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Sample records for cancer survival comparisons

  1. Surviving Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... his or her health status, when diagnosed with cancer may have an effect on their survival and recovery. Older adults are more likely to have other health conditions such as diabetes and heart disease. Managing these conditions can complicate ...

  2. Comparison of breast cancer survival in two populations: Ardabil, Iran and British Columbia, Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Babaei Masoud; Nouraie Mehdi; Ghorbani Anahita; Bashash Morteza; Bajdik Chris; Hislop T Gregory; Sadjadi Alireza; Malekzadeh Reza; Yavari Parvin

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Patterns in survival can provide information about the burden and severity of cancer, help uncover gaps in systemic policy and program delivery, and support the planning of enhanced cancer control systems. The aim of this paper is to describe the one-year survival rates for breast cancer in two populations using population-based cancer registries: Ardabil, Iran, and British Columbia (BC), Canada. Methods All newly diagnosed cases of female breast cancer were identified in ...

  3. Comparison of breast cancer survival in two populations : Ardabil, Iran and British Columbia, Canada

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sadjadi, Alireza; Hislop, T. Gregory; Bajdik, Chris; Bashash, Morteza; Ghorbani, Anahita; Nouraie, Mehdi; Babaei, Masoud; Malekzadeh, Reza; Yavari, Parvin

    2009-01-01

    Background: Patterns in survival can provide information about the burden and severity of cancer, help uncover gaps in systemic policy and program delivery, and support the planning of enhanced cancer control systems. The aim of this paper is to describe the one-year survival rates for breast cancer

  4. Effect of screening mammography on breast cancer survival in comparison to other detection methods. A retrospective cohort study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effectiveness of screening mammography (SMG) on mortality has been established in randomized controlled trials in Western countries, but not in Japan. This study evaluated the effectiveness by comparing the survival based on detection methods. The survivals were estimated by the Kaplan-Meier method. Breast cancer patients diagnosed from 1 January 1989 to 31 December 2000 were determined using the Miyagi Prefectural Cancer Registry and follow-up was performed from the date of the diagnosis until the date of death or the end of follow-up, 31 December 2005. The hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) of breast cancer death based on the detection methods were estimated by the Cox proportional-hazard regression model. The mean age of the 7513 patients was 55.7 years (range, 15.0-99.3). The 5-year survival associated with the SMG group, the clinical breast examination (CBE) group, and the self-detection group was 98.3%, 94.3%, and 84.8%, respectively. The HR (95% CI) of deaths from breast cancer was 2.50 (1.10-5.69) for patients in the CBE group and 6.57 (2.94-14.64) for the self-detection group in comparison to the SMG group. In women aged 50-59, the HRs were 1.64(0.58-4.62) among the CBE group and 3.74 (1.39-10.03) among the self-detection group, and the HRs for the CBE and self-detection groups in women aged 60-69 were 2.96 (0.68-12.83) and 9.51 (2.36-38.26), respectively. After adjusting for stage, the HRs dropped remarkably. Screening mammography may be more effective in the elderly group and be able to reduce the mortality of breast cancer in Japan. (author)

  5. Comparison of Survival Rate in Primary Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer Among Elderly Patients Treated With Radiofrequency Ablation, Surgery, or Chemotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: We retrospectively compared the survival rate in patients with non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) treated with radiofrequency ablation (RFA), surgery, or chemotherapy according to lung cancer staging. Materials and Methods: From 2000 to 2004, 77 NSCLC patients, all of whom had WHO performance status 0–2 and were >60 years old, were enrolled in a cancer registry and retrospectively evaluated. RFA was performed on patients who had medical contraindications to surgery/unsuitability for surgery, such as advanced lung cancer or refusal of surgery. In the RFA group, 40 patients with inoperable NSCLC underwent RFA under computed tomography (CT) guidance. These included 16 patients with stage I to II cancer and 24 patients with stage III to IV cancer who underwent RFA in an adjuvant setting. In the comparison group (n = 37), 13 patients with stage I to II cancer underwent surgery; 18 patients with stage III to IV cancer underwent chemotherapy; and 6 patients with stage III to IV cancer were not actively treated. The survival curves for RFA, surgery, and chemotherapy in these patients were calculated using Kaplan–Meier method. Results: Median survival times for patients treated with (1) surgery alone and (2) RFA alone for stage I to II lung cancer were 33.8 and 28.2 months, respectively (P = 0.426). Median survival times for patients treated with (1) chemotherapy alone and (2) RFA with chemotherapy for stage III to IV cancer were 29 and 42 months, respectively (P = 0.03). Conclusion: RFA can be used as an alternative treatment to surgery for older NSCLC patients with stage I to II inoperable cancer and can play a role as adjuvant therapy with chemotherapy for patients with stage III to IV lung cancer.

  6. Inter-country and ethnic variation in colorectal cancer survival: Comparisons between a Philippine population, Filipino-Americans and Caucasians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gondos Adam

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous population-based studies showed differences in international and within country colorectal cancer survival estimates, but few investigated the role of prognostic factors. Using a "high resolution approach", we aimed to determine the effect of ethnicity and health care by comparing Filipino-Americans with Philippine residents, who have the same ethnicity, and with Caucasians living in the US, who have the same health care system. Methods Using databases from the Manila and Rizal Cancer Registries and the United States Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results, age-adjusted five-year absolute and relative survival estimates were computed and compared between Filipino-American colorectal cancer patients, cancer patients from the Philippines and Caucasian patients. Cox proportional hazards modelling was used to determine factors affecting survival differences. Results Much lower 5-year relative survival estimates were obtained for Philippine residents (37% as compared to those in Filipino-Americans (60.3% and Caucasians (62.4%. Differences in age, stage and receipt of surgery explained a large proportion of the survival differences between Philippine residents and Filipino-Americans. However, strong excess risk of death for Philippine residents remained after controlling for these and other variables (relative risk, RR, 2.03, 95% confidence interval, 95% CI, 1.83-2.25. Conclusions Strong survival disadvantages of Philippine residents compared to Filipino-American patients were disclosed, which most likely reflect differences in access to and utilization of health care. Health education and advocacy, for both patients and health practitioners, should likewise be given priority.

  7. Prognostic value of DCE-MRI in breast cancer patients undergoing neoadjuvant chemotherapy: a comparison with traditional survival indicators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To determine associations between dynamic contrast-enhanced MR imaging (DCE-MRI) parameters and survival intervals in patients with locally advanced breast cancer treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC), surgery, and adjuvant therapies. Further, to compare the prognostic value of DCE-MRI parameters against traditional survival indicators. DCE-MRI and MR tumour volume measures were obtained prior to treatment and post 2nd NAC cycle. To demonstrate which parameters were associated with survival, Cox's proportional hazards models (CPHM) were employed. To avoid over-parameterisation, only those MR parameters with at least a borderline significant result were entered into the final CPHM. When considering disease-free survival positive axillary nodal status (hazard ratio [HR] 6.79), younger age (HR 3.37), negative oestrogen receptor status (HR 3.24), pre-treatment Maximum Enhancement Index (MaxEI) (HR 6.51), and percentage change in MaxEI (HR 1.02) represented the retained CPHM covariates. Similarly, positive axillary nodal status (HR 11.47), negative progesterone receptor status (HR 4.37) and percentage change in AUC90 (HR 1.01) represented the retained predictive variables for overall survival. Multivariate survival analysis has demonstrated that DCE-MRI parameters obtained prior to NAC and/or post 2nd cycle can provide independent prognostic information that can complement traditional prognostic indicators available prior to treatment. (orig.)

  8. Prognostic value of DCE-MRI in breast cancer patients undergoing neoadjuvant chemotherapy: a comparison with traditional survival indicators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pickles, Martin D.; Lowry, Martin; Turnbull, Lindsay W. [Hull York Medical School at University of Hull, Hull Royal Infirmary, Centre for Magnetic Resonance Investigations, Hull (United Kingdom); Manton, David J. [Hull and East Yorkshire Hospitals NHS Trust, Radiation Physics Department, Hull (United Kingdom)

    2015-04-01

    To determine associations between dynamic contrast-enhanced MR imaging (DCE-MRI) parameters and survival intervals in patients with locally advanced breast cancer treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC), surgery, and adjuvant therapies. Further, to compare the prognostic value of DCE-MRI parameters against traditional survival indicators. DCE-MRI and MR tumour volume measures were obtained prior to treatment and post 2nd NAC cycle. To demonstrate which parameters were associated with survival, Cox's proportional hazards models (CPHM) were employed. To avoid over-parameterisation, only those MR parameters with at least a borderline significant result were entered into the final CPHM. When considering disease-free survival positive axillary nodal status (hazard ratio [HR] 6.79), younger age (HR 3.37), negative oestrogen receptor status (HR 3.24), pre-treatment Maximum Enhancement Index (MaxEI) (HR 6.51), and percentage change in MaxEI (HR 1.02) represented the retained CPHM covariates. Similarly, positive axillary nodal status (HR 11.47), negative progesterone receptor status (HR 4.37) and percentage change in AUC{sub 90} (HR 1.01) represented the retained predictive variables for overall survival. Multivariate survival analysis has demonstrated that DCE-MRI parameters obtained prior to NAC and/or post 2nd cycle can provide independent prognostic information that can complement traditional prognostic indicators available prior to treatment. (orig.)

  9. A comparison of patient characteristics, prognosis, treatment modalities, and survival according to age group in gastric cancer patients

    OpenAIRE

    Tural Deniz; Selçukbiricik Fatih; Serdengeçti Süheyla; Büyükünal Evin

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background The aim of this study was to investigate age-specific incidence rates and to compare disease stage, treatment, and survival according to age group in patients with gastric adenocarcinoma. Methods Gastric cancer patients treated at our hospital between 1999 and 2010 were retrospectively evaluated. We divided the cases into two subgroups: group 1 consisted of patients older than 70 years at the time of treatment, and group 2 included patients aged 70 years or younger. In all...

  10. The comparison between two different methods of radiotherapy in palliation and survival of patients with esophageal cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keshvary M

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available Esophageal cancer is one of the most common malignancies in our country. Patients often seek medical advice in advanced and inoperable stages or with cervical esophageal cancer, in which operation is accompanied by sever morbidity. In this conditions many of them cannot tolerate chemo-radiation, or refuse it. Therefore radiotherapy is applied as a single modality in palliation of many patients with esophageal cancer. One of the palliative radio therapeutic methods is application of 5000 CGY in 20 fractions (Long Course; but considering the great number of our patients and limited capacity of radiotherapy centers, as well as emphasis of literature on palliation with 4000 CGY in 13 fractions (short course, we decided to compare these two methods (which are both used in our departments. In this retrospective analytic study, the files of 283 patients with esophageal cancer referred to cancer institute of Imam Khomeini Hospital from 1989-1999 were studied. Patients were between 27-97 years old (mean age=58.3 and most of them were male (53.7 percent. The mean length of lesion was 8.5 cm. The most common site of lesion was middle third at esophagus (48.1 percent and the most common pathology was squamous cell carcinoma (99.6 percent. Fifty-four percent of patients were hot tea drinkers habitually. From the mentioned variables, only length of lesion had significant relationship with overall survival (P=0.04. Thirty-eight of 283 patients were excluded from analytic study because of incomplete follow-up. The number of patients had been treated by long course (5000 CGY in 20 fractions was 137 and the remainder (108 patients by short course (4000 CGY in 13 fractions. No significant difference was seen statistically between these two groups in overall and dysphagia-free survival (Kaplan-Meyer test. Also total dosage of spinal cord is lower in the short course. Thus regarding to less required time in short course and comparable palliation and survival between

  11. A BAYES COMPARISON OF TWO DIFFERENT CANCER THERAPIES UNDER THE ASSUMPTION OF WEIBULL SURVIVAL MODEL OR ITS SUBFAMILY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puja Arora

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers a group of patients suffering from leukemia B non-small lung cancer. Suchpatients are generally suggested to undergo for either radiotherapy or chemotherapy followed by radiotherapy.The objective of the paper is to compare the two therapies based on survival functions of the patients assumingWeibull survival model for each therapy. The paper further examines the feasibility of a subfamily of Weibullmodel, namely the exponential distribution, for a date set available from a clinical trial experiment. Thisfeasibility is judged based on Bayes information criterion by comparing the Weibull model with its subfamily.The model compatibility study with the data based on posterior p-values has also been given to ensure thesuitability of the two models. Finally, the recommendations are made accordingly.

  12. A comparison of patient characteristics, prognosis, treatment modalities, and survival according to age group in gastric cancer patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tural Deniz

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to investigate age-specific incidence rates and to compare disease stage, treatment, and survival according to age group in patients with gastric adenocarcinoma. Methods Gastric cancer patients treated at our hospital between 1999 and 2010 were retrospectively evaluated. We divided the cases into two subgroups: group 1 consisted of patients older than 70 years at the time of treatment, and group 2 included patients aged 70 years or younger. In all, 151 patients over 70 years of age and 715 patients age 70 years or younger were analyzed. Categorical and continuous variables were summarized using descriptive statistics and compared using statistical software. Overall survival rates were estimated via the Kaplan-Meier method. Results Median age at diagnosis was 58 years (range: 22 to 90 years. Between 1999 and 2002 the annual median age for patients aged older than70 years was 9.8%, which increased to 20% between 2007 and 2010. The one-year survival rate for patients with metastatic disease (stage IV was 10.9% (95% CI: 8.9% to 12.9% and 27.8% (95% CI: 17.3% to 38.2% in groups 1 and 2, respectively (P = 0.015. The five-year survival rate for patients with non-metastatic disease (in whom curative surgery was performed was 15.5% (95% CI = 12% to 19% and 26.9% (95% CI = 25.9% to 27.9% in groups 1 and 2, respectively (P = 0.03. There were no significant differences in gender, tumor localization in the stomach, tumor histology, perineural invasion (PNI, lymphovascular invasion (LVI, tumor stage, or type of surgery between the two groups. However, fewer of the patients in group 1 underwent adjuvant treatment (P = 0.02 and palliative chemotherapy (P = 0.007 than group 2 patients that were non-metastatic and metastatic at presentation, respectively. Conclusions Groups 1 and 2 were similar in terms of histopathological features and surgical modality; however, the survival rate was lower in group 1 than in group 2

  13. Comparison of efficacy and toxicity of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM herbal mixture LQ and conventional chemotherapy on lung cancer metastasis and survival in mouse models.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Zhang

    Full Text Available Unlike Western medicine that generally uses purified compounds and aims to target a single molecule or pathway, traditional Chinese medicine (TCM compositions usually comprise multiple herbs and components that are necessary for efficacy. Despite the very long-time and wide-spread use of TCM, there are very few direct comparisons of TCM and standard cytotoxic chemotherapy. In the present report, we compared the efficacy of the TCM herbal mixture LQ against lung cancer in mouse models with doxorubicin (DOX and cyclophosphamide (CTX. LQ inhibited tumor size and weight measured directly as well as by fluorescent-protein imaging in subcutaneous, orthotopic, spontaneous experimental metastasis and angiogenesis mouse models of lung cancer. LQ was efficacious against primary and metastatic lung cancer without weight loss and organ toxicity. In contrast, CTX and DOX, although efficacious in the lung cancer models caused significant weight loss, and organ toxicity. LQ also had anti-angiogenic activity as observed in lung tumors growing in nestin-driven green fluorescent protein (ND-GFP transgenic nude mice, which selectively express GFP in nascent blood vessels. Survival of tumor-bearing mice was also prolonged by LQ, comparable to DOX. In vitro, lung cancer cells were killed by LQ as observed by time-lapse imaging, comparable to cisplatinum. LQ was more potent to induce cell death on cancer cell lines than normal cell lines unlike cytotoxic chemotherapy. The results indicate that LQ has non-toxic efficacy against metastatic lung cancer.

  14. Survival of patients with prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabienne Camilo da Silveira Pirajá

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To analyze the survival after five years among patients treated of prostate cancer at Hospital São Marcos. Methods: A descriptive population-based epidemiological study performed in Teresina-PI, evaluating a hospital cohort consisting of 71 patients of Hospital São Marcos, enrolled in Hospital Cancer Registry (HCR from 2000 to 2001, under ICD10 - C61. The variables considered in the evaluation of survival were: age group, tumor staging and skin color. The Kaplan-Meier method was used in the calculation of survival functions in five years and the Kruskal-Wallis test in comparison between variables. Results: The specific survival rate for prostate cancer was of 78.5% in five years. The death risk in this study increased with age and advanced stage at diagnosis (aged 80 or above = 60%; and stage IV = 63%. The Kruskal-Wallis test showed no statistically significant variation between groups. Conclusion: The age and advanced stage at diagnosis decreased patients’ survival.

  15. Survival of patients with prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabienne Camilo da Silveira Pirajá

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To analyze the survival after five years among patients treated of prostate cancer at Hospital São Marcos. Methods: A descriptive population-based epidemiological study performed in Teresina-PI, evaluating a hospital cohort consisting of 71 patients of Hospital São Marcos, enrolled in Hospital Cancer Registry (HCR from 2000 to 2001, under ICD10 -C61. The variables considered in the evaluation of survival were: age group, tumor staging and skin color. The Kaplan-Meier method was used in the calculation of survival functions in five years and the Kruskal-Wallis test in comparison between variables. Results: The specific survival rate for prostate cancer was of 78.5% in five years. The death risk in this study increased with age and advanced stage at diagnosis (aged 80 or above = 60%; and stage IV = 63%. The Kruskal-Wallis test showed no statistically significant variation between groups. Conclusion: The age and advanced stage at diagnosis decreased patients’ survival.

  16. Comparison of Biochemical Recurrence–Free Survival Between Periprostatic and Pelvic Lymph Node Metastases of Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Roibón, Nilda; Han, Jeong S.; Lee, Stephen; Feng, Zhaoyong; Arslankoz, Sehbal; Smith, Nathaniel; Pierorazio, Philip M.; Humphreys, Elizabeth; Deweese, Theodore L.; Partin, Alan W.; Bivalacqua, Trinity J.; Han, Misop; Trock, Bruce; Netto, Georges J.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To assess the pathologic characteristics and prognostic significance of periprostatic lymph node (LN) metastasis of prostate cancer. The latter was performed by comparing biochemical recurrence (BCR)–free survival in cases of periprostatic LN metastasis versus matched patients showing pelvic LN metastasis Methods and Materials We identified 15 patients who underwent radical prostatectomy in our institution (1984–2011) showing positive periprostatic and negative pelvic LN with available follow-up information (group 1). These patients were matched 1:2 to patients with positive pelvic LN (group 2) for pertinent clinicopathologic parameters. Results Main locations of positive periprostatic LN were posterior base and mid posterolateral. Overall higher rate of positive margins, smaller LN, and metastasis size were encountered in group 1 compared with group 2. At 5 years postprostatectomy, 69% of patients in group 1 were free of BCR, whereas 26% of those in group 2 remained BCR free, suggesting that patients with periprostatic node metastasis appeared to have a lower risk of BCR. However, the difference was not statistically significant (P = .072). The same was true when adjusted for the effect of prostate-specific antigen, surgical margin status, size of LNs, size of metastasis, age, and year of surgery. Conclusion Patients with periprostatic node metastasis may have a lower risk of BCR compared with those with metastasis to pelvic LN. Future analysis of larger cohorts will help establish the biologic significance of prostate cancer metastasis to periprostatic LN. PMID:23564700

  17. Stage at diagnosis and ovarian cancer survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maringe, Camille; Walters, Sarah; Butler, John; Coleman, Michel P; Hacker, Neville; Hanna, Louise; Mosgaard, Berit J; Nordin, Andy; Rosen, Barry; Engholm, Gerda; Gjerstorff, Marianne L; Hatcher, Juanita; Johannesen, Tom B; McGahan, Colleen E; Meechan, David; Middleton, Richard; Tracey, Elizabeth; Turner, Donna; Richards, Michael A; Rachet, Bernard

    2012-01-01

    We investigate what role stage at diagnosis bears in international differences in ovarian cancer survival.......We investigate what role stage at diagnosis bears in international differences in ovarian cancer survival....

  18. Survival and tolerability of liver radioembolization: a comparison of elderly and younger patients with metastatic colorectal cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tohme, Samer; Sukato, Daniel; Nace, Gary W; Zajko, Albert; Amesur, Nikhil; Orons, Philip; Chalhoub, Didier; Marsh, James W; Geller, David A; Tsung, Allan

    2014-01-01

    Aim To evaluate the outcomes among elderly (≥70 years) and younger patients (<70 years) with liver-dominant metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) who received radioembolization (RE) as salvage therapy. Methods A retrospective review of 107 consecutive patients with unresectable mCRC treated with RE after failing first- and second-line chemotherapy. Results From 2002 to 2012, 44 elderly and 63 younger (<70 years) patients received RE. Patients had similar previous extensive chemotherapy and liver-directed interventions. Using modified Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (mRECIST) criteria, either a stable or a partial radiographical response was seen in 65.8% of the younger compared with 76.5% of the elderly patients. RE was equally well tolerated in both groups and common procedure-related adverse events were predominantly grade 1–2 and of short duration. No significant difference was found with regard to overall median survival between younger [8.4 months; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 6.2–10.6] or elderly patients (8.2 months; 95% CI = 5.9–10.5, P = 0.667). The presence of extrahepatic disease at the time of RE was associated with a significantly worse median survival in both groups. Conclusion Radioembolization appears to be as well tolerated and effective for the elderly as it is for younger patients with mCRC. Age alone should not be a discriminating factor for the use of radioembolization in the management of mCRC patients. PMID:25123597

  19. Survival after elective surgery for colonic cancer in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perdawid, S K; Hemmingsen, L; Boesby, S;

    2012-01-01

    AIM: Total mesorectal excision (TME) has been shown to improve the outcome for patients with rectal cancer. In contrast, there are fewer data on complete mesocolic excision (CME) for colonic cancer. METHOD: Data from the National Colorectal Cancer Database were analysed. This includes about 95% of...... included for the final analysis. The overall 5-year survival rates were 0.65 in 2001-2004 and 0.66 in 2005-2008. The relative 5-year survival rates were also within 1% of each other. None of these comparisons was statistically significant. CONCLUSION: Survival following elective colon cancer surgery has...

  20. Socioeconomic position and survival after cervical cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibfelt, E H; Kjær, S K; Høgdall, C;

    2013-01-01

    In an attempt to decrease social disparities in cancer survival, it is important to consider the mechanisms by which socioeconomic position influences cancer prognosis. We aimed to investigate whether any associations between socioeconomic factors and survival after cervical cancer could...... be explained by socioeconomic differences in cancer stage, comorbidity, lifestyle factors or treatment....

  1. Physical activity and breast cancer survival

    OpenAIRE

    Ogunleye, Adeyemi A; Holmes, Michelle D.

    2009-01-01

    Physical activity improves quality of life after a breast cancer diagnosis, and a beneficial effect on survival would be particularly welcome. Four observational studies have now reported decreased total mortality among physically active women with breast cancer; the two largest have also reported decreased breast cancer specific mortality. The estrogen pathway and the insulin pathway are two potential mechanisms by which physical activity could affect breast cancer survival. Randomized trial...

  2. A comparison of survival outcomes and side effects of toremifene or tamoxifen therapy in premenopausal estrogen and progesterone receptor positive breast cancer patients: a retrospective cohort study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In premenopausal women, endocrine adjuvant therapy for breast cancer primarily consists of tamoxifen alone or with ovarian suppressive strategies. Toremifene is a chlorinated derivative of tamoxifen, but with a superior risk-benefit profile. In this retrospective study, we sought to establish the role of toremifene as an endocrine therapy for premenopausal patients with estrogen and/or progesterone receptor positive breast cancer besides tamoxifen. Patients with early invasive breast cancer were selected from the breast tumor registries at the Sun Yat-Sen Memorial Hospital (China). Premenopausal patients with endocrine responsive breast cancer who underwent standard therapy and adjuvant therapy with toremifene or tamoxifen were considered eligible. Patients with breast sarcoma, carcinosarcoma, concurrent contralateral primary breast cancer, or with distant metastases at diagnosis, or those who had not undergone surgery and endocrine therapy were ineligible. Overall survival and recurrence-free survival were the primary outcomes measured. Toxicity data was also collected and compared between the two groups. Of the 810 patients reviewed, 452 patients were analyzed in the study: 240 received tamoxifen and 212 received toremifene. The median and mean follow up times were 50.8 and 57.3 months, respectively. Toremifene and tamoxifen yielded similar overall survival values, with 5-year overall survival rates of 100% and 98.4%, respectively (p = 0.087). However, recurrence-free survival was significantly better in the toremifene group than in the tamoxifen group (p = 0.022). Multivariate analysis showed that recurrence-free survival improved independently with toremifene (HR = 0.385, 95% CI = 0.154-0.961; p = 0.041). Toxicity was similar in the two treatment groups with no women experiencing severe complications, other than hot flashes, which was more frequent in the toremifene patients (p = 0.049). No patients developed endometrial cancer. Toremifene may be a valid and

  3. Lung cancer survival in England: trends in non-small-cell lung cancer survival over the duration of the National Lung Cancer Audit

    OpenAIRE

    Khakwani, A; Rich, A L; Powell, H A; Tata, L J; Stanley, R A; Baldwin, D R; Duffy, J P; Hubbard , R B

    2013-01-01

    Background: In comparison with other European and North American countries, England has poor survival figures for lung cancer. Our aim was to evaluate the changes in survival since the introduction of the National Lung Cancer Audit (NLCA). Methods: We used data from the NLCA to identify people with non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and stratified people according to their performance status (PS) and clinical stage. Using Cox regression, we calculated hazard ratios (HRs) for death according t...

  4. Comparison of clinicopathologic features and survival in young American women aged 18–39 years in different ethnic groups with breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, P.; Li, X; E.A. Mittendorf; Li, J.; Du, X L; He, J.; Ren, Y; Yang, J; Hunt, K. K.; Yi, M.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Ethnic disparities in breast cancer diagnoses and disease-specific survival (DSS) rates in the United States are well known. However, few studies have assessed differences specifically between Asians American(s) and other ethnic groups, particularly among Asian American(s) subgroups, in women aged 18–39 years. Methods: The Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database was used to identify women aged 18–39 years diagnosed with breast cancer from 1973 to 2009. Incidence rates...

  5. Abiraterone Improves Survival in Metastatic Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    A multinational phase III trial found that the drug abiraterone acetate prolonged the median survival of patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer by 4 months compared with patients who received a placebo.

  6. Survival of patients with prostate cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Fabienne Camilo da Silveira Pirajá; Rafael Bandeira Lages; Uylma Assunção Costa; João Batista Mendes Teles; Viriato Campelo

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To analyze the survival after five years among patients treated of prostate cancer at Hospital São Marcos. Methods: A descriptive population-based epidemiological study performed in Teresina-PI, evaluating a hospital cohort consisting of 71 patients of Hospital São Marcos, enrolled in Hospital Cancer Registry (HCR) from 2000 to 2001, under ICD10 - C61. The variables considered in the evaluation of survival were: age group, tumor staging and skin color. The Kaplan-Meier method ...

  7. Cancer Patients’ Survival: Standard Calculation Methods And Some Considerations Regarding Their Interpretation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zadnik Vesna

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Cancer patients’ survival is an extremely important but complex indicator for assessing regional or global inequalities in diagnosis practices and clinical management of cancer patients. The population-based cancer survival comparisons are available through international projects (i.e. CONCORD, EUROCARE, OECD Health Reports and online systems (SEER, NORDCAN, SLORA. In our research we aimed to show that noticeable differences in cancer patients’ survival may not always reflect the real inequalities in cancer care, but can also appear due to variations in the applied methodology for relative survival calculation.

  8. Geographic disparities in colorectal cancer survival

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    Niu Xiaoling

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Examining geographic variation in cancer patient survival can help identify important prognostic factors that are linked by geography and generate hypotheses about the underlying causes of survival disparities. In this study, we apply a recently developed spatial scan statistic method, designed for time-to-event data, to determine whether colorectal cancer (CRC patient survival varies by place of residence after adjusting survival times for several prognostic factors. Methods Using data from a population-based, statewide cancer registry, we examined a cohort of 25,040 men and women from New Jersey who were newly diagnosed with local or regional stage colorectal cancer from 1996 through 2003 and followed to the end of 2006. Survival times were adjusted for significant prognostic factors (sex, age, stage at diagnosis, race/ethnicity and census tract socioeconomic deprivation and evaluated using a spatial scan statistic to identify places where CRC survival was significantly longer or shorter than the statewide experience. Results Age, sex and stage adjusted survival times revealed several areas in the northern part of the state where CRC survival was significantly different than expected. The shortest and longest survival areas had an adjusted 5-year survival rate of 73.1% (95% CI 71.5, 74.9 and 88.3% (95% CI 85.4, 91.3 respectively, compared with the state average of 80.0% (95% CI 79.4, 80.5. Analysis of survival times adjusted for age, sex and stage as well as race/ethnicity and area socioeconomic deprivation attenuated the risk of death from CRC in several areas, but survival disparities persisted. Conclusion The results suggest that in areas where additional adjustments for race/ethnicity and area socioeconomic deprivation changed the geographic survival patterns and reduced the risk of death from CRC, the adjustment factors may be contributing causes of the disparities. Further studies should focus on specific and

  9. Mental vulnerability and survival after cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nakaya, Naoki; Bidstrup, Pernille E; Eplov, Lene F; Saito-Nakaya, Kumi; Kuriyama, Shinichi; Tsuji, Ichiro; Uchitomi, Yosuke; Johansen, Christoffer

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It has been hypothesized that personality traits affect survival after cancer, but studies have produced inconsistent results. This study examined the association between mental vulnerability and survival after cancer in Denmark in a prospective cohort study. METHODS: Between 1976 and...... 2001, 12733 residents of Copenhagen completed a questionnaire eliciting information on a 12-item mental vulnerability scale, as well as various personal data. Follow-up in the Danish Cancer Registry until 2003 identified 884 incident cases of primary cancer, and follow-up for death from the date of...... cancer diagnosis until 2003 identified 382 deaths. Mental vulnerability scores were divided into 4 approximately equal-sized groups. Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to estimate the hazard ratio (HR) of all-cause mortality. RESULTS: Multivariate HR for all-cause mortality for persons...

  10. SURVIVAL ANALYSIS OF CANCER CASES FROM QIDONG CANCER REGISTRY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Jian-guo; Sankaranarayanan R; SHEN Zhuo-cai; Black RJ; YAO Hong-yu; LI Wen-guang; Parkin DM

    1999-01-01

    Objective: 16,922 patients with cancers from 15 sites of Qidong population-based cancer registry in the period of 1982-1991 were analyzed for evaluation of cancer survival as well as different cancer control measures.Methods: Observed survival rate (OS) was computed by the Kaplan-Meier method using EGRET statistical software package. Relative survival (RS) which is the ratio of the OS to the expected rate was calculated by using Qidong life table with respect to sex, age and calendar period of observation. Results: The five-year OS for the 5 leading sites of cancers, liver, stomach, lung,oesophagus, and rectum were 1.8%, 11.6%, 3.0% 3.3%,and 19.9%, respectively. The five-year RS for the 5 sites were 1.9%, 14.0%, 3.6%, 4.2%, and 23.7%, respectively,in which, 1.7%, 14.8%, 3.4%, 4.2%, and 26.0% for males, and 2.7%, 12.7%, 4.1%, 4.0%, and 22.0% for females, respectively. Female patients with breast cancer and cervix cancer had 5-year RS of 54.6% and 33.0%.Conclusion: Cancer survival rates for all sites are poor,in which that of the liver is the lowest, while that of the breast, the highest. The survivals of cancers for all sites,especially for breast, cervix, and leukemia are seen to be lower than those of European countries except for oesophagus, pancreas and lung cancer which do not achieve improved survival both in developing and developed countries. There will be a long way to improve the total cancer survival, as well as the cancer treatment in the developing countries.

  11. Cancer survival in Khon Kaen Province, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sriamporn, S; Black, R J; Sankaranarayanan, R; Kamsa-ad, S; Parkin, D M; Vatanasapt, V

    1995-05-01

    Thailand is one of the few developing countries for which population-based cancer survival data are available. Using clinical follow-up information and reply-paid postal enquiries, 10,333 residents of Khon Kaen province registered with cancer in the period 1985-1992 were followed-up to the end of 1993. The sites of the most common cancers in the province were liver (5-year relative survival rate 9.2%), cervix (60.1%), lung (15.4%), breast (48.1%) and large bowel (41.9%). Results for Khon Kaen were compared with age-standardized survival data for the US and Scotland. Survival was consistently higher for US whites compared to Khon Kaen residents for those cancers whose prognosis is associated with early diagnosis (breast, cervix and large bowel) or the availability of intensive therapy (leukaemia and lymphoma). The main implication of these results for cancer control in Thailand is that the interventions of greatest potential benefit are those designed to promote early detection. More than one-third of all cancers in Thailand are liver tumours: primary prevention through control of hepatitis-B infection and liver fluke infestation is the only effective strategy for their control. PMID:7729937

  12. Survival of patients with prostate cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Fabienne Camilo da Silveira Pirajá; Rafael Bandeira Lages; Uylma Assunção Costa; João Batista Mendes Teles; Viriato Campelo

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To analyze the survival after five years among patients treated of prostate cancer at Hospital São Marcos. Methods: A descriptive population-based epidemiological study performed in Teresina-PI, evaluating a hospital cohort consisting of 71 patients of Hospital São Marcos, enrolled in Hospital Cancer Registry (HCR) from 2000 to 2001, under ICD10 -C61. The variables considered in the evaluation of survival were: age group, tumor staging and skin color. The Kaplan-Meier method was us...

  13. Socioeconomic position and survival after lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalton, Susanne O.; Steding-Jessen, Marianne; Jakobsen, Erik;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: To address social inequality in survival after lung cancer, it is important to consider how socioeconomic position (SEP) influences prognosis. We investigated whether SEP influenced receipt of first-line treatment and whether socioeconomic differences in survival could be explained by...... differences in stage, treatment and comorbidity. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In the Danish Lung Cancer Register, we identified 13 045 patients with lung cancer diagnosed in 2004-2010, with information on stage, histology, performance status and first-line treatment. We obtained age, gender, vital status, comorbid...... stepwise inclusion of possible mediators. RESULTS: For both low- and high-stage lung cancer, adjusted ORs for first-line treatment were reduced in patients with short education and low income, although the OR for education did not reach statistical significance in men with high-stage disease. Patients with...

  14. Survival discriminants for differentiated thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since 1975, the American Cancer Society, Illinois Division, has published end results of major cancer sites drawn from patient data contributed voluntarily by hospital cancer registries throughout the state. The current study was undertaken, in part, to apprehend information regarding contested areas in the management of patients having differentiated (papillary/follicular) thyroid cancer. A total of 2,282 patients with either papillary or follicular carcinoma of the thyroid from 76 different Illinois hospitals and providing 10 years of follow-up information (life-table analysis) were retrospectively analyzed for demographic, disease, and treatment-related predictors of survival. Multivariate analysis using the Cox proportional hazards method was made for stage, age, race, sex, morphology, history of radiation exposure, presence of positive lymph nodes, initial surgical treatment, postoperative iodine 131 therapy, and replacement/suppressive thyroid hormone treatment. Statistically significant (p less than or equal to 0.05) predictors of favorable survival after thyroid cancer were low stage (I and II), young age (less than 50 years), white race, female sex, and the administration, postoperatively, of either thyroid hormone or radioactive iodine. Factors that had no influence on survival were lymph node status, choice of initial surgical treatment, and a history of prior irradiation. We suggest that where a prospective clinical trial is impracticable, a retrospective analysis of a large and detailed database, such as that available from cooperating hospital-based tumor registries, may yet provide useful insights to solutions of cancer management problems

  15. Breast cancer survival and season of surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Teilum, Dorthe; Bjerre, Karsten D; Tjønneland, Anne M;

    2012-01-01

    Background Vitamin D has been suggested to influence the incidence and prognosis of breast cancer, and studies have found better overall survival (OS) after diagnosis for breast cancer in summer-autumn, where the vitamin D level are expected to be highest. Objective To compare the prognostic...... outcome for early breast cancer patients operated at different seasons of the year. Design Open population-based cohort study. Setting Danish women operated 1978-2010. Cases 79 658 adjusted for age at surgery, period of surgery, tumour size, axillary lymph node status and hormone receptor status...

  16. Comparison of Bayesian network and support vector machine models for two-year survival prediction in lung cancer patients treated with radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Classic statistical and machine learning models such as support vector machines (SVMs) can be used to predict cancer outcome, but often only perform well if all the input variables are known, which is unlikely in the medical domain. Bayesian network (BN) models have a natural ability to reason under uncertainty and might handle missing data better. In this study, the authors hypothesize that a BN model can predict two-year survival in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients as accurately as SVM, but will predict survival more accurately when data are missing. Methods: A BN and SVM model were trained on 322 inoperable NSCLC patients treated with radiotherapy from Maastricht and validated in three independent data sets of 35, 47, and 33 patients from Ghent, Leuven, and Toronto. Missing variables occurred in the data set with only 37, 28, and 24 patients having a complete data set. Results: The BN model structure and parameter learning identified gross tumor volume size, performance status, and number of positive lymph nodes on a PET as prognostic factors for two-year survival. When validated in the full validation set of Ghent, Leuven, and Toronto, the BN model had an AUC of 0.77, 0.72, and 0.70, respectively. A SVM model based on the same variables had an overall worse performance (AUC 0.71, 0.68, and 0.69) especially in the Ghent set, which had the highest percentage of missing the important GTV size data. When only patients with complete data sets were considered, the BN and SVM model performed more alike. Conclusions: Within the limitations of this study, the hypothesis is supported that BN models are better at handling missing data than SVM models and are therefore more suitable for the medical domain. Future works have to focus on improving the BN performance by including more patients, more variables, and more diversity.

  17. Physical activity and survival in breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ammitzbøll, Gunn; Søgaard, Karen; Karlsen, Randi V;

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: Knowledge about lifestyle factors possibly influencing survival after breast cancer (BC) is paramount. We examined associations between two types of postdiagnosis physical activity (PA) and overall survival after BC. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We used prospective data on 959 BC survivors from...... the Diet, Cancer, and Health cohort, all enrolled before diagnosis. Self-reported PA was measured as time per activity, and estimated metabolic equivalent task (MET)-hours per week were summed for each activity. We constructed measures for household, exercise, and total PA. The association between...... from all causes during the study period. In adjusted analyses, exercise PA above eight MET h/week compared to lower levels of activity was significantly associated with improved overall survival (HR, 0.68; confidence interval [CI]: 0.47-0.99). When comparing participation in exercise to non...

  18. Survival of breast cancer patients. Our experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marrazzoa, Antonio; Taormina, Pietra; David, Massimo; Riili, Ignazio; Casà, Luigi; Catalano, Filippo; Lo Gerfo, Domenico; Noto, Antonio

    2007-01-01

    Life expectancy for patients with breast carcinoma has changed in Europe over the last two decades. In Italy, the overall survival rate is about 77% at 5 years. When considering the situation in Sicily, the EUROCARE 2 study examined survival data from the Ragusa Cancer Registry, showing that the curves are worse than in other regions of Italy. Starting from these considerations we decide to evaluate whether these data from the Ragusa Cancer Registry corresponded to Palermo data. So we analysed data from 575 consecutive patients with breast cancer, treated in our Breast Unit from 1990 to 2003 according to the St. Gallen Recommendations and followed for a median period of 5 years. The prognostic role of age, tumour size, nodal status, TNM, stage, grading and hormonal receptors (OR, PR) were analysed and survival curves at 5 and 10 years were produced using the actuarial survival methods. All causes of death were considered. The median follow-up was 33 months. The Log rank test and univariate cox proportional model were used to demonstrate the association between prognostic factors and outcome. When considering T and N status, the curves showed an inverse correlation between survival and increases in these parameters. Overall survival was 92.9% at 5 years and 81.4% at 10 years for T1, 78.4% at 5 years and 61.4% at 10 years for T2 and 40.8% for T3-T4 at 5 and 10 years. Overall survival for NO was 92.1% and 78.2%, respectively, at 5 and 10 years, but decreased to 72.0% and 59.9% at 5 and 10 years for N1. In N2 patients we found that only about 50% of patients were still alive at 5 and 10 years, while for N3 patients the figures were 57.2% and 40%, respectively. PMID:17663369

  19. A Little Excess Weight May Boost Colon Cancer Survival

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 158930.html A Little Excess Weight May Boost Colon Cancer Survival Researchers saw an effect, but experts stress ... a surprise, a new study found that overweight colon cancer patients tended to have better survival than their ...

  20. Meta-analysis of clodronate and breast cancer survival

    OpenAIRE

    Ha, T C; Li, H.

    2007-01-01

    Clinical trials have reported conflicting results on whether oral clodronate therapy improves survival in breast cancer patients. This study was undertaken to evaluate further the effect of oral clodronate therapy on overall survival, bone metastasis-free survival and nonskeletal metastasis-free survival among breast cancer patients. An extensive literature search was undertaken for the period 1966 to July 2006 to identify clinical trials examining survival in breast cancer patients who recei...

  1. Ten-year Biochemical Disease-free Survival After High-intensity Focused Ultrasound (HIFU) for Localized Prostate Cancer: Comparison with Four Different Generation Devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    HIFU has been recognized as a minimally invasive treatment option for localized prostate cancer. The purpose of the study was to assess with a long-term outcome of HIFU for prostate cancer. From January 1999, a total of 657 patients who had HIFU with at least 2 year follow-up were treated with four different types of Sonablate registered (Focus Surgery, Indianapolis, USA) devices. Thirty-three patients were treated with Sonablate registered 200 (S200) from 1999 to 2001, 406 patients with Sonablate registered 500 (S500) from 2001 to 2005, 200 patients with Sonablate registered 500 version 4 (V4) from 2005-2008 and 19 patients with Sonablate registered 500 TCM (TCM) from 2007. Biochemical disease-free survival rate (bDFS) in all patients was 59% in 8 years. bDFS in 8 years in patients with S200 and S500 groups were 55% and 56%, and bDFS in 4 and 2 years in patients with V4 and TCM group were 72% and 84%, respectively. bDFS in low, intermediate, and high risk groups were 75%, 54%, and 43% in S200/S500 and 93%, 72%, and 58% in V4/TCM group. Negative prostate biopsy rate after HIFU was 97% in S200, 79% in S500, 94% in V4 and 100% in TCM group. HIFU as primary therapy for prostate cancer is indicated in patients with low- and intermediate-risk (T1-T2b N0M0 disease, a Gleason score of ≤7, a PSA level of <20 ng/mL) and a prostate volume of less than 40 mL. The rate of clinical outcome has significantly improved over the years due to technical improvements in the device.

  2. Ten-year Biochemical Disease-free Survival After High-intensity Focused Ultrasound (HIFU) for Localized Prostate Cancer: Comparison with Four Different Generation Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchida, T.; Nakano, M.; Shoji, S.; Omata, T.; Harano, Y.; Nagata, Y.; Usui, Y.; Terachi, T.

    2010-03-01

    HIFU has been recognized as a minimally invasive treatment option for localized prostate cancer. The purpose of the study was to assess with a long-term outcome of HIFU for prostate cancer. From January 1999, a total of 657 patients who had HIFU with at least 2 year follow-up were treated with four different types of Sonablate® (Focus Surgery, Indianapolis, USA) devices. Thirty-three patients were treated with Sonablate® 200 (S200) from 1999 to 2001, 406 patients with Sonablate® 500 (S500) from 2001 to 2005, 200 patients with Sonablate® 500 version 4 (V4) from 2005-2008 and 19 patients with Sonablate® 500 TCM (TCM) from 2007. Biochemical disease-free survival rate (bDFS) in all patients was 59% in 8 years. bDFS in 8 years in patients with S200 and S500 groups were 55% and 56%, and bDFS in 4 and 2 years in patients with V4 and TCM group were 72% and 84%, respectively. bDFS in low, intermediate, and high risk groups were 75%, 54%, and 43% in S200/S500 and 93%, 72%, and 58% in V4/TCM group. Negative prostate biopsy rate after HIFU was 97% in S200, 79% in S500, 94% in V4 and 100% in TCM group. HIFU as primary therapy for prostate cancer is indicated in patients with low- and intermediate-risk (T1-T2b N0M0 disease, a Gleason score of ⩽7, a PSA level of prostate volume of less than 40 mL. The rate of clinical outcome has significantly improved over the years due to technical improvements in the device.

  3. PROGNOSTIC FACTORS OF SURVIVAL IN RENAL CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Seriogin

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to reveal the independent anatomic, histological, and clinical factors of cancer-specific survival in patients with renal-cell carcinoma (RCC. For this, the authors retrospectively analyzed their experience with radical surgical treatments in 73 RCC patients operated on at the Department of Urology and Surgical Andrology, Russian Medical Academy of Postgraduate Education, from January 1, 1999 to December 31, 2004; their outcomes have become known by the present time. There was a statistically significant correlation of cancer-specific survival with its parameters, such as pathological stage of a tumor, its maximum pathological size, differentiation grade, involvement of regional lymph nodes, venous tumor thrombosis, level of thrombocytosis, and degree of the clinical symptoms of the disease. Multivariate analysis of survival in RCC in relation to the prognostic factors could reveal odd ratios for the limit values of significant prognostic factors. The statistically significant prognostic values established in the present study, as well as the molecular factors the implication of which is being now investigated can become in future an effective addition to the TNM staging system to define indications for certain treatments and to predict survival in RCC  

  4. Survival after cystectomy in infiltrating bladder cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We reviewed the results of infiltrating bladder cancer treated by radical cystectomy to evaluate cancer treated by radical cystectomy to evaluate survival. Between January 1989 and December 1992, a total of 58 consecutive cystectomies or anterior pelvic exenterations performed on 48 men and 10 women (mean age 63.2 years) in our department were retrospectively evaluated. Four patients were lost to follow-up and the mean follow-up was 72 months. Pathologic staging was as follows: stage pTO,A,1: 13.5%, stage pT2: 17.5%, stage pT3a: 12%, stage pT3b: stage pT4: 21%. The year probability of the overall survival was 60% for pT2-p T3a patients, 15% for pT3b patients, and 9% for pT4 patients, respectively. Overall, 53.5% of patients died of cancer, 7.5% of intercurrent disease, and 39% were alive. The cancer related death rate was 12% for pT2-pT3a patients, and 82% for pT3b-pT4 patients. The 5- year probability of specific survival was 80% for pT2-pT3a patients, 15% for pT3b patients and 9% for pT4 patients, respectively. Infiltrating bladder cancer still has a high mortality rate. Radical cystectomy may be considered to be a curative procedure for stages pT2 and pT3a. Adjuvant chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy seem necessary at stages pT3 and pT4. Preoperative criteria need to be better defined to reduce understanding. (authors)

  5. AKT Inhibition Promotes Nonautonomous Cancer Cell Survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salony; Solé, Xavier; Alves, Cleidson P; Dey-Guha, Ipsita; Ritsma, Laila; Boukhali, Myriam; Lee, Ju H; Chowdhury, Joeeta; Ross, Kenneth N; Haas, Wilhelm; Vasudevan, Shobha; Ramaswamy, Sridhar

    2016-01-01

    Small molecule inhibitors of AKT (v-akt murine thymoma viral oncogene homolog) signaling are being evaluated in patients with various cancer types, but have so far proven therapeutically disappointing for reasons that remain unclear. Here, we treat cancer cells with subtherapeutic doses of Akti-1/2, an allosteric small molecule AKT inhibitor, in order to experimentally model pharmacologic inhibition of AKT signaling in vitro. We then apply a combined RNA, protein, and metabolite profiling approach to develop an integrated, multiscale, molecular snapshot of this "AKT(low)" cancer cell state. We find that AKT-inhibited cancer cells suppress thousands of mRNA transcripts, and proteins related to the cell cycle, ribosome, and protein translation. Surprisingly, however, these AKT-inhibited cells simultaneously upregulate a host of other proteins and metabolites posttranscriptionally, reflecting activation of their endo-vesiculo-membrane system, secretion of inflammatory proteins, and elaboration of extracellular microvesicles. Importantly, these microvesicles enable rapidly proliferating cancer cells of various types to better withstand different stress conditions, including serum deprivation, hypoxia, or cytotoxic chemotherapy in vitro and xenografting in vivo. These findings suggest a model whereby cancer cells experiencing a partial inhibition of AKT signaling may actually promote the survival of neighbors through non-cell autonomous communication. PMID:26637368

  6. Ten Years of Tamoxifen Reduces Breast Cancer Recurrences, Improves Survival

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Ten Years of Tamoxifen Reduces Breast Cancer Recurrences, Improves Survival For some ... after Beginning 5 or 10 Years of Adjuvant Tamoxifen 5 Years 10 Years Risk of Recurrence 25. ...

  7. Conditional Survival in Patients with Advanced Pancreatic Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Benjamin Kasenda; Annatina Bass; Dieter Koeberle; Bernhard Pestalozzi; Markus Borner; Richard Herrmann; Lorenz Jost; Andreas Lohri; Viviane Hess

    2016-01-01

    Background Cancer registry data suggest that conditional survival prognosis in patients with aggressive malignancies improves over time. We investigated conditional survival in patients with advanced pancreatic cancer. Patients and Methods In this retrospective study, we included all patients with advanced pancreatic cancer treated at four Swiss hospitals between 1994 and 2004. Main outcome was 6-month conditional survival, defined as the probability of surviving an additional 6 months condit...

  8. Survival in common cancers defined by risk and survival of family members

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianguang Ji

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Studies on survival between familial and sporadic cancers have been inconclusive and only recent data on a limited number of cancers are available on the concordance of survival between family members. In this review, we address these questions by evaluating the published and unpublished data from the nation-wide Swedish Family-Cancer Database and a total of 13 cancer sites were assessed. Using sporadic cancer as reference, HRs were close to 1.0 for most of the familial cancers in both the offspring and parental generations, which suggested that survival in patients with familial and sporadic cancers was equal, with an exception for ovarian cancer with a worse prognosis. Compared to offspring whose parents had a poor survival, those with a good parental survival had a decreased risk of death for most cancers and HR was significantly decreased for cancers in the breast, prostate, bladder, and kidney. For colorectal and nervous system cancers, favorable survival between the generations showed a borderline significance. These data are consistent in showing that both good and poor survival in certain cancers aggregate in families. Genetic factors are likely to contribute to the results. These observations call for intensified efforts to consider heritability in survival as one mechanism regulating prognosis in cancer patients.

  9. Association of breast cancer risk loci with breast cancer survival

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barrdahl, Myrto; Canzian, Federico; Lindström, Sara; Shui, Irene; Black, Amanda; Hoover, Robert N.; Ziegler, Regina G.; Buring, Julie E.; Chanock, Stephen J.; Diver, W. Ryan; Gapstur, Susan M.; Gaudet, Mia M.; Giles, Graham G.; Haiman, Christopher; Henderson, Brian E.; Hankinson, Susan; Hunter, David J.; Joshi, Amit D.; Kraft, Peter; Lee, I. Min; Le Marchand, Loic; Milne, Roger L.; Southey, Melissa C.; Willett, Walter; Gunter, Marc; Panico, Salvatore; Sund, Malin; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Sánchez, María José; Overvad, Kim; Dossus, Laure; Peeters, Petra H.; Khaw, Kay Tee; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Kaaks, Rudolf; Campa, Daniele

    2015-01-01

    The survival of breast cancer patients is largely influenced by tumor characteristics, such as TNM stage, tumor grade and hormone receptor status. However, there is growing evidence that inherited genetic variation might affect the disease prognosis and response to treatment. Several lines of eviden

  10. Common germline polymorphisms associated with breast cancer-specific survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pirie, Ailith; Guo, Qi; Kraft, Peter;

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Previous studies have identified common germline variants nominally associated with breast cancer survival. These associations have not been widely replicated in further studies. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the association of previously reported SNPs with breast cancer......-specific survival using data from a pooled analysis of eight breast cancer survival genome-wide association studies (GWAS) from the Breast Cancer Association Consortium. METHODS: A literature review was conducted of all previously published associations between common germline variants and three survival outcomes......: breast cancer-specific survival, overall survival and disease-free survival. All associations that reached the nominal significance level of P value <0.05 were included. Single nucleotide polymorphisms that had been previously reported as nominally associated with at least one survival outcome were...

  11. Survival in Norwegian BRCA1 mutation carriers with breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Hagen Anne; Tretli Steinar; Mæhle Lovise; Apold Jaran; Vedå Nina; Møller Pål

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Several studies of survival in women with BRCA1 mutations have shown either reduced survival or no difference compared to controls. Programmes for early detection and treatment of inherited breast cancer, have failed to demonstrate a significant improvement in survival in BRCA1 mutation carriers. One hundred and sixty-seven women with disease-associated germline BRCA1 mutations and breast cancer from 1980 to 2001 were identified. Tumour characteristics, treatment given and survival w...

  12. Attributing death to cancer: cause-specific survival estimation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathew A

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available Cancer survival estimation is an important part of assessing the overall strength of cancer care in a region. Generally, the death of a patient is taken as the end point in estimation of overall survival. When calculating the overall survival, the cause of death is not taken into account. With increasing demand for better survival of cancer patients it is important for clinicians and researchers to know about survival statistics due to disease of interest, i.e. net survival. It is also important to choose the best method for estimating net survival. Increase in the use of computer programmes has made it possible to carry out statistical analysis without guidance from a bio-statistician. This is of prime importance in third- world countries as there are a few trained bio-statisticians to guide clinicians and researchers. The present communication describes current methods used to estimate net survival such as cause-specific survival and relative survival. The limitation of estimation of cause-specific survival particularly in India and the usefulness of relative survival are discussed. The various sources for estimating cancer survival are also discussed. As survival-estimates are to be projected on to the population at large, it becomes important to measure the variation of the estimates, and thus confidence intervals are used. Rothman′s confidence interval gives the most satisfactory result for survival estimate.

  13. Comorbidity and survival after early breast cancer. A review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Land, Lotte Holm; Dalton, Susanne Oksbjerg; Jørgensen, Trine Lembrecht;

    2011-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Survival after breast cancer is determined by disease related factors such as stage at diagnosis, patient characteristics, e.g., age, and treatment. AIM: To review evidence published during the last ten years on the effect of comorbidity on survival after early breast cancer. METHODS......: A search in Pubmed with keywords, breast neoplasm, comorbidity, and survival, was performed. A total of 18 studies published between 2000 and August 2010 was included in this review. RESULTS: All 18 studies demonstrated that comorbidity had a significant impact on survival after breast cancer with...... diagnosis is an important prognostic factor in early breast cancer, irrespective of age and stage of disease....

  14. Better Lung Cancer Survival? There's an App for That

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_159289.html Better Lung Cancer Survival? There's an App for That Study found ... HealthDay News) -- A new smartphone app may help lung cancer patients live longer and better by monitoring their ...

  15. Lung cancer: district active treatment rates affect survival

    OpenAIRE

    CARTMAN, M.; Hatfield, A; Muers, M; Peake, M; Haward, R; Forman, D

    2002-01-01

    Design: A retrospective study of population based data held by the Northern & Yorkshire Cancer Registry and Information Service (NYCRIS), comparing active treatment rates for lung cancer with survival by districts.

  16. Better Lung Cancer Survival? There's an App for That

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_159289.html Better Lung Cancer Survival? There's an App for That Study found ... HealthDay News) -- A new smartphone app may help lung cancer patients live longer and better by monitoring their ...

  17. Chemotherapy Regimen Extends Survival in Advanced Pancreatic Cancer Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    A four-drug chemotherapy regimen has produced the longest improvement in survival ever seen in a phase III clinical trial of patients with metastatic pancreatic cancer, one of the deadliest types of cancer.

  18. Two Genes Might Help Predict Breast Cancer Survival

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_160503.html Two Genes Might Help Predict Breast Cancer Survival Research suggests ... 18, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- The activity of two genes may help predict certain breast cancer patients' chances ...

  19. Breast cancer survival studies in India: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jignasa Sathwara

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Length of survival of cancer patients is an important indicator for knowing the outcome of treatment in any study. Epidemiological features and biological profile of breast cancer appear to be different in developing countries as compared to Western countries. Knowing the factors that influence survival rates among women with breast cancer may help define early detection actions, and improve treatment and care proposals in all the areas of health. Therefore, this study aims to identify, the publications defining the factors influencing survival for women with breast cancer in India. PUBMED database was searched from January 1990 to April 2016, using the key words Breast cancer, breast cancer outcome and Survival and their corresponding Mesh terms were used in combination with Boolean operators like OR, AND. Five year overall survival rate of breast cancer in India ranged from 40-62%. The results from 16 publications showed that survival of breast cancer varies widely depending on number of factors like age, stage at diagnosis, marital status, educational level, hormonal status, clinical extent of disease and treatment. The publications that make up this review present contributing factors that affect the survival rate of women with breast cancer in India. This information on survival studies can pinpoint the lacunae in treatment modalities and can guide us to do basic and translational research so the preventive strategies can be implemented. [Int J Res Med Sci 2016; 4(8.000: 3102-3108

  20. Improving Oral Cancer Survival: The Role of Dental Providers

    OpenAIRE

    MESSADI, DIANA V.; Wilder-Smith, Petra; WOLINSKY, LAWRENCE

    2009-01-01

    Oral cancer accounts for 2 percent to 4 percent of all cancers diagnosed each year in the United States. In contrast to other cancers, the overall U.S. survival rate from oral cancer has not improved during the past 50 years, mostly due to late-stage diagnosis. Several noninvasive oral cancer detection techniques that emerged in the past decade will be discussed, with a brief overview of most common oral cancer chemopreventive agents.

  1. Diabetes and cancer I: risk, survival, and implications for screening

    OpenAIRE

    Onitilo, Adedayo A.; Engel, Jessica M.; Glurich, Ingrid; Stankowski, Rachel V.; Williams, Gail M.; Doi, Suhail A.

    2012-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) and cancer are common diseases that are frequently diagnosed in the same individual. An association between the two conditions has long been postulated. Here, we review the epidemiological evidence for increased risk of cancer, decreased cancer survival, and decreased rates of cancer screening in diabetic patients. The risk for several cancers, including cancers of the pancreas, liver, colorectum, breast, urinary tract, and endometrium, is increased in patients w...

  2. [Hope for improvement of survival in ovarian cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Högberg, Thomas; Bergfeldt, Kjell; Borgfeldt, Christer; Holmberg, Erik; Åvall Lundqvist, Elisabeth

    2015-01-01

    Ovarian cancer is the most common cause of death from a gynecologic cancer. Every year around 700 women contracts ovarian cancer in Sweden. The overall survival is among the highest in Europe, but still long term relative survival is only 46%. It is a long-held myth that ovarian cancer is a disease without symptoms. Almost 90% of women have symptoms, even in the early stages. Symptoms that should arise suspicion of ovarian cancer and initiate diagnostic work-up are continuous abdominal extension, early feeling of satiety, pelvic or abdominal pain, urinary urge and postmenopausal bleeding. Women's awareness of symptoms and willingness to seek medical advice and the organization of the health care system are important factors determining cancer survival. Ovarian cancer is a heterogeneous group of diseases with different tumor traits and prognosis. Personalized medicine and preventive measures recognizing recent knowledge about tumor biology will positively affect survival. PMID:26646961

  3. Is genetic background important in lung cancer survival?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda S Lindström

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In lung cancer, a patient's survival is poor with a wide variation in survival within the stage of disease. The aim of this study was to investigate the familial concordance in lung cancer survival by means of analyses of pairs with different degrees of familial relationships. METHODS: Our population-based Swedish family database included three million families and over 58,100 lung cancer patients. We modelled the proband (parent, sibling, spouse survival utilizing a multivariate proportional hazard (Cox model adjusting for possible confounders of survival. Subsequently, the survival in proband's relative (child, sibling, spouse was analysed with a Cox model. FINDINGS: By use of Cox modelling with 5 years follow-up, we noted a decreased hazard ratio for death in children with good parental survival (Hazard Ratio [HR] = 0.71, 95% CI = 0.51 to 0.99, compared to those with poor parental survival. Also for siblings, a very strong protective effect was seen (HR = 0.14, 95% CI = 0.030 to 0.65. Finally, in spouses no correlation in survival was found. INTERPRETATION: Our findings suggest that genetic factors are important in lung cancer survival. In a clinical setting, information on prognosis in a relative may be vital in foreseeing the survival in an individual newly diagnosed with lung cancer. Future molecular studies enhancing the understanding of the underlying mechanisms and pathways are needed.

  4. Funnel plots for population-based cancer survival: principles, methods and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quaresma, M; Coleman, M P; Rachet, B

    2014-03-15

    Funnel plots are graphical tools designed to detect excessive variation in performance indicators by simple visual inspection of the data. Their main use in the biomedical domain so far has been to detect publication bias in meta-analyses, but they have also been recommended as the most appropriate way to display performance indicators for a vast range of health-related outcomes. Here, we extend the use of funnel plots to population-based cancer survival and several related measures. We present three applications to familiarise the reader with their interpretation. We propose funnel plots for various cancer survival measures, as well as age-standardised survival, trends in survival and excess hazard ratios. We describe the components of a funnel plot and the formulae for the construction of the control limits for each of these survival measures. We include three transformations to construct the control limits for the survival function: complementary log-log, logit and logarithmic transformations. We present applications of funnel plots to explore the following: (i) small-area and temporal variation in cancer survival; (ii) racial and geographical variation in cancer survival; and (iii) geographical variation in the excess hazard of death. Funnel plots provide a simple and informative graphical tool to display geographical variation and trend in a range of cancer survival measures. We recommend their use as a routine instrument for cancer survival comparisons, to inform health policy makers in planning and assessing cancer policies. We advocate the use of the complementary log-log or logit transformation to construct the control limits for the survival function. PMID:24038332

  5. 5-Alpha reductase inhibitor use and prostate cancer survival in the Finnish Prostate Cancer Screening Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murtola, Teemu J; Karppa, Elina K; Taari, Kimmo; Talala, Kirsi; Tammela, Teuvo Lj; Auvinen, Anssi

    2016-06-15

    Randomized clinical trials have shown that use of 5α-reductase inhibitors (5-ARIs) lowers overall prostate cancer (PCa) risk compared to placebo, while the proportion of Gleason 8-10 tumors is elevated. It is unknown whether this affects PCa-specific survival. We studied disease-specific survival by 5-ARI usage in a cohort of 6,537 prostate cancer cases diagnosed in the Finnish Prostate Cancer Screening Trial and linked to the national prescription database for information on medication use. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to estimate hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals for prostate cancer-specific deaths. For comparison, survival among alpha-blocker users was also evaluated. During the median follow-up of 7.5 years after diagnosis a total of 2,478 men died; 617 due to prostate cancer and 1,861 due to other causes. The risk of prostate cancer death did not differ between 5-ARI users and nonusers (multivariable adjusted HR 0.94, 95% CI 0.72-1.24 and HR 0.98, 95% CI 0.69-1.41 for usage before and after the diagnosis, respectively). Alpha-blocker usage both before and after diagnosis was associated with increased risk of prostate cancer death (HR 1.29, 95% CI 1.08-1.54 and HR 1.56, 95% CI 1.30-1.86, respectively). The risk increase vanished in long-term alpha-blocker usage. Use of 5-ARIs does not appear to affect prostate cancer mortality when used in management of benign prostatic hyperplasia. Increased risk associated with alpha-blocker usage should prompt further exploration on the prognostic role of lower urinary tract symptoms. PMID:26804670

  6. Predicting Mean Survival Time from Reported Median Survival Time for Cancer Patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lousdal, Mette L; Kristiansen, Ivar S; Møller, Bjørn;

    2016-01-01

    survival time often is. The empirical relationship between mean and median survival time for cancer patients is not known. AIM: To derive the empirical associations between mean and median survival time across cancer types and to validate this empirical prediction approach and compare it with the standard...... approach of fitting a Weibull distribution. METHODS: We included all patients in Norway diagnosed from 1960 to 1999 with one of the 13 most common solid tumor cancers until emigration, death, or 31 December 2011, whichever came first. Observed median, restricted mean, and mean survival times were obtained...... in subcohorts defined by patients' sex, age, cancer type, and time period of diagnosis, which had nearly complete follow-up. Based on theoretical considerations, we fitted a linear relationship between observed means and medians on the log scale. For validation, we estimated mean survival from medians...

  7. Survival in prostate cancer prevention trial detailed

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the NCI-sponsored Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial, initial findings from a decade ago showed that the drug finasteride significantly reduced the risk of prostate cancer, but among those who did develop prostate cancer, paradoxically, the drug was asso

  8. Comparison of the American Joint Committee on Cancer N1 versus N2a nodal categories for predicting survival and recurrence in patients with oral cancer: Time to acknowledge an arbitrary distinction and modify the system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahimi, Ardalan; Gil, Ziv; Amit, Moran; Yen, Tzu-Chen; Liao, Chun-Ta; Chatturvedi, Pankaj; Agarwal, Jaiprakash; Kowalski, Luiz; Kreppel, Matthias; Cernea, Claudio; Brandao, Jose; Bachar, Gideon; Villaret, Andrea Bolzoni; Fliss, Dan; Fridman, Eran; Robbins, K. Thomas; Shah, Jatin; Patel, Snehal; Clark, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    Background We hypothesized that pathological N1 (pN1) and N2a (pN2a) nodal disease portend a similar prognosis in patients with oral cancer. Methods An international multicenter study of 739 oral squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) patients with pN1 or pN2a stage disease was conducted. Multivariable analyses were performed using Cox proportional hazard models to compare locoregional failure, disease-specific survival (DSS), and overall survival (OS). Institutional heterogeneity was assessed using 2-stage random effects meta-analysis techniques. Results Univariate analysis revealed no difference in locoregional failure (p = .184), DSS (p = .761), or OS (p = .475). Similar results were obtained in adjusted multivariable models and no evidence of institutional heterogeneity was demonstrated. Conclusion The prognosis of pN2a and pN1 disease is similar in oral SCC suggesting these categories could be combined in future revisions of the nodal staging system to enhance prognostic accuracy. However, these results may reflect more aggressive treatment of N2a disease; hence, we caution against using these data to deintensify treatment. PMID:25227311

  9. Cancer estimation of incidence and survival in Algeria 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamdi Cherif M

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Cancer is one of the major public health problems in Algeria. In the last 25 years, a significant increase in the incidence of the major types of cancers has been observed in both sexes. Moreover, the 5-year survival rate is low for the severe tumors due to a difficulty in access to cancer care and an incomplete health care framework. Cancer Registry of Setif, Algeria, has been recording cancer incidence, mortality, and survival since 1986 in collaboration with International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC of Lyon. Cancer Registry of Setif is being a source of information for cancer planning and corresponding surveillance in the National Cancer Plan 2015-2019, starting in January 2015. Data is recorded by means of CanReg 5 software. This software is developed and provided by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC of Lyon. It is designed specifically for cancer registration, and standardized to capture, control, and process the data. Estimation of cancer incidence in Algeria and survival rates are very important for surveillance, control, and planning of care. In men the incidence of lung, colorectal, bladder, prostate, and laryngeal cancers has significantly and steadily increased in the last decade. In women, the incidence of breast, colorectal, thyroid, and lung cancers has also increased significantly in the same period. Five-year survival rates for cancer of the stomach, colon, rectum, liver, lung, breast, cervix, ovary, and prostate in adults, and childhood leukemia are relatively low compared with other countries. The aim of our study was to estimate incidence and survival by means of Setif cancer registry data.

  10. The effect of radiotherapy on survival of dental implants in head and neck cancer patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Shamiri, Hashem-Motahir; Al-Maweri, Sadeq; Tarakji, Bassel

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To explore the current literature of the survival of dental implants in irradiated head and neck cancer patients considering the role of implant location, bone augmentation, dose of radiation and timing of implant placement. Study Design Pubmed search was conducted to identify articles published between January 2000 and December 2014 and presenting data of dental implant survival with radiotherapy in head and neck cancer patients. Studies on animal subjects and craniofacial implants were excluded. Results 18 articles out of 27 were eligible for inclusion in this systematic review. 12 out of 18 studies reported favorable outcome of dental implants and radiotherapy with survival rates between 74.4% and 97%. Seven out of ten studies comparing the survival rates according to site of implant placement reported that implants were found to osseointegrate with greater success in the irradiated mandible than irradiated maxilla. 5 studies which compared implant survival in irradiated native bone versus irradiated grafted bone reported that irradiated grafted bone showed a significantly reduced dental implant survival rate in comparison to irradiated native bone. 6 out of 18studies in which radiation doses exceeded 70 Gy reported lower survival rates of dental implants in comparison to the studies in which radiation doses were ≤70Gy. Higher survival rates were reported in 2 studies in which implants placement was before radiotherapy in comparison to the remaining 16 studies in which implants placement was after radiotherapy. Conclusions Dental implants may be affected by radiotherapy especially when they are placed in maxilla, in grafted bone, or after radiation, however, they remain a functional option for rehabilitation of head and cancer patients. More Prospective cohort studies and randomized controlled trails are still needed to draw more evidence based conclusions. Key words:Dental implants, implant survival, radiotherapy, head and neck cancer. PMID

  11. Microchimerism and survival after breast and colon cancer diagnosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamper-Jørgensen, Mads

    2012-01-01

    addendum, I report the survival of cases in the original study after being diagnosed with cancer. Despite small numbers, the analysis suggests that microchimerism may be positively associated with survival after breast and maybe colon cancer diagnosis. Despite the findings on colon cancer in our original......Recently, we reported microchimerism to be oppositely associated with maternal breast and colon cancer. In women with a blood test positive for male microchimerism the risk of breast cancer development was reduced to one third, whereas the risk of colon cancer was elevated 4-fold. In this article...... report, I speculate whether microchimerism could have a general beneficial role in cancer, which in some sites may not be evident because an allogeneic maternal immune reaction hastens cancer development....

  12. Microchimerism and survival after breast and colon cancer diagnosis

    OpenAIRE

    Kamper-Jørgensen, Mads

    2012-01-01

    Recently, we reported microchimerism to be oppositely associated with maternal breast and colon cancer. In women with a blood test positive for male microchimerism the risk of breast cancer development was reduced to one third, whereas the risk of colon cancer was elevated 4-fold. In this article addendum, I report the survival of cases in the original study after being diagnosed with cancer. Despite small numbers, the analysis suggests that microchimerism may be positively associated with su...

  13. Nerve Growth Factor in Cancer Cell Death and Survival

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the major challenges for cancer therapeutics is the resistance of many tumor cells to induction of cell death due to pro-survival signaling in the cancer cells. Here we review the growing literature which shows that neurotrophins contribute to pro-survival signaling in many different types of cancer. In particular, nerve growth factor, the archetypal neurotrophin, has been shown to play a role in tumorigenesis over the past decade. Nerve growth factor mediates its effects through its two cognate receptors, TrkA, a receptor tyrosine kinase and p75NTR, a member of the death receptor superfamily. Depending on the tumor origin, pro-survival signaling can be mediated by TrkA receptors or by p75NTR. For example, in breast cancer the aberrant expression of nerve growth factor stimulates proliferative signaling through TrkA and pro-survival signaling through p75NTR. This latter signaling through p75NTR promotes increased resistance to the induction of cell death by chemotherapeutic treatments. In contrast, in prostate cells the p75NTR mediates cell death and prevents metastasis. In prostate cancer, expression of this receptor is lost, which contributes to tumor progression by allowing cells to survive, proliferate and metastasize. This review focuses on our current knowledge of neurotrophin signaling in cancer, with a particular emphasis on nerve growth factor regulation of cell death and survival in cancer

  14. Improving lung cancer survival; time to move on

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heuvers Marlies E

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background During the past decades, numerous efforts have been made to decrease the death rate among lung cancer patients. Nonetheless, the improvement in long-term survival has been limited and lung cancer is still a devastating disease. Discussion With this article we would like to point out that survival of lung cancer could be strongly improved by controlling two pivotal prognostic factors: stage and treatment. This is corresponding with recent reports that show a decrease in lung cancer mortality by screening programs. In addition, modulation of the patient’s immune system by immunotherapy either as monotherapy or combined with conventional cancer treatments offers the prospect of tailoring treatments much more precisely and has also been shown to lead to a better response to treatment and overall survival of non-small cell lung cancer patients. Summary Since only small improvements in survival can be expected in advanced disease with the use of conventional therapies, more research should be focused on lung cancer screening programs and patient tailored immunotherapy with or without conventional therapies. If these approaches are clinically combined in a standard multidisciplinary policy we might be able to advance the survival of patients with lung cancer.

  15. DO CANCER CLINICAL TRIAL POPULATIONS TRULY REPRESENT CANCER PATIENTS? A COMPARISON OF OPEN CLINICAL TRIALS TO THE CANCER GENOME ATLAS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geifman, Nophar; Butte, Atul J.

    2016-01-01

    Open clinical trial data offer many opportunities for the scientific community to independently verify published results, evaluate new hypotheses and conduct meta-analyses. These data provide a springboard for scientific advances in precision medicine but the question arises as to how representative clinical trials data are of cancer patients overall. Here we present the integrative analysis of data from several cancer clinical trials and compare these to patient-level data from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA). Comparison of cancer type-specific survival rates reveals that these are overall lower in trial subjects. This effect, at least to some extent, can be explained by the more advanced stages of cancer of trial subjects. This analysis also reveals that for stage IV cancer, colorectal cancer patients have a better chance of survival than breast cancer patients. On the other hand, for all other stages, breast cancer patients have better survival than colorectal cancer patients. Comparison of survival in different stages of disease between the two datasets reveals that subjects with stage IV cancer from the trials dataset have a lower chance of survival than matching stage IV subjects from TCGA. One likely explanation for this observation is that stage IV trial subjects have lower survival rates since their cancer is less likely to respond to treatment. To conclude, we present here a newly available clinical trials dataset which allowed for the integration of patient-level data from many cancer clinical trials. Our comprehensive analysis reveals that cancer-related clinical trials are not representative of general cancer patient populations, mostly due to their focus on the more advanced stages of the disease. These and other limitations of clinical trials data should, perhaps, be taken into consideration in medical research and in the field of precision medicine. PMID:26776196

  16. Health Insurance Status May Affect Cancer Patients' Survival

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_160304.html Health Insurance Status May Affect Cancer Patients' Survival 2 studies highlight disparities in outcomes for uninsured and Medicaid patients To use the sharing features on this ...

  17. Eribulin Improves Survival of Women with Metastatic Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treatment with eribulin (Halaven™) improved overall survival in women with metastatic breast cancer whose disease progressed despite multiple rounds of prior chemotherapy, according to the results of a phase III clinical trial called EMBRACE.

  18. Identification of novel genetic markers of breast cancer survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guo, Qi; Schmidt, Marjanka K; Kraft, Peter;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Survival after a diagnosis of breast cancer varies considerably between patients, and some of this variation may be because of germline genetic variation. We aimed to identify genetic markers associated with breast cancer-specific survival. METHODS: We conducted a large meta-analysis of.......2) associated with survival in ER-negative breast cancer cases (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.95, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.55 to 2.47, P = 1.91 x 10(-8)). Genotyping a subset of 2113 case patients, of which 300 were ER negative, provided supporting evidence for the quality of the imputation. The association in...... of genotyping suggested that the finding was less robust. CONCLUSIONS: This is currently the largest study investigating genetic variation associated with breast cancer survival. Our results have potential clinical implications, as they confirm that germline genotype can provide prognostic...

  19. Preoperative Chemotherapy, Radiation Improve Survival in Esophageal Cancer (Updated)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patients with esophageal cancer who received chemotherapy and radiation before surgery survived, on average, nearly twice as long as patients treated with surgery alone, according to results of a randomized clinical trial published May 31, 2012, in NEJM.

  20. Survival rates among patients with cancer in Alberta in 1974-78.

    OpenAIRE

    Mao, Y.; Semenciw, R; Morrison, H.; Koch, M; Hill, G; Fair, M; Wigle, D

    1988-01-01

    We calculated 5-year crude and relative survival rates, by age and sex, for patients in Alberta in whom cancer was diagnosed between 1974 and 1978. Cancers with low overall 5-year relative survival rates (less than 35%) included stomach cancer, cancer of the pancreas, lung cancer, brain cancer, multiple myeloma and myeloid leukemia. Cancers with high overall 5-year relative survival rates (more than 70%) included melanoma, breast cancer, cancer of the uterus, cancer of the bladder and Hodgkin...

  1. Socioeconomic inequalities in cancer survival in England after the NHS cancer plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachet, B; Ellis, L; Maringe, C; Chu, T; Nur, U; Quaresma, M; Shah, A; Walters, S; Woods, L; Forman, D; Coleman, M P

    2010-01-01

    Background: Socioeconomic inequalities in survival were observed for many cancers in England during 1981–1999. The NHS Cancer Plan (2000) aimed to improve survival and reduce these inequalities. This study examines trends in the deprivation gap in cancer survival after implementation of the Plan. Materials and method: We examined relative survival among adults diagnosed with 1 of 21 common cancers in England during 1996–2006, followed up to 31 December 2007. Three periods were defined: 1996–2000 (before the Cancer Plan), 2001–2003 (initialisation) and 2004–2006 (implementation). We estimated the difference in survival between the most deprived and most affluent groups (deprivation gap) at 1 and 3 years after diagnosis, and the change in the deprivation gap both within and between these periods. Results: Survival improved for most cancers, but inequalities in survival were still wide for many cancers in 2006. Only the deprivation gap in 1-year survival narrowed slightly over time. A majority of the socioeconomic disparities in survival occurred soon after a cancer diagnosis, regardless of the cancer prognosis. Conclusion: The recently observed reduction in the deprivation gap was minor and limited to 1-year survival, suggesting that, so far, the Cancer Plan has little effect on those inequalities. Our findings highlight that earlier diagnosis and rapid access to optimal treatment should be ensured for all socioeconomic groups. PMID:20588275

  2. Incidence and survival from lung cancer in Greenland is comparable to survival in the Nordic countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gelvan, Allan; Risum, Signe; Langer, Seppo W

    2015-01-01

    : Evaluation of the first six years of lung cancer treatment in Greenland revealed a disease incidence and survival comparable to those found in the Nordic countries. To further decrease mortality from lung cancer, health-care resources should continue to be allocated to the prevention and treatment of lung...

  3. Finding Mutated Subnetworks Associated with Survival in Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Hansen, Tommy; Vandin, Fabio

    2016-01-01

    Next-generation sequencing technologies allow the measurement of somatic mutations in a large number of patients from the same cancer type. One of the main goals in analyzing these mutations is the identification of mutations associated with clinical parameters, such as survival time. This goal is hindered by the genetic heterogeneity of mutations in cancer, due to the fact that genes and mutations act in the context of pathways. To identify mutations associated with survival time it is there...

  4. Does the month of diagnosis affect survival of cancer patients?

    OpenAIRE

    Sankila, R.; Joensuu, H.; Pukkala, E.; Toikkanen, S.

    1993-01-01

    Some earlier studies based on relatively small data sets have suggested that the month of diagnosis affects survival of breast cancer patients. This phenomenon has been suggested to be attributable to daylight-related hormonal factors. Factors related to the holidays of both the medical personnel and the women themselves might also provide the explanation. In this study we assessed the effect of the month of diagnosis on the survival of 32,807 female breast cancer patients diagnosed in Finlan...

  5. Post Diagnosis Diet Quality and Colorectal Cancer Survival in Women

    OpenAIRE

    Fung, Teresa T.; Kashambwa, Rutendo; Sato, Kaori; Chiuve, Stephanie E.; Fuchs, Charles S.; Wu, Kana; Giovannucci, Edward; Ogino, Shuji; Hu, Frank B.; Meyerhardt, Jeffrey A.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Dietary factors are known to influence colorectal cancer (CRC) risk, however, their association with CRC survival is unclear. Therefore, we prospectively examined the association between diet quality scores, dietary patterns and colorectal cancer (CRC) survival. Methods: 1201 women diagnosed with stage I–III CRC between 1986 and 2008, were followed through 2010. Diet was assessed via a food frequency questionnaire administered at least 6 months after diagnosis. We computed the Alt...

  6. Mortality and survival of lung cancer in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Erik; Rasmussen, Torben Riis; Green, Anders

    2016-01-01

    Background In the 1990s outcomes in Danish lung cancer patients were poor compared with the other Nordic countries. The five-year survival was only about 5%, only 10% of patients were operated on and less than 60% received active surgical or oncologic treatment. This paper describes trends in...... mortality and survival of lung cancer in Denmark from 2000 to 2012. Methods The study population comprised 52 435 patients with a diagnosis of cancer of the trachea and the lung, primarily ascertained from the Danish Lung Cancer Register and grouped into three cohorts by year of diagnosis. The outcome...... all strata by gender, comorbidity, stage and surgery status and was accompanied by corresponding improvements in both absolute and relative survival. Conclusions The mortality has been significantly declining and the prognosis correspondingly improving in lung cancer in Denmark since the turn of the...

  7. Survival in patients with breast cancer with bone metastasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cetin, Karynsa; Christiansen, Christian Fynbo; Sværke, Claus;

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Since population-based data on prognostic factors affecting survival in patients with breast cancer with bone metastasis (BM) are currently limited, we conducted this nationwide retrospective cohort study to examine the prognostic role of disease stage at breast cancer diagnosis and...... length of BM-free interval (BMFI). SETTING: Denmark. PARTICIPANTS: 2427 women with a breast cancer diagnosis between 1997 and 2011 in the Danish Cancer Registry and a concurrent or subsequent BM diagnosis in the Danish National Registry of Patients. PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES: Survival (crude......), following patients from BM diagnosis until death, emigration or until 31 December 2012, whichever came first. RESULTS: Survival decreased with more advanced stage of disease at the time of breast cancer diagnosis; risk of mortality during the first year following a BM diagnosis was over two times higher for...

  8. Breast self examination and survival from breast cancer.

    OpenAIRE

    Le Geyte, M.; Mant, D.; Vessey, M P; Jones, L.; Yudkin, P

    1992-01-01

    The survival of 616 women aged 15-59 with breast cancer, 226 of whom had been taught and practised breast self examination (BSE) prior to diagnosis and 390 of whom had not, is reported. Six year survival rates were 73.1% in the BSE taught group and 66.1% in other women (P = 0.07).

  9. Survival analysis of cervical cancer using stratified Cox regression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purnami, S. W.; Inayati, K. D.; Sari, N. W. Wulan; Chosuvivatwong, V.; Sriplung, H.

    2016-04-01

    Cervical cancer is one of the mostly widely cancer cause of the women death in the world including Indonesia. Most cervical cancer patients come to the hospital already in an advanced stadium. As a result, the treatment of cervical cancer becomes more difficult and even can increase the death's risk. One of parameter that can be used to assess successfully of treatment is the probability of survival. This study raises the issue of cervical cancer survival patients at Dr. Soetomo Hospital using stratified Cox regression based on six factors such as age, stadium, treatment initiation, companion disease, complication, and anemia. Stratified Cox model is used because there is one independent variable that does not satisfy the proportional hazards assumption that is stadium. The results of the stratified Cox model show that the complication variable is significant factor which influent survival probability of cervical cancer patient. The obtained hazard ratio is 7.35. It means that cervical cancer patient who has complication is at risk of dying 7.35 times greater than patient who did not has complication. While the adjusted survival curves showed that stadium IV had the lowest probability of survival.

  10. Colorectal Cancer Epidemiology: Incidence, Mortality, Survival, and Risk Factors

    OpenAIRE

    Haggar, Fatima A.; Boushey, Robin P.

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the incidence, mortality, and survival rates for colorectal cancer are reviewed, with attention paid to regional variations and changes over time. A concise overview of known risk factors associated with colorectal cancer is provided, including familial and hereditary factors, as well as environmental lifestyle-related risk factors such as physical inactivity, obesity, smoking, and alcohol consumption.

  11. Dietary patterns and survival in German postmenopausal breast cancer survivors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vrieling, A.; Buck, K.; Seibold, P.; Heinz, J.; Obi, N.; Flesch-Janys, D.; Chang-Claude, J.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Research on the association between dietary patterns and breast cancer survival is very limited. METHODS: A prospective follow-up study was conducted in Germany, including 2522 postmenopausal breast cancer patients diagnosed in 2001-2005 with available food frequency questionnaire data.

  12. A superstatistical model of metastasis and cancer survival

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, L Leon

    2007-01-01

    We introduce a superstatistical model for the progression statistics of malignant cancer cells. The metastatic cascade is modeled as a complex nonequilibrium system with several macroscopic pathways and inverse-chi-square distributed parameters of the underlying Poisson processes. The predictions of the model are in excellent agreement with observed survival time probability distributions of breast cancer patients.

  13. Socioeconomic disparities in childhood cancer survival in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, Martin; Rueegg, Corina S; Schmidlin, Kurt; Spoerri, Adrian; Niggli, Felix; Grotzer, Michael; von der Weid, Nicolas X; Egger, Matthias; Probst-Hensch, Nicole; Zwahlen, Marcel; Kuehni, Claudia E

    2016-06-15

    In this study, we investigated whether childhood cancer survival in Switzerland is influenced by socioeconomic status (SES), and if disparities vary by type of cancer and definition of SES (parental education, living condition, area-based SES). Using Cox proportional hazards models, we analyzed 5-year cumulative mortality in all patients registered in the Swiss Childhood Cancer Registry diagnosed 1991-2006 below 16 years. Information on SES was extracted from the Swiss census by probabilistic record linkage. The study included 1602 children (33% with leukemia, 20% with lymphoma, 22% with central nervous system (CNS) tumors); with an overall 5-year survival of 77% (95%CI 75-79%). Higher SES, particularly parents' education, was associated with a lower 5-year cumulative mortality. Results varied by type of cancer with no association for leukemia and particularly strong effects for CNS tumor patients, where mortality hazard ratios for the different SES indicators, comparing the highest with the lowest group, ranged from 0.48 (95%CI: 0.28-0.81) to 0.71 (95%CI: 0.44-1.15). We conclude that even in Switzerland with a high quality health care system and mandatory health insurance, socioeconomic differences in childhood cancer survival persist. Factors causing these survival differences have to be further explored, to facilitate universal access to optimal treatment and finally eliminate social inequalities in childhood cancer survival. PMID:26840758

  14. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy in advanced epithelial ovarian cancer: A survival study

    OpenAIRE

    Upasana Baruah; Debabrata Barmon; Amal Chandra Kataki; Pankaj Deka; Munlima Hazarika; Bhargab J Saikia

    2015-01-01

    Context: Patients with advanced ovarian cancer have a poor prognosis in spite of the best possible care. Primary debulking surgery has been the standard of care in advanced ovarian cancer; however, it is associated with high mortality and morbidity rates as shown in various studies. Several studies have discussed the benefit of neoadjuvant chemotherapy in patients with advanced ovarian cancer. Aims: This study aims to evaluate the survival statistics of the patients who have been managed with...

  15. Diet quality indices and postmenopausal breast cancer survival

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Esther H.J.; Willett, Walter C; Fung, Teresa; Rosner, Bernard; Holmes, Michelle D

    2011-01-01

    Research on diet in breast cancer survival has been focused on single nutrients or foods, particularly dietary fat, fruits, vegetables, fiber, and alcohol. We hypothesized that diet quality indices decrease the risk of total and non breast cancer related deaths in women diagnosed with breast cancer. We evaluated 4 dietary quality scores: Alternate Healthy Eating Index (AHEI), Diet Quality Index-Revised (DQIR), Recommended Food Score (RFS), and the alternate Mediterranean Diet Score (aMED), am...

  16. Rectal cancer survival in the Nordic countries and Scotland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Folkesson, J.; Engholm, G.; Ehrnrooth, E.;

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to present detailed population-based survival estimates four patients with a rectal adenocarcinoma, using cancer register data supplemented with clinical data. Based oil cancer register data. differences in rectal cancer survival have been reported between countries ill...... Europe. Variation ill the distribution of stage at diagnosis. initial therapy including surgical technique, and comorbidity are possible explanatory factors. Adenocarcinomas in the rectum. diagnosed in 1997 and identified in the national cancer registries in the Nordic countries and Scotland were...... Norway, Sweden and Scotland. Danish men hall the highest rate of excess deaths in the first six months after diagnosis. Stage adjusted, the elevated relative excess mortality decreased and after six months the excess mortality rates were the same in all countries. The poor 5-year relative survival in...

  17. Rectal cancer survival in the Nordic countries and Scotland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Folkesson, Joakim; Engholm, Gerda; Ehrnrooth, Eva;

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to present detailed population-based survival estimates for patients with a rectal adenocarcinoma, using cancer register data supplemented with clinical data. Based on cancer register data, differences in rectal cancer survival have been reported between countries in...... Europe. Variation in the distribution of stage at diagnosis, initial therapy including surgical technique, and comorbidity are possible explanatory factors. Adenocarcinomas in the rectum, diagnosed in 1997 and identified in the national cancer registries in the Nordic countries and Scotland were included......, Sweden and Scotland. Danish men had the highest rate of excess deaths in the first six months after diagnosis. Stage adjusted, the elevated relative excess mortality decreased and after six months the excess mortality rates were the same in all countries. The poor 5-year relative survival in Danish men...

  18. Survival after radical prostatectomy for clinically localised prostate cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Røder, Martin Andreas; Brasso, Klaus; Christensen, Ib Jarle; Johansen, Jørgen; Langkilde, Niels-Christian; Hvarness, Helle; Carlsson, Steen; Jakobsen, Henrik; Borre, Michael; Iversen, Peter

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To describe survival and cause of death in a nationwide cohort of Danish patients with prostate cancer undergoing radical prostatectomy (RP). To describe risk factors associated with prostate cancer mortality. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Observational study of 6489 men with localised prostate...... cancer treated with RP at six different hospitals in Denmark between 1995 and 2011. Survival was described using Kaplan-Meier estimates. Causes of death were obtained from the national registry and cross-checked with patient files. Cumulative incidence of death, any cause and prostate cancer......-specific, was described using Nelson-Aalen estimates. Risk for prostate cancer death was analysed in a Cox multivariate regression model using the covariates: age, cT-category, PSA level and biopsy Gleason score. RESULTS: The median follow-up was 4 years. During follow-up, 328 patients died, 109 (33.2%) from...

  19. Geographical variation in cancer survival in England, 1991–2006: an analysis by Cancer Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quaresma, Manuela; Coleman, Michel P; Gordon, Emma; Forman, David; Rachet, Bernard

    2011-01-01

    Background Reducing geographical inequalities in cancer survival in England was a key aim of the Calman–Hine Report (1995) and the NHS Cancer Plan (2000). This study assesses whether geographical inequalities changed following these policy developments by analysing the trend in 1-year relative survival in the 28 cancer networks of England. Methods Population-based age-standardised relative survival at 1 year is estimated for 1.4 million patients diagnosed with cancer of the oesophagus, stomach, colon, lung, breast (women) or cervix in England during 1991–2006 and followed up to 2007. Regional and deprivation-specific life tables are built to adjust survival estimates for differences in background mortality. Analysis is divided into three calendar periods: 1991–5, 1996–2000 and 2001–6. Funnel plots are used to assess geographical variation in survival over time. Results One-year relative survival improved for all cancers except cervical cancer. There was a wide geographical variation in survival with generally lower estimates in northern England. This north–south divide became less marked over time, although the overall number of cancer networks that were lower outliers compared with the England value remained stable. Breast cancer was the only cancer for which there was a marked reduction in geographical inequality in survival over time. Conclusion Policy changes over the past two decades coincided with improved relative survival, without an increase in geographical variation. The north–south divide in relative survival became less pronounced over time but geographical inequalities persist. The reduction in geographical inequality in breast cancer survival may be followed by a similar trend for other cancers, provided government recommendations are implemented similarly. PMID:21321064

  20. The impact of comorbidity on cancer survival: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Søgaard M

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Mette Søgaard,1 Reimar Wernich Thomsen,1 Kristine Skovgaard Bossen,2 Henrik Toft Sørensen,1 Mette Nørgaard1 1Department of Clinical Epidemiology, Institute of Clinical Medicine, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus, Denmark; 2Danish Cancer Society, Copenhagen, Denmark Background: A number of studies have shown poorer survival among cancer patients with comorbidity. Several mechanisms may underlie this finding. In this review we summarize the current literature on the association between patient comorbidity and cancer prognosis. Prognostic factors examined include tumor biology, diagnosis, treatment, clinical quality, and adherence. Methods: All English-language articles published during 2002–2012 on the association between comorbidity and survival among patients with colon cancer, breast cancer, and lung cancer were identified from PubMed, MEDLINE and Embase. Titles and abstracts were reviewed to identify eligible studies and their main results were then extracted. Results: Our search yielded more than 2,500 articles related to comorbidity and cancer, but few investigated the prognostic impact of comorbidity as a primary aim. Most studies found that cancer patients with comorbidity had poorer survival than those without comorbidity, with 5-year mortality hazard ratios ranging from 1.1 to 5.8. Few studies examined the influence of specific chronic conditions. In general, comorbidity does not appear to be associated with more aggressive types of cancer or other differences in tumor biology. Presence of specific severe comorbidities or psychiatric disorders were found to be associated with delayed cancer diagnosis in some studies, while chronic diseases requiring regular medical visits were associated with earlier cancer detection in others. Another finding was that patients with comorbidity do not receive standard cancer treatments such as surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation therapy as often as patients without comorbidity, and their chance of

  1. [Survival after gastrectomy for cancer. 209 cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Treut, Y P; Capobianco, C; Botti, G; Christophe, M; Lebreuil, G; Bricot, R

    1992-09-26

    The long-term results of 209 gastrectomies performed for adenocarcinoma, including 117 which were prospectively collected, are presented. Resection was curative in 154 cases (73.6 percent). The TNM distribution of the tumours was: stage I (TxNOMO) 75 cases, stage II (TxN1MO) 46 cases, stage III (TxN2MO) 33 cases and stage IV (TxNxM1) 55 cases. Lymph node involvement was more frequent in the prospective than in the retrospective study. With a more than 5 years' follow-up of 80 percent of the patients operated upon, the actuarial survival rate at 5 years (operative mortality included) was 38 percent for all lesions, 52 percent for curative resection and 2 percent for palliative resection. Following curative resection, the survival rates for tumours of the upper, middle and lower thirds of the stomach were 40, 60 and 55 percent respectively. These rates were 60 percent for stage I tumours, 54 percent for stage II tumours and 25 percent for stage III tumours. The results obtained in this series, where most of the curative gastrectomies included excision of N1 and N2 lymph nodes, show that lymph node involvement has no significant importance for the prognosis when it is proximal (N1) and is not incompatible with prolonged survival when it is pedicular (N2). PMID:1465364

  2. Diet and subsequent survival in women with breast cancer.

    OpenAIRE

    Ingram, D

    1994-01-01

    Our findings from a previous study, that increased consumption of beta-carotene and vitamin C is associated with favourable prognostic indices in patients with breast cancer, have been borne out by our current study of patient survival over a 6-year period. The results of the current study point to beta-carotene consumption as the dietary variable most significantly associated with improved survival. Only one death occurred in the group with the highest consumption of beta-carotene, while the...

  3. Socioeconomic and geographic determinants of survival of patients with digestive cancer in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dejardin, O; Remontet, L; Bouvier, A M; Danzon, A; Trétarre, B; Delafosse, P; Molinié, F; Maarouf, N; Velten, M; Sauleau, E A; Bourdon-Raverdy, N; Grosclaude, P; Boutreux, S; De Pouvourville, G; Launoy, G

    2006-10-01

    Using a multilevel Cox model, the association between socioeconomic and geographical aggregate variables and survival was investigated in 81 268 patients with digestive tract cancer diagnosed in the years 1980-1997 and registered in 12 registries in the French Network of Cancer Registries. This association differed according to cancer site: it was clear for colon (relative risk (RR)=1.10 (1.04-1.16), 1.10 (1.04-1.16) and 1.14 (1.05-1.23), respectively, for distances to nearest reference cancer care centre between 10 and 30, 30 and 50 and more than 90 km, in comparison with distance of less than 10 km; P-trend=0.003) and rectal cancer (RR=1.09 (1.03-1.15), RR=1.08 (1.02-1.14) and RR=1.12 (1.05-1.19), respectively, for distances between 10 and 30 km, 30 and 50 km and 50 and 70 km, P-trend=0.024) (n=28 010 and n=18 080, respectively) but was not significant for gall bladder and biliary tract cancer (n=2893) or small intestine cancer (n=1038). Even though the influence of socioeconomic status on prognosis is modest compared to clinical prognostic factors such as histology or stage at diagnosis, socioeconomic deprivation and distance to nearest cancer centre need to be considered as potential survival predictors in digestive tract cancer. PMID:16969351

  4. Association of MTHFR gene polymorphisms with breast cancer survival

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two functional single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene, C677T and A1298C, lead to decreased enzyme activity and affect chemosensitivity of tumor cells. We investigated whether these MTHFR SNPs were associated with breast cancer survival in African-American and Caucasian women. African-American (n = 143) and Caucasian (n = 105) women, who had incident breast cancer with surgery, were recruited between 1993 and 2003 from the greater Baltimore area, Maryland, USA. Kaplan-Meier survival and multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression analyses were used to examine the relationship between MTHFR SNPs and disease-specific survival. We observed opposite effects of the MTHFR polymorphisms A1298C and C677T on breast cancer survival. Carriers of the variant allele at codon 1298 (A/C or C/C) had reduced survival when compared to homozygous carriers of the common A allele [Hazard ratio (HR) = 2.05; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.05–4.00]. In contrast, breast cancer patients with the variant allele at codon 677 (C/T or T/T) had improved survival, albeit not statistically significant, when compared to individuals with the common C/C genotype (HR = 0.65; 95% CI, 0.31–1.35). The effects were stronger in patients with estrogen receptor-negative tumors (HR = 2.70; 95% CI, 1.17–6.23 for A/C or C/C versus A/A at codon 1298; HR = 0.36; 95% CI, 0.12–1.04 for C/T or T/T versus C/C at codon 677). Interactions between the two MTHFR genotypes and race/ethnicity on breast cancer survival were also observed (A1298C, pinteraction = 0.088; C677T, pinteraction = 0.026). We found that the MTHFR SNPs, C677T and A1298C, were associated with breast cancer survival. The variant alleles had opposite effects on disease outcome in the study population. Race/ethnicity modified the association between the two SNPs and breast cancer survival

  5. Survival analysis of colorectal cancer patients with tumor recurrence using global score test methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colorectal cancer is the third and the second most common cancer worldwide in men and women respectively, and the second in Malaysia for both genders. Surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy are among the options available for treatment of patients with colorectal cancer. In clinical trials, the main purpose is often to compare efficacy between experimental and control treatments. Treatment comparisons often involve several responses or endpoints, and this situation complicates the analysis. In the case of colorectal cancer, sets of responses concerned with survival times include: times from tumor removal until the first, the second and the third tumor recurrences, and time to death. For a patient, the time to recurrence is correlated to the overall survival. In this study, global score test methodology is used in combining the univariate score statistics for comparing treatments with respect to each survival endpoint into a single statistic. The data of tumor recurrence and overall survival of colorectal cancer patients are taken from a Malaysian hospital. The results are found to be similar to those computed using the established Wei, Lin and Weissfeld method. Key factors such as ethnic, gender, age and stage at diagnose are also reported

  6. Survival analysis of colorectal cancer patients with tumor recurrence using global score test methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zain, Zakiyah; Aziz, Nazrina; Ahmad, Yuhaniz; Azwan, Zairul; Raduan, Farhana; Sagap, Ismail

    2014-12-01

    Colorectal cancer is the third and the second most common cancer worldwide in men and women respectively, and the second in Malaysia for both genders. Surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy are among the options available for treatment of patients with colorectal cancer. In clinical trials, the main purpose is often to compare efficacy between experimental and control treatments. Treatment comparisons often involve several responses or endpoints, and this situation complicates the analysis. In the case of colorectal cancer, sets of responses concerned with survival times include: times from tumor removal until the first, the second and the third tumor recurrences, and time to death. For a patient, the time to recurrence is correlated to the overall survival. In this study, global score test methodology is used in combining the univariate score statistics for comparing treatments with respect to each survival endpoint into a single statistic. The data of tumor recurrence and overall survival of colorectal cancer patients are taken from a Malaysian hospital. The results are found to be similar to those computed using the established Wei, Lin and Weissfeld method. Key factors such as ethnic, gender, age and stage at diagnose are also reported.

  7. Survival analysis of colorectal cancer patients with tumor recurrence using global score test methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zain, Zakiyah, E-mail: zac@uum.edu.my; Ahmad, Yuhaniz, E-mail: yuhaniz@uum.edu.my [School of Quantitative Sciences, Universiti Utara Malaysia, UUM Sintok 06010, Kedah (Malaysia); Azwan, Zairul, E-mail: zairulazwan@gmail.com, E-mail: farhanaraduan@gmail.com, E-mail: drisagap@yahoo.com; Raduan, Farhana, E-mail: zairulazwan@gmail.com, E-mail: farhanaraduan@gmail.com, E-mail: drisagap@yahoo.com; Sagap, Ismail, E-mail: zairulazwan@gmail.com, E-mail: farhanaraduan@gmail.com, E-mail: drisagap@yahoo.com [Surgery Department, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Centre, Jalan Yaacob Latif, 56000 Bandar Tun Razak, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Aziz, Nazrina, E-mail: nazrina@uum.edu.my

    2014-12-04

    Colorectal cancer is the third and the second most common cancer worldwide in men and women respectively, and the second in Malaysia for both genders. Surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy are among the options available for treatment of patients with colorectal cancer. In clinical trials, the main purpose is often to compare efficacy between experimental and control treatments. Treatment comparisons often involve several responses or endpoints, and this situation complicates the analysis. In the case of colorectal cancer, sets of responses concerned with survival times include: times from tumor removal until the first, the second and the third tumor recurrences, and time to death. For a patient, the time to recurrence is correlated to the overall survival. In this study, global score test methodology is used in combining the univariate score statistics for comparing treatments with respect to each survival endpoint into a single statistic. The data of tumor recurrence and overall survival of colorectal cancer patients are taken from a Malaysian hospital. The results are found to be similar to those computed using the established Wei, Lin and Weissfeld method. Key factors such as ethnic, gender, age and stage at diagnose are also reported.

  8. Survival models for familial aggregation of cancer.

    OpenAIRE

    Mack, W.; Langholz, B; Thomas, D. C.

    1990-01-01

    It has recently been shown that the relative risks of the order of 2 to 4 that are frequently found for cancer among relatives of affected cases are unlikely to be explainable by shared environmental risk factors. Classical methods of epidemiological analysis are not well suited to such analysis because they assume that the outcomes of each individual are independent. Classical methods of genetic analysis, on the other hand, are limited in their handling of environmental factors and variable ...

  9. Emerging markers of cachexia predict survival in cancer patients

    OpenAIRE

    MONDELLO, PATRIZIA; Lacquaniti, Antonio; Mondello, Stefania; Bolignano, Davide; Pitini, Vincenzo; Aloisi, Carmela; Buemi, Michele

    2014-01-01

    Background Cachexia may occur in 40% of cancer patients, representing the major cause of death in more than 20% of them. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of leptin, ghrelin and obestatin as diagnostic and predictive markers of cachexia in oncologic patients. Their impact on patient survival was also evaluated. Methods 140 adults with different cancer diagnoses were recruited. Thirty healthy volunteers served as control. Serum ghrelin, obestatin and leptin were tested at basel...

  10. Osteopontin is a marker for cancer aggressiveness and patient survival

    OpenAIRE

    Weber, G.F.; Lett, G S; Haubein, N C

    2010-01-01

    Background: Only a fraction of molecular cancer markers identified in the scientific literature have found clinical use. Specifically, few predictors of invasiveness are established in diagnostics. Meta-analysis is a valuable tool for biomarker validation. Here, we evaluate Osteopontin as a marker for tumor aggressiveness (grade, stage, early progression) and patient survival. Methods: Publications through 2008 with the keywords ‘osteopontin AND cancer' were retrieved. Titles and abstracts we...

  11. ABO blood group and breast cancer incidence and survival

    OpenAIRE

    Gates, Margaret A.; Xu, Mousheng; Chen, Wendy Y.; Kraft, Peter; Hankinson, Susan E; Wolpin, Brian M.

    2012-01-01

    ABO blood type has been associated with risk and survival for several malignancies; however, data for an association with breast cancer are inconsistent. Our study population consisted of Nurses’ Health Study participants with self-reported serologic blood type and/or ABO genotype. Using Cox proportional hazards regression, we examined the association between serologic blood type and incident breast cancer among 67,697 women, including 3,107 cases. In addition, we examined the association wit...

  12. Inferential Statistics from Black Hispanic Breast Cancer Survival Data

    OpenAIRE

    Khan, Hafiz M. R.; Anshul Saxena; Elizabeth Ross; Venkataraghavan Ramamoorthy; Diana Sheehan

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we test the statistical probability models for breast cancer survival data for race and ethnicity. Data was collected from breast cancer patients diagnosed in United States during the years 1973–2009. We selected a stratified random sample of Black Hispanic female patients from the Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) database to derive the statistical probability models. We used three common model building criteria which include Akaike Information Criteria (AIC), Ba...

  13. Effect of Psychosocial Factors on Cancer Risk and Survival

    OpenAIRE

    ,

    2014-01-01

    Psychosocial factors such as personality traits and depression may alter immune and endocrine function, with possible effects on cancer incidence and survival. Although these factors have been extensively studied as risk and prognostic factors for cancer, the associations remain unclear. The author used data from prospective cohort studies in population-based and clinical databases to investigate these relations. The findings do not support the hypotheses that personality traits and depressio...

  14. The impact of comorbidity on cancer survival: a review

    OpenAIRE

    Søgaard, Mette

    2013-01-01

    Mette Søgaard,1 Reimar Wernich Thomsen,1 Kristine Skovgaard Bossen,2 Henrik Toft Sørensen,1 Mette Nørgaard1 1Department of Clinical Epidemiology, Institute of Clinical Medicine, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus, Denmark; 2Danish Cancer Society, Copenhagen, Denmark Background: A number of studies have shown poorer survival among cancer patients with comorbidity. Several mechanisms may underlie this finding. In this review we summarize the current literature ...

  15. Access to treatment and educational inequalities in cancer survival

    OpenAIRE

    Jon H. Fiva; Hægeland, Torbjørn; Rønning, Marte; Syse, Astri

    2014-01-01

    The public health care systems in the Nordic countries provide high quality care almost free of charge to all citizens. However, social inequalities in health persist. Previous research has, for example, documented substantial educational inequalities in cancer survival. We investigate to what extent this may be driven by differential access to and utilization of high quality treatment options. Quasi-experimental evidence based on the establishment of regional cancer wards indicates that i) h...

  16. Acess to Treatment and Educational Inequalities in Cancer Survival

    OpenAIRE

    Jon H. Fiva; Haegeland, Torbjørn; Rønning, Marte; Syse, Astri

    2013-01-01

    The public health care systems in the Nordic countries provide high quality care almost free of charge to all citizens. However, social inequalities in health persist. Previous research has, for example, documented substantial educational inequalities in cancer survival. We investigate to what extent this may be driven by differential access to and utilization of high quality treatment options. Quasi-experimental evidence based on the establishment of regional cancer wards indicates that i) h...

  17. Re-analysis of survival data of cancer patients utilizing additive homeopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleiss, Andreas; Frass, Michael; Gaertner, Katharina

    2016-08-01

    In this short communication we present a re-analysis of homeopathic patient data in comparison to control patient data from the same Outpatient´s Unit "Homeopathy in malignant diseases" of the Medical University of Vienna. In this analysis we took account of a probable immortal time bias. For patients suffering from advanced stages of cancer and surviving the first 6 or 12 months after diagnosis, respectively, the results show that utilizing homeopathy gives a statistically significant (pcontrol patients regarding survival time. In conclusion, bearing in mind all limitations, the results of this retrospective study suggest that patients with advanced stages of cancer might benefit from additional homeopathic treatment until a survival time of up to 12 months after diagnosis. PMID:27515878

  18. Time dependent ethnic convergence in colorectal cancer survival in hawaii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hundahl Scott A

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although colorectal cancer death rates have been declining, this trend is not consistent across all ethnic groups. Biological, environmental, behavioral and socioeconomic explanations exist, but the reason for this discrepancy remains inconclusive. We examined the hypothesis that improved cancer screening across all ethnic groups will reduce ethnic differences in colorectal cancer survival. Methods Through the Hawaii Tumor Registry 16,424 patients diagnosed with colorectal cancer were identified during the years 1960–2000. Cox regression analyses were performed for each of three cohorts stratified by ethnicity (Caucasian, Japanese, Hawaiian, Filipino, and Chinese. The models included stage of diagnosis, year of diagnosis, age, and sex as predictors of survival. Results Mortality rates improved significantly for all ethnic groups. Moreover, with the exception of Hawaiians, rates for all ethnic groups converged over time. Persistently lower survival for Hawaiians appeared linked with more cancer treatment. Conclusion Ethnic disparities in colorectal cancer mortality rates appear primarily the result of differential utilization of health care. If modern screening procedures can be provided equally to all ethnic groups, ethnic outcome differences can be virtually eliminated.

  19. Cancer survival among children of Turkish descent in Germany 1980–2005: a registry-based analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Razum Oliver

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Little is known about the effect of migrant status on childhood cancer survival. We studied cancer survival among children of Turkish descent in the German Cancer Childhood Registry, one of the largest childhood cancer registries worldwide. Methods We identified children of Turkish descent among cancer cases using a name-based approach. We compared 5-year survival probabilities of Turkish and other children in three time periods of diagnosis (1980–87, 1988–95, 1996–2005 using the Kaplan-Meier method and log-rank tests. Results The 5-year survival probability for all cancers among 1774 cases of Turkish descent (4.76% of all 37.259 cases was 76.9% compared to 77.6% in the comparison group (all other cases; p = 0.15. We found no age- or sex-specific survival differences (p-values between p = 0.18 and p = 0.90. For the period 1980–87, the 5-year survival probability among Turkish children with lymphoid leukaemia was significantly lower (62% versus 75.8%; p Conclusion Our results suggest that nowadays Turkish migrant status has no bearing on the outcome of childhood cancer therapies in Germany. The inclusion of currently more than 95% of all childhood cancer cases in standardised treatment protocols is likely to contribute to this finding.

  20. Mitochondrial genetic polymorphisms do not predict survival in patients with pancreatic cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Halfdanarson, Thorvardur R.; Wang, Liang; William R Bamlet; de ANDRADE, MARIZA; Robert R McWilliams; Cunningham, Julie M.; Petersen, Gloria M.

    2008-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer (PC) is a highly lethal malignancy, and the majority of patients succumb to the disease within two years. We evaluated the role of variants of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and mitochondrial haplogroups in predicting prognosis of patients with PC. A total of 24 mitochondrial single nucleotide polymorphisms (mtSNPs) were genotyped in 990 patients with PC. After adjusting for covariates and multiple comparisons, no association between any of the mtSNPs or haplogroups and survival ...

  1. Sex Steroid Hormone Receptor Expression Affects Ovarian Cancer Survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jönsson, Jenny-Maria; Skovbjerg Arildsen, Nicolai; Malander, Susanne;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Although most ovarian cancers express estrogen (ER), progesterone (PR), and androgen (AR) receptors, they are currently not applied in clinical decision making. We explored the prognostic impact of sex steroid hormone receptor protein and mRNA expression on survival in...

  2. Treatment Extends Survival for Women with Cervical Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patients with locally advanced cervical cancer who received gemcitabine (Gemzar®) both as part of initial treatment and as part of therapy following primary treatment had improved survival compared with patients whose treatment did not include gemcitabine, according to findings presented at the 2009 ASCO meeting in Orlando.

  3. Exemestane Following Tamoxifen Reduces Breast Cancer Recurrences and Prolongs Survival

    Science.gov (United States)

    Postmenopausal women with early-stage hormone receptor-positive breast cancer had delayed disease recurrence and longer survival after taking 2-3 years of tamoxifen followed by exemestane for a total of 5 years compared to taking tamoxifen for 5 years.

  4. Survival Analysis of Breast Cancer Subtypes in Spinal Metastases Patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Miao; Jensen, Anders Bonde; Morgen, Soeren Smith;

    2014-01-01

    downgraded from score "5" to "3" in Tokuhashi scoring system and from "slow growth" to "moderate growth" in Tomita scoring system. Spine surgeons should be critical before performing high-risk extensive surgery in patients with ER/HR (-) status, and especially, in those with triple-negative status. LEVEL OF......STUDY DESIGN: We conducted a retrospective cohort study of 151 patients with breast cancer spinal metastases. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the influence of breast cancer subtypes on survival duration of patients with breast cancer spinal metastases, and to aid spine surgeons in selecting treatments on...

  5. Concurrent Chemoradiotherapy Improves Survival in Patients With Hypopharyngeal Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To retrospectively review our institutional experience with hypopharyngeal carcinoma with respect to treatment modality. Methods and Materials: A total of 70 patients with hypopharyngeal cancer treated between 1999 and 2009 were analyzed for functional and survival outcomes. The treatments included surgery alone (n = 5), surgery followed by radiotherapy (RT) (n = 3), surgery followed by chemoradiotherapy (CRT) (n = 13), RT alone (n = 2), CRT alone (n = 22), induction chemotherapy followed by RT (n = 3), and induction chemotherapy followed by CRT (n = 22). Results: The median follow-up was 18 months. The median overall survival and disease-free survival for all patients was 28.3 and 17.6 months, respectively. The 1- and 2-year local control rate for all patients was 87.1% and 80%. CRT, given either as primary therapy or in the adjuvant setting, improved overall survival and disease-free survival compared with patients not receiving CRT. The median overall survival and disease-free survival for patients treated with CRT was 36.7 and 17.6 months vs. 14.0 and 8.0 months, respectively (p < .01). Of the patients initially treated with an organ-preserving approach, 4 (8.2%) required salvage laryngectomy for local recurrence or persistent disease; 8 (16.3%) and 12 (24.5%) patients were dependent on a percutaneous gastrostomy and tracheostomy tube, respectively. The 2-year laryngoesophageal dysfunction-free survival rate for patients treated with an organ-preserving approach was estimated at 31.7%. Conclusions: Concurrent CRT improves survival in patients with hypopharyngeal cancer. CRT given with conventional radiation techniques yields poor functional outcomes, and future efforts should be directed at determining the feasibility of pharyngeal-sparing intensity-modulated radiotherapy in patients with hypopharyngeal tumors.

  6. Concurrent Chemoradiotherapy Improves Survival in Patients With Hypopharyngeal Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paximadis, Peter, E-mail: ppaximad@med.wayne.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI (United States); Yoo, George; Lin, Ho-Sheng; Jacobs, John [Department of Otolaryngology, Barbara Ann Karmanos Cancer Institute, Detroit, MI (United States); Sukari, Ammar [Department of Medical Oncology, Barbara Ann Karmanos Cancer Institute, Detroit, MI (United States); Dyson, Greg [Department of Oncology, Barbara Ann Karmanos Cancer Institute, Detroit, MI (United States); Christensen, Michael; Kim, Harold [Department of Radiation Oncology, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI (United States)

    2012-03-15

    Purpose: To retrospectively review our institutional experience with hypopharyngeal carcinoma with respect to treatment modality. Methods and Materials: A total of 70 patients with hypopharyngeal cancer treated between 1999 and 2009 were analyzed for functional and survival outcomes. The treatments included surgery alone (n = 5), surgery followed by radiotherapy (RT) (n = 3), surgery followed by chemoradiotherapy (CRT) (n = 13), RT alone (n = 2), CRT alone (n = 22), induction chemotherapy followed by RT (n = 3), and induction chemotherapy followed by CRT (n = 22). Results: The median follow-up was 18 months. The median overall survival and disease-free survival for all patients was 28.3 and 17.6 months, respectively. The 1- and 2-year local control rate for all patients was 87.1% and 80%. CRT, given either as primary therapy or in the adjuvant setting, improved overall survival and disease-free survival compared with patients not receiving CRT. The median overall survival and disease-free survival for patients treated with CRT was 36.7 and 17.6 months vs. 14.0 and 8.0 months, respectively (p < .01). Of the patients initially treated with an organ-preserving approach, 4 (8.2%) required salvage laryngectomy for local recurrence or persistent disease; 8 (16.3%) and 12 (24.5%) patients were dependent on a percutaneous gastrostomy and tracheostomy tube, respectively. The 2-year laryngoesophageal dysfunction-free survival rate for patients treated with an organ-preserving approach was estimated at 31.7%. Conclusions: Concurrent CRT improves survival in patients with hypopharyngeal cancer. CRT given with conventional radiation techniques yields poor functional outcomes, and future efforts should be directed at determining the feasibility of pharyngeal-sparing intensity-modulated radiotherapy in patients with hypopharyngeal tumors.

  7. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy in advanced epithelial ovarian cancer: A survival study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Upasana Baruah

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Patients with advanced ovarian cancer have a poor prognosis in spite of the best possible care. Primary debulking surgery has been the standard of care in advanced ovarian cancer; however, it is associated with high mortality and morbidity rates as shown in various studies. Several studies have discussed the benefit of neoadjuvant chemotherapy in patients with advanced ovarian cancer. Aims: This study aims to evaluate the survival statistics of the patients who have been managed with interval debulking surgery (IDS from January 2007 to December 2009. Materials and Methods: During the period from January 2007 to December 2009, a retrospective analysis of 104 patients who underwent IDS for stage IIIC or IV advanced epithelial ovarian cancer at our institute were selected for the study. IDS was attempted after three to five courses of chemotherapy with paclitaxal (175 mg/m 2 and carboplatin (5-6 of area under curve. Overall survival (OS and progression free survival (PFS were compared with results of primary debulking study from existing literature. OS and PFS rates were estimated by means of the Kaplan-Meier method. Results were statistically analyzed by IBM SPSS Statistics 19. Results: The median OS was 26 months and the median PFS was 18 months. In multivariate analysis it was found that both OS and PFS was affected by the stage, and extent of debulking. Conclusions: Neoadjuvant chemotherapy, followed by surgical cytoreduction is a promising treatment strategy for the management of advanced epithelial ovarian cancers.

  8. Paradoxical Relationship between Chromosomal Instability and Survival Outcome in Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birkbak, Nicolai Juul; Eklund, Aron Charles; Li, Qiyuan;

    2011-01-01

    70 scores. These results suggest a nonmonotonic relationship between gene signature expression and HR for survival outcome, which may explain the difficulties encountered in the identification of prognostic expression signatures in ER- breast cancer. Furthermore, the data are consistent with the...... cancer cell biological fitness and its relationship with clinical outcome, we applied the CIN70 expression signature, which correlates with DNA-based measures of structural chromosomal complexity and numerical CIN in vivo, to gene expression profiles of 2,125 breast tumors from 13 published cohorts...... intolerance of excessive CIN in carcinomas and provide a plausible strategy to define distinct prognostic patient cohorts with ER- breast cancer. Inclusion of a surrogate measurement of CIN may improve cancer risk stratification and future therapeutic approaches. Cancer Res; 71(10); 3447-52. (C) 2011 AACR....

  9. Obesity Adversely Affects Survival in Pancreatic Cancer Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    McWilliams, Robert R.; Matsumoto, Martha E.; Burch, Patrick A.; Kim, George P.; Halfdanarson, Thorvardur R.; de Andrade, Mariza; Reid-Lombardo, Kaye; Bamlet, William R.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose Higher body-mass index (BMI) has been implicated as a risk factor for developing pancreatic cancer, but its effect on survival has not been thoroughly investigated. We assessed the association of BMI with survival in a sample of pancreatic cancer patients and utilized epidemiologic and clinical information to understand the contribution of diabetes and hyperglycemia. Methods A survival analysis using Cox proportional hazards by usual adult BMI was performed on 1,861 unselected patients with pancreatic adenocarcinoma; analyses were adjusted for covariates that included clinical stage, age, and sex. Secondary analyses incorporated self reported diabetes and fasting blood glucose in the survival model. Results BMI as a continuous variable was inversely associated with survival from pancreatic adenocarcinoma [hazard ratio 1.019 for each increased unit of BMI (kg/m2), p < 0.001] after adjustment for age, stage, and sex. In analysis by National Institutes of Health BMI category, BMI of 30–34.99 kg/m2 (HR 1.14, 95% confidence interval 0.98–1.33), 35–39.99 kg/m2 (HR 1.32, 95% CI 1.08–1.62), and ≥40 (HR 1.60, 95% CI 1.26–2.04) were associated with decreased survival compared to normal BMI of 18,5–24.99 kg/m2 (overall trend test p<0.001). Fasting blood glucose and diabetes did not affect the results. Conclusions Higher BMI is associated with decreased survival in pancreatic cancer. Although the mechanism of this association remains undetermined, diabetes and hyperglycemia do not appear to account for the observed association. PMID:20665496

  10. Impact of PINCH expression on survival in colorectal cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The adaptor protein PINCH is overexpressed in the stroma of several types of cancer, and is an independent prognostic marker in colorectal cancer. In this study we further investigate the relationship of PINCH and survival regarding the response to chemotherapy in colorectal cancer. Paraffin-embedded tissue sections from 251 primary adenocarcinomas, 149 samples of adjacent normal mucosa, 57 samples of distant normal mucosa and 75 lymph node metastases were used for immunohistochemical staining. Stromal staining for PINCH increased from normal mucosa to primary tumour to metastasis. Strong staining in adjacent normal mucosa was related to worse survival independently of sex, age, tumour location, differentiation and stage (p = 0.044, HR, 1.60, 95% CI, 1.01-2.52). PINCH staining at the invasive margin tended to be related to survival (p = 0.051). In poorly differentiated tumours PINCH staining at the invasive margin was related to survival independently of sex, age and stage (p = 0.013, HR, 1.90, 95% CI, 1.14-3.16), while in better differentiated tumours it was not. In patients with weak staining, adjuvant chemotherapy was related to survival (p = 0.010, 0.013 and 0.013 in entire tumour area, invasive margin and inner tumour area, respectively), but not in patients with strong staining. However, in the multivariate analysis no such relationship was seen. PINCH staining in normal adjacent mucosa was related to survival. Further, PINCH staining at the tumour invasive margin was related to survival in poorly differentiated tumours but not in better differentiated tumours, indicating that the impact of PINCH on prognosis was dependent on differentiation status

  11. Alcohol Consumption and Survival after a Breast Cancer Diagnosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ali, Alaa M G; Schmidt, Marjanka K; Bolla, Manjeet K;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Evidence for an association of alcohol consumption with prognosis after a diagnosis of breast cancer has been inconsistent. We have reviewed and summarized the published evidence and evaluated the association using individual patient data from multiple case cohorts. METHODS: A MEDLINE...... with a small reduction in breast cancer-specific mortality in ER-negative disease. IMPACT: Considering the totality of the evidence, moderate postdiagnosis alcohol consumption is unlikely to have a major adverse effect on the survival of women with breast cancer.......BACKGROUND: Evidence for an association of alcohol consumption with prognosis after a diagnosis of breast cancer has been inconsistent. We have reviewed and summarized the published evidence and evaluated the association using individual patient data from multiple case cohorts. METHODS: A MEDLINE...... published studies suitable for inclusion in the meta-analysis. Moderate postdiagnosis alcohol consumption was not associated with overall survival [HR, 0.95; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.85-1.05], but there was some evidence of better survival associated with prediagnosis consumption (HR, 0.80; 95% CI, 0...

  12. Trends in lung cancer incidence and survival: studies based on cancer registries

    OpenAIRE

    Janssen-Heijnen, Maryska

    1998-01-01

    textabstractIn this thesis trends in the incidence and survival of patients with lung cancer since 1960 in the southeastern part of the Netherlands are described and interpreted. These trends may provide an insight into changes in mortality due to lung cancer in a region with the oldest cancer registlY in the Netherlands. Chapter 1.2 contains a review of literature on trends in the incidence and survival of lung cancer. The methods used for the studies of this thesis are described in chapter ...

  13. Improved survival for women with stage I breast cancer in south-east Sweden: A comparison between two time periods before and after increased use of adjuvant systemic therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johansson, Patrik (Dept. of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Div. of Oncology, Linkoeping Univ. (Sweden)); Fohlin, Helena (Oncologic Centre, Univ. Hospital, Linkoeping (Sweden)); Arnesson, Lars-Gunnar (Dept. of Surgery, Univ. Hospital, Linkoeping (Sweden)) (and others)

    2009-05-15

    Purpose. Continuous minor steps of improvement in the management of breast cancer have resulted in decreased mortality rates during the last decades. The aim of this study was to compare the clinical outcome of patients with stage I breast cancer diagnosed during two time periods that differed with respect to adjuvant systemic therapy. Material and methods. The studied population consisted of all women < 60 years of age, who were diagnosed breast cancer stage I between 1986 and 1999 in south-east Sweden, a total of 1 407 cases. The cohort was divided into two groups based on the management programmes of 1986 and 1992, hereafter referred to as Period 1 and Period 2. Before 1992 the only adjuvant systemic therapy recommended was tamoxifen for hormone receptor positive patients aged 50 years or older. During Period 2 the use of adjuvant treatment was extended to younger patients at high risk, identified by a high tumour S-phase fraction, with either hormonal or cytotoxic treatment. Results. The estimated distant recurrence-free survival rate was significantly higher during Period 2 than during Period 1 (p = 0.008). Subgroup analysis showed that the most evident reduction of distant recurrence risk was among hormone receptor-negative patients (HR = 0.58, 95% CI 0.31-1.09, p = 0.09) and among patients with a high tumour S-phase fraction (HR = 0.53, 0.30-0.93, p = 0.028). The risk reduction between the periods was still statistically significant in multivariate analysis when adjusting for different tumour characteristics and treatment modalities, indicating an influence of other factors not controlled for. One such factor may be the duration of tamoxifen treatment, which likely was more frequently five years during Period 2 than during Period 1. Conclusions. We conclude that the causes of the increase in distant recurrence free survival for women with breast cancer stage I are complex. The results support though that high-risk subgroups of stage I breast cancer patients

  14. Improved survival for women with stage I breast cancer in south-east Sweden: A comparison between two time periods before and after increased use of adjuvant systemic therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose. Continuous minor steps of improvement in the management of breast cancer have resulted in decreased mortality rates during the last decades. The aim of this study was to compare the clinical outcome of patients with stage I breast cancer diagnosed during two time periods that differed with respect to adjuvant systemic therapy. Material and methods. The studied population consisted of all women < 60 years of age, who were diagnosed breast cancer stage I between 1986 and 1999 in south-east Sweden, a total of 1 407 cases. The cohort was divided into two groups based on the management programmes of 1986 and 1992, hereafter referred to as Period 1 and Period 2. Before 1992 the only adjuvant systemic therapy recommended was tamoxifen for hormone receptor positive patients aged 50 years or older. During Period 2 the use of adjuvant treatment was extended to younger patients at high risk, identified by a high tumour S-phase fraction, with either hormonal or cytotoxic treatment. Results. The estimated distant recurrence-free survival rate was significantly higher during Period 2 than during Period 1 (p = 0.008). Subgroup analysis showed that the most evident reduction of distant recurrence risk was among hormone receptor-negative patients (HR = 0.58, 95% CI 0.31-1.09, p = 0.09) and among patients with a high tumour S-phase fraction (HR = 0.53, 0.30-0.93, p = 0.028). The risk reduction between the periods was still statistically significant in multivariate analysis when adjusting for different tumour characteristics and treatment modalities, indicating an influence of other factors not controlled for. One such factor may be the duration of tamoxifen treatment, which likely was more frequently five years during Period 2 than during Period 1. Conclusions. We conclude that the causes of the increase in distant recurrence free survival for women with breast cancer stage I are complex. The results support though that high-risk subgroups of stage I breast cancer patients

  15. Breast cancer survival in the US and Europe: a CONCORD high-resolution study

    OpenAIRE

    Allemani, Claudia; Sant, Milena; Weir, Hannah K.; Lisa C Richardson; Baili, Paolo; Storm, Hans; Siesling, Sabine; Torrella-Ramos, Ana; Voogd, Adri C; Aareleid, Tiiu; Ardanaz, Eva; Berrino, Franco; Bielska-Lasota, Magdalena; Bolick, Susan; Cirilli, Claudia

    2012-01-01

    Breast cancer survival is reportedly higher in the US than in Europe. The first worldwide study (CONCORD) found wide international differences in age-standardised survival. The aim of this study is to explain these survival differences.

  16. Sex Steroid Hormone Receptor Expression Affects Ovarian Cancer Survival

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny-Maria Jönsson

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Although most ovarian cancers express estrogen (ER, progesterone (PR, and androgen (AR receptors, they are currently not applied in clinical decision making. We explored the prognostic impact of sex steroid hormone receptor protein and mRNA expression on survival in epithelial ovarian cancer. Methods: Immunohistochemical stainings for ERα, ERβ, PR, and AR were assessed in relation to survival in 118 serous and endometrioid ovarian cancers. Expression of the genes encoding the four receptors was studied in relation to prognosis in the molecular subtypes of ovarian cancer in an independent data set, hypothesizing that the expression levels and prognostic impact may differ between the subtypes. Results: Expression of PR or AR protein was associated with improved 5-year progression-free (P = .001 for both and overall survival (P < .001 for both, log-rank test. ERα and ERβ did not provide prognostic information. Patients whose tumors coexpressed PR and AR had the most favorable prognosis, and this effect was retained in multivariable analyses. Analyses of the corresponding genes using an independent data set revealed differences among the molecular subtypes, but no clear relationship between high coexpression of PGR and AR and prognosis. Conclusions: A favorable outcome was seen for patients whose tumors coexpressed PR and AR. Gene expression data suggested variable effects in the different molecular subtypes. These findings demonstrate a prognostic role for PR and AR in ovarian cancer and support that tumors should be stratified based on molecular as well as histological subtypes in future studies investigating the role of endocrine treatment in ovarian cancer.

  17. Ethnic group and survival from childhood cancer: report from the UK Children's Cancer Study Group

    OpenAIRE

    Stiller, C A; Bunch, K. J.; Lewis, I. J.

    2000-01-01

    Survival following cancer was analysed in relation to ethnic group among children diagnosed in Britain during 1981–1996 and treated at paediatric oncology centres by members of the UK Children's Cancer Study Group. Survival was analysed for 11 diagnostic groups: acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL), acute non-lymphocytic leukaemia, Hodgkin's disease, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, astrocytoma, primitive neuroectodermal tumour, neuroblastoma, Wilms' tumour, osteosarcoma, Ewing's sarcoma and rhabdomyos...

  18. Obesity and survival among women with ovarian cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nagle, C M; Dixon, S C; Jensen, A.; Kjaer, S K; Modugno, F; deFazio, A; Fereday, S; Hung, J; Johnatty, S E; Fasching, P A; Beckmann, M W; Lambrechts, D; Vergote, I; Van Nieuwenhuysen, E; Lambrechts, S; Risch, H A; Rossing, M A; Doherty, J A; Wicklund, K G; Chang-Claude, J; Goodman, M T; Ness, R B; Moysich, K; Heitz, F; du Bois, A; Harter, P; Schwaab, I; Matsuo, K; Hosono, S; Goode, E L; Vierkant, R A; Larson, M C; Fridley, B L; Høgdall, C; Schildkraut, J M; Weber, R P; Cramer, D W; Terry, K L; Bandera, E V; Paddock, L; Rodriguez-Rodriguez, L; Wentzensen, N; Yang, H P; Brinton, L A; Lissowska, J; Høgdall, E; Lundvall, L; Whittemore, A; McGuire, V; Sieh, W; Rothstein, J; Sutphen, R; Anton-Culver, H; Ziogas, A; Pearce, C L; Wu, A H; Webb, P M

    2015-01-01

    observed for women who were obese (BMI: 30-34.9, pHR: 1.10 (95% confidence intervals (CIs): 0.99-1.23); BMI: ⩾35, pHR: 1.12 (95% CI: 1.01-1.25)). Results were similar for PFS and ovarian cancer-specific survival. In analyses stratified by histologic subtype, associations were strongest for women with low-grade...... serous (pHR: 1.12 per 5 kg m(-2)) and endometrioid subtypes (pHR: 1.08 per 5 kg m(-2)), and more modest for the high-grade serous (pHR: 1.04 per 5 kg m(-2)) subtype, but only the association with high-grade serous cancers was significant. CONCLUSIONS: Higher BMI is associated with adverse survival among...

  19. Stage and survival in breast cancer patients in screened and non-screened Danish and Swedish populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Anni R; Garne, Jens P; Storm, Hans H;

    2003-01-01

    Comparisons between the Danish and Swedish Cancer Registry revealed a 9% difference in 5-year survival for breast cancer patients diagnosed between 1983 and 1989. The purpose of this study was to determine whether previous differences in survival and stage still exist or whether the Danish figures...... approach those of the Swedish registry. Complete population-based cohorts of patients with breast cancer in the years 1996-1997 from well-defined areas in Denmark and Sweden were compared. The study regions were a Danish (Funen) and a Swedish (Malmö) county with mammography screening and two Danish...... counties without screening. No difference in extent of disease or survival was observed between screening areas regardless of country. However, there were significant differences in stage distribution and survival between screening populations and Danish non-screening populations, to the benefit of...

  20. Prediction of survival in thyroid cancer using data mining technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jajroudi, M; Baniasadi, T; Kamkar, L; Arbabi, F; Sanei, M; Ahmadzade, M

    2014-08-01

    Cancer is the second leading cause of death after cardiovascular diseases in the world. Health professionals are seeking ways for suitable treatment and quality of care in these groups of patients. Survival prediction is important for both physicians and patients in order to choose the best way of management. Artificial Neural Network (ANN) is one of the most efficient data mining methods. This technique is able to evaluate the relationship between different variables spontaneously without any prevalent data. In our study ANN and Logistic Regression were used to predict survival in thyroid cancer and compare these results. SEER (Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Result) data were got from SEER site1. Effective features in thyroid cancer have been selected based on supervision by radiation oncologists and evidence. After data pruning 7706 samples were studied with 16 attributes. Multi Layer Prediction (MLP) was used as the chosen neural network and survival was predicted for 1-, 3- and 5-years. Accuracy, sensitivity and specificity were parameters to evaluate the model. The results of MLP and Logistic Regression models for one year are defined as for 1-year (92.9%, 92.8, 93%), (81.2%, 88.9%, 72.5%), for 3-year as (85.1%, 87.8%, 82.8%), (88.6%, 90.2%, 87.2%) and for 5-year as (86.8%, 96%, 74.3%), (90.7%, 95.9%, 83.7) respectively. According to our results ANN could efficiently represent a suitable method of survival prediction in thyroid cancer patients and the results were comparable with statistical models. PMID:24206207

  1. Occurrence and survival of synchronous pulmonary metastases in colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordholm-Carstensen, Andreas; Krarup, Peter-Martin; Jorgensen, Lars N;

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the occurrence of synchronous colorectal cancer metastases (SCCM) confined to the lungs, risk factors for these metastases and their impact on survival. METHODS: In a nationwide cohort study of 26,200 patients data were prospectively entered into the Danish Colorectal Ca...... consequent exaggeration of the treatment effect should be kept in mind. This study may serve as a reliable un-biased reference for future evaluation on detection strategies and potential therapeutic interventions....

  2. Quantifying cancer patient survival : extensions and applications of cure models and life expectancy estimation

    OpenAIRE

    Andersson, Therese M-L

    2013-01-01

    Cancer patient survival is the single most important measure of cancer patient care. By quantifying cancer patient survival in different ways further insights can be gained in terms of temporal trends and differences in cancer patient survival between groups. The objective of this thesis is to develop and apply methods for estimating the cure proportion and loss in expectation of life for cancer patients. In paper I, a cure model was used to study temporal trends in sur...

  3. Clinical and multiple gene expression variables in survival analysis of breast cancer: Analysis with the hypertabastic survival model

    OpenAIRE

    Tabatabai Mohammad A; Eby Wayne M; Nimeh Nadim; Li Hong; Singh Karan P

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background We explore the benefits of applying a new proportional hazard model to analyze survival of breast cancer patients. As a parametric model, the hypertabastic survival model offers a closer fit to experimental data than Cox regression, and furthermore provides explicit survival and hazard functions which can be used as additional tools in the survival analysis. In addition, one of our main concerns is utilization of multiple gene expression variables. Our analysis treats the ...

  4. PERK Integrates Oncogenic Signaling and Cell Survival During Cancer Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bu, Yiwen; Diehl, J Alan

    2016-10-01

    Unfolded protein responses (UPR), consisting of three major transducers PERK, IRE1, and ATF6, occur in the midst of a variety of intracellular and extracellular challenges that perturb protein folding in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). ER stress occurs and is thought to be a contributing factor to a number of human diseases, including cancer, neurodegenerative disorders, and various metabolic syndromes. In the context of neoplastic growth, oncogenic stress resulting from dysregulation of oncogenes such as c-Myc, Braf(V600E) , and HRAS(G12V) trigger the UPR as an adaptive strategy for cancer cell survival. PERK is an ER resident type I protein kinase harboring both pro-apoptotic and pro-survival capabilities. PERK, as a coordinator through its downstream substrates, reprograms cancer gene expression to facilitate survival in response to oncogenes and microenvironmental challenges, such as hypoxia, angiogenesis, and metastasis. Herein, we discuss how PERK kinase engages in tumor initiation, transformation, adaption microenvironmental stress, chemoresistance and potential opportunities, and potential opportunities for PERK targeted therapy. J. Cell. Physiol. 231: 2088-2096, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26864318

  5. Analysis of breath samples for lung cancer survival

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: Predictions of survival days for lung cancer patients. - Highlights: • Analyses of exhaled air offer a large diagnostic potential. • Patientswith diagnosed lung cancer were studied using an electronic nose. • Excellent predictions and stable models of survival day were obtained. • Consecutive measurements were very important. - Abstract: Analyses of exhaled air by means of electronic noses offer a large diagnostic potential. Such analyses are non-invasive; samples can also be easily obtained from severely ill patients and repeated within short intervals. Lung cancer is the most deadly malignant tumor worldwide, and monitoring of lung cancer progression is of great importance and may help to decide best therapy. In this report, twenty-two patients with diagnosed lung cancer and ten healthy volunteers were studied using breath samples collected several times at certain intervals and analysed by an electronic nose. The samples were divided into three sub-groups; group d for survivor less than one year, group s for survivor more than a year and group h for the healthy volunteers. Prediction models based on partial least square and artificial neural nets could not classify the collected groups d, s and h, but separated well group d from group h. Using artificial neural net, group d could be separated from group s. Excellent predictions and stable models of survival day for group d were obtained, both based on partial least square and artificial neural nets, with correlation coefficients 0.981 and 0.985, respectively. Finally, the importance of consecutive measurements was shown

  6. Analysis of breath samples for lung cancer survival

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmekel, Birgitta [Division of of Clinical Physiology, County Council of Östergötland, Linköping (Sweden); Clinical Physiology, Department of Medicine and Health, Faculty of Health Sciences, Linköping University, Linköping (Sweden); Winquist, Fredrik, E-mail: frw@ifm.liu.se [Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Linköping University, Linköping SE-581 83 (Sweden); Vikström, Anders [Department of Pulmonary Medicine, University hospital of Linköping, County Council of Östergötland, Linköping (Sweden)

    2014-08-20

    Graphical abstract: Predictions of survival days for lung cancer patients. - Highlights: • Analyses of exhaled air offer a large diagnostic potential. • Patientswith diagnosed lung cancer were studied using an electronic nose. • Excellent predictions and stable models of survival day were obtained. • Consecutive measurements were very important. - Abstract: Analyses of exhaled air by means of electronic noses offer a large diagnostic potential. Such analyses are non-invasive; samples can also be easily obtained from severely ill patients and repeated within short intervals. Lung cancer is the most deadly malignant tumor worldwide, and monitoring of lung cancer progression is of great importance and may help to decide best therapy. In this report, twenty-two patients with diagnosed lung cancer and ten healthy volunteers were studied using breath samples collected several times at certain intervals and analysed by an electronic nose. The samples were divided into three sub-groups; group d for survivor less than one year, group s for survivor more than a year and group h for the healthy volunteers. Prediction models based on partial least square and artificial neural nets could not classify the collected groups d, s and h, but separated well group d from group h. Using artificial neural net, group d could be separated from group s. Excellent predictions and stable models of survival day for group d were obtained, both based on partial least square and artificial neural nets, with correlation coefficients 0.981 and 0.985, respectively. Finally, the importance of consecutive measurements was shown.

  7. Lower treatment intensity and poorer survival in metastatic colorectal cancer patients who live alone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cavalli-Björkman, N; Qvortrup, C; Sebjørnsen, S;

    2012-01-01

    Socioeconomic status (SES) and social support influences cancer survival. If SES and social support affects cancer treatment has not been thoroughly explored.......Socioeconomic status (SES) and social support influences cancer survival. If SES and social support affects cancer treatment has not been thoroughly explored....

  8. Estimating the personal cure rate of cancer patients using population-based grouped cancer survival data

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Binbing; Tiwari, Ram C.; Feuer, Eric J.

    2010-01-01

    Cancer patients are subject to multiple competing risks of death and may die from causes other than the cancer diagnosed. The probability of not dying from the cancer diagnosed, which is one of the patients’ main concerns, is sometimes called the “personal cure” rate. Two approaches of modeling competing-risk survival data, namely the cause-specific hazards approach and the mixture model approach, have been used to model competing-risk survival data. In this article, we first show the connect...

  9. Explaining variation in cancer survival between 11 jurisdictions in the International Cancer Benchmarking Partnership

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rose, Peter W; Rubin, Greg; Perera-Salazar, Rafael;

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The International Cancer Benchmarking Partnership (ICBP) is a collaboration between 6 countries and 12 jurisdictions with similar primary care-led health services. This study investigates primary care physician (PCP) behaviour and systems that may contribute to the timeliness of...... investigating for cancer and subsequently, international survival differences. DESIGN: A validated survey administered to PCPs via the internet set out in two parts: direct questions on primary care structure and practice relating to cancer diagnosis, and clinical vignettes, assessing management of scenarios...

  10. Nomograms to estimate long-term overall survival and breast cancer-specific survival of patients with luminal breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wei; Jiang, Yi-Zhou; Liu, Yi-Rong; Ma, Ding; Shao, Zhi-Ming

    2016-04-12

    Luminal breast cancer constitutes a group of highly heterogeneous diseases with a sustained high risk of late recurrence. We aimed to develop comprehensive and practical nomograms to better estimate the long-term survival of luminal breast cancer.Patients with luminal breast cancer diagnosed between 1990 and 2006 were retrieved from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database and randomly divided into the training (n = 87,867) and validation (n = 88,215) cohorts. The cumulative incidence function (CIF) and a competing-risks model were used to estimate the probability of breast cancer-specific survival (BCSS) and death from other causes. We integrated significant prognostic factors to build nomograms and subjected the nomograms to bootstrap internal validation and to external validation.We screened 176,082 luminal breast cancer cases. The 5- and 10-year probabilities of overall death were 0.089 and 0.202, respectively. The 5- and 10-year probabilities of breast cancer-specific mortality (BCSM) were 0.053 and 0.112, respectively. Nine independent prognostic factors for both OS and BCSS were integrated to construct the nomograms. The calibration curves for the probabilities of 5- and 10-year OS and BCSS showed excellent agreement between the nomogram prediction and actual observation. The C-indexes of the nomograms were high in both internal validation (0.732 for OS and 0.800 for BCSS) and external validation (0.731 for OS and 0.794 for BCSS).We established nomograms that accurately predict OS and BCSS for patients with luminal breast cancer. The nomograms can identify patients with higher risk of late overall mortality and BCSM, helping physicians in facilitating individualized treatment. PMID:26967253

  11. Survival rate of patients with differentiated thyroid cancer without early postoperative external radiation of the neck

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results of survival rates in differentiated thyroid carcinoma and comparison with a review of literature are given. Four hundred and sixty-four patients with differentiated cancer of the thyroid (354 female, 110 male, range: 6 to 84 years, median: 46.8 years; 275 patients with papillary and 190 with follicular cancer) were analyzed retrospectively. All patients were treated with ablative doses of radioiodine after thyroidectomy including compartment oriented lymphadenectomy in 27 patients. All patients passed an individual systematic follow-up according to risk: 'Low risk' pT≤3NxM0 vs. 'high risk' pT4 and/or M1. Early postoperative radiation was not included even in patients with local invasion (pT4). The corrected 5- and 10-year survival rates for papillary cancer are 0.91 and 0.91, for follicular cancer 0.94 resp. 0.78 (p=0.55), age (≤40 years 0.96 and 0.96, >40 years 0.90 and 0.80; p=0.008), gender (female 0.93 and 0.92, male 0.90 and 0.70; p=0.06) and invasion/distant metastases (pT4 and/or M1 0.83 and 0.71, other 0.97 and 0.97; p=0.0001). A systematic follow-up with an individually adapted standardized scheme is associated with high survival rates in patients with differentiated cancer of the thyroid. Early diagnosis of recurrences, locoregional lymph node and distant metastases with early surgical treatment including compartment oriented lymphadenectomy and radioiodine therapy yield high survival even without external radiation. (orig./MG)

  12. Trends in colorectal cancer survival in northern Denmark: 1985-2004

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Lene Hjerrild; Nørgaard, Mette; Jepsen, Peter;

    2007-01-01

    age and gender. A total of 19,515 CRC patients were identified and linked with the Central Office of Civil Registration to ascertain survival through January 2005. Results: From 1985 to 2004, 1-year and 5-year survival improved both for patients with colon and rectal cancer. From 1995-1999 to 2000......-2004, overall 1-year survival of 65% for colon cancer did not improve, and some age groups experienced a decreasing 1-year survival probability. For rectal cancer, overall 1-year survival increased from 71% in 1995-1999 to 74% in 2000-2004. Using 1985-1989 as reference period, 30-day mortality did not decrease...... after implementation of the National Cancer Plan in 2000, neither for patients with colon nor rectal cancer. However, 1-year mortality for patients with rectal cancer did decline after its implementation. CONCLUSION: Survival and mortality from colon and rectal cancer improved before the National Cancer...

  13. Inferential Statistics from Black Hispanic Breast Cancer Survival Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hafiz M. R. Khan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we test the statistical probability models for breast cancer survival data for race and ethnicity. Data was collected from breast cancer patients diagnosed in United States during the years 1973–2009. We selected a stratified random sample of Black Hispanic female patients from the Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results (SEER database to derive the statistical probability models. We used three common model building criteria which include Akaike Information Criteria (AIC, Bayesian Information Criteria (BIC, and Deviance Information Criteria (DIC to measure the goodness of fit tests and it was found that Black Hispanic female patients survival data better fit the exponentiated exponential probability model. A novel Bayesian method was used to derive the posterior density function for the model parameters as well as to derive the predictive inference for future response. We specifically focused on Black Hispanic race. Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC method was used for obtaining the summary results of posterior parameters. Additionally, we reported predictive intervals for future survival times. These findings would be of great significance in treatment planning and healthcare resource allocation.

  14. Diabetes and pancreatic cancer survival: a prospective cohort-based study

    OpenAIRE

    Toriola, A T; Stolzenberg-Solomon, R; Dalidowitz, L; Linehan, D; Colditz, G

    2014-01-01

    Background: Diabetes is a risk factor for pancreatic cancer but its association with survival from pancreatic cancer is poorly understood. Our objective was to investigate the association of diabetes with survival among pancreatic cancer patients in a prospective cohort-based study where diabetes history was ascertained before pancreatic cancer diagnosis. Methods: We evaluated survival by baseline (1993–2001) self-reported diabetes history (n=62) among 504 participants that developed exocrine...

  15. Breast cancer in young women: poor survival despite intensive treatment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanna Fredholm

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Breast cancer is uncommon in young women and correlates with a less favourable prognosis; still it is the most frequent cancer in women under 40, accounting for 30-40% of all incident female cancer. The aim of this study was to study prognosis in young women, quantifying how much stage at diagnosis and management on the one hand, and tumour biology on the other; each contribute to the worse prognosis seen in this age group. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In a registry based cohort of women aged 20-69 (n = 22 017 with a primary diagnosis of invasive breast cancer (1992-2005, women aged 20-34 (n = 471, 35-39 (n = 858 and 40-49 (n = 4789 were compared with women aged 50-69 years (n = 15 899. The cumulative 5-year relative survival ratio and the relative excess mortality (RER were calculated. The cumulative 5-year relative survival ratio was lowest in women aged 20-34. The RER was 2.84 for women aged 20-34 and decreased with increasing age (RER 1.76 and 1.17 for women aged 35-39 and 40-49, respectively. The excess risk was, however, present only in disease stages I and II. For women aged 20-34 with stage I disease RER was 4.63, and 6.70 in the subgroup with tumour size 1-10 mm. The absolute difference in stage I between the youngest and the reference groups amounted to nearly 8%, with a 90% 5-year survival in women aged 20-34. In stages IIa and IIb, the relative excess risk was not as dramatic, but the absolute differences approached 15%. The youngest women with small tumours generally received more aggressive treatment than women in older age groups. CONCLUSIONS: After correction for stage, tumour characteristics and treatment, age remained an independent risk factor for breast cancer death in women <35 years of age. The excess risk for young women was only seen in early stages of disease and was most pronounced in women with small tumours. Young women affected by breast cancer have a high risk of dying compared to their middle

  16. Modelling p-value distributions to improve theme-driven survival analysis of cancer transcriptome datasets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brors Benedikt

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Theme-driven cancer survival studies address whether the expression signature of genes related to a biological process can predict patient survival time. Although this should ideally be achieved by testing two separate null hypotheses, current methods treat both hypotheses as one. The first test should assess whether a geneset, independent of its composition, is associated with prognosis (frequently done with a survival test. The second test then verifies whether the theme of the geneset is relevant (usually done with an empirical test that compares the geneset of interest with random genesets. Current methods do not test this second null hypothesis because it has been assumed that the distribution of p-values for random genesets (when tested against the first null hypothesis is uniform. Here we demonstrate that such an assumption is generally incorrect and consequently, such methods may erroneously associate the biology of a particular geneset with cancer prognosis. Results To assess the impact of non-uniform distributions for random genesets in such studies, an automated theme-driven method was developed. This method empirically approximates the p-value distribution of sets of unrelated genes based on a permutation approach, and tests whether predefined sets of biologically-related genes are associated with survival. The results from a comparison with a published theme-driven approach revealed non-uniform distributions, suggesting a significant problem exists with false positive rates in the original study. When applied to two public cancer datasets our technique revealed novel ontological categories with prognostic power, including significant correlations between "fatty acid metabolism" with overall survival in breast cancer, as well as "receptor mediated endocytosis", "brain development", "apical plasma membrane" and "MAPK signaling pathway" with overall survival in lung cancer. Conclusions Current methods of theme

  17. Opioid growth factor improves clinical benefit and survival in patients with advanced pancreatic cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jill P Smith

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Jill P Smith1, Sandra I Bingaman1, David T Mauger2, Harold H Harvey1, Laurence M Demers3, Ian S Zagon41Departments of Medicine, 2Public Health Sciences, 3Pathology, and 4Neurosciences and Anatomy, Pennsylvania State University, College of Medicine, Hershey Medical Center, Hershey, PA, USABackground: Advanced pancreatic cancer carries the poorest prognosis of all gastrointestinal malignancies. Once the tumor has spread beyond the margins of the pancreas, chemotherapy is the major treatment modality offered to patients; however, chemotherapy does not significantly improve survival.Objective: Opioid growth factor (OGF; [Met5]-enkephalin is a natural peptide that has been shown to inhibit growth of pancreatic cancer in cell culture and in nude mice. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of OGF biotherapy on subjects with advanced pancreatic cancer who failed chemotherapy.Methods: In a prospective phase II open-labeled clinical trial, 24 subjects who failed standard chemotherapy for advanced pancreatic cancer were treated weekly with OGF 250 μg/kg intravenously. Outcomes measured included clinical benefit, tumor response by radiographic imaging, quality of life, and survival.Results: Clinical benefit response was experienced by 53% of OGF-treated patients compared to historical controls of 23.8% and 4.8% for gemcitabine and 5-fluorouracil (5-FU, respectively. Of the subjects surviving more than eight weeks, 62% showed either a decrease or stabilization in tumor size by computed tomography. The median survival time for OGF-treated patients was three times that of untreated patients (65.5 versus 21 days, p < 0.001. No adverse effects on hematologic or chemistry parameters were noted, and quality of life surveys suggested improvement with OGF. Limitations: Measurements other than survival were not allowed in control patients, and clinical benefit comparisons were made to historical controls.Conclusion: OGF biotherapy improves the

  18. High risk bladder cancer: current management and survival

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna M. Leliveld

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To evaluate the pattern of care in patients with high risk non muscle invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC in the Comprehensive Cancer Center North-Netherlands (CCCN and to assess factors associated with the choice of treatment, recurrence and progression free survival rates. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Retrospective analysis of 412 patients with newly diagnosed high risk NMIBC. Clinical, demographic and follow-up data were obtained from the CCCN Cancer Registry and a detailed medical record review. Uni and multivariate analysis was performed to identify factors related to choice of treatment and 5 year recurrence and progression free survival. RESULTS: 74/412 (18% patients with high risk NMIBC underwent a transurethral resection (TUR as single treatment. Adjuvant treatment after TUR was performed in 90.7% of the patients treated in teaching hospitals versus 71.8 % in non-teaching hospitals (p 80 years OR 0.1 p = 0.001 and treatment in non-teaching hospitals (OR 0.25; p < 0.001 were associated with less adjuvant treatment after TUR. Tumor recurrence occurred in 191/392 (49% and progression in 84 /392 (21.4% patients. The mean 5-years progression free survival was 71.6% (95% CI 65.5-76.8. CONCLUSION: In this pattern of care study in high risk NMIBC, 18% of the patients were treated with TUR as single treatment. Age and treatment in non-teaching hospitals were associated with less adjuvant treatment after TUR. None of the variables sex, age, comorbidity, hospital type, stage and year of treatment was associated with 5 year recurrence or progression rates.

  19. Nuclear oxidative damage correlates with poor survival in colorectal cancer.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Sheridan, J

    2012-02-01

    Oxidative DNA damage results from DNA adducts such as 8-oxo-7, 8 dihydro-2\\'-deoxyguanosine (8-oxo-dG), which is a pro-mutagenic lesion. No known association between 8-oxo-dG, disease progression and survival exists in colorectal cancer (CRC). We examined levels of 8-oxo-dG in sporadic CRC to determine its relationship with pathological stage and outcome. A total of 143 CRC patients and 105 non-cancer patients were studied. Nuclear and cytoplasmic 8-oxo-dG was assessed using immunohistochemistry. Double immunofluorescence using 8-oxo-dG and manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) antibodies localised cytoplasmic 8-oxo-dG. Apoptosis was detected using TUNEL. Nuclear staining levels were similar in tumour tissue and matched normal mucosa in both epithelial (P=0.22) and stromal (P=0.85) cells. Epithelial cytoplasmic staining was greater in tumour tissue (P<0.001). Double immunofluorescence localised cytoplasmic 8-oxo-dG to mitochondria. Epithelial and stromal nuclear 8-oxo-dG decreased with local disease spread, but highest levels were found in distant disease (P<0.01). Survival was related to epithelial nuclear and stromal staining in normal mucosa (P<0.001) and tumour (P<0.01) but was unrelated to cytoplasmic staining. Normal control cells in tissue from cancer patients with high levels of 8-oxo-dG failed to undergo cell death. 8-oxo-dG may be an important biomarker of disease risk, progression and survival for CRC patients.

  20. Radium-223 Improves Survival in Patients with Advanced Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and data sets for researchers Research by Cancer Type Find research about a specific cancer type Progress Annual Report ... Laws Careers Visitor Information Search Search Home Cancer Types Prostate Cancer Research Prostate Cancer Patient Prostate Cancer Treatment Prostate Cancer ...

  1. Stage-specific survival of epithelial cancers in North-Holland/Flevoland, The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, O.; Leeuwen, van F.E.

    2005-01-01

    While stage is the most important factor for determining cancer survival, population-based survival data according to stage are rarely presented. We present such data for a large population diagnosed with cancer in the area covered by the Amsterdam Cancer Registry for the period 1989-2001 (n=108,251

  2. Prediction of survival in patients with Stage IV kidney cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. V. Mirilenko

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The efficiency of treatment was evaluated and the predictors of adjusted survival (AS were identified in patients with disseminated kidney cancer treated at the Republican Research and Practical Center for Oncology and Medical Radiology in 1999 to 2011 (A.E. Okeanov, P.I. Moiseev, L.F. Levin. Malignant tumors in Belarus, 2001–2012. Edited by O.G. Sukonko. Seven factors (regional lymph node metastases; distant bone metastases; a high-grade tumor; sarcomatous tumor differentiation; hemoglobin levels of < 125 g/l in women and < 150 g/l in men; an erythrocyte sedimentation rate of 40 mm/h; palliative surgery were found to have an independent, unfavorable impact on AS. A multidimensional model was built to define what risk group low (no more than 2 poor factors, moderate (3–4 poor factors, and high (more than 4 poor factors the patients with Stage IV kidney cancer belonged to. In these groups, the median survival was 34.7, 17.2, and 4.0 months and 3-year AS rates were 48.6, 24.6, and 3.2 %, respectively. 

  3. Breast cancer treatment--later pregnancy and survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasum, M

    2006-01-01

    Although breast cancer (BC) affects patients at older age, it occurs more frequently in premenopausal women due to better diagnostic methods and an increasing trend towards delay in childbearing. The increasing population of women with BC delaying childbearing may be of concern regarding the effect of treatment on later pregnancy, as well as the influence of pregnancy on the prognosis of disease and survival. Radiotherapy has shown no adverse effects on the clinical outcome in the offspring except diminished lactation. The offspring of patients who became pregnant after chemotherapy have shown no congenital anomalies, although sometimes a high abortion rate (10-29%) has been demonstrated. Currently, several fertility-sparing options, including the use of endocrine therapy and assisted reproductive technologies, cryopreservation and ovarian tissue transplantation, are very promising. The survival of BC patients is not decreased by a subsequent pregnancy; compared with the non-pregnant group their survival rates are often the same or better, with favourable relative risks and lower recurrence of metastases. PMID:16800246

  4. Reproductive factors with respect to breast cancer risk and breast cancer survival

    OpenAIRE

    Hajiebrahimi, Mohammadhossein

    2014-01-01

    Aims: The primary aim of this thesis was to examine the potential relationship between indirect markers of exposure to hormones during pregnancy and the risk of and survival from breast cancer, with special emphasis on young patients. Our specific objectives were as follows: to determine whether the association between placental weight and offspring size, on the one hand, and maternal mortality from breast cancer, on the other, are influenced by tumor characteristics; to ...

  5. Progression-free survival as a potential surrogate for overall survival in metastatic breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beauchemin C

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Catherine Beauchemin,1 Dan Cooper,2 Marie-Ève Lapierre,1 Louise Yelle,3 Jean Lachaine11Université de Montréal, Faculté de pharmacie, Montreal, 2Institut national d'excellence en santé et en services sociaux (INESSS, 3Centre Hospitalier de l'Université de Montréal – Hôpital Notre-Dame, Département de médecine, Université de Montréal, Montreal, QC, CanadaBackground: Progression-free survival (PFS and time to progression (TTP are frequently used to establish the clinical efficacy of anti-cancer drugs. However, the surrogacy of PFS/TTP for overall survival (OS remains a matter of uncertainty in metastatic breast cancer (mBC. This study assessed the relationship between PFS/TTP and OS in mBC using a trial-based approach.Methods: We conducted a systematic literature review according to the PICO method: 'Population' consisted of women with mBC; 'Interventions' and 'Comparators' were standard treatments for mBC or best supportive care; 'Outcomes' of interest were median PFS/TTP and OS. We first performed a correlation analysis between median PFS/TTP and OS, and then conducted subgroup analyses to explore possible reasons for heterogeneity. Then, we assessed the relationship between the treatment effect on PFS/TTP and OS. The treatment effect on PFS/TTP and OS was quantified by the absolute difference of median values. We also conducted linear regression analysis to predict the effects of a new anti-cancer drug on OS on the basis of its effects on PFS/TTP.Results: A total of 5,041 studies were identified, and 144 fulfilled the eligibility criteria. There was a statistically significant relationship between median PFS/TTP and OS across included trials (r=0.428; P<0.01. Correlation coefficient for the treatment effect on PFS/TTP and OS was estimated at 0.427 (P<0.01. The obtained linear regression equation was ΔOS =−0.088 (95% confidence interval [CI] −1.347–1.172 + 1.753 (95% CI 1.307–2.198 × ΔPFS (R2=0.86.Conclusion: Results of

  6. Influence of low molecular weight heparin on cancer patients’ survival

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Ptushkin

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available There is an evidence of interaction between the hemostasis system and tumor progression factors. It is known that in addition to the fibrin formation and platelets activation, thrombin can influence many cells function interacting with protease-activating receptors including tumor cells. These receptors are involved in the malignant cell phenotype formation (adhesion, proliferation, proteolysis. Thrombin can also affect angiogenesis by stimulating endothelial cells penetration through basal membrane and its migration with new vessels formation. Furthermore, it can cause the release of main neoangiogenesis promoter – vascular endothelial growth factor. All of the above and many other linkages of coagulation and tumor create a theoretical background of possible affecting tumor by regulation of the coagulation activity. Thepromise of this approach is controversial, but there is some clinical and experimental evidence of their effectiveness. The most used group ofdrugs for this purpose was heparins. Several retrospective studies have shown a benefit of low molecular weight heparins (LMWH over unfractionated heparin in cancer patient survival. The appearance of a new heparins group – ultra LMWH are of interest from this point ofview and their possible use in cancer patients. To date bemiparin and semuloparin are used in clinic. Both (bemiparin about 3600 kDa,semuloparin 3000 kDa have substancially reduced molecular weight as compared with the smallest of LMWH – enoxaparin (4600 kDa.Use of bemiparin in patients with small cell lung cancer receiving chemotherapy resulted in increased of 2-year survival rate compared to the control group (68.6 % vs. 29.4 %, p = 0.0042.

  7. Development and application of statistical methods for population-based cancer patient survival

    OpenAIRE

    Eloranta, Sandra

    2013-01-01

    The overarching aim of this work has been to develop and apply statistical methods for estimating cancer patient survival from population-based register data. Particular focus has been on statistical methods that can be used for presenting cancer survival statistics from administrative health data registers in a manner that is relevant for physicians and patients. Study 1: In this study we clarify and discuss the relative merits of estimates of crude and net cancer patient survival, resp...

  8. Nomogram prediction for overall survival of patients diagnosed with cervical cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Polterauer, S; Grimm, C.; Hofstetter, G; Concin, N; Natter, C; Sturdza, A.; R. Pötter; Marth, C.; Reinthaller, A.; Heinze, G.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Nomograms are predictive tools that are widely used for estimating cancer prognosis. The aim of this study was to develop a nomogram for the prediction of overall survival (OS) in patients diagnosed with cervical cancer. Methods: Cervical cancer databases of two large institutions were analysed. Overall survival was defined as the clinical endpoint and OS probabilities were estimated using the Kaplan–Meier method. Based on the results of survival analyses and previous studies, rel...

  9. Female breast cancer survival in Qidong, China, 1972–2011: a population-based study

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu, Jian; Chen, Jian-Guo; Yong-sheng CHEN; Zhang, Yong-hui; Ding, Lu-Lu; Chen, Tao-yang

    2014-01-01

    Background Based on data from the population-based Qidong Cancer Registry, we report a survival analysis for female breast cancer patients diagnosed during 1972–2011 in order to assess the long-term trends for the prognosis of this cancer. Methods The last follow-up for survival status of the 3,398 registered female breast cancer cases was April, 2012. Cumulative observed survival (OS) and relative survival (RS) rates were calculated using Hakulinen’s method performed by the SURV3.01 Software...

  10. Long-Term Survival and Risk of Second Cancers After Radiotherapy for Cervical Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To evaluate the risk of second cancers after cervical cancer treated with radiotherapy for Asian populations. Methods and Materials: We reviewed 2,167 patients with cervical cancer undergoing radiotherapy between 1961 and 1986. Intracavitary brachytherapy was performed with high-dose rate source (82%) or low-dose rate source (12%). Relative risk (RR), absolute excess risk (AR), and cumulative risk of second cancer were calculated using the Japanese disease expectancy table. For 1,031 patients, the impact of smoking habit on the increasing risk of second cancer was also evaluated. Results: The total number of person-years of follow-up was 25,771, with 60 patients being lost to follow-up. Among the 2,167 patients, 1,063 (49%) survived more than 10 years. Second cancers were observed in 210 patients, representing a significant 1.2-fold risk (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.1-1.4) of developing second cancer compared with the general population, 1.6% excess risk per person per decade of follow-up, and elevating cumulative risk up to 23.8% (95% CI, 20.3-27.3) at 30 years after radiotherapy. The RR of second cancer was 1.6-fold for patients with the smoking habit and 1.4-fold for those without. Conclusions: Small but significant increased risk of second cancer was observed among Japanese women with cervical cancer mainly treated with high-dose rate brachytherapy. Considering the fact that about half of the patients survived more than 10 years, the benefit of radiotherapy outweighs the risk of developing second cancer

  11. Prognostic value of breast cancer subtypes on breast cancer specific survival, distant metastases and local relapse rates in conservatively managed early stage breast cancer: a retrospective clinical study

    OpenAIRE

    Sanpaolo, Pietro; Barbieri, Viviana; Genovesi, Domenico

    2011-01-01

    International audience To ascertain if breast cancer subtypes had prognostic effect on breast cancer specific survival, distant metastases and local relapse rates in women affected by early stage breast cancer.

  12. Bevacizumab Significantly Improves Survival for Patients with Recurrent and Metastatic Cervical Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... improves survival for patients with recurrent and metastatic cervical cancer Posted: February 7, 2013 Updated: June 2, 2013 ... 496-6641 Patients with advanced, recurrent, or persistent cervical cancer that was not curable with standard treatment who ...

  13. Survival of patients with stomach cancer in Changle city of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jun Tian; Xiao-Dong Wang; Zhen-Chun Chen

    2004-01-01

    AIM: The survival rate of patients with stomach cancer is used to evaluate the effects of treatments. The short- and mid-term survival of patients on the present level of treatments can be described by calculating 1- to 5-year survival rates.The aims of this study were to document patterns of survival after treatments for stomach cancer in Changle city and analyze whether the stage of cancer and the way of treatment impacted on survival of patients or not.METHODS: A total number of 745 patients with stomach cancer reported in the Changle Cancer Registry from 1993to 1998 were investigated with respect to the disease condition, the way of treatment and survival time. 1- to 5-year survival rates were estimated by using life-table method.RESULTS: The 1- to 5-year survival rates in the patients with stomach cancer in Changle city were 54.23%, 41.77%,37.95%, 33.98% and 30.47%, respectively. The 1- to 5-year survival rates in stageIor Ⅱ group were 3, 6.1, 7.4, 8.9and 9.8 times as high as those in stage Ⅲ or Ⅳ group,respectively. The 1- to 5-year survival rates in operation group were 3.5, 8.7, 11.2, 11.7 and 19 times as high as those in no operation group, respectively. For the patients with stage Ⅲ or Ⅳ stomach cancer the 1-year survival rate in operation group was 3 times as high as that in no operation group and 2-year survival rate in operation group was 11.9 times as high as that in no operation group. For the patients with stage Ⅲ or Ⅳstomach cancer, the differences of the survival rates average survival times between total gastrectomy and partial gastrectomy were not significant and the median survival times in these 2 groups were 8 mo and 9 mo, respectively.CONCLUSION: Mid-term survival rates of patients with stomach cancer in Changle city are low. Stage of cancer is an important factor influencing survival of patients with stomach cancer. Surgery is an effective treatment for the patients with stage Ⅳ cancer and can raise short- and mid

  14. Survival and mortality from oral cancer by anatomical location. A narrative review.

    OpenAIRE

    Jorge Candia; Alejandra Fernández; Kim Kraemer

    2016-01-01

    Oral cancer is a global problem. It is the sixth most frequent cancer among all types of cancer and can affect different areas of the oral cavity. Survival rates are influenced by various factors, such as: histological type, tumor size, presence of regional and/or distance metastases, and the biological status of the patient. According to WHO, survival rate from oral cancer at 5 years is 53-56%. The objective of this review is to describe the survival and mortality rate from oral cancer by a...

  15. Increasing rates of surgical treatment and preventing comorbidities may increase breast cancer survival for Aboriginal women

    OpenAIRE

    Supramaniam, Rajah; Gibberd, Alison; Dillon, Anthony; Goldsbury, David Eamon; O’Connell, Dianne L

    2014-01-01

    Background Lower breast cancer survival has been reported for Australian Aboriginal women compared to non-Aboriginal women, however the reasons for this disparity have not been fully explored. We compared the surgical treatment and survival of Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal women diagnosed with breast cancer in New South Wales (NSW), Australia. Methods We analysed NSW cancer registry records of breast cancers diagnosed in 2001–2007, linked to hospital inpatient episodes and deaths. We used unc...

  16. Associations Between α-Tocopherol, β-Carotene, and Retinol and Prostate Cancer Survival

    OpenAIRE

    Watters, Joanne L; Gail, Mitchell H.; Weinstein, Stephanie J.; Virtamo, Jarmo; Albanes, Demetrius

    2009-01-01

    Previous studies suggest that carotenoids and tocopherols (vitamin E compounds) may be inversely associated with prostate cancer risk, yet little is known about how they affect prostate cancer progression and survival. We investigated whether serum α-tocopherol, β-carotene, and retinol concentrations, or the α-tocopherol and β-carotene trial supplementation, affected survival of men diagnosed with prostate cancer during the Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention (ATBC) Study, a ran...

  17. Association of FTO Mutations with Risk and Survival of Breast Cancer in a Chinese Population

    OpenAIRE

    Xianxu Zeng; Zhenying Ban; Jing Cao; Wei Zhang; Tianjiao Chu; Dongmei Lei; Yanmin Du

    2015-01-01

    Recently, several studies have reported associations between fat mass and obesity-associated (FTO) gene mutations and cancer susceptibility. But little is known about their association with risk and survival of breast cancer in Chinese population. The aim of this study is to examine whether cancer-related FTO polymorphisms are associated with risk and survival of breast cancer and BMI levels in controls in a Chinese population. We genotyped six FTO polymorphisms in a case-control study, inclu...

  18. Post diagnosis diet quality and colorectal cancer survival in women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa T Fung

    Full Text Available Dietary factors are known to influence colorectal cancer (CRC risk, however, their association with CRC survival is unclear. Therefore, we prospectively examined the association between diet quality scores, dietary patterns and colorectal cancer (CRC survival.1201 women diagnosed with stage I-III CRC between 1986 and 2008, were followed through 2010. Diet was assessed via a food frequency questionnaire administered at least 6 months after diagnosis. We computed the Alternate Healthy Eating Index-2010 (AHEI-2010, alternate Mediterranean Diet score (aMED and Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension score (DASH and derived two dietary patterns, Western (unhealthy and prudent (healthy, by principal component analysis for each woman.During follow-up, we documented 435 deaths, including 162 from CRC. After adjusting for potential confounders, only a higher AHEI-2010 score was significantly associated with lower overall mortality (HR comparing extreme quintiles = 0.71, 95% CI 0.52-0.98, p trend = 0.01 as well as borderline significantly with lower risk of CRC mortality by the trend test (HR Q5 vs Q1 = 0.72, 95% CI = 0.43-1.21, p trend = 0.07. When AHEI-2010 components were examined separately, inverse associations for overall mortality were primarily accounted for by moderate alcohol intake (HR comparing abstainers vs 5-15 g/d = 1.30, 95%CI = 1.05-1.61 and lower intake of sugar sweetened beverages and fruit juices combined (HR for each additional serving = 1.11, 95% CI = 1.01-1.23. No other diet quality score or dietary pattern was associated with overall or CRC-specific mortality.Higher AHEI-2010 score may be associated with lower overall mortality, moderate alcohol consumption and lower consumption of sugar sweetened beverages and juices combined appeared to account for most of the observed associations.

  19. Venous thromboembolism in ovarian cancer: incidence, risk factors and impact on survival.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Abu Saadeh, Feras

    2013-09-01

    Ovarian cancer has a higher incidence of venous thromboembolism (VTE) than other cancers. Clear cell cancers carry the highest risk at 11-27%. The aim of this study was to identify the predisposing factors for VTE in a population of ovarian cancer patients and to determine the influence of VTE on overall survival.

  20. Regional comparison of cancer incidence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background. Due to specific war and post-war situation in Balkan region, differences in the number, type, development, biological course, treatment of malignant tumours and its outcome are possible. In order to perceive the situation realistically, it is necessary to gather continuously exact data about malignant tumours and compare them with the data from other European and world countries.The aim of the study was to collect and analyse the data on cancer incidence in the region of Sarajevo city, which represents a symbol of difficult times in the recent past, and to compare it to the incidence in the neighbouring countries. Patients and methods. Data on all newly diagnosed cancer cases, permanent residents of Sarajevo Canton, in the years 1999 and 2000 were collected. Crude incidence rate has been calculated according to the years observed, gender and localizations of the disease The data were compared to the cancer registries of Slovenia and Croatia and were observed in the light of specific local situation. Results. The crude cancer incidence of all sites but skin was the highest in both years and by both genders in Croatia. The incidence of the most common tumours (lung and breast cancer) was similar in all three countries. The differences in the incidence between both genders in the Sarajevo canton were registered in laryngeal and urinary bladder cancer, as well as in bone and cartilage sarcoma. Cervical cancer had extremely high incidence and was high up on the incidence list in the Sarajevo canton, which correlates with the data in developing countries. The incidence of other tumours in the post-war period is reaching expected numbers. Conclusions. It is difficult to identify whether the war and post-war stress, irregular and insufficient nutrition during and after the siege of the city of Sarajevo or some other factor influenced the cancer incidence among exposed population. The prevalence of smoking in the whole region is extremely high, in Bosnia and

  1. Non-small cell lung cancer cell survival crucially depends on functional insulin receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frisch, Carolin Maria; Zimmermann, Katrin; Zilleßen, Pia; Pfeifer, Alexander; Racké, Kurt; Mayer, Peter

    2015-08-01

    Insulin plays an important role as a growth factor and its contribution to tumor proliferation is intensely discussed. It acts via the cognate insulin receptor (IR) but can also activate the IGF1 receptor (IGF1R). Apart from increasing proliferation, insulin might have additional effects in lung cancer. Therefore, we investigated insulin action and effects of IR knockdown (KD) in three (NCI-H292, NCI-H226 and NCI-H460) independent non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell lines. All lung cancer lines studied were found to express IR, albeit with marked differences in the ratio of the two variants IR-A and IR-B. Insulin activated the classical signaling pathway with IR autophosphorylation and Akt phosphorylation. Moreover, activation of MAPK was observed in H292 cells, accompanied by enhanced proliferation. Lentiviral shRNA IR KD caused strong decrease in survival of all three lines, indicating that the effects of insulin in lung cancer go beyond enhancing proliferation. Unspecific effects were ruled out by employing further shRNAs and different insulin-responsive cells (human pre-adipocytes) for comparison. Caspase assays demonstrated that IR KD strongly induced apoptosis in these lung cancer cells, providing the physiological basis of the rapid cell loss. In search for the underlying mechanism, we analyzed alterations in the gene expression profile in response to IR KD. A strong induction of certain cytokines (e.g. IL20 and tumour necrosis factor) became obvious and it turned out that these cytokines trigger apoptosis in the NSCLC cells tested. This indicates a novel role of IR in tumor cell survival via suppression of pro-apoptotic cytokines. PMID:26113601

  2. Germ Cell Cancer and Multiple Relapses: Toxicity and Survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauritsen, Jakob; Kier, Maria G.G.; Mortensen, Mette S.;

    2015-01-01

    , compared with patients treated with only orchiectomy, had an increased risk for a second cancer (hazard ratio [HR], 3.2; 95% CI, 1.9 to 5.5), major cardiovascular disease (HR, 1.9; 95% CI, 1.0 to 3.3), pulmonary disease (HR, 2.0; 95% CI, 1.0 to 3.8), GI disease (HR, 7.3; 95% CI, 3.6 to 14.8), renal...... disease have a highly increased risk of late toxicity and death as a result of causes other than GCC. Therefore, they should be candidates for life-long follow-up. The IPFSG classification was confirmed in this unselected population.......Purpose: A small number of patients with germ cell cancer (GCC) receive more than one line of treatment for disseminated disease. The purpose of this study was to evaluate late toxicity and survival in an unselected cohort of patients who experienced relapse after receiving first-line treatment...

  3. Immunological network signatures of cancer progression and survival

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lavelle Timothy J

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The immune contribution to cancer progression is complex and difficult to characterize. For example in tumors, immune gene expression is detected from the combination of normal, tumor and immune cells in the tumor microenvironment. Profiling the immune component of tumors may facilitate the characterization of the poorly understood roles immunity plays in cancer progression. However, the current approaches to analyze the immune component of a tumor rely on incomplete identification of immune factors. Methods To facilitate a more comprehensive approach, we created a ranked immunological relevance score for all human genes, developed using a novel strategy that combines text mining and information theory. We used this score to assign an immunological grade to gene expression profiles, and thereby quantify the immunological component of tumors. This immunological relevance score was benchmarked against existing manually curated immune resources as well as high-throughput studies. To further characterize immunological relevance for genes, the relevance score was charted against both the human interactome and cancer information, forming an expanded interactome landscape of tumor immunity. We applied this approach to expression profiles in melanomas, thus identifying and grading their immunological components, followed by identification of their associated protein interactions. Results The power of this strategy was demonstrated by the observation of early activation of the adaptive immune response and the diversity of the immune component during melanoma progression. Furthermore, the genome-wide immunological relevance score classified melanoma patient groups, whose immunological grade correlated with clinical features, such as immune phenotypes and survival. Conclusions The assignment of a ranked immunological relevance score to all human genes extends the content of existing immune gene resources and enriches our understanding

  4. Lung cancer survival and stage at diagnosis in Australia, Canada, Denmark, Norway, Sweden and the UK

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walters, Sarah; Maringe, Camille; Coleman, Michel P;

    2013-01-01

    The authors consider whether differences in stage at diagnosis could explain the variation in lung cancer survival between six developed countries in 2004-2007.......The authors consider whether differences in stage at diagnosis could explain the variation in lung cancer survival between six developed countries in 2004-2007....

  5. Predicted trends in long-term breast cancer survival in England and Wales

    OpenAIRE

    Woods, L. M.; Rachet, B; Cooper, N.; Coleman, M P

    2007-01-01

    Trends in long-term relative survival from breast cancer are examined for women diagnosed in England and Wales up to 2001, using both period and hybrid approaches. Large improvements in long-term survival are predicted. Women with breast cancer still experience persistent excess mortality up to at least 20 years after diagnosis.

  6. Breast cancer survival in South Asian women in England and Wales

    OpenAIRE

    Farooq, S; Coleman, M.

    2005-01-01

    Study objectives: To estimate ethnic and socioeconomic differences in breast cancer incidence and survival between South Asians and non-South Asians in England and Wales, and to provide a baseline for surveillance of cancer survival in South Asians, the largest ethnic minority.

  7. Comparison of Cox and Gray's survival models in severe sepsis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kasal, Jan; Andersen, Zorana Jovanovic; Clermont, Gilles;

    2004-01-01

    Although survival is traditionally modeled using Cox proportional hazards modeling, this approach may be inappropriate in sepsis, in which the proportional hazards assumption does not hold. Newer, more flexible models, such as Gray's model, may be more appropriate.......Although survival is traditionally modeled using Cox proportional hazards modeling, this approach may be inappropriate in sepsis, in which the proportional hazards assumption does not hold. Newer, more flexible models, such as Gray's model, may be more appropriate....

  8. Differences in survival between colon and rectal cancer from SEER data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yen-Chien Lee

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Little is known about colorectal cancer or colon and rectal cancer. Are they the same disease or different diseases? OBJECTIVES: The aim of this epidemiology study was to compare the features of colon and rectal cancer by using recent national cancer surveillance data. DESIGN AND SETTING: Data included colorectal cancer (1995-2008 from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program (SEER database. Only adenocarcinoma was included for analysis. PATIENTS: A total of 372,130 patients with a median follow-up of 32 months were analyzed. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Mean survival of patients with the same stage of colon and rectal cancer was evaluated. RESULTS: Around 35% of patients had stage information. Among them, colon cancer patients had better survival than those with rectal cancer, by a margin of 4 months in stage IIB. In stage IIIC and stage IV, rectal cancer patients had better survival than colon cancer patients, by about 3 months. Stage IIB colorectal cancer patients had a poorer prognosis than those with stage IIIA and IIIB colorectal cancer. After adjustment of age, sex and race, colon cancer patients had better survival than rectal cancer of stage IIB, but in stage IIIC and IV, rectal cancer patients had better survival than colon cancer. LIMITATIONS: The study is limited by its retrospective nature. CONCLUSION: This was a population-based study. The prognosis of rectal cancer was not worse than that of colon cancer. Local advanced colorectal cancer had a poorer prognosis than local regional lymph node metastasis. Stage IIB might require more aggressive chemotherapy, and no less than that for stage III.

  9. Pre-diagnostic alcohol consumption and postmenopausal breast cancer survival: a prospective patient cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vrieling, A.; Buck, K.; Heinz, J.; Obi, N.; Benner, A.; Flesch-Janys, D.; Chang-Claude, J.

    2012-01-01

    Study results on the association of alcohol consumption with breast cancer survival are inconsistent, partly due to the use of different survival outcomes. We assessed the association of pre-diagnostic alcohol consumption with survival and recurrence in a prospective cohort study in Germany includin

  10. Replication competent Semliki Forest virus prolongs survival in experimental lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Määttä, Ann-Marie; Mäkinen, Kimmo; Ketola, Anna; Liimatainen, Timo; Yongabi, Felicitas Newu; Vähä-Koskela, Markus; Pirinen, Risto; Rautsi, Outi; Pellinen, Riikka; Hinkkanen, Ari; Wahlfors, Jarmo

    2008-10-01

    We evaluated the therapeutic potential of the replication competent vector VA7-EGFP, which is based on the avirulent Semliki Forest virus (SFV) strain A7 (74) carrying the EGFP marker gene in an orthotopic lung cancer tumor model in nude mice. We have previously shown that this oncolytic vector destroys tumor cells efficiently in vitro and in vivo (in subcutaneous tumor model). Tumor growth in animals with orthotopically implanted adenocarcinoma cells (A549) were monitored during the study with small animal CT. We show that locally administered virotherapy with VA7-EGFP increased survival rate in experimental lung cancer significantly (p < 0.001) comparable to results obtained with the second generation conditionally replicating adenoviral vector Ad5-Delta24TK-GFP, used for comparison. The limited efficacy in systemically administered oncolytic viruses is the essential problem in oncolytic virotherapy and also in this study we were not able to elicit significant response with systemic administration route. Despite the fact that tumor microenvironment in orthotopic lung cancer is more optimal, viruses failed to home to the tumors and were unable to initiate efficient intratumoral replication. Clearly, the efficacy of virotherapy is influenced by many factors such as the route of virus administration, immunological and physiological barriers and cancer cell-specific features (IFN-responsiveness). PMID:18651570

  11. The relation between lymph node status and survival in Stage I-III colon cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lykke, J.; Roikjær, Ole; Jess, P.

    2013-01-01

    Aim: This study involved a large nationwide Danish cohort to evaluate the hypothesis that a high lymph node harvest has a positive effect on survival in curative resected Stage I-III colon cancer and a low lymph node ratio has a positive effect on survival in Stage III colon cancer. Method......: Analysis of overall survival was conducted using a nationwide Danish cohort of patients treated with curative resection of Stage I-III colon cancer. All 8901 patients in Denmark diagnosed with adenocarcinoma of the colon and treated with curative resection in the period 2003-2008 were identified from the...... independent prognostic factors in multivariate analysis. Conclusion: High lymph node count was associated with improved overall survival in colon cancer. Lymph node ratio was superior to N-stage in differentiating overall survival in Stage III colon cancer. Stage migration was observed. © 2012 The Authors...

  12. Survival Effect of Neoadjuvant Radiotherapy Before Esophagectomy for Patients With Esophageal Cancer: A Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End-Results Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: The role of neoadjuvant radiotherapy (NeoRT) before definitive surgery for esophageal cancer remains controversial. This study used a large population-based database to assess the effect of NeoRT on survival for patients treated with definitive surgery. Methods and Materials: The overall survival (OS) and cause-specific survival for patients with Stage T2-T4, any N, M0 (cT2-T4M0) esophageal cancer who had undergone definitive surgery between 1998 and 2004 were analyzed by querying the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End-Results database. Kaplan-Meier survival curves were generated and univariate comparisons were made using the log-rank test. Cox proportional hazards survival regression multivariate analysis was performed with NeoRT, T stage (T2 vs. T3-T4), pathologic nodal status (pN0 vs. pN1), number of nodes dissected (>10 vs. ≤10), histologic type (adenocarcinoma vs. squamous cell carcinoma), age (10 nodes dissected, and Stage T2 disease were all independently correlated with increased OS. Conclusion: These results support the use of NeoRT for patients with esophageal cancer. Prospective studies are needed to confirm these results

  13. Impact of family history of breast cancer on tumour characteristics, treatment, risk of second cancer and survival among men with breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Bouchardy Magnin, Christine; Rapiti Aylward, Elisabetta; Fioretta, Gérald; Schubert, Hyma; Chappuis, Pierre; Vlastos, Georges; Benhamou, Simone

    2013-01-01

    Male breast cancer patients have a higher risk of developing a second primary cancer, but whether this risk differs according to the family history of breast or ovarian cancers remains to be elucidated. We aimed to determine the effect of a positive family history among men diagnosed with breast cancer on tumour characteristics, treatment, second cancer occurrence and overall survival.

  14. Breast Cancer Subtypes and Survival in Chinese Women with Operable Primary Breast Cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao-sheng Li; Yun-tao Xie; Lu Yao; Yi-qiang Liu; Tao Ouyang; Jin-feng Li; Tian-feng Wang; Zhao-qing Fan; Tie Fan; Ben-yao Lin

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the associations between the different breast cancer subtypes and survival in Chinese women with operable primary breast cancer. Methods: A total of 1538 Chinese women with operable primary breast cancer were analyzed in this study, the median follow-up was 77 months. Estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), and HER2 status were available for these patients. Results: Luminal A (ER+ and/or PR+, HER2-) had a favorable disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS)compared with other subtypes in the entire cohort. Using the luminal A as a reference, among the patients with lymph node positive disease, HER2+ (ER-, PR-, HER2+) had the worst DFS (hazard ratio, HR=1.80, 95% Cl 1.11 to 2.91,P=0.017) and luminal B (ER+ and/or PR+, HER2+) had the worst OS (HR=2.27, 95% CI 1.50 to 3.45, P<0.001); among the patients with lymph node negative disease, triple-negative (ER-, PR-, HER2-) had the worst DFS (HR=2.21, 95% Cl 1.43 to 3.41, P<0.001), whereas no significant difference in DFS between HER2+ and luminal B or luminal A was observed. Conclusion: As compared with luminal A, luminal B and HER2+ have the worst survival in patients with lymph node positive disease, but this is not the case in patients with lymph node negative disease; triple-negative subtype has a worse survival in both lymph node positive and lymph node negative patients.

  15. Survival in Danish patients with breast cancer and inflammatory bowel disease: A nationwide cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søgaard, Kirstine Kobberøe; Cronin-Fenton, Deirdre P; Pedersen, Lars;

    2008-01-01

    Background: Incidences of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and of breast cancer have increased over the last decades. The influence of IBD on breast cancer prognosis, however, is unknown. We therefore examined the impact of IBD on treatment receipt and survival in breast cancer patients...... colitis (UC). Patients with CD had more advanced stage and received radiotherapy less, and chemotherapy more, frequently than patients without IBD. In the adjusted analyses there was no substantial survival difference in breast cancer patients with and without IBD (MRR(CD) = 1.22; 95% confidence interval...... [CI] = 0.85-1.75; MRR(UC) = 1.09; 95% CI = 0.86-1.38). In a stratified analysis, chemotherapy was associated with poorer survival in patients with CD (MRR(CD) = 1.93; 95% CI = 1.00-3.72).Conclusions: Breast cancer patients with UC receive the same treatment and have similar survival to breast cancer...

  16. Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Intake and Cancer Recurrence and Survival in CALGB 89803 (Alliance)

    OpenAIRE

    Fuchs, Michael A.; Sato, Kaori; Niedzwiecki, Donna; Ye, Xing; Saltz, Leonard B.; Mayer, Robert J.; Mowat, Rex B.; Whittom, Renaud; Hantel, Alexander; Benson, Al; Atienza, Daniel; Messino, Michael; Kindler, Hedy; Venook, Alan; Ogino, Shuji

    2014-01-01

    Background: In colon cancer patients, obesity, sedentary lifestyle, and high dietary glycemic load have been associated with increased risk of cancer recurrence. High sugar-sweetened beverage intake has been associated with obesity, diabetes, and cardio-metabolic diseases, but the influence on colon cancer survival is unknown. Methods: We assessed the association between sugar-sweetened beverage consumption on cancer recurrence and mortality in 1,011 stage III colon cancer patients who comple...

  17. THE METABOLIC PHENOTYPE OF PANCREATIC CANCER AND ITS LINK TO CYTOSOLIC CALCIUM HOMEOSTASIS AND SURVIVAL

    OpenAIRE

    Chan, Anthony

    2013-01-01

    THE METABOLIC PHENOTYPE OF PANCREATIC CANCER AND ITS LINK TO CYTOSOLIC CALCIUM HOMEOSTASIS AND SURVIVAL IntroductionPancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is an insidious and aggressive cancer characterised by poor survival rates. In cancer, there is a pathological switch in metabolism from mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation to glycolysis, known as the Warburg effect. Cells depend on an ATP-driven plasma membrane Ca¬2+ pump (PMCA) to maintain a low resting cytosolic Ca2+ concentration (...

  18. Cancer survival in New South Wales, Australia: socioeconomic disparities remain despite overall improvements

    OpenAIRE

    Stanbury, Julia F.; Baade, Peter D; Yu, Yan; Yu, Xue Qin

    2016-01-01

    Background Disparities in cancer survival by socioeconomic status have been reported previously in Australia. We investigated whether those disparities have changed over time. Methods We used population-based cancer registry data for 377,493 patients diagnosed with one of 10 major cancers in New South Wales (NSW), Australia. Patients were assigned to an area-based measure of socioeconomic status. Five-year relative survival was estimated for each socioeconomic quintile in each ‘at risk’ perio...

  19. The impact of bisphosphonate therapy on survival of lung cancer patients with bone metastasis

    OpenAIRE

    Theodoros Kontakiotis; Georgios Ballasoulis; Theodora Tsiouda; Hellie Lithoxopoulou; Vasiliki Zarogoulidou; Efimia Boutsikou; Konstantinos Zarogoulidis

    2009-01-01

    SUMMARY. INTRODUCTION: Bone metastases occur in 20% to 40% of patients with lung cancer. Recent studies (most in vitro) demonstrate an anti-proliferative effect of third-generation biphosphonates (BPs) on lung tumours which may, indirectly, have an impact on the survival. OBJECTIVES: This was a study of the effects of treatment with BPs on the course and survival of lung cancer patients with bone metastases. PATIENTS AND METHODS: For the study 108 male patients with lung cancer (stage IV) wer...

  20. Breast cancer survival experiences at a tertiary hospital in sub-Saharan Africa: a cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Galukande, Moses; Wabinga, Henry; Mirembe, Florence

    2015-01-01

    Background Cancer of the breast is a major health burden and the most common cancer among women worldwide. Though its incidence is fourfold greater in high-income countries, in sharp contrast, mortality rates are greatest among the low-income countries. Early detection linked to appropriate treatment is the most effective strategy to improve survival. The purpose of this study therefore was to establish the survival experiences of women with breast cancer at a Ugandan hospital. Methods This s...

  1. High ERK Protein Expression Levels Correlate with Shorter Survival in Triple-Negative Breast Cancer Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Bartholomeusz, Chandra; Gonzalez-Angulo, Ana M.; Liu, Ping; Hayashi, Naoki; Lluch, Ana; Ferrer-Lozano, Jaime; Hortobágyi, Gabriel N.

    2012-01-01

    The clinical significance of extracellular signal–related kinase (ERK) was assessed in patients with triple-negative breast cancer versus patients with non–triple negative breast cancer. High ERK-2 levels were correlated with a lower overall survival rate and high phosphorylated mitogen-activated protein kinase levels were correlated with a higher relapse-free survival rate in triple-negative breast cancer patients.

  2. Analysis of Survival Predictors in Patients with Lung Cancer and Brain Metastases

    OpenAIRE

    Shaohua CUI; Bai, Hao; Dong, Lili; Zhao, Yizhuo; Gu, Aiqin; Zhang, Wei; Lou, Yuqing; Jiang, Liyan

    2015-01-01

    Background and objective The prognosis for patients with lung cancer and brain metastases remains poor, with approximately 6 months of survival, despite active measures after treatment. In this study, we determined and analyzed clinical parameters that affect the survival of patients with lung cancer and brain metastases to provide clinical guidance. Methods Lung cancer cases with brain metastases were retrospectively collected during 2002 and 2008 from Shanghai Chest Hospital, Shanghai Jiao ...

  3. Survival Nomogram for Curatively Resected Korean Gastric Cancer Patients: Multicenter Retrospective Analysis with External Validation

    OpenAIRE

    Bang Wool Eom; Keun Won Ryu; Byung-Ho Nam; Yunjin Park; Hyuk-Joon Lee; Min Chan Kim; Gyu Seok Cho; Chan Young Kim; Seung Wan Ryu; Dong Woo Shin; Woo Jin Hyung; Jun Ho Lee

    2015-01-01

    Background A small number of nomograms have been previously developed to predict the individual survival of patients who undergo curative resection for gastric cancer. However, all were derived from single high-volume centers. The aim of this study was to develop and validate a nomogram for gastric cancer patients using a multicenter database. Methods We reviewed the clinicopathological and survival data of 2012 patients who underwent curative resection for gastric cancer between 2001 and 200...

  4. Cancer net survival on registry data: use of the new unbiased Pohar-Perme estimator and magnitude of the bias with the classical methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roche, Laurent; Danieli, Coraline; Belot, Aurélien; Grosclaude, Pascale; Bouvier, Anne-Marie; Velten, Michel; Iwaz, Jean; Remontet, Laurent; Bossard, Nadine

    2013-05-15

    Net survival, the survival which might occur if cancer was the only cause of death, is a major epidemiological indicator required for international or temporal comparisons. Recent findings have shown that all classical methods used for routine estimation of net survival from cancer-registry data, sometimes called "relative-survival methods," provide biased estimates. Meanwhile, an unbiased estimator, the Pohar-Perme estimator (PPE), was recently proposed. Using real data, we investigated the magnitude of the errors made by four "relative-survival" methods (Ederer I, Hakulinen, Ederer II and a univariable regression model) vs. PPE as reference and examined the influence of time of follow-up, cancer prognosis, and age on the errors made. The data concerned seven cancer sites (2,51,316 cases) collected by FRANCIM cancer registries. Net survivals were estimated at 5, 10 and 15 years postdiagnosis. At 5 years, the errors were generally small. At 10 years, in good-prognosis cancers, the errors made in nonstandardized estimates with all classical methods were generally great (+2.7 to +9% points in prostate cancer) and increased in age-class estimations (vs. 5-year ones). At 15 years, in bad- or average-prognosis cancers, the errors were often substantial whatever the nature of the estimation. In good-prognosis cancers, the errors in nonstandardized estimates of all classical methods were great and sometimes very important. With all classical methods, great errors occurred in age-class estimates resulting in errors in age-standardized estimates (+0.4 to +3.2% points in breast cancer). In estimating net survival, cancer registries should abandon all classical methods and adopt the new Pohar-Perme estimator. PMID:22961565

  5. Effect of Diabetes Mellitus on Survival in Patients with Pancreatic Cancer: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Yixiang; Tao, Min; Jia, Xiaoyan; Xu, Hong; Chen, Kai; Tang, Hongwei; Li, Donghui

    2015-01-01

    Concurrent diabetes has been linked with an increased risk of death in many cancers, but findings in pancreatic cancer have been inconsistent. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to assess the effect of diabetes on survival in patients with pancreatic cancer. Of 4, 463 original articles, 41 were included in the review; 29 studies with 33 risk estimates were included in the meta-analysis. In the overall comparison of patients with pancreatic cancer and diabetes with their nondiabetic counterparts, the former had significantly higher all-cause mortality (pooled HR: 1.13; 95% CI: 1.04–1.22). Subgroup analyses showed that diabetes was associated with poor survival in patients with resectable disease (HR: 1.37; 95% CI: 1.15–1.63) but not in those with unresectable disease (HR: 1.07; 95% CI: 0.89–1.29). The HR (95% CI) was 1.52 (1.20–1.93) for patients with new-onset diabetes (≤2 years of diabetes duration) and 1.22 (0.83–1.80) for those with longstanding diabetes (>2 years). Diabetes was associated with higher mortality overall in patients with pancreatic cancer. The effect of diabetes on overall survival was associated with the stages of tumor and the duration of diabetes. PMID:26598798

  6. Factors associated with the survival of patients with recurrent colon cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An observational, descriptive and longitudinal study of 37 patients operated from colon cancer was made, with healing intention, in 'Saturnino Lora Torres' Teaching Clinical Surgical Hospital in Santiago de Cuba, during the period 2006-2012 who presented tumorous recurrence diagnosed in the out-patient department, by means of an outline of postoperative follow up during a five year period or more, with the aim of identifying some factors associated to the survival. Among the main results of the series, it was obtained that the local-regional tumorous recurrence was predominant and the new surgery together with the adjuvant chemotherapy caused a greater survival in comparison to the one reached when using just chemical agents. On the other hand, most of the affected patients reached a survival no longer than one year, taking into account the interval from the diagnosis to death, and when concluding the study there was a mortality of 62.2%, whose most frequent cause was the tumorous recurrence itself. It could be concluded that surgeries were essentially palliative, although the diagnosis was in correspondence to the early detection during the period of postoperative follow up

  7. Cancer survival in Cali, Colombia: A population-based study, 1995-2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Eduardo Bravo

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: There is limited information on population-based cancer survival data in Latin America.Objetive: To obtain estimates of survival for some cancers recognized as a public health priority in Colombia using data from the Cancer Registry of Cali for 1995-2004.Methods: All cancer cases for residents of Cali were included for the following sites: breast (3,984, cervix uteri (2,469, prostate (3,999, stomach (3,442 and lung (2,170.  Five-year relative survival estimates were calculated using the approach described by Estève.Results: Five-year relative survival was 79% in patients with prostate cancer and 68% and 60% in women with breast or cervix uteri cancer, respectively. The cure fraction was 6% in subjects with lung cancer and 15% in those with stomach cancer. The probability of dying from breast or prostate cancer in people in the lower socio-economic strata (SES was 1.8 and  2.6  times greater,  respectively,  when compared to  upper SES, p <0.001. Excess mortality associated with cancer was independent of age in prostate or breast cancer.  After adjusting for age, sex and SES, the risk of dying from breast, cervix uteri, prostate and lung cancer during the 2000-2004 period decreased 19%, 13%, 48% and 16%, respectively, when compared with the period of 1995-1999. There was no change in the prognosis for patients with stomach cancer.Conclusions: Survival for some kinds of cancer improved through the 1995-2004 period, however health care programs for cancer patients in Cali are inequitable. People from lower SES are the most vulnerable and the least likely to survive

  8. Assessment of gastric cancer survival: using an artificial hierarchical neural network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amiri, Zohreh; Mohammad, Kazem; Mahmoudi, Mahmoud; Zeraati, Hojjat; Fotouhi, Akbar

    2008-04-15

    This study is designed to assess the application of neural networks in comparison to the Kaplan-Meier and Cox proportional hazards model in the survival analysis. Three hundred thirty gastric cancer patients admitted to and surgically treated were assessed and their post-surgical survival was determined. The observed baseline survival was determined with the three methods of Kaplan-Meier product limit estimator, Cox and the neural network and results were compared. Then the binary independent variables were entered into the model. Data were randomly divided into two groups of 165 each to test the models and assess the reproducibility. The Chi-square test and the multiple logistic model were used to ensure the groups were similar and the data was divided randomly. To compare subgroups, we used the log-rank test. In the next step, the probability of survival in different periods was computed based on the training group data using the Cox proportional hazards and a neural network and estimating Cox coefficient values and neural network weights (with 3 nodes in hidden layer). Results were used for predictions in the test group data and these predictions were compared using the Kaplan-Meier product limit estimator as the gold standard. Friedman and Kruskal-Wallis tests were used for comparisons as well. All statistical analyses were performed using SPSS version 11.5, Matlab version 7.2, Statistica version 6.0 and S_PLUS 2000. The significance level was considered 5% (alpha = 0.05). The three methods used showed no significance difference in base survival probabilities. Overall, there was no significant difference among the survival probabilities or the trend of changes in survival probabilities calculated with the three methods, but the 4 year (48th month) and 4.5 year (54th month) survival rates were significantly different with Cox compared to standard and estimated probabilities in the neural network (p survival probabilities, but results with the neural network were

  9. Centralized treatment of advanced stages of ovarian cancer improves survival: a nationwide Danish survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fagö-Olsen, Carsten L; Høgdall, Claus; Kehlet, Henrik; Christensen, Ib J; Ottesen, Bent

    2011-01-01

    Denmark, involving a total of 1,160 patients with stage IIIC or IV ovarian cancer. Data were extracted for 2,024 patients with all stages of ovarian cancer recorded in the Danish Gynecological Cancer Database between 1 January 2005 and 31 December 2008. The main outcome measure was overall survival...

  10. Comparison of methods for analysis of selective genotyping survival data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dekkers Jack CM

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Survival traits and selective genotyping datasets are typically not normally distributed, thus common models used to identify QTL may not be statistically appropriate for their analysis. The objective of the present study was to compare models for identification of QTL associated with survival traits, in particular when combined with selective genotyping. Data were simulated to model the survival distribution of a population of chickens challenged with Marek disease virus. Cox proportional hazards (CPH, linear regression (LR, and Weibull models were compared for their appropriateness to analyze the data, ability to identify associations of marker alleles with survival, and estimation of effects when all individuals were genotyped (full genotyping and when selective genotyping was used. Little difference in power was found between the CPH and the LR model for low censoring cases for both full and selective genotyping. The simulated data were not transformed to follow a Weibull distribution and, as a result, the Weibull model generally resulted in less power than the other two models and overestimated effects. Effect estimates from LR and CPH were unbiased when all individuals were genotyped, but overestimated when selective genotyping was used. Thus, LR is preferred for analyzing survival data when the amount of censoring is low because of ease of implementation and interpretation. Including phenotypic data of non-genotyped individuals in selective genotyping analysis increased power, but resulted in LR having an inflated false positive rate, and therefore the CPH model is preferred for this scenario, although transformation of the data may also make the Weibull model appropriate for this case. The results from the research presented herein are directly applicable to interval mapping analyses.

  11. Lung cancer survival in Norway, 1997-2011: from nihilism to optimism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilssen, Yngvar; Strand, Trond Eirik; Fjellbirkeland, Lars; Bartnes, Kristian; Møller, Bjørn

    2016-01-01

    We examine changes in survival and patient-, tumour- and treatment-related factors among resected and nonresected lung cancer patients, and identify subgroups with the largest and smallest survival improvements.National population-based data from the Cancer Registry of Norway, Statistics Norway and the Norwegian Patient Register were linked for lung cancer patients diagnosed during 1997-2011. The 1- and 5-year relative survival were estimated, and Cox proportional hazard regression, adjusted for selected patient characteristics, was used to assess prognostic factors for survival in lung cancer patients overall and stratified by resection status.We identified 34 157 patients with lung cancer. The proportion of histological diagnoses accompanied by molecular genetics testing increased from 0% to 26%, while those accompanied by immunohistochemistry increased from 8% to 26%. The 1-year relative survival among nonresected and resected patients increased from 21.7% to 34.2% and 75.4% to 91.5%, respectively. The improved survival remained significant after adjustment for age, sex, stage and histology. The largest improvements in survival occurred among resected and adenocarcinoma patients, while patients ≥80 years experienced the smallest increase.Lung cancer survival has increased considerably in Norway. The explanation is probably multifactorial, including improved attitude towards diagnostic work-up and treatment, and more accurate diagnostic testing that allows for improved selection for resection and improved treatment options. PMID:26541525

  12. Perioperative Blood Transfusion as a Significant Predictor of Biochemical Recurrence and Survival after Radical Prostatectomy in Patients with Prostate Cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung Kwon Kim

    Full Text Available There have been conflicting reports regarding the association of perioperative blood transfusion (PBT with oncologic outcomes including recurrence rates and survival outcomes in prostate cancer. We aimed to evaluate whether perioperative blood transfusion (PBT affects biochemical recurrence-free survival (BRFS, cancer-specific survival (CSS, and overall survival (OS following radical prostatectomy (RP for patients with prostate cancer.A total of 2,713 patients who underwent RP for clinically localized prostate cancer between 1993 and 2014 were retrospectively analyzed. We performed a comparative analysis based on receipt of transfusion (PBT group vs. no-PBT group and transfusion type (autologous PBT vs. allogeneic PBT. Univariate and multivariate Cox-proportional hazard regression analysis were performed to evaluate variables associated with BRFS, CSS, and OS. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to calculate survival estimates for BRFS, CSS, and OS, and log-rank test was used to conduct comparisons between the groups.The number of patients who received PBT was 440 (16.5%. Among these patients, 350 (79.5% received allogeneic transfusion and the other 90 (20.5% received autologous transfusion. In a multivariate analysis, allogeneic PBT was found to be statistically significant predictors of BRFS, CSS, and OS; conversely, autologous PBT was not. The Kaplan-Meier survival analysis showed significantly decreased 5-year BRFS (79.2% vs. 70.1%, log-rank, p = 0.001, CSS (98.5% vs. 96.7%, log-rank, p = 0.012, and OS (95.5% vs. 90.6%, log-rank, p < 0.001 in the allogeneic PBT group compared to the no-allogeneic PBT group. In the autologous PBT group, however, none of these were statistically significant compared to the no-autologous PBT group.We found that allogeneic PBT was significantly associated with decreased BRFS, CSS, and OS. This provides further support for the immunomodulation hypothesis for allogeneic PBT.

  13. Network regularised Cox regression and multiplex network models to predict disease comorbidities and survival of cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Haoming; Moni, Mohammad Ali; Liò, Pietro

    2015-12-01

    In cancer genomics, gene expression levels provide important molecular signatures for all types of cancer, and this could be very useful for predicting the survival of cancer patients. However, the main challenge of gene expression data analysis is high dimensionality, and microarray is characterised by few number of samples with large number of genes. To overcome this problem, a variety of penalised Cox proportional hazard models have been proposed. We introduce a novel network regularised Cox proportional hazard model and a novel multiplex network model to measure the disease comorbidities and to predict survival of the cancer patient. Our methods are applied to analyse seven microarray cancer gene expression datasets: breast cancer, ovarian cancer, lung cancer, liver cancer, renal cancer and osteosarcoma. Firstly, we applied a principal component analysis to reduce the dimensionality of original gene expression data. Secondly, we applied a network regularised Cox regression model on the reduced gene expression datasets. By using normalised mutual information method and multiplex network model, we predict the comorbidities for the liver cancer based on the integration of diverse set of omics and clinical data, and we find the diseasome associations (disease-gene association) among different cancers based on the identified common significant genes. Finally, we evaluated the precision of the approach with respect to the accuracy of survival prediction using ROC curves. We report that colon cancer, liver cancer and renal cancer share the CXCL5 gene, and breast cancer, ovarian cancer and renal cancer share the CCND2 gene. Our methods are useful to predict survival of the patient and disease comorbidities more accurately and helpful for improvement of the care of patients with comorbidity. Software in Matlab and R is available on our GitHub page: https://github.com/ssnhcom/NetworkRegularisedCox.git. PMID:26611766

  14. Should relative survival be used with lung cancer data?

    OpenAIRE

    Hinchliffe, S R; Rutherford, M. J.; Crowther, M.J.; Nelson, C.P.; Lambert, P C

    2012-01-01

    Background: Under certain assumptions, relative survival is a measure of net survival based on estimating the excess mortality in a study population when compared with the general population. Background mortality estimates are usually taken from national life tables that are broken down by age, sex and calendar year. A fundamental assumption of relative survival methods is that if a patient did not have the disease of interest then their probability of survival would be comparable to that of ...

  15. Predictors of Survival in Patients With Bone Metastasis of Lung Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Sugiura, Hideshi; Yamada, Kenji; Sugiura, Takahiko; Hida, Toyoaki; Mitsudomi, Tetsuya

    2008-01-01

    The prognosis of patients with bone metastasis from lung cancer has not been well documented. We assessed the survival rates after bone metastasis and prognostic factors in 118 patients with bone metastases from lung cancer. The cumulative survival rates after bone metastasis from lung cancer were 59.9% at 6 months, 31.6% at 1 year, and 11.3% at 2 years. The mean survival was 9.7 months (median, 7.2 months; range, 0.1–74.5 months). A favorable prognosis was more likely in women and patients w...

  16. Incidence of and survival from childhood cancer : the role of social and family factors in childhood cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Erdmann, Friederike

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Social inequalities, both within countries and between countries, influence the occurrence of and survival from cancer, including childhood cancer. This dissertation aimed to gain further insight into social inequalities in childhood cancer â on the national level within a country and also between countries with different levels of socioeconomic development. The first objective was to obtain a better understanding of the reported geographical differences in childhood cancer worl...

  17. A long-term survival pattern for breast cancer treated in a single institution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T Gokce

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This paper presents a 14-year retrospective study evaluating the survival rates and prognostic factors of breast carcinoma patients treated in private treatment center in the west coast of Turkey. Materials and Methods: The survival rates of breast cancer patients (n = 1746 who have been treated from 1995 until 2008 were analyzed. The clinical data include age, menopausal stage, oestrogen (ER and progesterone (PR receptor status, and C-erbB-2 status as well as histopathological evaluation. AJCC (2002 was used for clinical tumor staging. Survival rates were computed using standard Kaplan-Meier methods, and the difference in survival curves was analyzed with the log-rank test. Results: The 14-year overall survival, disease-free survival, local failure-free survival, and distant failure-free survival rates were 77%, 95%, 77%, and 94%, respectively. Early-stage patients had higher overall survival rates compared to advanced-stage patients (stage IIIb and IIIc, AJCC 2002, and early-stage patients had higher survival rates than advanced-stage patients for disease-free survival, local failure-free survival, and distant failure-free survival. The risk for cancer development increases significantly for advanced-stage patients with positive ER and PR receptor as well as C-erbB-2 receptor. Conclusions: The incidence of breast cancer in Turkey is smaller compared to other European countries. Low advanced-stage patient numbers compared to high early-stage patient numbers; and very high median survival times could possibly be the result of the improvement of detection and treatment of breast cancer over the years.

  18. Pretreatment serum albumin: a prognostic indicator of survival in oral cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Saurabh Bobdey; Aanchal Jain; Jignasa Sathwara; Ganesh B

    2016-01-01

    Background: Malnutrition has been recognized as a poor prognostic indicator for cancer. In recent years, the role of serum albumin as a predictor of survival in cancer has received considerable attention. Therefore, the present study was carried out to investigate whether the pretreatment serum albumin can predict the prognosis of patients with oral cancer. Methods: Medical records of 433 pathologically proven oral cancer patients diagnosed and treated from 01st January 2006 to 31st Decemb...

  19. Metformin increases survival in hormone receptor-positive, HER2-positive breast cancer patients with diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Hee Jeong; Kwon, Hyunwook; Lee, Jong Won; Kim, Hwa Jung; Lee, Sae Byul; Park, Hee Sung; Sohn, Guiyun; Lee, Yura; Koh, Beom Seok; Yu, Jong Han; Son, Byung Ho; Ahn, Sei Hyun

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Metformin use has recently been observed to decrease both the rate and mortality of breast cancer. Our study was aim to determine whether metformin use is associated with survival in diabetic breast cancer patients by breast cancer subtype and systemic treatment. Methods Data from the Asan Medical Center Breast Cancer Database from 1997 to 2007 were analyzed. The study cohort comprised 6,967 nondiabetic patients, 202 diabetic patients treated with metformin, and 184 diabetic pati...

  20. Dormancy of Cancer Cells with Suppression of AKT Activity Contributes to Survival in Chronic Hypoxia

    OpenAIRE

    Hiroko Endo; Hiroaki Okuyama; Masayuki Ohue; Masahiro Inoue

    2014-01-01

    A hypoxic microenvironment in tumors has been recognized as a cause of malignancy or resistance to various cancer therapies. In contrast to recent progress in understanding the acute response of cancer cells to hypoxia, the characteristics of tumor cells in chronic hypoxia remain elusive. We have identified a pancreatic cancer cell line, AsPC-1, that is exceptionally able to survive for weeks under 1% oxygen conditions while most tested cancer cell lines die after only some days under these c...

  1. Population-based family studies : Genetic contribution to cancer development and survival?

    OpenAIRE

    Lindström, Linda Sofie

    2008-01-01

    Cancer affects essentially everyone, directly or indirectly. The aim of this thesis was to study the genetic and environmental factors in cancer development and survival. Our studies were based on a record linkage between several Swedish population-based registries, principally the Multi-Generation Register, which records familial relationships, the Swedish Cancer Registry, and the Cause of Death Registry. In summary, the Swedish Family-Cancer database comprised over 11 mill...

  2. A Multiple Survival Screening algorithm (MSS) for identifying high-quality cancer prognostic markers

    OpenAIRE

    sprotocols

    2015-01-01

    We have developed a Multiple Survival Screening algorithm (MSS) for identifying high-quality cancer prognostic markers from the gene expression profiles of cancer samples. By applying the MSS algorithm to breast cancer samples, we have identified several marker sets which showed ~90% predicting accuracy across 8 independent breast cancer cohorts. We realized that the algorithm could be used for finding other biomarkers including drug response markers. We are describing the protocol with some ...

  3. Predicting survival in cancer patients: the role of cachexia and hormonal, nutritional and inflammatory markers

    OpenAIRE

    Utech, Anne E.; Tadros, Eiriny M.; Hayes, Teresa G.; Garcia, Jose M.

    2012-01-01

    Background Cancer can lead to weight loss, anorexia, and poor nutritional status, which are associated with decreased survival in cancer patients. Methods Male cancer patients (n = 136) were followed for a mean time of 4.5 years. Variables were obtained at baseline: cancer stage, albumin, hemoglobin, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), interleukin (IL)-6, bioavailable testosterone, appetite questionnaire, and weight change from baseline to 18 months. Primary statistical tests included Kaplan...

  4. Association of cancer stem cell markers genetic variants with gallbladder cancer susceptibility, prognosis, and survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Anu; Gupta, Annapurna; Rastogi, Neeraj; Agrawal, Sushma; Kumar, Ashok; Kumar, Vijay; Mittal, Balraj

    2016-02-01

    Genes important to stem cell progression have been involved in the genetics and clinical outcome of cancers. We investigated germ line variants in cancer stem cell (CSC) genes to predict susceptibility and efficacy of chemoradiotherapy treatment in gallbladder cancer (GBC) patients. In this study, we assessed the effect of SNPs in CSC genes (surface markers CD44, ALCAM, EpCAM, CD133) and (molecular markers NANOG, SOX-2, LIN-28A, ALDH1A1, OCT-4) with GBC susceptibility and prognosis. Total 610 GBC patients and 250 controls were genotyped by using PCR-RFLP, ARMS-PCR, and TaqMan allelic discrimination assays. Chemotoxicity graded 2-4 in 200 patients and tumor response was recorded in 140 patients undergoing neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT). Differences in genotype and haplotype frequency distributions were calculated by binary logistic regression. Gene-gene interaction model was analyzed by generalized multifactor dimensionality reduction (GMDR). Overall survival was assessed by Kaplan-Meier survival curve and multivariate Cox-proportional methods. ALCAM Ars1157Crs10511244 (P = 0.0035) haplotype was significantly associated with GBC susceptibility. In GMDR analysis, ALCAM rs1157G>A, EpCAM rs1126497T>C emerged as best significant interaction model with GBC susceptibility and ALDH1A1 rs13959T>G with increased risk of grade 3-4 hematological toxicity. SOX-2 rs11915160A>C, OCT-4 rs3130932T>G, and NANOG rs11055786T>C were found best gene-gene interaction model for predicting response to NACT. In both Cox-proportional and recursive partitioning ALCAM rs1157GA+AA genotype showed higher mortality and hazard ratio. ALCAM gene polymorphisms associated with GBC susceptibility and survival while OCT-4, SOX-2, and NANOG variants showed an interactive role with treatment response. PMID:26318430

  5. Assessment of circulating tumor cells and serum markers for progression-free survival prediction in metastatic breast cancer: a prospective observational study

    OpenAIRE

    Bidard, François-Clément; Hajage, David; Bachelot, Thomas; Delaloge, Suzette; Brain, Etienne; Campone, Mario; Cottu, Paul; Beuzeboc, Philippe; Rolland, Emilie; Mathiot, Claire; Pierga, Jean-Yves

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Circulating tumor cells (CTC) have been recently proposed as a new dynamic blood marker whose positivity at baseline is a prognostic factor and whose changes under treatment are correlated with progression-free survival (PFS) in metastatic breast cancer patients. However, serum marker levels are also used for the same purpose, and no clear comparison has been reported to date. Methods The IC 2006-04 enrolled prospectively 267 metastatic breast cancer patients treated by first lin...

  6. Correlation between Pulmonary Function Indexes and Survival Time 
in Patients with Advanced Lung Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui GE

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective To those patients with advanced lung cancer, the ultimate objective is to improve the curative effect and quality of life, lung function indexes are an important factor. We investigate the change of lung function and the relationship between pulmonary function indexs and survival time in patients with advanced lung cancer. Methods Lung function was detected in 59 cases with lung cancer and 63 normal controls. The relationship between pulmonary function indexs and survival time was analyzed. Results There was significant difference in ventilation function and diffusing capacity between in lung cancer group and control group. Vital capacity (VC, forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1, forced vital capacity (FVC, peak expiratory flow (PEF, peak expiratory flow% (PEF%, maximal ventilatory volume (MVV were positively correlated with survival time in patients with advanced lung cancer (r=0.29, 0.28, 0.28, 0.27, 0.26, 0.28, P<0.05, residual volume/total lung capacity was negatively correlated with survival time (r=-0.31, P<0.05. Conclusion The lung function decreases in the patients with lung cancer. VC, FEV1, FVC, PEF, PEF%, MVV, residual volume/total lung capacity were correlated with survival time in patients with advanced lung cancer. The pulmonary function indexs were important marker of prognosis in patients with lung cancer.

  7. Sentinel Lymph Node Occult Metastases Have Minimal Survival Effect in Some Breast Cancer Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Detailed examination of sentinel lymph node tissue from breast cancer patients revealed previously unidentified metastases in about 16% of the samples, but the difference in 5-year survival between patients with and without these metastases was very small

  8. Quantifying the changes in survival inequality for Indigenous people diagnosed with cancer in Queensland, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baade, Peter D; Dasgupta, Paramita; Dickman, Paul W; Cramb, Susanna; Williamson, John D; Condon, John R; Garvey, Gail

    2016-08-01

    The survival inequality faced by Indigenous Australians after a cancer diagnosis is well documented; what is less understood is whether this inequality has changed over time and what this means in terms of the impact a cancer diagnosis has on Indigenous people. Survival information for all patients identified as either Indigenous (n=3168) or non-Indigenous (n=211,615) and diagnosed in Queensland between 1997 and 2012 were obtained from the Queensland Cancer Registry, with mortality followed up to 31st December, 2013. Flexible parametric survival models were used to quantify changes in the cause-specific survival inequalities and the number of lives that might be saved if these inequalities were removed. Among Indigenous cancer patients, the 5-year cause-specific survival (adjusted by age, sex and broad cancer type) increased from 52.9% in 1997-2006 to 58.6% in 2007-2012, while it improved from 61.0% to 64.9% among non-Indigenous patients. This meant that the adjusted 5-year comparative survival ratio (Indigenous: non-Indigenous) increased from 0.87 [0.83-0.88] to 0.89 [0.87-0.93], with similar improvements in the 1-year comparative survival. Using a simulated cohort corresponding to the number and age-distribution of Indigenous people diagnosed with cancer in Queensland each year (n=300), based on the 1997-2006 cohort mortality rates, 35 of the 170 deaths due to cancer (21%) expected within five years of diagnosis were due to the Indigenous: non-Indigenous survival inequality. This percentage was similar when applying 2007-2012 cohort mortality rates (19%; 27 out of 140 deaths). Indigenous people diagnosed with cancer still face a poorer survival outlook than their non-Indigenous counterparts, particularly in the first year after diagnosis. The improving survival outcomes among both Indigenous and non-Indigenous cancer patients, and the decreasing absolute impact of the Indigenous survival disadvantage, should provide increased motivation to continue and enhance

  9. Cancer History May Affect Survival After Organ Transplant

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or federal policy. More Health News on: Cancer Organ Transplantation Recent Health News Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Cancer Organ Transplantation About MedlinePlus Site Map FAQs Contact Us Get ...

  10. High procedure volume is strongly associated with improved survival after lung cancer surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lüchtenborg, Margreet; Riaz, Sharma P; Coupland, Victoria H;

    2013-01-01

    Studies have reported an association between hospital volume and survival for non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). We explored this association in England, accounting for case mix and propensity to resect.......Studies have reported an association between hospital volume and survival for non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). We explored this association in England, accounting for case mix and propensity to resect....

  11. The effect of radiotherapy on survival of dental implants in head and neck cancer patients

    OpenAIRE

    Shugaa-Addin, Bassam; Al-Shamiri, Hashem M.; Al-Maweri, Sadeq A.; Tarakji, Bassel

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To explore the current literature of the survival of dental implants in irradiated head and neck cancer patients considering the role of implant location, bone augmentation, dose of radiation and timing of implant placement. Study Design: Pubmed search was conducted to identify articles published between January 2000 and December 2014 and presenting data of dental implant survival with radiotherapy in head and neck cancer patients. Studies on animal subjects and crani...

  12. The effect of radiotherapy on survival of dental implants in head and neck cancer patients

    OpenAIRE

    Shugaa-Addin, Bassam; Al-Shamiri, Hashem-Motahir; Al-Maweri, Sadeq; Tarakji, Bassel

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To explore the current literature of the survival of dental implants in irradiated head and neck cancer patients considering the role of implant location, bone augmentation, dose of radiation and timing of implant placement. Study Design Pubmed search was conducted to identify articles published between January 2000 and December 2014 and presenting data of dental implant survival with radiotherapy in head and neck cancer patients. Studies on animal subjects and craniofacial implant...

  13. Prognostic Nomograms for Predicting Survival and Distant Metastases in Locally Advanced Rectal Cancers

    OpenAIRE

    Junjie Peng; Ying Ding; Shanshan Tu; Debing Shi; Liang Sun; Xinxiang Li; Hongbin Wu; Sanjun Cai

    2014-01-01

    Aim To develop prognostic nomograms for predicting outcomes in patients with locally advanced rectal cancers who do not receive preoperative treatment. Materials and Methods A total of 883 patients with stage II–III rectal cancers were retrospectively collected from a single institution. Survival analyses were performed to assess each variable for overall survival (OS), local recurrence (LR) and distant metastases (DM). Cox models were performed to develop a predictive model for each endpoint...

  14. Heart Rate Variability and Length of Survival in Hospice Cancer Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Do Hoon; Kim, Jeong A; Choi, Youn Seon; Kim, Su Hyun; Lee, June Young; Kim, Young Eun

    2010-01-01

    We examined the association between heart rate variability (HRV) and survival duration to evaluate the usefulness of HRV as a prognostic factor for hospice cancer patients. In terminally ill cancer patients who visited the Hospice clinic, we checked demographic data, Karnofsky performance scale (KPS), HRV, dyspnea, anorexia, as well as fasting blood glucose and total cholesterol. After following up their duration of survival, we examined meaningful prognostic factors for predicting life expec...

  15. Clinical Nomogram for Predicting Survival of Esophageal Cancer Patients after Esophagectomy

    OpenAIRE

    Jinlin Cao; Ping Yuan; Luming Wang; Yiqing Wang; Honghai Ma; Xiaoshuai Yuan; Wang Lv; Jian Hu

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to construct an effective clinical nomogram for predicting the survival of esophageal cancer patients after esophagectomy. We identified esophageal cancer patients (n = 4,281) who underwent esophagectomy between 1988 and 2007 from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) 18 registries database. Clinically significant parameters for survival were used to construct a nomogram based on Cox regression analyses. The model was validated using bootstrap resamp...

  16. Incidence and Survival in Breast Cancer Patients and Stressful Life Events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallah, Raheleh; Akbari, Mohammad Esmaeil; Azargashb, Eznollah; Khayamzadeh, E

    2016-01-01

    Due to increasing incidence of breast cancer, recognition of risk factors has become increasingly important. Over the past few decades, among risk factors of this disease, stressful life events have attracted particular attention, but their relationship with breast cancer incidence and survival remains a mystery. This study aimed to examine the relationship between severe stressful life events and incidence and survival of women with breast cancer. In this case-control study, using a structured telephone interview with 355 women with breast cancer and also with 516 women with benign breast diseases who were matched in demographic characteristics, necessary information about the experience of major stressful events in the years before the diagnosis were collected. Data were analyzed using statistical methods of χ2, t, and Kaplan-Meier with a significance level of effects of psycho-social factors in the incidence and survival of breast cancer with stressful life events is recommended. PMID:27165233

  17. Colorectal cancers detected through screening are associated with lower stages and improved survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindebjerg, Jan; Osler, Merete; Bisgaard, Claus

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Population screening for colorectal cancer (CRC) using faecal occult blood test (FOBT) will be introduced in Denmark in 2014. Prior to the implementation of the screening programme, a feasibility study was performed in 2005-2006. In this paper, occurrences of colorectal cancer in the...... feasibility study cohort were reviewed with respect to the effect of screening participation on stages and survival. MATERIAL AND METHODS: All cases of CRC in a feasibility study cohort diagnosed from the beginning of the study until two years after the study ended were identified. Differences in the...... distribution of colon cancer stages and rectal cancer groups between the various screening categories were analysed through χ(2)-tests. Survival analysis with respect to screening groups was done by Kaplan-Meier and Cox-Mantel hazard ratios, and survival was corrected for lead time. RESULTS: Colon cancers...

  18. Important prognostic factors for the long-term survival of lung cancer subjects in Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study used a large-scale cancer database in determination of prognostic factors for the survival of lung cancer subjects in Taiwan. Total of 24,910 subjects diagnosed with lung cancer was analysed. Survival estimates by Kaplan-Meier methods. Cox proportional-hazards model estimated the death risk (hazard ratio (HR)) for various prognostic factors. The prognostic indicators associated with a higher risk of lung cancer deaths are male gender (males versus females; HR = 1.07, 95% confidence intervals (CI): 1.03–1.11), males diagnosed in later periods (shown in 1991–1994 versus 1987–1990; HR = 1.13), older age at diagnosis, large cell carcinoma (LCC)/small cell carcinoma (SCC), and supportive care therapy over chemotherapy. The overall 5-year survival rate for lung cancer death was significantly poorer for males (21.3%) than females (23.6%). Subjects with squamous cell carcinoma (SQCC) and treatment by surgical resection alone had better prognosis. We find surgical resections to markedly increase 5-year survival rate from LCC, decreased risk of death from LCC, and no improved survival from SCC. Gender and clinical characteristics (i.e. diagnostic period, diagnostic age, histological type and treatment modality) play important roles in determining lung cancer survival

  19. Socioeconomic disparities in breast cancer survival: relation to stage at diagnosis, treatment and race

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Xue

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous studies have documented lower breast cancer survival among women with lower socioeconomic status (SES in the United States. In this study, I examined the extent to which socioeconomic disparity in breast cancer survival was explained by stage at diagnosis, treatment, race and rural/urban residence using the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER data. Methods Women diagnosed with breast cancer during 1998-2002 in the 13 SEER cancer registry areas were followed-up to the end of 2005. The association between an area-based measure of SES and cause-specific five-year survival was estimated using Cox regression models. Six models were used to assess the extent to which SES differences in survival were explained by clinical and demographical factors. The base model estimated the hazard ratio (HR by SES only and then additional adjustments were made sequentially for: 1 age and year of diagnosis; 2 stage at diagnosis; 3 first course treatment; 4 race; and 5 rural/urban residence. Results An inverse association was found between SES and risk of dying from breast cancer (p Conclusion Stage at diagnosis, first course treatment and race explained most of the socioeconomic disparity in breast cancer survival. Targeted interventions to increase breast cancer screening and treatment coverage in patients with lower SES could reduce much of socioeconomic disparity.

  20. Decreased survival among lung cancer patients with co-morbid tuberculosis and diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shieh Shwn-Huey

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Comorbid conditions influence the survival of cancer patients. This study evaluated the influence of comorbidity on survival among lung cancer patients. Methods The authors evaluated the medical records of 1111 lung cancer patients of a medical center in Taiwan. Days of survival were calculated for each patient and mortality hazard ratios were estimated for associations with demographic status, comorbidity and cancer stage at diagnosis. Results On average, the survival time was slightly longer among women than among men (838 ± 689 vs. 749 ± 654 days, p = 0.050. Survival days increased with age (from 580 ± 526 [≤ 50 years] to 803 ± 693 [≥ 71 years] days, p = 0.020 and decreased with stage (from 1224 ± 656 [stage I] to 489 ± 536 [stage IV] days, p p = 0.002 and a higher mortality hazard ratio (1.30, 95% CI: 1.03 - 1.65. A similar trend was observed in lung cancer patients with diabetes. Conclusions Lung cancer patients with comorbid tuberculosis or diabetes are at an elevated risk of mortality. These patients deserve greater attention while undergoing cancer treatment.

  1. Effect of socioeconomic position on survival after childhood cancer in Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simony, Sofie B; Lund, Lasse W; Erdmann, Friederike; Andersen, Klaus K; Winther, Jeanette F; Schüz, Joachim; Johansen, Christoffer; Schmiegelow, Kjeld; Dalton, Susanne O

    2016-06-01

    Background One fifth of all deaths among children in Europe are accounted for by cancer. If this is to be reduced there is a need for studies on not only biology and treatment approaches but also on how social factors influence cure rates. We investigated how various socioeconomic characteristics were associated with survival after childhood cancer. Material and methods In a nationwide cohort of 3797 children diagnosed with cancer [hematological cancer, central nervous system (CNS) tumors, non-CNS solid tumors] before age 20 between 1990 and 2009 we identified parents and siblings and obtained individual level parental socioeconomic variables and vital status through 2012 by linkage to population-based registries. Hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for dying were estimated using multivariate Cox proportional hazard models. Results For all children with cancer combined, survival was slightly but not statistically significantly better the higher the education of the mother or the father, and with maternal income. Significantly better survival was observed when parents were living together compared to living alone and worse survival when the child had siblings compared to none. Young (cancers, no significant associations were observed. For CNS tumors, better survival was seen with parents living together (HR 0.70, CI 0.51-0.97). For non-CNS solid tumors, survival was better with high education of the mother (HR 0.66, CI 0.44-0.99) compared to basic and worse for children with one (HR 1.45, CI 1.11-1.89) or two or more siblings (HR 1.29, CI 0.93-1.79) (p for trend 0.02) compared to none. Conclusion The impact of socioeconomic characteristics on childhood cancer survival, despite equal access to protocolled and free-of-charge treatment, warrants further and more direct studies of underlying mechanisms in order to target these as a means to improve survival rates. PMID:26935257

  2. Individual and Neighborhood Socioeconomic Status and Healthcare Resources in Relation to Black-White Breast Cancer Survival Disparities

    OpenAIRE

    Akinyemiju, Tomi F.; Soliman, Amr S.; Johnson, Norman J.; Altekruse, Sean F.; Kathy Welch; Mousumi Banerjee; Kendra Schwartz; Sofia Merajver

    2013-01-01

    Background. Breast cancer survival has improved significantly in the US in the past 10–15 years. However, disparities exist in breast cancer survival between black and white women. Purpose. To investigate the effect of county healthcare resources and SES as well as individual SES status on breast cancer survival disparities between black and white women. Methods. Data from 1,796 breast cancer cases were obtained from the Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results and the National Longitudinal ...

  3. Cancer pathways are associated with improved long-term survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kenneth Højsgaard; Maina, Pierre Jean-Claude

    2015-01-01

    (n = 161) to 72.6% in the CPP group operated after 1 April (p = 0.026). Using the Cox regression model, we found that CPP was an independent factor associated with survival (p = 0.032, hazard ratio = 0.661, 95% confidence interval: 0.454-0.964). CONCLUSION: Introduction of CCPs in a single centre...... was associated with a significant improvement of overall sur-vival, and using Cox regression we found that the CPP was an independent marker for survival. Larger studies are needed to clearly understand the effect of CPP. FUNDING: not relevant. TRIAL REGISTRATION: not relevant....

  4. Statin Use and Its Impact on Survival in Pancreatic Cancer Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hee Seung; Lee, Sang Hoon; Lee, Hyun Jik; Chung, Moon Jae; Park, Jeong Youp; Park, Seung Woo; Song, Si Young; Bang, Seungmin

    2016-05-01

    Statins are cholesterol-lowering medications that are associated with a number of signaling pathways involved in carcinogenesis. Recent observational studies raised the possibility that the use of statins may reduce overall mortality in various types of cancer. We investigated whether statins used after pancreatic cancer diagnosis are associated with longer survival in pancreatic cancer patients.We retrospectively analyzed data from 1761 patients newly diagnosed with pancreatic adenocarcinoma between January 1, 2006, and December 31, 2014. We used the time-dependent Cox proportional hazards regression model to estimate mortality among pancreatic cancer patients according to statin use.Among the 1761 pancreatic cancer patients, 118 patients had used statins. During the study period, 1176 patients (66.7%) died. After adjusting for age, sex, location of cancer, cancer stage, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, dyslipidemia, smoking, alcohol use, body mass index, and CA 19-9, statin use was associated with a lower risk of cancer death (hazard ratio [HR], 0.780; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.617-0.986), especially among simvastatin users (HR, 0.554; 95% CI, 0.312-0.982) and atorvastatin users (HR, 0.636; 95% CI, 0.437-0.927). Subgroup analysis showed that overall survival was statistically significantly longer in patients with nonmetastatic pancreatic cancer (log-rank P = 0.024).We found that the use of simvastatin and atorvastatin after cancer diagnosis is associated with longer survival in patients with nonmetastatic pancreatic adenocarcinoma. PMID:27175667

  5. Improved survival with early adjuvant chemotherapy after colonic resection for stage III colonic cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klein, Mads; Azaquoun, Najah; Jensen, Benny Vittrup;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: In stage III colonic cancer, time from surgery to start of adjuvant chemotherapy may influence survival. In this study, we evaluated the effect of timing of adjuvant therapy on survival. METHODS: Database study from the Danish Colorectal Cancer Group's national database....... RESULTS: The final population included 1,827 patients scheduled for adjuvant chemotherapy. Adjuvant therapy started within 4 and 8 weeks improved survival when compared to start later than 8 weeks (HR [95%CI]: 1.7 [1.1-2.6]; P = 0.024 and 1.4 [1.07-1.8]; P = 0.013, respectively), whereas there was no...

  6. Hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer: clinical features and survival. Results from the Danish HNPCC register

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Myrhøj, T; Bisgaard, M L; Bernstein, Inge Thomsen; Svendsen, L B; Søndergaard, J O; Bülow, Steffen

    1997-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC) is a dominantly inherited syndrome characterized by the development of colorectal cancer (CRC) and other carcinomas. Our aim was to evaluate tumour parameters and survival in HNPCC. METHODS: One hundred and eight Danish HNPCC patients...

  7. Systematic identification of transcription factors associated with patient survival in cancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alves Pedro

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Aberrant activation or expression of transcription factors has been implicated in the tumorigenesis of various types of cancer. In spite of the prevalent application of microarray experiments for profiling gene expression in cancer samples, they provide limited information regarding the activities of transcription factors. However, the association between transcription factors and cancers is largely dependent on the transcription regulatory activities rather than mRNA expression levels. Results In this paper, we propose a computational approach that integrates microarray expression data with the transcription factor binding site information to systematically identify transcription factors associated with patient survival given a specific cancer type. This approach was applied to two gene expression data sets for breast cancer and acute myeloid leukemia. We found that two transcription factor families, the steroid nuclear receptor family and the ATF/CREB family, are significantly correlated with the survival of patients with breast cancer; and that a transcription factor named T-cell acute lymphocytic leukemia 1 is significantly correlated with acute myeloid leukemia patient survival. Conclusion Our analysis identifies transcription factors associating with patient survival and provides insight into the regulatory mechanism underlying the breast cancer and leukemia. The transcription factors identified by our method are biologically meaningful and consistent with prior knowledge. As an insightful tool, this approach can also be applied to other microarray cancer data sets to help researchers better understand the intricate relationship between transcription factors and diseases.

  8. Prediagnostic body size and breast cancer survival in the E3N cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    His, Mathilde; Fagherazzi, Guy; Mesrine, Sylvie; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Dossus, Laure

    2016-09-01

    Obesity has been associated with poor breast cancer prognosis, however most studies have focused on body mass index (BMI) and few have considered the distribution of adipose tissue. We investigated associations between prediagnostic adiposity and breast cancer survival, considering BMI, waist and hip circumferences (WC and HC), and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR). Analyses included 3,006 women from the French E3N prospective cohort study diagnosed with primary invasive breast cancer between 1995 and 2008. We investigated overall, breast cancer-specific, and disease-free survival, overall and according to stage, menopausal and hormonal status and year of diagnosis, using Cox proportional hazard models adjusted for tumor characteristics and lifestyle risk factors. Women with a prediagnostic HC > 100 cm were at increased risk of death from all causes (hazard ratio (HR)>100 vs breast cancer (HR>100 vs cancer event (HR>100 vs survival after breast cancer. Our study underlines the importance of going beyond BMI when studying the association between adiposity and breast cancer survival. Further studies should be conducted to confirm our results on hip circumference. PMID:27106037

  9. Persistence of disseminated tumor cells after neoadjuvant treatment for locally advanced breast cancer predicts poor survival

    OpenAIRE

    Mathiesen, Randi R.; Borgen, Elin; Renolen, Anne; Løkkevik, Erik; Nesland, Jahn M; Anker, Gun; Østenstad, Bjørn; Lundgren, Steinar; Risberg, Terje; Mjaaland, Ingvil; Kvalheim, Gunnar; Lønning, Per E.; Naume, Bjørn

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Presence of disseminated tumor cells (DTCs) in bone marrow (BM) and circulating tumor cells (CTC) in peripheral blood (PB) predicts reduced survival in early breast cancer. The aim of this study was to determine the presence of and alterations in DTC- and CTC-status in locally advanced breast cancer patients undergoing neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT) and to evaluate their prognostic impact. Methods ...

  10. Prediagnostic plasma vitamin B6 (pyridoxal 50-phosphate) and survival in patients with colorectal cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higher plasma pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP) levels are associated with a decreased incidence of colorectal cancer, but the influence of plasma PLP on survival of patients with colorectal cancer is unknown. We prospectively examined whether prediagnostic plasma PLP levels are associated with mortality...

  11. Breast cancer surgery in elderly patients: postoperative complications and survival

    OpenAIRE

    Rocco, Nicola; Rispoli, Corrado; Pagano, Gennaro; Rengo, Giuseppe; Compagna, Rita; Danzi, Michele; Accurso, Antonello; Amato, Bruno

    2013-01-01

    Aims and background Old age is associated with comorbidity and decreased functioning which influences treatment decisions in elderly breast cancer patients. The purpose of this study was to identify risk factors for complications after breast cancer surgery in elderly patients, and to assess mortality in patients with postoperative complications. Methods We retrospectively considered all female patients aged 65 years and older with invasive and in situ breast cancer who were diagnosed and tre...

  12. Increased proliferation activity measured by immunoreactive Ki67 is associated with survival improvement in rectal/recto sigmoid cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Eeva Salminen; Salla Palmu; Tero Vahlberg; Peter J. Roberts; Karl-Owe S(o)derstr(o)m

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To assess the expression of Ki67 as prognosticator in rectal/recto sigmoid cancer.METHODS: Samples from 146 patients with rectal and recto sigmoid cancer were studied for expression of Ki67 and its prognostic significance in comparison with clinicopathological predictors of survival. Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues from 6 (4.1%) patients with T1, 26 (17.8%) with T2, 94 (64.4%) with T3, and 20 (13.7%) with T4 tumors were studied. Ki67 expression was determined immunohistochemically. Samples were divided according to mean value into high (>40%) and low (≤40%) expression. Areas of extensive proliferation (>50%) were defined as 'hot spot' areas. RESULTS: Hot spot areas were present in samples regardless of histopathological grade. Lower TNM and Dukes stage and higher expression of Ki67 and presence of Ki67 hot spot areas in histopathological samples were associated with better survival, whereas no association was observed with histopathological grade (P = 0.78). In Cox multivariate regression analysis, significant prognostic factors were Dukes stage (P<0.001), presence of lymph node metastases (P = 0.015), age (P = 0.035) andpresence of Ki67 hot spot areas (P = 0.044). CONCLUSION: Proliferative activity as measured by Ki67 in rectal cancer is associated with survival improvement compared with patients with low Ki67. Areas of prognostically significant increased proliferation were found independently of histopathological tumor grade.

  13. Age at Diagnosis and Breast Cancer Survival in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Asadzadeh Vostakolaei

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Tumour characteristics are the most important prognostic factors in breast cancer. Patient-related factors such as young age at diagnosis, obesity, and smoking behaviour may also modify disease outcome. Due to the absence of a unique definition for “young age breast cancer” and the resulting variation in disease management, findings on the association between young age and prognosis of breast cancer are controversial. Methods. This study included 1500 patients with a primary diagnosis of breast cancer in six Iranian hospitals from 5 provinces. We modelled the relative excess risk (RER of breast cancer death to age at diagnosis and tumour characteristics. Results. Excess risks of death were observed for stage IV disease and poorly differentiated tumours: RER of 4.3 (95% CI: 1.05–17.65 and 3.4 (95% CI: 1.17–9.87, respectively. “Older” patients, particularly those aged 50 and over, presented more often with advanced and poorly differentiated tumours (P=0.001. After adjustment for stage, histological grade, Her-2 expression, estrogen and progesterone receptors, and place of residency, breast cancer mortality was not significantly different across age groups. Conclusion. We conclude that there is no prognostic effect of age at diagnosis of breast cancer among breast cancer patients treated at cancer centres in different parts of Iran; young and relatively old women have similar risks of dying from breast cancer.

  14. Changing Trends of Breast Cancer Survival in Sultanate of Oman

    OpenAIRE

    Shiyam Kumar; Burney, Ikram A; Adel Al-Ajmi; Al-Moundhri, Mansour S

    2011-01-01

    Breast cancer is the leading cause of cancer-associated mortality in women, with elevated incidence in developing countries. This retrospective study included all 122 patients diagnosed with breast cancer from January 2003 to December 2008 in the Sultanate of Oman. Age at presentation was 47.41 years (SD ± 12.88), with one-third of patients younger than 40 years. The majority of patients presented with stage III (41.2%) and IV (18.2%) breast cancer. T size ( = . 0 2 3 ), skin involvement ( ...

  15. PPAR-delta promotes survival of breast cancer cells in harsh metabolic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, X; Wang, G; Shi, Y; Sun, L; Gorczynski, R; Li, Y-J; Xu, Z; Spaner, D E

    2016-01-01

    Expression of the nuclear receptor peroxisome proliferator activated receptor delta (PPARδ) in breast cancer cells is negatively associated with patient survival, but the underlying mechanisms are not clear. High PPARδ protein levels in rat breast adenocarcinomas were found to be associated with increased growth in soft agar and mice. Transgenic expression of PPARδ increased the ability of human breast cancer cell lines to migrate in vitro and form lung metastases in mice. PPARδ also conferred the ability to grow in exhausted tissue culture media and survive in low-glucose and other endoplasmic reticulum stress conditions such as hypoxia. Upregulation of PPARδ by glucocorticoids or synthetic agonists also protected human breast cancer cells from low glucose. Survival in low glucose was related to increased antioxidant defenses mediated in part by catalase and also to late AKT phosphorylation, which is associated with the prolonged glucose-deprivation response. Synthetic antagonists reversed the survival benefits conferred by PPARδ in vitro. These findings suggest that PPARδ conditions breast cancer cells to survive in harsh microenvironmental conditions by reducing oxidative stress and enhancing survival signaling responses. Drugs that target PPARδ may have a role in the treatment of breast cancer. PMID:27270614

  16. Application of Artificial Neural Network in Predicting the Survival Rate of Gastric Cancer Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Biglarian

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground: The aim of this study was to predict the survival rate of Iranian gastric cancer patients using the Cox proportional hazard and artificial neural network models as well as comparing the ability of these approaches in predicting the survival of these patients."nMethods: In this historical cohort study, the data gathered from 436 registered gastric cancer patients who have had surgery between 2002 and 2007 at the Taleghani Hospital (a referral center for gastrointestinal cancers, Tehran, Iran, to predict the survival time using Cox proportional hazard and artificial neural network techniques. "nResults: The estimated one-year, two-year, three-year, four-year and five-year survival rates of the patients were 77.9%, 53.1%, 40.8%, 32.0%, and 17.4%, respectively. The Cox regression analysis revealed that the age at diag-nosis, high-risk behaviors, extent of wall penetration, distant metastasis and tumor stage were significantly associated with the survival rate of the patients. The true prediction of neural network was 83.1%, and for Cox regression model, 75.0%."nConclusion: The present study shows that neural network model is a more powerful statistical tool in predicting the survival rate of the gastric cancer patients compared to Cox proportional hazard regression model. Therefore, this model recommended for the predicting the survival rate of these patients.

  17. Survival benefit in patients after palliative resection vs non-resection colon cancer surgery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    A Beham; M Rentsch; K Püllmann; L Mantouvalou; H Spatz; HJ Schlitt; A Obed

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate survival in patients undergoing palliative resection versus non-resection surgery for primary colorectal cancer in a retrospective analysis.METHODS: Demographics, TNM status, operating details and survival were reviewed for 67 patients undergoing surgery for incurable colorectal cancer. Palliative resection of the primary tumor was performed in 46 cases in contrast to 21 patients with non-resection of the primary tumor and bypass surgery. Risk factors for postoperative mortality and poor survival were analyzed with univariate and multivariate analyses.RESULTS: The two groups were comparable in terms of age, gender, preoperative presence of ileus and tumor stage. Multivariate analysis showed that median survival was significantly higher in patients with palliative resection surgery (544 vs 233 d). Differentiation of the tumor and tumor size were additional independent factors that were associated with a significantly poorer survival rate.CONCLUSION: Palliative resection surgery for primary colorectal cancer is associated with a higher median survival rate. Also, the presence of liver metastasis and tumor size are associated with poor survival. Therefore,resection of the primary tumor should be considered in patients with non-curable colon cancer.

  18. Higher caseload improves cervical cancer survival in patients treated with brachytherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Increased caseload has been associated with better patient outcomes in many areas of health care, including high-risk surgery and cancer treatment. However, such a positive volume vs. outcome relationship has not yet been validated for cervical cancer brachytherapy. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between physician caseload and survival rates in cervical cancer treated with brachytherapy using population-based data. Between 2005 and 2010, a total of 818 patients were identified using the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database. Multivariate analysis using a Cox proportional hazards model and propensity scores was used to assess the relationship between 5-year survival rates and physician caseloads. As the caseload of individual physicians increased, unadjusted 5-year survival rates increased (P = 0.005). Using a Cox proportional hazard model, patients treated by high-volume physicians had better survival rates (P = 0.03), after adjusting for comorbidities, hospital type, and treatment modality. When analyzed by propensity score, the adjusted 5-year survival rate differed significantly between patients treated by high/medium-volume physicians vs. patients treated by low/medium-volume physicians (60% vs. 54%, respectively; P = 0.04). Provider caseload affected survival rates in cervical cancer patients treated with brachytherapy. Both Cox proportional hazard model analysis and propensity scores showed association between high/medium volume physicians and improved survival

  19. Dynamic observation of micronuclei and cell survival in human liver cancer cells irradiated by heavy ion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author reported dynamic changes of micronuclei and cell survival in human liver cancer cells SMMC-7721 irradiated by 25 MeV/u 40Ar14+. The results show: (1) Change rules of frequency of micronuclei induced by single irradiation and fractionation irradiation with culture time have not clear difference. (2) Irradiated (single, fractionation) liver cancer cells grow much slower than control and their survival number with culture time shows decay tendency. (3) Dynamic changes of the relationship between micronucleus frequency and cell survival number presents negative correlation. (4) For cells irradiated by dose of 0.68 Gy, 6.8 Gy and 68 Gy, frequency of micronuclei following culture 24 hours is lower than that following culture 96 hours. (5) Negative dependences of survival number of liver cancer cells for culture 24 hours and 48 hours on dose are demonstrated

  20. Increased expression of mdig predicts poorer survival of the breast cancer patients

    OpenAIRE

    Thakur, Chitra; Lu, Yongju; Sun, Jiaying; Yu, Miaomiao; Chen, Bailing; Chen, Fei

    2013-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common cancer and the second leading cause of cancer death among women of all races and Hispanic origin populations in the United States. In the present study, we reported that the survival time of the breast cancer patients is influenced by the expression level of mdig, a previously identified lung cancer-associated oncogene encoding a JmjC-domain protein. By checking the expression levels of mRNA and protein of mdig through both RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry in s...

  1. Comparison of survival of adolescents and young adults with hematologic malignancies in Osaka, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakata-Yamada, Kayo; Inoue, Masami; Ioka, Akiko; Ito, Yuri; Tabuchi, Takahiro; Miyashiro, Isao; Masaie, Hiroaki; Ishikawa, Jun; Hino, Masayuki; Tsukuma, Hideaki

    2016-06-01

    The survival gap between adolescents and young adults (AYAs) with hematological malignancies persists in many countries. To determine to what extent it does in Japan, we investigated survival and treatment regimens in 211 Japanese AYAs (15-29 years) in the Osaka Cancer Registry diagnosed during 2001-2005 with hematological malignancies, and compared adolescents (15-19 years) with young adults (20-29 years). AYAs with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) had a poor 5-year survival (44%), particularly young adults (29% vs. 64% in adolescents, p = 0.01). Additional investigation for patients with ALL revealed that only 19% of young adults were treated with pediatric treatment regimens compared with 45% of adolescents (p = 0.05). Our data indicate that we need to focus on young adults with ALL and to consider establishing appropriate cancer care system and guidelines for them in Japan. PMID:26695739

  2. Prognostic Impact of ABO Blood Group on the Survival in Patients with Ovarian Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Juan; Yang, Li-Chao; He, Zhen-Yu; Li, Fang-Yan; Wu, San-Gang; Sun, Jia-yuan

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The impact of ABO blood group on the survival of patients with ovarian cancer remains uncertain. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prognostic value of the ABO blood group in ovarian cancer patients. Methods: 256 ovarian cancer patients who received a cytoreductive surgery were retrospectively reviewed. The prognostic impact of the ABO blood group with respect to overall survival (OS) was analyzed. Results: The median follow-up time was 57 months and the 5-year OS was 70.1%. T...

  3. Survival and breast relapse in 3834 patients with T1-T2 breast cancer after conserving surgery and adjuvant treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: The aim of the present analysis is to determine the long-term results in terms of breast relapse and specific survival in patients treated with conserving surgery and adjuvant treatment for early breast cancer. Methods: From January 1980 to December 2001, 3834 patients with pT1-T2 breast cancer were treated consecutively at the University of Florence. The median age of the patient population was 55 years (range 30-80). All patients were followed for a median of 7.4 years (range 0.6 year to 22.5 years). The crude probability of survival (or local recurrence) was estimated by using Kaplan-Meier method, and survival (or local recurrence) comparisons were carried out using Cox proportional hazard regression models. Results: The Cox regression model by stepwise selection showed some parameters, such as chemotherapy (HR 1.53; CI 1.19-1.95), pT status (HR 1.62, CI 1.31-2.01), positive axillary lymph nodes (HR 1.92, CI 1.66-2.22), and local recurrence (HR 4.58; CI 3.66-5.73), as independent prognostic factors for breast cancer death. Moreover, we found lower rate survival among patients treated before 1991 in comparison to women treated after 1991 (p = 0.0001) probably due to inadequate treatment. For local disease free survival, age at presentation (HR 0.47; CI 0.35-0.63), use of tamoxifen (HR 0.42; CI 0.25-0.71), surgical margins (HR 2.00; CI 1.21-3.30), and chemotherapy (HR 0.53; CI 0.31-0.91) emerged by multivariate analyses as significant breast relapse predictors. Conclusion: In our experience breast conserving surgery followed by adjuvant radiotherapy treatment gives high rates of local control in women with early breast cancer. The use of routinely adjuvant chemotherapy and hormone therapy lowered the local recurrence and probably the modification of therapeutic approach in the last decades also improved the specific survival

  4. Effect of Tumor Deposits on Overall Survival in Colorectal Cancer Patients with Regional Lymph Node Metastases

    OpenAIRE

    Yabata, Eiichi; Udagawa, Masaru; Okamoto, Hiroyuki

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: The staging system of the International Union Against Cancer considers tumor deposits to be N1c in patients with no regional lymph node metastasis, but the significance of tumor deposits in patients with regional lymph node metastases is unclear. We investigated the effect of tumor deposits on overall survival in colorectal cancer patients with regional lymph node metastases. Patients and Methods: From 2000 to 2008, 551 patients underwent resections for colorectal cancer at our me...

  5. ESR1 and EGF genetic variation in relation to breast cancer risk and survival

    OpenAIRE

    Einarsdóttir, Kristjana; Darabi, Hatef; Li, Yi; Low, Yen Ling; Li, Yu Qing; Bonnard, Carine; Sjölander, Arvid; Czene, Kamila; Wedrén, Sara; Liu, Edison T.; Hall, Per; Humphreys, Keith; Liu, Jianjun

    2008-01-01

    Introduction Oestrogen exposure is a central factor in the development of breast cancer. Oestrogen receptor alpha (ESR1) is the main mediator of oestrogen effect in breast epithelia and has also been shown to be activated by epidermal growth factor (EGF). We sought to determine if common genetic variation in the ESR1 and EGF genes affects breast cancer risk, tumour characteristics or breast cancer survival. Methods We genotyped 157 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in ESR1 and 54 SNPs in...

  6. Predictors of Colorectal Cancer Survival in Golestan, Iran: A Population-based Study

    OpenAIRE

    Aryaie, Mohammad; Roshandel, Gholamreza; Semnani, Shahryar; ASADI-LARI, Mohsen; Aarabi, Mohsen; Vakili, Mohammad Ali; Kazemnejhad, Vahideh; Sedaghat, Seyed Mehdi; Solaymani-Dodaran, Masoud

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES We aimed to investigate factors associated with colorectal cancer survival in Golestan, Iran. METHODS We used a population based cancer registry to recruit study subjects. All patients registered since 2004 were contacted and data were collected using structured questionnaires and trained interviewers. All the existing evidences to determine the stage of the cancer were also collected. The time from first diagnosis to death was compared in patients according to their stage of cance...

  7. Correlation between Pulmonary Function Indexes and Survival Time 
in Patients with Advanced Lung Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Ge, Hui; Jiang, Zhenghua; Huang, Qian; Muyun ZHU; Yang, Jie

    2013-01-01

    Background and objective To those patients with advanced lung cancer, the ultimate objective is to improve the curative effect and quality of life, lung function indexes are an important factor. We investigate the change of lung function and the relationship between pulmonary function indexs and survival time in patients with advanced lung cancer. Methods Lung function was detected in 59 cases with lung cancer and 63 normal controls. The relationship between pulmonary function indexs and surv...

  8. Higher Levels of GATA3 Predict Better Survival in Women with Breast Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Yoon, Nam K.; Maresh, Erin L.; Shen, Dejun; Elshimali, Yahya; Apple, Sophia; Horvath, Steve; Mah, Vei; Bose, Shikha; Chia, David; Chang, Helena R.; Goodglick, Lee

    2010-01-01

    The GATA family members are zinc finger transcription factors involved in cell differentiation and proliferation. GATA3 in particular is necessary for mammary gland maturation, and its loss has been implicated in breast cancer development. Our goal was to validate the ability of GATA3 expression to predict survival in breast cancer patients. Protein expression of GATA3 was analyzed on a high density tissue microarray consisting of 242 cases of breast cancer. We associated GATA3 expression wit...

  9. Intraoperative radiotherapy combined with resection for pancreatic cancer. Analysis of survival rates and prognostic factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of intraoperative radiotherapy (IORT) combined with surgical resection. Subjects were consecutive 69 patients with pancreatic cancer treated with surgery alone (n=31) or surgical resection combined with IORT (n=38) in a 13 year period between 1991 and 2003. We evaluated the effects of IORT against local recurrence of cancer and patients' survival, retrospectively. Furthermore, clinicopathological factors affecting the 5-year survival rate in the two groups were comparatively investigated. The IORT group showed a significantly lower local recurrence rate of cancer than that in the surgery alone group (7.8% and 22.6%, respectively; p<0.05). The 5-year survival probability in the IORT group was significantly higher than that in the surgery alone group (29.9% and 3.4%, respectively; p<0.05). According to the Japanese classification of pancreatic cancer, cancers located in the pancreas body or tail, no local residual cancer post operative procedure (R0), low grade local cancer progression (t1, 2), and low grade intrapancreatic neural invasion (ne0, 1) were significantly better prognostic factors in the IORT group than those in the surgery alone group. There were no significant differences between the both groups in the 5-year survival rate in terms of the sex of the patients, cancer of the pancreas head, histological type, more than R1, the presence of lymph node involvement, ne2-3, and clinical stages. IORT is a useful intraoperative adjuvant therapy for pancreatic cancer, when the curative resection is achieved. Our data have suggested that IORT suppresses the local recurrence of cancer and provides the significant survival benefit for those patients. (author)

  10. Dose surgical sub-specialization influence survival in patients with colorectal cancer?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cameron Platell; Daniel Lim; Nazreen Tajudeen; Ji-Li Tan; Karen Wong

    2003-01-01

    AIM: To perform a review of patients with colorectal cancer to a community hospital and to compare the risk-adjusted survival between patients managed in general surgical units versus a colorectal unit.METHODS: The study evaluated all patients with colorectal cancer referred to either general surgical units or a colorectal unit from 1/1996 to 6/2001.These results were compared to a historical control group treated within general surgical units at the same hospital from 1/1989 to 12/1994. A KaplanMeier survival analysis compared the overall survivals (allcause mortality) between the groups. A Cox proportional hazards model was used to determine the influence of a number of independent variables on survival. These variables included age, ASA score, disease stage, emergency surgery,adjuvant chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy, disease location, and surgical unit.RESULTS: There were 974 patients involved in this study.There were no significant differences in the demographic details for the three groups. Patients in the colorectal group were more likely to have rectal cancer and Stage T cancers,and less likely to have Stage Ⅱ cancers. Patients treated in the colorectal group had a significantly higher overall 5-year survival when compared with the general surgical group and the historical control group (56 % versus 45 % and 40 % respectively, P<0.01). Survival regression analysis identified age, ASA score, disease stage, adjuvant chemotherapy, and treatment in a colorectal unit (Hazards ratio: 0.67; 95 % CI: 0.53 to 0.84, P =0.0005), as significant independent predictors of survival.CONCLUSION: The results suggest that there may be a survival advantage for patients with colon and rectal cancers being treated within a specialist colorectal surgical unit.

  11. Role of BRCA2 mutation status on overall survival among breast cancer patients from Sardinia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Germline mutations in BRCA1 or BRCA2 genes have been demonstrated to increase the risk of developing breast cancer. Conversely, the impact of BRCA mutations on prognosis and survival of breast cancer patients is still debated. In this study, we investigated the role of such mutations on breast cancer-specific survival among patients from North Sardinia. Among incident cases during the period 1997–2002, a total of 512 breast cancer patients gave their consent to undergo BRCA mutation screening by DHPLC analysis and automated DNA sequencing. The Hakulinen, Kaplan-Meier, and Cox regression methods were used for both relative survival assessment and statistical analysis. In our series, patients carrying a germline mutation in coding regions and splice boundaries of BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes were 48/512 (9%). Effect on overall survival was evaluated taking into consideration BRCA2 carriers, who represented the vast majority (44/48; 92%) of mutation-positive patients. A lower breast cancer-specific overall survival rate was observed in BRCA2 mutation carriers after the first two years from diagnosis. However, survival rates were similar in both groups after five years from diagnosis. No significant difference was found for age of onset, disease stage, and primary tumour histopathology between the two subsets. In Sardinian breast cancer population, BRCA2 was the most affected gene and the effects of BRCA2 germline mutations on patients' survival were demonstrated to vary within the first two years from diagnosis. After a longer follow-up observation, breast cancer-specific rates of death were instead similar for BRCA2 mutation carriers and non-carriers

  12. Survival of elderly patients with stage 5 CKD: comparison of conservative management and renal replacement therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandna, Shahid M.; Da Silva-Gane, Maria; Marshall, Catherine; Warwicker, Paul; Greenwood, Roger N.; Farrington, Ken

    2011-01-01

    Background. Elderly patients with end-stage renal disease and severe extra-renal comorbidity have a poor prognosis on renal replacement therapy (RRT) and may opt to be managed conservatively (CM). Information on the survival of patients on this mode of therapy is limited. Methods. We studied survival in a large cohort of CM patients in comparison to patients who received RRT. Results. Over an 18-year period, we studied 844 patients, 689 (82%) of whom had been treated by RRT and 155 (18%) were CM. CM patients were older and a greater proportion had high comorbidity. Median survival from entry into stage 5 chronic kidney disease was less in CM than in RRT (21.2 vs 67.1 months: P  75 years when corrected for age, high comorbidity and diabetes, the survival advantage from RRT was ~ 4 months, which was not statistically significant. Increasing age, the presence of high comorbidity and the presence of diabetes were independent determinants of poorer survival in RRT patients. In CM patients, however, age > 75 years and female gender independently predicted better survival. Conclusions. In patients aged > 75 years with high extra-renal comorbidity, the survival advantage conferred by RRT over CM is likely to be small. Age > 75 years and female gender predicted better survival in CM patients. The reasons for this are unclear. PMID:21098012

  13. The association of statin use after cancer diagnosis with survival in pancreatic cancer patients: a SEER-medicare analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christie Y Jeon

    Full Text Available Pancreatic cancer has poor prognosis and existing interventions provide a modest benefit. Statin has anti-cancer properties that might enhance survival in pancreatic cancer patients. We sought to determine whether statin treatment after cancer diagnosis is associated with longer survival in those with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC.We analyzed data on 7813 elderly patients with PDAC using the linked Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER - Medicare claims files. Information on the type, intensity and duration of statin use after cancer diagnosis was extracted from Medicare Part D. We treated statin as a time-dependent variable in a Cox regression model to determine the association with overall survival adjusting for follow-up, age, sex, race, neighborhood income, stage, grade, tumor size, pancreatectomy, chemotherapy, radiation, obesity, dyslipidemia, diabetes, chronic pancreatitis and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD.Overall, statin use after cancer diagnosis was not significantly associated with survival when all PDAC patients were considered (HR = 0.94, 95%CI 0.89, 1.01. However, statin use after cancer diagnosis was associated with a 21% reduced hazard of death (Hazard ratio = 0.79, 95% confidence interval (CI 0.67, 0.93 in those with grade I or II PDAC and to a similar extent in those who had undergone a pancreatectomy, in those with chronic pancreatitis and in those who had not been treated with statin prior to cancer diagnosis.We found that statin treatment after cancer diagnosis is associated with enhanced survival in patients with low-grade, resectable PDAC.

  14. Survival probability and prognostic factors for breast cancer patients in Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyen H. Lan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Breast cancer is becoming a public health problem in Vietnam. The mortality to incidence ratio of the disease was ranked second among the most common cancers in women. This study estimates the survival probability at 1, 3, and 5 years following diagnosis and determines prognostic factors for breast cancer mortality in Vietnam. Methods: A survival analysis was conducted based on retrospective data from Hue Central Hospital and the Cancer Registry in Ho Chi Minh City. Using the Kaplan-Meier method, the survival probability of patients with breast cancer was estimated at 1, 3, and 5 years following diagnosis. The covariates among prognostic factors for survival time were studied using an extended Cox proportion hazards model, including time-dependent predictors. Results: Overall survival rates at 1, 3, and 5 years following diagnosis were 0.94, 0.83 and 0.74 respectively. Marital status, education level, stage at diagnosis, and hormone therapy were prognostic factors for mortality. For the stage at diagnosis, the relation to the risk of death for breast cancer was 1.32 (95% CI, 1.22–1.41. Married women faced a risk of death nearly 1.59 times higher than unmarried women (95% CI, 1.09–2.33. Women with higher levels of education and who received hormone therapy had approximately 10% (hazard ratio [HR]: 0.92; 95% CI, 0.89–0.96 and 80% (HR: 0.22; 95% CI, 0.12–0.41 risk reduction of death respectively, compared with those classified as illiterate and those without hormone therapy. Conclusions: The 5-year survival probability of breast cancer was lower in Vietnam than in countries with similar distributions of the stage at diagnosis. Screening programs and related support policies should be developed to increase the life expectancy of women with breast cancer in Vietnam.

  15. Education, survival, and avoidable deaths in Lithuanian cancer patients, 2001-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smailyte, Giedre; Jasilionis, Domantas; Vincerzevskiene, Ieva; Shkolnikov, Vladimir M

    2016-07-01

    Background Our aim in this study is to provide a systematic assessment of the site-specific cancer survival rates of patients with different educational levels, using population-based census-linked registry data covering the entire population of Lithuania. Material and methods The study is based on the linkage between all records of the 2001 population census and all records from Lithuanian Cancer Registry (cancer incidence) and Statistics Lithuania (deaths) for the period between 6 April 2001 and 31 December 2009. Results For the vast majority of cancer sites we found an inverse gradient in survival, with the worst survival indicators in the lowest educational group. We estimated that 18.6% of the deaths in Lithuanian cancer patients could have potentially been postponed, if all the patients had the same cancer mortality as the patients with the highest educational level. Conclusion Our findings offer a warning that although the survival rates of cancer patients are improving, this progress hides disparities between different groups of patients. PMID:27070947

  16. Impact of esophageal cancer staging on overall survival and disease-free survival based on the 2010 AJCC classification by lymph nodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This retrospective study investigated the effect of modifications presented in the seventh edition of the American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) Manual for staging esophageal cancer on the characterization of the effectiveness of post-operative chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy, as measured by overall and disease-free survival. The seventh edition of the AJCC Manual classifies the number of lymph nodes (N) positive for regional metastasis into three subclasses. We used the AJCC classification system to characterize the cancers of 413 Chinese patients with esophageal cancer who underwent radical resection plus regional lymph node dissection over a 10-year period. The 10-year survival rate was 14.3% for stage N1 patients and 6.1% for stage N2 patients. Only one stage N3 patient was followed >4 years (53.4 months). The 10-year disease-free rate was 13.6% for stage N1 patients. Patients with stage N2 or N3 cancer were more likely to have tumor recurrences, metastases or death than patients with stage N1 cancer. Post-operative radiotherapy provided no survival benefit, and may have had a negative effect on survival. In this study, the N stage of esophageal cancer was an independent factor affecting overall and disease-free survival. Our results did not clarify whether or not radiotherapy after radical esophagectomy offers any survival benefit to patients with esophageal cancer. (author)

  17. Identification of Novel Genetic Markers of Breast Cancer Survival

    OpenAIRE

    Guo, Qi; Schmidt, Marjanka; Kraft, Peter; Canisius, Sander; Chen, Constance; Khan, Sofia; Tyrer, Jonathan; Bolla, Manjeet; Wang, Qing; Dennis, Joe; Michailidou, Kyriaki; Lush, Michael; Kar, Siddhartha; Beesley, Jonathan; Dunning, Alison

    2015-01-01

    Higher-level funding: The COGS project was funded through a European Commission?s Seventh Framework Programme grant (agreement number 223175 - HEALTH-F2-2009?223175). The Breast Cancer Association Consortium (BCAC) is funded by Cancer Research-UK (C1287/A10118 and C1287/A12014). Meetings of the BCAC have been funded by the European Union COST programme (BM0606). ELAN Program of the University Hospital Erlangen (BBCC). Personal support: DFE is a Principal Research Fellow of Cancer Research...

  18. An examination of racial differences in 5-year survival of cervical cancer among African American and white American women in the southeastern US from 1985 to 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weragoda, Janaka; Azuero, Andres; Badiga, Suguna; Bell, Walter C; Matthews, Roland; Piyathilake, Chandrika

    2016-08-01

    Disparities in Cervical Cancer (CC) mortality outcomes between African American (AA) and White women have been studied for decades. However, conclusions about the effect of race on CC survival differ across studies. This study assessed differences in CC survival between AA and White women diagnosed between 1985 and 2010 and treated at two major hospitals in the southeastern US. The study sample included 925 AA and 1192 White women diagnosed with cervical adenocarcinoma, adenosquamous cell carcinoma, or squamous cell carcinoma. Propensity score adjustment and matching were employed to compare 5-year survival between the two racial groups. Crude comparisons suggested relevant racial differences in survival. However, the racial differences became of small magnitude after propensity-score adjustment and in matched analyses. Nonlinear models identified age at diagnosis, cancer stage, mode of treatment, and histological subtype as the most salient characteristics predicting 5-year survival of CC, yet these characteristics were also associated with race. Crude racial differences in survival might be partly explained by underlying differences in the characteristics of racial groups, such as age at diagnosis, histological subtype, cancer stage, and the mode of treatment. The study results highlight the need to improve access to early screening and treatment opportunities for AA women to improve posttreatment survival from CC. PMID:27185053

  19. 15.5 Million Americans Now Surviving Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... help survivors with cancer screening and encourage good habits, such as quitting smoking, eating a healthy diet and exercising. In addition, they can make referrals to mental health experts if a patient is psychologically distressed. "They ...

  20. Enzalutamide Improves Survival in Patients with Metastatic Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    A summary of results from an international phase III trial that compared enzalutamide (Xtandi®) and placebo for the treatment of metastatic prostate cancer that had progressed during treatment with androgen deprivation therapy.

  1. Bevacizumab improves survival for patients with advanced cervical cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patients with advanced, recurrent, or persistent cervical cancer that was not curable with standard treatment who received the drug bevacizumab (Avastin) lived 3.7 months longer than patients who did not receive the drug, according to an interim analysis

  2. Hormone-receptor expression and ovarian cancer survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sieh, Weiva; Köbel, Martin; Longacre, Teri A;

    2013-01-01

    Few biomarkers of ovarian cancer prognosis have been established, partly because subtype-specific associations might be obscured in studies combining all histopathological subtypes. We examined whether tumour expression of the progesterone receptor (PR) and oestrogen receptor (ER) was associated ...

  3. Common germline polymorphisms associated with breast cancer-specific survival

    OpenAIRE

    Pirie, Ailith; Guo, Qi; Kraft, Peter; Canisius, Sander; Eccles, Diana M; Rahman, Nazneen; Nevanlinna, Heli; Chen, Constance; Khan, Sofia; Tyrer, Jonathan; Bolla, Manjeet K; Wang, Qin; Dennis, Joe; Michailidou, Kyriaki; Lush, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Funding This work was supported by the following grants. Higher level funding The COGS project was funded through a European Commission's Seventh Framework Programme grant (agreement number 223175 - HEALTH-F2-2009-223175). The Breast Cancer Association Consortium (BCAC) is funded by Cancer Research-UK (C1287/A10118 and C1287/A12014). Meetings of the BCAC have been funded by the European Union COST programme (BM0606). ELAN Program of the University Hospital Erlangen (BBCC). Pers...

  4. Socioeconomic disparity in survival after breast cancer in ireland: observational study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul M Walsh

    Full Text Available We evaluated the relationship between breast cancer survival and deprivation using data from the Irish National Cancer Registry. Cause-specific survival was compared between five area-based socioeconomic deprivation strata using Cox regression. Patient and tumour characteristics and treatment were compared using modified Poisson regression with robust variance estimation. Based on 21356 patients diagnosed 1999-2008, age-standardized five-year survival averaged 80% in the least deprived and 75% in the most deprived stratum. Age-adjusted mortality risk was 33% higher in the most deprived group (hazard ratio 1.33, 95% CI 1.21-1.45, P<0.001. The most deprived groups were more likely to present with advanced stage, high grade or hormone receptor-negative cancer, symptomatically, or with significant comorbidity, and to be smokers or unmarried, and less likely to have breast-conserving surgery. Cox modelling suggested that the available data on patient, tumour and treatment factors could account for only about half of the survival disparity (adjusted hazard ratio 1.18, 95% CI 0.97-1.43, P = 0.093. Survival disparity did not diminish over time, compared with the period 1994-1998. Persistent survival disparities among Irish breast cancer patients suggest unequal use of or access to services and highlight the need for further research to understand and remove the behavioural or other barriers involved.

  5. Treatment-associated severe thrombocytopenia affects survival rate in esophageal cancer patients undergoing concurrent chemoradiotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y M Huang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Esophageal cancer is commonly treated with surgery, concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT, or a combination of both. The correlation between the hematological parameters during CCRT and early survival of esophageal cancer has not been fully evaluated. Materials And Methods: We analyzed the records of 65 esophageal cancer patients treated by CCRT between 2007 and 2010 retrospectively. The association between CCRT-associated myelosuppression, demographic variables, and survival rates were analyzed by univariate and multivariate analysis. Results: The univariate analysis showed that tumor extent of T3-4, a higher stage of tumor, a lower albumin level, grade 3 or higher anemia and thrombocytopenia, and interruptions in treatment affected survival rates. Further, the multivariate analysis revealed that stage IV (P = 0.030 is an independently negative prognostic factor for a one-year survival rate. Stage IV (P = 0.035, tumor extent of T3-4 (P = 0.002, and grade 3-4 thrombocytopenia (P = 0.015 are independently negative prognostic factors for a two-year survival rate. Conclusions: Severe decrease in platelet count during CCRT independently affects survival of esophageal cancer patients in addition to stage of the tumor.

  6. The optimal number of lymph nodes removed in maximizing the survival of breast cancer patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Lim Fong; Taib, Nur Aishah; Mohamed, Ibrahim; Daud, Noorizam

    2014-07-01

    The number of lymph nodes removed is one of the important predictors for survival in breast cancer study. Our aim is to determine the optimal number of lymph nodes to be removed for maximizing the survival of breast cancer patients. The study population consists of 873 patients with at least one of axillary nodes involved among 1890 patients from the University of Malaya Medical Center (UMMC) breast cancer registry. For this study, the Chi-square test of independence is performed to determine the significant association between prognostic factors and survival status, while Wilcoxon test is used to compare the estimates of the hazard functions of the two or more groups at each observed event time. Logistic regression analysis is then conducted to identify important predictors of survival. In particular, Akaike's Information Criterion (AIC) are calculated from the logistic regression model for all thresholds of node involved, as an alternative measure for the Wald statistic (χ2), in order to determine the optimal number of nodes that need to be removed to obtain the maximum differential in survival. The results from both measurements are compared. It is recommended that, for this particular group, the minimum of 10 nodes should be removed to maximize survival of breast cancer patients.

  7. Comorbidity-Adjusted Survival in Early Stage Lung Cancer Patients Treated with Hypofractionated Proton Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharon Y. Do

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To determine the influence of comorbidity on survival in early-stage lung cancer patients treated with proton radiotherapy, using the Charlson Comorbidity Index. Study Design and Setting. Fifty-four non-small-cell lung cancer patients, treated prospectively in a phase II clinical trial with hypofractionated proton therapy, were analyzed retrospectively to assess their burden of comorbid disease as expressed by Charlson Comorbidity Index. Using the Charlson Comorbidity Index method, a predicted survival curve based on comorbidity was formulated and compared to the observed mortality from causes other than lung cancer in the study population. Results. The study population had an average age score of 2.8 and an average Charlson Comorbidity Index of 4.7. Predicted survival was calculated to be 67% and 50% at 2 and 4 years, respectively. Actual comorbidity-specific survival at 2 and 4 years was 64% and 45%, respectively. The observed survival fell within the 95% confidence intervals of the predicted survival at all time points up to 5 years. Conclusion. Predicted mortality from concurrent disease, based on Charlson Comorbidity Index, correlated well with observed comorbidity-specific mortality. This helps substantiate the accuracy of the data coding in cause of death and strengthens previously reported disease-specific survival rates.

  8. Do stage of disease, comorbidity or access to treatment explain socioeconomic differences in survival after ovarian cancer?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibfelt, Else Helene; Dalton, Susanne Oksbjerg; Høgdall, Claus;

    2015-01-01

    socioeconomic disparities in survival after ovarian cancer can be explained by socioeconomic differences in cancer stage, comorbidity, treatment or lifestyle factors. METHODS: In the Danish Gynaecological Cancer Database we identified 2873 cases of ovarian cancer diagnosed between 2005 and 2010. From this data...... models. RESULTS: Educational level was weakly associated with cancer stage. Short education, lower income and living without a partner were related to poorer survival after ovarian cancer. Among women with early cancer stage, HR (95% CI) for death was 1.75 (1.20-2.54) in shorter compared to longer...... educated women. After adjustment for comorbid conditions, cancer stage, tumour histology, operation status and lifestyle factors, socioeconomic differences in survival persisted. CONCLUSIONS: Socioeconomic disparities in survival after ovarian cancer were to some extent, but not fully explained by...

  9. The ketogenic diet and hyperbaric oxygen therapy prolong survival in mice with systemic metastatic cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela M Poff

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Abnormal cancer metabolism creates a glycolytic-dependency which can be exploited by lowering glucose availability to the tumor. The ketogenic diet (KD is a low carbohydrate, high fat diet which decreases blood glucose and elevates blood ketones and has been shown to slow cancer progression in animals and humans. Abnormal tumor vasculature creates hypoxic pockets which promote cancer progression and further increase the glycolytic-dependency of cancers. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBO₂T saturates tumors with oxygen, reversing the cancer promoting effects of tumor hypoxia. Since these non-toxic therapies exploit overlapping metabolic deficiencies of cancer, we tested their combined effects on cancer progression in a natural model of metastatic disease. METHODS: We used the firefly luciferase-tagged VM-M3 mouse model of metastatic cancer to compare tumor progression and survival in mice fed standard or KD ad libitum with or without HBO₂T (2.5 ATM absolute, 90 min, 3x/week. Tumor growth was monitored by in vivo bioluminescent imaging. RESULTS: KD alone significantly decreased blood glucose, slowed tumor growth, and increased mean survival time by 56.7% in mice with systemic metastatic cancer. While HBO₂T alone did not influence cancer progression, combining the KD with HBO₂T elicited a significant decrease in blood glucose, tumor growth rate, and 77.9% increase in mean survival time compared to controls. CONCLUSIONS: KD and HBO₂T produce significant anti-cancer effects when combined in a natural model of systemic metastatic cancer. Our evidence suggests that these therapies should be further investigated as potential non-toxic treatments or adjuvant therapies to standard care for patients with systemic metastatic disease.

  10. Stochastic modeling and experimental analysis of phenotypic switching and survival of cancer cells under stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamani Dahaj, Seyed Alireza; Kumar, Niraj; Sundaram, Bala; Celli, Jonathan; Kulkarni, Rahul

    The phenotypic heterogeneity of cancer cells is critical to their survival under stress. A significant contribution to heterogeneity of cancer calls derives from the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), a conserved cellular program that is crucial for embryonic development. Several studies have investigated the role of EMT in growth of early stage tumors into invasive malignancies. Also, EMT has been closely associated with the acquisition of chemoresistance properties in cancer cells. Motivated by these studies, we analyze multi-phenotype stochastic models of the evolution of cancers cell populations under stress. We derive analytical results for time-dependent probability distributions that provide insights into the competing rates underlying phenotypic switching (e.g. during EMT) and the corresponding survival of cancer cells. Experimentally, we evaluate these model-based predictions by imaging human pancreatic cancer cell lines grown with and without cytotoxic agents and measure growth kinetics, survival, morphological changes and (terminal evaluation of) biomarkers with associated epithelial and mesenchymal phenotypes. The results derived suggest approaches for distinguishing between adaptation and selection scenarios for survival in the presence of external stresses.

  11. Progression-free survival as a potential surrogate for overall survival in metastatic breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Beauchemin C; Cooper D; Lapierre ME; Yelle L; Lachaine J

    2014-01-01

    Catherine Beauchemin,1 Dan Cooper,2 Marie-Ève Lapierre,1 Louise Yelle,3 Jean Lachaine11Université de Montréal, Faculté de pharmacie, Montreal, 2Institut national d'excellence en santé et en services sociaux (INESSS), 3Centre Hospitalier de l'Université de Montréal – Hôpital Notre-Dame, Département de médecine, Université de Montréal, Montreal, QC, CanadaBackground: Progression-free survival (PFS) ...

  12. Analysis on Lung Cancer Survival from 2001 to 2007 in Qidong, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian ZHU

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective Lung cancer is one of the most important malignancies in China. Survival rates of lung cancer on the population-based cancer registry for the years 2001-2007 in Qidong were analysed in order to provide the basis for the prognosis assessment and the control of this cancer. Methods Total 4,451 registered lung cancer cases was followed up to December 31st, 2009. Death certificates only (DCO cases were excluded, leaving 4,382 cases for survival analysis. Cumulative observed survival rate (OS and relative survival rate (RS were calculated using Hakulinen’s method performed by the SURV 3.01 software developed at the Finnish Cancer Registry. Results The 1-, 3-, and 5-year OS rates were 23.73%, 11.89%, 10.01%, and the RS rates were 24.86%, 13.69%, 12.73%, respectively. The 1-, 3-, and 5-year RS of males vs females were 23.70% vs 27.89%, 12.58% vs 16.53%, and 11.73% vs 15.21%, respectively, with statisitically significant differences (χ2=13.77, P=0.032. RS of age groups of 15-34, 35-44, 45-54, 55-64, 65-74 and 75+ were 35.46%, 17.66%, 11.97%, 13.49%, 10.61%, 15.14%, respectively. Remarkable improvement could be seen for the 5-year RS in this setting if compared with that for the years 1972-2000. Conclusion The lung cancer survival outcomes in Qidong have been improved gradually for the past decades. Further measures on the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of lung cancer should be taken.

  13. Human papillomavirus and survival in patients with base of tongue cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attner, Per; Du, Juan; Näsman, Anders; Hammarstedt, Lalle; Ramqvist, Torbjörn; Lindholm, Johan; Marklund, Linda; Dalianis, Tina; Munck-Wikland, Eva

    2011-06-15

    The incidence of base of tongue cancer is increasing in Sweden and the proportion of human papillomavirus (HPV) positive cancer has increased in Stockholm, Sweden. Between 2006 and 2007, 84% of base of tongue cancer cases in Stockholm were HPV-positive. The objective of this study was to assess the impact of HPV status on prognosis for base of tongue cancer patients. One-hundred and nine patients were diagnosed with base of tongue cancer between 1998 and 2007 in Stockholm County and 95 paraffin-embedded diagnostic tumor biopsies were obtained and tested for HPV by PCR. Eighty-seven patients had available biopsies, were treated with intention to cure and could be included in the survival analysis. Age, sex, TNM-stage, stage, treatment and survival were recorded from patient charts. Kaplan-Meier curves were used to present survival data. In multivariable analyses, a Cox proportional hazards model was used to adjust for covariates. In total 68 (78%) tumor biopsies from the 87 included patients were HPV DNA positive. Kaplan-Meier estimates showed that the overall survival for patients with HPV-positive cancer was significantly better (p = 0.0004), (log-rank test) than that of patients with HPV-negative cancer. Patients with HPV-positive tumors also had significantly better disease-free survival (p = 0.0008), (log-rank test) than those with HPV-negative tumors. These results further strengthen the option to consider HPV-status when planning prospective studies on treatment for base of tongue cancer. PMID:20725995

  14. Gastric Cancer Prevalence, According To Survival Data in Iran (National Study-2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AA Mehrabian

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground: Gastric cancer is a common and lethal disease throughout the world. In Iran with 7300 new cases annually, it is the first cause of cancer related death in both sexes. Regarding the high incidence (10.5/100000 individuals of gastric can­cer and priority of prevalence index in cancer management, in this study we tried to determine 1, 2-3 and 4-5 year point preva­lence of the disease according to  survival data."nMethod: Survival and incidence data were used for determination of cancer prevalence. Incidence data were extracted from can­cer registry in Iran and survival data were determined in a descriptive study by following up 3439 gastric cancer patients in Cancer Research Center (CRC. 1, 2-3 and 4-5 year prevalence was estimated from incidence rates in different years and the proportion of patients surviving 0.5, 1.5, 2.5, 3.5 and 4.5 years from the time of diagnosis."nResults: patients with survival of 0.5, 1.5, 2.5, 3.5 and 4.5 years from the time of diagnosis were 46.38%, 26 %, 19.36%, 15.47% and 12.8% respectively. The prevalence of 1, 2-3 and 4-5 year was 3392, 3118and 1824 respectively. The cumula­tive 5 year prevalence was 8334 cases."nConclusion: These estimates of the point prevalence of gastric cancer at 1, 2-3 and 4-5 years are applicable to the evalua­tion of initial treatment, clinical follow-up, and point of cure. Therefore 1, 2-3 and 4-5 year point prevalence estimates, are neces­sary in health service planning for gastric cancer management and should be considered by public health managers.

  15. The Impact of Androgen Receptor Expression on Breast Cancer Survival: A Retrospective Study and Meta-Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Qu, Qing; Mao, Yan; Fei, Xiao-Chun; Shen, Kun-wei

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies have highlighted the role of androgen receptor (AR) as a prognostic biomarker of breast cancer. However, its predictive role in disease free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) still remains inconclusive. The present study aimed to retrospectively investigate the association between AR and survival outcomes in breast cancer and also identify this association by a meta-analysis of published researches. Clinical data from 109 patients with breast cancer, who underwent surger...

  16. Long term prognosis of women with breast cancer in New Zealand: study of survival to 30 years.

    OpenAIRE

    Hibberd, A. D.; Horwood, L J; Wells, J.E.

    1983-01-01

    The long term prognosis of women with breast cancer was studied by analysing retrospectively the 30 year survival of 2019 women with histologically proved breast cancer recorded at the National Cancer Registry in New Zealand between 1950 and 1954. Excess mortality rates for successive five year survival cohorts were calculated from the survival data. From the total cohort the excess mortality rate fell rapidly during the first 10 years and then became low after 20 years. There were no signifi...

  17. Mitochondrial Variations in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC) Survival

    OpenAIRE

    Zhaoxi Wang; Sojung Choi; Jinseon Lee; Yen-Tsung Huang; Feng Chen; Yang Zhao; Xihong Lin; Donna Neuberg; Jhingook Kim; Christiani, David C.

    2015-01-01

    Mutations in the mtDNA genome have long been suspected to play an important role in cancer. Although most cancer cells harbor mtDNA mutations, the question of whether such mutations are associated with clinical prognosis of lung cancer remains unclear. We resequenced the entire mitochondrial genomes of tumor tissue from a population of 250 Korean patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Our analysis revealed that the haplogroup (D/D4) was associated with worse overall survival (OS) o...

  18. Survival following gamma knife radiosurgery for brain metastasis from breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breast cancer is the second most common cause of brain metastases in the United States. Although breast cancer induced brain metastases represent an incurable condition, some patients experience prolonged survival. In this retrospective study, we examine a cohort of patients with brain metastases from breast cancer treated with Gamma Knife stereotactic radiosurgery to identify factors that predict better outcomes. A retrospective database of 100 patients treated for brain metastases due to breast cancer via Gamma Knife radiosurgery (GKS) from July 1998 through March 2009 was reviewed. Patients who received radiosurgery as sole treatment, as a planned boost after whole brain radiotherapy or surgical resection, or as salvage after prior whole brain radiation therapy (WBRT) or surgical resection were included. Prognostic factors identified to be significant for survival in previous brain metastasis studies were analyzed for significance by univariate and multivariate Cox analysis. Overall, the median brain progression-free survival time was 7.1 months and the median survival time was 12.3 months. No prognostic variables were significant for brain progression-free survival. For patients treated with a planned GKS after WBRT, GKS as sole treatment, GKS salvage after WBRT, GKS boost after surgery, or GKS for surgical salvage the median survival times (MSTs) were as follows: 12.2 months, 12.4 months, 9.5 months, 27.6 months and 33.4 months respectively. Differences between the groups were not significant (p = 0.06); however, GKS boost after surgery and GKS for salvage after surgery did have a trend toward better overall survival. The MST for patients of age <65 years was 14.5 months, compared to age ≥65 which was 7.7 months (p = 0.06) and remained a significant prognostic factor for overall survival on multivariate analysis. The MST for patients with a single lesion was 16.9 months, not significantly different than the MST of 14.5 months for patients with 2–3 lesions

  19. Cancer stem cells and chemoresistance: The smartest survives the raid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jihe

    2016-04-01

    Chemoresistant metastatic relapse of minimal residual disease plays a significant role for poor prognosis of cancer. Growing evidence supports a critical role of cancer stem cell (CSC) behind the mechanisms for this deadly disease. This review briefly introduces the basics of the conventional chemotherapies, updates the CSC theories, highlights the molecular and cellular mechanisms by which CSC smartly designs and utilizes multiple lines of self-defense to avoid being killed by chemotherapy, and concisely summarizes recent progress in studies on CSC-targeted therapies in the end, with the hope to help guide future research toward developing more effective therapeutic strategies to eradicate tumor cells in the patients. PMID:26899500

  20. Metformin Increases Overall Survival in Patients with Diabetes Undergoing Surgery for Colorectal Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fransgaard, Tina; Thygesen, Lau Caspar; Gögenur, Ismail

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Emerging evidence suggests that metformin decreases the risk of developing colorectal cancer in patients with diabetes, but only few studies have examined potential survival benefits after surgery for colorectal cancer (CRC). The purpose of the study was to examine the association...... between diabetes and overall survival after resection for CRC. Furthermore, the association between antidiabetic medication and overall survival was examined. METHODS: Patients diagnosed with CRC between January 1, 2003 and December 31, 2012 were identified through the Danish Colorectal Cancer Group......'s National Clinical Database (DCCG). The Danish National Patient Register (NPR) records all hospital contacts in Denmark, and the diagnosis of diabetes was identified by combining NPR data with use of antidiabetic drugs identified through the Danish National Prescription Registry and DCCG. The Kaplan...

  1. Centralisation of treatment and survival rates for cancer.

    OpenAIRE

    Stiller, C A

    1988-01-01

    Between 1977 and 1984 the proportion of children with malignant disease in Britain initially referred to specialist paediatric oncology centres increased from 44% to 71%. The percentage varied considerably with type of disease and region of residence. Children with acute non-lymphoblastic leukaemia, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, Ewing's tumour, rhabdomyosarcoma, and (during 1981-84) osteosarcoma treated at paediatric oncology centres had significantly higher survival rates than those treated elsewh...

  2. Immunohistochemistry for myc predicts survival in colorectal cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher W Toon

    Full Text Available MYC over-expression as determined by molecular means has been reported as a favorable prognostic biomarker in colorectal carcinoma (CRC. However MYC expression analysis is not available in the routine clinical setting. We investigated whether immunohistochemistry (IHC for the myc protein using a novel commercially available rabbit monoclonal antibody [clone Y69] which is currently in widespread clinical use for lymphoma diagnosis could be used to predict outcome in resected CRC. Myc IHC was performed on a tissue microarray (TMA comprising a retrospective cohort of 1421 CRC patients and scored blinded as to all clinical and pathological data. IHC was also performed on a subcohort of whole section CRCs to assess staining characteristics and concordance with TMA expression. MYC over-expression was found in 980 (69% of CRCs and was associated with tumor stage and DNA mismatch repair/BRAF status. There was substantial agreement between TMA and whole section myc IHC (kappa = 0.742, p<0.01. CRCs with MYC over-expression demonstrated improved 5-year survival (93.2% vs. 57.3%, with the effect significantly modulated by the dominant effect of tumor stage, age at diagnosis and lymphovascular space invasion status on survival. We conclude that myc status as determined by IHC alone can be used to predict overall survival in patients with CRC undergoing surgical resection.

  3. Recurrence and Five -Year Survival in Colorectal Cancer Patients After Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatemi, Seyed Reza; Pourhoseingholi, Mohamad Amin; Asadi, Farshad; Vahedi, Mohsen; Pasha, Sara; Alizadeh, Leila; Zali, Mohammad Reza

    2015-01-01

    Background: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a common malignancyworldwide and its outcome is most closely related to the extent of disease at presentation. Early diagnosis of an asymptomatic recurrence increases the likelihood of a complete surgical resection. Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the incidence of colorectal cancer recurrence and survival rate within 5 years, after surgery. Patients and Methods: During the 9-year period since 21st Mar, 2004 to 20th Mar, 2013, patients whose primary colorectal cancer were resected in Taleghani hospital, Tehran, Iran were selected in a historical cohort. The necessary data such as demographic, age, gender, family history of CRC, site and size of tumor, stage of tumor, operation details, histological results, treatment method, histopathologic, etc. were collected. Then the recurrence and survival of colorectal cancer within 5 years after operation and their risk factors were evaluated. P value less than 0.05 were considered significant. All analysis was done using SPSS software. Results: A total of 107 patients underwent resection for colorectal cancer during the study period, with mean age of 53.50 ± 12.68 years (range 24 - 76 years), survival rate of 73.8% (rectum 70.0% and colon 75.9%), and mean survival time of 142.17 ± 21.60 month. The recurrence rate of CRC patients, during five years after surgery was 5.7%. Regional lymph nodes, Distance metastasis and Adjuvant therapy were significant prognosis factors of survival after surgery. Conclusions: The rate of recurrence in Iranian patients was low, which could be due to improvement of exactness and expertise of surgeons or better adjuvant therapy. The significant association between survival and adjuvant therapy clarifies this finding. Early diagnosis and primary detection could increase the rate of survival. PMID:26478796

  4. Overexpression of centromere protein H is significantly associated with breast cancer progression and overall patient survival

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wen-Ting Liao; Yan Feng; Men-Lin Li; Guang-Lin Liu; Man-Zhi Li; Mu-Sheng Zeng; Li-Bing Song

    2011-01-01

    Breast cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer death worldwide.This study aimed to analyze the expression of centromere protein H (CENP-H) in breast cancer and to correlate it with clinicopathologic data,including patient survival.Using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and Westem blotting to detect the expression of CENP-H in normal mammary epithelial cells,immortalized mammary epithelial cell lines,and breast cancer cell lines,we observed that the mRNA and protein levels of CENP-H were higher in breast cancer cell lines and in immortalized mammary epithelial cells than in normal mammary epithelial cells.We next examined CENP-H expression in 307 paraffin-embedded archived samples of clinicopathologically characterized breast cancer using immunohistochemistry,and detected high CENP-H expression in 134 (43.6%) samples.Statistical analysis showed that CENP-H expression was related with clinical stage (P = 0.001),T classification (P = 0.032),N classification (P =0.018),and Ki-67 (P<0.001).Patients with high CENP-H expression had short overall survival.Multivariate analysis showed that CENP-H expression was an independent prognostic indicator for patient survival.Our results suggest that CENP-H protein is a valuable marker of breast cancer progression and prognosis.

  5. Frondoside A Suppressive Effects on Lung Cancer Survival, Tumor Growth, Angiogenesis, Invasion, and Metastasis

    OpenAIRE

    Samir Attoub; Kholoud Arafat; An Gélaude; Mahmood Ahmed Al Sultan; Marc Bracke; Peter Collin; Takashi Takahashi; Thomas E Adrian; Olivier De Wever

    2013-01-01

    A major challenge for oncologists and pharmacologists is to develop less toxic drugs that will improve the survival of lung cancer patients. Frondoside A is a triterpenoid glycoside isolated from the sea cucumber, Cucumaria frondosa and was shown to be a highly safe compound. We investigated the impact of Frondoside A on survival, migration and invasion in vitro, and on tumor growth, metastasis and angiogenesis in vivo alone and in combination with cisplatin. Frondoside A caused concentration...

  6. Cell Survival and Apoptosis Signaling as Therapeutic Target for Cancer: Marine Bioactive Compounds

    OpenAIRE

    Kim Se-Kwon; Senthilkumar Kalimuthu

    2013-01-01

    Inhibition of apoptosis leads to activation of cell survival factors (e.g., AKT) causes continuous cell proliferation in cancer. Apoptosis, the major form of cellular suicide, is central to various physiological processes and the maintenance of homeostasis in multicellular organisms. A number of discoveries have clarified the molecular mechanism of apoptosis, thus clarifying the link between apoptosis and cell survival factors, which has a therapeutic outcome. Induction of apoptosis and inhib...

  7. The influence of tumour cell DNA content on survival in colorectal cancer: a detailed analysis.

    OpenAIRE

    Armitage, N C; Ballantyne, K. C.; Evans, D F; Clarke, P; Sheffield, J.; Hardcastle, J. D.

    1990-01-01

    We have investigated the influence of tumour cell DNA content (ploidy) on survival of 416 patients undergoing excisional surgery for colorectal cancer. Two hundred and eleven (51%) tumours had an abnormal DNA content (aneuploid or tetraploid). There was no correlation between ploidy status, sex, age and pathological stage, histological grade, tumour site, local tumour extension or assessment of curability. Patients with tumours with an abnormal DNA content had a poorer survival 68/211 (32%) t...

  8. Treatment decisions and survival for people with small-cell lung cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Powell, H. A.; Tata, L J; Baldwin, D. R.; Potter, V A; Stanley, R. A.; Khakwani, A; Hubbard , R B

    2014-01-01

    Background: Chemotherapy improves survival for many patients with SCLC, and hence it is important to understand variations in practice and outcomes for this treatment strategy. Methods: We used the National Lung Cancer Audit and Hospital Episodes Statistics to determine the proportion of patients who received chemotherapy for SCLC, and assess the effects of patient and organisational factors on the odds of receiving chemotherapy and of completing four cycles. We calculated median survival and...

  9. Pancreatic Cancer Patient Survival Correlates with DNA Methylation of Pancreas Development Genes

    OpenAIRE

    Thompson, Michael J.; Rubbi, Liudmilla; Dawson, David W.; Donahue, Timothy R; Pellegrini, Matteo

    2015-01-01

    DNA methylation is an epigenetic mark associated with regulation of transcription and genome structure. These markers have been investigated in a variety of cancer settings for their utility in differentiating normal tissue from tumor tissue. Here, we examine the direct correlation between DNA methylation and patient survival. We find that changes in the DNA methylation of key pancreatic developmental genes are strongly associated with patient survival.

  10. A multilevel study of the determinants of area-level inequalities in colorectal cancer survival

    OpenAIRE

    Turrell Gavin; Baade Peter D; Aitken Joanne F

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background In Australia, associations between geographic remoteness, socioeconomic disadvantage, and colorectal cancer (CRC) survival show that survival rates are lowest among residents of geographically remote regions and those living in disadvantaged areas. At present we know very little about the reasons for these inequalities, hence our capacity to intervene to reduce the inequalities is limited. Methods/Design This study, the first of its type in Australia, examines the associat...

  11. Brain metastases in lung cancer. Impact of prognostic factors on patient survival

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background. Brain metastases are common patterns of dissemination in lung cancer patients. In this paper we would like to assess the pattern of brain metastases in lung cancer patients and the impact of prognostic factors on the survival of lung cancer patients with brain metastases. Patients and methods. In the year 1998 there were 974 registered patients with lung cancer in Slovenia, six hundred and fifteen of them were treated at the Institute of Oncology Ljubljana and we analyzed them. Among 615 patients 137 (22.3 %) of them have had brain metastases during a natural course of disease. Results. For 12 patients presenting with solitary brain metastases (most of them were undertaken metastasectomy) median survival was 7.6 months, while in patients with multiple brain metastases the median survival was 2.8 months (p 0.0018). Of the 137 patients 45 (32.8 %) were small cell lung cancer patients, 43 (31.4 %) were adenocarcinoma patients and 19 (13.9 %) were squamous cell carcinoma patients. Patients with performance status (WHO scale) less than 2 had the median survival time 3.7 months while patients with performance status 2 or more had median survival time 2.7 moths (p=0.0448). Conclusions. Patients with solitary brain metastases had better survival comparing with those who had multiple metastases. It is surprisingly that the portion of brain metastases patients with adenocarcinoma is almost equal to those with small-call lung cancer therefore, the prophylactic cranial radiation becomes actual for both groups of patients. The performance status of patients with brain metastases remains very important prognostic factor. (author)

  12. Dormancy of cancer cells with suppression of AKT activity contributes to survival in chronic hypoxia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroko Endo

    Full Text Available A hypoxic microenvironment in tumors has been recognized as a cause of malignancy or resistance to various cancer therapies. In contrast to recent progress in understanding the acute response of cancer cells to hypoxia, the characteristics of tumor cells in chronic hypoxia remain elusive. We have identified a pancreatic cancer cell line, AsPC-1, that is exceptionally able to survive for weeks under 1% oxygen conditions while most tested cancer cell lines die after only some days under these conditions. In chronic hypoxia, AsPC-1 cells entered a state of dormancy characterized by no proliferation, no death, and metabolic suppression. They reversibly switched to active status after being placed again in optimal culture conditions. ATP turnover, an indicator of energy demand, was markedly decreased and accompanied by reduced AKT phosphorylation. Forced activation of AKT resulted in increased ATP turnover and massive cell death in vitro and a decreased number of dormant cells in vivo. In contrast to most cancer cell lines, primary-cultured colorectal cancer cells easily entered the dormant status with AKT suppression under hypoxia combined with growth factor-depleted conditions. Primary colorectal cancer cells in dormancy were resistant to chemotherapy. Thus, the ability to survive in a deteriorated microenvironment by entering into dormancy under chronic hypoxia might be a common property among cancer cells. Targeting the regulatory mechanism inducing this dormant status could provide a new strategy for treating cancer.

  13. The influence of genetic ancestry and ethnicity on breast cancer survival associated with genetic variation in the TGF-β-signaling pathway: The Breast Cancer Health Disparities Study

    OpenAIRE

    Slattery, Martha L.; Lundgreen, Abbie; Stern, Marianna C.; Hines, Lisa; Wolff, Roger K.; Giuliano, Anna R.; Baumgartner, Kathy B.; John, Esther M.

    2013-01-01

    The TGF-β signaling pathway regulates cellular proliferation and differentiation. We evaluated genetic variation in this pathway, its association with breast cancer survival, and survival differences by genetic ancestry and self-reported ethnicity.

  14. The role of glutathione-S-transferase polymorphisms in ovarian cancer survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagle, Christina M; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Spurdle, Amanda B; Webb, Penelope M

    2007-01-01

    Resistance to chemotherapy represents one of the most important causes of treatment failure in patients with ovarian cancer. Common polymorphisms in the glutathione-S-transferase (GSTM1, GSTP1 and GSTT1) family have been implicated in chemoresistence and ovarian cancer survival. In this study, we have analysed Australian women diagnosed with primary invasive epithelial ovarian cancer between 1985 and 1997, using DNA extracted from peripheral blood and archival uninvolved (normal) tissues. GSTP1 genotypes were determined using ABI Prism 7700 Sequence Detection System methodology (n=448) and GSTT1 and GSTM1 genotypes using PCR-agarose methodology (n=239). We observed a significant survival advantage among carriers of GSTP1 Ile105Val GG/GA genotype (HR 0.77, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.61-0.99,p=0.04) and a non-significant survival advantage among women who were homozygous for the GSTM1 and GSTT1 deletion variants. There was also evidence of an additive effect, with a stronger survival benefit in women carrying three low function GST genotypes (GSTM1 null, GSTT1 null and GSTP1 GA/GG) (HR 0.47, 95% CI 0.22-1.02). The results of this study, the largest to date, are consistent with a number of previous smaller studies which have also observed that reduced GST function was associated with better survival outcomes in patients with ovarian cancer. PMID:17084623

  15. Survival of elderly patients with stage 5 CKD: comparison of conservative management and renal replacement therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Chandna, Shahid M.; Da Silva-Gane, Maria; Marshall, Catherine; Warwicker, Paul; Greenwood, Roger N.; Farrington, Ken

    2010-01-01

    B ackground . Elderly patients with end-stage renal disease and severe extra-renal comorbidity have a poor prognosis on renal replacement therapy (RRT) and may opt to be managed conservatively (CM). Information on the survival of patients on this mode of therapy is limited. Methods. We studied survival in a large cohort of CM patients in comparison to patients who received RRT. Results. Over an 18-year period, we studied 844 patients, 689 (82%) of whom had been treated by RRT and 155 (18%) we...

  16. [Effective core formulae for lung cancer based on complex network and survival analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ming; Li, Jia-qi; Jiao, Li-jing; Chen, Pei-qi; Xu, Ling

    2015-11-01

    The study on the effective core formulae (CEF) not only summarized traditional chinese medicine (TCM) treatment experience, but also helped reveal the underlying knowledge in the formulation of TCM prescriptions. The aim of the present paper was to investigate the method of data mining for the discovery of core effective formulae for lung cancer. In the present study, a prescription fingerprint approach was used to characterize the staged prescription information of patients. The D index was used to screen potential beneficial herbs. Then, based on a herbal compatibility network, the maximal clique searching algorithm (BK algorithm) and survival analysis were applied to discover CEF for lung cancer, and a mining analysis was made for the 322 cases from Longhua hospital. The correlation between prescriptions and survival time was analyzed by prescription fingerprints. Forty-three potentially beneficial herbs were obtained, and two CEFs were significant for the survival time by a parametric survival model based on lognormal distribution, the results were verified by a multivariate survival model. The rules of combination of the two CEFs basically conform to TCM onco-therapeutic theory of strengthening the body resistance and the actual conditions in clinic. All results showed that the established approach was feasible for discovering the core effective formulae for lung cancer and mining survival data for complex TCM onco-therapy. PMID:27097428

  17. SNP-SNP interaction analysis of NF-κB signaling pathway on breast cancer survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jamshidi, Maral; Fagerholm, Rainer; Khan, Sofia;

    2015-01-01

    extensive dataset (n = 30,431) from the Breast Cancer Association Consortium, we investigated the association of 917 SNPs in 75 genes in the NF-κB pathway with breast cancer prognosis. We explored SNP-SNP interactions on survival using the likelihood-ratio test comparing multivariate Cox' regression models...... of SNP pairs without and with an interaction term. We found two interacting pairs associating with prognosis: patients simultaneously homozygous for the rare alleles of rs5996080 and rs7973914 had worse survival (HRinteraction 6.98, 95% CI=3.3-14.4, P=1.42E-07), and patients carrying at least one...

  18. Trends in oral cavity cancer incidence, mortality, survival and treatment in the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dijk, Boukje A C; Brands, Marieke T; Geurts, Sandra M E; Merkx, Matthias A W; Roodenburg, Jan L N

    2016-08-01

    Information on epidemiology is essential to evaluate care for the growing group of oral cancer patients. We investigated trends in incidence, mortality and relative survival rates for oral cavity cancer (OCC) and its subsites in the Netherlands from 1991 to 2010, and relate these to changes in stage and treatment. Patient (age, sex), tumour (subsite, stage) and treatment characteristics of patients diagnosed with OCC (ICD-O-3: C02-C06) in 1991-2010 were extracted from the Netherlands Cancer Registry. Incidence, mortality and 5-year relative survival rates over time are presented, as well as trends in type of treatment. The incidence of OCC increased with +1.2% (95%CI: +0.9%;+1.6%) per year: more strongly in women, stage I and IV disease, and in cancers of the tongue and gum. The mortality rate slightly rose (+0.8%, 95%CI: +0.3%;+1.3% per year), but differed by subsite. The 5-year relative survival improved from 57% in 1991-1995 to 62% in 2006-2010. The 5-year relative survival was better for women compared with men (64% and 55%, respectively), decreased with increasing stage, was the best for tongue cancer (63%) and the worst for cancer of the gum (56%) and floor of mouth cancer (55%). The relative excess risk of dying was higher for non-surgery-based treatments. Surgery was the main treatment option and the proportion of "surgery only" rose in stage I and III disease. The incidence and, to a lesser extent, mortality of OCC are increasing and therefore, even with slightly improving survival rates, OCC is an increasingly important health problem. PMID:27038013

  19. Breast density and mode of detection in relation to breast cancer specific survival: a cohort study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study was to examine breast density in relation to breast cancer specific survival and to assess if this potential association was modified by mode of detection. An additional aim was to study whether the established association between mode of detection and survival is modified by breast density. The study included 619 cases from a prospective cohort, The Malmö Diet and Cancer Study. Breast density estimated qualitatively, was analyzed in relation to breast cancer death, in non-symptomatic and symptomatic women, using Cox regression calculating hazard ratios (HR) with 95% confidence intervals. Adjustments were made in several steps for; diagnostic age, tumour size, axillary lymph node involvement, grade, hormone receptor status, body mass index (baseline), diagnostic period, use of hormone replacement therapy at diagnosis and mode of detection. Detection mode in relation to survival was analyzed stratified for breast density. Differences in HR following different adjustments were analyzed by Freedmans%. After adjustment for age and other prognostic factors, women with dense, as compared to fatty breasts, had an increased risk of breast cancer death, HR 2.56:1.07-6.11, with a statistically significant trend over density categories, p = 0.04. In the stratified analysis, the effect was less pronounced in non-symptomatic women, HR 2.04:0.49-8.49 as compared to symptomatic, HR 3.40:1.06-10.90. In the unadjusted model, symptomatic women had a higher risk of breast cancer death, regardless of breast density. Analyzed by Freedmans%, age, tumour size, lymph nodes, grade, diagnostic period, ER and PgR explained 55.5% of the observed differences in mortality between non-symptomatic and symptomatic cases. Additional adjustment for breast density caused only a minor change. High breast density at diagnosis may be associated with decreased breast cancer survival. This association appears to be stronger in women with symptomatic cancers but breast density could

  20. Explaining variation in cancer survival between 11 jurisdictions in the International Cancer Benchmarking Partnership: a primary care vignette survey

    OpenAIRE

    Rose, Peter W; Rubin, Greg; Perera-Salazar, Rafael; Almberg, Sigrun Saur; Barisic, Andriana; Dawes, Martin; Grunfeld, Eva; Hart, Nigel; Neal, Richard D.; Pirotta, Marie; Sisler, Jeffrey; Konrad, Gerald; Toftegaard, Berit Skjødeberg; Thulesius, Hans; Vedsted, Peter

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The International Cancer Benchmarking Partnership (ICBP) is a collaboration between 6 countries and 12 jurisdictions with similar primary care-led health services. This study investigates primary care physician (PCP) behaviour and systems that may contribute to the timeliness of investigating for cancer and subsequently, international survival differences.DESIGN: A validated survey administered to PCPs via the internet set out in two parts: direct questions on primary care structu...

  1. [Cancer treatment in Skane and in Sjaelland. Do differences concerning examination and treatment explain reduced survival among Danish cancer patients?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Specht, Lena; Landberg, T.

    2001-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Danish cancer patients generally have a poorer survival than Swedish cancer patients. The difference is most pronounced for certain tumour types, e.g. common types such as lung, breast, colorectal, and prostate cancer. The reasons are not clear. The present article examines...... are diagnosed in Sweden than in Denmark. The total capacity for oncologic treatment, both in terms of trained personnel and equipment, seen in relation to the size of the population, is considerably larger in Southern Sweden than in Eastern Denmark. DISCUSSION: The data for some of the common cancer types seem...... if differences in the diagnostic workup and treatment can explain some of this variation. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Aspects of the diagnostic workup and treatment of the above mentioned four cancer types are examined using data from cancer registry analyses and official reports. These data are seen in the context...

  2. Predicting post-treatment survivability of patients with breast cancer using Artificial Neural Network methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tan-Nai; Cheng, Chung-Hao; Chiu, Hung-Wen

    2013-01-01

    In the last decade, the use of data mining techniques has become widely accepted in medical applications, especially in predicting cancer patients' survival. In this study, we attempted to train an Artificial Neural Network (ANN) to predict the patients' five-year survivability. Breast cancer patients who were diagnosed and received standard treatment in one hospital during 2000 to 2003 in Taiwan were collected for train and test the ANN. There were 604 patients in this dataset excluding died not in breast cancer. Among them 140 patients died within five years after their first radiotherapy treatment. The artificial neural networks were created by STATISTICA(®) software. Five variables (age, surgery and radiotherapy type, tumor size, regional lymph nodes, distant metastasis) were selected as the input features for ANN to predict the five-year survivability of breast cancer patients. We trained 100 artificial neural networks and chose the best one to analyze. The accuracy rate is 85% and area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve is 0.79. It shows that artificial neural network is a good tool to predict the five-year survivability of breast cancer patients. PMID:24109931

  3. Imprinted survival genes preclude loss of heterozygosity of chromosome 7 in cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boot, Arnoud; Oosting, Jan; de Miranda, Noel Fcc; Zhang, Yinghui; Corver, Willem E; van de Water, Bob; Morreau, Hans; van Wezel, Tom

    2016-09-01

    The genomes of a wide range of cancers, including colon, breast, and thyroid cancers, frequently show copy number gains of chromosome 7 and rarely show loss of heterozygosity. The molecular basis for this phenomenon is unknown. Strikingly, oncocytic follicular thyroid carcinomas can display an extreme genomic profile, with homozygosity of all chromosomes except for chromosome 7. The observation that homozygosity of chromosome 7 is never observed suggests that retention of heterozygosity is essential for cells. We hypothesized that cell survival genes are genetically imprinted on either of two copies of chromosome 7, which thwarts loss of heterozygosity at this chromosome in cancer cells. By employing a DNA methylation screen and gene expression analysis, we identified six imprinted genes that force retention of heterozygosity on chromosome 7. Subsequent knockdown of gene expression showed that CALCR, COPG2, GRB10, KLF14, MEST, and PEG10 were essential for cancer cell survival, resulting in reduced cell proliferation, G1 -phase arrest, and increased apoptosis. We propose that imprinted cell survival genes provide a genetic basis for retention of chromosome 7 heterozygosity in cancer cells. The monoallelically expressed cell survival genes identified in this study, and the cellular pathways that they are involved in, offer new therapeutic targets for the treatment of tumours showing retention of heterozygosity on chromosome 7. Copyright © 2016 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:27265324

  4. The impact of bisphosphonate therapy on survival of lung cancer patients with bone metastasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theodoros Kontakiotis

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available SUMMARY. INTRODUCTION: Bone metastases occur in 20% to 40% of patients with lung cancer. Recent studies (most in vitro demonstrate an anti-proliferative effect of third-generation biphosphonates (BPs on lung tumours which may, indirectly, have an impact on the survival. OBJECTIVES: This was a study of the effects of treatment with BPs on the course and survival of lung cancer patients with bone metastases. PATIENTS AND METHODS: For the study 108 male patients with lung cancer (stage IV were recruited consecutively. Of these, 55/108 patients with positive bone scan experienced bone pain and received Nitrogen BPs (NBPs, specifically zoledronic acid (ZOL, 4 mg i.v. every 21 days (Group A. The other 53 patients received no NBPs, of which 30/53 had a positive bone scan (Group B and 23/53 a negative bone scan (Group C. All patients were treated with combination chemotherapy consisting of Docitaxel 100 mg/m2 and Carboplatin AUC = 6. RESULTS: Group A had a statistically significantly longer mean survival and time to progression than Groups B and C (p0.05. CONCLUSION: The addition of NBPs to the treatment regime appears to increase overall survival in lung cancer patients with bone metastases. Further studies are needed to support the potential usefulness of NBPs as an independent therapeutic agent against lung cancer. Pneumon 2009; 22(1:25–37

  5. Nuclear factor, erythroid 2-like 2-associated molecular signature predicts lung cancer survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Zhongqing; Zhou, Tong; Gurguis, Christopher I; Xu, Xiaoyan; Wen, Qing; Lv, Jingzhu; Fang, Fang; Hecker, Louise; Cress, Anne E; Natarajan, Viswanathan; Jacobson, Jeffrey R; Zhang, Donna D; Garcia, Joe G N; Wang, Ting

    2015-01-01

    Nuclear factor, erythroid 2-like 2 (NFE2L2), a transcription factor also known as NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), is a key cytoprotective gene that regulates critical antioxidant and stress-responsive genes. Nrf2 has been demonstrated to be a promising therapeutic target and useful biomarker in malignant disease. We hypothesized that NFE2L2-mediated gene expression would reflect cancer severity and progression. We conducted a meta-analysis of microarray data for 240 NFE2L2-mediated genes that were enriched in tumor tissues. We then developed a risk scoring system based on NFE2L2 gene expression profiling and designated 50 tumor-associated genes as the NFE2L2-associated molecular signature (NAMS). We tested the relationship between this gene expression signature and both recurrence-free survival and overall survival in lung cancer patients. We find that NAMS predicts clinical outcome in the training cohort and in 12 out of 20 validation cohorts. Cox proportional hazard regressions indicate that NAMS is a robust prognostic gene signature, independent of other clinical and pathological factors including patient age, gender, smoking, gene alteration, MYC level, and cancer stage. NAMS is an excellent predictor of recurrence-free survival and overall survival in human lung cancer. This gene signature represents a promising prognostic biomarker in human lung cancer. PMID:26596768

  6. Cervical cancer survival prediction using hybrid of SMOTE, CART and smooth support vector machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purnami, S. W.; Khasanah, P. M.; Sumartini, S. H.; Chosuvivatwong, V.; Sriplung, H.

    2016-04-01

    According to the WHO, every two minutes there is one patient who died from cervical cancer. The high mortality rate is due to the lack of awareness of women for early detection. There are several factors that supposedly influence the survival of cervical cancer patients, including age, anemia status, stage, type of treatment, complications and secondary disease. This study wants to classify/predict cervical cancer survival based on those factors. Various classifications methods: classification and regression tree (CART), smooth support vector machine (SSVM), three order spline SSVM (TSSVM) were used. Since the data of cervical cancer are imbalanced, synthetic minority oversampling technique (SMOTE) is used for handling imbalanced dataset. Performances of these methods are evaluated using accuracy, sensitivity and specificity. Results of this study show that balancing data using SMOTE as preprocessing can improve performance of classification. The SMOTE-SSVM method provided better result than SMOTE-TSSVM and SMOTE-CART.

  7. Modular degradable dendrimers enable small RNAs to extend survival in an aggressive liver cancer model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Kejin; Nguyen, Liem H; Miller, Jason B; Yan, Yunfeng; Kos, Petra; Xiong, Hu; Li, Lin; Hao, Jing; Minnig, Jonathan T; Zhu, Hao; Siegwart, Daniel J

    2016-01-19

    RNA-based cancer therapies are hindered by the lack of delivery vehicles that avoid cancer-induced organ dysfunction, which exacerbates carrier toxicity. We address this issue by reporting modular degradable dendrimers that achieve the required combination of high potency to tumors and low hepatotoxicity to provide a pronounced survival benefit in an aggressive genetic cancer model. More than 1,500 dendrimers were synthesized using sequential, orthogonal reactions where ester degradability was systematically integrated with chemically diversified cores, peripheries, and generations. A lead dendrimer, 5A2-SC8, provided a broad therapeutic window: identified as potent [EC50 75 mg/kg dendrimer repeated dosing). Delivery of let-7 g microRNA (miRNA) mimic inhibited tumor growth and dramatically extended survival. Efficacy stemmed from a combination of a small RNA with the dendrimer's own negligible toxicity, therefore illuminating an underappreciated complication in treating cancer with RNA-based drugs. PMID:26729861

  8. Progression-free survival, post-progression survival, and tumor response as surrogate markers for overall survival in patients with extensive small cell lung cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hisao Imai

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The effects of first-line chemotherapy on overall survival (OS might be confounded by subsequent therapies in patients with small cell lung cancer (SCLC. We examined whether progression-free survival (PFS, post-progression survival (PPS, and tumor response could be valid surrogate endpoints for OS after first-line chemotherapies for patients with extensive SCLC using individual-level data. Methods: Between September 2002 and November 2012, we analyzed 49 cases of patients with extensive SCLC who were treated with cisplatin and irinotecan as first-line chemotherapy. The relationships of PFS, PPS, and tumor response with OS were analyzed at the individual level. Results: Spearman rank correlation analysis and linear regression analysis showed that PPS was strongly correlated with OS (r = 0.97, p < 0.05, R 2 = 0.94, PFS was moderately correlated with OS (r = 0.58, p < 0.05, R 2 = 0.24, and tumor shrinkage was weakly correlated with OS (r = 0.37, p < 0.05, R 2 = 0.13. The best response to second-line treatment, and the number of regimens employed after progression beyond first-line chemotherapy were both significantly associated with PPS ( p ≤ 0.05. Conclusion: PPS is a potential surrogate for OS in patients with extensive SCLC. Our findings also suggest that subsequent treatment after disease progression following first-line chemotherapy may greatly influence OS.

  9. Multi-Organ Cancer Classification and Survival Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Bauer, Stefan; Carion, Nicolas; Schüffler, Peter; Fuchs, Thomas; Wild, Peter; Buhmann, Joachim M.

    2016-01-01

    Accurate and robust cell nuclei classification is the cornerstone for a wider range of tasks in digital and Computational Pathology. However, most machine learning systems require extensive labeling from expert pathologists for each individual problem at hand, with no or limited abilities for knowledge transfer between datasets and organ sites. In this paper we implement and evaluate a variety of deep neural network models and model ensembles for nuclei classification in renal cell cancer (RC...

  10. Integrative Pathway Analysis of Metabolic Signature in Bladder Cancer: A Linkage to The Cancer Genome Atlas Project and Prediction of Survival

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Rundstedt, Friedrich-Carl; Rajapakshe, Kimal; Ma, Jing; Arnold, James M.; Gohlke, Jie; Putluri, Vasanta; Krishnapuram, Rashmi; Piyarathna, D. Badrajee; Lotan, Yair; Gödde, Daniel; Roth, Stephan; Störkel, Stephan; Levitt, Jonathan M.; Michailidis, George; Sreekumar, Arun; Lerner, Seth P.; Coarfa, Cristian; Putluri, Nagireddy

    2016-01-01

    Purpose We used targeted mass spectrometry to study the metabolic fingerprint of urothelial cancer and determine whether the biochemical pathway analysis gene signature would have a predictive value in independent cohorts of patients with bladder cancer. Materials and Methods Pathologically evaluated, bladder derived tissues, including benign adjacent tissue from 14 patients and bladder cancer from 46, were analyzed by liquid chromatography based targeted mass spectrometry. Differential metabolites associated with tumor samples in comparison to benign tissue were identified by adjusting the p values for multiple testing at a false discovery rate threshold of 15%. Enrichment of pathways and processes associated with the metabolic signature were determined using the GO (Gene Ontology) Database and MSigDB (Molecular Signature Database). Integration of metabolite alterations with transcriptome data from TCGA (The Cancer Genome Atlas) was done to identify the molecular signature of 30 metabolic genes. Available outcome data from TCGA portal were used to determine the association with survival. Results We identified 145 metabolites, of which analysis revealed 31 differential metabolites when comparing benign and tumor tissue samples. Using the KEGG (Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes) Database we identified a total of 174 genes that correlated with the altered metabolic pathways involved. By integrating these genes with the transcriptomic data from the corresponding TCGA data set we identified a metabolic signature consisting of 30 genes. The signature was significant in its prediction of survival in 95 patients with a low signature score vs 282 with a high signature score (p = 0.0458). Conclusions Targeted mass spectrometry of bladder cancer is highly sensitive for detecting metabolic alterations. Applying transcriptome data allows for integration into larger data sets and identification of relevant metabolic pathways in bladder cancer progression. PMID:26802582

  11. A population-based gene signature is predictive of breast cancer survival and chemoresponse

    OpenAIRE

    Rathnagiriswaran, Shruti; Wan, Ying-Wooi; Abraham, Jame; Castranova, Vincent; Qian, Yong; Guo, Nancy L.

    2010-01-01

    It remains a critical issue to improve the survival rate in patients with recurrent or metastatic breast cancer. This study sought to develop a prognostic scheme based on a 28-gene signature in a broad patient population, including those with advanced disease. Clinically annotated transcriptional profiles of 1,734 breast cancer patients were obtained to validate the 28-gene signature in prognostic categorization. The 28-gene signature generated significant patient stratification with regard t...

  12. Survival of cancer patients treated with mistletoe extract (Iscador): a systematic literature review

    OpenAIRE

    Büssing Arndt; Raak Christa; Ostermann Thomas

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background In Europe, extracts from Viscum album (VA-E), the European white-berry mistletoe, are widely used to treat patients with cancer. Methods We searched several databases such as Cochrane, EMBASE, NCCAM, NLM, DIMDI, CAMbase, and Medline. Inclusion criteria were controlled clinical studies on parameters associated with survival in cancer patients treated with Iscador. Outcome data were extracted as they were given in the publication, and expressed as hazard ratios (HR), their l...

  13. Mental adjustment to cancer and survival of patients admitted for allogenic hemopoietic stem cell transplantation

    OpenAIRE

    Grulke, N; Bailer, H; Larbig, W; Kächele, H

    2006-01-01

    Objective: The Mental Adjustment to Cancer Scale (MAC scale) has evolved to a standard measure in the field of psycho-oncology. In this context an attitude called "fighting spirit" gained much attention as a coping style. Some reports suggest that coping efforts as measured by the MAC scale are predictive for survival of breast cancer patients. We explored the predictive power of the MAC scale by using a sample of patients with haematological malignancies undergoing allogenic hemopoietic ste...

  14. Differences in IGF-axis protein expression and survival among multiethnic breast cancer patients

    OpenAIRE

    Hernandez, Brenda Y.; Lynne R. Wilkens; Le Marchand, Loïc; Horio, David; Chong, Clayton D; Loo, Lenora W. M.

    2015-01-01

    There is limited knowledge about the biological basis of racial/ethnic disparities in breast cancer outcomes. Aberrations in IGF signaling induced by obesity and other factors may contribute to these disparities. This study examines the expression profiles of the insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-axis proteins and the association with breast cancer survival across a multiethnic population. We examined the expression profiles of the IGF1, IGF1R, IGFBP2 (IGF-binding proteins), and IGFBP3 protein...

  15. Socioeconomic and Other Demographic Disparities Predicting Survival among Head and Neck Cancer Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Seung Hee; Terrell, Jeffrey E.; Fowler, Karen E; McLean, Scott A.; Ghanem, Tamer; Wolf, Gregory T.; Bradford, Carol R.; Taylor, Jeremy; Duffy, Sonia A.

    2016-01-01

    Background The Institute of Medicine (IOM) report, “Unequal Treatment,” which defines disparities as racially based, indicates that disparities in cancer diagnosis and treatment are less clear. While a number of studies have acknowledged cancer disparities, they have limitations of retrospective nature, small sample sizes, inability to control for covariates, and measurement errors. Objective The purpose of this study was to examine disparities as predictors of survival among newly diagnosed ...

  16. Sociodemographic disparities in advanced ovarian cancer survival and adherence to treatment guidelines

    OpenAIRE

    Bristow, RE; Chang, J.; Ziogas, A.; Campos, B.; Chavez, LR; Anton-Culver, H.

    2015-01-01

    © 2015 by The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. Published by Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved. Objective: To estimate whether race or ethnic and socioeconomic strata are independently associated with advanced-stage ovarian cancer-specific survival after adjusting for adherence to National Comprehensive Cancer Network treatment guidelines. Methods: The design was a retrospective population-based cohort study of patients with stage IIIC-IV epithelial ovarian ca...

  17. Differences in Breast Cancer Survival between Public and Private Care in New Zealand: Which Factors Contribute?

    OpenAIRE

    Tin Tin, Sandar; Elwood, J. Mark; Lawrenson, Ross; Campbell, Ian; Harvey, Vernon; Seneviratne, Sanjeewa

    2016-01-01

    Background Patients who received private health care appear to have better survival from breast cancer compared to those who received public care. This study investigated if this applied to New Zealand women and identified factors that could explain such disparities. Methods This study involved all women who were diagnosed with primary breast cancer in two health regions in New Zealand, covering about 40% of the national population, between June 2000 and May 2013. Patients who received public...

  18. Pre-diagnostic cruciferous vegetables intake and lung cancer survival among Chinese women

    OpenAIRE

    Qi-Jun Wu; Gong Yang; Wei Zheng; Hong-Lan Li; Jing Gao; Jing Wang; Yu-Tang Gao; Xiao-Ou Shu; Yong-Bing Xiang

    2015-01-01

    No study to date has prospectively evaluated the association between pre-diagnostic cruciferous vegetables intake and lung cancer survival among women. This analysis included 547 incident lung cancer cases identified from the Shanghai Women’s Health Study (SWHS) during the follow-up period of 1997-2011. Dietary intake was assessed for all SWHS participants at enrollment and reassessed 2-3 years later. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence...

  19. Nomogram for overall survival of Japanese patients with bone-metastatic prostate cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Miyoshi, Yasuhide; Noguchi, Kazumi; Yanagisawa, Masahiro; Taguri, Masataka; Morita, Satoshi; Ikeda, Ichiro; Fujinami, Kiyoshi; Miura, Takeshi; Kobayashi, Kazuki; Uemura, Hiroji

    2015-01-01

    Background We analyzed the relationship between prostate cancer outcomes and pretreatment clinical factors and developed a prognostic nomogram of overall survival (OS) of patients with bone metastasis. Methods From 1993 to 2011, 463 consecutive patients were treated for bone-metastatic prostate cancer. Data sets from 361 patients were used to develop a nomogram (training data), and data sets of 102 patients were used for validation of the nomogram (validation data). Using the external validat...

  20. Fifteen-Year Biochemical Relapse-Free Survival, Cause-Specific Survival, and Overall Survival Following I125 Prostate Brachytherapy in Clinically Localized Prostate Cancer: Seattle Experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To report 15-year biochemical relapse-free survival (BRFS), cause-specific survival (CSS), and overall survival (OS) outcomes of patients treated with I125 brachytherapy monotherapy for clinically localized prostate cancer early in the Seattle experience. Methods and Materials: Two hundred fifteen patients with clinically localized prostate cancer were consecutively treated from 1988 to 1992 with I125 monotherapy. They were prospectively followed as a tight cohort. They were evaluated for BRFS, CSS, and OS. Multivariate analysis was used to evaluate outcomes by pretreatment clinical prognostic factors. BRFS was analyzed by the Phoenix (nadir + 2 ng/mL) definition. CSS and OS were evaluated by chart review, death certificates, and referring physician follow-up notes. Gleason scoring was performed by general pathologists at a community hospital in Seattle. Time to biochemical failure (BF) was calculated and compared by Kaplan-Meier plots. Results: Fifteen-year BRFS for the entire cohort was 80.4%. BRFS by D'Amico risk group classification cohort analysis was 85.9%, 79.9%, and 62.2% for low, intermediate, and high-risk patients, respectively. Follow-up ranged from 3.6 to 18.4 years; median follow-up was 15.4 years for biochemically free of disease patients. Overall median follow-up was 11.7 years. The median time to BF in those who failed was 5.1 years. CSS was 84%. OS was 37.1%. Average age at time of treatment was 70 years. There was no significant difference in BRFS between low and intermediate risk groups. Conclusion: I125 monotherapy results in excellent 15-year BRFS and CSS, especially when taking into account the era of treatment effect.

  1. YAP enhances autophagic flux to promote breast cancer cell survival in response to nutrient deprivation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qinghe Song

    Full Text Available The Yes-associated protein (YAP, a transcriptional coactivator inactivated by the Hippo tumor suppressor pathway, functions as an oncoprotein in a variety of cancers. However, its contribution to breast cancer remains controversial. This study investigated the role of YAP in breast cancer cells under nutrient deprivation (ND. Here, we show that YAP knockdown sensitized MCF7 breast cancer cells to nutrient deprivation-induced apoptosis. Furthermore, in response to ND, YAP increased the autolysosome degradation, thereby enhancing the cellular autophagic flux in breast cancer cells. Of note, autophagy is crucial for YAP to protect MCF7 cells from apoptosis under ND conditions. In addition, the TEA domain (TEAD family of growth-promoting transcription factors was indispensable for YAP-mediated regulation of autophagy. Collectively, our data reveal a role for YAP in promoting breast cancer cell survival upon ND stress and uncover an unappreciated function of YAP/TEAD in the regulation of autophagy.

  2. Immunohistochemistry for myc predicts survival in colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toon, Christopher W; Chou, Angela; Clarkson, Adele; DeSilva, Keshani; Houang, Michelle; Chan, Joseph C Y; Sioson, Loretta L; Jankova, Lucy; Gill, Anthony J

    2014-01-01

    MYC over-expression as determined by molecular means has been reported as a favorable prognostic biomarker in colorectal carcinoma (CRC). However MYC expression analysis is not available in the routine clinical setting. We investigated whether immunohistochemistry (IHC) for the myc protein using a novel commercially available rabbit monoclonal antibody [clone Y69] which is currently in widespread clinical use for lymphoma diagnosis could be used to predict outcome in resected CRC. Myc IHC was performed on a tissue microarray (TMA) comprising a retrospective cohort of 1421 CRC patients and scored blinded as to all clinical and pathological data. IHC was also performed on a subcohort of whole section CRCs to assess staining characteristics and concordance with TMA expression. MYC over-expression was found in 980 (69%) of CRCs and was associated with tumor stage and DNA mismatch repair/BRAF status. There was substantial agreement between TMA and whole section myc IHC (kappa = 0.742, pspace invasion status on survival. We conclude that myc status as determined by IHC alone can be used to predict overall survival in patients with CRC undergoing surgical resection. PMID:24503701

  3. Tumor cells with low proteasome subunit expression predict overall survival in head and neck cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experimental and clinical data suggest that solid cancers contain treatment-resistant cancer stem cells that will impair treatment efficacy. The objective of this study was to investigate if head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) also contain cancer stem cells that can be identified by low 26S proteasome activity and if their presence correlates to clinical outcome. Human HNSCC cells, engineered to report lack of proteasome activity based on accumulation of a fluorescent fusion protein, were separated based on high (ZsGreen-cODCneg) or low (ZsGreen-cODCpos) proteasome activity. Self-renewal capacity, tumorigenicity and radioresistance were assessed. Proteasome subunit expression was analyzed in tissue microarrays and correlated to survival and locoregional cancer control of 174 patients with HNSCC. HNSCC cells with low proteasome activity showed a significantly higher self-renewal capacity and increased tumorigenicity. Irradiation enriched for ZsGreen-cODCpos cells. The survival probability of 82 patients treated with definitive radio- or chemo-radiotherapy exhibiting weak, intermediate, or strong proteasome subunit expression were 21.2, 28.8 and 43.8 months (p = 0.05), respectively. Locoregional cancer control was comparably affected. Subpopulations of HNSCC display stem cell features that affect patients’ tumor control and survival. Evaluating cancer tissue for expression of the proteasome subunit PSMD1 may help identify patients at risk for relapse

  4. A prospective study on survival in cancer patients with and without venous thromboembolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agnelli, Giancarlo; Verso, Melina; Mandalà, Mario; Gallus, Silvano; Cimminiello, Claudio; Apolone, Giovanni; Di Minno, Giovanni; Maiello, Evaristo; Prandoni, Paolo; Santoro, Armando; Crinò, Lucio; Labianca, Roberto

    2014-08-01

    Retrospective population-based studies showed that in cancer patients venous thromboembolism (VTE) is associated with reduced survival. Master Oncology is a multicenter study in patients with solid advanced cancer aimed at assessing (1) risk factors for VTE using a case-control design, and (2) survival in cases (patients with VTE) and controls (patients without VTE). Survival data were prospectively collected for at least 10 months. Overall, 237 cases and 339 controls were included in the analysis. The following factors were found to be associated with an increased risk of VTE: body mass index (BMI; OR 2.02; 95% CI 1.31-3.12 for ≥26 vs. <23 kg/m(2)), ECOG score (OR 2.14; 95% CI 1.47-3.11 for grade 1, and 3.32; 95% CI 1.64-6.00 for grade 2-3, compared to grade 0) and recent diagnosis of cancer (OR 1.90; 95% CI 1.33-2.71 for <12 vs. ≥12 months). After an average prospective observation of 8.3 months, 136 cases (57.4%) and 127 controls (37.5%) died with a median survival of 8.7 (95% CI 7.5-10.9) and 14.3 months (95% CI 12.2-18.7), respectively, (Wilcoxon = 27.72, p < 0.001; multivariate hazard ratio 1.55; 95% CI 1.21-2.00). Median survival time was reduced for both patients with symptomatic (Wilcoxon = 35.22, p < 0.001) and asymptomatic VTE (Wilcoxon = 4.63, p = 0.031). Patients with advanced solid cancer, high BMI, high ECOG score, and recent diagnosis of cancer are associated with an increased risk for VTE. Patients with both symptomatic and asymptomatic VTE have a reduced survival compared to those without VTE. PMID:23943559

  5. Genetic polymorphisms in MMP 2, 9 and 3 genes modify lung cancer risk and survival

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matrix metalloproteases (MMPs) are proteolytic enzymes that contribute to all stages of tumour progression, including the later stages of invasion and metastasis. Genetic variants in the MMP genes may influence the biological function of these enzymes and change their role in carcinogenesis and progression. We have investigated the association between the -735 C/T, the -1171 5A/6A, and the -1562 C/T polymorphisms in the MMP2, MMP3 and MMP9 genes, respectively, and the risk and survival of lung cancer. The case-control study includes 879 lung cancer patients and 803 controls from a Caucasian population in Spain (CAPUA study). Genotypes were determined by PCR-RFLP. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated using unconditional logistic regression. The Kaplan-Meier method, long-rank test and Cox's were used for the survival analysis. The MMP9 -1562 T/T genotype was associated with a statistically significant decreased risk of developing lung cancer (OR = 0.23; 95% CI: 0.06-0.85), whereas no association was found for the MMP2 -735 C/T and MMP3 -1171 5A/6A polymorphisms. The MMP2 -735 T/T genotype was statistically significantly associated with a decreased survival in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients, identified as an independent prognosis factor of survival (hazard ratio (HR) = 1.79; 95% CI: 1.00-3.20). In contrast, no association was found between the MMP3 -1171 5A/6A and the MMP9 -1562 C/T polymorphisms and survival. These findings support the hypothesis that the MMP9 -1562 C/T polymorphism is associated with a protective effect against the development of lung cancer and suggest that the MMP2 -735 C/T polymorphism modify the length of survival in NSCLC patients

  6. Prognostic factors for survival of women with unstable spinal bone metastases from breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bone metastases are an important clinical issue in women with breast cancer. Particularly, unstable spinal bone metastases (SBM) are a major cause of severe morbidity and reduced quality of life (QoL) due to frequent immobilization. Radiotherapy (RT) is the major treatment modality and is capable of promoting re-ossification and improving stability. Since local therapy response is excellent, survival of these patients with unstable SBM is of high clinical importance. We therefore conducted this analysis to assess survival and to determine prognostic factors for bone survival (BS) in women with breast cancer and unstable SBM. A total population of 92 women with unstable SBM from breast cancer who were treated with RT at our department between January 2000 and January 2012 was retrospectively investigated. We calculated overall survival (OS) and BS (time between first diagnosis of bone metastases until death) with the Kaplan-Meier method and assessed prognostic factors for BS with a Cox regression model. Mean age at first diagnosis of breast cancer was 60.8 years ± SD 12.4 years. OS after 1, 2 and 5 years was 84.8, 66.3 and 50 %, respectively. BS after 1, 2 and 5 years was 62.0, 33.7 and 12 %, respectively. An age > 50 years (p < .001; HR 1.036 [CI 1.015–1.057]), the presence of a single bone metastasis (p = .002; HR 0.469 [CI 0.292–0.753]) and triple negative phenotype (p < .001; HR 1.068 [CI 0.933–1.125]) were identified as independent prognostic factors for BS. Our analysis demonstrated a short survival of women with breast cancer and unstable SBM. Age, presence of a solitary SBM and triple-negative phenotype correlated with survival. Our results may have an impact on therapeutic decisions in the future and offer a rationale for future prospective investigations

  7. Low socioeconomic status is associated with worse survival in children with cancer: a systematic review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumit Gupta

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: While low socioeconomic status (SES has been associated with inferior cancer outcome among adults, its impact in pediatric oncology is unclear. Our objective was therefore to conduct a systematic review to determine the impact of SES upon outcome in children with cancer. METHODS: We searched Ovid Medline, EMBASE and CINAHL from inception to December 2012. Studies for which survival-related outcomes were reported by socioeconomic subgroups were eligible for inclusion. Two reviewers independently assessed articles and extracted data. Given anticipated heterogeneity, no quantitative meta-analyses were planned a priori. RESULTS: Of 7,737 publications, 527 in ten languages met criteria for full review; 36 studies met final inclusion criteria. In low- and middle-income countries (LMIC, lower SES was uniformly associated with inferior survival, regardless of the measure chosen. The majority of associations were statistically significant. Of 52 associations between socioeconomic variables and outcome among high-income country (HIC children, 38 (73.1% found low SES to be associated with worse survival, 15 of which were statistically significant. Of the remaining 14 (no association or high SES associated with worse survival, only one was statistically significant. Both HIC studies examining the effect of insurance found uninsured status to be statistically associated with inferior survival. CONCLUSIONS: Socioeconomic gradients in which low SES is associated with inferior childhood cancer survival are ubiquitous in LMIC and common in HIC. Future studies should elucidate mechanisms underlying these gradients, allowing the design of interventions mediating socioeconomic effects. Targeting the effect of low SES will allow for further improvements in childhood cancer survival.

  8. Survival in patients with human papillomavirus positive tonsillar cancer in relation to treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attner, Per; Näsman, Anders; Du, Juan; Hammarstedt, Lalle; Ramqvist, Torbjörn; Lindholm, Johan; Munck-Wikland, Eva; Dalianis, Tina; Marklund, Linda

    2012-09-01

    The incidence of tonsillar cancer and the proportion of human papillomavirus (HPV) positive tonsillar cancer cases have increased in the last decades. In parallel, treatment for tonsillar cancer has been intensified e.g., by accelerated radiotherapy, and chemotherapy, resulting in more side effects. Patients with HPV-positive tonsillar cancer have better prognosis than those with HPV-negative tumors, and the former group could hypothetically benefit from reduced, less-toxic treatment without compromising survival. Here, we therefore evaluated possible differences in overall and disease-specific survival after different oncological treatments in 153 patients with HPV DNA- and P16-positive tonsillar cancer who were diagnosed and treated with intent to cure between 2000 and 2007, in Stockholm, Sweden. Of these patients, 86 were treated with conventional radiotherapy, 40 were treated with accelerated radiotherapy and 27 were treated with chemoradiotherapy. There were no significant differences in overall or disease-free survival between the groups. However, there was a trend, implying a beneficial effect of the intensified treatment, with chemoradiotherapy being better than radiotherapy despite that more patients had stage IV disease in the former group; and accelerated radiotherapy being better than conventional radiotherapy. This needs to be followed further in larger more homogenous groups of patients. In conclusion, patients with HPV-positive tonsillar cancer treated with conventional- or accelerated radiotherapy or chemoradiotherapy disclosed similar survival rates. The trend for better survival and less metastasis after intensified treatment underlines the need for large prospective studies comparing less intense to more intense treatment (chemoradiotherapy). PMID:22038860

  9. The effect of individual and neighborhood socioeconomic status on gastric cancer survival.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chin-Chia Wu

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Gastric cancer is a leading cause of death, particularly in the developing world. The literature reports individual socioeconomic status (SES or neighborhood SES as related to survival, but the effect of both has not been studied. This study investigated the effect of individual and neighborhood SES simultaneously on mortality in gastric cancer patients in Taiwan. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A study was conducted of 3,396 patients diagnosed with gastric cancer between 2002 and 2006. Each patient was followed for five years or until death. Individual SES was defined by income-related insurance premium (low, moderate, and high. Neighborhood SES was based on household income dichotomized into advantaged and disadvantaged areas. Multilevel logistic regression model was used to compare survival rates by SES group after adjusting for possible confounding factors. RESULTS: In patients younger than 65 years, 5-year overall survival rates were lowest for those with low individual SES. After adjusting for patient characteristics (age, gender, Charlson Comorbidity Index Score, gastric cancer patients with high individual SES had 68% risk reduction of mortality (adjusted odds ratio [OR] of mortality, 0.32; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.17-0.61. Patients aged 65 and above had no statistically significant difference in mortality rates by individual SES group. Different neighborhood SES did not statistically differ in the survival rates. CONCLUSION: Gastric cancer patients aged less than 65 years old with low individual SES have higher risk of mortality, even under an universal healthcare system. Public health strategies, education and welfare policies should seek to correct the inequality in gastric cancer survival, especially in those with lower individual SES.

  10. Adjuvant radiotherapy for pancreatic cancer is associated with a survival benefit primarily in stage IIB patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The role of adjuvant radiotherapy (RT) for pancreatic cancer remains controversial despite the completion of three multi-institutional randomized trials. This study examines the survival impact of postoperative RT in a large population-based database. Patients with pancreatic cancer diagnosed from 1988 to 2003 were identified in the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database. The cohort was limited to patients who underwent resection of nonmetastatic disease to yield a population of 3252 patients. The primary end point was overall survival. Survival analyses were conducted using corrections for perioperative mortality as well as a propensity score analysis to account for baseline differences in patient characteristics. Multiple independent factors were associated with RT use, including patient age and disease stage (P<0.0001). In general, younger patients and those with more advanced disease were more likely to receive RT. Disease stage significantly affected survival (P<0.0001). For patients who survived at least 6 months, adjuvant RT was associated with increased survival [hazard ratio (HR), 0.87; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.80-0.96]. On subgroup analysis, only stage IIB (T1-3N1) patients enjoyed a statistically significant benefit associated with RT (HR, 0.70; 95% CI, 0.62-0.79). Adjuvant RT is frequently given to patients in the United States after resection of their pancreatic cancer. Although RT is associated with a survival benefit for nonmetastatic patients as a whole, this trend appears to predominantly derive from a survival benefit in patients with stage IIB disease. (author)

  11. Spatial extended hazard model with application to prostate cancer survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li; Hanson, Timothy; Zhang, Jiajia

    2015-06-01

    This article develops a Bayesian semiparametric approach to the extended hazard model, with generalization to high-dimensional spatially grouped data. County-level spatial correlation is accommodated marginally through the normal transformation model of Li and Lin (2006, Journal of the American Statistical Association 101, 591-603), using a correlation structure implied by an intrinsic conditionally autoregressive prior. Efficient Markov chain Monte Carlo algorithms are developed, especially applicable to fitting very large, highly censored areal survival data sets. Per-variable tests for proportional hazards, accelerated failure time, and accelerated hazards are efficiently carried out with and without spatial correlation through Bayes factors. The resulting reduced, interpretable spatial models can fit significantly better than a standard additive Cox model with spatial frailties. PMID:25521422

  12. Breast cancer in Denmark. Incidence, risk factors, and characteristics of survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewertz, M

    1993-01-01

    In Denmark, incidence of female breast cancer remained constant from 1943 to around 1960, whereafter a steady increase has occurred, the level today being about 50% higher than in 1960. No equivalent rise has been observed for breast cancer mortality. Influence of hormonal and dietary factors on breast cancer risk and survival was evaluated in a combined population-based case-control and follow-up study, including 2,445 women, aged less than 70 years, diagnosed with breast cancer in Denmark between 1 March 1983 and 31 August 1984, identified from the files of the nation-wide clinical trial of the Danish Breast Cancer Co-operative Group (DBCG) and the Danish Cancer Registry. The control group was an age-stratified random sample of the general female population, selected from the Central Population Register. Data on risk factors were collected by self-administered questionnaires. Clinical and pathological tumour characteristics derived from DBCG. The case-control analysis confirmed an overall increased risk of breast cancer associated with urban residence, high social status, nulliparity, early age at menarche, late age at natural menopause, hormonal replacement therapy, high dietary fat intake, and high alcohol consumption in a subgroup. It failed to detect an association with age at first childbirth, oral contraceptives, smoking, intake of vegetables, tea, coffee, and sweeteners. Survival was determined by tumour size, skin invasion, number of positive lymph nodes, and grade. There was no relation between survival and reproductive or hormonal factors, dietary variables, alcohol consumption, or smoking. However, a complex relationship may exist between survival and body mass index. PMID:8260176

  13. Mutations in p53, p53 protein overexpression and breast cancer survival

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rössner ml., Pavel; Gammon, M. D.; Zhang, Y.J.; Terry, M. B.; Hibshoosh, H.; Memeo, L.; Mansukhani, M.; Long, CH.M.; Gabrowski, G.; Agrawal, M.; Kalra, T.S.; Teitelbaum, S. L.; Neugut, A. I.; Santella, R. M.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 13, č. 9B (2009), s. 3847-3857. ISSN 1582-1838 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50390512 Keywords : Breast cancer * p53 mutations * Survival Subject RIV: DN - Health Impact of the Environment Quality Impact factor: 5.228, year: 2009

  14. Variation in NF-κB Signaling Pathways and Survival in Invasive Epithelial Ovarian Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Block, Matthew S; Charbonneau, Bridget; Vierkant, Robert A;

    2014-01-01

    Survival in epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) is influenced by the host immune response, yet the key genetic determinants of inflammation and immunity that affect prognosis are not known. The nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) transcription factor family plays an important role in many immune and inflammato...

  15. Survival nomogram for curatively resected Korean gastric cancer patients: multicenter retrospective analysis with external validation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bang Wool Eom

    Full Text Available A small number of nomograms have been previously developed to predict the individual survival of patients who undergo curative resection for gastric cancer. However, all were derived from single high-volume centers. The aim of this study was to develop and validate a nomogram for gastric cancer patients using a multicenter database.We reviewed the clinicopathological and survival data of 2012 patients who underwent curative resection for gastric cancer between 2001 and 2006 at eight centers. Among these centers, six institutions were randomly assigned to the development set, and the other two centers were assigned to the validation set. Multivariate analysis using the Cox proportional hazard regression model was performed, and discrimination and calibration were evaluated by external validation.Multivariate analyses revealed that age, tumor size, lymphovascular invasion, depth of invasion, and metastatic lymph nodes were significant prognostic factors for overall survival. In the external validation, the concordance index was 0.831 (95% confidence interval, 0.784-0.878, and Hosmer-Lemeshow chi-square statistic was 3.92 (P = 0.917.We developed and validated a nomogram to predict 5-year overall survival after curative resection for gastric cancer based on a multicenter database. This nomogram can be broadly applied even in general hospitals and is useful for counseling patients, and scheduling follow-up.

  16. Telomerase in relation to clinicopathologic prognostic factors and survival in cervical cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wisman, GBA; Knol, AJ; Helder, MN; Krans, M; de Vries, EGE; Hollema, H; de Jong, S; van der Zee, AGJ

    2001-01-01

    We investigated, in cervical cancer, the relation between telomerase activity, telomerase RNA (hTR) and mRNA of the catalytic subunit of telomerase, hTERT, with "classic" clinicopathological factors as well as survival. Frozen specimens were obtained from 107 consecutive patients with cervical cance

  17. A subclass of HER1 ligands are prognostic markers for survival in bladder cancer patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, Helle-Merete Vissing; Sørensen, B S; Poulsen, S S;

    2001-01-01

    Members of the epidermal growth factor (EGF) family have been suggested as prognostic markers in patients with bladder cancer. Thus far, there has been no consensus on their usefulness. We report an analysis of six ligands and two receptors of which a subset correlate to tumor stage and survival....

  18. Proteomic biomarkers for overall and progression-free survival in ovarian cancer patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høgdall, Estrid; Fung, Eric T; Christensen, Ib Jarle;

    2010-01-01

    To determine if the level of apolipoprotein A1, hepcidin, transferrin, inter-a trypsin IV internal fragment, transthyretin (TT), connective-tissue activating protein 3 (CTAP3), serum amyloid A1, ß-2 microglobulin (B2M) might have impact on overall and progression-free survival for ovarian cancer...

  19. Proteomic biomarkers for overall and progression-free survival in ovarian cancer patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høgdall, Estrid; Fung, Eric T; Christensen, Ib Jarle;

    2010-01-01

    To determine if the level of apolipoprotein A1, hepcidin, transferrin, inter-α trypsin IV internal fragment, transthyretin (TT), connective-tissue activating protein 3 (CTAP3), serum amyloid A1, β-2 microglobulin (B2M) might have impact on overall and progression-free survival for ovarian cancer...

  20. Psychotherapy and Survival in Cancer: The Conflict between Hope and Evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyne, James C.; Stefanek, Michael; Palmer, Steven C.

    2007-01-01

    Despite contradictory findings, the belief that psychotherapy promotes survival in people who have been diagnosed with cancer has persisted since the seminal study by D. Spiegel, J. R. Bloom, H. C. Kramer, and E. Gottheil (1989). The current authors provide a systematic critical review of the relevant literature. In doing so, they introduce some…

  1. Genome-wide association study of prostate cancer-specific survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Szulkin, Robert; Karlsson, Robert; Whitington, Thomas;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Unnecessary intervention and overtreatment of indolent disease are common challenges in clinical management of prostate cancer. Improved tools to distinguish lethal from indolent disease are critical. METHODS: We performed a genome-wide survival analysis of cause-specific death in 24,...

  2. Strontium-89 for prostate cancer with bone metastases. The potential of cancer control and improvement of overall survival

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strontium-89 (Sr-89) has been considered to have a tumoricidal effect with minimal adverse events. However, few reports have investigated these effects in detail. In this study, we examined the tumoricidal and pain-relief effects of Sr-89 on prostate cancer with bone metastasis as well as survival. A retrospective study was performed involving 31 prostate cancer patients with bone metastasis treated with Sr-89. Using prostate specific antigen (PSA) as an evaluation criterion of cancer control, patients were divided into PSA responder and non-responder groups, and the survival rates of these groups were compared. In addition, using the total amount of painkillers administered as an evaluation criterion of pain relief, patients were divided into pain responder and non-responder groups, and the survival rates of these groups were also compared. As secondary investigation items, age, PSA (ng/ml), pain site, extent of the disease, the presence or absence of castration-resistant prostatic cancer (CRPC), the presence or absence of a past medical history of treatment with docetaxel in CRPC cases, Gleason Score, hemoglobin (g/dl), platelet (Plt) (/μl), serum carboxyterminal telopeptide of type I collagen (ng/ml), and bone-alkaline phosphatase (BAP) (U/l) were investigated. Longer survival was expected for the PSA responder group than for the PSA non-responder group, and whether the spine was the pain site and the presence or absence of CRPC were useful as predictors of this. Plt was suggested to be a useful indicator. Furthermore, the survival time was significantly longer in the pain responder group than in the pain non-responder group, and whether the pain site was present in the spine was considered to be a predictor; however, no significant difference was noted in any of the items assumed to be biomarkers. Sr-89 has the potential to control PSA and prolong survival. A large-scale prospective study of the therapeutic effect of Sr-89 is expected. (author)

  3. Abiraterone plus prednisone improves survival in metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Scott T Tagawa; Himisha Beltran

    2011-01-01

    In essentially just 1 year's time,we have seen science translated into exciting new therapeutic agents for men with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC),1 most recently with the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval of abiraterone acetate in combination with prednisone.2 While prostate cancer has been known to be highly responsive to surgical or medical castration for well over half a century,3 what was once termed 'hormone refractory' prostate cancer inevitably developed,leading to cancerrelated death.Many consider the introduction of chemotherapy for CRPC initially for symptomatic benefit,then with improvements in survival,a substantial step forward.

  4. Female breast cancer incidence and survival in Utah according to religious preference, 1985–1999

    OpenAIRE

    Folsom Jeffrey A; Merrill Ray M

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Background Female breast cancer incidence rates in Utah are among the lowest in the U.S. The influence of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saint (LDS or Mormon) religion on these rates, as well as on disease-specific survival, will be explored for individuals diagnosed with breast cancer in Utah from 1985 through 1999. Methods Population-based records for incident female breast cancer patients were linked with membership records from the LDS Church to determine religious affi...

  5. Socioeconomic and geographic determinants of survival of patients with digestive cancer in France

    OpenAIRE

    Dejardin, O; Remontet, L.; Bouvier, A. M.; Danzon, A.; Trétarre, B.; Delafosse, P.; Molinié, F; Maarouf, N; Velten, M; Sauleau, E.A.; Bourdon-Raverdy, N; Grosclaude, P.; Boutreux, S; de Pouvourville, G; Launoy, G

    2006-01-01

    Using a multilevel Cox model, the association between socioeconomic and geographical aggregate variables and survival was investigated in 81 268 patients with digestive tract cancer diagnosed in the years 1980–1997 and registered in 12 registries in the French Network of Cancer Registries. This association differed according to cancer site: it was clear for colon (relative risk (RR)=1.10 (1.04–1.16), 1.10 (1.04–1.16) and 1.14 (1.05–1.23), respectively, for distances to nearest reference cance...

  6. Hedgehog pathway regulators influence cervical cancer cell proliferation, survival and migration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Unknown cellular mutations complement papillomavirus-induced carcinogenesis. ► Hedgehog pathway components are expressed by cervical cancer cells. ► Hedgehog pathway activators and inhibitors regulate cervical cancer cell biology. ► Cell immortalization by papillomavirus and activation of Hedgehog are independent. -- Abstract: Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is considered to be a primary hit that causes cervical cancer. However, infection with this agent, although needed, is not sufficient for a cancer to develop. Additional cellular changes are required to complement the action of HPV, but the precise nature of these changes is not clear. Here, we studied the function of the Hedgehog (Hh) signaling pathway in cervical cancer. The Hh pathway can have a role in a number of cancers, including those of liver, lung and digestive tract. We found that components of the Hh pathway are expressed in several cervical cancer cell lines, indicating that there could exists an autocrine Hh signaling loop in these cells. Inhibition of Hh signaling reduces proliferation and survival of the cervical cancer cells and induces their apoptosis as seen by the up-regulation of the pro-apoptotic protein cleaved caspase 3. Our results indicate that Hh signaling is not induced directly by HPV-encoded proteins but rather that Hh-activating mutations are selected in cells initially immortalized by HPV. Sonic Hedgehog (Shh) ligand induces proliferation and promotes migration of the cervical cancer cells studied. Together, these results indicate pro-survival and protective roles of an activated Hh signaling pathway in cervical cancer-derived cells, and suggest that inhibition of this pathway may be a therapeutic option in fighting cervical cancer.

  7. Hedgehog pathway regulators influence cervical cancer cell proliferation, survival and migration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samarzija, Ivana [Ecole Polytechnique Federale Lausanne (EPFL), Department of Life Sciences, Swiss Institute for Experimental Cancer Research (ISREC), 1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Beard, Peter, E-mail: peter.beard@epfl.ch [Ecole Polytechnique Federale Lausanne (EPFL), Department of Life Sciences, Swiss Institute for Experimental Cancer Research (ISREC), 1015 Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2012-08-17

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Unknown cellular mutations complement papillomavirus-induced carcinogenesis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Hedgehog pathway components are expressed by cervical cancer cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Hedgehog pathway activators and inhibitors regulate cervical cancer cell biology. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cell immortalization by papillomavirus and activation of Hedgehog are independent. -- Abstract: Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is considered to be a primary hit that causes cervical cancer. However, infection with this agent, although needed, is not sufficient for a cancer to develop. Additional cellular changes are required to complement the action of HPV, but the precise nature of these changes is not clear. Here, we studied the function of the Hedgehog (Hh) signaling pathway in cervical cancer. The Hh pathway can have a role in a number of cancers, including those of liver, lung and digestive tract. We found that components of the Hh pathway are expressed in several cervical cancer cell lines, indicating that there could exists an autocrine Hh signaling loop in these cells. Inhibition of Hh signaling reduces proliferation and survival of the cervical cancer cells and induces their apoptosis as seen by the up-regulation of the pro-apoptotic protein cleaved caspase 3. Our results indicate that Hh signaling is not induced directly by HPV-encoded proteins but rather that Hh-activating mutations are selected in cells initially immortalized by HPV. Sonic Hedgehog (Shh) ligand induces proliferation and promotes migration of the cervical cancer cells studied. Together, these results indicate pro-survival and protective roles of an activated Hh signaling pathway in cervical cancer-derived cells, and suggest that inhibition of this pathway may be a therapeutic option in fighting cervical cancer.

  8. Endobronchial mucosa invasion predicts survival in patients with small cell lung cancer.

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    Pai-Chien Chou

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Current staging system for small cell lung cancer (SCLC categorizes patients into limited- or extensive-stage disease groups according to anatomical localizations. Even so, a wide-range of survival times has been observed among patients in the same staging system. This study aimed to identify whether endobronchial mucosa invasion is an independent predictor for poor survival in patients with SCLC, and to compare the survival time between patients with and without endobronchial mucosa invasion. METHODS: We studied 432 consecutive patients with SCLC based on histological examination of biopsy specimens or on fine-needle aspiration cytology, and received computed tomography and bone scan for staging. All the enrolled patients were assessed for endobronchial mucosa invasion by bronchoscopic and histological examination. Survival days were compared between patients with or without endobronchial mucosa invasion and the predictors of decreased survival days were investigated. RESULTS: 84% (364/432 of SCLC patients had endobronchial mucosal invasion by cancer cells at initial diagnosis. Endobronchial mucosal involvement (Hazard ratio [HR], 2.01; 95% Confidence Interval [CI], 1.30-3.10, age (HR, 1.04; 95% CI, 1.03-1.06, and extensive stage (HR, 1.39; 95% CI, 1.06-1.84 were independent contributing factors for shorter survival time, while received chemotherapy (HR, 0.32; 95% CI, 0.25-0.42 was an independent contributing factor better outcome. The survival days of SCLC patients with endobronchial involvement were markedly decreased compared with patients without (median 145 vs. 290, p<0.0001. Among SCLC patients of either limited (median 180 vs. 460, p<0.0001 or extensive (median 125 vs. 207, p<0.0001 stages, the median survival duration for patients with endobronchial mucosal invasion was shorter than those with intact endobronchial mucosa, respectively. CONCLUSION: Endobronchial mucosal involvement is an independent prognostic factor for SCLC

  9. The effect of comorbidity on stage-specific survival in resected non-small cell lung cancer patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lüchtenborg, Margreet; Jakobsen, Erik; Krasnik, Mark; Linklater, Karen M; Mellemgaard, Anders; Møller, Henrik

    2012-01-01

    To quantify the effect of comorbidity on stage-specific survival in resected non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients.......To quantify the effect of comorbidity on stage-specific survival in resected non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients....

  10. Effects of common germ-line genetic variation in cell cycle genes on ovarian cancer survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Song, H.; Hogdall, E.; Ramus, S.J.;

    2008-01-01

    PURPOSE: Somatic alterations have been shown to correlate with ovarian cancer prognosis and survival, but less is known about the effects on survival of common inherited genetic variation. Of particular interest are genes involved in cell cycle pathways, which regulate cell division and could...... plausibly influence clinical characteristics of multiple tumors types. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: We examined associations between common germ-line genetic variation in 14 genes involved in cell cycle pathway (CCND1, CCND2, CCND3, CCNE1, CDKN1A, CDKN1B, CDKN2A, CDKN2B, CDKN2C, CDKN2D, CDK2, CDK4, CDK6, and RB1......) and survival among women with invasive ovarian cancer participating in a multicenter case-control study from United Kingdom, Denmark, and United States. DNAs from up to 1,499 women were genotyped for 97 single-nucleotide polymorphisms that tagged the known common variants (minor allele frequency > or = 0...

  11. Clinical trial enrollment, patient characteristics, and survival differences in prospectively registered metastatic colorectal cancer patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sorbye, Halfdan; Pfeiffer, Per; Cavalli-Björkman, Nina;

    2009-01-01

    oncological consideration at 3 hospitals in Scandinavia covering defined populations were registered consecutively during 2003 to 2006. Clinical trial enrollment, patient characteristics, and treatment were recorded prospectively, and the follow-up was complete. RESULTS: Palliative chemotherapy was initiated...... was then only 2.1 months. The median survival for all 760 nonresectable mCRC patients was 10.7 months. CONCLUSIONS: mCRC patients enrolled into clinical trials differ in characteristics from patients receiving chemotherapy outside protocol and have better survival, even when given the same treatment. Although......BACKGROUND: Trial accrual patterns were examined to determine whether metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) patients enrolled in trials are representative of a general cancer population concerning patient characteristics and survival. METHODS: A total of 760 mCRC patients referred for their first...

  12. Survival of patients after resection for lung cancer. Predictive value of staging by CT vs thoracotomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The predictive value of staging of primary lung cancer by CT and thoracotomy with respect to survival was assessed in a series of 151 consecutive patients. The new international staging system for lung cancer was used, with an additional indeterminate stage employed for cases in which a definite classification was impossible by CT. The survival rate curves for the stage groups assessed at CT and thoracotomy showed moderate to good parallelism. The patients with tumor stage I at thoracotomy but indeterminate or IIIa at CT had a significantly lower survival rate than those scored stage I at both. It was concluded that a sign of tumor spread obtained at any of the investigations should lead to an active approach, increasing the radicality of surgery or omitting noncurative operations. (orig.)

  13. Survival of patients after resection for lung cancer. Predictive value of staging by CT vs thoracotomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laehde, S. [Univ. Central Hospital, Oulu (Finland). Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology; Rainio, P. [Univ. Central Hospital, Oulu (Finland). Dept. of Surgery; Bloigu, R. [Oulu Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Public Science and General Practice

    1995-09-01

    The predictive value of staging of primary lung cancer by CT and thoracotomy with respect to survival was assessed in a series of 151 consecutive patients. The new international staging system for lung cancer was used, with an additional indeterminate stage employed for cases in which a definite classification was impossible by CT. The survival rate curves for the stage groups assessed at CT and thoracotomy showed moderate to good parallelism. The patients with tumor stage I at thoracotomy but indeterminate or IIIa at CT had a significantly lower survival rate than those scored stage I at both. It was concluded that a sign of tumor spread obtained at any of the investigations should lead to an active approach, increasing the radicality of surgery or omitting noncurative operations. (orig.).

  14. Aggressive Treatment of Patients with Metastatic Colorectal Cancer Increases Survival: A Scandinavian Single-Center Experience

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    Kristoffer Watten Brudvik

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. We examined overall and disease-free survivals in a cohort of patients subjected to resection of liver metastasis from colorectal cancer (CRLM in a 10-year period when new treatment strategies were implemented. Methods. Data from 239 consecutive patients selected for liver resection of CRLM during the period from 2002 to 2011 at a single center were used to estimate overall and disease-free survival. The results were assessed against new treatment strategies and established risk factors. Results. The 5-year cumulative overall and disease-free survivals were 46 and 24%. The overall survival was the same after reresection, independently of the number of prior resections and irrespectively of the location of the recurrent disease. The time intervals between each recurrence were similar (11 ± 1 months. Patients with high tumor load given neoadjuvant chemotherapy had comparable survival to those with less extensive disease without neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Positive resection margin or resectable extrahepatic disease did not affect overall survival. Conclusion. Our data support that one still, and perhaps to an even greater extent, should seek an aggressive therapeutic strategy to achieve resectable status for recurrent hepatic and extrahepatic metastases. The data should be viewed in the context of recent advances in the understanding of cancer biology and the metastatic process.

  15. The effect of dose fractionation on overall survival in patients with limited-stage small cell lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To study the effect of different dose fractionation on overall survival in patients with limited-stage small cell lung cancer (LS-SCLC). Methods: LS-SCLC patients treated with radical combined chemotherapy and radiotherapy (RT) between January 2001 and Dec 2007 were analyzed retrospectively. According to the dose fractionation schemes, patients were divided into three groups: conventional fractionated RT (1. 8 -2.0 Gy, once daily), hyperfractionated RT (1.4 Gy, twice daily) and hypo fractionated RT (2. 5 Gy,once daily). Overall survival, disease free survival and pattern of failures of the three groups were compared. A total of 177 patients were enrolled, including 63 patients in conventional fractionated RT group, 79 in hyperfractionated RT group and 35 in hypo fractionated RT group. Results: The overall follow-up rate was 96. 6%. The patient numbers with follow-up of more than 2 and 5 years were 153 and 92, respectively. The median survival time of the entire group was 22. 4 months, and the 2-and 5-year survival rates were 43.4% and 23.5%, respectively. The 2-year survival rates for three groups were 31%, 46% and 59% (χ2 =7.94, P=0.019), respectively. The 2-year disease free survival for three groups were 20%, 31% and 40% (χ2 = 4.86, P = 0.088), respectively. In the pairwise comparisons, patients in hypo fractionated RT group have better survival than those in conventional fractionated RT group (χ2 = 7.81, P = 0.005), the effect of hyperfractionated RT group lies between the hypo-and the conventional fractionated RT groups, but no significant differences were detected (χ2 = 2.31, P = 0.128; χ2 = 2.95, P =0.086). The mildest side effect was found in the hypo fractionated RT group. No statistically significant differences were found in the patterns of first failure. Conclusion: The hypo fractionated RT scheme showed potential survival benefits for patients with LS-SCLC and should be considered in the setting of randomized clinical trials. (authors)

  16. Marital status and survival in pancreatic cancer patients: a SEER based analysis.

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    Michael Baine

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Recent findings suggest that marital status affects survival in patients with different types of cancer. However, its role in the survival of patients with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma is unknown. In this study, we investigated whether there was an association between marital status and overall survival (OS in patients with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC. METHODS: Adult patients diagnosed with PDAC between 1998 and 2003 with known marital statuses were identified from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results registry of the National Cancer Institute. OS for these patients was plotted using the Kaplan-Meier method. Comparative risks of mortality were evaluated by using univariate and multivariate-adjusted Cox regression models. RESULTS: Using Kaplan-Meier analysis, we found that the median overall survival of patients was 4 months and 3 months (p<0.001 for married and unmarried patients, respectively. Subgroup analysis on patients with cancer-directed surgery showed that the median survival was 16 months and 13 months (P<0.0005 for married and unmarried groups, respectively. Multivariate analysis adjusting for age, race, sex, stage, year of diagnosis, radiation therapy and cancer-directed surgery showed that patients who were married at the time of diagnosis had a significantly decreased risk of death at both 2 months (15% risk reduction and 3 years (13% risk reduction post diagnosis. CONCLUSIONS: Marital status is an independent prognostic factor of both perioperative and long-term survival in patients with PDAC. This observation may suggest a suboptimally met psychosocial need among PDAC patients that is partially fulfilled by the support system provided by marriage.

  17. A retrospective analysis of survival and prognostic factors of male breast cancer from a single center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Less than 1% of all breast cancer cases are found in men, who reportedly have inferior outcomes compared with matched women patients. Ethnic differences may also affect their prognosis. Here, we investigated overall survival (OS) and major prognostic factors for male breast cancer (MBC) in a cohort of Egyptian patients. We retrospectively analyzed OS in a cohort of 69 male patients with MBC who were surgically treated at the Mansoura Cancer Center, Egypt between 2000 and 2007. We registered demographic data, age, height, weight and body mass index, tumor size, histology, number of infiltrated axillary lymph nodes, hormone receptor (HR) status and metastatic presence, and TNM staging. Patients’ OS was the primary endpoint. Patients received treatment to the medical standards at the time of their diagnosis. In the 69 patients who met the inclusion criteria and had complete stored patient data, tumors ranged from T1c to T3. We could gather cancer-related survival data from only 56 patients. The collective 5-year survival in this cohort was 46.4%. Only five patients had distant metastasis at diagnosis, but they showed a null percent 5-year survival, whereas those with no lymph node infiltration showed a 100% 5-year survival. Lymph node status and tumor grading were the only prognostic factors that significantly affected OS. Lymph node status and tumor grade are the most important prognostic factors for overall survival of MBC in Egyptian male patients; whereas even remarkably low HR expression in MBC did not significantly affect OS. Further research is needed to understand the factors that affect this disease

  18. Predicting survival after radical cystectomy for bladder cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margulis, Vitaly; Lotan, Yair; Montorsi, Francesco; Shariat, Shahrokh F

    2008-07-01

    Accurate prediction is essential for patient counselling, appropriate selection of treatments and determination of eligibility for clinical trials. In this review we assess the available determinants of oncological outcome after radical cystectomy (RC) for transitional cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder. We reviewed previous publications to provide guidelines in terms of criteria, limitations and clinical value of available tools for predicting patient outcome after RC. Our findings suggest that while individual surgical, patient and pathological features provide useful estimates of survival outcome, the inherent heterogeneity of tumour biology and patient characteristics leads to significant variation in outcome. By incorporating all relevant continuous predictive factors for individual patients, integrative predictive models, such as nomograms or artificial neural networks, provide more accurate predictions and generally surpass clinical experts at predicting outcomes. Nonetheless, there is a clear need for the development and validation of molecular biomarkers and their incorporation into multivariable predictive tools. Significant progress has been made in identifying important molecular markers of disease and the development of multifactorial tools for predicting the outcome after RC. PMID:18325050

  19. Use of metformin and survival of diabetic women with breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peeters, Paul J H L; Bazelier, Marloes T; Vestergaard, Peter;

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study was set out to determine whether metformin use influences survival in breast cancer patients treated with antidiabetic drugs as compared to non-users. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We used data from the Danish national registries (1996-2008) to identify adult female patients...... diagnosed with breast cancer who were prescribed antidiabetic medication. We performed multivariate Coxproportional hazard regression to assess all-cause and breast cancer-specific mortality risks associated with metformin exposure. In a secondary analysis, we stratified use of metformin according to the...... cumulative number of prescriptions. RESULTS: Of the 1058 breast cancer patients 349 died during follow-up, with breast cancer listed as the primary cause of death for 152 cases. Compared to non-use, current metformin treatment was associated with a significant reduction in overall mortality (adjusted HR 0...

  20. Unilateral and Bilateral Breast Cancer in Women Surviving Pediatric Hodgkin's Disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To define demographic and therapeutic associations with the risk of breast cancer in children treated for Hodgkin's disease (HD), particularly the frequency and interval to the development of contralateral breast cancer. Methods and Materials: All 398 female patients (12 years) were significant predictors of secondary breast cancer. Conclusions: Women surviving pediatric HD were found to have a 37-fold increase in the risk of breast cancer and a high likelihood of rapidly developing bilateral disease. Early-stage HD and age greater than 12 years at diagnosis of HD were independent risk factors. Higher radiation doses may augment risk, and pelvic radiation may be protective. Breast cancer screening methodology and frequency, plus the role of prophylaxis in patients with unilateral disease, require definition

  1. Stress and survival after cancer: A prospective study of a Finnish population-based cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saito-Nakaya, K.; Bidstrup, P. E.; Nakaya, N.;

    2012-01-01

    Stress has been suggested to reduce survival after cancer, but the results of previous studies have been contradictory. We investigated the hypothesis in a national cohort of adults in Finland. Of those who completed the Stressful Life Events scale and the Stress of Daily Activities scale, 1470 and...... score was 0.99 (95% CI, 0.95-1.03). Further, the HR was 0.92 (95% CI, 0.69-1.22) for severe daily stress. Overall, the results of the current study do not support the hypothesis that stress reduces cancer survival. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved....... 1882, respectively, later had cancer and were included in the analysis, covering 23 years of follow-up between 1982 and 2004. In Cox regression analysis, the multivariate hazard ratio (HR) was 0.99 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.96-1.01) for total number of life events and the HR for the life change...

  2. Survival of cancer patients treated with mistletoe extract (Iscador: a systematic literature review

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    Büssing Arndt

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Europe, extracts from Viscum album (VA-E, the European white-berry mistletoe, are widely used to treat patients with cancer. Methods We searched several databases such as Cochrane, EMBASE, NCCAM, NLM, DIMDI, CAMbase, and Medline. Inclusion criteria were controlled clinical studies on parameters associated with survival in cancer patients treated with Iscador. Outcome data were extracted as they were given in the publication, and expressed as hazard ratios (HR, their logarithm, and the respective standard errors using standard formulas. Results We found 49 publications on the clinical effects of Iscador usage on survival of cancer patients which met our criteria. Among them, 41 studies and strata provided enough data to extract hazard ratios (HR and their standard errors (Iscador versus no extra treatment. The majority of studies reported positive effects in favour of the Iscador application. Heterogeneity of study results was moderate (I2 = 38.3%, p Conclusions Pooled analysis of clinical studies suggests that adjuvant treatment of cancer patients with the mistletoe extract Iscador is associated with a better survival. Despite obvious limitations, and strong hints for a publication bias which limits the evidence found in this meta-analysis, one can not ignore the fact that studies with positive effects of VA-E on survival of cancer patients are accumulating. Future studies evaluating the effects of Iscador should focus on a transparent design and description of endpoints in order to provide greater insight into a treatment often being depreciated as ineffective, but highly valued by cancer patients.

  3. Role of ATG10 expression quantitative trait loci in non-small cell lung cancer survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Kaipeng; Liang, Cheng; Li, Qin; Yan, Caiwang; Wang, Cheng; Gu, Yayun; Zhu, Meng; Du, Fangzhi; Wang, Hui; Dai, Juncheng; Liu, Xiao'an; Jin, Guangfu; Shen, Hongbing; Ma, Hongxia; Hu, Zhibin

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this article was to evaluate whether genetic variants in autophagy-related genes affect the overall survival (OS) of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients. We analyzed 14 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in core autophagy-related genes for OS in 1,001 NSCLC patients. Three promising SNPs in ATG10 were subsequently annotated by the expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) and methylation quantitative trait loci (meQTL) analyses based on Genotype-Tissue Expression (GTEx) and The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) datasets. We observed that the variants of rs10514231, rs1864182 and rs1864183 were associated with poor lung cancer survival (HR = 1.33, 95% CI = 1.07-1.65; HR = 1.43, 95% CI = 1.13-1.81; HR = 1.38, 95% CI = 1.14-1.68, respectively) and positively correlated with ATG10 expression (all p lung cancer patients in TCGA dataset (HR = 2.10, 95% CI = 1.33-3.29). Moreover, the variants of rs10514231 and rs1864182 were associated with the increased methylation levels of cg17942617 (meQTL), which in turn contributed to the elevated ATG10 expression and decreased survival time. Further functional assays revealed that ATG10 facilitated lung cancer cell proliferation and migration. Our findings suggest that eQTL/meQTL variations of ATG10 could influence lung cancer survival through regulating ATG10 expression. PMID:27225307

  4. A new scoring system for predicting survival in patients with non-small cell lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This analysis was performed to create a scoring system to estimate the survival of patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Data from 1274 NSCLC patients were analyzed to create and validate a scoring system. Univariate (UV) and multivariate (MV) Cox models were used to evaluate the prognostic importance of each baseline factor. Prognostic factors that were significant on both UV and MV analyses were used to develop the score. These included quality of life, age, performance status, primary tumor diameter, nodal status, distant metastases, and smoking cessation. The score for each factor was determined by dividing the 5-year survival rate (%) by 10 and summing these scores to form a total score. MV models and the score were validated using bootstrapping with 1000 iterations from the original samples. The score for each prognostic factor ranged from 1 to 7 points with higher scores reflective of better survival. Total scores (sum of the scores from each independent prognostic factor) of 32–37 correlated with a 5-year survival of 8.3% (95% CI = 0–17.1%), 38–43 correlated with a 5-year survival of 20% (95% CI = 13–27%), 44–47 correlated with a 5-year survival of 48.3% (95% CI = 41.5–55.2%), 48–49 correlated to a 5-year survival of 72.1% (95% CI = 65.6–78.6%), and 50–52 correlated to a 5-year survival of 84.7% (95% CI = 79.6–89.8%). The bootstrap method confirmed the reliability of the score. Prognostic factors significantly associated with survival on both UV and MV analyses were used to construct a valid scoring system that can be used to predict survival of NSCLC patients. Optimally, this score could be used when counseling patients, and designing future trials

  5. Improved survival of mice bearing liver metastases of colon cancer cells treated with a combination of radioimmunotherapy and antiangiogenic therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We attempted to determine whether the combined regimen of radioimmunotherapy (RIT) and antiangiogenic therapy would favorably affect the survival of animals bearing liver metastases of colon cancer cells. Daily antiangiogenic therapy with 2-methoxyestradiol (2-ME), 75 mg/kg, was initiated at 3 days following intrasplenic cell inoculation of LS180 colon cancer cells. RIT with 7 MBq of 131I-A7, an IgG1 anti-colorectal monoclonal antibody, or 131I-HPMS-1, an irrelevant IgG1, was conducted at 7 days. Production of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) by LS180 cells was assessed in vitro. All nontreated mice died by 31 days following cell inoculation (n=5). Monotherapy comprising 2-ME treatment resulted in slightly better survival of mice (n=8) (P131I-A7 RIT displayed a marked therapeutic effect (n=8) (P131I-A7 RIT and antiangiogenic therapy demonstrated a superior therapeutic effect in comparison to monotherapy consisting of either RIT or antiangiogenic therapy (n=10) (P131I-HPMS-1 RIT failed to provide an appreciable benefit (n=5). Treatment with 2-ME decreased VEGF production by LS180 cells in a dose-dependent fashion. In conclusion, a combination regimen comprising RIT and antiangiogenic therapy initiated at the early stage of metastasis would be of great benefit in terms of improvement of the therapeutic efficacy with respect to liver metastases. (orig.)

  6. Diabetes and other comorbidities in breast cancer survival by race/ethnicity: The California Breast Cancer Survivorship Consortium (CBCSC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Anna H.; Kurian, Allison W.; Kwan, Marilyn L.; John, Esther M.; Lu, Yani; Keegan, Theresa H.M.; Gomez, Scarlett Lin; Cheng, Iona; Shariff-Marco, Salma; Caan, Bette J.; Lee, Valerie S.; Sullivan-Halley, Jane; Tseng, Chiu-Chen; Bernstein, Leslie; Sposto, Richard; Vigen, Cheryl

    2015-01-01

    Background The role of comorbidities in survival of breast cancer patients has not been well studied, particularly in non-white populations. Methods We investigated the association of specific comorbidities with mortality in a multiethnic cohort of 8,952 breast cancer cases within the California Breast Cancer Survivorship Consortium (CBCSC), which pooled questionnaire and cancer registry data from five California-based studies. In total, 2,187 deaths (1,122 from breast cancer) were observed through December 31, 2010. Using multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression, we estimated hazards ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for overall and breast cancer-specific mortality associated with previous cancer, diabetes, high blood pressure (HBP), and myocardial infarction (MI). Results Risk of breast cancer-specific mortality increased among breast cancer cases with a history of diabetes (HR=1.48, 95% CI=1.18, 1.87) or MI (HR=1.94, 95% CI=1.27–2.97). Risk patterns were similar across race/ethnicity (non-Latina White, Latina, African American and Asian American), body size, menopausal status, and stage at diagnosis. In subgroup analyses, risk of breast cancer-specific mortality was significantly elevated among cases with diabetes who received neither radiation nor chemotherapy (HR=2.11, 95% CI=1.32–3.36); no increased risk was observed among those who received both treatments (HR=1.13, 95% CI= 0.70–1.84) (P interaction= 0.03). A similar pattern was found for MI by radiation and chemotherapy (P interaction=0.09). Conclusion These results may inform future treatment guidelines for breast cancer patients with a history of diabetes or MI. Impact Given the growing number of breast cancer survivors worldwide, we need to better understand how comorbidities may adversely affect treatment decisions and ultimately outcome. PMID:25425578

  7. Personalized Circulating Tumor DNA Biomarkers Dynamically Predict Treatment Response and Survival In Gynecologic Cancers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Pereira

    Full Text Available High-grade serous ovarian and endometrial cancers are the most lethal female reproductive tract malignancies worldwide. In part, failure to treat these two aggressive cancers successfully centers on the fact that while the majority of patients are diagnosed based on current surveillance strategies as having a complete clinical response to their primary therapy, nearly half will develop disease recurrence within 18 months and the majority will die from disease recurrence within 5 years. Moreover, no currently used biomarkers or imaging studies can predict outcome following initial treatment. Circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA represents a theoretically powerful biomarker for detecting otherwise occult disease. We therefore explored the use of personalized ctDNA markers as both a surveillance and prognostic biomarker in gynecologic cancers and compared this to current FDA-approved surveillance tools.Tumor and serum samples were collected at time of surgery and then throughout treatment course for 44 patients with gynecologic cancers, representing 22 ovarian cancer cases, 17 uterine cancer cases, one peritoneal, three fallopian tube, and one patient with synchronous fallopian tube and uterine cancer. Patient/tumor-specific mutations were identified using whole-exome and targeted gene sequencing and ctDNA levels quantified using droplet digital PCR. CtDNA was detected in 93.8% of patients for whom probes were designed and levels were highly correlated with CA-125 serum and computed tomography (CT scanning results. In six patients, ctDNA detected the presence of cancer even when CT scanning was negative and, on average, had a predictive lead time of seven months over CT imaging. Most notably, undetectable levels of ctDNA at six months following initial treatment was associated with markedly improved progression free and overall survival.Detection of residual disease in gynecologic, and indeed all cancers, represents a diagnostic dilemma and a potential

  8. Personalized Circulating Tumor DNA Biomarkers Dynamically Predict Treatment Response and Survival In Gynecologic Cancers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anand, Sanya; Sebra, Robert; Catalina Camacho, Sandra; Garnar-Wortzel, Leopold; Nair, Navya; Moshier, Erin; Wooten, Melissa; Uzilov, Andrew; Chen, Rong; Prasad-Hayes, Monica; Zakashansky, Konstantin; Beddoe, Ann Marie; Schadt, Eric; Dottino, Peter; Martignetti, John A.

    2015-01-01

    Background High-grade serous ovarian and endometrial cancers are the most lethal female reproductive tract malignancies worldwide. In part, failure to treat these two aggressive cancers successfully centers on the fact that while the majority of patients are diagnosed based on current surveillance strategies as having a complete clinical response to their primary therapy, nearly half will develop disease recurrence within 18 months and the majority will die from disease recurrence within 5 years. Moreover, no currently used biomarkers or imaging studies can predict outcome following initial treatment. Circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) represents a theoretically powerful biomarker for detecting otherwise occult disease. We therefore explored the use of personalized ctDNA markers as both a surveillance and prognostic biomarker in gynecologic cancers and compared this to current FDA-approved surveillance tools. Methods and Findings Tumor and serum samples were collected at time of surgery and then throughout treatment course for 44 patients with gynecologic cancers, representing 22 ovarian cancer cases, 17 uterine cancer cases, one peritoneal, three fallopian tube, and one patient with synchronous fallopian tube and uterine cancer. Patient/tumor-specific mutations were identified using whole-exome and targeted gene sequencing and ctDNA levels quantified using droplet digital PCR. CtDNA was detected in 93.8% of patients for whom probes were designed and levels were highly correlated with CA-125 serum and computed tomography (CT) scanning results. In six patients, ctDNA detected the presence of cancer even when CT scanning was negative and, on average, had a predictive lead time of seven months over CT imaging. Most notably, undetectable levels of ctDNA at six months following initial treatment was associated with markedly improved progression free and overall survival. Conclusions Detection of residual disease in gynecologic, and indeed all cancers, represents a diagnostic

  9. Cancer incidence and patient survival rates among the residents in the Pudong New Area of Shanghai between 2002 and 2006

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-Pan Li; Guang-Wen Cao; Qiao Sun; Chen Yang; Bei Yan; Mei-Yu Zhang; Yi-Fei Fu; Li-Ming Yang

    2013-01-01

    With the growing threat of malignancy to health, it is necessary to analyze cancer incidence and patient survival rates among the residents in Pudong New Area of Shanghai to formulate better cancer prevention strategies. A total of 43,613 cancer patients diagnosed between 2002 and 2006 were recruited from the Pudong New Area Cancer Registry. The incidence, observed survival rate, and relative survival rate of patients grouped by sex, age, geographic area, and TNM stage were calculated using the Kaplan-Meier, life table, and Ederer II methods, respectively. Between 2002 and 2006, cancer incidence in Pudong New Area was 349.99 per 100,000 person-years, and the 10 most frequently diseased sites were the lung, stomach, colon and rectum, liver, breast, esophagus, pancreas, brain and central nervous system, thyroid, and bladder. For patients with cancers of the colon and rectum, breast, thyroid, brain and central nervous system, and bladder, the 5-year relative survival rate was greater than 40%, whereas patients with cancers of the liver and pancreas had a 5-year relative survival rate of less than 10%. The 1-year to 5-year survival rates for patients grouped by sex, age, geographic area, and TNM stage differed significantly (al P<0.001). Our results indicate that cancer incidence and patient survival in Pudong New Area vary by tumor type, sex, age, geographic area, and TNM stage.

  10. Survival Advantage Associated with Decrease in Stage at Detection from Stage IIIC to Stage IIIA Epithelial Ovarian Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    John Hoff; Lauren Baldwin; Jason Lefringhouse; Edward Pavlik; Rachel Miller; Christopher DeSimone; Frederick Ueland; Thomas Tucker; Richard Kryscio; van Nagell, J. R.

    2014-01-01

    Objective. The aim of this study was to document the survival advantage of lowering stage at detection from Stage IIIC to Stage IIIA epithelial ovarian cancer. Methods. Treatment outcomes and survival were evaluated in patients with Stage IIIA and Stage IIIC epithelial ovarian cancer treated from 2000 to 2009 at the University of Kentucky Markey Cancer Center (UKMCC) and SEER institutions. Results. Cytoreduction to no visible disease (P < 0.0001) and complete response to platinum-based chemot...

  11. A H2S-Nampt Dependent Energetic Circuit Is Critical to Survival and Cytoprotection from Damage in Cancer Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Reiko Sanokawa-Akakura; Ostrakhovitch, Elena A.; Shin Akakura; Scott Goodwin; Siamak Tabibzadeh

    2014-01-01

    We recently demonstrated that cancer cells that recover from damage exhibit increased aerobic glycolysis, however, the molecular mechanism by which cancer cells survive the damage and show increased aerobic glycolysis remains unknown. Here, we demonstrate that diverse cancer cells that survive hypoxic or oxidative damage show rapid cell proliferation, and develop tolerance to damage associated with increased production of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) which drives up-regulation of nicotinamide phosp...

  12. Long Term Survival on S-1 Monotherapy in a Patient with Recurrent Stage IV Pancreatic Cancer

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    Susan Alsamarai

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Context Pancreatic cancer is the third most common gastrointestinal malignancy in the United States. Due to difficulty in diagnosis, 40% of patients are stage IV by the time of diagnosis and median survival is only four to six months. Current therapy for advanced pancreatic cancer focuses largely on gemcitabine. However, a relatively new drug, S-1, is showing promising results. Phase II studies of S-1 monotherapy and recent combination with gemcitabine were conducted for the treatment of metastatic pancreatic cancer. The early phase II study demonstrated a response rate approaching 20% while the combination is reaching more than 35%. Case report We report a 68-year-old man who presented with stage IIB pancreatic cancer which advanced to stage IV after undergoing a Whipple procedure and adjuvant treatment with gemcitabine. The patient was refractory to treatment with gemcitabine as well as irinotecan, taxotere, and cetuximab. He subsequently participated in a trial involving the drug S-1. He achieved 10- month survival with preserved quality of life: he had 14 cycles of S-1 and maintained an ECOG performance status of 0-1 throughout. Conclusion For this patient, 14 cycles of S-1 were well-tolerated for 10 months after failing two prior chemotherapeutic regimens suggesting important insight that S-1 may be active and convenient for its oral use and it may have favorable safety profile in patients with metastatic pancreatic cancer. Randomized trials are warranted to determine the effectiveness of S-1 for the treatment of pancreatic cancer.

  13. Atypical protein kinase C zeta: potential player in cell survival and cell migration of ovarian cancer.

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    Kelly K Y Seto

    Full Text Available Ovarian cancer is one of the most aggressive gynaecological cancers, thus understanding the different biological pathways involved in ovarian cancer progression is important in identifying potential therapeutic targets for the disease. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential roles of Protein Kinase C Zeta (PRKCZ in ovarian cancer. The atypical protein kinase C isoform, PRKCZ, is involved in the control of various signalling processes including cell proliferation, cell survival, and cell motility, all of which are important for cancer development and progression. Herein, we observe a significant increase in cell survival upon PRKCZ over-expression in SKOV3 ovarian cancer cells; additionally, when the cells are treated with small interference RNA (siRNA targeting PRKCZ, the motility of SKOV3 cells decreased. Furthermore, we demonstrate that over-expression of PRKCZ results in gene and/or protein expression alterations of insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF1R and integrin beta 3 (ITGB3 in SKOV3 and OVCAR3 cells. Collectively, our study describes PRKCZ as a potential regulatory component of the IGF1R and ITGB3 pathways and suggests that it may play critical roles in ovarian tumourigenesis.

  14. Survival of patients with metastatic breast cancer: twenty-year data from two SEER registries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many researchers are interested to know if there are any improvements in recent treatment results for metastatic breast cancer in the community, especially for 10- or 15-year survival. Between 1981 and 1985, 782 and 580 female patients with metastatic breast cancer were extracted respectively from the Connecticut and San Francisco-Oakland registries of the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database. The lognormal statistical method to estimate survival was retrospectively validated since the 15-year cause-specific survival rates could be calculated using the standard life-table actuarial method. Estimated rates were compared to the actuarial data available in 2000. Between 1991 and 1995, further 752 and 632 female patients with metastatic breast cancer were extracted respectively from the Connecticut and San Francisco-Oakland registries. The data were analyzed to estimate the 15-year cause-specific survival rates before the year 2005. The 5-year period (1981–1985) was chosen, and patients were followed as a cohort for an additional 3 years. The estimated 15-year cause-specific survival rates were 7.1% (95% confidence interval, CI, 1.8–12.4) and 9.1% (95% CI, 3.8–14.4) by the lognormal model for the two registries of Connecticut and San Francisco-Oakland respectively. Since the SEER database provides follow-up information to the end of the year 2000, actuarial calculation can be performed to confirm (validate) the estimation. The Kaplan-Meier calculation for the 15-year cause-specific survival rates were 8.3% (95% CI, 5.8–10.8) and 7.0% (95% CI, 4.3–9.7) respectively. Using the 1991–1995 5-year period cohort and followed for an additional 3 years, the 15-year cause-specific survival rates were estimated to be 9.1% (95% CI, 3.8–14.4) and 14.7% (95% CI, 9.8–19.6) for the two registries of Connecticut and San Francisco-Oakland respectively. For the period 1981–1985, the 15-year cause-specific survival for the Connecticut and the San

  15. Survival Analysis of 1,742 Patients with Stage IV Non-small Cell Lung Cancer

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    Hong PENG

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective At present non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC is still the leading cause of death induced by cancer. The aim of this study is to investigate the prognostic factors of advanced NSCLC. Methods Total 1,742 cases of stage IV NSCLC data from Jan 4, 2000 to Dec 25, 2008 in Shanghai Chest Hospital were collected, confirmed by pathological examinations. Analysis was made to observe the impact of treatment on prognosis in gender, age, smoking history, pathology, classification, clinical TNM stage. Survival rate, survival difference were evaluated by Kaplan-Meire method and Logrank test respectively. The prognosis were analyzed by Cox multivariate regression. Results The median survival time of 1,742 patients was 10.0 months (9.5 months-10.5 months. One, two, three, four, and five-year survival rates were 44%, 22%, 13%, 9%, 6% respectively. The median survivals of single or multiple metastasis were 11 months vs 7 months (P < 0.001. Survival time were different in metastasic organs, with the median survival time as follows: lung for about 12 months (11.0 months-12.9 months, bone for 9 months (8.3 months-9.6 months, brain for 8 months (6.8 months-9.1 months, liver, adrenal gland, distannt lymph node metastasis for 5 months (3.8 months-6.1 months, and subcutaneous for 3 months (1.7 months-4.3 months. The median survival times of adenocarcinoma (n=1,086, 62% and squamous cell carcinoma cases (n=305, 17.5% were 12 months vs 8 months (P < 0.001. The median survival time of chemotherapy and best supportive care were 11 months vs 6 months (P < 0.001; the median survival times of with and without radiotherapy were 11 months vs 9 months (P=0.017. Conclusion Gender, age, gross type, pathological type, clinical T stage, N stage, numbers of metastatic organ, smoking history, treatment of advanced non-small cell lung cancer were independent prognostic factors.

  16. Biochemical Control With Radiotherapy Improves Overall Survival in Intermediate and High-Risk Prostate Cancer Patients Who Have an Estimated 10-Year Overall Survival of >90%

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To identify subgroups of patients with carcinoma of the prostate treated with radical radiotherapy that have improved overall survival when disease is biochemically controlled. Methods and Materials: A cohort of 1,060 prostate cancer patients treated with radical radiotherapy was divided into nine subgroups based on National Comprehensive Cancer Network risk category and estimated 10-year overall survival (eOS 10y) derived from the age adjusted Charlson Comorbidity Index. Patients with and without biochemical control were compared with respect to overall survival. Actuarial estimates of overall survival were calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Univariate and multivariate Cox proportional hazards models were used for analysis of overall survival. Results: Median follow-up was 125 months (range, 51–176 months). Only the subgroups with high or intermediate risk disease and an eOS 10y of >90% had a statistically significantly improved overall survival when prostate cancer was biochemically controlled. In all other groups, biochemical control made no significant difference to overall survival. In the subgroup with high-risk disease and eOS 10y >90%, actuarial overall survival was 86.3% (95% confidence interval [CI] 78.5%–94.1%) and 62.1% (95% CI 52.9%–71.3%) for patients with biochemical control and biochemical relapse respectively (p = 0.002). In the intermediate risk group with eOS >90%, actuarial overall survival was 95.3% (95% CI 89.0%–100%) and 79.8% (95% CI 68.0%–91.6%) for biochemically controlled and biochemically relapsed patients (p = 0.033). On multivariate analysis, National Comprehensive Cancer Network risk group (p = 0.005), biochemical control (p = 0.033) and eOS 10y (p 90%.

  17. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-DNA adducts and survival among women with breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) are mammary carcinogens in animal studies, and a few epidemiologic studies have suggested a link between elevated levels of PAH-DNA adducts and breast cancer incidence. An association between PAH-DNA adducts and survival among breast cancer cases has not been previously reported. We conducted a survival analysis among women with newly diagnosed invasive breast cancer between 1996 and 1997, enrolled in the Long Island Breast Cancer Study Project. DNA was isolated from blood samples that were obtained from cases shortly after diagnosis and assayed for PAH-DNA adducts using ELISA. Among the 722 cases with PAH-DNA adduct measurements, 97 deaths (13.4%) from all causes and 54 deaths (7.5%) due to breast cancer were reported to National Death Index (NDI) by December 31, 2002. Using Cox proportional hazards models and controlling for age at diagnosis, we did not find evidence that all-cause mortality (hazard ratio (HR)=0.88; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.57-1.37), or breast cancer mortality (HR=1.20; 95% CI: 0.63-2.28) was strongly associated with detectable PAH-DNA adduct levels compared with non-detectable adducts; additionally, no dose-response association was observed. Among a subgroup with treatment data (n=520), adducts were associated with over a two-fold higher mortality among those receiving radiation, but mortality for adducts was reduced among hormone therapy users. Results from this large population-based study do not provide strong support for an association between detectable PAH-DNA adducts and survival among women with breast cancer, except perhaps among those receiving radiation treatment

  18. Impact of the number of resected lymph nodes on survival after preoperative radiotherapy for esophageal cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Zhen-Yu; Li, Feng-Yan; Lin, Huan-Xin; Sun, Jia-Yuan; Lin, Hui; Li, Qun

    2016-01-01

    To assess the impact of the number of resected lymph nodes (RLNs) for survival in esophageal cancer (EC) patients treated with preoperative radiotherapy and cancer-directed surgery. The Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) database was queried to identify EC patients treated from 1988 to 2012 who had complete data on the number of positive lymph nodes and number of RLNs. Kaplan–Meier survival analysis and Cox regression proportional hazard methods were used to determine factors that significantly impact cause-specific survival (CSS) and overall survival (OS). There were a total of 3,159 patients who received preoperative radiotherapy and cancer-directed surgery. The median number of RLNs was 10 in both patients who received and did not receive preoperative radiotherapy (P = 0.332). Cox regression univariate and multivariate analysis showed that RLN count was a significant prognostic factor for CSS and OS. Patients with 11–71 RLNs had better CSS (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.694, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.603–0.799, P < 0.001) and OS (HR = 0.724, 95% CI: 0.636–0.824, P < 0.001) than patients with 1–10 RLNs. The 5-year CSS rates were 39.1% and 44.8% in patients with 1–10 RLNs and 11–71 RLNs, respectively (P < 0.001). The 5-year OS rates were 33.7% and 39.9% in patients with 1–10 RLNs and 11–71 RLNs, respectively (P < 0.001). A higher number of RLNs was associated with better survival by tumor stage and nodal stage (all P < 0.05). RLN count is an independent prognostic factor in EC patients who undergo preoperative radiotherapy and cancer-directed surgery. PMID:26992210

  19. Cell Survival and Apoptosis Signaling as Therapeutic Target for Cancer: Marine Bioactive Compounds

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    Kim Se-Kwon

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Inhibition of apoptosis leads to activation of cell survival factors (e.g., AKT causes continuous cell proliferation in cancer. Apoptosis, the major form of cellular suicide, is central to various physiological processes and the maintenance of homeostasis in multicellular organisms. A number of discoveries have clarified the molecular mechanism of apoptosis, thus clarifying the link between apoptosis and cell survival factors, which has a therapeutic outcome. Induction of apoptosis and inhibition of cell survival by anticancer agents has been shown to correlate with tumor response. Cellular damage induces growth arrest and tumor suppression by inducing apoptosis, necrosis and senescence; the mechanism of cell death depends on the magnitude of DNA damage following exposure to various anticancer agents. Apoptosis is mainly regulated by cell survival and proliferating signaling molecules. As a new therapeutic strategy, alternative types of cell death might be exploited to control and eradicate cancer cells. This review discusses the signaling of apoptosis and cell survival, as well as the potential contribution of marine bioactive compounds, suggesting that new therapeutic strategies might follow.

  20. Impact of preoperative chemoradiotherapy on survival in patients with resectable pancreatic cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    P(a)lvi Vento; Harri Mustonen; Timo Joensuu; P(a)ivi K(a)rkk(a)inen; Eero Kivilaakso; Tuula Kiviluoto

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To explore whether preoperative chemoradiation therapy improves survival of patients with pancreatic cancer undergoing resectional surgery.METHODS: Forty-seven patients with a malignant pancreatic tumor localized in the head or uncinate process of the pancreas underwent radical pancreaticoduodenectomy. Twenty-two received chemoradiation therapy (gemcitabine and radiation dose 50.4 Gy) before surgery (CRR) and 25 patients underwent surgery only (RO). The study was non-randomised. Patients were identified from a prospective database.RESULTS: The median survival time was 30.2 mo in the CRR group and 35.9 mo in the RO group. No statistically significant differences were found in subclasses according to lymph node involvement, TNM stages, tumor size, or perineural invasion. The one, three and five year survival rates were 81%, 33% and 33%, respectively, in the CRR group and 72%, 47% and 23%, respectively, in the RO group. In ductal adenocarcinoma, the median survival time was 27 mo in the CRR group and 20 mo in the RO group. No statistically significant differences were found in the above subclasses. The one, three and five year survival rates were 79%, 21% and 21%, respectively, in the CRR group and 64%, 50% and 14%, respectively,in the RO group. The overall hospital mortality rate was 2%. The morbidity rate was 45% in the CRR group and 32% (NS) in the RO group.CONCLUSION: Major multicenter randomized studies are needed to conclusively assess the impact of neoadjuvant treatment in the management of pancreatic cancer.

  1. Clinical Nomogram for Predicting Survival of Esophageal Cancer Patients after Esophagectomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Jinlin; Yuan, Ping; Wang, Luming; Wang, Yiqing; Ma, Honghai; Yuan, Xiaoshuai; Lv, Wang; Hu, Jian

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to construct an effective clinical nomogram for predicting the survival of esophageal cancer patients after esophagectomy. We identified esophageal cancer patients (n = 4,281) who underwent esophagectomy between 1988 and 2007 from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) 18 registries database. Clinically significant parameters for survival were used to construct a nomogram based on Cox regression analyses. The model was validated using bootstrap resampling and a Chinese cohort (n = 145). A total of 4,109 patients from the SEER database were included for analysis. The multivariate analyses showed that the factors of age, race, histology, tumor site, tumor size, grade and depth of invasion, and the numbers of metastases and retrieved nodes were independent prognostic factors. All of these factors were selected into the nomogram. The nomogram showed a clear prognostic superiority over the seventh AJCC-TNM classification (C-index: SEER cohort, 0.716 vs 0.693, respectively; P nomogram predicted the probabilities of 3- and 5-year survival, which corresponded closely with the actual survival rates. This novel prognostic model may improve clinicians’ abilities to predict individualized survival and to make treatment recommendations. PMID:27215834

  2. Rapid learning in practice: A lung cancer survival decision support system in routine patient care data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background and purpose: A rapid learning approach has been proposed to extract and apply knowledge from routine care data rather than solely relying on clinical trial evidence. To validate this in practice we deployed a previously developed decision support system (DSS) in a typical, busy clinic for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients. Material and methods: Gender, age, performance status, lung function, lymph node status, tumor volume and survival were extracted without review from clinical data sources for lung cancer patients. With these data the DSS was tested to predict overall survival. Results: 3919 lung cancer patients were identified with 159 eligible for inclusion, due to ineligible histology or stage, non-radical dose, missing tumor volume or survival. The DSS successfully identified a good prognosis group and a medium/poor prognosis group (2 year OS 69% vs. 27/30%, p < 0.001). Stage was less discriminatory (2 year OS 47% for stage I–II vs. 36% for stage IIIA–IIIB, p = 0.12) with most good prognosis patients having higher stage disease. The DSS predicted a large absolute overall survival benefit (∼40%) for a radical dose compared to a non-radical dose in patients with a good prognosis, while no survival benefit of radical radiotherapy was predicted for patients with a poor prognosis. Conclusions: A rapid learning environment is possible with the quality of clinical data sufficient to validate a DSS. It uses patient and tumor features to identify prognostic groups in whom therapy can be individualized based on predicted outcomes. Especially the survival benefit of a radical versus non-radical dose predicted by the DSS for various prognostic groups has clinical relevance, but needs to be prospectively validated

  3. Functional characterization of Trip10 in cancer cell growth and survival

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    Yan Pearlly S

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Cdc42-interacting protein-4, Trip10 (also known as CIP4, is a multi-domain adaptor protein involved in diverse cellular processes, which functions in a tissue-specific and cell lineage-specific manner. We previously found that Trip10 is highly expressed in estrogen receptor-expressing (ER+ breast cancer cells. Estrogen receptor depletion reduced Trip10 expression by progressively increasing DNA methylation. We hypothesized that Trip10 functions as a tumor suppressor and may be involved in the malignancy of ER-negative (ER- breast cancer. To test this hypothesis and evaluate whether Trip10 is epigenetically regulated by DNA methylation in other cancers, we evaluated DNA methylation of Trip10 in liver cancer, brain tumor, ovarian cancer, and breast cancer. Methods We applied methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction and bisulfite sequencing to determine the DNA methylation of Trip10 in various cancer cell lines and tumor specimens. We also overexpressed Trip10 to observe its effect on colony formation and in vivo tumorigenesis. Results We found that Trip10 is hypermethylated in brain tumor and breast cancer, but hypomethylated in liver cancer. Overexpressed Trip10 was associated with endogenous Cdc42 and huntingtin in IMR-32 brain tumor cells and CP70 ovarian cancer cells. However, overexpression of Trip10 promoted colony formation in IMR-32 cells and tumorigenesis in mice inoculated with IMR-32 cells, whereas overexpressed Trip10 substantially suppressed colony formation in CP70 cells and tumorigenesis in mice inoculated with CP70 cells. Conclusions Trip10 regulates cancer cell growth and death in a cancer type-specific manner. Differential DNA methylation of Trip10 can either promote cell survival or cell death in a cell type-dependent manner.

  4. The combined effect of individual and neighborhood socioeconomic status on cancer survival rates.

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    Chun-Ming Chang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: This population-based study investigated the relationship between individual and neighborhood socioeconomic status (SES and mortality rates for major cancers in Taiwan. METHODS: A population-based follow-up study was conducted with 20,488 cancer patients diagnosed in 2002. Each patient was traced to death or for 5 years. The individual income-related insurance payment amount was used as a proxy measure of individual SES for patients. Neighborhood SES was defined by income, and neighborhoods were grouped as living in advantaged or disadvantaged areas. The Cox proportional hazards model was used to compare the death-free survival rates between the different SES groups after adjusting for possible confounding and risk factors. RESULTS: After adjusting for patient characteristics (age, gender, Charlson Comorbidity Index Score, urbanization, and area of residence, tumor extent, treatment modalities (operation and adjuvant therapy, and hospital characteristics (ownership and teaching level, colorectal cancer, and head and neck cancer patients under 65 years old with low individual SES in disadvantaged neighborhoods conferred a 1.5 to 2-fold higher risk of mortality, compared with patients with high individual SES in advantaged neighborhoods. A cross-level interaction effect was found in lung cancer and breast cancer. Lung cancer and breast cancer patients less than 65 years old with low SES in advantaged neighborhoods carried the highest risk of mortality. Prostate cancer patients aged 65 and above with low SES in disadvantaged neighborhoods incurred the highest risk of mortality. There was no association between SES and mortality for cervical cancer and pancreatic cancer. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings indicate that cancer patients with low individual SES have the highest risk of mortality even under a universal health-care system. Public health strategies and welfare policies must continue to focus on this vulnerable group.

  5. Early palliative care and metastatic non-small cell lung cancer: potential mechanisms of prolonged survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irwin, Kelly E; Greer, Joseph A; Khatib, Jude; Temel, Jennifer S; Pirl, William F

    2013-02-01

    Patients with advanced cancer experience a significant burden of physical symptoms and psychological distress at the end of life, and many elect to receive aggressive cancer-directed therapy. The goal of palliative care is to relieve suffering and promote quality of life (QOL) for patients and families. Traditionally, both the public and medical community have conceptualized the need for patients to make a choice between pursuing curative therapy or receiving palliative care. However, practice guidelines from the World Health Organization and leadership from the oncology and palliative care communities advocate a different model of palliative care that is introduced from the point of diagnosis of life-threatening illness. Early palliative care has been shown to provide benefits in QOL, mood, and health care utilization. Additionally, preliminary research has suggested that in contrast to fears about palliative care hastening death, referral to palliative care earlier in the course of illness may have the potential to lengthen survival, particularly in patients with advanced nonsmall-cell lung cancer. This review summarizes the literature on potential survival benefits of palliative care and presents a model of how early integrated palliative care could potentially influence survival in patients with advanced cancer. PMID:23355404

  6. Prognostic factors for survivals from first relapse in breast cancer patients: analysis of deceased patients

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    Kim, Hae Young [Dept.of Radiation Oncology, Hallym University Dongtan Sacred Heart Hospital, Hwaseong (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Doo Ho; Park, Won; Huh, Seung Jae; Nam, Seok Jin; Lee, Jeong Eon; Ahn, Jin Seok; Im, Young Hyuck [Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-12-15

    This study was performed to evaluate prognostic factors for survival from first relapse (SFFR) in stage I-III breast cancer patients. From June 1994 to June 2008, 3,835 patients were treated with surgery plus postoperative radiotherapy and adjuvant chemotherapy for stage I-III breast cancer at Samsung Medical Center. Among them, a total of 224 patients died by June 2009, and 175 deaths were of breast cancer. Retrospective review was performed on medical records of 165 patients who met the inclusion criteria of this study. Univariate and multivariate analysis were done on survivals according to variables, such as age, stage, hormone status of tumor, disease-free interval (DFI), sites of first failure, number of organs involved by recurrent disease (NOR), application of salvage treatments, and existence of brain or liver metastasis (visceral metastasis). Patients' median overall survival time was 38 months (range, 8 to 123 months). Median SFFR was 17 months (range, 5 to 87 months). Ninety percent of deaths occurred within 40 months after first recurrence. The patients with SFFR 1 year had tendency of triple-negativity, shorter DFI 2 years), larger NOR (>3), visceral metastasis for first relapse than the patients with SFFR >1 year. In multivariate analysis, longer DFI (>2 vs. 2 years), absence of visceral metastasis, and application of salvage treatments were statistically significant prognosticators for longer SFFR. The DFI, application of salvage treatments, and visceral metastasis were significant prognostic factors for SFFR in breast cancer patients.

  7. Adjuvant Radiation Therapy Treatment Time Impacts Overall Survival in Gastric Cancer

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    McMillan, Matthew T. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Department of Surgery, University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Ojerholm, Eric [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Roses, Robert E., E-mail: Robert.Roses@uphs.upenn.edu [Department of Surgery, University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Plastaras, John P.; Metz, James M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Mamtani, Ronac [Department of Hematology/Oncology, University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Karakousis, Giorgos C.; Fraker, Douglas L.; Drebin, Jeffrey A. [Department of Surgery, University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Stripp, Diana; Ben-Josef, Edgar [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Datta, Jashodeep [Department of Surgery, University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States)

    2015-10-01

    Purpose: Prolonged radiation therapy treatment time (RTT) is associated with worse survival in several tumor types. This study investigated whether delays during adjuvant radiation therapy impact overall survival (OS) in gastric cancer. Methods and Materials: The National Cancer Data Base was queried for patients with resected gastric cancer who received adjuvant radiation therapy with National Comprehensive Cancer Network–recommended doses (45 or 50.4 Gy) between 1998 and 2006. RTT was classified as standard (45 Gy: 33-36 days, 50.4 Gy: 38-41 days) or prolonged (45 Gy: >36 days, 50.4 Gy: >41 days). Cox proportional hazards models evaluated the association between the following factors and OS: RTT, interval from surgery to radiation therapy initiation, interval from surgery to radiation therapy completion, radiation therapy dose, demographic/pathologic and operative factors, and other elements of adjuvant multimodality therapy. Results: Of 1591 patients, RTT was delayed in 732 (46%). Factors associated with prolonged RTT were non-private health insurance (OR 1.3, P=.005) and treatment at non-academic facilities (OR 1.2, P=.045). Median OS and 5-year actuarial survival were significantly worse in patients with prolonged RTT compared with standard RTT (36 vs 51 months, P=.001; 39 vs 47%, P=.005); OS worsened with each cumulative week of delay (P<.0004). On multivariable analysis, prolonged RTT was associated with inferior OS (hazard ratio 1.2, P=.002); the intervals from surgery to radiation therapy initiation or completion were not. Prolonged RTT was particularly detrimental in patients with node positivity, inadequate nodal staging (<15 nodes examined), and those undergoing a cycle of chemotherapy before chemoradiation therapy. Conclusions: Delays during adjuvant radiation therapy appear to negatively impact survival in gastric cancer. Efforts to minimize cumulative interruptions to <7 days should be considered.

  8. Immunoglobulin kappa C predicts overall survival in node-negative breast cancer.

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    Zonglin Chen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Biomarkers of the immune system are currently not used as prognostic factors in breast cancer. We analyzed the association of the B cell/plasma cell marker immunoglobulin kappa C (IGKC and survival of untreated node-negative breast cancer patients. MATERIAL AND METHODS: IGKC expression was evaluated by immunostaining in a cohort of 335 node-negative breast cancer patients with a median follow-up of 152 months. The prognostic significance of IGKC for disease-free survival (DFS and breast cancer-specific overall survival (OS was evaluated with Kaplan-Meier survival analysis as well as univariate and multivariate Cox analysis adjusted for age at diagnosis, pT stage, histological grade, estrogen receptor (ER status, progesterone receptor (PR status, Ki-67 and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER-2 status. RESULTS: 160 patients (47.7% showed strong expression of IGKC. Univariate analysis showed that IGKC was significantly associated with DFS (P = 0.017, hazard ratio [HR] = 0.570, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.360-0.903 and OS (P = 0.011, HR = 0.438, 95% CI = 0.233-0.822 in the entire cohort. The significance of IGKC was especially strong in ER negative and in luminal B carcinomas. In multivariate analysis IGKC retained its significance independent of established clinical factors for DFS (P = 0.004, HR = 0.504, 95% CI = 0.315-0.804 as well as for OS (P = 0.002, HR = 0.371, 95% CI = 0.196-0.705. CONCLUSION: Expression of IGKC has an independent protective impact on DFS and OS in node-negative breast cancer.

  9. Adjuvant Radiation Therapy Treatment Time Impacts Overall Survival in Gastric Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Prolonged radiation therapy treatment time (RTT) is associated with worse survival in several tumor types. This study investigated whether delays during adjuvant radiation therapy impact overall survival (OS) in gastric cancer. Methods and Materials: The National Cancer Data Base was queried for patients with resected gastric cancer who received adjuvant radiation therapy with National Comprehensive Cancer Network–recommended doses (45 or 50.4 Gy) between 1998 and 2006. RTT was classified as standard (45 Gy: 33-36 days, 50.4 Gy: 38-41 days) or prolonged (45 Gy: >36 days, 50.4 Gy: >41 days). Cox proportional hazards models evaluated the association between the following factors and OS: RTT, interval from surgery to radiation therapy initiation, interval from surgery to radiation therapy completion, radiation therapy dose, demographic/pathologic and operative factors, and other elements of adjuvant multimodality therapy. Results: Of 1591 patients, RTT was delayed in 732 (46%). Factors associated with prolonged RTT were non-private health insurance (OR 1.3, P=.005) and treatment at non-academic facilities (OR 1.2, P=.045). Median OS and 5-year actuarial survival were significantly worse in patients with prolonged RTT compared with standard RTT (36 vs 51 months, P=.001; 39 vs 47%, P=.005); OS worsened with each cumulative week of delay (P<.0004). On multivariable analysis, prolonged RTT was associated with inferior OS (hazard ratio 1.2, P=.002); the intervals from surgery to radiation therapy initiation or completion were not. Prolonged RTT was particularly detrimental in patients with node positivity, inadequate nodal staging (<15 nodes examined), and those undergoing a cycle of chemotherapy before chemoradiation therapy. Conclusions: Delays during adjuvant radiation therapy appear to negatively impact survival in gastric cancer. Efforts to minimize cumulative interruptions to <7 days should be considered

  10. Health-related quality of life for nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients with cancer-free survival after treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To evaluate the health-related quality of life (HR-QOL) of nasopharyngeal cancer (NPC) patients with cancer-free survival after treatment and to investigate the factors correlated with their HR-QOL. Methods and Materials: One hundred eighty-two NPC patients with cancer-free survival of more than 2 years after treatment were enrolled in the study. Data from the same number of people without a history of cancer, who had come to the hospital for health checkups, were also collected for comparison. The Chinese SF-36 questionnaire and nine items about head-and-neck functional impairments (HNFI) were self-reported by all participants at the clinics. Data relating to sociodemographic factors, cancer stage, and treatment of NPC survivors were analyzed. Results: Psychometric tests revealed the excellent internal reliability (Cronbach's α: 0.87-0.96) and discriminative validity of the Chinese SF-36 used in Taiwan. Most functional domains of the Chinese SF-36 and all nine HNFI items were significantly worse in NPC survivors than in control subjects. No cancer or treatment-related variables significantly correlated with any functional domains of SF-36 or any items of HNFI for NPC survivors. Economic status, educational level, occupational status, and the number of comorbidities were the variables that significantly correlated with most functional domains of SF-36 for NPC survivors. Patients with more sufficient economic status, higher educational levels, with employment, or without comorbidity tended to enjoy better HR-QOL as detected by the SF-36. Salivation, hearing, and swallowing dysfunctions were the top three HNFI that disturbed NPC survivors. Economic status remained the most significant variable correlated with HNFI, including salivation, swallowing, neck stiffness, taste, and phonation. Survivors with better economic status reported less severe HNFI. Conclusions: NPC survivors had worse HR-QOL than healthy control subjects in the study. Socioeconomic status

  11. Short telomere length, cancer survival, and cancer risk in 47102 individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weischer, Maren; Nordestgaard, Børge G; Cawthon, Richard M; Freiberg, Jacob J; Tybjærg-Hansen, Anne; Bojesen, Stig E

    2013-01-01

    Recent meta-analyses have suggested that short telomere length was associated with increased risk of cancer. We therefore tested the hypotheses that short telomere length was associated with increased risk of cancer and with increased risk of early death after cancer.......Recent meta-analyses have suggested that short telomere length was associated with increased risk of cancer. We therefore tested the hypotheses that short telomere length was associated with increased risk of cancer and with increased risk of early death after cancer....

  12. Common genetic polymorphisms of microRNA biogenesis pathway genes and breast cancer survival

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung Hyuna

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although the role of microRNA’s (miRNA’s biogenesis pathway genes in cancer development and progression has been well established, the association between genetic variants of this pathway genes and breast cancer survival is still unknown. Methods We used genotype data available from a previously conducted case–control study to investigate association between common genetic variations in miRNA biogenesis pathway genes and breast cancer survival. We investigated the possible associations between 41 germ-line single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs and both disease free survival (DFS and overall survival (OS among 488 breast cancer patients. During the median follow-up of 6.24 years, 90 cases developed disease progression and 48 cases died. Results Seven SNPs were significantly associated with breast cancer survival. Two SNPs in AGO2 (rs11786030 and rs2292779 and DICER1 rs1057035 were associated with both DFS and OS. Two SNPs in HIWI (rs4759659 and rs11060845 and DGCR8 rs9606250 were associated with DFS, while DROSHA rs874332 and GEMIN4 rs4968104 were associated with only OS. The most significant association was observed in variant allele of AGO2 rs11786030 with 2.62-fold increased risk of disease progression (95% confidence interval (CI, 1.41-4.88 and in minor allele homozygote of AGO2 rs2292779 with 2.94-fold increased risk of death (95% CI, 1.52-5.69. We also found cumulative effects of SNPs on DFS and OS. Compared to the subjects carrying 0 to 2 high-risk genotypes, those carrying 3 or 4–6 high-risk genotypes had an increased risk of disease progression with a hazard ratio of 2.16 (95% CI, 1.18- 3.93 and 4.47 (95% CI, 2.45- 8.14, respectively (P for trend, 6.11E-07. Conclusions Our results suggest that genetic variants in miRNA biogenesis pathway genes may be associated with breast cancer survival. Further studies in larger sample size and functional characterizations are warranted to validate these results.

  13. Common genetic polymorphisms of microRNA biogenesis pathway genes and breast cancer survival

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although the role of microRNA’s (miRNA’s) biogenesis pathway genes in cancer development and progression has been well established, the association between genetic variants of this pathway genes and breast cancer survival is still unknown. We used genotype data available from a previously conducted case–control study to investigate association between common genetic variations in miRNA biogenesis pathway genes and breast cancer survival. We investigated the possible associations between 41 germ-line single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and both disease free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) among 488 breast cancer patients. During the median follow-up of 6.24 years, 90 cases developed disease progression and 48 cases died. Seven SNPs were significantly associated with breast cancer survival. Two SNPs in AGO2 (rs11786030 and rs2292779) and DICER1 rs1057035 were associated with both DFS and OS. Two SNPs in HIWI (rs4759659 and rs11060845) and DGCR8 rs9606250 were associated with DFS, while DROSHA rs874332 and GEMIN4 rs4968104 were associated with only OS. The most significant association was observed in variant allele of AGO2 rs11786030 with 2.62-fold increased risk of disease progression (95% confidence interval (CI), 1.41-4.88) and in minor allele homozygote of AGO2 rs2292779 with 2.94-fold increased risk of death (95% CI, 1.52-5.69). We also found cumulative effects of SNPs on DFS and OS. Compared to the subjects carrying 0 to 2 high-risk genotypes, those carrying 3 or 4–6 high-risk genotypes had an increased risk of disease progression with a hazard ratio of 2.16 (95% CI, 1.18- 3.93) and 4.47 (95% CI, 2.45- 8.14), respectively (P for trend, 6.11E-07). Our results suggest that genetic variants in miRNA biogenesis pathway genes may be associated with breast cancer survival. Further studies in larger sample size and functional characterizations are warranted to validate these results

  14. Cdc20 and securin overexpression predict short-term breast cancer survival

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karra, H; Repo, H; Ahonen, I; Löyttyniemi, E; Pitkänen, R; Lintunen, M; Kuopio, T; Söderström, M; Kronqvist, P

    2014-01-01

    Background: Cdc20 is an essential component of cell division and responsible for anaphase initiation regulated by securin degradation. Cdc20 function is strongly regulated by the spindle assembly checkpoint to ensure the timely separation of sister chromatids and integrity of the genome. We present the first results on Cdc20 in a large clinical breast cancer material. Methods: The study was based on 445 breast cancer patients with up to 20 years of follow-up (mean 10.0 years). DNA content was determined by image cytometry on cell imprints, and Cdc20 and securin immunohistochemistry on tissue microarrays of breast cancer tissue. Results: In our results, high Cdc20 and securin expression was associated with aneuploid DNA content. In prognostic analyses, high Cdc20 immunoexpression alone and in combination with high securin immunoexpression indicated aggressive course of disease and up to 6.8-fold (P<0.001) risk of breast cancer death. Particularly, high Cdc20 and securin immunoexpression identified a patient subgroup with extremely short, on average 2.4 years, breast cancer survival and triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) subtype. Conclusions: We report for the first time the association of high Cdc20 and securin immunoexpression with extremely poor outcome of breast cancer patients. Our experience indicates that Cdc20 and securin are promising candidates for clinical applications in breast cancer prognostication, especially in the challenging prognostic decisions of TNBC. PMID:24853182

  15. Comparative survival analysis of breast cancer microarray studies identifies important prognostic genetic pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Song

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An estimated 12% of females in the United States will develop breast cancer in their lifetime. Although, there are advances in treatment options including surgery and chemotherapy, breast cancer is still the second most lethal cancer in women. Thus, there is a clear need for better methods to predict prognosis for each breast cancer patient. With the advent of large genetic databases and the reduction in cost for the experiments, researchers are faced with choosing from a large pool of potential prognostic markers from numerous breast cancer gene expression profile studies. Methods Five microarray datasets related to breast cancer were examined using gene set analysis and the cancers were categorized into different subtypes using a scoring system based on genetic pathway activity. Results We have observed that significant genes in the individual studies show little reproducibility across the datasets. From our comparative analysis, using gene pathways with clinical variables is more reliable across studies and shows promise in assessing a patient's prognosis. Conclusions This study concludes that, in light of clinical variables, there are significant gene pathways in common across the datasets. Specifically, several pathways can further significantly stratify patients for survival. These candidate pathways should help to develop a panel of significant biomarkers for the prognosis of breast cancer patients in a clinical setting.

  16. Mesenterico-portal vein resection in patients with pancreatico-duodenal cancer is safe and may increase survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storkholm, Jan Henrik; Hansen, Carsten Palnæs

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Pancreatic cancer is one of the most serious gastrointestinal cancers, and in the US and Europe it is a leading cause of cancer-related mortality. Radical surgery is the only option available for long-term survival. The aim of this study was to describe the surgical technique and th...

  17. Novel bifunctional anthracycline and nitrosourea chemotherapy for human bladder cancer: analysis in a preclinical survival model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaves, D; Murray, M K; Raghavan, D

    1996-08-01

    A hybrid drug [N-2-chloroethylnitrosoureidodaunorubicin (AD312)] that combines structural and functional features of both anthracyclines and nitrosoureas was evaluated in a preclinical survival model of human bladder cancer. To measure the therapeutic activity of AD312, UCRU-BL13 transitional cell carcinoma cells were grown as xenografts in nude mice, and tumor growth rates were compared after i.v. administration of the drug at three dose levels. AD312 treatment at 45 and 60 mg/kg achieved 7-10-fold inhibition of tumor growth and increased host survival by 156 and 249%, respectively. Doses of 60 mg/kg showed optimal therapeutic efficacy, with sustained tumor growth inhibition, an over 2-fold increase in life span, and 40% of mice tumor free ("cured") at 120 days. Tumors were unresponsive to maximum tolerated doses of doxorubicin, a standard anthracycline used as a single agent and in combination therapies for bladder cancer. 1,3-Bis-[2-chloroethyl]-1-nitrosourea was used as a control for the apparently enhanced response of human tumors in murine hosts to nitrosoureas. 1, 3-Bis-[2-chloroethyl]-1-nitrosourea administered in three injections of 20 mg/kg did not cure mice but temporarily inhibited tumor growth by 70% and prolonged survival by 55%; its activity in this model suggests that it may be included in the repertoire of alkylating agents currently used for treatment of bladder cancers. AD312 showed increased antitumor activity with less toxicity than doxorubicin, and its bifunctional properties provide the opportunity for simultaneous treatment of individual cancer cells with two cytotoxic modalities as well as treatment of heterogeneous populations typical of bladder cancers. This novel cytotoxic drug cured doxorubicin-refractory disease and should be investigated for the clinical management of bladder cancer. PMID:9816302

  18. CD133-expressing thyroid cancer cells are undifferentiated, radioresistant and survive radioiodide therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ke, Chien-Chih [National Yang Ming University, Institute of Clinical Medicine, Taipei (China); Liu, Ren-Shyan [National Yang Ming University, Institute of Clinical Medicine, Taipei (China); NRPGM, Molecular and Genetic Imaging Core, Taipei (China); National Yang-Ming University, School of Medicine, Taipei (China); Taipei Veterans General Hospital, National PET/Cyclotron Center, Taipei (China); National Yang-Ming University, Department of Biomedical Imaging and Radiological Sciences, Taipei (China); Yang, An-Hang [Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Taipei (China); National Yang-Ming University, Department of Pathology, School of Medicine, Taipei (China); Liu, Ching-Sheng [National Yang-Ming University Medical School, Department of Nuclear Medicine, School of Medicine, Taipei (China); Chi, Chin-Wen [National Yang-Ming University, Institute of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Taipei (China); Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Department of Medical Research and Education, Taipei (China); Tseng, Ling-Ming [National Yang Ming University, Institute of Clinical Medicine, Taipei (China); Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Department of Surgery, Taipei (China); Tsai, Yi-Fan [Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Department of Surgery, Taipei (China); Ho, Jennifer H. [Taipei Medical University, Graduate Institute of Clinical Medicine, Taipei (China); Taipei Medical University-Wan Fang Medical Center, Department of Ophthalmology, Taipei (China); Taipei Medical University-Wan Fang Medical Center, Center for Stem Cell Research, Taipei (China); Lee, Chen-Hsen [NRPGM, Molecular and Genetic Imaging Core, Taipei (China); National Yang-Ming University, School of Medicine, Taipei (China); Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Department of Surgery, Taipei (China); Lee, Oscar K. [Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Department of Orthopedics, Taipei (China); National Yang-Ming University, Stem Cell Research Center, Taipei (China); Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Department of Medical Research and Education, Taipei (China)

    2013-01-15

    {sup 131}I therapy is regularly used following surgery as a part of thyroid cancer management. Despite an overall relatively good prognosis, recurrent or metastatic thyroid cancer is not rare. CD133-expressing cells have been shown to mark thyroid cancer stem cells that possess the characteristics of stem cells and have the ability to initiate tumours. However, no studies have addressed the influence of CD133-expressing cells on radioiodide therapy of the thyroid cancer. The aim of this study was to investigate whether CD133{sup +} cells contribute to the radioresistance of thyroid cancer and thus potentiate future recurrence and metastasis. Thyroid cancer cell lines were analysed for CD133 expression, radiosensitivity and gene expression. The anaplastic thyroid cancer cell line ARO showed a higher percentage of CD133{sup +} cells and higher radioresistance. After {gamma}-irradiation of the cells, the CD133{sup +} population was enriched due to the higher apoptotic rate of CD133{sup -} cells. In vivo {sup 131}I treatment of ARO tumour resulted in an elevated expression of CD133, Oct4, Nanog, Lin28 and Glut1 genes. After isolation, CD133{sup +} cells exhibited higher radioresistance and higher expression of Oct4, Nanog, Sox2, Lin28 and Glut1 in the cell line or primarily cultured papillary thyroid cancer cells, and lower expression of various thyroid-specific genes, namely NIS, Tg, TPO, TSHR, TTF1 and Pax8. This study demonstrates the existence of CD133-expressing thyroid cancer cells which show a higher radioresistance and are in an undifferentiated status. These cells possess a greater potential to survive radiotherapy and may contribute to the recurrence of thyroid cancer. A future therapeutic approach for radioresistant thyroid cancer may focus on the selective eradication of CD133{sup +} cells. (orig.)

  19. CD133-expressing thyroid cancer cells are undifferentiated, radioresistant and survive radioiodide therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    131I therapy is regularly used following surgery as a part of thyroid cancer management. Despite an overall relatively good prognosis, recurrent or metastatic thyroid cancer is not rare. CD133-expressing cells have been shown to mark thyroid cancer stem cells that possess the characteristics of stem cells and have the ability to initiate tumours. However, no studies have addressed the influence of CD133-expressing cells on radioiodide therapy of the thyroid cancer. The aim of this study was to investigate whether CD133+ cells contribute to the radioresistance of thyroid cancer and thus potentiate future recurrence and metastasis. Thyroid cancer cell lines were analysed for CD133 expression, radiosensitivity and gene expression. The anaplastic thyroid cancer cell line ARO showed a higher percentage of CD133+ cells and higher radioresistance. After γ-irradiation of the cells, the CD133+ population was enriched due to the higher apoptotic rate of CD133- cells. In vivo 131I treatment of ARO tumour resulted in an elevated expression of CD133, Oct4, Nanog, Lin28 and Glut1 genes. After isolation, CD133+ cells exhibited higher radioresistance and higher expression of Oct4, Nanog, Sox2, Lin28 and Glut1 in the cell line or primarily cultured papillary thyroid cancer cells, and lower expression of various thyroid-specific genes, namely NIS, Tg, TPO, TSHR, TTF1 and Pax8. This study demonstrates the existence of CD133-expressing thyroid cancer cells which show a higher radioresistance and are in an undifferentiated status. These cells possess a greater potential to survive radiotherapy and may contribute to the recurrence of thyroid cancer. A future therapeutic approach for radioresistant thyroid cancer may focus on the selective eradication of CD133+ cells. (orig.)

  20. Do changes in lymph node status distribution explain trends in survival of breast cancer patients in Denmark?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rostgaard, Klaus; Vaeth, Michael; Rootzén, Helle;

    2006-01-01

    We studied the impact on survival of changes in breast cancer patients' distribution by lymph node status at the time of diagnosis. Our study included breast cancer patients diagnosed from 1978 to 1994 in Denmark, where the treatment schemes for breast cancer patients were fairly stable, and where...... mammography screening was limited. We measured lymph node status by the proportion of positive lymph nodes of all excised lymph nodes, as assessed by a pathologist. This measure was available for two-thirds of the breast cancer patients. The outcome was 5-year relative survival. Changes in lymph node status...... distribution explained half of the improvement in 5-year relative survival, and seem to be the single most important cause behind the improved survival of breast cancer patients in Denmark....

  1. Roles of TRPM8 Ion Channels in Cancer: Proliferation, Survival, and Invasion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson S. Yee

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this article is to provide a critical review of the transient receptor potential melastatin-subfamily member 8 (TRPM8 in cancers, with an emphasis on its roles in cellular proliferation, survival, and invasion. The TRPM8 ion channels regulate Ca²⁺ homeostasis and function as a cellular sensor and transducer of cold temperature. Accumulating evidence has demonstrated that TRPM8 is aberrantly expressed in a variety of malignant solid tumors. Clinicopathological analysis has shown that over-expression of TRPM8 correlates with tumor progression. Experimental data have revealed important roles of TRPM8 channels in cancer cells proliferation, survival, and invasion, which appear to be dependent on the cancer type. Recent reports have begun to reveal the signaling mechanisms that mediate the biological roles of TRPM8 in tumor growth and metastasis. Determining the mechanistic roles of TRPM8 in cancer is expected to elucidate the impact of thermal and chemical stimuli on the formation and progression of neoplasms. Translational research and clinical investigation of TRPM8 in malignant diseases will help exploit these ion channels as molecular biomarkers and therapeutic targets for developing precision cancer medicine.

  2. Female breast cancer incidence and survival in Utah according to religious preference, 1985–1999

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Folsom Jeffrey A

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Female breast cancer incidence rates in Utah are among the lowest in the U.S. The influence of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saint (LDS or Mormon religion on these rates, as well as on disease-specific survival, will be explored for individuals diagnosed with breast cancer in Utah from 1985 through 1999. Methods Population-based records for incident female breast cancer patients were linked with membership records from the LDS Church to determine religious affiliation and, for LDS Church members, level of religiosity. Incidence rates were age-adjusted to the 2000 U.S. standard population using the direct method. Cox proportional hazards model was used to compare survival among religiously active LDS, less religiously active LDS, and non-LDS with simultaneous adjustment for prognostic factors. Results Age-adjusted breast cancer incidence rates were consistently lower for LDS than non-LDS in Utah from 1985 through 1999. Rates were lower among LDS compared with non-LDS across the age span. In 1995–99, the age-adjusted incidence rates were 107.6 (95% CI: 103.9 – 111.3 for LDS women and 130.5 (123.2 – 137.9 for non-LDS women. If non-LDS women in Utah had the same breast cancer risk profile as LDS women, an estimated 214 (4.8% fewer malignant breast cancer cases would have occurred during 1995–99. With religiously active LDS serving as the reference group, the adjusted death hazard ratio for religiously less active LDS was 1.09 (0.94 – 1.27 and for non-LDS was 0.86 (0.75 – 0.98. Conclusion In Utah, LDS lifestyle is associated with lower incidence rates of female breast cancer. However, LDS experience poorer survivability from breast cancer than their non-LDS counterparts. Parity and breastfeeding, while protective factors against breast cancer, may contribute to poorer prognosis of female breast cancer in LDS women.

  3. External and intraoperative radiotherapy for resectable and unresectable pancreatic cancer: analysis of survival rates and complications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Clinical results of intraoperative radiotherapy (IORT) and/or external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) for both resectable and unresectable pancreatic cancer were analyzed. Methods and Materials: Between 1980 and 1995, 332 patients with pancreatic cancer were treated with surgery and/or radiation therapy (RT). Of the 332 patients, 157 patients were treated with surgical resection of pancreatic tumor, and the remaining 175 patients had unresectable pancreatic tumors. Among the 157 patients with resected pancreatic cancer, 62 patients were not treated with RT, while 40 patients were treated with EBRT alone (mean RT dose; 46.3 Gy) and 55 patients with IORT (25.2 Gy) ± EBRT (44.0 Gy). On the other hand, among the 175 patients with unresectable pancreatic cancer, 58 patients were not treated with RT, 46 patients were treated with EBRT alone (39.2 Gy), and the remaining 71 patients with IORT (29.3 Gy) ± EBRT (41.2 Gy). Results: For 87 patients with curative resection, the median survival times (MSTs) of the no-RT, the EBRT, and the IORT ± EBRT groups were 10.4, 13.0, and 15.5 months, respectively, without significant difference. For 70 patients with non curative resection, the MSTs of the no-RT, the EBRT, and the IORT ± EBRT groups were 5.3, 8.7, and 6.5 months, respectively. When the EBRT and the IORT ± EBRT groups were combined, the survival rate was significantly higher than that of the no RT group for non curatively resected pancreatic cancers (log rank test; p = 0.028). The 2-year survival probability of the IORT ± EBRT group (16%) was higher than that of the EBRT group (0%). For unresectable pancreatic cancer, the MSTs of 52 patients without distant metastases were 6.7 months for palliative surgery alone, 7.6 months for EBRT alone, and 8.2 months for IORT ± EBRT. The survival curve of the IORT ± EBRT group was significantly better than that of the no-RT group (p 2 years) were obtained by IORT ± EBRT for non curatively resected and unresectable pancreatic

  4. Differences in IGF-axis protein expression and survival among multiethnic breast cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is limited knowledge about the biological basis of racial/ethnic disparities in breast cancer outcomes. Aberrations in IGF signaling induced by obesity and other factors may contribute to these disparities. This study examines the expression profiles of the insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-axis proteins and the association with breast cancer survival across a multiethnic population. We examined the expression profiles of the IGF1, IGF1R, IGFBP2 (IGF-binding proteins), and IGFBP3 proteins in breast tumor tissue and their relationships with all-cause and breast cancer-specific survival up to 17 years postdiagnosis in a multiethnic series of 358 patients in Hawaii, USA. Native Hawaiians, Caucasians, and Japanese were compared. Covariates included demographic and clinical factors and ER/PR/HER2 (estrogen receptor/progesterone receptor/human epidermal growth factor receptor-2) status. In Native Hawaiian patients, IGFBP2 and IGFBP3 expression were each independently associated with overall and breast cancer mortality (IGFB2: HRmort = 10.96, 95% CI: 2.18–55.19 and HRmort = 35.75, 95% CI: 3.64–350.95, respectively; IGFBP3: HRmort = 5.16, 95% CI: 1.27–20.94 and HRmort = 8.60, 95% CI: 1.84–40.15, respectively). IGF1R expression was also positively associated with all-cause mortality in Native Hawaiians. No association of IGF-axis protein expression and survival was observed in Japanese or Caucasian patients. The interaction of race/ethnicity and IGFBP3 expression on mortality risk was significant. IGF-axis proteins may have variable influence on breast cancer progression across different racial/ethnic groups. Expression of binding proteins and receptors in breast tumors may influence survival in breast cancer patients by inducing aberrations in IGF signaling and/or through IGF-independent mechanisms. Additional studies to evaluate the role of the IGF-axis in breast cancer are critical to improve targeted breast cancer treatment strategies

  5. Circulating HER2 DNA after trastuzumab treatment predicts survival and response in breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sorensen, Boe S; Mortensen, Lise S; Andersen, Jørn;

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Only a subset of breast cancer patients responds to the HER2 inhibitor trastuzumab, and methods to identify responders are needed. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We studied 28 patients with metastatic breast cancer that had amplified human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) genes in their...... response (p=0.02), and overall survival (p=0.05). HER2 ECD kinetics did not correlate to clinical data. CONCLUSION: We suggest that a decrease in HER2 gene amplification in the plasma predicts a more favourable response to trastuzumab....

  6. Young patients with colorectal cancer have poor survival in the first twenty months after operation and predictable survival in the medium and long-term: Analysis of survival and prognostic markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wickramarachchi RE

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objectives This study compares clinico-pathological features in young (50 years with colorectal cancer, survival in the young and the influence of pre-operative clinical and histological factors on survival. Materials and methods A twelve year prospective database of colorectal cancer was analysed. Fifty-three young patients were compared with forty seven consecutive older patients over fifty years old. An analysis of survival was undertaken in young patients using Kaplan Meier graphs, non parametric methods, Cox's Proportional Hazard Ratios and Weibull Hazard models. Results Young patients comprised 13.4 percent of 397 with colorectal cancer. Duration of symptoms and presentation in the young was similar to older patients (median, range; young patients; 6 months, 2 weeks to 2 years, older patients; 4 months, 4 weeks to 3 years, p > 0.05. In both groups, the majority presented without bowel obstruction (young - 81%, older - 94%. Cancer proximal to the splenic flexure was present more in young than in older patients. Synchronous cancers were found exclusively in the young. Mucinous tumours were seen in 16% of young and 4% of older patients (p Conclusion If patients, who are less than 40 years old with colorectal cancer, survive twenty months after operation, the prognosis improves and their survival becomes predictable.

  7. Clinical characteristics and quality-of-life in patients surviving a decade of prostate cancer with bone metastases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klaff, Rami; Berglund, Anders; Varenhorst, Eberhard; Hedlund, Per Olov; Jønler, Morten; Sandblom, Gabriel

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe characteristics and quality-of-life (QOL) and to define factors associated with long-term survival in a subgroup of prostate cancer patients with M1b disease. METHODS AND PATIENTS: The study was based on 915 patients from a prospective randomised multicentre trial (no.5) by...... the Scandinavian Prostate Cancer Group, comparing parenteral oestrogen with total androgen blockade (TAB). Long-term survival was defined as patients having an overall survival >10 year, and logistic regression models were constructed to identity clinical predictors of survival. QOL during follow...

  8. Repetitive transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) of liver metastases from gastric cancer: Local control and survival results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogl, Thomas J., E-mail: T.Vogl@em.uni-frankfurt.de [Institute for Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Johann Wolfgang Goethe-University Frankfurt (Germany); Gruber-Rouh, Tatjana; Eichler, Katrin [Institute for Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Johann Wolfgang Goethe-University Frankfurt (Germany); Nour-Eldin, Nour-Eldin A. [Institute for Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Johann Wolfgang Goethe-University Frankfurt (Germany); Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University, Cairo (Egypt); Trojan, Jörg [Department of Internal Medicine I, Johann Wolfgang Goethe-University Frankfurt (Germany); Zangos, Stephan [Institute for Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Johann Wolfgang Goethe-University Frankfurt (Germany); Naguib, Nagy N.N. [Institute for Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Johann Wolfgang Goethe-University Frankfurt (Germany); Radiology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Alexandria University, Alexandria (Egypt)

    2013-02-15

    Objective: To evaluate the local tumor control and survival data after transarterial chemoembolization with different drug combinations in the palliative treatment of patients with liver metastases of gastric cancer. Materials and methods: The study was retrospectively performed. 56 patients (mean age, 52.4) with unresectable liver metastases of gastric cancer who did not respond to systemic chemotherapy were repeatedly treated with TACE in 4-week intervals. In total, 310 chemoembolization procedures were performed (mean, 5.5 sessions per patient). The local chemotherapy protocol consisted of mitomycin alone (30.4%), mitomycin and gemcitabine (33.9%), or mitomycin, gemcitabine and cisplatin (35.7%). Embolization was performed with lipiodol and starch microspheres. Local tumor response was evaluated by MRI according to RECIST. Survival data from first chemoembolization were calculated according to the Kaplan–Meier method. Results: The local tumor control was: complete response in 1.8% (n = 1), partial response in 1.8% (n = 1), stable disease in 51.8% (n = 29) and progressive disease in 44.6% (n = 25) of patients. The 1-, 2-, and 3-year survival rate from the start of chemoembolization were 58%, 38%, and 23% respectively. The median and mean survival times were 13 and 27.1 months. A Statistically significant difference between patients treated with different chemotherapy protocols was noted (ρ = 0.045) with the best survival time in the mitomycin, gemcitabine and cisplatin group. Conclusion: Transarterial chemoembolization is a minimally invasive therapy option for palliative treatment of liver metastases in patients with gastric cancer.

  9. Genetic variants in ABCG1 are associated with survival of nonsmall-cell lung cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yanru; Liu, Hongliang; Ready, Neal E; Su, Li; Wei, Yongyue; Christiani, David C; Wei, Qingyi

    2016-06-01

    Cell membrane transporters and metabolic enzymes play a crucial role in the transportation of a wide variety of substrates that maintain homeostasis in biological processes. We explored associations between genetic variants in these genes and survival of nonsmall-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients by reanalyzing two datasets from published genome-wide association studies (GWASs). In the discovery by using the GWAS dataset of the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal and Ovarian (PLCO) Cancer Screening Trial, we evaluated associations of 1,245 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in genes of four transporter families and two metabolic enzyme families with survival of 1,185 NSCLC patients. We then performed a replication analysis in the Harvard University Lung Cancer study (LCS) with 984 NSCLC patients. Multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression and false discovery rate (FDR) corrections were performed to evaluate the associations. We identified that 21 genotyped SNPs in eight gene regions were significantly associated with survival with FDR ≤0.1 in the discovery dataset. Subsequently, we confirmed six SNPs, which were putative functional, in ABCG1 of the ATP-binding cassette transporter family in the replication dataset. In the pooled analysis, two tagging (at r(2)  > 0.8 for linkage disequilibrium with other replicated SNPs)/functional SNPs were independently associated with survival: rs225388 G > A [adjusted hazards ratio (HR) = 1.12, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.03-1.20, Ptrend  = 4.6 × 10(-3) ] and rs225390 A > G (adjusted HR = 1.16, 95% CI = 1.07-1.25, Ptrend  = 3.8 × 10(-4) ). Our results indicated that genetic variants of ABCG1 may be predictors of survival of NSCLC patients. PMID:26757251

  10. Repetitive transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) of liver metastases from gastric cancer: Local control and survival results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To evaluate the local tumor control and survival data after transarterial chemoembolization with different drug combinations in the palliative treatment of patients with liver metastases of gastric cancer. Materials and methods: The study was retrospectively performed. 56 patients (mean age, 52.4) with unresectable liver metastases of gastric cancer who did not respond to systemic chemotherapy were repeatedly treated with TACE in 4-week intervals. In total, 310 chemoembolization procedures were performed (mean, 5.5 sessions per patient). The local chemotherapy protocol consisted of mitomycin alone (30.4%), mitomycin and gemcitabine (33.9%), or mitomycin, gemcitabine and cisplatin (35.7%). Embolization was performed with lipiodol and starch microspheres. Local tumor response was evaluated by MRI according to RECIST. Survival data from first chemoembolization were calculated according to the Kaplan–Meier method. Results: The local tumor control was: complete response in 1.8% (n = 1), partial response in 1.8% (n = 1), stable disease in 51.8% (n = 29) and progressive disease in 44.6% (n = 25) of patients. The 1-, 2-, and 3-year survival rate from the start of chemoembolization were 58%, 38%, and 23% respectively. The median and mean survival times were 13 and 27.1 months. A Statistically significant difference between patients treated with different chemotherapy protocols was noted (ρ = 0.045) with the best survival time in the mitomycin, gemcitabine and cisplatin group. Conclusion: Transarterial chemoembolization is a minimally invasive therapy option for palliative treatment of liver metastases in patients with gastric cancer

  11. Androgen receptor expression predicts breast cancer survival: the role of genetic and epigenetic events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breast cancer outcome, including response to therapy, risk of metastasis and survival, is difficult to predict using currently available methods, highlighting the urgent need for more informative biomarkers. Androgen receptor (AR) has been implicated in breast carcinogenesis however its potential to be an informative biomarker has yet to be fully explored. In this study, AR protein levels were determined in a cohort of 73 Grade III invasive breast ductal adenocarcinomas. The levels of Androgen receptor protein in a cohort of breast tumour samples was determined by immunohistochemistry and the results were compared with clinical characteristics, including survival. The role of defects in the regulation of Androgen receptor gene expression were examined by mutation and methylation screening of the 5' end of the gene, reporter assays of the 5' and 3' end of the AR gene, and searching for miRNAs that may regulate AR gene expression. AR was expressed in 56% of tumours and expression was significantly inversely associated with 10-year survival (P = 0.004). An investigation into the mechanisms responsible for the loss of AR expression revealed that hypermethylation of the AR promoter is associated with loss of AR expression in breast cancer cells but not in primary breast tumours. In AR negative breast tumours, mutation screening identified the same mutation (T105A) in the 5'UTR of two AR negative breast cancer patients but not reported in the normal human population. Reporter assay analysis of this mutation however found no evidence for a negative impact on AR 5'UTR activity. The role of miR-124 in regulating AR expression was also investigated, however no evidence for this was found. This study highlights the potential for AR expression to be an informative biomarker for breast cancer survival and sets the scene for a more comprehensive investigation of the molecular basis of this phenomenon

  12. Chemotherapy and survival in advanced breast cancer: the inclusion of doxorubicin in Cooper type regimens.

    OpenAIRE

    A'Hern, R P; Smith, I. E.; Ebbs, S R

    1993-01-01

    The value of the inclusion of doxorubicin hydrochloride (dox) in Cooper type regimens in advanced breast cancer was assessed by performing an overview employing summary statistics derived from published papers of randomised clinical trials comparing Cooper type regimens that contain dox with regimens in which dox was replaced by one or more compounds. Trials were selected which published data on survival, time to treatment failure and response rate. This study suggests that dox confers advant...

  13. Metagenes Associated with Survival in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urgard, Egon; Vooder, Tõnu; Võsa, Urmo; Välk, Kristjan; Liu, Mingming; Luo, Cheng; Hoti, Fabian; Roosipuu, Retlav; Annilo, Tarmo; Laine, Jukka; Frenz, Christopher M.; Zhang, Liqing; Metspalu, Andres

    2011-01-01

    NSCLC (non-small cell lung cancer) comprises about 80% of all lung cancer cases worldwide. Surgery is most effective treatment for patients with early-stage disease. However, 30%–55% of these patients develop recurrence within 5 years. Therefore, markers that can be used to accurately classify early-stage NSCLC patients into different prognostic groups may be helpful in selecting patients who should receive specific therapies. A previously published dataset was used to evaluate gene expression profiles of different NSCLC subtypes. A moderated two-sample t-test was used to identify differentially expressed genes between all tumor samples and cancer-free control tissue, between SCC samples and AC/BC samples and between stage I tumor samples and all other tumor samples. Gene expression microarray measurements were validated using qRT-PCR. Bayesian regression analysis and Kaplan-Meier survival analysis were performed to determine metagenes associated with survival. We identified 599 genes which were down-regulated and 402 genes which were up-regulated in NSCLC compared to the normal lung tissue and 112 genes which were up-regulated and 101 genes which were down-regulated in AC/BC compared to the SCC. Further, for stage Ib patients the metagenes potentially associated with survival were identified. Genes that expressed differently between normal lung tissue and cancer showed enrichment in gene ontology terms which were associated with mitosis and proliferation. Bayesian regression and Kaplan-Meier analysis showed that gene-expression patterns and metagene profiles can be applied to predict the probability of different survival outcomes in NSCLC patients. PMID:21695068

  14. The association of preoperative serum tumour markers with Dukes' stage and survival in colorectal cancer.

    OpenAIRE

    Lindmark, G.; Bergström, R.; Påhlman, L; Glimelius, B.

    1995-01-01

    The tumour markers carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), tissue polypeptide antigen (TPA), TPS, CA 19-9, CA 50 and CA 242 were analysed in serum from 203 potentially curable colorectal cancer patients. The levels of all markers increased with increasing tumour stage, and all markers correlated with survival. Multivariate analyses indicated that the Dukes stage had the best prognostic explanatory power, followed by TPA. In the subset of 166 potentially cured patients, the prognostic information by t...

  15. Microsatellite instability and BRAF mutation in colorectal cancer: clinicopathological characteristics and effects on survival

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebnem Batur

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Prognostic significance of microsatellite instability (MSI status and B-type Raf proto-oncogene (BRAF mutation in colorectal cancer is controversial. The aim of this study was to examine the clinical and pathological characteristics associated with microsatellite stability and the effect of MSI and BRAF mutation on the survival of patients with colorectal cancer. The study included 145 colorectal cancer cases. All the patients were examined for DNA mismatch repair (MMR proteins with an immunohistochemical method. Molecular assessment of microsatellite instability was available in a subset of 41 patients. In addition, BRAF mutation analysis was performed in 30 cases. Immunohistochemically, MMR deficiency was present in 28 (19.3% patients. Female gender (p=0.001, lesion size ≥ 5 cm (p=0.013, Crohn like response (p=0.035, and right-sided localization (p<0.001 were significantly more frequent among MMR deficient patients. The overall survival was 44.1±5.1 months (95% CI, 33.7-54.4. Multivariate analyses identified only high tumor grade as an independent predictor of poor overall survival: OR, 6.7 (95% CI 2.1-21.7, p=0.002. In the subset of patients with available BRAF assessment (n=30, a negative BRAF status was associated with better survival when compared to a positive BRAF status (36.7±2.1 vs. 34.1±7.2 months, p=0.048. The sensitivity and specificity of the immunohistochemical method in predicting positive MSI status, with the molecular method as a reference, were 85.7% (95% CI: 56.2%-97.5% and 88.9% (95% CI: 69.7%-97.1%, respectively. BRAF appears to be a significant predictor of a worse outcome in patients with colorectal cancer. Further studies with a large spectrum of clinical and biological variables are warranted.

  16. Early-Stage Young Breast Cancer Patients: Impact of Local Treatment on Survival

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: In young women, breast-conserving therapy (BCT), i.e., lumpectomy followed by radiotherapy, has been associated with an increased risk of local recurrence. Still, there is insufficient evidence that BCT impairs survival. The aim of our study was to compare the effect of BCT with mastectomy on overall survival (OS) in young women with early-stage breast cancer. Methods and Materials: From two Dutch regional population-based cancer registries (covering 6.2 million inhabitants) 1,453 women <40 years with pathologically T1N0–1M0 breast cancer were selected. Cox regression survival analysis was used to study the effect of local treatment (BCT vs. mastectomy) stratified for nodal stage on survival and corrected for tumor size, age, period of diagnosis, and use of adjuvant systemic therapy. Results: With a median follow-up of 9.6 years, 10-year OS was 83% after BCT and 78% after mastectomy, respectively (unadjusted hazard ratio [HR], 1.37; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.09–1.72). In N0-patients, 10-year OS was 84% after BCT and 81% after mastectomy and local treatment was not associated with differences in OS (HR 1.19; 95% CI, 0.89–1.58; p = 0.25). Within the N1-patient group, OS was better after BCT compared with mastectomy, 79% vs. 71% at 10 years (HR 1.91; 95% CI, 1.28–2.84; p = 0.001) and in patients treated with adjuvant hormonal therapy (HR 0.34; 95% CI, 0.18–0.66; p = 0.001). Conclusions: In this large population-based cohort of early-stage young breast cancer patients, 10-year OS was not impaired after BCT compared with mastectomy. Patients with 1 to 3 positive lymph nodes had better prognosis after BCT than after mastectomy.

  17. Correlating transcriptional networks to breast cancer survival: a large-scale coexpression analysis.

    OpenAIRE

    O'Driscoll, Lorraine

    2013-01-01

    PUBLISHED Weighted gene coexpression network analysis (WGCNA) is a powerful 'guilt-by-association'-based method to extract coexpressed groups of genes from large heterogeneous messenger RNA expression data sets. We have utilized WGCNA to identify 11 coregulated gene clusters across 2342 breast cancer samples from 13 microarray-based gene expression studies. A number of these transcriptional modules were found to be correlated to clinicopathological variables (e.g. tumor grade), survival en...

  18. Polymorphism at 19q13.41 predicts breast cancer survival specifically after endocrine therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Sofia; Fagerholm, Rainer; Rafiq, Sajjad; Tapper, William; Aittomäki, Kristiina; Liu, Jianjun

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Although most estrogen receptor (ER)-positive breast cancer patients benefit from endocrine therapies, a significant proportion do not. Our aim was to identify inherited genetic variations that might predict survival among patients receiving adjuvant endocrine therapies. Experimental Design We performed a meta-analysis of two genome-wide studies; Helsinki Breast Cancer Study, 805 patients, with 240 receiving endocrine therapy and Prospective study of Outcomes in Sporadic versus Hereditary breast cancer, 536 patients, with 155 endocrine therapy-patients, evaluating 486,478 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). The top four associations from the endocrine treatment subgroup were further investigated in two independent datasets totalling 5011 patients, with 3485 receiving endocrine therapy. Results A meta-analysis identified a common SNP rs8113308, mapped to 19q13.41, associating with reduced survival among endocrine treated patients (hazard ratio (HR) 1.69, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.37-2.07, P = 6.34 ×10−7) and improved survival among ER-negative patients, with a similar trend in ER-positive cases not receiving endocrine therapy. In a multivariate analysis adjusted for conventional prognostic factors, we found a significant interaction between the rs8113308 and endocrine treatment indicating a predictive, treatment-specific effect of the SNP rs8113308 on breast cancer survival, with the per-allele HR for interaction 2.16 (95% CI 1.30 – 3.60, Pinteraction = 0.003) and HR=7.77 (95% CI 0.93 – 64.71) for the homozygous genotype carriers. A biological rationale is suggested by in silico functional analyses. Conclusions Our findings suggest carrying the rs8113308 rare allele may identify patients who will not benefit from adjuvant endocrine treatment. PMID:25964295

  19. Pancreatic cancer: Wait times from presentation to treatment and survival in a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jooste, Valérie; Dejardin, Olivier; Bouvier, Véronique; Arveux, Patrick; Maynadie, Marc; Launoy, Guy; Bouvier, Anne-Marie

    2016-09-01

    Pancreatic survival is one of the worst in oncology. To what extent wait times affect outcomes in unknown No population-based study has previously explored patient and treatment delays among individuals with pancreatic cancer. The aim of this study was to estimate patient and treatment delays in patients with pancreatic cancer and to measure their association with survival in a nonselected population. All patients diagnosed with pancreatic cancer for the first time between 2009 and 2011 and registered in two French digestive cancer registries were included. Patient delay (time from onset of symptoms until the first consultation categorized into <1 or ≥1 month), and treatment delay (time between the first consultation and treatment categorized into less or more than 29 days, the median time) were collected. Overall delay was used to test associations between survival and the timeliness of care by combining patient delay and treatment delay. Patient delay was longer than 1 month in 46% of patients. A patient delay longer than one month was associated with the absence of jaundice (p < 0.001) and the presence of metastasis (p = 0.003). After adjusting for other covariates, such as symptoms and treatment, the presence of metastasis was negatively associated with treatment delay longer than 29 days (p = 0.025). After adjustment for other covariates, especially metastatic dissemination and the result of the resection, overall delay was not significantly associated with prognosis. We found little evidence to suggest that timely care was associated with the survival of patients. PMID:27130333

  20. Neoadjuvant plus adjuvant chemotherapy benefits overall survival of locally advanced gastric cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xin-Zu Chen; Kun Yang; Jie Liu; Xiao-Long Chen; Jian-Kun Hu

    2011-01-01

    Neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) has drawn more attention to the treatment of locally advanced gastric cancer (AGC) in the current multidisciplinary treatment model. EORTC trial 40954 has recently reported that NAC plus surgery without postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy could not benefit the locally AGC patients in their overall survival. We performed a meta-analysis of 10 studies including 1518 gastric cancer patients. Stratified subgroups were NAC plus surgery and NAC plus both surgery and adjuvant chemotherapy (AC), while control was surgery alone. The results showed that NAC plus surgery did not benefit the patients with locally AGC in their overall survival [odds ratio (OR) = 1.20, 95% CI 0.80-1.80, P = 0.37] and the number needed to treat (NNT) was 74. However, the NAC plus both surgery and AC had a slight overall survival benefit (OR = 1.33, 95% CI 1.03-1.71, P = 0.03) and NNT was 14, which is superior to the NAC plus surgery. Therefore, we recommend that combined NAC and AC should be used to improve the overall survival of the locally AGC patients.

  1. Data Mining of Gene Arrays for Biomarkers of Survival in Ovarian Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clare Coveney

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The expected five-year survival rate from a stage III ovarian cancer diagnosis is a mere 22%; this applies to the 7000 new cases diagnosed yearly in the UK. Stratification of patients with this heterogeneous disease, based on active molecular pathways, would aid a targeted treatment improving the prognosis for many cases. While hundreds of genes have been associated with ovarian cancer, few have yet been verified by peer research for clinical significance. Here, a meta-analysis approach was applied to two carefully selected gene expression microarray datasets. Artificial neural networks, Cox univariate survival analyses and T-tests identified genes whose expression was consistently and significantly associated with patient survival. The rigor of this experimental design increases confidence in the genes found to be of interest. A list of 56 genes were distilled from a potential 37,000 to be significantly related to survival in both datasets with a FDR of 1.39859 × 10−11, the identities of which both verify genes already implicated with this disease and provide novel genes and pathways to pursue. Further investigation and validation of these may lead to clinical insights and have potential to predict a patient’s response to treatment or be used as a novel target for therapy.

  2. Nomogram Prediction of Overall Survival After Curative Irradiation for Uterine Cervical Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to develop a nomogram capable of predicting the probability of 5-year survival after radical radiotherapy (RT) without chemotherapy for uterine cervical cancer. Methods and Materials: We retrospectively analyzed 549 patients that underwent radical RT for uterine cervical cancer between March 1994 and April 2002 at our institution. Multivariate analysis using Cox proportional hazards regression was performed and this Cox model was used as the basis for the devised nomogram. The model was internally validated for discrimination and calibration by bootstrap resampling. Results: By multivariate regression analysis, the model showed that age, hemoglobin level before RT, Federation Internationale de Gynecologie Obstetrique (FIGO) stage, maximal tumor diameter, lymph node status, and RT dose at Point A significantly predicted overall survival. The survival prediction model demonstrated good calibration and discrimination. The bootstrap-corrected concordance index was 0.67. The predictive ability of the nomogram proved to be superior to FIGO stage (p = 0.01). Conclusions: The devised nomogram offers a significantly better level of discrimination than the FIGO staging system. In particular, it improves predictions of survival probability and could be useful for counseling patients, choosing treatment modalities and schedules, and designing clinical trials. However, before this nomogram is used clinically, it should be externally validated.

  3. Modifiable risk factors and survival in women diagnosed with primary breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hellmann, Sophie Sell; Thygesen, Lau Caspar; Tolstrup, Janne Schurmann;

    2010-01-01

    .11-2.99) were significantly associated with decreased survival after breast cancer diagnosis. A moderate alcohol intake of 1-6 units/week (0.85; 0.64-1.12), 7-14 units/week (0.77; 0.56-1.08), and treatment with hormone replacement therapy (0.79; 0.59-1.05) were less than 1, but not statistically significantly...... associated with prolonged survival. A moderate physical activity of 2-4 h/week (1.07; 0.77-1.49) and a high physical activity of more than 4 h/week (1.00; 0.69-1.45) showed no association with survival after breast cancer diagnosis.......This study examines the impact of smoking, body mass index, alcohol consumption, hormone replacement therapy, and physical activity on all-cause mortality among 528 Danish women diagnosed with primary breast cancer. Participants were women enrolled in the Copenhagen City Heart Study. Prospective...

  4. Effects of social isolation stress on immune response and survival time of mouse with liver cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hui Liu; Zhun Wang

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effects of isolation stress on mouse with liver cancer and possible associated mechanisms.METHODS: Transplantable murine hepatoma22 (H22) model was used to evaluate the effects of social isolation stress on murine liver cancer. Mice were immunized with sheep red blood cell (SRBC) and intraperitoneally inoculated with H22 cell, then divided into two groups, one reared individually as group (Ⅰ) and the other reared in groups as group (G). Titer of antibody to SRBC and interleukin 2 (IL-2) in serum was monitored. The survival time of mouse with liver cancer was observed.RESULTS: The titer of antibody to SRBC in group (G) was 1:24.5 and that in group (Ⅰ) was 1:11.2. There was a significant difference between these two groups (t = 2.60,P = 0.02). A significant difference in IL-2 concentration was observed between group (G) (39.6 ng/L) and group (Ⅰ) (47.1 ng/L, t= 2.14, P = 0.046). The survival time in group (G) (16.5 d) was markedly longer than that in group (Ⅰ) (13.2 d, t = 3.46, P = 0.002).CONCLUSION: Our study suggests that survival time of the mouse bearing H22 tumor is affected by the social isolation stress and the associated mechanism may be the immunological changes under the social isolation stress.

  5. Biochemical recurrence and survival prediction models for the management of clinically localized prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tewari, Ashuthosh; Gamito, Eduard J; Crawford, E David; Menon, Mani

    2004-03-01

    A number of new predictive modeling techniques have emerged in the past several years. These methods, which have been developed in fields such as artificial intelligence research, engineering, and meteorology, are now being applied to problems in medicine with promising results. This review outlines our recent work with use of selected advanced techniques such as artificial neural networks, genetic algorithms, and propensity scoring to develop useful models for estimating the risk of biochemical recurrence and long-term survival in men with clinically localized prostate cancer. In addition, we include a description of our efforts to develop a comprehensive prostate cancer database that, along with these novel modeling techniques, provides a powerful research tool that allows for the stratification of risk for treatment failure and survival by such factors as age, race, and comorbidities. Clinical and pathologic data from 1400 patients were used to develop the biochemical recurrence model. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve for this model was 0.83, with a sensitivity of 85% and specificity of 74%. For the survival model, data from 6149 men were used. Our analysis indicated that age, income, and comorbidities had a statistically significant impact on survival. The effect of race did not reach statistical significance in this regard. The C index value for the model was 0.69 for overall survival. We conclude that these methods, along with a comprehensive database, allow for the development of models that provide estimates of treatment failure risk and survival probability that are more meaningful and clinically useful than those previously developed. PMID:15072605

  6. Methodology to predict long-term cancer survival from short-term data using Tobacco Cancer Risk and Absolute Cancer Cure models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three parametric statistical models have been fully validated for cancer of the larynx for the prediction of long-term 15, 20 and 25 year cancer-specific survival fractions when short-term follow-up data was available for just 1-2 years after the end of treatment of the last patient. In all groups of cases the treatment period was only 5 years. Three disease stage groups were studied, T1N0, T2N0 and T3N0. The models are the Standard Lognormal (SLN) first proposed by Boag (1949 J. R. Stat. Soc. Series B 11 15-53) but only ever fully validated for cancer of the cervix, Mould and Boag (1975 Br. J. Cancer 32 529-50), and two new models which have been termed Tobacco Cancer Risk (TCR) and Absolute Cancer Cure (ACC). In each, the frequency distribution of survival times of defined groups of cancer deaths is lognormally distributed: larynx only (SLN), larynx and lung (TCR) and all cancers (ACC). All models each have three unknown parameters but it was possible to estimate a value for the lognormal parameter S a priori. By reduction to two unknown parameters the model stability has been improved. The material used to validate the methodology consisted of case histories of 965 patients, all treated during the period 1944-1968 by Dr Manuel Lederman of the Royal Marsden Hospital, London, with follow-up to 1988. This provided a follow-up range of 20- 44 years and enabled predicted long-term survival fractions to be compared with the actual survival fractions, calculated by the Kaplan and Meier (1958 J. Am. Stat. Assoc. 53 457-82) method. The TCR and ACC models are better than the SLN model and for a maximum short-term follow-up of 6 years, the 20 and 25 year survival fractions could be predicted. Therefore the numbers of follow-up years saved are respectively 14 years and 19 years. Clinical trial results using the TCR and ACC models can thus be analysed much earlier than currently possible. Absolute cure from cancer was also studied, using not only the prediction models which

  7. Differences in Breast Cancer Survival between Public and Private Care in New Zealand: Which Factors Contribute?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tin Tin, Sandar; Elwood, J. Mark; Lawrenson, Ross; Campbell, Ian; Harvey, Vernon; Seneviratne, Sanjeewa

    2016-01-01

    Background Patients who received private health care appear to have better survival from breast cancer compared to those who received public care. This study investigated if this applied to New Zealand women and identified factors that could explain such disparities. Methods This study involved all women who were diagnosed with primary breast cancer in two health regions in New Zealand, covering about 40% of the national population, between June 2000 and May 2013. Patients who received public care for primary treatment, mostly surgical treatment, were compared with those who received private care in terms of demographics, mode of presentation, disease factors, comorbidity index and treatment factors. Cox regression modelling was performed with stepwise adjustments, and hazards of breast cancer specific mortality associated with the type of health care received was assessed. Results Of the 14,468 patients, 8,916 (61.6%) received public care. Compared to patients treated in private care facilities, they were older, more likely to be Māori, Pacifika or Asian and to reside in deprived neighbourhoods and rural areas, and less likely to be diagnosed with early staged cancer and to receive timely cancer treatments. They had a higher risk of mortality from breast cancer (hazard ratio: 1.95; 95% CI: 1.75, 2.17), of which 80% (95% CI: 63%, 100%) was explained by baseline differences, particularly related to ethnicity, stage at diagnosis and type of loco-regional therapy. After controlling for these demographic, disease and treatment factors, the risk of mortality was still 14% higher in the public sector patients. Conclusions Ethnicity, stage at diagnosis and type of loco-regional therapy were the three key contributors to survival disparities between patients treated in public and private health care facilities in New Zealand. The findings underscore the need for more efforts to improve the quality, timeliness and equitability of public cancer care services. PMID:27054698

  8. Endocan-expressing microvessel density as a prognostic factor for survival in human gastric cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yuan; Niu, Wei; Lian, Pei-Long; Wang, Xian-Qiang; Meng, Zhi-Xin; Liu, Yi; Zhao, Rui

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the expression of endocan in tumour vessels and the relationships between endocan and the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and prognosis in gastric cancer. METHODS: This study included 142 patients with confirmed gastric cancer in a single cancer centre between 2008 and 2009. Clinicopathologic features were determined, and an immunohistochemical analysis of endocan-expressing microvessel density (MVD) (endocan-MVD), VEGF and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR2) was performed. Potential relationships between endocan-MVD and clinicopathological variables were assessed using a Student’s t-test or an analysis of variance test. Spearman’s rank correlation was applied to evaluate the relationship between endocan-MVD and the expression of VEGF/VEGFR2. Long-term survival of these patients was analysed using univariate and multivariate analyses. RESULTS: Positive staining of endocan was observed in most of the gastric cancer tissues (108/142) and in fewer of the normal gastric tissues. Endocan-MVD was not associated with gender or histological type (P > 0.05), while endocan-MVD was associated with tumour size, Borrmann type, tumour differentiation, tumour invasion, lymph node metastasis and TNM stage (P analysis, endocan-MVD had a positive correlation with VEGF (r = 0.167, P = 0.047) and VEGFR2 (r = 0.410, P = 0.000). The univariate analysis with a log-rank test indicated that the patients with a high level of endocan-MVD had a significantly poorer overall survival rate than those with a low level of endocan-MVD (17.9% vs 64.0%, P = 0.000). The multivariate analysis showed that a high level of endocan-MVD was a valuable prognostic factor. CONCLUSION: Endocan-MVD significantly correlates with the expression of VEGF and VEGFR2 and is a valuable prognostic factor for survival in human gastric cancer. PMID:27340359

  9. Survival and treatment patterns in elderly patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer in Manitoba

    OpenAIRE

    Baunemann Ott, C.L.; Ratna, N.; Prayag, R.; Nugent, Z; Badiani, K.; Navaratnam, S.

    2011-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death worldwide. Non-small-cell lung cancer (nsclc) is the most common form of lung cancer, with a median age at diagnosis of 70 years. These elderly patients are often underrepresented in the randomized clinical trials upon which chemotherapy plans are based. The objective of the present study was to determine the patterns of treatment and survival in elderly patients with advanced nsclc in Manitoba.

  10. Dietary cholesterol deprivation improves survival and reduces incidence of metastatic colon cancer in dimethylhydrazine-pretreated rats.

    OpenAIRE

    Cruse, J P; Lewin, M. R.; Clark, C G

    1982-01-01

    Cholesterol feeding of rats with colon cancer induced by dimethylhydrazine results in reduced survival and an increased incidence of metastatic colon cancer. As cholesterol may be implicated in the induction or maintenance of the metastatic process, an experiment was designed to determine whether rats with colon cancer would benefit from the removal of cholesterol from the diet. Female Wistar rats were treated with a colon cancer-inducing regimen of dimethylhydrazine (40 mg/kg/week for 10 wee...

  11. The presence of old pulmonary tuberculosis is an independent prognostic factor for squamous cell lung cancer survival

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Yiming; Cui, Zhenling; Zhou, Xiao; Chen, Chang; Jiang, Sen; Hu, Zhongyi; Jiang, Gening

    2013-01-01

    Background Pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) is associated with an increased risk of lung cancer. Our study investigated whether the coexistence of an old pulmonary TB lesion is an independent prognostic factor for lung cancer survival in Chinese non-small cell lung cancer patients. Methods We performed a retrospective review of 782 non-small cell lung cancer patients who underwent surgical resection as their primary treatment in 2006 and were followed for 5 years. The associations between lung can...

  12. Qingyihuaji Formula Inhibits Pancreatic Cancer and Prolongs Survival by Downregulating Hes-1 and Hey-1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanli Xu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The dire prognosis of pancreatic cancer has not markedly improved during past decades. The present study was carried out to explore the effect of Qingyihuaji formula (QYHJ on inhibiting pancreatic cancer and prolonging survival in related Notch signaling pathway. Proliferation of pancreatic cancer cells (SW1990 and PANC-1 was detected by MTT assay at 24, 48, and 72 h with exposure to various concentrations (0.08–50 mg/mL of QYHJ water extract. Pancreatic tumor models of nude mice were divided into three groups randomly (control, QYHJ, and gemcitabine. mRNA and protein expression of Notch target genes (Hes-1, Hey-1, Hey-2, and Hey-L in dissected tumor tissue were detected. Results showed that proliferation of SW1990 cells and PANC-1 cells was inhibited by QYHJ water extract in a dose-dependent and time-dependent manner. QYHJ effectively inhibited tumor growth and prolonged survival time in nude mice. Expression of both Hes-1 and Hey-1 was decreased significantly in QYHJ group, suggesting that Hes-1 and Hey-1 in Notch signaling pathway might be potential targets for QYHJ treatment. This research could help explain the clinical effectiveness of QYHJ and may provide advanced pancreatic cancer patients with a new therapeutic option.

  13. A multilevel study of the determinants of area-level inequalities in colorectal cancer survival

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turrell Gavin

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Australia, associations between geographic remoteness, socioeconomic disadvantage, and colorectal cancer (CRC survival show that survival rates are lowest among residents of geographically remote regions and those living in disadvantaged areas. At present we know very little about the reasons for these inequalities, hence our capacity to intervene to reduce the inequalities is limited. Methods/Design This study, the first of its type in Australia, examines the association between CRC survival and key area- and individual-level factors. Specifically, we will use a multilevel framework to investigate the possible determinants of area- and individual-level inequalities in CRC survival and quantify the relative contribution of geographic remoteness, socioeconomic and demographic factors, disease stage, and access to diagnostic and treatment services, to these inequalities. The multilevel analysis will be based on survival data relating to people diagnosed with CRC in Queensland between 1996 and 2005 (n = 22,723 from the Queensland Cancer Registry (QCR, area-level data from other data custodians such as the Australian Bureau of Statistics, and individual-level data from the QCR (including extracting stage from pathology records and Queensland Hospitals. For a subset of this period (2003 and 2004 we will utilise more detailed, individual-level data (n = 1,966 covering a greater range of risk factors from a concurrent research study. Geo-coding and spatial technology will be used to calculate road travel distances from patients' residence to treatment centres. The analyses will be conducted using a multilevel Cox proportional hazards model with Level 1 comprising individual-level factors (e.g. occupation and level 2 area-level indicators of remoteness and area socioeconomic disadvantage. Discussion This study focuses on the health inequalities for rural and disadvantaged populations that have often been documented but poorly

  14. Prognostic factors for the survival of 66 cases with extensive stage-small cell lung cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Heng Cao; Yonggui Hong; Shouran Zhao; Nengchao Wang; Fuyou Zhou; Xiaodong Xie

    2016-01-01

    Objective The objective of this retrospective study was to investigate the prognostic factors associated with survival among patients with extensive stage-smal cel lung cancer (ES-SCLC). Methods Clinical data from 66 patients with ES-SCLC diagnosed via histopathology or cytology between July 2005 and July 2009 at Anyang Tumor Hospital (China) were analyzed. Univariate and multivariate Kaplan-Meier, log-rank, and Cox proportional hazard regression analyses were conducted. Results The 12-, 24-, and 36-month survival rates among patients with ES-SCLC were 40.9%, 13.6%, and 6.1%, respectively. The median survival time (MST) was 10 months. Univariate analyses indicated that weight loss, eficacy of first-line chemotherapy, total number of chemotherapy cycles, treatment meth-od, and serum sodium levels significantly influenced survival among patients with ES-SCLC. Multivariate analyses suggested that the eficacy of first-line chemotherapy, total number of chemotherapy cycles, and serum sodium levels were independent prognostic factors associated with survival. Conclusion The eficacy of first-line chemotherapy, total number of chemotherapy cycles, and serum sodium levels are important prognostic factors for patients with ES-SCLC.

  15. Disease-free survival after complete mesocolic excision compared with conventional colon cancer surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertelsen, Claus Anders; Neuenschwander, Anders Ulrich; Jansen, Jens Erik; Wilhelmsen, Michael; Kirkegaard-Klitbo, Anders; Tenma, Jutaka Reilin; Bols, Birgitte; Ingeholm, Peter; Rasmussen, Leif Ahrenst; Jepsen, Lars Vedel; Iversen, Else Refsgaard; Kristensen, Bent; Gögenur, Ismail

    BACKGROUND: Application of the principles of total mesorectal excision to colon cancer by undertaking complete mesocolic excision (CME) has been proposed to improve oncological outcomes. We aimed to investigate whether implementation of CME improved disease-free survival compared with conventional...... colon resection. METHODS: Data for all patients who underwent elective resection for Union for International Cancer Control (UICC) stage I-III colon adenocarcinomas in the Capital Region of Denmark between June 1, 2008, and Dec 31, 2011, were retrieved for this population-based study. The CME group...... consisted of patients who underwent CME surgery in a centre validated to perform such surgery; the control group consisted of patients undergoing conventional colon resection in three other hospitals. Data were collected from the Danish Colorectal Cancer Group (DCCG) database and medical charts. Patients...

  16. Long-Time Survival of a Patient with Metastatic Pancreatic Cancer: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Željko Soldić

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Pancreatic cancer is a malignant neoplasm of the pancreas. It does not cause any symptoms in the early stage, and later symptoms are nonspecific, thus the disease is usually diagnosed when already advanced. In 2008, pancreatic cancer ranked eighth on the list of the 10 most common cancers among men in Croatia and tenth on the list of the most common cancers among Croatian women. Pancreatic cancer has a poor prognosis, with a survival time of only 6–8 months for metastatic disease. Gemcitabine is the standard chemotherapeutic option. Other chemotherapeutic agents include5-fluorouracil and leucovorin. In this paper, we present a case of a patient diagnosed with locally advanced and metastatic pancreatic cancer, who is still alive and currently receives his fourth line of chemotherapy 5 years after the diagnosis. Following disease progression on gemcitabine chemotherapy, he was treated with chemoradiotherapy which, however, had no effect. We then applied cisplatin monochemotherapy which offered excellent disease control, was well tolerated by the patient and, although somewhat obsolete in this form, showed to be a valuable chemotherapeutic option.

  17. Incidence and survival differences of differentiated thyroid cancer among younger women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boltz MM

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Melissa M Boltz,1 Laura M Enomoto,1,2 Rollyn M Ornstein,3 Brian D Saunders,1,4 Christopher S Hollenbeak1,2,51Department of Surgery, 2Division of Outcomes Research and Quality, The Pennsylvania State University, College of Medicine, 3Department of Pediatrics, Division of Adolescent Medicine and Eating Disorders, The Pennsylvania State University, Hershey Children’s Hospital, 4Division of General Surgery Specialties and Surgical Oncology, 5Department of Public Health Sciences, The Pennsylvania State University, College of Medicine, Hershey, PA, USAAbstract: Differentiated thyroid cancer is the most common endocrine malignancy, with an estimated 60,220 new cases diagnosed in the United States in 2013. For reasons that are unclear, differentiated thyroid cancer is three times more common in females than in males. However, among adolescent and young adult females between ages 15–39 years, differentiated thyroid cancer remains under-recognized. The disparity in cancer incidence and outcomes in this population may be secondary to the tumor's biology, and risk factors unique to women. This review summarizes the incidence and survival rates of thyroid cancer in women younger than 45 years of age, as well as the pathophysiology, etiology, risk factors, prognosis, and current and emerging treatment options for this patient population.Keywords: differentiated thyroid cancer, young adult women, adolescents, incidence, risk factors, treatment

  18. Survival analysis of gastric cancer patients using Cox model: a five year study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biglarian A

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available "n Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Background: Gastric cancer is the second most common cancer and known as the second cause of death due to cancers worldwide. Adenocarcinoma is the most fatal cancer in Iran and a patient with this kind of cancer, has a lower lifetime than others. In this research, the survival of patients with gastric carcinoma who were registered at Taleghani Hospital, were studied."n"nMethods: 291 patients with Gastric carcinoma who had received care, chemotherapy or chemoradiotherapy, at Taleghani Hospital in Tehran from 2002 to 2007 were studied as a historical cohort. Their survival rates and its relationship with 12 risk factors were assessed."n"nResults: Of the 291 patients with Gastric carcinoma, 70.1 percent were men and others (29.9% were women. The mean age of men was 62.26 years and of women was 59.32 years at the time of diagnosis. Most of patients (93.91% were advanced stage and metastasis. The Cox proportional hazards model showed that age at diagnosis, tumor stage and histology type with survival time had significant relationships (p=0.039, p=0.042 and p=0.032 respectively."n"n Conclusion: The five-year survival rate and median lifetime of gastric cancer patients who underwent chemotherapy or chemoradiotherapy are very

  19. Detection methods predict differences in biology and survival in breast cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study was to measure the biological characteristics involved in tumorigenesis and the progression of breast cancer in symptomatic and screen-detected carcinomas to identify possible differences. For this purpose, we evaluated clinical-pathological parameters and proliferative and apoptotic activities in a series of 130 symptomatic and 161 screen-detected tumors. After adjustment for the smaller size of the screen-detected carcinomas compared with symptomatic cancers, those detected in the screening program presented longer disease-free survival (RR = 0.43, CI = 0.19-0.96) and had high estrogen and progesterone receptor concentrations more often than did symptomatic cancers (OR = 3.38, CI = 1.72-6.63 and OR = 3.44, CI = 1.94-6.10, respectively). Furthermore, the expression of bcl-2, a marker of good prognosis in breast cancer, was higher and HER2/neu expression was lower in screen-detected cancers than in symptomatic cancers (OR = 1.77, CI = 1.01-3.23 and OR = 0.64, CI = 0.40-0.98, respectively). However, when comparing prevalent vs incident screen-detected carcinomas, prevalent tumors were larger (OR = 2.84, CI = 1.05-7.69), were less likely to be HER2/neu positive (OR = 0.22, CI = 0.08-0.61) and presented lower Ki67 expression (OR = 0.36, CI = 0.17-0.77). In addition, incident tumors presented a shorter survival time than did prevalent ones (RR = 4.88, CI = 1.12-21.19). Incident carcinomas include a variety of screen-detected carcinomas that exhibit differences in biology and prognosis relative to prevalent carcinomas. The detection method is important and should be taken into account when making therapy decisions

  20. Low expression of TFPI-2 associated with poor survival outcome in patients with breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the prognostic value of TFPI-2 expression in breast cancer patients through examining the correlation between TFPI-2 expression and breast cancer clinicopathologic features. Immunohistochemical staining combined with digital image analysis was used to quantify the expression of TFPI-2 protein in breast tumor tissues. For evaluation of the prognostic value of TFPI-2 expression to each clinicopathologic factor, Kaplan-Meier method and COX’s Proportional Hazard Model were employed. TFPI-2 expression was significantly correlated with tumor size, lymph node metastasis, histologic grade, clinical stage, and vessel invasion. More importantly, TFPI-2 expression was also associated with disease-free survival (DFS) of breast cancer patients. We found that patients with high TFPI-2 expression had longer DFS compared with those with low or negative expression of TFPI-2 (P <0.05, log-rank test). Cox’s regression analysis indicated that TFPI-2 expression, histologic grade, and vessel invasion might be significant prognostic factors for DFS, while TFPI-2 expression and histologic grade were the most significant independent predictors for tumor recurrence. Compared with the group with low/high TFPI-2 expression, the TFPI-2 negative group was more likely to have tumor relapse. The hazard ratio of DFS is 0.316 (P <0.01). Low or negative expression of TFPI-2 is associated with breast cancer progression, recurrence and poor survival outcome after breast cancer surgery. TFPI-2 expression in breast tumors is a potential prognostic tool for breast cancer patients

  1. Survival advantages conferred to colon cancer cells by E-selectin-induced activation of the PI3K-NFκB survival axis downstream of Death receptor-3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Extravasation of circulating cancer cells is a key event of metastatic dissemination that is initiated by the adhesion of cancer cells to endothelial cells. It requires interactions between adhesion receptors on endothelial cells and their counter-receptors on cancer cells. Notably, E-selectin, a major endothelial adhesion receptor, interacts with Death receptor-3 present on metastatic colon carcinoma cells. This interaction confers metastatic properties to colon cancer cells by promoting the adhesion of cancer cells to endothelial cells and triggering the activation of the pro-migratory p38 and pro-survival ERK pathways in the cancer cells. In the present study, we investigated further the mechanisms by which the E-selectin-activated pathways downstream of DR3 confer a survival advantage to colon cancer cells. Cell survival has been ascertained by using the WST-1 assay and by evaluating the activation of the PI3 kinase/NFκB survival axis. Apoptosis has been assayed by determining DNA fragmentation by Hoechst staining and by measuring cleavage of caspases-8 and -3. DR3 isoforms have been identified by PCR. For more precise quantification, targeted PCR reactions were carried out, and the amplified products were analyzed by automated chip-based microcapillary electrophoresis on an Agilent 2100 Bioanalyzer instrument. Interaction between DR3-expressing HT29 colon carcinoma cells and E-selectin induces the activation of the PI3K/Akt pathway. Moreover, p65/RelA, the anti-apoptotic subunit of NFκB, is rapidly translocated to the nucleus in response to E-selectin. This translocation is impaired by the PI3K inhibitor LY294002. Furthermore, inhibition of the PI3K/Akt pathway increases the cleavage of caspase 8 in colon cancer cells treated with E-selectin and this effect is still further increased when both ERK and PI3K pathways are concomitantly inhibited. Intriguingly, metastatic colon cancer cell lines such as HT29 and SW620 express higher levels of a splice variant of

  2. Survival advantages conferred to colon cancer cells by E-selectin-induced activation of the PI3K-NFκB survival axis downstream of Death receptor-3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paquet Éric R

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Extravasation of circulating cancer cells is a key event of metastatic dissemination that is initiated by the adhesion of cancer cells to endothelial cells. It requires interactions between adhesion receptors on endothelial cells and their counter-receptors on cancer cells. Notably, E-selectin, a major endothelial adhesion receptor, interacts with Death receptor-3 present on metastatic colon carcinoma cells. This interaction confers metastatic properties to colon cancer cells by promoting the adhesion of cancer cells to endothelial cells and triggering the activation of the pro-migratory p38 and pro-survival ERK pathways in the cancer cells. In the present study, we investigated further the mechanisms by which the E-selectin-activated pathways downstream of DR3 confer a survival advantage to colon cancer cells. Methods Cell survival has been ascertained by using the WST-1 assay and by evaluating the activation of the PI3 kinase/NFκB survival axis. Apoptosis has been assayed by determining DNA fragmentation by Hoechst staining and by measuring cleavage of caspases-8 and -3. DR3 isoforms have been identified by PCR. For more precise quantification, targeted PCR reactions were carried out, and the amplified products were analyzed by automated chip-based microcapillary electrophoresis on an Agilent 2100 Bioanalyzer instrument. Results Interaction between DR3-expressing HT29 colon carcinoma cells and E-selectin induces the activation of the PI3K/Akt pathway. Moreover, p65/RelA, the anti-apoptotic subunit of NFκB, is rapidly translocated to the nucleus in response to E-selectin. This translocation is impaired by the PI3K inhibitor LY294002. Furthermore, inhibition of the PI3K/Akt pathway increases the cleavage of caspase 8 in colon cancer cells treated with E-selectin and this effect is still further increased when both ERK and PI3K pathways are concomitantly inhibited. Intriguingly, metastatic colon cancer cell lines such as HT

  3. Baseline C-reactive protein is associated with incident cancer and survival in patients with cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Allin, Kristine H; Bojesen, Stig E; Nordestgaard, Børge G

    2009-01-01

    PURPOSE: We tested the hypothesis that baseline plasma levels of C-reactive protein (CRP) are associated with risk of incident cancer in the general population and early death in patients with cancer. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A total of 10,408 individuals from the Danish general population who had CRP...

  4. The value of surrogate endpoints for predicting real-world survival across five cancer types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafrin, Jason; Brookmeyer, Ron; Peneva, Desi; Park, Jinhee; Zhang, Jie; Figlin, Robert A; Lakdawalla, Darius N

    2016-04-01

    Objective It is unclear how well different outcome measures in randomized controlled trials (RCTs) perform in predicting real-world cancer survival. We assess the ability of RCT overall survival (OS) and surrogate endpoints - progression-free survival (PFS) and time to progression (TTP) - to predict real-world OS across five cancers. Methods We identified 20 treatments and 31 indications for breast, colorectal, lung, ovarian, and pancreatic cancer that had a phase III RCT reporting median OS and median PFS or TTP. Median real-world OS was determined using a Kaplan-Meier estimator applied to patients in the Surveillance and Epidemiology End Results (SEER)-Medicare database (1991-2010). Performance of RCT OS and PFS/TTP in predicting real-world OS was measured using t-tests, median absolute prediction error, and R(2) from linear regressions. Results Among 72,600 SEER-Medicare patients similar to RCT participants, median survival was 5.9 months for trial surrogates, 14.1 months for trial OS, and 13.4 months for real-world OS. For this sample, regression models using clinical trial OS and trial surrogates as independent variables predicted real-world OS significantly better than models using surrogates alone (P = 0.026). Among all real-world patients using sample treatments (N = 309,182), however, adding trial OS did not improve predictive power over predictions based on surrogates alone (P = 0.194). Results were qualitatively similar using median absolute prediction error and R(2) metrics. Conclusions Among the five tumor types investigated, trial OS and surrogates were each independently valuable in predicting real-world OS outcomes for patients similar to trial participants. In broader real-world populations, however, trial OS added little incremental value over surrogates alone. PMID:26743800

  5. Prognostic nomograms for predicting survival and distant metastases in locally advanced rectal cancers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junjie Peng

    Full Text Available To develop prognostic nomograms for predicting outcomes in patients with locally advanced rectal cancers who do not receive preoperative treatment.A total of 883 patients with stage II-III rectal cancers were retrospectively collected from a single institution. Survival analyses were performed to assess each variable for overall survival (OS, local recurrence (LR and distant metastases (DM. Cox models were performed to develop a predictive model for each endpoint. The performance of model prediction was validated by cross validation and on an independent group of patients.The 5-year LR, DM and OS rates were 22.3%, 32.7% and 63.8%, respectively. Two prognostic nomograms were successfully developed to predict 5-year OS and DM-free survival rates, with c-index of 0.70 (95% CI = [0.66, 0.73] and 0.68 (95% CI = [0.64, 0.72] on the original dataset, and 0.76 (95% CI = [0.67, 0.86] and 0.73 (95% CI = [0.63, 0.83] on the validation dataset, respectively. Factors in our models included age, gender, carcinoembryonic antigen value, tumor location, T stage, N stage, metastatic lymph nodes ratio, adjuvant chemotherapy and chemoradiotherapy. Predicted by our nomogram, substantial variability in terms of 5-year OS and DM-free survival was observed within each TNM stage category.The prognostic nomograms integrated demographic and clinicopathological factors to account for tumor and patient heterogeneity, and thereby provided a more individualized outcome prognostication. Our individualized prediction nomograms could help patients with preoperatively under-staged rectal cancer about their postoperative treatment strategies and follow-up protocols.

  6. Body composition, symptoms, and survival in advanced cancer patients referred to a phase I service.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrique A Parsons

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Body weight and body composition are relevant to the outcomes of cancer and antineoplastic therapy. However, their role in Phase I clinical trial patients is unknown. METHODS: We reviewed symptom burden, body composition, and survival in 104 patients with advanced cancer referred to a Phase I oncology service. Symptom burden was analyzed using the MD Anderson Symptom Assessment Inventory(MDASI; body composition was evaluated utilizing computerized tomography(CT images. A body mass index (BMI≥25 kg/m² was considered overweight. Sarcopenia, severe muscle depletion, was assessed using CT-based criteria. RESULTS: Most patients were overweight (n = 65, 63%; 53 patients were sarcopenic (51%, including 79% of patients with a BMI<25 kg/m² and 34% of those with BMI≥25 kg/m². Sarcopenic patients were older and less frequently African-American. Symptom burden did not differ among patients classified according to BMI and presence of sarcopenia. Median (95% confidence interval survival (days varied according to body composition: 215 (71-358 (BMI<25 kg/m²; sarcopenic, 271 (99-443 (BMI<25 kg/m²; non-sarcopenic, 484 (286-681 (BMI≥25 kg/m²; sarcopenic; 501 d (309-693 (BMI≥25 kg/m²; non-sarcopenic. Higher muscle index and gastrointestinal cancer diagnosis predicted longer survival in multivariate analysis after controlling for age, gender, performance status, and fat index. CONCLUSIONS: Patients referred to a Phase I clinic had a high frequency of sarcopenia and a BMI≥25 kg/m², independent of symptom burden. Body composition variables were predictive of clinically relevant survival differences, which is potentially important in developing Phase I studies.

  7. Effects of young age at presentation on survival in breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young age remains a controversial issue as a prognostic factor in breast cancer. Debate includes patients from different parts of the world. Almost 50% of patients with breast cancer seen at the American University of Beirut Medical Center (AUBMC) are below age 50. We reviewed 1320 patients seen at AUBMC between 1990 and 2001. We divided them in three age groups: Below 35, 35–50, and above 50. Data and survival were analyzed using Chi-square, Cox regression analysis, and Kaplan Meier. Mean age at presentation was 50.8 years. 107 patients were below age 35, 526 between 35–50 and 687 patients above age 50. Disease stages were as follows: stage I: 14.4%, stage II: 59.9%, stage III: 20% and stage IV: 5.7%. Hormone receptors were positive in 71.8% of patients below 35, in 67.6% of patients 35–50 and in 78.3% of patients above 50. Grade of tumor was higher as age at presentation was lower. More young patients received anthracycline-based adjuvant chemotherapy. Of hormone receptor-positive patients, 83.8% of those below age 35 years, 87.76% of those aged 35–50 years, and 91.2% of those aged above 50 years received adjuvant tamoxifen. The mean follow up time was 3.7 +/- 2.9 years. Time to death was the only variable analyzed for survival analysis. Excluding stage IV patients, tumor size, lymph node, tumor grade and negative hormone receptors were inversely proportional to survival. Higher percentage of young patients at presentation developed metastasis (32.4% of patients below 35, as compared to 22.9% of patients 35–50 and 22.8% of patients above 50) and had a worse survival. Young age had a negative impact on survival of patients with positive axillary lymph nodes, and survival of patients with positive hormonal receptors, but not on survival of patients with negative lymph nodes, or patients with negative hormonal receptors. Young age at presentation conferred a worse prognosis in spite of a higher than expected positive hormone receptor status, more

  8. A predictive model for survival in metastatic cancer patients attending an outpatient palliative radiotherapy clinic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To develop a predictive model for survival from the time of presentation in an outpatient palliative radiotherapy clinic. Methods and Materials: Sixteen factors were analyzed prospectively in 395 patients seen in a dedicated palliative radiotherapy clinic in a large tertiary cancer center using Cox's proportional hazards regression model. Results: Six prognostic factors had a statistically significant impact on survival, as follows: primary cancer site, site of metastases, Karnofsky performance score (KPS), and fatigue, appetite, and shortness of breath scores from the modified Edmonton Symptom Assessment Scale. Risk group stratification was performed (1) by assigning weights to the prognostic factors based on their levels of significance, and (2) by the number of risk factors present. The weighting method provided a Survival Prediction Score (SPS), ranging from 0 to 32. The survival probability at 3, 6, and 12 months was 83%, 70%, and 51%, respectively, for patients with SPS ≤13 (n=133); 67%, 41%, and 20% for patients with SPS 14-19 (n=129); and 36%, 18%, and 4% for patients with SPS ≥20 (n=133) (p<0.0001). Corresponding survival probabilities based on number of risk factors were as follows: 85%, 72%, and 52% (≤3 risk factors) (n=98); 68%, 47%, and 24% (4 risk factors) (n=117); and 46%, 24%, and 11% (≥5 factors) (n=180) (p<0.0001). Conclusion: Clinical prognostic factors can be used to predict prognosis among patients attending a palliative radiotherapy clinic. If validated in an independent series of patients, the model can be used to guide clinical decisions, plan supportive services, and allocate resource use

  9. Association between variants in inflammation and cancer-associated genes and risk and survival of cholangiocarcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Genetic risk factors for cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) remain poorly understood. We assessed the effect of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of genes modulating inflammation or carcinogenesis on CCA risk and survival. We conducted a case-control, candidate gene association study of 370 CCA patients and 740 age-, sex-, and residential area-matched healthy controls. Eighteen functional or putatively functional SNPs in nine genes were genotyped. The log-additive genotype effects of SNPs on CCA risk and survival were determined using logistic regression and the log-rank test, respectively. Initial analysis identified significant associations between SNP rs2143417 and rs689466 in cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) and CCA risk, after adjusting for multiple comparisons (cutoff of P = 0.0028). However, these findings were not replicated in another independent cohort of 212 CCA cases and 424 matched controls. No significant association was found between any SNP and survival of CCA patients. Although COX-2 has been shown to contribute to cholangiocarcinogenesis, the COX-2 SNPs tested were not associated with risk of CCA. This study shows a lack of association between variants of genes related to inflammation and carcinogenesis and CCA risk and survival. Other factors than these genetic variants may play more important roles in CCA risk and survival

  10. Association between variants in inflammation and cancer-associated genes and risk and survival of cholangiocarcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaiteerakij, Roongruedee; Juran, Brian D; Aboelsoud, Mohammed M; Harmsen, William S; Moser, Catherine D; Giama, Nasra H; Allotey, Loretta K; Mettler, Teresa A; Baichoo, Esha; Zhang, Xiaodan; Therneau, Terry M; Lazaridis, Konstantinos N; Roberts, Lewis R

    2015-10-01

    Genetic risk factors for cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) remain poorly understood. We assessed the effect of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of genes modulating inflammation or carcinogenesis on CCA risk and survival. We conducted a case-control, candidate gene association study of 370 CCA patients and 740 age-, sex-, and residential area-matched healthy controls. Eighteen functional or putatively functional SNPs in nine genes were genotyped. The log-additive genotype effects of SNPs on CCA risk and survival were determined using logistic regression and the log-rank test, respectively. Initial analysis identified significant associations between SNP rs2143417 and rs689466 in cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) and CCA risk, after adjusting for multiple comparisons (cutoff of P = 0.0028). However, these findings were not replicated in another independent cohort of 212 CCA cases and 424 matched controls. No significant association was found between any SNP and survival of CCA patients. Although COX-2 has been shown to contribute to cholangiocarcinogenesis, the COX-2 SNPs tested were not associated with risk of CCA. This study shows a lack of association between variants of genes related to inflammation and carcinogenesis and CCA risk and survival. Other factors than these genetic variants may play more important roles in CCA risk and survival. PMID:26276523

  11. SPARCL1 Expression Increases With Preoperative Radiation Therapy and Predicts Better Survival in Rectal Cancer Patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kotti, Angeliki, E-mail: angkotti@yahoo.gr; Holmqvist, Annica; Albertsson, Maria; Sun, Xiao-Feng, E-mail: xiao-feng.sun@liu.se

    2014-04-01

    Purpose: The secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine-like 1 (SPARCL1) is expressed in various normal tissues and many types of cancers. The function of SPARCL1 and its relationship to a patient's prognosis have been studied, whereas its relationship to radiation therapy (RT) is not known. Our aim was to investigate the expression of SPARCL1 in rectal cancer patients who participated in a clinical trial of preoperative RT. Methods and Materials: The study included 136 rectal cancer patients who were randomized to undergo preoperative RT and surgery (n=63) or surgery alone (n=73). The expression levels of SPARCL1 in normal mucosa (n=29), primary tumor (n=136), and lymph node metastasis (n=35) were determined by immunohistochemistry. Results: Tumors with RT had stronger SPARCL1 expression than tumors without RT (P=.003). In the RT group, strong SPARCL1 expression was related to better survival than weak expression in patients with stage III tumors, independent of sex, age, differentiation, and margin status (P=.022; RR = 18.128; 95% confidence interval, 1.512-217.413). No such relationship was found in the non-RT group (P=.224). Further analysis of interactions among SPARCL1 expression, RT, and survival showed statistical significance (P=.024). In patients with metastases who received RT, strong SPARCL1 expression was related to better survival compared to weak expression (P=.041) but not in the non-RT group (P=.569). Conclusions: SPARCL1 expression increases with RT and is related to better prognosis in rectal cancer patients with RT but not in patients without RT. This result may help us to select the patients best suited for preoperative RT.

  12. Spatially Varying Coefficient Inequalities: Evaluating How the Impact of Patient Characteristics on Breast Cancer Survival Varies by Location

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Jeff Ching-Fu; Cramb, Susanna M.; McGree, James M.; Dunn, Nathan A. M.; Baade, Peter D.; Mengersen, Kerrie L.

    2016-01-01

    An increasing number of studies have identified spatial differences in breast cancer survival. However little is known about whether the structure and dynamics of this spatial inequality are consistent across a region. This study aims to evaluate the spatially varying nature of predictors of spatial inequality in relative survival for women diagnosed with breast cancer across Queensland, Australia. All Queensland women aged less than 90 years diagnosed with invasive breast cancer from 1997 to 2007 and followed up to the end of 2008 were extracted from linked Queensland Cancer Registry and BreastScreen Queensland data. Bayesian relative survival models were fitted using various model structures (a spatial regression model, a varying coefficient model and a finite mixture of regressions model) to evaluate the relative excess risk of breast cancer, with the use of Markov chain Monte Carlo computation. The spatially varying coefficient models revealed that some covariate effects may not be constant across the geographic regions of the study. The overall spatial patterns showed lower survival among women living in more remote areas, and higher survival among the urbanised south-east corner. Notwithstanding this, the spatial survival pattern for younger women contrasted with that for older women as well as single women. This complex spatial interplay may be indicative of different factors impacting on survival patterns for these women. PMID:27149274

  13. Individual and Neighborhood Socioeconomic Status and Healthcare Resources in Relation to Black-White Breast Cancer Survival Disparities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomi F. Akinyemiju

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Breast cancer survival has improved significantly in the US in the past 10–15 years. However, disparities exist in breast cancer survival between black and white women. Purpose. To investigate the effect of county healthcare resources and SES as well as individual SES status on breast cancer survival disparities between black and white women. Methods. Data from 1,796 breast cancer cases were obtained from the Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results and the National Longitudinal Mortality Study dataset. Cox Proportional Hazards models were constructed accounting for clustering within counties. Three sequential Cox models were fit for each outcome including demographic variables; demographic and clinical variables; and finally demographic, clinical, and county-level variables. Results. In unadjusted analysis, black women had a 53% higher likelihood of dying of breast cancer and 32% higher likelihood of dying of any cause (P<0.05 compared with white women. Adjusting for demographic variables explained away the effect of race on breast cancer survival (HR, 1.40; 95% CI, 0.99–1.97, but not on all-cause mortality. The racial difference in all-cause survival disappeared only after adjusting for county-level variables (HR, 1.27; CI, 0.95–1.71. Conclusions. Improving equitable access to healthcare for all women in the US may help eliminate survival disparities between racial and socioeconomic groups.

  14. Matching-adjusted indirect treatment comparison in patients with radioiodine-refractory differentiated thyroid cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tremblay G

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Gabriel Tremblay,1 Tim Holbrook,2 Gary Milligan,2 Corey L Pelletier,1 Petra Rietschel1 1Eisai Inc, Woodcliff Lake, NJ, USA; 2Adelphi Real World, Manchester, UKAims: Lenvatinib and sorafenib have been evaluated in separate Phase III placebo-controlled trials in patients with radioiodine-refractory differentiated thyroid cancer; however, no head-to-head comparative studies are available. We performed an indirect comparison of these agents using matching-adjusted indirect comparison (MAIC to adjust for differences in baseline characteristics, a technique allowing comparison of two studies with patient-level data available for one but only aggregate data available for the other.Patients and methods: Individual patient data were available for the SELECT trial (lenvatinib versus placebo whereas only published summary data were available for the DECISION trial (sorafenib versus placebo; therefore the SELECT data were adjusted to closely match the DECISION data. Data for patients in SELECT were assigned weights so that weighted mean baseline characteristics of the SELECT population matched those reported for DECISION. Adjusted hazard ratios (HRs for progression-free survival (PFS and overall survival (OS; corrected for crossover using rank-preserving structural failure time models were calculated using weighted Cox regression models. Adjusted HRs were used to calculate indirect HRs with 95% confidence intervals (CIs.Results: Indirect treatment comparison using unadjusted clinical trial data resulted in an HR for PFS of 0.36 (95% CI 0.22–0.57 for lenvatinib versus sorafenib; MAIC resulted in an HR of 0.33 (95% CI 0.20–0.53, suggesting a statistically significantly superior PFS for lenvatinib. The HR for crossover-corrected OS for lenvatinib versus sorafenib was 0.77 (95% CI 0.44–1.35; MAIC resulted in an OS HR of 0.73 (95% CI 0.40–1.35.Conclusion: After adjusting for differences in baseline characteristics using MAIC, lenvatinib was associated

  15. Constitutive STAT5 Activation Correlates With Better Survival in Cervical Cancer Patients Treated With Radiation Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Constitutively activated signal transducers and activators of transcription (STAT) factors, in particular STAT1, STAT3, and STAT5, have been detected in a wide variety of human primary tumors and have been demonstrated to directly contribute to oncogenesis. However, the expression pattern of these STATs in cervical carcinoma is still unknown, as is whether or not they have prognostic significance. This study investigated the expression patterns of STAT1, STAT3, and STAT5 in cervical cancer and their associations with clinical outcomes in patients treated with radical radiation therapy. Methods and Materials: A total of 165 consecutive patients with International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) Stages IB to IVA cervical cancer underwent radical radiation therapy, including external beam and/or high-dose-rate brachytherapy between 1989 and 2002. Immunohistochemical studies of their formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues were performed. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to identify and to evaluate the effects of these factors affecting patient survival. Results: Constitutive activations of STAT1, STAT3, and STAT5 were observed in 11%, 22%, and 61% of the participants, respectively. While STAT5 activation was associated with significantly better metastasis-free survival (p < 0.01) and overall survival (p = 0.04), STAT1 and STAT3 activation were not. Multivariate analyses showed that STAT5 activation, bulky tumor (≥4 cm), advanced stage (FIGO Stages III and IV), and brachytherapy (yes vs. no) were independent prognostic factors for cause-specific overall survival. None of the STATs was associated with local relapse. STAT5 activation (odds ratio = 0.29, 95% confidence interval = 0.13–0.63) and advanced stage (odds ratio = 2.54; 95% confidence interval = 1.03–6.26) were independent predictors of distant metastasis. Conclusions: This is the first report to provide the overall expression patterns and prognostic significance

  16. Constitutive STAT5 Activation Correlates With Better Survival in Cervical Cancer Patients Treated With Radiation Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Helen H.W. [Department of Radiation Oncology, National Cheng Kung University, Medical College and Hospital, Tainan, Taiwan (China); Institute of Clinical Medicine, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan (China); Chou, Cheng-Yang [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, National Cheng Kung University, Medical College and Hospital, Tainan, Taiwan (China); Wu, Yuan-Hua; Hsueh, Wei-Ting; Hsu, Chiung-Hui [Department of Radiation Oncology, National Cheng Kung University, Medical College and Hospital, Tainan, Taiwan (China); Guo, How-Ran [Department of Environmental and Occupational Health, National Cheng Kung University, Medical College and Hospital, Tainan, Taiwan (China); Lee, Wen-Ying, E-mail: 7707@so-net.net.tw [Department of Pathology, Chi Mei Medical Center, Tainan, Taiwan (China) and Department of Pathology, College of Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Su, Wu-Chou, E-mail: sunnysu@mail.ncku.edu.tw [Department of Internal Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, Medical College and Hospital, Tainan, Taiwan (China)

    2012-02-01

    Purpose: Constitutively activated signal transducers and activators of transcription (STAT) factors, in particular STAT1, STAT3, and STAT5, have been detected in a wide variety of human primary tumors and have been demonstrated to directly contribute to oncogenesis. However, the expression pattern of these STATs in cervical carcinoma is still unknown, as is whether or not they have prognostic significance. This study investigated the expression patterns of STAT1, STAT3, and STAT5 in cervical cancer and their associations with clinical outcomes in patients treated with radical radiation therapy. Methods and Materials: A total of 165 consecutive patients with International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) Stages IB to IVA cervical cancer underwent radical radiation therapy, including external beam and/or high-dose-rate brachytherapy between 1989 and 2002. Immunohistochemical studies of their formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues were performed. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to identify and to evaluate the effects of these factors affecting patient survival. Results: Constitutive activations of STAT1, STAT3, and STAT5 were observed in 11%, 22%, and 61% of the participants, respectively. While STAT5 activation was associated with significantly better metastasis-free survival (p < 0.01) and overall survival (p = 0.04), STAT1 and STAT3 activation were not. Multivariate analyses showed that STAT5 activation, bulky tumor ({>=}4 cm), advanced stage (FIGO Stages III and IV), and brachytherapy (yes vs. no) were independent prognostic factors for cause-specific overall survival. None of the STATs was associated with local relapse. STAT5 activation (odds ratio = 0.29, 95% confidence interval = 0.13-0.63) and advanced stage (odds ratio = 2.54; 95% confidence interval = 1.03-6.26) were independent predictors of distant metastasis. Conclusions: This is the first report to provide the overall expression patterns and prognostic significance of

  17. Characteristics of 49 patients who survived for 5 years following radical radiation therapy for non-small cell lung cancer: the potential for cure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To investigate the long-term curative potential of radical radiation therapy (RT) for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) by studying characteristics of patients from a large prospective database who survived > 5 years after RT, and by analyzing survival beyond 5 years. Methods and Materials: Five-year survivors were identified from a database containing information on 488 patients given radical RT following presentation to the Peter MacCallum Cancer Institute with NSCLC between 1984 and 1990. Additional data were obtained from case notes of survivors. RT was computed tomography (CT)-planned, conventionally-fractionated, and given without chemotherapy. Results: Actuarial survival for 49 5-year survivors was 65% at 10 years. Five 5-year survivors had documented disease progression within the first 5 years and subsequently died. Of 44 patients free-from-progression (FFP) at 5 years, an estimated 81% remained FFP in the second 5 years. Age and histology were not significant prognostic factors, and only 22 patients (4.5%) had weight loss > 10%. For 277 patients who had not undergone thoracotomy, median RT dose was 60 Gy and survival at 5 and 10 years was 7% and 3%, respectively. For 207 patients who received radical RT post-thoracotomy, median dose was 60 Gy and survival at 5 and 10 years was 24% and 18%, respectively. Five-year survivors of post-thoracotomy RT had been treated for gross residual disease (n = 10), positive-margin (n = 6), or probable microscopic residual disease (n = 17). Failure to regain ECOG performance status = 0 post-thoracotomy was associated with reduced survival (p 5 years after radical RT for NSCLC remained FFP in the following 5 years and were apparently cured. RT alone can cure small but significant numbers of patients. Long-term results of combined chemotherapy/RT protocols, which are associated with increased median survival, are awaited for comparison

  18. Survival of patients with head and neck cancer. Impact of physical status and comorbidities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prognostic factors (e.g., gender, tumor stage, and hypoxia) have an impact on survival in patients with head and neck cancer. Thus, the impact of physical status and comorbidities on treatment decision and survival were evaluated. Patients and methods A total of 169 primary, inoperable patients with squamous cell cancer of the head and neck were retrospectively investigated. Patients were treated with hyperfractionated accelerated radio(chemo)therapy (HARcT) or hypofractionated radio(chemo)therapy (HypoRcT). Depending on the individual patient's situation (Karnofsky Performance Index, KPI), treatment for patients with a KPI of 80-100% was generally radiochemotherapy and for patients with a KPI ≤ 70% treatment was radiotherapy alone. In addition, all comorbidities were evaluated. Uni- and multivariate proportional hazards model were used, and overall survival (OS) was estimated by the Kaplan-Meier method. Results Treatment consisted of HARcT for 76 patients (45%), HART for 28 patients (17%), HypoRcT for 14 patients(8%), and HypoRT for 51 patients (30%). Of the patients, 107 patients (63%) presented with a KPI of 80-100%. OS (20%) was significantly better for patients with a KPI of 80-100%, while the OS for patients with a KPI ≤ 70% was 8% (p 70 Gy), and chemotherapy were significant prognostic factors for better OS. Conclusion Our retrospective analysis shows that performance status with dependency on comorbidities was an independent risk factor for OS. (orig.)

  19. Factors that affect response to chemotherapy and survival of patients with advanced head and neck cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amer, M H; Al-Sarraf, M; Vaitkevicius, V K

    1979-06-01

    A review of 164 patients with far advanced head and neck cancer, treated by a cytotoxic chemotherapy over a ten year period, at WAyne State University, Detroit, Michigan, was done in an attempt to determine factors that may influence the response to chemotherapy and subsequent survival. Response rate to methotrexate was 28%, 5-FU 31%, and porfiromycin 13%. Improved responses were noted with combination chemotherapy. Patients who failed to first line therapy rarely responded to other single agent or combination chemotherapy. Those who did not have prior surgery and/or radiotherapy had better results from drug therapy. Patients with good performance status at the time of initial chemotherapy, had better response to treatment (32% vs. 13% PR & CR) and longer survival (28 weeks vs. 9 weeks, p = 0.01) when compared to those with poor status. Patients who responded to chemotherapy have better survival compared to nonresponders (29 weeks vs. 16 weeks, p = 0.002). This information may prove helpful in future planning of multidisciplinary approach in the treatment of patients with head and neck cancer. PMID:455217

  20. Analysis of the Indicence and Survival of Female Breast Cancer Patients in Beijing Over a 20-Year Period

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qijun Wang; Weixing Zhu; Xiumei Xing; Chenxu Qu

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To provide evidence for breast cancer prevention and control through epidemiological analysis of the incidence, mortality and survival rate of female breast cancer patients in Beijing.METHODS The female registration data in the Beijing urban area from 1982 to 2001 were retrospectively reviewed. The incidence, mortality and survival rate of female breast cancer patients were analyzed using routine and life-table statistical methods.RESULTS During the period of 1982 to 2001, there was a trend of an average annual increase of female breast cancer incidence of 4.6% in urban Beijing, and of 4.9% in the world-population standardized incidence.The epidemiological features of urban Beijing female breast cancer showed:(1)The incidence distribution of different age groups from 25 to 80 years elevated with two peaks at ages of 45~ and 70~ years; (2)There was an elevation in each age group over the last 20 years; (3)The incidence rate at ages of 35 to 64 reached 95.3/105, causing breast cancer to become the number one cancer in females. The changes in the survival rate showed the following: the 5-year observed survival rate (OSR)increased from 62.0% in 1982~1983 to 68.7% in 1987~1988, and the relative-survival rate (RSR) increased from 66.3% to 74.2%. The 10-year OSR and RSR in 1987~1988 were 60.3% and 65.1%, and at 15 years 57.5% and 61.3%, respectively. The mortality rate of breast cancer patients fluctuated from 8 to 10 per 105 population over the 20 years of study.CONCLUSION There is a trend of an annual increase in female breast cancer in Beijing. The 5-year survival is being improved gradually while the mortality remains stable. The results demonstrate that the principles of "early prevention, diagnosis and treatment" for breast cancer are effective in Beijing.

  1. Survival and Quality of Life After Stereotactic or 3D-Conformal Radiotherapy for Inoperable Early-Stage Lung Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To investigate survival and local recurrence after stereotactic ablative radiotherapy (SABR) or three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT) administered for early-stage primary lung cancer and to investigate longitudinal changes of health-related quality of life (HRQOL) parameters after either treatment. Methods and Materials: Two prospective cohorts of inoperable patients with T1-2N0M0 primary lung tumors were analyzed. Patients received 70 Gy in 35 fractions with 3D-CRT or 60 Gy in three to eight fractions with SABR. Global quality of life (GQOL), physical functioning (PF), and patient-rated dyspnea were assessed using the respective dimensions of European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Core Questionnaire-C30 and LC13. HRQOL was analyzed using multivariate linear mixed-effects modeling, survival and local control (LC) using the Kaplan-Meier method, Cox proportional hazards analysis, and Fine and Gray multivariate competing risk analysis as appropriate. Results: Overall survival (OS) was better after SABR compared with 3D-CRT with a HR of 2.6 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.5–4.8; p < 0.01). 3D-CRT conferred a subhazard ratio for LC of 5.0 (95% CI: 1.7–14.7; p < 0.01) compared with SABR. GQOL and PF were stable after SABR (p = 0.21 and p = 0.62, respectively). Dyspnea increased after SABR by 3.2 out of 100 points (95% CI: 1.0–5.3; p < 0.01), which is clinically insignificant. At 1 year, PF decreased by an excess of 8.7 out of 100 points (95% CI: 2.8–14.7; p < 0.01) after 3D-CRT compared with SABR. Conclusion: In this nonrandomized comparison of two prospective cohorts of medically inoperable patients with Stage I lung cancer, OS and LC were better after SABR. GQOL, PF, and patient-rated dyspnea were stable after SABR, whereas PF decreased after 3D-CRT approaching clinical significance already at 1 year.

  2. Single nucleotide polymorphisms within interferon signaling pathway genes are associated with colorectal cancer susceptibility and survival.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shun Lu

    Full Text Available Interferon (IFN signaling has been suggested to play an important role in colorectal carcinogenesis. Our study aimed to examine potentially functional genetic variants in interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF3, IRF5, IRF7, type I and type II IFN and their receptor genes with respect to colorectal cancer (CRC risk and clinical outcome. Altogether 74 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs were covered by the 34 SNPs genotyped in a hospital-based case-control study of 1327 CRC cases and 758 healthy controls from the Czech Republic. We also analyzed these SNPs in relation to overall survival and event-free survival in a subgroup of 483 patients. Seven SNPs in IFNA1, IFNA13, IFNA21, IFNK, IFNAR1 and IFNGR1 were associated with CRC risk. After multiple testing correction, the associations with the SNPs rs2856968 (IFNAR1 and rs2234711 (IFNGR1 remained formally significant (P = 0.0015 and P<0.0001, respectively. Multivariable survival analyses showed that the SNP rs6475526 (IFNA7/IFNA14 was associated with overall survival of the patients (P = 0.041 and event-free survival among patients without distant metastasis at the time of diagnosis, P = 0.034. The hazard ratios (HRs for rs6475526 remained statistically significant even after adjustment for age, gender, grade and stage (P = 0.029 and P = 0.036, respectively, suggesting that rs6475526 is an independent prognostic marker for CRC. Our data suggest that genetic variation in the IFN signaling pathway genes may play a role in the etiology and survival of CRC and further studies are warranted.

  3. Breast cancer laterality among Egyptian patients and its association with treatments and survival

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background and aim: Breast cancers (BCs) involve the left side (LS) more than the right side (RS). Among the Egyptians, neither BC laterality nor its association with demographic factors, tumor locations, treatments and outcomes were previously reported. Patients and methods: Laterality was analyzed among 5459 BCs from the Gharbiah population- based cancer registry covering > 5% of the Egyptian population. Cox proportional model was used to assess the independent effect of stage, ER, and laterality on overall survival (OS). Results: In Egypt, BCs involve LS more than RS with LS-to-RS ratio (LRR) of 1.16. LS predominance was evident among men and women and both younger (< 45 years) and older patients. HER2 over-expression and ductal cancers were significantly more in RSBCs while lobular cancers were significantly more in LSBCs. There were no significant differences in localization within the breast between LSBCs and RSBCs (p = 0.51). LS predominance was noticed across all subgroups except in patients with HER2 positive tumors (LRR = 0.63; p = 0.02). OS was significantly better in stage II and ER positive tumors than stage III and ER negative tumors. Despite OS of LSBCs being generally lower than RSBCs, this was not statistically significant. The significant impact of stage on OS was lost in LSBCs. ConclTusions: Among Egyptian patients, the left breast is at greater risk of cancer than the right one. Despite right-sided tumors seemed more aggressive, Left-sided ones tend to confer worse survival than right-sided tumors.

  4. Identifying Driver Genes in Cancer by Triangulating Gene Expression, Gene Location, and Survival Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouam, Sigrid; Miller, Lance D; Karuturi, R Krishna Murthy

    2014-01-01

    Driver genes are directly responsible for oncogenesis and identifying them is essential in order to fully understand the mechanisms of cancer. However, it is difficult to delineate them from the larger pool of genes that are deregulated in cancer (ie, passenger genes). In order to address this problem, we developed an approach called TRIAngulating Gene Expression (TRIAGE through clinico-genomic intersects). Here, we present a refinement of this approach incorporating a new scoring methodology to identify putative driver genes that are deregulated in cancer. TRIAGE triangulates – or integrates – three levels of information: gene expression, gene location, and patient survival. First, TRIAGE identifies regions of deregulated expression (ie, expression footprints) by deriving a newly established measure called the Local Singular Value Decomposition (LSVD) score for each locus. Driver genes are then distinguished from passenger genes using dual survival analyses. Incorporating measurements of gene expression and weighting them according to the LSVD weight of each tumor, these analyses are performed using the genes located in significant expression footprints. Here, we first use simulated data to characterize the newly established LSVD score. We then present the results of our application of this refined version of TRIAGE to gene expression data from five cancer types. This refined version of TRIAGE not only allowed us to identify known prominent driver genes, such as MMP1, IL8, and COL1A2, but it also led us to identify several novel ones. These results illustrate that TRIAGE complements existing tools, allows for the identification of genes that drive cancer and could perhaps elucidate potential future targets of novel anticancer therapeutics. PMID:25949096

  5. PEGylated liposome IHL-305 markedly improved the survival of ovarian cancer peritoneal metastasis in mouse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Advanced ovarian cancer is characterized by peritoneal metastasis and the accumulation of ascites. Peritoneal metastasis of ovarian cancer is a major cause of the negative treatment outcome, as these metastases are resistant to most chemotherapy regimens. The aim of this study was to clarify aggressive pathology of peritoneal metastasis and examine the therapeutic efficacy of a liposomal agent in the model. A human cancer cell line ES-2 of ovarian clear cell carcinoma, known as a chemotherapy-resistant cancer, was cultured in nonadherent plate to form spheroid and single cell suspension was transplanted into mouse peritoneal cavity. The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) pathways in the cellular aggregates were analyzed both spheroid and ascites. The pharmacokinetics and therapeutic efficacy of CPT-11 (45 mg/kg) and IHL-305 (45 mg/kg), an irinotecan-encapsulated liposome, were examined by intravenous administration. Established peritoneal metastasis model showed an accumulation of ascites. The activation of EGFR and Akt was demonstrated in cellular aggregates both in the spheroid and ascites. In ascites samples, the area under the curve of SN-38, the activated form of CPT-11, was 3.8 times higher from IHL-305-treated mice than from CPT-11-treated mice. IHL-305 prolonged the survival time and decreased the accumulation of ascites and tumor metastasis. The median survival time were 22, 37 and 54 days in the control, CPT-11-treated, and IHL-305-treated mice, respectively. EGFR/Akt pathway contributes to the aggressive progression in ES-2 peritoneal metastasis model and effective delivery into ascites of IHL-305 was thought to useful treatment for ovarian cancer with peritoneal metastasis

  6. Preoperative serum PSA and PAP levels and survival in curative prostatic cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aim: It has been established that PSA and PAP are useful tumor markers in diagnosis and therapy follow-up of prostatic cancer. In this work we retrospectively evaluated whether there exists a relationship between preoperative PSA and PAP values and survival of patients following the transurethral resection of prostate. Material and Methods: It has been done a mainly simultaneous radioimmunoassay of PSA and PAP in 52 and 49 patients with carcinoma of prostate, respectively. Survival curves were computed by Kaplan-Meier method. Difference between 2 groups of patients were estimated by log rank test. Results: The values of PSA and PAP ranged 0,3-325,2 ng/ml (median 52,3) and 0,1-204,0 ng/ml (median 6,1), respectively. The mean survival time was 33,9±4,2 months (median 26,4±2,6). Based on optimal decision level in differentiation BPH and prostatic cancer, the patients were divided into 2 groups: PSA36,0ng/ml, PAP4,5ng/ml. No significant difference between survival curves was found concerning of PSA and PAP levels. However, in age groups70 years (age ratio 1,03) the mean survival was 45,05±6,23 (median 29,60±2,26) and 22,09±2,98(median 22,80±3,21 months, respectively. The difference is significant (p=0,002). The geometric mean values of PSA in 70 years group are 45,1 ng/ml and 24,1 ng/ml, respectively. The difference is significant (p70 years group are 7,8 ng/ml and 6,7 ng/ml, respectively. No significant difference. Conclusion: It couldn't be proved that preoperative PSA and PAP levels are prognostic indicators. Examination of age ranges reveals significant survival difference between age groups 70 years indicating age effect on survival

  7. Carboplatin-induced gene expression changes in vitro are prognostic of survival in epithelial ovarian cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cannistra Stephen A

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We performed a time-course microarray experiment to define the transcriptional response to carboplatin in vitro, and to correlate this with clinical outcome in epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC. RNA was isolated from carboplatin and control-treated 36M2 ovarian cancer cells at several time points, followed by oligonucleotide microarray hybridization. Carboplatin induced changes in gene expression were assessed at the single gene as well as at the pathway level. Clinical validation was performed in publicly available microarray datasets using disease free and overall survival endpoints. Results Time-course and pathway analyses identified 317 genes and 40 pathways (designated time-course and pathway signatures deregulated following carboplatin exposure. Both types of signatures were validated in two separate platinum-treated ovarian and NSCLC cell lines using published microarray data. Expression of time-course and pathway signature genes distinguished between patients with unfavorable and favorable survival in two independent ovarian cancer datasets. Among the pathways most highly induced by carboplatin in vitro, the NRF2, NF-kB, and cytokine and inflammatory response pathways were also found to be upregulated prior to chemotherapy exposure in poor prognosis tumors. Conclusion Dynamic assessment of gene expression following carboplatin exposure in vitro can identify both genes and pathways that are correlated with clinical outcome. The functional relevance of this observation for better understanding the mechanisms of drug resistance in EOC will require further evaluation.

  8. The effects of common genetic variants in oncogenes on ovarian cancer survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quaye, L.; Gayther, S.A.; Ramus, S.J.; Cioccio, R.A. Di; McGuire, V.; Hogdall, C.; Blaakr, J.; Easton, D.F.; Ponder, B.A.; Jacobs, I.; Kjaer, S.K.; Whittemore, A.S.; Pearce, C.L.; Pharoah, P.D.; Song, H.; Høgdall, Estrid Vilma Solyom

    2008-01-01

    survival in 1,480 cases of invasive epithelial ovarian cancer cases from three different studies. Cox regression analysis, stratified by study, was used to estimate per rare allele hazard ratios (HR). RESULTS: The minor allele rs6944385 in BRAF was significantly associated with poor survival [HR, 1.19; 95......% confidence intervals (95% CI), 1.02-1.39; P = 0.024]. The association remained after adjusting for prognostic factors (adjusted HR, 1.20; 95 CI, 1.03-1.40; P = 0.018). A haplotype of BRAF was also associated with poor survival (HR, 1.24; 95% CI, 1.02-1.51; P = 0.029) and was more significant after adjustment...... (HR, 1.44; 95% CI, 1.15-1.81; P = 0.001). We also found evidence of an association between a KRAS haplotype and poor survival in serous subtype (HR, 1.69; 95% CI, 1.21-2.38; P = 0.002), but this was no longer significant after adjustment. Finally, when analyses were restricted to the serous histologic...

  9. Survival Benefit of Adjuvant Radiation Therapy for Gastric Cancer following Gastrectomy and Extended Lymphadenectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. A. Snyder

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Although randomized trials suggest a survival benefit of adjuvant chemotherapy and radiation therapy (XRT for gastric adenocarcinoma, its use in patients who undergo an extended lymphadenectomy is less clear. The purpose of this study was to determine if a survival benefit exists in gastric cancer patients who receive adjuvant XRT following resection with extended lymphadenectomy. Methods. The SEER registry was queried for records of patients with resected gastric adenocarcinoma from 1988 to 2007. Multivariable Cox regression models were used to assess independent prognostic factors affecting overall survival (OS and disease-specific survival (DSS. Results. Of 15,060 patients identified, 3,208 (21% received adjuvant XRT. Adjuvant XRT was independently associated with improved OS (HR 0.67, CI 0.64–0.71 and DSS (HR 0.69, CI 0.65–0.73 in stages IB through IV (M0. This OS and DSS benefit persisted regardless of the extent of lymphadenectomy. Furthermore, lymphadenectomy with >25 LN resected was associated with improved OS and DSS compared with 25 LNs results in improved OS and DSS compared with patients who have fewer LNs resected.

  10. Nomogram including pretherapeutic parameters for prediction of survival after SIRT of hepatic metastases from colorectal cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fendler, Wolfgang Peter [Ludwig-Maximilians-University of Munich, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Munich (Germany); Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Nuklearmedizin, Munich (Germany); Ilhan, Harun [Ludwig-Maximilians-University of Munich, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Munich (Germany); Paprottka, Philipp M. [Ludwig-Maximilians-University of Munich, Department of Clinical Radiology, Munich (Germany); Jakobs, Tobias F. [Hospital Barmherzige Brueder, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Munich (Germany); Heinemann, Volker [Ludwig-Maximilians-University of Munich, Department of Internal Medicine III, Munich (Germany); Ludwig-Maximilians-University of Munich, Comprehensive Cancer Center, Munich (Germany); Bartenstein, Peter; Haug, Alexander R. [Ludwig-Maximilians-University of Munich, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Munich (Germany); Ludwig-Maximilians-University of Munich, Comprehensive Cancer Center, Munich (Germany); Khalaf, Feras [University Hospital Bonn, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Bonn (Germany); Ezziddin, Samer [Saarland University Medical Center, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Homburg (Germany); Hacker, Marcus [Vienna General Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Vienna (Austria)

    2015-09-15

    Pre-therapeutic prediction of outcome is important for clinicians and patients in determining whether selective internal radiation therapy (SIRT) is indicated for hepatic metastases of colorectal cancer (CRC). Pre-therapeutic characteristics of 100 patients with colorectal liver metastases (CRLM) treated by radioembolization were analyzed to develop a nomogram for predicting survival. Prognostic factors were selected by univariate Cox regression analysis and subsequent tested by multivariate analysis for predicting patient survival. The nomogram was validated with reference to an external patient cohort (n = 25) from the Bonn University Department of Nuclear Medicine. Of the 13 parameters tested, four were independently associated with reduced patient survival in multivariate analysis. These parameters included no liver surgery before SIRT (HR:1.81, p = 0.014), CEA serum level ≥ 150 ng/ml (HR:2.08, p = 0.001), transaminase toxicity level ≥2.5 x upper limit of normal (HR:2.82, p = 0.001), and summed computed tomography (CT) size of the largest two liver lesions ≥10 cm (HR:2.31, p < 0.001). The area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve for our prediction model was 0.83 for the external patient cohort, indicating superior performance of our multivariate model compared to a model ignoring covariates. The nomogram developed in our study entailing four pre-therapeutic parameters gives good prediction of patient survival post SIRT. (orig.)

  11. Nomogram including pretherapeutic parameters for prediction of survival after SIRT of hepatic metastases from colorectal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pre-therapeutic prediction of outcome is important for clinicians and patients in determining whether selective internal radiation therapy (SIRT) is indicated for hepatic metastases of colorectal cancer (CRC). Pre-therapeutic characteristics of 100 patients with colorectal liver metastases (CRLM) treated by radioembolization were analyzed to develop a nomogram for predicting survival. Prognostic factors were selected by univariate Cox regression analysis and subsequent tested by multivariate analysis for predicting patient survival. The nomogram was validated with reference to an external patient cohort (n = 25) from the Bonn University Department of Nuclear Medicine. Of the 13 parameters tested, four were independently associated with reduced patient survival in multivariate analysis. These parameters included no liver surgery before SIRT (HR:1.81, p = 0.014), CEA serum level ≥ 150 ng/ml (HR:2.08, p = 0.001), transaminase toxicity level ≥2.5 x upper limit of normal (HR:2.82, p = 0.001), and summed computed tomography (CT) size of the largest two liver lesions ≥10 cm (HR:2.31, p < 0.001). The area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve for our prediction model was 0.83 for the external patient cohort, indicating superior performance of our multivariate model compared to a model ignoring covariates. The nomogram developed in our study entailing four pre-therapeutic parameters gives good prediction of patient survival post SIRT. (orig.)

  12. Pre-diagnostic meat and fibre intake in relation to colorectal cancer survival in the "European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition"

    OpenAIRE

    Bradbury, KE; Ward, H.; Norat, T.; Overvad, K; Bueno-de-Mesquita, HB; Dahm, C; Fedirko, F; Jenab, M; van Duijnhoven, F; Skeie, G; Romaguera-Bosch, D.; Tjønneland, A; Carbonnel, F; Affret, A; Olsen, A.

    2016-01-01

    Improvements in colorectal cancer (CRC) detection and treatment have led to greater numbers of CRC survivors, for whom there is limited evidence on which to provide dietary guidelines to improve survival outcomes. Higher intake of red and processed meat and lower intake of fibre are associated with greater risk of developing CRC, but there is limited evidence regarding associations with survival after CRC diagnosis. Among 3789 CRC cases in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer an...

  13. A Lymph Node Ratio of 10% Is Predictive of Survival in Stage III Colon Cancer: A French Regional Study

    OpenAIRE

    Sabbagh, Charles; Mauvais, François; Cosse, Cyril; Rebibo, Lionel; Joly, Jean-Paul; Dromer, Didier; Aubert, Christine; Carton, Sophie; Dron, Bernard; Dadamessi, Innocenti; Maes, Bernard; Perrier, Guillaume; Manaouil, David; Fontaine, Jean-François; Gozy, Michel

    2014-01-01

    Lymph node ratio (LNR) (positive lymph nodes/sampled lymph nodes) is predictive of survival in colon cancer. The aim of the present study was to validate the LNR as a prognostic factor and to determine the optimum LNR cutoff for distinguishing between “good prognosis” and “poor prognosis” colon cancer patients.

  14. Correlation of breast cancer metastases in chest X-rays to symptoms and survival

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Virkkunen, P.; Hietanen, P.; Nyman, M.

    1987-05-01

    The sizes and locations of pulmonary and pleural metastases in chest X-rays of 50 symptomatic and 65 asymptomatic breast cancer patients were compared and correlated to survival. The diameters of the metastases were about the same in both groups as also their distribution. The incidence of pleural fluid was higher in symptomatic patients. The survival curve of symptomatic patients did not deviate from that of the asymptomatic ones. Symptoms in pulmonary metastatic disease do not mean rapid progress of the disease but may be beneficial in that they cause the patient to visit the oncologist early. The cost-effectiveness of chest X-rays in the follow-up is questionable.

  15. Breast cancer molecular subtypes and survival in a hospital-based sample in Puerto Rico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Information on the impact of hormone receptor status subtypes in breast cancer (BC) prognosis is still limited for Hispanics. We aimed to evaluate the association of BC molecular subtypes and other clinical factors with survival in a hospital-based female population of BC cases in Puerto Rico. We analyzed 663 cases of invasive BC diagnosed between 2002 and 2005. Information on HER-2/neu (HER-2) overexpression, estrogen (ER), and progesterone (PR) receptor status and clinical characteristics were retrieved from hospitals cancer registries and record review. Survival probabilities by covariates of interest were described using the Kaplan–Meier estimators. Cox proportional hazards models were employed to assess factors associated with risk of BC death. Overall, 17.3% of BC cases were triple-negative (TN), 61.8% were Luminal-A, 13.3% were Luminal-B, and 7.5% were HER-2 overexpressed. In the multivariate Cox model, among patients with localized stage, women with TN BC had higher risk of death (adjusted hazard ratio [HR]: 2.57, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.29–5.12) as compared to those with Luminal-A status, after adjusting for age at diagnosis. In addition, among women with regional/distant stage at diagnosis, those with TN BC (HR: 5.48, 95% CI: 2.63–11.47) and those HER-2+, including HER-2 overexpressed and Luminal-B, (HR: 2.73, 95% CI:1.30–5.75) had a higher mortality. This is the most comprehensive epidemiological study to date on the impact of hormone receptor expression subtypes in BC survival in Puerto Rico. Consistent to results in other populations, the TN subtype and HER-2+ tumors were associated with decreased survival

  16. Exosomes Derived from Squamous Head and Neck Cancer Promote Cell Survival after Ionizing Radiation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Mutschelknaus

    Full Text Available Exosomes are nanometer-sized extracellular vesicles that are believed to function as intercellular communicators. Here, we report that exosomes are able to modify the radiation response of the head and neck cancer cell lines BHY and FaDu. Exosomes were isolated from the conditioned medium of irradiated as well as non-irradiated head and neck cancer cells by serial centrifugation. Quantification using NanoSight technology indicated an increased exosome release from irradiated compared to non-irradiated cells 24 hours after treatment. To test whether the released exosomes influence the radiation response of other cells the exosomes were transferred to non-irradiated and irradiated recipient cells. We found an enhanced uptake of exosomes isolated from both irradiated and non-irradiated cells by irradiated recipient cells compared to non-irradiated recipient cells. Functional analyses by exosome transfer indicated that all exosomes (from non-irradiated and irradiated donor cells increase the proliferation of non-irradiated recipient cells and the survival of irradiated recipient cells. The survival-promoting effects are more pronounced when exosomes isolated from irradiated compared to non-irradiated donor cells are transferred. A possible mechanism for the increased survival after irradiation could be the increase in DNA double-strand break repair monitored at 6, 8 and 10 h after the transfer of exosomes isolated from irradiated cells. This is abrogated by the destabilization of the exosomes. Our results demonstrate that radiation influences both the abundance and action of exosomes on recipient cells. Exosomes transmit prosurvival effects by promoting the proliferation and radioresistance of head and neck cancer cells. Taken together, this study indicates a functional role of exosomes in the response of tumor cells to radiation exposure within a therapeutic dose range and encourages that exosomes are useful objects of study for a better

  17. Survival of women with locally advanced breast cancer at a teaching hospital in Lahore

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To correlate the clinical features of women presenting with locally advanced breast cancer with event-free survival (EFS) and overall survival (OS) and to evaluate the patterns of relapse. Methods: A total of 200 patients presenting consecutively over 9 years with Stage III breast cancer were evaluated for age, socio-economic status (SES), tumour size and grade, number of involved lymph nodes, stage III sub-categories, estrogen and progesterone receptor (ER/PR) status, treatment profiles and responses, and sites of relapse. EFS and OS at 5 and 10 years were calculated. Results: Median age was 45 years. Poorly differentiated tumours were found in 127 patients, while 128 had larger tumours (T3 and T4). Eighty women had extensive nodal involvement (N2 and N3), and 86 had Stage IIIA tumours. Chemotherapy was given to 44 patients before surgery and one of these patients achieved pathological complete response. At 5 and 10 years, EFS was 25% and 7%, and OS was 52% and 31%, respectively. By Cox regression analysis, significant predictors of EFS included tumour size (95% CI 1.14-1.72), nodal involvement (95% CI 1.06-1.59) and ER/PR positive tumours (95% CI 1.08-2.29). Predictors of OS included nodal involvement (95% CI 0.98-3.3) and ER/PR positive tumours (95% CI 1.08-2.29). No patient in stage IIIC was alive at 10 years. Loco-regional disease was the most common site of relapse (28.5%). Conclusions: Locally advance breast cancer at our centre is associated with poor survival, and most patients relapsed by 5 years. (author)

  18. Chinese female breast cancer patients show a better overall survival than their male counterparts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIA Liang-ping; ZHOU Fei-fei; GUO Gui-fang; WANG Fang; WANG Xi; YUAN Zhong-yu; ZHANG Bei

    2010-01-01

    Backgroud It is not clear if there is a difference in prognosis between male breast cancer (MBC) and female breast cancer (FBC) patients. The aim of this study was to compare the prognosis of MBC and FBC patients in China and the prognosis of MBC and their corresponding postmenopausal FBC patients.Methods Thirty-five MBC patients who were treated at the Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center between 1969 and 2004 were enrolled in the study. Seventy FBC patients who were matched with the MBC patients for TNM stage, year of diagnosis, and age at diagnosis were simultaneously enrolled in the study. A second group comprising 18 MBC patients and their corresponding 36 matched postmenopausal FBC patients were also enrolled. The whole group and the postmenopausal groups were compared for five- and ten-year survivals. Results All the factors that could potentially affect prognosis were comparable among the groups except more FBC than MBC patients underwent endocrine therapy and a modified radical mastectomy. The 5- and 10-year survivals in the whole group were 81.6% and 60.3% for men and 90.7% and 73.5% for women (P=0.02). The 5- and 10-year survival in the postmenopausal group was 82.5% and 100% for men and 66.0% and 85.9% for women (P=0.159).Conclusions Chinese FBC patients had a better prognosis than Chinese MBC patients. However, MBC patients and their corresponding postmenopausal FBC patients had a similar prognosis.

  19. High serum YKL-40 levels in patients with primary breast cancer is related to short recurrence free survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Julia S; Christensen, Ib Jarle; Riisbro, Rikke;

    2003-01-01

    normal serum YKL-40. In the present study we evaluated the associations of preoperative serum YKL-40 in 271 patients with primary breast cancer in relation to relapse-free survival and overall survival. The median follow-up time was 5.9 years. There were 77 relapses and 69 patients died. The median serum......YKL-40 is a growth factor for connective tissue cells and stimulates migration of endothelial cells. YKL-40 is secreted by cancer cells, and elevated serum YKL-40 in patients with metastatic breast cancer and colorectal cancer is associated with a poorer prognosis as compared to patients with...... YKL-40 in patients with primary breast cancer at time of operation is only elevated in a small group of patients, but these patients have a shorter recurrence free interval. Further studies are required to determine the biological function of YKL-40 in breast cancer....

  20. Survival in women with ovarian cancer before and after the introduction of adjuvant paclitaxel; a 25-year, single institution review.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Shireen, R

    2012-02-01

    Adjuvant chemotherapy regime for ovarian cancer patients remains to be a contentious issue. The aim of this study was to compare the overall and progression-free survival of women with ovarian cancer before and after introduction of paclitaxel in our unit in 1992. A sample of 112 women who received adjuvant therapy following surgery for ovarian cancer was collected, 68 (61%) received platinum+alkylating agent before 1992 and later 44 (39%) received platinum+paclitaxel. Five-year survival was same in both treatment groups when there was no macroscopic disease after surgery (78% versus 70%) and when residual disease was <2 cm (50% versus 40%). Survival was greater in women with residual disease >2 cm in the platinum+paclitaxel group (50% versus 24%), (p = 0.04). However, progression-free survival was similar in both groups irrespective of stage or residual volume of disease. Therefore consideration to selective use of paclitaxel could reduce patient morbidity and costs significantly.