Project 1: n =208; Project 2: n =340; Project 3: n =792). Self-reported use of the multimedia program was 51%, 52%, and 67% for Projects 1, 2, and 3, respectively. Self-reported use of the print materials (read all, most, or some) was 90%, 85%, and 83% for Projects 1, 2, and 3, respectively. The callback intervention was completed by 92% of Project 3 participants. Among those using the Cancer Information Service Research Consortium interventions, perceived usefulness and benefit was high, and more than 90% reported that they would recommend them to other cancer patients. The authors present 5 initial lessons learned that may help inform future cancer communications research.

  15. Research on Fast Track Surgery Application in Lung Cancer Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaiyun YANG

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective Fast track surgery (FTS is a systematical method to accelerate the recovery of surgical patients by reducing the physical and mental trauma stress of them. The research is to investigate the feasibility of FTS application in lung cancer surgery. Methods A total of 80 cases of lung cancer patients with single leaf lobotomy resection were randomized into two groups. While the experimental group was treated with the conception of FTS, and the control group was treated with the traditional methods. The incident rate of post-operation pain degrees, telecasts, pleural effusion, the post-operation time stay in hospital time and the total cost during hospitalization in two groups were compared respectively. Results In FTS group: the VAS score of post-operation pain at 1 h, 6 h, 12 h, 24 h and 48 h all significantly decreased compared to the traditional therapy group. The incidence rate of telecast was 10.53%. The incidence rate of pleural effusion was 26.31%. The length of stay after operation was (4±1 d and the total cost was RMB 15 600±7 600. In the control group, the above values were 77.78%, 33.33%, 22.22%, (9±1 d, RMB 23 600±5 400, respectively. The post operation pain (VAS method of FTS group was remarkablely below the control group. There has significant difference of the incident rate of telecasts, stay time in hospital and the total cast in two groups (P < 0.05. No significant difference was observed in the incident rate of pleural effusion. Conclusion The new methods of FTS can apparently accelerates recovery after lung cancer resection, reduces complications, shorten timestay in hospital and cut down the total cost.

  16. Physical activity in patients with advanced-stage cancer: a systematic review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albrecht, Tara A; Taylor, Ann Gill

    2012-06-01

    The importance of physical activity for chronic disease prevention and management has become generally well accepted. The number of research interventions and publications examining the benefits of physical activity for patients with cancer has been rising steadily. However, much of that research has focused on the impact of physical activity either prior to or early in the cancer diagnosis, treatment, and survivorship process. Research focusing on the effects of physical activity, specifically for patients with advanced-stage cancer and poorer prognostic outcomes, has been addressed only recently. The purpose of this article is to examine the state of the science for physical activity in the advanced-stage disease subset of the cancer population. Exercise in a variety of intensities and forms, including yoga, walking, biking, and swimming, has many health benefits for people, including those diagnosed with cancer. Research has shown that, for people with cancer (including advanced-stage cancer), exercise can decrease anxiety, stress, and depression while improving levels of pain, fatigue, shortness of breath, constipation, and insomnia. People diagnosed with cancer should discuss with their oncologist safe, easy ways they can incorporate exercise into their daily lives. PMID:22641322

  17. Physical Activity in Patients With Advanced-Stage Cancer: A Systematic Review of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albrecht, Tara A.; Taylor, Ann Gill

    2014-01-01

    The importance of physical activity for chronic disease prevention and management has become generally well accepted. The number of research interventions and publications examining the benefits of physical activity for patients with cancer has been rising steadily. However, much of that research has focused on the impact of physical activity either prior to or early in the cancer diagnosis, treatment, and survivorship process. Research focusing on the effects of physical activity, specifically for patients with advanced-stage cancer and poorer prognostic outcomes, has been addressed only recently. The purpose of this article is to examine the state of the science for physical activity in the advanced-stage disease subset of the cancer population. Exercise in a variety of intensities and forms, including yoga, walking, biking, and swimming, has many health benefits for people, including those diagnosed with cancer. Research has shown that, for people with cancer (including advanced-stage cancer), exercise can decrease anxiety, stress, and depression while improving levels of pain, fatigue, shortness of breath, constipation, and insomnia. People diagnosed with cancer should discuss with their oncologist safe, easy ways they can incorporate exercise into their daily lives. PMID:22641322

  18. Growth Analysis of Cancer Biology Research, 2000-2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keshava,

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Methods and Material: The PubMed database was used for retrieving data on 'cancer biology.' Articles were downloaded from the years 2000 to 2011. The articles were classified chronologically and transferred to a spreadsheet application for analysis of the data as per the objectives of the study. Statistical Method: To investigate the nature of growth of articles via exponential, linear, and logistics tests. Result: The year wise analysis of the growth of articles output shows that for the years 2000 to 2005 and later there is a sudden increase in output, during the years 2006 to 2007 and 2008 to 2011. The high productivity of articles during these years may be due to their significance in cancer biology literature, having received prominence in research. Conclusion: There is an obvious need for better compilations of statistics on numbers of publications in the years from 2000 to 2011 on various disciplines on a worldwide scale, for informed critical assessments of the amount of new knowledge contributed by these publications, and for enhancements and refinements of present Scientometric techniques (citation and publication counts, so that valid measures of knowledge growth may be obtained. Only then will Scientometrics be able to provide accurate, useful descriptions and predictions of knowledge growth.

  19. Epidemiology of breast cancer at the shaukat khanum memorial cancer hospital and research center, lahore, pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To describe the demographic and clinical features of females presenting with breast malignancies at the Shaukat Khanum Memorial Cancer Hospital and Research Center (SKMCH and RC), Lahore, Pakistan. Study Design: An observational study. Place and Duration of Study: SKMCH and RC, Lahore, from January 2008 to December 2012. Methodology: Demographic and clinical features of female breast cancer patients, registered at SKMCH and RC, were studied. Mean values, counts, and percentages were obtained. Results: Four-thousand, three-hundred and sixty-six female breast malignancies were recorded. Nearly 80.4% of the patients belonged to Punjab. Mean age at presentation was 48.6 ± 12.2 years, at menarche was 13.2 ± 1.2 years, and at first childbirth was 23.7 ± 4.8 years. Mean Body Mass Index (BMI) was 29.0 ± 5.7 kg/m2. In 60.1%, history of breast feeding was positive. In 55.7%, there was no history of use of any Oral Contraceptive Pills (OCP)/Hormone Replacement Therapy (HRT). Nearly 42.7% were postmenopausal, 85.2% had infiltrating ductal carcinoma, 49.6% had grade 3 tumor, 60.7% had stage II disease, and 37.3% were Estrogen Receptor (ER)/Progesterone Receptor (PR)+, Human Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor 2 (HER2)-. Family history of breast cancer was positive in 16.9% of the cases. Conclusion: The mean presenting age is lower than what has been recorded in the West. It may be worthwhile collating results from different institutions in order to study the epidemiology of the disease more extensively and develop cancer control and early detection programs. (author)

  20. The Utilization and Limitation of CD133 Epitopes in Lung Cancer Stem Cells Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yin CHEN

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Lung cancer is one of the most common tumor, which lacks of effective clinical treatment to lead to desirable prognosis. According to cancer stem cell hypothesis, lung cancer stem cells are considered to be responsible for carcinogenesis, development, metastasis, recurrence, invasion, resistance to chemotherapy and radiotherapy of lung cancer. In recent years, more and more institutes used glycosylated CD133 epitopes to define, isolate, purify lung cancer stem cells. However, along with deeply research, the application of CD133 epitopes in lung cancer stem cell research is questioned. The utilization and limitation of CD133 epitopes in lung cancer stem cells research for the past few years is summaried in this review.

  1. Highlights of recent developments and trends in cancer nanotechnology research--view from NCI Alliance for Nanotechnology in Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hull, L C; Farrell, D; Grodzinski, P

    2014-01-01

    Although the incidence of cancer and cancer related deaths in the United States has decreased over the past two decades due to improvements in early detection and treatment, cancer still is responsible for a quarter of the deaths in this country. There is much room for improvement on the standard treatments currently available and the National Cancer Institute (NCI) has recognized the potential for nanotechnology and nanomaterials in this area. The NCI Alliance for Nanotechnology in Cancer was formed in 2004 to support multidisciplinary researchers in the application of nanotechnology to cancer diagnosis and treatment. The researchers in the Alliance have been productive in generating innovative solutions to some of the central issues of cancer treatment including how to detect tumors earlier, how to target cancer cells specifically, and how to improve the therapeutic index of existing chemotherapies and radiotherapy treatments. Highly creative ideas are being pursued where novelty in nanomaterial development enables new modalities of detection or therapy. This review highlights some of the innovative materials approaches being pursued by researchers funded by the NCI Alliance. Their discoveries to improve the functionality of nanoparticles for medical applications includes the generation of new platforms, improvements in the manufacturing of nanoparticles and determining the underlying reasons for the movement of nanoparticles in the blood.

  2. [Cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Peña-López, Roberto; Remolina-Bonilla, Yuly Andrea

    2016-09-01

    Cancer is a group of diseases which represents a significant public health problem in Mexico and worldwide. In Mexico neoplasms are the second leading cause of death. An increased morbidity and mortality are expected in the next decades. Several preventable risk factors for cancer development have been identified, the most relevant including tobacco use, which accounts for 30% of the cancer cases; and obesity, associated to another 30%. These factors, in turn, are related to sedentarism, alcohol abuse and imbalanced diets. Some agents are well knokn to cause cancer such as ionizing radiation, viruses such as the papilloma virus (HPV) and hepatitis virus (B and C), and more recently environmental pollution exposure and red meat consumption have been pointed out as carcinogens by the International Agency for Research in Cancer (IARC). The scientific evidence currently available is insufficient to consider milk either as a risk factor or protective factor against different types of cancer. PMID:27603890

  3. Psychological research and the prostate-cancer screening controversy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arkes, Hal R; Gaissmaier, Wolfgang

    2012-06-01

    In October of 2011, the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force released a draft report in which they recommended against using the prostate-specific antigen (PSA) test to screen for prostate cancer. We attempt to show that four factors documented by psychological research can help explain the furor that followed the release of the task force's report. These factors are the persuasive power of anecdotal (as opposed to statistical) evidence, the influence of personal experience, the improper evaluation of data, and the influence of low base rates on the efficacy of screening tests. We suggest that augmenting statistics with facts boxes or pictographs might help such committees communicate more effectively with the public and with the U.S. Congress. PMID:22555966

  4. Tobacco and cancer: an American Association for Cancer Research policy statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viswanath, Kasisomayajula; Herbst, Roy S; Land, Stephanie R; Leischow, Scott J; Shields, Peter G

    2010-05-01

    The evidence against tobacco use is clear, incontrovertible, and convincing; so is the need for urgent and immediate action to stem the global tide of tobacco-related death and suffering and to improve public health. The American Association for Cancer Research makes an unequivocal call to all who are concerned about public health to take the following immediate steps:Increase the investment in tobacco-related research, commensurate with the enormous toll that tobacco use takes on human health, to provide the scientific evidence to drive the development of effective policies and treatments necessary to dramatically reduce tobacco use and attendant disease. Develop new evidence-based strategies to more effectively prevent the initiation of tobacco use, especially for youth and young adults. Promote the further development of evidence-based treatments for tobacco cessation, including individualized therapies, and ensure coverage of and access to evidence-based behavioral and pharmacological treatments. Develop evidence-based strategies for more effective public communication to prevent, reduce, and eliminate tobacco use and to guide health policies and clinical practice. Develop effective, evidence-based policies to reduce disparities across the tobacco continuum among social groups and developed and developing nations. Implement to the fullest extent existing evidence-based, systems-wide tobacco control programs to prevent initiation and foster cessation. Adapt and implement appropriate approaches to reduce the growing burden of tobacco use in the developing world. Enhance and coordinate surveillance efforts, both in the United States and globally, to monitor tobacco products, tobacco use, and tobacco-related disease, including tobacco use in oncology clinical trials. Establish a comprehensive, science-based regulatory framework to evaluate tobacco products and manufacturers' claims. Promote research that addresses the following: the potential harms of current and

  5. Stakeholder engagement for comparative effectiveness research in cancer care: experience of the DEcIDE Cancer Consortium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, Caprice C; Wind, Jennifer K; Chang, George J; Chen, Ronald C; Schrag, Deborah

    2013-03-01

    Stakeholder input is a critical component of comparative effectiveness research. To ensure that the research activities of the Developing Evidence to Inform Decisions about Effectiveness (DEcIDE) Network, supported by the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, translate into the greatest impact for everyday practice and policy-making in cancer, we were tasked with soliciting stakeholder input regarding priority areas in cancer-related comparative effectiveness research for the DEcIDE Cancer Consortium. Given the increasing emphasis on stakeholder engagement in research, many investigators are facing a similar task, yet there is limited literature to guide such efforts, particularly in cancer care. To help fill this gap, we present our approach to operationalizing stakeholder engagement and discuss it in the context of other recent developments in the area. We describe challenges encountered in convening stakeholders from multiple vantage points to prioritize topics and strategies used to mitigate these barriers. We offer several recommendations regarding how to best solicit stakeholder input to inform comparative effectiveness research in cancer care. These recommendations can inform other initiatives currently facing the challenges of engaging stakeholders in priority setting for cancer.

  6. Call for a Computer-Aided Cancer Detection and Classification Research Initiative in Oman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirzal, Andri; Chaudhry, Shafique Ahmad

    2016-01-01

    Cancer is a major health problem in Oman. It is reported that cancer incidence in Oman is the second highest after Saudi Arabia among Gulf Cooperation Council countries. Based on GLOBOCAN estimates, Oman is predicted to face an almost two-fold increase in cancer incidence in the period 2008-2020. However, cancer research in Oman is still in its infancy. This is due to the fact that medical institutions and infrastructure that play central roles in data collection and analysis are relatively new developments in Oman. We believe the country requires an organized plan and efforts to promote local cancer research. In this paper, we discuss current research progress in cancer diagnosis using machine learning techniques to optimize computer aided cancer detection and classification (CAD). We specifically discuss CAD using two major medical data, i.e., medical imaging and microarray gene expression profiling, because medical imaging like mammography, MRI, and PET have been widely used in Oman for assisting radiologists in early cancer diagnosis and microarray data have been proven to be a reliable source for differential diagnosis. We also discuss future cancer research directions and benefits to Oman economy for entering the cancer research and treatment business as it is a multi-billion dollar industry worldwide. PMID:27268600

  7. Director's Update - Office of Cancer Clinical Proteomics Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    The National Cancer Institute’s Clinical Proteomic Tumor Analysis Consortium (NCI-CPTAC) has recently begun the proteomic interrogation of genomically-characterized tumors from The Cancer Genome Atlas.

  8. Clinical Assay Development Support - Office of Cancer Clinical Proteomics Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    The NCI’s Division of Cancer Treatment and Diagnosis and the Cancer Diagnosis Program announce a request for applications for the Clinical Assay Development Program (CADP) for investigators seeking clinical assay development and validation resources.

  9. Opportunities to address lung cancer disparities among African Americans

    OpenAIRE

    Coughlin, Steven S.; Matthews-Juarez, Patricia; Juarez, Paul D.; Melton, Courtnee E; King, Mario

    2014-01-01

    Race and socioeconomic status are well known to influence lung cancer incidence and mortality patterns in the U.S. Lung cancer incidence and mortality rates are higher among blacks than whites. In this article we review opportunities to address disparities in lung cancer incidence, mortality, and survivorship among African Americans. First, we summarize recent advances in the early detection and treatment of lung cancer. Then we consider black-white disparities in lung cancer treatment includ...

  10. [The application of CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing technology in cancer research].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dayong; Ma, Ning; Hui, Yang; Gao, Xu

    2016-01-01

    The CRISPR/Cas9 (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats/CRISPR-associated protein-9 nuclease) genome editing technology has become more and more popular in gene editing because of its simple design and easy operation. Using the CRISPR/Cas9 system, researchers can perform site-directed genome modification at the base level. Moreover, it has been widely used in genome editing in multiple species and related cancer research. In this review, we summarize the application of the CRISPR/Cas9 system in cancer research based on the latest research progresses as well as our understanding of cancer research and genome editing techniques.

  11. DCP's Early Detection Research Guides Future Science | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Early detection research funded by the NCI's Division of Cancer Prevention has positively steered both public health and clinical outcomes, and set the stage for findings in the next generation of research. |

  12. What's New in Research and Treatment of Melanoma Skin Cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... number of skin cancers and the pain and loss of life from this disease is to educate the public, ... Blog Programs & Services Breast Cancer Support TLC Hair Loss & Mastectomy ... Cancer Relay For Life Events College Relay For Life Relay Recess Donate ...

  13. Computational Omics - Office of Cancer Clinical Proteomics Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    The National Cancer Institute's Clinical Proteomic Tumor Analysis Consortium (CPTAC) and the NVIDIA Foundation are pleased to announce funding opportunities in the fight against cancer. Each organization has launched a request for proposals (RFP) that will collectively fund up to $2 million to help to develop a new generation of data-intensive scientific tools to find new ways to treat cancer.

  14. Breast Cancer and Married Couples: Research on the Couple and Treatment of the Patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Ross E.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Reviewed research on effects of breast cancer on 20 married pairs and extends results to practical aspects of doing such research and attempting treatment of breast cancer patients. Measures of individual psychological adjustment and dyadic adjustment found that both spouses appeared well adjusted and reported excellent quality of life. Interviews…

  15. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Adult Cancers Metastatic Cancer Recurrent Cancer Research NCI’s Role in Cancer Research Intramural Research Extramural Research Bioinformatics ... Terminology Resources NCI Data Catalog Cryo-EM NCI's Role in Cancer Research Intramural Research Extramural Research Bioinformatics ...

  16. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Services Advance Directives Using Trusted Resources Cancer Types Adolescents and Young Adults with Cancer Reports, Research, and ... of Cancers Cancers by Body Location Childhood Cancers Adolescent & Young Adult Cancers Metastatic Cancer Recurrent Cancer Research ...

  17. The Cervix Cancer Research Network (CCRN: Increasing access to cancer clinical trials in low- and middle-income countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gita eSuneja

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The burden of cervical cancer is large and growing in developing countries, due in large part to limited access to screening services and lack of human papillomavirus (HPV vaccination. In spite of modern advances in diagnostic and therapeutic modalities, outcomes from cervical cancer have not markedly improved in recent years. Novel clinical trials are urgently needed to improve outcomes from cervical cancer worldwide. Methods: The Cervix Cancer Research Network (CCRN, a subsidiary of the Gynecologic Cancer InterGroup (GCIG, is a multi-national, multi-institutional consortium of physicians and scientists focused on improving cervical cancer outcomes worldwide by making cancer clinical trials available in low-, middle-, and high-income countries. Standard operating procedures for participation in CCRN include a pre-qualifying questionnaire to evaluate clinical activities and research infrastructure, followed by a site visit. Once a site is approved, they may choose to participate in one of four currently accruing clinical trials.Results: To date, 13 different CCRN site visits have been performed. Of these 13 sites visited, 10 have been approved as CCRN sites including Tata Memorial Hospital, India; Bangalore, India; Trivandrum, India; Ramathibodi, Thailand; Siriaj, Thailand; Pramongkutklao, Thailand; Ho Chi Minh, Vietnam; Blokhin Russian Cancer Research Center; the Hertzen Moscow Cancer Research Institute; and the Russian Scientific Center of Roentgenoradiology. The four currently accruing clinical trials are TACO, OUTBACK, INTERLACE, and SHAPE.Discussion: The CCRN has successfully enrolled 10 sites in developing countries to participate in four randomized clinical trials. The primary objectives are to provide novel therapeutics to regions with the greatest need and to improve the validity and generalizability of clinical trial results by enrolling a diverse sample of patients.

  18. Managing Health Care After Cancer Treatment: A Wellness Plan

    OpenAIRE

    Moye, Jennifer; Langdon, Maura; Jones, Janice M.; Haggstrom, David; Naik, Aanand D.

    2014-01-01

    Many patients and health care providers lack awareness of both the existence of, and treatments for, lingering distress and disability after treatment. A cancer survivorship wellness plan can help ensure that any referral needs for psychosocial and other restorative care after cancer treatment are identified.

  19. Development and Pilot Evaluation of Native CREST – a Cancer Research Experience and Student Training Program for Navajo Undergraduate Students

    OpenAIRE

    Hughes, Christine A; Bauer, Mark C.; Horazdovsky, Bruce F.; Garrison, Edward R.; Patten, Christi A.; Petersen, Wesley O.; Bowman, Clarissa N.; Vierkant, Robert A.

    2013-01-01

    The Mayo Clinic Cancer Center and Diné College received funding for a 4-year collaborative P20 planning grant from the National Cancer Institute in 2006. The goal of the partnership was to increase Navajo undergraduates’ interest in and commitment to biomedical coursework and careers, especially in cancer research. This paper describes the development, pilot testing and evaluation of Native CREST (Cancer Research Experience & Student Training), a 10-week cancer research training program provi...

  20. Recommendations for Cancer Epidemiologic Research in Understudied Populations and Implications for Future Needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Damali N; Lam, Tram Kim; Brignole, Katy; Ashing, Kimlin T; Blot, William J; Burhansstipanov, Linda; Chen, Jarvis T; Dignan, Mark; Gomez, Scarlett Lin; Martinez, Maria Elena; Matthews, Alicia; Palmer, Julie R; Perez-Stable, Eliseo J; Schootman, Mario; Vilchis, Hugo; Vu, Alexander; Srinivasan, Shobha

    2016-04-01

    Medically underserved populations in the United States continue to experience higher cancer burdens of incidence, mortality, and other cancer-related outcomes. It is imperative to understand how health inequities experienced by diverse population groups may contribute to our increasing unequal cancer burdens and disparate outcomes. The National Cancer Institute convened a diverse group of scientists to discuss research challenges and opportunities for cancer epidemiology in medically underserved and understudied populations. This report summarizes salient issues and discusses five recommendations from the group, including the next steps required to better examine and address cancer burden in the United States among our rapidly increasing diverse and understudied populations. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 25(4); 573-80. ©2016 AACR SEE ALL ARTICLES IN THIS CEBP FOCUS SECTION, "MULTILEVEL APPROACHES TO ADDRESSING CANCER HEALTH DISPARITIES". PMID:27196089

  1. Cancer Patient and Survivor Research from the Cancer Information Service Research Consortium: A Preview of Three Large Randomized Trials and Initial Lessons Learned

    Science.gov (United States)

    MARCUS, ALFRED C.; DIEFENBACH, MICHAEL A.; STANTON, ANNETTE L.; MILLER-HALEGOUA, SUZANNE N.; FLEISHER, LINDA; RAICH, PETER C.; MORRA, MARION E.; PEROCCHIA, ROSEMARIE SLEVIN; TRAN, ZUNG VU; BRIGHT, MARY ANNE

    2014-01-01

    Three large randomized trials are described from the Cancer Information Service Research Consortium (CISRC). Three web-based multimedia programs are being tested to help newly diagnosed prostate (Project 1) and breast cancer patients (Project 2) make informed treatment decisions and breast cancer patients prepare for life after treatment (Project 3). Project 3 is also testing a telephone callback intervention delivered by a cancer information specialist. All participants receive standard print material specific to each project. Preliminary results from the two-month follow-up interviews are reported for the initial wave of enrolled participants, most of whom were recruited from the Cancer Information Service (1-800-4-CANCER) telephone information program (Project 1 = 208, Project 2 = 340, Project 3 = 792). Self-reported use of the multimedia program was 51%, 52% and 67% for Projects 1–3, respectively. Self-reported use of the print materials (read all, most or some) was 90%, 85% and 83% for Projects 1–3, respectively. The callback intervention was completed by 92% of Project 3 participants. Among those using the CISRC interventions, perceived utility and benefit was high, and more than 90% would recommend them to other cancer patients. Five initial lessons learned are presented that may help inform future cancer communications research. PMID:23448232

  2. Meeting the Information Needs of Lower Income Cancer Survivors: Results of a Randomized Control Trial Evaluating the American Cancer Society’s “I Can Cope”

    OpenAIRE

    Martin, Michelle Y.; Evans, Mary B; KRATT, POLLY; Pollack, Lori A.; Smith, Judith Lee; Oster, Robert; Dignan, Mark; Prayor-Patterson, Heather; Watson, Christopher; HOUSTON, PETER; ANDREWS, SHIQUINA; LIWO, AMANDIY; TSENG, TUNG SUNG; HULLETT, SANDRAL; OLIVER, JOANN

    2014-01-01

    The American Cancer Society is a leader in the development of cancer survivorship resources. One resource of the American Cancer Society is the I Can Cope program, an educational program for cancer survivors and their families. Evaluations of this program indicate that cancer patients highly rate its objectives. Yet, there are gaps in the understanding of the full impact of the program on diverse cancer survivors. In this study, the authors used a randomized trial to evaluate the program. Par...

  3. Moving forward in colorectal cancer research, what proteomics has to tell

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is the third most common cancer and is highly fatal. During the last several years, research has been primarily based on the study of expression profiles using microarray technology. But now, investigators are putting into practice proteomic analyses of cancer tissues and cells to identify new diagnostic or therapeutic biomarkers for this cancer. Because the proteome reflects the state of a cell, tissue or organism more accurately, much is expected from proteomics to yield better tumor markers for disease diagnosis and therapy monitoring. This review summarizes the most relevant applications of proteomics the biomarker discovery for colorectal cancer.

  4. Cancer Research UK Centre for Drug Development: translating 21st-century science into the cancer medicines of tomorrow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritchie, James W A; Williams, Robert J

    2015-08-01

    The Cancer Research UK Centre (CRUK) for Drug Development (CDD) can trace its origins back to the Cancer Research Campaign Phase I/II Committee (created in 1980) and to date has tested over 120 potential cancer medicines in early-phase clinical trials. Five drugs are now registered, providing benefit to thousands of patients with cancer as part of their routine standard of care. In recent years, the CDD has established several different business and operating models that provide it with access to the pipelines of pharmaceutical and biotechnology companies. This has enabled potential new treatments to be taken into clinical development that might have otherwise languished on companies' shelves and has increased the number of drug combinations being explored in early-phase clinical trials. PMID:25794601

  5. Living in limbo: Being diagnosed with oral tongue cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Genevieve Philiponis

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Oral tongue cancer presents clinical challenges to effective diagnosis that affect patient experience. Patient experience of the diagnostic process is poorly described, making opportunities for nursing intervention unclear. Methods: We qualitatively describe, using constant comparative analysis, oral tongue cancer diagnosis using data from a larger grounded theory study of oral tongue cancer survivorship. Using constant comparative analysis - in keeping with the methodology of the main study - we analyzed 16 survivor interviews for themes explaining the patient experience of oral tongue cancer diagnosis. Results: We termed the broader diagnostic process "living in limbo." This process includes the themes describing the peri-diagnostic process itself - "self-detected lesion," "lack of concern," "seeking help," "not a straightforward diagnosis," and "hearing the diagnosis." Entry into treatment concludes "Living in Limbo" and is described by the theme "worry and trust." Conclusions: Our findings are limited by retrospective interviews and participant homogeneity among other features. Future research with prospective designs and diverse groups of people at risk for and diagnosed with oral tongue cancer, as well as targeting those who have had negative biopsies with no eventual diagnosis of oral tongue cancer, will build on our findings. Further, study of patient experience in other sociocultural context and healthcare systems is needed to inform nursing science and practice. Finally, "living in limbo" suggests that clinician and public education about oral tongue cancer diagnosis is needed.

  6. A cloud-based data network approach for translational cancer research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Wei; Tsoumakos, Dimitrios; Ghanem, Moustafa

    2015-01-01

    We develop a new model and associated technology for constructing and managing self-organizing data to support translational cancer research studies. We employ a semantic content network approach to address the challenges of managing cancer research data. Such data is heterogeneous, large, decentralized, growing and continually being updated. Moreover, the data originates from different information sources that may be partially overlapping, creating redundancies as well as contradictions and inconsistencies. Building on the advantages of elasticity of cloud computing, we deploy the cancer data networks on top of the CELAR Cloud platform to enable more effective processing and analysis of Big cancer data.

  7. Developing the Evidence Base to Inform Best Practice: A Scoping Study of Breast and Cervical Cancer Reviews in Low- and Middle-Income Countries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret M Demment

    Full Text Available Breast and cervical cancers have emerged as major global health challenges and disproportionately lead to excess morbidity and mortality in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs when compared to high-income countries. The objective of this paper was to highlight key findings, recommendations, and gaps in research and practice identified through a scoping study of recent reviews in breast and cervical cancer in LMICs.We conducted a scoping study based on the six-stage framework of Arskey and O'Malley. We searched PubMed, Cochrane Reviews, and CINAHL with the following inclusion criteria: 1 published between 2005-February 2015, 2 focused on breast or cervical cancer 3 focused on LMIC, 4 review article, and 5 published in English.Through our systematic search, 63 out of the 94 identified cervical cancer reviews met our selection criteria and 36 of the 54 in breast cancer. Cervical cancer reviews were more likely to focus upon prevention and screening, while breast cancer reviews were more likely to focus upon treatment and survivorship. Few of the breast cancer reviews referenced research and data from LMICs themselves; cervical cancer reviews were more likely to do so. Most reviews did not include elements of the PRISMA checklist.Overall, a limited evidence base supports breast and cervical cancer control in LMICs. Further breast and cervical cancer prevention and control studies are necessary in LMICs.

  8. Biospecimen Solicitation - Office of Cancer Clinical Proteomics Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    A funding opportunity in support of the National Cancer Institute’s Clinical Proteomic Tumor Analysis Consortium (CPTAC) seeks to prospectively procure tumor samples, collected for proteomics investigation.

  9. Bioengineered models of solid human tumors for cancer research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marturano-Kruik, Alessandro; Villasante, Aranzazu; Vunjak-Novakovic, Gordana

    2016-01-01

    Summary The lack of controllable in vitro models that can recapitulate the features of solid tumors such as Ewing’s sarcoma limits our understanding of the tumor initiation and progression and impedes the development of new therapies. Cancer research still relies of the use of simple cell culture, tumor spheroids, and small animals. Tissue-engineered tumor models are now being grown in vitro to mimic the actual tumors in patients. Recently, we have established a new protocol for bioengineering the Ewing’s sarcoma, by infusing tumor cell aggregates into the human bone engineered from the patient’s mesenchymal stem cells. The bone niche allows crosstalk between the tumor cells, osteoblasts and supporting cells of the bone, extracellular matrix and the tissue microenvironment. The bioreactor platform used in these experiments also allows the implementation of physiologically relevant mechanical signals. Here, we describe a method to build an in vitro model of Ewing’s sarcoma that mimics the key properties of the native tumor and provides the tissue context and physical regulatory signals. PMID:27115504

  10. Open-Access Cancer Genomics - Office of Cancer Clinical Proteomics Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    The completion of the Human Genome Project sparked a revolution in high-throughput genomics applied towards deciphering genetically complex diseases, like cancer. Now, almost 10 years later, we have a mountain of genomics data on many different cancer type

  11. CPTAC Releases Largest-Ever Breast Cancer Proteome Dataset - Office of Cancer Clinical Proteomics Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Cancer Institute (NCI) Clinical Proteomic Tumor Analysis Consortium (CPTAC) scientists have released a dataset of proteins and phophorylated phosphopeptides identified through deep proteomic and phosphoproteomic analysis of breast tumor samples, previously genomically analyzed by The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA).

  12. Cancer Research Center Indiana University School of Medicine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-08-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) proposes to authorize the Indiana School of Medicine to proceed with the detailed design, construction and equipping of the proposed Cancer Research Center (CRC). A grant was executed with the University on April 21, 1992. A four-story building with basement would be constructed on the proposed site over a 24-month period. The proposed project would bring together, in one building, three existing hematology/oncology basic research programs, with improved cost-effectiveness through the sharing of common resources. The proposed site is currently covered with asphaltic pavement and is used as a campus parking lot. The surrounding area is developed campus, characterized by buildings, walkways, with minimal lawns and plantings. The proposed site has no history of prior structures and no evidence of potential sources of prior contamination of the soil. Environmental impacts of construction would be limited to minor increases in traffic, and the typical noises associated with standard building construction. The proposed CRC project operation would involve the use radionuclides and various hazardous materials in conducting clinical studies. Storage, removal and disposal of hazardous wastes would be managed under existing University programs that comply with federal and state requirements. Radiological safety programs would be governed by Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) license and applicable Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) regulations. There are no other NEPA reviews currently active which are in relationship to this proposed site. The proposed project is part of a Medical Campus master plan and is consistent with applicable local zoning and land use requirements.

  13. Cancer Research Center Indiana University School of Medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Department of Energy (DOE) proposes to authorize the Indiana School of Medicine to proceed with the detailed design, construction and equipping of the proposed Cancer Research Center (CRC). A grant was executed with the University on April 21, 1992. A four-story building with basement would be constructed on the proposed site over a 24-month period. The proposed project would bring together, in one building, three existing hematology/oncology basic research programs, with improved cost-effectiveness through the sharing of common resources. The proposed site is currently covered with asphaltic pavement and is used as a campus parking lot. The surrounding area is developed campus, characterized by buildings, walkways, with minimal lawns and plantings. The proposed site has no history of prior structures and no evidence of potential sources of prior contamination of the soil. Environmental impacts of construction would be limited to minor increases in traffic, and the typical noises associated with standard building construction. The proposed CRC project operation would involve the use radionuclides and various hazardous materials in conducting clinical studies. Storage, removal and disposal of hazardous wastes would be managed under existing University programs that comply with federal and state requirements. Radiological safety programs would be governed by Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) license and applicable Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) regulations. There are no other NEPA reviews currently active which are in relationship to this proposed site. The proposed project is part of a Medical Campus master plan and is consistent with applicable local zoning and land use requirements

  14. Risk Factors, Preventive Practices, and Health Care Among Breast Cancer Survivors, United States, 2010

    OpenAIRE

    Homan, Sherri G.; Kayani, Noaman; Yun, Shumei

    2016-01-01

    Introduction We compared behavioral risk factors and preventive measures among female breast cancer survivors, female survivors of other types of cancers, and women without a history of cancer. Survivorship health care indicators for the 2 groups of cancer survivors were compared. Methods Using data from the 2010 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, we calculated the proportion of women with risk factors and their engagement in preventive practices, stratified by cancer status (cancer ...

  15. Trends in Research on Energy Balance Supported by the National Cancer Institute

    OpenAIRE

    Ballard-Barbash, Rachel; Siddiqi, Sameer M.; Berrigan, David A.; Ross, Sharon A.; Nebeling, Linda C.; Dowling, Emily C.

    2013-01-01

    Over the past decade, the body of research linking energy balance to the incidence, development, progression and treatment of cancer has grown substantially. No prior NIH portfolio analyses have focused on energy balance within one institute. This portfolio analysis describes the growth of National Cancer Institute (NCI) grant research on energy balance–related conditions and behaviors from 2004 to 2010 following the release of an NCI research priority statement in 2003 on energy balance and ...

  16. Astronomy and Cancer Research: X-Rays and Nanotechnology from Black Holes to Cancer Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradhan, Anil K.; Nahar, Sultana N.

    It seems highly unlikely that any connection is to be found between astronomy and medicine. But then it also appears to be obvious: X-rays. However, that is quite superficial because the nature of X-rays in the two disciplines is quite different. Nevertheless, we describe recent research on exactly that kind of link. Furthermore, the linkage lies in atomic physics, and via spectroscopy which is a vital tool in astronomy and may also be equally valuable in biomedical research. This review begins with the physics of black hole environments as viewed through X-ray spectroscopy. It is then shown that similar physics can be applied to spectroscopic imaging and therapeutics using heavy-element (high-Z) moieties designed to target cancerous tumors. X-ray irradiation of high-Z nanomaterials as radiosensitizing agents should be extremely efficient for therapy and diagnostics (theranostics). However, broadband radiation from conventional X-ray sources (such as CT scanners) results in vast and unnecessary radiation exposure. Monochromatic X-ray sources are expected to be considerably more efficient. We have developed a new and comprehensive methodology—Resonant Nano-Plasma Theranostics (RNPT)—that encompasses the use of monochromatic X-ray sources and high-Z nanoparticles. Ongoing research entails theoretical computations, numerical simulations, and in vitro and in vivo biomedical experiments. Stemming from basic theoretical studies of Kα resonant photoabsorption and fluorescence in all elements of the Periodic Table, we have established a comprehensive multi-disciplinary program involving researchers from physics, chemistry, astronomy, pathology, radiation oncology and radiology. Large-scale calculations necessary for theory and modeling are done at a variety of computational platforms at the Ohio Supercomputer Center. The final goal is the implementation of RNPT for clinical applications.

  17. Research methods to change clinical practice for patients with rare cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billingham, Lucinda; Malottki, Kinga; Steven, Neil

    2016-02-01

    Rare cancers are a growing group as a result of reclassification of common cancers by molecular markers. There is therefore an increasing need to identify methods to assess interventions that are sufficiently robust to potentially affect clinical practice in this setting. Methods advocated for clinical trials in rare diseases are not necessarily applicable in rare cancers. This Series paper describes research methods that are relevant for rare cancers in relation to the range of incidence levels. Strategies that maximise recruitment, minimise sample size, or maximise the usefulness of the evidence could enable the application of conventional clinical trial design to rare cancer populations. Alternative designs that address specific challenges for rare cancers with the aim of potentially changing clinical practice include Bayesian designs, uncontrolled n-of-1 trials, and umbrella and basket trials. Pragmatic solutions must be sought to enable some level of evidence-based health care for patients with rare cancers.

  18. Health-related quality of life in women after cancer treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobiasz-Adamczyk, Beata

    2012-01-01

    Cancer survivorship is the term used to represent the state or process of living with cancer or living after diagnosis of cancer. Living with cancer or living after cancer--are conditions characteristic to an increasing number of long-term survivors ("society of remission"); health-related quality of life in these individuals is an important indicator of successful treatment and patient's satisfaction. Health-related quality of life in oncological patients has remained one of the main topic of research. The present paper reviews psychosocial outcomes in breast cancer (female disease) and gender-related differences in health-related quality of life in colon cancer survivors. Breast cancer diagnosis is usually associated with several expected psychosocial consequences like psychosocial distress. Specific psychological variables like body image, fear, satisfaction with treatment and cosmetic evaluation may improve general will to live. Women who perceive support from family and friends have better coping and psychological adjustment, while lack of social support is a risk factor for anxiety and depression. Colon cancer remains an important medical and social problem in Poland; polish data showed the following gender-related differences: in patients with stoma, women reported lower level of psychological well-being than men, reported increasing level of stress and loss of control over emotions and behaviours.

  19. Integrating Genomics with Proteomics - Office of Cancer Clinical Proteomics Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Approximately 60 percent of patients diagnosed with cancer present as early stage disease (Stage I and II). Despite the favorable prognosis associated with treatment intervention of such early stage disease (typically surgical excision), there are a small, but significant, fraction of these cancers that appear to be hardwired for aggressive metastatic behavior and ultimately lethal outcome.

  20. Psychoneuroimmunology and cancer: historical perspectives and current research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fife, A; Beasley, P J; Fertig, D L

    1996-01-01

    The belief that cancer might be related to temperament or distress has been emphasized throughout the history of medicine. The field of psychoneuroimmunology has its origins in psychosomatic medicine, and has evolved to the investigations of complex interactions between the psyche and the nervous, immune, and endocrine systems. Such interactions may have implications in both cancer risk and survival.

  1. Breast cancer research in Asia : Adopt or adapt Western knowledge?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bhoo-Pathy, Nirmala; Yip, Cheng-Har; Hartman, Mikael; Uiterwaal, Cuno S. P. M.; Devi, Beena C. R.; Peeters, Petra H. M.; Taib, Nur Aishah; van Gils, Carla H.; Verkooijen, Helena M.

    2013-01-01

    The incidence and mortality of breast cancer continues to rise rapidly in Asian countries. However, most of our current knowledge on breast cancer has been generated in Western populations. As the socio-economic profile, life style and culture of Asian and Western women are substantially different,

  2. Translational Research on Esophageal Cancer: From Cell Line to Clinic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.J. Boonstra (Jurjen)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractWorldwide esophageal cancer is a signifi cant and an increasing health problem. In 2005, there were 497,700 new cases, and the prevalence is expected to increase by approximately 140% by 2025. Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) accounts for most of the cases of esophageal cancer w

  3. Research from the Early Detection Research Network on New Methods to Detect Prostate Cancer | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prostate cancer is the most frequently diagnosed non-skin cancer in men in the United States. In 2010 there were 218,000 men diagnosed with prostate cancer. The prevalence of the diagnosis makes the disease a major health burden. While the majority of the diagnosed men will survive the disease, about 15% will die from it, a rate that is affected by over-diagnosis and the consequent over-treatment. |

  4. Screening for cervical cancer: new alternatives and research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lörincz Attila T

    2003-01-01

    appears that HPV DNA testing is on the way to becoming a common testing strategy in cervical cancer prevention programs. Research continues into approaches for improving the performance and cost-effectiveness of HPV detection methods. Hybrid Capture 3 will offer improved HPV typing capabilities and the Rapid Capture machine allows for robot- assisted HPV DNA testing, permitting greater test throughput. PCR test improvements are expected to contribute to the growth of flexible accurate and cost-effective HPV DNA tests. It is likely that improved diagnostic technology along with HPV genotyping and quantitation may provide more value in future. A particularly promising approach is to combine HPV DNA testing with expression levels of other markers such as proliferative or cell cycle regulatory proteins to subdivide HPV- positive women into those who are at greater risk of cancer and those who can be safely followed by screening at longer intervals.

  5. Eurocan plus report: feasibility study for coordination of national cancer research activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    The EUROCAN+PLUS Project, called for by the European Parliament, was launched in October 2005 as a feasibility study for coordination of national cancer research activities in Europe. Over the course of the next two years, the Project process organized over 60 large meetings and countless smaller meetings that gathered in total over a thousand people, the largest Europe-wide consultation ever conducted in the field of cancer research.Despite a strong tradition in biomedical science in Europe, fragmentation and lack of sustainability remain formidable challenges for implementing innovative cancer research and cancer care improvement. There is an enormous duplication of research effort in the Member States, which wastes time, wastes money and severely limits the total intellectual concentration on the wide cancer problem. There is a striking lack of communication between some of the biggest actors on the European scene, and there are palpable tensions between funders and those researchers seeking funds.It is essential to include the patients' voice in the establishment of priority areas in cancer research at the present time. The necessity to have dialogue between funders and scientists to establish the best mechanisms to meet the needs of the entire community is evident. A top priority should be the development of translational research (in its widest form), leading to the development of effective and innovative cancer treatments and preventive strategies. Translational research ranges from bench-to-bedside innovative cancer therapies and extends to include bringing about changes in population behaviours when a risk factor is established.The EUROCAN+PLUS Project recommends the creation of a small, permanent and independent European Cancer Initiative (ECI). This should be a model structure and was widely supported at both General Assemblies of the project. The ECI should assume responsibility for stimulating innovative cancer research and facilitating processes

  6. An Auto-Ethnographic Study of the Disembodied Experience of a Novice Researcher Doing Qualitative Cancer Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benoot, Charlotte; Bilsen, Johan

    2016-03-01

    Qualitative health researchers who explore individuals' experiences of illness are exposed to an emotionally demanding work environment. After doing 49 interviews with cancer patients living alone, I was confronted with serious emotional distress that kept me from my work for almost 6 months. Because there is a need for discussion within academia about the emotional risks encountered by researchers, I used auto-ethnography to explore what I call the "three disembodied experiences" I encountered during the research: disembodiment linked with suppression of emotions, disembodiment linked with distal traumatization, and disembodiment linked with overidentification with the participant. I illustrate these concepts with personal stories of doing research with cancer patients living alone. I conclude that writing down experiences of doing qualitative research in an embodied and reflexive way holds two advantages: It can protect the researcher and enhance the quality of research. PMID:26612885

  7. BODIPY-FL Nilotinib (Tasigna) for Use in Cancer Research | NCI Technology Transfer Center | TTC

    Science.gov (United States)

    The National Cancer Institute''s Laboratory of Cell Biology is seeking statements of capability or interest from parties interested in collaborative research to further develop, evaluate, or commercialize bodipy conjugated tyrosine kinase inhibitors that are currently used in the clinic for the treatment of CML or gastric cancers.

  8. Leininger's Ethnonursing Research Methodology and Studies of Cancer Survivors: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farren, Arlene T

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of this article is to present the findings of a literature review regarding the use of Leininger's ethnonursing research methodology (ENRM) in studies addressing adult cancer survivors. It is important to learn about differences and similarities among cancer survivors' experiences so that patient-centered, culturally congruent care can be provided. A review of the literature was conducted using databases such as CINAHL and MEDLINE. Search terms included variations on ENRM and cancer survivors. The results were a small number of published studies that used the ENRM examining breast cancer survivors' perceptions and experiences. A review instrument was developed to estimate study quality based on established criteria. The studies are critiqued in relation to the theory-based methodology, evaluation criteria for qualitative research, and study findings are summarized. The author concludes that although there is a paucity of research using ENRM with adult cancer survivors, the preliminary findings of the included studies contribute to what is known about breast cancer survivors. Implications for research include recommendations to increase the use of ENRM to discover the universal and diverse experiences of care practices in adult cancer survivors and use the evidence to develop patient-centered, culturally congruent, quality care for cancer survivors.

  9. New Funding Opportunity: Tissue Purchase Order Acquisitions - Office of Cancer Clinical Proteomics Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    The National Cancer Institute (NCI) is expanding its basic and translational research programs that rely heavily on sufficient availability of high quality, well annotated biospecimens suitable for use in genomic and proteomic studies. The NCI’s overarching goal with such programs is to improve the ability to diagnose, treat, and prevent cancer.

  10. New Funding Opportunity: Biospecimen Core Resource - Office of Cancer Clinical Proteomics Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    The purpose of this notice is to notify the community that the National Cancer Institute's (NCI’s) Office of Cancer Clinical Proteomics Research (OCCPR) is seeking sources to establish a Biospecimen Core Resource (BCR), capable of receiving, qualifying, processing, and distributing annotated biospecimens.

  11. Critical Appraisal of Translational Research Models for Suitability in Performance Assessment of Cancer Centers

    OpenAIRE

    Rajan, Abinaya; Sullivan, Richard; Bakker, Suzanne; van Harten, Wim H.

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to critically appraise translational research models for suitability in performance assessment of cancer centers. Process models, such as the Process Marker Model and Lean and Six Sigma applications, seem to be suitable for performance assessment of cancer centers. However, they must be thoroughly tested in practice.

  12. Research Strategies for Nutritional and Physical Activity Epidemiology and Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    In response to a series of controversial articles about nutritional epidemiology and cancer published in 2014, staff from the Environmental Epidemiology Branch initiated a series of meetings to refine programmatic priorities for human nutrition/physical activity and cancer etiology research in the near term.

  13. Approaches to Art Therapy for Cancer Inpatients: Research and Practice Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nainis, Nancy A.

    2008-01-01

    Common symptoms reported by cancer patients include pain, fatigue, breathlessness, insomnia, lack of appetite, and anxiety. A study conducted by an interdisciplinary research team (Nainis et al., 2006) demonstrated statistically significant reductions in these cancer symptoms with the use of traditional art therapy methods. The study found a…

  14. Caring for caregivers and patients: Research and clinical priorities for informal cancer caregiving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, Erin E; Rowland, Julia H; Northouse, Laurel; Litzelman, Kristin; Chou, Wen-Ying Sylvia; Shelburne, Nonniekaye; Timura, Catherine; O'Mara, Ann; Huss, Karen

    2016-07-01

    Informal/family caregivers are a fundamental source of care for cancer patients in the United States, yet the population of caregivers and their tasks, psychosocial needs, and health outcomes are not well understood. Changes in the nature of cancer care and its delivery, along with the growing population of survivors and their caregivers, warrant increased attention to the roles and demands of caregiving. This article reviews current evidence presented at a 2-day meeting examining the state of the science of informal cancer caregiving that was convened by the National Cancer Institute and the National Institute of Nursing Research. The meeting sought to define who is an informal cancer caregiver, summarize the state of the science in informal cancer caregiving, and describe both the kinds of interventions developed to address caregiving challenges and the various outcomes used to evaluate their impact. This article offers recommendations for moving science forward in 4 areas: 1) improving the estimation of the prevalence and burden of informal cancer caregiving; 2) advancing the development of interventions designed to improve outcomes for cancer patients, caregivers, and patient-caregiver dyads; 3) generating and testing strategies for integrating caregivers into formal health care settings; and 4) promoting the use of technology to support informal cancer caregivers. Cancer 2016;122:1987-95. © 2016 American Cancer Society. PMID:26991807

  15. [Prostate cancer stem cells: advances in current research].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Gang; Wu, Deng-long

    2015-02-01

    Prostate cancer is one of the most common malignancies threatening men's health, and the mechanisms underlying its initiation and progression are poorly understood. Last decade has witnessed encouraging progress in the studies of prostate cancer stem cells (PCSCs), which are considered to play important roles in tumor initiation, recurrence and metastasis, castration resistance, and drug resistance. Therefore, a deeper insight into PCSCs is of great significance for the successful management of prostate cancer. This article presents an overview on the location, origin, and markers of PCSCs as well as their potential correlation with tumor metastasis and castration resistance.

  16. Co-creation of an ICT-supported cancer rehabilitation program for lung cancer survivors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmerman, J.G.; Tönis, T.M.; Stuiver, M.M.; Dekker-van Weering, M.G.H.; Wouters, M.W.J.M.; Hermens, H.J.; Vollenbroek-Hutten, M.M.R.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Lung cancer (LC) patients experience high symptom burden and significant decline of physical fitness and Quality of Life following lung resection. Good quality of survivorship care post-surgery is essential to optimize recovery and prevent unscheduled healthcare use. The use of Informati

  17. Translating cancer prevention and control research into the community setting: workforce implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrop, J Phil; Nelson, David E; Kuratani, Darrah Goo; Mullen, Patricia Dolan; Paskett, Electra D

    2012-05-01

    A gap exists between cancer prevention research and its translation into community practice. Two strategies to reduce this gap are community-based participatory research (CBPR) and dissemination research. CBPR offers an avenue to engage academic and community partners, thereby providing mechanisms for joint learning and application of knowledge. Dissemination research examines the movement of evidence-based public health and clinical innovations to practice settings. While applying these approaches may reduce the gap between research and practice, the cancer prevention workforce may be inadequate in size, insufficiently trained, lack resources and incentives, or face structural barriers to effectively participate in CBPR and disseminate evidence-based research findings into practice. Information on translating cancer prevention information to communities and workforce implications was obtained from a panel of experts and through a review of the literature on CBPR and dissemination research. The expert panel and literature review identified major barriers to successfully conducting CBPR and dissemination research in community settings. Barriers included inadequate policies; insufficient networking and communication infrastructures; unsupportive research cultures, climates, and mindsets; inadequate researcher and practitioner education; and limited CBPR and dissemination research with adequate study designs. No specific estimates of the cancer prevention workforce were found; however, indirect evidence for a shortfall were identified. We recommend expanding CBPR training for academic and community partners; increasing funding for dissemination research and practice; supporting proven partnerships; and providing strategic coordination for government agencies, research institutions, nongovernmental organizations, and the private sector to foster better dissemination of information and integration of community-based cancer prevention and control programs and practices

  18. Stem cells in radiation and oral cancer research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are defined as a small sub population of cancer cells that constitute a pool of self sustaining cells with the exclusive ability to cause the heterogeneous lineages of cancer cells that comprise the tumour. There are three main characteristics of CSCs. Initially the cell must show potent tumour initiation in that it can regenerate the tumour which it was derived from a limited number of cells. In addition, the cells should demonstrate self renewal in vivo, which is practically observed via regrowth of phenotypically indistinguishable and heterogeneous tumours following serial transplantation of re-isolated CSCs in secondary and tertiary recipients. Finally, the cells must show a differentiation capacity, allowing them to give rise to a heterogeneous progeny, which represents a phenocopy of the original tumour. This article highlights the radiation therapy resulting in radiation resistance in cancer stem cells. (author)

  19. What's New in Laryngeal and Hypopharyngeal Cancer Research and Treatment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... define surgical margins (check to see if all cancer cells have been removed) and to tell which tumors may respond better to surgery or radiation therapy. These tests are still experimental and are not used in the routine care ...

  20. The Research Progress about Wnt Pathway of Lung Cancer Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaojiang LI

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Being the most critical signaling molecule in the Wnt pathway, the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway plays an important role in the maintenance of the cell proliferation and clone formation of lung cancer stem cells. Since it is closely related to the WNT pathway, the proliferation of lung cancer stem cells can be restrained by blocking the WNT pathway or influencing its key protein. Such method provides a new method for the treatment of lung cancer. By summarizing the state of-the-art research of lung cancer stem cells and the Wnt pathway from 2005 to 2010, their relationship is investigated.

  1. CPTAC Contributes to Healthdata.gov - Office of Cancer Clinical Proteomics Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recently, proteomic data generated by the Clinical Proteomic Tumor Analysis Consortium (CPTAC) funded by National Cancer Institute (NCI) was highlighted to the wider research community at Healthdata.gov. Healthdata.gov aims to make health data more acces

  2. Integrating proteomic and functional genomic technologies in discovery-driven translational breast cancer research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Celis, Julio E; Gromov, Pavel; Gromova, Irina;

    2003-01-01

    in various areas of basic cancer research such as cell cycle control, invasion and micro-environmental alterations, apoptosis, cell signaling, and immunology, with clinicians (oncologists, surgeons), pathologists, and epidemiologists, with the aim of understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying breast...

  3. Pancreatic cancer: Translational research aspects and clinical implications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Daniel Ansari; Bi-Cheng Chen; Lei Dong; Meng-Tao Zhou; Roland Andersson

    2012-01-01

    Despite improvements in surgical techniques and adjuvant chemotherapy,the overall mortality rates in pancreatic cancer have generally remained relatively unchanged and the 5-year survival rate is actually below 2%.This paper will address the importance of achieving an early diagnosis and identifying markers for prognosis and response to therapy such as genes,proteins,microRNAs or epigenetic modifications.However,there are still major hurdles when translating investigational biomarkers into routine clinical practice.Furthermore,novel ways of secondary screening in high-risk individuals,such as artificial neural networks and modern imaging,will be discussed.Drug resistance is ubiquitous in pancreatic cancer.Several mechanisms of drug resistance have already been revealed,including human equilibrative nucleoside transporter-1 status,multidrug resistance proteins,aberrant signaling pathways,microRNAs,stromal influence,epithelial-mesenchymal transition-type cells and recently the presence of cancer stem cells/cancer-initiating cells.These factors must be considered when developing more customized types of intervention ("personalized medicine").In the future,multifunctional nanoparticles that combine a specific targeting agent,an imaging probe,a cell-penetrating agent,a biocompatible polymer and an anti-cancer drug may become valuable for the management of patients with pancreatic cancer.

  4. Ovarian Cancer Proteomic, Phosphoproteomic, and Glycoproteomic Data Released - Office of Cancer Clinical Proteomics Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Cancer Institute (NCI) Clinical Proteomic Tumor Analysis Consortium (CPTAC) scientists have just released a comprehensive dataset of the proteomic analysis of high grade serous ovarian tumor samples,

  5. About the Community Oncology and Prevention Trials Research Group | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Community Oncology and Prevention Trials Research Group supports clinical oncology trials in cancer prevention and control in community settings. The group also supports investigator-initiated research projects in supportive, palliative and end-of-life care, and coordinates clinical oncology research projects with other NCI programs to be done in the community setting. |

  6. Field biology of Halimeda tuna (Bryopsidales, Chlorophyta) across a depth gradient : comparative growth, survivorship, recruitment, and reproduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vroom, P.S.; Smith, C.M.; Coyer, J.A.; Walters, L.; Hunter, C.L.; Beach, K.S.; Smith, J.E.

    2003-01-01

    Growth, survivorship, recruitment, and reproduction of Halimeda tuna, a dominant green alga in many reef systems of the Florida Keys, were monitored at a shallow back reef ( 4 - 7m) and deep reef slope ( 15 - 22 m) on Conch Reef. Despite lower light intensities and similar grazing pressures, amphipo

  7. Survivorship and longevity of adult Diamesa mendotae Muttkowski, 1915 (Diptera: Chironomidae) at controlled, sub-freezing temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazack, Jane E.; Kranzfelder, Petra; Anderson, Alyssa M.; Bouchard, William, Jr.; Perry, James; Vondracek, Bruce C.; Ferrington, Leonard C., Jr.

    2014-01-01

    Diamesa mendotae Muttkowski, 1915 is a winter-active species common in groundwater-buffered streams of Minnesota and Wisconsin. This species is capable of surviving under snow cover for at least 28 days. Field collections of adult D. mendotae were used to determine survivorship under long-term exposure to controlled sub-freezing conditions. Specimens were placed into a controlled temperature chamber at −5 °C, batches removed at weekly intervals, and subsequently held at 6 °C to determine survivorship and longevity. Our results indicate that overall survivorship is negatively related to treatment duration of sub-freezing treatment, individuals can survive sub-freezing temperatures for at least 70 days, with total longevity of 92 days. Additionally, males had a significantly higher rate of survivorship than females within treatments. Total longevity increased with treatment time, suggesting adult D. mendotae may survive long periods of below-freezing temperatures under natural conditions before mating, which may convey population-level advantages.

  8. Fifty years of tobacco carcinogenesis research: from mechanisms to early detection and prevention of lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hecht, Stephen S; Szabo, Eva

    2014-01-01

    The recognition of the link between cigarette smoking and lung cancer in the 1964 Surgeon General's Report initiated definitive and comprehensive research on the identification of carcinogens in tobacco products and the relevant mechanisms of carcinogenesis. The resultant comprehensive data clearly illustrate established pathways of cancer induction involving carcinogen exposure, metabolic activation, DNA adduct formation, and consequent mutation of critical genes along with the exacerbating influences of inflammation, cocarcinogenesis, and tumor promotion. This mechanistic understanding has provided a framework for the regulation of tobacco products and for the development of relevant tobacco carcinogen and toxicant biomarkers that can be applied in cancer prevention. Simultaneously, the recognition of the link between smoking and lung cancer paved the way for two additional critical approaches to cancer prevention that are discussed here: detection of lung cancer at an early, curable stage, and chemoprevention of lung cancer. Recent successes in more precisely identifying at-risk populations and in decreasing lung cancer mortality with helical computed tomography screening are notable, and progress in chemoprevention continues, although challenges with respect to bringing these approaches to the general population exist. Collectively, research performed since the 1964 Report demonstrates unequivocally that the majority of deaths from lung cancer are preventable.

  9. Participation of Asian-American Women in Cancer Chemoprevention Research: Physician Perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, Tung T.; Somkin, Carol P.; Ma, Yifei

    2005-01-01

    To the authors’ knowledge, little is known regarding the participation of Asian Americans in cancer prevention research. In 2002, the authors mailed surveys to primary care physicians in Northern California to assess their knowledge, attitudes, behaviors, and barriers concerning the participation of Asian-American women in breast cancer chemoprevention research. The response rate was 52.3% (n = 306 physicians). For physician barriers, most respondents selected lack of study knowledge (73%) an...

  10. A Federated Network for Translational Cancer Research Using Clinical Data and Biospecimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Rebecca S; Becich, Michael J; Bollag, Roni J; Chavan, Girish; Corrigan, Julia; Dhir, Rajiv; Feldman, Michael D; Gaudioso, Carmelo; Legowski, Elizabeth; Maihle, Nita J; Mitchell, Kevin; Murphy, Monica; Sakthivel, Mayurapriyan; Tseytlin, Eugene; Weaver, JoEllen

    2015-12-15

    Advances in cancer research and personalized medicine will require significant new bridging infrastructures, including more robust biorepositories that link human tissue to clinical phenotypes and outcomes. In order to meet that challenge, four cancer centers formed the Text Information Extraction System (TIES) Cancer Research Network, a federated network that facilitates data and biospecimen sharing among member institutions. Member sites can access pathology data that are de-identified and processed with the TIES natural language processing system, which creates a repository of rich phenotype data linked to clinical biospecimens. TIES incorporates multiple security and privacy best practices that, combined with legal agreements, network policies, and procedures, enable regulatory compliance. The TIES Cancer Research Network now provides integrated access to investigators at all member institutions, where multiple investigator-driven pilot projects are underway. Examples of federated search across the network illustrate the potential impact on translational research, particularly for studies involving rare cancers, rare phenotypes, and specific biologic behaviors. The network satisfies several key desiderata including local control of data and credentialing, inclusion of rich phenotype information, and applicability to diverse research objectives. The TIES Cancer Research Network presents a model for a national data and biospecimen network.

  11. A Federated Network for Translational Cancer Research Using Clinical Data and Biospecimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Rebecca S; Becich, Michael J; Bollag, Roni J; Chavan, Girish; Corrigan, Julia; Dhir, Rajiv; Feldman, Michael D; Gaudioso, Carmelo; Legowski, Elizabeth; Maihle, Nita J; Mitchell, Kevin; Murphy, Monica; Sakthivel, Mayurapriyan; Tseytlin, Eugene; Weaver, JoEllen

    2015-12-15

    Advances in cancer research and personalized medicine will require significant new bridging infrastructures, including more robust biorepositories that link human tissue to clinical phenotypes and outcomes. In order to meet that challenge, four cancer centers formed the Text Information Extraction System (TIES) Cancer Research Network, a federated network that facilitates data and biospecimen sharing among member institutions. Member sites can access pathology data that are de-identified and processed with the TIES natural language processing system, which creates a repository of rich phenotype data linked to clinical biospecimens. TIES incorporates multiple security and privacy best practices that, combined with legal agreements, network policies, and procedures, enable regulatory compliance. The TIES Cancer Research Network now provides integrated access to investigators at all member institutions, where multiple investigator-driven pilot projects are underway. Examples of federated search across the network illustrate the potential impact on translational research, particularly for studies involving rare cancers, rare phenotypes, and specific biologic behaviors. The network satisfies several key desiderata including local control of data and credentialing, inclusion of rich phenotype information, and applicability to diverse research objectives. The TIES Cancer Research Network presents a model for a national data and biospecimen network. PMID:26670560

  12. Calidad de vida en supervivientes a largo plazo de cáncer de mama: Un área olvidada en la investigación enfermera española Quality of life in long-term breast cancer survivors: A neglected area in the spanish nursing research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina G. Vivar

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available El principal objetivo de este ensayo es evidenciar la importancia de fomentar estudios con supervivientes a largo plazo de cáncer de mama, al mismo tiempo que se introduce el concepto de supervivencia a largo plazo en el contexto de la investigación enfermera española. El cuerpo de este artículo se organiza en tres apartados que examinan estudios sobre la calidad de vida en mujeres supervivientes al cáncer de mama. Con esta revisión se demuestra que la calidad de vida de estas mujeres difiere de la de las mujeres sanas. Por lo tanto, se concluye que es importante promover la investigación en España en este ámbito de la enfermería oncológica con el fin de ofrecer una atención de calidad a esta población creciente.The main purpose of this paper is to evidence the importance of fostering research with long-term breast cancer survivors, at the same time that the concept of long-term survivorship is introduced in the Spanish nursing research context. This paper is organised into three sections that examine studies on the quality of life in survivors of breast cancer. Evidence shows that the quality of life of these women differ from that of healthy women. Therefore, it is concluded that it is important to promote research in this area of cancer nursing in Spain in order to provide good care to this growing population.

  13. Biomimetic tissue-engineered systems for advancing cancer research: NCI Strategic Workshop report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuessler, Teresa K; Chan, Xin Yi; Chen, Huanhuan Joyce; Ji, Kyungmin; Park, Kyung Min; Roshan-Ghias, Alireza; Sethi, Pallavi; Thakur, Archana; Tian, Xi; Villasante, Aranzazu; Zervantonakis, Ioannis K; Moore, Nicole M; Nagahara, Larry A; Kuhn, Nastaran Z

    2014-10-01

    Advanced technologies and biomaterials developed for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine present tractable biomimetic systems with potential applications for cancer research. Recently, the National Cancer Institute convened a Strategic Workshop to explore the use of tissue biomanufacturing for development of dynamic, physiologically relevant in vitro and ex vivo biomimetic systems to study cancer biology and drug efficacy. The workshop provided a forum to identify current progress, research gaps, and necessary steps to advance the field. Opportunities discussed included development of tumor biomimetic systems with an emphasis on reproducibility and validation of new biomimetic tumor models, as described in this report.

  14. The effect of structural complexity, prey density, and "predator-free space" on prey survivorship at created oyster reef mesocosms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Austin T Humphries

    Full Text Available Interactions between predators and their prey are influenced by the habitat they occupy. Using created oyster (Crassostrea virginica reef mesocosms, we conducted a series of laboratory experiments that created structure and manipulated complexity as well as prey density and "predator-free space" to examine the relationship between structural complexity and prey survivorship. Specifically, volume and spatial arrangement of oysters as well as prey density were manipulated, and the survivorship of prey (grass shrimp, Palaemonetes pugio in the presence of a predator (wild red drum, Sciaenops ocellatus was quantified. We found that the presence of structure increased prey survivorship, and that increasing complexity of this structure further increased survivorship, but only to a point. This agrees with the theory that structural complexity may influence predator-prey dynamics, but that a threshold exists with diminishing returns. These results held true even when prey density was scaled to structural complexity, or the amount of "predator-free space" was manipulated within our created reef mesocosms. The presence of structure and its complexity (oyster shell volume were more important in facilitating prey survivorship than perceived refugia or density-dependent prey effects. A more accurate indicator of refugia might require "predator-free space" measures that also account for the available area within the structure itself (i.e., volume and not just on the surface of a structure. Creating experiments that better mimic natural conditions and test a wider range of "predator-free space" are suggested to better understand the role of structural complexity in oyster reefs and other complex habitats.

  15. Pre-germination temperature and the survivorship and onward growth of Mediterranean fire-following plant species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanley, Mick E.; Fenner, Michael

    1998-04-01

    The role of heat shock in the induction of seed germination for numerous Mediterranean fire-following plant species is well documented. However, the influence of pre-germination heating of seeds upon seedling survivorship and onward growth has not been studied. The aim of the experiments described here was to investigate how a range of heat treatments affects seedling survivorship and onward growth for six common fire-following Mediterranean plant species ( Anthyllis vulneraria, Cistus creticus, C. salvifolius, Hippocrepis unisiliquosa, Pinus brutia and P. halepensis). In the first experiment, seeds of five species were heated to temperatures ranging between 80°C and 120°C (at 10°C intervals) for 10 min and subsequent seedling growth monitored over 8 weeks. Survivorship for two pine species ( Pinus halepensis and Pinus brutia) was reduced after seeds were heated above 90°C. Onward growth for Pinus halepensis and the legume, Anthyllis vulneraria, was negatively affected by increasing pre-germination temperature. Survivorship and growth for both Cistus species was unaffected by heating seeds up to 110°C. The second experiment examined more closely seedling performance of Hippocrepis unisiliquosa seedlings when seeds were heated to temperatures ranging between 50°C and 90°C (at 10°C intervals) for 5, 10, 15 and 20 mins. Increasing pre-germination temperature and the length of time seeds were exposed to heating significantly reduced seedling growth rates in this species. The effect of fire on seedling emergence, growth and survivorship in the field is discussed with reference to the adaptation of the six species to post-fire regeneration and the patterns of seedling regeneration observed in the field.

  16. The effect of structural complexity, prey density, and "predator-free space" on prey survivorship at created oyster reef mesocosms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphries, Austin T.; La Peyre, Megan K.; Decossas, Gary A.

    2011-01-01

    Interactions between predators and their prey are influenced by the habitat they occupy. Using created oyster (Crassostrea virginica) reef mesocosms, we conducted a series of laboratory experiments that created structure and manipulated complexity as well as prey density and “predator-free space” to examine the relationship between structural complexity and prey survivorship. Specifically, volume and spatial arrangement of oysters as well as prey density were manipulated, and the survivorship of prey (grass shrimp, Palaemonetes pugio) in the presence of a predator (wild red drum, Sciaenops ocellatus) was quantified. We found that the presence of structure increased prey survivorship, and that increasing complexity of this structure further increased survivorship, but only to a point. This agrees with the theory that structural complexity may influence predator-prey dynamics, but that a threshold exists with diminishing returns. These results held true even when prey density was scaled to structural complexity, or the amount of “predator-free space” was manipulated within our created reef mesocosms. The presence of structure and its complexity (oyster shell volume) were more important in facilitating prey survivorship than perceived refugia or density-dependent prey effects. A more accurate indicator of refugia might require “predator-free space” measures that also account for the available area within the structure itself (i.e., volume) and not just on the surface of a structure. Creating experiments that better mimic natural conditions and test a wider range of “predator-free space” are suggested to better understand the role of structural complexity in oyster reefs and other complex habitats.

  17. Survivorship and Complications of Revision Total Hip Arthroplasty with a Mid-Modular Femoral Stem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riesgo, Aldo M; Hochfelder, Jason P; Adler, Edward M; Slover, James D; Specht, Lawrence M; Iorio, Richard

    2015-12-01

    We retrospectively reviewed 161 revision THAs with diaphyseal fitting, mid-modular femoral components performed by ten surgeons at two academic medical centers. The average follow-up was 6.1 years. At final follow-up, 4 patients required re-revision for failure of the femoral component; 3 (2%) for aseptic loosening and 1 for mechanical failure of stem in setting of periprosthetic fracture. There were a total of 24 (14.9%) revisions for any reason, with the most common reason being septic failure (10 of 24). To our knowledge, this is the largest reported series of mid-term survivorship and complications of revision THA with mid-modular femoral components. Our results show that these stems have a low rate of aseptic loosening, subsidence, and mechanical failure.

  18. Clinical and Experimental Research of Primary Liver Cancer in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WUMengchao

    2002-01-01

    Primary liver cancer (PLC) is one of the most common neoplasms and the second cancer-related cause of death in China, respresenting a major health problem. In China, PLC resulted in 20.40 deaths per lO0 000 per year,with 19.98 per 100 000 in cities and 23.59 per 100 000 inrural areas. Of all the newly enrolled PLC cases in the world each year, about 43% are found in the mainland of China.

  19. [Research progress of relationship between exosomes and breast cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Tao-Ling; Sun, Jin-Jian; Tian, Yu-Zi; Zhou, Ye-Fang

    2016-06-25

    Exosomes are nanosized small membrane microvesicles of endocytic origin secreted by most cell types. Exosomes, through its carrying protein or RNA from derived cells, affect gene regulation networks or epigenetic reorganization of receptor cell, and then modulate the physiological processes of cells. Studies have shown that external exosomes secreted by breast cancer cells or other cells play an important role in the development of tumor, including cell migration, cell differentiation and the immune response, etc. In this article, the latest studies were summarized to provide an overview of current understanding of exosomes in breast cancer. PMID:27350208

  20. On the path to translation: Highlights from the 2010 Canadian Conference on Ovarian Cancer Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thériault Brigitte L

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Ovarian cancer continues to be the most lethal of the gynaecologic malignancies due to the lack of early detection, screening strategies and ineffective therapeutics for late-stage metastatic disease, particularly in the recurrent setting. The gathering of researchers investigating fundamental pathobiology of ovarian cancer and the clinicians who treat patients with this insidious disease is paramount to meeting the challenges we face. Since 2002, the Canadian Conference on Ovarian Cancer Research, held every two years, has served this essential purpose. The objectives of this conference have been to disseminate new information arising from the most recent ovarian cancer research and identify the most pressing challenges we still face as scientists and clinicians. This is best accomplished through direct encounters and exchanges of innovative ideas among colleagues and trainees from the realms of basic science and clinical disciplines. This meeting has and continues to successfully facilitate rapid networking and establish new collaborations from across Canada. This year, more guest speakers and participants from other countries have extended the breadth of the research on ovarian cancer that was discussed at the meeting. This report summarizes the key findings presented at the fifth biennial Canadian Conference on Ovarian Cancer Research held in Toronto, Ontario, and includes the important issues and challenges we still face in the years ahead to make a significant impact on this devastating disease.

  1. Frederick W. Alt received the 2015 Szent-Györgi Prize forProgress inCancer Research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PeterScully; JieZhao; SujuanBa

    2016-01-01

    The Szent-Györgyi Prize for Progress in Cancer Research is a prestigious scientiifc award established by the National Foundation for Cancer Research (NFCR)—a leading cancer research charitable organization in the United States that is committed to supporting scientiifc research and public education relating to the prevention, early diagnosis, better treatments, and ultimately, a cure for cancer. Each year, the Szent-Györgyi Prize honors an outstanding researcher, nominated by colleagues or peers, who has contributed outstanding, signiifcant research to the ifght against cancer, and whose accomplishments have helped improve treatment options for cancer patients. The Prize also promotes public awareness of the importance of basic cancer research and encourages the sustained investment needed to accelerate the translation of these research discoveries into new cancer treatments. This report highlights the pio-neering work led by the 2015 Prize winner, Dr. Frederick Alt. Dr. Alt’s work in the area of cancer genetics over four decades has helped to shape the very roots of modern cancer research. His work continues to profoundly impact the approaches that doctors around the globe use to diagnose and treat cancer. In particular, his seminal discoveries of gene ampliifcation and his pioneering work on molecular mechanisms of DNA damage repair have helped to usher in the era of genetically targeted therapy and personalized medicine.

  2. Educating low-SES and LEP survivors about breast cancer research: pilot test of the Health Research Engagement Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickell, Alyssa; Burke, Nancy J; Cohen, Elly; Caprio, Maria; Joseph, Galen

    2014-12-01

    The Health Research Engagement Intervention (HREI) aims to reduce information and access disparities for breast cancer research opportunities among low-socioeconomic status (SES) and limited English proficient (LEP) breast cancer survivors by providing neutral, non-trial-specific information about health research via a trusted patient navigator. Qualitative methods in the context of a community-based participatory research design were used to iteratively design the HREI in collaboration with community-based care navigators from a trusted community organization, Shanti Project, and to locate appropriate research studies in collaboration with a web-based trial-matching service, BreastCancerTrials.org (BCT). Navigators were first trained in clinical trials and health research and then to deliver the HREI, providing feedback that was incorporated into both the HREI design and BCT's interface. Our intervention pilot with low SES and LEP survivors (n = 12) demonstrated interest in learning about "health research." All 12 participants opted to obtain more information when offered the opportunity. Post-intervention questionnaires showed that three of 11 (27 %) participants independently pursued additional information about research opportunities either online or by phone in the week following the intervention. Post-intervention navigator questionnaires indicated that navigators could confidently and efficiently deliver the intervention. LEP patients who pursued information independently faced language barriers. The HREI is a promising and potentially scalable intervention to increase access to neutral information about breast cancer research opportunities for low-SES and LEP individuals. However, in order for it to be effective, systems barriers to participation such as language accessibility at sources of health research information must be addressed.

  3. Fatigue and quality of life in breast cancer survivors: temporal courses and long-term pattern

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmidt, M.E.; Chang-Claude, J.; Vrieling, A.; Heinz, J.; Flesch-Janys, D.; Steindorf, K.

    2012-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Fatigue is a frequent problem during and after cancer treatment. We investigated different courses of fatigue from pre-diagnosis, through therapy, to long-term survivorship and evaluated potential implications on long-term quality of life (QoL). METHODS: Breast cancer patients diagnose

  4. Implications of Childhood Cancer Survivors in the Classroom and the School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorin, Sherri Sheinfeld; McAuliffe, Patrick

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The aims of this paper are to: briefly review the long-term or late effects of cancer diagnosis and treatment on children and youth; examine the implications of these effects on the educational needs of the child or youth; explore the implications of childhood cancer survivorship on the school, particularly for female students. Over the…

  5. Cancer research in need of a scientific revolution: Using 'paradigm shift' as a method of investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wion, Didier; Appaix, Florence; Burruss, Meriwether; Berger, Francois; van der Sanden, Boudewijn

    2015-09-01

    Despite important human and financial resources and considerable accumulation of scientific publications, patents, and clinical trials, cancer research has been slow in achieving a therapeutic revolution similar to the one that occurred in the last century for infectious diseases. It has been proposed that science proceeds not only by accumulating data but also through paradigm shifts. Here, we propose to use the concept of 'paradigm shift' as a method of investigation when dominant paradigms fail to achieve their promises. The first step in using the 'paradigm shift' method in cancer research requires identifying its founding paradigms. In this review, two of these founding paradigms will be discussed: (i) the reification of cancer as a tumour mass and (ii) the translation of the concepts issued from infectious disease in cancer research. We show how these founding paradigms can generate biases that lead to over-diagnosis and over-treatment and also hamper the development of curative cancer therapies. We apply the 'paradigm shift' method to produce perspective reversals consistent with current experimental evidence. The 'paradigm shift' method enlightens the existence of a tumour physiologic-prophylactic-pathologic continuum. It integrates the target/antitarget concept and that cancer is also an extracellular disease. The 'paradigm shift' method has immediate implications for cancer prevention and therapy. It could be a general method of investigation for other diseases awaiting therapy.

  6. An integrative review of South African cancer nursing research published from 2002–2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna Maree

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: This integrative review aimed to quantify the publication output of South African cancer nursing research conducted between 2002 and 2012 and to identify key trends relevant to cancer nurse researchers.Objectives: To describe the publication output of cancer nursing research in terms of the journals of publication, authors, focus, participants and methods used, to explore whether the published work was funded and to assess the quality of the studies published.Methods: An integrative review was conducted using the key words South Africa in combination with cancer nursing and oncology nursing to search the databases Pubmed, PsycINFO, CINAHL, Sabinet, Web of Science, Medline and OvidSP. A data extraction sheet was developed to document the required information from each paper and all publications were reviewed independently by the authors.Results: A total of 181 publications for potential inclusion were identified and 26 papers were included in this review. Cervical cancer, specifically the prevention of this disease, was the most popular diagnostic focus and theme of investigation. Most of the studies were descriptive and none of the studies met the criteria of the highest quality.Conclusion: Nursing added to the body of knowledge regarding the primary and secondary prevention of cancer. There is a need for work on both men and women diagnosed withthe most common cancers, as well as the family and care giver. There is also a need for multidisciplinary work using complex interventions focusing on symptom management to improve patient outcomes.

  7. Achieving optimal delivery of follow-up care for prostate cancer survivors: improving patient outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hudson SV

    2015-03-01

    , there are fewer patient-reported outcomes related to health promotion and care quality within the prevention, surveillance, and care coordination components of cancer survivorship. Future research should focus on development of additional patient-centered and patient-related outcomes that enlarge the assessment portfolio. Keywords: prostate cancer, patient-reported outcomes, follow-up care, cancer survivorship, systematic review

  8. Dietary-induced cancer prevention: An expanding research arena of emerging diet related to healthcare system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilipkumar Pal

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Diet plays a vital role in the management of cancer because they are the source of important physiologically functional components. Scientific observations support the idea that dietary supplement can prevent breast cancer recurrences. Strong correlations are established between the high intake of saturated fat and the incidence of different types of cancer. It is found that chronic alcohol consumption is associated with increased risk of cancers of oral cavity, pharynx, esophagus, and larynx. Again, some evidences are also found regarding phosphorous, glutamate level in the body, and incidence of cancer. Different physiologically functional components are found in the dietary materials. Fibers, the major dietary components, have long been recognized for the unique properties in the treatment of cancer, which are related to its antineoplastic functions. Antioxidant rich diet has been added to the list of cancer-preventing dietary components. Also, recently published research has shown that natural carotenoids in the diet leads to a normalization of body epithelial cells and protects against the risk of stomach and esophagus cancer, and improves the immune system′s response. Again, fruit juices, processed vegetable juices, orange peel, green tea, vitamins, flavonoids, and trace materials have cancer inhibitory properties. Clearly, there has been increasing recognition of chemoprotective functions. Now, it can be recognized for another kind of functionality for the improvement of the health of mankind.

  9. Biomarkers for diet and cancer prevention research: potentials and challenges

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cindy D DAVIS; John A MILNER

    2007-01-01

    As cancer incidence is projected to increase for decades there is a need for effec-tive preventive strategies. Fortunately, evidence continues to mount that altering dietary habits is an effective and cost-efficient approach for reducing cancer risk and for modifying the biological behavior of tumors. Predictive, validated and sensitive biomarkers, including those that reliably evaluate "intake" or exposure to a specific food or bioactive component, that assess one or more specific bio-logical "effects" that are linked to cancer, and that effectively predict individual "susceptibility" as a function of nutrient-nutrient interactions and genetics, are fundamental to evaluating who will benefit most from dietary interventions. These biomarkers must be readily accessible, easily and reliably assayed, and predictive of a key process(es) involved in cancer. The response to a food is determined not only by the effective concentration of the bioactive food component(s) reaching the target tissue, but also by the amount of the target requiring modification.Thus, this threshold response to foods and their components will vary from indi-vidual to individual. The key to understanding a personalized response is a greater knowledge of nutrigenomics, proteomics and metabolomics.

  10. Advances take stage - Office of Cancer Clinical Proteomics Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regulatory advances in proteomics will be taking center stage at a Symposia scheduled to occur at the 2011 American Association for Clinical Chemistry (AACC) Annual Meeting. The symposium entitled "Enabling Translational Proteomics with NCI's Clinical Proteomic Technologies for Cancer" is scheduled for July 25, 2011 at AACC's annual Meeting.

  11. Anticoagulation, ferrotoxicity and the future of translational lung cancer research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zacharski, Leo R

    2016-06-01

    Numerous studies have shown that elements of coagulation reactions mediate tumor cell proliferation, motility (invasiveness), tissue remodeling and metastasis. Coagulation activation is virtually a universal feature of human malignancy that differs from the clotting response to injury in that it is self-perpetuating rather than self-attenuating. Coagulation activation participates in tumor matrix deposition and local inflammation, and predicts subsequent cancer risk and adverse cancer outcomes. Several clinical trials of anticoagulants have shown improved outcomes in small cell carcinoma of the lung (SCCL) that have been correlated with assembly on the tumor cells of an intact coagulation pathway. However, variable efficacy of anticoagulant therapy has raised doubts about the coagulation hypothesis. Recently, initiators of coagulation and fibrinolytic pathways have been identified that mediate tumor inception and progression. Notable among these is oxidative stress driven by iron-catalyzed reactive oxygen species that may be the basis for local coagulation activation, tumor matrix deposition, inflammation and aberrant properties characteristic of the malignant phenotype. Recognition of important biological characteristics of individual tumor types, disease stage, choice of standard therapy including chemotherapy and the iron status of the host may clarify mechanisms. All of these are subject to modification based on controlled clinical trial design. Further tests of the coagulation hypothesis may lead to novel, low cost and relatively non-toxic approaches to treatment of malignancy including lung cancer that contrast with certain current cancer treatment paradigms. PMID:27413710

  12. Anticoagulation, ferrotoxicity and the future of translational lung cancer research

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Numerous studies have shown that elements of coagulation reactions mediate tumor cell proliferation, motility (invasiveness), tissue remodeling and metastasis. Coagulation activation is virtually a universal feature of human malignancy that differs from the clotting response to injury in that it is self-perpetuating rather than self-attenuating. Coagulation activation participates in tumor matrix deposition and local inflammation, and predicts subsequent cancer risk and adverse cancer outcomes. Several clinical trials of anticoagulants have shown improved outcomes in small cell carcinoma of the lung (SCCL) that have been correlated with assembly on the tumor cells of an intact coagulation pathway. However, variable efficacy of anticoagulant therapy has raised doubts about the coagulation hypothesis. Recently, initiators of coagulation and fibrinolytic pathways have been identified that mediate tumor inception and progression. Notable among these is oxidative stress driven by iron-catalyzed reactive oxygen species that may be the basis for local coagulation activation, tumor matrix deposition, inflammation and aberrant properties characteristic of the malignant phenotype. Recognition of important biological characteristics of individual tumor types, disease stage, choice of standard therapy including chemotherapy and the iron status of the host may clarify mechanisms. All of these are subject to modification based on controlled clinical trial design. Further tests of the coagulation hypothesis may lead to novel, low cost and relatively non-toxic approaches to treatment of malignancy including lung cancer that contrast with certain current cancer treatment paradigms.

  13. Detection and characterization of translational research in cancer and cardiovascular medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cambrosio Alberto

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Scientists and experts in science policy have become increasingly interested in strengthening translational research. Efforts to understand the nature of translational research and monitor policy interventions face an obstacle: how can translational research be defined in order to facilitate analysis of it? We describe methods of scientometric analysis that can do this. Methods We downloaded bibliographic and citation data from all articles published in 2009 in the 75 leading journals in cancer and in cardiovascular medicine (roughly 15,000 articles for each field. We calculated citation relationships between journals and between articles and we extracted the most prevalent natural language concepts. Results Network analysis and mapping revealed polarization between basic and clinical research, but with translational links between these poles. The structure of the translational research in cancer and cardiac medicine is, however, quite different. In the cancer literature the translational interface is composed of different techniques (e.g., gene expression analysis that are used across the various subspecialties (e.g., specific tumor types within cancer research and medicine. In the cardiac literature, the clinical problems are more disparate (i.e., from congenital anomalies to coronary artery disease; although no distinctive translational interface links these fields, translational research does occur in certain subdomains, especially in research on atherosclerosis and hypertension. Conclusions These techniques can be used to monitor the continuing evolution of translational research in medicine and the impact of interventions designed to enhance it.

  14. James P. Allison received the 2014 Szent-Györgi Prize for Progress in Cancer Research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jie Zhao,Peter Scully; Sujuan Ba

    2014-01-01

    The Szent-Györgyi Prize for Progress in Cancer Research is a prestigious scientific award established by the National Foundation for Cancer Research (NFCR)-a leading cancer research charitable organization in the United States that is committed to supporting innovative cancer research on the global scale that aims to cure cancer. Each year, the Szent-Györgyi Prize honors an outstanding researcher whose original discoveries have expanded our understanding of cancer and resulted in notable advances in cancer prevention, diagnosis, or treatment. The prize also promotes public awareness of the importance of basic cancer research and encourages the sustained investment needed to accelerate the translation of these research discoveries into new cancer treatments. This report highlights the history and mission of the Szent-Györgyi Prize, its role in promoting discovery-oriented cancer research, and the pioneering work led by the 2014 prize winner, Dr. James Alison. Dr. Alison’s work in the area of cancer immunotherapy led to the successful development of immune checkpoint therapy, and the first drug approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of metastatic melanoma.

  15. The statistical research relatating to the treatment of cancer and the boundary of radiological therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper is based on the record of researching the patients with cancer in the Chun-nam National University Hospital from September 1985 to December 1988. The results are the as follows ; 1. Among the total O.P.D. 921, 028, the patients of Therapeutic Radiology (Opening the Therapeutic Radiology in September) are classified into 27, 159 (2.95%), (186 in 1985, 2,388 in 1986, 10,511 in 1987, and 14,074 in 1988) 2. Among the 4,925 cancer patients, cervix and uterus cancer patients are 1, 138(23.10%), stomach cancer patients are 592(12.02%), brain and thyroid cancer patients are 565(11.47%), liver cancer patients are 400(8 .12%), lung cancer patients are 355 (7.20%) and sexual ratio appeared 1 : 1.13. Therefore, female patients are a slightly more than the male patients. 3. The age distribution of cancer was that of 45∼54 ages are 1,244(25.26%), 55∼64 ages are 1,119(22.72%) and 35∼44 ages are 773(15.70%) and the half of all the cancer patients are 45∼64 ages. 4. Among the 2,519 cancer patients, 742(29.46%) are in the uterus system, 620 (24.62%) are in the brain and thyroid part, 402(15.96%) are in the lungs. Therefore, these three kinds of cancer consist of 70%. 5. The occupational distribution of 3,067 cancer patients(87∼88 year) house wives are 636(20.73%), orderly farmers are 622(20.28%) public service personnells are 193(6.29%), salarymen are 162 (5.28%) and businessmen are 159 (5.18%)

  16. New Molecular Features of Colorectal Cancer Identified - Office of Cancer Clinical Proteomics Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Investigators from the National Cancer Institute's Clinical Proteomic Tumor Analysis Consortium (CPTAC) who comprehensively analyzed 95 human colorectal tumor samples, have determined how gene alterations identified in previous analyses of the same samples

  17. Understanding the Health Behaviors of Survivors of Childhood and Young-Adult Cancer: Preliminary Analysis and Model Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanie C. Vuotto

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The current study presents preliminary correlational data used to develop a model depicting the psychosocial pathways that lead to the health behaviors of survivors of childhood and young-adult cancer. Data collected from a sample of 18- to 30-year-old cancer survivors (n = 125 was used to examine the relations among interpersonal support and nonsupport, personal agency, avoidance, depressive symptoms and self-efficacy as they related to health behaviors. The outcome measures examined included tobacco and alcohol use, diet, exercise, sunscreen use, medication compliance and follow-up/screening practices. Correlational analyses revealed a number of significant associations among variables. Results are used to inform the development of a health behavior model. Implications for health promotion and survivorship programming are discussed, as well as directions for future research.

  18. European Research on Electrochemotherapy in Head and Neck Cancer (EURECA) project: Results of the treatment of skin cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertino, Giulia; Sersa, Gregor; De Terlizzi, Francesca; Occhini, Antonio; Plaschke, Christina Caroline; Groselj, Ales; Langdon, Cristobal; Grau, Juan J; McCaul, James A; Heuveling, Derrek; Cemazar, Maja; Strojan, Primoz; de Bree, Remco; Leemans, C Renè; Wessel, Irene; Gehl, Julie; Benazzo, Marco

    2016-08-01

    Electrochemotherapy is an effective and safe method for local treatment of cutaneous and subcutaneous tumours, where electric pulses cause increased permeability of cell membranes in the tumour mass, enabling dramatically enhanced effectiveness of bleomycin and other hydrophilic drugs. Here, we report results of a European multi-institutional prospective study of the effectiveness of electrochemotherapy in the treatment of skin cancer of the head and neck (HN) area, where standard treatments had either failed or were not deemed suitable or declined by the patient. A total of 105 patients affected by primary or recurrent skin cancer of the HN area were enrolled; of these, 99 were eligible for evaluation of tumour response. By far, the majority (82%) were treated only once, and 18% of patients had a second treatment. The objective response was highest for basal cell carcinoma (97%) and for other histologies was 74%. Small, primary, and treatment-naive carcinomas responded significantly better (p life, estimated by the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer quality of life questionnaires. At 1-year follow-up, the percentages of overall and disease-free survival were 76% and 89%, respectively. Electrochemotherapy is an effective option for skin cancers of the HN area and can be considered a feasible alternative to standard treatments when such an alternative is appropriate. The precise role for electrochemotherapy in the treatment algorithm for non-melanoma skin cancer of the HN region requires data from future randomised controlled studies. (ISRCTN registry N. 30427). PMID:27267144

  19. Critical appraisal of the suitability of translational research models for performance assessment of cancer institutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rajan, A.; Sullivan, R.; Bakker, S.; Harten, van W.H.

    2012-01-01

    Background. Translational research is a complex cumulative process that takes time. However, the operating environment for cancer centers engaged in translational research is now financially insecure. Centers are challenged to improve results and reduce time from discovery to practice innovations. P

  20. Critical Appraisal of Translational Research Models for Suitability in Performance Assessment of Cancer Centers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rajan, Abinaya; Sullivan, Richard; Bakker, Suzanne; Harten, van Wim H.

    2012-01-01

    Background. Translational research is a complex cumulative process that takes time. However, the operating environment for cancer centers engaged in translational research is now financially insecure. Centers are challenged to improve results and reduce time from discovery to practice innovations. P

  1. CPTAC-EDRN Joint Session - Office of Cancer Clinical Proteomics Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    The National Cancer Institute (NCI)’s Clinical Proteomic Tumor Analysis Consortium (CPTAC) and the Early Detection Research Network (EDRN) will host a session during the 9th US-HUPO annual conference entitled “Highlights from NCI Proteomic Research Programs.”

  2. Interest and attitudes of patients, cancer physicians, medical students and cancer researchers towards a spectrum of genetic tests relevant to breast cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngoi, Natalie; Lee, Soo-Chin; Hartman, Mikael; Khin, Lay-Wai; Wong, Andrea

    2013-02-01

    The perspectives of patients and healthcare professionals towards breast cancer genetic tests that are becoming increasingly available is unexplored in Asians. We surveyed the interest and attitudes of 200 breast cancer patients, 67 cancer physicians, 485 medical students and cancer researchers towards three genetic tests, BRCA1/2 mutation, CYP2D6 genotype and Oncotype DX testing, using hypothetical scenarios. Approximately 60% of patients expressed initial interest in each genetic test, although the majority reversed their decisions once test limitations were conveyed, with <15% maintaining interest in each test. Cancer physicians were most likely to recommend BRCA1/2 mutation testing (73%) and least likely to recommend CYP2D6 genotyping (12%), while patients were more likely to choose Oncotype DX testing (28%) over CYP2D6 (21%) and BRCA1/2 testing (15%). Cost concerns, low educational level and lack of prior awareness of genetic testing were the main barriers against breast cancer genetic testing among Asian patients.

  3. Quantitative multimodality imaging in cancer research and therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yankeelov, Thomas E; Abramson, Richard G; Quarles, C Chad

    2014-11-01

    Advances in hardware and software have enabled the realization of clinically feasible, quantitative multimodality imaging of tissue pathophysiology. Earlier efforts relating to multimodality imaging of cancer have focused on the integration of anatomical and functional characteristics, such as PET-CT and single-photon emission CT (SPECT-CT), whereas more-recent advances and applications have involved the integration of multiple quantitative, functional measurements (for example, multiple PET tracers, varied MRI contrast mechanisms, and PET-MRI), thereby providing a more-comprehensive characterization of the tumour phenotype. The enormous amount of complementary quantitative data generated by such studies is beginning to offer unique insights into opportunities to optimize care for individual patients. Although important technical optimization and improved biological interpretation of multimodality imaging findings are needed, this approach can already be applied informatively in clinical trials of cancer therapeutics using existing tools. These concepts are discussed herein.

  4. Mouse models in liver cancer research: A review of current literature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Martijn WH Leenders; Maarten W Nijkamp; Inne HM Borel Rinkes

    2008-01-01

    Primary liver cancer remains one of the most lethal malignancies worldwide. Due to differences in prevalence of etiological factors the incidence of primary liver cancer varies among the world, with a peak in EasL-Asia. As this disease is still lethal in most of the cases, research has to be done to improve our understanding of the disease, offering insights for possible treatment options. For this purpose, animal models are widely used,especially mouse models. In this review, we describe the different types of mouse models used in liver cancer research, with emphasis on genetically engineered mice used in this field. We focus on hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), as this is by far the most common Lype of primary liver cancer, accounting for 70%-85% of cases.

  5. A Health Services Research Agenda for Cellular, Molecular and Genomic Technologies in Cancer Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wideroff, Louise; Phillips, Kathryn A.; Randhawa, Gurvaneet; Ambs, Anita; Armstrong, Katrina; Bennett, Charles L.; Brown, Martin L.; Donaldson, Molla S.; Follen, Michele; Goldie, Sue J.; Hiatt, Robert A.; Khoury, Muin J.; Lewis, Graham; McLeod, Howard L.; Piper, Margaret; Powell, Isaac; Schrag, Deborah; Schulman, Kevin A.; Scott, Joan

    2009-01-01

    Background In recent decades, extensive resources have been invested to develop cellular, molecular and genomic technologies with clinical applications that span the continuum of cancer care. Methods In December 2006, the National Cancer Institute sponsored the first workshop to uniquely examine the state of health services research on cancer-related cellular, molecular and genomic technologies and identify challenges and priorities for expanding the evidence base on their effectiveness in routine care. Results This article summarizes the workshop outcomes, which included development of a comprehensive research agenda that incorporates health and safety endpoints, utilization patterns, patient and provider preferences, quality of care and access, disparities, economics and decision modeling, trends in cancer outcomes, and health-related quality of life among target populations. Conclusions Ultimately, the successful adoption of useful technologies will depend on understanding and influencing the patient, provider, health care system and societal factors that contribute to their uptake and effectiveness in ‘real-world’ settings. PMID:19367091

  6. Radiobiological research for improving cancer therapy in India: rationale, problems and prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cancer is emerging as a very important health hazard in India. According to recent studies by the Indian Council of Medical Research, about 2.25 million patients are presently suffering from different types of cancer in India. Approximately one million new cases are diagnosed, and nearly 0.3 million deaths occur every year on account of this disease. About 2/3rd of the cancers are at an advanced stage at the time of diagnosis. However, the allocation of funds for healthcare in India to support the research efforts for developing more potent radio-chemotherapy protocols for cancer treatment is too little. Studies by the W.H.O. have estimated that less developed countries including India use less than 5% of world resources destined for cancer control. It follows from the above discussions that it is imperative to further encourage and diversify the radiobiological research in India. This can be achieved by creating radiobiological research facilities, mainly in all the cancer centers and post graduate medical institutions, and further expanding the upcoming laboratories in the universities such as Bikaner. Collaborative research programs between laboratories at different centers could facilitate systematic evaluation of various pharmacological agents and neutraceuticals for potential application for treatment of different cancers. Our studies on combination of radiation with temozolomide and certain adjuvants with selective effects on brain tumour cells will be very briefly discussed in this presentation. Finally the possible administrative set up and multi dimensional collaborations for cost effective utilization of existing resources to further augment radiation biology research will also be discussed

  7. Behavioral Theory in the Context of Applied Cancer Screening Research

    OpenAIRE

    Zapka, Jane; Cranos, Caroline

    2009-01-01

    The U.S. health care system is indeed challenged to provide effective, equitable, and efficient care for its citizens (Aday, Begley, Lairson, & Balkrishnan, 2004). The past decades have witnessed profound concern about the quality of care Americans receive, the equality of care across racial ethnic communities, and the escalating costs of private and public coverage. These concerns apply to the cancer care continuum, including screening. This commentary reflects on the methods, findings, and ...

  8. Tissue Microarray A New Tool for Cancer Research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Shanghai Outdo Biotech Co.Ltd. (Outdo Biotech) is a leading company in human/animal Tissue Microarrays (TMA) and "Clinical-Type" Gene Chip (CTGC) in China. Our shareholders are Shanghai Biochip Co., Ltd. & National Engineering Center for Biochip at Shanghai, Shanghai Cancer institute and Eastern Liver and Bladder Hospital of Second Military Medical University. TMA is a mean of combining tens to hundreds of specimens of tissue, paraffin embedded or frozen, onto a single slide for analysis at once. Our constr...

  9. Culturing intestinal stem cells: applications for colorectal cancer research

    OpenAIRE

    Fujii, Masayuki; Sato, Toshiro

    2014-01-01

    Recent advance of sequencing technology has revealed genetic alterations in colorectal cancer (CRC). The biological function of recurrently mutated genes has been intensively investigated through mouse genetic models and CRC cell lines. Although these experimental models may not fully reflect biological traits of human intestinal epithelium, they provided insights into the understanding of intestinal stem cell self-renewal, leading to the development of novel human intestinal organoid culture...

  10. In vitro models of pancreatic cancer for translational oncology research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldmann, Georg; Rauenzahn, Sherri; Maitra, Anirban

    2009-01-01

    Background Pancreatic cancer is a disease of near uniform fatality and the overwhelming majority of patients succumb to their advanced malignancy within a few months of diagnosis. Despite considerable advances in our understanding of molecular mechanisms underlying pancreatic carcinogenesis, this knowledge has not yet been fully translated into clinically available treatment strategies that yield significant improvements in disease free or overall survival. Objective Cell line-based in vitro model systems provide powerful tools to identify potential molecular targets for therapeutic intervention as well as for initial pre-clinical evaluation of novel drug candidates. Here we provide a brief overview of recent literature on cell line-based model systems of pancreatic cancer and their application in the search for novel therapeutics against this vicious disease. Conclusion While in vitro models of pancreatic cancer are of tremendous value for genetic studies and initial functional screenings in drug discovery, they carry several imanent drawbacks and are often poor in predicting therapeutic response in humans. Therefore, in most instances they are successfully exploited to generate hypothesis and identify molecular targets for novel therapeutics, which are subsequently subject to further in-depth characterization using more advanced in vivo model systems and clinical trials. PMID:20160967

  11. Breast cancer research output, 1945-2008: a bibliometric and density-equalizing analysis

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Glynn, Ronan W

    2010-12-22

    Abstract Introduction Breast cancer is the most common form of cancer among women, with an estimated 194,280 new cases diagnosed in the United States in 2009 alone. The primary aim of this work was to provide an in-depth evaluation of research yield in breast cancer from 1945 to 2008, using large-scale data analysis, the employment of bibliometric indicators of production and quality, and density-equalizing mapping. Methods Data were retrieved from the Web of Science (WOS) Science Citation Expanded database; this was searched using the Boolean operator, \\'OR\\

  12. The Research Progress about Wnt Pathway of Lung Cancer Stem Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Xiaojiang; Jia, Yingjie; Wenzhi ZHANG; Zhang, Ying; Li, Baole; Minna HUANG; Bao, Fangfang; Wu, Jianguo; Lou, Yi

    2011-01-01

    Being the most critical signaling molecule in the Wnt pathway, the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway plays an important role in the maintenance of the cell proliferation and clone formation of lung cancer stem cells. Since it is closely related to the WNT pathway, the proliferation of lung cancer stem cells can be restrained by blocking the WNT pathway or influencing its key protein. Such method provides a new method for the treatment of lung cancer. By summarizing the state of-the-art research...

  13. ASWAGANDHA (WITHANIA SOMNIFERA) – AYURVEDIC BEQUEST FOR THE PATIENTS OF CANCER: AN UPDATE ON CURRENT RESEARCH

    OpenAIRE

    Rao Paramkusha Madupu; Khemani Naresh

    2010-01-01

    Aswagandha (Withania somnifera) is a popularly known medicinal plant said in Ayurveda. It has been used to promote vigor and strength. The current ongoing researches are approving the plant can be useful in malignacies at various levels and with different mechanisms. An effort has been made in this paper to review such results focused at cancer therapy and management. Aswagandha (Withania somnifera) is also known as Indian ginseng proves to be a beacon for blinded minds of cancer sufferers.

  14. Fifth annual report of cancer research at the University of Chicago

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berk, A.J. (ed.)

    1978-01-01

    Research on viral oncology included molecular organization and functions of herpes simplex virus and mechanism of type C RNA virus activation by 5-BrdU. Cancer biology studies included molecular studies of all differentiation and cell interactions, mechanism of inhibition of DNA synthesis by nalidixic acid and other agents, and sensitivity of cells to uv and x radiation. Tumor immunology studies included the role of immunoglobulin D in lymphoproliferative disorders, mechanisms of suppression of rat renal allograft rejection, and effects of drugs on sensitivity of tumor cells to antibody and complement. Studies on carcinogenesis included chemistry of metabolites of hydrocarbons, radiation toxicity in dogs, detection and prevention of neoplasia, carcinogenic and genetic effects of tritium, and effects of DES during pregnancy. Clinical research included studies on gallium scanning, chemotherapy, control of thyroid cancer, leukopoietic mechanisms, and diagnostic and therapetutic techniques. Research on radiotherapy, radiation physics, and radiation biology included neutron dosimetry, computerized dosimetry for radiotherapy, DNA damage, and mammalian cell killing. Research at core facilities is reported with regard to the core immunology laboratory, computerized oncology radiation and data system, and application of nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy to cancer research. Activities of the cancer control center are described with regard to education and dissemination of knowledge about cancer. (HLW)

  15. Improving quality of breast cancer surgery through development of a national breast cancer surgical outcomes (BRCASO) research database

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Common measures of surgical quality are 30-day morbidity and mortality, which poorly describe breast cancer surgical quality with extremely low morbidity and mortality rates. Several national quality programs have collected additional surgical quality measures; however, program participation is voluntary and results may not be generalizable to all surgeons. We developed the Breast Cancer Surgical Outcomes (BRCASO) database to capture meaningful breast cancer surgical quality measures among a non-voluntary sample, and study variation in these measures across providers, facilities, and health plans. This paper describes our study protocol, data collection methods, and summarizes the strengths and limitations of these data. We included 4524 women ≥18 years diagnosed with breast cancer between 2003-2008. All women with initial breast cancer surgery performed by a surgeon employed at the University of Vermont or three Cancer Research Network (CRN) health plans were eligible for inclusion. From the CRN institutions, we collected electronic administrative data including tumor registry information, Current Procedure Terminology codes for breast cancer surgeries, surgeons, surgical facilities, and patient demographics. We supplemented electronic data with medical record abstraction to collect additional pathology and surgery detail. All data were manually abstracted at the University of Vermont. The CRN institutions pre-filled 30% (22 out of 72) of elements using electronic data. The remaining elements, including detailed pathology margin status and breast and lymph node surgeries, required chart abstraction. The mean age was 61 years (range 20-98 years); 70% of women were diagnosed with invasive ductal carcinoma, 20% with ductal carcinoma in situ, and 10% with invasive lobular carcinoma. The BRCASO database is one of the largest, multi-site research resources of meaningful breast cancer surgical quality data in the United States. Assembling data from electronic

  16. Enhancing cancer registry data for comparative effectiveness research (CER) project: overview and methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Vivien W; Eheman, Christie R; Johnson, Christopher J; Hernandez, Monique N; Rousseau, David; Styles, Timothy S; West, Dee W; Hsieh, Meichin; Hakenewerth, Anne M; Celaya, Maria O; Rycroft, Randi K; Wike, Jennifer M; Pearson, Melissa; Brockhouse, Judy; Mulvihill, Linda G; Zhang, Kevin B

    2014-01-01

    Following the Institute of Medicine's 2009 report on the national priorities for comparative effectiveness research (CER), funding for support of CER became available in 2009 through the American Recovery and Re-investment Act. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) received funding to enhance the infrastructure of population-based cancer registries and to expand registry data collection to support CER. The CDC established 10 specialized registries within the National Program of Cancer Registries (NPCR) to enhance data collection for all cancers and to address targeted CER questions, including the clinical use and prognostic value of specific biomarkers. The project also included a special focus on detailed first course of treatment for cancers of the breast, colon, and rectum, as well as chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) diagnosed in 2011. This paper describes the methodology and the work conducted by the CDC and the NPCR specialized registries in collecting data for the 4 special focused cancers, including the selection of additional data variables, development of data collection tools and software modifications, institutional review board approvals, training, collection of detailed first course of treatment, and quality assurance. It also presents the characteristics of the study population and discusses the strengths and limitations of using population-based cancer registries to support CER as well as the potential future role of population-based cancer registries in assessing the quality of patient care and cancer control.

  17. De-Risking Immunotherapy: Report of a Consensus Workshop of the Cancer Immunotherapy Consortium of the Cancer Research Institute.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellman, Ira; Hubbard-Lucey, Vanessa M; Tontonoz, Matthew J; Kalos, Michael D; Chen, Daniel S; Allison, James P; Drake, Charles G; Levitsky, Hy; Lonberg, Nils; van der Burg, Sjoerd H; Fearon, Douglas T; Wherry, E John; Lowy, Israel; Vonderheide, Robert H; Hwu, Patrick

    2016-04-01

    With the recent FDA approvals of pembrolizumab and nivolumab, and a host of additional immunomodulatory agents entering clinical development each year, the field of cancer immunotherapy is changing rapidly. Strategies that can assist researchers in choosing the most promising drugs and drug combinations to move forward through clinical development are badly needed in order to reduce the likelihood of late-stage clinical trial failures. On October 5, 2014, the Cancer Immunotherapy Consortium of the Cancer Research Institute, a collaborative think tank composed of stakeholders from academia, industry, regulatory agencies, and patient interest groups, met to discuss strategies for de-risking immunotherapy development, with a focus on integrating preclinical and clinical studies, and conducting smarter early-phase trials, particularly for combination therapies. Several recommendations were made, including making better use of clinical data to inform preclinical research, obtaining adequate tissues for biomarker studies, and choosing appropriate clinical trial endpoints to identify promising drug candidates and combinations in nonrandomized early-phase trials.

  18. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Partners & Collaborators Spotlight on Scientists Research Areas Cancer Biology Cancer Genomics Causes of Cancer Diagnosis Prevention Screening & ... Collaborators Spotlight on Scientists NCI Research Areas Cancer Biology Cancer Genomics Causes of Cancer Diagnosis Prevention Screening & ...

  19. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Types Recurrent Cancer Common Cancer Types Bladder Cancer Breast Cancer Colorectal Cancer Kidney (Renal Cell) Cancer Leukemia Lung ... Advisory Board Meetings Cancer Currents Blog Research Findings Drug Approvals Precision Medicine Leadership Views 2017 Annual Plan & ...

  20. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... about Advanced Cancer Research Managing Cancer Care Finding Health Care Services Advance Directives Using Trusted Resources Understanding Cancer ... Cancer Advanced Cancer & Caregivers Managing Cancer Care Finding Health Care Services Advance Directives Using Trusted Resources Cancer Types ...

  1. Poor survivorship and frequent complications at a median of 10 years after metal-on-metal hip resurfacing revision

    OpenAIRE

    Matharu, GS; Pandit, HG; Murray, DW

    2016-01-01

    Background: High short-term failure rates have been reported for several metal-on-metal hip resurfacing (MoMHR) designs. Early observations suggested that MoMHRs revised to total hip arthroplasties (THAs) for pseudotumor had more major complications and inferior patient-reported outcomes compared with other revision indications. However, little is known about implant survivorship and patient-reported outcomes at more than 5 years after MoMHR revision.Questions/purposes: (1) What are the impla...

  2. Analysing the doctrine of survivorship in joint tenancies of people’s homes from a human rights perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Loveland, I.

    2015-01-01

    Reproduced with permission of THOMSON REUTERS (PROFESSIONAL) UK LIMITED. Discusses, with reference to the facts of the Supreme Court ruling in Solihull MBC v Hickin, whether the doctrine of survivorship in joint tenancies is compatible with the claimant's right to respect for his home under the Human Rights Act 1998 Sch.1. Reviews the need for social realities to trump legal presumptions and whether key provisions of the Housing Act 1985 should be read as permitting succession only to th...

  3. Nanosensors – a promising tool for cancer research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, E.M.

    2006-01-01

    Human cell biology is emerging as a new fi eld of research at Risø. Risø’s plant scientists are able to apply their unique expertise within the analysis and manipulation of individual cells to conduct research into human cells. Risø’s core competence inthis area centres, in particular...

  4. Communication in context. New directions in cancer communication research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bensing, J.; Dulmen, A.M. van; Tates, K.

    2007-01-01

    Communication research is sometimes described as analyzing the black box of the doctor's healing power (Bensing, 2000; White, 1988), but, every now and then you get a flash which shows communication researchers analyzing this black box as if it was found in the bush after a plane crash: as an object

  5. Clinical cancer advances 2007: major research advances in cancer treatment, prevention, and screening--a report from the American Society of Clinical Oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gralow, Julie; Ozols, Robert F; Bajorin, Dean F; Cheson, Bruce D; Sandler, Howard M; Winer, Eric P; Bonner, James; Demetri, George D; Curran, Walter; Ganz, Patricia A; Kramer, Barnett S; Kris, Mark G; Markman, Maurie; Mayer, Robert J; Raghavan, Derek; Ramsey, Scott; Reaman, Gregory H; Sawaya, Raymond; Schuchter, Lynn M; Sweetenham, John W; Vahdat, Linda T; Davidson, Nancy E; Schilsky, Richard L; Lichter, Allen S

    2008-01-10

    A MESSAGE FROM ASCO'S PRESIDENT: For the third year, the American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) is publishing Clinical Cancer Advances: Major Research Advances in Cancer Treatment, Prevention, and Screening, an annual review of the most significant cancer research presented or published over the past year. ASCO publishes this report to demonstrate the important progress being made on the front lines of clinical cancer research today. The report is intended to give all those with an interest in cancer care-the general public, cancer patients and organizations, policymakers, oncologists, and other medical professionals-an accessible summary of the year's most important cancer research advances. These pages report on the use of magnetic resonance imaging for breast cancer screening, the association between hormone replacement therapy and breast cancer incidence, the link between human papillomavirus and head and neck cancers, and the use of radiation therapy to prevent lung cancer from spreading. They also report on effective new targeted therapies for cancers that have been historically difficult to treat, such as liver cancer and kidney cancer, among many others. A total of 24 advances are featured in this year's report. These advances and many more over the past several years show that the nation's long-term investment in cancer research is paying off. But there are disturbing signs that progress could slow. We are now in the midst of the longest sustained period of flat government funding for cancer research in history. The budgets for the National Institutes of Health and the National Cancer Institute (NCI) have been unchanged for four years. When adjusted for inflation, cancer research funding has actually declined 12% since 2004. These budget constraints limit the NCI's ability to fund promising cancer research. In the past several years the number of grants that the NCI has been able to fund has significantly decreased; this year, in response to just the

  6. Research Needs for Understanding the Biology of Overdiagnosis in Cancer Screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Sudhir; Reid, Brian J; Ghosh, Sharmistha; Kramer, Barnett S

    2016-09-01

    Many cancers offer an extended window of opportunity for early detection and therapeutic intervention that could lead to a reduction in cause-specific mortality. The pursuit of early detection in screening settings has resulted in decreased incidence and mortality for some cancers (e.g., colon and cervical cancers), and increased incidence with only modest or no effect on cause-specific mortality in others (e.g., breast and prostate). Whereas highly sensitive screening technologies are better at detecting a number of suspected "cancers" that are indolent and likely to remain clinically unimportant in the lifetime of a patient, defined as overdiagnosis, they often miss cancers that are aggressive and tend to present clinically between screenings, known as interval cancers. Unrecognized overdiagnosis leads to overtreatment with its attendant (often long-lasting) side effects, anxiety, and substantial financial harm. Existing methods often cannot differentiate indolent lesions from aggressive ones or understand the dynamics of neoplastic progression. To correctly identify the population that would benefit the most from screening and identify the lesions that would benefit most from treatment, the evolving genomic and molecular profiles of individual cancers during the clinical course of progression or indolence must be investigated, while taking into account an individual's genetic susceptibility, clinical and environmental risk factors, and the tumor microenvironment. Practical challenges lie not only in the lack of access to tissue specimens that are appropriate for the study of natural history, but also in the absence of targeted research strategies. This commentary summarizes the recommendations from a diverse group of scientists with expertise in basic biology, translational research, clinical research, statistics, and epidemiology and public health professionals convened to discuss research directions. J. Cell. Physiol. 231: 1870-1875, 2016. © 2015 Wiley

  7. Native legume transplant survivorship and subsequent seedling recruitment on unamended coal mine soils in the Canadian Rocky Mountains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smyth, C.R.

    1997-05-01

    Transplant survivorship, growth, and reproductive performance of several indigenous high-elevation legume species grown in unamended spoil were studied at three coal mines in the Canadian Rocky Mountains. Survivorship varied with species but was highest for Astragalus aboriginum (62%), Astragalus alpinus (73-57%), Astragalus vexilliflexus var. nubilus (73-63%), and Oxytropis sericea (77-62%). Mortality was greatest during the first two years for most species. The causes of transplant mortality are considered to be drought stress, deep-seated `frost-popping`/root exposure, and damage, for example, root exposure and destruction of meristematic tissues by foraging mammals such as bighorn sheep, mountain goats, grizzly bears, and marmots. Survivorship, growth, and reproductive activity were greatest at the two subalpine disturbances. Growth varied with species, but the greatest growth increments (height and diameter) were recorded during the first and second years. Reproductive activity for the Astragalus species began during the first year at one location but, in general, flowering and seed set did not begin until the second or third years. Recruitment from seed was small ({lt} 10/year). Several of these species appear to be suitable for revegetation of subalpine and alpine surface mine disturbances.

  8. Basic research and clinical application of optical molecular imaging in breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As a rapidly developing biomedical imaging technology,in vivo optical molecular imaging has been widely applied in various research fields owing to its unique real-time, quantitative and noninvasive characteristics. The applications of in vivo optical imaging technology in the basic and clinical research of breast cancer were reviewed, including detection of distant metastasis,tumor apoptosis, cell cycle, hypoxia and angiogenesis, ER-mediated molecular pathway, breast cancer stem cells, early diagnosis, sentinel node biopsy, evaluation of drug efficacy and detection of human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER-2) expression. They all seem to have a promising potential in in vivo optical molecular imaging. (authors)

  9. The latest advances of experimental research on targeted gene therapy for prostate cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dongliang Pan; Lianchao Jin; Xianghua Zhang

    2013-01-01

    The absence of ef ective therapies for castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) establishes the need to de-velop novel therapeutic modality, such as targeted gene therapy, which is ideal for the treatment of CRPC. But its application has been limited due to lack of favorable gene vector and the reduction of“bystander ef ect”. Consequently, scientists al over the world focus their main experimental research on the fol owing four aspects:targeted gene, vector, transfer means and comprehensive therapy. In this paper, we reviewed the latest advances of experimental research on targeted gene therapy for prostate cancer .

  10. Investigators Retreat: A Forum to Bridge Frederick and Bethesda Cancer Research | Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    By Andrea Frydl, Contributing Writer Nearly 700 researchers, scientists, and laboratory technicians convened in the Ronald Reagan Building and International Trade Center in Washington, DC, for the 2014 NCI Intramural Scientific Investigators Retreat on Jan. 14. The event featured presentations and posters exploring topics in cancer research from KRAS signaling to animal care. One of the highlights of the event was a presentation made by Valerie Beral, Ph.D., from University of Oxford, discussing “Rosalind Franklin and Cancer in Women.” 

  11. Integrating microarray gene expression object model and clinical document architecture for cancer genomics research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Yu Rang; Lee, Hye Won; Kim, Ju Han

    2005-01-01

    Systematic integration of genomic-scale expression profiles with clinical information may facilitate cancer genomics research. MAGE-OM (Microarray Gene Expression Object Model) defines standard objects for genomic but not for clinical data. HL7 CDA (Clinical Document Architecture) is a document model for clinical information, describing syntax (generic structure) but not semantics. We designed a document template in XML Schema with additional constraints for CDA to define content semantics, enabling data model-level integration of MAGE-OM and CDA for cancer genomics research. PMID:16779360

  12. Uses of cancer registries for public health and clinical research in Europe: Results of the European Network of Cancer Registries survey among 161 population-based cancer registries during 2010–2012

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siesling, S.; Louwman, W.J.; Kwast, A.; Hurk, van den C.J.G.; O'Callaghan, M.; Rosso, S.; Zanetti, R.; Storm, H.; Comber, H.; Steliarova-Foucher, E.; Coebergh, J.W.W.

    2015-01-01

    Aim To provide insight into cancer registration coverage, data access and use in Europe. This contributes to data and infrastructure harmonisation and will foster a more prominent role of cancer registries (CRs) within public health, clinical policy and cancer research, whether within or outside the

  13. Designing exercise clinical trials for older adults with cancer: Recommendations from 2015 Cancer and Aging Research Group NCI U13 Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilari, Deepak; Soto-Perez-de-Celis, Enrique; Mohile, Supriya Gupta; Alibhai, Shabbir M.H.; Presley, Carolyn J.; Wildes, Tanya M.; Klepin, Heidi D.; Demark-Wahnefried, Wendy; Jatoi, Amina; Harrison, Robert; Won, Elizabeth; Mustian, Karen M.

    2016-01-01

    Cancer and its treatment can lead to a myriad of adverse events and negatively impact quality of life of older cancer patients and survivors. Unmet physical activity needs vary across the cancer continuum and remain an important yet understudied area of research in this population. Exercise interventions have been shown to be effective in treating both the physical and psychological declines associated with cancer and its treatment, with a potential to improve cancer-related outcomes. Despite the current evidence, exercise is clearly underutilized due to several barriers and knowledge gaps in existing trials that include appropriate population identification, design, and outcome measures selection. The benefits of regular exercise in both the primary and secondary prevention of chronic conditions are well established in the non-cancer population. In older cancer patients and survivors, further research is needed before exercise gains widespread acceptance. The Cancer and Aging Research Group convened experts in exercise, aging and cancer to evaluate current scientific evidence and knowledge gaps in geriatric exercise oncology. This report summarizes these findings and provides future research directions. PMID:27197916

  14. Research Progress of Nutrition Support for Patients with Lung Cancer 
During Chemotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiqiao LUO

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Primary lung cancer is one of the most common malignancies. Nowadays, both its morbidity and mortality rank first, patients with lung cancer are often goes with some affiliating symptoms such as malnutrition and weight loss. The side effects of cytotoxicity during chemotherapy may lead to further deteriorate of the nutritional status and worsen the anti-tumor therapy’s efficacy and the patients’ quality of life. With the development of palliative treatment and the higher request of patients for quality of life, nutritional support will be an important adjunctive treatment to maintain a good nutritional status and enhance the patients’ immunity during chemotherapy. It will play an active role in improving tolerability of chemotherapy and prognosis for patients with lung cancer. Here is a review about research progress of nutrition support treatment during chemotherapy for the patients with lung cancer.

  15. ASPECTS OF STEM CELLS THAT GIVE RISE TO CANCER AS A NEW GOAL OF RESEARCH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tume F., Luis F.

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Cancer stem cells are responsible for the formation and development of tumors, where they contribute to a functional heterogeneity in various cancers, including those involved in metastasis. The detailed study of the biology of these cells implicate new, targeted treatments in the elimination of these cells in order to avoid the self-renewal of the tumors. The present review highlights aspects of stem cells in the progression of cancer according to their properties of selfrenewal, heterogeneity and resistance to apoptosis related to certain markers that could serve as a basis for diagnosis. Processes that cause epigenetic alterations and mutations of the genes responsible for promoting the formation of cancer stem cells are detailed, in addition to the prospects of research involving these cells that could specifically target drugs or other alternative therapies.

  16. History of the Rare Cancer Network and past research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    René-Olivier Mirimanoff

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Approximately, twenty years ago, the Rare Cancer Network (RCN was formed in Lausanne, Switzerland, to support the study of rare malignancies. The RCN has grown over the years and now includes 130 investigators from twenty-four nations on six continents. The network held its first international symposium in Nice, France, on March 21-22, 2014. The proceedings of that meeting are presented in two companion papers. This manuscript reviews the history of the growth of the RCN and contains the abstracts of fourteen oral presentations made at the meeting of prior RCN studies. From 1993 to 2014, 74 RCN studies have been initiated, of which 54 were completed, 10 are in progress or under analysis, and 9 were stopped due to poor accrual. Forty-four peer reviewed publications have been written on behalf of the RCN.

  17. CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Kavoussi

    1973-09-01

    Full Text Available There are many carcinogenetic elements in industry and it is for this reason that study and research concerning the effect of these materials is carried out on a national and international level. The establishment and growth of cancer are affected by different factors in two main areas:-1 The nature of the human or animal including sex, age, point and method of entry, fat metabolism, place of agglomeration of carcinogenetic material, amount of material absorbed by the body and the immunity of the body.2 The different nature of the carcinogenetic material e.g. physical, chemical quality, degree of solvency in fat and purity of impurity of the element. As the development of cancer is dependent upon so many factors, it is extremely difficult to determine whether a causative element is principle or contributory. Some materials are not carcinogenetic when they are pure but become so when they combine with other elements. All of this creates an industrial health problem in that it is almost impossible to plan an adequate prevention and safety program. The body through its system of immunity protects itself against small amounts of carcinogens but when this amount increases and reaches a certain level the body is not longer able to defend itself. ILO advises an effective protection campaign against cancer based on the Well –equipped laboratories, Well-educated personnel, the establishment of industrial hygiene within factories, the regular control of safety systems, and the implementation of industrial health principles and research programs.

  18. Assays without Borders - Office of Cancer Clinical Proteomics Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    CPTAC researchers partner with international labs to demonstrate the ability of Targeted mass spectrometry–based assays to reproducibly quantify Human proteins across labs, countries and continents in a recently published journal article.

  19. Workshop Highlight - Office of Cancer Clinical Proteomics Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    As omics science moves forward, identifying methodologies and applications based on specific types of omic data, as well as their integration, becomes increasingly important as it provides new insights to be rapidly tested in basic or applied research.

  20. IMAT PI Meeting - Office of Cancer Clinical Proteomics Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Innovative Molecular Analysis Technologies (IMAT) program was established to support the development, technical maturation, and dissemination of novel and potentially transformative next-generation technologies through an approach of balanced but targeted innovation. In support of its mission, the IMAT program utilizes a variety of investigator-initiated research project grant mechanisms while retaining a strong commitment to diversity and to the training of scientists and clinicians in cross-cutting, research-enabling disciplines.

  1. The National Cancer Institute Food Component Research Data Base

    OpenAIRE

    Herold, Pauline M.; Brooks, Emily M.; Roque, Julio; Marciniak, Thomas A.; Butrum, Ritva R.; Meagher, Kevin

    1988-01-01

    The Food Component Research Data Base (FCRDB) is a software package for IBM PC compatible computers that allows a nutritional researcher to perform complex retrievals on a food component data base (currently the USDA Handbook 8 data) using a structured food description language, the FDA/NCI Factored Food Vocabulary (FFV). The FCRDB software is written in the “C” language and uses a windowing interface for ease of use and bitmaps to achieve excellent response times for complex retrievals on a ...

  2. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Laboratory for Cancer Research Partners & Collaborators Spotlight on Scientists Research Areas Cancer Biology Cancer Genomics Causes of ... Centers Frederick National Lab Partners & Collaborators Spotlight on Scientists NCI Research Areas Cancer Biology Cancer Genomics Causes ...

  3. Breast Cancer Research: A Scientometric Analysis of Indian Publications during 2004–2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ritu Gupta

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper examines 5189 Indian publications on breast cancer research, as covered in Scopus database during 2005–2014, experiencing an annual average growth rate of 21.94% and citation impact of 3.38. The world breast cancer output (203,879 publications came from several countries, of which the top 15 most productive countries (United States, U.K., China, Germany, Italy, Canada, France, Japan, etc., accounted for 89.89% share of the global output during 2005–2014. India’s global publication share was 2.55% and hold 12th rank in global output during 2005–2014. The Indian publications on breast cancer came from several organizations, of which the top 15 most productive contributed 27.89% share in the national breast cancer output during 2005–2014. India’s international collaborative publications share in breast cancer was 19.89% during 2005–2014, which increased from 19.25% to 20.11% from 2005–2009 to 2010–2014. Medicine accounted for the largest share (54.58% of output in breast cancer, followed by biochemistry, genetics and molecular biology (38.08%, pharmacology, toxicology and pharmaceutics (23.11%, chemistry (11.29%, agricultural and biological sciences (3.87% share and immunology and microbiology (2.04% share during 2005–2014. Diagnosis, chemotherapy, screening, prognosis, surgery and radiotherapy together account for 72.58% publications share among treatments methods used in Indian breast cancer research during 2005–2014. Maharashtra, Delhi, Tamil Nadu and Karnataka together accounted for 53.52% of the India’s breast cancer output during 2005–2014.

  4. Depression and anxiety in ovarian cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis of prevalence rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Sam; Prescott, Philip; Mason, Jessica; McLeod, Natalie; Lewith, George

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To systematically review the literature pertaining to the prevalence of depression and anxiety in patients with ovarian cancer as a function of treatment stage. Design Systematic review and meta-analysis. Participants 3623 patients with ovarian cancer from primary research investigations. Primary outcome measure The prevalence of depression and anxiety in patients with ovarian cancer as a function of treatment stage. Results We identified 24 full journal articles that met the inclusion criteria for entry into the meta-analysis resulting in a pooled sample size of 3623 patients. The meta-analysis of prevalence rates identified pretreatment, on-treatment and post-treatment depression prevalences of 25.34% (CI 22.79% to 28.07%), 22.99% (CI 19.85% to 26.46%) and 12.71% (CI 10.14% to 15.79%), respectively. Pretreatment, on-treatment and post-treatment anxiety prevalences were 19.12% (CI 17.11% to 21.30%), 26.23% (CI 22.30% to 30.56%) and 27.09% (CI 23.10% to 31.49%). Conclusions Our findings suggest that the prevalence of depression and anxiety in women with ovarian cancer, across the treatment spectrum, is significantly greater than in the healthy female population. With the growing emphasis on improving the management of survivorship and quality of life, we conclude that further research is warranted to ensure psychological distress in ovarian cancer is not underdiagnosed and undertreated. PMID:26621509

  5. Accreditation for excellence of cancer research institutes: recommendations from the Italian Network of Comprehensive Cancer Centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deriu, Pier Luigi; La Pietra, Leonardo; Pierotti, Marco; Collazzo, Raffaele; Paradiso, Angelo; Belardelli, Filippo; De Paoli, Paolo; Nigro, Aldo; Lacalamita, Rosanna; Ferrarini, Manlio; Pelicci, Piergiuseppe; Pierotti, Marco; Roli, Anna; Ciliberto, Gennaro; Scala, Stefania; Amadori, Alberto; Chiusole, Daniela; Musto, Pellegrino; Fusco, Vincenzo; Storto, Giovanni; De Maria, Ruggero; Canitano, Stefano; Apolone, Giovanni; Ravelli, Maria; Mazzini, Elisa; Amadori, Dino; Bernabini, Marna; Ancarani, Valentina; Lombardo, Claudio

    2013-01-01

    A panel of experts from Italian Comprehensive Cancer Centers defines the recommendations for external quality control programs aimed to accreditation to excellence of these institutes. After definition of the process as a systematic, periodic evaluation performed by an external agency to verify whether a health organization possesses certain prerequisites regarding structural, organizational and operational conditions that are thought to affect health care quality, the panel reviews models internationally available and makes final recommendations on aspects considered of main interest. This position paper has been produced within a special project of the Ministry of Health of the Italian Government aimed to accredit, according to OECI model, 11 Italian cancer centers in the period 2012-2014. The Project represents the effort undertaken by this network of Comprehensive Cancer Centers to find a common denominator for the experience of all Institutes in external quality control programs. Fourteen shared "statements" are put forth, designed to offer some indications on the main aspects of this subject, based on literature evidence or expert opinions. They deal with the need for "accountability" and involvement of the entire organization, the effectiveness of self-evaluation, the temporal continuity and the educational value of the experience, the use of indicators and measurement tools, additionally for intra- and inter-organization comparison, the system of evaluation models used, the provision for specific requisites for oncology, and the opportunity for mutual exchange of evaluation experiences. PMID:24503807

  6. Prostate cancer research in India: A scientometric analysis of publications output during 2004-13

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brij Mohan Gupta

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This review article examines 1,368 publications on prostate cancer in India, as covered in Scopus database during 2004-13, experiencing an annual average growth rate of 18.77% and citation impact of 5.23. The world prostate cancer output (89,994 publications came from several countries, of which the top 15 (United States, United Kingdom, Germany, Canada, Italy, Japan, and China accounts for 94.80% share of the global output during 2004-13. India’s global publication share was 1.52% and hold 14th rank in global publication output during 2004-13. The Indian prostate cancer output came from several organizations and authors, of which the top 20 and 19 contributed 41.81% and 24.05% share, respectively, during 2004-13. India’s international collaborative share in prostate cancer was 23.39%, which decreased from 24.42% to 22.98% from 2004-08 to 2009-13. Medicine accounted for the largest share (59.50% of output in prostate cancer followed by biochemistry, genetics and molecular biology (40.13%, pharmacology, toxicology & pharmaceutics (27.63%, chemistry (8.55%, agricultural and biological sciences (4.31% share, and immunology and microbiology (2.70% share during 2004-13. Diagnosis, screening, chemotherapy, radiotherapy, pathology and prognosis together account for 60.24% publications share among treatments methods used in Indian prostate cancer research during 2004-13. Only Delhi, Maharashtra, Uttar Pradesh and Tamil Nadu together contributed 57.82% share in Indian publications output in prostate cancer during 2004-13. The authors stressed the need for developing national policy for prostate cancer which should take care of screening for detection and diagnosis, management and treatment options of the prostate cancer patients in India.  

  7. A cancer theory kerfuffle can lead to new lines of research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Stuart G

    2015-02-01

    The standard viewpoint that cancer is a genetic disease is often stated as a fact rather than a theory. By not acknowledging that it is a theory, namely the Somatic Mutation Theory (SMT), researchers are limiting their progress. An attractive alternative to SMT is the tissue organization field theory (TOFT), which is summarized as "development gone awry." To initiate a kerfuffle, I discuss the interpretation of various results under both TOFT and SMT, including recurrent mutations, hereditary cancers, induction of tumors in transgenic experiments, remission of tumors following the inhibition of enzymes activated by mutated genes, nongenotoxic carcinogens, denervation experiments, foreign-body carcinogenesis, transplantation experiments, and tumors with zero mutations. Thinking in terms of TOFT can spur new lines of research; examples are given related to the early detection of cancer. PMID:25528755

  8. Researching experiences of terminal cancer: a systematic review of methodological issues and approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, F M; Kendall, M; Bentley, A; Maguire, R; Worth, A; Murray, S; Boyd, K; Brown, D; Kearney, N; Sheikh, A

    2008-07-01

    The objectives of this review were to assess the methods and approaches applied to end-of-life cancer research based on papers focusing on approaches or methodological issues related to seeking the views of people affected by terminal cancer. A comprehensive search of 10 databases (January 1980-February 2004) was undertaken. References were screened, quality assessed and data extracted by two reviewers. Analysis followed a meta-narrative approach. Fifteen papers were included. They discussed 'traditional' approaches, such as focus groups, interviews, surveys, as well as innovative approaches allied to the arts. They reveal that mixed methods are gaining popularity. The emotional demands placed on researchers and the ethical issues involved in this research area were also discussed. We concluded that researchers should embrace innovative approaches from other areas of social science, such as the use of arts-based techniques. This may facilitate recruitment of the hard-to-reach groups and engage with experiences that may be otherwise difficult to verbalize. Although researching the needs of the dying carries challenges, these are not the exclusive domain of the cancer field. This study reveals that diverse methods, from research-based drama to postal questionnaires, can enhance end-of-life research. However, this review reveals the need for more methodological work to be undertaken and disseminated. PMID:18485015

  9. Cancer control in developing countries: using health data and health services research to measure and improve access, quality and efficiency

    OpenAIRE

    Kangolle Alfred CT; Hanna Timothy P

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Cancer is a rapidly increasing problem in developing countries. Access, quality and efficiency of cancer services in developing countries must be understood to advance effective cancer control programs. Health services research can provide insights into these areas. Discussion This article provides an overview of oncology health services in developing countries. We use selected examples from peer-reviewed literature in health services research and relevant publicly availab...

  10. Impairments that Influence Physical Function among Survivors of Childhood Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen L. Wilson

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Children treated for cancer are at increased risk of developing chronic health conditions, some of which may manifest during or soon after treatment while others emerge many years after therapy. These health problems may limit physical performance and functional capacity, interfering with participation in work, social, and recreational activities. In this review, we discuss treatment-induced impairments in the endocrine, musculoskeletal, neurological, and cardiopulmonary systems and their influence on mobility and physical function. We found that cranial radiation at a young age was associated with a broad range of chronic conditions including obesity, short stature, low bone mineral density and neuromotor impairments. Anthracyclines and chest radiation are associated with both short and long-term cardiotoxicity. Although numerous chronic conditions are documented among individuals treated for childhood cancer, the impact of these conditions on mobility and function are not well characterized, with most studies limited to survivors of acute lymphoblastic leukemia and brain tumors. Moving forward, further research assessing the impact of chronic conditions on participation in work and social activities is required. Moreover, interventions to prevent or ameliorate the loss of physical function among children treated for cancer are likely to become an important area of survivorship research.

  11. Research Progress in the Use of Drugs for Breast Cancer Targeted Therapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shun'e Yang; Bing Zhao

    2008-01-01

    In recent years,many significant advances have been made on molecular target therapy to aim directly at epidermal growth factor receptors and vascular endothelial growth factor in breast cancers.Clinical studies of such agents as trastuzumab,lapatinib,erlotinib and bevacituzumab have been widely conducted.This paper will review the recent research progress related to targeted therapy.

  12. Patient-Derived Xenograft Models : An Emerging Platform for Translational Cancer Research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hidalgo, Manuel; Amant, Frederic; Biankin, Andrew V.; Budinska, Eva; Byrne, Annette T.; Caldas, Carlos; Clarke, Robert B.; de Jong, Steven; Jonkers, Jos; Maelandsmo, Gunhild Mari; Roman-Roman, Sergio; Seoane, Joan; Trusolino, Livio; Villanueva, Alberto

    2014-01-01

    Recently, there has been an increasing interest in the development and characterization of patient-derived tumor xenograft (PDX) models for cancer research. PDX models mostly retain the principal histologic and genetic characteristics of their donor tumor and remain stable across passages. These mod

  13. Oral mucosal injury caused by cancer therapies: current management and new frontiers in research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Siri Beier; Peterson, Douglas E.

    2014-01-01

    by cancer therapies are also delineated as a basis for identifying pathobiologic and pharmacogenomic targets for interventions. This collective portfolio of research and its ongoing incorporation into clinical practice is setting the stage for the clinician in the future to predict mucosal toxicity risk...

  14. Mobile health for cancer in low to middle income countries: priorities for research and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holeman, I; Evans, J; Kane, D; Grant, L; Pagliari, C; Weller, D

    2014-11-01

    Many current global health opportunities have less to do with new biomedical knowledge than with the coordination and delivery of care. While basic research remains vital, the growing cancer epidemic in countries of low and middle income warrants urgent action - focusing on both research and service delivery innovation. Mobile technology can reduce costs, improve access to health services, and strengthen health systems to meet the interrelated challenges of cancer and other noncommunicable diseases. Experience has shown that even very poor and remote communities that only have basic primary health care can benefit from mobile health (or 'mHealth') interventions. We argue that cancer researchers and practitioners have an opportunity to leverage mHealth technologies that have successfully targeted other health conditions, rather than reinventing these tools. We call for particular attention to human centred design approaches for adapting existing technologies to suit distinctive aspects of cancer care and to align delivery with local context - and we make a number of recommendations for integrating mHealth delivery research with the work of designers, engineers and implementers in large-scale delivery programmes.

  15. A Cervical Cancer Community-Based Participatory Research Project in a Native American Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher, Suzanne; Gidley, Allison L.; Letiecq, Bethany; Smith, Adina; McCormick, Alma Knows His Gun

    2008-01-01

    The Messengers for Health on the Apsaalooke Reservation project uses a community-based participatory research (CBPR) approach and lay health advisors (LHAs) to generate knowledge and awareness about cervical cancer prevention among community members in a culturally competent manner. Northern Plains Native Americans, of whom Apsaalooke women are a…

  16. Psychometric validation of the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire-Endometrial Cancer Module (EORTC QLQ-EN24)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greimel, Elfriede; Nordin, Andy; Lanceley, Anne;

    2011-01-01

    A validation study was conducted to evaluate the psychometric properties of the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) Quality of Life Questionnaire-Endometrial Cancer Module (EORTC QLQ-EN24). This module was designed to assess disease and treatment specific aspects...

  17. Embracing an integromic approach to tissue biomarker research in cancer: Perspectives and lessons learned

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Gerald; Bankhead, Peter; Dunne, Philip D.; O'Reilly, Paul G; James, Jacqueline A.; Salto-Tellez, Manuel; Hamilton, Peter; McArt, Darragh G.

    2016-01-01

    Modern approaches to biomedical research and diagnostics targeted towards precision medicine are generating ‘big data’ across a range of high-throughput experimental and analytical platforms. Integrative analysis of this rich clinical, pathological, molecular and imaging data represents one of the greatest bottlenecks in biomarker discovery research in cancer and other diseases. Following on from the publication of our successful framework for multimodal data amalgamation and integrative anal...

  18. High Resolution X-ray Computed Tomography: An Emerging Tool for Small Animal Cancer Research

    OpenAIRE

    Paulus, Michael J.; Gleason, Shaun S; Kennel, Stephen J.; Hunsicker, Patricia R.; Johnson, Dabney K.

    2000-01-01

    Dedicated high-resolution small animal imaging systems have recently emerged as important new tools for cancer research. These new imaging systems permit researchers to noninvasively screen animals for mutations or pathologies and to monitor disease progression and response to therapy. One imaging modality, X-ray microcomputed tomography (microCT) shows promise as a cost-effective means for detecting and characterizing soft-tissue structures, skeletal abnormalities, and tumors in live animals...

  19. High Resolution X-ray Computed Tomography: An Emerging Tool for Small Animal Cancer Research1

    OpenAIRE

    Paulus, Michael J.; Gleason, Shaun S; Kennel, Stephen J.; Hunsicker, Patricia R.; Johnson, Dabney K.

    2000-01-01

    Dedicated high-resolution small animal imaging systems have recently emerged as important new tools for cancer research. These new imaging systems permit researchers to noninvasively screen animals for mutations or pathologies and to monitor disease progression and response to therapy. One imaging modality, X-ray microcomputed tomography (microCT) shows promise as a cost-effective means for detecting and characterizing soft-tissue structures, skeletal abnormalities, and tumors in live animals...

  20. Puerto Rico NCI Community Oncology Research Program Minority/Underserved | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    DESCRIPTION 3 OVERALL REVIEW CRITERIA AND IMPACT 3 FUNDING OPPORTUNITY ANNOUNCEMENT (FOA) SPECIFIC CRITERIA 8 ORGANIZATION AND STRUCTURE 8 CLINCAL TRIALS RESEARCH PROGRAM 10 CANCER CARE DELIVERY RESEARCH PROGRAM 11 OPERATIONS/DATA MANAGEMENT CORE 12 ADDITIONAL REVIEW CRITERIA 14 PROTECTIONS FOR HUMAN SUBJECTS 14 INCLUSION OF WOMEN, MINORITIES, AND CHILDREN 14 BIOHAZARDS 14 RESOURCE SHARING PLAN 14 BUDGET AND PERIOD OF SUPPORT 14 SCIENTIFIC REVIEW OFFICER'S NOTES 14 SPECIAL EMPHASIS PANEL ROSTER |

  1. Exploring research participation among cancer patients: analysis of a national survey and an in-depth interview study

    OpenAIRE

    Mc Grath-Lone, Louise; Day, Sophie; Schoenborn, Claudia; Ward, Helen

    2015-01-01

    Background Inequalities in cancer research participation are thought to exist with certain groups under-represented in research populations; however, much of the evidence is based on small-scale studies. The aim of this study was to explore data from in-depth interviews with cancer patients and a large national survey to investigate variation in who is asked to participate in research and who takes part. Methods Factors associated with research discussion and participation were explored in Na...

  2. Improving clinical research and cancer care delivery in community settings: evaluating the NCI community cancer centers program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fennell Mary L

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In this article, we describe the National Cancer Institute (NCI Community Cancer Centers Program (NCCCP pilot and the evaluation designed to assess its role, function, and relevance to the NCI's research mission. In doing so, we describe the evolution of and rationale for the NCCCP concept, participating sites' characteristics, its multi-faceted aims to enhance clinical research and quality of care in community settings, and the role of strategic partnerships, both within and outside of the NCCCP network, in achieving program objectives. Discussion The evaluation of the NCCCP is conceptualized as a mixed method multi-layered assessment of organizational innovation and performance which includes mapping the evolution of site development as a means of understanding the inter- and intra-organizational change in the pilot, and the application of specific evaluation metrics for assessing the implementation, operations, and performance of the NCCCP pilot. The assessment of the cost of the pilot as an additional means of informing the longer-term feasibility and sustainability of the program is also discussed. Summary The NCCCP is a major systems-level set of organizational innovations to enhance clinical research and care delivery in diverse communities across the United States. Assessment of the extent to which the program achieves its aims will depend on a full understanding of how individual, organizational, and environmental factors align (or fail to align to achieve these improvements, and at what cost.

  3. The gender perspective in cancer research and therapy: novel insights and on-going hypotheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabriele, Lucia; Buoncervello, Maria; Ascione, Barbara; Bellenghi, Maria; Matarrese, Paola; Carè, Alessandra

    2016-01-01

    Cancer represents a leading cause of death whose incidence is steadily increasing worldwide due to the population aging. The Global Health Observatory of the World Health Organization reported that approximately 13% of all deaths are caused by cancer. In the 2012 the estimated total number of cancer deaths was 1.75 million, 56% in men and 44% in women. Gender is recognized to play a role in cancer incidence, progression and response to therapy. Besides anatomical and hormonal disparities, genetic differences should be considered when assessing the effects of gender on cancer. Accumulating evidence also support the existence of sex-driven differences in immune responses. Until today clinical trials and research in animal models have been gender unbalanced. In consideration of the differences between sexes observed in cancer, sex should represent an important stratification factor to be included in all randomized clinical trials for a better understanding of biological differences between men and women, which may yield improved targeted therapies. PMID:27364396

  4. Human papillomavirus research on the prevention, diagnosis, and prognosis of cervical cancer in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Angel; Huang, Huei-Jean; Lai, Chyong-Huey

    2012-01-01

    Cervical cancer is third in incidence and fourth in mortality among cancers of women worldwide. Epidemiological studies have shown that human papillomavirus (HPV) is necessary, if not sufficient, to cause nearly 100% of cervical cancers. HPV testing is useful in primary screening for cervical neoplasms. The value of HPV detection or genotyping is potentially useful in triage of borderline or low-grade abnormal cervical cytology, follow-up after treatment of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia, assessment of prognosis and treatment planning for invasive cervical cancer. Studies from Chang Gung Memorial Hospital have defined the genotype distribution of cervical cancer in Taiwan and confirmed the independent prognostic value of the HPV genotype in cervical cancer. The cost-effectiveness of using HPV testing in prevention and management of cervical neoplasms depends on the medical and public health infrastructure of the individual country. The population-based HPV prevalence and genotype distribution as well as longitudinal follow-up studies have established strong support for incorporating HPV testing with cervical cytology and for future comparisons of HPV epidemiology before and after implementation of HPV prophylactic vaccines in Taiwan. Future directions in HPV research are discussed. PMID:22913856

  5. Rectal cancer: future directions and priorities for treatment, research and policy in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Christopher; Ehrenberg, Nieves; Frizelle, Frank; Sarfati, Diana; Balasingam, Adrian; Pearse, Maria; Parry, Susan; Print, Cristin; Findlay, Michael; Bissett, Ian

    2014-06-06

    New Zealand has one of the highest incidences of rectal cancer in the world, and its optimal management requires a multidisciplinary approach. A National Rectal Cancer Summit was convened in August 2013 to discuss management of rectal cancer in the New Zealand context, to highlight controversies and discuss domestic priorities for the future. This paper summarises the priorities for treatment, research and policy for rectal cancer services in New Zealand identified as part of the Summit in August. The following priorities were identified: - Access to high-quality information for service planning, review of outcomes, identification of inequities and gaps in provision, and quality improvement; - Engagement with the entire sector, including private providers; - Focus on equity; - Emerging technologies; - Harmonisation of best practice; - Importance of multidisciplinary team meetings. In conclusion, improvements in outcomes for patients with rectal cancer in New Zealand will require significant engagement between policy makers, providers, researchers, and patients in order to ensure equitable access to high quality treatment, and strategic incorporation of emerging technologies into clinical practice. A robust clinical information framework is required in order to facilitate monitoring of quality improvements and to ensure that equitable care is delivered.

  6. Participatory Ethnomedicinal Cancer Research with Fante-Akan Herbalists in Rural Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Summer Ragosta

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available An ethnomedicinal study was initiated with herbalists in coastal Central Region Ghana to explore how cancer is defined, diagnosed, and treated within a traditional Fante-Akan context. The participatory, service-oriented investigation included international collaboration with herbalists and traditional plant experts. On-site meetings informed community leaders and members of project intent and methods, guided protocol, and gauged critical support. To provide immediate educational and economic opportunities, hands-on activities with villagers transferred academic and applied skills. Ethnographic interviews and voucher specimen collections were conducted with seven herbalists. Plant samples were dried and housed locally in a community herbarium cabinet constructed in Kormantse. Ten cancer ethnopharmacopoeia plants were identified, most of which are species considered native to tropical Africa. Fante Akan herbalists listed various types of cancers they treat with herbal remedies, along with ethnomedicinal descriptions of disease etiology, diagnoses, and treatments. The most common cancer type mentioned was “breast cancer.” Topical application was the most often cited method of administering remedies. Researchers established key contacts in the Kormantse, Salt Pond, and Elmina communities, and identified local and international research collaborators for a proposed interdisciplinary project focused on longitudinal case studies with herbalists, patients, and medical physicians.

  7. ASBMB Journal Club - Office of Cancer Clinical Proteomics Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    On Wednesday, November 12, 2014 from 2:00 PM to 3:00 PM EST, Daniel Liebler, PhD (Vanderbilt University) and Karin Rodland, PhD (Pacific Northwestern National Laboratory) and Ruedi Aebersold, PhD (Swiss Federal Institute of Technology) will share their research insight as part of the ASBMB Journal Club.  Both Doctors Liebler and Rodland are Principal Investigators in the NCI’s Clinical Proteomic Tumor Analysis Consortium.

  8. Eurocan plus report: feasibility study for coordination of national cancer research activities

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    Executive Summary Cancer is one of the biggest public health crises facing Europe in the 21st century—one for which Europe is currently not prepared nor preparing itself. Cancer is a major cause of death in Europe with two million casualties and three million new cases diagnosed annually, and the situation is set to worsen as the population ages. These facts led the European Parliament, through the Research Directorate-General of the European Commission, to call for initiatives for better coo...

  9. Final Report DOE Grant# DE-FG02-98ER62592: Second Cancers, Tumor p53, and Archaea Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lesko, Samuel M. [Northeast Regional Cancer Institute, Scranton, PA (United States)

    2006-01-14

    The Northeast Regional Cancer Institute conducted cancer surveillance in Northeast Pennsylvania using data from the institute's population-based regional cancer registry and the Pennsylvania Cancer Registry. The results of this surveillance have been used to set priorities for research and outreach activities at the Cancer Institute and selected results have been reported to medical professionals at member hospitals and in the community. One consistent observation of this surveillance was that colorectal cancer was unusually common in Northeast Pennsylvania; incidence was approximately 25% higher than the rate published for NCI's Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) Program. In addition, death rates form colorectal cancer in several counties in this region were above the 90Th percentile for colorectal cancer mortality in the United States. As a result of these observations, several activities have been developed to increase awareness of colorectal cancer and the value of screening for this cancer in both the lay and medical communities. Funding from this grant also provided support for a population-based study of cancer risk factors, screening practices, and related behaviors. This project continues beyond the termination of the present grant with funding from other sources. This project gathers data from a representative sample of adults residing in a six county area of Northeast Pennsylvania. Analyses conducted to date of the established risk factors for colorectal cancer have not revealed an explanation for the high incidence of this cancer in this population.

  10. Current dichotomy between traditional molecular biological and omic research in cancer biology and pharmacology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinhold, William C

    2015-12-10

    There is currently a split within the cancer research community between traditional molecular biological hypothesis-driven and the more recent "omic" forms or research. While the molecular biological approach employs the tried and true single alteration-single response formulations of experimentation, the omic employs broad-based assay or sample collection approaches that generate large volumes of data. How to integrate the benefits of these two approaches in an efficient and productive fashion remains an outstanding issue. Ideally, one would merge the understandability, exactness, simplicity, and testability of the molecular biological approach, with the larger amounts of data, simultaneous consideration of multiple alterations, consideration of genes both of known interest along with the novel, cross-sample comparisons among cell lines and patient samples, and consideration of directed questions while simultaneously gaining exposure to the novel provided by the omic approach. While at the current time integration of the two disciplines remains problematic, attempts to do so are ongoing, and will be necessary for the understanding of the large cell line screens including the Developmental Therapeutics Program's NCI-60, the Broad Institute's Cancer Cell Line Encyclopedia, and the Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute's Cancer Genome Project, as well as the the Cancer Genome Atlas clinical samples project. Going forward there is significant benefit to be had from the integration of the molecular biological and the omic forms or research, with the desired goal being improved translational understanding and application. PMID:26677427

  11. Is cancer a chronic disease? Comparison of health‐related quality of life and health care use in cancer survivors and patients with a chronic disease.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heins, M.J.; Korevaar, J.C.; Hopman, E.J.C.; Donker, G.A.; Schellevis, F.G.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The number of cancer survivors steadily increases. The long‐term planning of care in the survivorship phase necessitates a different approach than the short‐term planning in the treatment phase. Principles of disease management programs could provide an interesting perspective to improve

  12. Sniffer dogs as part of a bimodal bionic research approach to develop a lung cancer screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boedeker, Enole; Friedel, Godehard; Walles, Thorsten

    2012-05-01

    Lung cancer (LC) continues to represent a heavy burden for health care systems worldwide. Epidemiological studies predict that its role will increase in the near future. While patient prognosis is strongly associated with tumour stage and early detection of disease, no screening test exists so far. It has been suggested that electronic sensor devices, commonly referred to as 'electronic noses', may be applicable to identify cancer-specific volatile organic compounds in the breath of patients and therefore may represent promising screening technologies. However, three decades of research did not bring forward a clinically applicable device. Here, we propose a new research approach by involving specially trained sniffer dogs into research strategies by making use of their ability to identify LC in the breath sample of patients.

  13. The h index and the identification of global benchmarks for breast cancer research output.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healy, N A; Glynn, R W; Scutaru, Cristian; Groneberg, David; Kerin, M J; Sweeney, K J

    2011-06-01

    The h index is used to assess an individual's contribution to the literature. This metric should not be employed to compare individuals across research areas; rather each subject should have its own baseline and standard. This work aimed to identify global bibliometric benchmarks for those involved in breast cancer research, and specifically, to describe the bibliographic characteristics of breast surgeons in the UK and Ireland. Authorship data was extracted from breast cancer related output from 1945 to 2008, as indexed in the Web of Science. Authors' publications, citations and h indexes were identified. The breast-related output of 277 UK and Irish breast surgeons was evaluated, and a citation report generated for each. Strong correlation was noted between the h index and number of publications (r = 0.642, P research pertaining to the breast; the remainder had together produced 2,060 articles, accounting for 59,002 citations. The top quartile was responsible for 83% of output; the 90th percentile was 20 publications. The range of h index values for the surgeons was 0-50, with a median h index returned of 3 (IQR 1-6); the 90th percentile was 13.5. This work has identified bibliometric benchmarks to which those involved in breast cancer research might aspire. Our findings suggest that there is need for wider involvement of surgeons in the research process and raises questions regarding the future of scientific breast surgery. PMID:21399892

  14. Psychological and Behavioral Approaches to Cancer Pain Management

    OpenAIRE

    Syrjala, Karen L.; Jensen, Mark P.; Mendoza, M Elena; Yi, Jean C.; Fisher, Hannah M.; Keefe, Francis J.

    2014-01-01

    This review examines evidence for psychological factors that affect pain across the cancer continuum from diagnosis through treatment and long-term survivorship or end of life. Evidence is convincing that emotional distress, depression, anxiety, uncertainty, and hopelessness interact with pain. Unrelieved pain can increase a desire for hastened death. Patients with cancer use many strategies to manage pain, with catastrophizing associated with increased pain and self-efficacy associated with ...

  15. Radiation related basic cancer research : research for radiation induced tumor cell killing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radioresistant clones was established from human U251 glioblastoma cell line through intermittently exposed to 3 Gy gamma-radiation for six months. Treatment of SNU-16 cells with various doses of radiation, TNF alpha and PMA resulted in a decrease in cell viability. The results prove that cell death of SNU16 is a apoptosis mediated by caspase-3. We have examined the expression of bcl-2 and c-myc in cervical cancer specimens and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) to determine the role of coexpression of bcl-3 and c-myc during progression into cervical cancer. The frequent alterations in FHIT expression in many cervical carcinomas and their cell lines suggest that FHIT gene alterations are pla a role in cervical tumorigenesis. According to these correlation between the viability and apoptosis of RD cells, the proper range of the dosage for the investigation of differentiation potency in RD cells was assessed as 1 to 3Gy

  16. Radiation related basic cancer research : research for radiation induced tumor cell killing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Seung Hoon; Hong, Seok Il; Cho, Kyung Ja; Kim, Byung Gi; Lee, Kee Ho; Nam, Myung Jin

    1999-04-01

    The radioresistant clones was established from human U251 glioblastoma cell line through intermittently exposed to 3 Gy gamma-radiation for six months. Treatment of SNU-16 cells with various doses of radiation, TNF alpha and PMA resulted in a decrease in cell viability. The results prove that cell death of SNU16 is a apoptosis mediated by caspase-3. We have examined the expression of bcl-2 and c-myc in cervical cancer specimens and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) to determine the role of coexpression of bcl-3 and c-myc during progression into cervical cancer. The frequent alterations in FHIT expression in many cervical carcinomas and their cell lines suggest that FHIT gene alterations are pla a role in cervical tumorigenesis. According to these correlation between the viability and apoptosis of RD cells, the proper range of the dosage for the investigation of differentiation potency in RD cells was assessed as 1 to 3Gy.

  17. A narrative review of the occurrence of posttraumatic stress responses in adolescent and young adult cancer survivors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vuotto SC

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Stefanie C Vuotto,1 Katia M Perez,2 Kevin R Krull,1 Tara M Brinkman1 1Department of Epidemiology and Cancer Control, St Jude Children’s Research Hospital, Memphis, 2Department of Psychology and Human Development, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN, USA Abstract: Adolescent and young adult cancer survivors may experience posttraumatic stress responses following cancer diagnosis or treatment. The current paper reviews 23 studies reporting the occurrence of posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD, and associated predictors of these outcomes in adolescent and young adult cancer survivors. Results indicate considerable variability among prevalence estimates of PTSD (0%–34.8% and PTSS (4.4%–78%. Measurement inconsistencies limiting the ascertainment of reliable prevalence and risk estimates are discussed in the context of the reviewed literature. Specifically, differences in assessment measures utilized, the timing of assessment relative to diagnosis, the criteria used to define the outcome, and identification of the precipitating traumatic event may account for discrepancies in prevalence and risk estimates across studies. The application of specific PTSD diagnostic criteria to a survivorship population is discussed. Empirically supported interventions utilizing cognitive behavioral therapy approaches for the treatment of PTSS in adolescent and young adult cancer survivors are identified. Keywords: posttraumatic stress, adolescent and young adult, cancer survivors

  18. Research joins forces with industry in the fight against cancer

    CERN Multimedia

    Francesco Poppi

    2010-01-01

    The Geneva-based Application of Detectors and Accelerators to Medicine (A.D.A.M. SA) has recently completed the first unit of an innovative linear accelerator for hadron therapy applications. The design of the new unit is based on pioneering studies carried out by the TERA Foundation a few years ago. Assembled at CERN in the framework of a partnership agreement with the company, this first module is now ready to leave Switzerland for Rome, where it will undergo some important performance tests.   The first unit of LIGHT was unveiled on 20 November. The ceremony was attended by Sergio Bertolucci, CERN Director for Research, Rolf Heuer, CERN Director-General, Alberto Colussi, Director of ADAM SA, President Carlo Lamprecht and Domenico Campi, ADAM SA Board Members, and Ugo Amaldi, President of the TERA Foundation. The Linac for Image-Guided Hadron Therapy (LIGHT) is the innovative linear accelerator designed by A.D.A.M. SA to revolutionise hadron therapy facilities by simplifying the infrastructure...

  19. Advanced Research of Fibroblast Growth Factor Receptor 
in Non-small Cell Lung Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan PU

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Lung cancer is severely threatening human health. In recent years, the treatment for lung adenocarcinoma has made a great progress, targeted therapy has been widely applied in clinic, and benefits amount of patients. However, in squamous cell lung cancer, the incidence of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR gene mutant and ALK fusion gene are low,and targeted therapy like Tarceva and crizotinib, can hardly work. Since the fibroblast growth factors (fibroblast growth factor, FGF pathway is considered to be related to tumor cell proliferation, metastasis and angiogenesis, more and more researches proved the amplification of fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR in squamous cell lung cancer. Experiments in vivo and in vitro found that blocking FGF pathway could reduce the proliferation of tumor cells and inhibit metastasis. The FGF pathway might be a new target for treatment of squamous cell lung cancer. This article reviews the effect of FGFR in tumorigenesis,as well as the prospect as a therapeutic target in non-small cell lung cancer.

  20. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... about Advanced Cancer Research Managing Cancer Care Finding Health Care Services Advance Directives Using Trusted Resources Financial Toxicity ... Cancer Advanced Cancer & Caregivers Managing Cancer Care Finding Health Care Services Advance Directives Using Trusted Resources Cancer Types ...