WorldWideScience

Sample records for cancer seeking biomolecules

  1. Development of radioactively labeled cancer seeking biomolecules for targeted radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As meanwhile demonstrated by different groups a variety of human tumours express a large number of peptide receptors with a high affinity for VIP and SST. Radiolabeled synthetic analogs of this peptide hormones have been shown to be effective in diagnosis of SST receptor positive tumours and metastases. This fact seems to be a promising starting point for the therapeutic use of this cancer seeking tracer molecules for targeted radiotherapy. In this project we have focused our work on the preparation of DOTA-Lanreotide (Mauritius), a novel SST analog, which shows a high affinity to several SST receptors expressed by neuroendocrine tumours. This radiolabeled tracer actually is under evaluation by a European multicenter study for its diagnostic and therapeutic capacity

  2. Development of radioactively labelled cancer seeking biomolecules for targeted radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main objective of this project is the labelling and quality control of biomolecules with radionuclides beta emitters with high purity and stability. Techniques and methodology for labelling with 188Re, 153Sm, and 125I as well as quality controls were done according the recommendations of the first research coordination meeting of this CRP. Also some useful chelators reported in the literature were synthesized in our laboratory

  3. Development of radioactively labeled cancer seeking biomolecules for targeted radiotherapy. Austria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As meanwhile demonstrated by different groups, a variety of human tumours express a large number of peptide receptors with a high affinity for VIP and SST. Radiolabeled synthetic analogs of these peptide hormones have been shown to be effective in diagnosis of SST receptor positive tumours and metastases. This fact seems to be a promising starting point for the therapeutic use of this cancer seeking tracer molecules for targeted radiotherapy. In this project we have focused our work on the preparation of DOTA-Lanreotide (Mauritius), a novel SST analog, which shows a high affinity to several SST receptors expressed by neuroendocrine tumours. This radiolabeled tracer actually is under evaluation by a European multicenter study for its diagnostic and therapeutic capacity

  4. Development of radioactively labelled cancer seeking biomolecules for targeted radiotherapy. Uruguay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main objective of this project is the labelling and quality control of biomolecules with radionuclides beta emitters with high purity and stability. Techniques and methodology for labelling with 188Re, 153Sm, and 125I as well as quality controls were done according to the recommendations of the first research coordination meeting of this CRP. Also some useful chelators reported in the literature were synthesized in our laboratory)

  5. Development of radioactively labelled cancer seeking biomolecules for targeted therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several radioisotopes such as 90Y, 186Re, 166Ho, 177Lu, were produced and processed in our laboratory for evaluation as potential isotopes for therapy. 90Y was sourced from 90Sr in the form of a generator based on a supported liquid membrane separating technique as well as by solvent extraction /adsorption procedure. The other isotopes were obtained by irradiation of the natural/enriched targets. Among the various isotopes studies for possible therapeutic use, 177Lu was identified as an ideal candidate for labelling of peptides owing to its high specific activity. Bifunctional chelating agents for complexing with these isotopes were synthesized and characterized. Radiolabelling procedures were standardized to obtain maximum complexation. Standard quality control techniques such as PC, TLC, HPLC have been utilized to characterize the radiolabelled species. Lanreotide, a somatostatin analogue was coupled to DOTA in a three-step procedure and purified by preparative TLC. The radiolabelling of the peptide conjugate with 90Y and its subsequent purification with Sep-Pak column was optimized. The direct labelling of lanreotide with 186Re as well as 125I were also accomplished. The in vivo bioefficacy studies of the radioiodinated lanreotide as well as 90Y-DOTA-lanreotide were carried out in mice bearing melanoma. In vitro cell binding studies of 90Y-DOTA-lanreotide with A431 cell lines were also carried out. (author)

  6. Cancer News Coverage and Information Seeking

    OpenAIRE

    Niederdeppe, Jeff; Frosch, Dominick L; Hornik, Robert C.

    2008-01-01

    The shift toward viewing patients as active consumers of health information raises questions about whether individuals respond to health news by seeking additional information. This study examines the relationship between cancer news coverage and information seeking using a national survey of adults aged 18 years and older. A Lexis-Nexis database search term was used to identify Associated Press (AP) news articles about cancer released between October 21, 2002, and April 13, 2003. We merged t...

  7. Why Cancer Patients Seek Islamic Healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suhami, Norhasmilia; Muhamad, Mazanah Bt; Krauss, Steven Eric

    2016-10-01

    Islamic healing is frequently referred to as the treatment of choice by many Muslim cancer patients in Malaysia. Despite its widespread use, there is limited information relating to patients' healing preferences. With rising cancer rates in the country, this issue has become a concern to public health policy makers. The purpose of this study was to understand why cancer patients seek Islamic healing. This qualitative study utilized in-depth interviews with 18 cancer patients. The findings indicate three main reasons: (1) recommendations from family, friends and doctors; (2) belief in Islamic healing and (3) the perceived ineffectiveness and dissatisfaction with conventional treatments. Islamic healing will likely continue to be popular complementary cancer treatment in Malaysia as it is grounded in strong cultural and religious beliefs. PMID:26391242

  8. Breast cancer seeking agents: Basic approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The knowledge of biochemical and physiological mechanisms involved in tissue localization is important so as to understand the information given by diagnostic nuclear medicine imaging, and eventually to design new radiopharmaceuticals. The cellular mechanisms which permit a high cancer uptake involve the perfusion and metabolism within the tumour. All these phenomena can contribute to a high concentration of particular radiotracers in cancer and can create a favourable tumour/background ratio uptake sufficient for cancer imaging. Those molecules might be also powerful tools for reaching and advanced understanding of neoplastic and even ''normal'' cell biology. During these last years, some radiotracer specifically designed for different applications proved to be promising radiopharmaceuticals for breast cancer imaging. This is the case of monoclonal antibodies (Mabs) developed in the past against membrane cancer antigens. Other tracers, originally proposed for the study of vascular perfusion have also revealed a capacity to be taken up by cancer cells. The radiopharmaceuticals mostly used as tumour seeking agents today (Radiothallium, Sestamibi, Tetrophosmin) were generated with other applications in mind. In this paper whey review the mechanisms of uptake of the most relevant agents currently proposed for breast cancer imaging, including 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG). The radiotracers will be examined on the basis of the available scientific evidence regarding their cellular uptake and release. Moreover, they report their preliminary studies on the cellular uptake and release of these and other compounds recently introduced in clinical trials

  9. Why Breast Cancer Patients Seek Traditional Healers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Traditional healing is a common practice in low and middle income countries such as Malaysia. Eighty percent of Malaysians consult traditional healers or bomoh at some time in their life for health-related issues. The purpose of our study was to explore why breast cancer patients visit traditional healers. This is a qualitative study utilizing in-depth interviews with 11 cancer survivors who sought both traditional and Western medicine. The findings revealed the following reasons for which patients seek traditional healers: (1) recommendation from family and friends, (2) sanction from family, (3) perceived benefit and compatibility, (4) healer credibility, and (5) reservation with Western medicine and system delay. These factors work together and are strongly influenced by the Malaysian cultural context. The issue with the Western health system is common in a developing country with limited health facilities

  10. Why Breast Cancer Patients Seek Traditional Healers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mazanah Muhamad

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Traditional healing is a common practice in low and middle income countries such as Malaysia. Eighty percent of Malaysians consult traditional healers or “bomoh” at some time in their life for health-related issues. The purpose of our study was to explore why breast cancer patients visit traditional healers. This is a qualitative study utilizing in-depth interviews with 11 cancer survivors who sought both traditional and Western medicine. The findings revealed the following reasons for which patients seek traditional healers: (1 recommendation from family and friends, (2 sanction from family, (3 perceived benefit and compatibility, (4 healer credibility, and (5 reservation with Western medicine and system delay. These factors work together and are strongly influenced by the Malaysian cultural context. The issue with the Western health system is common in a developing country with limited health facilities.

  11. Radiolabeled biomolecules for early cancer detection and therapy via angiogenesis targeting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouziotis, P. [Institute of Radioisotopes-Radiodiagnostic Products, N.C.S.R. ' Demokritos' , 153 10 Athens, Hellas (Greece)]. E-mail: pennybil@yahoo.gr; Psimadas, D. [Institute of Radioisotopes-Radiodiagnostic Products, N.C.S.R. ' Demokritos' , 153 10 Athens, Hellas (Greece): Biomedica Life Sciences SA, Athens, Hellas (Greece); Fani, M. [Institute of Radioisotopes-Radiodiagnostic Products, N.C.S.R. ' Demokritos' , 153 10 Athens, Hellas (Greece): Biomedica Life Sciences SA, Athens, Hellas (Greece); Gourni, E. [Institute of Radioisotopes-Radiodiagnostic Products, N.C.S.R. ' Demokritos' , 153 10 Athens, Hellas (Greece); Loudos, G. [Biomedical Simulations and Imaging Laboratory, N.T.U.A., Athens, Hellas (Greece); Xanthopoulos, S. [Institute of Radioisotopes-Radiodiagnostic Products, N.C.S.R. ' Demokritos' , 153 10 Athens, Hellas (Greece); Archimandritis, S.C. [Institute of Radioisotopes-Radiodiagnostic Products, N.C.S.R. ' Demokritos' , 153 10 Athens, Hellas (Greece); Varvarigou, A.D. [Institute of Radioisotopes-Radiodiagnostic Products, N.C.S.R. ' Demokritos' , 153 10 Athens, Hellas (Greece)

    2006-12-20

    Tumors cannot grow or metastasize without the formation of new blood vessels, i.e. without angiogenesis. A variety of anti-angiogenic agents leading to angiogenesis inhibition are in the clinical trial phase, among which are: (i) molecules which inhibit the action of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factors, VEGF and (ii) molecules which obstruct migration, differentiation and proliferation of endothelial cells, via their binding to receptors of the {alpha}{sub {nu}}{beta}{sub 3} integrins. Certain derivatives of the abovementioned categories, labeled with radionuclides, which emit {gamma}-radiation or {beta}-particles or positrons, have been proposed and are being evaluated as possible radiopharmaceuticals, for the detection and/or treatment of primary or metastatic cancer at an early stage. For the study of angiogenesis the following have been described: (a) antibodies targeting VEGF, labeled with radionuclides emitting {beta}- and/or {gamma}-radiation, which can be applied for the diagnosis and, possibly, for the treatment of cancer (b) peptide derivatives which contain the amino-acid sequence RGD (Arg-Gly-Asp) and compete for the {alpha}{sub {nu}}{beta}{sub 3} integrins, with the proteins of the stroma. It has been found that these radiolabeled biomolecules localize in tumors and can be used for the visualization and, possibly, for tumor eradication of primary and metastatic cancer. In our laboratory radiolabeling of biomolecules by beta and/or gamma emitters is a principal research goal. In the present work we are presenting our results on the labeling of monoclonal antibodies and peptides with {beta}- and {gamma}-emitting isotopes, as well as on their in vivo evaluation in experimental animal models, by use of specially dedicated imaging devices.

  12. Why Breast Cancer Patients Seek Traditional Healers

    OpenAIRE

    Mazanah Muhamad; Sharan Merriam; Norhasmilia Suhami

    2011-01-01

    Traditional healing is a common practice in low and middle income countries such as Malaysia. Eighty percent of Malaysians consult traditional healers or “bomoh” at some time in their life for health-related issues. The purpose of our study was to explore why breast cancer patients visit traditional healers. This is a qualitative study utilizing in-depth interviews with 11 cancer survivors who sought both traditional and Western medicine. The findings revealed the following reasons for which ...

  13. Cancer-Related Information Seeking Among Cancer Survivors: Trends Over a Decade (2003-2013).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finney Rutten, Lila J; Agunwamba, Amenah A; Wilson, Patrick; Chawla, Neetu; Vieux, Sana; Blanch-Hartigan, Danielle; Arora, Neeraj K; Blake, Kelly; Hesse, Bradford W

    2016-06-01

    The demonstrated benefits of information seeking for cancer patients, coupled with increases in information availability, underscore the importance of monitoring patient information seeking experiences over time. We compared information seeking among cancer survivors to those with a family history of cancer and those with no history of cancer. We identified characteristics associated with greater information seeking among cancer survivors, key sources of cancer-related information, and changes in information source use over time. Data from five iterations of the Health Information National Trends Survey (HINTS) spanning 2003 to 2013 were merged and analyzed. Frequencies, cross-tabulations, multivariate logistic regression, and multinomial regression analyses were conducted. All data were weighted to provide representative estimates of the adult US population. Cancer information seeking was reported most frequently by cancer survivors (69.8 %). The percentage of cancer survivors who reported information seeking increased from 66.8 % in 2003 to 80.8 % in 2013. Cancer information seeking was independently associated with age, education, and income; seeking was less likely among older adults, those with less education, and those with lower incomes. Compared to respondents in 2003, those in 2005 (odds ratio (OR) = 0.40, 95 % confidence interval (CI) = 0.24-0.65) and 2008 (OR = .43, 95 % CI = 0.26-0.70) were about half as likely to use the Internet as the first source of cancer information compared to a healthcare provider. Despite overall increases in cancer information seeking and access to health information from a variety of sources, healthcare providers remain a key source of health information for cancer survivors. PMID:25712202

  14. Cancer Fatalism, Literacy, and Cancer Information Seeking in the American Public

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Lindsay C.; Smith, Samuel G.

    2016-01-01

    Information seeking is an important behavior for cancer prevention and control, but inequalities in the communication of information about the disease persist. Conceptual models have suggested that low health literacy is a barrier to information seeking, and that fatalistic beliefs about cancer may be a mediator of this relationship. Cancer…

  15. Symptom Interpretation and Health Care Seeking in Ovarian Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seibæk, L.; Petersen, L. K.; Blaakaer, J.;

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Ovarian cancer is the leading cause of death among women suffering from gynaecological malignancies in the Western world. Worldwide, approximately 200,000 women are diagnosed with the disease each year. This article deals with the health care seeking and symptom interpretation process...... ovarian cancer. These results were combined with findings from semi-structured qualitative research interviews on women's bodily experiences with symptom development. RESULTS: A number of 663 Danish women with ovarian cancer attended 27 different kinds of primary health care providers in a total of 14...... among Danish women, who have a very high mortality rate. METHODS: The health seeking and symptom interpretation process was analysed via combining study methods. The material consisted of registry data dealing with the use of public health care and hospital services of Danish women, newly diagnosed with...

  16. Symptom interpretation and health care seeking in ovarian cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seibaek, Lene; Petersen, Lone K; Blaakær, Jan;

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Ovarian cancer is the leading cause of death among women suffering from gynaecological malignancies in the Western world. Worldwide, approximately 200,000 women are diagnosed with the disease each year. This article deals with the health care seeking and symptom interpretation process...... ovarian cancer. These results were combined with findings from semi-structured qualitative research interviews on women's bodily experiences with symptom development. RESULTS: A number of 663 Danish women with ovarian cancer attended 27 different kinds of primary health care providers in a total of 14...... among Danish women, who have a very high mortality rate. METHODS: The health seeking and symptom interpretation process was analysed via combining study methods. The material consisted of registry data dealing with the use of public health care and hospital services of Danish women, newly diagnosed with...

  17. Looking beyond the Internet: Examining Socioeconomic Inequalities in Cancer Information Seeking among Cancer Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chul-joo; Ramirez, Susana; Lewis, Nehama; Gray, Stacy W.; Hornik, Robert C.

    2014-01-01

    The gap in cancer information seeking between high-socioeconomic status (SES) cancer patients and low-SES cancer patients deserves serious attention considering the importance of information and knowledge in cancer control. We thus explored the association of SES, as measured by education, with cancer patients’ overall cancer information seeking, and with seeking from each source (i.e., the Internet, mass media, medical sources, and non-medical interpersonal sources) and across two topic categories (i.e., treatment, quality of life). We then asked whether the effect of education on treatment information seeking is reduced among those who are particularly motivated to control treatment choices. We conducted a survey with breast, prostate, and colon cancer patients diagnosed in 2005 (N = 2,013), who were randomly drawn from the Pennsylvania Cancer Registry in the fall of 2006. We found that education was more strongly associated with Internet use than with the use of other sources regardless of topics. Also, when information was sought from mass media, education had a greater association with treatment information seeking than with quality-of-life information seeking. Preference for active participation in treatment decision making, however, did not moderate the effect of education on treatment information seeking. The implications of these findings for public health research and cancer patient education were discussed. PMID:22356137

  18. Biomolecule-loaded chitosan nanoparticles induce apoptosis and molecular changes in cancer cell line (SiHa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sujima Anbu, Anbu; Velmurugan, Palanivel; Lee, Jeong-Ho; Oh, Byung-Taek; Venkatachalam, Perumal

    2016-07-01

    The present study reports on the synthesis of chitosan nanoparticles (CNPs) using methanol extracts of Gymnema sylvestre (GS) leaves and Cinnamomum zeylanicum (CZ) bark. Biomolecule-loaded nanoparticles induced apoptosis in a human cervical cancer (SiHa) cell line, and experiments were carried out to elucidate the underlying molecular mechanisms. FT-IR and XRD showed possible functional groups of the biomolecules and the crystalline nature of CNPs, respectively. Transmission electron microscopy images revealed that synthesized GSCNPs and CZCNPs had a smooth spherical shape with average sizes of about 58-80 and 60-120nm, respectively. Dynamic light scattering studies indicated that both GSCNPs and CZCNs were structurally stable with homogenous and heterogeneous natures, respectively. Furthermore, synthesized GSCNPs and CZCNPs exhibited dose-dependent cytotoxicity against the SiHa cancer cell line, with inhibitory concentration (IC50) values of 102.17μg/ml, 87.75μg/ml, 132.74μg/ml and 90.35μg/ml for GS leaf extract, GSCNPs, CZBE and CZCNPs, respectively. PMID:27016087

  19. Symptom interpretation and health care seeking in ovarian cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blaakaer Jan

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ovarian cancer is the leading cause of death among women suffering from gynaecological malignancies in the Western world. Worldwide, approximately 200,000 women are diagnosed with the disease each year. This article deals with the health care seeking and symptom interpretation process among Danish women, who have a very high mortality rate. Methods The health seeking and symptom interpretation process was analysed via combining study methods. The material consisted of registry data dealing with the use of public health care and hospital services of Danish women, newly diagnosed with ovarian cancer. These results were combined with findings from semi-structured qualitative research interviews on women's bodily experiences with symptom development. Results A number of 663 Danish women with ovarian cancer attended 27 different kinds of primary health care providers in a total of 14,009 visits during 2007. The women also had 6,214 contacts with various hospitals, and obtained 562 different diagnoses. From the main theme "Women's experiences with the onset of symptoms" three sub-themes were identified: "Bodily sensations", "From bodily sensation to symptom", and "Health seeking and treatment start". In all cases the General Practitioner represented the first contact to public health care, acting as gate-keeper to specialist and hospital referral. The women were major users of public health care throughout the diagnostic process and subsequent treatment. All women held personal knowledge concerning the onset of their symptoms. The early symptoms of ovarian cancer might be uncharacteristic and non-disease-specific when interpreted as personal experiences, but they had similarities when analysed together. Conclusions Diagnostic delay in ovarian cancer seems far from being exclusively a medical problem, as the delay proved to be influenced by organisational, cultural, and social factors, too. Initiatives facilitating the diagnostic

  20. Medical Help-Seeking for Sexual Concerns in Prostate Cancer Survivors

    OpenAIRE

    Hyde, Melissa K.; Zajdlewicz, Leah; Wootten, Addie C; Nelson, Christian J.; Lowe, Anthony; Dunn, Jeff; Chambers, Suzanne K

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Although sexual dysfunction is common after prostate cancer, men's decisions to seek help for sexual concerns are not well understood. Aim Describe predictors of actual prior help-seeking and intended future medical help-seeking for sexual dysfunction in prostate cancer survivors. Methods A cross-sectional survey of 510 prostate cancer survivors assessed masculine beliefs, attitudes, support/approval from partner/peer networks (subjective norm), and perceived control as predictor...

  1. Cancer Information Seeking and Cancer-Related Health Outcomes: A Scoping Review of the Health Information National Trends Survey Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wigfall, Lisa T; Friedman, Daniela B

    2016-09-01

    Cancer is a leading cause of death among adults in the United States. Only 54% of U.S. adults reported seeking cancer information in 2014. Cancer information seeking has been positively associated with cancer-related health outcomes such as screening adherence. We conducted a scoping review of studies that used data from the Health Information National Trends Survey (HINTS) in order to examine cancer information seeking in depth and the relationship between cancer information seeking and cancer-related health outcomes. We searched five databases and the HINTS website. The search yielded a total of 274 article titles. After review of 114 de-duplicated titles, 66 abstracts, and 50 articles, 22 studies met inclusion criteria. Cancer information seeking was the outcome in only four studies. The other 18 studies focused on a cancer-related health outcome. Cancer beliefs, health knowledge, and information seeking experience were positive predictors of cancer information seeking. Cancer-related awareness, knowledge, beliefs, preventive behaviors, and screening adherence were higher among cancer information seekers. Results from this review can inform other research study designs and primary data collection focused on specific cancer sites or aimed at populations not represented or underrepresented in the HINTS data (e.g., minority populations, those with lower socioeconomic status). PMID:27466828

  2. Cancer Fatalism, Literacy, and Cancer Information Seeking in the American Public.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Lindsay C; Smith, Samuel G

    2016-08-01

    Information seeking is an important behavior for cancer prevention and control, but inequalities in the communication of information about the disease persist. Conceptual models have suggested that low health literacy is a barrier to information seeking, and that fatalistic beliefs about cancer may be a mediator of this relationship. Cancer fatalism can be described as deterministic thoughts about the external causes of the disease, the inability to prevent it, and the inevitability of death at diagnosis. This study aimed to examine the associations between these constructs and sociodemographic factors, and test a mediation model using the American population-representative Health Information and National Trends Survey (HINTS 4), Cycle 3 (n = 2,657). Approximately one third (34%) of the population failed to answer 2/4 health literacy items correctly (limited health literacy). Many participants agreed with the fatalistic beliefs that it seems like everything causes cancer (66%), that one cannot do much to lower his or her chances of getting cancer (29%), and that thinking about cancer makes one automatically think about death (58%). More than half of the population had "ever" sought information about cancer (53%). In analyses adjusted for sociodemographic characteristics and family cancer history, people with limited health literacy were less likely to have ever sought cancer information (odds ratio [OR] = 0.63; 0.42-0.95) and more frequently endorsed the belief that "there's not much you can do . . ." (OR = 1.61; 1.05-2.47). This fatalistic belief partially explained the relationship between health literacy and information seeking in the mediation model (14% mediation). Interventions are needed to address low health literacy and cancer fatalism to increase public interest in cancer-related information. PMID:26377524

  3. The roles of support seeking and race/ethnicity in posttraumatic growth among breast cancer survivors

    OpenAIRE

    Kent, Erin E.; Alfano, Catherine M.; Smith, Ashley Wilder; Bernstein, Leslie; McTiernan, Anne; Baumgartner, Kathy B.; Ballard-Barbash, Rachel

    2013-01-01

    Posttraumatic growth (PTG) after cancer can minimize the emotional impact of disease and treatment; however, the facilitators of PTG, including support-seeking, are unclear. We examined the role of support-seeking on PTG among 604 breast cancer survivors ages 40–64 from the Health Eating, Activity, and Lifestyle (HEAL) Study. Multivariable linear regression was used to examine predictors of support-seeking (participation in support groups and confiding in healthcare providers) as well as the ...

  4. Quantitative evaluation of an information leaflet to increase prompt help-seeking for gynaecological cancer symptoms

    OpenAIRE

    Morris, Melanie; Friedemann Smith, Claire; Boxell, Emily; Wardle, Jane; Simon, Alice; Waller, Jo

    2016-01-01

    Background Provision of written information may improve awareness of cancer symptoms and encourage timely presentation in primary care. This study assessed changes in symptom knowledge, perceived barriers to help-seeking, anxiety and intention to seek help, following exposure to a leaflet to raise awareness of gynaecological cancer symptoms. Methods Women (N = 484) completed questionnaires before and after reading the leaflet. The primary outcome was change in anticipated time to help-seeking...

  5. Preservation of biomolecules in breast cancer tissue by a formalin-free histology system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morales Azorides R

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The potential problems associated with the use of formalin in histology, such as health hazards, degradation of RNA and cross-linking of proteins are well recognized. We describe the utilization of a formalin-free fixation and processing system for tissue detection of two important biopredictors in breast cancer – estrogen receptor and HER2 – at the RNA and protein levels. Methods Parallel sections of 62 cases of breast cancer were fixed in an alcohol-based molecular fixative and in formalin. Molecular fixative samples were processed by a novel formalin-free microwave-assisted processing system that preserves DNA, RNA and proteins. Formalin-fixed samples were processed using the conventional method. Estrogen receptor was assessed by immunohistochemistry and real-time PCR. HER2 was assessed by immunohistochemistry, FISH, CISH and real-time PCR. Results The immunohistochemical reaction for estrogen receptor was similar in molecular- and formalin-fixed samples (Spearman Rank R = 0.83, p Conclusion The formalin-free tissue fixation and processing system is a practical platform for evaluation of biomolecular markers in breast cancer and it allows reliable DNA and RNA and protein studies.

  6. Care-seeking behavior of Japanese gynecological cancer survivors suffering from adverse effects

    OpenAIRE

    Oshima Sumiko; Kisa Kengo; Terashita Takayoshi; Kawabata Hidenobu; Maezawa Masaji

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background Post-treatment follow-up visits for gynecological cancer survivors should provide opportunities for management of adverse physical/psychological effects of therapy and early recurrence detection. However, the adequacy of such visits in Japan is poorly documented. We qualitatively explored care-seeking experiences of Japanese gynecological cancer survivors and deduced factors influencing care-seeking behaviors and treatment access. Methods We conducted 4 semi-structured foc...

  7. A Novel Biomolecule-Mediated Reduction of Graphene Oxide: A Multifunctional Anti-Cancer Agent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun-Jung Choi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Graphene oxide (GO is a monolayer of carbon atoms that form a dense honeycomb structure, consisting of hydroxyl and epoxide functional groups on the two accessible sides and carboxylic groups at the edges. In contrast, graphene is a two-dimensional sheet of sp2-hybridized carbon atoms packed into a honeycomb lattice. Graphene has great potential for use in biomedical applications due to its excellent physical and chemical properties. In this study, we report a facile and environmentally friendly approach for the synthesis of reduced graphene oxide (rGO using uric acid (UA. The synthesized uric acid-reduced graphene oxide (UA-rGO was fully characterized by ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis absorption spectra, X-ray diffraction (XRD, dynamic light scattering (DLS, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, and Raman spectroscopy. GO and UA-rGO induced a dose-dependent decrease in cell viability and induced cytotoxicity in human ovarian cancer cells. The results from this study suggest that UA-rGO could cause apoptosis in mammalian cells. The toxicity of UA-rGO is significantly higher than GO. Based on our findings, UA-rGO shows cytotoxic effects against human ovarian cancer cells, and its synthesis is environmentally friendly. UA-rGO significantly inhibits cell viability by increasing lactate dehydrogenase (LDH release, reactive oxygen species (ROS generation, activation of caspase-3, and DNA fragmentation. This is the first report to describe the comprehensive effects of UA-rGO in ovarian cancer cells. We believe that the functional aspects of newly synthesized UA-rGO will provide advances towards various biomedical applications in the near future.

  8. Ethnic differences in cancer symptom awareness and barriers to seeking medical help in England

    OpenAIRE

    Niksic, Maja; Rachet, Bernard; Warburton, Fiona G; Forbes, Lindsay J.L.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Ethnic differences in cancer symptom awareness and barriers to seeking medical help in the English population are not fully understood. We aimed to quantify these differences, to help develop more effective health campaigns, tailored to the needs of different ethnic groups. Methods: Using a large national data set (n=38 492) of cross-sectional surveys that used the Cancer Research UK Cancer Awareness Measure, we examined how cancer symptom awareness and barriers varied by ethnicit...

  9. Biomolecule labelling by 186 Re

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study is to develop and improve the existing radiolabelling techniques of peptides and monoclonal antibodies with 186 Re and 188 Re as potential agents for cancer targeted radiotherapy. We selected the following methods and techniques for direct labelling of peptides and monoclonal antibody: 1. Prereduction of -S-S- bridges of biomolecule to sulfhydryls using reducing agents: ascorbic acid, cysteine, active hydrogen, 2,3 dimercaptopropanol. The prereduction reactions are controlled by massic ratios of reduction agents/biomolecule, pH, temperature and time of incubation; 2. Reduction of 186 Re O4- stannous chloride in acid and alkaline pH; 3. Coupling reaction of 186 Re (red) with the biomolecule controlled by the time and temperature of incubation, the influence of pH regarding the binding of 186 Re to the biomolecules. The quality control was effected by chromatography techniques (paper and elution gel chromatography) on labeled biomolecule before and after purification. The elution gel chromatography was spectrophotometricaly monitored at 280 nm. In the same time the radioactivity of samples was measured using a gamma counter. All the results confirm in vitro stability of labeled biomolecule. The biological evaluation studies regarding accumulation and biological affinity will be controlled by scintigraphy method. Biodistribution studies will be effected to Walker tumor bearing animals at 4 and 24 hours after injections. (authors)

  10. Delay in seeking specialized care for oral cancers: Experience from a tertiary cancer center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Joshi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Advanced oral cancers are a challenge for treatment, as they require complex procedures for excision and reconstruction. Despite being occurring at a visible site and can be detected easily, many patients present in advanced stages with large tumors. Timely intervention is important in improving survival and quality of life in these patients. The aim of the present study was to find out the causes of delay in seeking specialist care in advanced oral cancer patients. Materials and Methods: A prospective questionnaire based study was done on 201 consecutive advanced oral squamous cancer patients who underwent surgery at our hospital. All patients had either cancer of gingivobuccal complex (GBC or tongue and had tumors of size more than 4 cm (T3/T4 and were treatment naοve at presentation. RESULTS: Even though most patients observed abnormal lesions in their mouth, majority delayed the decision to visit a physician early. A significant percentage of patients (50% also reported a delayed diagnosis by the primary care physician before being referred to a tertiary care center for definitive treatment. The average total duration from symptoms to treatment was 7 months. Conclusion: The main reasons of this delay in receiving treatment were due to patients themselves (primary delay or due to time taken by the primary physician to diagnose the condition (secondary delay. Oral self-examination can be helpful in detecting oral cancers early.

  11. Men with cancer : psychosocial issues, health behaviours, coping and help seeking

    OpenAIRE

    Dale, Hannah

    2016-01-01

    Background: A range of factors contribute to men with cancer having worse mortality and morbidity rates than women. The research specifically focused on psychosocial issues and health behaviours in men with cancer, and factors affecting help seeking behaviour. Methods: A mixed-methods study recruited adult men with cancer in the East of Scotland. The quantitative cross-sectional study explored psychosocial issues, health behaviours, and desire for support. Data from the Scottish Longitudin...

  12. Care-seeking behavior of Japanese gynecological cancer survivors suffering from adverse effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oshima Sumiko

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Post-treatment follow-up visits for gynecological cancer survivors should provide opportunities for management of adverse physical/psychological effects of therapy and early recurrence detection. However, the adequacy of such visits in Japan is poorly documented. We qualitatively explored care-seeking experiences of Japanese gynecological cancer survivors and deduced factors influencing care-seeking behaviors and treatment access. Methods We conducted 4 semi-structured focus groups comprising altogether 28 Japanese gynecological cancer survivors to collect a variety of participants’ post-treatment care-seeking behaviors through active interaction with participants. Factors influencing access to treatment for adverse effects were analyzed qualitatively. Results Survivors sought care through specialty clinic visits when regular post-treatment gynecological follow-ups were inadequate or when symptoms seemed to be non-treatment related. Information provided by hospital staff during initial treatment influenced patients’ understanding and response to adverse effects. Lack of knowledge and inaccurate symptom interpretation delayed help-seeking, exacerbating symptoms. Gynecologists’ attitudes during follow-ups frequently led survivors to cope with symptoms on their own. Information from mass media, Internet, and support groups helped patients understand symptoms and facilitated care seeking. Conclusions Post-treatment adverse effects are often untreated during follow-up visits. Awareness of possible post-treatment adverse effects is important for gynecological cancer survivors in order to obtain appropriate care if the need arises. Consultation during the follow-up visit is essential for continuity in care.

  13. Patterns of information-seeking for cancer on the internet: an analysis of real world data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yishai Ofran

    Full Text Available Although traditionally the primary information sources for cancer patients have been the treating medical team, patients and their relatives increasingly turn to the Internet, though this source may be misleading and confusing. We assess Internet searching patterns to understand the information needs of cancer patients and their acquaintances, as well as to discern their underlying psychological states. We screened 232,681 anonymous users who initiated cancer-specific queries on the Yahoo Web search engine over three months, and selected for study users with high levels of interest in this topic. Searches were partitioned by expected survival for the disease being searched. We compared the search patterns of anonymous users and their contacts. Users seeking information on aggressive malignancies exhibited shorter search periods, focusing on disease- and treatment-related information. Users seeking knowledge regarding more indolent tumors searched for longer periods, alternated between different subjects, and demonstrated a high interest in topics such as support groups. Acquaintances searched for longer periods than the proband user when seeking information on aggressive (compared to indolent cancers. Information needs can be modeled as transitioning between five discrete states, each with a unique signature representing the type of information of interest to the user. Thus, early phases of information-seeking for cancer follow a specific dynamic pattern. Areas of interest are disease dependent and vary between probands and their contacts. These patterns can be used by physicians and medical Web site authors to tailor information to the needs of patients and family members.

  14. Intended care seeking for ovarian cancer symptoms among U.S. women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Crystale Purvis; Gelb, Cynthia A; Trivers, Katrina F; Stewart, Sherri L

    2016-06-01

    To investigate U.S. women's intended care seeking for symptoms associated with ovarian cancer, data from the 2012 HealthStyles Fall survey of U.S. adults were examined. Analyses were limited to women with no history of gynecologic cancer (N = 1726). Logistic regression models for intended care seeking within 2 weeks of symptom onset were developed. A minority of women recognized that unexplained pelvic or abdominal pain (29.9%), unexplained bloating (18.1%), and feeling full after eating a small amount of food (10.1%) can indicate ovarian cancer, and 31.1% mistakenly believed that the Papanicolaou (Pap) test screens for the disease. In the multivariate regression models, the most consistent, significant predictors (p educational efforts should emphasize that symptoms associated with ovarian cancer may also result from benign conditions. PMID:27419020

  15. The role of helplines in cancer care: intertwining emotional support with information or advice-seeking needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekberg, Katie; McDermott, Joanne; Moynihan, Clare; Brindle, Lucy; Little, Paul; Leydon, Geraldine M

    2014-01-01

    Helplines are core feature of the contemporary U.K. health care system, however little is known about callers' experiences of seeking cancer-related telephone help. Qualitative interviews were conducted with 32 cancer helpline callers. The findings suggest cancer helplines offer callers (1) time to discuss their issues, (2) anonymity, (3) convenience, and (4) an open outlet for anyone affected by cancer including family/friends. Further, the findings highlighted that callers' help-seeking behavior was multifaceted, with their psychosocial needs being intrinsically intertwined with their information or advice-seeking needs. The implications are discussed in relation to the role of cancer helplines in the healthcare system. PMID:24611530

  16. Cancer Information Seeking Behaviors of Korean American Women: A Mixed-Methods Study Using Surveys and Focus Group Interviews

    OpenAIRE

    Oh, KM; Jun, J; Zhao, X.; Kreps, GL; Lee, EE

    2015-01-01

    Copyright © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC 2015. Despite the high risk of cancer to the population, Korean Americans are known to have lower knowledge about cancer related information and a lower level of adherence to cancer prevention guidelines. This indicates the necessity of cancer interventions targeting the Korean American population. To reach this population effectively, it is imperative to understand Korean Americans cancer information seeking behaviors. This study (a) identified cancer ...

  17. Internet Access and Online Cancer Information Seeking Among Latino Immigrants From Safety Net Clinics

    Science.gov (United States)

    SELSKY, CLAIRE; LUTA, GEORGE; NOONE, ANNE-MICHELLE; HUERTA, ELMER E.; MANDELBLATT, JEANNE S.

    2013-01-01

    Internet use is widespread, but little is known about Internet use for cancer information among Latinos, especially those who rely on safety net clinics. The authors investigated access to and intended use of the Internet for cancer information among low income, immigrant Latinos predominately from Central and South America. A cross-sectional study of 1,273 Latinos 21 years and older attending safety net clinics or health fairs was conducted from June 2007 to November 2008. The authors used logistic regression models to evaluate associations of age, acculturation, psychosocial factors and other covariates with Internet access and intended use of the Internet for cancer information among those with access. Of the sample, 44% reported Internet access. Higher information self-efficacy and greater trust in the Internet were independently associated with Internet access (p= .05 and p < .001, respectively). Among those with access, 53.8% reported they intended to seek cancer help online if they needed information. Those with younger age and higher acculturation, education and self-efficacy had higher odds of intended Internet use for cancer information, considering covariates. In addition, those with high (vs. low) perceived risk of cancer (OR = 1.76; 95% CI [1.14, 2.73]; p = .01) and higher levels of trust in online health information (OR = 1.47 per one-point increase; 95% [CI 1.19, 1.82]; p = .0004) were more likely to intend to seek cancer information online. These findings that Internet access is fairly high in the immigrant Latino population and that the Internet is a trusted source of cancer information suggest that the Internet may be a channel for cancer control interventions. PMID:23066874

  18. Treatment with bone-seeking radionuclides for painful bone metastases in patients with lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zacho, Helle D; Karthigaseu, Nita Nishanthiny; Fuglsang, Randi;

    2016-01-01

    Treatment with bone-seeking radionuclides may provide palliation from pain originating from bone metastases. However, most studies have been conducted in patients with prostate cancer and patients with breast cancer. We aimed to perform a systematic review of the use of radionuclide treatment in...... lung cancer in accordance with the PRISMA guidelines. In the eligible trials, pain relief was reported in 75% of the patients included in the studies. The onset of pain relief was seen within 1-5 weeks after treatment, lasting up to 6 months. However, the methodology in the included trials was poor...... prior/concomitant analgaesics. Large randomised controlled trials are needed to clarify the efficacy of radionuclide treatment in lung cancer....

  19. Predicting Cancer Information Seeking Behaviors of Smokers, Former Smokers and Nonsmokers Using the 2012 Health Information National Trends Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Suekyung

    2013-01-01

    Cancer can be one of the most serious diseases that can result in a costly reduction in the quality of life. Among a number of cancer risk factors, tobacco use has been identified as the leading preventable cause of deaths. Prior research has suggested that cancer information seeking may be a pre-step to adopt health protective behaviors that can…

  20. Heart Disease and Colon Cancer Prevention Beliefs and Their Association With Information Seeking and Scanning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hovick, Shelly R; Bigsby, Elisabeth

    2016-01-01

    Despite their understanding of the links between (a) information seeking and scanning and (b) health outcomes, researchers still know relatively little about the impact of information behaviors on people's disease-related beliefs and attitudes. The goal of this study was to validate findings linking information and health behaviors and to assess whether information seeking and scanning are associated with beliefs about the effectiveness of heart disease and colon cancer risk prevention behaviors (in regard to exercise, controlling one's diet to prevent overweight/obesity, and daily fruit and vegetable intake), as well as determine whether the effects of seeking versus scanning on these beliefs differ. Data from the Annenberg National Health Communication Survey were analyzed (N = 3,212). For colon cancer, significant main effects were detected for information scanning for each of the 3 beliefs assessed (p .05). Our results suggest that disease-related cognitions and beliefs, which ultimately impact decisions to engage in prevention behaviors, may be influenced most by less purposeful forms of information acquisition. PMID:26444664

  1. Antecedent Characteristics of Online Cancer Information Seeking Among Rural Breast Cancer Patients: An Application of the Cognitive-Social Health Information Processing (C-SHIP) Model

    OpenAIRE

    Shaw, Bret R.; DuBenske, Lori L.; Han, Jeong Yeob; Cofta-Woerpel, Ludmila; Bush, Nigel; Gustafson, David H.; McTavish, Fiona

    2008-01-01

    Little research has examined the antecedent characteristics of patients most likely to seek online cancer information. This study employs the Cognitive-Social Health Information Processing (C-SHIP) model as a framework to understand what psychosocial characteristics precede online cancer-related information seeking among rural breast cancer patients who often have fewer healthcare providers and limited local support services. Examining 144 patients who were provided free computer hardware, In...

  2. Ethnic differences in cancer symptom awareness and barriers to seeking medical help in England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niksic, Maja; Rachet, Bernard; Warburton, Fiona G; Forbes, Lindsay J L

    2016-01-01

    Background: Ethnic differences in cancer symptom awareness and barriers to seeking medical help in the English population are not fully understood. We aimed to quantify these differences, to help develop more effective health campaigns, tailored to the needs of different ethnic groups. Methods: Using a large national data set (n=38 492) of cross-sectional surveys that used the Cancer Research UK Cancer Awareness Measure, we examined how cancer symptom awareness and barriers varied by ethnicity, controlling for socio-economic position, age and gender. Data were analysed using multivariable logistic regression. Results: Awareness of cancer symptoms was lower in minority ethnic groups than White participants, with the lowest awareness observed among Bangladeshis and Black Africans. Ethnic minorities were more likely than White British to report barriers to help-seeking. South Asians reported the highest emotional barriers, such as lack of confidence to talk to the doctor, and practical barriers, such as worry about many other things. The Irish were more likely than the White British to report practical barriers, such as being too busy to visit a doctor. White British participants were more likely than any other ethnic group to report that they would feel worried about wasting the doctor's time. Overall, Black Africans had the lowest barriers. All differences were statistically significant (P<0.01 level), after controlling for confounders. Conclusions: Our findings suggest the need for culturally sensitive and targeted health campaigns, focused on improving recognition of cancer symptoms among ethnic minorities. Campaigns should tackle the specific barriers prevalent in each ethnic group. PMID:27280638

  3. Associations between health care seeking and socioeconomic and demographic determinants among people reporting alarm symptoms of cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Rikke P; Jarbol, Dorte E; Larsen, Pia V; Støvring, Henrik; Hansen, Bjarne L; Soendergaard, Jens

    2013-01-01

    Late diagnosis of cancer may partly be explained by the fact that some patients do not seek health care promptly when experiencing an alarm symptom. Socioeconomic and demographic differences exist concerning knowledge and awareness of cancer alarm symptoms in the general population and socioecono......Late diagnosis of cancer may partly be explained by the fact that some patients do not seek health care promptly when experiencing an alarm symptom. Socioeconomic and demographic differences exist concerning knowledge and awareness of cancer alarm symptoms in the general population and...... socioeconomic differences are found in cancer incidence and survival. We therefore hypothesise that socioeconomic and demographic differences in health care-seeking behaviour are present among people with alarm symptoms....

  4. Biomolecules in Astrobiology

    OpenAIRE

    Meringer, Markus

    2013-01-01

    Astrobiology is the study of the origin, distribution and future of life in the universe, biomolecules are molecules produced by living organisms. This talk reviews known facts and open questions about biomolecules in the context of Astrobiology and introduces a research project on "Creating a Reference Set of Amino Acids Structures for Use in Multiple Astrobiology Investigations" that tries to find answers using computational methods.

  5. Race/Ethnicity and Multiple Cancer Risk Factors among Individuals Seeking Smoking Cessation Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendzor, Darla E.; Costello, Tracy J.; Li, Yisheng; Vidrine, Jennifer Irvin; Mazas, Carlos A.; Reitzel, Lorraine R.; Cinciripini, Paul M.; Cofta-Woerpel, Ludmila M.; Businelle, Michael S.; Wetter, David W.

    2016-01-01

    Smoking in combination with other behavioral risk factors is known to have a negative influence on health, and individuals who smoke typically engage in multiple risk behaviors. However, little is known about the clustering of risk behaviors among smokers of varying race/ethnicity. The purpose of this study was to examine patterns of cancer risk behaviors and to identify predictors of multiple risk behaviors in a racially/ethnically diverse sample of individuals seeking smoking cessation treatment. Overweight/obesity, at-risk alcohol consumption, and insufficient physical activity were measured in 424 smokers (African American, n = 144; Latino, n = 141; Caucasian, n = 139). Results indicated that 90% of participants reported behavioral cancer risk factors in addition to smoking. Approximately 70% of participants were overweight or obese, 48% engaged in at-risk drinking, and 27% were insufficiently physically active. Univariate analyses indicated that race/ethnicity, p culturally sensitive interventions that target multiple risk behaviors. PMID:18990734

  6. Labelling of CTMP with technetium-99m as radiopharmaceutical for bone cancer seeking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiopharmaceutical for bone cancer seeking was developed in variable compound labelled with technetium-99m, formally pyrophosphate compound and diphosphonate compound such as methylenediphosphonate (99mTc-MDP), hydroxyethylene diphosphonate (99mTc-HEDP) and hydroxy methylene diphosphonate (99mTc-HMDP). Either pyrophosphate or diphosphonate still unsatisfied to use as radiopharmaceutical for bone cancer seeking because the high accumulation in lever, muscle and blood. The compound of tetraaminotetraphosphonate groups have the higher affinity in bone because of four phosphonate and four amine groups. This experiment was done to label the compound group especially 1,4,8, 1-tetraazacyclotetradecyl-1,4,8,11-tetramethylene phosphonic acid (CTMP) with technetium-99m radionuclide. To obtain the maximal labelling result, some parameters such as pH, amount of SnCl2 reductor and ligan, time and temperature of reaction are optimized. The optimal condition obtained were pH of 4-6, 100 µg of SnCl2 reductor, 500 µg of CTMP ligand and labelling time of 10 minutes in boiling water or 30 minutes in room temperature, with labelling efficiency was >95 %. (author)

  7. Factors Associated with Use of Interactive Cancer Communication System: An Application of the Comprehensive Model of Information Seeking

    OpenAIRE

    Han, Jeong Yeob; Wise, Meg; Kim, Eunkyung; Pingree, Ray; Hawkins, Robert P.; Pingree, Suzanne; McTAVISH, FIONA; Gustafson, David H.

    2010-01-01

    In order to provide insights about cancer patients’ online information seeking behaviors, the present study analyzes individuals’ transaction log data and reports on how demographics, disease-related factors, and psychosocial needs predict patterns of service use within a particular Interactive Cancer Communication System (ICCS). Study sample included 294 recently diagnosed breast cancer patients. Data included pretest survey scores of demographic, disease-related, and psychosocial factors an...

  8. Delay in seeking medical advice by breast cancer patients presenting with a breast lump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Among the most commonly cited causes of delay in seeking medical advice by breast cancer females patients are ignorance, fear and fatalistic attitude. In a previous study we found that psychological factors played the major part in this delay. In Egypt, most of the patients realized the significance of the presence of a breast lump. This initiated us to study another 80 breast cancer female patients. At least four interviews with each patient were performed within six months by the treating oncologist. The time between the discovery of the lump and seeking medical consultation varied between a few hours and five years with a mean of eight months after four interviews while it was one month after the first interview. Fifty-five patients (68.7%) sought medical advice after more than three months of the discovery of the lump. Patients who were above 50 years of age delayed more than younger patients. The presence of a husband and the work of patients had no effect on the delay. It seems that high education did not prevent the procrastination. Most of the patients (90%) realized the significance of presence of a breast lump. Variations of fear - and not ignorance - were the main causes of delay. The fear of the socio-economic consequences of diagnosis of cancer, the incurability of the disease, pain and death were more prominent than the fear of disfigurement and mastectomy. Elderly patients had a more fatalistic outlook. We suggest that radiation oncologists should be involved in the studies of different aspects of this complicated problem. 14 refs

  9. First experiences with technetium-99m furifosmin as tumour-seeking agent in breast cancer and recurrent ovarian cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent in vitro studies suggest that technetium-99m furifosmin may have tumour-seeking properties. We analysed the diagnostic value of 99mTc-furifosmin scintigraphy in nine patients with documented carcinoma of the breast and in eight patients with continued recurrent ovarian cancer. In the breast, 99mTc-furifosmin failed to visualize the primary malignant tumour and the associated malignant lymph nodes in all patients. In contrast, multiple sites of increased tracer uptake were demonstrated in one patient with acute benign inflammatory breast disease. In four of eight patients with recurrent ovarian cancer, 99mTc-furifosmin scintigraphy demonstrated early (5 min p.i.) localized increased uptake corresponding to adhesions to the bowel as diagnosed by computed tomography, but failed to reveal further abnormalities in all patients. The present study demonstrates that furifosmin is of no value in the imaging of breast cancer and recurrent ovarian cancer. These results do not continue the pattern observed in cell culture studies and are quite in contrast to the findings of mammoscintigraphy using 99mTc-methoxyisobutylisonitrile and 99mTc-tetrofosmin. (orig.). With 3 figs., 2 tabs

  10. Symptomization and triggering processes: ovarian cancer patients' narratives on pre-diagnostic sensation experiences and the initiation of healthcare seeking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandner, Susanne; Müller-Nordhorn, Jacqueline; Stritter, Wiebke; Fotopoulou, Christina; Sehouli, Jalid; Holmberg, Christine

    2014-10-01

    Ovarian cancer is a malignant entity typically diagnosed in advanced stages, with concomitant poor prognosis. Delayed healthcare seeking is commonly explained by the 'vague' character of the disease's symptoms combined with a lack of awareness among patients. However, research on the social contexts of ovarian cancer patients' pre-diagnostic illness experiences and healthcare seeking is scarce. To explore these topics, we initiated a qualitative interview study guided by the principles of grounded theory and based on interviews with 42 ovarian cancer patients. The study was conducted in Germany from September 2011 to February 2013. Our analysis illustrates how, in the narratives, the interviewees struggled to balance specific bodily sensations with aspects of their life-worlds prior to consulting a biomedical professional. We propose a three-phase model to capture these experiences and demonstrate how the developments of pre-diagnostic sensations were catalysed by the dynamic and complex interplay of the sensations with a variety of individual and socio-cultural factors. To conceptualize these interplays, we introduce the analytical notion of a triggering process, and we elaborate on the different ways in which such a process conditioned the transformation of a sensation into a symptom and decisions to seek healthcare. We finally discuss our findings both in relation to current research on sensations, symptoms and healthcare seeking and in their relevance for understanding diagnostic delays in ovarian cancer. PMID:25179810

  11. Reasons for not seeking medical help for severe pelvic floor symptoms: a qualitative study in survivors of gynaecological cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.H. Hazewinkel; M.A.G. Sprangers; E.F. Taminiau-Bloem; J. van der Velden; M.P.M. Burger; J.P.W.R. Roovers

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: (1) To explore the reasons for not seeking help for severe pelvic floor symptoms after gynaecological cancer treatment. (2) To determine the willingness to undergo treatment for these symptoms. (3) To invite suggestions to improve outpatient care. DESIGN: Qualitative study using semistruc

  12. Assessing Technologies for Information-Seeking on Prostate Cancer Screening by Low-Income Men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan W. McRoy

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This paper presents a multipart investigation of the benefits and challenges in deploying automated question-answering as an alternative to web-based searching to provide information about prostate cancer screening for low-income men age 40 years and older. Methods: The study comprised: 1 a survey assessing current use of the Internet, mobile phones and texting; 2 a controlled observational study of both web-based searching and automated question-answering for information about prostate cancer; and 3 a formative field study in which subjects interacted with a health department nurse using text messages. Results: Survey results suggest the target population has greater access to, and familiarity with, cell phones and text messaging compared to the Internet and web-based searching. Participants were significantly more confident using a cell phone and preferred to get health information through text messaging. Participants in the controlled observational study accepted the text messaging system, with most indicating it answered their questions, was easy to use and was a favorable tool for information-seeking. The field study also demonstrated potential for automated question-answering and text messaging to help the target population access health information. Conclusions: A two-way text messaging system has great potential to promote health communication and health information distribution. Participant interest in this system was high and did not seem to be specific to prostate cancer screening, suggesting that information about other topics, such as high blood pressure screening, could be provided similarly. We believe more investigations should be focused on this area, especially on benefits for the low-income community.

  13. Development of boronated tumor-seeking materials for application in neutron capture therapy of cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: At the present time the main field of application of boron compounds in medicine is Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) of cancer. In this presentation the main principles of BNCT and main types of polyhedral boron compounds used for BNCT will be shown. The successful treatment of tumors by BNCT requires selective delivery of the boron moiety into the tumor cells. One of ways to solve this problem is attachment of boron fragment to different tumor-specific targeting molecules. Literature and our recent results on the preparation of novel boronated amino acids, carboranecarboxylic acids, a design of different conjugates of polyhedral boron compounds with tumor-seeking molecules, like porphyrins, phthalocyanines, nucleosides, carbohydrates, and lipids will be presented. Conjugates of natural porphyrins and phthalocyanines with carborane, closo-dodecaborate and cobalt bis(dicarbollide) were synthesized. The combination of these two fragments in one molecule makes these compounds potentially useful for both fluorescence diagnostics (FD) and BNCT of tumours. Boronated nucleosides are considered to be potential BNCT candidates because they can accumulate in the tumor cells. Thus, we have succeeded in preparation of the very first conjugates of closo-dodecaborate anion with one canonic nucleoside (thymidine)

  14. Navigating the cancer information environment: The reciprocal relationship between patient-clinician information engagement and information seeking from nonmedical sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moldovan-Johnson, Mihaela; Tan, Andy SL; Hornik, Robert C

    2014-01-01

    Prior theory has argued and empirical studies have shown that cancer patients rely on information from their health care providers as well as lay sources to understand and make decisions about their disease. However, research on the dynamic and interdependent nature of cancer patients’ engagement with different information sources is lacking. This study tested the hypotheses that patient-clinician information engagement and information seeking from nonmedical sources influence one another longitudinally among a representative cohort of 1,293 cancer survivors in Pennsylvania. The study hypotheses were supported in a series of lagged multiple regression analyses. Baseline seeking information from nonmedical sources positively predicted subsequent patient-clinician information engagement at one-year follow-up. The reverse relationship was also statistically significant; baseline patient-clinician information engagement positively predicted information seeking from nonmedical sources at follow-up. These findings suggest that cancer survivors move between nonmedical to clinician sources in a dynamic way to learn about their disease. PMID:24359259

  15. Predictors of Online Health Information Seeking Among Women with Breast Cancer: The Role of Social Support Perception and Emotional Well-Being

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Sojung Claire; Shah, Dhavan V.; Namkoong, Kang; McTavish, Fiona M.; Gustafson, David H.

    2013-01-01

    This study attempts to examine the role of social support perception and emotional well-being on online information seeking among cancer patients within the context of CHESS, a well-established Interactive Cancer Communication System (ICCS). Factor and regression analyses conducted among 231 breast cancer patients revealed that social support perception and emotional well-being interacted with each other to influence online health information seeking. Patients with low social support percepti...

  16. Facilitators and barriers to help-seeking for breast and cervical cancer symptoms: a qualitative study with an ethnically diverse sample in London.

    OpenAIRE

    Marlow, L.A.; McGregor, L M; Nazroo, J. Y.; Wardle, J.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Earlier diagnosis of cancer has become a policy priority. There is evidence that minority ethnic groups are more likely to delay help-seeking for cancer symptoms, but few studies have explored reasons for delay in these groups. The present study explored facilitators and barriers to help-seeking for breast and cervical cancer in an ethnically diverse sample of women. Methods Semi-structured interviews were carried out with 54 healthy women from a range of ethnic backgrounds; Indian,...

  17. Overview of the use of theory to understand infrared and Raman spectra and images of biomolecules: colorectal cancer as an example

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Piva, J. A. A. C.; Silva, J. L. R.; Raniero, L.;

    2011-01-01

    In this work, we present the state of the art in the use of theory (first principles, molecular dynamics, and statistical methods) for interpreting and understanding the infrared (vibrational) absorption and Raman scattering spectra. It is discussed how they can be used in combination with purely...... experimental studies to generate infrared and Raman images of biomolecules in biologically relevant solutions, including fluids, cells, and both healthy and diseased tissue. The species and conformers of the individual biomolecules are in many cases not stable structures, species, or conformers in the isolated...... state or in non-polar non-strongly interacting solvents. Hence, it is better to think of the collective behavior of the system. The collective interaction is not the simple sum of the individual parts. Here, we will show that this is also not true for the infrared and Raman spectra and images and that...

  18. Nonlinear excitations in biomolecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of the workshop entitled ''Nonlinear Excitations in Biomolecules'' is to attempt to bridge the gap between the physicists and biologists communities which is mainly due to language and cultural barriers. The progress of nonlinear science in the last few decades which have shown that the combination of nonlinearity, which characterize most biological phenomena, and cooperative effects in a system having a large number of degrees of freedom, can give rise to coherent excitations with remarkable properties. New concepts, such as solitons nd nonlinear energy localisation have become familiar to physicists and applied mathematicians. It is thus tempting to make an analogy between these coherent excitations and the exceptional stability of some biological processes, such as for instance DNA transcription, which require the coordination of many events in the ever changing environment of a cell. Physicists are now invoking nonlinear excitations to describe and explain many bio-molecular processes while biologists often doubt that the seemingly infinite variety of phenomena that they are attempting to classify can be reduced to such simple concepts. A large part of the meeting is devoted to tutorial lectures rather than to latest research results. The book provides a pedagogical introduction to the two topics forming the backbone of the meeting: the theory of nonlinear excitations and solitons, and their application in biology; and the structure and function of biomolecules, as well as energy and charge transport in biophysics. In order to emphasize the link between physics and biology, the volume is not divided along these two topics but according to biological subjects. Each chapter starts with a short introduction attempting to help the reader to find his way among the contributions and point out the connection between them. 23 lectures over the 32 presented have been selected and refers to quantum properties of macro-molecules. (J.S.)

  19. Help seeking behavior of women with self-discovered breast cancer symptoms: a meta-ethnographic synthesis of patient delay.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zohreh Khakbazan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Patient delay makes a critical contribution to late diagnosis and poor survival in cases of breast cancer. Identifying the factors that influence patient delay could provide information for adopting strategies that shorten this delay. The aim of this meta-ethnography was to synthesize existing qualitative evidence in order to gain a new understanding of help seeking behavior in women with self-discovered breast cancer symptoms and to determine the factors that influence patient delay. METHODS: The design was a meta-ethnography approach. A systematic search of the articles was performed in different databases including Elsevier, PubMed, ProQuest and SCOPUS. Qualitative studies with a focus on help seeking behaviors in women with self-discovered breast cancer symptoms and patient delay, published in the English language between 1990 and 2013 were included. The quality appraisal of the articles was carried out using the Critical Appraisal Skills Programme qualitative research checklist and 13 articles met the inclusion criteria. The synthesis was conducted according to Noblit and Hare's meta-ethnographic approach (1988, through reciprocal translational analysis and lines-of-argument. FINDINGS: The synthesis led to identification of eight repeated key concepts including: symptom detection, initial symptom interpretation, symptom monitoring, social interaction, emotional reaction, priority of medical help, appraisal of health services and personal-environmental factors. Symptom interpretation is identified as the important step of the help seeking process and which changed across the process through active monitoring of their symptoms, social interactions and emotional reactions. The perceived seriousness of the situation, priority to receive medical attention, perceived inaccessibility and unacceptability of the health care system influenced women's decision-making about utilizing health services. CONCLUSION: Help seeking

  20. A Time Series Analysis of Cancer-Related Information Seeking: Hints From the Health Information National Trends Survey (HINTS) 2003-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huerta, Timothy R; Walker, Daniel M; Johnson, Tyler; Ford, Eric W

    2016-09-01

    Recent technological changes, such as the growth of the Internet, have made cancer information widely available. However, it remains unknown whether changes in access have resulted in concomitant changes in information seeking behavior. Previous work explored the cancer information seeking behaviors of the general population using the 2003 Health Information National Trends Survey (HINTS). This article aims to reproduce, replicate, and extend that existing analysis using the original dataset and five additional iterations of HINTS (2007, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014). This approach builds on the earlier work by quantifying the magnitude of change in information seeking behaviors. Bivariate comparison of the 2003 and 2014 data revealed very similar results; however, the multivariate model including all years of data indicated differences between the original and extended models: individuals age 65 and older were no longer less likely to seek cancer information than the 18-35 reference population, and Hispanics were also no longer less likely to be cancer information seekers. The results of our analysis indicate an overall shift in cancer information seeking behaviors and also illuminate the impact of increased Internet usage over the past decade, suggesting specific demographic groups that may benefit from cancer information seeking encouragement. PMID:27565190

  1. Patterns of seeking medical care among Egyptian breast cancer patients: relationship to late-stage presentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mousa, Shimaa M; Seifeldin, Ibrahim A; Hablas, Ahmed; Elbana, Eman S; Soliman, Amr S

    2011-12-01

    Breast cancer is the most common cancer among Egyptian women, accounting for 37.6% of female tumors, and is often diagnosed at later stages. The objective of this study was to investigate breast cancer patient navigation through the health care system in the Nile Delta. Interviews were conducted with 163 newly diagnosed breast cancer patients at the Tanta Cancer Center (TCC), the major cancer center of the region. Patients described their medical care pathway from the initial symptom experienced until their arrival at TCC. Patients whose initial contact was with a general surgeon (OR: 7.6, 95% CI: 2.1, 27.6), primary care provider (OR: 12.2, 95% CI: 2.9, 51.0), or gynecologist (OR: 8.6, 95% CI: 1.4, 53.4) were significantly more likely to experience a delay in reaching the TCC as compared to those visiting a surgical oncologist. Overcoming health care system and patient navigation barriers in developing countries may reduce the time for breast cancer patients to reach a cancer center for early management. PMID:21807518

  2. Study: Blacks Are Less Likely to Seek Genetic Counseling to Assess Cancer Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black Issues in Higher Education, 2005

    2005-01-01

    Black women with a family history of breast cancer are much less likely than Whites to get genetic counseling, in part because of the mistaken notion that the genetic form of the illness is a White woman's disease, researchers say. While breast cancer generally is more common among White women, some data suggest both races have similar rates of…

  3. Motives of cancer patients for using the Internet to seek social support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yli-Uotila, T; Rantanen, A; Suominen, T

    2013-03-01

    The purpose of the study was to describe why Finnish cancer patients choose the internet as a source of social support. The data were collected in May 2010, using an online questionnaire with open-ended questions, through four discussion forums on the websites of the non-profit Cancer Society of Finland. Seventy-four adult patients with cancer participated. The data were analysed using inductive content analysis. The mean age of the participants was 53 years and they were predominantly women. The most common cancer was breast cancer and more than three quarters of the participants had suffered from cancer for less than 5 years. The initial stimuli to use the internet as a source of social support were the ease of communication and access to information as well as the need for emotional and informational support. The actual motives that drove the use of the internet as a source of social support were the requirements for information and peer support, internet technology, a lack of support outside the internet and the negative experiences caused by the illness. The fact that there is an enormous need for information as well as for emotional support and that cancer treatment in Finland is concentrated in major hospitals, to which cancer patients may travel a considerable distance, suggests that nurses should learn to make more frequent virtual contact with their patients. PMID:23320398

  4. Quality of life and mental health among women with ovarian cancer: examining the role of emotional and instrumental social support seeking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Erin M

    2016-07-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the role of emotional and instrumental social support seeking in the quality of life (QOL) and mental health of women with ovarian cancer. Participants were recruited through the Pennsylvania Cancer Registry, and one hundred women took part in a mail questionnaire that collected information on their demographics, medical status, social support seeking, QOL and mental health including anxiety, depression and stress. Hierarchical linear regression analyses were conducted to assess the influence of emotional and instrumental social support seeking on QOL and mental health. After controlling for remission status, greater emotional social support seeking was predictive of higher overall QOL, social/family QOL, functional QOL and lower depression scores. Instrumental social support seeking was not significant in the models. The results illustrate that social support seeking as a coping mechanism is an important consideration in the QOL and mental health of women with ovarian cancer. Future studies should examine the psychological and behavioral mediators of the relationship to further understand the QOL and mental health of women with ovarian cancer. PMID:26549407

  5. An analysis on the delay of cervical cancer patients in seeking medical check up in Dr. Cipto Mangunkusumo National Central General Hospital Jakarta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ni N. Susanti

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available In Indonesia, most cervical cancer patients seek medical help after the cancer has reached advanced stage (62 %. This has caused cervical cancer to contribute to 66 % of gynecological deaths.1 The objective of this study is to find out factors related to the delay of cervical cancer patients in seeking for medical help. This research employs quantitative and qualitative methods. Samples were obtained from all of the new cervical cancer patients who came for the first time between 2000 to 2001 and returned to the Dr. Cipto Mangunkusumo National Central General Hospital Jakarta from August until October 2001. It is concluded that variables significantly correlated with the delay for medical check up are knowledge, attitude, the availability of Pap smear service and husband support. The availability of Pap smear plays as dominant variabel. (Med J Indones 2003; 12: 162-5 Keywords: Cervical cancer, knowledge, attitude, the availability of Pap smear service, husband support, late medical check up

  6. Health seeking behavior for cervical cancer in Ethiopia: a qualitative study

    OpenAIRE

    Birhanu Zewdie; Abdissa Alemseged; Belachew Tefera; Deribew Amare; Segni Hailemariam; Tsu Vivien; Mulholland Kim; Russell Fiona M

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Although cervical cancer is a leading cause of cancer related morbidity and mortality among women in Ethiopia, there is lack of information regarding the perception of the community about the disease. Methods Focus group discussions were conducted with men, women, and community leaders in the rural settings of Jimma Zone southwest Ethiopia and in the capital city, Addis Ababa. Data were captured using voice recorders, and field notes were transcribed verbatim from the loca...

  7. Socio-cultural influences on the help-seeking behavior of patients with cancer.

    OpenAIRE

    Corner, Jessica L; Brindle, Lucy A

    2010-01-01

    Abstract ABSTRACT This paper sets out to review the influence of social processes on the timing of diagnosis of cancer and to explore the potential for promoting earlier diagnosis by addressing social factors which influence symptom recognition and the diagnostic process. Social processes refer to the means by which culture and social organisation may impact on timely cancer diagnosis. The paper calls for concerted action around an important and developing research agenda that...

  8. Health seeking behavioral analysis associated with breast cancer screening among Asian American women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma GX

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Grace X Ma,1 Wanzhen Gao,1 Sunmin Lee,2 MinQi Wang,3 Yin Tan,1 Steven E Shive,1,41Department of Public Health, Center for Asian Health, College of Health Professions, Temple University, Philadelphia, PA, USA; 2Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, University of Maryland, College Park, MD, USA; 3Department of Public and Community Health, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland, MD, USA; 4East Stroudsburg University, East Stroudsburg, PA, USAObjective: The purpose of this community-based study was to apply a Sociocultural Health Behavior Model to determine the association of factors proposed in the model with breast cancer screening behaviors among Asian American women.Methods: A cross-sectional design included a sample of 682 Chinese, Korean, and Vietnamese women aged 40 years and older. The frequency distribution analysis and Chi-square analysis were used for the initial screening of the following variables: sociodemographic, cultural, enabling, environmental, and social support. Univariate and multivariate analyses were conducted on factors for breast cancer screening using multinomial logistic regression analysis.Results: Correlates to positive breast cancer screening included demographics (ethnicity, cultural factors (living in the United States for 15 years or more, speaking English well, enabling factors (having a regular physician to visit, health insurance covering the screening, and family/social support factors (those who had a family/friend receiving a mammogram.Conclusions: The results of this study suggest that breast cancer screening programs will be more effective if they include the cultural and health beliefs, enabling, and social support factors associated with breast cancer screening. The use of community organizations may play a role in helping to increase breast cancer screening rates among Asian American women.Keywords: breast cancer screening, Vietnamese, Korean, Chinese, breast

  9. Study of Relationship Between Illness Perception and Delay in Seeking Help for Breast Cancer Patients Based on Leventhal's Self-Regulation Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attari, Seyedeh Maryam; Ozgoli, Giti; Solhi, Mahnaz; Alavi Majd, Hamid

    2016-01-01

    One of the major causes of morbidity and mortality in breast cancer patients is delay in seeking help. Leventhal's self-regulation model provides an appropriate framework to assess delay in seeking help. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between "illness perception" and "help seeking delay" in breast cancer patients based on Leventhal's self-regulation model. In this correlational descriptive study with convenience sampling conducted in 2013, participants were 120 women with breast cancer who were diagnosed in the last year and referred to chemotherapy and radiotherapy centers in Rasht, Iran. Data collection scales included demographic data, Revised Illness Perception Questionnaire (IPQ-R)and a researcher made questionnaire to measure the delay in seeking help. Pre-hospital delay (help seeking delay) was evaluated in 3 phases (assessment, disease, behavior). The data were analyzed using SPSS-19. The mean (SD) age calculated for the patients was 47.3±10.2. Some 43% of the patients had a high school or higher education level and 82% were married. The "pre-hospital delay" was reported ≥3 months. Logistic regression analysis showed that none of the illness perception components were correlated with appraisal and behavioral delay phases. In the illness delay phase, "time line" (p-value =0.04) and "risk factors"(p-value=0.03) had significant effects on reducing and "psychological attributions" had significant effects on increasing the delay (p-value =0.01). "Illness coherence" was correlated with decreased pre-hospital patient delay (p-valueWomen's perceptions of breast cancer influences delay in seeking help. In addition to verifying the validity of Leventhal's self-regulation model in explaining delay in seeking help, the results signify the importance of the "illness delay phase" (decision to seek help) and educational interventions-counseling for women in the community. PMID:27165252

  10. Information Seeking and Intentions to Have Genetic Testing for Hereditary Cancers in Rural and Appalachian Kentuckians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Kimberly M.; Andrews, James E; Case, Donald O.; Allard, Suzanne L.; Johnson, J. David

    2007-01-01

    Context: Research is limited regarding the potential of genetic testing for cancer risk in rural Appalachia. Purpose: This study examined perceptions of genetic testing in a population sample of Kentuckians, with a focus on Appalachian and rural differences. The goals were to examine cultural and psychosocial factors that may predict intentions to…

  11. Does Patients’ Attachment Style Affect their Help-Seeking in relation to Cancer-Related Symptoms? – project protocol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Christina Maar; Pedersen, Anette Fischer; Olesen, Frede;

    -patient communication. This project focuses on the period until the start of targeted diagnostic investigation. The time interval can be divided into patient delay and doctor delay: • Patient delay is the time from the patients experience the first symptom until they seek medical help. • Doctor delay is the time from...... to be able to contribute as an explanatory model. This theory describes the evolutionary and developmental origin of patterns of close interpersonal relationships OBJECTIVE: The aims of the present project are to examine whether attachment styles in general practitioners as well as in their patients...... influence length of patient delay and doctor delay in patients diagnosed with cancer. Interactions between patients’ attachment styles and general practitioners’ attachment styles on patient and doctor delay will also be explored. METHODS: The project is a cross-sectional study based on registry data...

  12. Differences among college women for breast cancer prevention acquired information-seeking, desired apps and texts, and daughter-initiated information to mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kratzke, Cynthia; Amatya, Anup; Vilchis, Hugo

    2014-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine among college women acquired breast cancer prevention information-seeking, desired apps and texts, and information given to mothers. Using a cross-sectional study, a survey was administered to college women at a southwestern university. College women (n = 546) used the Internet (44 %) for active breast cancer prevention information-seeking and used the Internet (74 %), magazines (69 %), and television (59 %) for passive information receipt. Over half of the participants desired breast cancer prevention apps (54 %) and texts (51 %). Logistic regression analyses revealed predictors for interest to receive apps were ethnicity (Hispanic), lower self-efficacy, actively seeking online information, and older age and predictors for interest to receive texts were lower self-efficacy and higher university level. Eighteen percent of college women (n = 99) reported giving information to mothers and reported in an open-ended item the types of information given to mothers. Predictors for giving information to mothers were actively and passively seeking online information, breast self-exam practice, and higher university level. Screenings were the most frequent types of information given to mothers. Breast cancer prevention information using apps, texts, or Internet and daughter-initiated information for mothers should be considered in health promotion targeting college students or young women in communities. Future research is needed to examine the quality of apps, texts, and online information and cultural differences for breast cancer prevention sources. PMID:23979671

  13. Smartphone apps as a source of cancer information: changing trends in health information-seeking behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Ambarish; Hasan, Sayeedul; Dubey, Divyanshu; Sarangi, Sasmit

    2013-03-01

    There is an increased interest in smartphone applications as a tool for delivery of health-care information. There have been no studies which evaluated the availability and content of cancer-related smartphone applications. This study aims to identify and analyze cancer-related applications available on the Apple iTunes platform. The Apple iTunes store was searched for cancer-related smartphone applications on July 29, 2011. The content of the applications was analyzed for cost, type of information, validity, and involvement of health-care agencies. A total of 77 relevant applications were identified. There were 24.6 % apps uploaded by health-care agencies, and 36 % of the apps were aimed at health-care workers. Among the apps, 55.8 % provided scientifically validated data. The difference in scientific validity between the apps aimed at general population versus health-care professionals was statistically significant (P smartphone applications and encourage participation by health-care agencies to ensure patient safety. PMID:23275239

  14. Induced apoptosis in melanocytes cancer cell and oxidation in biomolecules through deuterium oxide generated from atmospheric pressure non-thermal plasma jet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Naresh; Attri, Pankaj; Yadav, Dharmendra Kumar; Choi, Jinsung; Choi, Eun Ha; Uhm, Han Sup

    2014-12-01

    Recently, atmospheric-pressure non-thermal plasma-jets (APPJ) are being for the cancer treatment. However, APPJ still has drawbacks such as efficiency and rise in temperature after treatment. So, in this work, a synergetic agent D2O vapour is attached to APPJ which not only increase the efficiency of plasma source against cancer treatment, but also controlled the temperature during the treatment. OD generated by the combination of D2O + N2 plasma helped in enhancing the efficiency of APPJ. We observed OD induced apoptosis on melanocytes G361 cancer cells through DNA damage signalling cascade. Additionally, we observed that plasma induces ROS, which activated MAPK p38 and inhibits p42/p44 MAPK, leading to cancer cell death. We have also studied DNA oxidation by extracting DNA from treated cancer cell and then analysed the effects of OD/OH/D2O2/H2O2 on protein modification and oxidation. Additionally, we attempted molecular docking approaches to check the action of D2O2 on the apoptosis related genes. Further, we confirmed the formation of OD/OH simultaneously in the solution using optical emission spectroscopy. Moreover, the simultaneous generation of D2O2/H2O2 was detected by the use of confocal Raman spectroscopy and density measurements.

  15. Induced apoptosis in melanocytes cancer cell and oxidation in biomolecules through deuterium oxide generated from atmospheric pressure non-thermal plasma jet

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar, Naresh; Attri, Pankaj; Yadav, Dharmendra Kumar; Choi, Jinsung; Choi, Eun Ha; Uhm, Han Sup

    2014-01-01

    Recently, atmospheric-pressure non-thermal plasma-jets (APPJ) are being for the cancer treatment. However, APPJ still has drawbacks such as efficiency and rise in temperature after treatment. So, in this work, a synergetic agent D2O vapour is attached to APPJ which not only increase the efficiency of plasma source against cancer treatment, but also controlled the temperature during the treatment. OD generated by the combination of D2O + N2 plasma helped in enhancing the efficiency of APPJ. We...

  16. Knowledge, Attitude and Health Seeking Behavior of Health Care Professionals regarding Breast and Cervical Cancer at Indian Medical College

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajal Thaker*

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Research article Knowledge, Attitude and Health Seeking Behavior of Health Care Professionals regarding Breast and Cervical Cancer at Indian Medical College Rajal Thaker*,Kay Perrin**, Ellen Daley *** ,Cheryl Vamos ****,Pankaj Patel ***** * Associate Professor Obstetrics and Gynaecology, ***** Dean; Smt N H L Municipal Medical College, Ahmedabad 380 006, India. ** Associate Professor, *** Associate Professor, Co-Director, Center for Transdisciplinary Research in Women’s Health (CTR-WH, **** Research Assistant Professor, Associate Director; Center for Transdisciplinary Research in Women’s Health (CTR-WH; University of South Florida College of Public Health, USA Abstract Background: Women’s preventative health is a major public health issue across the globe. From prenatal care to post-menopausal screenings, women’s preventative care covers a wide spectrum of issues and topics. There is limited data on knowledge and practices of screening methods of breast and cervical cancers among female health care professionals in India. This study examines health care professionals’ knowledge and practices regarding breast and cervical cancer screenings in India. Material and Methods After clearance from Institutional Review Board (IRB of University of South Florida (USF and permission from Smt N H L Municipal Medical College (NHLMMC, a cross- sectional interview based survey was conducted amongst female teaching faculty and female consultants of NHLMMC, two affiliated teaching hospitals (Sheth V S General Hospital and Smt S C L General Hospital, and SBB college of Physiotherapy during the year 2010-2011. Conclusion Findings highlight the critical need for education and practice with regards to women’s preventive health care. Practice of Breast Self Examination (BSE and Pap test amongst the health care professionals was quite low; however, those who were 40 year or older were more conscious about their health. Findings also highlight the need for

  17. Survey of the Information-Seeking Behaviour of Hospital Professionals at a Public Cancer Hospital in Greece Proves the Value of Hospital Libraries. A Review of: Kostagiolas, P. A., Ziavrou, K., Alexias, G., & Niakas, D. (2012). Studying the information-seeking behavior of hospital professionals: The case of METAXA Cancer Hospital in Greece. Journal of Hospital Librarianship, 12(1), 33-45.

    OpenAIRE

    Antonio DeRosa

    2013-01-01

    Objective – To study the information-seeking practices of hospital staff and weigh the impact of hospital libraries on effective information-seeking.Design – Survey questionnaire.Setting – Large public cancer hospital in Greece.Subjects – The authors surveyed 49 physicians, 43 nursing staff members, 25 administrative staff members, 23 paramedical staff members, and 5 technical staff members, totaling 145 health professionals.Methods – Participants were given a questionnaire comprised of five ...

  18. The Effects of Experienced Uncertainty and Patients' Assessments of Cancer-Related Information-Seeking Experiences on Fatalistic Beliefs and Trust in Physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Soo Jung; You, Kyung Han

    2016-12-01

    Using the 2013 HINTS 4 Cycle 2 data representing a general population sample, this study investigates the effects of patients' experiences of uncertainty about prostate cancer during doctor-patient communication, as well as patients' positive assessments of their cancer-related information-seeking experiences, on their fatalistic beliefs regarding cancer and their trust in physicians. Our tests show significant differences in trust in physicians among men who do and do not experience uncertainty about the prostate-specific antigen (PSA) test during doctor-patient communication. The analysis also indicates that individuals with experiences of uncertainty about the PSA test are more likely than those without such experiences of uncertainty to place their trust in doctors. However, no apparent difference or association exists when there are uncertainties relating to treatment choices regarding slow-growing cancer or treatment side effects. Nevertheless, as hypothesized, individuals who positively evaluate their cancer-related information-seeking experiences are less likely to have fatalistic beliefs about cancer. Furthermore, patients' positive assessments are highly predictive of their levels of trust in their physicians. Additionally, tests of interaction effects show that individuals' levels of education moderate the association between uncertainty experiences about the PSA test and both cancer fatalism and trust in physicians. Further implications and limitations of the study are discussed. PMID:27092867

  19. Rent Seeking

    OpenAIRE

    Shankha Chakraborty; Era Dabla-Norris

    2006-01-01

    This paper examines the relationship between rent seeking and economic performance when governments cannot enforce property rights. With imperfect credit markets and a fixed cost to rent seeking, only wealthy agents choose to engage in it, as it allows them to protect their wealth from expropriation. Hence, the level of rent seeking and economic performance are determined by the initial distribution of income and wealth. When individuals also differ in their productivity, not all wealthy agen...

  20. Simulating biomolecules in cellular environments

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Feig, M.; Tanizaki, S.; Chocholoušová, Jana; Sayadi, M.; Clifford, J. W.; Connelly, B. D.; Mukherjee, S.; Law, S. M.

    Jüllich : John von Neumann Institute for Computing, 2008 - (Hansmann, U.; Meinke, J.; Mohanty, S.), s. 23-30 ISBN 978-3-9810843-6-8. - ( NIC Series. 40). [From Computational Biophysics to Systems Biology (CBSB08). NIC Workshop 2008. Jülich (US), 19.05.2008-21.05.2008] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : generalized Born formalism * implicit solvent * biomolecules Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry http://www.fz-juelich.de/ nic -series/volume40

  1. BSDB: the biomolecule stretching database

    OpenAIRE

    Sikora, Mateusz; Sułkowska, Joanna I.; Bartłomiej S. Witkowski; Cieplak, Marek

    2010-01-01

    We describe the Biomolecule Stretching Data Base that has been recently set up at http://www.ifpan.edu.pl/BSDB/. It provides information about mechanostability of proteins. Its core is based on simulations of stretching of 17 134 proteins within a structure-based model. The primary information is about the heights of the maximal force peaks, the force–displacement patterns, and the sequencing of the contact-rupturing events. We also summarize the possible types of the mechanical clamps, i.e. ...

  2. BSDB: the Biomolecule Stretching Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cieplak, Marek; Sikora, Mateusz; Sulkowska, Joanna I.; Witkowski, Bartlomiej

    2011-03-01

    Despite more than a decade of experiments on single biomolecule manipulation, mechanical properties of only several scores of proteins have been measured. A characteristic scale of the force of resistance to stretching, Fmax , has been found to range between ~ 10 and 480 pN. The Biomolecule Stretching Data Base (BSDB) described here provides information about expected values of Fmax for, currently, 17 134 proteins. The values and other characteristics of the unfolding proces, including the nature of identified mechanical clamps, are available at www://info.ifpan.edu.pl/BSDB/. They have been obtained through simulations within a structure-based model which correlates satisfactorily with the available experimental data on stretching. BSDB also lists experimental data and results of the existing all-atom simulations. The database offers a Protein-Data-Bank-wide guide to mechano-stability of proteins. Its description is provided by a forthcoming Nucleic Acids Research paper. Supported by EC FUNMOL project FP7-NMP-2007-SMALL-1, and European Regional Development Fund: Innovative Economy (POIG.01.01.02-00-008/08).

  3. Changes of Socio-demographic data of clients seeking genetic counseling for hereditary breast and ovarian cancer due to the “Angelina Jolie Effect”

    OpenAIRE

    Staudigl, Christine; Pfeiler, Georg; Hrauda, Katharina; Renz, Romana; Berger, Andreas; Lichtenschopf, Renate; Singer, Christian F.; Tea, Muy-Kheng M.

    2016-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to evaluate socio-demographic characteristics of clients claiming genetic counseling for hereditary breast and ovarian cancer (HBOC) in Austria. Furthermore, changes of these parameters before and after Angelina Jolie’s (AJ) disclosure of carrying a BRCA mutation were evaluated. Methods In this prospective, nonrandomized study 268 consecutive clients seeking genetic counseling for HBOC at the Medical University of Vienna, Department of Obstetrics and G...

  4. Expertise seeking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertzum, Morten

    2014-01-01

    used sources. Studies repeatedly show the influence of the social network – of friendships and personal dislikes – on the expertise-seeking network of organisations. In addition, people are no less prominent than documentary sources, in work contexts as well as daily-life contexts. The relative...

  5. Magnetic GMI sensor for detection of biomolecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A magnetic sensor based on the giant magnetoimpedance (GMI) effect for the detection of biomolecules was made with a CoFeSiB amorphous magnetic microwire as sensing element. Using soft ferromagnetic cobalt microparticles and field sensitivities of the impedance of about 2.5%/A m-1 in the very low field region (less than 200 A m-1) at frequencies close to 10 MHz, a highly sensitive response was measured, appropriate for the detection of low biomolecule concentrations

  6. A Video Game Promoting Cancer Risk Perception and Information Seeking Behavior Among Young-Adult College Students: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beale, Ivan L; Chen, Minxing; Prokhorov, Alexander V

    2016-01-01

    Background Risky behaviors tend to increase drastically during the transition into young adulthood. This increase may ultimately facilitate the initiation of carcinogenic processes at a young age, highlighting a serious public health problem. By promoting information seeking behavior (ISB), young adults may become aware of cancer risks and potentially take preventive measures. Objective Based on the protection motivation theory, the current study seeks to evaluate the impact of challenge in a fully automated video game called Re-Mission on young adult college students' tendency to perceive the severity of cancer, feel susceptible to cancer, and engage in ISB. Methods A total of 216 young adults were recruited from a university campus, consented, screened, and randomized in a single-blinded format to 1 of 3 conditions: an intervention group playing Re-Mission at high challenge (HC; n=85), an intervention group playing Re-Mission at low challenge (LC; n=81), and a control group with no challenge (NC; presented with illustrated pictures of Re-Mission; n=50). Measurement was conducted at baseline, immediate posttest, 10-day follow-up, and 20-day follow-up. Repeated-measures mixed-effect models were conducted for data analysis of the main outcomes. Results A total of 101 young adults continued until 20-day follow-up. Mixed-effect models showed that participants in the HC and LC groups were more likely to increase in perceived susceptibility to cancer (P=.03), perceived severity of cancer (P=.02), and ISB (P=.01) than participants in the NC group. The LC group took until 10-day follow-up to show increase in perceived susceptibility (B=0.47, standard error (SE) 0.16, P=.005). The HC group showed an immediate increase in perceived susceptibility at posttest (B=0.43, SE 0.14, P=.002). The LC group exhibited no changes in perceived severity (B=0.40, SE 0.33, P=.24). On the other hand, the HC group showed a significant increase from baseline to posttest (B=0.39, SE 0.14, P

  7. The lack of paid sick leave as a barrier to cancer screening and medical care-seeking: results from the National Health Interview Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peipins Lucy A

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Preventive health care services, such as cancer screening can be particularly vulnerable to a lack of paid leave from work since care is not being sought for illness or symptoms. We first describe the prevalence of paid sick leave by broad occupational categories and then examine the association between access to paid sick leave and cancer testing and medical care-seeking in the U.S. workforce. Methods Data from the 2008 National Health Interview survey were analyzed by using paid sick leave status and other health-related factors to describe the proportion of U.S. workers undergoing mammography, Pap testing, endoscopy, fecal occult blood test (FOBT, and medical-care seeking. Results More than 48 million individuals (38% in an estimated U.S. working population of 127 million did not have paid sick leave in 2008. The percentage of workers who underwent mammography, Pap test, endoscopy at recommended intervals, had seen a doctor during the previous 12 months or had at least one visit to a health care provider during the previous 12 months was significantly higher among those with paid sick leave compared with those without sick leave after controlling for sociodemographic and health-care-related factors. Conclusions Lack of paid sick leave appears to be a potential barrier to obtaining preventive medical care and is a societal benefit that is potentially amenable to change.

  8. Awareness of cancer symptoms and anticipated patient interval for healthcare seeking. A comparative study of Denmark and Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hvidberg, Line; Lagerlund, Magdalena; Pedersen, Anette F; Hajdarevic, Senada; Tishelman, Carol; Vedsted, Peter

    2016-07-01

    Background Recent epidemiologic data show that Denmark has considerably poorer survival from common cancers than Sweden. This may be related to a lower awareness of cancer symptoms and longer patient intervals in Denmark than in Sweden. The aims of this study were to: 1) compare population awareness of three possible symptoms of cancer (unexplained lump or swelling, unexplained bleeding and persistent cough or hoarseness); 2) compare anticipated patient interval when noticing any breast changes, rectal bleeding and persistent cough; and 3) examine whether potential differences were noticeable in particular age groups or at particular levels of education in a Danish and Swedish population sample. Method Data were derived from Module 2 of the International Cancer Benchmarking Partnership. Telephone interviews using the Awareness and Beliefs about Cancer measure were conducted in 2011 among 3000 adults in Denmark and 3070 adults in Sweden. Results Danish respondents reported a higher awareness of two of three symptoms (i.e. unexplained lump or swelling and persistent cough or hoarseness) and a shorter anticipated patient interval for two of three symptoms studied (i.e. any breast changes and rectal bleeding) than Swedish respondents. Differences in symptom awareness and anticipated patient interval between these countries were most pronounced in highly educated respondents. Conclusion Somewhat paradoxically, the highest awareness of symptoms of cancer and the shortest anticipated patient intervals were found in Denmark, where cancer survival is lower than in Sweden. Thus, it appears that these differences in symptom awareness and anticipated patient interval do not help explain the cancer survival disparity between Denmark and Sweden. PMID:26882008

  9. Addressing challenges in preparation of 211At-labeled biomolecules for use in targeted alpha therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There are significant challenges in the development of 211At-labeled biomolecules for application to targeted alpha therapy. Challenges that we have addressed include development of: (1) labeling methods to obtain high in vivo 211At-label stability, (2) approaches to consistently obtain high recovery yields of Na[211At]At from irradiated bismuth targets, (3) methods to optimize biomolecule labeling yields, (4) reagents for use of 211At in pretargeting approach to cancer therapy, and (5) 211At-labeled antibodies in conditioning for hematopoietic cell transplantation. (author)

  10. Microorganisms and biomolecules in space hard environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horneck, G.

    1981-01-01

    Microorganisms and biomolecules exposed to space vacuum and to different intensities of selected wavelengths of solar ultraviolet radiation is studied. The influence of these factors, applied singly or simultaneously, on the integrity of microbial systems and biomolecules is measured. Specifically, this experiment will study in Bacillus subtilis spores (1) disturbances in subsequent germination, outgrowth, and colony formation; (2) photochemical reactions of the DNA and protein in vivo and in vitro and their role in biological injury; and (3) the efficiency of repair processes in these events.

  11. Selective information seeking: can consumers' avoidance of evidence-based information on colorectal cancer screening be explained by the theory of cognitive dissonance?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mühlhauser, Ingrid

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Evidence-based patient information (EBPI is a prerequisite for informed decision-making. However, presentation of EBPI may lead to irrational reactions causing avoidance, minimisation and devaluation of the information. Objective: To explore whether the theory of cognitive dissonance is applicable to medical decision-making and useful to explain these phenomena. Setting and participants: 261 volunteers from Hamburg (157 women, ≥50 years old without diagnosis of colorectal cancer. Design and variables: Within an experiment we simulated information seeking on colorectal cancer screening. Consumers’ attitudes towards screening were surveyed using a rating scale from -5 (participate in no way to +5 (participate unconditionally (independent variable. Using a cover story, participants were asked to sort 5 article headlines according to their reading preferences. The headlines simulated the pro to contra variety of contents to be found in print media about colorectal cancer screening. The dependent variable was the sequence of article headlines. Results: Participants were very much in favour of screening with scores for faecal occult blood test of 4.0 (0.1 and for colonoscopy 3.3 (0.1. According to our hypothesis we found statistically significant positive correlations between the stimuli in favour of screening and attitudes and significant negative correlations between the stimuli against screening and attitudes. Conclusion: The theory of cognitive dissonance is applicable to medical decision-making. It may explain some phenomena of irrational reactions to evidence-based patient information.

  12. Tuneable graphene nanopores for single biomolecule detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Dirini, Feras; Mohammed, Mahmood A; Hossain, Md Sharafat; Hossain, Faruque M; Nirmalathas, Ampalavanapillai; Skafidas, Efstratios

    2016-05-21

    Solid-state nanopores are promising candidates for next generation DNA and protein sequencing. However, once fabricated, such devices lack tuneability, which greatly restricts their biosensing capabilities. Here we propose a new class of solid-state graphene-based nanopore devices that exhibit a unique capability of self-tuneability, which is used to control their conductance, tuning it to levels comparable to the changes caused by the translocation of a single biomolecule, and hence, enabling high detection sensitivities. Our presented quantum simulation results suggest that the smallest amino acid, glycine, when present in water and in an aqueous saline solution can be detected with high sensitivity, up to a 90% change in conductance. Our results also suggest that passivating the device with nitrogen, making it an n-type device, greatly enhances its sensitivity, and makes it highly sensitive to not only the translocation of a single biomolecule, but more interestingly to intramolecular electrostatics within the biomolecule. Sensitive detection of the carboxyl group within the glycine molecule, which carries a charge equivalent to a single electron, is achieved with a conductance change that reaches as high as 99% when present in an aqueous saline solution. The presented findings suggest that tuneable graphene nanopores, with their capability of probing intramolecular electrostatics, could pave the way towards a new generation of single biomolecule detection devices. PMID:27171594

  13. Tuneable graphene nanopores for single biomolecule detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Dirini, Feras; Mohammed, Mahmood A.; Hossain, Md Sharafat; Hossain, Faruque M.; Nirmalathas, Ampalavanapillai; Skafidas, Efstratios

    2016-05-01

    Solid-state nanopores are promising candidates for next generation DNA and protein sequencing. However, once fabricated, such devices lack tuneability, which greatly restricts their biosensing capabilities. Here we propose a new class of solid-state graphene-based nanopore devices that exhibit a unique capability of self-tuneability, which is used to control their conductance, tuning it to levels comparable to the changes caused by the translocation of a single biomolecule, and hence, enabling high detection sensitivities. Our presented quantum simulation results suggest that the smallest amino acid, glycine, when present in water and in an aqueous saline solution can be detected with high sensitivity, up to a 90% change in conductance. Our results also suggest that passivating the device with nitrogen, making it an n-type device, greatly enhances its sensitivity, and makes it highly sensitive to not only the translocation of a single biomolecule, but more interestingly to intramolecular electrostatics within the biomolecule. Sensitive detection of the carboxyl group within the glycine molecule, which carries a charge equivalent to a single electron, is achieved with a conductance change that reaches as high as 99% when present in an aqueous saline solution. The presented findings suggest that tuneable graphene nanopores, with their capability of probing intramolecular electrostatics, could pave the way towards a new generation of single biomolecule detection devices.

  14. Immobilizing Biomolecules Near the Diffraction Limit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovsen, Esben; Petersen, Maria Teresa Neves; Gennaro, Ane Kold Di;

    2009-01-01

    Our group has previously shown that biomolecules containing disulfide bridges in close proximity to aromatic residues can be immobilized, through covalent bonds, onto thiol derivatized surfaces upon UV excitation of the aromatic residue(s). We have also previously shown that our new technology ca...

  15. PREFACE: Structure and Function of Biomolecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cieplak, Marek; Sienkiewicz, Andrzej

    2005-05-01

    The Workshop on the Structure and Function of Biomolecules took place in Bedlewo near Poznan, Poland, on 13-15 May 2004, two weeks after Poland joined the European Community. The Workshop was sponsored by the ASPECT Centre of Excellence for Advanced Spectroscopy Applications in Physics, Modern Science, Biology and Environmental Protection (the European Community contract GMA1-2002-72801) and by the Institute of Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences. The Workshop gathered together approximately 100 participants mostly from the European Community but also from Canada, Russia, Switzerland, Turkey and the USA. The scientific aim of this Workshop was to provide an active forum for cross-disciplinary interactions between specialists who are active in different fields related to biomolecules, with an emphasis on proteins and nucleic acids. The workshop covered both experimental and theoretical issues. The subjects that were discussed included: mechanical stretching of biomolecules, protein kinetics and structure, aggregation of biomolecules, and novel spectroscopic methods for studying protein conformation. There were 36 invited lectures and 33 poster contributions presented at the Workshop. This Special Issue of Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter contains a sample of the research presented at the Workshop.

  16. Seeking Mind, Body and Spirit Healing—Why Some Men with Prostate Cancer Choose CAM (Complementary and Alternative Medicine) over Conventional Cancer Treatments

    OpenAIRE

    White, Margaret A.; Verhoef, Marja J.; Davison, B.J.; Hal Gunn; Karen Cooke

    2008-01-01

    Little is known about men with prostate cancer who decline conventional treatment and use only complementary and alternative medicine (CAM). Objectives: To 1) explore why men decline conventional prostate cancer treatment and use CAM 2) understand the role of holistic healing in their care, and 3) document their recommendations for health care providers. Methods: Semi-structured interviews and follow-up focus groups. Sample: Twenty-nine men diagnosed with prostate cancer who declined all reco...

  17. Functional health literacy in Spanish-speaking Latinas seeking breast cancer screening through the National Breast and Cervical Cancer Screening Program

    OpenAIRE

    Samantha Garbers; Karen Schmitt; Anne Marie Rappa; Mary Ann Chiasson

    2010-01-01

    Samantha Garbers1, Karen Schmitt2, Anne Marie Rappa2, Mary Ann Chiasson11Public Health Solutions, New York, NY, USA; 2Columbia University Breast Cancer Screening Program, New York, NY, USABackground: This analysis examines the association between functional health literacy and follow-up after mammography among women receiving breast cancer screening at a National Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Program site in New York City that provides universal bilingual case management.Methods:...

  18. A Multidisciplinary, Open Access Platform for Research on Biomolecules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jürg Bähler

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available I am pleased to introduce Biomolecules, a new journal to report on all aspects of science that focuses on biologically derived substances, from small molecules to complex polymers. Some examples are lipids, carbohydrates, vitamins, hormones, amino acids, nucleotides, peptides, RNA and polysaccharides, but this list is far from exhaustive. Research on biomolecules encompasses multiple fascinating questions. How are biomolecules synthesized and modified? What are their structures and interactions with other biomolecules? How do biomolecules function in biological processes, at the level of organelles, cells, organs, organisms, or even ecosystems? How do biomolecules affect either the organism that produces them or other organisms of the same or different species? How are biomolecules shaped by evolution, and how in turn do they affect cellular phenotypes? What is the systems-level contribution of biomolecules to biological function?

  19. Apps Seeking Theories: Results of a Study on the Use of Health Behavior Change Theories in Cancer Survivorship Mobile Apps

    OpenAIRE

    Vollmer Dahlke, Deborah; Fair, Kayla; Hong, Y Alicia; Beaudoin, Christopher E.; Pulczinski, Jairus; Ory, Marcia G.

    2015-01-01

    Background Thousands of mobile health apps are now available for use on mobile phones for a variety of uses and conditions, including cancer survivorship. Many of these apps appear to deliver health behavior interventions but may fail to consider design considerations based in human computer interface and health behavior change theories. Objective This study is designed to assess the presence of and manner in which health behavior change and health communication theories are applied in mobile...

  20. No time to lose. The IAEA seeks greater resources to fight cancer in the world's poorest regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The IAEA is stepping up efforts to help more patients survive cancer through earlier diagnosis and better treatment. As the cancer burden mounts in developing countries, many more doctors, nurses, and skilled personnel will be needed, as well as necessary equipment. Through IAEA supported projects, some institutes in developing Member States are better prepared to help patients breast cancer. But equipment alone will not solve the problem, and establishing new treatment facilities is a long process that requires strong governmental support. It involves staff training (up to four years for a radiation oncologist and two years for a medical physicist), facility planning and construction, equipment specification and procurement, installation, acceptance testing and commissioning, registration and licensing, designing protocol and procedure manuals, and development of quality control programmes prior to initiating treatment. Typically, up to five years may be needed to complete all phases. However, in many cases improvements in existing facilities can lead to significant increases in patient treatment in much less time. The IAEA continues to address this enormous task and is currently involved in helping to upgrade radiotherapy facilities, train staff and establish quality assurance programmes in approximately 100 countries worldwide through national and regional projects

  1. Ionic strength independence of charge distributions in solvation of biomolecules

    OpenAIRE

    Virtanen, J. J.; Sosnick, T. R.; Freed, K. F.

    2014-01-01

    Electrostatic forces enormously impact the structure, interactions, and function of biomolecules. We perform all-atom molecular dynamics simulations for 5 proteins and 5 RNAs to determine the dependence on ionic strength of the ion and water charge distributions surrounding the biomolecules, as well as the contributions of ions to the electrostatic free energy of interaction between the biomolecule and the surrounding salt solution (for a total of 40 different biomolecule/solvent combinations...

  2. Seeking Mind, Body and Spirit Healing—Why Some Men with Prostate Cancer Choose CAM (Complementary and Alternative Medicine over Conventional Cancer Treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret A. White

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Little is known about men with prostate cancer who decline conventional treatment and use only complementary and alternative medicine (CAM.Objectives: To 1 explore why men decline conventional prostate cancer treatment and use CAM 2 understand the role of holistic healing in their care, and 3 document their recommendations for health care providers.Methods: Semi-structured interviews and follow-up focus groups.Sample: Twenty-nine men diagnosed with prostate cancer who declined all recommended conventional treatments and used CAM.Results: Based on strong beliefs about healing, study participants took control by researching the risks of delaying or declining conventional treatment while using CAM as a first option. Most perceived conventional treatment to have a negative impact on quality of life. Participants sought healing in a broader mind, body, spirit context, developing individualized CAM approaches consistent with their beliefs about the causes of cancer. Most made significant lifestyle changes to improve their health. Spirituality was central to healing for one-third of the sample. Participants recommended a larger role for integrated cancer care.Conclusion: Men who decline conventional prostate cancer treatment and use CAM only may benefit from a whole person approach to care where physicians support them to play an active role in healing while carefully monitoring their disease status.

  3. Biomolecule Profiles in Inedible Wild Mushrooms with Antioxidant Value

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel C.F.R. Ferreira

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The use of natural products isolated from mushrooms, included inedible species, against infection, cancer diseases and other oxidative-stress related diseases is one of the cornerstones of modern medicine. In the present work, the antioxidant molecule profiles of inedible mushroom species were evaluated and compared with those of edible species. The order of antioxidant abundance found in inedible wild mushrooms was: phenolics > flavonoids > ascorbic acid > tocopherols > carotenoids, similar to that of edible species. Furthermore the same energetic biomolecules were found including the disaccharide trehalose, the monosaccharide alcohol derivative mannitol and the fatty acids palmitic, oleic and linoleic acids. Fomitopsis pinicola revealed a very high phenolics concentration (388 mg GAE/g extract and powerful antioxidant properties, mainly reducing power (EC50 value 60 μg/mL similar to the standard Trolox®. It could find applications in the prevention of free radical-related diseases as a source of bioactive compounds.

  4. Natural Antioxidants: Fascinating or Mythical Biomolecules?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes Van Staden

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Research on the use, properties, characteristics and sources of antioxidants especially phenolic compounds, flavonoids, vitamins, synthetic chemicals and some micronutrients began in the late 18th century. Since then antioxidant research has received considerable attention and over a hundred thousand papers have been published on the subject. This has led to a rampant use of antioxidants in order to try to obtain and preserve optimal health. A number of nutraceuticals and food supplements are frequently fortified with synthetic or natural antioxidants. However, some research outcomes have led to the belief that antioxidants exist as mythical biomolecules. This review provides a critical evaluation of some common in vitro antioxidant capacity methods, and a discussion on the role and controversies surrounding non-enzymatic biomolecules, in particular phenolic compounds and non-phenolic compounds, in oxidative processes in an attempt of stemming the tidal wave that is threatening to swamp the concept of natural antioxidants.

  5. Quantum dots and their interaction with biomolecules

    OpenAIRE

    Stanisavljević, Maja

    2015-01-01

    In this study CdTe QDs were synthetized via microwave irradiation method. Further they have been modified for purposes of their interaction with biomolecules using different conjugation approaches. Applied conjugation chemistries were non-specific interaction, streptavidin-biotin affinity. Glutathione modified CdTe QDs of 2 nm size were capable of non-specific interaction with major groove of DNA, while streptavidin modified CdTe QDs served as specific linker for biotinylated oligonucleotides...

  6. Immobilizing Biomolecules Near the Diffraction Limit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovsen, Esben; Neves-Petersen, Maria Teresa; Kold, Ane;

    2009-01-01

    Our group has previously shown that biomolecules containing disulfide bridges in close proximity to aromatic residues can be immobilized, through covalent bonds, onto thiol derivatized surfaces upon UV excitation of the aromatic residue(s). We have also previously shown that our new technology ca...... a substrate, which can be generated by a UV diffraction pattern. Such patterns can have sub-micron feature sizes and could therefore be of great relevance for present and future nanotechnological applications....

  7. Separation of biomolecules using supercritical fluid extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucien, F P; Liong, K K; Cotton, N J; Macnaughton, S J; Foster, N R

    1993-01-01

    Supercritical fluids are increasingly being used as a replacement for more conventional organic solvents in the extraction of biomolecules from a range of matrices. Supercritical fluid extraction of essential fatty acids from fish oils is discussed. Supercritical CO2 was used to fractionate two fatty acids, EPA and DHA from fish oil ethyl esters. EPA and DHA were obtained with a purity of 58% and 67% respectively from Sardine oil with an original composition of 17% and 12%. PMID:7763846

  8. Of Tangerines, Asparagus, and Nonprotein Biomolecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-19

    Every month the editors of Cell Chemical Biology bring you highlights of the most recent chemical biology literature. Our May 2016 selection includes a new method for labeling and visualizing nonprotein biomolecules using electron microscopy; a small molecule, originally found in tangerine peel, that regulates our circadian clock and helps with some of the metabolic pathologies associated with circadian rhythms; and a finding that asparagine is used as an amino acid exchanger in tumor cells. PMID:27203369

  9. Metal Stable Isotope Tagging: Renaissance of Radioimmunoassay for Multiplex and Absolute Quantification of Biomolecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Rui; Zhang, Shixi; Wei, Chao; Xing, Zhi; Zhang, Sichun; Zhang, Xinrong

    2016-05-17

    is the development and application of the mass cytometer, which fully exploited the multiplexing potential of metal stable isotope tagging. It realized the simultaneous detection of dozens of parameters in single cells, accurate immunophenotyping in cell populations, through modeling of intracellular signaling network and undoubted discrimination of function and connection of cell subsets. Metal stable isotope tagging has great potential applications in hematopoiesis, immunology, stem cells, cancer, and drug screening related research and opened a post-fluorescence era of cytometry. Herein, we review the development of biomolecule quantification using metal stable isotope tagging. Particularly, the power of multiplex and absolute quantification is demonstrated. We address the advantages, applicable situations, and limitations of metal stable isotope tagging strategies and propose suggestions for future developments. The transfer of enzymatic or fluorescent tagging to metal stable isotope tagging may occur in many aspects of biological and clinical practices in the near future, just as the revolution from radioactive isotope tagging to fluorescent tagging happened in the past. PMID:26990857

  10. Functional health literacy in Spanish-speaking Latinas seeking breast cancer screening through the National Breast and Cervical Cancer Screening Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha Garbers

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Samantha Garbers1, Karen Schmitt2, Anne Marie Rappa2, Mary Ann Chiasson11Public Health Solutions, New York, NY, USA; 2Columbia University Breast Cancer Screening Program, New York, NY, USABackground: This analysis examines the association between functional health literacy and follow-up after mammography among women receiving breast cancer screening at a National Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Program site in New York City that provides universal bilingual case management.Methods: A total of 707 Latinas who spoke Spanish as their primary language completed a survey of health and demographic characteristics and the Test of Functional Health Literacy in Spanish (TOFHLA-S. Survey results were matched with clinical outcome data.Results: Among the survey participants, 98% were foreign-born and 99% had no health insurance. While the study found significant differences in access to health information and past screening behavior, women without adequate health literacy in Spanish were no less likely to receive clinical resolution of abnormal mammograms within 60 days (81.8% overall; n = 110 or to return for a repeat mammogram within 18 months (57.2% overall; n = 697. In fact, among those referred for a Pap test (n = 310, women without adequate health literacy were more likely to receive a Pap test within 60 days of their mammogram than those with adequate health literacy (82% compared to 71%, OR: 1.83, 95% CI: 1.04–3.22.Discussion: The lack of significantly lower follow-up outcomes among women with inadequate and marginal functional health literacy in this population of primary Spanish-speaking Latinas suggests that, once women have accessed screening services, programmatic approaches may exist to mitigate barriers to follow-up and to ensure optimal cancer screening outcomes for women of all literacy levels.Keywords: health literacy, mammography, Latinas, case management, cancer screening

  11. Reaction between protein radicals and other biomolecules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østdal, Henrik; Davies, Michael Jonathan; Andersen, Henrik J

    2002-01-01

    The present study investigates the reactivity of bovine serum albumin (BSA) radicals towards different biomolecules (urate, linoleic acid, and a polypeptide, poly(Glu-Ala-Tyr)). The BSA radical was formed at room temperature through a direct protein-to-protein radical transfer from H(2)O(2....... Subsequent analysis showed a decrease in the concentration of urate upon reaction with the BSA radical, while the BSA radical in the presence of poly(Glu-Ala-Tyr) resulted in increased formation of the characteristic protein oxidation product, dityrosine. Reaction between the BSA radical and a linoleic acid...

  12. Porous solid ion exchange wafer for immobilizing biomolecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, Michelle B.; Hestekin, Jamie A.; Lin, YuPo J.; St. Martin, Edward J.; Snyder, Seth W.

    2007-12-11

    A porous solid ion exchange wafer having a combination of a biomolecule capture-resin and an ion-exchange resin forming a charged capture resin within said wafer. Also disclosed is a porous solid ion exchange wafer having a combination of a biomolecule capture-resin and an ion-exchange resin forming a charged capture resin within said wafer containing a biomolecule with a tag. A separate bioreactor is also disclosed incorporating the wafer described above.

  13. Cold atmospheric plasma sterilization: from bacteria to biomolecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Michael

    2009-10-01

    Although ionized gases have been known to have biological effects for more than 100 years, their impact on the practice in healthcare service became very significant only recently. Today, plasma-based surgical tools are used for tissue reduction and blood coagulation as surgical procedures. Most significant however is the speed at which low-temperature gas plasmas are finding new applications in medicine and biology, including plasma sterilization, wound healing, and cancer therapies just to name a few. In the terminology of biotechnology, the ``pipeline'' is long and exciting. This presentation reviews the current status of the field with a particular emphasis on plasma inactivation of microorganisms and biomolecules, for which comprehensive scientific evidence has been obtained. Some of the early speculations of biocidal plasma species are now being confirmed through a combination of optical emission spectroscopy, laser-induced fluorescence, mass spectrometry, fluid simulation and biological sensing with mutated bacteria. Similarly, fundamental studies are being performed to examine cell components targeted by gas plasmas, from membrane, through lipid and membrane proteins, to DNA. Scientific challenge is significant, as the usual complexity of plasma dynamics and plasma chemistry is compounded by the added complication that cells are live and constantly evolving. Nevertheless, the current understanding of plasma inactivation currently provides strong momentum for plasma decontamination technologies to be realized in healthcare. We will discuss the issue of protein and tissue contaminations of surgical instruments and how cold atmospheric plasmas may be used to degrade and reduce their surface load. In the context of plasma interaction with biomolecules, we will consider recent data of plasma degradation of adhesion proteins of melanoma cells. These adhesion proteins are important for cancer cell migration and spread. If low-temperature plasmas could be used to

  14. Shock Syntheses of Novel Nitrides and Biomolecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekine, Toshimori

    2013-06-01

    High-pressure spinel nitride of Si3N4 was discovered more than 10 years ago. Since then there have been many studies on the spinel nitrides and related materials including oxynitrides. We have developed shock synthesis method to investigate their structural, mechanical, chemical, physical, and optical properties. At the same time we tried to synthesize carbon nitrides from the organic substances. And later we extended to shock synthesis of ammonia through the Haber-Bosch reaction under shock in order to apply geochemical subjects related to the origin of life. The simplest amino acid of glycine, as well as animes (up to propylamine) and carboxylic acids (up to pentanoic acid), has been synthesized successfully in aqueous solutions through meteoritic impact reactions. Recently we are trying to make more complex biomolecules for implications of biomolecule formation for the origin of life through meteorite impacts on early Earth's ocean. These results of shock syntheses may imply significant contributions to materials science and Earth and planetary sciences. This research is collaborated with National Institute for Materials Science and Tohoku University.

  15. Thermally modulated biomolecule transport through nanoconfined channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lei; Zhu, Lizhong

    2015-04-01

    In this work, a nanofluidic device containing both a feed cell and a permeation cell linked by nanopore arrays has been fabricated, which is employed to investigate thermally controlled biomolecular transporting properties through confined nanochannels. The ionic currents modulated by the translocations of goat antibody to human immunoglobulin G (IgG) or bovine serum albumin (BSA) are recorded and analyzed. The results suggest that the modulation effect decreases with the electrolyte concentration increasing, while the effects generated by IgG translocation are more significant than that generated by BSA translocation. More importantly, there is a maximum decreasing value in each modulated current curve with biomolecule concentration increasing for thermally induced intermolecular collision. Furthermore, the turning point for the maximum shifts to lower biomolecule concentrations with the system temperature rising (from 4°C to 45°C), and it is mainly determined by the temperature in the feed cell if the temperature difference exists in the two separated cells. These findings are expected to be valuable for the future design of novel sensing device based on nanopore and/or nanopore arrays.

  16. Survey of the Information-Seeking Behaviour of Hospital Professionals at a Public Cancer Hospital in Greece Proves the Value of Hospital Libraries. A Review of: Kostagiolas, P. A., Ziavrou, K., Alexias, G., & Niakas, D. (2012. Studying the information-seeking behavior of hospital professionals: The case of METAXA Cancer Hospital in Greece. Journal of Hospital Librarianship, 12(1, 33-45.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio DeRosa

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective – To study the information-seeking practices of hospital staff and weigh the impact of hospital libraries on effective information-seeking.Design – Survey questionnaire.Setting – Large public cancer hospital in Greece.Subjects – The authors surveyed 49 physicians, 43 nursing staff members, 25 administrative staff members, 23 paramedical staff members, and 5 technical staff members, totaling 145 health professionals.Methods – Participants were given a questionnaire comprised of five parts: general information (including gender, age, education, position, and professional experience; questions on computer and Internet accessibility; questions regarding individual information needs; questions on information-seeking obstacles; and a question regarding the satisfaction with the current degree of information availability in the hospital. The last question was ranked using a 5-point Likert scale. Each questionnaire was distributed with a cover letter explaining the anonymity and consent of the respondent. Hospital members were randomly selected using a number generator and respondents returned completed surveys to the hospital personnel office in a sealed envelope within a specified time frame. The sampled group was representative of the overall population of the hospital.Main Results – The authors discuss demographic data of respondents: 65.7% were women; 56.7% were over 40 years old; 29.0% were graduates of higher technological institutes; 28.3% were university graduates; 9.7% held a postgraduate degree; 8.3% had a PhD; and 1.4% had only secondary education. As for the remainder of the survey questions: 64% of respondents had access to the Internet both at home and at work, while only 8.2% had no access to the Internet at all; most respondents noted using the Internet for seeking scientific information (83.0% and e-mail communication (65.3%; the main obstacle respondents noted experiencing when seeking information was the lack of

  17. Bioconjugation and stabilisation of biomolecules in biosensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liébana, Susana; Drago, Guido A

    2016-06-30

    Suitable bioconjugation strategies and stabilisation of biomolecules on electrodes is essential for the development of novel and commercially viable biosensors. In the present review, the functional groups that comprise the selectable targets for practical bioconjugation methods are discussed. We focus on describing the most common immobilisation techniques used in biosensor construction, which are classified into irreversible and reversible methods. Concerning the stability of proteins, the two main types of stability may be defined as (i) storage or shelf stability, and (ii) operational stability. Both types of stability are explained, as well as the introduction of an electrophoretic technique for predicting protein-polymer interactions. In addition, solution and dry stabilisation as well as stabilisation using the covalent immobilisation of proteins are discussed including possible factors that influence stability. Finally, the integration of nanomaterials, such as magnetic particles, with protein immobilisation is discussed in relation to protein stability studies. PMID:27365036

  18. 'Smartening' anticancer therapeutic nanosystems using biomolecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Núñez-Lozano, Rebeca; Cano, Manuel; Pimentel, Belén; de la Cueva-Méndez, Guillermo

    2015-12-01

    To be effective, anticancer agents must induce cell killing in a selective manner, something that is proving difficult to achieve. Drug delivery systems could help to solve problems associated with the lack of selectivity of classical chemotherapeutic agents. However, to realize this, such systems must overcome multiple physiological barriers. For instance, they must evade surveillance by the immune system, attach selectively to target cells, and gain access to their interior. Furthermore, there they must escape endosomal entrapment, and release their cargoes in a controlled manner, without affecting their functionality. Here we review recent efforts aiming at using biomolecules to confer these abilities to bare nanoparticles, to transform them into smart anticancer therapeutic nanosystems. PMID:26277646

  19. Evolutionary Rent-Seeking

    OpenAIRE

    Hehenkamp, Burkhard; Leininger, Wolfgang; Possajennikov, Alex

    2001-01-01

    Tullock’s analysis of rent-seeking is reconsidered from an evolutionary point of view. We show that evolutionarily stable behavior in a rent-seeking contest differs from efficient rent-seeking behavior in a Nash equilibrium. We explore that implications of evolutionary stability for rent-seeking behavior and relate them to the well examined Nash equilibrium behavior. A most interesting result is an overdissipation law, which holds in evolutionary equilibrium.

  20. Collaborative information seeking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertzum, Morten

    2008-01-01

    Since common ground is pivotal to collaboration, this paper proposes to define collaborative information seeking as the combined activity of information seeking and collaborative grounding. While information-seeking activities are necessary for collaborating actors to acquire new information, the...... activities involved in information seeking are often performed by varying subgroups of actors. Consequently, collaborative grounding is necessary to share information among collaborating actors and, thereby, establish and maintain the common ground necessary for their collaborative work. By focusing on the...... collaborative level, collaborative information seeking aims to avoid both individual reductionism and group reductionism, while at the same time recognizing that only some information and understanding need be shared....

  1. Ionic strength independence of charge distributions in solvation of biomolecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virtanen, J J; Sosnick, T R; Freed, K F

    2014-12-14

    Electrostatic forces enormously impact the structure, interactions, and function of biomolecules. We perform all-atom molecular dynamics simulations for 5 proteins and 5 RNAs to determine the dependence on ionic strength of the ion and water charge distributions surrounding the biomolecules, as well as the contributions of ions to the electrostatic free energy of interaction between the biomolecule and the surrounding salt solution (for a total of 40 different biomolecule/solvent combinations). Although water provides the dominant contribution to the charge density distribution and to the electrostatic potential even in 1M NaCl solutions, the contributions of water molecules and of ions to the total electrostatic interaction free energy with the solvated biomolecule are comparable. The electrostatic biomolecule/solvent interaction energies and the total charge distribution exhibit a remarkable insensitivity to salt concentrations over a huge range of salt concentrations (20 mM to 1M NaCl). The electrostatic potentials near the biomolecule's surface obtained from the MD simulations differ markedly, as expected, from the potentials predicted by continuum dielectric models, even though the total electrostatic interaction free energies are within 11% of each other. PMID:25494774

  2. Labelled biomolecules for targeted radiotherapy: biodistribution in mice with induced malignant tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antibodies and antibody fragments react against the cell membrane receptors or associated-antigens and can be 188Re-labelled and 153Sm-labelled as potential radioimmunotherapy (RIT) radiopharmaceuticals. A variety of malignant tumours over-express somatostatin receptors, proteins that can be targeted with radiolabelled biomolecules, like the lanreotide peptide. The direct labelling methods described here are easy to perform from a freeze-dried kit, are reliable and can be carried out in a hospital radiopharmacy. 188Re-lanreotide, thus prepared, shows affinity to HeLa cells and to the SiHa cells, both from a human cervical cancer, to 293 cells from human embryonic renal carcinoma and to B16F cells of murine melanoma, implanted in mice. 188Relanreotide standardized tumour uptake value SUV was 1.5 for the cervix cancer, 4.8 for the kidney tumour, and 0.8 for the melanoma metastases. Many of the neuroendocrine tumours which over-express somatostatin receptors are of epidermoid origin and the 4 induced tumours studied have many epidermoid characteristics. The cell origin might be the common factor to all these cancer cells, which bind 188Re-lanreotide. In conclusion: easy labelling methods with 188Re and 153Sm for biomolecules used for targeted therapy have been developed. 188Re-lanreotide binds to 4 different cancer cells implanted into mice. (author)

  3. Noncovalent Labeling of Biomolecules with Red and Near- Infrared Dyes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucjan Strekowski

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Biopolymers such as proteins and nucleic acids can be labeled with a fluorescent marker to allow for their detection. Covalent labeling is achieved by the reaction of an appropriately functionalized dye marker with a reactive group on a biomolecule. The recent trend, however, is the use of noncovalent labeling that results from strong hydrophobic and/or ionic interactions between the marker and biomolecule of interest. The main advantage of noncovalent labeling is that it affects the functional activity of the biomolecule to a lesser extent. The applications of luminescent cyanine and squarylium dyes are reviewed.

  4. Biomolecule conjugation strategy using novel water-soluble phosphine-based chelating agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katti, Kattesh V.; Gali, Hariprasad; Volkert, Wynn A.

    2004-08-24

    This invention describes a novel strategy to produce phosphine-functionalized biomolecules (e.g. peptides or proteins) for potential use in the design and development of site-specific radiopharmaceuticals for diagnosis or therapy of specific cancers. Hydrophilic alkyl phosphines, in general, tend to be oxidatively unstable. Therefore, incorporation of such phosphine functionalities on peptide (and other biomolecule) backbones, without oxidizing the P.sup.III centers, is difficult. In this context this discovery reports on a new technology by which phosphines, in the form of bifunctional chelating agents, can be directly incorporated on biomolecular backbones using manual synthetic or solid phase peptide synthesis methodologies. The superior ligating abilities of phosphine ligands, with various diagnostically (e.g. TC-99m) or therapeutically (e.g. Re186/188, Rh-105, Au-199) useful radiometals, coupled with the findings that the resulting complexes demonstrate high in vivo stability makes this approach useful in the development of radiolabeled biomolecules for applications in the design of tumor-specific radiopharmaceuticals.

  5. Microfluidic Radiometal Labeling Systems for Biomolecules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reichert, D E; Kenis, P J. A.

    2011-12-29

    In a typical labeling procedure with radiometals, such as Cu-64 and Ga-68; a very large (~ 100-fold) excess of the non-radioactive reactant (precursor) is used to promote rapid and efficient incorporation of the radioisotope into the PET imaging agent. In order to achieve high specific activities, careful control of reaction conditions and extensive chromatographic purifications are required in order to separate the labeled compounds from the cold precursors. Here we propose a microfluidic approach to overcome these problems, and achieve high specific activities in a more convenient, semi-automated fashion and faster time frame. Microfluidic reactors, consisting of a network of micron-sized channels (typical dimensions in the range 10 - 300¼m), filters, separation columns, electrodes and reaction loops/chambers etched onto a solid substrate, are now emerging as an extremely useful technology for the intensification and miniaturization of chemical processes. The ability to manipulate, process and analyze reagent concentrations and reaction interfaces in both space and time within the channel network of a microreactor provides the fine level of reaction control that is desirable in PET radiochemistry practice. These factors can bring radiometal labeling, specifically the preparation of radio-labeled biomolecules such as antibodies, much closer to their theoretical maximum specific activities.

  6. Cell and biomolecule delivery for regenerative medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Regenerative medicine is an exciting field that aims to create regenerative alternatives to harvest tissues for transplantation. In this approach, the delivery of cells and biological molecules plays a central role. The scaffold (synthetic temporary extracellular matrix) delivers cells to the regenerative site and provides three-dimensional environments for the cells. To fulfil these functions, we design biodegradable polymer scaffolds with structural features on multiple size scales. To enhance positive cell-material interactions, we design nano-sized structural features in the scaffolds to mimic the natural extracellular matrix. We also integrate micro-sized pore networks to facilitate mass transport and neo tissue regeneration. We also design novel polymer devices and self-assembled nanospheres for biomolecule delivery to recapitulate key events in developmental and wound healing processes. Herein, we present recent work in biomedical polymer synthesis, novel processing techniques, surface engineering and biologic delivery. Examples of enhanced cellular/tissue function and regenerative outcomes of these approaches are discussed to demonstrate the excitement of the biomimetic scaffold design and biologic delivery in regenerative medicine. (topical review)

  7. Cell and biomolecule delivery for regenerative medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian O Smith and Peter X Ma

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Regenerative medicine is an exciting field that aims to create regenerative alternatives to harvest tissues for transplantation. In this approach, the delivery of cells and biological molecules plays a central role. The scaffold (synthetic temporary extracellular matrix delivers cells to the regenerative site and provides three-dimensional environments for the cells. To fulfil these functions, we design biodegradable polymer scaffolds with structural features on multiple size scales. To enhance positive cell–material interactions, we design nano-sized structural features in the scaffolds to mimic the natural extracellular matrix. We also integrate micro-sized pore networks to facilitate mass transport and neo tissue regeneration. We also design novel polymer devices and self-assembled nanospheres for biomolecule delivery to recapitulate key events in developmental and wound healing processes. Herein, we present recent work in biomedical polymer synthesis, novel processing techniques, surface engineering and biologic delivery. Examples of enhanced cellular/tissue function and regenerative outcomes of these approaches are discussed to demonstrate the excitement of the biomimetic scaffold design and biologic delivery in regenerative medicine.

  8. Information seeking behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjørland, Birger

    2000-01-01

    the teleological or goal-oriented nature of the behaviour of living organisms. Such a theory should define the essential characteristics in human information seeking, including a description of it cultural and social determinants. It should consider the costs and benefits of information seeking, and the social...

  9. Active immobilization of biomolecules on a hybrid three-dimensional nanoelectrode by dielectrophoresis for single-biomolecule study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We propose and experimentally demonstrate a method of active immobilization for biomolecules on a three-dimensional nanometre-scale electrode (3D nanoelectrode) using dielectrophoresis to immobilize the biomolecules at predetermined locations for single-biomolecule study. We have developed a novel two-step fabrication process for obtaining a 3D nanoelectrode having a sharp top, which is necessary for immobilizing a single biomolecule at a single point. The first step is to fabricate the backbone structure, which is rigid and defines the shape of the 3D nanoelectrode. It was fabricated with diamond-like carbon (DLC) obtained using focused ion beam assisted chemical vapour deposition followed by post-plasma etching, which reshapes the DLC structure. The second step coats the DLC structure with a thin layer of aluminium, which supplies electrical conductivity to the DLC structure. By applying a high frequency (of the order of megahertz) and high intensity (greater than or equal to a few megavolts per metre) electric field using the 3D nanoelectrodes, the generated dielectrophoresis attracted and then immobilized target biomolecules onto the tops of 3D nanoelectrodes, as a demonstration of active immobilization of biomolecules

  10. On macroscopic quantum phenomena in biomolecules and cells: from Levinthal to Hopfield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raković, Dejan; Dugić, Miroljub; Jeknić-Dugić, Jasmina; Plavšić, Milenko; Jaćimovski, Stevo; Setrajčić, Jovan

    2014-01-01

    In the context of the macroscopic quantum phenomena of the second kind, we hereby seek for a solution-in-principle of the long standing problem of the polymer folding, which was considered by Levinthal as (semi)classically intractable. To illuminate it, we applied quantum-chemical and quantum decoherence approaches to conformational transitions. Our analyses imply the existence of novel macroscopic quantum biomolecular phenomena, with biomolecular chain folding in an open environment considered as a subtle interplay between energy and conformation eigenstates of this biomolecule, governed by quantum-chemical and quantum decoherence laws. On the other hand, within an open biological cell, a system of all identical (noninteracting and dynamically noncoupled) biomolecular proteins might be considered as corresponding spatial quantum ensemble of these identical biomolecular processors, providing spatially distributed quantum solution to a single corresponding biomolecular chain folding, whose density of conformational states might be represented as Hopfield-like quantum-holographic associative neural network too (providing an equivalent global quantum-informational alternative to standard molecular-biology local biochemical approach in biomolecules and cells and higher hierarchical levels of organism, as well). PMID:25028662

  11. On Macroscopic Quantum Phenomena in Biomolecules and Cells: From Levinthal to Hopfield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dejan Raković

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the context of the macroscopic quantum phenomena of the second kind, we hereby seek for a solution-in-principle of the long standing problem of the polymer folding, which was considered by Levinthal as (semiclassically intractable. To illuminate it, we applied quantum-chemical and quantum decoherence approaches to conformational transitions. Our analyses imply the existence of novel macroscopic quantum biomolecular phenomena, with biomolecular chain folding in an open environment considered as a subtle interplay between energy and conformation eigenstates of this biomolecule, governed by quantum-chemical and quantum decoherence laws. On the other hand, within an open biological cell, a system of all identical (noninteracting and dynamically noncoupled biomolecular proteins might be considered as corresponding spatial quantum ensemble of these identical biomolecular processors, providing spatially distributed quantum solution to a single corresponding biomolecular chain folding, whose density of conformational states might be represented as Hopfield-like quantum-holographic associative neural network too (providing an equivalent global quantum-informational alternative to standard molecular-biology local biochemical approach in biomolecules and cells and higher hierarchical levels of organism, as well.

  12. Production of biomolecule microarrays through laser induced forward transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Pradas, Juan Marcos; Serra, Pere; Colina, Monica; Morenza, Jose-Luis

    2004-10-01

    Biomolecule microarrays are a kind of biosensors that consist in patterns of different biological molecules immobilized on a solid substrate and capable to bind specifically to their complementary targets. In particular, DNA and protein microarrays have been revealed to be very efficient devices for genen and protein identification, what has converted them in powerful tools for many applications, like clinical diagnose, drug discovery analysis, genomics and proteomics. The production of these devices requires the manipulation of tiny amounts of a liquid solution containing biomolecules without damaging them. In this work laser induced forward transfer (LIFT) has been used for spotting a biomolecule in order to check the viability of this technique for the production of microarrays. A pulsed Nd:YAG laser beam (355 nm wavelength) has been used to transfer droplets of a biomolecule containing solution onto a solid slide. Optical microscopy of the transferred material has been carried out to investigate the morphological characteristics of the droplets obtained under different irradiation conditions. Afterwards, a DNA microarray has been spotted. The viability of the transference has been tested by checking the biological activity of the biomolecule in front of its specific complementary target. This has revealed that, indeed, the LIFT technique is adequate for the production of DNA microarrays.

  13. Rent Seeking and Innovation

    OpenAIRE

    Michele Boldrin(UniBO); Levine, David K.

    2003-01-01

    Innovations and their adoption are the keys to growth and development. Innovations are less socially useful, but more profitable for the innovator, when they are adopted slowly and the innovator remains a monopolist. For this reason, rent-seeking, both public and private, plays an important role in determining the social usefulness of innovations. This paper examines the political economy of intellectual property, analyzing the trade-off between private and public rent-seeking. While it is tr...

  14. Constraint methods that accelerate free-energy simulations of biomolecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atomistic molecular dynamics simulations of biomolecules are critical for generating narratives about biological mechanisms. The power of atomistic simulations is that these are physics-based methods that satisfy Boltzmann’s law, so they can be used to compute populations, dynamics, and mechanisms. But physical simulations are computationally intensive and do not scale well to the sizes of many important biomolecules. One way to speed up physical simulations is by coarse-graining the potential function. Another way is to harness structural knowledge, often by imposing spring-like restraints. But harnessing external knowledge in physical simulations is problematic because knowledge, data, or hunches have errors, noise, and combinatoric uncertainties. Here, we review recent principled methods for imposing restraints to speed up physics-based molecular simulations that promise to scale to larger biomolecules and motions

  15. Kinetic analysis of interaction between lipopolysaccharide and biomolecules

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fan YANG; Xiurong YANG

    2008-01-01

    Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is a major compo-nent of the outer membrane of all gram-negative bacteria. It interacts with some biomolecules and triggers a toxic reaction. In this paper, we studied the interaction between LPS from Salmonella Minnesota and some biomolecules using a surface plasmon resonance (SPR) biosensor. Biomolecules were immobilized on a CM5 sensor chip using the amino coupling method and LPS was injected over the immobilized surfaces. The affinity constant KA of LPS with serum albumin, hemoglobin, chitosan and lysozyme was 2.36 × 107, 2.03 × 108,7.58×106, 2.82 × 104 L·mol-1, respectively. However, LPS could not interact with ferritin.

  16. Identification of biomolecules by terahertz spectroscopy and fuzzy pattern recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Tao; Li, Zhi; Mo, Wei

    2013-04-01

    An approach for automatic identification of terahertz (THz) spectra of biomolecules is proposed based on principal component analysis (PCA) and fuzzy pattern recognition in this paper, and THz transmittance spectra of some typical amino acid and saccharide biomolecular samples are investigated to prove its feasibility. Firstly, PCA is applied to reduce the dimensionality of the original spectrum data and extract features of the data. Secondly, instead of the original spectrum variables, the selected principal component scores matrix is fed into the model of fuzzy pattern recognition, where a principle of fuzzy closeness based optimization is employed to identify those samples. Results demonstrate that THz spectroscopy combined with PCA and fuzzy pattern recognition can be efficiently utilized for automatic identification of biomolecules. The proposed approach provides a new effective method in the detection and identification of biomolecules using THz spectroscopy.

  17. Constraint methods that accelerate free-energy simulations of biomolecules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez, Alberto [Laufer Center for Physical and Quantitative Biology, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, New York 11794 (United States); MacCallum, Justin L. [Department of Chemistry, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta T2N 1N4 (Canada); Coutsias, Evangelos A. [Laufer Center for Physical and Quantitative Biology, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, New York 11794 (United States); Department of Applied Mathematics, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, New York 11794 (United States); Dill, Ken A. [Laufer Center for Physical and Quantitative Biology, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, New York 11794 (United States); Department of Physics and Astronomy, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, New York 11794 (United States)

    2015-12-28

    Atomistic molecular dynamics simulations of biomolecules are critical for generating narratives about biological mechanisms. The power of atomistic simulations is that these are physics-based methods that satisfy Boltzmann’s law, so they can be used to compute populations, dynamics, and mechanisms. But physical simulations are computationally intensive and do not scale well to the sizes of many important biomolecules. One way to speed up physical simulations is by coarse-graining the potential function. Another way is to harness structural knowledge, often by imposing spring-like restraints. But harnessing external knowledge in physical simulations is problematic because knowledge, data, or hunches have errors, noise, and combinatoric uncertainties. Here, we review recent principled methods for imposing restraints to speed up physics-based molecular simulations that promise to scale to larger biomolecules and motions.

  18. Understanding small biomolecule-biomaterial interactions: a review of fundamental theoretical and experimental approaches for biomolecule interactions with inorganic surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Dominique; Garrain, Pierre-Alain; Baaden, Marc

    2013-04-01

    Interactions between biomolecules and inorganic surfaces play an important role in natural environments and in industry, including a wide variety of conditions: marine environment, ship hulls (fouling), water treatment, heat exchange, membrane separation, soils, mineral particles at the earth's surface, hospitals (hygiene), art and buildings (degradation and biocorrosion), paper industry (fouling) and more. To better control the first steps leading to adsorption of a biomolecule on an inorganic surface, it is mandatory to understand the adsorption mechanisms of biomolecules of several sizes at the atomic scale, that is, the nature of the chemical interaction between the biomolecule and the surface and the resulting biomolecule conformations once adsorbed at the surface. This remains a challenging and unsolved problem. Here, we review the state of art in experimental and theoretical approaches. We focus on metallic biomaterial surfaces such as TiO(2) and stainless steel, mentioning some remarkable results on hydroxyapatite. Experimental techniques include atomic force microscopy, surface plasmon resonance, quartz crystal microbalance, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, fluorescence microscopy, polarization modulation infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy, sum frequency generation and time of flight secondary ion mass spectroscopy. Theoretical models range from detailed quantum mechanical representations to classical forcefield-based approaches. PMID:23015529

  19. Reducing, Maintaining, or Escalating Uncertainty? The Development and Validation of Four Uncertainty Preference Scales Related to Cancer Information Seeking and Avoidance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carcioppolo, Nick; Yang, Fan; Yang, Qinghua

    2016-09-01

    Uncertainty is a central characteristic of many aspects of cancer prevention, screening, diagnosis, and treatment. Brashers's (2001) uncertainty management theory details the multifaceted nature of uncertainty and describes situations in which uncertainty can both positively and negatively affect health outcomes. The current study extends theory on uncertainty management by developing four scale measures of uncertainty preferences in the context of cancer. Two national surveys were conducted to validate the scales and assess convergent and concurrent validity. Results support the factor structure of each measure and provide general support across multiple validity assessments. These scales can advance research on uncertainty and cancer communication by providing researchers with measures that address multiple aspects of uncertainty management. PMID:27450905

  20. Quantum chemistry and charge transport in biomolecules with superconducting circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Álvarez, L.; Las Heras, U.; Mezzacapo, A.; Sanz, M.; Solano, E.; Lamata, L.

    2016-06-01

    We propose an efficient protocol for digital quantum simulation of quantum chemistry problems and enhanced digital-analog quantum simulation of transport phenomena in biomolecules with superconducting circuits. Along these lines, we optimally digitize fermionic models of molecular structure with single-qubit and two-qubit gates, by means of Trotter-Suzuki decomposition and Jordan-Wigner transformation. Furthermore, we address the modelling of system-environment interactions of biomolecules involving bosonic degrees of freedom with a digital-analog approach. Finally, we consider gate-truncated quantum algorithms to allow the study of environmental effects.

  1. Quantum chemistry and charge transport in biomolecules with superconducting circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Álvarez, L.; Las Heras, U.; Mezzacapo, A.; Sanz, M.; Solano, E.; Lamata, L.

    2016-01-01

    We propose an efficient protocol for digital quantum simulation of quantum chemistry problems and enhanced digital-analog quantum simulation of transport phenomena in biomolecules with superconducting circuits. Along these lines, we optimally digitize fermionic models of molecular structure with single-qubit and two-qubit gates, by means of Trotter-Suzuki decomposition and Jordan-Wigner transformation. Furthermore, we address the modelling of system-environment interactions of biomolecules involving bosonic degrees of freedom with a digital-analog approach. Finally, we consider gate-truncated quantum algorithms to allow the study of environmental effects. PMID:27324814

  2. Self-perceived risk and barriers to cervical cancer screening among patients seeking care at a tertiary care teaching hospital in Tamil Nadu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lokeshwari Jayaraman

    2016-03-01

    Conclusions: self-perception of not being at risk is documented to be associated with low uptake of screening. Concerned health education programs need to bring clearly to the end user the difference between precancerous lesions and invasive cervical cancer and the treatment options available. [Int J Res Med Sci 2016; 4(3.000: 766-769

  3. Recovery of Biomolecules from Food Wastes — A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonietta Baiano

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Food wastes are produced by a variety of sources, ranging from agricultural operations to household consumption. About 38% occurs during food processing. At present, the European Union legislation encourages the exploitation of co-products. This valorisation can be achieved through the extraction of high-value components such as proteins, polysaccharides, fibres, flavour compounds, and phytochemicals, which can be re-used as nutritionally and pharmacologically functional ingredients. Extraction can proceed according to solid-liquid extraction, Soxhlet extraction, pressurized fluid extraction, supercritical fluid extraction, ultrasound-assisted extraction, microwave-assisted extraction, pulsed electric field extraction, and enzyme-assisted extraction. Nevertheless, these techniques cannot be used indiscriminately and their choice depends on the type of biomolecules and matrix, the scale processing (laboratory or industrial, the ratio between production costs and economic values of the compounds to be extracted. The vegetable wastes include trimmings, peelings, stems, seeds, shells, bran, residues remaining after extraction of oil, starch, sugar, and juice. The animal-derived wastes include wastes from bred animals, wastes from seafood, wastes from dairy processing. The recovered biomolecules and by-products can be used to produce functional foods or as adjuvants in food processing or in medicinal and pharmaceutical preparations. This work is an overview of the type and amounts of food wastes; food waste legislation; conventional and novel techniques suitable for extracting biomolecules; food, medicinal and pharmaceutical uses of the recovered biomolecules and by-products, and future trends in these areas.

  4. Photochemical Microscale Electrophoresis Allows Fast Quantification of Biomolecule Binding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Möller, Friederike M; Kieß, Michael; Braun, Dieter

    2016-04-27

    Intricate spatiotemporal patterns emerge when chemical reactions couple to physical transport. We induce electrophoretic transport by a confined photochemical reaction and use it to infer the binding strength of a second, biomolecular binding reaction under physiological conditions. To this end, we use the photoactive compound 2-nitrobenzaldehyde, which releases a proton upon 375 nm irradiation. The charged photoproducts locally perturb electroneutrality due to differential diffusion, giving rise to an electric potential Φ in the 100 μV range on the micrometer scale. Electrophoresis of biomolecules in this field is counterbalanced by back-diffusion within seconds. The biomolecule concentration is measured by fluorescence and settles proportionally to exp(-μ/D Φ). Typically, binding alters either the diffusion coefficient D or the electrophoretic mobility μ. Hence, the local biomolecule fluorescence directly reflects the binding state. A fit to the law of mass action reveals the dissociation constant of the binding reaction. We apply this approach to quantify the binding of the aptamer TBA15 to its protein target human-α-thrombin and to probe the hybridization of DNA. Dissociation constants in the nanomolar regime were determined and match both results in literature and in control experiments using microscale thermophoresis. As our approach is all-optical, isothermal and requires only nanoliter volumes at nanomolar concentrations, it will allow for the fast screening of biomolecule binding in low volume multiwell formats. PMID:27042755

  5. Recovery of biomolecules from food wastes--a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baiano, Antonietta

    2014-01-01

    Food wastes are produced by a variety of sources, ranging from agricultural operations to household consumption. About 38% occurs during food processing. At present, the European Union legislation encourages the exploitation of co-products. This valorisation can be achieved through the extraction of high-value components such as proteins, polysaccharides, fibres, flavour compounds, and phytochemicals, which can be re-used as nutritionally and pharmacologically functional ingredients. Extraction can proceed according to solid-liquid extraction, Soxhlet extraction, pressurized fluid extraction, supercritical fluid extraction, ultrasound-assisted extraction, microwave-assisted extraction, pulsed electric field extraction, and enzyme-assisted extraction. Nevertheless, these techniques cannot be used indiscriminately and their choice depends on the type of biomolecules and matrix, the scale processing (laboratory or industrial), the ratio between production costs and economic values of the compounds to be extracted. The vegetable wastes include trimmings, peelings, stems, seeds, shells, bran, residues remaining after extraction of oil, starch, sugar, and juice. The animal-derived wastes include wastes from bred animals, wastes from seafood, wastes from dairy processing. The recovered biomolecules and by-products can be used to produce functional foods or as adjuvants in food processing or in medicinal and pharmaceutical preparations. This work is an overview of the type and amounts of food wastes; food waste legislation; conventional and novel techniques suitable for extracting biomolecules; food, medicinal and pharmaceutical uses of the recovered biomolecules and by-products, and future trends in these areas. PMID:25232705

  6. Fullerene–biomolecule conjugates and their biomedicinal applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang X

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Xinlin Yang,1 Ali Ebrahimi,1 Jie Li,1,2 Quanjun Cui11Orthopaedic Research Laboratory, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, University of Virginia School of Medicine, Charlottesville, VA, USA; 2School of Materials Science, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing, People's Republic of ChinaAbstract: Fullerenes are among the strongest antioxidants and are characterized as "radical sponges." The research on biomedicinal applications of fullerenes has achieved significant progress since the landmark publication by Friedman et al in 1993. Fullerene–biomolecule conjugates have become an important area of research during the past 2 decades. By a thorough literature search, we attempt to update the information about the synthesis of different types of fullerene–biomolecule conjugates, including fullerene-containing amino acids and peptides, oligonucleotides, sugars, and esters. Moreover, we also discuss in this review recently reported data on the biological and pharmaceutical utilities of these compounds and some other fullerene derivatives of biomedical importance. While within the fullerene–biomolecule conjugates, in which fullerene may act as both an antioxidant and a carrier, specific targeting biomolecules conjugated to fullerene will undoubtedly strengthen the delivery of functional fullerenes to sites of clinical interest.Keywords: fullerene, amino acid, peptide, oligonucleotide, sugar, ester

  7. Solvation dynamics of biomolecules: modeling and terahertz experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leitner, David M; Gruebele, Martin; Havenith, Martina

    2008-12-01

    The role of water in biomolecule dynamics has attracted much interest over the past decade, due in part to new probes of biomolecule-water interactions and developments in molecular simulations. Terahertz (THz) spectroscopy, among the most recent experimental methods brought to bear on this problem, is able to detect even small solute induced changes of the collective water network dynamics at the biomolecule-water interface. THz measurements reveal that proteins influence up to 1000 water molecules in their surroundings, and that even small saccharides influence the dynamics of hundreds of surrounding water molecules. The THz spectrum of a protein is sensitive to mutation and depends on the surface charge and flexibility of the protein. Influence on the solvation shell appears most pronounced for native wildtype proteins and decreases upon partial unfolding or mutation. THz spectra of solvated saccharides reveal that the number of water molecules coupled dynamically to a saccharide, forming a dynamical hydration shell around it, is related to the number of exposed oxygen atoms on the solute. The thickness of this layer appears correlated with the bioprotection efficiency of the saccharide. All findings support the thesis of a long-range dynamic coupling between biomolecule and solvent. PMID:19436490

  8. Selective information seeking: can consumers' avoidance of evidence-based information on colorectal cancer screening be explained by the theory of cognitive dissonance?

    OpenAIRE

    Mühlhauser, Ingrid; Kasper, Jürgen; Steckelberg, Anke

    2007-01-01

    Background: Evidence-based patient information (EBPI) is a prerequisite for informed decision-making. However, presentation of EBPI may lead to irrational reactions causing avoidance, minimisation and devaluation of the information. Objective: To explore whether the theory of cognitive dissonance is applicable to medical decision-making and useful to explain these phenomena. Setting and participants: 261 volunteers from Hamburg (157 women), ≥50 years old without diagnosis of colorectal cancer...

  9. Decisions to use complementary and alternative medicine (CAM by male cancer patients: information-seeking roles and types of evidence used

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thompson Trevor

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM is increasingly popular with cancer patients and yet information provision or discussion about CAM by health professionals remains low. Previous research suggests that patients may fear clinicians' 'disapproval' if they raise the subject of CAM, and turn to other sources to acquire information about CAM. However, little empirical research has been conducted into how cancer patients acquire, and, more importantly evaluate CAM information before deciding which CAM therapies to try. Methods Qualitative study, comprising semi-structured interviews with 43 male cancer patients of varying ages, cancer type and stage of illness, 34 of whom had used CAM. They were recruited from a range of NHS and non-NHS settings in Bristol, England. Results As a result of the lack of CAM information from health professionals, men in this study became either 'pro-active seekers' or 'passive recipients' of such information. Their main information resource was the 'lay referral' network of family, friends and acquaintances, especially females. 'Traditional' information sources, including books, magazines, leaflets and the media were popular, more so in fact than the internet. Views on the internet ranged from enthusiasm or healthy scepticism through to caution or disinterest. CAM information was generally regarded as 'empowering' as it broadened treatment and self-care options. A minority of participants were information averse fearing additional choices that might disrupt their fragile ability to cope. There was general consensus that CAM information should be available via the NHS, to give it a 'stamp of approval', which combined with guidance from informed health professionals, could help patients to make 'guided' choices. However, a small minority of these men valued the independence of CAM from the NHS and deliberately sought 'alternative' information sources and treatment options. Men were selective in

  10. Detection of prostate-specific antigen with biomolecule-gated AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to improve the sensitivity of AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistor (HEMT) biosensors, a simple biomolecule-gated AlGaN/GaN HEMT structure was designed and successfully fabricated for prostate specific antigen (PSA) detection. UV/ozone was used to oxidize the GaN surface and then a 3-aminopropyl trimethoxysilane (APTES) self-assembled monolayer was bound to the sensing region. This monolayer serves as a binding layer for attachment of the prostate specific antibody (anti-PSA). The biomolecule-gated AlGaN/GaN HEMT sensor shows a rapid and sensitive response when the target prostate-specific antigen in buffer solution was added to the antibody-immobilized sensing area. The current change showed a logarithm relationship against the PSA concentration from 0.1 pg/ml to 0.993 ng/ml. The sensitivity of 0.215% is determined for 0.1 pg/ml PSA solution. The above experimental result of the biomolecule-gated AlGaN/GaN HEMT biosensor suggested that this biosensor might be a useful tool for prostate cancer screening. (paper)

  11. Automated astatination of biomolecules - a stepping stone towards multicenter clinical trials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aneheim, Emma; Albertsson, Per; Bäck, Tom; Jensen, Holger; Palm, Stig; Lindegren, Sture

    2015-01-01

    vector, which can guide the radiation to the cancer cells. Consequently, an appropriate method is required for coupling the nuclide to the vector. To increase the availability of astatine-211 radiopharmaceuticals for targeted alpha therapy, their production should be automated. Here, we present a method......To facilitate multicentre clinical studies on targeted alpha therapy, it is necessary to develop an automated, on-site procedure for conjugating rare, short-lived, alpha-emitting radionuclides to biomolecules. Astatine-211 is one of the few alpha-emitting nuclides with appropriate chemical and...... challenging, alpha-emitting radionuclide. In this work, we describe the process platform, and we demonstrate the production of both astaine-211, for preclinical use, and astatine-211 labelled antibodies....

  12. The theory and effect of solvent environment on biomolecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnieders, Michael J.

    This dissertation describes the theory and effect of solvent environment on biomolecules using a computational model known as a force field. Force fields are based on formulating an efficient, empirical function of atomic coordinates designed to reproduce the potential energy surface predicted by the more rigorous, but also intractably expensive Schrodinger equation. In particular, this work is novel due to use of an Atomic Multipole Optimized Energetics for Biomolecular Applications (AMOEBA) force field that represents charge density using polarizable atomic multipoles. Polarizable Multipole Poisson-Boltzmann (PMPB) and generalized Kirkwood (GK) continuum electrostatics models are described that interact self-consistently with AMOEBA biomolecules. In conjunction with a novel apolar estimator, the PMPB and GK models are used to construct two implicit solvents for solutes represented by the AMOEBA force field. The effect of solvent environment on the electrostatic moments of a large set of folded proteins is examined.

  13. An overview: biomolecules from microalgae for animal feed and aquaculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaakob, Zahira; Ali, Ehsan; Zainal, Afifi; Mohamad, Masita; Takriff, Mohd Sobri

    2014-12-01

    Despite being more popular for biofuel, microalgae have gained a lot of attention as a source of biomolecules and biomass for feed purposes. Algae farming can be established using land as well as sea and strategies can be designed in order to gain the products of specific interest in the optimal way. A general overview of the contributions of Algae to meet the requirements of nutrients in animal/aquaculture feed is presented in this study. In addition to its applications in animal/aquaculture feed, algae can produce a number of biomolecules including astaxanthin, lutein, beta-carotene, chlorophyll, phycobiliprotein, Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids (PUFAs), beta-1,3-glucan, and pharmaceutical and nutraceutical compounds which have been reviewed with respect to their commercial importance and current status. The review is further extended to highlight the adequate utilization of value added products in the feeds for livestock, poultry and aquaculture (with emphasis in shrimp farming). PMID:25984489

  14. Antifouling self-assembled monolayers on microelectrodes for patterning biomolecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noel, John; Teizer, Winfried; Hwang, Wonmuk

    2009-01-01

    We present a procedure for forming a poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) trimethoxysilane self-assembled monolayer (SAM) on a silicon substrate with gold microelectrodes. The PEG-SAM is formed in a single assembly step and prevents biofouling on silicon and gold surfaces. The SAM is used to coat microelectrodes patterned with standard, positive-tone lithography. Using the microtubule as an example, we apply a DC voltage to induce electrophoretic migration to the SAM-coated electrode in a reversible manner. A flow chamber is used for imaging the electrophoretic migration and microtubule patterning in situ using epifluorescence microscopy. This method is generally applicable to biomolecule patterning, as it employs electrophoresis to immobilize target molecules and thus does not require specific molecular interactions. Further, it avoids problems encountered when attempting to pattern the SAM molecules directly using lithographic techniques. The compatibility with electron beam lithography allows this method to be used to pattern biomolecules at the nanoscale. PMID:19707178

  15. Models for Energy and Charge Transport, and Storage in Biomolecules

    CERN Document Server

    Mingaleev, S F; Gaididei, Yu B; Johansson, M; Rasmussen, K O; Mingaleev, Serge F.; Christiansen, Peter L.; Gaididei, Yuri B.; Johansson, Magnus; Rasmussen, Kim O.

    1999-01-01

    Two models for energy and charge transport and storage in biomolecules are considered. A model based on the discrete nonlinear Schrodinger equation with long-range dispersive interactions (LRI's) between base pairs of DNA is offered for the description of nonlinear dynamics of the DNA molecule. We show that LRI's are responsible for the existence of an interval of bistability where two stable stationary states, a narrow, pinned state and a broad, mobile state, coexist at each value of the total energy. The possibility of controlled switching between pinned and mobile states is demonstrated. The mechanism could be important for controlling energy storage and transport in DNA molecules. Another model is offered for the description of nonlinear excitations in proteins and other anharmonic biomolecules. We show that in the highly anharmonic systems a bound state of Davydov and Boussinesq solitons can exist.

  16. Immobilization of different biomolecules by atomic force microscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hölzel Ralph

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Micrometer resolution placement and immobilization of probe molecules is an important step in the preparation of biochips and a wide range of lab-on-chip systems. Most known methods for such a deposition of several different substances are costly and only suitable for a limited number of probes. In this article we present a flexible procedure for simultaneous spatially controlled immobilization of functional biomolecules by molecular ink lithography. Results For the bottom-up fabrication of surface bound nanostructures a universal method is presented that allows the immobilization of different types of biomolecules with micrometer resolution. A supporting surface is biotinylated and streptavidin molecules are deposited with an AFM (atomic force microscope tip at distinct positions. Subsequent incubation with a biotinylated molecule species leads to binding only at these positions. After washing streptavidin is deposited a second time with the same AFM tip and then a second biotinylated molecule species is coupled by incubation. This procedure can be repeated several times. Here we show how to immobilize different types of biomolecules in an arbitrary arrangement whereas most common methods can deposit only one type of molecules. The presented method works on transparent as well as on opaque substrates. The spatial resolution is better than 400 nm and is limited only by the AFM's positional accuracy after repeated z-cycles since all steps are performed in situ without moving the supporting surface. The principle is demonstrated by hybridization to different immobilized DNA oligomers and was validated by fluorescence microscopy. Conclusions The immobilization of different types of biomolecules in high-density microarrays is a challenging task for biotechnology. The method presented here not only allows for the deposition of DNA at submicrometer resolution but also for proteins and other molecules of biological relevance that

  17. Optical Sensors for Biomolecules Using Nanoporous Sol-Gel Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Jonathan; Zhou, Jing C.; Lan, Esther H.; Dunn, Bruce; Gillman, Patricia L.; Smith, Scott M.

    2004-01-01

    An important consideration for space missions to Mars is the ability to detect biosignatures. Solid-state sensing elements for optical detection of biological entities are possible using sol-gel based biologically active materials. We have used these materials as optical sensing elements in a variety of bioassays, including immunoassays and enzyme assays. By immobilizing an appropriate biomolecule in the sol-gel sensing element, we have successfully detected analytes such as amino acids and hormones. In the case of the amino acid glutamate, the enzyme glutamate dehydrogenase was the immobilized molecule, whereas in the case of the hormone cortisol, an anti-cortisol antibody was immobilized in the sensing element. In this previous work with immobilized enzymes and antibodies, excellent sensitivity and specificity were demonstrated in a variety of formats including bulk materials, thin films and fibers. We believe that the sol-gel approach is an attractive platform for bioastronautics sensing applications because of the ability to detect a wide range of entities such as amino acids, fatty acids, hopanes, porphyrins, etc. The sol-gel approach produces an optically transparent 3D silica matrix that forms around the biomolecule of interest, thus stabilizing its structure and functionality while allowing for optical detection. This encapsulation process protects the biomolecule and leads to a more "rugged" sensor. The nanoporous structure of the sol-gel matrix allows diffusion of small target molecules but keeps larger, biomolecules immobilized in the pores. We are currently developing these biologically active sol-gel materials into small portable devices for on-orbit cortisol detection

  18. Mapping the Chemical Universe of Biomolecules for Astrobiology

    OpenAIRE

    Meringer, Markus

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the origins of life is a central question of Astrobiology. Computer methods offer unique means to approach this challenge. In order to obtain a better understanding of the selection rules which guided chemical and early biochemical evolution, our approach is to computationally generate exhaustive sets of biomolecule analogues, to calculate their physico-chemical properties, and to simulate adaptive processes that might have led to the biochemical foundations of life as we know i...

  19. The first search for glycine and other biomolecules

    OpenAIRE

    Storey, J. W. V.

    2012-01-01

    In the 1970s the microwave spectroscopy group at Monash University became the first in the world to determine the spectral frequencies of urea, glycine, and several other biomolecules. We immediately searched for these at Parkes, using existing centimetre-wave receivers plus newly built receivers that operated at frequencies as high as 75GHz (and used just the central 17 m of the dish). Although these searches were largely unsuccessful, they helped launch the now flourishing field of astrobio...

  20. Models and algorithms for biomolecules and molecular networks

    CERN Document Server

    DasGupta, Bhaskar

    2016-01-01

    By providing expositions to modeling principles, theories, computational solutions, and open problems, this reference presents a full scope on relevant biological phenomena, modeling frameworks, technical challenges, and algorithms. * Up-to-date developments of structures of biomolecules, systems biology, advanced models, and algorithms * Sampling techniques for estimating evolutionary rates and generating molecular structures * Accurate computation of probability landscape of stochastic networks, solving discrete chemical master equations * End-of-chapter exercises

  1. Thermo-responsive hydrogels for intravitreal injection and biomolecule release

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drapala, Pawel

    In this dissertation, we develop an injectable polymer system to enable localized and prolonged release of therapeutic biomolecules for improved treatment of Age-Related Macular Degeneration (AMD). Thermo-responsive hydrogels derived from N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPAAm) and cross-linked with poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) poly(L-Lactic acid) (PLLA) copolymer were synthesized via free-radical polymerization. These materials were investigated for (a) phase change behavior, (b) in-vitro degradation, (c) capacity for controlled drug delivery, and (d) biocompatibility. The volume-phase transition temperature (VPTT) of the PNIPAAm- co-PEG-b-PLLA hydrogels was adjusted using hydrophilic and hydrophobic moieties so that it is ca. 33°C. These hydrogels did not initially show evidence of degradation at 37°C due to physical cross-links of collapsed PNIPAAm. Only after addition of glutathione chain transfer agents (CTA)s to the precursor did the collapsed hydrogels become fully soluble at 37°C. CTAs significantly affected the release kinetics of biomolecules; addition of 1.0 mg/mL glutathione to 3 mM cross-linker accelerated hydrogel degradation, resulting in 100% release in less than 2 days. This work also explored the effect of PEGylation in order to tether biomolecules to the polymer matrix. It was demonstrated that non-site-specific PEGylation can postpone the burst release of solutes (up to 10 days in hydrogels with 0.5 mg/mL glutathione). Cell viability assays showed that at least two 20-minute buffer extraction steps were needed to remove cytotoxic elements from the hydrogels. Clinically-used therapeutic biomolecules LucentisRTM and AvastinRTM were demonstrated to be both stable and bioactive after release form PNIPAAm-co-PEG-b-PLLA hydrogels. The thermo-responsive hydrogels presented here offer a promising platform for the localized delivery of proteins such as recombinant antibodies.

  2. Spatially Controlled Covalent Immobilization of Biomolecules on Silicon Surfaces

    OpenAIRE

    Pavlovic, Elisabeth

    2003-01-01

    The work described in this thesis aims to achieving surface patterning through chemical activation of thiolated silicon oxide surfaces, resulting in a spatially controlled covalent immobilization of biomolecules with high resolution. Existing chemical methods to immobilize molecules on surfaces do not reach below the micrometer scale while the ones allowing for spatial control mostly lead to non-covalent adsorption of molecules on surfaces, or require several successive chemical reactions to ...

  3. The first search for glycine and other biomolecules

    CERN Document Server

    Storey, J W V

    2012-01-01

    In the 1970s the microwave spectroscopy group at Monash University became the first in the world to determine the spectral frequencies of urea, glycine, and several other biomolecules. We immediately searched for these at Parkes, using existing centimetre-wave receivers plus newly built receivers that operated at frequencies as high as 75GHz (and used just the central 17 m of the dish). Although these searches were largely unsuccessful, they helped launch the now flourishing field of astrobiology.

  4. Capillary Electrophoresis-based Methodology Development for Biomolecule Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Ni

    2011-01-01

    Capillary electrophoresis (CE) is a separation tool with wide applications in biomolecule analysis. Fast and high-resolution separation requiring minute sample volumes is advantageous to study multiple components in biological samples. Flexible modes and methods can be developed. In this thesis, I focus on developing and applying novel CE methods to study multi-target nucleic acid sensing with high sensitivity (Part I) and interactions between multiple components, i.e. proteins, nanoparticles...

  5. Renewable-Biomolecule-Based Full Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Pengfei; Wang, Hua; Yang, Yun; Yang, Jie; Lin, Jie; Guo, Lin

    2016-05-01

    A renewable-biomolecule-based full lithium-ion battery is successfully fabricated for the first time. Naturally derivable emodin and humic acid based electrodes are used as cathode and anode, respectively. The as-assembled batteries exhibit superb specific capacity and substantial operating voltage capable of powering a wearable electronic watch, suggesting the great potential for practical applications with the significant merits of sustainability and biocompatibility. PMID:26989989

  6. Solvent Influence on Photochemistry of Small Biomolecules in Clusters

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Profant, V.; Dian, J.; Fárník, Michal; Poterya, Viktoriya

    Prague : MATFYZPRESS, 2008 - (Šafránková, J.; Pavlů, J.), s. 136-141 ISBN 978-80-7378-067-8. [Annual Conference of Doctoral Student /17./, WDS´08. Prague (CZ), 03.06.2008-06.06.2008] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/06/1290; GA AV ČR KAN400400651 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503 Keywords : biomolecules * clusters * photochemistry Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry

  7. GroPBS: Fast Solver for Implicit Electrostatics of Biomolecules

    OpenAIRE

    Bertelshofer, Franziska; Sun, Liping; Greiner, Günther; Böckmann, Rainer A.

    2015-01-01

    Knowledge about the electrostatic potential on the surface of biomolecules or biomembranes under physiological conditions is an important step in the attempt to characterize the physico-chemical properties of these molecules and, in particular, also their interactions with each other. Additionally, knowledge about solution electrostatics may also guide the design of molecules with specified properties. However, explicit water models come at a high computational cost, rendering them unsuitable...

  8. Models for Energy and Charge Transport and Storage in Biomolecules

    OpenAIRE

    Mingaleev, S. F.; Christiansen, P. L.; Gaididei, Yu. B.; M. Johansson; Rasmussen, K.Ø.

    1999-01-01

    Two models for energy and charge transport and storage in biomolecules are considered. A model based on the discrete nonlinear Schrodinger equation with long-range dispersive interactions (LRI's) between base pairs of DNA is offered for the description of nonlinear dynamics of the DNA molecule. We show that LRI's are responsible for the existence of an interval of bistability where two stable stationary states, a narrow, pinned state and a broad, mobile state, coexist at each value of the tot...

  9. Applications of polymers for biomolecule immobilization in electrochemical biosensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polymers are becoming inseparable from biomolecule immobilization strategies and biosensor platforms. Their original role as electrical insulators has been progressively substituted by their electrical conductive abilities, which opens a new and broad scope of applications. In addition, recent advances in diagnostic chips and microfluidic systems, together with the requirements of mass-production technologies, have raised the need to replace glass by polymeric materials, which are more suitable for production through simple manufacturing processes. Conducting polymers (CPs), in particular, are especially amenable for electrochemical biosensor development for providing biomolecule immobilization and for rapid electron transfer. It is expected that the combination of known polymer substrates, but also new transducing and biocompatible interfaces, with nanobiotechnological structures, like nanoparticles, carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and nanoengineered 'smart' polymers, may generate composites with new and interesting properties, providing higher sensitivity and stability of the immobilized molecules, thus constituting the basis for new and improved analytical devices for biomedical and other applications. This review covers the state-of-the-art and main novelties about the use of polymers for immobilization of biomolecules in electrochemical biosensor platforms

  10. Biomolecule-assisted route to prepare titania mesoporous hollow structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Shangjun; Wang, Yaoming; Hong, Zhanglian; Lü, Xujie; Wan, Dongyun; Huang, Fuqiang

    2011-10-01

    Amino acids, as a particularly important type of biomolecules, have been used as multifunctional templates to intelligently construct mesoporous TiO(2) hollow structures through a simple solvothermal reaction. The structure-directing behaviors of various amino acids were systematically investigated, and it was found that these biomolecules possess the general capability to assist mesoporous TiO(2) hollow-sphere formation. At the same time, the nanostructures of the obtained TiO(2) are highly dependent on the isoelectric points (pI) of amino acids. Their molecular-structure variations can lead to pI differences and significantly influence the final TiO(2) morphologies. Higher-pI amino acids (e.g., L-lysine and L-arginine) have better structure-directing abilities to generate nanosheet-assembled hollow spheres and yolk/shell structures. The specific morphologies and mesopore size of these novel hollow structures can also be tuned by adjusting the titanium precursor concentration. Heat treatment in air and vacuum was further conducted to transform the as-prepared structures to porous nanoparticle-assembled hollow TiO(2) and TiO(2)/carbon nanocomposites, which may be potentially applied in the fields of photocatalysts, dye-sensitized solar cells, and Li batteries. This study provides some enlightenment on the design of novel templates by taking advantage of biomolecules. PMID:21882272

  11. Repulsive effects of hydrophobic diamond thin films on biomolecule detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruslinda, A. Rahim, E-mail: ruslindarahim@gmail.com [Institute of Nano Electronic Engineering, Universiti Malaysia Perlis, Jln Kgr-Alor Setar, Seriab, 01000 Kangar, Perlis (Malaysia); Department of Nano Science and Nano Engineering, School of Advance Science and Engineering, Ohkubo 3-4-1, Shinjuku, 169-8555 Tokyo (Japan); Ishiyama, Y. [Department of Nano Science and Nano Engineering, School of Advance Science and Engineering, Ohkubo 3-4-1, Shinjuku, 169-8555 Tokyo (Japan); Penmatsa, V. [Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering, Florida International University, 10555 West Flagler Street, Miami, FL 33174 (United States); Ibori, S.; Kawarada, H. [Department of Nano Science and Nano Engineering, School of Advance Science and Engineering, Ohkubo 3-4-1, Shinjuku, 169-8555 Tokyo (Japan)

    2015-02-15

    Highlights: • We report the effect of fluorine plasma treatment on diamond thin film to resist the nonspecific adsorption of biomolecules. • The diamond thin film were highly hydrophobic with a surface energy value of ∼25 mN/m. • The repulsive effect shows excellent binding efficiency for both DNA and HIV-1 Tat protein. - Abstract: The repulsive effect of hydrophobic diamond thin film on biomolecule detection, such as single-nucleotide polymorphisms and human immunodeficiency virus type 1 trans-activator of transcription peptide protein detection, was investigated using a mixture of a fluorine-, amine-, and hydrogen-terminated diamond surfaces. These chemical modifications lead to the formation of a surface that effectively resists the nonspecific adsorption of proteins and other biomolecules. The effect of fluorine plasma treatment on elemental composition was also investigated via X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). XPS results revealed a fluorocarbon layer on the diamond thin films. The contact angle measurement results indicated that the fluorine-treated diamond thin films were highly hydrophobic with a surface energy value of ∼25 mN/m.

  12. Repulsive effects of hydrophobic diamond thin films on biomolecule detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • We report the effect of fluorine plasma treatment on diamond thin film to resist the nonspecific adsorption of biomolecules. • The diamond thin film were highly hydrophobic with a surface energy value of ∼25 mN/m. • The repulsive effect shows excellent binding efficiency for both DNA and HIV-1 Tat protein. - Abstract: The repulsive effect of hydrophobic diamond thin film on biomolecule detection, such as single-nucleotide polymorphisms and human immunodeficiency virus type 1 trans-activator of transcription peptide protein detection, was investigated using a mixture of a fluorine-, amine-, and hydrogen-terminated diamond surfaces. These chemical modifications lead to the formation of a surface that effectively resists the nonspecific adsorption of proteins and other biomolecules. The effect of fluorine plasma treatment on elemental composition was also investigated via X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). XPS results revealed a fluorocarbon layer on the diamond thin films. The contact angle measurement results indicated that the fluorine-treated diamond thin films were highly hydrophobic with a surface energy value of ∼25 mN/m

  13. Rent seeking and organizational structure

    OpenAIRE

    Wärneryd, Karl

    2014-01-01

    The quest for benefit from existing wealth or by seeking privileged benefit through influence over policy is known as rent seeking. Much rent seeking activity involves government and political decisions and is therefore in the domain of political economy, although it can also take place in personal relations and within firms and bureaucracies. Rent seeking, which involves the unproductive use of resources, is however primarily associated with policies that create rents as well as rent extract...

  14. Asymmetries in Rent-Seeking

    OpenAIRE

    Giuseppe Dari-Mattiacci; Eric Langlais; Bruno Lovat; Francesco Parisi

    2013-01-01

    The quest for benefit from existing wealth or by seeking privileged benefit through influence over policy is known as rent seeking. Much rent seeking activity involves government and political decisions and is therefore in the domain of political economy, although it can also take place in personal relations and within firms and bureaucracies. Rent seeking, which involves the unproductive use of resources, is however primarily associated with policies that create rents as well as rent extract...

  15. Auctions with rent seeking

    OpenAIRE

    Haan, Marco; Schoonbeek, Lambert

    2000-01-01

    We present a model which combines elements of an auction and a rent-seeking contest. Players compete for a prize. Apart from exerting lobbying efforts, they also have to submit a bid which is payable only if they win the prize. First, we ana-lyze the model if the returns-to-scale parameters of both bids and efforts are unity. We present a necessary and sufficient condition for the existence of a unique Nash equilibrium. In the equilibrium each player submits the same bid, while the sum of all...

  16. Distinctive behaviour of 99Tcsup(m)(V) dimercaptosuccinic acid as a tumour-seeking agent: Usefulness for the diagnosis of head and neck tumours, medullary thyroid cancers and soft-tissue tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Considering the ideal nuclear properties of 99Tcsup(m), a new 99Tcsup(m)-labelled radiopharmaceutical has been developed for tumour imaging. Dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMS) has been chosen as ligand and SnCl2 as reducing agent. The highest uptake by tumour cells was obtained when the 99Tcsup(m) complex was in oxidation state V. This newly designed tumour-seeking agent, 99Tcsup(m)(V) DMS, showed a distribution behaviour different from that of the well-known renal scanning agent, 99Tcsup(m)(III) DMS, which was considered to be in oxidation state III. Basic studies, carried out in vitro and in vivo with Ehrlich tumour cells of tumour-bearing mice, clearly substantiated the great potential of 99Tcsup(m)(V) DMS for clinical use. Therefore, 193 untreated patients with a histologically proven diagnosis of cancer were scanned for 99Tcsup(m)(V) DMS uptake. This radiopharmaceutical was particularly useful for scanning of head and neck squamous cell carcinomas, medullary thyroid cancers and soft-tissue tumours. Also the superior physical properties of 99Tcsup(m), which gave better images within two hours after injection, together with the easy method and the low cost, justify its use in preference to 67Ga. The great importance of the 99Tcsup(m) oxidation state with regard to its biological behaviour, and the different tumour uptake mechanisms of 99Tcsup(m)(V) DMS and 67Ga or 201Tl could be shown. The data collected provide a good basis for the clinical applicability of 99Tcsup(m)(V) DMS as a tumour-imaging agent. (author)

  17. Variety Seeking Through Brand Switching

    OpenAIRE

    Moshe Givon

    1984-01-01

    A concept of variety seeking behavior is modeled as a stochastic brand choice model. The model yields a measure of variety seeking for each individual consumer. Panel data for 28 products are analyzed for each household and the possibility of market segmentation by variety seeking behavior is explored.

  18. Rent Seeking: A Textbook Example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pecorino, Paul

    2007-01-01

    The author argues that the college textbook market provides a clear example of monopoly seeking as described by Tullock (1967, 1980). This behavior is also known as rent seeking. Because this market is important to students, this example of rent seeking will be of particular interest to them. (Contains 24 notes.)

  19. Automated astatination of biomolecules - a stepping stone towards multicenter clinical trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aneheim, Emma; Albertsson, Per; Bäck, Tom; Jensen, Holger; Palm, Stig; Lindegren, Sture

    2015-07-01

    To facilitate multicentre clinical studies on targeted alpha therapy, it is necessary to develop an automated, on-site procedure for conjugating rare, short-lived, alpha-emitting radionuclides to biomolecules. Astatine-211 is one of the few alpha-emitting nuclides with appropriate chemical and physical properties for use in targeted therapies for cancer. Due to the very short range of the emitted α-particles, this therapy is particularly suited to treating occult, disseminated cancers. Astatine is not intrinsically tumour-specific; therefore, it requires an appropriate tumour-specific targeting vector, which can guide the radiation to the cancer cells. Consequently, an appropriate method is required for coupling the nuclide to the vector. To increase the availability of astatine-211 radiopharmaceuticals for targeted alpha therapy, their production should be automated. Here, we present a method that combines dry distillation of astatine-211 and a synthesis module for producing radiopharmaceuticals into a process platform. This platform will standardize production of astatinated radiopharmaceuticals, and hence, it will facilitate large clinical studies focused on this promising, but chemically challenging, alpha-emitting radionuclide. In this work, we describe the process platform, and we demonstrate the production of both astaine-211, for preclinical use, and astatine-211 labelled antibodies.

  20. Soviets seek scientific exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    GEOS-A, associated with the Soviet Union's Institute of Earth Physics, is seeking to promote exchange between Soviet and Western geophysicists. GEOS-A is a nonprofit, private organization formed by specialists from the U.S.S.R. Academy of Scientists.GEOS-A aims to promote the transfer of academic research results to industry and education. It also seeks to stimulate international scientific exchange and to support independent nongovernmental programs and expertise in geophysics and ecology. The organization would like to cooperate with Western universities in exchanging students and young scientists and in building scientific relationships between the two countries. This would include inviting students and young specialists for collaborative scientific research, consultations, language practice, and graduate study in any institute of the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences. Participants would live in rented private apartments in downtown Moscow for approximately one week to several months. All living expenses would be covered at a rate higher than the academy's standard one (unfortunately travel to and from the Soviet Union cannot be covered).

  1. Breakdowns in collaborative information seeking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertzum, Morten

    2010-01-01

    record has introduced risks of new kinds of breakdown in collaborative information seeking. In working to prevent and recover from breakdowns in the seeking and sharing of information a focus on collaborative information seeking will point toward collaborative, organizational, and systemic reasons for......Collaborative information seeking is integral to many professional activities. In hospital work, the medication process encompasses continual seeking for information and collaborative grounding of information. This study investigates breakdowns in collaborative information seeking through analyses...... of the use of the electronic medication record adopted in a Danish healthcare region and of the reports of five years of medication incidents at Danish hospitals. The results show that breakdowns in collaborative information seeking is a major source of medication incidents, that most of these...

  2. Sensation Seeking in Street Violence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heinskou, Marie Bruvik; Liebst, Lasse Suonperä

    2016-01-01

    Sensation seeking leads to violence—runs an influential hypothesis in the social scientific study of violent behavior. Although studies confirm that violence is sometimes structured by sensation-seeking motives, the literature seldom comments on the limits to this explanation of violence. The...... present study examines the scale of violence motivated by sensation seeking and the degree to which there are several distinct forms of sensation seeking motives operative in violence, rather than a sensation-seeking motive in the singular. The study draws on a sample of situations from Copenhagen...... involving street violence, which are coded quantitatively and qualitatively. Our analysis shows that sensation seeking only seldom seems to play a role in the structuring of street violence. Moreover, the data indicate that sensation seeking finds expression in street violence situations in two different...

  3. Quantum Simulations of Solvated Biomolecules Using Hybrid Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodak, Miroslav

    2009-03-01

    One of the most important challenges in quantum simulations on biomolecules is efficient and accurate inclusion of the solvent, because the solvent atoms usually outnumber those in the biomolecule of interest. We have developed a hybrid method that allows for explicit quantum-mechanical treatment of the solvent at low computational cost. In this method, Kohn-Sham (KS) density functional theory (DFT) is combined with an orbital-free (OF) DFT. Kohn-Sham (KS) DFT is used to describe the biomolecule and its first solvation shells, while the orbital-free (OF) DFT is employed for the rest of the solvent. The OF part is fully O(N) and capable of handling 10^5 solvent molecules on current parallel supercomputers, while taking only ˜ 10 % of the total time. The compatibility between the KS and OF DFT methods enables seamless integration between the two. In particular, the flow of solvent molecules across the KS/OF interface is allowed and the total energy is conserved. As the first large-scale applications, the hybrid method has been used to investigate the binding of copper ions to proteins involved in prion (PrP) and Parkinson's diseases. Our results for the PrP, which causes mad cow disease when misfolded, resolve a contradiction found in experiments, in which a stronger binding mode is replaced by a weaker one when concentration of copper ions is increased, and show how it can act as a copper buffer. Furthermore, incorporation of copper stabilizes the structure of the full-length PrP, suggesting its protective role in prion diseases. For alpha-synuclein, a Parkinson's disease (PD) protein, we show that Cu binding modifies the protein structurally, making it more susceptible to misfolding -- an initial step in the onset of PD. In collaboration with W. Lu, F. Rose and J. Bernholc.

  4. Linkage of biomolecules to solid phases for immunoassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Topics covered by this lecture include a brief review of the principal methods of linkage of biomolecules to solid phase matrices. Copies of the key self explanatory slides are presented as figures together with reprints of two publications by the author dealing with a preferred chemistry for the covalent linkage of antibodies to hydroxyl and amino functional groups and the effects of changes in solid phase matrix and antibody coupling chemistry on the performance of a typical excess reagent immunoassay for thyroid stimulating hormone

  5. Simple approach to study biomolecule adsorption in polymeric microfluidic channels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► A simple tool to assess biomolecule adsorption onto the surfaces of microchannels. ► Development for dilution by surface-adsorption based depletion of protein samples. ► It can easily be done using a readily available apparatus like a spin-coater. ► The assessment tool is facile and quantitative. ► Straightforward comparison of different surface chemistries. - Abstract: Herein a simple analytical method is presented for the characterization of biomolecule adsorption on cyclo olefin polymer (COP, trade name: Zeonor®) substrates which are widely used in microfluidic lab-on-a-chip devices. These Zeonor® substrates do not possess native functional groups for specific reactions with biomolecules. Therefore, depending on the application, such substrates must be functionalized by surface chemistry methods to either enhance or suppress biomolecular adsorption. This work demonstrates a microfluidic method for evaluating the adsorption of antibodies and oligonucleotides surfaces. The method uses centrifugal microfluidic flow-through chips and can easily be implemented using common equipment such as a spin coater. The working principle is very simple. The user adds 40 L of the solution containing the sample to the starting side of a microfluidic channel, where it is moved through by centrifugal force. Some molecules are adsorbed in the channel. The sample is then collected at the other end in a small reservoir and the biomolecule concentration is measured. As a pilot application, we characterized the adsorption of goat anti-human IgG and a 20-mer DNA on Zeonor®, and on three types of functionalized Zeonor: 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES) modified surface with mainly positive charge, negatively charged surface with immobilized bovine serum albumin (BSA), and neutral, hydrogel-like film with polyethylene glycol (PEG) characteristics. This simple analytical approach adds to the fundamental understanding of the interaction forces in real

  6. Synthesis of fullerenic nanocapsules from bio-molecule carbonisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsang, Shik Chi; Qiu, Jieshan; Harris, Peter J. F.; Fu, Qi Jia; Zhang, Ning

    2000-06-01

    There has been great interest in the incorporation of foreign materials into fullerene structures (C 60, nanotubes, nanoparticles, onions). This interest has been driven by the potential applications of the filled fullerenes, which lie in areas as diverse as optical, electronic, magnetic recording materials and nuclear medicine. In particular, the onion structures of extreme strength may offer excellent protection to their encapsulated nanomaterials for applications. Here, we describe controlled carbonisation of an iron-containing biomolecule, ferritin, at elevated temperatures. This simple technique produces macroscopic quantities of quasi-spherical fullerenic shells (onions) that encapsulate iron nanoparticles of a very narrow range of particle diameters.

  7. Low-energy electron scattering from molecules, biomolecules and surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Carsky, Petr

    2011-01-01

    Since the turn of the 21st century, the field of electron molecule collisions has undergone a renaissance. The importance of such collisions in applications from radiation chemistry to astrochemistry has flowered, and their role in industrial processes such as plasma technology and lighting are vital to the advancement of next generation devices. Furthermore, the development of the scanning tunneling microscope highlights the role of such collisions in the condensed phase, in surface processing, and in the development of nanotechnology.Low-Energy Electron Scattering from Molecules, Biomolecule

  8. Novel in Vitro Efficiency of Chitosan Biomolecule Against Trichomonas Gallinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SH Pourseyed

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Development of new natural agents for parasitic diseases treatment has unexpectedly increased to overcome effectively against emergence and re-emergence of parasitic diseases, the appearance of drug resistant organisms and toxic side effects of current agents. The aim of the study was to evaluate antiprotozoal activities of chitosan biomolecule on trophozoites of Trichomonas gallinae.Methods: The antitrichomonal activity of various low molecular weight chitosan concentrations including 125, 250, 500 and 1250 μg ml-1 against T. gallinae trophozoites cultured in trypticase-yeast extract-maltose medium supplemented with heat-inactivated cold horse serum was evaluated in vitro. Samples containing medium without chitosan were also assayed as controls.Results: The mortality rates at 0, 3 and 6 h post treatment with all concentrations were significantly different from control group (P<0.05. Treated trophozoites showed more susceptibility to the highest concentration reaching mortality rate of 100% at 3h post inoculation. However, at this time, results for 125, 250 and 500 μg ml-1 were 93%, 95% and 96.7%, respectively.Conclusion: The results demonstrate that the application of chitosan biomolecule is a promising option for treatment of trichomoniasis in pigeons.

  9. Biosurfactants: Multifunctional Biomolecules of the 21st Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danyelle Khadydja F. Santos

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In the era of global industrialisation, the exploration of natural resources has served as a source of experimentation for science and advanced technologies, giving rise to the manufacturing of products with high aggregate value in the world market, such as biosurfactants. Biosurfactants are amphiphilic microbial molecules with hydrophilic and hydrophobic moieties that partition at liquid/liquid, liquid/gas or liquid/solid interfaces. Such characteristics allow these biomolecules to play a key role in emulsification, foam formation, detergency and dispersal, which are desirable qualities in different industries. Biosurfactant production is considered one of the key technologies for development in the 21st century. Besides exerting a strong positive impact on the main global problems, biosurfactant production has considerable importance to the implantation of sustainable industrial processes, such as the use of renewable resources and “green” products. Biodegradability and low toxicity have led to the intensification of scientific studies on a wide range of industrial applications for biosurfactants in the field of bioremediation as well as the petroleum, food processing, health, chemical, agricultural and cosmetic industries. In this paper, we offer an extensive review regarding knowledge accumulated over the years and advances achieved in the incorporation of biomolecules in different industries.

  10. Immobilization of Biomolecules on Poly(vinyldimethylazlactone)-containing Surface Scaffolds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrninger, Joshua [Clemson University; Messman, Jamie M [ORNL; Banaszak, Abigail [Clemson University; Meyer III, Harry M [ORNL; Kilbey, II, S Michael [ORNL

    2009-01-01

    We describe the successful development of a procedure for the step-by-step formation of a reactive, multi-layer polymer scaffold incorporating polymers based on 2-vinyl-4,4-dimethylazlactone (VDMA) on a silicon wafer and the characterization of these materials. Also discussed is the development of a procedure for the non-site specific attachment of a biomolecule to the modified silicon wafer, including scaffolds modified via drop-on-demand (DOD) inkjet printing. VDMA-based polymers were used because of their hydrolytic stability and ability of the pendant azlactone rings to form stable covalent bonds with primary amines without byproducts via nucleophilic addition. This reaction proceeds without a catalyst and at room temperature, yielding a stable amide linkage, which adds to the ease of construction expected when using VDMA-based polymers. DOD inkjet printing was explored as an interesting method for creating surfaces with one or more patterns of biomolecules, because of the flexibility and ease in pattern design.

  11. Biosurfactants: Multifunctional Biomolecules of the 21st Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Danyelle Khadydja F.; Rufino, Raquel D.; Luna, Juliana M.; Santos, Valdemir A.; Sarubbo, Leonie A.

    2016-01-01

    In the era of global industrialisation, the exploration of natural resources has served as a source of experimentation for science and advanced technologies, giving rise to the manufacturing of products with high aggregate value in the world market, such as biosurfactants. Biosurfactants are amphiphilic microbial molecules with hydrophilic and hydrophobic moieties that partition at liquid/liquid, liquid/gas or liquid/solid interfaces. Such characteristics allow these biomolecules to play a key role in emulsification, foam formation, detergency and dispersal, which are desirable qualities in different industries. Biosurfactant production is considered one of the key technologies for development in the 21st century. Besides exerting a strong positive impact on the main global problems, biosurfactant production has considerable importance to the implantation of sustainable industrial processes, such as the use of renewable resources and “green” products. Biodegradability and low toxicity have led to the intensification of scientific studies on a wide range of industrial applications for biosurfactants in the field of bioremediation as well as the petroleum, food processing, health, chemical, agricultural and cosmetic industries. In this paper, we offer an extensive review regarding knowledge accumulated over the years and advances achieved in the incorporation of biomolecules in different industries. PMID:26999123

  12. Biosurfactants: Multifunctional Biomolecules of the 21st Century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Danyelle Khadydja F; Rufino, Raquel D; Luna, Juliana M; Santos, Valdemir A; Sarubbo, Leonie A

    2016-01-01

    In the era of global industrialisation, the exploration of natural resources has served as a source of experimentation for science and advanced technologies, giving rise to the manufacturing of products with high aggregate value in the world market, such as biosurfactants. Biosurfactants are amphiphilic microbial molecules with hydrophilic and hydrophobic moieties that partition at liquid/liquid, liquid/gas or liquid/solid interfaces. Such characteristics allow these biomolecules to play a key role in emulsification, foam formation, detergency and dispersal, which are desirable qualities in different industries. Biosurfactant production is considered one of the key technologies for development in the 21st century. Besides exerting a strong positive impact on the main global problems, biosurfactant production has considerable importance to the implantation of sustainable industrial processes, such as the use of renewable resources and "green" products. Biodegradability and low toxicity have led to the intensification of scientific studies on a wide range of industrial applications for biosurfactants in the field of bioremediation as well as the petroleum, food processing, health, chemical, agricultural and cosmetic industries. In this paper, we offer an extensive review regarding knowledge accumulated over the years and advances achieved in the incorporation of biomolecules in different industries. PMID:26999123

  13. SENSATION SEEKING SCALE: INDIAN ADAPTATION

    OpenAIRE

    Basu, Debasish; Verma, Vijoy K.; Malhotra, Savita; Malhotra, Anil

    1993-01-01

    SUMMARY Sensation seeking refers to a biologically based personality dimension defined as the need for varied, novel and complex sensations and experiences, and the willingness to take physical and social risks for the sake of such experiences. Although researched worldwide for nearly three decades now, there is to date no published Indian study utilizing the concept of sensation seeking. This paper describes adaptation of the Sensation Seeking Scale for the Indian population. After due modif...

  14. Rent seeking e questione meridionale

    OpenAIRE

    Pugno Maurizio

    2000-01-01

    A model of allocation of heterogeneous individual ability between rent seeking and productive activity is proposed in order to explain the slow economic growth and high apparent unemployment of Italian Mezzogiorno. Two versions of the model are designed to capture legal rent seeking in the public sector (redundant public employees), and, respectively, illegal rent seeking in the organised criminal activity. In the first version of the model the individuals can choose to become either workers ...

  15. Attention-Seeking Displays.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szabolcs Számadó

    Full Text Available Animal communication abounds with extravagant displays. These signals are usually interpreted as costly signals of quality. However, there is another important function for these signals: to call the attention of the receiver to the signaller. While there is abundant empirical evidence to show the importance of this stage, it is not yet incorporated into standard signalling theory. Here I investigate a general model of signalling - based on a basic action-response game - that incorporates this searching stage. I show that giving attention-seeking displays and searching for them can be an ESS. This is a very general result and holds regardless whether only the high quality signallers or both high and low types give them. These signals need not be costly at the equilibrium and they need not be honest signals of any quality, as their function is not to signal quality but simply to call the attention of the potential receivers. These kind of displays are probably more common than their current weight in the literature would suggest.

  16. Attention-Seeking Displays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Számadó, Szabolcs

    2015-01-01

    Animal communication abounds with extravagant displays. These signals are usually interpreted as costly signals of quality. However, there is another important function for these signals: to call the attention of the receiver to the signaller. While there is abundant empirical evidence to show the importance of this stage, it is not yet incorporated into standard signalling theory. Here I investigate a general model of signalling - based on a basic action-response game - that incorporates this searching stage. I show that giving attention-seeking displays and searching for them can be an ESS. This is a very general result and holds regardless whether only the high quality signallers or both high and low types give them. These signals need not be costly at the equilibrium and they need not be honest signals of any quality, as their function is not to signal quality but simply to call the attention of the potential receivers. These kind of displays are probably more common than their current weight in the literature would suggest. PMID:26287489

  17. Transitioning Streaming to Trapping in DC Insulator-based Dielectrophoresis for Biomolecules

    OpenAIRE

    Camacho-Alanis, Fernanda; Gan, Lin; Ros, Alexandra

    2012-01-01

    Exploiting dielectrophoresis (DEP) to concentrate and separate biomolecules has recently shown large potential as a microscale bioanalytical tool. Such efforts however require tailored devices and knowledge of all interplaying transport mechanisms competing with dielectrophoresis (DEP). Specifically, a strong DEP contribution to the overall transport mechanism is necessary to exploit DEP of biomolecules for analytical applications such as separation and fractionation. Here, we present improve...

  18. Laser desorption mass spectrometry for biomolecule detection and its applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the past few years, we developed and used laser desorption mass spectrometry for biomolecule detections. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) was successfully used to detect DNA fragments with the size larger than 3000 base pairs. It was also successfully used to sequence DNA with both enzymatic and chemical degradation methods to produce DNA ladders. We also developed MALDI with fragmentation for direct DNA sequencing for short DNA probes. Since laser desorption mass spectrometry for DNA detection has the advantages of fast speed and no need of labeling, it has a great potential for molecular diagnosis for disease and person identification by DNA fingerprinting. We applied laser desorption mass spectrometry to succeed in the diagnosis of cystic fibrosis and several other nerve degenerative diseases such as Huntington's disease. We also succeeded in demonstrating DNA typing for forensic applications

  19. Synthesis of selenium nanorods with assistance of biomolecule

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S Kannan; K Mohanraj; K Prabhu; S Barathan; G Sivakumar

    2014-12-01

    Nanorods of one-dimensional (1D) trigonal selenium (t-Se) are synthesized using biomolecule substances for five different aging times (1 h, 2 h, 3 h, 1 day and 4 days) by precipitation method. XRD analysis indicates a shift of the (1 0 1) plane towards higher diffraction angle for 1 day aging time. It is observed that the crystallite size decreases with increase in aging time except for an aging period of 4 days. FTIR analysis confirmed that the presence of stretching and bending vibrations of Se–O in both synthesized and commercial selenium samples at 465, 668 and 1118 cm-1. The FESEM micrographs are evident for the changes of rod size as a function of aging time. It is observed that the optical band gap energy is increased with aging time up to 1 day, whereas it decreases in 4 days aging time.

  20. Vacuum foam drying: An alternative to lyophilization for biomolecule preservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R D Jangle

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Vacuum foam drying is evaluated as an alternative for lyophilization for enhanced process and storage stability of bovine serum albumin. The protein protective efficiency of different stabilizers was compared in vacuum foam drying and lyophilization. Sucrose mixtures produced better foam characters than mannitol. Unlike calcium lactate, incorporation of polyvinyl pyrrolidone to sucrose synergistically enhanced the recovery of bovine serum albumin. The conformational stability and bovine serum albumin content further increased with sodium phosphate as compared to potassium phosphate. All sucrose mixtures, except calcium lactate showed large α-helix amide-I band at approximately 1656 cm -1 . The amorphous powder diffraction in case of sodium phosphate monobasic mixture retained maximum bovine serum albumin content. The crystallization of similar mixtures in lyophilization reduced its bovine serum albumin content. Vacuum foam drying showed better processing and storage stability of bovine serum albumin than lyophilization process. Hence vacuum foam drying is short, simple and industrially economical process for biomolecules preservation.

  1. Interfacial water thickness at inorganic nanoconstructs and biomolecules: Size matters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardellini, Annalisa; Fasano, Matteo; Chiavazzo, Eliodoro; Asinari, Pietro

    2016-04-01

    Water molecules in the proximity of solid nanostructures influence both the overall properties of liquid and the structure and functionality of solid particles. The study of water dynamics at solid-liquid interfaces has strong implications in energy, environmental and biomedical fields. This article focuses on the hydration layer properties in the proximity of Carbon Nanotubes (CNTs) and biomolecules (proteins, polypeptides and amino acids). Here we show a quantitative relation between the solid surface extension and the characteristic length of water nanolayer (δ), which is confined at solid-liquid interfaces. Specifically, the size dependence is attributed to the limited superposition of nonbonded interactions in case of small molecules. These results may facilitate the design of novel energy or biomedical colloidal nanosuspensions, and a more fundamental understanding of biomolecular processes influenced by nanoscale water dynamics.

  2. Platinum(II) complexes as spectroscopic probes for biomolecules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ratilla, E.

    1990-09-21

    The use of platinum(II) complexes as tags and probes for biomolecules is indeed advantageous for their reactivities can be selective for certain purposes through an interplay of mild reaction conditions and of the ligands bound to the platinum. The use of {sup 195}Pt NMR as a method of detecting platinum and its interactions with biomolecules was carried out with the simplest model of platinum(II) tagging to proteins. Variable-temperature {sup 195}Pt NMR spectroscopy proved useful in studying the stereodynamics of complex thioethers like methionine. The complex, Pt(trpy)Cl{sup +}, with its chromophore has a greater potential for probing proteins. It is a noninvasive and selective tag for histidine and cysteine residues on the surface of cytochrome c at pH 5. The protein derivatives obtained are separable, and the tags are easily quantitated and differentiated through the metal-to-ligand charge transfer bands which are sensitive to the environment of the tag. Increasing the pH to 7.0 led to the modification by Pt(trpy)Cl{sup +}of Arg 91 in cytochrome c. Further studies with guanidine-containing ligands as models for arginine modification by Pt(trpy)Cl{sup +} showed that guanidine can act as a terminal ligand and as a bridging ligand. Owing to the potential utility of Pt(trpy)L{sup n+} as electron dense probes of nucleic acid structure, interactions of this bis-Pt(trpy){sup 2+} complex with nucleic acids was evaluated. Indeed, the complex interacts non-covalently with nucleic acids. Its interactions with DNA are not exactly the same as those of its precedents. Most striking is its ability to form highly immobile bands of DNA upon gel electrophoresis. 232 refs.

  3. Recent Advances in Protein Extraction and Chiral Separation of Biomolecules

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Reverse micelles create unique environment in organic media. They are capable of solubilizing hydrophilic biomolecules (e.g., proteins, peptides, amino acids, and DNAs) in their aqueous interior. This feature brings about the practical use of biomaterials in organic media because reverse micelles solubilize them with the intrinsic activity. In this paper, we focus on recent two topics concerning protein extraction and chiral separation of biomolecules using liquid membranes. In the first topic, we present recent attempts to extract proteins from an aqueous solution into isooctane using reverse micelles, and some important operational parameters to achieve an efficient protein transfer are discussed. Furthermore, novel function of reverse micelles as a protein activation medium is introduced. In the reverse micellar phase, denatured proreins were completely reactivated in the reverse micellar solution. The reverse micellar technique is found to be a useful tool not only for protein separation but also for protein refolding. Furthermore, we found that a cyclic ligand carixarene has an extraction ability to set up optimum conditions for protein transfer. In the second topic, we have found that a supported liquid membrane (SLM) encapsulating enzymes shows high enantioselectivity (enantioselective excess value is over 96%) in the transport of racemic pharmaceutical compound ibuprofen. A different experiment also suggests that the α-chymotrypsin-catalyzed reactions droved the enantioselective transport of L-phenylalanine based on the enantioselectivity of the enzyme. The SLM encapsulating the surfactant-enzyme complex enabled the highly enantioselective separation of racemic mixtures. It can be envisioned that arrangement of appropriate enzymes in the SLM system will allow enantioselective separation of various useful organic compounds.

  4. Assembly and actuation of nanomaterials using active biomolecules.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spoerke, Erik David; Thayer, Gayle Echo; de Boer, Maarten Pieter; Bunker, Bruce Conrad; Liu, Jun; Corwin, Alex David; Gaudioso, Jennifer Marie; Sasaki, Darryl Yoshio; Boal, Andrew Kiskadden; Bachand, George David; Trent, Amanda M.; Bachand, Marlene; Rivera, Susan B.; Koch, Steven John

    2005-11-01

    The formation and functions of living materials and organisms are fundamentally different from those of synthetic materials and devices. Synthetic materials tend to have static structures, and are not capable of adapting to the functional needs of changing environments. In contrast, living systems utilize energy to create, heal, reconfigure, and dismantle materials in a dynamic, non-equilibrium fashion. The overall goal of the project was to organize and reconfigure functional assemblies of nanoparticles using strategies that mimic those found in living systems. Active assembly of nanostructures was studied using active biomolecules to drive the organization and assembly of nanocomposite materials. In this system, kinesin motor proteins and microtubules were used to direct the transport and interactions of nanoparticles at synthetic interfaces. In addition, the kinesin/microtubule transport system was used to actively assemble nanocomposite materials capable of storing significant elastic energy. Novel biophysical measurement tools were also developed for measuring the collective force generated by kinesin motor proteins, which will provide insight on the mechanical constraints of active assembly processes. Responsive reconfiguration of nanostructures was studied in terms of using active biomolecules to mediate the optical properties of quantum dot (QD) arrays through modulation of inter-particle spacing and associated energy transfer interaction. Design rules for kinesin-based transport of a wide range of nanoscale cargo (e.g., nanocrystal quantum dots, micron-sized polymer spheres) were developed. Three-dimensional microtubule organizing centers were assembled in which the polar orientation of the microtubules was controlled by a multi-staged assembly process. Overall, a number of enabling technologies were developed over the course of this project, and will drive the exploitation of energy-driven processes to regulate the assembly, disassembly, and dynamic

  5. Bifunctional chelating agent for the design and development of site specific radiopharmaceuticals and biomolecule conjugation strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katti, Kattesh V.; Prabhu, Kandikere R.; Gali, Hariprasad; Pillarsetty, Nagavara Kishore; Volkert, Wynn A.

    2003-10-21

    There is provided a method of labeling a biomolecule with a transition metal or radiometal in a site specific manner to produce a diagnostic or therapeutic pharmaceutical compound by synthesizing a P.sub.2 N.sub.2 -bifunctional chelating agent intermediate, complexing the intermediate with a radio metal or a transition metal, and covalently linking the resulting metal-complexed bifunctional chelating agent with a biomolecule in a site specific manner. Also provided is a method of synthesizing the --PR.sub.2 containing biomolecules by synthesizing a P.sub.2 N.sub.2 -bifunctional chelating agent intermediate, complexing the intermediate with a radiometal or a transition metal, and covalently linking the resulting radio metal-complexed bifunctional chelating agent with a biomolecule in a site specific manner. There is provided a therapeutic or diagnostic agent comprising a --PR.sub.2 containing biomolecule.

  6. Wavelength Selection For Laser Raman Spectroscopy of Putative Martian Habitats and Biomolecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wynn-Williams, D. D.; Newton, E. M. G.; Edwards, H. G. M.

    Pigments are key potential biomarkers for any former life on Mars because of the selective pressure of solar radiation on any biological system that could have evolved at its surface. We have found that the near -Infrared laser Raman spectrometer available to use was eminently suitable for diagnostic analysis of pigments because of their minimal autofluorescence at its 1064 nm excitation wav elength. However, we have now evaluated a diverse range of excitation wavelengths to confirm this choice, to ensure that we have the best technique to seek for pigments and their derivatives from any former surface life on Mars. The Raman is weak relative to fluorescence, which results in elevated baseline and concurrent swamping of Raman bands. We confirm the molecular information available from near-IR FT Raman spectra for two highly pigmented UV-tolerant epilithic Antarctic lichens (Acarospora chlorop hana and Caloplaca saxicola) from Victoria Land, a whole endolithic microbial community and endolithic cyanobacterium Chroococcidiopsis from within translucent sandstone of the Trans -Antarctic Mountains, and the free- living cyanobacterium Nostoc commune from Alexander Island, Antarctic Peninsula region. We also show that much of the information we require on biomolecules is not evident from lasers of shorter wavelengths. A miniature 1064 nm Raman spectrometer with an In-Ga-As detector sensitive to IR is being developed by Montana State University (now existing as a prototype) as the prime instrument for a proposed UK-led Mars rover mission (Vanguard). Preliminary spectra from this system confirm the suitability of the near-IR laser.

  7. Conductive Paper with Antibody-Like Film for Electrical Readings of Biomolecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavares, Ana P. M.; Ferreira, Nádia S.; Truta, Liliana A. A. N. A.; Sales, M. Goreti F.

    2016-01-01

    This work reports a novel way of producing an inexpensive substrate support to assemble a sensing film, designed for the electrical transduction of an intended biomolecule. The support uses cellulose paper as substrate, made hydrophobic with solid wax and covered by a home-made conductive ink having graphite as core material. The hydrophobicity of the paper was confirmed by contact angle measurements and the conductive ink composition was optimized with regard to its adhesion, conductivity, and thermal stability. This support was further modified targeting its application in quantitative analysis. Carnitine (CRT) was selected as target compound, a cancer biomarker. The recognition material consisted of an antibody-like receptor film for CRT, tailored on the support and prepared by electrically-sustained polymerization of 3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene (EDOT) or dodecylbenzenesulfonic acid (DBS). Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and Raman spectroscopy analysis confirmed the presence of the polymeric film on the support, and the performance of the devices was extensively evaluated with regard to linear response ranges, selectivity, applicability, and reusability. Overall, the paper-based sensors offer simplicity of fabrication, low cost and excellent reusability features. The design could also be extended to other applications in electrical-based approaches to be used in point-of-care (POC). PMID:27210055

  8. Conductive Paper with Antibody-Like Film for Electrical Readings of Biomolecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavares, Ana P. M.; Ferreira, Nádia S.; Truta, Liliana A. A. N. A.; Sales, M. Goreti F.

    2016-05-01

    This work reports a novel way of producing an inexpensive substrate support to assemble a sensing film, designed for the electrical transduction of an intended biomolecule. The support uses cellulose paper as substrate, made hydrophobic with solid wax and covered by a home-made conductive ink having graphite as core material. The hydrophobicity of the paper was confirmed by contact angle measurements and the conductive ink composition was optimized with regard to its adhesion, conductivity, and thermal stability. This support was further modified targeting its application in quantitative analysis. Carnitine (CRT) was selected as target compound, a cancer biomarker. The recognition material consisted of an antibody-like receptor film for CRT, tailored on the support and prepared by electrically-sustained polymerization of 3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene (EDOT) or dodecylbenzenesulfonic acid (DBS). Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and Raman spectroscopy analysis confirmed the presence of the polymeric film on the support, and the performance of the devices was extensively evaluated with regard to linear response ranges, selectivity, applicability, and reusability. Overall, the paper-based sensors offer simplicity of fabrication, low cost and excellent reusability features. The design could also be extended to other applications in electrical-based approaches to be used in point-of-care (POC).

  9. International students’ information seeking behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hyldegård, Jette Seiden

    2016-01-01

    This report presents the first results and reflections from an exploratory case study carried out at The Royal School of Library and Information Science in 2015 on international students’ information seeking behavior. A convenient sample of five international master students participated in the...... study, including a questionnaire and in-depth interviews. The focus was on international students’ private and academic information needs and behavior ‘abroad’ in addition to their experiences of information seeking. Based on the analysis of survey data and participants’ descriptions of incidents...... associated with information seeking abroad five themes were identified for further examination and analysis: 1) the international student identity; 2) the influence from individual characteristics and experiences; 3) private and academic information seeking during time; 4) language barriers across private...

  10. Capital Taxation and Rent Seeking

    OpenAIRE

    Arefiev, Nikolay; Baron, Tatyana

    2006-01-01

    We find the optimal capital income tax rate in an imperfectly competitive economy, where some part of recourses is devoted to rent-seeking activity. Optimal tax offsets the difference between marginal social and marginal private return to capital, which is a result of rent seeking, and the difference between the before tax interest rate and the marginal productivity of capital, which arises from imperfect competition. Optimal capital income tax rate depends neither on other tax rates nor on o...

  11. Digital Communications Plan: Seek Tapahtumasuunnittelu

    OpenAIRE

    Mikkonen, Eveliina

    2015-01-01

    The thesis was commissioned by event planning company Seek tapahtumasuunnittelu. As a new company, Seek tapahtumasuunnittelu needed ways to get visibility and gain foothold in the market. The aim of the thesis was to gain insight about the possibilities that digital communication channels offer for companies as well as to come up with recommendations on how the digital presence of the commissioning company should be established. The marketing process and the concept of marketing communica...

  12. Si Nanopores Development for External Control of Transport of Biomolecules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ileri, N; Tringe, J; Letant, S; Palozoglu, A; Stroeve, P; Faller, R

    2008-06-13

    Nazar Ileri has been involved in an independent, multidisciplinary effort to create a new class of molecular sieves for proteins and viruses. Her experimental work has been performed concurrently at two campuses, LLNL and UC Davis, while theoretical components have been largely accomplished at UC Davis. As will be described, the devices she is creating have great potential to improve very significantly the efficiency and selectivity of molecular transport over what is presently available from state-of-the-art membranes. Our biotechnology training program is based on an integrated study of the transport of biomolecules through conically-shaped, nanoporous silicon membranes. The overall objective of this effort is to demonstrate an efficient, highly selective membrane technology that is manufacturable for macroscopic areas and can be employed in sensing, diagnostic and biomedical applications. Our specific aims are to (1) fabricate and characterize the physical characteristics of the membranes, (2) to demonstrate their utility for molecular transport and separation, and (3) to develop models that will facilitate understanding of these devices as well as improved performance of the next generation of devices. We have proposed that the conical pores have superior performance characteristics compared to other porous filters. To study this hypothesis, complementary approaches from different disciplines, such as membrane synthesis, experiment, and molecular simulation need to be combined. This provides an ideal training environment for a future leader in biotechnology. Hence, for this study, Nazar Ileri has started to carry out a full range of experimental and theoretical investigations under our guidance. First, she has begun fabrication of filters with conical/pyramidal pores. She characterized the pores by AFM and SEM, and analyzed the images using wavelets and other mathematical tools. She has also started to conduct biomolecule transport experiments to compare the

  13. Si Nanopores Development for External Control of Transport of Biomolecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nazar Ileri has been involved in an independent, multidisciplinary effort to create a new class of molecular sieves for proteins and viruses. Her experimental work has been performed concurrently at two campuses, LLNL and UC Davis, while theoretical components have been largely accomplished at UC Davis. As will be described, the devices she is creating have great potential to improve very significantly the efficiency and selectivity of molecular transport over what is presently available from state-of-the-art membranes. Our biotechnology training program is based on an integrated study of the transport of biomolecules through conically-shaped, nanoporous silicon membranes. The overall objective of this effort is to demonstrate an efficient, highly selective membrane technology that is manufacturable for macroscopic areas and can be employed in sensing, diagnostic and biomedical applications. Our specific aims are to (1) fabricate and characterize the physical characteristics of the membranes, (2) to demonstrate their utility for molecular transport and separation, and (3) to develop models that will facilitate understanding of these devices as well as improved performance of the next generation of devices. We have proposed that the conical pores have superior performance characteristics compared to other porous filters. To study this hypothesis, complementary approaches from different disciplines, such as membrane synthesis, experiment, and molecular simulation need to be combined. This provides an ideal training environment for a future leader in biotechnology. Hence, for this study, Nazar Ileri has started to carry out a full range of experimental and theoretical investigations under our guidance. First, she has begun fabrication of filters with conical/pyramidal pores. She characterized the pores by AFM and SEM, and analyzed the images using wavelets and other mathematical tools. She has also started to conduct biomolecule transport experiments to compare the

  14. 123I and 13I purification for biomolecules labelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 123I and 131I are iodine radioisotopes widely used in Nuclear Medicine. The radioisotope 123I is used in diagnosis through the SPECT technique and is routinely produced at IPEN in cyclotron through the reaction: '124Xe (p, 2n) '123Cs -> 123Xe -> 123I. The radioisotope 131I is used both in diagnosis and therapy due to its physical characteristics of decay by β- and its γ-ray emissions that are softened with the use of specific collimators for diagnosis. It is routinely produced at IPEN using the nuclear reactor through the indirect reaction: 130Te (n, γ) ->131Te -> 131I, irradiating compounds containing Te. The radiopharmaceuticals prepared with these radioisotopes go through rigorous quality control tests and the chemical purity of the primary radioisotopes 123I and 131I are within the permissible limits currently defined. However, the presence of some chemical contaminants can prejudice the biomolecules labeling (monoclonal antibodies and peptides), that will produce radiopharmaceuticals of first generation to the oncology area. The aim of this work was to obtain a new purification method of these radioisotopes, allowing the labeling of biomolecules and also to established a process control on those radioisotopes. The methodology was separated on 3 steps: Evaluation of '123I e 131I radionuclidic purity using a hyper pure germanium detector, chemical purity using ICP-OES and the retention and elution study of 131I in several absorbers to choose the most appropriate for the purification tests analyzing the behavior of the possible contaminants. The radionuclidic analyses showed the presence of Te and Co on 131I samples and Te, Tc e Co on 123I samples. The chemical purity analyses showed the presence of Al and Mo in 123I, coming from the window material of the target holder and the presence of Al and Te in 131I samples, coming from the target holder and the target, respectively. The retention and elution study selected the most promising adsorber to the

  15. Trends of Rent-seeking Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Latkov, Andrey

    2014-01-01

    The article discusses the origin and development of the rent-seeking theory. The interim results of the rent-seeking theory are summarized. The main trends in the rent-seeking theory development are presented in modern conditions.

  16. A TiS2 nanosheet enhanced fluorescence polarization biosensor for ultra-sensitive detection of biomolecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiang; Ding, Xuelian; Li, Yongfang; Wang, Linsong; Fan, Jing

    2016-05-01

    Development of new strategies for the sensitive and selective detection of ultra-low concentrations of specific cancer markers is of great importance for assessing cancer therapeutics due to its crucial role in early clinical diagnoses and biomedical applications. In this work, we have developed two types of fluorescence polarization (FP) amplification assay strategies for the detection of biomolecules by using TiS2 as a FP enhancer and Zn2+-dependent self-hydrolyzing deoxyribozymes as catalysts to realize enzyme-catalyzed target-recycling signal amplification. One approach is based on the terminal protection of small-molecule-linked DNA, in which biomolecular binding to small molecules in DNA-small-molecule chimeras can protect the conjugated DNA from degradation by exonuclease I (Exo I); the other approach is based on the terminal protection of biomolecular bound aptamer DNA, in which biomolecules directly bound to the single strand aptamer DNA can protect the ssDNA from degradation by Exo I. We select folate receptor (FR) and thrombin (Tb) as model analytes to verify the current concept. It is shown that under optimized conditions, our strategies exhibit high sensitivity and selectivity for the quantification of FR and Tb with low detection limits (0.003 ng mL-1 and 0.01 pM, respectively). Additionally, this strategy is a simple ``mix and detect'' approach, and does not require any separation steps. This biosensor is also utilized in the analysis of real biological samples, the results agree well with those obtained by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA).Development of new strategies for the sensitive and selective detection of ultra-low concentrations of specific cancer markers is of great importance for assessing cancer therapeutics due to its crucial role in early clinical diagnoses and biomedical applications. In this work, we have developed two types of fluorescence polarization (FP) amplification assay strategies for the detection of biomolecules

  17. Polyacrylamide medium for the electrophoretic separation of biomolecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madabhushi, Ramakrishna S.; Gammon, Stuart A.

    2003-11-11

    A polyacryalmide medium for the electrophoretic separation of biomolecules. The polyacryalmide medium comprises high molecular weight polyacrylamides (PAAm) having a viscosity average molecular weight (M.sub.v) of about 675-725 kDa were synthesized by conventional red-ox polymerization technique. Using this separation medium, capillary electrophoresis of BigDye DNA sequencing standard was performed. A single base resolution of .about.725 bases was achieved in .about.60 minute in a non-covalently coated capillary of 50 .mu.m i.d., 40 cm effective length, and a filed of 160 V/cm at 40.degree. C. The resolution achieved with this formulation to separate DNA under identical conditions is much superior (725 bases vs. 625 bases) and faster (60 min. vs. 75 min.) to the commercially available PAAm, such as supplied by Amersham. The formulation method employed here to synthesize PAAm is straight-forward, simple and does not require cumbersome methods such as emulsion polymerizaiton in order to achieve very high molecular weights. Also, the formulation here does not require separation of PAAm from the reaction mixture prior to reconstituting the polymer to a final concentration. Furthermore, the formulation here is prepared from a single average mol. wt. PAAm as opposed to the mixture of two different average mo. wt. PAAm previously required to achieve high resolution.

  18. Engineered Carbon-Nanomaterial-Based Electrochemical Sensors for Biomolecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, Jitendra N; Vij, Varun; Kemp, K Christian; Kim, Kwang S

    2016-01-26

    The study of electrochemical behavior of bioactive molecules has become one of the most rapidly developing scientific fields. Biotechnology and biomedical engineering fields have a vested interest in constructing more precise and accurate voltammetric/amperometric biosensors. One rapidly growing area of biosensor design involves incorporation of carbon-based nanomaterials in working electrodes, such as one-dimensional carbon nanotubes, two-dimensional graphene, and graphene oxide. In this review article, we give a brief overview describing the voltammetric techniques and how these techniques are applied in biosensing, as well as the details surrounding important biosensing concepts of sensitivity and limits of detection. Building on these important concepts, we show how the sensitivity and limit of detection can be tuned by including carbon-based nanomaterials in the fabrication of biosensors. The sensing of biomolecules including glucose, dopamine, proteins, enzymes, uric acid, DNA, RNA, and H2O2 traditionally employs enzymes in detection; however, these enzymes denature easily, and as such, enzymeless methods are highly desired. Here we draw an important distinction between enzymeless and enzyme-containing carbon-nanomaterial-based biosensors. The review ends with an outlook of future concepts that can be employed in biosensor fabrication, as well as limitations of already proposed materials and how such sensing can be enhanced. As such, this review can act as a roadmap to guide researchers toward concepts that can be employed in the design of next generation biosensors, while also highlighting the current advancements in the field. PMID:26579616

  19. Hybrid carbon nanomaterials for electrochemical detection of biomolecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurila, Tomi

    2015-09-01

    Electrochemical detection of different biomolecules in vivo is a promising path towards in situ monitoring of human body and its functions. However, there are several major obstacles, such as sensitivity, selectivity and biocompatiblity, which must be tackled in order to achieve reliably and safely operating sensor devices. Here we show that by utilizing hybrid carbon materials as electrodes to detect two types of neurotransmitters, dopamine and glutamate, several advantages over commonly used electrode materials can be achieved. In particular, we will demonstrate here that it is possible to combine the properties of different carbon allotropes to obtain hybrid materials with greatly improved electrochemical performance. Three following examples of the approach are given: (i) diamond-like carbon (DLC) thin film electrodes with different layer thicknesses, (ii) multi-walled carbon nanotubes grown directly on top of DLC and (iii) carbon nanofibres synthesized on top of DLC thin films. Detailed structural and electrochemical characterization is carried out to rationalize the reasons behind the observed behvior. In addition, results from the atomistic simulations are utilized to obtain more information about the properties of the amorphous carbon thin films.

  20. Radiation damage of biomolecules (RADAM) database development: current status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ion beam therapy offers the possibility of excellent dose localization for treatment of malignant tumours, minimizing radiation damage in normal tissue, while maximizing cell killing within the tumour. However, as the underlying dependent physical, chemical and biological processes are too complex to treat them on a purely analytical level, most of our current and future understanding will rely on computer simulations, based on mathematical equations, algorithms and last, but not least, on the available atomic and molecular data. The viability of the simulated output and the success of any computer simulation will be determined by these data, which are treated as the input variables in each computer simulation performed. The radiation research community lacks a complete database for the cross sections of all the different processes involved in ion beam induced damage: ionization and excitation cross sections for ions with liquid water and biological molecules, all the possible electron – medium interactions, dielectric response data, electron attachment to biomolecules etc. In this paper we discuss current progress in the creation of such a database, outline the roadmap of the project and review plans for the exploitation of such a database in future simulations.

  1. Diagnostic and therapeutic perspectives in nuclear medicine: radiolabelled biomolecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    From their beginning, the radiopharmaceuticals chemistry has gone to the study of the molecular chemistry. The radiopharmaceuticals are only in their capacity to detect such specific biochemical places as the receivers and the enzymes. With the recent obtaining of the complete structural sequence of the genome, it doesn't fit doubt of the importance that they have acquired the molecular images for the study from the genetic information to the alterations phenotypic in the chemistry of the human body. So, the future of the diagnostic and therapeutic nuclear medicine, practically is based in the study of protein fragments, peptide structures and chains of DNA radiolabelled for the study of the metabolism In vivo. These investigations represent a substantial change in those paradigms of the pharmaceutical development, when using the own organic capacities as source of medications, instead of considering to the organism like a simple assay tube where molecules act, like they are most of the traditional medications. The investigation of new techniques to design complex stable of Tc-99m, Re-188, Lu-177, Y-90 and Dy-166/Ho-l66 with biomolecules that don't alter the specificity and in general the molecular properties of the same ones. it is a topic of world interest in the environment of the radiopharmaceutical chemistry. In this work some achievements and perspectives are presented on those main diagnostic and therapeutic radiopharmaceuticals of third generation. (Author)

  2. Atomic level analysis of biomolecules by the scanning atom probe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Utilizing the unique features of the scanning atom probe (SAP) the binding states of the biomolecules, leucine and methionine, are investigated at atomic level. The molecules are mass analyzed by detecting a single atom and/or clustering atoms field evaporated from a specimen surface. Since the field evaporation is a static process, the evaporated clustering atoms are closely related with the binding between atoms forming the molecules. For example, many thiophene radicals are detected when polythiophene is mass analyzed by the SAP. In the present study the specimens are prepared by immersing a micro cotton ball of single walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNT) in the leucine or methionine solution. The mass spectra obtained by analyzing the cotton balls exhibit singly and doubly ionized carbon ions of SWCNT and the characteristic fragments of the molecules, CH3, CHCH3, C4H7, CHNH2 and COOH for leucine and CH3, SCH3, C2H4, C4H7, CHNH2 and COOH for methionine.

  3. Microfluidic Droplet Dehydration for Concentrating Processes in Biomolecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anna, Shelley

    2014-03-01

    Droplets in microfluidic devices have proven useful as picoliter reactors for biochemical processing operations such as polymerase chain reaction, protein crystallization, and the study of enzyme kinetics. Although droplets are typically considered to be self-contained, constant volume reactors, there can be significant transport between the dispersed and continuous phases depending on solubility and other factors. In the present talk, we show that water droplets trapped within a microfluidic device for tens of hours slowly dehydrate, concentrating the contents encapsulated within. We use this slow dehydration along with control of the initial droplet composition to influence gellation, crystallization, and phase separation processes. By examining these concentrating processes in many trapped drops at once we gain insight into the stochastic nature of the events. In one example, we show that dehydration rate impacts the probability of forming a specific crystal habit in a crystallizing amino acid. In another example, we phase separate a common aqueous two-phase system within droplets and use the ensuing two phases to separate DNA from an initial mixture. We further influence wetting conditions between the two aqueous polymer phases and the continuous oil, promoting complete de-wetting and physical separation of the polymer phases. Thus, controlled dehydration of droplets allows for concentration, separation, and purification of important biomolecules on a chip.

  4. Investigation of damage mechanism by ionising radiation on biomolecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Occupational radiation hazard is a very controversial subject. Effects from high radiation doses are well known from past experiences. However, hazard from low doses is still a subject that is hotly debated upon until now. The occupational dosimetry used now is based on a macroscopic scale. Lately, microdosimetry is fast gaining recognition as a more superior way of measuring hazard. More importantly, scientists are researching the basic damage mechanism that leads to biological effects by ionising radiation. In this report, a simulation study of the basic damage mechanism is discussed . This simulation is based upon Monte Carlo calculations and using polyuridylic acid (Poly-U) as the DNA model This simulation tries to relate the physics and chemistry of interactions of ionising radiation with biomolecules. The computer codes used in this simulation, OREC and RADLYS were created by Hamm et al. (1983) in Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The biological endpoints in this simulation are the strand break and base release of the DNA, which is the precursor of all biological effects. These results are compared with model studies that had been done experimentally to check the validity of this simulation. The G-values of strand break and base release from this simulation were -2.35 and 2.75 and compared well with results from irradiation experiments by von Sonntag (I 98 7) from Max Plank's Institute, Germany

  5. Quantification of specific bindings of biomolecules by magnetorelaxometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steinhoff Uwe

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The binding reaction of the biomolecules streptavidin and anti-biotin antibody, both labelled by magnetic nanoparticles (MNP, to biotin coated on agarose beads, was quantified by magnetorelaxometry (MRX. Highly sensitive SQUID-based MRX revealed the immobilization of the MNP caused by the biotin-streptavidin coupling. We found that about 85% of streptavidin-functionalised MNP bound specifically to biotin-agarose beads. On the other hand only 20% of antibiotin-antibody functionalised MNP were specifically bound. Variation of the suspension medium revealed in comparison to phosphate buffer with 0.1% bovine serum albumin a slight change of the binding behaviour in human serum, probably due to the presence of functioning (non heated serum proteins. Furthermore, in human serum an additional non-specific binding occurs, being independent from the serum protein functionality. The presented homogeneous bead based assay is applicable in simple, uncoated vials and it enables the assessment of the binding kinetics in a volume without liquid flow. The estimated association rate constant for the MNP-labelled streptavidin is by about two orders of magnitude smaller than the value reported for free streptavidin. This is probably due to the relatively large size of the magnetic markers which reduces the diffusion of streptavidin. Furthermore, long time non-exponential kinetics were observed and interpreted as agglutination of the agarose beads.

  6. GroPBS: Fast Solver for Implicit Electrostatics of Biomolecules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franziska eBertelshofer

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge about the electrostatic potential on the surface of biomolecules or biomembranes under physiological conditions is an important step in the attempt to characterize the physico-chemical properties of these molecules and in particular also their interactions with each other. Additionally, knowledge about solution electrostatics may guide also the design of molecules with specified properties. However, explicit water models come at a high computational cost, rendering them unsuitable for large design studies or for docking purposes. Implicit models with the water phase treated as a continuum require the numerical solution of the Poisson-Boltzmann Equation (PBE. Here, we present a new flexible program for the numerical solution of the PBE, allowing for different geometries, and the explicit and implicit inclusion of membranes. It involves a discretization of space and the computation of the molecular surface. The PBE is solved using finite differences, the resulting set of equations is solved using a Gauss-Seidel method. It is shown for the example of the sucrose transporter ScrY that the implicit inclusion of a surrounding membrane has a strong effect also on the electrostatics within the pore region and thus need to be carefully considered e.g. in design studies on membrane proteins.

  7. Synthesis of vaterite and aragonite crystals using biomolecules of tomato and capsicum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Long; Xu, Wang-Hua; Zhao, Ying-Guo; Kang, Yan; Liu, Shao-Hua; Zhang, Zai-Yong

    2012-12-01

    In this paper, biomimetic synthesis of calcium carbonate (CaCO3) in the presence of biomolecules of two vegetables-tomato and capsicum is investigated. Scanning electron microscopy and X-ray powder diffractometry were used to characterize the CaCO3 obtained. The biomolecules in the extracts of two vegetables are determined by UV-vis or FTIR. The results indicate that a mixture of calcite and vaterite spheres constructed from small particles is produced with the extract of tomato, while aragonite rods or ellipsoids are formed in the presence of extract of capsicum. The possible formation mechanism of the CaCO3 crystals with tomato biomolecules can be interpreted by particle-aggregation based non-classical crystallization laws. The proteins and/or other biomolecules in tomato and capsicum may control the formation of vaterite and aragonite crystals by adsorbing onto facets of them.

  8. Plastic Trash goes Biohybrid"-Rapid and Selective Functionalization of Inert Plastic Surfaces with Biomolecules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schiller, Stefan M; Kambhampati, Dev; Stengel, Gudrun;

    2010-01-01

    The covalent functionalization of "inert" polymers such as polypropylene with biomolecules for biocompatible or biosensor surfaces is challenging. Here we present a powerful approach to covalently modify "inert" macromolecular surfaces with biomacromolecules reusing old plastic material. A special...

  9. Worry as an Uncertainty-Associated Emotion: Exploring the Role of Worry in Health Information Seeking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sun Young; Hawkins, Robert P

    2016-08-01

    This study was carried out to understand how and why worry motivates health-related information seeking, and whether worry decreases after obtaining health-related information. It was proposed that worry influences health-related information-seeking behavior indirectly through cancer patients' desire for obtaining additional information. It was further expected that perceived knowledge about cancer could be increased after 2 months of searching for health information over the Internet, which would subsequently affect levels of worry. Using panel data collected from 224 women diagnosed with breast cancer, worry was found to predict patients' health information seeking via the perceived need for additional information. The results further showed significant increases in patients' perceived knowledge about breast cancer and decreased levels of worry after the seeking of health information for 2 months. Theoretical and practical implications of the findings are discussed. PMID:26752071

  10. Recent advances in exploiting ionic liquids for biomolecules: Solubility, stability and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivapragasam, Magaret; Moniruzzaman, Muhammad; Goto, Masahiro

    2016-08-01

    The technological utility of biomolecules (e.g. proteins, enzymes and DNA) can be significantly enhanced by combining them with ionic liquids (ILs) - potentially attractive "green" and "designer" solvents - rather than using in conventional organic solvents or water. In recent years, ILs have been used as solvents, cosolvents, and reagents for biocatalysis, biotransformation, protein preservation and stabilization, DNA solubilization and stabilization, and other biomolecule-based applications. Using ILs can dramatically enhance the structural and chemical stability of proteins, DNA, and enzymes. This article reviews the recent technological developments of ILs in protein-, enzyme-, and DNA-based applications. We discuss the different routes to increase biomolecule stability and activity in ILs, and the design of biomolecule-friendly ILs that can dissolve biomolecules with minimum alteration to their structure. This information will be helpful to design IL-based processes in biotechnology and the biological sciences that can serve as novel and selective processes for enzymatic reactions, protein and DNA stability, and other biomolecule-based applications. PMID:27312484

  11. Stage 2--Information Seeking Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsenberg, Michael B.

    2005-01-01

    A brief overview of one Big6 stage by Mike Eisenberg, followed by articles by two exemplary Big6 teachers, Barbara Jansen and Rob Darrow, offering practical uses of the Big6 in elementary and secondary situations is presented. The two-part nature of information seeking strategies that includes brainstorming and choosing is emphasized.

  12. Teachers Seek Specialized Peer Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomassini, Jason

    2013-01-01

    Within the wide expanse of social networking, educators appear to be gravitating to more protected and exclusive spaces. While teachers often use such popular mainstream social networks as Facebook, they are more likely to seek out and return to less-established networks that offer the privacy, peer-to-peer connections, and resource sharing that…

  13. CHINA SEEKS REGIONAL ENERGY COOPERATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    China is seeking to diversify channels for energy cooperation as it faces mounting challenges from surging energy demand, geopolitical risks and price volatility. The endowment and distribution of China's resources does not match the current situation of China's economic development. Those are the opinions aired by officials and experts at an international expo recently held in West China's Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region.

  14. Strategic Asset Seeking by EMNEs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Bent; Seifert, Jr., Rene E.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The chapter provides an economic explanation and perspectivation of strategic asset seeking of multinational enterprises from emerging economies (EMNEs) as a prominent feature of today’s global economy. Approach: The authors apply and extend the “springboard perspective.” This perspective...

  15. Polystyrene nanoparticles facilitate the internalization of impermeable biomolecules in non-tumour and tumour cells from colon epithelium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Advanced colon cancer has a poor prognosis due to the limited effectiveness of current chemotherapies. Treatment failures may be avoided by the utilization of nanoparticles, which can enhance the effects of antitumor drugs, reduce their side effects and increase their directionality. Polystyrene nanoparticles have shown high biocompatibility and appropriate physicochemical properties and may represent a novel and more effective approach against colon cancer. In the present study, polystyrene nanoparticles were synthesized and fluorescently labelled, analyzing their cell internalization, intracellular localization and capacity to release transported molecules in tumour and non-tumour human colon cell lines (T84 and CCD-18). Flow cytometry and fluorescence microscopy studies demonstrated that polystyrene nanoparticles are an effective vehicle for the intracellular delivery of small molecules into colon epithelium cells. The percentage cell uptake was around 100 % in both T84 and CCD-18 cell lines after only 24 h of exposure and was cell confluence-independent. The polystyrene nanoparticles showed no cytotoxicity in either colon cell line. It was found that small molecules can be efficiently delivered into colon cells by using a disulphide bridge as release strategy. Analysis of the influence of the functionalization of the polystyrene nanoparticles surface on the internalization efficiency revealed some morphological changes in these cells. These results demonstrate that polystyrene nanoparticles may improve the transport of biomolecules into colon cells which could have a potential application in chemotherapeutic treatment against colon cancer

  16. Polystyrene nanoparticles facilitate the internalization of impermeable biomolecules in non-tumour and tumour cells from colon epithelium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cabeza, Laura [University of Granada, Department of Human Anatomy and Embryology, Institute of Biopathology and Regenerative Medicine (IBIMER) (Spain); Cano-Cortés, Victoria; Rodríguez, María J. [University of Granada, Department of Pharmaceutical and Organic Chemistry (Spain); Vélez, Celia; Melguizo, Consolación, E-mail: melguizo@ugr.es [University of Granada, Department of Human Anatomy and Embryology, Institute of Biopathology and Regenerative Medicine (IBIMER) (Spain); Sánchez-Martín, Rosario M., E-mail: rmsanchez@ugr.es [University of Granada, Department of Pharmaceutical and Organic Chemistry (Spain); Prados, Jose [University of Granada, Department of Human Anatomy and Embryology, Institute of Biopathology and Regenerative Medicine (IBIMER) (Spain)

    2015-01-15

    Advanced colon cancer has a poor prognosis due to the limited effectiveness of current chemotherapies. Treatment failures may be avoided by the utilization of nanoparticles, which can enhance the effects of antitumor drugs, reduce their side effects and increase their directionality. Polystyrene nanoparticles have shown high biocompatibility and appropriate physicochemical properties and may represent a novel and more effective approach against colon cancer. In the present study, polystyrene nanoparticles were synthesized and fluorescently labelled, analyzing their cell internalization, intracellular localization and capacity to release transported molecules in tumour and non-tumour human colon cell lines (T84 and CCD-18). Flow cytometry and fluorescence microscopy studies demonstrated that polystyrene nanoparticles are an effective vehicle for the intracellular delivery of small molecules into colon epithelium cells. The percentage cell uptake was around 100 % in both T84 and CCD-18 cell lines after only 24 h of exposure and was cell confluence-independent. The polystyrene nanoparticles showed no cytotoxicity in either colon cell line. It was found that small molecules can be efficiently delivered into colon cells by using a disulphide bridge as release strategy. Analysis of the influence of the functionalization of the polystyrene nanoparticles surface on the internalization efficiency revealed some morphological changes in these cells. These results demonstrate that polystyrene nanoparticles may improve the transport of biomolecules into colon cells which could have a potential application in chemotherapeutic treatment against colon cancer.

  17. Effect of membrane hydrophilization on ultrafiltration performance for biomolecules separation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Susanto, H., E-mail: heru.susanto@undip.ac.id [Department of Chemical Engineering, Universitas Diponegoro, Jl. Prof. Sudarto-Tembalang, Semarang (Indonesia); Roihatin, A.; Aryanti, N.; Anggoro, D.D. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Universitas Diponegoro, Jl. Prof. Sudarto-Tembalang, Semarang (Indonesia); Ulbricht, M. [Lehrstuhl fuer Technische Chemie, Universitaet Duisburg-Essen, Germany, Universitaetstr. 5, Essen (Germany)

    2012-10-01

    fouling ultrafiltration (UF) membranes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We characterized the membranes before and after modification. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We examined the unmodified and modified membranes for biomolecules filtration. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer All the modifications changed the membrane characteristics and the membrane performance. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer All the modifications resulted in UF membranes having higher resistance towards fouling.

  18. Effect of membrane hydrophilization on ultrafiltration performance for biomolecules separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    characterized the membranes before and after modification. ► We examined the unmodified and modified membranes for biomolecules filtration. ► All the modifications changed the membrane characteristics and the membrane performance. ► All the modifications resulted in UF membranes having higher resistance towards fouling.

  19. Information Seeking From Media and Family/Friends Increases the Likelihood of Engaging in Healthy Lifestyle Behaviors

    OpenAIRE

    RAMÍREZ, A. SUSANA; Freres, Derek; MARTINEZ, LOURDES S.; LEWIS, NEHAMA; BOURGOIN, ANGEL; Kelly, Bridget J.; Lee, Chul-joo

    2013-01-01

    The amount of cancer-related information available to the general population continues to grow, yet its effects are unclear. This study extends previous cross-sectional research establishing that cancer information seeking across a variety of sources is extensive and positively associated with engaging in health-related behaviors. We studied how active information seeking about cancer prevention influenced three healthy lifestyle behaviors using a two-round nationally representative sample of...

  20. Celebrity disclosures and information seeking: The case of Angelina Jolie

    OpenAIRE

    Juthe, Robin H.; Zaharchuk, Amber; Wang, Catharine

    2014-01-01

    Purpose On May 14, 2013, actress Angelina Jolie disclosed that she had a BRCA1 mutation and underwent a prophylactic bilateral mastectomy. This study documents the impact of her disclosure on information-seeking behavior, specifically regarding online genetics and risk reduction resources available from the National Cancer Institute (NCI). Methods Using Adobe Analytics, daily page views for 11 resources were tracked from April 23, 2013 through June 25, 2013. Usage data were also obtained for ...

  1. Different size biomolecules anchoring on porous silicon surface: fluorescence and reflectivity pores infiltration comparative studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giovannozzi, Andrea M.; Rossi, Andrea M. [National Institute for Metrological Research, Thermodynamic Division, Strada delle Cacce 91, 10135 Torino (Italy); Renacco, Chiara; Farano, Alessandro [Ribes Ricecrhe Srl, Via Lavoratori Vittime del Col du Mont 24, 11100 Aosta (Italy); Derosas, Manuela [Biodiversity Srl, Via Corfu 71, 25124 Brescia (Italy); Enrico, Emanuele [National Institute for Metrological Research, Electromagnetism Division, Strada delle Cacce 91, 10135 Torino (Italy)

    2011-06-15

    The performance of porous silicon optical based biosensors strongly depends on material nanomorphology, on biomolecules distribution inside the pores and on the ability to link sensing species to the pore walls. In this paper we studied the immobilization of biomolecules with different size, such as antibody anti aflatoxin (anti Aflatox Ab, {proportional_to}150 KDa), malate dehydrogenase (MDH, {proportional_to}36KDa) and metallothionein (MT, {proportional_to}6KDa) at different concentrations on mesoporous silicon samples ({proportional_to}15 nm pores diameter). Fluorescence measurements using FITC- labeled biomolecules and refractive index analysis based on reflectivity spectra have been employed together to detect the amount of proteins bound to the surface and to evaluate their diffusion inside the pores. Here we suggest that these two techniques should be used together to have a better understanding of what happens at the porous silicon surface. In fact, when pores dimensions are not perfectly tuned to the protein size a higher fluorescence signal doesn't often correspond to a higher biomolecules distribution inside the pores. When a too much higher concentration of biomolecule is anchored on the surface, steric crowd effects and repulsive interactions probably take over and hinder pores infiltration, inducing a small or absent shift in the fringe pattern even if a higher fluorescence signal is registered. (copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  2. Constructing Optimal Coarse-Grained Sites of Huge Biomolecules by Fluctuation Maximization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Min; Zhang, John Zenghui; Xia, Fei

    2016-04-12

    Coarse-grained (CG) models are valuable tools for the study of functions of large biomolecules on large length and time scales. The definition of CG representations for huge biomolecules is always a formidable challenge. In this work, we propose a new method called fluctuation maximization coarse-graining (FM-CG) to construct the CG sites of biomolecules. The defined residual in FM-CG converges to a maximal value as the number of CG sites increases, allowing an optimal CG model to be rigorously defined on the basis of the maximum. More importantly, we developed a robust algorithm called stepwise local iterative optimization (SLIO) to accelerate the process of coarse-graining large biomolecules. By means of the efficient SLIO algorithm, the computational cost of coarse-graining large biomolecules is reduced to within the time scale of seconds, which is far lower than that of conventional simulated annealing. The coarse-graining of two huge systems, chaperonin GroEL and lengsin, indicates that our new methods can coarse-grain huge biomolecular systems with up to 10 000 residues within the time scale of minutes. The further parametrization of CG sites derived from FM-CG allows us to construct the corresponding CG models for studies of the functions of huge biomolecular systems. PMID:26930392

  3. Room temperature ionic liquids interacting with bio-molecules: an overview of experimental and computational studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedetto, Antonio; Ballone, Pietro

    2016-03-01

    We briefly review experimental and computational studies of room temperature ionic liquids (RTILs) interacting with important classes of biomolecules, including phospholipids, peptides and proteins, nucleic acids and carbohydrates. Most of these studies have been driven by the interest for RTILs applications as solvents. Thus, available experimental data cover primarily thermodynamic properties such as the reciprocal solubility of RTILs and bio-molecules, as well as phase boundaries. Less extensive data are also available on transport properties such as diffusion and viscosity of homogeneous binary (RTILs/biomolecules) and ternary (RTIL/biomolecules/water) solutions. Most of the structural information at the atomistic level, of interest especially for biochemical, pharmaceutical and nanotechnology applications, has been made available by molecular dynamics simulations. Major exceptions to this statement are represented by the results from NMR and circular dichroism spectroscopy, by selected neutron and X-ray scattering data, and by recent neutron reflectometry measurements on lipid bilayers on surfaces, hydrated by water-RTIL solutions. A final section of our paper summarizes new developments in the field of RTILs based on amino acids, that combine in themselves the two main aspects of our discussion, i.e. ionic liquids and bio-molecules.

  4. Predicting job-seeking intensity and job-seeking intention in the sample of unemployed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marić Zorica

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study Ajzen' theory (1991 of planned behavior was used to predict job - seek intention and behavior among unemployed people (N = 650. In addition to theory of planned behavior variables (job - seek attitude, subjective norm, self - efficacy and controllability of job seek process we used several other psychological (financial pressure, self - mastery, self - esteem and depression and demographic (gender, age, education, marriage and lent of unemployment variables to build a model of predictors for both criterion variables. Financial pressure, intention to seek employment, job seek - self - efficacy, job - seek controllability, marriage and job - seek attitude predicted job - seeking behavior, while attitude toward job - seeking, subjective norm, job - seek self - efficacy and financial pressure predicted job seek - intention. Results are discussed in light of theory of planned behavior, current research of job - seeking behavior and recommendations are made for practice.

  5. Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Blood tests (which look for chemicals such as tumor markers) Bone marrow biopsy (for lymphoma or leukemia) Chest ... the case with skin cancers , as well as cancers of the lung, breast, and colon. If the tumor has spread ...

  6. Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancer begins in your cells, which are the building blocks of your body. Normally, your body forms ... be benign or malignant. Benign tumors aren't cancer while malignant ones are. Cells from malignant tumors ...

  7. Cancer Therapy Evaluation Program | Office of Cancer Genomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Cancer Therapy Evaluation Program (CTEP) seeks to improve the lives of cancer patients by finding better treatments, control mechanisms, and cures for cancer. CTEP funds a national program of cancer research, sponsoring clinical trials to evaluate new anti-cancer agents.

  8. An aptamer-functionalized chemomechanically modulated biomolecule catch-and-release system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shastri, Ankita; McGregor, Lynn M.; Liu, Ya; Harris, Valerie; Nan, Hanqing; Mujica, Maritza; Vasquez, Yolanda; Bhattacharya, Amitabh; Ma, Yongting; Aizenberg, Michael; Kuksenok, Olga; Balazs, Anna C.; Aizenberg, Joanna; He, Ximin

    2015-05-01

    The efficient extraction of (bio)molecules from fluid mixtures is vital for applications ranging from target characterization in (bio)chemistry to environmental analysis and biomedical diagnostics. Inspired by biological processes that seamlessly synchronize the capture, transport and release of biomolecules, we designed a robust chemomechanical sorting system capable of the concerted catch and release of target biomolecules from a solution mixture. The hybrid system is composed of target-specific, reversible binding sites attached to microscopic fins embedded in a responsive hydrogel that moves the cargo between two chemically distinct environments. To demonstrate the utility of the system, we focus on the effective separation of thrombin by synchronizing the pH-dependent binding strength of a thrombin-specific aptamer with volume changes of the pH-responsive hydrogel in a biphasic microfluidic regime, and show a non-destructive separation that has a quantitative sorting efficiency, as well as the system's stability and amenability to multiple solution recycling.

  9. Detection of biomolecules and bioconjugates by monitoring rotated grating-coupled surface plasmon resonance

    CERN Document Server

    Szalai, Aniko; Somogyi, Aniko; Szenes, Andras; Banhelyi, Balazs; Csapo, Edit; Dekany, Imre; Csendes, Tibor; Csete, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Plasmonic biosensing chips were prepared by fabricating wavelength-scaled dielectric-metal interfacial gratings on thin polycarbonate films covered bimetal layers via two-beam interference laser lithography. Lysozyme (LYZ) biomolecules and gold nanoparticle (AuNP-LYZ) bioconjugates with 1:5 mass ratio were seeded onto the biochip surfaces. Surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy was performed before and after biomolecule seeding in a modified Kretschmann-arrangement by varying the azimuthal and polar angles to optimize the conditions for rotated grating-coupling. The shift of secondary and primary resonance peaks originating from rotated grating-coupling phenomenon was monitored to detect the biomolecule and bioconjugate adherence. Numerical calculations were performed to reproduce the measured reflectance spectra and the resonance peak shifts caused by different biocoverings. Comparison of measurements and calculations proved that monitoring the narrower secondary peaks under optimal rotated-grating coupling ...

  10. Radical Reactions in the Gas Phase: Recent Development and Application in Biomolecules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Gao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This review summarizes recent literature describing the use of gas phase radical reactions for structural characterization of complex biomolecules other than peptides. Specifically, chemical derivatization, in-source chemical reaction, and gas phase ion/ion reactions have been demonstrated as effective ways to generate radical precursor ions that yield structural informative fragments complementary to those from conventional collision-induced dissociation (CID. Radical driven dissociation has been applied to a variety of biomolecules including peptides, nucleic acids, carbohydrates, and phospholipids. The majority of the molecules discussed in this review see limited fragmentation from conventional CID, and the gas phase radical reactions open up completely new dissociation channels for these molecules and therefore yield high fidelity confirmation of the structures of the target molecules. Due to the extensively studied peptide fragmentation, this review focuses only on nonpeptide biomolecules such as nucleic acids, carbohydrates, and phospholipids.

  11. Induction of Biomolecules in Mature Leaves of Terminalia arjuna Due to Feeding of Antheraea mylitta Drury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Abraham

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Terminalia arjuna is an important food plant of the tasar silkworm, Antheraea mylitta Drury. In this study, we investigated the induction of biomolecules in mature leaves of these plants subjected to insect feeding. Increase in total tannin content, lipid peroxidation, and trypsin inhibitor activity have been observed in mature leaves damaged by the insects. The growth rate of Vth instar larvae of A. mylitta fed on previously damaged foliage reduced by 87.1%. Induction of biomolecules for defense mechanisms in relation to herbivore damage has been discussed.

  12. A new method for immobilization of biomolecules using preirradiation grafting at low temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new method of biomolecule immobilization is described in which a monomer-conjugated enzyme (asparaginase, Asp) is grafted together with free monomer (acrylamide, AAm) onto a cellulose sheet which had been preirradiated in a 60Co source. The preirradiation and grafting steps are carried out in air at - 780C and in vacuum at 00C respectively. The grafting is probably caused by trapped radicals. The immobilized enzyme retains significant activity and is stable to storage. The technique is applicable to immobilization of a wide variety of biomolecules, such as enzymes, antibodies and drugs. The products may be used for therapeutic or diagnostic applications. (author)

  13. Help-Seeking Attitudes among Israeli Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tishby, Orya; Turel, Miriam; Gumpel, Omer; Pinus, Uri; Lavy, Shlomit Ben; Winokour, Miriam; Sznajderman, Semi

    2001-01-01

    Study investigated the willingness of Israeli adolescents to seek help for emotional and health problems, and their preference for various helping agents. Gender and age were identified as factors associated with help seeking attitudes. In general, adolescents preferred seeking help from family and peers, rather than professionals, for emotional…

  14. A Model of Stochastic Variety-Seeking

    OpenAIRE

    Minakshi Trivedi; Frank M. Bass; Ram C. Rao

    1994-01-01

    In this paper, we propose and test a stochastic model of consumer choice that incorporates attribute-based variety seeking. Our stochastic variety-seeking model (SVS) has nested within it a fixed variety-seeking model, a zero-order model of choice, and a first-order (“pure variety”) model. We compare the SVS model to alternative models. Under stochastic variety seeking, we examine the nature of the variety sought and provide a test of the “satiation” hypothesis. Unlike fixed variety-seeking m...

  15. [Cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Peña-López, Roberto; Remolina-Bonilla, Yuly Andrea

    2016-09-01

    Cancer is a group of diseases which represents a significant public health problem in Mexico and worldwide. In Mexico neoplasms are the second leading cause of death. An increased morbidity and mortality are expected in the next decades. Several preventable risk factors for cancer development have been identified, the most relevant including tobacco use, which accounts for 30% of the cancer cases; and obesity, associated to another 30%. These factors, in turn, are related to sedentarism, alcohol abuse and imbalanced diets. Some agents are well knokn to cause cancer such as ionizing radiation, viruses such as the papilloma virus (HPV) and hepatitis virus (B and C), and more recently environmental pollution exposure and red meat consumption have been pointed out as carcinogens by the International Agency for Research in Cancer (IARC). The scientific evidence currently available is insufficient to consider milk either as a risk factor or protective factor against different types of cancer. PMID:27603890

  16. Mesoporous silica nanoparticles as smart and safe devices for regulating blood biomolecule levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Yan [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Stimuli-responsive end-capped MSN materials are promising drug carriers that securely deliver a large payload of drug molecules without degradation or premature release. A general review of the recent progress in this field is presented, including a summary of a series of hard and soft caps for drug encapsulation and a variety of internal and external stimuli for controlled release of different therapeutics, a discussion of the biocompatibility of MSN both in vitro and in vivo, and a description of the sophisticated stimuli-responsive systems with novel capping agents and controlled release mechanism. The unique internal and external surfaces of MSN were utilized for the development of a glucose-responsive double delivery system end-capped with insulin. This unique system consists of functionalized MSNs capable of releasing insulin when the concentration of sugar in blood exceeds healthy levels. The insulin-free nanoparticles are then up taken by pancreatic cells, and release inside of them another biomolecule that stimulates the production of more insulin. The in vivo application of this system for the treatment of diabetes requires further understanding on the biological behaviors of these nanoparticles in blood vessels. The research presented in this dissertation demonstrated the size and surface effects on the interaction of MSNs with red blood cell membranes, and discovered how the surface of the nanoparticles can be modified to improve their compatibility with red blood cells and avoid their dangerous side effects. In order to optimize the properties of MSN for applying them as efficient intracellular drug carriers it is necessary to understand the factors that can regulate their internalization into and exocytosis out of the cells. The correlation between the particle morphology and aggregation of MSNs to the effectiveness of cellular uptake is discussed and compared with different cell lines. The differences in the degree of exocytosis of MSNs between

  17. Cellular Viscosity in Prokaryotes and Thermal Stability of Low Molecular Weight Biomolecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuecas, Alba; Cruces, Jorge; Galisteo-López, Juan F; Peng, Xiaojun; Gonzalez, Juan M

    2016-08-23

    Some low molecular weight biomolecules, i.e., NAD(P)H, are unstable at high temperatures. The use of these biomolecules by thermophilic microorganisms has been scarcely analyzed. Herein, NADH stability has been studied at different temperatures and viscosities. NADH decay increased at increasing temperatures. At increasing viscosities, NADH decay rates decreased. Thus, maintaining relatively high cellular viscosity in cells could result in increased stability of low molecular weight biomolecules (i.e., NADH) at high temperatures, unlike what was previously deduced from studies in diluted water solutions. Cellular viscosity was determined using a fluorescent molecular rotor in various prokaryotes covering the range from 10 to 100°C. Some mesophiles showed the capability of changing cellular viscosity depending on growth temperature. Thermophiles and extreme thermophiles presented a relatively high cellular viscosity, suggesting this strategy as a reasonable mechanism to thrive under these high temperatures. Results substantiate the capability of thermophiles and extreme thermophiles (growth range 50-80°C) to stabilize and use generally considered unstable, universal low molecular weight biomolecules. In addition, this study represents a first report, to our knowledge, on cellular viscosity measurements in prokaryotes and it shows the dependency of prokaryotic cellular viscosity on species and growth temperature. PMID:27558730

  18. Nanohybrid structure analysis and biomolecule release behavior of polysaccharide-CDHA drug carriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Li-Ying; Liu, Ting-Yu; Liu, Tse-Ying; Mevold, Andreas; Hardiansyah, Andri; Liao, Hung-Chou; Lin, Chin-Ching; Yang, Ming-Chien

    2013-10-01

    Nanoscaled polymer composites were prepared from polysaccharide chitosan (CS) and Ca-deficient hydroxyapatite (CDHA). CS-CDHA nanocomposites were synthesized by in situ precipitation at pH 9, and the CS-CDHA carriers were then fabricated by ionic cross-linking methods using tripolyphosphate and chemical cross-linking methods by glutaraldehyde and genipin. Certain biomolecules such as vitamin B12, cytochrome c, and bovine serum albumin were loaded into the CS-CDHA carriers, and their release behaviors were investigated. Furthermore, these CS-CDHA carriers were examined by transmission electron microscopy, electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis, and X-ray diffraction. The release behavior of the biomolecules was controlled by the CS/CDHA ratios and cross-linked agents. By increasing the concentration of CS and the concentration of the cross-linking agents, cross-linking within carriers increases, and the release rate of the biomolecules is decreased. Moreover, the release rate of the biomolecules from the CS-CDHA carriers at pH 4 was higher than that at pH 10, displaying a pH-sensitive behavior. Therefore, these CS-CDHA hydrogel beads may be useful for intelligent drug release and accelerate bone reconstruction.

  19. Biomolecule Analogues 2-Hydroxypyridine and 2-Pyridone Base Pairing on Ice Nanoparticles

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rubovič, Peter; Pysanenko, Andriy; Lengyel, Jozef; Nachtigallová, Dana; Fárník, Michal

    (2016). ISSN 1089-5639 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA14-14082S Institutional support: RVO:61388955 Keywords : ice nanoparticles * hydrogen bonding * biomolecules Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 2.693, year: 2014

  20. Extraction of Biomolecules Using Phosphonium-Based Ionic Liquids + K3PO4 Aqueous Biphasic Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudia L. S. Louros

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Aqueous biphasic systems (ABS provide an alternative and efficient approach for the extraction, recovery and purification of biomolecules through their partitioning between two liquid aqueous phases. In this work, the ability of hydrophilic phosphonium-based ionic liquids (ILs to form ABS with aqueous K3PO4 solutions was evaluated for the first time. Ternary phase diagrams, and respective tie-lines and tie-lines length, formed by distinct phosphonium-based ILs, water, and K3PO4 at 298 K, were measured and are reported. The studied phosphonium-based ILs have shown to be more effective in promoting ABS compared to the imidazolium-based counterparts with similar anions. Moreover, the extractive capability of such systems was assessed for distinct biomolecules (including amino acids, food colourants and alkaloids. Densities and viscosities of both aqueous phases, at the mass fraction compositions used for the biomolecules extraction, were also determined. The evaluated IL-based ABS have been shown to be prospective extraction media, particularly for hydrophobic biomolecules, with several advantages over conventional polymer-inorganic salt ABS.

  1. Recovery of biomolecules from marinated herring (Clupea harengus) brine using ultrafiltration through ceramic membranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gringer, Nina; Hosseini, Seyed Vali; Svendsen, Tore; Undeland, Ingrid; Christensen, Morten Lykkegaard; Baron, Caroline P.

    2015-01-01

    recovery of high value biomolecules such as proteins, fatty acids, minerals, and phenolic compounds. Chemical and biological oxygen demand (COD, BOD5) as well as total suspended solids (TSS) were also measured to follow the performance of the ultrafiltration. The retentates contained 75-82% (95% TSS and...

  2. Immobilization of biomolecules onto surfaces according to ultraviolet light diffraction patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Steffen B.; Gennaro, Ane Kold Di; Neves Petersen, Teresa;

    2010-01-01

    We developed a method for immobilization of biomolecules onto thiol functionalized surfaces according to UV diffraction patterns. UV light-assisted molecular immobilization proceeds through the formation of free, reactive thiol groups that can bind covalently to thiol reactive surfaces. We demons...

  3. A quasi-static continuum model describing interactions between plasmons and non-absorbing biomolecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salary, Mohammad Mahdi; Mosallaei, Hossein

    2015-06-01

    Interactions between the plasmons of noble metal nanoparticles and non-absorbing biomolecules forms the basis of the plasmonic sensors, which have received much attention. Studying these interactions can help to exploit the full potentials of plasmonic sensors in quantification and analysis of biomolecules. Here, a quasi-static continuum model is adopted for this purpose. We present a boundary-element method for computing the optical response of plasmonic particles to the molecular binding events by solving the Poisson equation. The model represents biomolecules with their molecular surfaces, thus accurately accounting for the influence of exact binding conformations as well as structural differences between different proteins on the response of plasmonic nanoparticles. The linear systems arising in the method are solved iteratively with Krylov generalized minimum residual algorithm, and the acceleration is achieved by applying precorrected-Fast Fourier Transformation technique. We apply the developed method to investigate interactions of biotinylated gold nanoparticles (nanosphere and nanorod) with four different types of biotin-binding proteins. The interactions are studied at both ensemble and single-molecule level. Computational results demonstrate the ability of presented model for analyzing realistic nanoparticle-biomolecule configurations. The method can provide comprehensive study for wide variety of applications, including protein structures, monitoring structural and conformational transitions, and quantification of protein concentrations. In addition, it is suitable for design and optimization of the nano-plasmonic sensors.

  4. Bone-seeking radiopharmaceuticals in skeletal malignancy: evolution, not revolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many advanced malignancies are complicated by skeletal metastases, with attendant pain and disability. External beam radiotherapy is still the most effective treatment for isolated lesions. Bone-seeking radiopharmaceuticals were perceived as a means of delivering radiation to multiple lesions simultaneously. A wide variety of radioisotopes have been used in this endeavor, with myelosuppression being the most significant potential adverse effect. Benefits of treatment are modest, including a transient improvement in pain control and perhaps prolongation of the treatment-free period. This is best demonstrated in prostate cancer with lower responses by skeletal metastases from breast and lung cancers. However, the treatment is yet to produce any improvement in patient survival. Experimental approaches to improve treatment efficacy include combination with cytotoxic therapy, and administration earlier in the course of the disease. Bone seeking radiopharmaceuticals have been used in treatment of advanced osteosarcoma in humans and canines and achieved effective palliation. The myelosuppressive effects of these agents have been exploited in patients with multiple myeloma to assist in attaining myeloablation prior to stem cell transplantation. Development of more potent non-radiolabelled bisphosphonates and recognition of their antitumour effect against several tumours has sparked a recrudescence of interest in their use for bone metastases. Set against these developments, the role of bone-seeking radiopharmaceuticals in skeletal metastases may need to be redefined

  5. Preparation of supramolecular hydrogel-enzyme hybrids exhibiting biomolecule-responsive gel degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shigemitsu, Hajime; Fujisaku, Takahiro; Onogi, Shoji; Yoshii, Tatsuyuki; Ikeda, Masato; Hamachi, Itaru

    2016-09-01

    Hydrogelators are small, self-assembling molecules that form supramolecular nanofiber networks that exhibit unique dynamic properties. Development of supramolecular hydrogels that degrade in response to various biomolecules could potentially be used for applications in areas such as drug delivery and diagnostics. Here we provide a synthetic procedure for preparing redox-responsive supramolecular hydrogelators that are used to create hydrogels that degrade in response to oxidizing or reducing conditions. The synthesis takes ∼2-4 d, and it can potentially be carried out in parallel to prepare multiple hydrogelator candidates. This described solid-phase peptide synthesis protocol can be used to produce previously described hydrogelators or to construct a focused molecular library to efficiently discover and optimize new hydrogelators. In addition, we describe the preparation of redox-responsive supramolecular hydrogel-enzyme hybrids that are created by mixing aqueous solutions of hydrogelators and enzymes, which requires 2 h for completion. The resultant supramolecular hydrogel-enzyme hybrids exhibit gel degradation in response to various biomolecules, and can be rationally designed by connecting the chemical reactions of the hydrogelators with enzymatic reactions. Gel degradation in response to biomolecules as triggers occurs within a few hours. We also describe the preparation of hydrogel-enzyme hybrids arrayed on flat glass slides, enabling high-throughput analysis of biomolecules such as glucose, uric acid, lactate and so on by gel degradation, which is detectable by the naked eye. The protocol requires ∼6 h to prepare the hydrogel-enzyme hybrid array and to complete the biomolecule assay. PMID:27560177

  6. Well-Designed Bone-Seeking Radiolabeled Compounds for Diagnosis and Therapy of Bone Metastases

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Bone-seeking radiopharmaceuticals are frequently used as diagnostic agents in nuclear medicine, because they can detect bone disorders before anatomical changes occur. Furthermore, their effectiveness in the palliation of metastatic bone cancer pain has been demonstrated in the clinical setting. With the aim of developing superior bone-seeking radiopharmaceuticals, many compounds have been designed, prepared, and evaluated. Here, several well-designed bone-seeking compounds used for diagnostic and therapeutic use, having the concept of radiometal complexes conjugated to carrier molecules to bone, are reviewed. PMID:26075256

  7. A brain cancer pathway in clinical practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Emilie Lund; Rasmussen, Birthe Krogh

    2012-01-01

    Danish healthcare seeks to improve cancer survival through improved diagnostics, rapid treatment and increased focus on cancer prevention and early help-seeking. In neuro-oncology, this has resulted in the Integrated Brain Cancer Pathway (IBCP). The paper explores how the pathway works in the...

  8. Do Democracies Breed Rent-Seeking Behavior?

    OpenAIRE

    Calderón, César; Chong, Alberto

    2005-01-01

    Using objective institutional historical data we test the link between extent, duration, and transparency in democracies and rent-seeking behavior using time-series and panel data approaches. In this paper we focus on the case of Uruguay, an ethnically homogeneous country. We find three main results. First, democratic regimes are negatively linked with rent-seeking actions. Second, the longer the duration of democracy, the less rent-seeking in a society. Third, legislation enacted more transp...

  9. On The Allocative Effects of Rent Seeking

    OpenAIRE

    Corchón, Luis C.

    2000-01-01

    We consider the effects of rent-seeking activities on resource allocation. Before rent-seeking activities take place, there are prior probabilities that an object will be given to one of several agents. The posterior probability depends on prior probabilities and the expenses incurred by all agents. In the case of two agents who equally value the object, prior and posterior probabilities coincide, and thus rent seeking has no effect on resource allocation. If there are two agents ...

  10. Entrepreneurship and Rent-Seeking Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Dejardin, Marcus

    2011-01-01

    In this chapter, we propose a primer of the treatment that has received in the economic literature the problematic of entrepreneurship and rent-seeking behavior. It comprises the introduction of employed concepts, the discussion of the allocation of entrepreneurs between different types of economic projects, namely between innovative entrepreneurship and rent-seeking, as well as the explicative factors of the allocation. Interactions between entrepreneurship, rent-seeking and growth are consi...

  11. Pdvsa, seeks foreign investment hike

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Looking at a protracted cash crunch, state oil company Petroleos de Venezuela SA plans to encourage accelerated investment by foreign companies in Venezuela's oil sector. Pdvsa late last month sliced about $1 billion from its capital and operating budget for 1992. This paper reports that in the medium term, Pdvsa plans to focus on investment in quicker payout projects in oil production and refining while seeking foreign capital for as many projects as possible in oil and gas exploration and development, petrochemicals, and coal. And it will continue to expand its presence in other countries, especially the US, to maintain market shares of crude and refined products exports. Those are among the business strategies outlined by new Pdvsa Pres. Gustavo Roosen after his first 100 days on the job. Pdvsa sees a key window of opportunity in gaining part of the market share lost by US crude producers as their production continues to decline. Pdvsa production outlays this decade are estimated at $4.4 billion. Pdvsa continues to hold to its target of crude productive capacity at 3.3 million b/d by 1996. The company wants to jump capacity as quickly as prudently possible from the yearend 1991 level of 2.83 million b/d. Currently, Pdvsa must buy 6000,000 b/d of oil on the US market to meet all of its commitments

  12. Effect of biomolecules adsorption on oxide layers developed on metallic materials used in cooling water systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This thesis was carried out in the frame of the BIOCOR ITN European project, in collaboration with the industrial partner RSE S.p.A. (Italy). Metallic materials commonly used in cooling systems of power plants may be affected by bio-corrosion induced by biofilm formation. The objective of this work was to study the influence of biomolecules adsorption, which is the initial stage of biofilm formation, on the electrochemical behaviour and the surface chemical composition of three metallic materials (70Cu-30Ni alloy, 304L stainless steel and titanium) in seawater environments. In a first step, the interactions between a model protein, the bovine serum albumin (BSA), and the surface of these materials were investigated. Secondly, tightly bound (TB) and loosely bound (LB) extracellular polymeric substances (EPS), that play a fundamental role in the different stages of biofilm formation, maturation and maintenance, were extracted from Pseudomonas NCIMB 2021 marine strain, and their effects on oxide layers were also evaluated. For that purpose, electrochemical measurements (corrosion potential E(corr) vs time, polarization curves and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS)) performed during the very first steps of oxide layers formation (1 h immersion time) were combined to surface analysis by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and time-of-flight secondary ions mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS). Compared to 70Cu-30Ni alloy in static artificial seawater (ASW) without biomolecules, for which a thick duplex oxide layer (outer redeposited Cu2O layer and inner oxidized nickel layer) is shown, the presence of BSA, TB EPS and LB EPS leads to a mixed oxide layer (oxidized copper and nickel) with a lower thickness. In the biomolecules-containing solutions, this oxide layer is covered by an adsorbed organic layer, mainly composed of proteins. A model is proposed to analyse impedance data obtained at E(corr). The results show a slow-down of the anodic reaction in the presence of

  13. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... treatment Seeking Information About Your Prognosis Is a Personal Decision When you have cancer, you and your ... about it, and gain valuable insight from the personal ways each patient has approached questions about their ...

  14. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... were before cancer How you respond to treatment Seeking Information About Your Prognosis Is a Personal Decision ... artist, and her husband Roy discover how to support each other’s need for different kinds of information ...

  15. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... treatment Seeking Information About Your Prognosis Is a Personal Decision When you have cancer, you and your ... think they are too impersonal to be of value to you. It is up to you to ...

  16. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Seeking Information About Your Prognosis Is a Personal Decision When you have cancer, you and your loved ... can help you and your loved ones make decisions. Some of the decisions you may face include: ...

  17. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to treatment Seeking Information About Your Prognosis Is a Personal Decision When you have cancer, you and ... how long she has to live. For Doctors, a Patient-Centered Approach View this video on YouTube. ...

  18. PRISM: a planned risk information seeking model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahlor, LeeAnn

    2010-06-01

    Recent attention on health-related information seeking has focused primarily on information seeking within specific health and health risk contexts. This study attempts to shift some of that focus to individual-level variables that may impact health risk information seeking across contexts. To locate these variables, the researcher posits an integrated model, the Planned Risk Information Seeking Model (PRISM). The model, which treats risk information seeking as a deliberate (planned) behavior, maps variables found in the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB; Ajzen, 1991) and the Risk Information Seeking and Processing Model (RISP; Griffin, Dunwoody, & Neuwirth, 1999), and posits linkages among those variables. This effort is further informed by Kahlor's (2007) Augmented RISP, the Theory of Motivated Information Management (Afifi & Weiner, 2004), the Comprehensive Model of Information Seeking (Johnson & Meischke, 1993), the Health Information Acquisition Model (Freimuth, Stein, & Kean, 1989), and the Extended Parallel Processing Model (Witte, 1998). The resulting integrated model accounted for 59% of the variance in health risk information-seeking intent and performed better than the TPB or the RISP alone. PMID:20512716

  19. Information-Seeking Habits of Education Faculty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rupp-Serrano, Karen; Robbins, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    This study explores the information-seeking behavior of academic education faculty from twenty large public research universities. The investigation includes an examination of how frequently education faculty seek or access information, how they stay up-to-date on current developments in the field and identify less recent journal literature, how…

  20. Rent Seeking and Corruption in Financial Markets

    OpenAIRE

    Asim Ijaz Khwaja; Atif Mian

    2011-01-01

    We describe recent advances in the study of rent seeking and corruption in financial markets. We outline three areas of inquiry: (a) conceptualizing rent seeking, (b) identifying rent-provision channels and their general equilibrium impact, and (c) designing feasible remedial mechanisms. We provide suggestions for making further progress in these areas and review a variety of approaches taken in the recent literature.

  1. Students' Help Seeking during Physical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nye, Susan B.

    2008-01-01

    Seeking help with academic tasks has been regarded as an important strategy to enhance student learning (Newman, 1994; Ryan, Gheen, & Midgley, 1998; Zimmerman & Martinez-Pons, 1986). Seeking help is conceptualized as student-initiated efforts to secure task information or solicit advice when a deficiency in their understanding of the content…

  2. Exploring Older Adults' Health Information Seeking Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manafo, Elizabeth; Wong, Sharon

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To explore older adults' (55-70 years) health information-seeking behaviors. Methods: Using a qualitative methodology, based on grounded theory, data were collected using in-depth interviews. Participants were community-living, older adults in Toronto, Canada who independently seek nutrition and health information. Interview transcripts…

  3. Calculation and visualization of atomistic mechanical stresses in nanomaterials and biomolecules.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew T Fenley

    Full Text Available Many biomolecules have machine-like functions, and accordingly are discussed in terms of mechanical properties like force and motion. However, the concept of stress, a mechanical property that is of fundamental importance in the study of macroscopic mechanics, is not commonly applied in the biomolecular context. We anticipate that microscopical stress analyses of biomolecules and nanomaterials will provide useful mechanistic insights and help guide molecular design. To enable such applications, we have developed Calculator of Atomistic Mechanical Stress (CAMS, an open-source software package for computing atomic resolution stresses from molecular dynamics (MD simulations. The software also enables decomposition of stress into contributions from bonded, nonbonded and Generalized Born potential terms. CAMS reads GROMACS topology and trajectory files, which are easily generated from AMBER files as well; and time-varying stresses may be animated and visualized in the VMD viewer. Here, we review relevant theory and present illustrative applications.

  4. The Patentability of Biomolecules – Does Online Bioinformatics Compromise Novelty?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton Hutter

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Researchers are becoming increasingly concerned that the confidentiality of their novel biomolecule sequences is being jeopardised, particularly when these sequences are either submitted to sequence databases or uploaded as query terms onto internet-based bioinformatic software suites. The researcher’s fears stem from the fact that the actual uploading of their sequences acts as a novelty destroying prior disclosure or publication, and that this may subsequently preclude valid patent protection for the sequences. This article addresses the key issues involved in the analyses of biomolecules, highlighting potential risks taken by many researchers in regard to patent protection and suggests possible ways in which these risks may be mitigated.

  5. Immobilization of biomolecules onto surfaces according to ultraviolet light diffraction patterns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bjoern Petersen, Steffen; Kold di Gennaro, Ane; Neves-Petersen, Maria Teresa; Skovsen, Esben; Parracino, Antonietta

    2010-10-01

    We developed a method for immobilization of biomolecules onto thiol functionalized surfaces according to UV diffraction patterns. UV light-assisted molecular immobilization proceeds through the formation of free, reactive thiol groups that can bind covalently to thiol reactive surfaces. We demonstrate that, by shaping the pattern of the UV light used to induce molecular immobilization, one can control the pattern of immobilized molecules onto the surface. Using a single-aperture spatial mask, combined with the Fourier transforming property of a focusing lens, we show that submicrometer (0.7 {mu}m) resolved patterns of immobilized prostate-specific antigen biomolecules can be created. If a dual-aperture spatial mask is used, the results differ from the expected Fourier transform pattern of the mask. It appears as a superposition of two diffraction patterns produced by the two apertures, with a fine structured interference pattern superimposed.

  6. Antioxidants from defatted Indian Mustard (Brassica Juncea) protect biomolecules against in vitro oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dua, Anita; Chander, Subhash; Agrawal, Sharad; Mahajan, Ritu

    2014-10-01

    Indian mustard seeds were defatted by distillation with hexane and the residue extracted with methanol was analyzed for potential antioxidants; ascorbate, riboflavin, and polyphenols. Gallic acid (129.796 μg), caffeic acid (753.455 μg), quercetin (478.352 μg) and kaempferol (48.060 μg)/g dry seeds were identified by HPLC analysis of the extract. DPPH free radical scavenging activity and protection of lipids, proteins and DNA against metal induced oxidation was examined. Defatted mustard seed remnant had excellent free radical scavenging activity and protects biomolecules with IC50 value 2.0-2.25 mg dry seed weight. Significant content of polyphenols in methanol extract of defatted seeds accounts for high antioxidant potential. We are the first to report the detailed analysis of antioxidant composition and protection of biomolecules against oxidative damage by methanol extract of mustard seed remnant after oil extraction. PMID:25320478

  7. Nanohybrid structure analysis and biomolecule release behavior of polysaccharide-CDHA drug carriers

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Li-Ying; Liu, Ting-Yu; Liu, Tse-Ying; Mevold, Andreas; Hardiansyah, Andri; Liao, Hung-Chou; Lin, Chin-Ching; Yang, Ming-Chien

    2013-01-01

    Nanoscaled polymer composites were prepared from polysaccharide chitosan (CS) and Ca-deficient hydroxyapatite (CDHA). CS-CDHA nanocomposites were synthesized by in situ precipitation at pH 9, and the CS-CDHA carriers were then fabricated by ionic cross-linking methods using tripolyphosphate and chemical cross-linking methods by glutaraldehyde and genipin. Certain biomolecules such as vitamin B12, cytochrome c, and bovine serum albumin were loaded into the CS-CDHA carriers, and their release b...

  8. Nanocoating for biomolecule delivery using layer-by-layer self-assembly

    OpenAIRE

    KEENEY, M; Jiang, X. Y.; Yamane, M.; Lee, M.; Goodman, S.; Yang, F.

    2015-01-01

    Since its introduction in the early 1990s, layer-by-layer (LbL) self-assembly of films has been widely used in the fields of nanoelectronics, optics, sensors, surface coatings, and controlled drug delivery. The growth of this industry is propelled by the ease of film manufacture, low cost, mild assembly conditions, precise control of coating thickness, and versatility of coating materials. Despite the wealth of research on LbL for biomolecule delivery, clinical translation has been limited an...

  9. Nanoscale surface properties and interaction with fundamental biomolecules of chlorite and phlogopite

    OpenAIRE

    Moro, Daniele

    2014-01-01

    The surface properties of minerals have important implications in geology, environment, industry and biotechnology and for certain aspects in the research on the origin of life. This research project aims to widen the knowledge on the nanoscale surface properties of chlorite and phlogopite by means of advanced methodologies, and also to investigate the interaction of fundamental biomolecules, such as nucleotides, RNA, DNA and amino acid glycine with the surface of the selected phyllosilica...

  10. NV Center Electron Paramagnetic Resonance of a Single Nanodiamond Attached to an Individual Biomolecule

    OpenAIRE

    Teeling-Smith, Richelle M.; Jung, Young Woo; Scozzaro, Nicolas; Cardellino, Jeremy; Rampersaud, Isaac; North, Justin A.; Šimon, Marek; Bhallamudi, Vidya P.; Rampersaud, Arfaan; Johnston-Halperin, Ezekiel; Poirier, Michael G.; Hammel, P. Chris

    2015-01-01

    A key limitation of electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR), an established and powerful tool for studying atomic-scale biomolecular structure and dynamics is its poor sensitivity, samples containing in excess of 10^12 labeled biomolecules are required in typical experiments. In contrast, single molecule measurements provide improved insights into heterogeneous behaviors that can be masked by ensemble measurements and are often essential for illuminating the molecular mechanisms behind the func...

  11. FUNCTIONALIZATION OF CARBON NANOTUBES BY DIFFERENT BIOMOLECULES FOR STABLE DISPERSION IN WATER

    OpenAIRE

    O. M. Burlaka; Ya. V. Pirko; Kolomys, O. F.; P. S. Smertenko; V. O. Glazunova; Konstantinova, T. E.; A. I. Yemets; Ya. B. Blume

    2015-01-01

    To select the effective methods for functionalizing carbon nanotubes and to compare the ability of a number of biological molecules (plasmid DNA, ATP, mix of deoxyribonucleoside triphosphates, bovine serum albumin, compounds of vitreous humor extract and sodium humate) to interact non-covalently with carbon nanotubes and mediate their dispersion in an aqueous medium was the aim of the work. Properties of carbon nanotubes-biomolecules conjugates were characterized using ultraviolet...

  12. A newly built setup for small bio-molecule fragmentation study in Lanzhou

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new setup for studying ion induced small bio-molecule fragmentation processes has been built in Lanzhou, China. A preliminary collision experiment between a 30 keV He2+ ion beam and gas phase adenine molecules was performed. Partial TOF spectra associated to well-defined scattered projectile final charge states, He+ or He0 were recorded. Coincidence spectra between fragments were also obtained.

  13. Imparting biomolecules to a metal-organic framework material by controlled DNA tetrahedron encapsulation

    OpenAIRE

    Yongmei Jia; Benmei Wei; Ruixue Duan; Ying Zhang; Boya Wang; Abdul Hakeem; Nannan Liu; Xiaowen Ou; Shaofang Xu; Zhifei Chen; Xiaoding Lou; Fan Xia

    2014-01-01

    Recently, the incorporation of biomolecules in Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) attracts many attentions because of controlling the functions, properties and stability of trapped molecules. Although there are few reports on protein/MOFs composites and their applications, none of DNA/MOFs composite is reported, as far as we know. Here, we report a new composite material which is self-assembled from 3D DNA (guest) and pre-synthesized MOFs (host) by electrostatic interactions and hydrophilic inte...

  14. Experimental Beam Studies of Plasma-generated Species Interaction with Polymeric Materials and Biomolecules

    OpenAIRE

    Chung, Ting-Ying

    2012-01-01

    Low temperature plasma-based processes are used extensively in many modern technologies. It is thus very important to understand plasma and surface interactions in order to improve plasma processes and design of functional materials. Applying a high vacuum beam system, this dissertation studies the fundamental mechanisms of plasma species-induced modification of materials for two critical applications: manufacturing of semiconductor devices and surface deactivation of infectious biomolecules....

  15. Synthesis of new pyrrole-containing biomolecules as building blocks for functionalized polypyrroles in nanobiotechnology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    New pyrroles were synthesized wherein biomolecules such as α-amino acids, peptides or carbohydrates are attached to position 1 or 3 via suitable linkers. These conjugates were copolymerized with pyrrole by chemical polymerisation alone giving corresponding copolymers or in the presence of magnetic iron oxid nanoparticles resulting in functionalized core-shell-nanoparticles. Such products are interesting for biosensing, imaging or separation of biomaterials. They were characterized by several methods such as TEM, HRTEM, FTIR and measuring of magnetization.

  16. Etymology of transition metal biomolecules as a learning aid in Biological Chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Numerous functional biomolecules are associated with metals, i.e. the metallobiomolecules; more specifically, some are dependent on transition metals required for several crucial biological roles. Nevertheless, their names can lead to ambiguous interpretations concerning the properties and performances of this group of biological molecules. Their etymology may be useful by providing a more perceptive insight into their features. However, etymology can lead to incongruous conclusions, requiring an especially careful approach to prevent errors. Examples illustrating these subjects shall be examined (author)

  17. Analysis on Influencing Factors and Mental State in Health Seeking Behavior of Cancer Patients in a Hospital of Guangzhou%广州市某医院肿瘤患者的就医选择影响因素与心理分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邱胜; 刘俊荣

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To compare difference of influencing factors and mental state in health seeking behaviors of cancer patients in a hospi-tal in Guangzhou grouped by different economic and sociologist characters.Methods:Questionnaire survey was conducted in a hospital in Guang-zhou and 325 cancer patients was investigated in terms of economic and sociologist characters, factors considered and mental state when going to a hospital.T-test was applied to compare their considered factors and mental state in health seeking behaviors and the respondents were grouped by different health seeking experience, registered permanent residence and income level.Results: Emphasis degrees on medical technical level and services attitude of medical staffs between cancer patients who had or not the experience of hospitalize out-of-line were significantly differ-ent (P<0.05), while anxiety and fear in metal state difference are significant (P<0.05).Emphasis degrees on medical technical level and in-dividual paying ability and visit accessibility between respondents who had different income level (P<0.05), while only fear degree was signifi-cantly different in term mental state (P<0.05).For people who had different registered permanent residence and income level, severity of illness was differently emphasized by them (P<0.05) and they have different dysphonia and fear level, which are statistically significant.Conclusion:People who have higher income and the local registered permanent residence and who have no were experience of hospitalize out-of-line give more emphasis on medical technical level and less emphasis on expenses.While cancer patients who have lower economic and sociologist status are more feared and whiny in the process of seeking health service.Vulnerable groups of cancer patients should be supported by social forces.%目的:探讨广州市某医院不同经济社会学特征的肿瘤患者选择医疗机构时关注的因素及其就医过程中

  18. Graphene-Templated Synthesis of Magnetic Metal Organic Framework Nanocomposites for Selective Enrichment of Biomolecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Gong; Wang, Zhi-Gang; Denagamage, Sachira; Zheng, Si-Yang

    2016-04-27

    Successful control of homogeneous and complete coating of graphene or graphene-based composites with well-defined metal organic framework (MOF) layers is a great challenge. Herein, novel magnetic graphene MOF composites were constructed via a simple strategy for self-assembly of well-distributed, dense, and highly porous MOFs on both sides of graphene nanosheets. Graphene functionalized with magnetic nanoparticles and carboxylic groups on both sides was explored as the backbone and template to direct the controllable self-assembly of MOFs. The prepared composite materials have a relatively high specific surface area (345.4 m(2) g(-1)), and their average pore size is measured to be 3.2 nm. Their relatively high saturation magnetization (23.8 emu g(-1)) indicates their strong magnetism at room temperature. Moreover, the multifunctional composite was demonstrated to be a highly effective affinity material in selective extraction and separation of low-concentration biomolecules from biological samples, in virtue of the size-selection property of the unique porous structure and the excellent affinity of the composite materials. Besides providing a solution for the construction of well-defined functional graphene-based MOFs, this work could also contribute to selective extraction of biomolecules, in virtue of the universal affinity between immobilized metal ions and biomolecules. PMID:27046460

  19. Recent trends in carbon nanomaterial-based electrochemical sensors for biomolecules: A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Cheng; Denno, Madelaine E.; Pyakurel, Poojan; Venton, B. Jill, E-mail: jventon@virginia.edu

    2015-08-05

    Carbon nanomaterials are advantageous for electrochemical sensors because they increase the electroactive surface area, enhance electron transfer, and promote adsorption of molecules. Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have been incorporated into electrochemical sensors for biomolecules and strategies have included the traditional dip coating and drop casting methods, direct growth of CNTs on electrodes and the use of CNT fibers and yarns made exclusively of CNTs. Recent research has also focused on utilizing many new types of carbon nanomaterials beyond CNTs. Forms of graphene are now increasingly popular for sensors including reduced graphene oxide, carbon nanohorns, graphene nanofoams, graphene nanorods, and graphene nanoflowers. In this review, we compare different carbon nanomaterial strategies for creating electrochemical sensors for biomolecules. Analytes covered include neurotransmitters and neurochemicals, such as dopamine, ascorbic acid, and serotonin; hydrogen peroxide; proteins, such as biomarkers; and DNA. The review also addresses enzyme-based electrodes that are used to detect non-electroactive species such as glucose, alcohols, and proteins. Finally, we analyze some of the future directions for the field, pointing out gaps in fundamental understanding of electron transfer to carbon nanomaterials and the need for more practical implementation of sensors. - Highlights: • We review the types of carbon nanomaterials used in electrochemical sensors. • Different materials and sensor designs are compared for classes of biomolecules. • Future challenges of better sensor design and implementation are assessed.

  20. Radiation synthesis of hydrogels with diprotic acid moieties and their use in the adsorption of biomolecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation synthesis of diprotic acid moieties containing poly (N-vinyl 2- pyrrolidone) and polyacrylamide hydrogels and their use in the adsorption of biomolecules such as enzymes, proteins and drugs have been investigated. Hydrogels with varying cross-linked densities and ionic moieties were prepared from the ternary systems of N-vinyl 2-pyrrolidone/itaconic acid/water and acrylamide/maleic acid/water by irradiating with γ rays at ambient temperature. For the characterization of network structure of hydrogels new equations were derived. Determination of average molecular weight between cross-links of hydrogels sensitive to pH changes of the swelling medium was investigated. In order to explain the influence of other external stimuli such as temperature and ionic strength of the swelling medium and the type of the buffer solution on the equilibrium swelling properties were investigated. The effect of these external stimuli on the biomolecule adsorption capacity of hydrogels were investigated for bovine serum albumin, α-amylase, invertase, model and commercial drugs. The results show that the hydrogels prepared in this study can be considered as potential carriers for the biomolecules and the drug delivery systems. (author)

  1. Electron Paramagnetic Resonance of a Single NV Nanodiamond Attached to an Individual Biomolecule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teeling-Smith, Richelle M; Jung, Young Woo; Scozzaro, Nicolas; Cardellino, Jeremy; Rampersaud, Isaac; North, Justin A; Šimon, Marek; Bhallamudi, Vidya P; Rampersaud, Arfaan; Johnston-Halperin, Ezekiel; Poirier, Michael G; Hammel, P Chris

    2016-05-10

    Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR), an established and powerful methodology for studying atomic-scale biomolecular structure and dynamics, typically requires in excess of 10(12) labeled biomolecules. Single-molecule measurements provide improved insights into heterogeneous behaviors that can be masked in ensemble measurements and are often essential for illuminating the molecular mechanisms behind the function of a biomolecule. Here, we report EPR measurements of a single labeled biomolecule. We selectively label an individual double-stranded DNA molecule with a single nanodiamond containing nitrogen-vacancy centers, and optically detect the paramagnetic resonance of nitrogen-vacancy spins in the nanodiamond probe. Analysis of the spectrum reveals that the nanodiamond probe has complete rotational freedom and that the characteristic timescale for reorientation of the nanodiamond probe is slow compared with the transverse spin relaxation time. This demonstration of EPR spectroscopy of a single nanodiamond-labeled DNA provides the foundation for the development of single-molecule magnetic resonance studies of complex biomolecular systems. PMID:27166812

  2. A new finite element and finite difference hybrid method for computing electrostatics of ionic solvated biomolecule

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying, Jinyong; Xie, Dexuan

    2015-10-01

    The Poisson-Boltzmann equation (PBE) is one widely-used implicit solvent continuum model for calculating electrostatics of ionic solvated biomolecule. In this paper, a new finite element and finite difference hybrid method is presented to solve PBE efficiently based on a special seven-overlapped box partition with one central box containing the solute region and surrounded by six neighboring boxes. In particular, an efficient finite element solver is applied to the central box while a fast preconditioned conjugate gradient method using a multigrid V-cycle preconditioning is constructed for solving a system of finite difference equations defined on a uniform mesh of each neighboring box. Moreover, the PBE domain, the box partition, and an interface fitted tetrahedral mesh of the central box can be generated adaptively for a given PQR file of a biomolecule. This new hybrid PBE solver is programmed in C, Fortran, and Python as a software tool for predicting electrostatics of a biomolecule in a symmetric 1:1 ionic solvent. Numerical results on two test models with analytical solutions and 12 proteins validate this new software tool, and demonstrate its high performance in terms of CPU time and memory usage.

  3. Recent trends in carbon nanomaterial-based electrochemical sensors for biomolecules: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carbon nanomaterials are advantageous for electrochemical sensors because they increase the electroactive surface area, enhance electron transfer, and promote adsorption of molecules. Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have been incorporated into electrochemical sensors for biomolecules and strategies have included the traditional dip coating and drop casting methods, direct growth of CNTs on electrodes and the use of CNT fibers and yarns made exclusively of CNTs. Recent research has also focused on utilizing many new types of carbon nanomaterials beyond CNTs. Forms of graphene are now increasingly popular for sensors including reduced graphene oxide, carbon nanohorns, graphene nanofoams, graphene nanorods, and graphene nanoflowers. In this review, we compare different carbon nanomaterial strategies for creating electrochemical sensors for biomolecules. Analytes covered include neurotransmitters and neurochemicals, such as dopamine, ascorbic acid, and serotonin; hydrogen peroxide; proteins, such as biomarkers; and DNA. The review also addresses enzyme-based electrodes that are used to detect non-electroactive species such as glucose, alcohols, and proteins. Finally, we analyze some of the future directions for the field, pointing out gaps in fundamental understanding of electron transfer to carbon nanomaterials and the need for more practical implementation of sensors. - Highlights: • We review the types of carbon nanomaterials used in electrochemical sensors. • Different materials and sensor designs are compared for classes of biomolecules. • Future challenges of better sensor design and implementation are assessed

  4. Elemental labelling combined with liquid chromatography inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry for quantification of biomolecules: A review

    OpenAIRE

    Kretschy, Daniela; Koellensperger, Gunda; Hann, Stephan

    2012-01-01

    This article reviews novel quantification concepts where elemental labelling is combined with flow injection inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (FI-ICP-MS) or liquid chromatography inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LC–ICP-MS), and employed for quantification of biomolecules such as proteins, peptides and related molecules in challenging sample matrices. In the first sections an overview on general aspects of biomolecule quantification, as well as of labelling will be pre...

  5. Help-seeking atititudes among Israeli adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tishby, O; Turel, M; Gumpel, O; Pinus, U; Lavy, S B; Winokour, M; Sznajderman, S

    2001-01-01

    This study investigated the willingness of Israeli adolescents to seek help for emotional and health problems, and their preference for various helping agents. Nearly fifteen hundred students in grades 7-12 participated in a comprehensive survey of attitudes, health status, and concerns, and the data were analyzed. Gender and age were identified as factors associated with help-seeking attitudes. Females reported a higher level of distress and greater willingness to seek help than did males. Younger adolescents tended to state that they would turn to parents for help, whereas older adolescents increasingly preferred peers. In general, the adolescents preferred to seek help from family and peers for emotional and social problems, rather than turning to professionals. Adolescents in grades 9-10 reported the highest level of distress and were least willing to seek help for interpersonal problems and depressed mood. Overall, level of distress was not directly related to willingness to seek help. In subgroups of depressed and suicidal adolescents, an inverse relationship was found between willingness to seek help and levels of depression and suicidal ideation. Recommendations for health care services and counseling programs are discussed. PMID:11572304

  6. An anlaysis of engineers information seeking activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cash, Philip; Stanković, Tino; Štorga, Mario

    2013-01-01

    decompose the complexity of information seeking activity in order to more effectively support the evolving needs of engineering designers and design researchers. This paper addresses these issues by using an experimental study and network visualization technique to analyze Internet based information seeking......Information seeking is an important part of the engineering design process. In this context the Internet has become a significant source of information, shaping the way engineers work and interact. Current work has focused on characterizing this activity in terms of total time allocated to...

  7. Oligopolization in collective rent-seeking

    OpenAIRE

    Kaoru Ueda

    2002-01-01

    In this paper we discuss the issue of when oligopolization in collective rent-seeking occurs, that is, when some groups retire from rent-seeking. A complete characterization of the pure-strategy Nash equilibrium in a collective rent-seeking game among m (\\geq2) heterogeneous groups is derived. The conditions of oligopolization are derived by using this result and related to the works of Nitzan [9, 10] and Hillman and Riley [3]. Also, the subgame perfect equilibrium of a simple two-stage colle...

  8. Stochastic Control Model on Rent Seeking

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    A continuous-time stochastic model is constructed to analyze how to control rent seeking behaviors. Using the stochastic optimization methods based on the modern risky theory, a unique positive solution to the dynamic model is derived. The effects of preference-related parameters on the optimal control level of rent seeking are discussed, and some policy measures are given. The results show that there exists a unique solution to the stochastic dynamic model under some macroeconomic assumptions, and that raising public expenditure may have reverse effects on rent seeking in an underdeveloped or developed economic environment.

  9. Scanning Health Information Sources: Applying and Extending the Comprehensive Model of Information Seeking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruppel, Erin K

    2016-02-01

    Information scanning, or attention to information via incidental or routine exposure or browsing, is relatively less understood than information seeking. To (a) provide a more theoretical understanding of information scanning and (b) extend existing information seeking theory to information scanning, the current study used data from the National Cancer Institute's Health Information National Trends Survey to examine cancer information scanning using the comprehensive model of information seeking (CMIS). Consistent with the CMIS, health-related factors were associated with the information-carrier factor of trust, and health-related factors and trust were associated with attention to information sources. Some of these associations differed between entertainment-oriented sources, information-oriented sources, and the Internet. The current findings provide a clearer picture of information scanning and suggest future avenues of research and practice using the CMIS. PMID:26716985

  10. Targeting cancer with peptide aptamers

    OpenAIRE

    Seigneuric, Renaud; Gobbo, Jessica; Colas, Pierre; Garrido, Carmen

    2011-01-01

    A major endeavour in cancer chemotherapy is to develop agents that specifically target a biomolecule of interest. There are two main classes of targeting agents: small molecules and biologics. Among biologics (e.g.: antibodies), DNA, RNA but also peptide aptamers are relatively recent agents. Peptide aptamers are seldom described but represent attractive agents that can inhibit a growing panel of oncotargets including Heat Shock Proteins. Potential pitfalls and coming challenges towards succe...

  11. Sexual information seeking on web search engines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spink, Amanda; Koricich, Andrew; Jansen, B J; Cole, Charles

    2004-02-01

    Sexual information seeking is an important element within human information behavior. Seeking sexually related information on the Internet takes many forms and channels, including chat rooms discussions, accessing Websites or searching Web search engines for sexual materials. The study of sexual Web queries provides insight into sexually-related information-seeking behavior, of value to Web users and providers alike. We qualitatively analyzed queries from logs of 1,025,910 Alta Vista and AlltheWeb.com Web user queries from 2001. We compared the differences in sexually-related Web searching between Alta Vista and AlltheWeb.com users. Differences were found in session duration, query outcomes, and search term choices. Implications of the findings for sexual information seeking are discussed. PMID:15006171

  12. CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Kavoussi

    1973-09-01

    Full Text Available There are many carcinogenetic elements in industry and it is for this reason that study and research concerning the effect of these materials is carried out on a national and international level. The establishment and growth of cancer are affected by different factors in two main areas:-1 The nature of the human or animal including sex, age, point and method of entry, fat metabolism, place of agglomeration of carcinogenetic material, amount of material absorbed by the body and the immunity of the body.2 The different nature of the carcinogenetic material e.g. physical, chemical quality, degree of solvency in fat and purity of impurity of the element. As the development of cancer is dependent upon so many factors, it is extremely difficult to determine whether a causative element is principle or contributory. Some materials are not carcinogenetic when they are pure but become so when they combine with other elements. All of this creates an industrial health problem in that it is almost impossible to plan an adequate prevention and safety program. The body through its system of immunity protects itself against small amounts of carcinogens but when this amount increases and reaches a certain level the body is not longer able to defend itself. ILO advises an effective protection campaign against cancer based on the Well –equipped laboratories, Well-educated personnel, the establishment of industrial hygiene within factories, the regular control of safety systems, and the implementation of industrial health principles and research programs.

  13. Particle Swarm Optimization Based Source Seeking

    OpenAIRE

    Zou, Rui; Kalivarapu, Vijay; Winer, Eliot; Oliver, James; Bhattacharya, Sourabh

    2015-01-01

    Signal source seeking using autonomous vehicles is a complex problem. The complexity increases manifold when signal intensities captured by physical sensors onboard are noisy and unreliable. Added to the fact that signal strength decays with distance, noisy environments make it extremely difficult to describe and model a decay function. This paper addresses our work with seeking maximum signal strength in a continuous electromagnetic signal source with mobile robots, using Particle Swarm Opti...

  14. Sensation Seeking, Overconfidence, and Trading Activity

    OpenAIRE

    Mark Grinblatt; Matti Keloharju

    2006-01-01

    This study analyzes the role that two psychological attributes%u2014sensation seeking and overconfidence%u2014play in the tendency of investors to trade stocks. Equity trading data are combined with data from an investor%u2019s tax filings, driving record, and psychological profile. We use the data to construct measures of overconfidence and sensation seeking tendencies. Controlling for a host of variables, including wealth, income, age, number of stocks owned, marital status, and occupation,...

  15. Corporate manslaughter, regulation and 'seeking to profit'

    OpenAIRE

    Kelsey, J.

    2006-01-01

    One of the concepts included in current draft legislation on Corporate Manslaughteris that of seeking to profit. The paper seeks to examine this concept and whether theassumptions underlying it are valid. Firstly the concept is examined in terms ofmanagerial economics where it is argued that there is no necessarily direct trade-offbetween profit and safety expenditure. It is also difficult to disentangle expectation ofprofit and actual profit realisation in relation to a single cost factor. R...

  16. Social Work with unaccompanied aylum seeking children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Niels Rosendal

    2010-01-01

    Review of "textbook" on social work with unaccompanied asyum seeking children. This book presents national and international research findings, case stories and interviews, is written on a high level and deserves a braod audience......Review of "textbook" on social work with unaccompanied asyum seeking children. This book presents national and international research findings, case stories and interviews, is written on a high level and deserves a braod audience...

  17. Microfossils, biomolecules and biominerals in carbonaceous meteorites: implications to the origin of life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoover, Richard B.

    2012-11-01

    Environmental and Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (ESEM and FESEM) investigations have shown that a wide variety of carbonaceous meteorites contain the remains of large filaments embedded within freshly fractured interior surfaces of the meteorite rock matrix. The filaments occur singly or in dense assemblages and mats and are often encased within carbon-rich, electron transparent sheaths. Electron Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDS) spot analysis and 2D X-Ray maps indicate the filaments rarely have detectable nitrogen levels and exhibit elemental compositions consistent with that interpretation that of the meteorite rock matrix. Many of the meteorite filaments are exceptionally well-preserved and show evidence of cells, cell-wall constrictions and specialized cells and processes for reproduction, nitrogen fixation, attachment and motility. Morphological and morphometric analyses permit many of the filaments to be associated with morphotypes of known genera and species of known filamentous trichomic prokaryotes (cyanobacteria and sulfur bacteria). The presence in carbonaceous meteorites of diagenetic breakdown products of chlorophyll (pristane and phytane) along with indigenous and extraterrestrial chiral protein amino acids, nucleobases and other life-critical biomolecules provides strong support to the hypothesis that these filaments represent the remains of cyanobacteria and other microorganisms that grew on the meteorite parent body. The absence of other life-critical biomolecules in the meteorites and the lack of detectable levels of nitrogen indicate the filaments died long ago and can not possibly represent modern microbial contaminants that entered the stones after they arrived on Earth. This paper presents new evidence for microfossils, biomolecules and biominerals in carbonaceous meteorites and considers the implications to some of the major hypotheses for the Origin of Life.

  18. Stable functionalization of germanium surface and its application in biomolecules immobilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cai, Qi [State Key Laboratory of Transducer Technology, Shanghai Institute of Microsystem and Information Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, No.865, Changning Road, Shanghai 200050 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, No.19A, Yuquan Road, Beijing 100049 (China); Xu, Baojian [State Key Laboratory of Transducer Technology, Shanghai Institute of Microsystem and Information Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, No.865, Changning Road, Shanghai 200050 (China); Ye, Lin [Sate Key Laboratory of Functional Materials for Informatics, Shanghai Institute of Microsystem and Information Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, No.865, Changning Road, Shanghai 200050 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, No.19A, Yuquan Road, Beijing 100049 (China); Tang, Teng; Huang, Shanluo; Du, Xiaowei [State Key Laboratory of Transducer Technology, Shanghai Institute of Microsystem and Information Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, No.865, Changning Road, Shanghai 200050 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, No.19A, Yuquan Road, Beijing 100049 (China); Bian, Xiaojun; Zhang, Jishen [State Key Laboratory of Transducer Technology, Shanghai Institute of Microsystem and Information Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, No.865, Changning Road, Shanghai 200050 (China); Di, Zengfeng, E-mail: zfdi@mail.sim.ac.cn [Sate Key Laboratory of Functional Materials for Informatics, Shanghai Institute of Microsystem and Information Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, No.865, Changning Road, Shanghai 200050 (China); Jin, Qinghui [State Key Laboratory of Transducer Technology, Shanghai Institute of Microsystem and Information Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, No.865, Changning Road, Shanghai 200050 (China); Zhao, Jianlong, E-mail: jlzhao@mail.sim.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Transducer Technology, Shanghai Institute of Microsystem and Information Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, No.865, Changning Road, Shanghai 200050 (China)

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • An effective method to immobilize biomolecules on the functionalized Ge surface. • The surface of Ge was functionalized with 11-Mercaptoundecanoic acid (11-MUA). • Stable and uniform SAMs was obtained on Ge surface after 11-MUA treatment. • The functionalized Ge was employed as substrate for protein immobilization. • Paving the way of Ge for further applications in bioelectronics field. - Abstract: As a typical semiconductor material, germanium (Ge) has the potential to be utilized in microelectronics and bioelectronics. Herein, we present a simple and effective method to immobilize biomolecules on the surface of functionalized Ge. The surface oxide of Ge was removed with the pretreatment of hydrochloric acid and the Cl-terminated Ge reacted with 11-Mercaptoundecanoic acid (11-MUA). The surface of Ge was coated with 11-MUA self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) due to the bonding reaction between the sulfhydryl group of 11-MUA and Cl-terminated Ge. Furthermore, typical biomolecule, a green fluorescent protein was chosen to be immobilized on the surface of the functionalized Ge. Contact angle analysis, atomic force microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy were used to study the characteristics including wettability, stability, roughness and component of the functionalized Ge, respectively. Fluorescence microscopy was utilized to indicate the efficiency of protein immobilization on the surface of the functionalized Ge. With these studies, stable and uniform functionalized monolayer was obtained on the surface of Ge after 11-MUA treatment and the functionalized Ge was effectively applied in protein immobilization. Furthermore, this study may pave the way for further applications such as the integration of bioelectronics and biosensors with the attractive semiconductor material-Ge in future work.

  19. Study on the preparation and stability of 188Re biomolecules via EHDP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A direct labelling technique via ethane-1-hydroxy-1,1-diphosphonic acid (EHDP) as a weak competing ligand was developed for the preparation of several biomolecules: 188 Re-monoclonal antibody ior cea1 against carcinoembryonic antigen (188 Re-MoAb), biotinylated 188Re-MoAb (188 Re-MoAb-biotin), 188 Re-polyclonal IgG (188 Re-IgG), 188 Re-peptide (somatostatine analogue peptide b-(2-naphtyl)-D-Ala-Cys-Tyr-D-Trp-Lys-Val-Cys-Thr-amide), 188 Re-MoAb fragments (188 Re-F(ab')2) and biotinylated 188 Re-F(ab')2 (188 Re-F(ab')2-biotin). The reaction conditions such as pH, temperature, weak ligand concentration and stannous chloride concentration were optimized during the radiolabelling of each biomolecule. Before the labelling procedure, disulphide bridge groups of the biomolecules were reduced with 2-mercaptoethanol (2-ME). To obtain 188 Re labelled antibodies and peptides in high radiochemical yields (>90%) via EHDP, it was necessary to use acidic conditions and a high concentration of stannous chloride to allow the redox reaction Re+7→Re+5:Re+4. The labelling of MoAb and F(ab')2 with 188Re via EHDP was also evaluated employing a pretargeted technique by avidin-biotin strategy in normal mice, demonstrating that the 188Re-labelled biotinylated antibodies are stable complexes in vivo. The 188Re-peptide complex prepared by this method, was stable for 24 h and no radiolytic degradation was observed. (author)

  20. Non-linear vibrational modes in biomolecules: A periodic orbits description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kampanarakis, Alexandros [Department of Chemistry, University of Crete, and Institute of Electronic Structure and Laser, Foundation for Research and Technology-Hellas (FORTH), Vasilika Vouton, Heraklion 71110, Crete (Greece); Farantos, Stavros C., E-mail: farantos@iesl.forth.gr [Department of Chemistry, University of Crete, and Institute of Electronic Structure and Laser, Foundation for Research and Technology-Hellas (FORTH), Vasilika Vouton, Heraklion 71110, Crete (Greece); Daskalakis, Vangelis; Varotsis, Constantinos [Department of Environmental Science and Technology, Cyprus University of Technology, 31 Archbishop Kyprianos St., P.O. Box 50329, 3603 Lemesos (Cyprus)

    2012-05-03

    Graphical abstract: Vibrational frequency shifts in Fe{sup IV} = O species of the active site of cytochrome c oxidase are attributed to changes in the surrounding Coulomb field. Periodic orbits analysis assists to find the most anharmonic modes in model biomolecules. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Periodic orbits are extended to multidimensional potentials of biomolecules. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Highly anharmonic vibrational modes and center-saddle bifurcations are detected. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Vibrational frequencies shifts in Oxoferryl species of CcO are observed. - Abstract: The vibrational harmonic normal modes of a molecule, which are valid at energies close to an equilibrium point (a minimum, maximum or saddle of the potential energy surface), are extended by periodic orbits to high energies where anharmonicity and coupling of the degrees of freedom are significant. In this way the assignment of the spectra, and thus the extraction of dynamics in highly excited molecules, can be obtained. New vibrational modes emanating from bifurcations of periodic orbits and long living localized trajectories signal the birth and localization of new quantum states. In this article we review and further study non-linear vibrational modes for model biomolecules such as alanine dipeptide and the active site in the oxoferryl oxidation state of the enzyme cytochrome c oxidase. We locate periodic orbits which exhibit high anhamonicity and lead to center-saddle bifurcations. These modes are associated to an isomerization process in alanine dipeptide and to frequency shifts in the oxoferryl observed by modifying the Coulomb field around the Imidazole-Fe{sup IV} = O species.

  1. Public Forum Help Seeking: the Impact of Providing Anonymity on Student Help Seeking Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Barnes, David J.

    1999-01-01

    Public Forum Help Seeking: The Impact of Providing Anonymity on Student Help Seeking Behaviour David J. Barnes Published in Computer Based Learning in Science '99, Editor Graham M. Chapman, ISBN 80-7042-144-4. Conference Proceedings of CBLIS '99, Twente University, Enschede, the Netherlands, 2nd July - 6th July 1999. Abstract We investigate the impact of providing anonymity to a group of undergraduate Computing students, in order to encourage them to seek help for course related questions. We...

  2. Predicting job-seeking intensity and job-seeking intention in the sample of unemployed

    OpenAIRE

    Marić Zorica

    2005-01-01

    In this study Ajzen' theory (1991) of planned behavior was used to predict job - seek intention and behavior among unemployed people (N = 650). In addition to theory of planned behavior variables (job - seek attitude, subjective norm, self - efficacy and controllability of job seek process) we used several other psychological (financial pressure, self - mastery, self - esteem and depression) and demographic (gender, age, education, marriage and lent of unemployment) variables to build a model...

  3. Extraction of Biomolecules Using Phosphonium-Based Ionic Liquids + K3PO4 Aqueous Biphasic Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Louros, Cláudia L. S.; Cláudio, Ana Filipa M.; Neves, Catarina M. S. S.; Freire, Mara G.; Marrucho, Isabel M.; Jérôme Pauly; Coutinho, João A. P.

    2010-01-01

    Aqueous biphasic systems (ABS) provide an alternative and efficient approach for the extraction, recovery and purification of biomolecules through their partitioning between two liquid aqueous phases. In this work, the ability of hydrophilic phosphonium-based ionic liquids (ILs) to form ABS with aqueous K3PO4 solutions was evaluated for the first time. Ternary phase diagrams, and respective tie-lines and tie-lines length, formed by distinct phosphonium-based ILs, water, and K3PO4 at 298 K, we...

  4. EPR-based approach for the localization of paramagnetic metal ions in biomolecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullin, Dinar; Florin, Nicole; Hagelueken, Gregor; Schiemann, Olav

    2015-02-01

    Metal ions play an important role in the catalysis and folding of proteins and oligonucleotides. Their localization within the three-dimensional fold of such biomolecules is therefore an important goal in understanding structure-function relationships. A trilateration approach for the localization of metal ions by means of long-range distance measurements based on electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) is introduced. The approach is tested on the Cu(2+) center of azurin, and factors affecting the precision of the method are discussed. PMID:25522037

  5. Exploring the nanoscale dynamics of biomolecules with optical microcavities (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollmer, Frank

    2016-03-01

    Medicine as well as biology increasingly rely on the use of cutting-edge physics and engineering, in order to pursue the next generation nanomedical applications and to address fundamental questions in the life sciences. Central to this task is the study of micro- and nano systems, focusing on how engineered systems combined with natural ones can advance sensing, medicine, and our understanding of how biological systems work. My research addresses these important questions with state-of-the-art biosensor technologies, capable of detecting single biomolecules and their dynamics; and resolving the kinetics of biomolecular systems on timescales ranging from few nanoseconds to several hours

  6. Mass spectrometry in structural biology and biophysics architecture, dynamics, and interaction of biomolecules

    CERN Document Server

    Kaltashov, Igor A; Desiderio, Dominic M; Nibbering, Nico M

    2012-01-01

    The definitive guide to mass spectrometry techniques in biology and biophysics The use of mass spectrometry (MS) to study the architecture and dynamics of proteins is increasingly common within the biophysical community, and Mass Spectrometry in Structural Biology and Biophysics: Architecture, Dynamics, and Interaction of Biomolecules, Second Edition provides readers with detailed, systematic coverage of the current state of the art. Offering an unrivalled overview of modern MS-based armamentarium that can be used to solve the most challenging problems in biophysics, structural biol

  7. Electrokinetic separation of biomolecules through multiple nano-pores on membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yunho; Cha, Misun; Choi, Yosep; Joo, Hyunsang; Lee, Junghoon

    2013-03-01

    We demonstrate a nanoporous membrane device integrated with an on-chip microfluidic platform for the electrokinetic separation of biomolecules. This platform offers a thin (500 nm) film of anodized aluminum oxide directly fabricated and suspended onto a silicon substrate, assembled into a compact microfluidic device. We successfully showed the electrokinetic transport of ssDNA through the nano-porous membrane under various conditions. Size exclusive biomolecular separation driven by electric field was verified with the complex of thrombin and thrombin aptamer. This architecture enables an on-chip device for binary separation and size exclusive filtration targeted to various applications such as molecular detection and purification.

  8. Oxidative Stress and Its Significant Roles in Neurodegenerative Diseases and Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Raynoo Thanan; Shinji Oikawa; Yusuke Hiraku; Shiho Ohnishi; Ning Ma; Somchai Pinlaor; Puangrat Yongvanit; Shosuke Kawanishi; Mariko Murata

    2014-01-01

    Reactive oxygen and nitrogen species have been implicated in diverse pathophysiological conditions, including inflammation, neurodegenerative diseases and cancer. Accumulating evidence indicates that oxidative damage to biomolecules including lipids, proteins and DNA, contributes to these diseases. Previous studies suggest roles of lipid peroxidation and oxysterols in the development of neurodegenerative diseases and inflammation-related cancer. Our recent studies identifying and characterizi...

  9. Labelling techniques of biomolecules for targeted radiotherapy. Final report of a co-ordinated research project 1998-2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malignant tumour disease accounts for approximately one third of deaths worldwide. Gastrointestinal adenocarcinomas, prostate and breast cancers are among the most frequently appearing tumours. Radiotherapy is an essential mode of treatment of all cancer patients either alone or in conjunction with other modalities like surgery and chemotherapy. In most cases radiotherapy is given using external radiation sources. It is also possible to administer radiotherapy by specifically localizing radioisotopes emitting particulate radiation in the tumour tissue. This targeted therapy has proved to have several advantages over external beam therapy, notably the possibility of selectively delivering higher radiation doses to the targeted tumour cells and treating multiple metastases. Procedures for therapy of thyroid carcinoma and hyper-thyroidism using radioiodine (131I) introduced about five decades ago, have stood the test of time and are still widely used the world over. In addition to the therapeutic nuclides of the first generation 131I, 89Sr, 32P, 90Y, etc., which are still widely utilized and accepted by the medical community, many other beta emitting radionuclides with relatively short half-lives such as 153Sm, 186Re, 188Re, 166Ho, 165Dy, etc. have also been recently made available for therapy and used with promising good results. In spite of the potential of targeted radiotherapy to treat a wide range of malignant conditions, routine clinical use is mostly confined to therapy of thyroid carcinoma, hyperthyroidism, metastatic bone pain and synovectomy. In most of the cases, the limitation is obviously not the availability of suitable radionuclides but rather the lack of suitable carrier molecules that would adequately concentrate these radionuclides in target tissues of interest. Based on the above considerations, the scope of the Co-ordinated Research Project (CRP) has focused on the synthesis of the required BFCAs for MoAbs and peptide labelling, development and

  10. Does Context Matter? Examining PRISM as a Guiding Framework for Context-Specific Health Risk Information Seeking Among Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willoughby, Jessica Fitts; Myrick, Jessica Gall

    2016-06-01

    Research indicates that when people seek health information, they typically look for information about a specific symptom, preventive measure, disease, or treatment. It is unclear, however, whether general or disease-specific theoretical models best predict how people search for health information. We surveyed undergraduates (N = 963) at a large public southeastern university to examine health information seeking in two incongruent health contexts (sexual health and cancer) to test whether a general model would hold for specific topics that differed in their immediate personal relevance for the target population. We found that the planned risk information seeking model was statistically a good fit for the data. Yet multiple predicted paths were not supported in either data set. Certain variables, such as attitudes, norms, and affect, appear to be strong predictors of intentions to seek information across health contexts. Implications for theory building, research methodology, and applied work in health-related risk information seeking are discussed. PMID:27187057

  11. Simplified TiO2 force fields for studies of its interaction with biomolecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luan, Binquan; Huynh, Tien; Zhou, Ruhong

    2015-06-01

    Engineered TiO2 nanoparticles have been routinely applied in nanotechnology, as well as in cosmetics and food industries. Despite active experimental studies intended to clarify TiO2's biological effects, including potential toxicity, the relation between experimentally inferred nanotoxicity and industry standards for safely applying nanoparticles remains somewhat ambiguous with justified concerns. Supplemental to experiments, molecular dynamics simulations have proven to be efficacious in investigating the molecular mechanism of a biological process occurring at nanoscale. In this article, to facilitate the nanotoxicity and nanomedicine research related to this important metal oxide, we provide a simplified force field, based on the original Matsui-Akaogi force field but compatible to the Lennard-Jones potentials normally used in modeling biomolecules, for simulating TiO2 nanoparticles interacting with biomolecules. The force field parameters were tested in simulating the bulk structure of TiO2, TiO2 nanoparticle-water interaction, as well as the adsorption of proteins on the TiO2 nanoparticle. We demonstrate that these simulation results are consistent with experimental data/observations. We expect that simulations will help to better understand the interaction between TiO2 and molecules.

  12. Towards a Mechanism-Based Understanding of Vital Effects: Biomolecules Influence Mg/Ca in Calcite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, A. E.; Nelson, E. J.; Wu, K. J.; de Yoreo, J. J.; Dove, P. M.

    2006-12-01

    Recent findings from our group suggest that the chemistry of biomolecules present at sites of mineral formation have a strong influence on the structure of water near calcite surfaces (Elhadj et al., CGD, 2006) and exercise predictable controls on the rate of calcite growth (Elhadj et al., submitted). Observing the extent to which biomolecules can mediate growth processes leads us to hypothesize that they also have measurable influence over impurity (Mg, Sr) contents. If true, this could be a significant contributor to the widely documented 'vital effects' that complicate interpretations of paleoenvironments, largely based on chemical signatures found in the skeletal remains of organisms. We use in situ AFM to measure the growth rate of calcite at the nanoscale under controlled solution compositions and at characterized chemical driving force. The relationship between the presence of carboxyl- rich peptides in solution during growth and the magnesium content in the resulting calcite was quantified using time-of-flight SIMS. This new work with tof-SIMS has validated previous compositional maps of Mg distributions collected by electron microprobe, and has yielded new insights into controls on impurity content. We are using similar methods to also determine factors that influence impurity contents of calcites grown in solutions at seawater ionic strength.

  13. Biomolecules preserved in ca. 168 million year old fossil conifer wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marynowski, Leszek; Otto, Angelika; Zatoń, Michał; Philippe, Marc; Simoneit, Bernd R. T.

    2007-03-01

    Biomarkers are widely known to occur in the fossil record, but the unaltered biomolecules are rarely reported from sediments older than Paleogene. Polar terpenoids, the natural products most resistant to degradation processes, were reported mainly from the Tertiary conifers, and the oldest known are Cretaceous in age. In this paper, we report the occurrence of relatively high concentrations of ferruginol derivatives and other polar diterpenoids, as well as their diagenetic products, in a conifer wood Protopodocarpoxylon from the Middle Jurassic of Poland. Thus, the natural product terpenoids reported in this paper are definitely the oldest polar biomolecules detected in geological samples. The extracted phenolic abietanes like ferruginol and its derivatives (6,7-dehydroferruginol, sugiol, 11,14-dioxopisiferic acid) are produced only by distinct conifer families (Cupressaceae s. l., Podocarpaceae and Araucariaceae), to which Protopodocarpoxylon could belong based on anatomical characteristics. Therefore, the natural product terpenoids are of great advantage in systematics of fossil plant remains older than Paleogene and lacking suitable anatomical preservation.

  14. Correlation dynamics and enhanced signals for the identification of serial biomolecules and DNA bases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nanopore-based sequencing has demonstrated a significant potential for the development of fast, accurate, and cost-efficient fingerprinting techniques for next generation molecular detection and sequencing. We propose a specific multilayered graphene-based nanopore device architecture for the recognition of single biomolecules. Molecular detection and analysis can be accomplished through the detection of transverse currents as the molecule or DNA base translocates through the nanopore. To increase the overall signal-to-noise ratio and the accuracy, we implement a new ‘multi-point cross-correlation’ technique for identification of DNA bases or other molecules on the single molecular level. We demonstrate that the cross-correlations between each nanopore will greatly enhance the transverse current signal for each molecule. We implement first-principles transport calculations for DNA bases surveyed across a multilayered graphene nanopore system to illustrate the advantages of the proposed geometry. A time-series analysis of the cross-correlation functions illustrates the potential of this method for enhancing the signal-to-noise ratio. This work constitutes a significant step forward in facilitating fingerprinting of single biomolecules using solid state technology. (paper)

  15. Disposable pen-shaped capillary gel electrophoresis cartridge for fluorescence detection of bio-molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amirkhanian, Varoujan; Tsai, Shou-Kuan

    2014-03-01

    We introduce a novel and cost-effective capillary gel electrophoresis (CGE) system utilizing disposable pen-shaped gelcartridges for highly efficient, high speed, high throughput fluorescence detection of bio-molecules. The CGE system has been integrated with dual excitation and emission optical-fibers with micro-ball end design for fluorescence detection of bio-molecules separated and detected in a disposable pen-shaped capillary gel electrophoresis cartridge. The high-performance capillary gel electrophoresis (CGE) analyzer has been optimized for glycoprotein analysis type applications. Using commercially available labeling agent such as ANTS (8-aminonapthalene-1,3,6- trisulfonate) as an indicator, the capillary gel electrophoresis-based glycan analyzer provides high detection sensitivity and high resolving power in 2-5 minutes of separations. The system can hold total of 96 samples, which can be automatically analyzed within 4-5 hours. This affordable fiber optic based fluorescence detection system provides fast run times (4 minutes vs. 20 minutes with other CE systems), provides improved peak resolution, good linear dynamic range and reproducible migration times, that can be used in laboratories for high speed glycan (N-glycan) profiling applications. The CGE-based glycan analyzer will significantly increase the pace at which glycoprotein research is performed in the labs, saving hours of preparation time and assuring accurate, consistent and economical results.

  16. Label-free imaging of biomolecules in food products using stimulated Raman microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roeffaers, Maarten B. J.; Zhang, Xu; Freudiger, Christian W.; Saar, Brian G.; Ruijven, Marjolein Van; Dalen, Gerard Van; Xiao, Chunhong; Xie, X. Sunney

    2011-02-01

    The development of methods that allow microscale studies of complex biomaterials based on their molecular composition is of great interest to a wide range of research fields. We show that stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) microscopy is an excellent analytical tool to study distributions of different biomolecules in multiphasic systems. SRS combines the label-free molecular specificity of vibrational spectroscopy with an enhanced sensitivity due to coherent excitation of molecular vibrations. Compared to previous imaging studies using coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy, the main advantage of SRS microscopy is the absence of the unwanted nonresonant background, which translates into a superior sensitivity and undistorted vibrational spectra. We compare spectra of complex materials obtained with stimulated Raman scattering and spontaneous Raman scattering in the crowded fingerprint region. We find that, as expected, there is excellent correspondence and that the SRS spectra are free from interference from background fluorescence. In addition, we show high-resolution imaging of the distributions of selected biomolecules, such as lipids and proteins, in food products with SRS microscopy.

  17. Highly Sensitive Detection of Target Biomolecules on Cell Surface Using Gold Nanoparticle Conjugated with Aptamer Probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyonchol; Terazono, Hideyuki; Hayashi, Masahito; Takei, Hiroyuki; Yasuda, Kenji

    2012-06-01

    A method of gold nanoparticle (Au NP) labeling with backscattered electron (BE) imaging of field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) was applied for specific detection of target biomolecules on a cell surface. A single-stranded DNA aptamer, which specifically binds to the target molecule on a human acute lymphoblastic leukemia cell, was conjugated with a 20 nm Au NP and used as a probe to label its target molecule on the cell. The Au NP probe was incubated with the cell, and the interaction was confirmed using BE imaging of FE-SEM through direct counting of the number of Au NPs attached on the target cell surface. Specific Au NP-aptamer probes were observed on a single cell surface and their spatial distributions including submicron-order localizations were also clearly visualized, whereas the nonspecific aptamer probes were not observed on it. The aptamer probe can be potentially dislodged from the cell surface with treatment of nucleases, indicating that Au NP-conjugated aptamer probes can be used as sensitive and reversible probes to label target biomolecules on cells.

  18. Direct Covalent Biomolecule Immobilization on Plasma-Nanotextured Chemically Stable Substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsougeni, K; Petrou, P S; Awsiuk, K; Marzec, M M; Ioannidis, N; Petrouleas, V; Tserepi, A; Kakabakos, S E; Gogolides, E

    2015-07-15

    A new method for direct covalent immobilization of protein molecules (including antibodies) on organic polymers with plasma-induced random micronanoscale topography and stable-in-time chemical functionality is presented. This is achieved using a short (1-5 min) plasma etching and simultaneous micronanotexturing process, followed by a fast thermal annealing step, which induces accelerated hydrophobic recovery while preserving important chemical functionality created by the plasma. Surface-bound biomolecules resist harsh washing with sodium dodecyl sulfate and other detergents even at elevated temperatures, losing less than 40% of the biomolecules bound even at the harshest washing conditions. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, secondary-ion mass spectrometry, and electron paramagnetic resonance are used to unveil the chemical modification of the plasma-treated and stabilized surfaces. The nanotextured and chemically stabilized surfaces are used as substrates for the development of immunochemical assays for the sensitive detection of C-reactive protein and salmonella lipopolysaccharides through immobilization of the respective analyte-specific antibodies onto them. Such substrates are stable for a period of 1 year with ambient storage. PMID:26098201

  19. Photoelectrochemical studies of DNA-tagged biomolecules on Au and Au/Ni/Au multilayer nanowires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swaminathan Viswanathan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The use of nanowires (NWs for labeling, sensing, and sorting is the basis of detecting biomolecules attached on NWs by optical and magnetic properties. In spite of many advantages, the use of biomolecules-attached NWs sensing by photoelectrochemical (PEC study is almost non-existent. In this article, the PEC study of dye-attached single-stranded DNA on Au NWs and Au-Ni-Au multilayer NWs prepared by pulse electrodeposition are investigated. Owing to quantum-quenching effect, the multilayer Au NWs exhibit low optical absorbance when compared with Au NWs. The tagged Au NWs show good fluorescence (emission at 570 nm, indicating significant improvement in the reflectivity. Optimum results obtained for tagged Au NWs attached on functionalized carbon electrodes and its PEC behavior is also presented. A twofold enhancement in photocurrent is observed with an average dark current of 10 μA for Au NWs coated on functionalized sensing electrode. The importance of these PEC and optical studies provides an inexpensive and facile processing platform for Au NWs that may be suitable for biolabeling applications.

  20. Synchrotron and small bio-molecules in gas phase and liquid environment: new opportunities in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Two techniques are critically related to the photoelectric law, namely: photoelectron spectroscopy and photoelectron-photoion coincidence spectroscopy. Both are strongly used now a day within synchrotron laboratories. Our group is employing both to investigate fragmentation of bio-molecules in gas phase such as amino acids and DNA basis using V UV and soft x-ray photons. In the near future lager scale instruments developed in Brazil will allow unique opportunities to apply these two spectroscopic methods to molecules immersed in liquids such as water. We will present details from this advanced x-ray source and experimental stations with capabilities not present in other places in the world. Experiments connected to the molecular origin of live will be shown. Among them an experiment where we mimic the atmosphere at Titan moon producing bio- molecules will discussed. Another experiment will be presented where we test the Panspermia viability using special bacteria. We will also present experiments where frozen simple molecules connected to pre-biotic mate- rial are bombardment by UV photons and energetic particles showing interesting trends. Spectroscopic studies of gas phase photo-fragmentation of bio-molecules may be critical to understand in the future these molecules immersed in liquids. We plan to spend some time showing our recent results in this area. (author)

  1. A comparative study of biomolecule and polymer surface modifications by a surface microdischarge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartis, Elliot A. J.; Luan, Pingshan; Knoll, Andrew J.; Graves, David B.; Seog, Joonil; Oehrlein, Gottlieb S.

    2016-02-01

    Cold atmospheric plasma (CAP) sources are attractive sources of reactive species with promising industrial and biomedical applications, but an understanding of underlying surface mechanisms is lacking. A kHz-powered surface microdischarge (SMD) operating with N2/O2 mixtures was used to study the biological deactivation of two immune-stimulating biomolecules: lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and peptidoglycan (PGN), found in bacteria such as Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus, respectively. Model polymers were also studied to isolate specific functional groups. Changes in the surface chemistry were measured to understand which plasma-generated species and surface modifications are important for biological deactivation. The overall goal of this work is to determine which effects of CAP treatment are generic and which bonds are susceptible to attack. CAP treatment deactivated biomolecules, oxidized surfaces, and introduced surface bound NO3. These effects can be controlled by the N2 fraction in O2 and applied voltage and vary among different target surfaces. The SMD was compared with an Ar/O2/N2-fed kHz-powered atmospheric pressure plasma jet and showed much higher surface modifications and surface chemistry tunability compared to the jet. Possible mechanisms are discussed and findings are compared with recent computational investigations. Our results demonstrate the importance of long-lived plasma-generated species and advance an atomistic understanding of CAP-surface interactions.

  2. Liquid-liquid extraction of biomolecules in downstream processing - A review paper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva M. E.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Economic analysis shows that protein separation and purification are a very important aspect of biomolecules production and processing. This is particularly true for protein processing which, because of the complexity of the starting material, often requires many steps to reach the levels of purity required for medical and food applications. The separation specialists' task is to develop safe and simple processes to achieve products with a high level of purity. On a large scale, chromatography of proteins is not an easily applied method, although on a laboratory scale it is very effective and relatively simple. When it is scaled up, shortcomings such as discontinuity in the process, slow protein diffusion and large pressure drops in the system are seen. For these reasons a substantial research effort has been directed toward the use of aqueous two-phase systems (ATPSs to replace the initial steps in protein purification and chromatography. This article reviews the chronology and main ATPS fundamentals and discuss the broader applications of this type of system in the extraction and separation of biomolecules.

  3. Dealing with drug-seeking behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Jenny

    2016-06-01

    People who misuse prescription drugs most commonly seek prescriptions for opioids and benzodiazepines. Other prescription drugs that are misused include the newer antipsychotics such as quetiapine and olanzapine, and stimulants such as dexamphetamine and methylphenidate. Health professionals should be aware of behaviours that may indicate drug seeking, but dependency on prescription drugs can occur at any age, within any cultural group and across any educational class. Patients with dependencies may not necessarily display obvious drug-seeking behaviours. All general practices should have a practice policy on prescribing drugs of dependence. GPs should register with the Prescription Shopping Information Service. There is strong evidence in Australia of increasing harms from prescription drugs of dependence, including deaths from overdose. Before prescribing any drug of dependence, health professionals require an understanding of the patient's biopsychosocial status, and the evidence-based indications and potential significant harms of these drugs. PMID:27346918

  4. Sensation Seeking, Substance Abuse, and Psychopathology in Treatment-Seeking and Community Cocaine Abusers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, Samuel A.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Assessed sensation seeking, substance abuse severity, and psychiatric disorders in clinical and community sample of 335 cocaine abusers. In contrast to low-sensation-seeking subjects, high-sensation seekers exhibited more severe symptoms of substance abuse, exhibited more severe psychosocial impairment, were more likely to be polysubstance…

  5. Measuring Help-Seeking Intentions: Properties of the General Help Seeking Questionnaire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Coralie J.; Deane, Frank P.; Ciarrochi, Joseph; Rickwood, Debra

    2005-01-01

    Understanding help seeking intentions and behaviour is fundamental to the identification of factors that can be modified to increase engagement in counselling. Despite considerable research on these variables, integrating prior research has been impeded by a lack of consistent and psychometrically sound help-seeking measures. The General…

  6. Professional e-government seeking behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jonasen, Tanja Svarre; Lykke, Marianne

    2013-01-01

    The present paper is concerned with professional e-government seeking behavior. With the digitalization of governments, expectations have been raised with regard to changes in the composition of employee work tasks. The purpose of our study is to determine whether these changes affect seeking...... experience many search problems, such as the lack of specificity, differences in the interpretation of the topics of documents, and unwieldy and irrelevant search results. These problems can be solved by a combination of improved indexing practices and search features....

  7. Biomolecule-assisted synthesis of single-crystalline selenium nanowires and nanoribbons via a novel flake-cracking mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bin; Ye, Xingchen; Dai, Wei; Hou, Weiyi; Zuo, Fan; Xie, Yi

    2006-01-01

    Recently, the biomolecule-assisted synthesis method has been a new and promising focus in the preparation of various nanomaterials. But current works mainly focus on the synthesis of metal nanoparticles and nanowires using macro-biomolecules (e.g. virus, protein and DNA) as templates in the presence of a reducing agent. Beta-carotene, one of the most common bio-antioxidants, can be oxidized to form species with both hydrophilic and hydrophobic ends, which can provide an in situ soft template for the synthesis of nanomaterials. Herein, a simple beta-carotene-assisted method was developed for the first time to synthesize t-Se nanowires and nanoribbons with high crystallinity. We demonstrate that beta-carotene serves as not only the reducing agent, but also an in situ template in the preparation of Se one-dimensional nanostructures. It is found that the growth mechanism of Se nanomaterials is different from the familiar sphere-wire process. A novel flake-cracking mechanism is proposed. By this biomolecule-assisted route, Te one-dimensional nanostructures and Pd nanowires were also fabricated. The assisted-biomolecule in our method may be spread to carotenoids and other antioxidants, and thus broaden the application fields of biomolecules. Our preliminary investigations have shown that the facile, solution-phase biomolecule-assisted method can be potentially extended to the preparation of other low-dimensional nanostructures. The synthesized t-Se nanowires and nanoribbons may serve as templates to generate other tubular functional nanomaterials and find applications in the studies of structure-property relationships as well as in the fabrication of nanoscale optoelectronic devices.

  8. Micropatterning of biomolecules on a glass substrate in fused silica microchannels by using photolabile linker-based surface activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report on a straightforward method for creating micropatterns of multiple biomolecules. The anti-fouling agent 2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine (MPC) polymer and a photolabile linker (PL) were covalently linked to an amino-terminated silane surface. Patterns were generated by selective removal of the MPC polymer via UV irradiation. Multiple micropatterns of fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-labeled bovine serum albumin (BSA) and rhodamine-labeled goat fragment antigen-binding fragments (FAB) were deposited on a same glass substrate. We also employed micropatterning of multiple biomolecules in that Texas red-labeled BSA and FITC-labeled rabbit anti-mouse IgG were placed inside a microchannel. (author)

  9. Quantification of biomolecules in herring (Clupea harengus) industry processing waters and their recovery using electroflocculation and ultrafiltration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osman, Ali; Gringer, Nina; Svendsen, Tore;

    2015-01-01

    Four types of herring industry processing waters; refrigerated sea water (RSW), storage water (SW), processing water from cutting (PW) and pre-salting brines (SB) were subjected to chemical characterization and biomolecule recovery using electroflocculation (EF) and ultrafiltration (UF). The...... magnesium were the dominating trace elements. EF plus UF in series recovered up to 80% proteins and fatty acids from SB's and reduced chemical oxygen demand by 70%. Foaming and emulsifying properties of biomolecules were improved or unaffected by EF/UF treatment. To conclude, large amounts of biomass are...

  10. Computer Conferencing: Its Impact on Academic Help-Seeking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karabenick, Stuart A.

    Arguing that seeking help when needed is an integral part of the learning process, this paper describes a three-stage help-seeking process; examines computer conferencing in academic contexts; and describes several characteristics that promote help-seeking, including the admission of inadequacy, the decision to seek help, and the ultimate…

  11. Memory complaints associated with seeking clinical care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. Pires; D. Silva; J. Maroco; S. Ginó; T. Mendes; B.A. Schmand; M. Guerreiro; A. de Mendonça

    2012-01-01

    Diagnosis of mild cognitive impairment relies on the presence of memory complaints. However, memory complaints are very frequent in healthy people. The objective of this study was to determine the severity and type of memory difficulties presented by elderly patients who seek for clinical help, as c

  12. Seeking Understanding by Which to Educate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Brian V.

    2009-01-01

    In retrospect, Anselm's motto "fides quaerens intellectum" (faith seeking understanding) could fairly be taken to reflect the author's life's journey, beginning with a period of intellectual rebellion against the faith of his Methodist parents as he was entering adolescence. At the age of 14, however, in a revelatory moment, and unbeknown to…

  13. Interactive information seeking, behaviour and retrieval

    CERN Document Server

    Ruthven, Ian

    2011-01-01

    Information retrieval (IR) is a complex human activity supported by sophisticated systems. This book covers the whole spectrum of information retrieval, including: history and background information; behaviour and seeking task-based information; searching and retrieval approaches to investigating information; and, evaluation interfaces for IR.

  14. Adolescent Help-Seeking from the Internet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, Madelyn S.; Munfakh, Jimmie Lou Harris; Lubell, Keri; Kleinman, Marjorie; Parker, Sarah

    2003-01-01

    During the past decade there has been increased interest in help-seeking behavior among adolescents. This reflects the recognition that while many psychiatric problems increase markedly during adolescence, the majority of disturbed teenagers do not receive mental health services. Nearly half of all adolescents have reported using the Internet to…

  15. Health-Seeking Behavior Among the Elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bausell, R. Barker

    1986-01-01

    Compared persons 65 years of age or older (N=177) to younger adults (n=997) with respect to compliance with 20 recommended health-seeking behaviors. Overall, the elderly group reported greater compliance with these behaviors, attributed more importance to their value, but perceived themselves as having less control over their future health.…

  16. Does Risk Seeking drive Asset Prices?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.T. Post (Thierry); H. Levy (Haim)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractWe investigate whether risk seeking or non-concave utility functions can help to explain the cross-sectional pattern0 of stock returns. For this purpose, we analyze the stochastic dominance efficiency classification of the value-weighted market portfolio relative to benchmark portfolios

  17. Assertiveness Training for Job-Seeking Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, Patricia G.; McLoughlin, Mary Ellen

    1977-01-01

    Assertiveness Training for Job-Seeking Skills includes skill development in initiating the job search; arranging actual interviews; preparing a resume; articulating strengths, weaknesses, and career objectives; responding assertively in interviews; asking appropriate questions; accepting or rejecting job offers; confronting discrimination;…

  18. Biospecimen Solicitation - Office of Cancer Clinical Proteomics Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    A funding opportunity in support of the National Cancer Institute’s Clinical Proteomic Tumor Analysis Consortium (CPTAC) seeks to prospectively procure tumor samples, collected for proteomics investigation.

  19. Identification of Biomolecular Building Blocks by Recognition Tunneling: Stride towards Nanopore Sequencing of Biomolecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, Suman

    DNA, RNA and Protein are three pivotal biomolecules in human and other organisms, playing decisive roles in functionality, appearance, diseases development and other physiological phenomena. Hence, sequencing of these biomolecules acquires the prime interest in the scientific community. Single molecular identification of their building blocks can be done by a technique called Recognition Tunneling (RT) based on Scanning Tunneling Microscope (STM). A single layer of specially designed recognition molecule is attached to the STM electrodes, which trap the targeted molecules (DNA nucleoside monophosphates, RNA nucleoside monophosphates or amino acids) inside the STM nanogap. Depending on their different binding interactions with the recognition molecules, the analyte molecules generate stochastic signal trains accommodating their "electronic fingerprints". Signal features are used to detect the molecules using a machine learning algorithm and different molecules can be identified with significantly high accuracy. This, in turn, paves the way for rapid, economical nanopore sequencing platform, overcoming the drawbacks of Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) techniques. To read DNA nucleotides with high accuracy in an STM tunnel junction a series of nitrogen-based heterocycles were designed and examined to check their capabilities to interact with naturally occurring DNA nucleotides by hydrogen bonding in the tunnel junction. These recognition molecules are Benzimidazole, Imidazole, Triazole and Pyrrole. Benzimidazole proved to be best among them showing DNA nucleotide classification accuracy close to 99%. Also, Imidazole reader can read an abasic monophosphate (AP), a product from depurination or depyrimidination that occurs 10,000 times per human cell per day. In another study, I have investigated a new universal reader, 1-(2-mercaptoethyl)pyrene (Pyrene reader) based on stacking interactions, which should be more specific to the canonical DNA nucleosides. In addition

  20. Identification of biomolecule mass transport and binding rate parameters in living cells by inverse modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirmohammadi Adel

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Quantification of in-vivo biomolecule mass transport and reaction rate parameters from experimental data obtained by Fluorescence Recovery after Photobleaching (FRAP is becoming more important. Methods and results The Osborne-Moré extended version of the Levenberg-Marquardt optimization algorithm was coupled with the experimental data obtained by the Fluorescence Recovery after Photobleaching (FRAP protocol, and the numerical solution of a set of two partial differential equations governing macromolecule mass transport and reaction in living cells, to inversely estimate optimized values of the molecular diffusion coefficient and binding rate parameters of GFP-tagged glucocorticoid receptor. The results indicate that the FRAP protocol provides enough information to estimate one parameter uniquely using a nonlinear optimization technique. Coupling FRAP experimental data with the inverse modeling strategy, one can also uniquely estimate the individual values of the binding rate coefficients if the molecular diffusion coefficient is known. One can also simultaneously estimate the dissociation rate parameter and molecular diffusion coefficient given the pseudo-association rate parameter is known. However, the protocol provides insufficient information for unique simultaneous estimation of three parameters (diffusion coefficient and binding rate parameters owing to the high intercorrelation between the molecular diffusion coefficient and pseudo-association rate parameter. Attempts to estimate macromolecule mass transport and binding rate parameters simultaneously from FRAP data result in misleading conclusions regarding concentrations of free macromolecule and bound complex inside the cell, average binding time per vacant site, average time for diffusion of macromolecules from one site to the next, and slow or rapid mobility of biomolecules in cells. Conclusion To obtain unique values for molecular diffusion coefficient and

  1. Destructive competition : oil and rent seeking in Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Bjorvatn, Kjetil; Selvik, Kjetil

    2005-01-01

    In countries with poorly developed institutions, rent seeking may impose serious costs for the economy. Our analysis demonstrates how rent seeking distorts the economy through two channels. First, there is the direct cost of the resources wasted in the rent seeking contest. Second, rent seeking distorts firms’ investment decisions, and leads to underinvestment. We conduct a case study of rent seeking in Iran in order to gain a better understanding of the phenomenon. Iran is ...

  2. Silver island film substrates for ultrasensitive fluorescence detection of (bio)molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szalkowski, Marcin; Ashraf, Khuram U; Lokstein, Heiko; Mackowski, Sebastian; Cogdell, Richard J; Kowalska, Dorota

    2016-01-01

    A silver island film (SIF) substrate was used to demonstrate that Metal-Enhanced Fluorescence (MEF) is a powerful tool to enable detection of emission from (bio)molecules at very low concentrations. The experiments were carried out with the Fenna-Matthews-Olson (FMO) pigment-protein complex from the photosynthetic green sulfur bacterium Chlorobaculum tepidum. FMO was diluted to a level, at which no emission was detectable on a glass substrate. In contrast, the fluorescence of FMO was readily observed on the SIF substrate, even though the emission wavelength of FMO is displaced by over 300 nm from the maximum of the plasmon resonance of the SIF layer. Estimated enhancements of the fluorescence intensity of FMO on SIF are about 40-fold. The enhancement factor correlates with the improvement of the signal-to-noise ratio for FMO emission on SIF substrates. PMID:26168991

  3. Microreactor and method for preparing a radiolabeled complex or a biomolecule conjugate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reichert, David E; Kenis, Paul J. A.; Wheeler, Tobias D; Desai, Amit V; Zeng, Dexing; Onal, Birce C

    2015-03-17

    A microreactor for preparing a radiolabeled complex or a biomolecule conjugate comprises a microchannel for fluid flow, where the microchannel comprises a mixing portion comprising one or more passive mixing elements, and a reservoir for incubating a mixed fluid. The reservoir is in fluid communication with the microchannel and is disposed downstream of the mixing portion. A method of preparing a radiolabeled complex includes flowing a radiometal solution comprising a metallic radionuclide through a downstream mixing portion of a microchannel, where the downstream mixing portion includes one or more passive mixing elements, and flowing a ligand solution comprising a bifunctional chelator through the downstream mixing portion. The ligand solution and the radiometal solution are passively mixed while in the downstream mixing portion to initiate a chelation reaction between the metallic radionuclide and the bifunctional chelator. The chelation reaction is completed to form a radiolabeled complex.

  4. Measurement of small photodestruction rates of cold, charged biomolecules in an ion trap

    CERN Document Server

    Offenberg, D; Zhang, C B; Roth, B; Schiller, S

    2008-01-01

    In this work, we demonstrate measurements of photodestruction rates of translationally cold, charged biomolecules. The long-term stable storage of the molecular ions in an ion trap at ultra-high vacuum conditions allows measurement of small rates and verification that rates are linear in photodestruction laser intensity. Measurements were performed on singly protonated molecules of the organic compound glycyrrhetinic acid (C30H46O4), dissociated by a continuous-wave UV laser (266 nm) using different intensities. The molecules were sympathetically cooled by simultaneously trapped laser-cooled barium ions to translational temperatures of below 150 mK. Destruction rates of less than 0.05 s^-1 and a cross section of (1.1 +/- 0.1) * 10^-17 cm^2 have been determined. An extension to tunable UV laser sources would permit high-resolution dissociation spectroscopic studies on a wide variety of cold complex molecules.

  5. Latent analysis of unmodified biomolecules and their complexes in solution with attomole detection sensitivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yates, Emma V.; Müller, Thomas; Rajah, Luke; de Genst, Erwin J.; Arosio, Paolo; Linse, Sara; Vendruscolo, Michele; Dobson, Christopher M.; Knowles, Tuomas P. J.

    2015-10-01

    The study of biomolecular interactions is central to an understanding of function, malfunction and therapeutic modulation of biological systems, yet often involves a compromise between sensitivity and accuracy. Many conventional analytical steps and the procedures required to facilitate sensitive detection, such as the incorporation of chemical labels, are prone to perturb the complexes under observation. Here we present a ‘latent’ analysis approach that uses chemical and microfluidic tools to reveal, through highly sensitive detection of a labelled system, the behaviour of the physiologically relevant unlabelled system. We implement this strategy in a native microfluidic diffusional sizing platform, allowing us to achieve detection sensitivity at the attomole level, determine the hydrodynamic radii of biomolecules that vary by over three orders of magnitude in molecular weight, and study heterogeneous mixtures. We illustrate these key advantages by characterizing a complex of an antibody domain in the solution phase and under physiologically relevant conditions.

  6. Sawtooth patterns in biomolecules force-extension curves: an equilibrium-statistical-mechanics theory

    CERN Document Server

    Prados, A; Bonilla, L L

    2013-01-01

    We analyze the force-extension curve for a general class of systems, which are described at the mesoscopic level by a free energy depending on the extension of its components. Similarly to what is done in real experiments, the total length of the system is the controlled parameter. This imposes a global constraint in the minimization procedure leading to the equilibrium values of the extensions. As a consequence, the force-extension curve has multiple branches in a certain range of forces. The stability of these branches is governed by the free energy: there are a series of first-order phase transitions at certain values of the total length, in which the free energy itself is continuous but its first derivative, the force, has a finite jump. This behavior is completely similar to the one observed in real experiments with biomolecules like proteins, and other complex systems.

  7. Elemental speciation in biomolecules by LC-ICP-MS with magnetic sector and collision cell instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A methodology that can monitor and identify inorganic elements in biological and environmental systems was developed. Size exclusion chromatography (SEC) separates biomolecules, which are then nebulized by a microconcentric nebulizer. The resulting aerosol is desolved and introduced into either a high resolution ICP-MS device or a quadrupole device with a collision cell. Because of the high sensitivity and spectral resolution and high sample introduction efficiency, many unusual or difficult elements, such as Cr, Se, Cd and U, can be observed at ambient levels bound to proteins in human serum. These measurements are made in only a few minutes without preliminary isolation and preconcentration steps. Serum samples can be titrated with spikes of various elements to determine which proteins bind a given metal and oxidation state. Experiments concerning the effects of breaking disulfide linkages and denaturation on metal binding in proteins were also investigated. Elemental distribution in liver extract was also obtained

  8. Elemental speciation in biomolecules by LC-ICP-MS with magnetic sector and collision cell instruments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Jin

    1999-11-08

    A methodology that can monitor and identify inorganic elements in biological and environmental systems was developed. Size exclusion chromatography (SEC) separates biomolecules, which are then nebulized by a microconcentric nebulizer. The resulting aerosol is desolved and introduced into either a high resolution ICP-MS device or a quadrupole device with a collision cell. Because of the high sensitivity and spectral resolution and high sample introduction efficiency, many unusual or difficult elements, such as Cr, Se, Cd and U, can be observed at ambient levels bound to proteins in human serum. These measurements are made in only a few minutes without preliminary isolation and preconcentration steps. Serum samples can be titrated with spikes of various elements to determine which proteins bind a given metal and oxidation state. Experiments concerning the effects of breaking disulfide linkages and denaturation on metal binding in proteins were also investigated. Elemental distribution in liver extract was also obtained.

  9. Structural Change of Biomolecules and Application of Synergistic Interaction by Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is expected that motivation and basic technologies for the future R and D plans can be provided from the results of this study. This study has been done to develop fundamentals for radiation applications based on the existing radiation technology, and to establish technical basis for enhancing efficacy of radiation utilization by studying the simultaneous application of ionizing radiation with another factor. Application of radiation technology together with the existing technologies to enhance the physical, chemical, biological characteristics through structural changes of biomolecules will exert a favorable influence on the creation of de novo scientific and industrial values. A theoretical model for the combined action of ionizing radiation with another factor can make it possible to predict a prior the maximum value of synergistic interaction and the conditions for it. Furthermore, the results of this study give a clues for establishment of fundamental theories associated with positive efficacy of radiation applications

  10. The interplay of biomolecules and water at the origin of the active behavior of living organisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is shown that the main component of living matter, namely liquid water, is not an ensemble of independent molecules but an ensemble of phase correlated molecules kept in tune by an electromagnetic (e.m) field trapped in the ensemble. This field and the correlated potential govern the interaction among biomolecules suspended in water and are in turn affected by the chemical interactions of molecules. In particular, the phase of the coherent fields appears to play an important role in this dynamics. Recent experiments reported by the Montagnier group seem to corroborate this theory. Some features of the dynamics of human organisms, as reported by psychotherapy, holistic medicine and Eastern traditions, are analyzed in this frame and could find a rationale in this context.

  11. Ultrafast conformational changes in biomolecules studied by time-resolved circular dichroism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Changenet-Barret, P.; Hache, F.

    2015-10-01

    Circular dichroism (CD) is known to be a very sensitive probe of molecular conformation, and it is in particular widely used in biochemistry. Measuring the CD as a function of time is therefore very appealing to access information on the dynamics of conformational changes in molecules or biomolecules. We have implemented such a time-resolved experiments in two complementary configurations: a sub-picosecond pump-probe one and a microsecond detection of CD coupled to a T-jump experiment. We present two experiments based on these techniques: the ultrafast motion of the carbonyl group in the chromophore of the Photoactive Yellow Protein after photoexcitation and the dynamics of thermal denaturation in model peptides.

  12. Microfossils and biomolecules in carbonaceous meteorites: possibility of life in water-bearing asteroids and comets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoover, Richard B.

    2014-09-01

    It is well established that carbonaceous meteorites contain water, carbon, biogenic elements and a host of organic chemicals and biomolecules. Several independent lines of evidence indicate that the parent bodies of the CI1 and CM2 carbonaceous meteorites are most probably the C-type asteroids or cometary nuclei. Several of the protein amino acids detected in the meteorites exhibit chirality and have an excess of the L-enantiomer -- such as in the amino acids present in the proteins of all known life forms on Earth. Isotopic studies have established that the amino acids and nucleobases in the CI1 and CM2 carbonaceous meteorites are both indigenous and extraterrestrial. Optical and Scanning Electron Microscopy studies carried out by researchers during the past half century have revealed the presence of complex biogenic microstructures embedded in the rock-matrix of many of carbonaceous meteorites similar to extinct life-forms known as acritarchs and hystrichospheres. Carbonaceous meteorites also contain a wide variety of large filaments that exhibit the complex morphologies and correct size ranges of known genera and species of photosynthetic microorganisms such as cyanobacteria and diatoms. However, EDAX investigations have shown that these carbon-rich filaments typically have nitrogen content below the level of detection (hair and teeth of Pleistocene Mammoths. Hence, the absence of detectable nitrogen in the filaments provides direct evidence that they do not represent recent biological contaminants that invaded these meteorite stones after they were observed to fall to Earth. The spectral and fluorescence properties of pigments found in several species of terrestrial cyanobacteria which are similar to some microfossils found in carbonaceous meteorites may provide valuable clues to help search for evidence for biomolecules and life on the icy moons of Jupiter and Saturn, asteroids and comets.

  13. Health Seeking Behaviour of Elderly in Myanmar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soe Moe

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Improvement in health technologies and socio economic conditions increase life expectancy of people leading to higher proportion of elderly in total population of every country worldwide. Developing countries have less comprehensive policy and elderly health agenda, and Myanmar is not an exception. The World Health Organization highlighted that aging process and problems related to elderly should be better understood so that effective elderly health prevention can be planned and implemented. However, there are very limited studies in Myanmar for aging health care. Objective: 1 To identify the Health status of aging population in selected townships of upper and lower Myanmar. 2 To identify the health seeking behavior of elderly. 3 To find out the association between the health seeking behavior of elderly and socio-demographic characteristics. Method: This is a cross sectional survey to study health status and health seeking behavior of the elderly people in Myanmar. Study areas are Taungu from Lower Myanmar and Ye Oo from Upper Myanmar both of which are not under cover of elderly project and have no adequate data for elderly health care. Sample size calculation was done by Epi Info StatCalc. Total 729 elderly were under study. According to elderly population in Taungu and Ye Oo, 1/3 of the sample was taken from Taungu and 2/3 taken from Ye Oo. Result: Male, Female ratio of study population is 1:1.44. Around half of elderly population has primary or lower level education, only one third are working but with low income. One third of male and female elderly perceived that they are in good health. Regarding illnesses present at the time of interview, three percent of male and thirteen percent of female did not get treatment. Significant difference between the health seeking behavior of upper and lower Myanmar was seen with chi square alue 1155, P= <00000001. Health seeking behavior was not associated with Gender, ethnicity, religion

  14. Cancer Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cancer? Breast Cancer Colon/Rectum Cancer Lung Cancer Prostate Cancer Skin Cancer Show All Cancer Types News and Features Cancer Glossary ACS Bookstore Cancer Information Cancer Basics Cancer Prevention & Detection Signs & Symptoms of Cancer Treatments & Side Effects ...

  15. Elemental labelling combined with liquid chromatography inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry for quantification of biomolecules: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Survey of bio-analytical approaches utilizing biomolecule labelling. ► Detailed discussion of methodology and chemistry of elemental labelling. ► Biomedical and bio-analytical applications of elemental labelling. ► FI-ICP-MS and LC–ICP-MS for quantification of elemental labelled biomolecules. ► Review of selected applications. - Abstract: This article reviews novel quantification concepts where elemental labelling is combined with flow injection inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (FI-ICP-MS) or liquid chromatography inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LC–ICP-MS), and employed for quantification of biomolecules such as proteins, peptides and related molecules in challenging sample matrices. In the first sections an overview on general aspects of biomolecule quantification, as well as of labelling will be presented emphasizing the potential, which lies in such methodological approaches. In this context, ICP-MS as detector provides high sensitivity, selectivity and robustness in biological samples and offers the capability for multiplexing and isotope dilution mass spectrometry (IDMS). Fundamental methodology of elemental labelling will be highlighted and analytical, as well as biomedical applications will be presented. A special focus will lie on established applications underlining benefits and bottlenecks of such approaches for the implementation in real life analysis. Key research made in this field will be summarized and a perspective for future developments including sophisticated and innovative applications will given.

  16. Accurate and computationally efficient prediction of thermochemical properties of biomolecules using the generalized connectivity-based hierarchy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sengupta, Arkajyoti; Ramabhadran, Raghunath O; Raghavachari, Krishnan

    2014-08-14

    In this study we have used the connectivity-based hierarchy (CBH) method to derive accurate heats of formation of a range of biomolecules, 18 amino acids and 10 barbituric acid/uracil derivatives. The hierarchy is based on the connectivity of the different atoms in a large molecule. It results in error-cancellation reaction schemes that are automated, general, and can be readily used for a broad range of organic molecules and biomolecules. Herein, we first locate stable conformational and tautomeric forms of these biomolecules using an accurate level of theory (viz. CCSD(T)/6-311++G(3df,2p)). Subsequently, the heats of formation of the amino acids are evaluated using the CBH-1 and CBH-2 schemes and routinely employed density functionals or wave function-based methods. The calculated heats of formation obtained herein using modest levels of theory and are in very good agreement with those obtained using more expensive W1-F12 and W2-F12 methods on amino acids and G3 results on barbituric acid derivatives. Overall, the present study (a) highlights the small effect of including multiple conformers in determining the heats of formation of biomolecules and (b) in concurrence with previous CBH studies, proves that use of the more effective error-cancelling isoatomic scheme (CBH-2) results in more accurate heats of formation with modestly sized basis sets along with common density functionals or wave function-based methods. PMID:25068299

  17. Nuclear routing networks span between nuclear pore complexes and genomic DNA to guide nucleoplasmic trafficking of biomolecules

    OpenAIRE

    Malecki, Marek; Malecki, Bianca

    2012-01-01

    In health and disease, biomolecules, which are involved in gene expression, recombination, or reprogramming have to traffic through the nucleoplasm, between nuclear pore complexes (NPCs) and genomic DNA (gDNA). This trafficking is guided by the recently revealed nuclear routing networks (NRNs).

  18. Combinational Effect of Cell Adhesion Biomolecules and Their Immobilized Polymer Property to Enhance Cell-Selective Adhesion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rio Kurimoto

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Although surface immobilization of medical devices with bioactive molecules is one of the most widely used strategies to improve biocompatibility, the physicochemical properties of the biomaterials significantly impact the activity of the immobilized molecules. Herein we investigate the combinational effects of cell-selective biomolecules and the hydrophobicity/hydrophilicity of the polymeric substrate on selective adhesion of endothelial cells (ECs, fibroblasts (FBs, and smooth muscle cells (SMCs. To control the polymeric substrate, biomolecules are immobilized on thermoresponsive poly(N-isopropylacrylamide-co-2-carboxyisopropylacrylamide (poly(NIPAAm-co-CIPAAm-grafted glass surfaces. By switching the molecular conformation of the biomolecule-immobilized polymers, the cell-selective adhesion performances are evaluated. In case of RGDS (Arg-Gly-Asp-Ser peptide-immobilized surfaces, all cell types adhere well regardless of the surface hydrophobicity. On the other hand, a tri-Arg-immobilized surface exhibits FB-selectivity when the surface is hydrophilic. Additionally, a tri-Ile-immobilized surface exhibits EC-selective cell adhesion when the surface is hydrophobic. We believe that the proposed concept, which is used to investigate the biomolecule-immobilized surface combination, is important to produce new biomaterials, which are highly demanded for medical implants and tissue engineering.

  19. Optimization and characterization of biomolecule immobilization on silicon substrates using (3-aminopropyl)triethoxysilane (APTES) and glutaraldehyde linker

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gunda, Naga Siva Kumar [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Canada T6G 2G8 (Canada); Singh, Minashree [Department of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Canada T6G 1C9 (Canada); Norman, Lana [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, Canada T6G 2V4 (Canada); Kaur, Kamaljit [Department of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Canada T6G 1C9 (Canada); Mitra, Sushanta K., E-mail: sushanta.mitra@ualberta.ca [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Canada T6G 2G8 (Canada)

    2014-06-01

    In the present work, we developed and optimized a technique to produce a thin, stable silane layer on silicon substrate in a controlled environment using (3-aminopropyl)triethoxysilane (APTES). The effect of APTES concentration and silanization time on the formation of silane layer is studied using spectroscopic ellipsometry and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Biomolecules of interest are immobilized on optimized silane layer formed silicon substrates using glutaraldehyde linker. Surface analytical techniques such as ellipsometry, FTIR, contact angle measurement system, and atomic force microscopy are employed to characterize the bio-chemically modified silicon surfaces at each step of the biomolecule immobilization process. It is observed that a uniform, homogenous and highly dense layer of biomolecules are immobilized with optimized silane layer on the silicon substrate. The developed immobilization method is successfully implemented on different silicon substrates (flat and pillar). Also, different types of biomolecules such as anti-human IgG (rabbit monoclonal to human IgG), Listeria monocytogenes, myoglobin and dengue capture antibodies were successfully immobilized. Further, standard sandwich immunoassay (antibody–antigen–antibody) is employed on respective capture antibody coated silicon substrates. Fluorescence microscopy is used to detect the respective FITC tagged detection antibodies bound to the surface after immunoassay.

  20. Fragmentation study of isolated and nano-solvated biomolecules induced by collision with multiply charged ions and neutral particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This thesis concerns a gas phase study of the fragmentation of bio-molecular systems induced by slow collisions with multiply charged ions (in the keV-region), alkali atoms and rare gases. The main objective was to study the physical processes involved in the dissociation of highly electronically excited systems. In order to elucidate the intrinsic properties of certain biomolecules (porphyrins and amino acids) we have performed experiments in the gas phase with isolated systems. The obtained results demonstrate the high stability of porphyrins after electron removal and attachment. Furthermore, a dependence of the fragmentation pattern produced by multiply charged ions on the isomeric structure of the alanine molecule has been shown. In a second part of the thesis, a strong influence of the environment of the biomolecule on the fragmentation channels, their modification and their new opening, has been clearly proven. This phenomenon occurs in the presence of other surrounding biomolecules (clusters of nucleobases) as well as for molecules of a solvent (molecules of water, methanol and acetonitrile) in which the biomolecule is embedded. In order to extend these studies to larger systems, a new experimental set-up, based on an electro-spray ion source combined with a quadrupole mass filter has been developed. Due to the successful tests and proposed improvements of the device future experiments will become available concerning the fragmentation of large charged and solvated bio-molecular systems induced by collision processes. (author)

  1. Operant Sensation Seeking Engages Similar Neural Substrates to Operant Drug Seeking in C57 Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Olsen, Christopher M.; Winder, Danny G.

    2009-01-01

    Novelty and sensation seeking have been associated with elevated drug intake in human and animal studies, suggesting overlap in the circuitry mediating these behaviors. In this study, we found that C57Bl/6J mice readily acquired operant responding for dynamic visual stimuli, a phenomenon we term operant sensation seeking (OSS). Like operant studies using other reinforcers, mice responded on fixed and progressive ratio schedules, were resistant to extinction, and had sustained responding with ...

  2. A comparison of risk factors for women seeking labiaplasty compared to those not seeking labiaplasty

    OpenAIRE

    Veale, David; Eshkevari, Ertimiss; Ellison, Nell; Costa, Ana; Robinson, Dudley; KAVOUNI, ANGELICA; Cardozo, Linda

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about the factors associated with the desire for labiaplasty. We compared 55 women seeking labiaplasty with 70 women in a comparison group who were not seeking labiaplasty. Measures administered included the Perception of Appearance and Competency Related Teasing Scale, Childhood Trauma Questionnaire, Disgust Scale Revised, and the Genital Appearance Satisfaction scale with open-ended questions about their genitalia. Approximately a third of the labiaplasty group recalled spec...

  3. Why doctors should seek publicity: 15+ reasons to seek media attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baum, Neil

    2014-01-01

    Physicians have been shy about reaching out for free publicity, even though they are some of the most well-trained and accomplished professionals in our society. There's no reason for them not to seek out attention and to promote themselves in an ethical fashion. This article will review 15+ reasons for physicians to seek publicity and become a darling of the media. PMID:25241443

  4. Stochastic Averaging and Stochastic Extremum Seeking

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Shu-Jun

    2012-01-01

    Stochastic Averaging and Stochastic Extremum Seeking develops methods of mathematical analysis inspired by the interest in reverse engineering  and analysis of bacterial  convergence by chemotaxis and to apply similar stochastic optimization techniques in other environments. The first half of the text presents significant advances in stochastic averaging theory, necessitated by the fact that existing theorems are restricted to systems with linear growth, globally exponentially stable average models, vanishing stochastic perturbations, and prevent analysis over infinite time horizon. The second half of the text introduces stochastic extremum seeking algorithms for model-free optimization of systems in real time using stochastic perturbations for estimation of their gradients. Both gradient- and Newton-based algorithms are presented, offering the user the choice between the simplicity of implementation (gradient) and the ability to achieve a known, arbitrary convergence rate (Newton). The design of algorithms...

  5. Journey to seek the meaning of life

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田亚楠

    2015-01-01

    It’s about my journey to seek the meaning of life. What’s the meaning of life? I found the life of great men were really meaningful, but what about the life of ordinary people? Is their life meaningless? Through my observation and thinking, I have that the life of ordinary people is also meaningful as long as they live their life to the fullest.

  6. Memory Complaints Associated with Seeking Clinical Care

    OpenAIRE

    Dina Silva; João Maroco; Sandra Ginó; Tiago Mendes; Schmand, Ben A; Manuela Guerreiro; Alexandre Mendonça; Carolina Pires

    2012-01-01

    Diagnosis of mild cognitive impairment relies on the presence of memory complaints. However, memory complaints are very frequent in healthy people. The objective of this study was to determine the severity and type of memory difficulties presented by elderly patients who seek for clinical help, as compared to the memory difficulties reported by subjects in the community. Assessment of subjective memory complaints was done with the subjective memory complaints scale (SMC). The mini-mental stat...

  7. Vertical Differentiation with Variety-Seeking Consumers

    OpenAIRE

    Robert Zeithammer; Raphael Thomadsen

    2013-01-01

    We analyze price and quality competition in a vertically differentiated duopoly in which consumers have a preference for variety. The preference for variety is a consequence of diminishing marginal utility for repeated experiences with the same product. We find consumer variety seeking can either soften or intensify price competition, depending on the difference in firm qualities and the strength of consumer preference for variety. When the qualities are similar (or the consumer preference fo...

  8. Optimal Taxation with Rent-Seeking

    OpenAIRE

    Rothschild, Casey; Scheuer, Florian

    2014-01-01

    Recent policy proposals have suggested taxing top incomes at very high rates on the grounds that some or all of the highest wage earners are engaged in socially unproductive or counterproductive activities, such as externality imposing speculation in the financial sector. To address this, we provide a model in which agents can choose between working in a traditional sector, where private and social products coincide, and a crowdable rent-seeking sector, where some or all of earned income refl...

  9. Prices versus quantities with distributional rent seeking

    OpenAIRE

    MacKenzie, Ian A.

    2015-01-01

    This article investigates prices versus quantities when regulation generates contestable rents. A two-stage process is outlined where, in stage one, a politician selects a policy level in the presence of uncertainty. In stage two, players invest in distributional rent seeking, i.e., rent-capturing activities to obtain the rents generated from regulation. A clear distinction is derived between prices, revenue-raising quantities as well as non-revenue-raising quantities. The politician’s payo...

  10. Nigeria Seeks Energy Investment from China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shan Wenge

    2006-01-01

    @@ Nigeria sent a delegation to China in mid-July to seek investment in the oil-enriched nation. Currently, Nigeria has granted the Chinese oil companies the permits of four oil fields while the Chinese side offered technical support in the energy cooperation field. In addition to the energy sector, Nigeria's invitation of investment this time also covers transportation, finance, telecommunications and manufacturing sector.

  11. Psychiatric disorders of patients seeking obesity treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Lin Hung-Yen; Huang Chih-Kun; Tai Chi-Ming; Lin Hung-Yu; Kao Yu-Hsi; Tsai Ching-Chung; Hsuan Chin-Feng; Lee Su-Long; Chi Shu-Ching; Yen Yung-Chieh

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background Obese and overweight people have a higher risk of both chronic physical illness and mental illness. Obesity is reported to be positively associated with psychiatric disorders, especially in people who seek obesity treatment. At the same time, obesity treatment may be influenced by psychological factors or personality characteristics. This study aimed to understand the prevalence of mental disorders among ethnic Chinese who sought obesity treatment. Methods Subjects were re...

  12. Attitudes Toward Seeking Financial Counseling: Instrument Development

    OpenAIRE

    Cook, Janeen

    1987-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to establish the validity and reliability of the scores on an instrument which assesses attitudes toward seeking help for financial problems . Content, criterion-related, and construct validit y and internal consistency reliability of the scores on the instrument were examined. The Hughes' conceptual model of the Family in Financial Crisis provided the theoretical basis for this study . The sample size of this study was 510. The instrument evaluated was based ...

  13. Insomnia patients' help-seeking experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Janet M Y; Bartlett, Delwyn J; Armour, Carol L; Glozier, Nicholas; Saini, Bandana

    2014-03-01

    Timely access to appropriate treatment is important for optimizing insomnia management. To date, little is known about insomnia patients' treatment experiences or how they access and engage with the available health care resources. This study sought to capture the help-seeking experiences and behavioral patterns of patients with insomnia who are seeking or receiving specialist care. A purposive sample of 26 insomnia patients from specialist sleep and mental health clinics located in metropolitan New South Wales, Australia was recruited. Participants completed a brief questionnaire, followed by an in-depth, semi-structured interview. Interviews were digitally recorded, transcribed verbatim, and analyzed using framework analysis. Three key themes emerged from the data: patients' sleep beliefs, treatment beliefs, and accessing specialized care. The findings show that daytime symptoms arising from insomnia serve as important illness cues for patients to seek medical help. In addition, participants' treatment pathways highlight factors that prevent the widespread use of cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia (CBT-I), including limited awareness about CBT-I, tentative referral mechanisms, limited service providers, and the high cost of CBT-I. PMID:23514322

  14. Surprising decline in consumers seeking health information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Ha T

    2011-11-01

    In 2010, 50 percent of American adults sought information about a personal health concern, down from 56 percent in 2007, according to a new national study from the Center for Studying Health System Change (HSC). The likelihood of people seeking information from the Internet and from friends and relatives changed little between 2007 and 2010, but their use of hardcopy books, magazines and newspapers dropped by nearly half to 18 percent. While the reduced tendency to seek health information applied to consumers across nearly all demographic categories, it was most pronounced for older Americans, people with chronic conditions and people with lower-education levels. Across all individual characteristics, education level remained the factor most strongly associated with con­sumers' inclination to seek health information. Consumers who actively researched health concerns widely reported positive impacts: About three in five said the information affected their overall approach to maintaining their health, and a similar proportion said the information helped them to better understand how to treat an illness or condition. PMID:22121566

  15. Mercury and selenium binding biomolecules in terrestrial mammals (Cervus elaphus and Sus scrofa) from a mercury exposed area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ropero, M J Patiño; Fariñas, N Rodríguez; Krupp, E; Mateo, R; Nevado, J J Berzas; Martín-Doimeadios, R C Rodríguez

    2016-06-01

    Mercury (Hg) is likely bound to large biomolecules (e.g. proteins) in living organisms, and in order to assess Hg metabolic pathways and possible toxicological effects, it is essential to study these Hg containing biomolecules. However, the exact nature of most metal binding biomolecules is unknown. Such studies are still in their infancy and information on this topic is scarce because the analysis is challenging, mainly due to their lability upon digestion or extraction from the tissue. New analytical methods that allow complex Hg-biomolecules to be analysed intact are needed and only few very recent studies deal with this approach. Therefore, as an initial step towards the characterization of Hg containing biomolecules, an analytical procedure has been optimised using size-exclusion chromatography (SEC) with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) detection. We applied this technique to elucidate the distribution and elution profile of Hg and Se, and some physiological important elements such as Fe, Ni, Zn and Cu, to assess metal binding profiles in liver and kidney samples of red deer (Cervus elaphus) and wild boar (Sus scrofa) who roam freely within the largest Hg mining district on Earth, Almadén in Spain. Elemental fractionation profiles of the extracts from different tissues were obtained using two different SEC columns (BioSep-SEC-S2000 GL 300-1kDa and Superdex 75 10/300 GL 70-3kDa). Similar profiles of Hg were observed in red deer and wild boar; however, significant differences were evident for liver and kidney. Moreover, the profiles of Se showed a single peak at high-medium molecular weight in all investigated tissues, while co-elution of Hg with Fe, Ni, Zn and Cu was observed. PMID:27093497

  16. An Evolving User-oriented Model of Internet Health Information Seeking

    OpenAIRE

    Gaie, Martha J.

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents an evolving user-oriented model of Internet health information seeking (IS) based on qualitative data collected from 22 lung cancer (LC) patients and caregivers. This evolving model represents information search behavior as more highly individualized, complex, and dynamic than previous models, including pre-search psychological activity, use of multiple heuristics throughout the process, and cost-benefit evaluation of search results.

  17. Clinical Assay Development Support - Office of Cancer Clinical Proteomics Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    The NCI’s Division of Cancer Treatment and Diagnosis and the Cancer Diagnosis Program announce a request for applications for the Clinical Assay Development Program (CADP) for investigators seeking clinical assay development and validation resources.

  18. Intracellular delivery of nanomaterials for sub-cellular imaging and tracking of biomolecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medepalli, Krishna Kiran

    Nanomaterials have many intriguing applications in biology and medicine. Unique properties such as enhanced electrical properties, increased chemical reactivity and resistance to degradation, novel optical properties and comparable size to that of biological systems have led to their use in various biomedical applications. The most important applications of nanomaterials for medicine are in drug delivery and imaging. This research focuses on utilizing the biocompatibility of single walled Carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) and optical properties colloidal quantum dots (QDs) for cellular drug delivery and imaging of biomolecules. The first part of this research deals with single walled carbon nanotubes which are excellent candidates for targeted drug delivery applications due their unique structural and functional properties. However, prior to their use in therapeutics, their biocompatibility needs to be thoroughly investigated. The objectives of this research were to establish the biocompatibility of SWCNTs and demonstrate their use as drug delivery carriers into cells. Blood, a living tissue, is chosen as the biological system as it contains various cells which can potentially interact with SWCNTs during the delivery mechanism. The interactions of these cells in the blood (specifically white blood cells or leukocytes) with the SWCNTs provide vital information regarding the immune response of the host to the nanotubes. This research investigates the immune response of white blood cells due to SWCNTs via (a) direct interaction---presence of nanotubes in the blood and, (b) indirect interaction---presentation of nanotubes by antigen-presenting-cells to white blood cells. These two interactions recreate the innate and adaptive immune responses occurring in the body to any foreign substance. SWCNTs are functionalized with single stranded DNA (ss-DNA), which serves as a dispersant of nanotubes as well as a backbone for further attachment of other biomolecules of interest

  19. Bacterial toxicity of oxide nanoparticles and their effects on bacterial surface biomolecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Wei

    Toxicity of nano-scaled Al2O3, SiO2, TiO2 and ZnO to bacteria (Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas fluorescens) was examined and compared to that of their respective bulk (micro-scaled) counterparts. All nanoparticles (NPs) but TiO2 showed higher toxicity than their bulk counterparts. Toxicity of released metal ions was differentiated from that of the oxide particles. ZnO was the most toxic among the three NPs, causing 100% mortality to the three tested bacteria. TEM images showed attachment of NPs to the bacteria, suggesting that the toxicity was affected by bacterial attachment. The effects of oxide NPs on bacteria cells and bacterial surface biomolecules were studied by FTIR spectroscopy to provide a better understanding of their cytotoxicity. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and lipoteichoic acid could bind to oxide NPs through hydrogen bonding and ligand exchange, but the cytotoxicity of NPs seemed largely related to the function-involved or structural changes to proteins and phospholipids. The three NPs decreased the intensity ratio of beta-sheets/alpha-helices, indicating protein structure change, which may affect cell physiological activities. The phosphodiester bond of L-alpha-Phosphatidyl-ethanolamine (PE) was broken by ZnO NPs, forming phosphate monoesters and resulting in the highly disordered alkyl chain. Such damage to phospholipid molecular structure may lead to membrane rupture and cell leaking, which is consistent with the fact that ZnO is the most toxic of the three NPs. LPS and PE are amphiphilic biomolecules that are major constituents of the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria. Their micelles and vesicles were studied as model cell membranes to evaluate NP effects on membrane construction. The adsorption of polysaccharides on Al2O3 and TiO 2 NPs dispersed LPS vesicles and micelles. LPS coated Al2O 3 NPs, while it caused the aggregation of TiO2 NPs according to atom force microscopy images. Desorption from the two NPs was slow due

  20. On-chip micro-electromagnets for magnetic-based bio-molecules separation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramadan, Qasem E-mail: qasem@pmail.ntu.edu.sg; Samper, Victor; Poenar, Daniel; Yu Chen

    2004-10-01

    This paper reports a comprehensive theoretical, finite element and measurement analysis of different designs of planar micro-electromagnets for bio-molecular manipulation. The magnetic field due to current flowing in complex shapes of current-carrying conductors have been calculated analytically, simulated using finite-element analysis (FEA), and measured using the superconducting quantum interference device technique (SQUID). A comparison of the theoretical and measured magnetic field strength and patterns is presented. The planar electromagnets have been fabricated using patterned Al 2 {mu}m thick. The aim of the study is to explore and optimize the geometrical and structural parameters of planar electromagnets that give rise to the highest magnetic fields and forces for magnetic micro-beads manipulation. Magnetic beads are often used in biochemical assays for separation of bio-molecules. Typical beads are 0.2-10 {mu}m in diameter and have superparamagnetic properties. Increasing the intensity of the magnetic field generated by a coil by injection a larger current is not the most suitable solution as the maximum current is limited by Joule heating. Consequently, in order to maximize the field for a given current, one should optimize the geometry of the coil, as this is an extremely significant factor in determining the magnetic field intensity in 2D planar designs. The theoretical and measured results of this work show that the meander micro-electromagnet with mesh-shaped winding profile produces the strongest magnetic field (about 2.7 {mu}T for a current intensity of 6 mA) compared with other meander designs, such as the serpentine and rosette-shaped ones. The magnetic fields of these three types of meander-shaped micro-electromagnets were compared theoretically with that produced by a spiral micro-electromagnet whose technological realization is more complicated and costly due to the fact that it requires an additional insulation layer with a contact window and

  1. Stretching the limits in help-seeking research

    OpenAIRE

    Mäkitalo-Siegl, Kati; Fischer, Frank

    2011-01-01

    This special section focuses on help seeking in a wide range of learning environments, from classrooms to online forums. Previous research has rather restrictively focused on the identification of personal characteristics that predict whether or not learners seek help under certain conditions. However, help-seeking research has begun to broaden these self-imposed limitations. The papers in this special section represent good examples of this development. Indeed, help seeking in the presented ...

  2. Rent Seeking and the Excess Burden of Taxation

    OpenAIRE

    Kahana, Nava; Klunover, Doron

    2014-01-01

    The social costs of rent seeking are generally evaluated with respect to rent dissipation. A common assumption is complete rent dissipation so that the value of a contested rent is the value of social loss. When rent seekers earn taxable income, there is interdependence between the social cost of rent seeking through rent dissipation and the excess burden of taxation. Through the addition of substitution to rent seeking beyond leisure, rent seeking increases the excess burden of taxation unde...

  3. From Resistance to Opportunity-Seeking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjerdrum Pedersen, Esben Rahbek; Gwozdz, Wencke

    2014-01-01

    Using survey responses from 400 fashion companies in Denmark, Norway, Sweden, Finland, and Iceland, we examine the diversity of strategic responses to institutional pressures for corporate social responsibility (CSR) within the Nordic fashion industry. We also develop and test a new model of...... strategic responses to institutional pressures that encompasses both resistance and opportunity-seeking behaviour. Our results suggest that it is inconsistent pressures within, rather than between, stake-holder groups that shape strategic responses to CSR pressures and that increasing pressures stimulates...

  4. Seeking Lorentz Violation from the Higgs

    CERN Document Server

    Cohen, Andrew; Xu, Yiming

    2014-01-01

    The recently discovered Higgs particle with a mass near $126$ GeV presents new opportunities to explore Lorentz violation. Ultra-high-energy cosmic rays are one of the most sensitive testing grounds for Lorentz symmetry, and can be used to seek for and limit departures from Lorentz invariance in the Higgs sector. If the Higgs were to have a super- or sub-luminal maximal speed both Higgs and weak interaction physics would be modified. Consideration of such modifications allow us to constrain the Higgs maximal velocity to agree with that of other Standard Model particles to parts in $10^{14}$.

  5. A comparison of risk factors for women seeking labiaplasty compared to those not seeking labiaplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veale, David; Eshkevari, Ertimiss; Ellison, Nell; Costa, Ana; Robinson, Dudley; Kavouni, Angelica; Cardozo, Linda

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about the factors associated with the desire for labiaplasty. We compared 55 women seeking labiaplasty with 70 women in a comparison group who were not seeking labiaplasty. Measures administered included the Perception of Appearance and Competency Related Teasing Scale, Childhood Trauma Questionnaire, Disgust Scale Revised, and the Genital Appearance Satisfaction scale with open-ended questions about their genitalia. Approximately a third of the labiaplasty group recalled specific negative comments in the past towards their labia, a proportion significantly greater than the three per cent in the comparison group. Participants reporting genital teasing also showed higher Genital Appearance Satisfaction scores than those who were not teased. However, women seeking labiaplasty were, compared to the comparison group, no more likely to have a history of neglect or abuse during childhood. There was no difference between the groups on disgust sensitivity or the perception of being teased in the past about their competence or appearance in general. PMID:24239491

  6. Patterns between Interactive Intentions and Information-Seeking Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Hong (Iris)

    2002-01-01

    Discusses information retrieval system design that supports various information-seeking strategies. Describes a study that investigated the relationship between users' information-seeking goals and their information-seeking behavior to specify hierarchical levels of user goals, and discusses results that focus on patterns of interactive intentions…

  7. Motivational Dynamics of Children's Academic Help-Seeking and Concealment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchand, Gwen; Skinner, Ellen A.

    2007-01-01

    Models of self-regulated learning and of children's coping both consider help-seeking an adaptive response to academic problems, yet students do not always seek help when it is needed, and help-seeking generally declines across early adolescence. A study of 765 children in elementary and middle school (Grades 3-6) during fall and spring of the…

  8. Academic Help-Seeking and Peer Relations in School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson-LeGall, Sharon; Glor-Scheib, Susan

    1986-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between peer relations and help-seeking behaviors in third- and fifth-grade boys and girls. The relationship between peer status and academic help-seeking was found to vary with the target of the help-seeking overture and the type of help requested. (Author/LMO)

  9. Attitudes of Male Prisoners toward Seeking Professional Psychological Help.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Mei Wah; Skogstad, Philip; Deane, Frank P.

    2001-01-01

    Examines whether prisoners seek help from mental health professionals, and assesses the validity and utility of a short form of the Attitudes Toward Seeking Professional Psychological Help Scale (ATSPPHS) for assessing prison inmates' help-seeking attitudes. Results were consistent with previous research, and indicated that male inmates (N = 173)…

  10. Identifying Health-Seeking Behaviors: A Study of Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newell-Withrow, Cora

    1986-01-01

    Sought to determine how adolescents' (N=156) health-seeking behaviors, which include self-management and information-seeking behaviors, differ according to age, race, socioeconomic status, gender, and religion. Findings confirmed gender as a differentiating variable for performance of information-seeking behavior and found positive health…

  11. Theoretical and experimental proof of the accumulating transfer of tritium from water into DNA and other biomolecules in vitro and in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heisenberg's Uncertainity Relation leads to the conclusion, tritium accumulates in the exchangeable hydrogen positions of biomolecules if it is administered in the state of water. Appropriate tests of fishsperm DNA and the biomolecules of piglet's liver resulted in a fractionation factor of about 2 favouring such organically bound tritium. Furthermore, a fractionation factor of 1.4 is found in the hydration sheet of the biomolecules. The logistic growth analysis of maize and barley confirms the accumulation of tritium from water in the tissue solids of the plants. (orig.)

  12. Psychiatric disorders of patients seeking obesity treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Hung-Yen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Obese and overweight people have a higher risk of both chronic physical illness and mental illness. Obesity is reported to be positively associated with psychiatric disorders, especially in people who seek obesity treatment. At the same time, obesity treatment may be influenced by psychological factors or personality characteristics. This study aimed to understand the prevalence of mental disorders among ethnic Chinese who sought obesity treatment. Methods Subjects were retrospectively recruited from an obesity treatment center in Taiwan. The obesity treatments included bariatric surgery and non-surgery treatment. All subjects underwent a standardized clinical evaluation with two questionnaires and a psychiatric referral when needed. The psychiatric diagnosis was made thorough psychiatric clinic interviews using the SCID. A total of 841 patients were recruited. We compared the difference in psychiatric disorder prevalence between patients with surgical and non-surgical treatment. Results Of the 841 patients, 42% had at least one psychiatric disorder. Mood disorders, anxiety disorders and eating disorders were the most prevalent categories of psychiatric disorders. Females had more mood disorders and eating disorders than males. The surgical group had more binge-eating disorder, adjustment disorder, and sleep disorders than the non-surgical group. Conclusion A high prevalence of psychiatric disorders was found among ethnic Chinese seeking obesity treatment. This is consistent with study results in the US and Europe.

  13. Physician information seeking: improving relevance through research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruppen, L D

    1990-04-01

    Health sciences libraries have considerable potential as resources for both formal continuing professional education, as well as the informal continuing education that results from the professional's efforts to solve problems in daily practice. While there is a growing interest in making the resources of health sciences libraries more accessible to practitioners on a routine, day-to-day basis, there also needs to be more awareness of how, when, where, and why professionals look for information in the context of practical problems. This paper reviews recent research that identifies the context in which physicians seek information and advice from external sources, the information sources that physicians access, and the factors that influence which particular sources are sought. The results indicate that physicians vary in their information needs, preferences, motivations, and strategies for seeking information. This diversity suggests that health sciences libraries, in their efforts to be more accessible, should consider "market research" to determine the needs, preferences, and use patterns of the library's targeted users. Libraries may also benefit from exploring alternative methods of improving access to their resources. PMID:2183904

  14. Memory Complaints Associated with Seeking Clinical Care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Pires

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Diagnosis of mild cognitive impairment relies on the presence of memory complaints. However, memory complaints are very frequent in healthy people. The objective of this study was to determine the severity and type of memory difficulties presented by elderly patients who seek for clinical help, as compared to the memory difficulties reported by subjects in the community. Assessment of subjective memory complaints was done with the subjective memory complaints scale (SMC. The mini-mental state examination was used for general cognitive evaluation and the geriatric depression scale for the assessment of depressive symptoms. Eight-hundred and seventy-one nondemented subjects older than 50 years were included. Participants in the clinical setting had a higher total SMC score (10.3±4.2 than those in the community (5.1±3.0. Item 3 of the SMC, Do you ever forget names of family members or friends? contributed significantly more to the variance of the total SMC score in the clinical sample (18% as compared to the community sample (11%. Forgetting names of family members or friends plays an important role in subjective memory complaints in the clinical setting. This symptom is possibly perceived as particularly worrisome and likely drives people to seek for clinical help.

  15. Evaluating Collaborative Information Seeking Interfaces with a Search-Oriented Inspection Method and Re-framed Information Seeking Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Wilson, Max L.; Schraefel, M. C.

    2009-01-01

    Despite the many implicit references to the social contexts of search within Information Seeking and Retrieval research, there has been relatively little work that has specifically investigated the additional requirements for collaborative information seeking interfaces. Here, we re-assess a recent analytical inspection framework, designed for individual information seeking, and then apply it to evaluate a recent collaborative information seeking interface: SearchTogether. The framework was b...

  16. Intention to seek professional psychological help among college students in Turkey: influence of help-seeking attitudes

    OpenAIRE

    Seyfi, Feyza; Poudel, Krishna C.; Yasuoka, Junko; Otsuka, Keiko; Jimba, Masamine

    2013-01-01

    Background Depression rates are high among college students in Turkey, but often students do not seek mental health care. This study aimed to examine the association between attitudes toward seeking professional psychological help and intention to seek professional psychological help among such college students. We also examined the factors associated with students’ professional psychological help-seeking attitudes. We conducted this cross-sectional study among 456 conveniently sampled gradua...

  17. Observation of adsorption behavior of biomolecules on ferroelectric crystal surfaces with polarization domain patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakayama, Tomoaki; Isobe, Akiko; Ogino, Toshio

    2016-08-01

    Lithium tantalate (LiTaO3) is one of the ferroelectric crystals that exhibit spontaneous polarization domain patterns on its surface. We observed the polarization-dependent adsorption of avidin molecules, which are positively charged in a buffer solution at pH 7.0, on LiTaO3 surfaces caused by electrostatic interaction at an electrostatic double layer using atomic force microscopy (AFM). Avidin adsorption in the buffer solution was confirmed by scratching the substrate surfaces using the AFM cantilever, and the adsorption patterns were found to depend on the avidin concentration. When KCl was added to the buffer solution to weaken the electrostatic double layer interaction between avidin molecules and LiTaO3 surfaces, adsorption domain patterns disappeared. From the comparison between the adsorption and chemically etched domain patterns, it was found that avidin molecule adsorption is enhanced on negatively polarized domains, indicating that surface polarization should be taken into account in observing biomolecule behaviors on ferroelectric crystals.

  18. Label-free Raman mapping of surface distribution of protein a and IgG biomolecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Combs, Zachary A; Chang, Sehoon; Clark, Tolecia; Singamaneni, Srikanth; Anderson, Kyle D; Tsukruk, Vladimir V

    2011-03-15

    We have demonstrated a nanoengineered substrate composed of micropatterned silver nanoparticles to be used for the label-free mapping of adsorbed biomolecules. We utilized surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) phenomenon to monitor the known bioanalytes, protein A and human immunoglobulin G (IgG). The SERS substrate was composed of a poly(alylamine hydrochloride) (PAH)/poly(styrenesulfonate) (PSS) layer-by-layer (LbL) nanocoating micropatterned with silver nanoparticles confined to microscopic stripes. Selective adsorption of biomacromolecules is facilitated by the amine-terminated LbL nanocoating, which prevents the surface adsorption of positively charged protein A across the surface except on the patterned regions containing negatively charged silver nanoparticles. Furthermore, adsorption of IgG on predetermined regions is facilitated by the selective binding of the Fc region of IgG to protein A. This label-free SERS approach provides accurate, selective, and fast detection of protein A and IgG solutions with a nanomolar concentration, down to below 1 nM for IgG in solution. This method could also be utilized for the facile detection of proteins in field conditions as well as in clinical, forensic, industrial, and environmental laboratories. PMID:21294559

  19. Systematic Errors Associated with the CPMG Pulse Sequence and Their Effect on Motional Analysis of Biomolecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, A.; Czisch, M.; King, G. C.

    1997-02-01

    A theoretical approach to calculate the time evolution of magnetization during a CPMG pulse sequence of arbitrary parameter settings is developed and verified by experiment. The analysis reveals that off-resonance effects can cause systematic reductions in measured peak amplitudes that commonly lie in the range 5-25%, reaching 50% in unfavorable circumstances. These errors, which are finely dependent upon frequency offset and CPMG parameter settings, are subsequently transferred into erroneousT2values obtained by curve fitting, where they are reduced or amplified depending upon the magnitude of the relaxation time. Subsequent transfer to Lipari-Szabo model analysis can produce significant errors in derived motional parameters, with τeinternal correlation times being affected somewhat more thanS2order parameters. A hazard of this off-resonance phenomenon is its oscillatory nature, so that strongly affected and unaffected signals can be found at various frequencies within a CPMG spectrum. Methods for the reduction of the systematic error are discussed. Relaxation studies on biomolecules, especially at high field strengths, should take account of potential off-resonance contributions.

  20. AFNMR: automated fragmentation quantum mechanical calculation of NMR chemical shifts for biomolecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We evaluate the performance of the automated fragmentation quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics approach (AF-QM/MM) on the calculation of protein and nucleic acid NMR chemical shifts. The AF-QM/MM approach models solvent effects implicitly through a set of surface charges computed using the Poisson–Boltzmann equation, and it can also be combined with an explicit solvent model through the placement of water molecules in the first solvation shell around the solute; the latter substantially improves the accuracy of chemical shift prediction of protons involved in hydrogen bonding with solvent. We also compare the performance of AF-QM/MM on proteins and nucleic acids with two leading empirical chemical shift prediction programs SHIFTS and SHIFTX2. Although the empirical programs outperform AF-QM/MM in predicting chemical shifts, the differences are in some cases small, and the latter can be applied to chemical shifts on biomolecules which are outside the training set employed by the empirical programs, such as structures containing ligands, metal centers, and non-standard residues. The AF-QM/MM described here is implemented in version 5 of the SHIFTS software, and is fully automated, so that only a structure in PDB format is required as input

  1. A treecode-accelerated boundary integral Poisson-Boltzmann solver for electrostatics of solvated biomolecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Weihua; Krasny, Robert

    2013-08-01

    We present a treecode-accelerated boundary integral (TABI) solver for electrostatics of solvated biomolecules described by the linear Poisson-Boltzmann equation. The method employs a well-conditioned boundary integral formulation for the electrostatic potential and its normal derivative on the molecular surface. The surface is triangulated and the integral equations are discretized by centroid collocation. The linear system is solved by GMRES iteration and the matrix-vector product is carried out by a Cartesian treecode which reduces the cost from O(N2) to O(NlogN), where N is the number of faces in the triangulation. The TABI solver is applied to compute the electrostatic solvation energy in two cases, the Kirkwood sphere and a solvated protein. We present the error, CPU time, and memory usage, and compare results for the Poisson-Boltzmann and Poisson equations. We show that the treecode approximation error can be made smaller than the discretization error, and we compare two versions of the treecode, one with uniform clusters and one with non-uniform clusters adapted to the molecular surface. For the protein test case, we compare TABI results with those obtained using the grid-based APBS code, and we also present parallel TABI simulations using up to eight processors. We find that the TABI solver exhibits good serial and parallel performance combined with relatively simple implementation, efficient memory usage, and geometric adaptability.

  2. Optimization of biomolecule separation by combining microscale filtration and design-of-experiment methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazemi, Amir S; Kawka, Karina; Latulippe, David R

    2016-10-01

    There is considerable interest in developing microscale (i.e., high-throughput) methods that enable multiple filtration experiments to be run in parallel with smaller sample amounts and thus reduce the overall required time and associated cost to run the filtration tests. Previous studies to date have focused on simply evaluating the filtration capacity, not the separation performance. In this work, the stirred-well filtration (SWF) method was used in combination with design-of-experiment (DOE) methods to optimize the separation performance for three binary mixtures of bio-molecules: protein-protein, protein-polysaccharide, and protein-DNA. Using the parallel based format of the SWF method, eight constant-flux ultrafiltration experiments were conducted at once to study the effects of stirring conditions, permeate flux, and/or solution conditions (pH, ionic strength). Four separate filtration tests were conducted for each combination of process variables; in total, over 100 separate tests were conducted. The sieving coefficient and selectivity results are presented to match the DOE design format and enable a greater understanding of the effects of the different process variables that were studied. The method described herein can be used to rapidly determine the optimal combination of process factors that give the best separation performance for a range of membrane-based separations applications and thus obviate the need to run a large number of traditional lab-scale tests. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2016;113: 2131-2139. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27563852

  3. Excitation and ionic fragmentation of gas-phase biomolecules using electrons and synchrotron radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, G. G. B.; Coutinho, L. H.; Nunez, C.; Bernini, R.; Castilho, R. B.; Lago, A. F.

    2007-11-01

    An experimental study of the electronic excitation and ionic dissociation of two important classes of biomolecules-natural products (biogenic volatile organic compounds, VOCs, and volatile components of essential oils) and DNA and RNA constituents (aminoacids and bases) is here exemplified with recent results on the fragmentation of thymine and isoprene as induced by synchrotron radiation and fast electrons. Fragmentation of the thymine molecule was seen to dramatically increase as the photon energy increased from 21 to 300 eV and 450 eV. At the highest photon energy, simply and doubly charged N and O atoms were observed. The parent ion (m/z = 126) could be observed at all photon energies. The fragmentation pattern observed in the 1.0 keV electron impact mass spectrum of thymine resembled more closely the fragmentation observed with 21 eV photons. In isoprene, the dominant fragments observed at 21 eV and 310 eV photon energy as well as in the 1.0 keV electron impact mass spectrum were C5H7+(m/z = 67), C4H5+(m/z = 53), C3H3+(m/z = 39) and C2H3+(m/z = 27). Previously unreported fragments, namely H+, C+, CH+, CH2+, and CH3+ were observed at the high photon energies and at the electron impact mass spectrum.

  4. Prototype sphere-on-sphere silica particles for the separation of large biomolecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fekete, Szabolcs; Rodriguez-Aller, Marta; Cusumano, Alessandra; Hayes, Richard; Zhang, Haifei; Edge, Tony; Veuthey, Jean-Luc; Guillarme, Davy

    2016-01-29

    The goal of this study was to evaluate the possibilities offered by a prototype HPLC column packed with ∼2.5μm narrow size distribution sphere-on-sphere (SOS) silica particles bonded with C4 alkyl chains, for the analytical characterization of large biomolecules. The kinetic performance of this material was evaluated in both isocratic and gradient modes using various model analytes. The data were compared to those obtained on other widepore state-of-the-art fully core-shell and fully porous materials commonly employed to separate proteins moreover to a reference 5μm wide pore material that is still often used in QC labs. In isocratic mode, minimum reduced plate height values of hmin=2.6, 3.3 and 3.3 were observed on butylparaben, decapeptide and glucagon, respectively. In gradient elution mode, the SOS column performs very high efficiency when working with fast gradients. This prototype column was also comparable (and sometimes superior) to other widepore stationary phases, whatever the gradient time and flow rate, when analyzing the largest model protein, namely BSA. These benefits may be attributed to the SOS particle morphology, minimizing the intra-particle mass transfer resistance. Finally, the SOS column was also applied for the analytical characterization of commercial monoclonal antibody (mAb) and antibody-drug conjugate (ADC) samples. With these classes of proteins, the performance of SOS column was similar to the best widepore stationary phases available on the market. PMID:26755414

  5. N-acetyl-l-histidine, a Prominent Biomolecule in Brain and Eye of Poikilothermic Vertebrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baslow, Morris H.; Guilfoyle, David N.

    2015-01-01

    N-acetyl-l-histidine (NAH) is a prominent biomolecule in brain, retina and lens of poikilothermic vertebrates. In fish lens, NAH exhibits an unusual compartmentalized metabolism. It is synthesized from l-histidine (His) and acetyl Co-enzyme A. However, NAH cannot be catabolized by lens cells. For its hydrolysis, NAH is exported to ocular fluid where a specific acylase cleaves His which is then actively taken up by lens and re-synthesized into NAH. This energy-dependent cycling suggested a pump mechanism operating at the lens/ocular fluid interface. Additional studies led to the hypothesis that NAH functioned as a molecular water pump (MWP) to maintain a highly dehydrated lens and avoid cataract formation. In this process, each NAH molecule released to ocular fluid down its gradient carries with it 33 molecules of bound water, effectively transporting the water against a water gradient. In ocular fluid the bound water is released for removal from the eye by the action of NAH acylase. In this paper, we demonstrate for the first time the identification of NAH in fish brain using proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) and describe recent evidence supporting the NAH MWP hypothesis. Using MRS, we also document a phylogenetic transition in brain metabolism between poikilothermic and homeothermic vertebrates. PMID:25919898

  6. Carbon Nanofiber Arrays: A Novel Tool for Microdelivery of Biomolecules to Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davern, Sandra M.; McKnight, Timothy E.; Morrell-Falvey, Jennifer L.; Shpak, Elena D.; Kalluri, Udaya C.; Jelenska, Joanna; Greenberg, Jean T.; Mirzadeh, Saed

    2016-01-01

    Effective methods for delivering bioprobes into the cells of intact plants are essential for investigating diverse biological processes. Increasing research on trees, such as Populus spp., for bioenergy applications is driving the need for techniques that work well with tree species. This report introduces vertically aligned carbon nanofiber (VACNF) arrays as a new tool for microdelivery of labeled molecules to Populus leaf tissue and whole plants. We demonstrated that VACNFs penetrate the leaf surface to deliver sub-microliter quantities of solution containing fluorescent or radiolabeled molecules into Populus leaf cells. Importantly, VACNFs proved to be gentler than abrasion with carborundum, a common way to introduce material into leaves. Unlike carborundum, VACNFs did not disrupt cell or tissue integrity, nor did they induce production of hydrogen peroxide, a typical wound response. We show that femtomole to picomole quantities of labeled molecules (fluorescent dyes, small proteins and dextran), ranging from 0.5–500 kDa, can be introduced by VACNFs, and we demonstrate the use of the approach to track delivered probes from their site of introduction on the leaf to distal plant regions. VACNF arrays thus offer an attractive microdelivery method for the introduction of biomolecules and other probes into trees and potentially other types of plants. PMID:27119338

  7. Concentration methods for high-resolution THz spectroscopy of nucleic-acid biomolecules and crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, E. R.; Zhang, W.; Mendoza, E. A.; Kuznetsova, Y.; Brueck, S. R. J.; Rahman, M.; Norton, M. L.

    2012-03-01

    Biomolecules can exhibit low-lying vibrational modes in the THz region which are detectable in transmission given a strong molecular dipole moment and optical depth, and a spectrometer of adequate sensitivity. The nucleic acids are particularly interesting because of applications such as label-free gene assay, bio-agent detection, etc. However for nucleic acids, sample preparation and THz coupling are of paramount importance because of the strong absorption by liquid water and the small concentration of molecules present in physiological solutions. Concentration methods become necessary to make the THz vibrational modes detectable, either by concentrating the nucleic-acid sample itself in a small volume but large area, or by concentrating the THz radiation down to the volume of the sample. This paper summarizes one type of the first method: nanofluidic channel arrays for biological nucleic acids; and two types of the second method: (1) a circular-waveguide pinhole, and (2) a circular-waveguide, conical-horn coupling structure, both for DNA crystals. The first method has been demonstrated on a very short artificial nucleic acid [small-interfering (si) RNA (17-to-25 bp)] and a much longer, biological molecule [Lambda-phage DNA (48.5 kbp)]. The second method has been demonstrated on small (~100 micron) single crystals of DNA grown by the sitting-drop method.

  8. Probes for biomolecules detection based on RET-enhanced fluorescence polarization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Dahai; Wang, Jun; Wang, Bin; You, Zheng

    2016-05-15

    Fluorescent probes based on the principle of resonance energy transfer (RET) or the principle of fluorescence polarization (FP) are already used to detect biomolecules independently. However, there were no in-depth studies about the impact of RET on FP. Also, very few studies gave a comprehensive analysis on how to effectively design such a fluorescent probe. Based on the principle of resonance energy transfer (RET), we constructed fluorescent probes (SA-488-sub-nanogold) using streptavidin labeled Alexa488 (SA-488), nanogold and biotinylated substrate peptide (biotin-subpeptide). The influence of the structure and the ingredients of the substrate peptide were discussed. After SA-488 was combined with the biotin-subpeptide and the nanogold, its fluorescence intensity (FI) would be suppressed due to the energy transfer, leading to an increase in its volume and mass. The suppression of the FI led to a decrease in SA-488's effective concentration, and the increase in the volume or mass prolonged the SA-488's rotational relaxation time. Both changes increased SA-488's polarization in the solution. Therefore, the FP performance of the probe is enhanced by the RET. Using the probe, trypsin and biotin were detected by the change in both fluorescence intensity and fluorescence polarization, showing higher reliability, higher sensitivity, and a lower detection limit. PMID:26774994

  9. Biomolecule-Mineral Interactions in the Geochemical Environment on Early Earth and in the Human Body

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahai, N.

    2011-12-01

    We worked on four projects consistent with the broad goals of the grant to investigate (i) the potential impacts of mineral surface chemistry and particle size on the stability and viability of cell membranes, bacteria and human cells and (ii) the influence of biomolecules on mineral nucleation and growth. The projects are of relevance to the origin and early evolution of life, biomineralization, medical mineralogy, and environmental biogeochemistry. The freedom enabled by the five-year grant to explore high-risk scientific areas, and the resulting high impact outcomes, cannot be overstated. We developed an almost entirely new field of Medical Mineralogyy and extended our concepts and knowledge-base to the potential roles of mineral surfaces in the evolution of protocells and the earliest cells. These exciting connections to medical mineralogy, and to the origin and evolution of life on early Earth are fascinating topics to the general public and even to other scientists, especially when the links to mineralogy and geochemistry are highlighted. In brief, we examined the stability of lipid bilayers representing model protocell membranes comprised of phospholipid bilayers with mineral surfaces. We found that the stability of lipid bilayers depends on mineral surface charge and increases as silica glass ~ quartz Annual Meeting.

  10. Experimental detection of long-distance interactions between biomolecules through their diffusion behavior: Numerical study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nardecchia, Ilaria; Spinelli, Lionel; Preto, Jordane; Gori, Matteo; Floriani, Elena; Jaeger, Sebastien; Ferrier, Pierre; Pettini, Marco

    2014-08-01

    The dynamical properties and diffusive behavior of a collection of mutually interacting particles are numerically investigated for two types of long-range interparticle interactions: Coulomb-electrostatic and dipole-electrodynamic. It is shown that when the particles are uniformly distributed throughout the accessible space, the self-diffusion coefficient is always lowered by the considered interparticle interactions, irrespective of their attractive or repulsive character. This fact is also confirmed by a simple model to compute the correction to the Brownian diffusion coefficient due to the interactions among the particles. These interactions are also responsible for the onset of dynamical chaos and an associated chaotic diffusion which still follows an Einstein-Fick-like law for the mean-square displacement as a function of time. Transitional phenomena are observed for Coulomb-electrostatic (repulsive) and dipole-electrodynamic (attractive) interactions considered both separately and in competition. The outcomes reported in this paper clearly indicate a feasible experimental method to probe the activation of resonant electrodynamic interactions among biomolecules.

  11. Photoemission study of metallic iron nanoparticles surface aging in biological fluids. Influence on biomolecules adsorption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canivet, L.; Denayer, F.O. [Université de Lille 2, Droit et Santé, 42 rue P. Duez, 59000 Lille (France); Champion, Y.; Cenedese, P. [CNRS-ICMPE, 2 rue H. Dunant, 94320 Thiais (France); Dubot, P., E-mail: pdubot@icmpe.cnrs.fr [CNRS-ICMPE, 2 rue H. Dunant, 94320 Thiais (France)

    2014-07-01

    Iron nanoparticles (nFe) prepared by vaporization and cryogenic condensation process (10–100 nm) has been exposed to Hank's balanced salt solution (HBSS) and the B-Ali cell growth fluids. These media can be used for cellular growth to study nFe penetration through cell membrane and its induced cytotoxicity. Surface chemistry of nFe exposed to such complex fluids has been characterized as the nanoparticles surface can be strongly changed by adsorption or corrosion processes before reaching intracellular medium. Particle size and surface chemistry have been characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and high-resolution X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (HR-XPS). Exposition of nFe particles to growth and differentiation media leads to the formation of an oxy-hydroxide layer containing chlorinated species. We found that the passivated Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} layer of the bare nFe particles is rapidly transformed into a thicker oxy-hydroxide layer that has a greater ability to adsorb molecular ions or ionic biomolecules like proteins or DNA.

  12. Physics and capabilities of terahertz spectroscopy to study the water-biomolecule interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vezzoli, G. C.

    2007-09-01

    We have conducted the first study of the use of terahertz radiation to precisely identify pre-melting, melting, polymerization, depolymerization and the influence of polar water in sulfur by scanning frequency as a parametric function of temperature, and including identifying precursor and intermediate states. This spectroscopic study has also identified the orthorhombic-monoclinic phase transformation, and the melting of the superheated orthorhombic phase. This work also reports detection of a water absorption indicating a perturbation of the water molecules, associated with solvation spheres of the inter-chain dynamics, as a precursor to a transition, and supporting our earlier results showing the transducing capabilities of conglomerates of water molecules. Through a study of the fine structure of the water absorption, we are able to determine information about local polarization effects which contribute to the transducing properties of water relative to a ligand. The above inorganic polymer study is applied to the understanding of the response of biomolecules to thermal and chemical influences, and data are included giving optical, electrical, and pH properties of the DNA-water system, showing a major conformational transition at ~43°C, and various forms of reconformation of DNA macromolecule due to chemical perturbation. Our results include findings aimed at complementing existing inhibitors that are intended to prevent retrovirus/phage invasion of the host cell DNA.

  13. Surface reactivity of rapidly quenched nano-quasicrystalline ribbons with respect to biomolecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, we report on preliminary investigations about surface reactivity of quasicrystalline-based alloys with respect to small biological molecules such as amino-acids. The main purpose is to study potential applications for these materials in biomedical fields since biomolecules are well known to be sensitive to solid surface wettability, surface energy and charge. In that sense, quasicrystals surfaces could be attractive considering their unusual symmetry, their low surface energy and their peculiar electronic properties. Our investigations were focussed on superficial reactivity of as-quenched Ti45Zr38Ni17 (numbers indicate at.%) ribbons, whose microstructure was analysed by transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. Surfaces were then carefully polished and immersed in a solution (C = 10-2 mol l-1, pH 6) of L-glutamic acid or L-lysine for duration varying from 30 min to 6 days. Molecular vibrational modes and adsorption kinetics were investigated using infrared spectroscopy. The first results reveal that L-glutamic acid seems to display faster adsorption kinetic on quasicrystalline ribbons compared to that on pure titanium (cpTi) or on β-metastable alloys (Ti-12 Mo-6 Zr-4.5 Sn), which is quite interesting since surface energy on quasicrystals is known to be low

  14. Microfluidic paper-based biomolecule preconcentrator based on ion concentration polarization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Sung Il; Hwang, Kyo Seon; Kwak, Rhokyun; Lee, Jeong Hoon

    2016-06-21

    Microfluidic paper-based analytical devices (μPADs) for molecular detection have great potential in the field of point-of-care diagnostics. Currently, a critical problem being faced by μPADs is improving their detection sensitivity. Various preconcentration processes have been developed, but they still have complicated structures and fabrication processes to integrate into μPADs. To address this issue, we have developed a novel paper-based preconcentrator utilizing ion concentration polarization (ICP) with minimal addition on lateral-flow paper. The cation selective membrane (i.e., Nafion) is patterned on adhesive tape, and this tape is then attached to paper-based channels. When an electric field is applied across the Nafion, ICP is initiated to preconcentrate the biomolecules in the paper channel. Departing from previous paper-based preconcentrators, we maintain steady lateral fluid flow with the separated Nafion layer; as a result, fluorescent dyes and proteins (FITC-albumin and bovine serum albumin) are continuously delivered to the preconcentration zone, achieving high preconcentration performance up to 1000-fold. In addition, we demonstrate that the Nafion-patterned tape can be integrated with various geometries (multiplexed preconcentrator) and platforms (string and polymer microfluidic channel). This work would facilitate integration of various ICP devices, including preconcentrators, pH/concentration modulators, and micro mixers, with steady lateral flows in paper-based platforms. PMID:27199301

  15. A Universal Method for Fishing Target Proteins from Mixtures of Biomolecules using Isothermal Titration Calorimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The most challenging tasks in biology include the identification of (1) the orphan receptor for a ligand, (2) the ligand for an orphan receptor protein, and (3) the target protein(s) for a given drug or a lead compound that are critical for the pharmacological or side effects. At present, several approaches are available, including cell- or animal-based assays, affinity labeling, solid-phase binding assays, surface plasmon resonance, and nuclear magnetic resonance. Most of these techniques are not easy to apply when the target protein is unknown and the compound is not amenable to labeling, chemical modification, or immobilization. Here we demonstrate a new universal method for fishing orphan target proteins from a complex mixture of biomolecules using isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) as a tracking tool. We took snake venom, a crude mixture of several hundred proteins/peptides, as a model to demonstrate our proposed ITC method in tracking the isolation and purification of two distinct target proteins, a major component and a minor component. Identities of fished out target proteins were confirmed by amino acid sequencing and inhibition assays. This method has the potential to make a significant advancement in the area of identifying orphan target proteins and inhibitor screening in drug discovery and characterization.

  16. Role of biomolecules on annulus fibrosus micromechanics: effect of enzymatic digestion on elastic and failure properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaacs, Jessica L; Vresilovic, Edward; Sarkar, Sumona; Marcolongo, Michele

    2014-12-01

    Uniaxial tension was applied to selectively digested single lamellar human cadaveric annulus fibrosus specimens to investigate the role of different biomolecules in annular biomechanics. Single layered and inter-lamellar annulus fibrosus samples were obtained from 10 isolated cadaveric lumbar intervertebral discs in one of four orientations: longitudinal, transverse, radial, and circumferential. Within each orientation the samples were subjected to a selective enzymatic digestion protocol with collagenase, elastase, chondroitinase ABC, or 1× Phosphate Buffered Saline. Uniaxial tensile tests were performed to failure at a strain rate of 0.005s(-1). Failure stress and strain, and elastic moduli were compared among the digested conditions. The collagenase- and elastase-treated groups had the most significant effect on the mechanical properties among the orientation groups, decreasing the failure stress for both interlaminar and intralaminar groups. Collagenase-treated groups showed an increase in the failure strain following enzymatic digestion for the intralaminar groups and one interlaminar testing direction (circumferential). The chondroitinase ABC-treated group only had a significant impact on the single layer orientations, decreasing the failure stress and strain (intralaminar group). The digested properties described provide insights into the laminar mechanical behavior and the role of the molecular components to the annular mechanical behavior. Understanding annular mechanics may prove insightful in diagnosis, prevention and repair of debilitating intervertebral disc disorders and manufacturing of tissue-engineered annulus. PMID:25212387

  17. Spatially controlled immobilisation of biomolecules: A complete approach in green chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grinenval, Eva; Nonglaton, Guillaume; Vinet, Françoise

    2014-01-01

    The development of 'green' sensors is a challenging task in the field of biomolecule sensing, for example in the detection of cardiac troponin-I (cTnI). In the present work a complete approach in green chemistry was developed to create chemically active patterns for the immobilisation of biological probes. This key technology is discussed on the basis of the twelve green chemistry principles, and is a combination of surface patterning by spotting and surface chemistries modified by molecular vapour deposition. The (1H,1H,2H,2H)-perfluorodecyltrichlorosilane (FDTS) was used as a novel anti-adsorption layer while the 3,4-epoxybutyltrimethoxysilane (EBTMOS) was used to immobilise probes. Oligonucleotides and the anti-cTnI antibody were studied. The spatially controlled immobilisation of probes was characterised by fluorescence. The demonstrated surface modification has broad applications in areas such as diagnostics and bio-chemical sensing. Moreover, the environmental impacts of surface patterning and surface chemistry were discussed from a 'greenness' point of view.

  18. Review: Bioanalytical applications of biomolecule-functionalized nanometer-sized doped silica particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent research has looked to develop innovative and powerful novel biofunctionalized nanometer-sized silica particles, controlling and tailoring their properties in a very predictable manner to meet the needs of specific applications. The silica shells of these particles facilitate a wide variety of surface reactions and allow conjugation with biomolecules like proteins and DNA. There exist a multitude of possible applications of fabricated nanoparticles in biotechnology and medicine. In particular, they have proved to be highly useful for biosensing, assay labelling, bioimaging, and in research on a variety of molecular tags in cellular and molecular biology. Techniques commonly rely on the use of silica-coated semiconductor quantum dots, organic dyes, magnetic particles, and Raman active particles. Inorganic-biological hybrid particles combine the properties of both materials, i.e., the spectroscopic characteristics of the entrapped nanocrystal, and the biomolecular function of the conjugated entity. Rather than being exhaustive, this review focuses on selected examples to illustrate novel concepts and promising applications. Approaches described include the encoding of silica nanoparticles with different groups, and conjugation with various biological entities. Further, promising applications in bioanalysis are considered and discussed.

  19. Extracting biomolecule collision cross sections from the high-resolution FT-ICR mass spectral linewidths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Ting; Chen, Yu; Mao, Lu; Marshall, Alan G; Xu, Wei

    2016-01-14

    It is known that the ion collision cross section (CCS) may be calculated from the linewidth of a Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (FT-ICR) mass spectral peak at elevated pressure (e.g., ∼10(-6) Torr). However, the high mass resolution of FT-ICR is sacrificed in those experiments due to high buffer gas pressure. In this study, we describe a linewidth correction method to eliminate the windowing-induced peak broadening effect. Together with the energetic ion-neutral collision model previously developed by our group, this method enables the extraction of CCSs of biomolecules from high-resolution FT-ICR mass spectral linewidths, obtained at a typical operating buffer gas pressure of modern FT-ICR instruments (∼10(-10) Torr). CCS values of peptides including MRFA, angiotensin I, and bradykinin measured by the proposed method agree well with ion mobility measurements, and the unfolding of protein ions (ubiquitin) at higher charge states is also observed. PMID:26314765

  20. EFFECT OF CARBOFURAN ON THE FORMATION OF SOME BIOMOLECULES IN BRINJAL (SOLANUM MELONGENA L. LEAF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MANZOOR A, ASHRAFI

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The present work was carried out with the objective to study the effect of carbofuran on the quantitative formation of carbohydrate, total free amino acids, protein, total phenol and total chlorophyll contents in brinjal leaf as recorded on 1, 7, 14, 21, 28 and 35 days after application (DAA. The carbohydrate content decreased to the extent of 3.36, 4.53 and 4.60% respectively against control (T1 : 0, recommended (T2 : 33.0 kg ha–1 and double of recommended (T3 : 66.0 kg ha–1 doses of carbofuran formulation on the 35th DAA in comparison with 1st DAA. The total free amino acid content decreased to 42.82, 45.84 and 49.89% respectively against the above doses. In case of protein content also an overall decrease of 45.28, 43.10 and 45.61% with regards to 1st DAA was observed. The total phenol content, on the contrary, recorded an increase of 18.85, 21.77 and 5.35% respectively in case of above three doses. The total chlorophyll content again exhibited a decrease of 20.99, 22.73 and 36.05% respectively. So the formation of all the biomolecules under study except phenol in brinjal leaf was found to decrease with passage of time as an effect of application of carbofuran.

  1. Study on the biodistribution of deuterated biomolecules in mice aiming at new Γ imaging agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deuterated compounds (2H-compounds) labeled with 14C prepared from deuterated algae, Chlorella ellipsoidea, were examined for their time-coursed distribution in mice after intravenous administration. The 14C-2H-compounds were fractionated and isolated from algae grown in practically 100 mol% 2H2O in the presence of 14C-bicarbonate. The fractions obtained were the 'basic' and 'acid' fractions, composed mainly of amino acids and sugar phosphates, respectively, and glucose, galactose, and lipid fractions. All fractions were examined for their biodistribution in mice bearing Ehrlich solid tumor in comparison with the fractions isolated from ordinary Chlorella (1H-Chlorella). 2H-Compounds thus examined showed some behaviors different from 1H-compounds. The 2H-'basic' fraction distributed more slowly in heart, lung and liver than the 1H-fraction. The 2H-specific large distribution in tumor was also observed on this fraction. The 2H-dependent characteristics in the distribution of glucose and galactose differed. The 2H-glucose level was lower in blood and higher in brain, resulting in a brain/blood ratio approximately twice that of 1H-glucose, while 2H-galactose did not show such a characteristic. These findings may be useful for the application of 2H-biomolecules to functional radio-imaging agents for nuclear medicine. (author)

  2. AFNMR: automated fragmentation quantum mechanical calculation of NMR chemical shifts for biomolecules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swails, Jason [Rutgers University, Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology and BioMaPS Institute (United States); Zhu, Tong; He, Xiao, E-mail: xiaohe@phy.ecnu.edu.cn [East China Normal University, State Key Laboratory of Precision Spectroscopy, Institute of Theoretical and Computational Science (China); Case, David A., E-mail: case@biomaps.rutgers.edu [Rutgers University, Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology and BioMaPS Institute (United States)

    2015-10-15

    We evaluate the performance of the automated fragmentation quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics approach (AF-QM/MM) on the calculation of protein and nucleic acid NMR chemical shifts. The AF-QM/MM approach models solvent effects implicitly through a set of surface charges computed using the Poisson–Boltzmann equation, and it can also be combined with an explicit solvent model through the placement of water molecules in the first solvation shell around the solute; the latter substantially improves the accuracy of chemical shift prediction of protons involved in hydrogen bonding with solvent. We also compare the performance of AF-QM/MM on proteins and nucleic acids with two leading empirical chemical shift prediction programs SHIFTS and SHIFTX2. Although the empirical programs outperform AF-QM/MM in predicting chemical shifts, the differences are in some cases small, and the latter can be applied to chemical shifts on biomolecules which are outside the training set employed by the empirical programs, such as structures containing ligands, metal centers, and non-standard residues. The AF-QM/MM described here is implemented in version 5 of the SHIFTS software, and is fully automated, so that only a structure in PDB format is required as input.

  3. Methods for Selection of Cancer Patients and Predicting Efficacy of Combination Therapy | NCI Technology Transfer Center | TTC

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Lung Cancer Biomarkers Group of the National Cancer Institute (NCI) seeks parties interested in collaborative research to further co-develop methods for selecting cancer patients for combination therapy.

  4. Co-detection: ultra-reliable nanoparticle-based electrical detection of biomolecules in the presence of large background interference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yang; Gu, Ming; Alocilja, Evangelyn C; Chakrabartty, Shantanu

    2010-11-15

    An ultra-reliable technique for detecting trace quantities of biomolecules is reported. The technique called "co-detection" exploits the non-linear redundancy amongst synthetically patterned biomolecular logic circuits for deciphering the presence or absence of target biomolecules in a sample. In this paper, we verify the "co-detection" principle on gold-nanoparticle-based conductimetric soft-logic circuits which use a silver-enhancement technique for signal amplification. Using co-detection, we have been able to demonstrate a great improvement in the reliability of detecting mouse IgG at concentration levels that are 10(5) lower than the concentration of rabbit IgG which serves as background interference. PMID:20864327

  5. Development of a combined surface plasmon resonance/surface acoustic wave device for the characterization of biomolecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is known that acoustic sensor devices, if operated in liquid phase, are sensitive not just to the mass of the analyte but also to various other parameters, such as size, shape, charge and elastic constants of the analyte as well as bound and viscously entrained water. This can be used to extract valuable information about a biomolecule, particularly if the acoustic device is combined with another sensor element which is sensitive to the mass or amount of analyte only. The latter is true in good approximation for various optical sensor techniques. This work reports on the development of a combined surface plasmon resonance/surface acoustic wave sensor system which is designed for the investigation of biomolecules such as proteins or DNA. Results for the deposition of neutravidin and DNA are reported

  6. Aequorin as a bioluminescent indicator for use in the determination of biomolecules in single cells. Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sylvia Daunert

    2000-02-17

    During this funding period, the laboratories of Drs. Anderson and Daunert have performed a considerable amount of work toward addressing the issues associated with small volume analysis necessary for single cell studies. In that respect, their research has been focused on (1) developing new assays that can be miniaturized and are suitable for small volume and single cell analysis; (2) fabricating pL-vials that simulate the volume of single cells and setting up instrumentation capable of low-volume detection; (3) developing reproducible and reliable microinjection techniques; (4) developing methods of analysis for biomolecules in the pL-vials and employing these assays in the detection of biomolecules in single cells. The accomplishments attained in all these areas are described below. A total of 24 publications and 35 presentations have resulted from this work.

  7. Information Seeking Anxiety: Concept, Measurement and Preliminary Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammadamin Erfanmanesh

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to introduce the information seeking anxiety construct as a phenomenon among postgraduate students. It also presents the Information Seeking Anxiety Scale (ISAS as a valid and reliable instrument. Further, the current study investigates the prevalence of information seeking anxiety among postgraduate students at a research-intensive university in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Results of the study revealed that while information seeking anxiety is present among the studied students, the overall level is not high. Additionally, Different levels (low, mild, moderate and severe levels of the information seeking anxiety construct were reported to have experienced by 96.5% of the postgraduate students at the sampled university.

  8. DNA-based Nanoconstructs for the Detection of Ions and Biomolecules with Related Raman/SERS Signature Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenneman, Kimber L.

    The utilization of DNA aptamers and semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) for the detection of ions and biomolecules was investigated. In recent years, there have been many studies based on the use of DNA and RNA aptamers, which are single stranded oligonucleotides capable of binding to biomolecules, other molecules, and ions. In many of these cases, the conformational changes of these DNA and RNA aptamers are suitable to use fluorescence resonant energy transfer (FRET) or nanometal surface energy transfer (NSET) techniques to detect such analytes. Coupled with this growth in such uses of aptamers, there has been an expanded use of semiconductor quantum dots as brighter, longer-lasting alternatives to fluorescent dyes in labeling and detection techniques of interest in biomedicine and environmental monitoring. Thrombin binding aptamer (TBA) and a zinc aptamer were used to detect mercury, lead, zinc, and cadmium. These probes were tested in a liquid assay as well as on a filter paper coupon. Biomolecules were also studied and detected using surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS), including DNA aptamers and C-reactive protein (CRP). Raman spectroscopy is a useful tool for sensor development, label-free detection, and has the potential for remote sensing. Raman spectra provide information on the vibrational modes or phonons, between and within molecules. Therefore, unique spectral fingerprints for single molecules can be obtained. SERS is accomplished through the use of substrates with nanometer scale geometries made of metals with many free electrons, such as silver, gold, or copper. In this research silver SERS substrates were used to study the SERS signature of biomolecules that typically produce very weak Raman signals.

  9. Fragmentation study of isolated and nanosolvated biomolecules induced by collision with multiply charged ions and neutral particles

    OpenAIRE

    Bernigaud, Virgile

    2009-01-01

    This thesis concerns a gas phase study of the fragmentation of biomolecular systems induced by slow collisions with multiply charged ions (in the keV-region), alkali atoms and rare gases. The main objective was to study the physical processes involved in the dissociation of highly electronically excited systems. In order to elucidate the intrinsic properties of certain biomolecules (porphyrins and amino acids) we have performed experiments in the gas phase with isolated systems. The obtained ...

  10. Rehabilitation of cancer patients.

    OpenAIRE

    Pandey M; Thomas B

    2001-01-01

    With the developments in cancer treatment, more and more patients are surviving their disease. However, very little emphasis is being placed to rehabilitate these cancer survivors. Ignorance, social structure, stigma attached in seeking psychological help, and poor communication skills of oncology staff all contribute to poor rehabilitative efforts. The priority of governmental agencies and health efforts to fight rampant communicable diseases, malnutrition, maternal health, and the frequent ...

  11. Different Types of Sensation Seeking: A Person-Oriented Approach in Sensation-Seeking Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suranyi, Zsuzsanna; Hitchcock, David B.; Hittner, James B.; Vargha, Andras; Urban, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Previous research on sensation seeking (SS) was dominated by a variable-oriented approach indicating that SS level has a linear relation with a host of problem behaviors. Our aim was to provide a person-oriented methodology--a probabilistic clustering--that enables examination of both inter- and intra-individual differences in not only the level,…

  12. Seeking Safety and Empathy: Adolescent Health Seeking Behavior during Pregnancy and Early Motherhood in Central Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atuyambe, Lynn; Mirembe, Florence; Annika, Johansson; Kirumira, Edward K.; Faxelid, Elisabeth

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To explore adolescent health seeking behavior during pregnancy and early motherhood in order to contribute to health policy formulation and improved access to health care. This will in long-term have an impact on the reduction of morbidity and mortality among adolescent mothers and their newborns. Methods: This was a qualitative study…

  13. On Macroscopic Quantum Phenomena in Biomolecules and Cells: From Levinthal to Hopfield

    OpenAIRE

    Dejan Raković; Miroljub Dugić; Jasmina Jeknić-Dugić; Milenko Plavšić; Stevo Jaćimovski; Jovan Šetrajčić

    2014-01-01

    In the context of the macroscopic quantum phenomena of the second kind, we hereby seek for a solution-in-principle of the long standing problem of the polymer folding, which was considered by Levinthal as (semi)classically intractable. To illuminate it, we applied quantum-chemical and quantum decoherence approaches to conformational transitions. Our analyses imply the existence of novel macroscopic quantum biomolecular phenomena, with biomolecular chain folding in an open environment consider...

  14. Redox Reactivity of Cerium Oxide Nanoparticles Induces the Formation of Disulfide Bridges in Thiol-Containing Biomolecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rollin-Genetet, Françoise; Seidel, Caroline; Artells, Ester; Auffan, Mélanie; Thiéry, Alain; Vidaud, Claude

    2015-12-21

    The redox state of disulfide bonds is implicated in many redox control systems, such as the cysteine-cystine couple. Among proteins, ubiquitous cysteine-rich metallothioneins possess thiolate metal binding groups susceptible to metal exchange in detoxification processes. CeO2 NPs are commonly used in various industrial applications due to their redox properties. These redox properties that enable dual oxidation states (Ce(IV)/Ce(III)) to exist at their surface may act as oxidants for biomolecules. The interaction among metallothioneins, cysteine, and CeO2 NPs was investigated through various biophysical approaches to shed light on the potential effects of the Ce(4+)/Ce(3+) redox system on the thiol groups of these biomolecules. The possible reaction mechanisms include the formation of a disulfide bridge/Ce(III) complex resulting from the interaction between Ce(IV) and the thiol groups, leading to metal unloading from the MTs, depending on their metal content and cluster type. The formation of stable Ce(3+) disulfide complexes has been demonstrated via their fluorescence properties. This work provides the first evidence of thiol concentration-dependent catalytic oxidation mechanisms between pristine CeO2 NPs and thiol-containing biomolecules. PMID:26566067

  15. Nanorods of a new metal-biomolecule coordination polymer showing novel bidirectional electrocatalytic activity and excellent performance in electrochemical sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jiao; Zhou, Bo; Yao, Jie; Jiang, Xiao-Qing

    2015-05-15

    Metal organic coordination polymers (CPs), as most attractive multifunctional materials, have been studied extensively in many fields. However, metal-biomolecule CPs and CPs' electrochemical properties and applications were studied much less. We focus on this topic aiming at electrochemical biosensors with excellent performance and high biocompatibility. A new nanoscaled metal-biomolecule CP, Mn-tyr, containing manganese and tyrosine, was synthesized hydrothermally and characterized by various techniques, including XRD, TEM, EDS, EDX mapping, elemental analysis, XPS, and IR. Electrode modified with Mn-tyr showed novel bidirectional electrocatalytic ability toward both reduction and oxidation of H2O2, which might be due to Mn. With the assistance of CNTs, the sensing performance of Mn-tyr/CNTs/GCE was improved to a much higher level, with high sensitivity of 543 mA mol(-1) L cm(-2) in linear range of 1.00×10(-6)-1.02×10(-4) mol L(-1), and detection limit of 3.8×10(-7) mol L(-1). Mn-tyr/CNTs/GCE also showed fast response, high selectivity, high steadiness and reproducibility. The excellent performance implies that the metal-biomolecule CPs are promising candidates for using in enzyme-free electrochemical biosensing. PMID:25037318

  16. Sensitivity improvement of an electrical sensor achieved by control of biomolecules based on the negative dielectrophoretic force.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hye Jin; Kim, Jinsik; Yoo, Yong Kyoung; Lee, Jeong Hoon; Park, Jung Ho; Hwang, Kyo Seon

    2016-11-15

    Effective control of nano-scale biomolecules can enhance the sensitivity and limit of detection of an interdigitated microelectrode (IME) sensor. Manipulation of the biomolecules by dielectrophoresis (DEP), especially the negative DEP (nDEP) force, so that they are trapped between electrodes (sensing regions) was predicted to increase the binding efficiency of the antibody and target molecules, leading to a more effective reaction. To prove this concept, amyloid beta 42 (Aβ42) and prostate specific antigen (PSA) protein were respectively trapped between the sensing region owing to the nDEP force under 5V and 0.05V, which was verified with COMSOL simulation. Using the simulation value, the resistance change (ΔR/Rb) of the IME sensor from the specific antibody-antigen reaction of the two biomolecules and the change in fluorescence intensity were compared in the reference (pDEP) and nDEP conditions. The ΔR/Rb value improved by about 2-fold and 1.66-fold with nDEP compared to the reference condition with various protein concentrations, and these increases were confirmed with fluorescence imaging. Overall, nDEP enhanced the detection sensitivity for Aβ42 and PSA by 128% and 258%, respectively, and the limit of detection improved by up to 2-orders of magnitude. These results prove that DEP can improve the biosensor's performance. PMID:27449966

  17. A Ruthenium(II) Complex Supported by Trithiacyclononane and Aromatic Diimine Ligand as Luminescent Switch-On Probe for Biomolecule Detection and Protein Staining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Chun-Yuen; Chung, Lai-Hon; Lin, Sheng; Chan, Daniel Shiu-Hin; Ma, Dik-Lung

    2014-01-01

    A new ruthenium(II) complex has been developed for detection of biomolecules. This complex is highly selective for histidine over other amino acids and has been applied to protein staining in an SDS-PAGE gel. PMID:25409703

  18. Theoretical foundation and experimental proof of the accumulating transfer of tritium from water into DNA and other biomolecules in vitro and in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Theoretical foundation and experimental proof of the accumulating transfer of tritium from water into DNA and other biomolecules were presented using the data of experiments on fish sperm DNA and piglet's liver (in vitro tests) and maize and barley (in vivo tests). Heisenberg's uncertainty principle, which describes a fundamental property of matter, predicts the light hydrogen isotope to prefer strong hydrogen bridge positions (with large local uncertainty). In contrast, the heavy hydrogen isotope tritium originally localized in water, should finally be found in the exchangeable hydrogen bridge positions of proteins, carbohydrates and nucleotides which are definitely less strong than those of water. Fractionation factor of tritium and protonium measured between water and DNA as well as the mixture of biomolecules of liver confirm this conclusion and show tritium accumulation biomolecules. Furthermore, the elevated rate of natural increase in tritium concentration in tissue solids of growing maize and barley confirm the accumulating tritium transfer from water to biomolecules taking place in vivo

  19. A Ruthenium(II) Complex Supported by Trithiacyclononane and Aromatic Diimine Ligand as Luminescent Switch-On Probe for Biomolecule Detection and Protein Staining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Chun-Yuen; Chung, Lai-Hon; Lin, Sheng; Chan, Daniel Shiu-Hin; Leung, Chung-Hang; Ma, Dik-Lung

    2014-11-01

    A new ruthenium(II) complex has been developed for detection of biomolecules. This complex is highly selective for histidine over other amino acids and has been applied to protein staining in an SDS-PAGE gel.

  20. The information-seeking practices of engineers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertzum, M.; Pejtersen, A. M.

    2000-01-01

    engineers search for documents to find people, search for people to get documents, and interact socially to get information without engaging in explicit searches, This intricate interplay between document and people sources can be explained by the nature of the design task, Many possible solutions are......Engineers get most of their information from colleagues and internal reports. This study investigates how engineers' information-seeking practices intertwine looking for informing documents with looking for informed people. Based on case studies in two product-development organisations we find that......-established field, this study concludes by briefly outlining how computer systems could support searches for people. Given the immense practical importance of searches for people there seems to be a large need for such systems and, consequently, for addressing the open research questions involved in designing them...

  1. Russian oil workers seek employment abroad

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports that American oil workers discouraged by bleak employment opportunities in the U.S. petroleum industry face increasing competition abroad from Russians seeking a living wage. Moscow's Zagrantrud (Foreign Labor) firm believes millions of Russian skilled and unskilled workers in many occupations will try to find jobs in other countries. The Russian enterprise says it is selecting a group of construction workers to build a refinery in Columbia. Kuwait also wants Russian construction personnel. Russia is especially eager to find overseas work for petroleum industry workers who have lost their jobs in Viet Nam and Cuba. The number of specialists from the former U.S.S.R. in Cuba, many of them engaged in oil exploration and production or pipeline and refinery construction, has fallen from several thousand 2 years ago to 250 at present as Moscow's relations with Havana cooled

  2. Seeking for Simplicity in Complex Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Costa, L F

    2007-01-01

    Complex networks can be understood as graphs whose connectivity deviates from those of regular or near-regular graphs (which can be understood as `simple'). While a great deal of the attention so far foressen for complex networks has been duly driven by the above principle, in this work we take the dual approach and address the identification of simplicity, in the sense of regularity, in complex networks. The basic idea is to seek for subgraphs exhibiting small dispersion (e.g. standard deviation or entropy) of local measurements such as the node degree and clustering coefficient. Here we consider two types of subgraphs: (a) those defined by the progressive neighborhoods around each node and (b) subgraphs obtained from sets of nodes presenting similar local measurements. The former approach allows the assignment of a hierarchical regularity index to all network nodes, the latter paves the way for the identification of subgraphs (patches) in the original network, with nearly uniform connectivity. We illustrate...

  3. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... before cancer How you respond to treatment Seeking Information About Your Prognosis Is a Personal Decision When ... Twitter Instagram YouTube Google+ LinkedIn GovDelivery RSS CONTACT INFORMATION Contact Us LiveHelp Online Chat MORE INFORMATION About ...

  4. Irish women who seek abortions in England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francome, C

    1992-01-01

    In 1991, 4158 women from Ireland and 1766 from Northern Ireland traveled to England for abortions. This situation has been ignored by Irish authorities. The 1992 case of the 14-year old seeking an abortion in England finally caught legal attention. This study attempts to help define who these abortion seekers are. Questionnaires from 200 Irish abortion seeking women attending private Marie Stopes clinics in London and the British Pregnancy Advisory Services clinic in Liverpool between September 1988 and December 1990 were analyzed. Findings pertain to demographic characteristics, characteristics of first intercourse, family discussion of sexual activity, and contraceptive use. From this limited sample, it appears that Irish women are sexually reserved and without access to modern methods of birth control and abortion. Sex is associated with shame and guilt. 23% had intercourse before the age of 18 years and 42% after the age of 20. 76% were single and 16% were currently married. 95% were Catholic; 33% had been to church the preceding Sunday and 68% within the past month. Basic information about menstruation is also limited and procedures such as dilatation and curettage may be performed selectively. 28% of married women were uninformed about menstruation prior to its onset. Only 24% had been using birth control around the time of pregnancy. The reason for nonuse was frequently the unexpectedness of intercourse. 62% of adults and 66% of women believe in legalizing abortion in Ireland. British groups have tried to break through the abortion information ban by sending telephone numbers of abortion clinics to Irish firms for distribution to employees. On November 25, 1992, in the general election, there was approval of constitutional amendments guaranteeing the right to travel for abortions and to receive information on abortion access. The amendment to allow abortion to save the life of the mother was not accepted. PMID:1483530

  5. Submicron-resolution photoacoustic microscopy of endogenous light-absorbing biomolecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chi

    Photoacoustic imaging in biomedicine has the unique advantage of probing endogenous light absorbers at various length scales with a 100% relative sensitivity. Among the several modalities of photoacoustic imaging, optical-resolution photoacoustic microscopy (OR-PAM) can achieve high spatial resolution, on the order of optical wavelength, at high spatial resolution in 3D. The lateral resolution was improved by using optical objectives with high numerical apertures for optical focusing. The axial resolution was improved by using broadband ultrasonic transducers for ultrasound detection. We achieved 220 nm lateral resolution in transmission mode, 0.43 microm lateral resolution in reflection mode, 7.6 microm axial resolution in normal tissue, and 5.8 microm axial resolution with silicone oil immersion/injection. The achieved lateral resolution and axial resolution were the finest reported at the time. With high-resolution in 3D, PAM was demonstrated to resolve cellular and subcellular structures in vivo, such as red blood cells and melanosomes in melanoma cells. Compared with previous PAM systems, our high-resolution PAM could resolve capillaries in mouse ears more clearly. As an example application, we demonstrated intracellular temperature imaging, assisted by fluorescence signal detection, with sub-degree temperature resolution and sub-micron lateral resolution. The second part of this dissertation describes the exploration of endogenous light-absorbing biomolecules for PAM. We demonstrated cytochromes and myoglobin as new absorption contrasts for PAM and identified the corresponding optimal wavelengths for imaging. Fixed fibroblasts on slides and mouse ear sections were imaged by PAM at 422 nm and 250 nm wavelengths to reveal cytoplasms and nuclei, respectively, as confirmed by standard hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) histology. By imaging a blood-perfused mouse heart at 532 nm down to 150 microm in depth, we derived the myocardial sheet thickness and the cleavage

  6. Development of methods for the purification of 67Ga and 68Ga for biomolecules labeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For more than fifty years, the long-lived 68Ge/68Ga generators have been in development, obtaining 68Ga without the need of having in house cyclotron, which is a considerable convenience for PET centers that have no nearby cyclotrons. 68Ga decays 89% by positron emission and low photon emission (1077 keV) and the physical half life of 67.7 minutes is compatible with the pharmacokinetics of low biomolecular weight substances like peptides and antibody fragments. Moreover, its established metallic chemistry allows it to be stably bound to the carrier peptide sequence via a suitable bifunctional chelator, such as DOTA. All these reasons together with the technology of PET/CT allowed advances in molecular imaging, in particular in the diagnosis of neuroendocrine diseases. However, the eluate from the commercial 68Ge/68Ga generators still contains high levels of long lived 68Ge, besides other metallic impurities, which competes with 68Ga with a consequent reduction of the labeling yield of biomolecules, such as Fe3+ and Zn2+. Thus, the lower the amount of impurities in the eluate, the competition between the radiolabeled and unlabeled peptide by the receptor will be smaller and the quality of imaging will be better, a subsequent purification step is needed after the generator elution. The aim of this work is to evaluate different purifications methods of 68Ga to label biomolecules, with emphasis on the study of the chemical impurities contained in the eluate and to develop a new purification method. Several purification methods were studied. Many cationic resin were tested simulating the commercial process. 68Ga is adsorbed in cationic resin, which is not commercial available and eluted in acid/acetone solution. The use of minor particles of cationic resin AG50W-X4 (200-400 mesh) showed the best results. An innovate method was the extraction chromatography, which is based on the absorption of diisopropyl ether in XAD 16 and 68Ga recovery in deionized water. Although the

  7. High-Precision Dispensing of Nanoliter Biofluids on Glass Pedestal Arrays for Ultrasensitive Biomolecule Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiaoxiao; Liu, Yang; Xu, QianFeng; Zhu, Jing; Poget, Sébastien F; Lyons, Alan M

    2016-05-01

    Precise dispensing of nanoliter droplets is necessary for the development of sensitive and accurate assays, especially when the availability of the source solution is limited. Conventional approaches are limited by imprecise positioning, large shear forces, surface tension effects, and high costs. To address the need for precise and economical dispensing of nanoliter volumes, we developed a new approach where the dispensed volume is dependent on the size and shape of defined surface features, thus freeing the dispensing process from pumps and fine-gauge needles requiring accurate positioning. The surface we fabricated, called a nanoliter droplet virtual well microplate (nVWP), achieves high-precision dispensing (better than ±0.5 nL or ±1.6% at 32 nL) of 20-40 nL droplets using a small source drop (3-10 μL) on isolated hydrophilic glass pedestals (500 μm on a side) bonded to arrays of polydimethylsiloxane conical posts. The sharp 90° edge of the glass pedestal pins the solid-liquid-vapor triple contact line (TCL), averting the wetting of the glass sidewalls while the fluid is prevented from receding from the edge. This edge creates a sufficiently large energy barrier such that microliter water droplets can be poised on the glass pedestals, exhibiting contact angles greater >150°. This approach relieves the stringent mechanical alignment tolerances required for conventional dispensing techniques, shifting the control of dispensed volume to the area circumscribed by the glass edge. The effects of glass surface chemistry and dispense velocity on droplet volume were studied using optical microscopy and high-speed video. Functionalization of the glass pedestal surface enabled the selective adsorption of specific peptides and proteins from synthetic and natural biomolecule mixtures, such as venom. We further demonstrate how the nVWP dispensing platform can be used for a variety of assays, including sensitive detection of proteins and peptides by fluorescence

  8. Heavy metal induced biomolecule and genotoxic changes in earthworm Eisenia fetida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Muthukaruppan

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A vibrational [Fourier transform infrared (FTIR] spectroscopic method was used for the structural and compositional analysis of earthworm Eisenia fetida by monitoring of metal binding and further transformations in live cells. The FTIR analyses for metals taken up by the E. fetida will be useful for analyzing the impact of the heavy metal stress on the worm metabolism. The epigeic earthworm E. fetida were exposed to 100 %, 75 %, 50 %, 30 %, 25 %, 15 % and 5 % of dried automobile service station waste mud. All the earthworms exposed in the 100 %, 75 % and 50 % concentrations didn’t survived within 10days. Further experiments were conducted with 25 %, 15 % and 5 % concentration of wastes. Each concentration level was tested with three replicates using 10 animals and the metabolic response after exposure to the heavy metal containing service station waste mud was assessed by FTIR. Furthermore we also emphasized that DNA damage was confirmed with the use of other biomarker like comet assay. The peaks at 1045, 1080, 1236 cm−1 and 1650 cm−1 represented the overall susceptibility of nucleotides, phospholipids, DNA and RNA. Nucleic acids and proteins were modified due to heavy metal accumulation. In flow-through, single cell gel electrophoresis revealed the degradation nuclear DNA. Heavy metals accumulation in the worms was measured and it was found that lead, zinc and copper accumulation increased in the treatment group. Without the use of biomarkers for identifying ecological risks of land contamination, traditional assessment would be difficult to interpret. This new FTIR based biomolecules study revealed a clear molecule shift in the exposed worms, due to heavy metal accumulation.

  9. Cytoplasmic electric fields and electroosmosis: possible solution for the paradoxes of the intracellular transport of biomolecules.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor P Andreev

    Full Text Available The objective of the paper is to show that electroosmotic flow might play an important role in the intracellular transport of biomolecules. The paper presents two mathematical models describing the role of electroosmosis in the transport of the negatively charged messenger proteins to the negatively charged nucleus and in the recovery of the fluorescence after photobleaching. The parameters of the models were derived from the extensive review of the literature data. Computer simulations were performed within the COMSOL 4.2a software environment. The first model demonstrated that the presence of electroosmosis might intensify the flux of messenger proteins to the nucleus and allow the efficient transport of the negatively charged phosphorylated messenger proteins against the electrostatic repulsion of the negatively charged nucleus. The second model revealed that the presence of the electroosmotic flow made the time of fluorescence recovery dependent on the position of the bleaching spot relative to cellular membrane. The magnitude of the electroosmotic flow effect was shown to be quite substantial, i.e. increasing the flux of the messengers onto the nucleus up to 4-fold relative to pure diffusion and resulting in the up to 3-fold change in the values of fluorescence recovery time, and therefore the apparent diffusion coefficient determined from the fluorescence recovery after photobleaching experiments. Based on the results of the modeling and on the universal nature of the electroosmotic flow, the potential wider implications of electroosmotic flow in the intracellular and extracellular biological processes are discussed. Both models are available for download at ModelDB.

  10. Modelling of diffraction grating based optical filters for fluorescence detection of biomolecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovačič, M; Krč, J; Lipovšek, B; Topič, M

    2014-07-01

    The detection of biomolecules based on fluorescence measurements is a powerful diagnostic tool for the acquisition of genetic, proteomic and cellular information. One key performance limiting factor remains the integrated optical filter, which is designed to reject strong excitation light while transmitting weak emission (fluorescent) light to the photodetector. Conventional filters have several disadvantages. For instance absorbing filters, like those made from amorphous silicon carbide, exhibit low rejection ratios, especially in the case of small Stokes' shift fluorophores (e.g. green fluorescent protein GFP with λ exc = 480 nm and λ em = 510 nm), whereas interference filters comprising many layers require complex fabrication. This paper describes an alternative solution based on dielectric diffraction gratings. These filters are not only highly efficient but require a smaller number of manufacturing steps. Using FEM-based optical modelling as a design optimization tool, three filtering concepts are explored: (i) a diffraction grating fabricated on the surface of an absorbing filter, (ii) a diffraction grating embedded in a host material with a low refractive index, and (iii) a combination of an embedded grating and an absorbing filter. Both concepts involving an embedded grating show high rejection ratios (over 100,000) for the case of GFP, but also high sensitivity to manufacturing errors and variations in the incident angle of the excitation light. Despite this, simulations show that a 60 times improvement in the rejection ratio relative to a conventional flat absorbing filter can be obtained using an optimized embedded diffraction grating fabricated on top of an absorbing filter. PMID:25071964

  11. Sensation seeking predicting growth in adolescent problem behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byck, Gayle R; Swann, Gregory; Schalet, Benjamin; Bolland, John; Mustanski, Brian

    2015-06-01

    There is limited literature on the relationship between sensation seeking and adolescent risk behaviors, particularly among African Americans. We tested the association between psychometrically-derived subscales of the Zuckerman Sensation Seeking Scale and the intercepts and slopes of individual growth curves of conduct problems, sexual risk taking, and substance use from ages 13 to 18 years by sex. Boys and girls had different associations between sensation seeking and baseline levels and growth of risk behaviors. The Pleasure Seeking scale was associated with baseline levels of conduct problems in boys and girls, baseline substance use in boys, and growth in sexual risk taking and substance use by girls. Girls had the same pattern of associations with the Danger/Novelty scale as the Pleasure Seeking scale. Knowledge about the relationships between adolescent risk taking and sensation seeking can help in the targeted design of prevention and intervention programs for the understudied population of very low-income, African American adolescents. PMID:25112599

  12. Graphene: The Missing Piece for Cancer Diagnosis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Sandra M A; Girão, André F; Gonçalves, Gil; Marques, Paula A A P

    2016-01-01

    This paper reviews recent advances in graphene-based biosensors development in order to obtain smaller and more portable devices with better performance for earlier cancer detection. In fact, the potential of Graphene for sensitive detection and chemical/biological free-label applications results from its exceptional physicochemical properties such as high electrical and thermal conductivity, aspect-ratio, optical transparency and remarkable mechanical and chemical stability. Herein we start by providing a general overview of the types of graphene and its derivatives, briefly describing the synthesis procedure and main properties. It follows the reference to different routes to engineer the graphene surface for sensing applications with organic biomolecules and nanoparticles for the development of advanced biosensing platforms able to detect/quantify the characteristic cancer biomolecules in biological fluids or overexpressed on cancerous cells surface with elevated sensitivity, selectivity and stability. We then describe the application of graphene in optical imaging methods such as photoluminescence and Raman imaging, electrochemical sensors for enzymatic biosensing, DNA sensing, and immunosensing. The bioquantification of cancer biomarkers and cells is finally discussed, particularly electrochemical methods such as voltammetry and amperometry which are generally adopted transducing techniques for the development of graphene based sensors for biosensing due to their simplicity, high sensitivity and low-cost. To close, we discuss the major challenges that graphene based biosensors must overcome in order to reach the necessary standards for the early detection of cancer biomarkers by providing reliable information about the patient disease stage. PMID:26805845

  13. Graphene: The Missing Piece for Cancer Diagnosis?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra M. A. Cruz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews recent advances in graphene-based biosensors development in order to obtain smaller and more portable devices with better performance for earlier cancer detection. In fact, the potential of Graphene for sensitive detection and chemical/biological free-label applications results from its exceptional physicochemical properties such as high electrical and thermal conductivity, aspect-ratio, optical transparency and remarkable mechanical and chemical stability. Herein we start by providing a general overview of the types of graphene and its derivatives, briefly describing the synthesis procedure and main properties. It follows the reference to different routes to engineer the graphene surface for sensing applications with organic biomolecules and nanoparticles for the development of advanced biosensing platforms able to detect/quantify the characteristic cancer biomolecules in biological fluids or overexpressed on cancerous cells surface with elevated sensitivity, selectivity and stability. We then describe the application of graphene in optical imaging methods such as photoluminescence and Raman imaging, electrochemical sensors for enzymatic biosensing, DNA sensing, and immunosensing. The bioquantification of cancer biomarkers and cells is finally discussed, particularly electrochemical methods such as voltammetry and amperometry which are generally adopted transducing techniques for the development of graphene based sensors for biosensing due to their simplicity, high sensitivity and low-cost. To close, we discuss the major challenges that graphene based biosensors must overcome in order to reach the necessary standards for the early detection of cancer biomarkers by providing reliable information about the patient disease stage.

  14. Operant sensation seeking engages similar neural substrates to operant drug seeking in C57 mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Christopher M; Winder, Danny G

    2009-06-01

    Novelty and sensation seeking have been associated with elevated drug intake in human and animal studies, suggesting overlap in the circuitry mediating these behaviors. In this study, we found that C57Bl/6J mice readily acquired operant responding for dynamic visual stimuli, a phenomenon we term operant sensation seeking (OSS). Like operant studies using other reinforcers, mice responded on fixed and progressive ratio schedules, were resistant to extinction, and had sustained responding with extended access. We also found that OSS, like psychostimulant self-administration, is sensitive to disruption of dopamine signaling. Low doses of the dopamine antagonist cis-flupenthixol increased active lever responding, an effect reported for psychostimulant self-administration. Additionally, D1-deficient mice failed to acquire OSS, although they readily acquired lever pressing for food. Finally, we found that one common measure of novelty seeking, locomotor activity in a novel open field, did not predict OSS performance. OSS may have predictive validity for screening compounds for use in the treatment of drug addiction. In addition, we also discuss the potential relevance of this animal model to the field of behavioral addictions. PMID:19145223

  15. Foreign Entry Modes Under Institutional Pressures: The Impact of Strategic Resource Seeking and Market Seeking Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Portugal Ferreira

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-8069.2008v10n22p11Multinational corporations (MNCs are subject to the various dimensions of the external institutional environments. Institutional theory suggests that MNCs need to conform to the prevailing rules, norms and procedures of the locations where they operate in order to survive and grow. This means that MNCs need to develop the best possible configuration of strategy-structure for their worldwide operations. Previous research has noted that in these conditions firms may simply seek to follow a referent other. However, MNCs’ specific strategy for a focal foreign operation is likely to determine the entry mode for each host country. In certain circumstances it may be whether MNCs are pursuing a market-seeking strategy or a strategic resource seeking strategy that shapes the entry mode in face of the prevailing institutional pressures. We contribute to the understanding of entry modes into foreign markets as a reflection of a strategic choice that is bound by institutional constraints.

  16. Using online media to encourage help-seeking for depression

    OpenAIRE

    Hui, Kar-yan, Alison; 許家欣

    2013-01-01

    Clinical depression has been prevalent in international health statistics but people are often found to be reluctant to seek help when they encounter depression. This thesis built and evaluated a mental health promotion campaign to encourage help-seeking through first forming a behavioral model to conceptualize the interplays of various factors in shaping one’s help-seeking intention and behavior for depression in Hong Kong. The thesis began with in-depth illness narrative qualitative in...

  17. Sex differences in sensation-seeking: a meta-analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Cross, Catharine Penelope; Cyrenne, De-Laine McGowan; Brown, Gillian Ruth

    2013-01-01

    Men score higher than women on measures of sensation-seeking, defined as a willingness to engage in novel or intense activities. This sex difference has been explained in terms of evolved psychological mechanisms or culturally transmitted social norms. We investigated whether sex differences in sensation-seeking have changed over recent years by conducting a meta-analysis of studies using Zuckerman's Sensation Seeking Scale, version V (SSS-V). We found that sex differences in total SSS-V scor...

  18. Predicting sensation seeking from dopamine genes: A candidate system approach

    OpenAIRE

    Derringer, Jaime; Robert F Krueger; Dick, Danielle M; Saccone, Scott; Grucza, Richard A.; Agrawal, Arpana; Lin, Peng; Almasy, Laura; Edenberg, Howard J.; Foroud, Tatiana; Nurnberger, John I.; Hesselbrock, Victor M.; Kramer, John R.; Kuperman, Samuel; Porjesz, Bernice

    2010-01-01

    Sensation seeking is a heritable personality trait that has been reliably linked to behavior disorders. The dopamine system has been hypothesized to contribute to individual differences in sensation seeking, and both experimental and observational studies in humans and non-human animals provide evidence for this relationship. We present here a candidate-system approach to genetic association analysis of sensation seeking, in which single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from a number of dopami...

  19. Sensation seeking, social attitudes and humor appreciation in Italy

    OpenAIRE

    Forabosco, Giovannantonio; Ruch, Willibald

    1994-01-01

    The present study examines the role of sensation seeking, conservatism, toughmindedness, sex, and age in appreciation of humor in Italian adults. A sample of 100 females and 48 males responded to Italian adaptations of the 3 WD humor test, Form V of the sensation seeking scale, and the C-Scale. Funniness of incongruity-resolution humor correlated positively with conservatism, female sex, and age, and negatively with all components of sensation seeking. Funniness of nonsense humor correlated p...

  20. Children's Attentional Processing of Mother and Proximity Seeking

    OpenAIRE

    Bosmans, Guy; Braet, Caroline; Heylen, Joke; De Raedt, Rudi

    2015-01-01

    Attachment expectations regarding the availability of mother as a source for support are supposed to influence distressed children’s support seeking behavior. Because research is needed to better understand the mechanisms related to support seeking behavior, this study tested the hypothesis that the cognitive processing of mother-related information is linked to proximity and support seeking behavior. Uncertainty in maternal support has been shown to be characterized by a biased attentional e...

  1. Brain mechanisms underlying sensation-seeking in humans

    OpenAIRE

    Norbury, A. E.

    2015-01-01

    Sensation-seeking is a personality trait concerned with motivation for intense and unusual sensory experiences, that has been identified as risk factor for a variety of psychopathologies with high social cost; in particular gambling and substance addictions. It has previously proved difficult to tease out neural mechanisms underlying sensation-seeking in humans, due to a lack of cognitive-behavioural paradigms probing sensation-seeking-like behaviour in the lab. The first aim of this thesis w...

  2. Price Competition in Markets with Consumer Variety Seeking

    OpenAIRE

    P. B. Seetharaman; Hai Che

    2009-01-01

    We investigate price competition between firms in markets characterized by consumer variety seeking. While previous research has addressed the effect of consumer inertia on prices, there exists no research on the effects of variety seeking on price competition. Our study fills this gap in the literature. Using a two-period duopoly framework as in Klemperer's analysis of inertial markets, we show that the noncooperative pricing equilibrium in a market with consumer variety seeking may be the s...

  3. Novelty seeking as a phenotypic marker of adolescent substance use

    OpenAIRE

    Cinnamon Bidwell, L; Knopik, Valerie S.; Janet Audrain-McGovern; Glynn, Tiffany R; Spillane, Nichea S.; Ray, Lara A.; Riggs, Nathaniel R.; Guillot, Casey R.; Pang, Raina D.; Leventhal, Adam M.

    2015-01-01

    © the authors, publisher and licensee Libertas Academica Limited. Trait novelty seeking has been consistently implicated in substance use, yet the origins and mechanisms of novelty seeking in substance use proneness are unclear. We aimed to characterize novelty seeking as a phenotypic marker of substance use proneness in adolescence, a critical period for drug use experimentation. To this end, we parsed novelty seeking’s two constituent subdimensions – exploratory excitability (drive for nove...

  4. Positioning and Pricing in a Variety Seeking Market

    OpenAIRE

    S. Sajeesh; Jagmohan S. Raju

    2010-01-01

    We study competitive positioning and pricing strategies in markets where consumers seek variety. Variety seeking behavior is modeled as a decrease in the willingness to pay for the product purchased on the previous purchase occasion. Using a three-stage Hotelling-type model, we show that the presence of variety seeking consumers reduces product differentiation offered in equilibrium, thereby explaining some otherwise counterintuitive findings in empirical research. We find that firms charge h...

  5. Loss Aversion and Rent-Seeking: An Experimental Study

    OpenAIRE

    Kong, Xiaojing

    2008-01-01

    We report an experiment designed to evaluate the impact of loss aversion on rent-seeking contests. We find, as theoretically predicted, a negative relationship between rent-seeking expenditures and loss aversion. However, for any degree of loss aversion, levels of rent-seeking expenditure are higher than predicted. Moreover, we find that the effect of loss aversion becomes weaker with repetition of the contest.

  6. A Theory of Rent Seeking with Informational Foundations

    OpenAIRE

    Lagerlöf, Johan

    2006-01-01

    I develop a model of rent seeking with informational foundations and an arbitrary number of rent seekers, and I compare the results with Tullock's (1980) classic model where the influence activities are "black-boxed." Given the microfoundations, the welfare consequences of rent seeking can be studied. In particular, I show that competition among rent seekers can be socially beneficial, since the additional information that the decision maker gets access to makes the increase in rent-seeking e...

  7. INCOME DISTRIBUTION AND RENT SEEKING COSTS: A NOTE

    OpenAIRE

    MARIA ALESSANDRA ANTONELLI

    2010-01-01

    This paper analyzes a rent seeking competition where risk neutral agents have a different income. The individual income is private information but the income distribution is common information. Like the Hillman and Samet (1987) model the individual outlays in rent seeking is equal to the expected rent, but the winning probability for each agent is a function of its income. As a consequence, the social costs of the rent seeking depend on the income distribution and they can be lesser than the ...

  8. Rent-seeking and quota regulation of a renewable resource

    OpenAIRE

    Bergland, Harald; Clark, Derek J.; Pedersen, Pål Andreas

    2001-01-01

    The paper deals with rent-seeking behaviour among agents competing for future shares of a common renewable natural resource. Rent-seeking might become profitable when the agents expect that the distribution of the natural resource in future periods will be dependent on the agents' extraction of the resource in the past, even though high exploitation might reduce the stock that future individual quotas will be based upon. Whether aggressive rent-seeking behaviour by one agent will encourage ot...

  9. Crowding-out in productive and redistributive rent-seeking

    OpenAIRE

    Dari-Mattiacci, G.; Langlais, E.; B. Lovat; Parisi, F.

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a general rent-seeking model in which participants decide on entry before choosing their levels of efforts. The conventional wisdom in the rent-seeking literature suggests that the rent dissipation increases with the number of potential participants and with their productivity of effort. In this paper, we show that this result of the rent-seeking literature is far from general and applies only when participants are relatively weak and enter the game with ...

  10. Information feedback and contest structure in rent-seeking games

    OpenAIRE

    Fallucchi, Francesco; Renner, Elke; Sefton, Martin

    2012-01-01

    We investigate the effects of information feedback in rent-seeking games with two different contest structures. In the deterministic contest a contestant receives a share of the rent equal to her share of rent-seeking expenditures, while in the stochastic contest a contestant wins the entire rent with probability equal to her share of rent-seeking expenditures. In deterministic contests average expenditures converge to equilibrium levels when subjects only get feedback about own earnings, and...

  11. Rent-Seeking or Wealth-Creating: What to Choose?

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    This thesis presents a quite extensive literature review on literature concerning entrepreneurship, allocation of talent and rent-seeking. There is also a presentation of two models, one model concerning the allocation of talent and rent seeking. The second, demonstrates how rent-seeking affects investments in an economy. In the empirical part of the thesis there is a re-estimation of the results found in Murphy, Shleifer and Vishny, The Allocation of Talent: Implications for Growth (1991...

  12. <> effects of rent seeking over tradable pollution permits

    OpenAIRE

    HANLEY, NICK; MacKenzie, Ian A.

    2009-01-01

    The establishment of a tradable permit market requires the regulator to select a level of aggregate emissions and then distribute the associated permits (rent) to specific groups. In most circumstances, these decisions are often politically contentious and frequently influenced by rent seeking behaviour. In this paper, we use a contest model to analyse the effects of rent seeking effort when permits are freely distributed (grandfathered). Rent seeking behaviour can influence both the share of...

  13. Rent Seeking and Democracy in Latin America: What Drives What?

    OpenAIRE

    Calderón, César; Chong, Alberto

    2006-01-01

    Drawing on previously unused objective institutional data, we provide evidence for the causal link between rent-seeking behavior and democracy in Uruguay, a country where both rent-seeking behavior and political shifts have varied widely in the last 80 years, but where ethnolinguistic heterogeneity and income inequality have remained historically low. The latter helps better identify some “pure” political interactions and how they are linked with rent-seeking outcomes. We find that the presen...

  14. INFORMATION SEEKING BEHAVIOUR OF STUDENTS IN THE INTERNET ERA

    OpenAIRE

    S. R. Girija

    2014-01-01

    Libraries develop their collections, facilities and services to meet the information needs of their patrons. However, in order to accomplish this task effectively, libraries must have a thorough understanding of the information needs and information seeking behavior of their users. This article examines the information - seeking behaviour of scholars in the Internet era. The articles focuses on how electronic information resources influence the information seeking process in s...

  15. Impulsivity and sensation seeking in alcohol abusing patients with schizophrenia

    OpenAIRE

    Alain Dervaux; Xavier Laqueille; Marie-Chantal Bourdel; Jean-Pierre Olié; Marie-Odile Krebs

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Some studies have found that high levels of impulsivity and sensation seeking, particularly disinhibition are associated with substance abuse in patients with schizophrenia, as in the general population. However, no study has assessed impulsivity and sensation seeking specifically in schizophrenia patients with alcohol abuse or dependence. Materials and methods: We compared impulsivity and sensation seeking in a group of schizophrenia patients (DSM-III-R criteria) with lifetime alc...

  16. Suicidal Feelings Interferes with Help-Seeking in Bullied Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Kitagawa, Yuko; Shimodera, Shinji; Togo, Fumiharu; Okazaki, Yuji; Nishida, Atsushi; Sasaki, Tsukasa

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Being bullied is associated with the manifestation of suicidal feelings, which sharply increase in middle(-late) adolescence. Whether or not bullied middle(-late) adolescents with suicidal feelings seek help is therefore a critical issue, given that help-seeking plays a key role in the prevention of suicide. The aim of the present study is to investigate the effects of bullying, suicidal feelings and the interaction between these two factors on help-seeking behavior in adolescents. Me...

  17. Ghrelin Influences Novelty Seeking Behavior in Rodents and Men

    OpenAIRE

    Hansson, Caroline; Shirazi, Rozita H.; Näslund, Jakob; Vogel, Heike; Neuber, Corinna; Holm, Göran; Anckarsäter, Henrik; Dickson, Suzanne L.; Eriksson, Elias; Skibicka, Karolina P.

    2012-01-01

    Recent discoveries indicate an important role for ghrelin in drug and alcohol reward and an ability of ghrelin to regulate mesolimbic dopamine activity. The role of dopamine in novelty seeking, and the association between this trait and drug and alcohol abuse, led us to hypothesize that ghrelin may influence novelty seeking behavior. To test this possibility we applied several complementary rodent models of novelty seeking behavior, i.e. inescapable novelty-induced locomotor activity (NILA), ...

  18. Help-Seeking Behavior during Elevated Temperature in Chinese Population

    OpenAIRE

    Chan, Emily Ying Yang; Goggins, William B.; Kim, Jacqueline Jakyoung; Griffiths, Sian; Ma, Timothy K. W.

    2011-01-01

    The negative impact of extreme temperatures on health is well-established. Individual help-seeking behavior, however, may mitigate the extent of morbidity and mortality during elevated temperatures. This study examines individual help-seeking behavior during periods of elevated temperatures among a Chinese population. Help-seeking patterns and factors that influence behavior will be identified so that vulnerable subgroups may be targeted for health protection during heat crises. A retrospecti...

  19. Young Adults Seeking Medical Care: Do Race and Ethnicity Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Reports from the National Medical Care Utilization and Expenditure Survey Clearinghouse on Health Indexes Statistical Notes for Health Planners ... Adults Seeking Medical Care: Do Race and Ethnicity ...

  20. Synthesis of mesoporous SiO2–ZnO nanocapsules: encapsulation of small biomolecules for drugs and “SiOZO-plex” for gene delivery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work presents a new synthesis of mesoporous SiO2–ZnO composite nanocapsules with sizes of 90–150 nm and represents their applications in encapsulation of small biomolecules (fluorescent molecules, drugs, and DNA) for uses in medical biotechnology (e.g., drug and gene delivery) for the first time. The nanocapsule size and morphology have been confirmed through the HRSEM and HRTEM. The mesoporous structure of the novel materials has been confirmed through both BET and HRTEM, and the pore diameter observed to be ca. 2–8 nm with an average diameter of 5.1 nm. The BET surface area of mesoporous SiO2–ZnO was found to be ∼230 m2 g−1. Three different types of pores were detected through HRTEM: type-I, normal pores in silica matrix, pore with ZnO nanoparticles at the boundary (type-II) and type-III, the pores with tiny ZnO nanoparticles (∼5–7 nm) inside them. To demonstrate the biocompatibility and cell viability of the nanocapsules, normal and cancerous lymphocyte cells have been chosen and investigated in a systematic way. Fluorescent dye (Rhodamine 6G), anticancer drug e.g., Doxorubicin (DOX) were loaded in all types of pores, and EtBr-labeled DNA molecules were loaded efficiently into the mesopores of second and third types of the composite nanocapsules to manifest the characteristic of mesoporous, and to find out its loading efficacy. The release kinetics of Rhodamine 6G and DOX were studied. The results highlight the potential of novel functional mesoporous SiO2–ZnO nanoparticles for using as the carrier of drugs and formation of “SiOZO-plex”, a complex of mesoporous SiO2–ZnO with DNA for gene delivery applications.Graphical Abstract