Sample records for cancer series nanodevices

  1. Graphene Nanodevices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Calado, V.E.


    This thesis describes a divergent set of experiments on graphene, a one-atom thin sheet of carbon. We employ graphene’s unique properties to explore fundamental physics and novel applications. This is done by nano fabricating graphene to nanodevices, which are subject to experiments. Here we first d

  2. Beyond CMOS nanodevices 1

    CERN Document Server

    Balestra, Francis


    This book offers a comprehensive review of the state-of-the-art in innovative Beyond-CMOS nanodevices for developing novel functionalities, logic and memories dedicated to researchers, engineers and students.  It particularly focuses on the interest of nanostructures and nanodevices (nanowires, small slope switches, 2D layers, nanostructured materials, etc.) for advanced More than Moore (RF-nanosensors-energy harvesters, on-chip electronic cooling, etc.) and Beyond-CMOS logic and memories applications

  3. Beyond CMOS nanodevices 2

    CERN Document Server

    Balestra, Francis


    This book offers a comprehensive review of the state-of-the-art in innovative Beyond-CMOS nanodevices for developing novel functionalities, logic and memories dedicated to researchers, engineers and students. The book will particularly focus on the interest of nanostructures and nanodevices (nanowires, small slope switches, 2D layers, nanostructured materials, etc.) for advanced More than Moore (RF-nanosensors-energy harvesters, on-chip electronic cooling, etc.) and Beyond-CMOS logic and memories applications.

  4. Spintronic Nanodevices for Bioinspired Computing. (United States)

    Grollier, Julie; Querlioz, Damien; Stiles, Mark D


    Bioinspired hardware holds the promise of low-energy, intelligent, and highly adaptable computing systems. Applications span from automatic classification for big data management, through unmanned vehicle control, to control for biomedical prosthesis. However, one of the major challenges of fabricating bioinspired hardware is building ultra-high-density networks out of complex processing units interlinked by tunable connections. Nanometer-scale devices exploiting spin electronics (or spintronics) can be a key technology in this context. In particular, magnetic tunnel junctions (MTJs) are well suited for this purpose because of their multiple tunable functionalities. One such functionality, non-volatile memory, can provide massive embedded memory in unconventional circuits, thus escaping the von-Neumann bottleneck arising when memory and processors are located separately. Other features of spintronic devices that could be beneficial for bioinspired computing include tunable fast nonlinear dynamics, controlled stochasticity, and the ability of single devices to change functions in different operating conditions. Large networks of interacting spintronic nanodevices can have their interactions tuned to induce complex dynamics such as synchronization, chaos, soliton diffusion, phase transitions, criticality, and convergence to multiple metastable states. A number of groups have recently proposed bioinspired architectures that include one or several types of spintronic nanodevices. In this paper, we show how spintronics can be used for bioinspired computing. We review the different approaches that have been proposed, the recent advances in this direction, and the challenges toward fully integrated spintronics complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) bioinspired hardware.

  5. Nanodevices in nature: Electrochemical aspects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Volkov, Alexander G. [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Oakwood College, 7000 Adventist Blvd., Huntsville, AL 35896 (United States)]. E-mail:; Volkova-Gugeshashvili, Maya I. [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Oakwood College, 7000 Adventist Blvd., Huntsville, AL 35896 (United States); Brown-McGauley, Courtney L. [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Oakwood College, 7000 Adventist Blvd., Huntsville, AL 35896 (United States); Osei, Albert J. [Department of Mathematics and Computer Science, Oakwood College, 7000 Adventist Blvd., Huntsville, AL 35896 (United States)


    Electrochemical multielectron reactions in photosynthesis and respiration are evaluated by thermodynamic and kinetic analysis. Kharkats and Volkov [Yu.I. Kharkats, A.G. Volkov, Biochim. Biophys. Acta 891 (1987) 56] were the first to present proof that cytochrome c oxidase reduces molecular oxygen by synchronous multielectron mechanism without O{sub 2} {sup -} intermediate formation. After this pioneering observation, it became clear that the first step of oxygen reduction is two-electron concerted process. The energy for the H{sup +}-pump of cytochrome oxidase is liberated when the third and fourth electrons are added in the last two steps of water formation independent of the reaction pathway. Electrochemical principles govern many biological properties of organisms, such as the generation of electric fields, and the conduction of fast excitation waves. These properties are supported by the function of a variety of natural nanodevices. Ionic channels, as natural nanodevices, control the plasma membrane potential, and the movement of ions across membranes; thereby, regulating various biological functions. Some voltage-gated ion channels work as plasma membrane nanopotentiostats. In plants, excitation waves are possible mechanisms for intercellular and intracellular communication in response to environmental changes. The role of electrified nanointerface of the plasma membrane in signal transduction is discussed as well.

  6. Infectious Agents and Cancer Epidemiology Research Webinar Series (United States)

    Infectious Agents and Cancer Epidemiology Research Webinar Series highlights emerging and cutting-edge research related to infection-associated cancers, shares scientific knowledge about technologies and methods, and fosters cross-disciplinary discussions on infectious agents and cancer epidemiology.

  7. Transport in multiterminal graphene nanodevices. (United States)

    Jayasekera, Thushari; Mintmire, J W


    We study the transport properties of multiterminal graphene nanodevices using the Landauer-Buttiker approach and the tight binding model. We consider a four-terminal device made at the crossing of a zigzag and armchair nanoribbons and two types of T-junction devices. The transport properties of graphene multiterminal devices are highly sensitive to the details of the junction region. Thus the properties are drastically different from those on the armchair and zigzag counterparts. In the cross-junction device, we see a conductance dip in the armchair lead associated with a conductance peak in the zigzag lead. We find that this effect is enhanced in a T-junction device with one armchair sidearm.

  8. Graphene nanodevices for DNA sequencing (United States)

    Heerema, Stephanie J.; Dekker, Cees


    Fast, cheap, and reliable DNA sequencing could be one of the most disruptive innovations of this decade, as it will pave the way for personalized medicine. In pursuit of such technology, a variety of nanotechnology-based approaches have been explored and established, including sequencing with nanopores. Owing to its unique structure and properties, graphene provides interesting opportunities for the development of a new sequencing technology. In recent years, a wide range of creative ideas for graphene sequencers have been theoretically proposed and the first experimental demonstrations have begun to appear. Here, we review the different approaches to using graphene nanodevices for DNA sequencing, which involve DNA passing through graphene nanopores, nanogaps, and nanoribbons, and the physisorption of DNA on graphene nanostructures. We discuss the advantages and problems of each of these key techniques, and provide a perspective on the use of graphene in future DNA sequencing technology.

  9. EDITORIAL: Nanodevices come to life Nanodevices come to life (United States)

    Demming, Anna


    In the late 1990s, progress in nanofabrication techniques enabled scientists to generate structures with unprecedented control over feature size. At nanosizes inorganic devices could conceivably be compatible with the force production and dimensions of biomolecular motors. In addition, advances in molecular biology around the same time galvanized the field of research into hybrid organic/inorganic nanosystems: research into nanodevice development had truly come to life. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) has played a pivotal role in the characterization of biomaterials and biosensing [1]. First developed by Bining, Quate and Gerber in the mid 80s [2] AFM extended the potential of scanning probe techniques to insulating surfaces, a property that had previously caused limitations for applying high-resolution scanning tunnelling microscopy to biological systems. AFM is now a potent imaging and sensing tool, and recent developments towards high-speed imaging have further developed the potential of this technology to follow the dynamics of biological processes [3,4]. A number of new tools and techniques have been developed in order to investigate how the best attributes of the organic and inorganic worlds can be exploited to study and create nano-electro-mechanical systems powered by biological motors and chemical energy sources. Researchers at Cornell University in the US investigated the potential of a hybrid organic/inorganic nanoscale system that both provides insight into the basic mechanics of motor protein motion and establishes a technological foundation for functionally integrating these molecules with manufactured devices [5]. In their work, F1-ATPase was attached to a nanofabricated substrate with the γ subunit of the molecule attached to a microsphere. By measuring the movement of the microsphere using a differential interferometer, the rotational velocity and angle of deformation of the γ subunit could be monitored. Microspheres have since been widely used to

  10. CHAIRMAN'S FOREWORD: First International Symposium on Advanced Nanodevices and Nanotechnology (United States)

    Aoyagi, Yoshinobu; Goodnick, Stephen M.


    This volume of Journal of Physics: Conference Series contains selected papers from the First International Symposium on Advanced Nanodevices and Nanotechnology. This conference is a merging of the two previous series New Phenomena in Mesoscopic Structures and the Surfaces and Interfaces of Mesoscopic Devices. This year's conference was held 2-7 December 2007 at the Waikoloa Beach Marriott on the Kohala coast of the big island of Hawaii. The scope of ISANN spans nano-fabrication through complex phase coherent mesoscopic systems including nano-transistors and nano-scale characterization. Topics of interest included: Nano-scale fabrication (high-resolution electron lithography, FIB nano-patterning SFM lithography, SFM stimulated growth, novel patterning, nano-imprint lithography, special etching, and SAMs) Nano-characterization (SFM characterization, BEEM, optical studies of nanostructures, tunneling, properties of discrete impurities, phase coherence, noise, THz studies, electro-luminescence in small structures) Nano-devices (ultra-scaled FETs, quantum SETs, RTDs, ferromagnetic, and spin devices, superlattice arrays, IR detectors with quantum dots and wires, quantum point contacts, non-equilibrium transport, simulation, ballistic transport, molecular electronic devices, carbon nanotubes, spin selection devices, spin-coupled quantum dots, nano-magnetics) Quantum coherent transport (quantum Hall effect, ballistic quantum systems, quantum computing implementations and theory, magnetic spin systems, quantum NEMs) Mesoscopic structures (quantum wires and dots, chaos, non-equilibrium transport, instabilities, nano-electro-mechanical systems, mesoscopic Josephson effects, phase coherence and breaking, Kondo effect) Systems of nano-devices (QCAs, systolic SET processors, quantum neural nets, adaptive effects in circuits, molecular circuits, NEMs) Nanomaterials (nanotubes, nanowires, organic and molecular materials, self-assembled nanowires, organic devices) Nano

  11. Genome Science and Personalized Cancer Treatment (LBNL Summer Lecture Series)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gray, Joe


    Summer Lecture Series 2009: Results from the Human Genome Project are enabling scientists to understand how individual cancers form and progress. This information, when combined with newly developed drugs, can optimize the treatment of individual cancers. Joe Gray, director of Berkeley Labs Life Sciences Division and Associate Laboratory Director for Life and Environmental Sciences, will focus on this approach, its promise, and its current roadblocks — particularly with regard to breast cancer.

  12. Biosensors based on nanomaterials and nanodevices

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Jun


    Biosensors Based on Nanomaterials and Nanodevices links interdisciplinary research from leading experts to provide graduate students, academics, researchers, and industry professionals alike with a comprehensive source for key advancements and future trends in nanostructured biosensor development. It describes the concepts, principles, materials, device fabrications, functions, system integrations, and applications of various types of biosensors based on signal transduction mechanisms, including fluorescence, photonic crystal, surface-enhanced Raman scattering, electrochemistry, electro-lumine

  13. Stars in Nutrition and Cancer Lecture Series | Division of Cancer Prevention (United States)

    This lecture series features extraordinary contributors or "stars" in the field of cancer and nutrition research. Speakers highlight the important role that nutrition plays in modifying cancer development. Past lectures are videotaped and available for viewing. |

  14. Spins in Thin Films and Nanodevices (United States)

    Tabor, Phillip

    The central theme of this work is the engineering of devices and materials that exhibit spin dependent phenomena. In particular, the spin orientation of charge carriers can play a central role in transport, especially in magnetic or other spin correlated media. Propagation of charge carriers with net spin results in a transfer of angular momentum that can excite static and dynamical states in active device elements. To utilize such phenomena in practical devices, new mew means of device characterization and optimization must be developed. To that end, we have performed experiments which elucidate some of the mechanisms underlying spin dependent transport phenomena. We report the observation of hysteretic synchronization of point contact spin torque nano-oscillators (STNOs) by a microwave magnetic field. The hysteresis was asymmetric with respect to the frequency detuning of the driving signal, and appeared in the region of a strong dependence of the oscillation frequency on the bias current. Theoretical analysis showed that hysteretic synchronization occurred when the width of the synchronization range, enhanced by the oscillator's nonlinearity, became comparable to the dissipation rate, while the observed asymmetry was a consequence of the nonlinear dependence of frequency on the bias current. Another emergent phenomenon was a series of fractional synchronization regimes in a STNO driven by a microwave field. These regimes are characterized by rational relations between the driving frequency and the frequency of the oscillation. Analysis based on the phase model of auto-oscillator indicates that fractional synchronization becomes possible when the driving signal breaks the symmetry of the oscillation, while the synchronization ranges are determined by the geometry of the oscillation orbit. Measurements of fractional synchronization were utilized to obtain information about the oscillation characteristics in nanoscale systems not accessible to direct imaging

  15. Nanodevices and Nanomaterials for Ecological Security

    CERN Document Server

    Kiv, Arnold


      This book is devoted to a wide range of problems concerning applications of nanomaterials and nanodevices as effective solutions to modern ecological problems. Leading experts in nanoscience and nanotechnology present the key theoretical, experimental and implementation issues related to the creation and utilization of novel nanoscale devices to help ensure ecological security. The authors discuss appropriate nanotechnologies for minimizing various types of risk: to human life, technogenic risk, or indeed terrorist threats. Particular emphasis is placed on defining and studying the required materials properties, and – in the field – on nanoscale devices for sensors and monitoring.

  16. Hybrid CMOS/Nanodevice Integrated Circuits Design and Fabrication (United States)


    This approach combines a semiconductor transistor system with a nanowire crossbar, with simple two-terminal nanodevices self-assembled at each...hybrid CMOS/nanodevice integrated circuits [10-12]. Such circuit combines a semiconductor transistors system with a nanowire crossbar, with simple two...both with and without embedded metallic clusters), self-assembled molecular monolayers, and thin chalcogenide and crystalline perovskite layers [20

  17. Characterization of Adiabatic Noise in Charge-Based Coherent Nanodevices (United States)

    D'Arrigo, A.; Falci, G.; Mastellone, A.; Paladino, E.


    Low-frequency noise, often with 1/f spectrum, has been recognized as the main mechanism of decoherence in present-day solid state coherent nanodevices. The responsible degrees of freedom are almost static during the coherent time evolution of the device leading to effects analogous to inhomogeneous broadening in NMR. Here we present a characterization of the effects of adiabatic noise exploiting the tunability of nanodevices.

  18. Electronic Activation of a DNA Nanodevice Using a Multilayer Nanofilm. (United States)

    Jeong, Hyejoong; Ranallo, Simona; Rossetti, Marianna; Heo, Jiwoong; Shin, Jooseok; Park, Kwangyong; Ricci, Francesco; Hong, Jinkee


    A method to control activation of a DNA nanodevice by supplying a complementary DNA (cDNA) strand from an electro-responsive nanoplatform is reported. To develop functional nanoplatform, hexalayer nanofilm is precisely designed by layer-by-layer assembly technique based on electrostatic interaction with four kinds of materials: Hydrolyzed poly(β-amino ester) can help cDNA release from the film. A cDNA is used as a key building block to activate DNA nanodevice. Reduced graphene oxides (rGOs) and the conductive polymer provide conductivity. In particular, rGOs efficiently incorporate a cDNA in the film via several interactions and act as a barrier. Depending on the types of applied electronic stimuli (reductive and oxidative potentials), a cDNA released from the electrode can quantitatively control the activation of DNA nanodevice. From this report, a new system is successfully demonstrated to precisely control DNA release on demand. By applying more advanced form of DNA-based nanodevices into multilayer system, the electro-responsive nanoplatform will expand the availability of DNA nanotechnology allowing its improved application in areas such as diagnosis, biosensing, bioimaging, and drug delivery.

  19. Enabling technology for MEMS and nanodevices

    CERN Document Server

    Baltes, Henry; Fedder, Gary K; Hierold, Christofer; Korvink, Jan G; Tabata, Osamu


    This softcover edition of the eponymous volume from the successful ""Advanced Micro & Nanosystems"" series covers all aspects of fabrication of MEMS under CMOS-compatible conditions from design to implementation.It examines the various routes and methods to combine electronics generated by the CMOS technology with novel micromechanical parts into one-chip solutions. Various approaches, fundamental and technological aspects as well as strategies leading to different types of functionalities and presented in detail.For the practicing engineer as well as MSc and PhD students on MEMS cours

  20. In vivo toxicity evaluation of gold-dendrimer composite nanodevices with different surface charges. (United States)

    Kasturirangan, Venugopalan; Nair, Bindu M; Kariapper, Muhammed T S; Lesniak, Wojciech G; Tan, Wei; Bizimungu, Remy; Kanter, Peter; Toth, Karoly; Buitrago, Sandra; Rustum, Youcef M; Hutson, Alan; Balogh, Lajos P; Khan, Mohamed K


    Composite nanodevices (CNDs) are multifunctional nanomaterials with potential uses in cancer imaging and therapy. Poly(amidoamine) dendrimer-based composite nanodevices are important members of this group and consist of an organic dendrimer component and an incorporated inorganic component, in this case, gold. This study addresses the short- (14 days) and long-term (78 days) in vivo toxicity of generation-5 (G5; 5 nm) PAMAM dendrimer-based gold-CNDs (Au-CNDs) with varying surface charges (positive, negative and neutral) in C57BL/6J male mice. Detailed toxicological analyses of (1) body weight changes, (2) serum chemistry and (3) histopathological examination of 22 organs showed no evidence of organ injury or organ function compromise. Zeta potential of Au-CNDs showed significant change from their parent dendrimers upon gold incorporation, making the normally lethal positive surface dendrimer biologically safe. Also homeostatic mechanisms in vivo may compensate/repair toxic effects, something not seen with in vitro assays.

  1. Protein cages, rings and tubes: useful components of future nanodevices?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan G Heddle


    Full Text Available Jonathan G HeddleGlobal Edge Institute, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Nagatsuda, Midori-ku, Yokohama Kanagawa, JapanAbstract: There is a great deal of interest in the possibility that complex nanoscale devices can be designed and engineered. Such devices will lead to the development of new materials, electronics and smart drugs. Producing complex nanoscale devices, however will present many challenges and the components of such devices will require a number of special features. Devices will be engineered to incorporate desired functionalities but, because of the difficulties of controlling matter precisely at the nanoscale with current technology, the nanodevice components must self-assemble. In addition, nanocomponents that are to have wide applicability in various devices must have enough flexibility to integrate into a large number of potentially very different environments. These challenges are daunting and complex, and artificial nanodevices have not yet been constructed. However, the existence of nanomachines in nature in the form of proteins (eg, enzymes suggests that they will be possible to produce. As the material from which nature’s nanomachines are made, proteins seem ideal to form the basis of engineered components of such nanodevices. Initially, engineering projects may focus on building blocks such as rings, cages and tubes, examples of which exist in nature and may act as a useful start point for modification and further development. This review focuses on the recent research and possible future development of such protein building blocks.Keywords: bionanotechnology, protein engineering, nanomachine, building-blocks, synthetic biology

  2. Design of dendrimer-based drug delivery nanodevices with enhanced therapeutic efficacies (United States)

    Kannan, Rangaramanujam


    Dendrimers and hyperbranched polymers possess highly branched architectures, with a large number of controllable, tailorable, `peripheral' functionalities. Since the surface chemistry of these materials can be modified with relative ease, these materials have tremendous potential in targeted drug delivery. They have significant potential compared to liposomes and nanoparticles, because of the reduced macrophage update, increased cellular transport, and the ability to modulate the local environment through functional groups. We are developing nanodevices based on dendritic systems for drug delivery, that contain a high drug payload, ligands, and imaging agents, resulting in `smart' drug delivery devices that can target, deliver, and signal. In collaboration with the Children's Hospital of Michigan, Karmanos Cancer Institute, and College of Pharmacy, we are testing the in vitro and in vivo response of these nanodevices, by adapting the chemistry for specific clinical applications such as asthma and cancer. These materials are characterized by UV/Vis spectroscopy, flow cytometry, fluorescence/confocal microscopy, and appropriate animal models. Our results suggest that: (1) We can prepare drug-dendrimer conjugates with drug payloads of greater than 50%, for a variety of drugs; (2) The dendritic polymers are capable of transporting and delivering drugs into cells faster than free drugs, with superior therapeutic efficiency. This can be modulated by the surface functionality of the dendrimer; (3) For chemotherapy drugs, the conjugates are a factor of 6-20 times more effective even in drug-resistant cell lines; (4) For corticosteroidal drugs, the dendritic polymers provide higher drug residence times in the lung, allowing for passive targeting. The ability of the drug-dendrimer-ligand conjugates to target specific asthma and cancer cells is currently being explored using in vitro and in vivo animal models.

  3. Marantic Endocarditis Associated with Pancreatic Cancer: A Case Series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gayle S. Jameson


    Full Text Available Marantic endocarditis, otherwise known as nonbacterial thrombotic endocarditis (NBTE, is a well-documented phenomenon due to hypercoagulability from an underlying cause. It has been associated with a variety of inflammatory states including malignancy. Surprisingly, although hypercoagulability is often seen in patients with pancreatic cancer, marantic endocarditis has rarely been reported antemortem in this population. We report three cases of marantic endocarditis in patients with advanced pancreatic cancer. In two instances, the patients’ neurological symptoms preceded the diagnosis of advanced pancreatic cancer. Health care professionals should be alert to the possibility of marantic endocarditis in any patient with cancer, especially pancreatic cancer, who presents with symptoms of neurological dysfunction or an arterial thrombotic event. Prompt diagnosis and treatment with heparin, unfractionated or low molecular weight, may prevent catastrophic CNS events and decrease morbidity in patients with pancreatic cancer and other malignancies.

  4. Gastric Metastasis of Breast Cancer: A Case Series (United States)

    dos Santos Fernandes, Gustavo; Batista Bugiato Faria, Luiza D.; de Assis Pereira, Isadora; Neves, Natália C. Moreira; Vieira, Yasmine Oliveira; Leal, Alessandro I. Cavalcanti


    Gastric metastasis is rare but it can be the initial symptom of cancer. The second leading cause of this type of metastasis is breast cancer. A lack of clinical signs and nonspecific side effects of the treatment of primary tumors can lead to the misdiagnosis of metastatic gastric cancer. Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy with biopsy and immunohistochemistry should be used for diagnosis. Treatment is palliative; it includes chemo, endocrine, and radiation therapies. Four patients with breast cancer and gastric metastasis were identified. All the patients tested positive for estrogen and progesterone receptors, and received chemotherapy and hormone therapy. One patient underwent surgery and two received radiation therapy. Patients with breast cancer and gastrointestinal symptoms should be investigated for gastric metastasis, given its morbidity and negative impact on quality of life.

  5. Sequencing Strategies for Population and Cancer Epidemiology Studies (SeqSPACE) Webinar Series (United States)

    The Sequencing Strategies for Population and Cancer Epidemiology Studies (SeqSPACE) Webinar Series provides an opportunity for our grantees and other interested individuals to share lessons learned and practical information regarding the application of next generation sequencing to cancer epidemiology studies.

  6. Qigong program on insomnia and stress in cancer patients: A case series report


    Seungmo Kim; Sangnam Lee; Osung Kwon; Seonghoon Park; Jungchul Seo; Kyungsoon Kim


    Background: In recent years, the interest in Qigong as an alternative therapy has grown following reports of its ability to regulate psychological factors in cancer patients. This is a case series to evaluate the outcome measures of Qigong when used as an adjunct to standard medical care to treat insomnia and stress in cancer patients. Patients and methods: The Qigong program was applied to four cancer patients with insomnia, stress, and anxiety. The program consisted of 30-min sessions invol...

  7. Breast Cancer in Transgender Veterans: A Ten-Case Series. (United States)

    Brown, George R


    All known cases of breast cancer in patients with a diagnosis consistent with transgender identification were identified in the Veterans Health Administration (1996-2013). Ten cases were confirmed: seven birth sex females and three birth sex males. Of the three birth sex males, two identified as gender dysphoric male-to-female and one identified as transgender with transvestic fetishism. The birth sex males all presented with late-stage disease that proved fatal, whereas most of the birth sex female transgender veterans presented with earlier stage disease that could be treated. These cases support the importance of screening for breast cancer using standard guidelines in birth sex males and females. Family history of breast cancer should be obtained from transgender people as part of routine care. This report expands the known cases of breast cancer in transgender persons from 5 to 12 (female-to-male) and from 10 to 13 (male-to-female).

  8. Biomolecular Specificity Regulated Synthesis of Nanocatalysts and Heterointegration of Photosynthesis Nanodevices (United States)


    heterointegration of photosynthesis nanodevices The views, opinions and/or findings contained in this report are those of the author(s) and should...and heterointegration of photosynthesis nanodevices Report Title Tandem catalysis represents a revolutionary catalysis philosophy. Rational design...heterointegration of photosynthesis nanodevices W911NF0910433S Final Report (9/1/14-8/25/15) Yu Huang, UCLA. (Program Officer: John Prater) 1. Objectives and

  9. Patients with Acromegaly Presenting with Colon Cancer: A Case Series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murray B. Gordon


    Full Text Available Introduction. Frequent colonoscopy screenings are critical for early diagnosis of colon cancer in patients with acromegaly. Case Presentations. We performed a retrospective analysis of the incidental diagnoses of colon cancer from the ACCESS trial ( identifier: NCT01995734. Colon cancer was identified in 2 patients (4.5%. Case  1 patient was a 36-year-old male with acromegaly who underwent transsphenoidal surgery to remove the pituitary adenoma. After surgery, the patient underwent routine colonoscopy screening, which revealed a 40 mm tubular adenoma in the descending colon. A T1N1a carcinoma was surgically removed, and 1 of 22 lymph nodes was positive for metastatic disease, leading to a diagnosis of stage 3 colon cancer. Case  2 patient was a 50-year-old male with acromegaly who underwent transsphenoidal surgery to remove a 2 cm pituitary adenoma. The patient reported severe cramping and lower abdominal pain, and an invasive 8.1 cm3 grade 2 adenocarcinoma with signet rings was identified in the ascending colon and removed. Of the 37 lymph nodes, 34 were positive for the presence of tumor cells, and stage 3c colon cancer was confirmed. Conclusion. Current guidelines for colonoscopy screening at the time of diagnosis of acromegaly and at appropriate follow-up intervals should be followed.

  10. Patients with Acromegaly Presenting with Colon Cancer: A Case Series (United States)

    Nakhle, Samer; Ludlam, William H.


    Introduction. Frequent colonoscopy screenings are critical for early diagnosis of colon cancer in patients with acromegaly. Case Presentations. We performed a retrospective analysis of the incidental diagnoses of colon cancer from the ACCESS trial ( identifier: NCT01995734). Colon cancer was identified in 2 patients (4.5%). Case  1 patient was a 36-year-old male with acromegaly who underwent transsphenoidal surgery to remove the pituitary adenoma. After surgery, the patient underwent routine colonoscopy screening, which revealed a 40 mm tubular adenoma in the descending colon. A T1N1a carcinoma was surgically removed, and 1 of 22 lymph nodes was positive for metastatic disease, leading to a diagnosis of stage 3 colon cancer. Case  2 patient was a 50-year-old male with acromegaly who underwent transsphenoidal surgery to remove a 2 cm pituitary adenoma. The patient reported severe cramping and lower abdominal pain, and an invasive 8.1 cm3 grade 2 adenocarcinoma with signet rings was identified in the ascending colon and removed. Of the 37 lymph nodes, 34 were positive for the presence of tumor cells, and stage 3c colon cancer was confirmed. Conclusion. Current guidelines for colonoscopy screening at the time of diagnosis of acromegaly and at appropriate follow-up intervals should be followed. PMID:28025627

  11. Effects of low-frequency noise in driven coherent nanodevices (United States)

    Falci, G.; Berritta, M.; Russo, A.; D'Arrigo, A.; Paladino, E.


    We study the effect of low-frequency noise in ac-driven two- or many-level coherent nanodevices. Fluctuations in the properties of the device are translated into equivalent fluctuations of the driving fields. The impact on Rabi oscillations can be modulated with the detuning and minimized at resonance. In three-level atoms slow noise produces qualitative changes for protocols as coherent population transfer. We propose a strategy allowing us to operate at parity symmetry points, where the device is well protected against noise, despite selection rules preventing direct couplings to external fields of involved transitions.

  12. Electronic and optoelectronic nano-devices based on carbon nanotubes. (United States)

    Scarselli, M; Castrucci, P; De Crescenzi, M


    The discovery and understanding of nanoscale phenomena and the assembly of nanostructures into different devices are among the most promising fields of material science research. In this scenario, carbon nanostructures have a special role since, in having only one chemical element, they allow physical properties to be calculated with high precision for comparison with experiment. Carbon nanostructures, and carbon nanotubes (CNTs) in particular, have such remarkable electronic and structural properties that they are used as active building blocks for a large variety of nanoscale devices. We review here the latest advances in research involving carbon nanotubes as active components in electronic and optoelectronic nano-devices. Opportunities for future research are also identified.

  13. Neuroinfection as a Mask of Lung Cancer: A Case Series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beata Kuklińska


    Full Text Available Introduction. The diagnosis of lung cancer may still be difficult due to the fact that the first symptoms very often mimic symptoms of other diseases. Case Presentation. In this paper we present two cases, in which initial diagnosis of neuroinfection delayed proper diagnosis. Conclusion. Based on our experience we concluded that neurological symptoms in the area endemic for tick-borne diseases suggesting neuroinfection require careful differential diagnosis. Moreover, neurological symptoms in heavy smokers may be associated with metastases of lung cancer.

  14. Neuroinfection as a Mask of Lung Cancer: A Case Series (United States)

    Kuklińska, Beata; Moniuszko-Malinowska, Anna; Mróz, Robert; Pancewicz, Sławomir; Zajkowska, Joanna


    Introduction. The diagnosis of lung cancer may still be difficult due to the fact that the first symptoms very often mimic symptoms of other diseases. Case Presentation. In this paper we present two cases, in which initial diagnosis of neuroinfection delayed proper diagnosis. Conclusion. Based on our experience we concluded that neurological symptoms in the area endemic for tick-borne diseases suggesting neuroinfection require careful differential diagnosis. Moreover, neurological symptoms in heavy smokers may be associated with metastases of lung cancer. PMID:27239354

  15. Mechatronic Development and Vision Feedback Control of a Nanorobotics Manipulation System inside SEM for Nanodevice Assembly (United States)

    Yang, Zhan; Wang, Yaqiong; Yang, Bin; Li, Guanghui; Chen, Tao; Nakajima, Masahiro; Sun, Lining; Fukuda, Toshio


    Carbon nanotubes (CNT) have been developed in recent decades for nanodevices such as nanoradios, nanogenerators, carbon nanotube field effect transistors (CNTFETs) and so on, indicating that the application of CNTs for nanoscale electronics may play a key role in the development of nanotechnology. Nanorobotics manipulation systems are a promising method for nanodevice construction and assembly. For the purpose of constructing three-dimensional CNTFETs, a nanorobotics manipulation system with 16 DOFs was developed for nanomanipulation of nanometer-scale objects inside the specimen chamber of a scanning electron microscope (SEM). Nanorobotics manipulators are assembled into four units with four DOFs (X-Y-Z-θ) individually. The rotational one is actuated by a picomotor. That means a manipulator has four DOFs including three linear motions in the X, Y, Z directions and a 360-degree rotational one (X-Y-Z-θ stage, θ is along the direction rotating with X or Y axis). Manipulators are actuated by picomotors with better than 30 nm linear resolution and <1 micro-rad rotary resolution. Four vertically installed AFM cantilevers (the axis of the cantilever tip is vertical to the axis of electronic beam of SEM) served as the end-effectors to facilitate the real-time observation of the operations. A series of kinematic derivations of these four manipulators based on the Denavit-Hartenberg (D-H) notation were established. The common working space of the end-effectors is 2.78 mm by 4.39 mm by 6 mm. The manipulation strategy and vision feedback control for multi-manipulators operating inside the SEM chamber were been discussed. Finally, application of the designed nanorobotics manipulation system by successfully testing of the pickup-and-place manipulation of an individual CNT onto four probes was described. The experimental results have shown that carbon nanotubes can be successfully picked up with this nanorobotics manipulation system. PMID:27649180

  16. Mechatronic Development and Vision Feedback Control of a Nanorobotics Manipulation System inside SEM for Nanodevice Assembly. (United States)

    Yang, Zhan; Wang, Yaqiong; Yang, Bin; Li, Guanghui; Chen, Tao; Nakajima, Masahiro; Sun, Lining; Fukuda, Toshio


    Carbon nanotubes (CNT) have been developed in recent decades for nanodevices such as nanoradios, nanogenerators, carbon nanotube field effect transistors (CNTFETs) and so on, indicating that the application of CNTs for nanoscale electronics may play a key role in the development of nanotechnology. Nanorobotics manipulation systems are a promising method for nanodevice construction and assembly. For the purpose of constructing three-dimensional CNTFETs, a nanorobotics manipulation system with 16 DOFs was developed for nanomanipulation of nanometer-scale objects inside the specimen chamber of a scanning electron microscope (SEM). Nanorobotics manipulators are assembled into four units with four DOFs (X-Y-Z-θ) individually. The rotational one is actuated by a picomotor. That means a manipulator has four DOFs including three linear motions in the X, Y, Z directions and a 360-degree rotational one (X-Y-Z-θ stage, θ is along the direction rotating with X or Y axis). Manipulators are actuated by picomotors with better than 30 nm linear resolution and <1 micro-rad rotary resolution. Four vertically installed AFM cantilevers (the axis of the cantilever tip is vertical to the axis of electronic beam of SEM) served as the end-effectors to facilitate the real-time observation of the operations. A series of kinematic derivations of these four manipulators based on the Denavit-Hartenberg (D-H) notation were established. The common working space of the end-effectors is 2.78 mm by 4.39 mm by 6 mm. The manipulation strategy and vision feedback control for multi-manipulators operating inside the SEM chamber were been discussed. Finally, application of the designed nanorobotics manipulation system by successfully testing of the pickup-and-place manipulation of an individual CNT onto four probes was described. The experimental results have shown that carbon nanotubes can be successfully picked up with this nanorobotics manipulation system.

  17. Mechatronic Development and Vision Feedback Control of a Nanorobotics Manipulation System inside SEM for Nanodevice Assembly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhan Yang


    Full Text Available Carbon nanotubes (CNT have been developed in recent decades for nanodevices such as nanoradios, nanogenerators, carbon nanotube field effect transistors (CNTFETs and so on, indicating that the application of CNTs for nanoscale electronics may play a key role in the development of nanotechnology. Nanorobotics manipulation systems are a promising method for nanodevice construction and assembly. For the purpose of constructing three-dimensional CNTFETs, a nanorobotics manipulation system with 16 DOFs was developed for nanomanipulation of nanometer-scale objects inside the specimen chamber of a scanning electron microscope (SEM. Nanorobotics manipulators are assembled into four units with four DOFs (X-Y-Z-θ individually. The rotational one is actuated by a picomotor. That means a manipulator has four DOFs including three linear motions in the X, Y, Z directions and a 360-degree rotational one (X-Y-Z-θ stage, θ is along the direction rotating with X or Y axis. Manipulators are actuated by picomotors with better than 30 nm linear resolution and <1 micro-rad rotary resolution. Four vertically installed AFM cantilevers (the axis of the cantilever tip is vertical to the axis of electronic beam of SEM served as the end-effectors to facilitate the real-time observation of the operations. A series of kinematic derivations of these four manipulators based on the Denavit-Hartenberg (D-H notation were established. The common working space of the end-effectors is 2.78 mm by 4.39 mm by 6 mm. The manipulation strategy and vision feedback control for multi-manipulators operating inside the SEM chamber were been discussed. Finally, application of the designed nanorobotics manipulation system by successfully testing of the pickup-and-place manipulation of an individual CNT onto four probes was described. The experimental results have shown that carbon nanotubes can be successfully picked up with this nanorobotics manipulation system.

  18. Precision shape modification of nanodevices with a low-energy electron beam (United States)

    Zettl, Alex; Yuzvinsky, Thomas David; Fennimore, Adam


    Methods of shape modifying a nanodevice by contacting it with a low-energy focused electron beam are disclosed here. In one embodiment, a nanodevice may be permanently reformed to a different geometry through an application of a deforming force and a low-energy focused electron beam. With the addition of an assist gas, material may be removed from the nanodevice through application of the low-energy focused electron beam. The independent methods of shape modification and material removal may be used either individually or simultaneously. Precision cuts with accuracies as high as 10 nm may be achieved through the use of precision low-energy Scanning Electron Microscope scan beams. These methods may be used in an automated system to produce nanodevices of very precise dimensions. These methods may be used to produce nanodevices of carbon-based, silicon-based, or other compositions by varying the assist gas.

  19. Snus (nass and oral cancer: A case series report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Alsadat Hashemipour


    Full Text Available Snus (nass is a form of snuff used in a similar manner to American dipping tobacco, but it does not typically result in a need for spitting. Possible hazards associated with this material include malignant and premalignant lesions in the oral cavity and gastrointestinal tract. The use of smokeless tobacco has increased in the Middle East in recent decades, particularly among teenagers and young adults. Therefore, practitioners must be able to recognize malignant and premalignant lesions. Although, an estimated 10-25% of the world′s population uses smokeless tobacco, this practice is virtually unknown in Iran. The aim of this study is to report a series of cases of squamous cell carcinoma and verrucous carcinoma occurring in the users of snus, who referred to the Department of Oral Medicine in Kerman Dental School.

  20. Carbon-based nanodevices for sensors, actuators, and electronics (United States)

    Yang, E. H.; Strauf, S.; Fisher, F.; Choi, D. S.


    We are pursuing several projects aimed at developing carbon-based nanodevices for sensing, actuation, and nanoelectronics applications. In one project, we are seeking to fabricate and characterize carbon nanotube quantum dots (CNT-QDs) with potential application as future electronic memories with high-performance, bandwidth, and throughput. In a second effort, we have used pulsed laser deposition (PLD) to create thermal bimorph nanoactuators based on multi-wall nano tubes (MWNTs) coated on one side with a thin metal film. Lastly, graphene materials are being studied to investigate its field emission properties for vacuum electronics and to exploit its differential conductivity. These devices have potential in a wide range of applications including sensors, detectors, system-on-a-chip, system-in-a-package, programmable logic controls, energy storage systems and all-electronic systems.

  1. Surface effects in metal oxide-based nanodevices

    KAUST Repository

    Lien, Der Hsien


    As devices shrink to the nanoscale, surface-to-volume ratio increases and the surface-environment interaction becomes a major factor for affecting device performance. The variation of electronic properties, including the surface band bending, gas chemisorption or photodesorption, native surface defects, and surface roughness, is called "surface effects". Such effects are ambiguous because they can be either negative or beneficial effects, depending on the environmental conditions and device application. This review provides an introduction to the surface effects on different types of nanodevices, offering the solutions to respond to their benefits and negative effects and provides an outlook on further applications regarding the surface effect. This review is beneficial for designing nano-enabled photodetectors, harsh electronics, memories, sensors and transistors via surface engineering.

  2. Integrated optical silicon IC compatible nanodevices for biosensing applications (United States)

    Lechuga, Laura M.; Sepulveda, Borja; Llobera, Andreu; Calle, Ana; Dominguez, Carlos M.


    Biological and chemical sensing is one of the application fields where integrated optical nanodevices can play an important role [1]. We present a Silicon Integrated Mach-Zehnder Interferometer Nanodevice using a Total Internal Refraction waveguide configuration. The induced changes due to a biomolecular interactions in the effective refractive index of the waveguide,is monitored by the measurement of the change in the properties of the propagating light. For using this device as a biosensor, the waveguides of the structure must verify two conditions: work in the monomode regime and to have a Surface Sensivity as high as possible in the sensing arm. The MZI device structure is: (i) a Si wafer with a 500 mm thickness (ii) a 2 mm thick thermal Silicon-Oxide layer with a refractive index of 1.46 (iii) a LPCVD Silicon Nitride layer of 100 nm thickness and a refractive index of 2.00, which is used as the guiding layer. To achieve monomode behavior is needed to define a rib structure, with a depth of only 3 nm, on the Silicon Nitride layer by a lithographic step. This rib structure is performed by RIE and is the most critical step in the microfabrication of the device. Over the structure a protective layer of LPCVD SiO2 is deposited, with a 2 mm thickness and a refractive index of 1.46, which is patterned (photolithography) and etched (RIE) to define the sensing arm. The high sensivity of these devices makes them quite suitable for biosensing applications. For that, without loosing their activity the receptors biomolecules are covanlently immobilized, at nanometer scale , on the sensor area surface. Biospecific molecular recognition takes places when the complementary analyte to the receptor is flowed over the receptor using a flow system. Several biosensing applications have been performed with this device as enviromental pollutant control, immunosensing or genetic detection.

  3. Design and Fabrication of Nanodevice for Cell Interfacing (United States)

    Chinnappan, Prema

    The goal of this thesis is to (a) design and fabricate a nanodevice that interface with cells and (b) optimize neuronal cell culturing protocol. The long term objective of this thesis is to perform intracellular electrical signal recording and stimulation of neuronal cells. To achieve this objective, a nanodevice with "Fin" shaped electrodes was designed that increases the electrode area and conductance so that it reduces the signal loss as shown in the case of traditional circular Nanopillar design. The overarching goal of neuroscience is to target and discover the relationships between the functional connectivity-map of neuronal circuits and their physiological or pathological functions. For recording large number of neurons, technologies such as gold mushroom-shaped microelectrodes (Hai et al.), vertical nanowire electrode arrays (VNEAs) (Robinson et al.) and nanoFET technology (Tian et al.) are currently under development. The gold mushroom-shaped electrodes in order of microns are invasive for smaller cells with no successful recording for long durations. The VNEAs show high electrode impedance which causes large signal loss. The nanoFET shows higher noise levels and the manipulation of a single nanotube to penetrate a single cell is very challenging. This thesis presents the design and fabrication of a "Fin" shaped nanoelectrode which seeks to overcome the restrictions between electrode impedance and electrode size. Compared to the 3x3 array of 200nm diameter nanowire electrodes, the "Fin" electrodes reduces the interfacial impedance. The fabrication was done in Silicon on insulator wafer with conducting lines and contact pads completely insulated by Silicon dioxide layer and gold coated nanofins. Nanofins of width 200 nm were fabricated using Focused Ion Beam (FIB) milling. Both high density and low density nanofins were optimized and cells were cultured over them. The optimization of cell culture, adherence and differentiation protocols were done to grow

  4. AACR centennial series: the biology of cancer metastasis: historical perspective. (United States)

    Talmadge, James E; Fidler, Isaiah J


    Metastasis resistant to therapy is the major cause of death from cancer. Despite almost 200 years of study, the process of tumor metastasis remains controversial. Stephen Paget initially identified the role of host-tumor interactions on the basis of a review of autopsy records. His "seed and soil" hypothesis was substantiated a century later with experimental studies, and numerous reports have confirmed these seminal observations. An improved understanding of the metastatic process and the attributes of the cells selected by this process is critical for the treatment of patients with systemic disease. In many patients, metastasis has occurred by the time of diagnosis, so metastasis prevention may not be relevant. Treating systemic disease and identifying patients with early disease should be our goal. Revitalized research in the past three decades has focused on new discoveries in the biology of metastasis. Even though our understanding of molecular events that regulate metastasis has improved, the contributions and timing of molecular lesion(s) involved in metastasis pathogenesis remain unclear. Review of the history of pioneering observations and discussion of current controversies should increase understanding of the complex and multifactorial interactions between the host and selected tumor cells that contribute to fatal metastasis and should lead to the design of successful therapy.

  5. Leptomeningeal carcinomatosis in esophageal cancer: a case series and systematic review of the literature. (United States)

    Lukas, R V; Mata-Machado, N A; Nicholas, M K; Salgia, R; Antic, T; Villaflor, V M


    The aim of this study was to more clearly define the clinical course of leptomeningeal carcinomatosis due to esophageal cancer. A single institution retrospective case series was conducted. Additionally, a systematic review of the literature was performed. We present a large case series (n = 7) of leptomeningeal carcinomatosis due to esophageal cancer. Our case series and systematic review of the literature report similar findings. In our series, we report a predominance of male patients (86%) with adenocarcinoma histology (77%). Variable onset of leptomeningeal involvement of esophageal cancer in relation to the original diagnosis of the primary disease (5 months to 3 years and 11 weeks) was noted. Disease progresses quickly and overall survival is poor, measured in weeks (2.5-16 weeks) from the diagnosis of leptomeningeal involvement. Four of our patients initiated whole-brain radiation therapy with only two completing the course prior to clinical deterioration. Our patient with the longest survival (16 weeks) received intrathecal topotecan and oral temozolomide. Leptomeningeal carcinomatosis secondary to esophageal cancer has a poor prognosis. A clearly beneficial treatment modality is lacking.

  6. Online CME Series Can Nutrition Simultaneously Affect Cancer and Aging? | Division of Cancer Prevention (United States)

    Aging is considered by some scientists to be a normal physiological process, while others believe it is a disease. Increased cancer risk in the elderly raises the question regarding the common pathways for cancer and aging. Undeniably, nutrition plays an important role in both cases and this webinar will explore whether nutrition can simultaneously affect cancer and aging. |

  7. Online Series presents Cancer Prevention Through Immunomodulation. Does Diet Play a Role? | Division of Cancer Prevention (United States)

    Scientists are increasingly harnessing the power of the immune system to prevent cancer. Nutrition provides an opportunity for a generalized immune activation and reduction of cancer risk in certain populations. Research on several foods and bioactive food components as immunologic modulators is showing promising results. |

  8. Online Series presents The Impact of Obesity on Cancer Risk | Division of Cancer Prevention (United States)

    Obesity is a critical public health problem which is worsening over time. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, more than one third (34.9% or 78.6 million) of U.S. adults are obese. Growing obesity incidence is associated with detrimental health consequences including cancer. Experts in the field of nutrition and cancer will present the latest data and future directions of research for this important topic. |

  9. AHNS Series - Do you know your guidelines? Principles of treatment for nasopharyngeal cancer: A review of the National Comprehensive Cancer Network guidelines. (United States)

    Gooi, Zhen; Richmon, Jeremy; Agrawal, Nishant; Blair, Elizabeth; Portugal, Louis; Vokes, Everett; Seiwert, Tanguy; de Souza, Jonas; Saloura, Vassiliki; Haraf, Daniel; Goldenberg, David; Chan, Jason


    This article is a continuation of the "Do You Know Your Guidelines" series, an initiative of the American Head and Neck Society's Education Committee to increase awareness of current best practices pertaining to head and neck cancer. The National Comprehensive Cancer Network guidelines for the management of nasopharyngeal cancer are reviewed here in a systematic fashion. These guidelines outline the workup, treatment and surveillance of patients with nasopharyngeal cancer. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Head Neck 39: 201-205, 2017.

  10. Qigong program on insomnia and stress in cancer patients: A case series report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seungmo Kim


    Full Text Available Background: In recent years, the interest in Qigong as an alternative therapy has grown following reports of its ability to regulate psychological factors in cancer patients. This is a case series to evaluate the outcome measures of Qigong when used as an adjunct to standard medical care to treat insomnia and stress in cancer patients. Patients and methods: The Qigong program was applied to four cancer patients with insomnia, stress, and anxiety. The program consisted of 30-min sessions involving exercise, patting of the 12 meridians, and spontaneous breathing exercises three times a week for a period of 4 weeks. The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index was measured as the primary outcome, while the Stress Scale, the State–Trait Anxiety Inventory, and the Functional Assessment Cancer Therapy–General determined the secondary outcomes. Insomnia, stress, and anxiety levels were examined weekly, while quality of life was examined on the first visit and the last visit. Results: The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index and Stress Scale scores were reduced after conduct of the Qigong program. Conclusion: This study could provide a better understanding of Qigong’s influence on insomnia and stress in cancer patients. However, a larger controlled trial should be conducted to confirm these findings.

  11. Opportunities During Early Life for Cancer Prevention: Highlights From a Series of Virtual Meetings With Experts. (United States)

    Holman, Dawn M; Buchanan, Natasha D


    Compelling evidence suggests that early life exposures can affect lifetime cancer risk. In 2014, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's (CDC's) Cancer Prevention Across the Lifespan Workgroup hosted a series of virtual meetings with select experts to discuss the state of the evidence linking factors during the prenatal period and early childhood to subsequent risk of both pediatric and adult cancers. In this article, we present the results from a qualitative analysis of the meeting transcripts and summarize themes that emerged from our discussions with meeting participants. Themes included the state of the evidence linking early life factors to cancer risk, research gaps and challenges, the level of evidence needed to support taking public health action, and the challenges of communicating complex, and sometimes conflicting, scientific findings to the public. Opportunities for collaboration among public health agencies and other stakeholders were identified during these discussions. Potential next steps for the CDC and its partners included advancing and building upon epidemiology and surveillance work, developing and using evidence from multiple sources to inform decision-making, disseminating and communicating research findings in a clear and effective way, and expanding collaborations with grantees and other partners. As the science on early life factors and cancer risk continues to evolve, there are opportunities for collaboration to translate science into actionable public health practice.

  12. Postoperative mortality after cancer surgery in octogenarians and nonagenarians: results from a series of 5,390 patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meijer Willem S


    Full Text Available Abstract Background To support decisions about surgical treatment of elderly patients with cancer, population-based estimates of postoperative mortality (POM rates are required. Methods Electronic records from the Rotterdam Cancer Registry were retrieved for octogenarians and nonagenarians who underwent resection in the period 1987–2000. POM was defined as death within 30 days of resection and both elective and emergency operations were included. Results In a series of 5.390 operated patients aged 80 years and older, POM rates were 0.5% for breast cancer, 1.7% for endometrial cancer and 4.2% for renal cancer. For patients with colorectal cancer, POM increased from 8% for the age group 80–84 to 13% for those 85–89 to 20% in nonagenarians. For stomach cancer, the respective figures were 11%, 20% and 44%. Conclusion These results show that resections can be performed at acceptable risk in selected elderly patients with cancer.

  13. A novel series of conferences tackling the hurdles confronting the translation of novel cancer immunotherapies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bot Adrian


    Full Text Available Abstract While there has been significant progress in advancing novel immune therapies to the bedside, much more needs to be done to fully tap into the potential of the immune system. It has become increasingly clear that besides practical and operational challenges, the heterogeneity of cancer and the limited efficacy profile of current immunotherapy platforms are the two main hurdles. Nevertheless, the promising clinical data of several approaches point to a roadmap that carries the promise to significantly advance cancer immunotherapy. A new annual series sponsored by Arrowhead Publishers and Conferences aims at bringing together scientific and business leadership from academia and industry, to identify, share and discuss most current priorities in research and translation of novel immune interventions. This Editorial provides highlights of the first event held earlier this year and outlines the focus of the second meeting to be held in 2013 that will be dedicated to stem cells and immunotherapy.

  14. Interfacing DNA nanodevices with biology: challenges, solutions and perspectives (United States)

    Vinther, Mathias; Kjems, Jørgen


    The cellular machinery performs millions of complex reactions with extreme precision at nanoscale. From studying these reactions, scientists have become inspired to build artificial nanosized molecular devices with programmed functions. One of the fundamental tools in designing and creating these nanodevices is molecular self-assembly. In nature, deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is inarguably one of the most remarkable self-assembling molecules. Governed by the Watson-Crick base-pairing rules, DNA assembles with a structural reliability and predictability based on sequence composition unlike any other complex biological polymer. This consistency has enabled rational design of hundreds of two- and three-dimensional shapes with a molecular precision and homogeneity not preceded by any other known technology at the nanometer scale. During the last two decades, DNA nanotechnology has undergone a rapid evolution pioneered by the work of Nadrian Seeman (Kallenbach et al 1983 Nature 205 829-31). Especially the introduction of the versatile DNA Origami technique by Rothemund (2006 Nature 440 297-302) led to an efflorescence of new DNA-based self-assembled nanostructures (Andersen et al 2009 Nature 459 73-6, Douglas et al 2009 Nature 459 414-8, Dietz et al 2009 Science 325 725-30, Han et al 2011 Science 332 342-6, Iinuma et al 2014 Science 344 65-9), and variations of this technique have contributed to an increasing repertoire of DNA nanostructures (Wei et al 2012 Nature 485 623-6, Ke et al 2012 Science 338 1177-83, Benson et al 2015 Nature 523 441-4, Zhang et al 2015 Nat. Nanotechnol. 10 779-84, Scheible et al 2015 Small 11 5200-5). These advances have naturally triggered the question: What can these DNA nanostructures be used for? One of the leading proposals of use for DNA nanotechnology has been in biology and biomedicine acting as a molecular ‘nanorobot’ or smart drug interacting with the cellular machinery. In this review, we will explore and examine the perspective of


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Breast cancer currently is a major health problem among women worldwide accounting for around 13.7% cancer deaths, nearly 1/3rd of it being due to Locally advanced breast cancer (LABC. Despite progress achieved in diagnosis & therapy of Breast cancer, LABC remains a major clinical challenge and in efforts to increase pCR, CCR & DFS in LABC, Neoadjuvant or primary chemotherapy followed by locoregional therapy and adjuvant systemic CT is well accepted treatment strategy since last 3 decades. Further to address the issue of drug resistance in NACT sequential anthracycline-taxane NACT has been evaluated by many researchers and has resulted in better outcome in terms of overall survival and pCR. In this study we have evaluated 4 cycles of sequential anthracycline-taxane, 2 cycles of Cyclophosphamide, Epirubicin, Fluracil +2 cycles of Docetaxel, Epirubicin (CEF- DE NACT in a series of 10 cases of ER/PR +ve, Her -2 neu negative patients of LABC. 9/10 cases were rendered operable after primary chemotherapy and were subjected to further 4 cycles of adjuvant chemotherapy (1 cycle CEF, 1 cycle DE, 2cycles single agent Docetaxel, followed by locoregional RT. This tailored sequential NACT protocol in our subgroup of patient was well tolerated, well accepted and resulted in substantial increase in operability with CCR & DFS in 6/10 cases on 3 years follow up and pCR in one patient. Sequential NACT needs further validation by more RCT with extensive follow up

  16. Synthesis and Cytotoxic Evaluation of a Series of 2-Amino-Naphthoquinones against Human Cancer Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago A. P. de Moraes


    Full Text Available The cytotoxicity of a series of aminonaphthoquinones resulting from the reaction of suitable aminoacids with 1,4-naphthoquinone was assayed against SF-295 (glioblastoma, MDAMB-435 (breast, HCT-8 (colon, HCT-116 (colon, HL-60 (leukemia, OVCAR-8 (ovarian, NCI-H358M (bronchoalveolar lung carcinoma and PC3-M (prostate cancer cells and also against PBMC (peripheral blood mononuclear cells. The results demonstrated that all the synthetic aminonaphthoquinones had relevant cytotoxic activity against all human cancer lines used in this experiment. Five of the compounds showed high cytotoxicity and selectivity against all cancer cell lines tested (IC50 = 0.49 to 3.89 µg·mL−1. The title compounds were less toxic to PBMC, since IC50 was 1.5 to eighteen times higher (IC50 = 5.51 to 17.61 µg·mL−1 than values shown by tumour cell lines. The mechanism of cell growth inhibition and structure–activity relationships remains as a target for future investigations.

  17. Superconducting/magnetic Three-state Nanodevice for Memory and Reading Applications. (United States)

    del Valle, J; Gomez, A; Gonzalez, E M; Osorio, M R; Granados, D; Vicent, J L


    We present a simple nanodevice that can operate in two modes: i) non-volatile three-state memory and ii) reading device. The nanodevice can retain three well defined states -1, 0 and +1 and can operate in a second mode as a sensor for external magnetic fields. The nanodevice is fabricated with an array of ordered triangular-shaped nanomagnets embedded in a superconducting thin film gown on Si substrates. The device runs based on the combination of superconducting vortex ratchet effect (superconducting film) with the out of plane magnetization (nanomagnets). The input signals are ac currents and the output signal are dc voltages. The memory mode is realized without applying a magnetic field and the nanomagnet stray magnetic fields govern the effect. In the sensor mode an external magnetic field is applied. The main characteristic of this mode is that the output signal is null for a precise value of the external magnetic field that only depends on the fabrication characteristics of the nanodevice.

  18. “Self-Peel-Off” Transfer Produces Ultrathin Polyvinylidene-Fluoride-Based Flexible Nanodevices

    KAUST Repository

    Tai, Yanlong


    Here, a new strategy, self-peel-off transfer, for the preparation of ultrathin flexible nanodevices made from polyvinylidene-fluoride (PVDF) is reported. In this process, a functional pattern of nanoparticles is transferred via peeling from a temporary substrate to the final PVDF film. This peeling process takes advantage of the differences in the work of adhesion between the various layers (the PVDF layer, the nanoparticle-pattern layer and the substrate layer) and of the high stresses generated by the differential thermal expansion of the layers. The work of adhesion is mainly guided by the basic physical/chemical properties of these layers and is highly sensitive to variations in temperature and moisture in the environment. The peeling technique is tested on a variety of PVDF-based functional films using gold/palladium nanoparticles, carbon nanotubes, graphene oxide, and lithium iron phosphate. Several PVDF-based flexible nanodevices are prepared, including a single-sided wireless flexible humidity sensor in which PVDF is used as the substrate and a double-sided flexible capacitor in which PVDF is used as the ferroelectric layer and the carrier layer. Results show that the nanodevices perform with high repeatability and stability. Self-peel-off transfer is a viable preparation strategy for the design and fabrication of flexible, ultrathin, and light-weight nanodevices.

  19. Molecular engineered super-nanodevices: smart and safe delivery of potent drugs into tumors. (United States)

    Ding, Mingming; Li, Jiehua; He, Xueling; Song, Nijia; Tan, Hong; Zhang, Yi; Zhou, Lijuan; Gu, Qun; Deng, Hua; Fu, Qiang


    A super-nanodevice engineered at molecular level integrates various desired properties in a smart and coordinated way, and can "switch on" or "turn off" certain functionalities as required. Importantly, it can break through complex physiological barriers, and then precisely ferry potent toxic triptolide into tumor cells in vivo, thus significantly maximizing the therapeutic efficacy and reducing the drug toxicity.

  20. The experience of older patients with cancer in phase 1 clinical trials: a qualitative case series. (United States)

    Kvale, Elizabeth A; Woodby, Lesa; Williams, Beverly Rosa


    This article explores the experiences of older patients with cancer in phase 1 clinical trials. Conducting a case series of face-to-face, in-depth, open-ended interviews and using qualitative methods of analysis, we find that the psychosocial process of social comparison is relevant for understanding older adults' phase 1 clinical trial participation. Social comparison influences decisions to enroll in a phase 1 clinical trial, shapes perceptions of supportive care needs, and encourages the utilization of hope. Additional research should develop strategies for addressing supportive care needs among this patient cohort whose use of social comparison can inhibit articulation of pain, suffering, and symptom burden as well as use of informal support systems.

  1. Nanodevices for generating power from molecules and batteryless sensing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yinmin; Wang, Xianying; Hamza, Alex V.


    A nanoconverter or nanosensor is disclosed capable of directly generating electricity through physisorption interactions with molecules that are dipole containing organic species in a molecule interaction zone. High surface-to-volume ratio semiconductor nanowires or nanotubes (such as ZnO, silicon, carbon, etc.) are grown either aligned or randomly-aligned on a substrate. Epoxy or other nonconductive polymers are used to seal portions of the nanowires or nanotubes to create molecule noninteraction zones. By correlating certain molecule species to voltages generated, a nanosensor may quickly identify which species is detected. Nanoconverters in a series parallel arrangement may be constructed in planar, stacked, or rolled arrays to supply power to nano- and micro-devices without use of external batteries. In some cases breath, from human or other life forms, contain sufficient molecules to power a nanoconverter. A membrane permeable to certain molecules around the molecule interaction zone increases specific molecule nanosensor selectivity response.

  2. Nanodevices for generating power from molecules and batteryless sensing (United States)

    Wang, Yinmin; Wang, Xianying; Hamza, Alex V.


    A nanoconverter or nanosensor is disclosed capable of directly generating electricity through physisorption interactions with molecules that are dipole containing organic species in a molecule interaction zone. High surface-to-volume ratio semiconductor nanowires or nanotubes (such as ZnO, silicon, carbon, etc.) are grown either aligned or randomly-aligned on a substrate. Epoxy or other nonconductive polymers are used to seal portions of the nanowires or nanotubes to create molecule noninteraction zones. By correlating certain molecule species to voltages generated, a nanosensor may quickly identify which species is detected. Nanoconverters in a series parallel arrangement may be constructed in planar, stacked, or rolled arrays to supply power to nano- and micro-devices without use of external batteries. In some cases breath, from human or other life forms, contain sufficient molecules to power a nanoconverter. A membrane permeable to certain molecules around the molecule interaction zone increases specific molecule nanosensor selectivity response.

  3. Analysis of transient electromagnetic interactions on nanodevices using a quantum corrected integral equation approach

    KAUST Repository

    Uysal, Ismail E.


    Analysis of electromagnetic interactions on nanodevices can oftentimes be carried out accurately using “traditional” electromagnetic solvers. However, if a gap of sub-nanometer scale exists between any two surfaces of the device, quantum-mechanical effects including tunneling should be taken into account for an accurate characterization of the device\\'s response. Since the first-principle quantum simulators can not be used efficiently to fully characterize a typical-size nanodevice, a quantum corrected electromagnetic model has been proposed as an efficient and accurate alternative (R. Esteban et al., Nat. Commun., 3(825), 2012). The quantum correction is achieved through an effective layered medium introduced into the gap between the surfaces. The dielectric constant of each layer is obtained using a first-principle quantum characterization of the gap with a different dimension.

  4. Type-controlled nanodevices based on encapsulated few-layer black phosphorus for quantum transport (United States)

    Long, Gen; Xu, Shuigang; Shen, Junying; Hou, Jianqiang; Wu, Zefei; Han, Tianyi; Lin, Jiangxiazi; Wong, Wing Ki; Cai, Yuan; Lortz, Rolf; Wang, Ning


    We demonstrate that encapsulation of atomically thin black phosphorus (BP) by hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) sheets is very effective for minimizing the interface impurities induced during fabrication of BP channel material for quantum transport nanodevices. Highly stable BP nanodevices with ultrahigh mobility and controllable types are realized through depositing appropriate metal electrodes after conducting a selective etching to the BP encapsulation structure. Chromium and titanium are suitable metal electrodes for BP channels to control the transition from a p-type unipolar property to ambipolar characteristic because of different work functions. Record-high mobilities of 6000 cm2 V-1 s-1 and 8400 cm2 V-1 s-1 are respectively obtained for electrons and holes at cryogenic temperatures. High-mobility BP devices enable the investigation of quantum oscillations with an indistinguishable Zeeman effect in laboratory magnetic field.

  5. Biocompatible Single-Crystal Selenium Nanobelt Based Nanodevice as a Temperature-Tunable Photosensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongshan Niu


    Full Text Available Selenium materials are widely used in photoelectrical devices, owing to their unique semiconductive properties. Single-crystal selenium nanobelts with large specific surface area, fine photoconductivity, and biocompatibility provide potential applications in biomedical nanodevices, such as implantable artificial retina and rapid photon detector/stimulator for optogenetics. Here, we present a selenium nanobelt based nanodevice, which is fabricated with single Se nanobelt. This device shows a rapid photo response, different sensitivities to visible light of variable wave length, and temperature-tunable property. The biocompatibility of the Se nanobelts was proved by MTT test using two cell lines. Our investigation introduced a photosensor that will be important for multiple potential applications in human visual system, photocells in energy or MEMS, and temperature-tunable photoelectrical device for optogenetics research.

  6. In situ fabrication and investigation of nanostructures and nanodevices with a microscope. (United States)

    Zhang, Qi; Li, Huiqiao; Gan, Lin; Ma, Ying; Golberg, Dmitri; Zhai, Tianyou


    The widespread availability of nanostructures and nanodevices has placed strict requirements on their comprehensive characterization. Herein, in situ techniques are demonstrated to have created a rare opportunity to accurately analyze the intrinsic properties of individual nanostructures and to accomplish the smart design of nanodevices made from these nanostructures. This paper reviews recent developments in in situ fabrication and characterization technologies established within various types of microscopes and the rich information they may provide. The in situ techniques are shown to be important for exploration of many intriguing phenomena at the nanoscale which may then be followed by the smart integration of nanostructures into real functional devices. Successful in situ detection results are presented and discussed, especially in the areas of energy generation, biological imaging and water pumping. Finally, we conclude this article with an examination of the existing challenges and the outlook for this quickly emerging field.

  7. Packaging of MEMS/MOEMS and nanodevices: reliability, testing, and characterization aspects (United States)

    Tekin, Tolga; Ngo, Ha-Duong; Wittler, Olaf; Bouhlal, Bouchaib; Lang, Klaus-Dieter


    The last decade witnessed an explosive growth in research and development efforts devoted to MEMS devices and packaging. The successfully developed MEMS devices are, for example inkjet, pressure sensors, silicon microphones, accelerometers, gyroscopes, MOEMS, micro fuel cells and emerging MEMS. For the next decade, MEMS/MOEMS and nanodevice based products will penetrate into IT, telecommunications, automotive, defense, life sciences, medical and implantable applications. Forecasts say the MEMS market to be $14 billion by 2012. The packaging cost of MEMS/MOEMS products in general is about 70 percent. Unlike today's electronics IC packaging, their packaging are custom-built and difficult due to the moving structural elements. In order for the moving elements of a MEMS device to move effectively in a well-controlled atmosphere, hermetic sealing of the MEMS device in a cap is necessary. For some MEMS devices, such as resonators and gyroscopes, vacuum packaging is required. Usually, the cap is processed at the wafer level, and thus MEMS packaging is truly a wafer level packaging. In terms of MEMS/MOEMS and nanodevice packaging, there are still many critical issues need to be addressed due to the increasing integration density supported by 3D heterogeneous integration of multi-physic components/layers consisting of photonics, electronics, rf, plasmonics, and wireless. The infrastructure of MEMS/MOEMS and nanodevices and their packaging is not well established yet. Generic packaging platform technologies are not available. Some of critical issues have been studied intensively in the last years. In this paper we will discuss about processes, reliability, testing and characterization of MEMS/MOEMS and nanodevice packaging.

  8. Breast cancer in patients with Li–Fraumeni syndrome – a case-series study and review of literature (United States)

    Nandikolla, Amara G; Venugopal, Sangeetha; Anampa, Jesus


    Background Li–Fraumeni Syndrome (LFS) is a rare disease with autosomal dominant inheritance linked to germline mutations of tumor suppressor gene TP53. These patients are predisposed to malignancies such as sarcoma, breast cancer, leukemia, and other malignancies. Breast cancer, the most common malignancy in adult patients with LFS, has an early-onset presentation and is usually treated as per the guidelines for the general population due to the limited literature about breast cancer in LFS. We aimed to describe our institutional experience treating patients with breast cancer and LFS to contribute to literature about this entity. Design Retrospective single-institution case-series study. We searched for cases with LFS and breast cancer from 01/01/2000 to 12/31/2015 with treatment received at our institution. Results We identified 4 cases (2 African Americans, 1 Indian, and 1 Hispanic) in 4 different families, who were diagnosed with LFS after presenting with breast cancer. Three cases were triple-negative disease and 1 case was ER+, HER2 positive disease. They were treated with mastectomy and a third-generation breast chemotherapy regimen and/or trastuzumab-containing regimen. Radiation therapy was used in 2 patients. Breast cancer recurrence was seen in 1 patient, while three other malignancies were identified after breast cancer treatment (1 breast sarcoma, 1 leiomyosarcoma, and 1 myelodysplastic syndrome). A patient, who underwent surveillance with a positron emission tomography-computed tomography scan, was found to have a stage I leiomyosarcoma and was treated with surgical resection, but then developed metastatic disease requiring cytotoxic chemotherapy. Conclusion Breast cancer among patients with LFS needs a multidisciplinary treatment approach. Surgical management follows the guidelines for the general population. Risk–benefit assessment of chemotherapy and radiotherapy needs to be performed carefully in a case-by-case approach. Patients should

  9. Prospective small bowel mucosal assessment immediately after chemoradiotherapy of unresectable locally advanced pancreatic cancer using capsule endoscopy: a case series. (United States)

    Yamashina, Takeshi; Takada, Ryoji; Uedo, Noriya; Akasaka, Tomofumi; Hanaoka, Noboru; Takeuchi, Yoji; Higashino, Koji; Ioka, Tatsuya; Ishihara, Ryu; Teshima, Teruki; Nishiyama, Kinji; Iishi, Hiroyasu


    In this case series, three consecutive patients with unresectable locally advanced pancreatic cancer (ULAPC) underwent capsule endoscopy (CE) before and after chemoradiotherapy (CRT) to evaluate duodenal and jejunal mucosa, and to examine the relationship between CE findings and dose distribution. CE after CRT showed duodenitis and proximal jejunitis in all three patients. The most inflamed region was the third part of the duodenum, and in dose distribution, this was the closest region to the center of irradiation. This case series shows that CE can safely diagnose acute duodenitis and proximal jejunitis caused by CRT for ULAPC, and that dose distribution is possible to predict the degree of duodenal and jejunal mucosal injuries.

  10. An improved superoxide-generating nanodevice for oxidative stress studies in cultured cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minoru Tamura


    Full Text Available The effects of reactive oxygen species on cells have attracted great attention from both physiological and pathological aspects. Superoxide (O2− is the primary reactive oxygen species formed in animals. We previously developed an O2−-generating nanodevice consisting of NADPH oxidase 2 (Nox2 and modulated activating factors. However, the device was subsequently found to be unstable in a standard culture medium. Here we improved the device in stability by cross-linking. This new nanodevice, Device II, had a half-life of 3 h at 37 °C in the medium. Device II induced cell death in 80% of HEK293 cells after 24 h of incubation. Superoxide dismutase alone did not diminish the effect of the device, but eliminated the effect when used together with catalase, confirming that the cell death was caused by H2O2 derived from O2−. Flow cytometric analyses revealed that Device II induced caspase-3 activation in HEK293 cells, suggesting that the cell death proceeded largely through apoptosis.

  11. Architecture design of resistor/FET-logic demultiplexer for hybrid CMOS/nanodevice circuit interconnect. (United States)

    Li, Shu; Zhang, Tong


    Hybrid nanoelectronics consisting of nanodevice crossbars on top of CMOS backplane circuits is emerging as one viable option to sustain Moore's law after the CMOS scaling limit is reached. One main design challenge in such hybrid nanoelectronics is the interface between the highly dense nanowires in nanodevice crossbars and relatively coarse microwires in the CMOS domain. Such an interface can be realized through a logic circuit called a demultiplexer (demux). In this context, all the prior work on demux design uses a single type of device, such as resistor, diode or field effect transistor (FET), to realize the demultiplexing function. However, different types of devices have their own advantages and disadvantages in terms of functionality, manufacturability, speed and power consumption. This makes none of them provide a satisfactory solution. To tackle this challenge, this work proposes to combine resistor with FET to implement the demux, leading to the hybrid resistor/FET-logic demux. Such hybrid demux architecture can make these two types of devices complement each other well to improve the overall demux design effectiveness. Furthermore, due to the inevitable fabrication process variations at the nanoscale, the effects of resistor conductance and FET threshold voltage variability are analyzed and evaluated based on computer simulations. The simulation results provide the requirement on the fabrication process to ensure a high demux reliability, and promise the hybrid resistor/FET-logic demux an improved addressability and process variance tolerance.

  12. Nottingham Prognostic Index Plus: Validation of a clinical decision making tool in breast cancer in an independent series. (United States)

    Green, Andrew R; Soria, Daniele; Stephen, Jacqueline; Powe, Desmond G; Nolan, Christopher C; Kunkler, Ian; Thomas, Jeremy; Kerr, Gillian R; Jack, Wilma; Cameron, David; Piper, Tammy; Ball, Graham R; Garibaldi, Jonathan M; Rakha, Emad A; Bartlett, John Ms; Ellis, Ian O


    The Nottingham Prognostic Index Plus (NPI+) is a clinical decision making tool in breast cancer (BC) that aims to provide improved patient outcome stratification superior to the traditional NPI. This study aimed to validate the NPI+ in an independent series of BC. Eight hundred and eighty five primary early stage BC cases from Edinburgh were semi-quantitatively assessed for 10 biomarkers [Estrogen Receptor (ER), Progesterone Receptor (PgR), cytokeratin (CK) 5/6, CK7/8, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), HER2, HER3, HER4, p53, and Mucin 1] using immunohistochemistry and classified into biological classes by fuzzy logic-derived algorithms previously developed in the Nottingham series. Subsequently, NPI+ Prognostic Groups (PGs) were assigned for each class using bespoke NPI-like formulae, previously developed in each NPI+ biological class of the Nottingham series, utilising clinicopathological parameters: number of positive nodes, pathological tumour size, stage, tubule formation, nuclear pleomorphism and mitotic counts. Biological classes and PGs were compared between the Edinburgh and Nottingham series using Cramer's V and their role in patient outcome prediction using Kaplan-Meier curves and tested using Log Rank. The NPI+ biomarker panel classified the Edinburgh series into seven biological classes similar to the Nottingham series (p > 0.01). The biological classes were significantly associated with patient outcome (p  0.01). The good PGs were similarly validated in Luminal B, Basal p53 normal, HER2+/ER- tumours and the poor PG in the Luminal N class (p > 0.01). Due to small patient numbers assigned to the remaining PGs, Luminal N, Luminal B, Basal p53 normal and HER2+/ER- classes could not be validated. This study demonstrates the reproducibility of NPI+ and confirmed its prognostic value in an independent cohort of primary BC. Further validation in large randomised controlled trial material is warranted.

  13. Mechanism-based classification and physical therapy management of persons with cancer pain: A prospective case series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senthil P Kumar


    Full Text Available Context: Mechanism-based classification (MBC was established with current evidence and physical therapy (PT management methods for both cancer and for noncancer pain. Aims: This study aims to describe the efficacy of MBC-based PT in persons with primary complaints of cancer pain. Settings and Design: A prospective case series of patients who attended the physiotherapy department of a multispecialty university-affiliated teaching hospital. Material and Methods: A total of 24 adults (18 female, 6 male aged 47.5 ± 10.6 years, with primary diagnosis of heterogeneous group of cancer, chief complaints of chronic disabling pain were included in the study on their consent for participation The patients were evaluated and classified on the basis of five predominant mechanisms for pain. Physical therapy interventions were recommended based on mechanisms identified and home program was prescribed with a patient log to ensure compliance. Treatments were given in five consecutive weekly sessions for five weeks each of 30 min duration. Statistical Analysis Used: Pre-post comparisons for pain severity (PS and pain interference (PI subscales of Brief pain inventory-Cancer pain (BPI-CP and, European organization for research and treatment in cancer-quality of life questionnaire (EORTC-QLQ-C30 were done using Wilcoxon signed-rank test at 95% confidence interval using SPSS for Windows version 16.0 (SPSS Inc, Chicago, IL. Results: There were statistically significant ( P < 0.05 reduction in pain severity, pain interference and total BPI-CP scores, and the EORTC-QLQ-C30. Conclusion: MBC-PT was effective for improving BPI-CP and EORTC-QLQ-C30 scores in people with cancer pain.

  14. An IARC Manual series aimed at assisting cancer epidemiology and prevention. "Environmental carcinogens: selected methods of analysis". (United States)

    O'Neill, I K; Fishbein, L


    Since 1975, the IARC has been preparing a series of volumes entitled "Environmental Carcinogens: Selected Methods of Analysis" (IARC Manual series) of which the purposes are to assist analysts, epidemiologists and regulatory authorities in planning or performing exposure measurements that are truly comparable between different studies. The Manual series provides expert information within each volume on multi-media sampling, methods of analyses and some background of epidemiology, metabolism, use/occurrence for a group of known or suspect carcinogens. So far, eleven volumes have been published or are in preparation on the following subjects: N-nitrosamines, vinyl chloride, PAH, aromatic amines, mycotoxins, N-nitroso compounds, volatile halogenated hydrocarbons, metals, passive smoking, benzene and alkylated benzenes, dioxins, PCDFs and PCBs. The presentation will discuss needs and priorities for use of analytical chemistry in estimating exposures of apparently greatest relevance to cancer causation, i.e. the approach to developing this series. Indications from epidemiology, evaluations of carcinogenic risk to humans, and recent developments in total exposure assessment are that new methods and matrices need more emphasis, e.g. as with biochemical dosimetry, exhaled breath, and in indoor air.

  15. Selection of isolated and individual single-walled carbon nanotube from a film and its usage in nanodevices

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Gong-Tang


    Individual and isolated single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) are important for fabricating relevant nanodevices and studying the properties of the SWNT devices. In this work, we demonstrate that individual and isolated SWNT can be selected and obtained from a film containing a huge number of SWNTs. By using both the polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) as a negative resist and the electron beam lithography, the selected SWNT can be fixed on a substrate, while the other SWNTs in the film can lift off. The selected SWNT can be used to fabricate nanodevice and a gas sensor of oxygen is demonstrated in this work.

  16. Immunology in the clinic review series; focus on cancer: glycolipids as targets for tumour immunotherapy. (United States)

    Durrant, L G; Noble, P; Spendlove, I


    Research into aberrant glycosylation and over-expression of glycolipids on the surface of the majority of cancers, coupled with a knowledge of glycolipids as functional molecules involved in a number of cellular physiological pathways, has provided a novel area of targets for cancer immunotherapy. This has resulted in the development of a number of vaccines and monoclonal antibodies that are showing promising results in recent clinical trials.

  17. Long-Term Outcome of A Large Series of Gastric Cancer Patients in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ai-wen Wu; Zhao-de Bu; Ji Zhang; Xiang-qian Su; Yi Wang; Guang-wei Xu; Jia-fu Ji; Hong Yang; Yan-ning Li; Shuang-xi Li; Lian-hai Zhang; Zi-yu Li; Xiao-jiang Wu; Xiang-long Zong


    Objective:The outcome of gastric cancer treatment in China is relatively poor compared with those in Japan and Korea.Relevant factors are not quite clear till now.The aim of this study is to present data on gastric cancer patients from a single high volume cancer center of China and to illuminate relevant factors regarding unsatisfactory outcome.Methods:A total of 2312 consecutive pathologically proven gastric carcinoma patients were treated in Beijing Cancer Hospital from January 1995 to December 2005.Clinical information including demographic information,tumor characteristics,therapeutic experience and survival was retrieved from the Database specially designed for Gastric Cancer Collaborative Group,Beijing Cancer Hospital.Results:There were 1633 males and 679 females with a median age of 58.8 years(range 19-89).Merely 181 patients were in the early stage(7.8%).Curative resection was performed in less than 72% of the patients.The number of lymph nodes harvested varied from 0 to 71(average 9)while the median number of positive lymph node was 2(0-37).Only in 650patients the number of lymph nodes harvested was more than 14.At the end of follow-up,874 patients were still alive while1132 died.The 1,2,5,10-year overall survival were 68.50%,51.88%,36.83%,and 30.49%,respectively.Multivariate analysis demonstrated that TNM stage,tumor location,tumor size,surgery,and vascular invasion were independent prognostic factors.Conclusion:The outcome of gastric cancer in China is not as good as expected.Early detection and standardized curative resection should be prompted at present to improve the outcome.

  18. Metastatic breast cancer to the gastrointestinal tract: A case series and review of the literature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jose Nazareno; Donald Taves; Harold G Preiksaitis


    Metastatic breast cancer involving the hepatobiliary tract or ascites secondary to peritoneal carcinomatosis has been well described. Luminal gastrointestinal tract involvement is less common and recognition of the range of possible presentations is important for early and accurate diagnosis and treatment. We report 6 patients with a variety of presentations of metastatic breast cancer of the luminal gastrointestinal tract. These include oropharyngeal and esophageal involvement presenting as dysphagia with one case of pseudoachalasia, a linitis plastica-like picture with gastric narrowing and thickened folds, small bowel obstruction and multiple strictures mimicking Crohn's disease, and a colonic neoplasm presenting with obstruction. Lobular carcinoma,representing only 10% of breast cancers is more likely to metastasize to the gastrointestinal tract. These patients presented with gastrointestinal manifestations after an average of 9.5 years and as long as 20 years from initial diagnosis of breast cancer. Given the increased survival of breast cancer patients with current therapeutic regimes, more unusual presentations of metastatic disease, including involvement of the gastrointestinal tract can be anticipated.

  19. Maintenance Therapy Containing Metformin and/or Zyflamend for Advanced Prostate Cancer: A Case Series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Asim Bilen


    Full Text Available Metformin is derived from galegine, a natural ingredient, and recent studies have suggested that metformin could enhance the antitumor effects of hormone ablative therapy or chemotherapy and reduce prostate cancer-specific mortality. Zyflamend is a combination of herbal extracts that reduces inflammation and comprises turmeric, holy basil, green tea, oregano, ginger, rosemary, Chinese goldthread, hu zhang, barberry, and basil skullcap. We propose a maintenance regimen with metformin and/or Zyflamend that targets cancer stem cells and the tumor microenvironment to keep the cancer dormant and prevent it from activation from dormancy. Herein, we report the clinical course of four patients who experienced a clinical response after treatment with metformin and/or Zyflamend.

  20. Cancer in human immunodeficiency virus-infected children : A case series from the Children's Cancer Group and the National Cancer Institute

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Granovsky, MO; Mueller, BU; Nicholson, HS; Rosenberg, PS; Rabkin, CS


    Purpose: To describe the spectrum of malignancies in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected children and the clinical outcome of patients with these tumors. Methods: We retrospectively surveyed the Children's Cancer Group (CCG) and the National Cancer institute (NCI) for cases of cancer that oc

  1. Ten Years' Experience with an E-Learning Lecture Series on Cancer Biology and Pharmacology (United States)

    Efferth, Thomas


    In life sciences, the internet is an indispensable medium for research, but has not yet realized its full potential for teaching. The concept of e-learning has been developed over the past decades for undergraduate, graduate and postgraduate programs. We set up an e-learning lecture on cancer biology and pharmacology that was first offered in 2003…

  2. Cell Biology and Cancer. Grades 9-12. NIH Curriculum Supplement Series. (United States)

    Biological Sciences Curriculum Study, Colorado Springs.

    This curriculum supplement guide brings the latest medical discoveries to classrooms. This module focuses on the objectives of introducing students to major concepts related to the development of cancer and its impacts, and developing an understanding of the relationship between biomedical research and personal and public health. This module…

  3. Prostate cancer detection from model-free T1-weighted time series and diffusion imaging (United States)

    Haq, Nandinee F.; Kozlowski, Piotr; Jones, Edward C.; Chang, Silvia D.; Goldenberg, S. Larry; Moradi, Mehdi


    The combination of Dynamic Contrast Enhanced (DCE) images with diffusion MRI has shown great potential in prostate cancer detection. The parameterization of DCE images to generate cancer markers is traditionally performed based on pharmacokinetic modeling. However, pharmacokinetic models make simplistic assumptions about the tissue perfusion process, require the knowledge of contrast agent concentration in a major artery, and the modeling process is sensitive to noise and fitting instabilities. We address this issue by extracting features directly from the DCE T1-weighted time course without modeling. In this work, we employed a set of data-driven features generated by mapping the DCE T1 time course to its principal component space, along with diffusion MRI features to detect prostate cancer. The optimal set of DCE features is extracted with sparse regularized regression through a Least Absolute Shrinkage and Selection Operator (LASSO) model. We show that when our proposed features are used within the multiparametric MRI protocol to replace the pharmacokinetic parameters, the area under ROC curve is 0.91 for peripheral zone classification and 0.87 for whole gland classification. We were able to correctly classify 32 out of 35 peripheral tumor areas identified in the data when the proposed features were used with support vector machine classification. The proposed feature set was used to generate cancer likelihood maps for the prostate gland.

  4. Annexin A1 expression in a pooled breast cancer series: Association with tumor subtypes and prognosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Sobral-Leite (Marcelo); J. Wesseling (Jelle); V.T.H.B.M. Smit (Vincent); H. Nevanlinna (Heli); M.H. van Miltenburg (Martine H.); J. Sanders (Joyce); I. Hofland (Ingrid); F. Blows (Fiona); P. Coulson (Penny); G. Patrycja (Gazinska); J.H.M. Schellens (Jan); R. Fagerholm (Rainer); P. Heikkilä (Päivi); K. Aittomäki (Kristiina); C. Blomqvist (Carl); E. Provenzano (Elena); H.R. Ali (Hamid Raza); J.D. Figueroa (Jonine); M.E. Sherman (Mark); J. Lissowska (Jolanta); A. Mannermaa (Arto); V. Kataja (Vesa); V-M. Kosma (Veli-Matti); J.M. Hartikainen (J.); K.-A. Phillips (Kelly-Anne); F.J. Couch (Fergus); J.E. Olson (Janet); C. Vachon (Celine); D. Visscher (Daniel); H. Brenner (Hermann); K. Butterbach (Katja); V. Arndt (Volker); B. Holleczek (B.); M.J. Hooning (Maartje); A. Hollestelle (Antoinette); J.W.M. Martens (John); C.H.M. van Deurzen (Carolien); B. Van de Water (Bob); A. Broeks (Annegien); J. Chang-Claude (Jenny); G. Chenevix-Trench (Georgia); D.F. Easton (Douglas); P.D.P. Pharoah (Paul); M. García-Closas (Montserrat); M. de Graauw (Marjo); M.K. Schmidt (Marjanka)


    textabstractBackground: Annexin A1 (ANXA1) is a protein related with the carcinogenesis process and metastasis formation in many tumors. However, little is known about the prognostic value of ANXA1 in breast cancer. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the association between ANXA1 expression, B

  5. Annexin A1 expression in a pooled breast cancer series : Association with tumor subtypes and prognosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sobral-Leite, Marcelo; Wesseling, Jelle; Smit, Vincent T H B M; Nevanlinna, Heli; van Miltenburg, Martine H.; Sanders, Joyce; Hofland, Ingrid; Blows, Fiona M.; Coulson, Penny; Patrycja, Gazinska; Schellens, Jan H M; Fagerholm, Rainer; Heikkilä, Päivi; Aittomäki, Kristiina; Blomqvist, Carl; Provenzano, Elena; Ali, Hamid Raza; Figueroa, Jonine; Sherman, Mark; Lissowska, Jolanta; Mannermaa, Arto; Kataja, Vesa; Kosma, Veli Matti; Hartikainen, Jaana M.; Phillips, Kelly Anne; Couch, Fergus J.; Olson, Janet E.; Vachon, Celine; Visscher, Daniel; Brenner, Hermann; Butterbach, Katja; Arndt, Volker; Holleczek, Bernd; Hooning, Maartje J.; Hollestelle, Antoinette; Martens, John W M; van Deurzen, Carolien H M; van de Water, Bob; Broeks, Annegien; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Easton, Douglas F.; Pharoah, Paul D P; García-Closas, Montserrat; de Graauw, Marjo; Schmidt, Marjanka K.; Aghmesheh, Morteza; Amor, David; Andrews, Lesley; Antill, Yoland; Armitage, Shane; Arnold, Leanne; Balleine, Rosemary; Bankier, Agnes; Bastick, Patti; Beesley, Jonathan; Beilby, John; Bennett, Barbara; Bennett, Ian; Berry, Geoffrey; Blackburn, Anneke; Bogwitz, Michael; Brennan, Meagan; Brown, Melissa; Buckley, Michael; Burgess, Matthew; Burke, Jo; Butow, Phyllis; Byron, Keith; Callen, David; Campbell, Ian; Chauhan, Deepa; Chauhan, Manisha; Christian, Alice; Clarke, Christine; Colley, Alison; Cotton, Dick; Crook, Ashley; Cui, James; Culling, Bronwyn; Cummings, Margaret; Dawson, Sarah Jane; deFazio, Anna; Delatycki, Martin; Dickson, Rebecca; Dixon, Joanne; Dobrovic, Alexander; Dudding, Tracy; Edkins, Ted; Edwards, Stacey; Eisenbruch, Maurice; Farshid, Gelareh; Fawcett, Susan; Fellows, Andrew; Fenton, Georgina; Field, Michael; Firgaira, Frank; Flanagan, James; Fleming, Jean; Fong, Peter; Forbes, John; Fox, Stephen; French, Juliet; Friedlander, Michael; Gaff, Clara; Gardner, Mac; Gattas, Mike; George, Peter; Giles, Graham; Gill, Grantley; Goldblatt, Jack; Greening, Sian; Grist, Scott; Haan, Eric; Hardie, Kate; Harris, Marion; Hart, Stewart; Hayward, Nick; Healey, Sue; Heiniger, Louise; Hopper, John; Humphrey, Evelyn; Hunt, Clare; James, Paul; Jenkins, Mark; Jones, Alison; Kefford, Rick; Kidd, Alexa; Kiely, Belinda; Kirk, Judy; Koehler, Jessica; Kollias, James; Kovalenko, Serguei; Lakhani, Sunil; Leaming, Amanda; Leary, Jennifer; Lim, Jacqueline; Lindeman, Geoff; Lipton, Lara; Lobb, Liz; Mann, Graham; Marsh, Deborah; McLachlan, Sue Anne; Meiser, Bettina; Meldrum, Cliff; Milne, Roger; Mitchell, Gillian; Newman, Beth; Niedermayr, Eveline; Nightingale, Sophie; O'Connell, Shona; O'Loughlin, Imelda; Osborne, Richard; Pachter, Nick; Patterson, Briony; Peters, Lester; Phillips, Kelly; Price, Melanie; Purser, Lynne; Reeve, Tony; Reeve, Jeanne; Richards, Robert; Rickard, Edwina; Robinson, Bridget; Rudzki, Barney; Saleh, Mona; Salisbury, Elizabeth; Sambrook, Joe; Saunders, Christobel; Saunus, Jodi; Sayer, Robyn; Scott, Elizabeth; Scott, Rodney; Scott, Clare; Seshadri, Ram; Sexton, Adrienne; Sharma, Raghwa; Shelling, Andrew; Simpson, Peter; Southey, Melissa; Spurdle, Amanda; Suthers, Graeme; Sykes, Pamela; Tassell, Margaret; Taylor, Donna; Taylor, Jessica; Thierry, Benjamin; Thomas, Susan; Thompson, Ella; Thorne, Heather; Townshend, Sharron; Trainer, Alison; Tran, Lan; Tucker, Kathy; Tyler, Janet; Visvader, Jane; Walker, Logan; Walpole, Ian; Ward, Robin; Waring, Paul; Warner, Bev; Warren, Graham; Williams, Rachael; Wilson, Judy; Winship, Ingrid; Wu, Kathy; Young, Mary Ann; Bowtell, D.; Green, A.; Webb, P.; de Fazio, A.; Gertig, D.


    Background: Annexin A1 (ANXA1) is a protein related with the carcinogenesis process and metastasis formation in many tumors. However, little is known about the prognostic value of ANXA1 in breast cancer. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the association between ANXA1 expression, BRCA1/2 germl

  6. Aromatase inhibitors with or without gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogue in metastatic male breast cancer: a case series (United States)

    Zagouri, F; Sergentanis, T N; Koutoulidis, V; Sparber, C; Steger, G G; Dubsky, P; Zografos, G C; Psaltopoulou, T; Gnant, M; Dimopoulos, M-A; Bartsch, R


    Background: Data regarding the safety and effectiveness of aromatase inhibitors (AIs) as monotherapy or combined with gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) analogue in male breast cancer are scarce. Methods: In this retrospective chart review, cases of male breast cancer patients treated with AIs with or without a GnRH analogue were evaluated. Results: Twenty-three men were included into this case series. Aromatase inhibitors in combination with or without a GnRH analogue were given as first-line therapy in 60.9% and as second-line therapy in 39.1% of patients, respectively. All patients had visceral metastases, whereas in five of them bone lesions coexisted. In all cases AIs were tolerated well, and no case of grade 3 and 4 adverse events was reported. A partial response was observed in 26.1% of patients and stable disease in 56.5%. Median overall survival (OS) was 39 months and median progression-free survival (PFS) was 13 months. Regarding OS and PFS, no significant effects of GnRH analogue co-administration or type of AI were noted. Conclusion: Our study shows that AIs with or without GnRH analogues may represent an effective and safe treatment option for hormone-receptor positive, pretreated, metastatic, male breast cancer patients. PMID:23722469

  7. DNA Origami: Folded DNA-Nanodevices That Can Direct and Interpret Cell Behavior. (United States)

    Kearney, Cathal J; Lucas, Christopher R; O'Brien, Fergal J; Castro, Carlos E


    DNA origami is a DNA-based nanotechnology that utilizes programmed combinations of short complementary oligonucleotides to fold a large single strand of DNA into precise 2D and 3D shapes. The exquisite nanoscale shape control of this inherently biocompatible material is combined with the potential to spatially address the origami structures with diverse cargoes including drugs, antibodies, nucleic acid sequences, small molecules, and inorganic particles. This programmable flexibility enables the fabrication of precise nanoscale devices that have already shown great potential for biomedical applications such as: drug delivery, biosensing, and synthetic nanopore formation. Here, the advances in the DNA-origami field since its inception several years ago are reviewed with a focus on how these DNA-nanodevices can be designed to interact with cells to direct or probe their behavior.

  8. Prognostic factors in a series of 504 breast cancer patients with metastatic spinal cord compression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rades, D.; Douglas, S. [University Hospital Schleswig-Holstein, Luebeck (Germany). Dept. of Radiation Oncology; Veninga, T. [Dr. Bernard Verbeeten Institute, Tilburg (Netherlands). Dept. of Radiation Oncology; Stalpers, L.J.A. [Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands). Dept. of Radiotherapy; Bajrovic, A. [University Hospital Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg (Germany). Dept. of Radiation Oncology; Rudat, V. [Saad Specialist Hospital Al-Khobar, Al-Khobar (Saudi Arabia). Dept. of Radiation Oncology; Schild, S.E. [Mayo Clinic Scottsdale, Scottsdale, AZ (United States). Dept. of Radiation Oncology


    This study was performed to identify new significant prognostic factors in breast cancer patients irradiated for metastatic spinal cord compression (MSCC). The data of 504 patients with breast cancer patients with MSCC were retrospectively analyzed with respect to posttreatment motor function, local control of MSCC, and survival. The investigated potential prognostic factors included age, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) performance score, number of involved vertebrae, other bone metastases, visceral metastases, pretreatment ambulatory status, interval from cancer diagnosis to radiotherapy of MSCC, time developing motor deficits before radiotherapy, and the radiation schedule. On multivariate analysis, better functional outcome was associated with ambulatory status prior to RT (estimate - 1.29, p < 0.001), no visceral metastases (estimate - 0.52, p = 0.020), and slower development of motor deficits (estimate + 2.47, p < 0.001). Improved local control was significantly associated with no other bone metastases (risk ratio (RR) 4.33, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.36-14.02, p = 0.013) and no visceral metastases (RR 3.02, 95% CI 1.42-6.40, p = 0.005). Improved survival was significantly associated with involvement of only 1-2 vertebrae (RR 1.27, 95% CI 1.01-1.60, p = 0.044), ambulatory status before radiotherapy (RR 1.75, 95% CI 1.23-2.50, p = 0.002), no other bone metastases (RR 1.93, 95% CI 1.18-3.13, p = 0.009), no visceral metastases (RR 7.60, 95% CI 5.39-10.84, p < 0.001), and time developing motor deficits before radiotherapy (RR 1.55, 95% CI 1.30-1.86, p < 0.001). Several new independent prognostic factors were identified for treatment outcomes. These prognostic factors should be considered in future trials and may be used to develop prognostic scores for breast cancer patients with MSCC. (orig.)

  9. Cancer (United States)

    ... cancer Non-Hodgkin lymphoma Ovarian cancer Pancreatic cancer Testicular cancer Thyroid cancer Uterine cancer Symptoms Symptoms of cancer ... tumor Obesity Pancreatic cancer Prostate cancer Stomach cancer Testicular cancer Throat or larynx cancer Thyroid cancer Patient Instructions ...

  10. International benchmarking of specialty hospitals. A series of case studies on comprehensive cancer centres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Lent Wineke AM


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Benchmarking is one of the methods used in business that is applied to hospitals to improve the management of their operations. International comparison between hospitals can explain performance differences. As there is a trend towards specialization of hospitals, this study examines the benchmarking process and the success factors of benchmarking in international specialized cancer centres. Methods Three independent international benchmarking studies on operations management in cancer centres were conducted. The first study included three comprehensive cancer centres (CCC, three chemotherapy day units (CDU were involved in the second study and four radiotherapy departments were included in the final study. Per multiple case study a research protocol was used to structure the benchmarking process. After reviewing the multiple case studies, the resulting description was used to study the research objectives. Results We adapted and evaluated existing benchmarking processes through formalizing stakeholder involvement and verifying the comparability of the partners. We also devised a framework to structure the indicators to produce a coherent indicator set and better improvement suggestions. Evaluating the feasibility of benchmarking as a tool to improve hospital processes led to mixed results. Case study 1 resulted in general recommendations for the organizations involved. In case study 2, the combination of benchmarking and lean management led in one CDU to a 24% increase in bed utilization and a 12% increase in productivity. Three radiotherapy departments of case study 3, were considering implementing the recommendations. Additionally, success factors, such as a well-defined and small project scope, partner selection based on clear criteria, stakeholder involvement, simple and well-structured indicators, analysis of both the process and its results and, adapt the identified better working methods to the own setting, were found

  11. Altered (neo-) lacto series glycolipid biosynthesis impairs α2-6 sialylation on N-glycoproteins in ovarian cancer cells (United States)

    Alam, Shahidul; Anugraham, Merrina; Huang, Yen-Lin; Kohler, Reto S.; Hettich, Timm; Winkelbach, Katharina; Grether, Yasmin; López, Mónica Núñez; Khasbiullina, Nailia; Bovin, Nicolai V.; Schlotterbeck, Götz; Jacob, Francis


    The (neo-) lacto series glycosphingolipids (nsGSLs) comprise of glycan epitopes that are present as blood group antigens, act as primary receptors for human pathogens and are also increasingly associated with malignant diseases. Beta-1, 3-N-acetyl-glucosaminyl-transferase 5 (B3GNT5) is suggested as the key glycosyltransferase for the biosynthesis of nsGSLs. In this study, we investigated the impact of CRISPR-Cas9 -mediated gene disruption of B3GNT5 (∆B3GNT5) on the expression of glycosphingolipids and N-glycoproteins by utilizing immunostaining and glycomics-based PGC-UHPLC-ESI-QTOF-MS/MS profiling. ∆B3GNT5 cells lost nsGSL expression coinciding with reduction of α2-6 sialylation on N-glycoproteins. In contrast, disruption of B4GALNT1, a glycosyltransferase for ganglio series GSLs did not affect α2-6 sialylation on N-glycoproteins. We further profiled all known α2-6 sialyltransferase-encoding genes and showed that the loss of α2-6 sialylation is due to silencing of ST6GAL1 expression in ∆B3GNT5 cells. These results demonstrate that nsGSLs are part of a complex network affecting N-glycosylation in ovarian cancer cells. PMID:28358117

  12. Ultrasound-Guided Intercostobrachial Nerve Block for Intercostobrachial Neuralgia in Breast Cancer Patients: A Case Series. (United States)

    Wisotzky, Eric M; Saini, Vikramjeet; Kao, Cyrus


    This case series describes 3 cases in which ultrasound-guided intercostobrachial perineural injection was used for intercostobrachial neuralgia, a common cause of postmastectomy pain syndrome. All cases had undergone modified radical mastectomy with axillary lymph node dissection for breast cancer. Two cases developed axillary and unilateral chest wall pain. The third case initially presented with axillary pain and lateral shoulder pain 1 year out from radical mastectomy. After a cervical epidural steroid injection, her lateral shoulder pain resolved, but she continued to have residual chest wall paresthesia. It was at this time, we decided to treat with an intercostobrachial nerve perineural injection. Injury to the intercostobrachial nerve is thought to be a common cause of postmastectomy pain. In our case series, all patients had pain relief after the intercostobrachial perineural injection. There is a relative dearth of published information on the treatment of postmastectomy pain and more specifically intercostobrachial neuralgia. We review the anatomy of the intercostobrachial nerve and its variants, etiologies of intercostobrachial neuralgia, and current indications and methods of an intercostobrachial perineural injection.

  13. First-principles calculation of transport property in nano-devices under an external magnetic field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Jing-Zhe; Zhang Jin; Han Ru-Shan


    The mesoscopic quantum interference phenomenon (QIP) can be observed and behaves as the oscillation of conductance in nano-devices when the external magnetic field changes. Excluding the factor of impurities or defects, specific QIP is determined by the sample geometry. We have improved a first-principles method based on the matrix Green's function and the density functional theory to simulate the transport behaviour of such systems under a magnetic field. We have studied two kinds of QIP: universal conductance fluctuation (UCF) and Aharonov-Bohm effect (A-B effect). We find that the amplitude of UCF is much smaller than the previous theoretical prediction. We have discussed the origin of difference and concluded that due to the failure of ergodic hypothesis, the ensemble statistics is not applicable, and the conductance fluctuation is determined by the flux-dependent density of states (DOSs). We have also studied the relation between the UCF and the structure of sample. For a specific structure, an atomic circle, the A-B effect is observed and the origin of the oscillation is also discussed.

  14. An Efficient Fault Tolerance System Design for Cmos/Nanodevice Digital Memories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Kavitha


    Full Text Available Targeting on the future fault-prone hybrid CMOS/Nanodevice digital memories, this paper present two faulttolerance design approaches the integrally address the tolerance for defect and transient faults. These two approaches share several key features, including the use of a group of Bose-Chaudhuri- Hocquenghem (BCH codes for both defect tolerance and transient fault tolerance, and integration of BCH code selection and dynamic logical-to-physical address mapping. Thus, a new model of BCH decoder is proposed to reduce the area and simplify the computational scheduling of both syndrome and chien search blocks without parallelism leading to high throughput.The goal of fault tolerant computing is improve the dependability of systems where dependability can be defined as the ability of a system to deliver service at an acceptable level of confidence in either presence or absence The results of the simulation and implementation using Xilinx ISE software and the LCD screen on the FPGA’s Board will be shown at last.

  15. Malignant Cardiac Tamponade from Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer: Case Series from the Era of Molecular Targeted Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bob T. Li


    Full Text Available Cardiac tamponade complicating malignant pericardial effusion from non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC is generally associated with extremely poor prognosis. With improved systemic chemotherapy and molecular targeted therapy for NSCLC in recent years, the prognosis of such patients and the value of invasive cardiothoracic surgery in this setting have not been adequately examined. We report outcomes from a contemporary case series of eight patients who presented with malignant cardiac tamponade due to NSCLC to an Australian academic medical institution over an 18 months period. Two cases of cardiac tamponade were de novo presentations of NSCLC and six cases were presentations following previous therapy for NSCLC. The median survival was 4.5 months with a range between 9 days to alive beyond 17 months. The two longest survivors are still receiving active therapy at 17 and 15 months after invasive surgical pericardial window respectively. One survivor had a histological subtype of large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma and the other received targeted therapy for epidermal growth factor receptor mutation. These results support the consideration of active surgical palliation to treating this oncological emergency complicating NSCLC, including the use of urgent drainage, surgical creation of pericardial window followed by appropriate systemic therapy in suitably fit patients.

  16. BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation prevalence and clinical characteristics of a population-based series of ovarian cancer cases from Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soegaard, M.; Kjaer, S.K.; Cox, M.;


    PURPOSE: To evaluate the prevalence of BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations and associations with clinical correlates of disease in a population-based series of ovarian cancer cases from Denmark. METHODS: DNA sequencing and multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification analysis were used to analyze...... the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes for coding sequence mutations and large genomic rearrangements in 445 confirmed cases of ovarian cancer. We evaluated associations between mutation status and clinical characteristics, including cancer risks for first-degree relatives and clinicopathologic features of tumors....... RESULTS: Deleterious BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutations were identified in 26 cases; thus, mutations in these genes are responsible for at least 5.8% of ovarian cancer cases in this population. Five different mutations were identified in more than one individual, suggesting that they may be founder mutations...

  17. Energy-independent total quantum transmission of electrons through nanodevices with correlated disorder (United States)

    Novotny, M. A.


    In nanostructures with no appreciable scattering, electrons propagate ballistically, and hence have energy-independent total quantum transmission. For an incoming electron of energy E, the probability T (E) of transmission is obtained from the solution of the time-independent Schrödinger equation. Ballistic transport hence corresponds to T (E)=1. We show that there is a wide class of nanostructures with correlated disorder that have T (E)=1 for all propagating modes, even though they can have strong scattering. We call these nanostructures quantum dragons. An exact mathematical mapping for quantum transmission valid for a large class of atomic arrangements is presented within the single-band tight-binding model. Quantum transmission through a nanostructure is exactly mapped onto quantum transmission through a one-dimensional chain. The mapping is applied to carbon nanotubes in the armchair and zigzag configurations, Bethe lattices, conjoined Bethe lattices, Bethe lattices with hopping within each ring, and tubes formed from rectangular and orthorhombic lattices. The mapping shows that tuning tight-binding parameters to particular correlated values gives T (E)=1 for all the systems studied. A quantum dragon has the same electrical conductivity as a ballistic nanodevice, namely, in a four-terminal measurement the electrical resistance is zero, while in a two-terminal measurement for the single-channel case, the electrical conductivity is equal to the conductance quantum G0=2e2/h, where h is Planck's constant and e the electron charge. We find T (E)=1 is ubiquitous but occurs only on particular surfaces in the tight-binding parameter space.

  18. Pretreatment Serum Concentrations of 25-Hydroxyvitamin D and Breast Cancer Prognostic Characteristics: A Case-Control and a Case-Series Study (United States)

    Yao, Song; Sucheston, Lara E.; Millen, Amy E.; Johnson, Candace S.; Trump, Donald L.; Nesline, Mary K.; Davis, Warren; Hong, Chi-Chen; McCann, Susan E.; Hwang, Helena; Kulkarni, Swati; Edge, Stephen B.; O'Connor, Tracey L.; Ambrosone, Christine B.


    Background Results from epidemiologic studies on the relationship between vitamin D and breast cancer risk are inconclusive. It is possible that vitamin D may be effective in reducing risk only of specific subtypes due to disease heterogeneity. Methods and Findings In case-control and case-series analyses, we examined serum concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) in relation to breast cancer prognostic characteristics, including histologic grade, estrogen receptor (ER), and molecular subtypes defined by ER, progesterone receptor (PR) and HER2, among 579 women with incident breast cancer and 574 controls matched on age and time of blood draw enrolled in the Roswell Park Cancer Institute from 2003 to 2008. We found that breast cancer cases had significantly lower 25OHD concentrations than controls (adjusted mean, 22.8 versus 26.2 ng/mL, p<0.001). Among premenopausal women, 25OHD concentrations were lower in those with high- versus low-grade tumors, and ER negative versus ER positive tumors (p≤0.03). Levels were lowest among women with triple-negative cancer (17.5 ng/mL), significantly different from those with luminal A cancer (24.5 ng/mL, p = 0.002). In case-control analyses, premenopausal women with 25OHD concentrations above the median had significantly lower odds of having triple-negative cancer (OR = 0.21, 95% CI = 0.08–0.53) than those with levels below the median; and every 10 ng/mL increase in serum 25OHD concentrations was associated with a 64% lower odds of having triple-negative cancer (OR = 0.36, 95% CI = 0.22–0.56). The differential associations by tumor subtypes among premenopausal women were confirmed in case-series analyses. Conclusion In our analyses, higher serum levels of 25OHD were associated with reduced risk of breast cancer, with associations strongest for high grade, ER negative or triple negative cancers in premenopausal women. With further confirmation in large prospective studies, these findings could warrant

  19. Pretreatment serum concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D and breast cancer prognostic characteristics: a case-control and a case-series study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song Yao

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Results from epidemiologic studies on the relationship between vitamin D and breast cancer risk are inconclusive. It is possible that vitamin D may be effective in reducing risk only of specific subtypes due to disease heterogeneity. METHODS AND FINDINGS: In case-control and case-series analyses, we examined serum concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD in relation to breast cancer prognostic characteristics, including histologic grade, estrogen receptor (ER, and molecular subtypes defined by ER, progesterone receptor (PR and HER2, among 579 women with incident breast cancer and 574 controls matched on age and time of blood draw enrolled in the Roswell Park Cancer Institute from 2003 to 2008. We found that breast cancer cases had significantly lower 25OHD concentrations than controls (adjusted mean, 22.8 versus 26.2 ng/mL, p<0.001. Among premenopausal women, 25OHD concentrations were lower in those with high- versus low-grade tumors, and ER negative versus ER positive tumors (p≤0.03. Levels were lowest among women with triple-negative cancer (17.5 ng/mL, significantly different from those with luminal A cancer (24.5 ng/mL, p = 0.002. In case-control analyses, premenopausal women with 25OHD concentrations above the median had significantly lower odds of having triple-negative cancer (OR = 0.21, 95% CI = 0.08-0.53 than those with levels below the median; and every 10 ng/mL increase in serum 25OHD concentrations was associated with a 64% lower odds of having triple-negative cancer (OR = 0.36, 95% CI = 0.22-0.56. The differential associations by tumor subtypes among premenopausal women were confirmed in case-series analyses. CONCLUSION: In our analyses, higher serum levels of 25OHD were associated with reduced risk of breast cancer, with associations strongest for high grade, ER negative or triple negative cancers in premenopausal women. With further confirmation in large prospective studies, these findings

  20. Postoperative mortality after cancer surgery in octogenarians and nonagenarians: results from a series of 5,390 patients.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.A. Damhuis (Ronald); C.J. Meurs (Claudia); W.S. Meijer (Willem)


    textabstractBACKGROUND: To support decisions about surgical treatment of elderly patients with cancer, population-based estimates of postoperative mortality (POM) rates are required. METHODS: Electronic records from the Rotterdam Cancer Registry were retrieved for octogenarians and nonagenarians who

  1. A platform for in-situ multi-probe electronic measurements and modification of nanodevices inside a transmission electron microscope (United States)

    Xu, T. T.; Ning, Z. Y.; Shi, T. W.; Fu, M. Q.; Wang, J. Y.; Chen, Q.


    We developed a new platform that enables in-situ four-probe electronic measurements, in-situ three-probe field-effect measurements, nanomanipulation, and in-situ modification of nanodevices inside a transmission electron microscope (TEM). The platform includes a specially designed chip-holder and a silicon (Si) chip with suspended metal electrodes. The chip-holder can hold one Si chip with a size up to 3 mm × 3 mm and provides four electrical connections that can be connected to the micrometer-sized electrodes on the Si chip by wire-bonding. The other side of the electrical connections on the chip-holder is connected to the electronic instruments outside the TEM through a commercial Nanofactory SPM-TEM holder. The Si chip with suspended metal electrodes on one of its edges was fabricated by lithography and wet etching. Carbon nanotubes (CNTs), InAs nanowires, and tungsten disulfide nanowires were placed to stride over and connect to the suspended electrodes on the Si chip by nanomanipulations inside a scanning electron microscope (SEM). By using the platform, I-V curves of an individual single-walled CNT connecting to four electrodes were in-situ measured between any two of the four suspended electrodes, and a high-resolution TEM image of the same CNT was obtained. Furthermore, four-terminal I-V measurement on an InAs nanowire was achieved on this platform, and with a movable probe used as a gate electrode, field-effect measurement on the same InAs nanowire device was accomplished in SEM. In addition, by using the movable probe on the SPM-TEM holder, we could further in-situ modify nanomaterial and nanodevices. The present work demonstrates a method that allows a direct correlation between the atomic-level structure and the electronic property of nanomaterials or nanodevices whose structure can be further modified in-situ.

  2. Advanced boundary condition method in quantum transport and its application in nanodevices (United States)

    He, Yu

    Modern semiconductor devices have reached critical dimensions in the sub-20nm range. During the last decade, quantum transport methods have become the standard approaches to model nanoscale devices. In quantum transport methods, Schrodinger equations are solved in the critical device channel with the contacts served as the open boundary conditions. Proper and efficient treatments of these boundary conditions are essential to provide accurate prediction of device performance. The open boundary conditions, which represent charge injection and extraction effects, are described by contact self-energies. All existing contact self-energy methods assume periodic and semiinfinite contacts, which are in stark contrast to realistic devices where the contacts often have complicated geometries or imperfections. On the other hand, confined structures such as quantum dots, nanowires, and ultra-thin bodies play an important role in nanodevice designs. In the tight binding models of these confined structures, the surfaces require appropriate boundary treatments to remove the dangling bonds. The existing boundary treatments fall into two categories. One is to explicitly include the passivation atoms in the device. This is limited to passivation with atoms and small molecules due to the increasing rank of the Hamiltonian. The other is to implicitly incorporate passivation by altering the orbital energies of the dangling bonds with a passivation potential. This method only works for certain crystal structures and symmetries, and fails to distinguish different passivation scenarios, such as hydrogen and oxygen passivation. In this work, an efficient self-energy method applicable for arbitrary contact structures is developed. This method is based on an iterative algorithm which considers the explicit contact segments. The method is demonstrated on a graphene nanoribbon structure with trumpet shape contacts and a Si0.5Ge0.5 nanowire transistor with alloy disorder contacts. Furthermore

  3. Molecular docking based screening of novel designed chalcone series of compounds for their anti-cancer activity targeting EGFR kinase domain (United States)

    Rao, Chennu Maruthi Malya Prasada; Yejella, Rajendra Prasad; Rehman, Rehman Shaik Abdul; Basha, Syed Hussain


    Epidermal growth factor receptors (EGFR) are critical for the growth of many tumors and expressed at high levels in about one third of epithelial cancers. Hence, blockade of the binding sites for EGFR has been hypothesized as an effective anti-cancer therapy. Chalcone derivative compounds have been shown to be highly effective anti-cancer agents, however there are still so many novel derivatives possible, one of which might get us the best targeted EGFR inhibitor. In this effort directed towards the discovery of novel, potent anti-tumor agents for the treatment of cancer, in the present study a library of novel chalcone series of compounds has been designed and evaluated for their anti-cancer activity targeting EGFR kinase domain using various computational approaches. Among the twenty five novel designed chalcone series of compounds, all of them have found to be successfully docking inside the active binding domain of EGFR receptor target with a binding energy in a range of -6.10 to -9.25 Kcal/mol with predicted IC50 value range of 33.50 micor molar to 164.66 nano molar respectively. On the other hand, calculated 2DQSAR molecular descriptor properties of the compounds showed promising ADME parameters and found to be well in compliance with Lipinski׳s rule of five. Among all the twenty five compounds tested, compound 21 ((2E)-3-(anthracen-9-yl)-1-phenylprop-2-2n-1- one) was found to be the best lead like molecule with a binding energy of -9.25 kcal/mol with predicted IC50 value of 164.66 nano molar. Conclusively, novel designed compound 21 of the present study have shown promising anti-cancer potential worth considering for further evaluations. PMID:26339147

  4. Delineating genetic alterations for tumor progression in the MCF10A series of breast cancer cell lines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitsutaka Kadota

    Full Text Available To gain insight into the role of genomic alterations in breast cancer progression, we conducted a comprehensive genetic characterization of a series of four cell lines derived from MCF10A. MCF10A is an immortalized mammary epithelial cell line (MEC; MCF10AT is a premalignant cell line generated from MCF10A by transformation with an activated HRAS gene; MCF10CA1h and MCF10CA1a, both derived from MCF10AT xenografts, form well-differentiated and poorly-differentiated malignant tumors in the xenograft models, respectively. We analyzed DNA copy number variation using the Affymetrix 500 K SNP arrays with the goal of identifying gene-specific amplification and deletion events. In addition to a previously noted deletion in the CDKN2A locus, our studies identified MYC amplification in all four cell lines. Additionally, we found intragenic deletions in several genes, including LRP1B in MCF10CA1h and MCF10CA1a, FHIT and CDH13 in MCF10CA1h, and RUNX1 in MCF10CA1a. We confirmed the deletion of RUNX1 in MCF10CA1a by DNA and RNA analyses, as well as the absence of the RUNX1 protein in that cell line. Furthermore, we found that RUNX1 expression was reduced in high-grade primary breast tumors compared to low/mid-grade tumors. Mutational analysis identified an activating PIK3CA mutation, H1047R, in MCF10CA1h and MCF10CA1a, which correlates with an increase of AKT1 phosphorylation at Ser473 and Thr308. Furthermore, we showed increased expression levels for genes located in the genomic regions with copy number gain. Thus, our genetic analyses have uncovered sequential molecular events that delineate breast tumor progression. These events include CDKN2A deletion and MYC amplification in immortalization, HRAS activation in transformation, PIK3CA activation in the formation of malignant tumors, and RUNX1 deletion associated with poorly-differentiated malignant tumors.

  5. Stromal response to prostate cancer: nanotechnology-based detection of thioredoxin-interacting protein partners distinguishes prostate cancer associated stroma from that of benign prostatic hyperplasia. (United States)

    Singer, Elizabeth; Linehan, Jennifer; Babilonia, Gail; Imam, S Ashraf; Smith, David; Loera, Sofia; Wilson, Timothy; Smith, Steven


    Histological staining of reactive stroma has been shown to be a predictor of biochemical recurrence in prostate cancer, however, molecular markers of the stromal response to prostate cancer have not yet been fully delineated. The objective of this study was to determine whether or not the stromal biomarkers detected with a thioredoxin-targeted nanodevice could be used to distinguish the stroma associated with benign prostatic hyperplasia from that associated with PCA. In this regard, we recently demonstrated that a thioredoxin-targeted nanodevice selectively binds to reactive stroma in frozen prostate tumor tissue sections. To accomplish this, random frozen prostate tissue sections from each of 35 patients who underwent resection were incubated with the nanodevice and graded for fluorescent intensity. An adjacent section from each case was stained with Hematoxylin & Eosin to confirm the diagnosis. Select cases were stained with Masson's Trichrome or immunohistochemically using antibodies to thioredoxin reductase 1, thioredoxin reductase 2 or peroxiredoxin 1. Our results demonstrate that the graded intensity of nanodevice binding to the stroma associated with PCA was significantly higher (p = 0.0127) than that of benign prostatic hyperplasia using the t-test. Immunohistochemical staining of adjacent sections in representative cases showed that none of the two commonly studied thioredoxin interacting protein partners mirrored the fluorescence pattern seen with the nanodevice. However, thioredoxin reductase 2 protein was clearly shown to be a biomarker of prostate cancer-associated reactive stroma whose presence distinguishes the stroma associated with benign prostatic hyperplasia from that associated with prostate cancer. We conclude that the signal detected by the nanodevice, in contrast to individual targets detected with antibodies used in this study, originates from multiple thioredoxin interacting protein partners that distinguish the M2 neutrophil and

  6. Stromal response to prostate cancer: nanotechnology-based detection of thioredoxin-interacting protein partners distinguishes prostate cancer associated stroma from that of benign prostatic hyperplasia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Singer

    Full Text Available Histological staining of reactive stroma has been shown to be a predictor of biochemical recurrence in prostate cancer, however, molecular markers of the stromal response to prostate cancer have not yet been fully delineated. The objective of this study was to determine whether or not the stromal biomarkers detected with a thioredoxin-targeted nanodevice could be used to distinguish the stroma associated with benign prostatic hyperplasia from that associated with PCA. In this regard, we recently demonstrated that a thioredoxin-targeted nanodevice selectively binds to reactive stroma in frozen prostate tumor tissue sections. To accomplish this, random frozen prostate tissue sections from each of 35 patients who underwent resection were incubated with the nanodevice and graded for fluorescent intensity. An adjacent section from each case was stained with Hematoxylin & Eosin to confirm the diagnosis. Select cases were stained with Masson's Trichrome or immunohistochemically using antibodies to thioredoxin reductase 1, thioredoxin reductase 2 or peroxiredoxin 1. Our results demonstrate that the graded intensity of nanodevice binding to the stroma associated with PCA was significantly higher (p = 0.0127 than that of benign prostatic hyperplasia using the t-test. Immunohistochemical staining of adjacent sections in representative cases showed that none of the two commonly studied thioredoxin interacting protein partners mirrored the fluorescence pattern seen with the nanodevice. However, thioredoxin reductase 2 protein was clearly shown to be a biomarker of prostate cancer-associated reactive stroma whose presence distinguishes the stroma associated with benign prostatic hyperplasia from that associated with prostate cancer. We conclude that the signal detected by the nanodevice, in contrast to individual targets detected with antibodies used in this study, originates from multiple thioredoxin interacting protein partners that distinguish the M2

  7. Rare Sites of Metastases in Prostate Cancer Detected on Ga-68 PSMA PET/CT Scan—A Case Series (United States)

    Dureja, Sugandha; Thakral, Parul; Pant, Vineet; Sen, Ishita


    Ga-68 labeled prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) whole body PET/CT scan is a novel upcoming modality for the evaluation of prostate cancer. We present three cases of prostate cancer showing rare sites of metastases like brain, penis, and liver detected on Ga-68 PSMA PET/CT scan thus emphasizing its role in lesion detection and staging. PMID:28242977

  8. Acceptance of genetic counseling and testing in a hospital-based series of patients with gynecological cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekker, N.; Dorst, E.B. van; Luijt, R.B. van der; Gijn, M.E. van; Tuil, M. van; Offerhaus, J.A.; Ausems, M.G.E.M.


    Referral of patients with endometrial (EC) and/or ovarian cancer (OC) for genetic counseling is based on age at diagnosis and family history. Many patients with hereditary cancers are missed by following this strategy. We determined acceptance and mutation detection rate of offering genetic counseli

  9. Functional Time Series Models to Estimate Future Age-Specific Breast Cancer Incidence Rates for Women in Karachi, Pakistan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Farah Yasmeen[1; Sidra Zaheer[2


    Background: Breast cancer is the most common female cancer in Pakistan. The incidence of breast cancer in Pakistan is about 2.5 times higher than that in the neighboring countries India and Iran. In Karachi, the most populated city of Pakistan, the age-standardized rate of breast cancer was 69.1 per 100,000 women during 1998-2002, which is the highest recorded rate in Asia. The carcinoma of breast in Pakistan is an enormous public health concern. In this study, we examined the recent trends of breast cancer incidence rates among the women in Karachi. Methods: We obtained the secondary data of breast cancer incidence from various hospitals. They included Jinnah Hospital, KIRAN (Karachi Institute of Radiotherapy and Nuclear Medicine), and Civil hospital, where the data were available for the years 2004-2011. A total of 5331 new cases of female breast cancer were registered during this period. We analyzed the data in 5-year age groups 15-19, 20-24, 25-29, 30-34, 35-39, 40-44, 45-49, 50-54, 55-59, 60-64, 65-69, 70-74, 75+. Nonparametric smoothing were used to obtained age-specific incidence curves, and then the curves are decomposed using principal components analysis to fit FTS (functional time series) model. We then used exponential smoothing statspace models to estimate the forecasts of incidence curve and construct prediction intervals. Results: The breast cancer incidence rates in Karachi increased with age for all available years. The rates increased monotonically and are relatively sharp with the age from 15 years to 50 years and then they show variability after the age of 50 years. 10-year forecasts for the female breast cancer incidence rates in Karachi show that the future rates are expected to remain stable for the age-groups 15-50 years, but they will increase for the females of 50-years and over. Hence in future, the newly diagnosed breast cancer cases in the older women in Karachi are expected to increase. Conclusion: Prediction of age

  10. A Machine Learning Approach to Identify Clinical Trials Involving Nanodrugs and Nanodevices from (United States)

    de la Iglesia, Diana; García-Remesal, Miguel; Anguita, Alberto; Muñoz-Mármol, Miguel; Kulikowski, Casimir; Maojo, Víctor


    Background Clinical Trials (CTs) are essential for bridging the gap between experimental research on new drugs and their clinical application. Just like CTs for traditional drugs and biologics have helped accelerate the translation of biomedical findings into medical practice, CTs for nanodrugs and nanodevices could advance novel nanomaterials as agents for diagnosis and therapy. Although there is publicly available information about nanomedicine-related CTs, the online archiving of this information is carried out without adhering to criteria that discriminate between studies involving nanomaterials or nanotechnology-based processes (nano), and CTs that do not involve nanotechnology (non-nano). Finding out whether nanodrugs and nanodevices were involved in a study from CT summaries alone is a challenging task. At the time of writing, CTs archived in the well-known online registry are not easily told apart as to whether they are nano or non-nano CTs—even when performed by domain experts, due to the lack of both a common definition for nanotechnology and of standards for reporting nanomedical experiments and results. Methods We propose a supervised learning approach for classifying CT summaries from according to whether they fall into the nano or the non-nano categories. Our method involves several stages: i) extraction and manual annotation of CTs as nano vs. non-nano, ii) pre-processing and automatic classification, and iii) performance evaluation using several state-of-the-art classifiers under different transformations of the original dataset. Results and Conclusions The performance of the best automated classifier closely matches that of experts (AUC over 0.95), suggesting that it is feasible to automatically detect the presence of nanotechnology products in CT summaries with a high degree of accuracy. This can significantly speed up the process of finding whether reports on might be relevant to a

  11. Impact of tertiary Gleason pattern 5 on prostate cancer aggressiveness: Lessons from a contemporary single institution radical prostatectomy series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zachary B. Koloff


    Conclusion: Our results emphasize the importance of TP5 and suggest that criteria for tertiary pattern reporting in prostate cancer should be standardized. Further studies are needed to evaluate the role of tertiary patterns in prognostic models.

  12. Tumour location and axillary lymph node involvement in breast cancer: a series of 3472 cases from Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manjer, J; Balldin, G; Garne, J P


    AIM: This study investigates the potential relation between breast cancer location and axillary lymph node involvement (ALNI). METHODS: Out of all cases with unilateral first-time diagnosis of invasive breast cancer in Malmö, Sweden, between 1961 and 1991, 3472 underwent axillary dissection. The .......19-2.18), and for central tumours 3.50 (2.32-5.28). CONCLUSIONS: Outer and central breast tumours are associated with a high risk of axillary lymph node involvement. Udgivelsesdato: 2004-Aug......AIM: This study investigates the potential relation between breast cancer location and axillary lymph node involvement (ALNI). METHODS: Out of all cases with unilateral first-time diagnosis of invasive breast cancer in Malmö, Sweden, between 1961 and 1991, 3472 underwent axillary dissection...

  13. Can circulated lung cancer cells pass to the urine without apparent urine tract metastases? A single centre series. (United States)

    Kamposioras, Konstantinos; Pentheroudakis, George; Malamou-Mitsi, Vassiliki; Pappa, Lina; Bafa, Maria; Pavlidis, Nicholas


    Urine cytology has been a useful tool for the diagnosis of urinary tract malignancies. However, the presence of tumor cells in the urine sediment without an obvious urothelial metastatic deposit is a rare phenomenon and in patients with lung cancer has never been reported. We present five cases with metastatic lung cancer and positive urine cytology. The possible mechanisms underlining this phenomenon and its implications are discussed.

  14. Graphene nano-devices and nano-composites for structural, thermal and sensing applications (United States)

    Yavari, Fazel

    In this dissertation we have developed graphene-based nano-devices for applications in integrated circuits and gas sensors; as well as graphene-based nano-composites for applications in structures and thermal management. First, we have studied the bandgap of graphene for semiconductor applications. Graphene as a zero-bandgap material cannot be used in the semiconductor industry unless an effective method is developed to open the bandgap in this material. We have demonstrated that a bandgap of 0.206 eV can be opened in graphene by adsorption of water vapor molecules on its surface. Water molecules break the molecular symmetries of graphene resulting in a significant bandgap opening. We also illustrate that the lack of bandgap in graphene can be used to our advantage by making sensors that are able to detect low concentrations of gas molecules mixed in air. We have shown that 1-2 layers of graphene synthesized by chemical vapor deposition enables detection of trace amounts of NO 2 and NH3 in air at room temperature and atmospheric pressure. The gas species are detected by monitoring changes in electrical resistance of the graphene film due to gas adsorption. The sensor response time is inversely proportional to the gas concentration. Heating the film expels chemisorbed molecules from the graphene surface enabling reversible operation. The detection limits of ~100 parts-per-billion (ppb) for NO2 and ~500 ppb for NH3 obtained using this device are markedly superior to commercially available NO2 and NH3 detectors. This sensor is fabricated using individual graphene sheets that are exquisitely sensitive to the chemical environment. However, the fabrication and operation of devices that use individual nanostructures for sensing is complex, expensive and suffers from poor reliability due to contamination and large variability from sample-to-sample. To overcome these problems we have developed a gas sensor based on a porous 3D network of graphene sheets called graphene foam

  15. Immunology in the clinic review series; focus on cancer: tumour-associated macrophages: undisputed stars of the inflammatory tumour microenvironment. (United States)

    Allavena, P; Mantovani, A


    Mononuclear phagocytes are cells of the innate immunity that defend the host against harmful pathogens and heal tissues after injury. Contrary to expectations, in malignancies, tumour-associated macrophages (TAM) promote disease progression by supporting cancer cell survival, proliferation and invasion. TAM and related myeloid cells [Tie2(+) monocytes and myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC)] also promote tumour angiogenesis and suppress adaptive immune responses. These divergent biological activities are mediated by macrophages/myeloid cells with distinct functional polarization, which are ultimately dictated by microenvironmental cues. Clinical and experimental evidence has shown that cancer tissues with high infiltration of TAM are associated with poor patient prognosis and resistance to therapies. Targeting of macrophages in tumours is considered a promising therapeutic strategy: depletion of TAM or their 're-education' as anti-tumour effectors is under clinical investigation and will hopefully contribute to the success of conventional anti-cancer treatments.

  16. Fourier series

    CERN Document Server

    Tolstov, Georgi P


    Richard A. Silverman's series of translations of outstanding Russian textbooks and monographs is well-known to people in the fields of mathematics, physics, and engineering. The present book is another excellent text from this series, a valuable addition to the English-language literature on Fourier series.This edition is organized into nine well-defined chapters: Trigonometric Fourier Series, Orthogonal Systems, Convergence of Trigonometric Fourier Series, Trigonometric Series with Decreasing Coefficients, Operations on Fourier Series, Summation of Trigonometric Fourier Series, Double Fourie

  17. Implant-prosthetic rehabilitation after radiation treatment in head and neck cancer patients: a case-series report of outcome (United States)

    Cotic, Jasna; Jamsek, Jure; Kuhar, Milan; Ihan Hren, Natasa; Kansky, Andrej; Özcan, Mutlu


    Abstract Background Slovenia has a high burden of head and neck cancer. Patients are mostly treated with surgery followed by radiation therapy. Advanced surgical and prosthodontic techniques have expanded the rehabilitation options. The aim of the study was to review the outcome of implant-prosthetic treatment after radiation therapy. Patients and methods Twenty irradiated head and neck cancer patients who received a removable implant-supported denture at the University Medical Centre Ljubljana were included in the study. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis, Cox proportional hazard models and logistic regression were used to assess the implant survival and success rate. Results Twenty patients had 100 implants inserted. The estimated implant survival rate was 96% after 1 year and 87% after 5 years. Failures were mostly observed before loading (91.2%). Implants inserted in the transplanted bone were significantly more likely to fail. Out of 89 implants supporting the dentures, 79 implants (88.7%) were successful, meaning that they were functionally loaded and exhibited no pain, radiolucency or progressive bone loss. Prosthetic treatment was significantly less successful in older patients. The attachment system and the number of implants did not have a statistically significant influence on the success rate. Conclusions Implant-supported dentures have been shown to be a reliable treatment modality after head and neck cancer surgery and radiation therapy. Possible early failures should be communicated with the patients.

  18. Paclitaxel-Based Chemotherapy for Advanced Pancreatic Cancer after Gemcitabine-Based Therapy Failure: A Case Series of 5 Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hisato Igarashi


    Full Text Available Background/Objectives: Gemcitabine (GEM is a gold-standard chemotherapy agent for advanced pancreatic cancer. Because of the malignant character of the disease, nearly all patients show disease progression despite treatment with GEM-based chemotherapy; therefore, second-line chemotherapy may be beneficial for these patients. We report a retrospective analysis of 5 patients with advanced pancreatic cancer, treated with a paclitaxel-containing regimen as second-, third- or fourth-line chemotherapy after various therapies, such as a GEM-based regimen, S-1 regimen, and chemoradiation. We retrospectively analyzed the efficacy and adverse events, and evaluated the paclitaxel-containing regimens. A review of the literature is also discussed. Results: The median overall survival from the start of salvage therapy was 10.7 months. The disease control rate of the paclitaxel-containing regimen according to RECIST criteria was 60%, including complete response in 0 patients, partial response in 3, and stable disease in 2. Two patients had malignant ascites at the start of this salvage therapy, and in both of them the ascites and clinical complaints improved. Grade 3 and 4 hematological adverse events were observed in 2 patients and 1 patient, respectively. Conclusion: Salvage paclitaxel-based therapy could be beneficial to advanced pancreatic cancer patients who maintain good performance status after several chemotherapy failures.

  19. Immunology in the clinic review series; focus on cancer: double trouble for tumours: bi-functional and redirected T cells as effective cancer immunotherapies. (United States)

    Marr, L A; Gilham, D E; Campbell, J D M; Fraser, A R


    Cancer is one of the most important pathological conditions facing mankind in the 21st century, and is likely to become the most important cause of death as improvements continue in health, diet and life expectancy. The immune response is responsible for controlling nascent cancer through immunosurveillance. If tumours escape this control, they can develop into clinical cancer. Although surgery and chemo- or radiotherapy have improved survival rates significantly, there is a drive to reharness immune responses to treat disease. As T cells are one of the key immune cells in controlling cancer, research is under way to enhance their function and improve tumour targeting. This can be achieved by transduction with tumour-specific T cell receptor (TCR) or chimaeric antigen receptors (CAR) to generate redirected T cells. Virus-specific cells can also be transduced with TCR or CAR to create bi-functional T cells with specificity for both virus and tumour. In this review we outline the development and optimization of redirected and bi-functional T cells, and outline the results from current clinical trials using these cells. From this we discuss the challenges involved in generating effective anti-tumour responses while avoiding concomitant damage to normal tissues and organs.

  20. Static micro-array isolation, dynamic time series classification, capture and enumeration of spiked breast cancer cells in blood: the nanotube-CTC chip (United States)

    Khosravi, Farhad; Trainor, Patrick J.; Lambert, Christopher; Kloecker, Goetz; Wickstrom, Eric; Rai, Shesh N.; Panchapakesan, Balaji


    We demonstrate the rapid and label-free capture of breast cancer cells spiked in blood using nanotube-antibody micro-arrays. 76-element single wall carbon nanotube arrays were manufactured using photo-lithography, metal deposition, and etching techniques. Anti-epithelial cell adhesion molecule (anti-EpCAM), Anti-human epithelial growth factor receptor 2 (anti-Her2) and non-specific IgG antibodies were functionalized to the surface of the nanotube devices using 1-pyrene-butanoic acid succinimidyl ester. Following device functionalization, blood spiked with SKBR3, MCF7 and MCF10A cells (100/1000 cells per 5 μl per device, 170 elements totaling 0.85 ml of whole blood) were adsorbed on to the nanotube device arrays. Electrical signatures were recorded from each device to screen the samples for differences in interaction (specific or non-specific) between samples and devices. A zone classification scheme enabled the classification of all 170 elements in a single map. A kernel-based statistical classifier for the ‘liquid biopsy’ was developed to create a predictive model based on dynamic time warping series to classify device electrical signals that corresponded to plain blood (control) or SKBR3 spiked blood (case) on anti-Her2 functionalized devices with ˜90% sensitivity, and 90% specificity in capture of 1000 SKBR3 breast cancer cells in blood using anti-Her2 functionalized devices. Screened devices that gave positive electrical signatures were confirmed using optical/confocal microscopy to hold spiked cancer cells. Confocal microscopic analysis of devices that were classified to hold spiked blood based on their electrical signatures confirmed the presence of cancer cells through staining for DAPI (nuclei), cytokeratin (cancer cells) and CD45 (hematologic cells) with single cell sensitivity. We report 55%-100% cancer cell capture yield depending on the active device area for blood adsorption with mean of 62% (˜12 500 captured off 20 000 spiked cells in 0.1 ml

  1. Pathological response rate in hormone-positive breast cancer patients treated with neoadjuvant FEC and triweekly docetaxel: a case series. (United States)

    Kiba, Takayoshi; Morii, Nao; Takahashi, Hirotoshi; Ozaki, Shinji; Atsumi, Misao; Masumoto, Fumi; Yamashiro, Hiroyasu


    We recently reported that neoadjuvant 5-FU, epirubicin, and cyclophosphamide (FEC) followed by weekly paclitaxel and/or trastuzumab induced a high pathological complete response (pCR) rate in hormone-negative patients. The present study examined the therapeutic efficacy of neoadjuvant FEC followed by triweekly docetaxel and/or trastuzumab in the treatment of hormone-positive patients. Between February 2012 and December 2013, 16 hormone-positive patients with local breast cancer (luminal A type: six patients; luminal B type: two patients; luminal HER2 type: eight patients) were included in the study. The histological type of the primary cancer was invasive ductal carcinoma in all patients. The cancer stages in the 16 women who received this regimen were stage I in five (31.3%), IIA in four (25.0%), IIB in five (31.3%), IIIB in one (6.3%), and IIIC in one (6.3%). Regarding clinical TNM classification, five patients were T1N0M0, one was T1N1M0, three were T2N0M0, five were T2N1M0, one was T3N2M0, and one was T4N0M0. The pCR was evaluated using resected tissue after neoadjuvant chemotherapy according to the evaluation criteria of the Japanese Breast Cancer Society. Patients were classified into pathologic responders (grade 2: 50.0% of all patients: 2/6 of luminal A type; 6/8 of Luminal HER2 type) and nonresponders (grades 0 and 1: 50.0% of all patients: 4/6 of luminal A type; 2/2 of luminal B type; 2/8 of luminal HER2 type) according to the grade of the tumor. The pCR rate was 0%. Hematologic and nonhematologic toxicity was reversible and manageable. This study demonstrated that neoadjuvant FEC followed by triweekly docetaxel and/or trastuzumab did induce a high pathologic response in luminal HER2 type, but not in luminal A and B types, and did not induce a high pCR rate in the hormone-positive patients.

  2. False Positive Findings on I-131 WBS and SPECT/CT in Patients with History of Thyroid Cancer: Case Series (United States)

    Hannoush, Zeina C.; Palacios, Juan D.; Kuker, Russ A.


    Introduction. Although whole body scan (WBS) with I-131 is a highly sensitive tool for detecting normal thyroid tissue and metastasis of differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC), it is not specific. Additional information, provided by single photon emission computed tomography combined with X-ray computed tomography (SPECT/CT) and by the serum thyroglobulin level, is extremely useful for the interpretation of findings. Case Presentation. We report four cases of false positive WBS in patients with DTC: ovarian uptake corresponding to an endometrioma, scrotal uptake due to a spermatocele, rib-cage uptake due to an old fracture, and hepatic and renal uptake secondary to a granuloma and simple cyst, respectively. Conclusions. Trapping, organification, and storage of iodine are more prominent in thyroid tissue but not specific. Physiologic sodium-iodine symporter expression in other tissues explains some, but not all, of the WBS false positive cases. Other proposed etiologies are accumulation of radioiodine in inflamed organs, metabolism of radiodinated thyroid hormone, presence of radioiodine in body fluids, and contamination. In our cases nonthyroidal pathologies were suspected since the imaging findings were not corroborated by an elevated thyroglobulin level, which is considered a reliable tumor marker for most well-differentiated thyroid cancers. Clinicians should be aware of the potential pitfalls of WBS in DTC to avoid incorrect management. PMID:28246564

  3. Mutation analysis of BRCA1, BRCA2, PALB2 and BRD7 in a hospital-based series of German patients with triple-negative breast cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franziska Pern

    Full Text Available Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC is an aggressive form of breast carcinoma with a poor prognosis. Recent evidence suggests that some patients with TNBC harbour germ-line mutations in DNA repair genes which may render their tumours susceptible to novel therapies such as treatment with PARP inhibitors. In the present study, we have investigated a hospital-based series of 40 German patients with TNBC for the presence of germ-line mutations in BRCA1, BRCA2, PALB2, and BRD7 genes. Microfluidic array PCR and next-generation sequencing was used for BRCA1 and BRCA2 analysis while conventional high-resolution melting and Sanger sequencing was applied to study the coding regions of PALB2 and BRD7, respectively. Truncating mutations in BRCA1 were found in six patients, and truncating mutations in BRCA2 and PALB2 were detected in one patient each, whereas no truncating mutation was identified in BRD7. One patient was a double heterozygote for the PALB2 mutation, c.758insT, and a BRCA1 mutation, c.927delA. Our results confirm in a hospital-based setting that a substantial proportion of German TNBC patients (17.5% harbour germ-line mutations in genes involved in homology-directed DNA repair, with a preponderance of BRCA1 mutations. Triple-negative breast cancer should be considered as an additional criterion for future genetic counselling and diagnostic sequencing.

  4. Influence of Electric Field Coupling Model on the Simulated Performances of a GaN Based Planar Nanodevice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Y. Xu


    Full Text Available The performances of a two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG based planar nanodevice are studied by a two-dimensional-three-dimensional (2D-3D combined model and an entirely 2D model. In both models, 2DEGs are depicted by 2D ensemble Monte Carlo (EMC method. However electric field distributions in the devices are obtained by self-consistently solving 2D and 3D Poisson equations for the 2D model and the 2D-3D model, respectively. Simulation results obtained by both models are almost the same at low bias while showing distinguished differences at high bias. The 2D model predicts larger output current and slightly higher threshold voltage of Gunn oscillations. Although the fundamental frequencies of current oscillations obtained by both models are similar, the deviation of wave shape from sinusoidal waveform obtained by the 2D model is more serious than that obtained by 2D-3D model. Moreover, results obtained by the 2D model are more sensitive both to the bias conditions and to the change of device parameters. Interestingly, a look-like second harmonic oscillation has been observed at DC bias. We contribute the origin of divergences in simulation results to the different coupling path of electric field in the two models. And the second-harmonic oscillations at DC bias should be the result of the appearance of concomitant oscillations beside the channel excited by strong electric-field effects.

  5. Immunology in the clinic review series; focus on cancer: multiple roles for the immune system in oncogene addiction. (United States)

    Bachireddy, P; Rakhra, K; Felsher, D W


    Despite complex genomic and epigenetic abnormalities, many cancers are irrevocably dependent on an initiating oncogenic lesion whose restoration to a normal physiological activation can elicit a dramatic and sudden reversal of their neoplastic properties. This phenomenon of the reversal of tumorigenesis has been described as oncogene addiction. Oncogene addiction had been thought to occur largely through tumour cell-autonomous mechanisms such as proliferative arrest, apoptosis, differentiation and cellular senescence. However, the immune system plays an integral role in almost every aspect of tumorigenesis, including tumour initiation, prevention and progression as well as the response to therapeutics. Here we highlight more recent evidence suggesting that oncogene addiction may be integrally dependent upon host immune-mediated mechanisms, including specific immune effectors and cytokines that regulate tumour cell senescence and tumour-associated angiogenesis. Hence, the host immune system is essential to oncogene addiction.

  6. Rheumatic immune-related adverse events of checkpoint therapy for cancer: case series of a new nosological entity (United States)

    Calabrese, C; Kirchner, E; Kontzias, K; Velcheti, V; Calabrese, L H


    Immunotherapy of cancer with checkpoint inhibitors has been associated with a spectrum of autoimmune and systemic inflammatory reactions known as immune-related adverse events (irAEs). Rheumatic irAEs are infrequently reported and extensively described. Here, we report our experience over an 18-month period with 15 patients evaluated in the rheumatology department for rheumatic irAEs. We identified 13 patients without pre-existing autoimmune disease (AID) who subsequently developed rheumatic irAEs, and two with established AID referred pre-emptively. irAEs encountered included: inflammatory arthritis, sicca syndrome, polymyalgia rheumatica-like symptoms and myositis. All cases required glucocorticoids, and three required a biological agent. Rheumatic irAEs led to temporary or permanent cessation of immunotherapy in all but five patients. One patient with pre-existing AID experienced a flare after starting immunotherapy. Our findings underscore that rheumatic irAEs are complex, at times require additional immunosuppressive therapy, and may influence ongoing immunotherapy regimens for the primary disease. Similar irAEs will be increasingly seen as checkpoint inhibitors adopted as standard of care in the community.

  7. Risk factors for colorectal cancer in patients with multiple serrated polyps: a cross-sectional case series from genetics clinics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel D Buchanan

    Full Text Available Patients with multiple serrated polyps are at an increased risk for developing colorectal cancer (CRC. Recent reports have linked cigarette smoking with the subset of CRC that develops from serrated polyps. The aim of this work therefore was to investigate the association between smoking and the risk of CRC in high-risk genetics clinic patients presenting with multiple serrated polyps.We identified 151 Caucasian individuals with multiple serrated polyps including at least 5 outside the rectum, and classified patients into non-smokers, current or former smokers at the time of initial diagnosis of polyposis. Cases were individuals with multiple serrated polyps who presented with CRC. Controls were individuals with multiple serrated polyps and no CRC. Multivariate logistic regression was performed to estimate associations between smoking and CRC with adjustment for age at first presentation, sex and co-existing traditional adenomas, a feature that has been consistently linked with CRC risk in patients with multiple serrated polyps. CRC was present in 56 (37% individuals at presentation. Patients with at least one adenoma were 4 times more likely to present with CRC compared with patients without adenomas (OR = 4.09; 95%CI 1.27 to 13.14; P = 0.02. For females, the odds of CRC decreased by 90% in current smokers as compared to never smokers (OR = 0.10; 95%CI 0.02 to 0.47; P = 0.004 after adjusting for age and adenomas. For males, there was no relationship between current smoking and CRC. There was no statistical evidence of an association between former smoking and CRC for both sexes.A decreased odds for CRC was identified in females with multiple serrated polyps who currently smoke, independent of age and the presence of a traditional adenoma. Investigations into the biological basis for these observations could lead to non-smoking-related therapies being developed to decrease the risk of CRC and colectomy in these patients.

  8. Development of a Multi-functional Nano-device for Safe and Effective Gene Delivery to Target Organs. (United States)

    Kodama, Yukinobu


     Nucleic acids are expected as novel effective medicines, although they require a drug delivery system (DDS). Complexes of nucleic acids with cationic liposomes and cationic polymers have been mainly used as DDS for clinical use. However, most cationic complexes have disadvantages such as strong cytotoxicity and low biocompatibility. We previously found that a plasmid DNA (pDNA) complex coated with biodegradable γ-polyglutamic acid (γ-PGA) provided adequate gene expression without cytotoxicity. Based on these results, we developed a new DDS (multi-functional Nano-device) of pDNA using biodegradable polyamino acids. A typical cationic polyamino acid, poly-L-lysine (PLL), was complexed with pDNA. The binary complexes, however, showed low gene expression and high cytotoxicity. Gene expression was enhanced by addition of poly-L-histidine (PLH) to the binary complexes. PLH can increase endosome escape of the complexes by inducing pH-buffering effects. The quaternary complexes (pDNA-PLL-PLH-γ-PGA complexes) exhibited high gene expression and low cytotoxicity. Furthermore, we used dendrigraft poly-L-lysine (DGL) instead of PLL and PLH to enhance gene expression. DGL had sterically congested cations and was biodegradable. The ternary complexes (pDNA-DGL-γ-PGA complexes) exhibited markedly high gene expression and low cytotoxicity. The pDNA-DGL-γ-PGA complexes also had high gene expression in the marginal zone (rich dendritic cells) of the spleen after intravenous injection into mice. These results indicate that pDNA-DGL-γ-PGA complexes may be useful as vaccine vectors. Therefore we prepared a novel malaria DNA vaccine using Plasmodium yoelii GPI8p-transamidase-related protein pDNA (PyTAM). The PyTAM-DGL-γ-PGA complexes markedly improved survival time of model mice infected with malaria.

  9. Fabrication of functionalized double-lamellar multifunctional envelope-type nanodevices using a microfluidic chip with a chaotic mixer array.

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    Katsuma Kitazoe

    Full Text Available Multifunctional envelope-type nanodevices (MENDs are very promising non-viral gene delivery vectors because they are biocompatible and enable programmed packaging of various functional elements into an individual nanostructured liposome. Conventionally MENDs have been fabricated by complicated, labor-intensive, time-consuming bulk batch methods. To avoid these problems in MEND fabrication, we adopted a microfluidic chip with a chaotic mixer array on the floor of its reaction channel. The array was composed of 69 cycles of the staggered chaotic mixer with bas-relief structures. Although the reaction channel had very large Péclet numbers (>10(5 favorable for laminar flows, its chaotic mixer array led to very small mixing lengths (<1.5 cm and that allowed homogeneous mixing of MEND precursors in a short time. Using the microfluidic chip, we fabricated a double-lamellar MEND (D-MEND composed of a condensed plasmid DNA core and a lipid bilayer membrane envelope as well as the D-MEND modified with trans-membrane peptide octaarginine. Our lab-on-a-chip approach was much simpler, faster, and more convenient for fabricating the MENDs, as compared with the conventional bulk batch approaches. Further, the physical properties of the on-chip-fabricated MENDs were comparable to or better than those of the bulk batch-fabricated MENDs. Our fabrication strategy using microfluidic chips with short mixing length reaction channels may provide practical ways for constructing more elegant liposome-based non-viral vectors that can effectively penetrate all membranes in cells and lead to high gene transfection efficiency.

  10. [Stage III cancer of the cervix. The diagnosis, treatment and prognosis in a series of 92 patients (author's transl)]. (United States)

    Heintz, J


    This study is of 92 patients who were treated for Stage III carcinoma of the cervix in the Henri Becquerel Centre. We have ruled out the 11 patients who refused to complete their treatment or who died before treatment started. The average age was 63 years. The Stage III cases were divided into 40 Stage III A and 41 Stage III B, with 10 who had urinary tract involvement. These were epidermoid carcinomata. The treatment was by external radiotherapy followed by superimposed radium therapy in 66 cases. 15 patients were treated by external radiotherapy alone. The lumboartic nodes were treated in the area that was irradiated in 5 patients. The actuarial figures for survival work out at 51 per cent at 5 years for Stage III A cases and 34 per cent for Stage III B cases. Pelvic recurrences were responsible for 87 per cent of the failures. In fact, in almost 87 per cent of the cases the area was not completely sterilised. The percentage of failures was higher in the group that had altered lymphograms. The prognosis was worst when the upper urinary tract was affected. All patients who had positive lymphograms or those that were suspicious of having lumboaortic nodes involved died. In the 15 patients who did not have added radium therapy there were 13 cases who were not sterilised and 1 that recurred at 13 months. In 32 per cent of cases the failures in the pelvis were associated with pathology in distant lymph nodes and/or with visceral metastases. We found 13 per cent of solitary metastases. Between 5 and 10 years the failure rate is 9 per cent with a level of 6.3 per cent of pelvic recurrences associated or not associated with metastases or even with complications. Our patients had 8 rectosigmoid complications of which 2 needed a diversion colostomy. There were 7 cases of cystitis after X-ray, in the majority of a benign nature, and 2 bony complications that recovered spontaneously. After a study of the diagnosis and treatment of Stage III cancer of the cervix, the

  11. Cytotoxicity in human cancer cells and mitochondrial dysfunction induced by a series of new copper(I) complexes containing tris(2-cyanoethyl)phosphines. (United States)

    Zanella, Alessandro; Gandin, Valentina; Porchia, Marina; Refosco, Fiorenzo; Tisato, Francesco; Sorrentino, Francesca; Scutari, Guido; Rigobello, Maria Pia; Marzano, Cristina


    Over the last few years a lot of research has been done to develop novel metal-based anti-cancer drugs, with the aim of improving clinical effectiveness, reducing general toxicity, and broadening the spectrum of activity. The search for novel metal-based antitumour drugs other than Pt agents includes the investigation of the cytotoxic activity of copper(I/II) compounds. Among these copper agents, particular attention has been recently devoted to hydrophilic copper(I) species bearing phosphines because of their noteworthy stability in aqueous media together with their remarkable in vitro cytotoxic activity. In this study we report on the synthesis, characterization and cytotoxic assays of a series of Cu(I) complexes with tris(2-cyanoethyl)phosphine (PCN) and bis(2-cyanoethyl)phenylphosphine (PCNPh). They were prepared by reaction of [Cu(CH(3)CN)(4)](+) or CuX(2) precursors with the pertinent phosphine in acetone or acetonitrile solutions producing compounds of the following formulation: [Cu(PCN)(2)](+) 2, [Cu(CH(3)CN)(PCN)](+) 3, [Cu(X)(PCN)] (X = Cl, 4; Br, 5), and [Cu(PCNPh)(2)](+) 6. The new copper(I) complexes were tested for their cytotoxic properties against a panel of several human tumour cell lines. Cellular copper uptake rate was correlated with cell growth inhibition in 2008 human ovarian cancer cells. Moreover, copper(I)-PCN complexes were evaluated for their ability to alter the most relevant mitochondrial pathophysiological parameters such as respiration, coupling, ATP-synthetase activity and membrane potential in isolated mitochondria. These data were correlated with changes in mitochondrial membrane potential and production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in drug-treated 2008 cells.

  12. Time Series


    Gil-Alana, L.A.; Moreno, A; Pérez-de-Gracia, F. (Fernando)


    The last 20 years have witnessed a considerable increase in the use of time series techniques in econometrics. The articles in this important set have been chosen to illustrate the main themes in time series work as it relates to econometrics. The editor has written a new concise introduction to accompany the articles. Sections covered include: Ad Hoc Forecasting Procedures, ARIMA Modelling, Structural Time Series Models, Unit Roots, Detrending and Non-stationarity, Seasonality, Seasonal Adju...

  13. Ice Lithography for Nanodevices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Han, Anpan; Kuan, A.; Wang, J.;

    Water vapor is condensed onto a cold sample, coating it with a thin-film of ice. The ice is sensitive to electron beam lithography exposure. 10 nm ice patterns are transferred into metals by “melt-off”. Non-planar samples are coated with ice, and we pattern on cantilevers, AFM tips, and suspended...

  14. Nanoconverters for Powering Nanodevices (United States)

    Siegel, Peter


    Proposed integrated-circuit modules called "nanoconverters" would derive DC power from impinging electromagnetic beams having frequencies in the terahertz range. Nanoconverters are composed of microscopic antennas and diodes resembling rectennas that have been developed to perform the same function at frequencies in the gigahertz range. The submillimeter wavelength nanoconverters would make it possible to incorporate the antenna elements and diodes on structures much smaller than those of prior rectennas, thereby opening up opportunities for noncontact transmission of power to a variety of microelectronic devices, including surgically implanted medical devices and untethered microscopic robots.

  15. Nanodevices for biosensing applications (United States)

    Yoon, Hargsoon; Deshpande, Devesh C.; Ramachandran, Vasuda; Hankins, Phillip T.; Varadan, Vijay K.


    This research discusses the development of biosensors with vertically aligned nanowires, and the evaluation of their physical properties, electrochemical performance and biocompatibility. The developments include neurotransmitter (dopamine) sensors, glucose sensors for continuous monitoring, potassium ion sensors and integration of those sensors. A hemi-cylindrical nanocavity structure has been developed for dopamine sensing using redox cycling with radial diffusion within the cavities. By immobilization of enzymes in a conducting polymer matrix on vertically aligned nanowires, glucose sensing electrodes have been obtained with high sensitivity and selectivity. In addition, potassium sensing, potentially useful for monitoring changes of extracellular potassium concentration during myocardial ischemia, has been demonstrated using ion selective membranes (ISM) on nanowires. Sensor developments and measurement results are included in the presentation along with descriptions of top-down and bottom-up nano-/micro-fabrication technologies such as lithography and thin film deposition.

  16. Chart Series (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) offers several different Chart Series with data on beneficiary health status, spending, operations, and quality...

  17. 准一维ZnO纳米材料及器件的研究进展%Progress in Quasi One Dimensional ZnO Nanomaterials and Nanodevices

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段理; 樊小勇; 李东林


    The quasi one dimensional nanostructural ZnO have potential applications in micro-electronics and optoelectronics devices. In recent years, the studies of one dimensional ZnO nanodevices design and nanofabrication have started. The fabrication methods and mechanisms of quasi one dimensional ZnO nanomaterials and nanoarrays are summarized. The progress of quasi one dimensional ZnO nanodevices is also introduced. The existing problems and the future research tasks are presented in the end.%准一维纳米ZnO因在微电子和光电子领域具有广阔前景而受到关注.综述了近年来准一维ZnO纳米材料的主流制备方法及其相关机理,介绍了一维纳米阵列的实现方案,总结了各类准一维ZnO纳米器件的研究进展,探讨了研究现状并展望了未来的研究方向.

  18. Cancer (United States)

    Cancer begins in your cells, which are the building blocks of your body. Normally, your body forms ... be benign or malignant. Benign tumors aren't cancer while malignant ones are. Cells from malignant tumors ...

  19. Warty/basaloid penile intraepithelial neoplasia is more prevalent than differentiated penile intraepithelial neoplasia in nonendemic regions for penile cancer when compared with endemic areas: a comparative study between pathologic series from Paris and Paraguay. (United States)

    Soskin, Ana; Vieillefond, Anicke; Carlotti, Agnes; Plantier, Francoise; Chaux, Alcides; Ayala, Gustavo; Velazquez, Elsa F; Cubilla, Antonio L


    Penile squamous cell carcinoma shows an ample geographic variation in its prevalence with regions of low (North America, Europe, Japan, and Israel) and high (Africa, Asia, and South America) incidence. However, the geographic variation in the distribution of penile intraepithelial neoplasia is not well established. The aim of the present study was to compare the distribution of in situ and invasive lesions between geographic areas with low (France) and high (Paraguay) penile cancer incidence using a series of consecutive cases. The French series included 86 cases (57 in situ and 29 in situ + invasive squamous cell carcinoma), and the Paraguayan series, 117 cases (31 in situ and 86 in situ + invasive squamous cell carcinoma). Incidence of invasive squamous cell carcinoma in the overall samples was higher in the Paraguayan series (P < .00001). Comparing the Paraguayan and the French series, differentiated penile intraepithelial neoplasia was more prevalent in the former (65.0% versus 19.8%), whereas lesions showing warty and/or basaloid features predominated in the latter (35.0% versus 80.2%) to a significant level (P < .00001). This distinctive pattern of differential distribution was maintained when cases with associated invasive squamous cell carcinoma were excluded. The pattern of distribution of lichen sclerosus was also distinctive, with a significantly higher prevalence in the Paraguayan population when compared with the French series (32.5% versus 12.8%, P = .0015). In summary, there appears to be a distinctive distribution of penile precursor lesions depending on the geographic region in consideration. Penile intraepithelial neoplasia with warty and/or basaloid features predominated in low-incidence areas, whereas differentiated penile intraepithelial neoplasia was more prevalent in endemic regions for penile cancer. Further prospective studies in matched populations and from different geographic regions are needed to further clarify the reasons for this

  20. Breast and ovarian cancer risks in a large series of clinically ascertained families with a high proportion of BRCA1 and BRCA2 Dutch founder mutations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brohet, Richard M.; Velthuizen, Maria E.; Hogervorst, Frans B. L.; Meijers-Heijboer, Hanne E. J.; Seynaeve, Caroline; Collee, Margriet J.; Verhoef, Senno; Ausems, Margreet G. E. M.; Hoogerbrugge, Nicoline; van Asperen, Christi J.; Garcia, Encarna Gomez; Menko, Fred; Oosterwijk, Jan C.; Devilee, Peter; van't Veer, Laura J.; van Leeuwen, Flora E.; Easton, Douglas F.; Rookus, Matti A.; Antoniou, Antonis C.


    Background BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutations confer increased risks of breast and ovarian cancer, but risks have been found to vary across studies and populations. Methods We ascertained pedigree data of 582 BRCA1 and 176 BRCA2 families and studied the variation in breast and ovarian cancer risks using a mod

  1. Three-Dimensional Volume-Rendered Series Complements 2D Orthogonal Multidetector Computed Tomography in the Evaluation of Abnormal Spinal Curvature in Patients at a Major Cancer Center: A Retrospective Review. (United States)

    Debnam, J Matthew; Ketonen, Leena; Guha-Thakurta, Nandita


    Background. Abnormal spinal curvature is routinely assessed with plain radiographs, MDCT, and MRI. MDCT can provide two-dimensional (2-D) orthogonal as well as reconstructed three-dimensional volume-rendered (3-D VR) images of the spine, including the translucent display: a computer-generated image set that enables the visualization of surgical instrumentation through bony structures. We hypothesized that the 3-D VR series provides additional information beyond that of 2-D orthogonal MDCT in the evaluation of abnormal spinal curvature in patients evaluated at a major cancer center. Methods. The 3-D VR series, including the translucent display, was compared to 2-D orthogonal MDCT studies in patients with an abnormal spinal curvature greater than 25 degrees and scored as being not helpful (0) or helpful (1) in 3 categories: spinal curvature; bony definition; additional findings (mass lesions, fractures, and instrumentation). Results. In 38 of 48 (79.2%) patients assessed, the 3-D VR series were scored as helpful in 63 of 144 (43.8%) total possible categories (32 spinal curvature; 14 bony definition; 17 additional findings). Conclusion. Three-dimensional MDCT images, including the translucent display, are complementary to multiplanar 2-D orthogonal MCDT in the evaluation of abnormal spinal curvature in patients treated at a major cancer center.

  2. Exposures series


    Stimson, Blake


    Reaktion Books’ Exposures series, edited by Peter Hamilton and Mark Haworth-Booth, is comprised of 13 volumes and counting, each less than 200 pages with 80 high-quality illustrations in color and black and white. Currently available titles include Photography and Australia, Photography and Spirit, Photography and Cinema, Photography and Literature, Photography and Flight, Photography and Egypt, Photography and Science, Photography and Africa, Photography and Italy, Photography and the USA, P...

  3. An easy and efficient way to treat Green's function for nano-devices with arbitrary shapes and multi-terminal configurations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Mou; Ran Xian-Jin; Cui Yan; Wang Rui-Qiang


    The efficiency of the calculation of Green's function (GF) for nano-devices is very important because the calculation is often needed to be repeated countlessly. We present a set of efficient algorithms for the numerical calculation of GF for devices with arbitrary shapes and multi-terminal configurations. These algorithms can be used to calculate the specified blocks related to the transmission,the diagonals needed by the local density of states calculation,and the full matrix of GF,to meet different calculation levels. In addition,the algorithms for the non-equilibrium occupation and current flow are also given. All these algorithms are described using the basic theory of GF,based on a new partition strategy of the computational area. We apply these algorithms to the tight-binding graphene lattice to manifest their stability and efficiency. We also discuss the physics of the calculation results.

  4. {sup 11}C-Choline PET/CT for restaging prostate cancer. Results from 4,426 scans in a single-centre patient series

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graziani, Tiziano; Ceci, Francesco; Polverari, Giulia; Lima, Giacomo Maria; Lodi, Filippo; Fanti, Stefano [S. Orsola-Malpighi Hospital, University of Bologna, Service of Nuclear Medicine, Bologna (Italy); Castellucci, Paolo [S. Orsola-Malpighi Hospital, University of Bologna, Service of Nuclear Medicine, Bologna (Italy); Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria di Bologna, Policlinico S. Orsola-Malpighi, UO Medicina Nucleare, Bologna (Italy); Morganti, Alessio Giuseppe [S. Orsola-Malpighi Hospital, University of Bologna, Department of Radiotherapy, Bologna (Italy); Ardizzoni, Andrea [S. Orsola-Malpighi Hospital, University of Bologna, Department of Oncology, Bologna (Italy); Schiavina, Riccardo [S. Orsola-Malpighi Hospital, University of Bologna, Department of Urology, Bologna (Italy)


    To evaluate {sup 11}C-choline PET/CT as a diagnostic tool for restaging prostate cancer (PCa), in a large, homogeneous and clinically relevant population of patients with biochemical recurrence (BCR) of PCa after primary therapy. The secondary aim was to assess the best timing for performing {sup 11}C-choline PET/CT during BCR. We retrospectively analysed 9,632 {sup 11}C-choline PET/CT scans performed in our institution for restaging PCa from January 2007 to June 2015. The inclusion criteria were: (1) proven PCa radically treated with radical prostatectomy (RP) or with primary external beam radiotherapy (EBRT); (2) PSA serum values available; (3) proven BCR (PSA >0.2 ng/mL after RP or PSA >2 ng/mL above the nadir after primary EBRT with rising PSA levels). Finally, 3,203 patients with recurrent PCa matching all the inclusion criteria were retrospectively enrolled and 4,426 scans were analysed. Overall, 52.8 % of the {sup 11}C-choline PET/CT scans (2,337/4,426) and 54.8 % of the patients (1,755/3,203) were positive. In 29.4 % of the scans, at least one distant finding was observed. The mean and median PSA values were, respectively, 4.9 and 2.1 ng/mL at the time of the scan (range 0.2 - 50 ng/mL). In our series, 995 scans were performed in patients with PSA levels between 1 and 2 ng/mL. In this subpopulation the positivity rate in the 995 scans was 44.7 %, with an incidence of distant findings of 19.2 % and an incidence of oligometastatic disease (one to three lesions) of 37.7 %. The absolute PSA value at the time of the scan and ongoing androgen deprivation therapy were associated with an increased probability of a positive {sup 11}C-choline PET/CT scan (p < 0.0001). In the ROC analysis, a PSA value of 1.16 ng/mL was the optimal cut-off value. In patients with a PSA value <1.16 ng/mL, 26.8 % of 1,426 {sup 11}C-choline PET/CT scans were positive, with oligometastatic disease in 84.7 % of positive scans. In a large cohort of patients, the feasibility of {sup 11}C

  5. High-throughput protein expression analysis using tissue microarray technology of a large well-characterised series identifies biologically distinct classes of breast cancer confirming recent cDNA expression analyses. (United States)

    Abd El-Rehim, Dalia M; Ball, Graham; Pinder, Sarah E; Rakha, Emad; Paish, Claire; Robertson, John F R; Macmillan, Douglas; Blamey, Roger W; Ellis, Ian O


    Recent studies on gene molecular profiling using cDNA microarray in a relatively small series of breast cancer have identified biologically distinct groups with apparent clinical and prognostic relevance. The validation of such new taxonomies should be confirmed on larger series of cases prior to acceptance in clinical practice. The development of tissue microarray (TMA) technology provides methodology for high-throughput concomitant analyses of multiple proteins on large numbers of archival tumour samples. In our study, we have used immunohistochemistry techniques applied to TMA preparations of 1,076 cases of invasive breast cancer to study the combined protein expression profiles of a large panel of well-characterized commercially available biomarkers related to epithelial cell lineage, differentiation, hormone and growth factor receptors and gene products known to be altered in some forms of breast cancer. Using hierarchical clustering methodology, 5 groups with distinct patterns of protein expression were identified. A sixth group of only 4 cases was also identified but deemed too small for further detailed assessment. Further analysis of these clusters was performed using multiple layer perceptron (MLP)-artificial neural network (ANN) with a back propagation algorithm to identify key biomarkers driving the membership of each group. We have identified 2 large groups by their expression of luminal epithelial cell phenotypic characteristics, hormone receptors positivity, absence of basal epithelial phenotype characteristics and lack of c-erbB-2 protein overexpression. Two additional groups were characterized by high c-erbB-2 positivity and negative or weak hormone receptors expression but showed differences in MUC1 and E-cadherin expression. The final group was characterized by strong basal epithelial characteristics, p53 positivity, absent hormone receptors and weak to low luminal epithelial cytokeratin expression. In addition, we have identified significant

  6. Cancer (United States)

    ... uses a surgical tool to remove the tumor.Mohs' surgery. Layers of cancer cells are removed one ... usually have not been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). The medicine may have ...

  7. DCP Series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip Stearns


    Full Text Available Photo essay. A collection of Images produced by intentionally corrupting the circuitry of a Kodak DC280 2 MP digitalcamera. By rewiring the electronics of a digital camera, glitched images are produced in a manner that parallels chemically processing unexposed film or photographic paper to produce photographic images without exposure to light. The DCP Series of Digital Images are direct visualizations of data generated by a digital camera as it takes a picture. Electronic processes associated with the normal operations of the camera, which are usually taken for granted, are revealed through an act of intervention. The camera is turned inside­out through complexes of short­circuits, selected by the artist, transforming the camera from a picture taking device to a data capturing device that renders raw data (electronic signals as images. In essence, these images are snap­shots of electronic signals dancing through the camera's circuits, manually rerouted, written directly to the on­board memory device. Rather than seeing images of the world through a lens, we catch a glimpse of what the camera sees when it is forced to peer inside its own mind.

  8. University of Texas MD Anderson: Phenotypic Examination of PIK3CA Allelic Series using In Vitro/In Vivo Sensor Platforms | Office of Cancer Genomics (United States)

    The CTD2 Center at the University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center utilized an established and operational MCF10A normal breast epithelial cell model to assess the ability of candidate driver aberrations to promote cell grow in anchorage-independent conditions (soft agar assay) and proliferate in the absence of insulin and epidermal growth factor (EGF).

  9. What is the optimal definition of misclassification in patients with very low-risk prostate cancer eligible for active surveillance? Results from a multi-institutional series.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gandaglia, G.; Ploussard, G.; Isbarn, H.; Suardi, N.; Visschere, P.J. De; Futterer, J.J.; Ghadjar, P.; Massard, C.; Ost, P.; Sooriakumaran, P.; Surcel, C.I.; Bergh, R.C. van den; Montorsi, F.; Ficarra, V.; Giannarini, G.; Briganti, A.


    BACKGROUND: The risk of unfavorable prostate cancer in active surveillance (AS) candidates is nonnegligible. However, what represents an adverse pathologic outcome in this setting is unknown. We aimed at assessing the optimal definition of misclassification and its effect on recurrence in AS candida

  10. Is whole gland salvage cryotherapy effective as palliative treatment of haematuria in patients with locally advanced prostate cancer? Results of a preliminary case series (United States)

    Mucciardi, Giuseppe; Galì, Alessandro; Pappalardo, Rosa; Lembo, Francesco; Anastasi, Giuseppina; Butticè, Salvatore; Ascenti, Giorgio; Lugnani, Franco


    Objectives: Locally advanced prostate cancer may cause several complications such as haematuria, bladder outlet obstruction, and renal failure due to the ureteral obstruction. Various treatments have been suggested, including radiotherapy, antifibrinolytics, bladder irrigation with alum solution, transurethral surgery and angioembolization, none of which have proven effectiveness. In the last years cryoablation has become a valid therapeutic option for prostate cancer. In our experience we used this ‘new’ technique as haemostatic therapy. Methods: We selected four patients with gross haematuria affected by locally advanced hormone refractory prostate cancer, who had already been treated with primary radiotherapy. We used third-generation cryotherapy: under ultrasonographic guidance, we inserted six cryoprobes, two in each of the vascular pedicles reaching at least −60°C, and three thermometers. We then induced two freeze–thaw cycles. Results: After the operation the haematuria stopped in all patients and at 9-month follow up we observed a mean of four red cells (range three to five) in the urinary sediment with no evidence of bacteriuria. Prostate volume, prostate-specific antigen and postmicturition residue were significantly reduced. Qmax improved significantly too. Conclusion: Our experience has given us good results with minimal intra- and postoperative complications. We think that haemostatic cryotherapy as a palliative approach for locally advanced prostate cancer could represent a valid treatment option and more consideration could be given to its use. PMID:26425138

  11. Introduction of the Mammography unit; SEPIO series

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nanbu, Yukiko; Sasaki, Osamu; Tsuji, Hisao [Shimadzu Corp., Medical Systems Division, Kyoto (Japan)


    Mammography unit SEPIO series are designed for the both screening and diagnosis of the breast cancer. SEPIO series have the following features; iso-centric C-arm rotation leads to high throughput, two phase compression method called Twincomp minimizes the blind are near chest wall and the bi-angular X-ray tube contributes to better image quality. Furthermore optional MaxVision system which has a function to pull the breast toward the film is introduced to SEPIO series. (author)

  12. Effects of androgen deprivation therapy and bisphosphonate treatment on bone in patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer: results from the University of Washington Rapid Autopsy Series. (United States)

    Morrissey, Colm; Roudier, Martine P; Dowell, Alex; True, Lawrence D; Ketchanji, Melanie; Welty, Christopher; Corey, Eva; Lange, Paul H; Higano, Celestia S; Vessella, Robert L


    Qualitative and quantitative bone features were determined in nondecalcified and decalcified bone from 20 predetermined bone sites in each of 44 patients who died with castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC), some of which received bisphosphonate treatment (BP) in addition to androgen-deprivation therapy (ADT). Thirty-nine of the 44 patients (89%) had evidence of bone metastases. By histomorphometric analysis, these bone metastases were associated with a range of bone responses from osteoblastic to osteolytic with a wide spectrum of bone responses often seen within an individual patient. Overall, the average bone volume/tissue volume (BV/TV) was 25.7%, confirming the characteristic association of an osteoblastic response to prostate cancer bone metastasis when compared with the normal age-matched weighted mean BV/TV of 14.7%. The observed new bone formation was essentially woven bone, and this was a localized event. In comparing BV/TV at metastatic sites between patients who had received BP treatment and those who had not, there was a significant difference (28.6% versus 19.3%, respectively). At bone sites that were not invaded by tumor, the average BV/TV was 10.1%, indicating significant bone loss owing to ADT that was not improved (11%) in those patients who had received BPs. Surprisingly, there was no significant difference in the number of osteoclasts present at the metastatic sites between patients treated or not treated with BPs, but in bone sites where the patient had been treated with BPs, giant osteoclasts were observed. Overall, 873 paraffin-embedded specimens and 661 methylmethacrylate-embedded specimens were analyzed. Our results indicate that in CRPC patients, ADT induces serious bone loss even in patients treated with BP. Furthermore, in this cohort of patients, BP treatment increased BV and did not decrease the number of osteoclasts in prostate cancer bone metastases compared with bone metastases from patients who did not receive BP.

  13. Facilitating needs based cancer care for people with a chronic disease: Evaluation of an intervention using a multi-centre interrupted time series design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sibbritt David


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Palliative care should be provided according to the individual needs of the patient, caregiver and family, so that the type and level of care provided, as well as the setting in which it is delivered, are dependent on the complexity and severity of individual needs, rather than prognosis or diagnosis 1. This paper presents a study designed to assess the feasibility and efficacy of an intervention to assist in the allocation of palliative care resources according to need, within the context of a population of people with advanced cancer. Methods/design People with advanced cancer and their caregivers completed bi-monthly telephone interviews over a period of up to 18 months to assess unmet needs, anxiety and depression, quality of life, satisfaction with care and service utilisation. The intervention, introduced after at least two baseline phone interviews, involved a training medical, nursing and allied health professionals at each recruitment site on the use of the Palliative Care Needs Assessment Guidelines and the Needs Assessment Tool: Progressive Disease - Cancer (NAT: PD-C; b health professionals completing the NAT: PD-C with participating patients approximately monthly for the rest of the study period. Changes in outcomes will be compared pre-and post-intervention. Discussion The study will determine whether the routine, systematic and regular use of the Guidelines and NAT: PD-C in a range of clinical settings is a feasible and effective strategy for facilitating the timely provision of needs based care. Trials registration ISRCTN21699701

  14. CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Kavoussi


    Full Text Available There are many carcinogenetic elements in industry and it is for this reason that study and research concerning the effect of these materials is carried out on a national and international level. The establishment and growth of cancer are affected by different factors in two main areas:-1 The nature of the human or animal including sex, age, point and method of entry, fat metabolism, place of agglomeration of carcinogenetic material, amount of material absorbed by the body and the immunity of the body.2 The different nature of the carcinogenetic material e.g. physical, chemical quality, degree of solvency in fat and purity of impurity of the element. As the development of cancer is dependent upon so many factors, it is extremely difficult to determine whether a causative element is principle or contributory. Some materials are not carcinogenetic when they are pure but become so when they combine with other elements. All of this creates an industrial health problem in that it is almost impossible to plan an adequate prevention and safety program. The body through its system of immunity protects itself against small amounts of carcinogens but when this amount increases and reaches a certain level the body is not longer able to defend itself. ILO advises an effective protection campaign against cancer based on the Well –equipped laboratories, Well-educated personnel, the establishment of industrial hygiene within factories, the regular control of safety systems, and the implementation of industrial health principles and research programs.

  15. Growth inhibition and induction of apoptosis in MCF-7 breast cancer cells by a new series of substituted-1,3,4-oxadiazole derivatives. (United States)

    Kumar, Akhilesh; D'Souza, Saritha S; Gaonkar, S L; Rai, K M L; Salimath, Bharathi P


    The multiple pharmacological actions of unique synthetic compounds are a prerequisite for classifying a drug as highly efficacious, because the multiple pharmacological actions offer the possibility of treating various diseases like cancer. 1,3,4-Oxadiazoles are an important class of heterocyclic compounds with broad spectrum of biological activities. In this study we focused on the ability of these derivatives to induce apoptosis in cultured MCF-7 breast cancer cells. Treatment of MCF-7 cells with varying concentrations of the different derivatives resulted in dose and time dependent sequence of events marked by apoptosis, as shown by loss of cell viability, chromatin condensation, internucleosomal DNA fragmentation and sub G(0) phase accumulation. Furthermore, apoptosis in MCF-7 cell was induced by upregulation of proto-oncoprotein Bax and activation of Caspase-3 activated DNase. Although the derivatives induced apoptosis was associated with Bax protein levels, negligible Bcl-2 reduction was observed. Analysis of the data suggests that the substituted oxadiazole derivatives exert antiproliferative action and growth inhibition on MCF-7 cells through apoptosis induction and that it may have anticancer properties valuable for application in drug products.

  16. A Case Series of Survival Outcomes in Patients with Advanced-stage IIIb/IV Non-small-cell Lung Cancer Treated with HangAm-Plus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bang Sun-Hwi


    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC represents approximately 80% of all lung cancers. Unfortunately, at their time of diagnosis, most patients have advanced to unresectable disease with a very poor prognosis. The oriental herbal medicine HangAm-Plus (HAP has been developed for antitumor purposes, and several previous studies have reported its therapeutic effects. In this study, the efficacy of HAP was evaluated as a third-line treatment for advanced-stage IIIb/IV NSCLC. Methods: The study involved six patients treated at the East- West Cancer Center (EWCC from April 2010 to October 2011. Inoperable advanced-stage IIIb/IV NSCLC patients received 3,000 or 6,000 mg of HAP on a daily basis over a 12-week period. Computed tomography (CT scans were obtained from the patients at the time of the initial administration and after 12 weeks of treatment. We observed and analyzed the patients overall survival (OS and progression-free survival (PFS. Results: Of the six patients, three expired during the study, and the three remaining patients were alive as of October 31, 2011. The OS ranged from 234 to 512 days, with a median survival of 397 days and a one-year survival rate of 66.7%. In the 12-week-interval chest CT assessment, three patients showed stable disease (SD, and the other three showed progressive disease (PD. The PFS of patients ranged from 88 to 512 days, the median PFS being 96 days. Longer OS and PFS were correlated with SD. Although not directly comparable, the OS and the PFS of this study were greater than those of the docetaxel or the best supportive care group in other studies. Conclusion: HAP may prolong the OS and the PFS of inoperable stage IIIb/IV NSCLC patients without significant adverse effects. In the future, more controlled clinical trials with larger samples from multi-centers should be conducted to evaluate the efficacy and the safety of HAP.

  17. Structure-activity relationships for euphocharacins A-L, a new series of jatrophane diterpenes, as inhibitors of cancer cell P-glycoprotein. (United States)

    Corea, Gabriella; Fattorusso, Ernesto; Lanzotti, Virginia; Motti, Riccardo; Simon, Pierre-Noël; Dumontet, Charles; Di Pietro, Attilio


    The Mediterranean spurge Euphorbia characias L. afforded twelve new diterpenes based on a jatrophane skeleton named euphocharacins A-L. Their chemical structures were elucidated by extensive nuclear magnetic resonance and mass spectrometry methods. Euphocharacins A-L were tested as inhibitors of the daunomycin-efflux activity of P-glycoprotein from cancer cells. The results were used to extend the structure-activity relationship established for this class of compounds, highlighting the positive effects of propyl and benzoyl groups at positions 3 and 9, respectively, and evidencing the negative effect of a free hydroxyl group at position 2. Among the tested compounds, euphocharacins C and I showed an activity higher than cyclosporin to inhibit Pgp-mediated daunomycin transport.

  18. Tumor, Lymph node and Lymph Node-to-Tumor Displacements over a Radiotherapy Series: Analysis of Inter- and Intrafraction Variations using Active Breathing Control (ABC) in Lung Cancer (United States)

    Weiss, Elisabeth; Robertson, Scott P.; Mukhopadhyay, Nitai; Hugo, Geoffrey D.


    Purpose To estimate errors in soft tissue-based image guidance due to relative changes between primary tumor (PT) and affected lymph node (LN) position and volume, and to compare the results to bony anatomy-based displacements of PTs and LNs during radiotherapy of lung cancer. Materials and Methods Weekly repeated breath hold CT scans were acquired in 17 lung cancer patients undergoing radiotherapy. PTs and affected LNs were manually contoured on all scans after rigid registration. Inter- and intrafraction displacements in the centers of mass of PTs and LNs relative to bone, and LNs relative to PTs (LN-PT) were calculated. Results The mean volume after 5 weeks was 65% for PTs and 63% for LNs. Systematic/random interfraction displacements were 2.6 – 4.6 mm/2.7 – 2.9 mm for PTs, 2.4 – 3.8 mm/1.4 – 2.7 mm for LNs, and 2.3 – 3.9 mm/1.9 – 2.8 mm for LN-PT. Systematic/random intrafraction displacements were 3 mm were observed in 67% of fractions and require a safety margin of 12 mm in lateral, 11 mm in anteroposterior and 9 mm in superior-inferior direction. LN-PT displacements displayed significant time trends (p<0.0001) and depended on the presence of pathoanatomical conditions of the ipsilateral lung, such as atelectasis. Conclusion Interfraction LN-PT displacements were mostly systematic and comparable to bony anatomy-based displacements of PTs or LNs alone. Time trends, large volume changes and the influence of pathoanatomical conditions underline the importance of soft tissue-based image guidance and the potential of plan adaptation. PMID:22197237

  19. Role of brachytherapy in the treatment of cancers of the anal canal. Long-term follow-up and multivariate analysis of a large monocentric retrospective series

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lestrade, Laetitia; Pommier, Pascal; Montbarbon, Xavier; Carrie, Christian [Leon Berard Cancer Center, Radiation Oncology, Lyon (France); De Bari, Berardino [Centre hospitalier universitaire vaudois (CHUV), Radiation Oncology, Lausanne (Switzerland); Lavergne, Emilie [Leon Berard Cancer Center, Unite de Biostatistique et d' Evaluation des Therapeutiques, Lyon (France); Ardiet, Jean-Michel [Centre Hospitalier Lyon Sud, Radiation Oncology, Lyon (France)


    There are few data on long-term clinical results and tolerance of brachytherapy in anal canal cancer. We present one of the largest retrospective analyses of anal canal cancers treated with external beam radiotherapy with/without (±) chemotherapy followed by a brachytherapy boost. We performed a retrospective analysis of clinical results in terms of efficacy and toxicity. The impact of different clinical and therapeutic variables on these outcomes was studied. From May 1992 to December 2009, 209 patients received brachytherapy after external beam radiotherapy ± chemotherapy. Of these patients, 163 were stage II or stage IIIA (UICC 2002) and 58 were N1-3. According to age, ECOG performance status (PS), and comorbidities, patients received either radiotherapy alone (58/209) or radiochemotherapy (151/209). The median follow-up was 72.8 months. The 5- and 10-year local control rates were 78.6 and 73.9 %, respectively. Globally, severe acute and late G3-4 reactions (NCI-CTC scale v. 4.0) occurred in 11.2 and 6.3 % of patients, respectively. Univariate analysis showed the statistical impact of the pelvic treatment volume (p = 0.046) and of the total dose (p = 0.02) on the risk of severe acute and late toxicities, respectively. Only six patients required permanent colostomy because of severe late anorectal toxicities. After a long follow-up time, brachytherapy showed an acceptable toxicity profile and high local control rates in patients with anal canal cancer. (orig.) [German] Es gibt gegenwaertig nur wenige klinische Daten zu den Ergebnissen und Nebenwirkungen von Brachytherapie bei Analkanaltumoren. Wir praesentieren die Daten einer der groessten retrospektiven Auswertungen fuer die Behandlung von Analkanaltumoren mit perkutaner Radiotherapie ± simultaner Chemotherapie, gefolgt von einem Brachytherapie-Boost. Wir analysierten retrospektiv die Patientendaten hinsichtlich Toxizitaet und Tumorkontrolle. Der Einfluss verschiedener klinischer und therapeutischer

  20. Strategy to find molecular signatures in a small series of rare cancers: validation for radiation-induced breast and thyroid tumors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Ugolin

    Full Text Available Methods of classification using transcriptome analysis for case-by-case tumor diagnosis could be limited by tumor heterogeneity and masked information in the gene expression profiles, especially as the number of tumors is small. We propose a new strategy, EMts_2PCA, based on: 1 The identification of a gene expression signature with a great potential for discriminating subgroups of tumors (EMts stage, which includes: a a learning step, based on an expectation-maximization (EM algorithm, to select sets of candidate genes whose expressions discriminate two subgroups, b a training step to select from the sets of candidate genes those with the highest potential to classify training tumors, c the compilation of genes selected during the training step, and standardization of their levels of expression to finalize the signature. 2 The predictive classification of independent prospective tumors, according to the two subgroups of interest, by the definition of a validation space based on a two-step principal component analysis (2PCA. The present method was evaluated by classifying three series of tumors and its robustness, in terms of tumor clustering and prediction, was further compared with that of three classification methods (Gene expression bar code, Top-scoring pair(s and a PCA-based method. Results showed that EMts_2PCA was very efficient in tumor classification and prediction, with scores always better that those obtained by the most common methods of tumor clustering. Specifically, EMts_2PCA permitted identification of highly discriminating molecular signatures to differentiate post-Chernobyl thyroid or post-radiotherapy breast tumors from their sporadic counterparts that were previously unsuccessfully classified or classified with errors.

  1. Nanodevices from Nanocomponents: Memory Logic and Mechanical Nanodevices (United States)


    Cimpoesu, A. Stancu, L. Spinu, "Complex transverse susceptibility in magnetic paniculate media, " 6th International Symposium on Hysteresis Modeling ...34Complex Transverse Susceptibility in Magnetic Paniculate Media, " Poster presentation at the 6th International Hysteresis Modeling and Micromagnetics...the encapsulation of semiconductor Ge quantum dots into the orderly arrays of mesopores . Strategy of Synthesis (1): In this approach, we focused our

  2. Cervical dysplasia - series (image) (United States)

    ... to detect cervical cancer. Limited or early cervical cancer (carcinoma in situ, or cervical intraepithelial neoplasia, or dysplasia) requires treatment with ablation therapy, usually in the form of ...

  3. Summation of series

    CERN Document Server

    Jolley, LB W


    Over 1,100 common series, all grouped for easy reference. Arranged by category, these series include arithmetical and geometrical progressions, powers and products of natural numbers, figurate and polygonal numbers, inverse natural numbers, exponential and logarithmic series, binomials, simple inverse products, factorials, trigonometrical and hyperbolic expansions, and additional series. 1961 edition.

  4. 3D Printed Bionic Nanodevices. (United States)

    Kong, Yong Lin; Gupta, Maneesh K; Johnson, Blake N; McAlpine, Michael C


    The ability to three-dimensionally interweave biological and functional materials could enable the creation of bionic devices possessing unique and compelling geometries, properties, and functionalities. Indeed, interfacing high performance active devices with biology could impact a variety of fields, including regenerative bioelectronic medicines, smart prosthetics, medical robotics, and human-machine interfaces. Biology, from the molecular scale of DNA and proteins, to the macroscopic scale of tissues and organs, is three-dimensional, often soft and stretchable, and temperature sensitive. This renders most biological platforms incompatible with the fabrication and materials processing methods that have been developed and optimized for functional electronics, which are typically planar, rigid and brittle. A number of strategies have been developed to overcome these dichotomies. One particularly novel approach is the use of extrusion-based multi-material 3D printing, which is an additive manufacturing technology that offers a freeform fabrication strategy. This approach addresses the dichotomies presented above by (1) using 3D printing and imaging for customized, hierarchical, and interwoven device architectures; (2) employing nanotechnology as an enabling route for introducing high performance materials, with the potential for exhibiting properties not found in the bulk; and (3) 3D printing a range of soft and nanoscale materials to enable the integration of a diverse palette of high quality functional nanomaterials with biology. Further, 3D printing is a multi-scale platform, allowing for the incorporation of functional nanoscale inks, the printing of microscale features, and ultimately the creation of macroscale devices. This blending of 3D printing, novel nanomaterial properties, and 'living' platforms may enable next-generation bionic systems. In this review, we highlight this synergistic integration of the unique properties of nanomaterials with the versatility of extrusion-based 3D printing technologies to interweave nanomaterials and fabricate novel bionic devices.

  5. Spintronic Nanodevices Defines by Nanolithography (United States)


    Gabrisch, DARPA review, New Orleans, July 14 2006. 13. "Synthesis and Characterization of Cathode Materials for Li Ion Batteries" Marca Doeff, James...James D. Wilcox, and Marca M. Doeff, "Carbon Surface Layers on a High-Rate LiFeP0 4", Electrochemical and Solid-State Letters, 9, A360 (2006). 9. Heike

  6. Interfacing DNA nanodevices with biology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinther, Mathias; Kjems, Jørgen


    in biology and biomedicine acting as a molecular ‘nanorobot’ or smart drug interacting with the cellular machinery. In this review, we will explore and examine the perspective of DNA nanotechnology for such use. We summarize which requirements DNA nanostructures must fulfil to function in cellular...... environments and inside living organisms. In addition, we highlight recent advances in interfacing DNA nanostructures with biology....

  7. Electrical Interfaces for Organic Nanodevices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henrichsen, Henrik Hartmann

    semiconductors, where the molecular packing is more crucial, have not yet had a major impact in commercial products. This thesis describes development of new ways to electrically contact organic semiconductors. In particular, crystalline organic para-hexaphenylene (p6P) nanofibers have been used...... approaches. Creating the separator by partly oxidizing an Al cathode anodically is considered the most promising implementation, however further development would be necessary. During the project a group of collaborators managed to obtain electrically stimulated light emission in organic p6P nanofibers......, by using an AC-gated organic field-effect transistor (OFET) implementation. The electrical properties of arrays of p6P nanofibers were investigated asgrown and modeled theoretically. The developed model, assuming hopping-like transport of charge carriers, was used to estimate the distance between hopping...

  8. Nanoimprint lithography for nanodevice fabrication (United States)

    Barcelo, Steven; Li, Zhiyong


    Nanoimprint lithography (NIL) is a compelling technique for low cost nanoscale device fabrication. The precise and repeatable replication of nanoscale patterns from a single high resolution patterning step makes the NIL technique much more versatile than other expensive techniques such as e-beam or even helium ion beam lithography. Furthermore, the use of mechanical deformation during the NIL process enables grayscale lithography with only a single patterning step, not achievable with any other conventional lithography techniques. These strengths enable the fabrication of unique nanoscale devices by NIL for a variety of applications including optics, plasmonics and even biotechnology. Recent advances in throughput and yield in NIL processes demonstrate the potential of being adopted for mainstream semiconductor device fabrication as well.

  9. Series editorial: Network and Service Management Series

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pavlou, George; Pras, Aiko


    This is the ninth issue of the series on Network and Service Management, which is typically published twice a year. It was originally published in April and October, but since last year it is published in July and December. The series provides articles on the latest developments in this well establi

  10. Series editorial: Network and Service Management Series

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pavlou, George; Pras, Aiko


    This is the 11th issue of the series on Network and Service Management, which is typically published twice a year. It was originally published in April and October but since last year it is published in July and December. The series provides articles on the latest developments in this well-establish

  11. Stereotactic radiotherapy for stage I and II lung cancer: A study of 33 patients; Radiotherapie en conditions stereotaxiques dans les cancers bronchiques de stades I et II: resultats d'une serie de 33 patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Champeaux-Orange, E.; Wachter, T.; Bouscayrol, H. [Service d' oncologie-radiotherapie, CHR d' Orleans-La Source, 14, avenue de l' Hopital, 45100 Orleans (France); Barillot, I. [Service de radiotherapie, centre regional universitaire de cancerologie Henry-S. Kaplan, hopital Bretonneau, CHRU de Tours, 2, boulevard Tonnelle, 37044 Tours cedex 9 (France); Centre regional universitaire de cancerologie Henry-S. Kaplan, universite Francois-Rabelais, CHRU de Tours, 2, boulevard Tonnelle, 37000 Tours (France)


    Purpose. - Surgery is the main treatment of early stage non small cell lung cancer. However, in inoperable patients, the treatment is usually conventional radiotherapy. Results are poor and acute toxicity is severe. Stereotactic body radiation therapy provides better results in terms of local control and toxicity. Our purpose was to evaluate the clinical outcomes of patients with primary lung tumours treated by stereotactic body radiation therapy using a stereotactic body frame at the Orleans Regional Hospital. Patients and methods. - Between June 2000 and December 2007, 33 patients with stage I and II non small cell lung cancer were treated by stereotactic body radiation therapy. Breathing control was obtained by passive diaphragm control. Two CT-scans were performed 1 week apart to determine the accuracy of patient repositioning and define target volumes. Five or six fields were set up to achieve a conformal dose distribution. According to tumour size, a total of 50 or 40 Gy was delivered in 10 fractions. Results. - Mean patient age was 70 years. Median follow-up was 25 months. Ten patients with a complete response are still alive. Eight patients have died from local progression, eight from metastasis, and six from co-morbidity. Median disease-free survival was 22.6 months. No acute toxicity up to grade II (CTC AE 3.0) was observed. None of the patients still alive has developed any complications. Conclusion. - In patients who cannot undergo radical surgery, stereotactic body radiation therapy using a stereotactic body frame is well-tolerated and seems to be an efficient treatment method. (authors)

  12. Understanding Your Cancer Prognosis Video (United States)

    Understanding Your Cancer Prognosis is the main video in the NCI Prognosis Video Series, which offers the perspectives of three cancer patients and their doctor, an oncologist who is also a national expert in doctor-patient communication.

  13. Locally advanced non inflammatory breast cancer treated by combined chemotherapy and preoperative irradiation: updated results in a series of 120 patients; Cancer du sein localement evolue non inflammatoire traite par association de chimiotherapie et de radiotherapie a dose preoperatoire: reactualisation des resultats d'une serie de 120 patientes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lerouge, D.; Touboul, E.; Moureau-Zabotto, L. [Hopital Tenon AP-HP, Service d' oncologie-radiotherapie, 75 - Paris (France); Lefran, J.P.; Blondon, J. [Hopital Pitie-Salpetriere AP-HP, Service de chirurgie generale et gynecologique, 75 - Paris (France); Genestie, C. [Hopital Pitie-Salpetriere AP-HP, Service d' anatomopathologie, 75 - Paris (France)


    Purpose. - To evaluate our updated data concerning survival and locoregional control in a study of locally advanced non inflammatory breast cancer after primary chemotherapy followed by external preoperative irradiation. Patients and methods. - Between 1982 and 1998, 120 patients (75 stage IIIA, 41 stage IIIB, and 4 stage IIIC according to AJCC staging system 2002) were consecutively treated by four courses of induction chemotherapy with anthracycline-containing combinations followed by preoperative irradiation (45 Gy to the breast and nodal areas) and a fifth course of chemotherapy. Three different locoregional approaches were proposed, depending on tumour characteristics and tumour response. After completion of local therapy, all patients received a sixth course of chemotherapy and a maintenance adjuvant chemotherapy regimen without anthracycline. The median follow-up from the beginning of treatment was 140 months. Results. - Mastectomy and axillary dissection were performed in 49 patients (with residual tumour larger than 3 cm in diameter or located behind the nipple or with bifocal tumour), and conservative treatment in 71 patients (39 achieved clinical complete response or partial response >90% and received additional radiation boost to initial tumour bed; 32 had residual mass {<=}3 cm in diameter and were treated by wide excision and axillary dissection followed by a boost to the excision site). Ten-year actuarial local failure rate was 13% after irradiation alone, 23% after wide excision and irradiation, and 4% after mastectomy (p =0.1). After multivariate analysis, possibility of breast-conserving therapy was related to initial tumour size (<6 vs. {>=}6 cm in diameter, p =0.002). Ten-year overall metastatic disease-free survival rate was 61%. After multivariate analysis, metastatic disease-free survival rates were significantly influenced by clinical stage (stage IIIA-B vs. IIIC, p =0.0003), N-stage (N0 vs. N1-2a, and 3c, p = 0.017), initial tumour size (<6

  14. Comparative study of NSB and UTB SOI MOSFETs characteristics by extraction of series resistance (United States)

    Karsenty, A.; Chelly, A.


    The electrical characteristics of two kinds of n-type SOI-MOSFETs are analyzed and compared in order to build a consistent model. The first kind is an Ultra-Thin Body (UTB) device for which the channel thickness is equal to the initial SOI wafer thickness value (here 46 nm). The second kind is what we refer to Nano-Scale Body (NSB) device for which the initial SOI channel is thinned down to 1.6 nm using a recessed-gate process. The drain current values were found surprisingly different by three orders of magnitude. Such a huge contrast was not found coherent with the literature, reporting the decrease of the electron mobility with the channel thickness. We interpret our result by the probable influence of an extreme drain-to-source series resistance rather than by vanishing carrier mobility. The interpretation is sustained experimentally by the Rm-L and C-V methods. By integrating a gate-voltage dependence to the series resistance, the linear and saturation regions of the output characteristics of the NSB can be analytically derived from the UTB ones. This simple modeling approach may be useful to interpret anomalous electrical behavior of other nano-devices in which series resistance is of a great concern.

  15. Series Transmission Line Transformer (United States)

    Buckles, Robert A.; Booth, Rex; Yen, Boris T.


    A series transmission line transformer is set forth which includes two or more of impedance matched sets of at least two transmissions lines such as shielded cables, connected in parallel at one end ans series at the other in a cascading fashion. The cables are wound about a magnetic core. The series transmission line transformer (STLT) which can provide for higher impedance ratios and bandwidths, which is scalable, and which is of simpler design and construction.

  16. Fourier Series Operating Package (United States)

    Charnow, Milton L.


    This report presents a computer program for multiplying, adding, differentiating, integrating, "barring" and scalarly multiplying "literal" Fourier series as such, and for extracting the coefficients of specified terms.

  17. Time Series Momentum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moskowitz, Tobias J.; Ooi, Yao Hua; Heje Pedersen, Lasse


    under-reaction and delayed over-reaction. A diversified portfolio of time series momentum strategies across all asset classes delivers substantial abnormal returns with little exposure to standard asset pricing factors and performs best during extreme markets. Examining the trading activities...... of speculators and hedgers, we find that speculators profit from time series momentum at the expense of hedgers....

  18. Seri Kinship Terminology. (United States)

    Moser, Mary B.; Marlett, Stephen A.

    The Seri language contains over 50 kinship terms and represents one of the most highly elaborated kinship systems described to date. This paper discusses Seri kinship terminology and centers around, but is not limited to, the set of obligatory possessed noun stems that are inflected with the following possessive prefixes": "hi-,""ma-," and "a-."…

  19. Fourier Series Optimization Opportunity (United States)

    Winkel, Brian


    This note discusses the introduction of Fourier series as an immediate application of optimization of a function of more than one variable. Specifically, it is shown how the study of Fourier series can be motivated to enrich a multivariable calculus class. This is done through discovery learning and use of technology wherein students build the…

  20. SERI Wind Energy Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noun, R. J.


    The SERI Wind Energy Program manages the areas or innovative research, wind systems analysis, and environmental compatibility for the U.S. Department of Energy. Since 1978, SERI wind program staff have conducted in-house aerodynamic and engineering analyses of novel concepts for wind energy conversion and have managed over 20 subcontracts to determine technical feasibility; the most promising of these concepts is the passive blade cyclic pitch control project. In the area of systems analysis, the SERI program has analyzed the impact of intermittent generation on the reliability of electric utility systems using standard utility planning models. SERI has also conducted methodology assessments. Environmental issues related to television interference and acoustic noise from large wind turbines have been addressed. SERI has identified the causes, effects, and potential control of acoustic noise emissions from large wind turbines.

  1. Diagnosis of prostate cancer via nanotechnological approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kang BJ


    Full Text Available Benedict J Kang,1,2,* Minhong Jeun,1,2,* Gun Hyuk Jang,1,2 Sang Hoon Song,3 In Gab Jeong,3 Choung-Soo Kim,3 Peter C Searson,4 Kwan Hyi Lee1,2 1KIST Biomedical Research Institute, 2Department of Biomedical Engineering, Korea University of Science and Technology (UST, 3Department of Urology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea; 4Institute for Nanobiotechnology, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, USA *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Prostate cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer-related deaths among the Caucasian adult males in Europe and the USA. Currently available diagnostic strategies for patients with prostate cancer are invasive and unpleasant and have poor accuracy. Many patients have been overly or underly treated resulting in a controversy regarding the reliability of current conventional diagnostic approaches. This review discusses the state-of-the-art research in the development of novel noninvasive prostate cancer diagnostics using nanotechnology coupled with suggested diagnostic strategies for their clinical implication.Keywords: bioassay, nanomaterial, nanodevice, PSA, non-PSA biomarker, bodily fluid

  2. Historical Climatology Series (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Historical Climatology Series (HCS) is a set of climate-related publications published by NOAA's National Climatic Data Center beginning in 1978. HCS is...

  3. Multivariate Time Series Search (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Multivariate Time-Series (MTS) are ubiquitous, and are generated in areas as disparate as sensor recordings in aerospace systems, music and video streams, medical...

  4. Long time series

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hisdal, H.; Holmqvist, E.; Hyvärinen, V.;

    Awareness that emission of greenhouse gases will raise the global temperature and change the climate has led to studies trying to identify such changes in long-term climate and hydrologic time series. This report, written by the......Awareness that emission of greenhouse gases will raise the global temperature and change the climate has led to studies trying to identify such changes in long-term climate and hydrologic time series. This report, written by the...

  5. Modeling of the Channel Thickness Influence on Electrical Characteristics and Series Resistance in Gate-Recessed Nanoscale SOI MOSFETs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Karsenty


    Full Text Available Ultrathin body (UTB and nanoscale body (NSB SOI-MOSFET devices, sharing a similar W/L but with a channel thickness of 46 nm and lower than 5 nm, respectively, were fabricated using a selective “gate-recessed” process on the same silicon wafer. Their current-voltage characteristics measured at room temperature were found to be surprisingly different by several orders of magnitude. We analyzed this result by considering the severe mobility degradation and the influence of a huge series resistance and found that the last one seems more coherent. Then the electrical characteristics of the NSB can be analytically derived by integrating a gate voltage-dependent drain source series resistance. In this paper, the influence of the channel thickness on the series resistance is reported for the first time. This influence is integrated to the analytical model in order to describe the trends of the saturation current with the channel thickness. This modeling approach may be useful to interpret anomalous electrical behavior of other nanodevices in which series resistance and/or mobility degradation is of a great concern.

  6. Cell signaling review series

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Aiming Lin; Zhenggang Liu


    @@ Signal transduction is pivotal for many, if not all, fundamental cellular functions including proliferation, differentiation, transformation and programmed cell death. Deregulation of cell signaling may result in certain types of cancers and other human diseases.

  7. On Sums of Numerical Series and Fourier Series (United States)

    Pavao, H. Germano; de Oliveira, E. Capelas


    We discuss a class of trigonometric functions whose corresponding Fourier series, on a conveniently chosen interval, can be used to calculate several numerical series. Particular cases are presented and two recent results involving numerical series are recovered. (Contains 1 note.)

  8. Rheumatoid Arthritis Educational Video Series (United States)

    ... Corner / Patient Webcasts / Rheumatoid Arthritis Educational Video Series Rheumatoid Arthritis Educational Video Series This series of five videos ... Your Arthritis Managing Chronic Pain and Depression in Arthritis Nutrition & Rheumatoid Arthritis Arthritis and Health-related Quality of Life ...

  9. Applied time series analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Woodward, Wayne A; Elliott, Alan C


    ""There is scarcely a standard technique that the reader will find left out … this book is highly recommended for those requiring a ready introduction to applicable methods in time series and serves as a useful resource for pedagogical purposes.""-International Statistical Review (2014), 82""Current time series theory for practice is well summarized in this book.""-Emmanuel Parzen, Texas A&M University""What an extraordinary range of topics covered, all very insightfully. I like [the authors'] innovations very much, such as the AR factor table.""-David Findley, U.S. Census Bureau (retired)""…

  10. Time series analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Madsen, Henrik


    ""In this book the author gives a detailed account of estimation, identification methodologies for univariate and multivariate stationary time-series models. The interesting aspect of this introductory book is that it contains several real data sets and the author made an effort to explain and motivate the methodology with real data. … this introductory book will be interesting and useful not only to undergraduate students in the UK universities but also to statisticians who are keen to learn time-series techniques and keen to apply them. I have no hesitation in recommending the book.""-Journa

  11. Composition: Unity - Diversity series

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergstrøm-Nielsen, Carl


    Unity-Diversity series are open compositions to be realised by improvising musicians. See more about my composition practise in the entry "Composition - General Introduction". This work is licensed under a Creative Commons "by-nc" License. You may for non-commercial purposes use and distribute it...

  12. Discrimination. Opposing Viewpoints Series. (United States)

    Williams, Mary E., Ed.

    Books in the Opposing Viewpoints series challenge readers to question their own opinions and assumptions. By reading carefully balanced views, readers confront new ideas on the topic of interest. The Civil Rights Act of 1964, which prohibited job discrimination based on age, race, religion, gender, or national origin, provided the groundwork for…

  13. Visual time series analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fischer, Paul; Hilbert, Astrid


    commands, our application is select-and-click-driven. It allows to derive many different sequences of deviations for a given time series and to visualize them in different ways in order to judge their expressive power and to reuse the procedure found. For many transformations or model-ts, the user may...

  14. Parent's Journal. [Videotape Series]. (United States)


    Parent's Journal is a set of 16 videotapes for parents of prenatal, infant, and toddler-age children, created by the Alaska Native Home Base Video Project of the Tlingit and Haida Head Start Program. This series offers culturally relevant solutions to the challenges of parenting, drawing on the life stories and experiences of capable mothers and…

  15. Family Feathers. [Videotape Series]. (United States)


    Family Feathers is a set of 18 videotapes for parents of preschool children, created by the Alaska Native Home Base Video Project of the Tlingit and Haida Head Start Program. This series offers culturally relevant solutions to the challenges of parenting, drawing on practical advice from Tlingit and Haida parents, wisdom from elders, and some of…

  16. Little Herder Reading Series. (United States)

    Bureau of Indian Affairs (Dept. of Interior), Washington, DC.

    The Little Herder Reading Series is comprised of 4 volumes based on the life of a Navajo Indian girl. The books are written in English blank verse and describe many facets of Indian life. The volumes contain illustrations by Hoke Denetsosie which give a pictorial representation of the printed verse. The reading level is for the middle and upper…


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Some polar coordinates are used to determine the domain and the ball of convergence of a multiple Taylor series. In this domain and in this ball the series converges,converges absolutely and converges uniformly on any compact set. Growth and other properties of the series may also be studied. For some random multiple Taylor series there are some corresponding properties.

  18. The use of long-term low-molecular weight heparin for the treatment of venous thromboembolism in palliative care patients with advanced cancer : a case series of sixty two patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noble, Sir; Hood, K.; Finlay, I. G.


    The advantages of low-molecular weight heparin (LMVVH) over warfarin, in the treatment of cancer associated venous thromboembolism (VTE) are well reported. However the studies supporting LMWH include few patients representative of the palliative care population. Although LMWH has advantages over war

  19. Breast cancer. Part 3: advanced cancer and psychological implications. (United States)

    Harmer, Victoria

    This is the last article in this 3-part series on breast cancer. The previous two articles have outlined the principles behind breast awareness and breast health, detailing common benign breast diseases, types of breast cancer and staging, and treatment for breast cancer, including surgery, chemotherapy, radiotherapy and endocrine treatment. The series concludes by giving information on advanced disease, including when a patient presents late with a fungating breast lesion, or if the disease has metastasized from the breast to other organs. Lymphoedema is also described and discussed, and the latter half of this article discusses psychological implications of breast cancer, from diagnosis through the individual treatments.

  20. Series elastic actuators (United States)

    Williamson, Matthew M.


    This thesis presents the design, construction, control and evaluation of a novel for controlled actuator. Traditional force controlled actuators are designed from the premise that 'Stiffer is better'. This approach gives a high bandwidth system, prone to problems of contact instability, noise, and low power density. The actuator presented in this thesis is designed from the premise that 'Stiffness isn't everything'. The actuator, which incorporates a series elastic element, trades off achievable bandwidth for gains in stable, low noise force control, and protection against shock loads. This thesis reviews related work in robot force control, presents theoretical descriptions of the control and expected performance from a series elastic actuator, and describes the design of a test actuator constructed to gather performance data. Finally the performance of the system is evaluated by comparing the performance data to theoretical predictions.

  1. Causality between time series

    CERN Document Server

    Liang, X San


    Given two time series, can one tell, in a rigorous and quantitative way, the cause and effect between them? Based on a recently rigorized physical notion namely information flow, we arrive at a concise formula and give this challenging question, which is of wide concern in different disciplines, a positive answer. Here causality is measured by the time rate of change of information flowing from one series, say, X2, to another, X1. The measure is asymmetric between the two parties and, particularly, if the process underlying X1 does not depend on X2, then the resulting causality from X2 to X1 vanishes. The formula is tight in form, involving only the commonly used statistics, sample covariances. It has been validated with touchstone series purportedly generated with one-way causality. It has also been applied to the investigation of real world problems; an example presented here is the cause-effect relation between two climate modes, El Ni\\~no and Indian Ocean Dipole, which have been linked to the hazards in f...

  2. Three-Dimensional Volume-Rendered Series Complements 2D Orthogonal Multidetector Computed Tomography in the Evaluation of Abnormal Spinal Curvature in Patients at a Major Cancer Center: A Retrospective Review



    Background. Abnormal spinal curvature is routinely assessed with plain radiographs, MDCT, and MRI. MDCT can provide two-dimensional (2-D) orthogonal as well as reconstructed three-dimensional volume-rendered (3-D VR) images of the spine, including the translucent display: a computer-generated image set that enables the visualization of surgical instrumentation through bony structures. We hypothesized that the 3-D VR series provides additional information beyond that of 2-D orthogonal MDCT in ...

  3. Infinite sequences and series

    CERN Document Server

    Knopp, Konrad


    One of the finest expositors in the field of modern mathematics, Dr. Konrad Knopp here concentrates on a topic that is of particular interest to 20th-century mathematicians and students. He develops the theory of infinite sequences and series from its beginnings to a point where the reader will be in a position to investigate more advanced stages on his own. The foundations of the theory are therefore presented with special care, while the developmental aspects are limited by the scope and purpose of the book. All definitions are clearly stated; all theorems are proved with enough detail to ma

  4. Square summable power series

    CERN Document Server

    de Branges, Louis


    This text for advanced undergraduate and graduate students introduces Hilbert space and analytic function theory, which is centered around the invariant subspace concept. The book's principal feature is the extensive use of formal power series methods to obtain and sometimes reformulate results of analytic function theory. The presentation is elementary in that it requires little previous knowledge of analysis, but it is designed to lead students to an advanced level of performance. This is achieved chiefly through the use of problems, many of which were proposed by former students. The book's

  5. Introduction to Time Series Modeling

    CERN Document Server

    Kitagawa, Genshiro


    In time series modeling, the behavior of a certain phenomenon is expressed in relation to the past values of itself and other covariates. Since many important phenomena in statistical analysis are actually time series and the identification of conditional distribution of the phenomenon is an essential part of the statistical modeling, it is very important and useful to learn fundamental methods of time series modeling. Illustrating how to build models for time series using basic methods, "Introduction to Time Series Modeling" covers numerous time series models and the various tools f

  6. Colon cancer (United States)

    Colorectal cancer; Cancer - colon; Rectal cancer; Cancer - rectum; Adenocarcinoma - colon; Colon - adenocarcinoma ... In the United States, colorectal cancer is one of the leading causes of deaths due to cancer. Early diagnosis can often lead to a complete cure. Almost ...

  7. Series overview and introduction. (United States)

    Alexander, Jeanne Leventhal; Dennerstein, Lorraine


    Studies and treatments for the symptomatic menopausal woman have been reviewed elsewhere. The aim of this clinical review series is to examine the evidence for the diagnosis and treatment of the woman who presents with distressing symptoms that she attributes to menopause, whose actual etiology may be a psychiatric disorder, a pre- or co-existing problem such as sleep or cognitive problems, or a dynamic interaction among one of these and a symptomatic menopause. This series of articles will review new research on somatic symptoms of depression, the depression continuum and its impact on morbidity and functioning, treatment issues related to remission of depression, cognitive decline or impairment secondary to a mood disorder, sleep problems in women and their impact on well-being and functioning, and attention and working memory problems in women. These will all be reviewed in the context of the vulnerable female patient and her experience of increased or new distressing symptoms during her menopausal transition. Recommendations for the diagnosis and management of women with psychiatric comorbidity and a symptomatic menopause are discussed.

  8. Uranium series, volcanic rocks (United States)

    Vazquez, Jorge A.


    Application of U-series dating to volcanic rocks provides unique and valuable information about the absolute timing of crystallization and differentiation of magmas prior to eruption. The 238U–230Th and 230Th-226Ra methods are the most commonly employed for dating the crystallization of mafic to silicic magmas that erupt at volcanoes. Dates derived from the U–Th and Ra–Th methods reflect crystallization because diffusion of these elements at magmatic temperatures is sluggish (Cherniak 2010) and diffusive re-equilibration is insignificant over the timescales (less than or equal to 10^5 years) typically associated with pre-eruptive storage of nearly all magma compositions (Cooper and Reid 2008). Other dating methods based on elements that diffuse rapidly at magmatic temperatures, such as the 40Ar/39Ar and (U–Th)/He methods, yield dates for the cooling of magma at the time of eruption. Disequilibrium of some short-lived daughters of the uranium series such as 210Po may be fractionated by saturation of a volatile phase and can be employed to date magmatic gas loss that is synchronous with volcanic eruption (e.g., Rubin et al. 1994).

  9. Series Bosch System Development (United States)

    Abney, Morgan B.; Evans, Christopher; Mansell, Matt; Swickrath, Michael


    State-of-the-art (SOA) carbon dioxide (CO2) reduction technology for the International Space Station produces methane as a byproduct. This methane is subsequently vented overboard. The associated loss of hydrogen ultimately reduces the mass of oxygen that can be recovered from CO2 in a closed-loop life support system. As an alternative to SOA CO2 reduction technology, NASA is exploring a Series-Bosch system capable of reducing CO2 with hydrogen to form water and solid carbon. This results in 100% theoretical recovery of oxygen from metabolic CO2. In the past, Bosch-based technology did not trade favorably against SOA technology due to a high power demand, low reaction efficiencies, concerns with carbon containment, and large resupply requirements necessary to replace expended catalyst cartridges. An alternative approach to Bosch technology, labeled "Series-Bosch," employs a new system design with optimized multi-stage reactors and a membrane-based separation and recycle capability. Multi-physics modeling of the first stage reactor, along with chemical process modeling of the integrated system, has resulted in a design with potential to trade significantly better than previous Bosch technology. The modeling process and resulting system architecture selection are discussed.

  10. Nanotech revolution for the anti-cancer drug delivery through blood-brain barrier. (United States)

    Caraglia, M; De Rosa, G; Salzano, G; Santini, D; Lamberti, M; Sperlongano, P; Lombardi, A; Abbruzzese, A; Addeo, R


    Nanotechnology-based drug delivery was born as a chance for pharmaceutical weapons to be delivered in the body sites where drug action is required. Specifically, the incorporation of anti-cancer agents in nanodevices of 100-300 nm allows their delivery in tissues that have a fenestrated vasculature and a reduced lymphatic drainage. These two features are typical of neoplastic tissues and, therefore, allow the accumulation of nanostructured devices in tumours. An important issue of anti-cancer pharmacological strategies is the overcoming of anatomical barriers such as the bloodbrain- barrier (BBB) that protects brain from toxicological injuries but, at the same time, makes impossible for most of the pharmacological agents with anti-cancer activity to reach tumour cells placed in the brain and derived from either primary tumours or metastases. In fact, only highly lipophilic molecules can passively diffuse through BBB to reach central nervous system (CNS). Another possibility is to use nanotechnological approaches as powerful tools to across BBB, by both prolonging the plasma half-life of the drugs and crossing fenestrations of BBB damaged by brain metastases. Moreover, modifications of nanocarrier surface with specific endogenous or exogenous ligands can promote the crossing of intact BBB as in the case of primary brain tumours. This aim can be achieved through the binding of the nanodevices to carriers or receptors expressed by the endothelial cells of BBB and that can favour the internalization of the nanostructured devices delivering anti-cancer drugs. This review summarizes the most meaningful advances in the field of nanotechnologies for brain delivery of drugs.

  11. Assessment of metastatic colorectal cancer with hybrid imaging: comparison of reading performance using different combinations of anatomical and functional imaging techniques in PET/MRI and PET/CT in a short case series

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brendle, C.; Schwenzer, N.F.; Rempp, H.; Schmidt, H.; Pfannenberg, C.; Nikolaou, K.; Schraml, C. [Eberhard Karls University, Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Department of Radiology, Tuebingen (Germany); La Fougere, C. [Eberhard Karls University, Nuclear Medicine, Department of Radiology, Tuebingen (Germany)


    The purpose was to investigate the diagnostic performance of different combinations of anatomical and functional imaging techniques in PET/MRI and PET/CT for the evaluation of metastatic colorectal cancer lesions. Image data of 15 colorectal cancer patients (FDG-PET/CT and subsequent FDG-PET/MRI) were retrospectively evaluated by two readers in five reading sessions: MRI (morphology) alone, MRI/diffusion-weighted MRI (DWI), MRI/PET, MRI/DWI/PET; and PET/CT. Diagnostic performance of lesion detection with each combination was assessed in general and organ-based. The reference standard was given by histology and/or follow-up imaging. Separate analysis of mucinous tumours was performed. One hundred and eighty lesions (110 malignant) were evaluated (intestine n = 6, liver n = 37, lymph nodes n = 55, lung n = 4, and peritoneal n = 74). The overall lesion-based diagnostic accuracy was 0.46 for MRI, 0.47 for MRI/DWI, 0.57 for MRI/PET, 0.69 for MRI/DWI/PET and 0.66 for PET/CT. In the organ-based assessment, MRI/DWI/PET showed the highest accuracy for liver metastases (0.74), a comparable accuracy to PET/CT in peritoneal lesions (0.55), and in lymph node metastases (0.84). The accuracy in mucinous tumour lesions was limited in all modalities (MRI/DWI/PET = 0.52). PET/MRI including DWI is comparable to PET/CT in the evaluation of colorectal cancer metastases, with a markedly higher accuracy when using combined imaging data than the modalities separately. Further improvement is needed in the imaging of peritoneal carcinomatosis and mucinous tumours. (orig.)

  12. Local properties of Fourier series


    Hüseyin Bor


    A theorem on local property of |N¯,pn|k summability of factored Fourier series, which generalizes some known results, and also a general theorem concerning the |N¯,pn|k summability factors of Fourier series have been proved.

  13. GPS Position Time Series @ JPL (United States)

    Owen, Susan; Moore, Angelyn; Kedar, Sharon; Liu, Zhen; Webb, Frank; Heflin, Mike; Desai, Shailen


    Different flavors of GPS time series analysis at JPL - Use same GPS Precise Point Positioning Analysis raw time series - Variations in time series analysis/post-processing driven by different users. center dot JPL Global Time Series/Velocities - researchers studying reference frame, combining with VLBI/SLR/DORIS center dot JPL/SOPAC Combined Time Series/Velocities - crustal deformation for tectonic, volcanic, ground water studies center dot ARIA Time Series/Coseismic Data Products - Hazard monitoring and response focused center dot ARIA data system designed to integrate GPS and InSAR - GPS tropospheric delay used for correcting InSAR - Caltech's GIANT time series analysis uses GPS to correct orbital errors in InSAR - Zhen Liu's talking tomorrow on InSAR Time Series analysis

  14. Series of Reciprocal Triangular Numbers (United States)

    Bruckman, Paul; Dence, Joseph B.; Dence, Thomas P.; Young, Justin


    Reciprocal triangular numbers have appeared in series since the very first infinite series were summed. Here we attack a number of subseries of the reciprocal triangular numbers by methodically expressing them as integrals.

  15. The diagram for phyllotactic series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Szymanowska-Pułka


    Full Text Available Many authors studying phyllotaxis in various plant species have reported the occurrence of many different numbers of contact parastichy pairs that are members of different Fibonacci-like series. On the basis of these reports a diagram was constructed in which any theoretically possible series was represented by the two first members of a given series.

  16. Harmonic Series Meets Fibonacci Sequence (United States)

    Chen, Hongwei; Kennedy, Chris


    The terms of a conditionally convergent series may be rearranged to converge to any prescribed real value. What if the harmonic series is grouped into Fibonacci length blocks? Or the harmonic series is arranged in alternating Fibonacci length blocks? Or rearranged and alternated into separate blocks of even and odd terms of Fibonacci length?

  17. Globe: Lecture series

    CERN Multimedia


    The LHC: an accelerator of science This series of lectures is all about understanding the scientific and technological challenges of the phenomenal LHC project and assessing its innovations through their everyday applications. Come and take a sneak preview of the LHC! Communicate: the Grid, a computer of global dimensions François Grey, head of communication in CERN’s Information Technology Department How will it be possible for the 15 million billion bytes of data generated by the LHC every year to be handled and stored by a computer that doesn’t have to be the size of a skyscraper? The computer scientists have the answer: the Grid, which will harness the power of tens of thousands of computers all over the world by creating a network of computers and making them operate as one. >>> Lectures are free and require no specialist knowledge. In french. 
 >>> By reservation only: tel. +41 (0)22 767 76 76

  18. SERI Biomass Program (United States)

    Bergeron, P. W.; Corder, R. E.; Hill, A. M.; Lindsey, H.; Lowenstein, M. Z.


    The biomass with which this report is concerned includes aquatic plants, which can be converted into liquid fuels and chemicals; organic wastes (crop residues as well as animal and municipal wastes), from which biogas can be produced via anerobic digestion; and organic or inorganic waste streams, from which hydrogen can be produced by photobiological processes. The Biomass Program Office supports research in three areas which, although distinct, all use living organisms to create the desired products. The Aquatic Species Program (ASP) supports research on organisms that are themselves processed into the final products, while the Anaerobic Digestion (ADP) and Photo/Biological Hydrogen Program (P/BHP) deals with organisms that transform waste streams into energy products. The P/BHP is also investigating systems using water as a feedstock and cell-free systems which do not utilize living organisms. This report summarizes the progress and research accomplishments of the SERI Biomass Program during FY 1982.

  19. Five-year results of a prospective case series of accelerated hypofractionated whole breast radiation with concomitant boost to the surgical bed after conserving surgery for early breast cancer. (United States)

    Cante, Domenico; Franco, Pierfrancesco; Sciacero, Piera; Girelli, Giuseppe; Marra, Anna Maria; Pasquino, Massimo; Russo, Giuliana; Borca, Valeria Casanova; Mondini, Guido; Paino, Ovidio; Barmasse, Roberto; Tofani, Santi; Numico, Gianmauro; La Porta, Maria Rosa; Ricardi, Umberto


    Accelerated hypofractionation (HF) using larger dose per fraction, delivered in fewer fractions over a shorter overall treatment time, is presently a consistent possibility for adjuvant whole breast radiation (WBRT) after breast-conserving surgery for early breast cancer (EBC). Between 2005 and 2008, we submitted 375 consecutive patients to accelerated hypofractionated WBRT after breast-conserving surgery for EBC. The basic course of radiation consisted of 45 Gy in 20 fractions over 4 weeks to the whole breast (2.25 Gy daily) with an additional daily concomitant boost of 0.25 Gy up to 50 Gy to the surgical bed. Overall survival (OS), cancer-specific survival (CSS), disease-free survival (DFS) and local control (LC) were assessed. Late toxicity was scored according to the CTCAE v3.0; acute toxicity using the RTOG/EORTC toxicity scale. Cosmesis was assessed comparing treated and untreated breast. Quality of life (QoL) was determined using EORTC QLQ-C30/QLQ-BR23 questionnaires. With a median follow-up of 60 months (range 42-88), 5 years OS, CSS, DFS and LC were 97.6, 99.4, 96.6 and 100 %, respectively. Late skin and subcutaneous toxicity was generally mild, with few events > grade 2 observed. Cosmetic results were excellent in 75.7 % of patients, good in 20 % and fair in 4.3 %. QoL, assessed both through QLQ-C30/QLQ-BR23, was generally favorable, within the functioning and symptoms domains. Our study is another proof of principle that HF WBRT with a concurrent boost dose to the surgical cavity represents a safe and effective postoperative treatment modality with excellent local control and survival, consistent cosmetic results and mild toxicity.

  20. Cancer immunotherapy: harnessing the immune system to battle cancer. (United States)

    Yang, Yiping


    The recent clinical successes of immune checkpoint blockade and chimeric antigen receptor T cell therapies represent a turning point in cancer immunotherapy. These successes also underscore the importance of understanding basic tumor immunology for successful clinical translation in treating patients with cancer. The Reviews in this Review Series focus on current developments in cancer immunotherapy, highlight recent advances in our understanding of basic aspects of tumor immunology, and suggest how these insights can lead to the development of new immunotherapeutic strategies.

  1. Cancer immunotherapy: harnessing the immune system to battle cancer


    Yang, Yiping


    The recent clinical successes of immune checkpoint blockade and chimeric antigen receptor T cell therapies represent a turning point in cancer immunotherapy. These successes also underscore the importance of understanding basic tumor immunology for successful clinical translation in treating patients with cancer. The Reviews in this Review Series focus on current developments in cancer immunotherapy, highlight recent advances in our understanding of basic aspects of tumor immunology, and sugg...

  2. Programs | Office of Cancer Genomics (United States)

    OCG facilitates cancer genomics research through a series of highly-focused programs. These programs generate and disseminate genomic data for use by the cancer research community. OCG programs also promote advances in technology-based infrastructure and create valuable experimental reagents and tools. OCG programs encourage collaboration by interconnecting with other genomics and cancer projects in order to accelerate translation of findings into the clinic. Below are OCG’s current, completed, and initiated programs:

  3. `Indoor` series vending machines; `Indoor` series jido hanbaiki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gensui, T.; Kida, A. [Fuji Electric Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Okumura, H. [Fuji Denki Reiki Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)


    This paper introduces three series of vending machines that were designed to match the interior of an office building. The three series are vending machines for cups, paper packs, cans, and tobacco. Among the three series, `Interior` series has a symmetric design that was coated in a grain pattern. The inside of the `Interior` series is coated by laser satin to ensure a sense of superior quality and a refined style. The push-button used for product selection is hot-stamped on the plastic surface to ensure the hair-line luster. `Interior Phase II` series has a bay window design with a sense of superior quality and lightness. The inside of the `Interior Phase II` series is coated by laser satin. `Interior 21` series is integrated with the wall except the sales operation panel. The upper and lower dress panels can be detached and attached. The door lock is a wire-type structure with high operativity. The operation block is coated by titanium color. The dimensions of three series are standardized. 6 figs., 1 tab.

  4. From Fourier Series to Rapidly Convergent Series for Zeta(3)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheufens, Ernst E


    The article presents a mathematical study which investigates the exact values of the Riemann zeta (ζ) function. It states that exact values can be determined from Fourier series for periodic versions of even power functions. It notes that using power series for logarithmic functions on this such ......The article presents a mathematical study which investigates the exact values of the Riemann zeta (ζ) function. It states that exact values can be determined from Fourier series for periodic versions of even power functions. It notes that using power series for logarithmic functions...

  5. Planar Tunneling Spectroscopy of Graphene Nanodevices (United States)

    Wang, Joel I.-Jan; Bretheau, Landry; Pisoni, Riccardo; Watanabe, Kenji; Taniguchi, Takashi; Jarillo-Herrero, Pablo

    2-D Van-der-Waals mesoscopic physics have seen a rapid development in the last 10 years, with new materials each year added to the toolbox. Stacking them like Lego enables the combination of their individual electronic properties. In particular, hexagonal boron nitride, which is an insulator, gives the possibility to perform planar (2-D to 2-D) tunneling spectroscopy within this type of heterostructures. Unlike standard transport measurements, tunneling spectroscopy enables to probe the electronic properties in the energy domain. Moreover, since planar tunneling probes a large area of the system, global quantum features such as quantum Hall effect, superconducting proximity effect or quantum confinement can be investigated. In this talk, we will present implementation of heterostructures consisting of graphene, hexagonal boron nitride, and graphite, fabricated for planar tunneling spectroscopy. In order to reveal the intrinsic properties of materials, the fabrication scheme aims at preserving the pristine nature of the 2-DEGS as well as minimizing the doping introduced by external probes. As a demonstration, measurements of these devices in normal states, high magnetic field environment, and induced superconducting state will be presented.

  6. Superconducting Graphene Nanodevices in Ballistic Transport Regime (United States)

    Chen, Yu-An; Wang, Joel I.-Jan; Watanabe, Kenji; Taniguchi, Takashi; Jarillo-Herrero, Pablo; Pablo Jarillo-Herrero's Group Team


    Superconductivity carried by Dirac fermions can be realized through induced superconductivity in grapheme. Observation of novel phenomena anticipated by theories requires graphene devices with low disorder whereas the carrier transport is ballistic. Current fabrication procedures to make graphene devices with low disorder like suspension or ultra-flat substrates all call for certain kinds of annealing to remove organic residues derived from the fabrication process. Applying these methods to superconducting devices can be challenging since the transparency at the graphene/superconductor interface will be destroyed. Here we present a method to do dry transfer of patterned hexagonal Boron Nitride (hBN) flakes onto graphene. The ultra flatness and lack of dangling bond in the boron nitride substrate reduces the disorder in graphene, and the top layer hBN can protect the graphene from contamination in the nanofabrication procedures and yield the geometry desired for different experimental exploration. National Institute for Materials Science, Namiki 1-1, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0044, Japan

  7. Gas Immersion Laser Doping for superconducting nanodevices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiodi, F. [Institut d’Electronique Fondamentale, CNRS-Université Paris-Sud, F-91405 Orsay (France); Grockowiak, A. [Institut Néel, CNRS, BP 166, F-38042 Grenoble (France); CEA, INAC, UMR-E9001/UJF, LATEQS, 17 Rue des Martyrs, F-38054 Grenoble (France); Duvauchelle, J.E. [CEA, INAC, UMR-E9001/UJF, LATEQS, 17 Rue des Martyrs, F-38054 Grenoble (France); Fossard, F. [Institut d’Electronique Fondamentale, CNRS-Université Paris-Sud, F-91405 Orsay (France); Lefloch, F. [CEA, INAC, UMR-E9001/UJF, LATEQS, 17 Rue des Martyrs, F-38054 Grenoble (France); Klein, T. [Institut Néel, CNRS, BP 166, F-38042 Grenoble (France); Marcenat, C. [CEA, INAC, UMR-E9001/UJF, LATEQS, 17 Rue des Martyrs, F-38054 Grenoble (France); Institut Néel, CNRS, BP 166, F-38042 Grenoble (France); Débarre, D. [Institut d’Electronique Fondamentale, CNRS-Université Paris-Sud, F-91405 Orsay (France)


    We have conceived and fabricated Superconductor/Normal metal/Superconductor Josephson junctions made entirely of boron doped Silicon. We have used Gas Immersion Laser Doping to fabricate SN bilayers with good ohmic interfaces and well controlled concentration and doping depth. Standard fabrication processes, optimised for silicon, were employed to nanostructure the bilayers without affecting their transport properties. The junctions thus fabricated are proximity superconducting and show well understood I–V characteristics. This research opens the road to all-silicon, non-dissipative, Josephson Field Effect Transistors.

  8. Macromolecular Carriers in Nanomedicine and Nanodevices (United States)


    Park, I., "Polymerization of propylene oxide by using double metal cyanide catalysts and the application to polyurethane elastomer," Polymer, 44...the block copolymer self-assembles at the nanosphere-nonsolvent interface. We have demonstrated this process with amine and maleimide functional...weight distributions were narrow (≤1.13). Synthesis of the diblock PEO-b-PDLA copolymer and functionalization of the PEO terminus with an amine by

  9. Pendulum-type optical DNA nanodevice. (United States)

    Wu, Zaisheng; Zhou, Hui; Zhang, Songbai; Zhang, Xiaobing; Shen, Guoli; Yu, Ruqin


    A pendulum-type DNA nanoswitch, which can perform a reversible on/off molecular motion at an about 9.1-nm scale is developed as a proof-of-concept, and the sequence-specific recognition and quantification of target oligonucleotides are demonstrated utilizing this screening scheme.

  10. Nonequilibrium band structure of nano-devices (United States)

    Hackenbuchner, S.; Sabathil, M.; Majewski, J. A.; Zandler, G.; Vogl, P.; Beham, E.; Zrenner, A.; Lugli, P.


    A method is developed for calculating, in a consistent manner, the realistic electronic structure of three-dimensional (3-D) heterostructure quantum devices under bias and its current density close to equilibrium. The nonequilibrium electronic structure is characterized by local Fermi levels that are calculated self-consistently. We have applied this scheme to predict asymmetric Stark shifts and tunneling of confined electrons and holes in single-dot GaAs/InGaAs photodiodes.

  11. Localized charge carriers in graphene nanodevices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bischoff, D., E-mail:; Varlet, A.; Simonet, P.; Eich, M.; Overweg, H. C.; Ihn, T.; Ensslin, K. [Solid State Physics Laboratory, ETH Zurich, 8093 Zurich (Switzerland)


    Graphene—two-dimensional carbon—is a material with unique mechanical, optical, chemical, and electronic properties. Its use in a wide range of applications was therefore suggested. From an electronic point of view, nanostructured graphene is of great interest due to the potential opening of a band gap, applications in quantum devices, and investigations of physical phenomena. Narrow graphene stripes called “nanoribbons” show clearly different electronical transport properties than micron-sized graphene devices. The conductivity is generally reduced and around the charge neutrality point, the conductance is nearly completely suppressed. While various mechanisms can lead to this observed suppression of conductance, disordered edges resulting in localized charge carriers are likely the main cause in a large number of experiments. Localized charge carriers manifest themselves in transport experiments by the appearance of Coulomb blockade diamonds. This review focuses on the mechanisms responsible for this charge localization, on interpreting the transport details, and on discussing the consequences for physics and applications. Effects such as multiple coupled sites of localized charge, cotunneling processes, and excited states are discussed. Also, different geometries of quantum devices are compared. Finally, an outlook is provided, where open questions are addressed.

  12. Unique roles of nanotechnology in medicine and cancer-II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Alam


    Full Text Available Applications of nanotechnology in medicine and cancer are becoming increasingly popular. Common nanomaterials and devices applicable in cancer medicine are classifiable as liposomes, polymeric-micelles, dendrimers, nano-cantilevers, carbon nanotubes, quantum dots, magnetic-nanoparticles, gold nanoparticles (AuNPs and certain miscellaneous nanoparticles. Here, we present review of the structure, function and utilities of the various approved, under trial and pretrial nanodevices applicable in the cancer care and medicine. The liposomes are phospholipid-vesicles made use in carrying drugs to the target site minimizing the bio-distribution toxicity and a number of such theranostics have been approved for clinical practice. Newly worked out liposomes and polymeric micelles are under the trail phases for nano-therapeutic utility. A multifunctional dendrimer conjugate with imaging, targeting and drug molecules of paclitaxel has been recently synthesized for cancer theranostic applications. Nano-cantilever based assays are likely going to replace the conventions methods of chemical pathological investigations. Carbon nanotubes are emerging for utility in regenerative and cancer medicine. Quantum dots hold great promise for the micro-metastasis and intra-operative tumor imaging. Important applications of magnetic nanoparticles are in the cardiac stents, photodynamic therapy and liver metastasis imaging. The AuNPs have been employed for cell imaging, computed tomography and cancer therapy. Besides these categories, miscellaneous other nanoparticles are being discovered for utility in the cancer diagnosis and disease management. However, the use of nanoparticles should be cautious since the toxic effects of nanoparticles are not well-known. The use of nanoparticles in the clinical practice and their toxicity profile require further extensive research.

  13. Inversion of the perturbation series

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amore, Paolo [Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Colima, Bernal DIaz del Castillo 340, Colima, Colima (Mexico); Fernandez, Francisco M [INIFTA (Conicet, UNLP), Division Quimica Teorica, Diag 113 S/N, Sucursal 4, Casilla de Correo 16, 1900 La Plata (Argentina)


    We investigate the inversion of the perturbation series and its resummation, and prove that it is related to a recently developed parametric perturbation theory. Results for some illustrative examples show that in some cases series reversion may improve the accuracy of the results.

  14. Convergence of a Catalan Series (United States)

    Koshy, Thomas; Gao, Zhenguang


    This article studies the convergence of the infinite series of the reciprocals of the Catalan numbers. We extract the sum of the series as well as some related ones, illustrating the power of the calculus in the study of the Catalan numbers.

  15. Complex Landscape Terms in Seri (United States)

    O'Meara, Carolyn; Bohnemeyer, Jurgen


    The nominal lexicon of Seri is characterized by a prevalence of analytical descriptive terms. We explore the consequences of this typological trait in the landscape domain. The complex landscape terms of Seri classify geographic entities in terms of their material make-up and spatial properties such as shape, orientation, and merological…

  16. Students' Conception of Infinite Series (United States)

    Martinez-Planell, Rafael; Gonzalez, Ana Carmen; DiCristina, Gladys; Acevedo, Vanessa


    This is a report of a study of students' understanding of infinite series. It has a three-fold purpose: to show that students may construct two essentially different notions of infinite series, to show that one of the constructions is particularly difficult for students, and to examine the way in which these two different constructions may be…

  17. Benchmarking of energy time series

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williamson, M.A.


    Benchmarking consists of the adjustment of time series data from one source in order to achieve agreement with similar data from a second source. The data from the latter source are referred to as the benchmark(s), and often differ in that they are observed at a lower frequency, represent a higher level of temporal aggregation, and/or are considered to be of greater accuracy. This report provides an extensive survey of benchmarking procedures which have appeared in the statistical literature, and reviews specific benchmarking procedures currently used by the Energy Information Administration (EIA). The literature survey includes a technical summary of the major benchmarking methods and their statistical properties. Factors influencing the choice and application of particular techniques are described and the impact of benchmark accuracy is discussed. EIA applications and procedures are reviewed and evaluated for residential natural gas deliveries series and coal production series. It is found that the current method of adjusting the natural gas series is consistent with the behavior of the series and the methods used in obtaining the initial data. As a result, no change is recommended. For the coal production series, a staged approach based on a first differencing technique is recommended over the current procedure. A comparison of the adjustments produced by the two methods is made for the 1987 Indiana coal production series. 32 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  18. Models for dependent time series

    CERN Document Server

    Tunnicliffe Wilson, Granville; Haywood, John


    Models for Dependent Time Series addresses the issues that arise and the methodology that can be applied when the dependence between time series is described and modeled. Whether you work in the economic, physical, or life sciences, the book shows you how to draw meaningful, applicable, and statistically valid conclusions from multivariate (or vector) time series data.The first four chapters discuss the two main pillars of the subject that have been developed over the last 60 years: vector autoregressive modeling and multivariate spectral analysis. These chapters provide the foundational mater

  19. Fractal and Multifractal Time Series

    CERN Document Server

    Kantelhardt, Jan W


    Data series generated by complex systems exhibit fluctuations on many time scales and/or broad distributions of the values. In both equilibrium and non-equilibrium situations, the natural fluctuations are often found to follow a scaling relation over several orders of magnitude, allowing for a characterisation of the data and the generating complex system by fractal (or multifractal) scaling exponents. In addition, fractal and multifractal approaches can be used for modelling time series and deriving predictions regarding extreme events. This review article describes and exemplifies several methods originating from Statistical Physics and Applied Mathematics, which have been used for fractal and multifractal time series analysis.

  20. Time Series with Tailored Nonlinearities

    CERN Document Server

    Raeth, C


    It is demonstrated how to generate time series with tailored nonlinearities by inducing well- defined constraints on the Fourier phases. Correlations between the phase information of adjacent phases and (static and dynamic) measures of nonlinearities are established and their origin is explained. By applying a set of simple constraints on the phases of an originally linear and uncor- related Gaussian time series, the observed scaling behavior of the intensity distribution of empirical time series can be reproduced. The power law character of the intensity distributions being typical for e.g. turbulence and financial data can thus be explained in terms of phase correlations.

  1. Photodynamic therapy using nanoparticle loaded with indocyanine green for experimental peritoneal dissemination of gastric cancer. (United States)

    Tsujimoto, Hironori; Morimoto, Yuji; Takahata, Risa; Nomura, Shinsuke; Yoshida, Kazumichi; Horiguchi, Hiroyuki; Hiraki, Shuichi; Ono, Satoshi; Miyazaki, Hiromi; Saito, Daizo; Hara, Isao; Ozeki, Eiichi; Yamamoto, Junji; Hase, Kazuo


    Although there have been multiple advances in the development of novel anticancer agents and operative procedures, prognosis of patients with advanced gastric cancer remains poor, especially in patients with peritoneal metastasis. In this study, we established nanoparticles loaded with indocyanine green (ICG) derivatives: ICG loaded lactosomes (ICGm) and investigated the diagnostic and therapeutic value of photodynamic therapy (PDT) using ICGm for experimental peritoneal dissemination of gastric cancer. Experimental peritoneal disseminated xenografts of human gastric cancer were established in nude mice. Three weeks after intraperitoneal injection of the cancer cells, either ICGm (ICGm-treated mice) or ICG solution (ICG-treated mice) was injected through the tail vein. Forty-eight hours after injection of the photosensitizer, in vivo and ex vivo imaging was carried out. For PDT, 48 h after injection of the photosensitizer, other mice were irradiated through the abdominal wall, and the body weight and survival rate were monitored. In vivo imaging revealed that peritoneal tumors were visualized through the abdominal wall in ICGm-treated mice, whereas only non-specific fluorescence was observed in ICG-treated mice. The PDT reduced the total weight of the disseminated nodules and significantly improved weight loss and survival rate in ICGm-treated mice. In conclusion, ICGm can be used as a novel diagnostic and therapeutic nanodevice in peritoneal dissemination of gastric cancer.

  2. 定期举办健康教育讲座对乳腺癌患者术后恢复的影响%Impact of regular series of lectures of health education on postoperative recovery in patients with breast cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚春苑; 谢建平; 曾浩涛


    Objective:To investigate the impact of regular series of lectures of health education on postoperative recovery in patients with breast cancer .Methods:62 patients with breast cancer were randomly divided into the experimental group and the control group (31 cases in each group ) .The patients in the experimental group were asked to come back to hospital attending the regular lectures of health educa -tion after discharge;the routine follow-up was only given to the patients in the control group .The functional recovery of the upper limb and the change of anxiety and depression status were compared between the two groups half a year later .Results:The functional recovery of the upper limb was better half a year later in the experimental group than the control group (P<0.05);the degree of anxiety and depres-sion was significantly lower in the experimental group than the control group (P<0.05).Conclusion:The regular series of lectures of health education after discharge can effectively improve the postoperative exercise compliance of the patients and keep them maintaining a good mental state ,which has the significance in the improvement of the postoperative quality of life of patients with breast cancer .%目的:探讨定期举办健康教育讲座对乳腺癌患者术后恢复的影响。方法:将62例乳腺癌患者随机分为实验组和对照组各31例,实验组患者出院后定期回院参加健康教育讲座,对照组仅进行常规随访。比较两组半年后上肢肢体功能恢复情况、焦虑和抑郁程度变化情况。结果:实验组半年后上肢功能恢复情况明显优于对照组(P<0.05),焦虑和抑郁程度明显低于对照组(P<0.05)。结论:出院后进行定期健康教育讲座能有效提高患者术后锻炼的依从性及促进患者保持良好的心理状态,对恢复上肢肢体功能、保持良好心态和提高生活质量具有重要意义。

  3. The Harvey lectures, Series 82

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Botstein, D.; Cech, T.R.; Hille, B.; Lodish, H.F.; Majerus, P.W.


    The Harvey Lecture Series is published annually and provides reviews of research topics in the biomedical sciences. Eight lectures by investigators are included in the volume representing the most recent work in the major laboratories.

  4. Eisenstein series for SL(2)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KUDLA; Stephen; S.


    This paper gives explicit formulas for the Fourier expansion of general Eisenstein series and local Whittaker functions over SL2.They are used to compute both the value and derivatives of these functions at critical points.

  5. Some general random Taylor series

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙道椿; 余家荣


    Kahane has studied the value distribution of Gauss-Taylor series where is a complex Gauss sequence and The value distribution of more general random Taylor series is considered, where {Xn} is a sequence of real or complex random variables of independent, symmetric and equally distributed with finite non-zero fourth moment (the classical Gauss, Steinhaus and Rademacher random variables are special cases of such variables). First a theorem on the growth of characteristic functions is proved by a method which is completely different from Kahane’s. Then it is applied to proving that the range of general random Taylor series is almost surely dense everywhere in the complex plane and that if the random variable is bounded and continuous, the random series surely has no finite Nevanlinna deficient value.

  6. The Peano-Baker series

    CERN Document Server

    Baake, Michael


    This note reviews the Peano-Baker series and its use to solve the general linear system of ODEs. The account is elementary and self-contained, and is meant as a pedagogic introduction to this approach, which is well known but usually treated as a folklore result or as a purely formal tool. Here, a simple convergence result is given, and two examples illustrate that the series can be used explicitly as well.

  7. D and C - series (image) (United States)

    D and C, or dilatation and curettage (uterine scraping), is a procedure to scrape and collect the ... Uterine scraping has relatively few risks and can relieve bleeding and diagnose problems, including infection, cancer, infertility, and other ...

  8. Cholesterol and prostate cancer. (United States)

    Pelton, Kristine; Freeman, Michael R; Solomon, Keith R


    Prostate cancer risk can be modified by environmental factors, however the molecular mechanisms affecting susceptibility to this disease are not well understood. As a result of a series of recently published studies, the steroidal lipid, cholesterol, has emerged as a clinically relevant therapeutic target in prostate cancer. This review summarizes the findings from human studies as well as animal and cell biology models, which suggest that high circulating cholesterol increases risk of aggressive prostate cancer, while cholesterol lowering strategies may confer protective benefit. Relevant molecular processes that have been experimentally tested and might explain these associations are described. We suggest that these promising results now could be applied prospectively to attempt to lower risk of prostate cancer in select populations.

  9. 6 Common Cancers - Lung Cancer (United States)

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues 6 Common Cancers - Lung Cancer Past Issues / Spring 2007 Table of Contents For ... Desperate Housewives. (Photo ©2005 Kathy Hutchins / Hutchins) Lung Cancer Lung cancer causes more deaths than the next ...

  10. 6 Common Cancers - Skin Cancer (United States)

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues 6 Common Cancers - Skin Cancer Past Issues / Spring 2007 Table of Contents For ... AP Photo/Herald-Mail, Kevin G. Gilbert Skin Cancer Skin cancer is the most common form of ...

  11. Summation of Divergent Power Series by Means of Factorial Series

    CERN Document Server

    Weniger, Ernst Joachim


    Factorial series played a major role in Stirling's classic book "Methodus Differentialis" (1730), but now only a few specialists still use them. This article wants to show that this neglect is unjustified, and that factorial series are useful numerical tools for the summation of divergent (inverse) power series. This is documented by summing the divergent asymptotic expansion for the exponential integral $E_{1} (z)$ and the factorially divergent Rayleigh-Schr\\"{o}dinger perturbation expansion for the quartic anharmonic oscillator. Stirling numbers play a key role since they occur as coefficients in expansions of an inverse power in terms of inverse Pochhammer symbols and vice versa. It is shown that the relationships involving Stirling numbers are special cases of more general orthogonal and triangular transformations.

  12. Product Summability Transform of Conjugate Series of Fourier Series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vishnu Narayan Mishra


    Full Text Available A known theorem, Nigam (2010 dealing with the degree of approximation of conjugate of a signal belonging to Lipξ(t-class by (E,1(C,1 product summability means of conjugate series of Fourier series has been generalized for the weighted W(Lr,ξ(t, (r≥1,(t>0-class, where ξ(t is nonnegative and increasing function of t, by En1Cn1~ which is in more general form of Theorem 2 of Nigam and Sharma (2011.

  13. Mouse models for cancer research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Zhang; Lynette Moore; Ping Ji


    Mouse models of cancer enable researchers to leamn about tumor biology in complicated and dynamic physiological systems. Since the development of gene targeting in mice, cancer biologists have been among the most frequent users of transgenic mouse models, which have dramatically increased knowledge about how cancers form and grow. The Chinese Joumnal of Cancer will publish a series of papers reporting the use of mouse models in studying genetic events in cancer cases. This editorial is an overview of the development and applications of mouse models of cancer and directs the reader to upcoming papers describing the use of these models to be published in coming issues, beginning with three articles in the current issue.

  14. Thirty Sixth Series of the Next Kind of Series

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kok, Wjm


    The subject of the research is ‘difference and repetition,’ an area which bears a direct relationship to Wjm Kok’s practice, in which the production of work always emerges and passes through series. It is also the title of a book by Gilles Deleuze that has been used as source and reference to explic

  15. Locations in television drama series

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waade, Anne Marit

    , and reflect the growing academic and business interests, respectively, on places in a global media and consumption culture (Falkheimer & Jansson, 2006). Based on empirical location studies of three crime series, Wallander (Yellow Bird, 2008-2012), The Bridge (SVT1 & DR1, 2011-2013) and Dicte (Misofilm/TV2...... in the extra bonus material (Gray, 2010; Waade, 2013), and film tours and film apps become part of the television series’ trans-media franchise (Reijnders, 2011; Thompson, 2007). Location has so far been a practical term describing the place where the series is shot. Ellis (1992) used to see location...

  16. On series of dilated functions

    CERN Document Server

    Berkes, Istvan


    Given a periodic function $f$, we study the almost everywhere and norm convergence of series $\\sum_{k=1}^\\infty c_k f(kx)$. As the classical theory shows, the behavior of such series is determined by a combination of analytic and number theoretic factors, but precise results exist only in a few special cases. In this paper we use connections with orthogonal function theory and GCD sums to prove several new results, improve old ones and also to simplify and unify the theory.

  17. Update from the Commission on Cancer. (United States)

    Clive, R E


    A model for an integrated, comprehensive program for high-quality, cost-effective patient care can be found in cancer programs approved by the Commission on Cancer. A key component in assessing the effectiveness of the model is the cancer registry. Changes in the health care delivery system are behind increased demands for and use of cancer registry data. To support this shift and expanded activity, the Commission on Cancer has instituted a series of initiatives. These steps address refinements of the standards for approval, collaborative relationships, performance measurement information, new educational opportunities, and an organized communications campaign.

  18. Childhood Cancer (United States)

    ... Cancer? Cancer Treatment Coping With Cancer en español Cáncer infantil Every cell in the body has a system that controls its growth, interaction with other cells, and even its life span. ... cancer . Different kinds of cancer have different signs, symptoms, ...

  19. Spectroscopy, Understanding the Atom Series. (United States)

    Hellman, Hal

    This booklet is one of the "Understanding the Atom" Series. The science of spectroscopy is presented by a number of topics dealing with (1) the uses of spectroscopy, (2) its origin and background, (3) the basic optical systems of spectroscopes, spectrometers, and spectrophotometers, (4) the characteristics of wave motion, (5) the…

  20. Teen Addiction. Current Controversies Series. (United States)

    Winters, Paul A., Ed.

    The Current Controversies series explores social, political, and economic controversies that dominate the national and international scenes today from a variety of perspectives. Recent surveys have shown that, after years of decline, drug use among teenagers has increased during the 1990s, and that alcohol and tobacco use have remained…

  1. Volterra Series Based Distortion Effect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agerkvist, Finn T.


    A large part of the characteristic sound of the electric guitar comes from nonlinearities in the signal path. Such nonlinearities may come from the input- or output-stage of the amplier, which is often equipped with vacuum tubes or a dedicated distortion pedal. In this paper the Volterra series e...

  2. Illegal Immigration. Opposing Viewpoints Series. (United States)

    Cozic, Charles P., Ed.

    Books in the Opposing Viewpoints Series present debates about current issues that can be used to teach critical reading and thinking skills. The variety of opinions expressed in this collection of articles and book excerpts explore many aspects of illegal immigration. Contrary depictions of the aspirations and attitudes of illegal immigrants fuel…

  3. Scholars’ Comments On the Series

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The collection embodies the highest academic standard of China’s research on international politics. The publication of the collection is very timely and the series tells about how China can look upon the world appropriately and how the world can look upon China appropriately.—Fan Jingyi, Professor and Dean of the School of Journalism and Communication, Tsinghua University

  4. Autism: Exceptional Child Bibliography Series. (United States)

    Council for Exceptional Children, Reston, VA. Information Center on Exceptional Children.

    One in a series of over 50 similar selected listings, the bibliography contains 47 items of research reports, conference papers, journal articles, texts, and program guides selected from "Exceptional Child Education Abstracts". Each entry on autism provides bibliographical data, availability information, indexing and retrieval descriptors, and…

  5. Transcendence of Certain Trigonometric Series

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yao Chen ZHU


    In this paper the transcendence of values of certain trigonometric series with algebraiccoefficients and its derivatives at algebraic points is proved under a genera] condition dependent onlyon the coefficients. The proof of the theorem is based on a criterion for linear independence over anumber field.

  6. A Borderline Random Fourier Series


    Talagrand, Michel


    Consider a mean zero random variable $X$, and an independent sequence $(X_n)$ distributed like $X$. We show that the random Fourier series $\\sum_{n\\geq 1} n^{-1} X_n \\exp(2i\\pi nt)$ converges uniformly almost surely if and only if $E(|X|\\log\\log(\\max(e^e, |X|))) < \\infty$.

  7. Prognostic role of syncytin expression in breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsson, Lars-Inge; Holck, Susanne; Christensen, Ib Jarle


    Breast cancer cells were recently found to produce syncytin, an endogenous retroviral protein implicated in cell fusion, immune regulation, and nitric oxide synthase expression. To determine whether syncytin has a prognostic role in breast cancer, we investigated a series of 165 premenopausal lymph...... prognostic indicator for recurrence-free survival. In addition, we examined a second series of 54 consecutively operated breast cancer patients of all categories and the results supported the conclusions made from the first study. Thus, syncytin expression constitutes a positive prognostic factor in breast...... cancer - a phenomenon that may be related to the involvement of syncytin in mediating fusions between breast cancer cells and entodhelial cells....

  8. A exenteração pélvica no tratamento do câncer de reto estádio T4: experiência de 15 casos operados Pelvic exenteration for T4 rectal cancer: a series of 15 ressectable cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Renato Pais Costa


    Full Text Available RACIONAL: A exenteração pélvica tem sido a melhor opção terapêutica radical para o tratamento dos tumores de reto T4. No entanto, essa operação ainda permanece com mortalidade significante e alta morbidade. OBJETIVO: Relatar série de 15 casos de exenteração pélvica para tumores de reto T4, analisando a morbidade, mortalidade e sobrevida dos pacientes. MÉTODOS: Foram estudados 15 pacientes com câncer de reto T4 no Serviço de Cirurgia Geral - Oncocirurgia do Hospital do Servidor Publico Estadual de São Paulo, SP, submetidos a exenteração pélvica no período de 1998 e 2006. Sete eram do sexo masculino enquanto oito eram do sexo feminino, com média de idade de 65 anos. Todos apresentavam sintomas incapacitantes. As operações foram: exenteração infra-elevadora (n = 6, exenteração supra-elevadora (n = 4, exenteração posterior (n = 3 e exenteração posterior com cistectomia e ureterectomia parciais (n = 2. RESULTADOS: A média de tempo cirúrgico foi de 403 minutos (280-485. A média de sangramento foi de 1620 mL (300-4800. A mortalidade pós-operatória foi de 6,66% (n = 1. A morbidade pós-operatória foi de 53,3% (n = 8. Os exames histológicos evidenciaram que todas as ressecções foram R0. Envolvimento linfonodal foi observado em quatro pacientes (26,66 % sendo que todos faleceram em decorrência da neoplasia. A sobrevida global em cinco anos foi de 35,7%. CONCLUSÃO: A exenteração pélvica ainda apresenta alta morbidade, no entanto permanece justificada, pois pode conferir maior controle do câncer de reto T4 em longo prazo.BACKGROUND: Pelvic exenteration is the best therapeutic choice for treatment of T4 rectal cancer. Although, this operation still presents considerable mortality and high morbidity. AIM: To report on a series of 15 patients with a T4 rectal cancer at a general hospital and describe the outcomes (morbidity, mortality and long-term survival following pelvic exenteration. METHODS: Complete follow

  9. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Information Advance Directives Using Trusted Resources Cancer Types Adolescents and Young Adults with Cancer Reports, Research, and ... of Cancers Cancers by Body Location Childhood Cancers Adolescent & Young Adult Cancers Metastatic Cancer Recurrent Cancer Research ...

  10. What Is Thymus Cancer? (United States)

    ... Cancer? Thymus Cancer About Thymus Cancer What Is Thymus Cancer? Cancer starts when cells in the body ... Research and Treatment for Thymus Cancer? More In Thymus Cancer About Thymus Cancer Causes, Risk Factors, and ...

  11. Analysis of series resonant converter with series-parallel connection (United States)

    Lin, Bor-Ren; Huang, Chien-Lan


    In this study, a parallel inductor-inductor-capacitor (LLC) resonant converter series-connected on the primary side and parallel-connected on the secondary side is presented for server power supply systems. Based on series resonant behaviour, the power metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors are turned on at zero voltage switching and the rectifier diodes are turned off at zero current switching. Thus, the switching losses on the power semiconductors are reduced. In the proposed converter, the primary windings of the two LLC converters are connected in series. Thus, the two converters have the same primary currents to ensure that they can supply the balance load current. On the output side, two LLC converters are connected in parallel to share the load current and to reduce the current stress on the secondary windings and the rectifier diodes. In this article, the principle of operation, steady-state analysis and design considerations of the proposed converter are provided and discussed. Experiments with a laboratory prototype with a 24 V/21 A output for server power supply were performed to verify the effectiveness of the proposed converter.

  12. Penile cancer (United States)

    Cancer - penis; Squamous cell cancer - penis; Glansectomy; Partial penectomy ... Cancer of the penis is rare. Its exact cause is unknown. However, certain risk factors include: Uncircumcised men who don't keep the ...

  13. Cancer Chemotherapy (United States)

    ... controlled way. Cancer cells keep growing without control. Chemotherapy is drug therapy for cancer. It works by killing the cancer ... It depends on the type and amount of chemotherapy you get and how your body reacts. Some ...

  14. Skin Cancer (United States)

    ... the head, face, neck, hands, and arms. Another type of skin cancer, melanoma, is more dangerous but less common. Anyone ... cancer is found early. If not treated, some types of skin cancer cells can spread to other tissues and organs. ...

  15. Testicular cancer (United States)

    Testicular cancer is cancer that starts in the testicles, the male reproductive glands located in the scrotum. ... developing testicular cancer increases if he has: Abnormal testicle development Exposure to certain chemicals Family history of ...

  16. Ovarian Cancer (United States)

    ... deaths than other female reproductive cancers. The sooner ovarian cancer is found and treated, the better your chance for recovery. But ovarian cancer is hard to detect early. Women with ovarian ...

  17. Cancer Moonshot (United States)

    The Cancer Moonshot, led by Vice President Joe Biden, will marshal resources across the federal government to speed progress in cancer research and lead to improved cancer prevention, detection, and treatment.

  18. Uterine Cancer (United States)

    ... is pregnant. There are different types of uterine cancer. The most common type starts in the endometrium, ... the uterus. This type is also called endometrial cancer. The symptoms of uterine cancer include Abnormal vaginal ...

  19. Thyroid Cancer (United States)

    ... body work normally. There are several types of cancer of the thyroid gland. You are at greater ... imaging tests, and a biopsy to diagnose thyroid cancer. Treatment depends on the type of cancer you ...

  20. Stomach Cancer (United States)

    ... with stomach acid and helps digest protein. Stomach cancer mostly affects older people - two-thirds of people ... Smoke cigarettes Have a family history of stomach cancer It is hard to diagnose stomach cancer in ...

  1. Bone Cancer (United States)

    Cancer that starts in a bone is uncommon. Cancer that has spread to the bone from another ... more common. There are three types of bone cancer: Osteosarcoma - occurs most often between ages 10 and ...

  2. Cancer Immunotherapy (United States)

    Immunotherapy is a cancer treatment that helps your immune system fight cancer. It is a type of biological therapy. Biological therapy uses substances ... t yet use immunotherapy as often as other cancer treatments, such as surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation therapy. ...

  3. Throat Cancer (United States)

    ... food. Surgery to remove cancerous lymph nodes (neck dissection). If throat cancer has spread deep within your ... neck cancers. Rochester, Minn.: Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research; 2015. Freedman ND, et al. Fruit ...

  4. Dietary lipids and cancer. (United States)

    Granados, S; Quiles, J L; Gil, A; Ramírez-Tortosa, M C


    Cancer is one of the main causes of death in Western countries. Among the factors that contribute to the appearance of this disease, diet has a fundamental role, and specifically fats are the main component related to the increase in the incidence of cancerous diseases, particularly breast, colon-rectal, and prostate cancer. From dietary lipids, much attention has been given to the beneficial effects of fish oil, rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids n-3 serie, as well as of olive oil, rich in monounsaturated fatty acids--primarily oleic acid. On the contrary, a negative effect has been reported for polyunsaturated fatty acids n-6 serie and for saturated fatty acids. Nutrition constitutes an important aspect of the life of cancer patients. Currently, nutritional formulas are being designed with supplements of polyunsaturated n-3 fatty acids and other components such as arginine, RNA, lysine, etc., with the aim of ameliorating the effects of this pathology. The results demonstrate the lower morbility and therefore improved quality of life, a decline in mortality, and a reduction in related costs.

  5. Hereditary breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Martin J; Thomassen, Mads; Gerdes, Anne-Marie


    Pathogenic mutations in BRCA1 or BRCA2 are only detected in 25% of families with a strong history of breast cancer, though hereditary factors are expected to be involved in the remaining families with no recognized mutation. Molecular characterization is expected to provide new insight...... into the tumor biology to guide the search of new high-risk alleles and provide better classification of the growing number of BRCA1/2 variants of unknown significance (VUS). In this review, we provide an overview of hereditary breast cancer, its genetic background, and clinical implications, before focusing...... on the pathologically and molecular features associated with the disease. Recent transcriptome and genome profiling studies of tumor series from BRCA1/2 mutation carriers as well as familial non-BRCA1/2 will be discussed. Special attention is paid to its association with molecular breast cancer subtypes as well...

  6. Random time series in astronomy. (United States)

    Vaughan, Simon


    Progress in astronomy comes from interpreting the signals encoded in the light received from distant objects: the distribution of light over the sky (images), over photon wavelength (spectrum), over polarization angle and over time (usually called light curves by astronomers). In the time domain, we see transient events such as supernovae, gamma-ray bursts and other powerful explosions; we see periodic phenomena such as the orbits of planets around nearby stars, radio pulsars and pulsations of stars in nearby galaxies; and we see persistent aperiodic variations ('noise') from powerful systems such as accreting black holes. I review just a few of the recent and future challenges in the burgeoning area of time domain astrophysics, with particular attention to persistently variable sources, the recovery of reliable noise power spectra from sparsely sampled time series, higher order properties of accreting black holes, and time delays and correlations in multi-variate time series.

  7. Random time series in Astronomy

    CERN Document Server

    Vaughan, Simon


    Progress in astronomy comes from interpreting the signals encoded in the light received from distant objects: the distribution of light over the sky (images), over photon wavelength (spectrum), over polarization angle, and over time (usually called light curves by astronomers). In the time domain we see transient events such as supernovae, gamma-ray bursts, and other powerful explosions; we see periodic phenomena such as the orbits of planets around nearby stars, radio pulsars, and pulsations of stars in nearby galaxies; and persistent aperiodic variations (`noise') from powerful systems like accreting black holes. I review just a few of the recent and future challenges in the burgeoning area of Time Domain Astrophysics, with particular attention to persistently variable sources, the recovery of reliable noise power spectra from sparsely sampled time series, higher-order properties of accreting black holes, and time delays and correlations in multivariate time series.

  8. Fourier series and orthogonal functions

    CERN Document Server

    Davis, Harry F


    This incisive text deftly combines both theory and practical example to introduce and explore Fourier series and orthogonal functions and applications of the Fourier method to the solution of boundary-value problems. Directed to advanced undergraduate and graduate students in mathematics as well as in physics and engineering, the book requires no prior knowledge of partial differential equations or advanced vector analysis. Students familiar with partial derivatives, multiple integrals, vectors, and elementary differential equations will find the text both accessible and challenging.

  9. Urban legends series: oral leukoplakia. (United States)

    Arduino, P G; Bagan, J; El-Naggar, A K; Carrozzo, M


    To date, the term oral leukoplakia (OL) should be used to recognize 'predominantly white plaques of questionable risk, having excluded (other) known diseases or disorders that carry no increased risk of cancer'. In this review, we addressed four controversial topics regarding oral leukoplakias (OLs): (i) Do tobacco and alcohol cause OLs?, (ii) What percentage of OLs transform into oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC)?, (iii) Can we distinguish between premalignant and innocent OLs?, and (iv) Is proliferative verrucous leukoplakia (PVL) a specific entity or just a form of multifocal leukoplakia? Results of extensive literature search suggest that (i) no definitive evidence for direct causal relationship between smoked tobacco and alcohol as causative factors of OLs, (ii and iii) the vast majority of OLs follow a benign course and do not progress into a cancer, and no widely accepted and/or validated clinical and/or biological factors can predict malignant transformation, and (iv) the distinction between multifocal/multiple leukoplakias and PVL in their early presentation is impossible; the temporal clinical progression and the high rate of recurrences and development of cancer of PVL are the most reliable features for diagnosis.

  10. Trend prediction of chaotic time series

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Aiguo; Zhao Cai; Li Zhanhuai


    To predict the trend of chaotic time series in time series analysis and time series data mining fields, a novel predicting algorithm of chaotic time series trend is presented, and an on-line segmenting algorithm is proposed to convert a time series into a binary string according to ascending or descending trend of each subsequence. The on-line segmenting algorithm is independent of the prior knowledge about time series. The naive Bayesian algorithm is then employed to predict the trend of chaotic time series according to the binary string. The experimental results of three chaotic time series demonstrate that the proposed method predicts the ascending or descending trend of chaotic time series with few error.

  11. The journey of personalizing gastric cancer treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Yan


    Gastric cancer ranks the fourth most prevalent malignancy yet it is the second leading cause of cancer-related death. Every year, gastric cancer adds nearly 1 million new cancer cases, and 723,000 or 10%of cancer deaths to the global cancer burden. Approximately, 405,000 or 43%of the new cases and 325,000 or 45%of the deaths are in China, mak-ing gastric cancer a particularly challenging malignancy. This thematic series discusses the molecular classiifcations of gastric cancer by the Cancer Genome Atlas ( TCGA) and the Asian Cancer Research Group (ACRG) as well as the implications in personalized therapeutic choices;discusses the evolution of gastric surgery and presents perspectives on surgical techniques in treating gastric cancer;and reviews current and emerging targeted agents as well as immu-notherapies in treating gastric cancer. With these advancements in molecular characterization, surgical intervention, and targeted and immunotherapies, gastric cancer will enter a personalized medicine era in the next 5 years.

  12. Vaginal Cancer (United States)

    Vaginal cancer is a rare type of cancer. It is more common in women 60 and older. You are also more likely to get it if you have had a human ... test can find abnormal cells that may be cancer. Vaginal cancer can often be cured in its ...

  13. Lung Cancer (United States)

    Lung cancer is one of the most common cancers in the world. It is a leading cause of cancer death in men and women in the United States. Cigarette smoking causes most lung cancers. The more cigarettes you smoke per day and ...

  14. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Talking about Advanced Cancer Coping with Your Feelings Planning for Advanced Cancer Advanced Cancer and Caregivers Questions ... Talking About Advanced Cancer Coping With Your Feelings Planning for Advanced Cancer Advanced Cancer & Caregivers Managing Cancer ...

  15. What Is Thyroid Cancer? (United States)

    ... Treatment? Thyroid Cancer About Thyroid Cancer What Is Thyroid Cancer? Cancer starts when cells in the body begin ... cell) Medullary Anaplastic (an aggressive undifferentiated tumor) Differentiated thyroid cancers Most thyroid cancers are differentiated cancers. The cells ...

  16. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Bladder Cancer Breast Cancer Colorectal Cancer Kidney (Renal Cell) Cancer Leukemia Liver Lung Cancer Lymphoma Pancreatic Cancer ... grade, which refers to how abnormal the cancer cells look under a microscope. Grade provides clues about ...

  17. Diet and cancer (United States)

    Fiber and cancer; Cancer and fiber; Nitrates and cancer; Cancer and nitrates ... DIET AND BREAST CANCER The link between nutrition and breast cancer has been well studied. To reduce risk of breast cancer the American ...

  18. Breast Cancer Overview (United States)

    ... Cancer > Breast Cancer > Breast Cancer: Overview Request Permissions Breast Cancer: Overview Approved by the Cancer.Net Editorial Board , ... bean-shaped organs that help fight infection. About breast cancer Cancer begins when healthy cells in the breast ...

  19. What Is Breast Cancer? (United States)

    ... Research? Breast Cancer About Breast Cancer What Is Breast Cancer? Breast cancer starts when cells in the breast ... spread, see our section on Cancer Basics . Where breast cancer starts Breast cancers can start from different parts ...

  20. American Institute for Cancer Research (United States)

    ... About Cancer By Cancer Site What Is Cancer Foods That Fight Cancer Tools You Can Use Cancer Infographics & Multimedia Studying ... About Cancer By Cancer Site What Is Cancer Foods That Fight Cancer Tools You Can Use Cancer Infographics & Multimedia Studying ...

  1. Numerical Sequence of Borane Series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enos Masheija Kiremire


    Full Text Available A table of hydroborane families has been created. The table links boranes of different families(homologous series and members of the same family based on k number. The table is useful deducing straight away whether a borane( molecular formula is closo, nido or arachno or something else. The table also indicates that boranes are formed according to natural periodic function (arithmetical progression. The empirical formula utilized is extremely versatile, simple and based on the principle of Nobel gas configuration. It could be used in both simple and complex boranes and carboranes. The closo members which portray characteristic shapes also have characteristic k1 numbers.

  2. A Course in Time Series Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Peña, Daniel; Tsay, Ruey S


    New statistical methods and future directions of research in time series A Course in Time Series Analysis demonstrates how to build time series models for univariate and multivariate time series data. It brings together material previously available only in the professional literature and presents a unified view of the most advanced procedures available for time series model building. The authors begin with basic concepts in univariate time series, providing an up-to-date presentation of ARIMA models, including the Kalman filter, outlier analysis, automatic methods for building ARIMA models, a

  3. Trend prediction of chaotic time series

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Trend prediction of chaotic ti me series is anin-teresting probleminti me series analysis andti me se-ries data mining(TSDM)fields[1].TSDM-basedmethods can successfully characterize and predictcomplex,irregular,and chaotic ti me series.Somemethods have been proposed to predict the trend ofchaotic ti me series.In our knowledge,these meth-ods can be classified into t wo categories as follows.The first category is based on the embeddedspace[2-3],where rawti me series data is mapped to areconstructed phase spac...

  4. Cancer Screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishna Prasad


    Full Text Available Cancer screening is a means to detect cancer early with the goal of decreasing morbidity and mortality. At present, there is a reasonable consensus regarding screening for breast, cervical and colorectal cances and the role of screening is under trial in case of cancers of the lung,  ovaries and prostate. On the other hand, good screening tests are not available for some of the commonest cancers in India like the oral, pharyngeal, esophageal and stomach cancers.

  5. Biosemiotic Entropy: Concluding the Series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John W. Oller


    Full Text Available This article concludes the special issue on Biosemiotic Entropy looking toward the future on the basis of current and prior results. It highlights certain aspects of the series, concerning factors that damage and degenerate biosignaling systems. As in ordinary linguistic discourse, well-formedness (coherence in biological signaling systems depends on valid representations correctly construed: a series of proofs are presented and generalized to all meaningful sign systems. The proofs show why infants must (as empirical evidence shows they do proceed through a strict sequence of formal steps in acquiring any language. Classical and contemporary conceptions of entropy and information are deployed showing why factors that interfere with coherence in biological signaling systems are necessary and sufficient causes of disorders, diseases, and mortality. Known sources of such formal degeneracy in living organisms (here termed, biosemiotic entropy include: (a toxicants, (b pathogens; (c excessive exposures to radiant energy and/or sufficiently powerful electromagnetic fields; (d traumatic injuries; and (e interactions between the foregoing factors. Just as Jaynes proved that irreversible changes invariably increase entropy, the theory of true narrative representations (TNR theory demonstrates that factors disrupting the well-formedness (coherence of valid representations, all else being held equal, must increase biosemiotic entropy—the kind impacting biosignaling systems.

  6. Event Discovery in Time Series

    CERN Document Server

    Preston, Dan; Brodley, Carla


    The discovery of events in time series can have important implications, such as identifying microlensing events in astronomical surveys, or changes in a patient's electrocardiogram. Current methods for identifying events require a sliding window of a fixed size, which is not ideal for all applications and could overlook important events. In this work, we develop probability models for calculating the significance of an arbitrary-sized sliding window and use these probabilities to find areas of significance. Because a brute force search of all sliding windows and all window sizes would be computationally intractable, we introduce a method for quickly approximating the results. We apply our method to over 100,000 astronomical time series from the MACHO survey, in which 56 different sections of the sky are considered, each with one or more known events. Our method was able to recover 100% of these events in the top 1% of the results, essentially pruning 99% of the data. Interestingly, our method was able to iden...

  7. Eisenstein series and automorphic representations

    CERN Document Server

    Fleig, Philipp; Kleinschmidt, Axel; Persson, Daniel


    We provide an introduction to the theory of Eisenstein series and automorphic forms on real simple Lie groups G, emphasising the role of representation theory. It is useful to take a slightly wider view and define all objects over the (rational) adeles A, thereby also paving the way for connections to number theory, representation theory and the Langlands program. Most of the results we present are already scattered throughout the mathematics literature but our exposition collects them together and is driven by examples. Many interesting aspects of these functions are hidden in their Fourier coefficients with respect to unipotent subgroups and a large part of our focus is to explain and derive general theorems on these Fourier expansions. Specifically, we give complete proofs of Langlands' constant term formula for Eisenstein series on adelic groups G(A) as well as the Casselman--Shalika formula for the p-adic spherical Whittaker vector associated to unramified automorphic representations of G(Q_p). Somewhat ...

  8. Visits Service Launches New Seminar Series

    CERN Multimedia


    The CERN Visits Service is launching a new series of seminars for guides, and they are open to everyone. The series kicks off next week with a talk by Konrad Elsener on the CERN neutrinos to Gran Sasso, CNGS, project.

  9. More About Trigonometric Series and Integration


    Bullen, P. S.


    In this paper the discussion of the effect of trigonometric series on the theory of integration is continued from an earlier paper by Gluchoff, Trigonometric series and theories of integration, Math.Mag., 67 (1994), 3--20.

  10. Investment Company Series and Class Information (United States)

    Securities and Exchange Commission — The Series and Class Report provides basic identification information for all active registered investment company series and classes that have been issued IDs by...

  11. Effective Feature Preprocessing for Time Series Forecasting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Junhua; Dong, Zhaoyang; Xu, Zhao


    Time series forecasting is an important area in data mining research. Feature preprocessing techniques have significant influence on forecasting accuracy, therefore are essential in a forecasting model. Although several feature preprocessing techniques have been applied in time series forecasting...... performance in time series forecasting. It is demonstrated in our experiment that, effective feature preprocessing can significantly enhance forecasting accuracy. This research can be a useful guidance for researchers on effectively selecting feature preprocessing techniques and integrating them with time...... series forecasting models....

  12. Upper GI and small bowel series (United States)

    ... the following problems: Gastric cancer Gastric ulcer - benign Gastritis Polyps (a tumor that is usually noncancerous and ... Cystic fibrosis Diverticulitis Esophageal cancer Esophageal stricture - benign Gastritis Gastroesophageal reflux disease Gastroparesis Hiatal hernia Intestinal obstruction ...

  13. Winter Video Series Coming in January | Poster (United States)

    The Scientific Library’s annual Summer Video Series was so successful that it will be offering a new Winter Video Series beginning in January. For this inaugural event, the staff is showing the eight-part series from National Geographic titled “American Genius.” 

  14. Regenerating time series from ordinal networks (United States)

    McCullough, Michael; Sakellariou, Konstantinos; Stemler, Thomas; Small, Michael


    Recently proposed ordinal networks not only afford novel methods of nonlinear time series analysis but also constitute stochastic approximations of the deterministic flow time series from which the network models are constructed. In this paper, we construct ordinal networks from discrete sampled continuous chaotic time series and then regenerate new time series by taking random walks on the ordinal network. We then investigate the extent to which the dynamics of the original time series are encoded in the ordinal networks and retained through the process of regenerating new time series by using several distinct quantitative approaches. First, we use recurrence quantification analysis on traditional recurrence plots and order recurrence plots to compare the temporal structure of the original time series with random walk surrogate time series. Second, we estimate the largest Lyapunov exponent from the original time series and investigate the extent to which this invariant measure can be estimated from the surrogate time series. Finally, estimates of correlation dimension are computed to compare the topological properties of the original and surrogate time series dynamics. Our findings show that ordinal networks constructed from univariate time series data constitute stochastic models which approximate important dynamical properties of the original systems.

  15. Description of complex time series by multipoles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lewkowicz, M.; Levitan, J.; Puzanov, N.;


    We present a new method to describe time series with a highly complex time evolution. The time series is projected onto a two-dimensional phase-space plot which is quantified in terms of a multipole expansion where every data point is assigned a unit mass. The multipoles provide an efficient...... characterization of the original time series....


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    In this article, the uniqueness theorem of Dirichlet series is proved. Then the random Dirichlet series in the right half plane is studied, and the result that the random Dirichlet series of finite order has almost surely(a.s.) no deficient functions is proved.

  17. Seri Dictionary: People and Kinship Terms. (United States)

    Moser, Mary B.; Marlett, Stephen A.

    A subset of a Seri-English bilingual dictionary (in preparation) is presented that includes terms referring to people, kinship terms, and verbs closely related to them. This version includes an English-to-Seri dictionary with 61 basic terms and variants, and a Seri dictionary with both Spanish and English glosses. It uses a practical orthography…

  18. Cancer Research Repository for Individuals With Cancer Diagnosis, High Risk Individuals, and Individuals With No History of Cancer (Control) (United States)


    Pancreatic Cancer; Thyroid Cancer; Lung Cancer; Esophageal Cancer; Thymus Cancer; Colon Cancer; Rectal Cancer; GIST; Anal Cancer; Bile Duct Cancer; Duodenal Cancer; Gallbladder Cancer; Gastric Cancer; Liver Cancer; Small Intestine Cancer; Peritoneal Surface Malignancies; Familial Adenomatous Polyposis; Lynch Syndrome; Bladder Cancer; Kidney Cancer; Penile Cancer; Prostate Cancer; Testicular Cancer; Ureter Cancer; Urethral Cancer; Hypopharyngeal Cancer; Laryngeal Cancer; Lip Cancer; Oral Cavity Cancer; Nasopharyngeal Cancer; Oropharyngeal Cancer; Paranasal Sinus Cancer; Nasal Cavity Cancer; Salivary Gland Cancer; Skin Cancer; CNS Tumor; CNS Cancer; Mesothelioma; Breastcancer; Leukemia; Melanoma; Sarcoma; Unknown Primary Tumor; Multiple Myeloma; Ovarian Cancer; Endometrial Cancer; Vaginal Cancer

  19. La scienza delle serie tv

    CERN Document Server

    Gentile, Andrea


    Un professore di chimica potrebbe davvero fabbricare droga come Walter White in "Breaking Bad"? Tra quanto avremo il teletrasporto di "Star Trek"? E qual è il modo migliore di reagire a un'epidemia zombie come quella di "The Walking Dead"? Si può parlare di scienza anche stando comodamente in poltrona di fronte alla televisione. Le serie tv sono diventate prodotti di culto, e le più celebri sono proprio quelle fantascientifiche, mediche o di investigazione, che al loro interno raccontano molta scienza. Cosa c'è di vero in ciò che mostrano? Dalla nascita del cosmo in "The Big Bang Theory", passando per le fantadiagnosi del "Dr. House", i complotti alieni di "X-Files" e la natura del tempo in "True Detective", Andrea Gentile svela il lato nascosto dei nostri show preferiti, con un linguaggio semplice e spiegazioni alla portata di tutti.

  20. Detecting chaos from time series (United States)

    Xiaofeng, Gong; Lai, C. H.


    In this paper, an entirely data-based method to detect chaos from the time series is developed by introducing icons/Journals/Common/epsilon" ALT="epsilon" ALIGN="TOP"/> p -neighbour points (the p -steps icons/Journals/Common/epsilon" ALT="epsilon" ALIGN="TOP"/> -neighbour points). We demonstrate that for deterministic chaotic systems, there exists a linear relationship between the logarithm of the average number of icons/Journals/Common/epsilon" ALT="epsilon" ALIGN="TOP"/> p -neighbour points, lnn p ,icons/Journals/Common/epsilon" ALT="epsilon" ALIGN="TOP"/> , and the time step, p . The coefficient can be related to the KS entropy of the system. The effects of the embedding dimension and noise are also discussed.

  1. Seminar series on Safety matters

    CERN Multimedia



    The HSE - Occupational Health & Safety and Environmental Protection - Unit is starting a seminar series on Safety matters. The aim is to invite colleagues from Universities, Industries or Government Agencies to share their experience. The seminars will take place in intervals of several months. Part of the Seminars will be held in the form of a Forum where participants can discuss and share views with persons who manage, teach or research Safety matters elsewhere. You are invited to the first Safety Seminar on 22nd September 2010 at 10h00 in building 40 S2 A1 "Salle Andersson" L’Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL) will present the way safety is managed in their research institution. Some aspects of research in physics and chemical laboratories will also be presented. The seminar will be given by Dr Thierry Meyer, Head of OHS at FSB-EPFL and Dr Amela Groso, responsible for the safety of the physics institutes

  2. Familial Chiari malformation: case series. (United States)

    Schanker, Benjamin D; Walcott, Brian P; Nahed, Brian V; Kahle, Kristopher T; Li, Yan Michael; Coumans, Jean-Valery C E


    Chiari malformations (Types I-IV) are abnormalities of the posterior fossa that affect the cerebellum, brainstem, and the spinal cord with prevalence rates of 0.1%-0.5%. Case reports of familial aggregation of Chiari malformation, twin studies, cosegregation of Chiari malformation with known genetic conditions, and recent gene and genome-wide association studies provide strong evidence of the genetic underpinnings of familial Chiari malformation. The authors report on a series of 3 family pairs with Chiari malformation Type I: 2 mother-daughter pairs and 1 father-daughter pair. The specific genetic causes of familial Chiari malformation have yet to be fully elucidated. The authors review the literature and discuss several candidate genes. Recent advances in the understanding of the genetic influences and pathogenesis of familial Chiari malformation are expected to improve management of affected patients and monitoring of at-risk family members.

  3. Predictive time-series modeling using artificial neural networks for Linac beam symmetry: an empirical study. (United States)

    Li, Qiongge; Chan, Maria F


    Over half of cancer patients receive radiotherapy (RT) as partial or full cancer treatment. Daily quality assurance (QA) of RT in cancer treatment closely monitors the performance of the medical linear accelerator (Linac) and is critical for continuous improvement of patient safety and quality of care. Cumulative longitudinal QA measurements are valuable for understanding the behavior of the Linac and allow physicists to identify trends in the output and take preventive actions. In this study, artificial neural networks (ANNs) and autoregressive moving average (ARMA) time-series prediction modeling techniques were both applied to 5-year daily Linac QA data. Verification tests and other evaluations were then performed for all models. Preliminary results showed that ANN time-series predictive modeling has more advantages over ARMA techniques for accurate and effective applicability in the dosimetry and QA field.

  4. Kapteyn series arising in radiation problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lerche, I [Institut fuer Geowissenschaften, Naturwissenschaftliche Fakultaet III, Martin-Luther-Universitaet Halle, D-06099 Halle (Germany); Tautz, R C [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Lehrstuhl IV: Weltraum- und Astrophysik, Ruhr-Universitaet Bochum, D-44780 Bochum (Germany)


    In discussing radiation from multiple point charges or magnetic dipoles, moving in circles or ellipses, a variety of Kapteyn series of the second kind arises. Some of the series have been known in closed form for a hundred years or more, others appear not to be available to analytic persuasion. This paper shows how 12 such generic series can be developed to produce either closed analytic expressions or integrals that are not analytically tractable. In addition, the method presented here may be of benefit when one has other Kapteyn series of the second kind to consider, thereby providing an additional reason to consider such series anew.

  5. Time Series Analysis and Forecasting by Example

    CERN Document Server

    Bisgaard, Soren


    An intuition-based approach enables you to master time series analysis with ease Time Series Analysis and Forecasting by Example provides the fundamental techniques in time series analysis using various examples. By introducing necessary theory through examples that showcase the discussed topics, the authors successfully help readers develop an intuitive understanding of seemingly complicated time series models and their implications. The book presents methodologies for time series analysis in a simplified, example-based approach. Using graphics, the authors discuss each presented example in

  6. Kolmogorov space in time series data (United States)

    Kanjamapornkul, Kabin; Pinčák, Richard


    We provide the proof that the space of time series data is a Kolmogorov space with $T_{0}$-separation axiom using the loop space of time series data. In our approach we define a cyclic coordinate of intrinsic time scale of time series data after empirical mode decomposition. A spinor field of time series data comes from the rotation of data around price and time axis by defining a new extradimension to time series data. We show that there exist hidden eight dimensions in Kolmogorov space for time series data. Our concept is realized as the algorithm of empirical mode decomposition and intrinsic time scale decomposition and it is subsequently used for preliminary analysis on the real time series data.

  7. Cervical Cancer (United States)

    ... the place where a baby grows during pregnancy. Cervical cancer is caused by a virus called HPV. The ... for a long time, or have HIV infection. Cervical cancer may not cause any symptoms at first. Later, ...

  8. Oral cancer (United States)

    ... Some oral cancers begin as a white plaque ( leukoplakia ) or as a mouth ulcer . Men develop oral ... use and safe drinking Cancer Dental care - adult Leukoplakia Metastasis Mouth ulcers Patient Instructions Dry mouth during ...

  9. Cancer Clusters (United States)

    ... type Progress Annual Report to the Nation Cancer Portfolio Snapshots Milestones in Cancer Research & Discovery Stories of ... Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Hazard Evaluation and Technical Assistance Branch Health Hazard Evaluation (HHE) ...

  10. Endometrial cancer (United States)

    ... to be at a higher risk of endometrial cancer: Colon or breast cancer Diabetes Gallbladder disease High blood ... laparoscopic - discharge Hysterectomy - vaginal - discharge Pelvic radiation - discharge Review Date 4/5/2016 Updated by: Irina Burd, ...

  11. Cancer prevention

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    @@ Introduction A 44 year old woman attends your surgery,distressed by the fact that her closest friend has just been given a diagnosis of colorectal cancer. She wants to know how to minimise her risk of developing cancer.

  12. Eye Cancer (United States)

    Cancer of the eye is uncommon. It can affect the outer parts of the eye, such as the eyelid, which are made up ... adults are melanoma and lymphoma. The most common eye cancer in children is retinoblastoma, which starts in ...

  13. Nasal Cancer (United States)

    ... the way to your throat as you breathe. Cancer of the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses is ... be like those of infections. Doctors diagnose nasal cancer with imaging tests, lighted tube-like instruments that ...

  14. Gallbladder Cancer (United States)

    ... your gallbladder and liver to your small intestine. Cancer of the gallbladder is rare. It is more ... the abdomen It is hard to diagnose gallbladder cancer in its early stages. Sometimes doctors find it ...

  15. Colorectal Cancer (United States)

    ... rectum are part of the large intestine. Colorectal cancer occurs when tumors form in the lining of ... men and women. The risk of developing colorectal cancer rises after age 50. You're also more ...

  16. Pancreatic Cancer (United States)

    ... hormones that help control blood sugar levels. Pancreatic cancer usually begins in the cells that produce the juices. Some risk factors for developing pancreatic cancer include Smoking Long-term diabetes Chronic pancreatitis Certain ...

  17. Cancer Disparities (United States)

    Basic information about cancer disparities in the U.S., factors that contribute to the disproportionate burden of cancer in some groups, and examples of disparities in incidence and mortality among certain populations.

  18. Prostate Cancer (United States)

    ... man's bladder that produces fluid for semen. Prostate cancer is common among older men. It is rare ... younger than 40. Risk factors for developing prostate cancer include being over 65 years of age, family ...

  19. Thymus Cancer (United States)

    ... cell. These cells help protect you from infections. Cancer of the thymus is rare. You are more ... Sometimes there are no symptoms. Other times, thymus cancer can cause A cough that doesn't go ...

  20. Intestinal Cancer (United States)

    ... connects your stomach to your large intestine. Intestinal cancer is rare, but eating a high-fat diet ... increase your risk. Possible signs of small intestine cancer include Abdominal pain Weight loss for no reason ...

  1. Esophageal Cancer (United States)

    ... from your throat to your stomach. Early esophageal cancer usually does not cause symptoms. Later, you may ... You're at greater risk for getting esophageal cancer if you smoke, drink heavily, or have acid ...

  2. Research Strategies for Nutritional and Physical Activity Epidemiology and Cancer Prevention (United States)

    In response to a series of controversial articles about nutritional epidemiology and cancer published in 2014, staff from the Environmental Epidemiology Branch initiated a series of meetings to refine programmatic priorities for human nutrition/physical activity and cancer etiology research in the near term.

  3. Quantitative Characterization Guidelines of Erionite Series Minerals for Regulatory Agencies (United States)

    Dogan, A.; Dogan, M.


    erionite series minerals - the most carcinogenic minerals known - require a special attention from the mineralogical community, which is a prerequisite to establish their true carcinogenic properties. References: Dogan, A.U., Baris, Y.I., Dogan, M., Emri, S., Steel, I., Elmishad, A.G., and Carbone, M., 2006. Genetic predisposition to fiber carcinogenesis causes a mesothelioma epidemic in Turkey. Cancer Research, v. 66 (10), p. 5063-5068, this research paper is highlighted in Nature Reviews-Cancer, v. 6, p. 489. Dogan, A.U. and Dogan, M., 2008, Re-evaluation and re-classification of erionite series minerals, Environmental Geochemistry and Health, v. 30, p. 355-366. Dogan, A.U., Dogan, M., and Hoskins, J.A. 2008, Erionite series minerals: Mineralogical and carcinogenic properties, Environmental Geochemistry and Health, v. 30, p. 367-381.

  4. Surveys of complementary and alternative medicine: Part II. Use of alternative and complementary cancer therapies. (United States)

    Sparber, A; Wootton, J C


    The second part of this series on surveys of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) in the United States provides a "point-of-information" summary of the studies on patients with cancer and their use of CAM therapies. Surveys of patients with cancer were the precursors of the recent wave of studies on CAM prevalence and use. Three tables summarize the findings from a total of 18 surveys categorized by Childhood Cancer, Adult Cancer, and Breast Cancer studies.

  5. Thyroid Cancer Risk Factors (United States)

    ... Prevented? Thyroid Cancer Causes, Risk Factors, and Prevention Thyroid Cancer Risk Factors A risk factor is anything that ... Cancer? Can Thyroid Cancer Be Prevented? More In Thyroid Cancer About Thyroid Cancer Causes, Risk Factors, and Prevention ...

  6. Lung Cancer Prevention (United States)

    ... Treatment Lung Cancer Prevention Lung Cancer Screening Research Lung Cancer Prevention (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is prevention? Go ... to keep cancer from starting. General Information About Lung Cancer Key Points Lung cancer is a disease in ...

  7. Surgery for Breast Cancer (United States)

    ... Cancer During Pregnancy Breast Cancer Breast Cancer Treatment Surgery for Breast Cancer Surgery is a common treatment ... removed (breast reconstruction) Relieve symptoms of advanced cancer Surgery to remove breast cancer There are two main ...

  8. Skin Cancer Prevention (United States)

    ... Genetics of Skin Cancer Skin Cancer Screening Research Skin Cancer Prevention (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is prevention? ... prevent cancer are being studied. General Information About Skin Cancer Key Points Skin cancer is a disease ...

  9. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Effects of Childhood Cancer Treatment Pediatric Supportive Care Unusual Cancers of Childhood Treatment Childhood Cancer Genomics Study ... Genomics Causes of Cancer Diagnosis Prevention Screening & Early Detection Treatment Cancer & Public Health Cancer Health Disparities Childhood ...

  10. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Partners & Collaborators Spotlight on Scientists Research Areas Cancer Biology Cancer Genomics Causes of Cancer Diagnosis Prevention Screening & ... Collaborators Spotlight on Scientists NCI Research Areas Cancer Biology Cancer Genomics Causes of Cancer Diagnosis Prevention Screening & ...

  11. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Cancers Metastatic Cancer Recurrent Cancer Research NCI’s Role in Cancer Research Intramural Research Extramural Research Bioinformatics and ... Annual Report to the Nation Cancer Snapshots Milestones in Cancer Research and Discovery Stories of Discovery R& ...

  12. Targeted therapies for cancer (United States)

    ... types of these cancers: Leukemia and lymphoma Breast cancer Colon cancer Skin cancer Lung cancer Prostate Other cancers ... ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2015:chap 44. Review Date 9/13/2015 Updated by: Todd Gersten, ...

  13. Throat or larynx cancer (United States)

    Vocal cord cancer; Throat cancer; Laryngeal cancer; Cancer of the glottis; Cancer of oropharynx or hypopharynx ... use tobacco are at risk of developing throat cancer. Drinking too much alcohol over a long time ...

  14. Surgery for Testicular Cancer (United States)

    ... Stage Testicular Cancer Treating Testicular Cancer Surgery for Testicular Cancer Surgery is typically the first treatment for all ... Testicular Cancer, by Type and Stage More In Testicular Cancer About Testicular Cancer Causes, Risk Factors, and Prevention ...

  15. What Is Testicular Cancer? (United States)

    ... Treatment? Testicular Cancer About Testicular Cancer What Is Testicular Cancer? Cancer starts when cells in the body begin ... respond well to chemotherapy and radiation therapy. Secondary testicular cancers Cancers that start in another organ and then ...

  16. Prostate Cancer


    Eggener, Scott


    Prostate cancer continues to be a significant public health issue worldwide, particularly in countries where men have life expectancies long enough to clinically manifest the disease. In many countries, it remains one of the leading causes of cancer-related morbidity and mortality.Although significant progress has been made over the past few decades, many elements regarding the diagnosis and management of patients with prostate cancer remain enigmatic. In this Prostate Cancer special issue, o...

  17. Prostate cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murphy, G.P.; Kuss, R., Khoury, S.; Chatelain, C.; Denis, L.


    This book contains over 70 selections. Some of the titles are: Place of the Computed Tomography in the Staging of Prostatic Cancer; Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) in Staging of the Prostatic Cancer; Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the Prostate; Long-Term Results in Radiotherapy of Prostatic Cancer; Interstitial Irradiation Using I-125 Seeds; and Treatment of Cancer of the Prostate by Use of Physiotherapy: Long-Term Results.

  18. Profiling cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ciro, Marco; Bracken, Adrian P; Helin, Kristian


    In the past couple of years, several very exciting studies have demonstrated the enormous power of gene-expression profiling for cancer classification and prediction of patient survival. In addition to promising a more accurate classification of cancer and therefore better treatment of patients......, gene-expression profiling can result in the identification of novel potential targets for cancer therapy and a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms leading to cancer....

  19. Choropleth Map Design for Cancer Incidence, Part 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas B. Richards, MD


    Full Text Available Choropleth maps are commonly used in cancer reports and community discussions about cancer rates. Cancer registries increasingly use geographic information system techniques. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s Division of Cancer Prevention and Control convened a Map Work Group to help guide application of geographic information system mapping techniques and to promote choropleth mapping of data from central cancer registries supported by the National Program of Cancer Registries, especially for comprehensive cancer control planning and evaluation purposes. In this 2-part series, we answer frequently asked questions about choropleth map design to display cancer incidence data. We recommend that future initiatives consider more advanced mapping, spatial analysis, and spatial statistics techniques and include usability testing with representatives of state and local programs and other cancer prevention partners.

  20. Choropleth Map Design for Cancer Incidence, Part 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas B. Richards, MD


    Full Text Available Choropleth maps are commonly used in cancer reports and community discussions about cancer rates. Cancer registries increasingly use geographic information system techniques. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s Division of Cancer Prevention and Control convened a Map Work Group to help guide application of geographic information systems mapping techniques and to promote choropleth mapping of data from central cancer registries supported by the National Program of Cancer Registries, especially for planning and evaluation of comprehensive cancer control programs. In this 2-part series in this issue of Preventing Chronic Disease, we answer frequently asked questions about choropleth map design to display cancer incidence data. We recommend that future initiatives consider more advanced mapping, spatial analysis, and spatial statistics techniques, and include usability testing with representatives of state and local programs and other cancer prevention partners.

  1. Breast cancer

    CERN Multimedia


    "Cancer specialists will soon be able to compare mammograms with computerized images of breast cancer from across Europe, in a bid to improve diagnosis and treatment....The new project, known as MammoGrid, brings together computer and medical imaging experts, cancer specialists, radiologists and epidemiologists from Bristol, Oxford, Cambridge, France and Italy" (1 page).

  2. Cancer Vaccines (United States)

    ... Cervical Cancer Solid Tumors Selected References Pardoll D. Cancer immunology. In: Abeloff M, Armitage J, Niederhuber J, Kastan ... 178(4):1975–1979. [PubMed Abstract] Finn OJ. Cancer immunology. New England Journal of Medicine 2008;358(25): ...

  3. Testicular Cancer (United States)

    ... of skin behind the penis. You can get cancer in one or both testicles. Testicular cancer mainly affects young men between the ages of ... undescended testicle Have a family history of the cancer Symptoms include pain, swelling, or lumps in your ...

  4. Breast Cancer (United States)

    Breast cancer affects one in eight women during their lives. No one knows why some women get breast cancer, but there are many risk factors. Risks that ... who have family members with breast or ovarian cancer may wish to be tested for the genes. ...

  5. Radiosensitizing Effects of h-R3 with Different Time Series of Administration on Human Lung Cancer Cells Expressing Various EGFR Levels%尼妥珠单抗不同给药时序对人肺癌细胞系的放射增敏作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁智勇; 刘晓斌; 庄洪卿; 陶振; 赵路军; 王军


    Objective: To investigate the efficacy of h-R3 combined radiotherapy with different treatment schedules on human lung cancer cells expressing different EGFR levels.Methods: The in vitro cultured human lung cancer cell lines A549 and Calu-6 were used as research objects.Western blot assay was conducted to determine the expression of EGFR in the cell lines.The grouping of h-R3 administration was as follows: Group Ⅰ, administration 24 h before irradiation; Group Ⅱ, administration during irradiation; and Group Ⅲ, administration 24 h after irradiation.The cytotoxic and radiosensitizing effects of h-R3 on the two cell lines were determined by MTT reduction and clone formation assay.The cell apoptosis and cell-cycle distribution were detected using flow cytometer.The expression of P21, Bax, Bcl-2, phosphorylated DNA-PKcs, Akt, and pAkt were determined by Westem blot analysis.Results: The IC20and IC50 values were ( 1.13±0.37 ) and ( 24.78±1.25 ) μg/mL, respectively, 24 h after h-R3 administration in the A549 cells.Moreover,the radiosensitization ratios of the administration before, during, and after the radiation therapy were 2.02, 1.77 and 1.39, respectively.Higher apoptotic rate and G2/M blockage were observed in the group administered before radiotherapy; in addition, the changes in the expression of P21, Bax, Bcl-2, phospho-DNA-PK, and pAkt were more obvious in this group than in the others.The IC20 and IC50 values were ( 3.42±1.26 ) and ( 51.15±2.41 ) μg/mL, respectively, 24 h after h-R3 treatment in the Calu-6 cells.The radiosensitization ratios of the administration before, during, and after the radiation therapy were 1.23, 0.99 and 0.91, respectively.The apoptotic rate and G2/M blockage achieved the highest proportion in the group administered before the radiotherapy.In the group with h-R3 administration before radiotherapy, there were no apparent changes in the expressions of P21, Bax, Bcl-2, phospho-DNA-PK, and pAkt compared with the other groups

  6. Ovarian cancer in BRCA1/2 mutation carriers : The impact of mutation position and family history on the cancer risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teixeira, Natalja; Mourits, Marian J. E.; Vos, Janet R.; van der Kolk, Donna M.; Jansen, Liesbeth; Oosterwijk, Jan; de Bock, Geertruida H.


    Objectives: Assessing the combined impact of mutation position, regarding the ovarian cancer cluster region (OCCR), and type of cancer family history (FH) on age-related penetrance of ovarian cancer (OC) in women from BRCA/2 families from the northern Netherlands. Study design: A consecutive series

  7. 6 Common Cancers - Colorectal Cancer (United States)

    ... consisted of treatment with just two drugs, 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) and leucovorin. A third drug, irinotecan, was approved ... FDA in 1996 for use in combination with 5-FU and leucovorin in treating metastatic colorectal cancer (cancer ...

  8. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Menu Contact Dictionary Search About Cancer Causes and Prevention Risk Factors Genetics Cancer Prevention Overview Research Cancer Screening Cancer Screening Overview Screening ...

  9. Childhood Cancer Statistics (United States)

    ... Room Employment Feedback Contact Select Page Childhood Cancer Statistics Home > Cancer Resources > Childhood Cancer Statistics Childhood Cancer Statistics – Graphs and Infographics Number of Diagnoses Incidence Rates ...

  10. International Work-Conference on Time Series

    CERN Document Server

    Pomares, Héctor


    This volume presents selected peer-reviewed contributions from The International Work-Conference on Time Series, ITISE 2015, held in Granada, Spain, July 1-3, 2015. It discusses topics in time series analysis and forecasting, advanced methods and online learning in time series, high-dimensional and complex/big data time series as well as forecasting in real problems. The International Work-Conferences on Time Series (ITISE) provide a forum for scientists, engineers, educators and students to discuss the latest ideas and implementations in the foundations, theory, models and applications in the field of time series analysis and forecasting. It focuses on interdisciplinary and multidisciplinary research encompassing the disciplines of computer science, mathematics, statistics and econometrics.

  11. Coupling between time series: a network view

    CERN Document Server

    Mehraban, Saeed; Zamani, Maryam; Jafari, Gholamreza


    Recently, the visibility graph has been introduced as a novel view for analyzing time series, which maps it to a complex network. In this paper, we introduce new algorithm of visibility, "cross-visibility", which reveals the conjugation of two coupled time series. The correspondence between the two time series is mapped to a network, "the cross-visibility graph", to demonstrate the correlation between them. We applied the algorithm to several correlated and uncorrelated time series, generated by the linear stationary ARFIMA process. The results demonstrate that the cross-visibility graph associated with correlated time series with power-law auto-correlation is scale-free. If the time series are uncorrelated, the degree distribution of their cross-visibility network deviates from power-law. For more clarifying the process, we applied the algorithm to real-world data from the financial trades of two companies, and observed significant small-scale coupling in their dynamics.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dougherty Steven T.; Liu Hongwei


    In this article, cyclic codes and negacyclic codes over formal power series rings are studied. The structure of cyclic codes over this class of rings is given, and the relationship between these codes and cyclic codes over finite chain rings is obtained. Using an isomorphism between cyclic and negacyclic codes over formal power series rings, the structure of negacyclic codes over the formal power series rings is obtained.

  13. Hurst Exponent Analysis of Financial Time Series

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Statistical properties of stock market time series and the implication of their Hurst exponents are discussed. Hurst exponents of DJ1A (Dow Jones Industrial Average) components are tested using re-scaled range analysis. In addition to the original stock return series, the linear prediction errors of the daily returns are also tested. Numerical results show that the Hurst exponent analysis can provide some information about the statistical properties of the financial time series.

  14. Continuously-Variable Series-Elastic Actuator


    Mooney, Luke M.; Herr, Hugh M.


    Actuator efficiency is an important factor in the design of powered leg prostheses, orthoses, exoskeletons, and legged robots. A continuously-variable series-elastic actuator (CV-SEA) is presented as an efficient actuator for legged locomotion. The CV-SEA implements a continuously-variable transmission (CVT) between a motor and series elastic element. The CVT reduces the torque seen at the motor and allows the motor to operate in speed regimes of higher efficiency, while the series-elastic el...

  15. A New Echeloned Poisson Series Processor (EPSP) (United States)

    Ivanova, Tamara


    A specialized Echeloned Poisson Series Processor (EPSP) is proposed. It is a typical software for the implementation of analytical algorithms of Celestial Mechanics. EPSP is designed for manipulating long polynomial-trigonometric series with literal divisors. The coefficients of these echeloned series are the rational or floating-point numbers. The Keplerian processor and analytical generator of special celestial mechanics functions based on the EPSP are also developed.


    During the past several years the double Fourier Series has been applied to the analysis of contour-type maps as an alternative to the more commonly...used polynomial model. The double Fourier Series has high potential in the study of areal variations, inasmuch as a succession of trend maps based on...and it is shown that the double Fourier Series can be used to summarize the directional properties of areally-distributed data. An Appendix lists

  17. Another type of generalized fibonacci series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Júlio Pureza


    Full Text Available The Fibonacci sequence, with many applications and occurrences in nature and arts is discussed in the present work. It is considered a generalization of the Fibonacci series by the introduction of a real coefficient in the recurrence relation. The analysis shows the divergence of the generalized series when the coefficient is the square root of a positive number, although the relation between two consecutive terms converges to a finite number when the coefficient is a real number. Fibonacci. Series. Convergence.

  18. Binomial ARMA count series from renewal processes

    CERN Document Server

    Koshkin, Sergiy


    This paper describes a new method for generating stationary integer-valued time series from renewal processes. We prove that if the lifetime distribution of renewal processes is nonlattice and the probability generating function is rational, then the generated time series satisfy causal and invertible ARMA type stochastic difference equations. The result provides an easy method for generating integer-valued time series with ARMA type autocovariance functions. Examples of generating binomial ARMA(p,p-1) series from lifetime distributions with constant hazard rates after lag p are given as an illustration. An estimation method is developed for the AR(p) cases.

  19. Data mining in time series databases

    CERN Document Server

    Kandel, Abraham; Bunke, Horst


    Adding the time dimension to real-world databases produces Time SeriesDatabases (TSDB) and introduces new aspects and difficulties to datamining and knowledge discovery. This book covers the state-of-the-artmethodology for mining time series databases. The novel data miningmethods presented in the book include techniques for efficientsegmentation, indexing, and classification of noisy and dynamic timeseries. A graph-based method for anomaly detection in time series isdescribed and the book also studies the implications of a novel andpotentially useful representation of time series as strings. Theproblem of detecting changes in data mining models that are inducedfrom temporal databases is additionally discussed.

  20. Outliers Mining in Time Series Data Sets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    In this paper, we present a cluster-based algorithm for time series outlier mining.We use discrete Fourier transformation (DFT) to transform time series from time domain to frequency domain. Time series thus can be mapped as the points in k-dimensional space.For these points, a cluster-based algorithm is developed to mine the outliers from these points.The algorithm first partitions the input points into disjoint clusters and then prunes the clusters,through judgment that can not contain outliers.Our algorithm has been run in the electrical load time series of one steel enterprise and proved to be effective.

  1. New mesogenic homologous series of -methylcinnamates

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R A Vora; A K Prajapati


    Compounds of a new smectogenic homologous series of -methylcinnamates were prepared by condensing different 4--alkoxybenzoyl chloride with methoxyethyl trans-4-hydroxy- -methylcinnamate. In this series, the first six members are non-mesogenic. -Heptyloxy derivative exhibits monotropic smectic A phase whereas rest of the members exhibit enantiotropic smectic A mesophase. The compounds are characterized by combination of elemental analysis and spectroscopic techniques. Enthalpies of few homologues are measured by DSC techniques. Fluorescent properties are also observed. The thermal stabilities of the present series are compared with those of other structurally related mesogenic homologous series.

  2. Harry Potter Series and Gothic Traditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Hong-rui


    Since the first book—Harry Potter and the Philosopher’s Stone of Harry Potter series was published in 1997, it has caused a series of magic storm around the world. Why Harry Potter series can transcend ages and nationality, and have created so much global repercussion? The reason can partially due to the wonderful magic world described by Rowling. The more profound reason is that Rowling applied Gothic traditions in Harry Potter series to make her works more attractive. The thesis is based on Gothic traditions, and has discussed status and influence of Gothic novel, and Gothic elements, like situation, environment and character.

  3. The common biology of cancer and ageing. (United States)

    Finkel, Toren; Serrano, Manuel; Blasco, Maria A


    At first glance, cancer and ageing would seem to be unlikely bedfellows. Yet the origins for this improbable union can actually be traced back to a sequence of tragic--and some say unethical--events that unfolded more than half a century ago. Here we review the series of key observations that has led to a complex but growing convergence between our understanding of the biology of ageing and the mechanisms that underlie cancer.

  4. Osseous genioplasty: A case series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjeev N Deshpande


    Full Text Available Introduction: The chin (mentum is vital to the human facial morphology as it contributes to the facial aesthetics and harmony both on frontal and lateral views. Osseous genioplasty, the alteration of the chin through skeletal modification, can lead to significant enhancement of the overall facial profile. Aim and Study Design: A case series was designed to study the long-term results of osseous genioplasty in Indian patients with regard to patient satisfaction, complications, and long-term stability. Materials and Methods: All subjects who underwent osseous genioplasty either alone or as a component of orthognathic surgery between January 1992 and December 2010, with a minimum follow-up of 2 years, were included. The genioplasty was performed using standard protocols of assessment and execution. Post-operative evaluation included patient satisfaction, complications and radiological evidence of long-term stability. A comprehensive score was formulated for the purpose of the study. Results: Thirty-seven subjects underwent osseous genioplasty with at least 2 years of follow-up in the study period. This included 17 male and 20 female subjects, with a mean age of 22.8 years (15-52 years and a mean follow-up of 3 years 4 months (2 years to 4 years and 11 months. Nineteen subjects underwent isolated genioplasty while 18 underwent genioplasty as a part of orthognathic surgery. The procedures included advancement (22, pushback (9, side-to-side (4 and vertical reduction (2 genioplasty.Thirty-six subjects (97.3% were extremely pleased with the results with only one subject expressing reservations, without, however, demanding any further procedure. There were no significant complications. The osteotomised segment was well maintained in its new position with good bony union and minimal resorption. Overall, 35 (94.6% cases had excellent results and 2 (4.4% cases had good results, according to the comprehensive score. Conclusions: Osseous genioplasty is a safe

  5. Lymphedema After Surgery in Patients With Endometrial Cancer, Cervical Cancer, or Vulvar Cancer (United States)


    Lymphedema; Stage IA Cervical Cancer; Stage IA Uterine Corpus Cancer; Stage IA Vulvar Cancer; Stage IB Cervical Cancer; Stage IB Uterine Corpus Cancer; Stage IB Vulvar Cancer; Stage II Uterine Corpus Cancer; Stage II Vulvar Cancer; Stage IIA Cervical Cancer; Stage IIIA Vulvar Cancer; Stage IIIB Vulvar Cancer; Stage IIIC Vulvar Cancer; Stage IVB Vulvar Cancer

  6. Antiproliferative Activity Evaluation of a Series of N-1,3-Benzothiazol-2-ylbenzamides as Novel Apoptosis Inducers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filomena Corbo


    Full Text Available A series of N-1,3-benzothiazol-2-ylbenzamide derivatives were studied for their antiproliferative activity on human liver hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2 and human breast cancer (MCF-7 cell lines. Most of them were found to show a prominent inhibitory effect on cell growth. Among the most active compounds, 1k emerged for its proapoptotic effect that is particularly evident towards MCF-7 cancer cell lines.

  7. Main types of skin cancer and treatment options. (United States)

    Alexander, Rachel Louise

    This first in a two-part series on skin cancer gives an overview of the most common types and outlines the main treatment options. Part 2, to be published next week, discusses the causes of and risk factors for skin cancer, highlighting those people who are most at risk and the importance of early diagnosis.

  8. Progress and controversies in developing cancer vaccines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Speiser Daniel E


    Full Text Available Abstract Immunotherapy has become a standard approach for cancer management, through the use of cytokines (eg: interleukin-2 and monoclonal antibodies. Cancer vaccines hold promise as another form of immunotherapy, and there has been substantial progress in identifying shared antigens recognized by T cells, in developing vaccine approaches that induce antigen-specific T cell responses in cancer patients, and in developing new technology for monitoring immune responses in various human tissue compartments. Dramatic clinical regressions of human solid tumors have occurred with some cancer vaccines, but the rate of those responses remains low. This article is part of a 2-part point:counterpoint series on peptide vaccines and adoptive therapy approaches for cancer. The current status of cancer vaccination, and associated challenges, are discussed. Emphasis is placed on the need to increase our knowledge of cancer immunobiology, as well as to improve monitoring of cellular immune function after vaccination. Progress in both areas will facilitate development of effective cancer vaccines, as well as of adoptive therapy. Effective cancer vaccines promise to be useful for treatment and prevention of cancer at low cost and with low morbidity.

  9. Epidemiological review of gastric cancer in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh P Dikshit


    Full Text Available Stomach cancer is the one of the leading cause of cancer in southern region of India. Its incidence is decreasing worldwide yet on global scale stomach cancer remains one of the most common causes of cancer death. Etiology of gastric cancer includes Helicobacter pylori infection, diet and lifestyle, tobacco, alcohol and genetic susceptibility. In this review, we tried to find the contribution of Indian scientist in understanding the descriptive and observational epidemiology of stomach cancer. PubMed was used as a search platform using key words such as "stomach cancer, treatment, clinical characteristics, stomach cancer outcome, epidemiology, etiological factor and their corresponding Mesh terms were used in combination with Boolean operators OR, AND". Most of the reported studies on gastric cancer from India are case report or case series and few are case-control studies. Indian studies on this topic are limited and have observed H. pylori infection, salted tea, pickled food, rice intake, spicy food, soda (additive of food, tobacco and alcohol as risk factors for gastric cancer. More research is required to understand the etiology, develop suitable screening test, to demarcate high-risk population and to develop and evaluate the effect of primary prevention programs.

  10. Measuring nonlinear behavior in time series data (United States)

    Wai, Phoong Seuk; Ismail, Mohd Tahir


    Stationary Test is an important test in detect the time series behavior since financial and economic data series always have missing data, structural change as well as jumps or breaks in the data set. Moreover, stationary test is able to transform the nonlinear time series variable to become stationary by taking difference-stationary process or trend-stationary process. Two different types of hypothesis testing of stationary tests that are Augmented Dickey-Fuller (ADF) test and Kwiatkowski-Philips-Schmidt-Shin (KPSS) test are examine in this paper to describe the properties of the time series variables in financial model. Besides, Least Square method is used in Augmented Dickey-Fuller test to detect the changes of the series and Lagrange multiplier is used in Kwiatkowski-Philips-Schmidt-Shin test to examine the properties of oil price, gold price and Malaysia stock market. Moreover, Quandt-Andrews, Bai-Perron and Chow tests are also use to detect the existence of break in the data series. The monthly index data are ranging from December 1989 until May 2012. Result is shown that these three series exhibit nonlinear properties but are able to transform to stationary series after taking first difference process.

  11. Application of Power Series on Vibration Analyses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Power series is extensively used for engineering studies. To raise the synthesis efficiency and computation accuracy of vibration mode synthesis (MS), the choosing of power series as the component mode-function is studied in this paper, and emphasis is laid on its effect upon the system computation accuracy when using the mode synthesis method for a high speed compound rotating elastic system.

  12. Forecasting Enrollments with Fuzzy Time Series. (United States)

    Song, Qiang; Chissom, Brad S.

    The concept of fuzzy time series is introduced and used to forecast the enrollment of a university. Fuzzy time series, an aspect of fuzzy set theory, forecasts enrollment using a first-order time-invariant model. To evaluate the model, the conventional linear regression technique is applied and the predicted values obtained are compared to the…

  13. SERI Biomass Program. FY 1983 annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corder, R.E.; Hill, A.M.; Lindsey, H.; Lowenstein, M.Z.; McIntosh, R.P.


    This report summarizes the progress and research accomplishments of the SERI Biomass Program during FY 1983. The SERI Biomass Program consists of three elements: Aquatic Species, Anaerobic Digestion, and Photo/Biological Hydrogen. Each element has been indexed separately. 2 references, 44 figures, 22 tables.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available This paper sums up the applications of Statistical model such as ARIMA family timeseries models in Canadian lynx data time series analysis and introduces the method of datamining combined with Statistical knowledge to analysis Canadian lynx data series.

  15. 1-Convergence of Complex Double Fourier Series

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Kulwinder Kaur; S S Bhatia; Babu Ram


    It is proved that the complex double Fourier series of an integrable function (, ) with coefficients {} satisfying certain conditions, will converge in 1-norm. The conditions used here are the combinations of Tauberian condition of Hardy–Karamata kind and its limiting case. This paper extends the result of Bray [1] to complex double Fourier series.

  16. Health Psychology special series on health disparities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.E. Kazak; J. Bosch; E.A. Klonoff


    With the initiation of this new ongoing special series in Health Psychology on health disparities, we will publish articles that highlight ways in which health psychology can contribute to understanding and ameliorating these disparities. We welcome articles for this new special series and anticipat

  17. 4-H Science Inquiry Video Series (United States)

    Green, Jeremy W.; Black, Lynette; Willis, Patrick


    Studies support science inquiry as a positive method and approach for 4-H professionals and volunteers to use for teaching science-based practices to youth. The development of a science inquiry video series has yielded positive results as it relates to youth development education and science. The video series highlights how to conduct science-rich…

  18. The multipliers of multiple trigonometric Fourier series (United States)

    Ydyrys, Aizhan; Sarybekova, Lyazzat; Tleukhanova, Nazerke


    We study the multipliers of multiple Fourier series for a regular system on anisotropic Lorentz spaces. In particular, the sufficient conditions for a sequence of complex numbers {λk}k∈Zn in order to make it a multiplier of multiple trigonometric Fourier series from Lp[0; 1]n to Lq[0; 1]n , p > q. These conditions include conditions Lizorkin theorem on multipliers.

  19. Goals and Indirect Objects in Seri. (United States)

    Marlett, Stephen A.

    A number of Seri verbs display a sensitivity to whether a goal, which is a term used for recipients, adressees, etc., is singular or plural. The data presented in this paper are of typological interest. It is argued that Seri has indirect objects, but that there is no one-to-one mapping between the semantic role goal and either the syntactic…


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Under the conditions(without independence): (i) α>0, such that (X)0, such that (X) <+∞, the random series (X) and (X)series a.s. have the same abscissa of convergence, the (R) order, lower order and type.

  1. Evaluation of the "Feeling Good" Television Series. (United States)

    Mielke, Keith W.; Swinehart, James W.

    This report provides an overview of the development and evaluation of an experimental television series for adult viewers on health care. The series was produced by the Children's Television Workshop and aired in prime time during 1974-1975 by the Public Broadcasting Service. The report synthesizes results of complementary impact studies conducted…

  2. Lag space estimation in time series modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goutte, Cyril


    The purpose of this article is to investigate some techniques for finding the relevant lag-space, i.e. input information, for time series modelling. This is an important aspect of time series modelling, as it conditions the design of the model through the regressor vector a.k.a. the input layer...

  3. Euler Polynomials, Fourier Series and Zeta Numbers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheufens, Ernst E


    Fourier series for Euler polynomials is used to obtain information about values of the Riemann zeta function for integer arguments greater than one. If the argument is even we recover the well-known exact values, if the argument is odd we find integral representations and rapidly convergent series....

  4. Clinicopathological analysis of patients with gastric cancer in 1200 cases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Xin Niu; Xin Yu Qin; Han Liu; Cheng Pei Wang


    @@INTRODUCTION Gastric cancer is one of the most common fatal malignancies in the world. The prognosis is generally poor in advanced gastric cancer .The low survival is related to delayed diagnosis, metastasis and recurrence after operation .The aim of this paper was to find correlation between clinical factors was to find correlation between clinical factors and biologic behavior of gastric cancer in a series of 1200 patients undergoing surgical resection.

  5. Breast cancer. Part 2: present and future treatment modalities. (United States)

    Harmer, Victoria

    This is the second article in a series of three on breast cancer. Part 1 discussed breast anatomy, the principles behind breast awareness and breast health, detailing common benign breast diseases, types of breast cancer and staging. In this article, treatment for breast cancer is discussed. The article will follow the usual order of modalities in the trajectory, starting with surgery, then chemotherapy, radiotherapy and endocrine treatment, finishing with a discussion of future and biological treatments.

  6. Cancer immunotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cairns, Linda; Aspeslagh, Sandrine; Anichini, Andrea


    This report covers the Immunotherapy sessions of the 2016 Organisation of European Cancer Institutes (OECI) Oncology Days meeting, which was held on 15th-17th June 2016 in Brussels, Belgium. Immunotherapy is a potential cancer treatment that uses an individual's immune system to fight the tumour....... In recent years significant advances have been made in this field in the treatment of several advanced cancers. Cancer immunotherapies include monoclonal antibodies that are designed to attack a very specific part of the cancer cell and immune checkpoint inhibitors which are molecules that stimulate...... or block the inhibition of the immune system. Other cancer immunotherapies include vaccines and T cell infusions. This report will summarise some of the research that is going on in this field and will give us an update on where we are at present....

  7. Multicultural media outreach: increasing cancer information coverage in minority communities. (United States)

    Alexander, James; Kwon, Harry T; Strecher, Rachael; Bartholomew, Jill


    Ethnic media can serve as an opportunity for cancer education and outreach to minority communities. The National Cancer Institute developed the Multicultural Media Outreach (MMO) program which utilizes an integrated approach of both traditional and social media to disseminate evidence-based cancer education information for minority communities. The MMO program is the contact point for multicultural media outlets seeking evidence-based cancer information, education materials, minority spokespersons, and news tailored to minority communities affected by cancer health disparities. MMO developed Lifelines®, a cancer education series that addresses cancer prevention, treatment, survivorship, clinical trials, and other cancer-related topics for African American, Hispanic, Asian American, American Indian, and Alaska Native audiences. Lifelines® content is disseminated through traditional media (radio, print, and television) as well as social media (web, Twitter, YouTube, and RSS feed). This article describes the MMO program and lessons learned to date.

  8. On reconstruction of time series in climatology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Privalsky


    Full Text Available The approach to time series reconstruction in climatology based upon cross-correlation coefficients and regression equations is mathematically incorrect because it ignores the dependence of time series upon their past. The proper method described here for the bivariate case requires the autoregressive time- and frequency domains modeling of the time series which contains simultaneous observations of both scalar series with subsequent application of the model to restore the shorter one into the past. The method presents further development of previous efforts taken by a number of authors starting from A. Douglass who introduced some concepts of time series analysis into paleoclimatology. The method is applied to the monthly data of total solar irradiance (TSI, 1979–2014, and sunspot numbers (SSN, 1749–2014, to restore the TSI data over 1749–1978. The results of the reconstruction are in statistical agreement with observations.

  9. Statistical criteria for characterizing irradiance time series.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stein, Joshua S.; Ellis, Abraham; Hansen, Clifford W.


    We propose and examine several statistical criteria for characterizing time series of solar irradiance. Time series of irradiance are used in analyses that seek to quantify the performance of photovoltaic (PV) power systems over time. Time series of irradiance are either measured or are simulated using models. Simulations of irradiance are often calibrated to or generated from statistics for observed irradiance and simulations are validated by comparing the simulation output to the observed irradiance. Criteria used in this comparison should derive from the context of the analyses in which the simulated irradiance is to be used. We examine three statistics that characterize time series and their use as criteria for comparing time series. We demonstrate these statistics using observed irradiance data recorded in August 2007 in Las Vegas, Nevada, and in June 2009 in Albuquerque, New Mexico.

  10. Cancer in Patients With Gabapentin (GPRD) (United States)


    Pain, Neuropathic; Epilepsy; Renal Pelvis Cancer; Pancreatic Cancer; Breast Cancer; Nervous System Cancer; Chronic Pancreatitis; Stomach Cancer; Renal Cell Carcinoma; Diabetes; Bladder Cancer; Bone and Joint Cancer; Penis Cancer; Anal Cancer; Cancer; Renal Cancer

  11. Cleveland Clinic television series enhances branding in active market. (United States)

    Rees, T


    "Medical Miracles" premiered April 26. It is an information-packed series of programs showcasing The Cleveland Clinic's advanced medical practices. The Cleveland Clinic teamed with local NBC-affiliate, WKYC to develop half-hour shows on topics including neuro-sciences, orthopedics, eye, heart, pediatrics and cancer. As of this writing, three of the half-hour shows already have aired. They will resume in September, October and November, following a summer break. The collaboration is a healthy prospect all the way around. For Cleveland Clinic, it provides highly credible visibility in a competitive marketplace. And, according to WKYC president and general manager, Brooke Spectorsky, " Medical news and information is a high priority among our viewers."

  12. Cervical Cancer

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts


    Did you know that cervical cancer rates differ by race/ethnicity and region? Or that cervical cancer can usually be prevented if precancerous cervical lesions are found by a Pap test and treated? Find out how getting regular Pap tests can save a woman's life.  Created: 3/6/2007 by National Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Program.   Date Released: 4/25/2007.

  13. Cervical Cancer is Preventable! PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts


    This 60 second Public Service Announcement is based on the November 2014 CDC Vital Signs report. Every visit to a doctor or nurse is an opportunity to prevent cervical cancer. Women can get a Pap test and HPV test to help prevent cervical cancer and adolescent boys and girls can get the HPV vaccination series to help prevent cervical and other cancers.  Created: 11/5/2014 by National Center for Injury Prevention and Control (NCIPC).   Date Released: 11/5/2014.

  14. Vital Signs-Cervical Cancer is Preventable!

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts


    This podcast is based on the November 2014 CDC Vital Signs report. Every visit to a doctor or nurse is an opportunity to prevent cervical cancer. Women can get a Pap test and HPV test to help prevent cervical cancer and adolescent boys and girls can get the HPV vaccination series to help prevent cervical and other cancers.  Created: 11/5/2014 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 11/5/2014.

  15. Lung Cancer Screening (United States)

    ... Treatment Lung Cancer Prevention Lung Cancer Screening Research Lung Cancer Screening (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is screening? Go ... These are called diagnostic tests . General Information About Lung Cancer Key Points Lung cancer is a disease in ...

  16. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Adult Cancers Metastatic Cancer Recurrent Cancer Research NCI’s Role in Cancer Research Intramural Research Extramural Research Bioinformatics ... Terminology Resources NCI Data Catalog Cryo-EM NCI's Role in Cancer Research Intramural Research Extramural Research Bioinformatics ...

  17. Hereditary Diffuse Gastric Cancer (United States)

    ... Hereditary Diffuse Gastric Cancer Request Permissions Hereditary Diffuse Gastric Cancer Approved by the Cancer.Net Editorial Board , 11/2015 What is hereditary diffuse gastric cancer? Hereditary diffuse gastric cancer (HDGC) is an inherited ...

  18. Stomach (Gastric) Cancer Prevention (United States)

    ... Stomach Cancer Prevention Stomach Cancer Screening Research Stomach (Gastric) Cancer Prevention (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is prevention? Go ... has stayed about the same since 2005. Stomach (gastric) cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells ...

  19. What Is Lung Cancer? (United States)

    ... Graphics Infographic Stay Informed Cancer Home What Is Lung Cancer? Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... cancer starts in the lungs, it is called lung cancer. Lung cancer begins in the lungs and may ...

  20. Skin Cancer Screening (United States)

    ... Genetics of Skin Cancer Skin Cancer Screening Research Skin Cancer Screening (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is screening? ... These are called diagnostic tests . General Information About Skin Cancer Key Points Skin cancer is a disease ...

  1. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... about Advanced Cancer Research Managing Cancer Care Finding Health Care Services Costs & Medical Information Advance Directives Using ... Cancer Advanced Cancer & Caregivers Managing Cancer Care Finding Health Care Services Managing Costs and Medical Information Advance ...

  2. Breast Cancer Research Update (United States)

    ... JavaScript on. Feature: Breast Cancer Breast Cancer Research Update Winter 2017 Table of Contents National Cancer Institute ... Addressing Breast Cancer's Unequal Burden / Breast Cancer Research Update Winter 2017 Issue: Volume 11 Number 4 Page ...

  3. Children's cancer centers (United States)

    Pediatric cancer center; Pediatric oncology center; Comprehensive cancer center ... Treating childhood cancer is not the same as treating adult cancer. The cancers are different. So are the treatments and the ...

  4. Testicular Cancer Screening (United States)

    ... Health Professional Testicular Cancer Treatment Testicular Cancer Screening Testicular Cancer Screening (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is screening? Go ... These are called diagnostic tests . General Information About Testicular Cancer Key Points Testicular cancer is a disease in ...

  5. Learning about Colon Cancer (United States)

    ... What do we know about heredity and colon cancer? Colon cancer, a malignant tumor of the large intestine, ... page Additional Resources for Information on Hereditary Colon Cancer Colon and Rectal Cancer Information [] The most ...

  6. Evaluation of Harmonic Analysis of Time Series (HANTS): impact of gaps on time series reconstruction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhou, J.Y.; Jia, L.; Hu, G.; Menenti, M.


    In recent decades, researchers have developed methods and models to reconstruct time series of irregularly spaced observations from satellite remote sensing, among which the widely used Harmonic Analysis of Time Series (HANTS) method. Many studies based on time series reconstructed with HANTS docume

  7. Forecasting Daily Time Series using Periodic Unobserved Components Time Series Models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koopman, Siem Jan; Ooms, Marius


    We explore a periodic analysis in the context of unobserved components time series models that decompose time series into components of interest such as trend and seasonal. Periodic time series models allow dynamic characteristics to depend on the period of the year, month, week or day. In the stand

  8. Magnetic Field Emission Comparison for Series-Parallel and Series-Series Wireless Power Transfer to Vehicles – PART 2/2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Batra, Tushar; Schaltz, Erik


    Series-series and series-parallel topologies are the most favored topologies for design of wireless power transfer system for vehicle applications. The series-series topology has the advantage of reflecting only the resistive part on the primary side. On the other hand, the current source output ...

  9. Ontario-wide Cancer TArgeted Nucleic Acid Evaluation (United States)


    Breast Cancer; Lung Cancer; Colorectal Cancer; Melanoma; Gynecological Cancer; Genitourinary Cancer; Pancreatobiliary Cancer; Gastrointestinal Cancer; Head and Neck Cancer; Rare Cancer; Unknown Primary Cancer

  10. Visibility Graph Based Time Series Analysis (United States)

    Stephen, Mutua; Gu, Changgui; Yang, Huijie


    Network based time series analysis has made considerable achievements in the recent years. By mapping mono/multivariate time series into networks, one can investigate both it’s microscopic and macroscopic behaviors. However, most proposed approaches lead to the construction of static networks consequently providing limited information on evolutionary behaviors. In the present paper we propose a method called visibility graph based time series analysis, in which series segments are mapped to visibility graphs as being descriptions of the corresponding states and the successively occurring states are linked. This procedure converts a time series to a temporal network and at the same time a network of networks. Findings from empirical records for stock markets in USA (S&P500 and Nasdaq) and artificial series generated by means of fractional Gaussian motions show that the method can provide us rich information benefiting short-term and long-term predictions. Theoretically, we propose a method to investigate time series from the viewpoint of network of networks. PMID:26571115

  11. Recurrence Formulas for the Mie Series

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Ji-Yu; XIE Hong


    The Mie series has very important applications in electromagnetics (including optics). We employ a formulation for the Mie series which relies more on the derivatives of Legendre polynomials than Bessel functions. Recurrence formulas for derivatives related to Legendre polynomials are derived to realize the Mie series conveniently and to avoid treating special angles.%The Mie series has very important applications in electromagnetics (including optics).We employ a formulation for the Mie series which relies more on the derivatives of Legendre polynomials than Bessel functions.Recurrence formulas for derivatives related to Legendre polynomials are derived to realize the Mie series conveniently and to avoid treating special angles.The series solution for scattering by homogeneous spheres was first obtained by Mie[1] and has been studied by many researchers,[2] including its numerical implementation.[3-5] In the literature,far-field behaviors such as scattering amplitude,absorption,and extinction cross sections have been extensively studied.In contrast,we are interested in the calculation of the near-field behaviors such as the energy flux around small particles.[6-8] In this Letter,we employ a new formulation which relies more on the derivatives of associated Legendre polynomials than Bessel functions.

  12. Impact of the FUTURES series. Executive summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the FUTURES series in affecting junior high school students` attitudes towards math and careers. FUTURES is a series of 12 programs designed to encourage positive attitudes in students towards math and science. The series illustrates their relevance to a variety of careers. The programs are hosted by Jaime Escalante and targeted to seventh to 12th grade students, with a special focus on minority students. This study looked at the long-term effects of the FUTURES series under classroom conditions. This study was designed to measure the effectiveness of the series in: (1) increasing positive attitudes toward math and science in school; (2) motivating students to have more positive attitudes about their future careers; (3) widening the possible choices of careers that involve the use of math and science; and, (4) creating an understanding of the relevance of math and science to careers and daily life. In addition, this study examined the appeal of the series, the students` understanding of program content, and how the series was used in the classroom.

  13. Time Series Analysis Forecasting and Control

    CERN Document Server

    Box, George E P; Reinsel, Gregory C


    A modernized new edition of one of the most trusted books on time series analysis. Since publication of the first edition in 1970, Time Series Analysis has served as one of the most influential and prominent works on the subject. This new edition maintains its balanced presentation of the tools for modeling and analyzing time series and also introduces the latest developments that have occurred n the field over the past decade through applications from areas such as business, finance, and engineering. The Fourth Edition provides a clearly written exploration of the key methods for building, cl

  14. Time series modeling, computation, and inference

    CERN Document Server

    Prado, Raquel


    The authors systematically develop a state-of-the-art analysis and modeling of time series. … this book is well organized and well written. The authors present various statistical models for engineers to solve problems in time series analysis. Readers no doubt will learn state-of-the-art techniques from this book.-Hsun-Hsien Chang, Computing Reviews, March 2012My favorite chapters were on dynamic linear models and vector AR and vector ARMA models.-William Seaver, Technometrics, August 2011… a very modern entry to the field of time-series modelling, with a rich reference list of the current lit

  15. A Simple Fuzzy Time Series Forecasting Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ortiz-Arroyo, Daniel


    In this paper we describe a new first order fuzzy time series forecasting model. We show that our automatic fuzzy partitioning method provides an accurate approximation to the time series that when combined with rule forecasting and an OWA operator improves forecasting accuracy. Our model does...... not attempt to provide the best results in comparison with other forecasting methods but to show how to improve first order models using simple techniques. However, we show that our first order model is still capable of outperforming some more complex higher order fuzzy time series models....

  16. Synthesis of Dibenzylidene Sorbitol Series Compound

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FENG Rongxiu; CHEN Ligong; HOU Zhongke; SONG Jian


    A series of alditol derivatives were designed and synthesized with relatively high yield. On the basis of reaction between sorbitol and a series of substituted benzaldehyde in the presence of an acid catalyst, a series of acetal derivatives were synthesized through free hydroxyl esterification. D-sorbitol acetal amido derivatives were prepared by reduction of nitryl and acylation of amino. Dsorbitol acetal carboxyl esterification derivatives were prepared through esterification and hydrolysis. By high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectra (HPLC-MS) and H nuclear magneticresonance spectra (1 H-NMR), 36 compounds prepared were identified. Among these derivatives prepared, 26 compounds have not been reported in the previous literatures.

  17. Science and Society Series off the Press

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    @@ The CAS has published the 2002 Science & Society series. The series, which consists of reports on scientific development, high-tech development and sustainable development, aims to introduce the world's scientific and technological (S&T) progress and developmental trends in 2001, review the changes in the frontiers of science and technology, pinpoint the main problems in research and development (R&D), and recount S&T development in China. Through the series, it is hoped that China's decades-long efforts at capacity building of sustainability will be made clear to the world, including theoretical exploration, contents, identification,dynamic monitoring, parametric system and quantitative analysis.

  18. Lindstedt series, ultraviolet divergences and Moser's theorem

    CERN Document Server

    Bonetto, F; Gentile, G; Mastropietro, V


    Moser's invariant tori for a class of nonanalytic quasi integrable even hamiltonian systems are shown to be analytic in the perturbation parameter. We do so by exhibiting a summation rule for the divergent series (``Lindstedt series") that formally define them. We find additional cancellations taking place in the formal series, besides the ones already known and necessary in the analytic case (\\ie to prove convergence of Lindtsedt algorithm for Kolmogorov's invariant tori). The method is interpreted in terms of a non renormalizable quantum field theory, considerably more singular than the one we pointed out in the analytic case.

  19. Prostate Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott Eggener


    Full Text Available Prostate cancer continues to be a significant public health issue worldwide, particularly in countries where men have life expectancies long enough to clinically manifest the disease. In many countries, it remains one of the leading causes of cancer-related morbidity and mortality.

  20. Renal cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Corgna, Enrichetta; Betti, Maura; Gatta, Gemma; Roila, Fausto; De Mulder, Pieter H. M.


    In Europe, renal cancer (that is neoplasia of the kidney, renal pelvis or ureter (ICD-9 189 and ICD-10 C64-C66)) ranks as the seventh most common malignancy in men amongst whom there are 29,600 new cases each year (3.5% of all cancers). Tobacco, obesity and a diet poor in vegetables are all acknowle

  1. Skin Cancer (United States)

    ... you ever get a bad sunburn that caused blisters when you were a child?Does your skin ... Cancer InstituteMelanoma International FoundationAmerican Cancer Society ResourcesDiagnosis and Management of Malignant Melanoma by BG Goldstein, AO Goldstein( ...

  2. Occupational Cancer (United States)

    ... Regulation and Policy OSHA Standards Surveillance NIOSH Data & Statistics by Industry Sector - Cancer Click on one of the eight Sector Tabs at the top of the screen to find available cancer statistics for that Sector Work-Related Lung Disease Surveillance ...

  3. NCI International EBV-Gastric Cancer Consortium (United States)

    A collaboration among NCI and extramural investigators, established by DCEG in 2006, that utilizes data and biospecimens from completed and ongoing case series and observational studies of gastric cancer to replicate and extend findings from previous studies hindered by small numbers of EBV-positive cases, and to stimulate multidisciplinary research in this area.

  4. A Genomic Microchip for Oral Cancer. (United States)

    Sarode, Gargi S; Sarode, Sachin C; Maniyar, Nikunj; Patil, Shankargouda


    A series of genetic mutations in somatic cell results in cancer. The cells of malignant tumor have the ability to acclimate to the microenvironmental changes. This can be attributed to the nature of tumor cell biology, i.e., based on effectual molecular signaling events.

  5. Applied time series analysis and innovative computing

    CERN Document Server

    Ao, Sio-Iong


    This text is a systematic, state-of-the-art introduction to the use of innovative computing paradigms as an investigative tool for applications in time series analysis. It includes frontier case studies based on recent research.

  6. Hilbert Series for Theories with Aharony Duals

    CERN Document Server

    Hanany, Amihay; Kim, Hyungchul; Park, Jaemo; Seong, Rak-Kyeong


    The algebraic structure of moduli spaces of 3d N=2 supersymmetric gauge theories is studied by computing the Hilbert series which is a generating function that counts gauge invariant operators in the chiral ring. These U(N_c) theories with N_f flavors have Aharony duals and their moduli spaces receive contributions from both mesonic and monopole operators. In order to compute the Hilbert series, recently developed techniques for Coulomb branch Hilbert series in 3d N=4 are extended to 3d N=2. The Hilbert series computation leads to a general expression of the algebraic variety which represents the moduli space of the U(N_c) theory with N_f flavors and its Aharony dual theory. A detailed analysis of the moduli space is given, including an analysis of the various components of the moduli space.

  7. Fluorine geochemistry in volcanic rock series

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stecher, Ole


    A new analytical procedure has been established in order to determine low fluorine concentrations (30–100 ppm F) in igneous rocks, and the method has also proven successful for higher concentrations (100–4000 ppm F). Fluorine has been measured in a series of olivine tholeiites from the Reykjanes...... Peninsula, a tholeiite to rhyolitic rock series from Kerlingarfjöll, central Iceland, and an alkaline rock series from Jan Mayen that ranges from ankaramites to trachytes. Fluorine is not appreciably degassed during extrusion and appears to be insensitive to slight weathering. The olivine tholeiites from...... the Reykjanes Peninsula have F contents of 30–300 ppm and exhibit linear increases proportional to the incompatible elements K, P, and Ti. Such incompatible behaviour for F has been confirmed for the less evolved rocks of the other series. The tholeiites from Kerlingarfjöll (100–2000 ppm F) show a linear...

  8. Spectra: Time series power spectrum calculator (United States)

    Gallardo, Tabaré


    Spectra calculates the power spectrum of a time series equally spaced or not based on the Spectral Correlation Coefficient (Ferraz-Mello 1981, Astron. Journal 86 (4), 619). It is very efficient for detection of low frequencies.

  9. Fourier Series for Kample De Feriet Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. D. Wadhwa


    Full Text Available Some integrals involving Kampe de Feriet function have been evaluated. These integrals have further been employed to obtain some Fourier series for Kampe de Feriet functions. Some particular cases have also been discussed.

  10. Improving Intercomparability of Marine Biogeochemical Time Series (United States)

    Benway, Heather M.; Telszewski, Maciej; Lorenzoni, Laura


    Shipboard biogeochemical time series represent one of the most valuable tools scientists have to quantify marine elemental fluxes and associated biogeochemical processes and to understand their links to changing climate. They provide the long, temporally resolved data sets needed to characterize ocean climate, biogeochemistry, and ecosystem variability and change. However, to monitor and differentiate natural cycles and human-driven changes in the global oceans, time series methodologies must be transparent and intercomparable when possible. To review current shipboard biogeochemical time series sampling and analytical methods, the International Ocean Carbon Coordination Project (IOCCP; and the Ocean Carbon and Biogeochemistry Program ( convened an international ocean time series workshop at the Bermuda Institute for Ocean Sciences.

  11. J series thruster thermal test results (United States)

    Bechtel, R. T.; Dulgeroff, C. R.


    Test experience with J series ion thrusters have indicated that the present thruster design may result in excessive temperatures in areas which utilize organic materials such as wire insulation, with the resultant outgassing and potential contamination of insulating materials. Further, it appears that thermal data obtained with earlier thruster designs, such as the 700 series thruster, may not be directly applicable to the J series design. Two J series thrusters were fitted with thermocouples and critical temperatures measured for a variety of configurations and operating parameters. Completely enclosing the thruster to reduce facility contamination significantly increased temperatures prompting the selection of a compromise geometry for life testing. The operating parameter having the largest effect on temperatures was discharge power, while beam power affected little else than extraction system temperatures. Several off-normal operating modes were also investigated. Data believed to be sufficient to effectively modify existing thermal models were obtained from the tests.

  12. Global impact of Danish drama series

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Pia Majbritt


    In recent years Danish TV series have experienced a global export boom. This article maps the regional and global export patterns over the last fifteen years in order to assess the international impact of Danish TV drama.......In recent years Danish TV series have experienced a global export boom. This article maps the regional and global export patterns over the last fifteen years in order to assess the international impact of Danish TV drama....

  13. Combination prediction method of chaotic time series

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO DongHua; RUAN Jiong; CAI ZhiJie


    In the present paper, we propose an approach of combination prediction of chaotic time series. The method is based on the adding-weight one-rank local-region method of chaotic time series. The method allows us to define an interval containing a future value with a given probability, which is obtained by studying the prediction error distribution. Its effectiveness is shown with data generated by Logistic map.

  14. Posn(R) and Eisenstein series

    CERN Document Server

    Jorgenson, Jay


    Posn(R) and Eisenstein Series provides an introduction, requiring minimal prerequisites, to the analysis on symmetric spaces of positive definite real matrices as well as quotients of this space by the unimodular group of integral matrices. The approach is presented in very classical terms and includes material on special functions, notably gamma and Bessel functions, and focuses on certain mathematical aspects of Eisenstein series.

  15. Pseudotime estimation: deconfounding single cell time series


    John E Reid; Wernisch, Lorenz


    Motivation: Repeated cross-sectional time series single cell data confound several sources of variation, with contributions from measurement noise, stochastic cell-to-cell variation and cell progression at different rates. Time series from single cell assays are particularly susceptible to confounding as the measurements are not averaged over populations of cells. When several genes are assayed in parallel these effects can be estimated and corrected for under certain smoothness assumptions o...

  16. FATS: Feature Analysis for Time Series

    CERN Document Server

    Nun, Isadora; Sim, Brandon; Zhu, Ming; Dave, Rahul; Castro, Nicolas; Pichara, Karim


    In this paper, we present the FATS (Feature Analysis for Time Series) library. FATS is a Python library which facilitates and standardizes feature extraction for time series data. In particular, we focus on one application: feature extraction for astronomical light curve data, although the library is generalizable for other uses. We detail the methods and features implemented for light curve analysis, and present examples for its usage.

  17. Index to the Understanding the Atom Series

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The U. S. Atomic Energy Commission publishes the Understanding the Atom Series of educational booklets for high school science students and their teachers. This series explains many aspects of nuclear science including its history and applications. Because these 51 booklets cover such a variety of scientific fields, this index was prepared to help the reader find quickly those booklets that contain the information he needs.

  18. Scattering series in mobility problem for suspensions


    Makuch, Karol


    The mobility problem for suspension of spherical particles immersed in an arbitrary flow of a viscous, incompressible fluid is considered in the regime of low Reynolds numbers. The scattering series which appears in the mobility problem is simplified. The simplification relies on the reduction of the number of types of single-particle scattering operators appearing in the scattering series. In our formulation there is only one type of single-particle scattering operator.

  19. Another type of generalized fibonacci series


    Júlio Pureza; Gil Bazanini


    The Fibonacci sequence, with many applications and occurrences in nature and arts is discussed in the present work. It is considered a generalization of the Fibonacci series by the introduction of a real coefficient in the recurrence relation. The analysis shows the divergence of the generalized series when the coefficient is the square root of a positive number, although the relation between two consecutive terms converges to a finite number when the coefficient is a real number. Fibonacci. ...

  20. Harry Potter book series - trivial or not?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brigita Pavšič


    Full Text Available The article explores  the extcnt to which the features  of trivial literature appear in the Harry Potter series by J. K. Rowling.This is done in comparison with another popular children's series, The Famous Five by Enid Blyton, which was analysed  by Igor Saksida. The main focus of the analysis is on the schematic representation of plot, characters and the exotic nature of the setting and time of the stories.

  1. Support of the 'fallopian tube hypothesis' in a prospective series of risk-reducing salpingo-oophorectomy specimens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reitsma, Welmoed; de Bock, Geertruida H.; Oosterwijk, Jan C.; Bart, Joost; Hollema, Harry; Mourits, Marian J. E.


    Objective: To determine the prevalence, localisation and type of occult (non) invasive cancer in risk-reducing salpingo-oophorectomy (RRSO) specimens in BRCA-mutation carriers and high-risk women from BRCA-negative families. Methods: A consecutive series of RRSO specimens of asymptomatic, screen-neg

  2. [Deficiency, disability, neurology and television series]. (United States)

    Collado-Vázquez, Susana; Martínez-Martínez, Ariadna; Cano-de-la-Cuerda, Roberto


    Introduccion. El enfoque de la deficiencia y la discapacidad neurologica en la television no ha sido algo univoco, sino que ha reflejado la postura de la sociedad ante estas cuestiones y como se tratan estas, desde la optica de las concepciones y valores dominantes en cada momento. Objetivos. Abordar la aparicion de la patologia neurologica en las series de television y reflexionar sobre su imagen en dicho contexto. Desarrollo. La deficiencia y la discapacidad de origen neurologico se han reflejado ampliamente en el medio televisivo en series, telefilmes y documentales, con un tratamiento desigual. Se aborda el enfoque que ha tenido en diferentes series televisivas la patologia neurologica, su diagnostico, su tratamiento, asi como la figura de los profesionales sanitarios y la adaptacion sociofamiliar, y se citan, a modo de ejemplo, series como House, Glee, American Horror Story, Homeland o Juego de tronos. Conclusiones. Las series de television son una herramienta util para dar a conocer algunas patologias neurologicas y para desmitificar otras, siempre que dichas patologias se aborden de manera realista, hecho que no siempre ocurre. Habria que cuidar el tratamiento que reciben los profesionales de la salud en las series de television, pues no siempre es correcto, y eso puede llevar a errores entre los telespectadores, que aceptan lo que ven en la pequeña pantalla como real.

  3. Can Thyroid Cancer Be Prevented? (United States)

    ... Thyroid Cancer Causes, Risk Factors, and Prevention Can Thyroid Cancer Be Prevented? Most people with thyroid cancer have ... Cancer? Can Thyroid Cancer Be Prevented? More In Thyroid Cancer About Thyroid Cancer Causes, Risk Factors, and Prevention ...

  4. Minimally invasive surgery for esophageal cancer. (United States)

    Santillan, Alfredo A; Farma, Jeffrey M; Meredith, Kenneth L; Shah, Nilay R; Kelley, Scott T


    Esophageal cancer represents a major public health problem worldwide. Several minimally invasive esophagectomy (MIE) techniques have been described and represent a safe alternative for the surgical management of esophageal cancer in selected centers with high volume and expertise in them. This article reviews the most recent and largest series evaluating MIE techniques. Recent larger series have shown MIE to be equivalent in postoperative morbidity and mortality rates to conventional surgery. MIE has been associated with less blood loss, less postoperative pain, and decreased intensive care unit and hospital length of stay compared with conventional surgery. Despite limited data, conventional surgery and MIE have shown no significant difference in survival, stage for stage. The myriad of MIE techniques complicates the debate of defining the optimal surgical approach for treating esophageal cancer. Randomized controlled trials comparing MIE with conventional open esophagectomy are needed to clarify the ideal procedure with the lowest postoperative morbidity, best quality of life after surgery, and long-term survival.

  5. Breast Cancer -- Male (United States)

    ... Home > Types of Cancer > Breast Cancer in Men Breast Cancer in Men This is Cancer.Net’s Guide to Breast Cancer in Men. Use the menu below to choose ... social workers, and patient advocates. Cancer.Net Guide Breast Cancer in Men Introduction Statistics Risk Factors and Prevention ...

  6. Cancer incidence and mortality worldwide: sources, methods and major patterns in GLOBOCAN 2012. (United States)

    Ferlay, Jacques; Soerjomataram, Isabelle; Dikshit, Rajesh; Eser, Sultan; Mathers, Colin; Rebelo, Marise; Parkin, Donald Maxwell; Forman, David; Bray, Freddie


    Estimates of the worldwide incidence and mortality from 27 major cancers and for all cancers combined for 2012 are now available in the GLOBOCAN series of the International Agency for Research on Cancer. We review the sources and methods used in compiling the national cancer incidence and mortality estimates, and briefly describe the key results by cancer site and in 20 large "areas" of the world. Overall, there were 14.1 million new cases and 8.2 million deaths in 2012. The most commonly diagnosed cancers were lung (1.82 million), breast (1.67 million), and colorectal (1.36 million); the most common causes of cancer death were lung cancer (1.6 million deaths), liver cancer (745,000 deaths), and stomach cancer (723,000 deaths).

  7. Schistosomiasis and Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussein Khaled


    Full Text Available Schistosomiasis is not known to be associated with any malignant disease other than bladder cancer. Bladder cancer is still the most common malignant tumor among males in Egypt and some African and Middle East countries. However, the frequency rate of bladder cancer has declined significantly during the last 25 years. This drop is mainly related to the control of Schistosomiasis. Many studies have elucidated the pathogenic events of Schistosomal-related bladder cancer with a suggested theory of pathogenesis. Furthermore, the disease presents with a distinct clinicopathologic profile that is quite different from bladder cancer elsewhere with younger age at presentation, more male predominance, more invasive stages, and occurrence of squamous cell carcinoma pathologic subtype. However, recent data suggest that this profile has been dramatically changed over the past 25 years leading to minimization of the differences between its features in Egypt and that in Western countries. Management of muscle-invasive localized disease is mainly surgery with 5-year survival rates of 30–50%. Although still a debatable issue, adjuvant and neoadjuvant chemotherapy and radiotherapy have improved treatment outcomes including survival and bladder preservation rates in most studies. This controversy emphasizes the need of individualized treatment options based on a prognostic index or other factors that can define the higher risk groups where more aggressive therapy is needed. The treatment for locally advanced and/or metastatic disease has passed through a series of clinical trials since 1970s. These phase II and III trials have included the use of single agent and combination of chemotherapy and radiotherapy regimens. The current standard of systemic chemotherapy of generally fit patients is now the gemcitabine–cisplatin combination. In conclusion, a changing pattern of bladder cancer in Egypt is clearly observed. This is mainly due to the success in the

  8. Testicular Cancer (United States)

    ... to remove nearby lymph nodes (retroperitoneal lymph node dissection) is performed through an incision in your abdomen. ... SM, et al. Robot-assisted retroperitoneal lymph node dissection: Technique and initial case series of 18 patients. ...

  9. Circulating gangliosides of breast-cancer patients. (United States)

    Wiesner, D A; Sweeley, C C


    Gangliosides were isolated from the sera of recently diagnosed breast-cancer patients and from individuals who were apparently free of disease. Quantificative and qualitative analyses were carried out by 2-dimensional high-performance thin-layer chromatography and gas chromatography. The locations of isolated gangliosides on thin-layer chromatograms were determined by visualization with resorcinol, and each spot was quantified by digital image densitometry. The ganglioside profiles of cancer patients were compared to those of the control group, revealing a significant increase in total lipid-bound sialic acid and a specific increase in polysialogangliosides in the patients with breast cancer. Furthermore, an increase was noted in the ratio of gangliosides of the b-series biosynthetic pathway over those of the a-series in the cancer sera, as compared to the controls. Gas chromatographic analysis of the peracetylated methanolysis mixtures derived from the total ganglioside fraction of cancer patients supported the HPTLC data, with an increase in total sialic acid, galactose, and sphingosine residues. No unusual gangliosides were found in the mixture from breast-cancer patients.

  10. Cervical Cancer (United States)

    ... vaginal, and vulvar cancers. It is recommended for preteens (both boys and girls) aged 11 to 12 ... index. • D on’t smoke. • Use condoms during sex. * • Limit your number of sexual partners. * HPV infection ...

  11. Eye Cancer (United States)

    ... underneath the retina that contains connective tissue and melanocytes, which are pigmented (colored) cells, and nourishes the ... cancer in adults. It begins when cells called melanocytes grow uncontrollably. Intraocular melanoma is also called uveal ...

  12. Ovarian Cancer (United States)

    ... the ovary, fallopian tube, and peritoneum: Epidemiology and risk factors. Accessed Feb. 18, 2014. Havrilesky LJ, et al. Oral contraceptive pills as primary prevention for ovarian cancer: A systematic ...

  13. Testicular Cancer (United States)

    ... or testicles that aren't shaped normally.Have Klinefelter's syndrome (a genetic condition where male infants are born ... contributed by: editorial staff Tags: cryptorehidism, Klinefelter's syndrome, malignancies, scrotal mass, scrotal masses, testicular cancer, testicular ...

  14. Cancer nanotheranostics

    CERN Document Server

    Gopinath, P; Matai, Ishita; Bhushan, Bharat; Malwal, Deepika; Sachdev, Abhay; Dubey, Poornima


    This Brief provides a clear insight of the recent advances in the field of cancer theranostics with special emphasis upon nano scale carrier molecules (polymeric, protein and lipid based) and imaging agents (organic and inorganic).

  15. Stomach cancer (United States)

    ... the stomach for a long time (chronic atrophic gastritis ) Have pernicious anemia (low number of red blood ... HealthProfessional . Accessed December 21, 2016. Read More Cancer Gastritis Malignancy Pernicious anemia Review Date 11/10/2016 ...

  16. Esophageal cancer. (United States)

    Vakil, Nimish; Affi, Aboud


    Despite advances in our knowledge of esophageal cancer, 50% of patients present with incurable disease, and the overall survival after diagnosis is poor. The incidence of esophageal adenocarcinoma of the distal esophagus is rising at a rapid rate in developed countries. Recent advances in the epidemiology of esophageal cancer offer insights into preventive strategies in patients who are at risk. New developments in diagnosis may help detect the disease at an early stage. New diagnostic modalities permit more accurate staging procedures and allow appropriate selection of therapy. New studies provide more information on multimodality therapy for esophageal cancer, and new endoscopic techniques allow resection of small lesions without surgery. New stent designs provide better palliation by providing tumor ingrowth. These developments in the treatment of esophageal cancer are the focus of this review.

  17. Cancer Today (United States)

    ... inactivity, nutrition, sun exposure, and even exposure to infectious agents, such as hepatitis B, human papillomavirus, or helicobacter ... The extramural research program reaches nearly 650 universities, hospitals, cancer centers, and other sites in the United ...

  18. Thyroid Cancer (United States)

    ... you may be eligible to receive a medication (potassium iodide) that blocks the effects of radiation on the ... occur, you and your family could take the potassium iodide tablets to help prevent thyroid cancer. Contact your ...

  19. Prostate Cancer (United States)

    ... may help you cope with your distress, including: Art therapy Dance or movement therapy Exercise Meditation Music ... . Mayo Clinic Footer Legal Conditions and ...

  20. Esophageal Cancer (United States)

    ... Resources Conducting Clinical Trials Statistical Tools and Data Terminology Resources NCI Data Catalog Cryo-EM NCI's Role ... Contacts Other Funding Find NCI funding for small business innovation, technology transfer, and contracts Training Cancer Training ...

  1. Cancer Statistics (United States)

    ... Resources Conducting Clinical Trials Statistical Tools and Data Terminology Resources NCI Data Catalog Cryo-EM NCI's Role ... Contacts Other Funding Find NCI funding for small business innovation, technology transfer, and contracts Training Cancer Training ...

  2. Vaginal cancer (United States)

    Hacker NF. Vulvar and vaginal cancer. In: Hacker NF, Gambone JC, Hobel CJ, eds. Hacker and Moore's Essentials of Obstetrics and Gynecology . 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2016:chap 40. Jhingran ...

  3. Cervical Cancer (United States)

    ... Other things may increase the risk of developing cancer following a high-risk HPV infection. These other things include: Smoking Having HIV or reduced immunity Taking birth control pills for a long time ( ...

  4. Magnetic Field Emission Comparison for Series-Parallel and Series-Series Wireless Power Transfer to Vehicles – PART 1/2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Batra, Tushar; Schaltz, Erik


    Resonant circuits of wireless power transfer system can be designed in four possible ways by placing the primary and secondary capacitor in a series or parallel order with respect to the corresponding inductor. The two topologies series-parallel and series-series under investigation have been alr...

  5. Thematic Unity Across a Video Game Series.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason Brame


    Full Text Available Koji Kondo’s music is among the most recognized video game music ever written. As the composer for both Super Mario Bros. (Nintendo, 1984 and The Legend of Zelda (Nintendo, 1986, he has received international fame and recognition for his game compositions. With The Legend of Zelda series, Kondo has managed to create new music for each iteration of the series while maintaining a sense of unity across the series as a whole. Through the use of motivic and prolongational analysis, this article demonstrates how Kondo created this unity across the entire Zelda franchise, while making each game’s score unique by examining one musical element, the overworld theme, from each of the main entries in the Zelda series. A Schenkerian-like analysis is used to identify structural and motivic relationships between the various themes. This essay concludes with an examination of semiotic implications of this analysis and its impact on other aspects of the Zelda series and game music analysis as a whole. Using concepts from Barthes Elements of Semiology, I discuss the implication of the musical analysis to show how this approach can provide the basis for an in-depth look at musical signs in video games. In this discussion of thematic unity, I’m exploring both musical theme and a semiological theme.

  6. Layered Ensemble Architecture for Time Series Forecasting. (United States)

    Rahman, Md Mustafizur; Islam, Md Monirul; Murase, Kazuyuki; Yao, Xin


    Time series forecasting (TSF) has been widely used in many application areas such as science, engineering, and finance. The phenomena generating time series are usually unknown and information available for forecasting is only limited to the past values of the series. It is, therefore, necessary to use an appropriate number of past values, termed lag, for forecasting. This paper proposes a layered ensemble architecture (LEA) for TSF problems. Our LEA consists of two layers, each of which uses an ensemble of multilayer perceptron (MLP) networks. While the first ensemble layer tries to find an appropriate lag, the second ensemble layer employs the obtained lag for forecasting. Unlike most previous work on TSF, the proposed architecture considers both accuracy and diversity of the individual networks in constructing an ensemble. LEA trains different networks in the ensemble by using different training sets with an aim of maintaining diversity among the networks. However, it uses the appropriate lag and combines the best trained networks to construct the ensemble. This indicates LEAs emphasis on accuracy of the networks. The proposed architecture has been tested extensively on time series data of neural network (NN)3 and NN5 competitions. It has also been tested on several standard benchmark time series data. In terms of forecasting accuracy, our experimental results have revealed clearly that LEA is better than other ensemble and nonensemble methods.

  7. Feature Matching in Time Series Modelling

    CERN Document Server

    Xia, Yingcun


    Using a time series model to mimic an observed time series has a long history. However, with regard to this objective, conventional estimation methods for discrete-time dynamical models are frequently found to be wanting. In the absence of a true model, we prefer an alternative approach to conventional model fitting that typically involves one-step-ahead prediction errors. Our primary aim is to match the joint probability distribution of the observable time series, including long-term features of the dynamics that underpin the data, such as cycles, long memory and others, rather than short-term prediction. For want of a better name, we call this specific aim {\\it feature matching}. The challenges of model mis-specification, measurement errors and the scarcity of data are forever present in real time series modelling. In this paper, by synthesizing earlier attempts into an extended-likelihood, we develop a systematic approach to empirical time series analysis to address these challenges and to aim at achieving...

  8. Prostate cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chabanova, Elizaveta; Balslev, Ingegerd; Logager, Vibeke


    To investigate diagnostic accuracy of detection of prostate cancer by magnetic resonance: to evaluate the performance of T2WI, DCEMRI and CSI and to correlate the results with biopsy and radical prostatectomy histopathological data.......To investigate diagnostic accuracy of detection of prostate cancer by magnetic resonance: to evaluate the performance of T2WI, DCEMRI and CSI and to correlate the results with biopsy and radical prostatectomy histopathological data....

  9. Age at menarche and menopause and breast cancer risk in the International BRCA1/2 Carrier Cohort Study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chang-Claude, J.; Andrieu, N.; Rookus, M.A.; Brohet, R.M.; Antoniou, A.C.; Peock, S.; Davidson, R.; Izatt, L.; Cole, T.; Nogues, C.; Luporsi, E.; Huiart, L.; Hoogerbrugge, N.; Leeuwen, F.E. van; Osorio, A.; Eyfjord, J.; Radice, P.; Goldgar, D.E.; Easton, D.F.


    BACKGROUND: Early menarche and late menopause are important risk factors for breast cancer, but their effects on breast cancer risk in BRCA1 and BRCA2 carriers are unknown. METHODS: We assessed breast cancer risk in a large series of 1,187 BRCA1 and 414 BRCA2 carriers from the International BRCA1/2

  10. Infections and cancer: debate about using vaccines as a cancer control tool. (United States)

    Mbulaiteye, Sam M; Buonaguro, Franco M


    In 2012, Infectious Agents and Cancer commissioned a thematic series collection of articles on Prevention of HPV related cancer. The articles have attracted wide interest and stimulated debate, including about the utility of vaccines in cancer control. The application of vaccines to cancer control fulfills a promise envisioned at the turn of the 20th century when remarkable experiments showed that some cancers were caused by infections. This suggested the possibility of applying infection-control strategies to cancer control. Vaccines represent the most practical cost-effective technology to prevent wide human suffering and death from many acute infectious diseases, such as small pox or polio. Hitherto applied to control of acute fatal infections, vaccines, if developed, might provide a potent way to control cancer. The articles in the HPV thematic series show success in developing and applying a vaccine against human papilloma virus (HPV). A vaccine is also available against hepatitis B virus (HBV), which causes liver cancer. These vaccines augment the tools available to control the associated cancers. Scientific endeavor continues for six other cancer-associated infections, mostly viruses. Not surprisingly, debate about the safety of vaccines targeting cancer has been triggered in the scientific community. Questions about safety have been raised for those populations where other means to control these cancers may be available. Although it is difficult to quantify risk from vaccines in individuals where other cancer control services exist, it is likely to be low. Vaccines are much safer today than before. Technological advancement in vaccine development and manufacture and improved regulatory review and efficient distribution have minimized substantially the risk for harm from vaccines. Formal and informal debate about the pros and cons of applying vaccines as a cancer control tools is ongoing in scientific journals and on the web. Infectious Agents and Cancer

  11. LDRD final report on intelligent polymers for nanodevice performance control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    A variety of organic and hybrid organic-inorganic polymer systems were prepared and evaluated for their bulk response to optical, thermal and chemical environmental changes. These included modeling studies of polyene-bridged metal porphyrin systems, metal-mediated oligomerization of phosphaalkynes as heteroatomic analogues to polyacetylene monomers, investigations of chemically amplified degradation of acid- and base-sensitive polymers and thermally responsive thermoplastic thermosets based on Diels-Alder cycloaddition chemistry. The latter class of materials was utilized to initiate work to develop a new technique for rapidly building a library of systems with varying depolymerization temperatures.

  12. Selected Aspects of Wireless Communication between Nano-devices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Penkin, D.


    Recently, the concept of a nanonetwork has attracted large attention of researchers as it potentially offers low-cost solutions for a wide spectrum of current applications and enables numerous emerging ones. At present, however, all the sensor networks consist of a relatively small number of macrosc

  13. TeraHertz Nanodevices for Communiction, Imaging, Sensing and Ranging (United States)


    with the Army Night Vision Lab to develop components and techniques for THz imaging systems using Stirling cycle coolers , and bolometer detector the Army Night Vision Lab, who loaned us a Stirling cooler and a bolometer focal plane array. With Irina Yassievich and Miron Kagan in Russia, we...of about 120 K below room temperature, or about 180 K absolute. To reach even lower temperatures near 77 K, we have borrowed a Stirling cycle cooler

  14. CNT based thermal Brownian motor to pump water in nanodevices (United States)

    Oyarzua, Elton; Zambrano, Harvey; Walther, J. H.


    Brownian molecular motors are nanoscale machines that exploit thermal fluctuations for directional motion by employing mechanisms such as the Feynman-Smoluchowski ratchet. In this study, using Non Equilibrium Molecular Dynamics, we propose a novel thermal Brownian motor for pumping water through Carbon Nanotubes (CNTs). To achieve this we impose a thermal gradient along the axis of a CNT filled with water and impose, in addition, a spatial asymmetry by fixing specific zones on the CNT in order to modify the vibrational modes of the CNT. We find that the temperature gradient and imposed spatial asymmetry drive the water flow in a preferential direction. We systematically modified the magnitude of the applied thermal gradient and the axial position of the fixed points. The analysis involves measurement of the vibrational modes in the CNTs using a Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) algorithm. We observed water flow in CNTs of 0.94, 1.4 and 2.0 nm in diameter, reaching a maximum velocity of 5 m/s for a thermal gradient of 3.3 K/nm. The proposed thermal motor is capable of delivering a continuous flow throughout a CNT, providing a useful tool for driving liquids in nanofluidic devices by exploiting thermal gradients. We aknowledge partial support from Fondecyt project 11130559.

  15. Proteins as Supramolecular Building Blocks for Responsive Materials and Nanodevices (United States)


    Inventions (DD882) Scientific Progress See attachment Technology Transfer See attachment for connection to other research programmes NAME Total Number...between protein and  titrated metal. Clusters of 4*Ni‐Lsm[4+1]4  visualised  by EM, subsequently  dissolve to single ring tectons with addition of EDTA...relationship between protein and  titrated metal. Clusters of 4*Ni‐Lsm[4+1]4  visualised  by EM, subsequently dissolve to single ring tectons with addition of

  16. Electronic nanodevices based on self-assembled metalloproteins (United States)

    Rinaldi, Ross; Cingolani, Roberto


    A key challenge of the current research in nanoelectronics is the realization of biomolecular devices. The use of electron-transfer proteins, such as the blue copper protein azurin (Az), is particularly attractive because of their natural redox properties and self assembly capability. We present in this work our results about the fabrication, characterization and modeling of devices based on such redox protein. The prototypes of biomolecular devices operate in the solid state and in air . The charge transfer process in protein devices can be engineered by using proteins with different redox centers (metal atoms) and by controlling their orientation in the solid state through different immobilization methods. A biomolecular electron rectifier has been demonstrated by interconnecting two gold nanoelectrodes with an azurin monolayer immobilized on SiO 2. The device exhibits a clear rectifying behavior with discrete current steps in the positive wing of the current-voltage curve, which are ascribed to resonant tunnelling through the redox active center. On the basis of these results we have designed an azurin-based transistor. The three terminal device exhibits an ambipolar behavior as a function of the gate bias, thus opening the way to the implementation of a new generation of logic architecture, such as fully integrated biomolecular logic gate.

  17. Nanodevices based on Membrane-Carbon Nanotube Hybrid Structures (United States)

    Jin, Hye Jun; Kim, Tae Hyun; Namgung, Seon; Hong, Seunghun; Lee, Sang Hun; Park, Tai Hyun


    Proteins in cell membrane have been drawing attention due to their versatile functionalities such as ion transfer for neuronal activity and selective binding for sensory systems. However, it is still very difficult to manipulate and study those proteins because they easily lose their functionalities without lipid membranes. We developed a method to coat lipid membranes containing various functional membrane proteins on single-walled carbon nanotube (swCNT)-based field effect transistors (FETs). In this hybrid structure, the activity of membrane proteins can be monitored by underlying swCNT-FETs, allowing us to easily study the functionalities of membrane proteins. Furthermore, we built advanced devices based on these hybrid structures. For an example, we coated lipid membrane containing `olfactory receptors' on swCNT-FETs, resulting in `bioelectric nose' systems. The bioelectric nose system had high sensitivity and human nose-like selectivity to odorant molecules. This talk will also discuss about the future prospect of these membrane-CNT hybrid structures.

  18. Nanodevices for spintronics and methods of using same (United States)

    Zaliznyak, Igor; Tsvelik, Alexei; Kharzeev, Dmitri


    Graphene magnet multilayers (GMMs) are employed to facilitate development of spintronic devices. The GMMs can include a sheet of monolayer (ML) or few-layer (FL) graphene in contact with a magnetic material, such as a ferromagnetic (FM) or an antiferromagnetic material. Electrode terminals can be disposed on the GMMs to be in electrical contact with the graphene. A magnetic field effect is induced in the graphene sheet based on an exchange magnetic field resulting from a magnetization of the magnetic material which is in contact with graphene. Electrical characteristics of the graphene can be manipulated based on the magnetization of the magnetic material in the GMM.

  19. CNT based thermal Brownian motor to pump water in nanodevices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oyarzua, Elton; Zambrano, Harvey; Walther, Jens Honore


    Brownian molecular motors are nanoscale machines that exploit thermal fluctuations for directional motion by employing mechanisms such as the Feynman-Smoluchowski ratchet. In this study, using Non Equilibrium Molecular Dynamics, we propose a novel thermal Brownian motor for pumping water through...... Carbon Nanotubes (CNTs). To achieve this we impose a thermal gradient along the axis of a CNT filled with water and impose, in addition, a spatial asymmetry by flxing specific zones on the CNT in order to modify the vibrational modes of the CNT. We find that the temperature gradient and imposed spatial...... asymmetry drive the water ow in a preferential direction. We systematically modified the magnitude of the applied thermal gradient and the axial position of the fixed points. The analysis involves measurement of the vibrational modes in the CNTs using a Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) algorithm. We observed...

  20. Cancer nanotechnology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jagdale Swati


    Full Text Available Cancer nanotechnology is the latest trend in cancer therapy. It helps the pharmacist to formulate the product with maximum therapeutic value and minimum or negligible range side effects. Cancer is the disease in which the abnormal cells are quite similar to the normal cell with just minute functional or genetic change. Thus, it is very hard to target the abnormal cells by the conventional method of the drug delivery system. Nanotechnology is probably the only method that can be used for site-specific action without causing the side effects by killing the normal cells. This review article describes the possible way to exploit the nanotechnology to targeted drug therapy in cancer. The various methods used are: systemic delivery systems, passive targeting, active targeting, intracellular delivery, subcellular localization, and nanoparticle drugs. Different cancer detection techniques like carbon nanotubes, nanorods, and biosensors are also available. This review article gives an idea about the possible potential of nanotechnology in drug delivery, drug targeting, and the diagnosis of cancer.