WorldWideScience

Sample records for cancer screening practices

  1. Oral cancer screening practices of oral health professionals in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariño, Rodrigo; Haresaku, Satoru; McGrath, Roisin; Bailey, Denise; Mccullough, Michael; Musolino, Ross; Kim, Boaz; Chinnassamy, Alagesan; Morgan, Michael

    2017-12-15

    To evaluate oral cancer-related screening practices of Oral Health Professionals (OHPs - dentists, dental hygienists, dental therapists, and oral health therapists) practising in Victoria, Australia. A 36-item survey was distributed to 3343 OHPs. Items included socio-demographic and work-related characteristics; self-assessed knowledge of oral cancer; perceived level of confidence in discussing oral health behaviors with patients; oral cancer screening practices; and self-evaluated need for additional training on screening procedures for oral cancer. A total of 380 OHPs responded this survey, achieving an overall response rate of 9.4%. Forty-five were excluded from further analysis. Of these 335 OHP, 72% were dentists; (n = 241); either GDP or Dental Specialists; 13.7% (n = 46) were dental hygienists; 12.2% (n = 41) were oral health therapists, and the remaining 2.1% (n = 7) were dental therapists. While the majority (95.2%) agreed that oral cancer screening should be routinely performed, in actual practice around half (51.4%) screened all their patients. Another 12.8% "Very rarely" conducted screening examinations. The probability of routinely conducting an oral cancer screening was explored utilising Logistic Regression Analysis. Four variables remained statistically significant (p oral cancer screening rose with increasing levels of OHPs' confidence in oral cancer-related knowledge (OR = 1.35; 95% CI: 1.09-1.67) and with higher levels of confidence in discussing oral hygiene practices with patients (OR = 1.25; 95% CI: 1.03-1.52). Results also showed that dental specialists were less likely to perform oral cancer screening examinations compared with other OHPs (OR = 0.18; 95% CI: 0.07-0.52) and the likelihood of performing an oral cancer screening decreased when the "patient complained of a problem" (OR = 0.21; 95% CI: 0.10-0.44). Only half the study sample performed oral cancer screening examinations for all of their patients

  2. Cervical cancer knowledge and screening practices among women ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Cervical cancer remains a major public health challenge in developing countries including Nigeria and contributes signi cantly as a major cause of death among women of reproductive age. This study was conducted to assess knowledge and cervical cancer screening practices among women of reproductive ...

  3. Environmental scan of anal cancer screening practices: worldwide survey results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patel, Jigisha; Salit, Irving E; Berry, Michael J; Pokomandy, Alexandra de; Nathan, Mayura; Fishman, Fred; Palefsky, Joel; Tinmouth, Jill

    2014-01-01

    Anal squamous cell carcinoma is rare in the general population but certain populations, such as persons with HIV, are at increased risk. High-risk populations can be screened for anal cancer using strategies similar to those used for cervical cancer. However, little is known about the use of such screening practices across jurisdictions. Data were collected using an online survey. Health care professionals currently providing anal cancer screening services were invited to complete the survey via email and/or fax. Information was collected on populations screened, services and treatments offered, and personnel. Over 300 invitations were sent; 82 providers from 80 clinics around the world completed the survey. Fourteen clinics have each examined more than 1000 patients. Over a third of clinics do not restrict access to screening; in the rest, eligibility is most commonly based on HIV status and abnormal anal cytology results. Fifty-three percent of clinics require abnormal anal cytology prior to performing high-resolution anoscopy (HRA) in asymptomatic patients. Almost all clinics offer both anal cytology and HRA. Internal high-grade anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN) is most often treated with infrared coagulation (61%), whereas external high-grade AIN is most commonly treated with imiquimod (49%). Most procedures are performed by physicians, followed by nurse practitioners. Our study is the first description of global anal cancer screening practices. Our findings may be used to inform practice and health policy in jurisdictions considering anal cancer screening

  4. Cancer Screening Practice among Iranian Middle-aged Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behnaz Enjezab

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background & aim: Breast, cervical, and colorectal cancers are the leading causes of mortality among women, the incidence rate of which has an upward trend with advancing age. Although cost-effective, easy, and available screening programs can help control these types of cancer in their early stages, it seems that cancer screening programs have not been implemented effectively. In this study, we investigated the rate of cancer screening practice in middle-aged women and explained the influential factors. Methods: This cross-sectional study with a sequential mixed method approach was conducted on 483 middle-age women selected through cluster random sampling in Yazd, Iran. Data were obtained by a research made questionnaire and analyzed with descriptive statistics and performing Pearson product-moment correlation, Student’s t-test, and One-way ANOVA tests, using SPSS version 16. In the second phase of the study, qualitative, semi-structured interviews were performed and data were analyzed through content analysis. Results: The majority of the subjects had never been screened for cancer through mammogram (87.7%, Pap test (64.2%, or fecal occult blood test (FOBT (89.8%. Educational level, employment status, perceived adequacy of income, perceived health status, and the number of children were significantly associated with breast and colon cancer screening practice. Qualitative data showed that lack of knowledge, the cost of screening exams, lack of financial independence, negligence of spouse, fear of cancer, embarrassment, and belief in destiny were the main reasons for non-adherence to cancer screening tests. In addition, knowledge and observing cancer in acquaintances and relatives were the main motivators of cancer screening. Conclusion: Middle-aged housewives, as well as women with low educational level and income were the most vulnerable groups, who did not adhere to cancer screening. Planning and management of cancer preventive programs and

  5. Primary care practice organization influences colorectal cancer screening performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yano, Elizabeth M; Soban, Lynn M; Parkerton, Patricia H; Etzioni, David A

    2007-06-01

    To identify primary care practice characteristics associated with colorectal cancer (CRC) screening performance, controlling for patient-level factors. Primary care director survey (1999-2000) of 155 VA primary care clinics linked with 38,818 eligible patients' sociodemographics, utilization, and CRC screening experience using centralized administrative and chart-review data (2001). Practices were characterized by degrees of centralization (e.g., authority over operations, staffing, outside-practice influence); resources (e.g., sufficiency of nonphysician staffing, space, clinical support arrangements); and complexity (e.g., facility size, academic status, managed care penetration), adjusting for patient-level covariates and contextual factors. Chart-based evidence of CRC screening through direct colonoscopy, sigmoidoscopy, or consecutive fecal occult blood tests, eliminating cases with documented histories of CRC, polyps, or inflammatory bowel disease. After adjusting for sociodemographic characteristics and health care utilization, patients were significantly more likely to be screened for CRC if their primary care practices had greater autonomy over the internal structure of care delivery (pmanagement and referral procedures are associated with significantly lower CRC screening performance. Competition with hospital resource demands may impinge on the degree of internal organization of their affiliated primary care practices.

  6. Cervical cancer screening and practice in low resource countries ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Key words: Cervical cancer screening; human papillomavirus, low resource countries; Nigeria; premalignant disease. ... has led to a significant decline in the incidence of cervical .... and malignant lesions as integration of the viral DNA into the.

  7. Breast cancer screening; cost-effective in practice?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koning, Harry J. de

    2000-01-01

    The main aim of national breast screening is a reduction in breast cancer mortality. The data on the reduction in breast cancer mortality from three (of the five) Swedish trials in particular gave rise to the expectation that the Dutch programme of 2-yearly screening for women aged 50-70 would produce a 16% reduction in the total population. In all likelihood, many of the years of life gained as a result of screening are enjoyed in good health. According to its critics the actual benefit that can be achieved from the national breast cancer screening programmes is overstated. Considerable benefits have recently been demonstrated in England and Wales. However, the fall was so considerable in such a relatively short space of time that screening (started in 1987) was thought to only have played a small part. As far as the Dutch screening programme is concerned it is still too early to reach any conclusions about a possible reduction in mortality. The first short-term results of the screening are favourable and as good as (or better than) expectations. In Swedish regions where mammographic screening was introduced, a 19% reduction in breast cancer mortality can be estimated at population level, and recently a 20% reduction was presented in the UK. In countries where women are expected to make appointments for screening themselves, the attendance figures are significantly lower and the quality of the process as a whole is sometimes poorer. The benefits of breast cancer screening need to be carefully balanced against the burden to women and to the health care system. Mass breast screening requires many resources and will be a costly service. Cost-effectiveness of a breast cancer screening programme can be estimated using a computer model. Published cost-effectiveness ratios may differ tremendously, but are often the result of different types of calculation, time periods considered, including or excluding downstream cost. The approach of simulation and estimation is here

  8. Women's knowledge, attitudes and practice about breast cancer screening in the region of Monastir (Tunisia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Mhamdi, Sana; Bouanene, Ines; Mhirsi, Amel; Sriha, Asma; Ben Salem, Kamel; Soltani, Mohamed Soussi

    2013-01-01

    Breast cancer remains a worldwide public health problem. In Tunisia, it is considered to be the primary women's cancer and causes high morbidity and mortality. This study aimed to investigate female knowledge, attitudes and practice of breast cancer screening in the region of Monastir (Tunisia). We conducted a descriptive cross-sectional design exploring knowledge, attitudes and practices of women in the region of Monastir on breast cancer screening. The study was conducted in health centres of this region from 1 March 2009 to 30 June 2009. Data were collected via a structured questionnaire containing 15 items on demographic status, knowledge of risk factors and screening methods and attitudes towards the relevance and effectiveness of breast cancer screening. A scoring scheme was used to score women's responses. A total of 900 women agreed to take part in the study. Their mean age was 41.6±12.4 years and 64% did not exceed the primary level of education. According to the constructed scores, 92% of participants had poor knowledge of the specific risk factors for breast cancer and 63.2% had poor knowledge of the screening methods. Proper practice of breast cancer screening was observed in 14.3% of cases. Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that good knowledge of risk factors and screening methods, higher level of education and positive family history of breast cancer were independently correlated with breast cancer screening practice. This study revealed poor knowledge of breast cancer and the screening methods as well as low levels of practice of breast cancer screening among women in the region of Monastir. Results justify educational programs to raise women's adherence to breast cancer screening programs in Tunisia.

  9. Cervical cancer screening and practice in low resource countries ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    While developed countries have recorded significant reduction in the incidence of cervical cancer owing to organizedscreening programs, treatment of premalignant cervical lesions, and follow‑up of treated cases, developing countries including Nigeria are yet to optimally utilize screening services due to lack of organized ...

  10. Knowledge and practice of cervical cancer screening among female ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cervical cancer is the commonest genital tract malignancies in the females and its burden is enormous, to the patient and her community. It is largely preventable or curable when detected at the very early stage through effective screening programme. Very poor clients' attendance has been noticed at the services provided ...

  11. Primary care practice and facility quality orientation: influence on breast and cervical cancer screening rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldzweig, Caroline Lubick; Parkerton, Patricia H; Washington, Donna L; Lanto, Andrew B; Yano, Elizabeth M

    2004-04-01

    Despite the importance of early cancer detection, variation in screening rates among physicians is high. Insights into factors influencing variation can guide efforts to decrease variation and increase screening rates. To explore the association of primary care practice features and a facility's quality orientation with breast and cervical cancer screening rates. Cross-sectional study of screening rates among 144 Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) medical centers and for a national sample of women. We linked practice structure and quality improvement characteristics of individual VA medical centers from 2 national surveys (1 to primary care directors and 1 to a stratified random sample of employees) to breast and cervical cancer screening rates determined from a review of random medical records. We conducted bivariate analyses and multivariate logistic regression of primary care practice and facility features on cancer screening rates, above and below the median. While the national screening rates were high for breast (87%) and cervical cancer (90%), higher screening rates were more likely when primary care providers were consistently notified of specialty visits and when staff perceived a greater organizational commitment to quality and anticipated rewards and recognition for better performance. Organization and quality orientation of the primary care practice and its facility can enhance breast and cervical cancer screening rates. Internal recognition of quality performance and an overall commitment to quality improvement may foster improved prevention performance, with impact varying by clinical service.

  12. Cancer screening in a middle-aged general population: factors associated with practices and attitudes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perneger Thomas V

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to identify factors associated with cancer screening practices and with general attitudes toward cancer screening in a general population. Methods Mailed survey of 30–60 year old residents of Geneva, Switzerland, that included questions about screening for five cancers (breast, cervix uteri, prostate, colon, skin in the past 3 years, attitudes toward screening, health care use, preventive behaviours and socio-demographic characteristics. Cancer screening practice was dichotomised as having done at least one screening test in the past 3 years versus none. Results The survey response rate was 49.3% (2301/4670. More women than men had had at least one cancer screening test in the past 3 years (83.2% vs 34.5%, p Conclusion Attitudes play an important role in cancer screening practices among middle-aged adults in the general population, independent of demographic variables (age and sex that determine in part screening recommendations. Negative attitudes were the most frequent among men and the most socio-economically disadvantaged. The moderate participation rate raises the possibility of selection bias.

  13. Alignment of breast cancer screening guidelines, accountability metrics, and practice patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onega, Tracy; Haas, Jennifer S; Bitton, Asaf; Brackett, Charles; Weiss, Julie; Goodrich, Martha; Harris, Kimberly; Pyle, Steve; Tosteson, Anna N A

    2017-01-01

    Breast cancer screening guidelines and metrics are inconsistent with each other and may differ from breast screening practice patterns in primary care. This study measured breast cancer screening practice patterns in relation to common evidence-based guidelines and accountability metrics. Cohort study using primary data collected from a regional breast cancer screening research network between 2011 and 2014. Using information on women aged 30 to 89 years within 21 primary care practices of 2 large integrated health systems in New England, we measured the proportion of women screened overall and by age using 2 screening definition categories: any mammogram and screening mammogram. Of the 81,352 women in our cohort, 54,903 (67.5%) had at least 1 mammogram during the time period, 48,314 (59.4%) had a screening mammogram. Women aged 50 to 69 years were the highest proportion screened (82.4% any mammogram, 75% screening indication); 72.6% of women at age 40 had a screening mammogram with a median of 70% (range = 54.3%-84.8%) among the practices. Of women aged at least 75 years, 63.3% had a screening mammogram, with the median of 63.9% (range = 37.2%-78.3%) among the practices. Of women who had 2 or more mammograms, 79.5% were screened annually. Primary care practice patterns for breast cancer screening are not well aligned with some evidence-based guidelines and accountability metrics. Metrics and incentives should be designed with more uniformity and should also include shared decision making when the evidence does not clearly support one single conclusion.

  14. Knowledge, Attitude and Practice Regarding Cervical Cancer Screening Among Women Attending a Teaching Hospital, Bharatpur, Chitwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Smita; Dhakal, Prativa

    2017-03-01

    Objective: To find out the knowledge, attitude and practice regarding cervical cancer screening among women. Materials and methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study design was used to collect data from 96 women. Each woman was selected alternately from Gynae Out-Patient Department of Teaching Hospital. Data was collected by using semi-structured interview schedule to find out knowledge and practice and Likert scale to find out the attitude regarding cervical cancer screening. Data was analyzed by using SPSS version 20.0 and interpreted in terms of descriptive and inferential statistics. Results: Out of 96 women, mean age was 38.83 ± 6.57 and 90.6% respondents followed Hinduism. More than three fourth (85.4%) were literate and 59.4% were housewife. Only 9.4% were involved in cervical cancer prevention and screening awareness programme and 2.1% had family history of cervical cancer. As per the findings, only 34.4% and 27.8% had adequate knowledge and practice respectively whereas cent percent women had favorable attitude. Only education level of women was statistically significant with level of knowledge regarding cervical cancer screening (p = 0.041). There was strong negative correlation between knowledge score and practice score regarding cervical cancer screening among women (r = -0.194). Conclusion: Considerable proportions of women have inadequate knowledge and practice regarding cervical cancer screening. Therefore cervical cancer screening health camps and awareness program should be conducted at community level for women to increase the level of knowledge and practice regarding cervical cancer screening.

  15. Knowledge, Attitude and Practice Regarding Cervical Cancer Screening Among Women Attending a Teaching Hospital, Bharatpur, Chitwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Smita; Dhakal, Prativa

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To find out the knowledge, attitude and practice regarding cervical cancer screening among women. Materials and methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study design was used to collect data from 96 women. Each woman was selected alternately from Gynae Out-Patient Department of Teaching Hospital. Data was collected by using semi-structured interview schedule to find out knowledge and practice and Likert scale to find out the attitude regarding cervical cancer screening. Data was analyzed by using SPSS version 20.0 and interpreted in terms of descriptive and inferential statistics. Results: Out of 96 women, mean age was 38.83 ± 6.57 and 90.6% respondents followed Hinduism. More than three fourth (85.4%) were literate and 59.4% were housewife. Only 9.4% were involved in cervical cancer prevention and screening awareness programme and 2.1% had family history of cervical cancer. As per the findings, only 34.4% and 27.8% had adequate knowledge and practice respectively whereas cent percent women had favorable attitude. Only education level of women was statistically significant with level of knowledge regarding cervical cancer screening (p = 0.041). There was strong negative correlation between knowledge score and practice score regarding cervical cancer screening among women (r = -0.194). Conclusion: Considerable proportions of women have inadequate knowledge and practice regarding cervical cancer screening. Therefore cervical cancer screening health camps and awareness program should be conducted at community level for women to increase the level of knowledge and practice regarding cervical cancer screening. PMID:29114264

  16. Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices Regarding Cervical Cancer and Screening among Haitian Health Care Workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leilah Zahedi

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available It is estimated that Haiti has the highest incidence of cervical cancer in the Western Hemisphere. There are currently no sustainable and affordable cervical cancer screening programs in Haiti. The current status of screening services and knowledge of health care professionals was assessed through a Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices survey on cervical cancer screening and prevention. It was distributed to Project Medishare for Haiti health care workers (n = 27 in the Central Plateau. The majority (22/27 of participants stated pre-cancerous cells could be detected through screening, however, only four had ever performed a pap smear. All of the participants felt a screening program should be started in their area. Our data establishes that knowledge is fairly lacking among healthcare workers and there is an opportunity to train them in simple, cost effective “screen-and-treat” programs that could have a great impact on the overall health of the population.

  17. Cervical cancer screening in adolescents: an evidence-based internet education program for practice improvement among advanced practice nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choma, Kim; McKeever, Amy E

    2015-02-01

    The literature reports great variation in the knowledge levels and application of the recent changes of cervical cancer screening guidelines into clinical practice. Evidence-based screening guidelines for the prevention and early detection of cervical cancer offers healthcare providers the opportunity to improve practice patterns among female adolescents by decreasing psychological distress as well as reducing healthcare costs and morbidities associated with over-screening. The purpose of this pilot intervention study was to determine the effects of a Web-based continuing education unit (CEU) program on advanced practice nurses' (APNs) knowledge of current cervical cancer screening evidence-based recommendations and their application in practice. This paper presents a process improvement project as an example of a way to disseminate updated evidence-based practice guidelines among busy healthcare providers. This Web-based CEU program was developed, piloted, and evaluated specifically for APNs. The program addressed their knowledge level of cervical cancer and its relationship with high-risk human papillomavirus. It also addressed the new cervical cancer screening guidelines and the application of those guidelines into clinical practice. Results of the study indicated that knowledge gaps exist among APNs about cervical cancer screening in adolescents. However, when provided with a CEU educational intervention, APNs' knowledge levels increased and their self-reported clinical practice behaviors changed in accordance with the new cervical cancer screening guidelines. Providing convenient and readily accessible up-to-date electronic content that provides CEU enhances the adoption of clinical practice guidelines, thereby decreasing the potential of the morbidities associated with over-screening for cervical cancer in adolescents and young women. © 2014 Sigma Theta Tau International.

  18. Patients’ perceptions of oral cancer screening in dental practice: a cross-sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Oral cancer is increasing in incidence in the UK and indeed worldwide. Delay in diagnosis is common; up to half of patients are diagnosed with advanced lesions. Thus it is essential to develop methods to aid early detection. This study aimed to assess dental patients’ experiences and awareness of oral cancer and screening within general dental practice. Methods A cross-sectional questionnaire survey of 184 English-speaking adults, with no previous history of oral cancer was conducted. The questionnaire collected data on participant’s knowledge of oral cancer, experience of ‘screening’, attitudes and feelings towards having a screening, anticipated help-seeking behaviours, health-related behaviours (particularly risk factors) and sociodemographics. Results Twenty percent of respondents had never heard of oral cancer; 77% knew little or nothing about it and 72% did not know that their Dentist routinely screens for oral cancer. Overall, attitudes to screening were positive. Ninety two percent of respondents would like their Dentist to tell them if they were being screened for signs of oral cancer and 97% would like help from their Dentists to reduce their risk. Conclusion Patients seem generally unaware of oral cancer screening by their dentist but are happy to take part in screening, would like to be informed, and welcome the support of their Dentist to reduce their risk of developing oral cancer. PMID:23249393

  19. Do general practices adhere to organizational guidelines for effective cervical cancer screening?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hermens, R P; Hak, E; Hulscher, M E; Mulder, J; Braspenning, J C; Grol, R P

    BACKGROUND: Well-organized cervical screening has been shown to be effective in the reduction of both morbidity and mortality from cancer of the uterine cervix. In The Netherlands, the GP plays an important role in the cervical screening. The question is whether the general practices are able to

  20. Abnormal ovarian cancer screening test result: women's informational, psychological and practical needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Patricia Y; Graves, Kristi D; Pavlik, Edward J; Andrykowski, Michael A

    2007-01-01

    Considerable effort has been devoted to the identification of cost-effective approaches to screening for ovarian cancer (OC). Transvaginal ultrasound (TVS) is one such screening approach. Approximately 5-7% of routine TVS screening tests yield abnormal results. Some women experience significant distress after receipt of an abnormal TVS screening test. Four focus groups provided in-depth, qualitative data regarding the informational, psychological, and practical needs of women after the receipt of an abnormal TVS result. Through question and content analytic procedures, we identified four themes: anticipation, emotional response, role of the screening technician, and impact of prior cancer experiences. Results provide initial guidance toward development of interventions to promote adaptive responses after receipt of an abnormal cancer screening test result.

  1. Knowledge, attitudes, and practices regarding cervical cancer and screening among Ethiopian health care workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kress CM

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Catherine M Kress,1 Lisa Sharling,2 Ashli A Owen-Smith,3 Dawit Desalegn,4 Henry M Blumberg,2 Jennifer Goedken1 1Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, 2Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, 3Department of Behavioral Sciences and Health Education, Rollins School of Public Health, Emory University, Atlanta, GA, USA; 4Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Addis Ababa University School of Medicine, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia Background: Though cervical cancer incidence has dramatically decreased in resource rich regions due to the implementation of universal screening programs, it remains one of the most common cancers affecting women worldwide and has one of the highest mortality rates. The vast majority of cervical cancer-related deaths are among women that have never been screened. Prior to implementation of a screening program in Addis Ababa University-affiliated hospitals in Ethiopia, a survey was conducted to assess knowledge of cervical cancer etiology, risk factors, and screening, as well as attitudes and practices regarding cervical cancer screening among women’s health care providers.Methods: Between February and March 2012 an anonymous, self-administered survey to assess knowledge, attitudes, and practices related to cervical cancer and its prevention was distributed to 334 health care providers at three government hospitals in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia and three Family Guidance Association clinics in Awassa, Adama, and Bahir Dar. Data were analyzed using SPSS software and chi-square test was used to test differences in knowledge, attitudes, and practices across provider type.Results: Overall knowledge surrounding cervical cancer was high, although awareness of etiology and risk factors was low among nurses and midwives. Providers had no experience performing cervical cancer screening on a routine basis with <40% having performed any type of cervical cancer screening. Reported barriers to performing screening were lack of

  2. Estimating the harms and benefits of prostate cancer screening as used in common practice versus recommended good practice: A microsimulation screening analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlsson, Sigrid V; de Carvalho, Tiago M; Roobol, Monique J; Hugosson, Jonas; Auvinen, Anssi; Kwiatkowski, Maciej; Villers, Arnauld; Zappa, Marco; Nelen, Vera; Páez, Alvaro; Eastham, James A; Lilja, Hans; de Koning, Harry J; Vickers, Andrew J; Heijnsdijk, Eveline A M

    2016-11-15

    Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) screening and concomitant treatment can be implemented in several ways. The authors investigated how the net benefit of PSA screening varies between common practice versus "good practice." Microsimulation screening analysis (MISCAN) was used to evaluate the effect on quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) if 4 recommendations were followed: limited screening in older men, selective biopsy in men with elevated PSA, active surveillance for low-risk tumors, and treatment preferentially delivered at high-volume centers. Outcomes were compared with a base model in which annual screening started at ages 55 to 69 years and were simulated using data from the European Randomized Study of Screening for Prostate Cancer. In terms of QALYs gained compared with no screening, for 1000 screened men who were followed over their lifetime, recommended good practice led to 73 life-years (LYs) and 74 QALYs gained compared with 73 LYs and 56 QALYs for the base model. In contrast, common practice led to 78 LYs gained but only 19 QALYs gained, for a greater than 75% relative reduction in QALYs gained from unadjusted LYs gained. The poor outcomes for common practice were influenced predominantly by the use of aggressive treatment for men with low-risk disease, and PSA testing in older men also strongly reduced potential QALY gains. Commonly used PSA screening and treatment practices are associated with little net benefit. Following a few straightforward clinical recommendations, particularly greater use of active surveillance for low-risk disease and reducing screening in older men, would lead to an almost 4-fold increase in the net benefit of prostate cancer screening. Cancer 2016;122:3386-3393. © 2016 American Cancer Society. © 2016 American Cancer Society.

  3. Colon cancer screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Screening for colon cancer; Colonoscopy - screening; Sigmoidoscopy - screening; Virtual colonoscopy - screening; Fecal immunochemical test; Stool DNA test; sDNA test; Colorectal cancer - screening; Rectal ...

  4. Cultural Beliefs and Attitudes About Breast Cancer and Screening Practices Among Arabic Women in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwok, Cannas; Endrawes, Gihane; Lee, Chun Fan

    2016-01-01

    Arabic women have been consistently reported as having remarkably low participation rates in breast cancer screening measures in their home countries and after migration to Western countries. Little is known about the screening behaviors of Arabic women in Australia. This study aimed to report breast cancer screening practices among Arabic women in Australia and to examine the relationship between (1) demographic factors and (2) the Arabic version of the Breast Cancer Screening Beliefs Questionnaire (BCSBQ) score and women's breast screening behaviors. A descriptive cross-sectional method was used. Both English and Arabic versions of the BCSBQ were administered to the 251 Arabic Australian women 18 years or older who participated in the study. The majority of participants (62.9%-92%) had heard of breast awareness, clinical breast examination, and mammography. However, only 7.6% practiced breast awareness monthly, 21.4% had undergone clinical breast examination annually, and 40.3% had biannual mammography. Length of stay in Australia, being retired, and being unemployed were positively associated with the recommended performance of breast awareness and mammography. In terms of BCSBQ scores, women who engaged in the 3 screening practices had significantly higher scores on the attitudes to health check-ups and barriers to mammography subscales. Attitudes toward health check-ups and perceived barriers to mammography were important determinants of breast cancer screening practices among Arabic Australian women. To fully understand barriers discouraging Arabic Australian women from participating in breast cancer screening practices, efforts should be focused on specific subgroup (ie, working group) of Arabic Australian women.

  5. Knowledge of breast cancer screening methods and the practice of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    examination among female nursing students in a Nigerian teaching hospital. ... Abstract. Background: Breast cancer is the most common cause of cancer-related death among women worldwide. The incidence of the disease is now increasing in ...

  6. Breast cancer screening practices of African migrant women in Australia: a descriptive cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogunsiji, Olayide Oluyemisi; Kwok, Cannas; Fan, Lee Chun

    2017-04-17

    Breast cancer is the most diagnosed cancer among women and a leading cause of mortality and morbidity, globally. Breast cancer mortality can be improved through routine cancer screening, yet migrant populations have lower participation rates. While African migrants are among the fastest growing migrant population in Australia, their breast cancer screening behaviour is under-studied. The aims of this study were to report breast cancer screening status of African migrant women and factors associated with their breast cancer screening behaviour in Australia. A descriptive, cross-sectional approach was utilised for this study. Two hundred and sixty four African migrant women aged 18-69 years and recruited from a number of organisations responded to a self-reported African version of the Breast Cancer Screening Beliefs Questionnaire (BCSBQ). Main research variables are breast cancer screening practices and demographic characteristics and total scores on each of the BCSBQ subscales. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed to investigate the impact of the demographic variables on the likelihood of women in the target age range 50-74 years having screening practices as recommended. While most of the participants heard of breast awareness (76.1%) and mammogram (85.2%), only 11.4% practised monthly breast awareness, whereas 65.9% had ever had a mammogram as frequently as recommended. Age and employment were determining factors for participating in mammogram. Significant different scores were found in the "Practical barriers" between women at the target age who had and had not performed breast awareness (80.4 versus 77.5, p-value = 0.002) and mammogram (77.1 versus 70.3, p-value = 0.009) regularly as recommended. Moreover, attitudes towards general health check-ups subscale scores were significantly higher in women who had performed clinical breast examination as frequently as recommended than those who had not. The research reveals that practical

  7. Knowledge and practice of cervical cancer screening among female ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Cervical cancer is the second most common cancer affecting women worldwide. It is a preventable disease but still remains a leading cause of cancer deaths in developing countries like Nigeria despite the availability of preventive and curative protocols. Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the ...

  8. Mapping HPV Vaccination and Cervical Cancer Screening Practice in the Pacific Region-Strengthening National and Regional Cervical Cancer Prevention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Obel, J; McKenzie, J; Buenconsejo-Lum, L E

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To provide background information for strengthening cervical cancer prevention in the Pacific by mapping current human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination and cervical cancer screening practices, as well as intent and barriers to the introduction and maintenance of national HPV vaccinatio...... of prevention programs, operational research and advocacy could strengthen political momentum for cervical cancer prevention and avoid risking the lives of many women in the Pacific....

  9. Mode of primary cancer detection as an indicator of screening practice for second primary cancer in cancer survivors: a nationwide survey in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suh Beomseok

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While knowledge and risk perception have been associated with screening for second primary cancer (SPC, there are no clinically useful indicators to identify who is at risk of not being properly screened for SPC. We investigated whether the mode of primary cancer detection (i.e. screen-detected vs. non-screen-detected is associated with subsequent completion of all appropriate SPC screening in cancer survivors. Methods Data were collected from cancer patients treated at the National Cancer Center and nine regional cancer centers across Korea. A total of 512 cancer survivors older than 40, time since diagnosis more than 2 years, and whose first primary cancer was not advanced or metastasized were selected. Multivariate logistic regression was used to examine factors, including mode of primary cancer detection, associated with completion of all appropriate SPC screening according to national cancer screening guidelines. Results Being screen-detected for their first primary cancer was found to be significantly associated with completion of all appropriate SPC screening (adjusted odds ratio, 2.13; 95% confidence interval, 1.36–3.33, after controlling for demographic and clinical variables. Screen-detected cancer survivors were significantly more likely to have higher household income, have other comorbidities, and be within 5 years since diagnosis. Conclusions The mode of primary cancer detection, a readily available clinical information, can be used as an indicator for screening practice for SPC in cancer survivors. Education about the importance of SPC screening will be helpful particularly for cancer survivors whose primary cancer was not screen-detected.

  10. Health beliefs and practices related to cancer screening among Arab Muslim women in an urban community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salman, Khlood Faik

    2012-01-01

    In this exploratory study I investigated the participation status in breast and cervical cancer screening of a group of American immigrant Arab Muslim women (AMW). Perceived knowledge of and barriers to screening participation, relationships among demographic variables, health practice and beliefs, and self-reports of traditionalism and acculturation also are studied. Factors including religious and cultural beliefs, economic concerns, and modesty and embarrassment were considered. To reach the goals of Healthy People 2010 (HP 2010), an effective and meaningful educational initiative to raise awareness about breast and cervical cancer of AMW will require specific interventions consistent with their cultural and religious traditions.

  11. Improving Breast Cancer Outcomes among Women in China: Practices, Knowledge, and Attitudes Related to Breast Cancer Screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsu-Yin Wu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Breast cancer is a major public health issue and the most commonly diagnosed cancer for women worldwide. Despite lower incidence rates than those living in Western countries, breast cancer incidence among Chinese women has increased dramatically in the past 20 years. Nevertheless, there is a paucity of studies reporting the attitudes toward and practices of breast cancer screening among Chinese women. Methods. This cross-sectional study examined the practices, knowledge, and attitudes toward breast cancer screening (BCS on a convenience sample of 400 Chinese women. Results. Among study participants, 75% of the women never had a mammogram and the top three barriers reported were low priority, feeling OK, and lack of awareness/knowledge toward breast cancer screening. The results from the logistic regression model showed increased self-efficacy; having performed monthly self-exams, and having had clinical breast exams in the past two years were significant correlates while demographic variables were not correlated with screening behaviors. Conclusion. The findings provide a foundation to better understand beliefs and practices of Chinese women toward BCS and highlight the critical need for general public, health professionals, and the health care system to work collaboratively toward improving the quality of breast cancer care in this population.

  12. Breast cancer screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mammogram - breast cancer screening; Breast exam - breast cancer screening; MRI - breast cancer screening ... is performed to screen women to detect early breast cancer when it is more likely to be cured. ...

  13. Effectiveness of a primary care practice intervention for increasing colorectal cancer screening in Appalachian Kentucky.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dignan, Mark; Shelton, Brent; Slone, Stacey A; Tolle, Cheri; Mohammad, Sohail; Schoenberg, Nancy; Pearce, Kevin; Van Meter, Emily; Ely, Gretchen

    2014-01-01

    This report describes findings from a randomized controlled trial of an intervention to increase colorectal cancer (CRC) screening in primary care practices in Appalachian Kentucky. Sixty-six primary care practices were randomized to early or delayed intervention groups. The intervention was provided at practices using academic detailing, a method of education where providers receive information on a specific topic through personal contact. Data were collected in cross-sectional surveys of medical records at baseline and six months post-intervention. A total of 3844 medical records were reviewed at baseline and 3751 at the six-month follow-up. At baselines, colonoscopy was recommended more frequently (43.4%) than any other screening modality, followed by fecal occult blood testing (18.0%), flexible sigmoidoscopy (0.4%), and double-contrast barium enema (0.3%). Rates of documented screening results were higher for all practices at the six-month follow-up for colonoscopy (31.8% vs 29.6%) and fecal occult blood testing (12.2% vs 11.2%). For early intervention practices that recommended screening, colonoscopy rates increased by 15.7% at six months compared to an increase of 2.4% in the delayed intervention practices (p=.01). Using academic detailing to reach rural primary care providers with a CRC screening intervention was associated with an increase in colonoscopy. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Screening for colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jin; Efron, Jonathan E

    2011-01-01

    March is national colorectal cancer awareness month. It is estimated that as many as 60% of colorectal cancer deaths could be prevented if all men and women aged 50 years or older were screened routinely. In 2000, Katie Couric's televised colonoscopy led to a 20% increase in screening colonoscopies across America, a stunning rise called the "Katie Couric Effect". This event demonstrated how celebrity endorsement affects health behavior. Currently, discussion is ongoing about the optimal strategy for CRC screening, particularly the costs of screening colonoscopy. The current CRC screening guidelines are summarized in Table 2. Debates over the optimum CRC screening test continue in the face of evidence that 22 million Americans aged 50 to 75 years are not screened for CRC by any modality and 25,000 of those lives may have been saved if they had been screened for CRC. It is clear that improving screening rates and reducing disparities in underscreened communities and population subgroups could further reduce colorectal cancer morbidity and mortality. National Institutes of Health consensus identified the following priority areas to enhance the use and quality of colorectal cancer screening: Eliminate financial barriers to colorectal cancer screening and appropriate follow-up of positive results of colorectal cancer screening. Develop systems to ensure the high quality of colorectal cancer screening programs. Conduct studies to determine the comparative effectiveness of the various colorectal cancer screening methods in usual practice settings. Encouraging population adherence to screening tests and allowing patients to select the tests they prefer may do more good (as long as they choose something) than whatever procedure is chosen by the medical profession as the preferred test.

  15. Skin Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Genetics of Skin Cancer Skin Cancer Screening Research Skin Cancer Screening (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is screening? ... These are called diagnostic tests . General Information About Skin Cancer Key Points Skin cancer is a disease ...

  16. Colorectal Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Genetics of Colorectal Cancer Colorectal Cancer Screening Research Colorectal Cancer Screening (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is screening? Go ... These are called diagnostic tests . General Information About Colorectal Cancer Key Points Colorectal cancer is a disease in ...

  17. Stomach (Gastric) Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Stomach Cancer Prevention Stomach Cancer Screening Research Stomach (Gastric) Cancer Screening (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is screening? Go ... are called diagnostic tests . General Information About Stomach (Gastric) Cancer Key Points Stomach cancer is a disease in ...

  18. Cancer Screening Awareness and Practice in a Middle Income Country; A Systematic Review from Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majidi, Azam; Majidi, Somayye; Salimzadeh, Somayye; Khazaee- Pool, Maryam; Sadjadi, Alireza; Salimzadeh, Hamideh; Delavari, Alireza

    2017-12-28

    Objective: Ageing population and noticeable changes in lifestyle in developing countries like Iran caused an increase in cancer incidence. This requires organized cancer prevention and screening programs in population level, but most importantly community should be aware of these programs and willing to use them. This study explored existing evidence on public awareness and practice, as well as, adherence to cancer screening in Iranian population. Methods: Major English databases including Web of Science, PubMed, Scopus, and domestic Persian databases i.e., SID, Magiran, and Barakat search engines were searched. All publications with focus on Iranian public awareness about cancer prevention, screening, and early detection programs which were published until August 2015, were explored in this systematic review. For this purpose, we used sensitive Persian phrases/key terms and English keywords which were extracted from medical subject headings (MeSH). Taking PRISMA guidelines into considerations eligible documents, were evaluated and abstracted by two separate reviewers. Results: We found 72 articles relevant to this topic. Screening tests were known to, or being utilized by only a limited number of Iranians. Most Iranian women relied on physical examination particularly self-examination, instead of taking mammogram, as the most standard test to find breast tumors. Less than half of the average-risk adult populations were familiar with colorectal cancer risk factors and its screening tests, and only very limited number of studies reported taking at least one time colonoscopy or FOBT, at most 5.0% and 15.0%, respectively. Around half of women were familiar with cervical cancer and Pap-smear test with less than 45% having completed at least one lifetime test. The lack of health insurance coverage was a barrier to participate in screening tests. Furthermore some people would not select to be screened only because they do not know how or where they can receive these

  19. Knowledge and Practices Related to Screening for Breast Cancer among Women in Delhi, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahiya, Neha; Basu, Saurav; Singh, Megha Chandra; Garg, Suneela; Kumar, Rajesh; Kohli, Charu

    2018-01-27

    Background: Breast cancer is a major public health problem globally. The ongoing epidemiological, socio-cultural and demographic transition by accentuating the associated risk factors has disproportionately increased the incidence of breast cancer cases and resulting mortality in developing countries like India. Early diagnosis with rapid initiation of treatment reduces breast cancer mortality. Therefore awareness of breast cancer risk and a willingness to undergo screening are essential. The objective of the present study was to assess the knowledge and practices relating to screening for breast cancer among women in Delhi. Methods: Data were obtained from 222 adult women using a pretested selfadministered questionnaire. Results: Rates for knowledge of known risk factors of breast cancer were: family history of breast cancer, 59.5%; smoking, 57.7%; old age, 56.3%; lack of physical exercise, 51.9%; lack of breastfeeding, 48.2%; late menopause, 37.4%; and early menarche, 34.7%. Women who were aged awareness generation among adult women regarding risk factors and methods for early detection of breast cancer. Creative Commons Attribution License

  20. Knowledge, attitudes and practices toward breast cancer screening in a rural South African community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorah U. Ramathuba

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The study assessed the knowledge, attitudes and breast cancer screening practices amongst women aged 30–65 years residing in a rural South African community. Method: A quantitative, descriptive cross-sectional design was used and a systematic sampling technique was employed to select 150 participants. The questionnaire was pretested for validity and consistency. Ethical considerations were adhered to in protecting the rights of participants. Thereafter, data were collected and analysed descriptively using the Predictive Analytics Software program. Results: Findings revealed that the level of knowledge about breast cancer of women in Makwarani Community was relatively low. The attitude toward breast cancer was negative whereas the majority of women had never performed breast cancer diagnostic methods. Conclusion: Health education on breast cancer screening practices is lacking and the knowledge deficit can contribute negatively to early detection of breast cancer and compound late detection. Based on the findings, community-based intervention was recommended in order to bridge the knowledge gap

  1. Evaluation of low-dose CT implementation for lung cancer screening in a general practice hospital

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karostik, D. V.; Kamyshanskaya, I. G.; Cheremisin, V. M.; Drozdov, A. A.; Vodovatov, A. V.

    2018-02-01

    The aim of the current study was to evaluate the possibility of the implementation of LDCT for the screening for lung cancer and tuberculosis in a typical general hospital practice. Diagnostic and economic effectiveness, patient doses and the corresponding radiation risks for LDCT were compared with the existing digital chest screening radiography. The results of the study indicate that the implementation of LDCT allowed verifying false-positive cases or providing additional excessive diagnostic information, but did not significantly improve the sensitivity of screening. Per capita costs for LDCT were higher compared to digital radiography up to a factor of 12; corresponding radiation risk - by a factor of 4. Hence, it was considered unjustified to implement LDCT in a general practice hospital.

  2. Screening for Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancer screening is checking for cancer in people who don't have symptoms. Screening tests can help doctors find and treat several types of cancer early, but cancer screening can have harms as well as benefits.

  3. Cancer screening promotion among medically underserved Asian American women: integration of research and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Mei-yu; Seetoo, Amy D; Hong, Oi Saeng; Song, Lixin; Raizade, Rekha; Weller, Adelwisa L Agas

    2002-01-01

    Mammography and Pap smear tests are known to be effective early detection measures for breast and cervical cancers, respectively, but Asian Americans are reluctant to make visits for routine preventive care. Quantitative and qualitative research conducted by the Healthy Asian Americans Project (HAAP) between 1996 and 1999 indicated that Asian residents in southeastern Michigan, like the general Asian population in the US, underutilized early cancer screening programs due to cultural, psychosocial, linguistic, and economic barriers. This article reports how the HAAP's research findings guided the Michigan Breast and Cervical Cancer Control Program (BCCCP) promotion (conducted from 2000 to 2001 among medically underserved Asian women residing in southeastern Michigan), and how evaluation of the HAAP's BCCCP promotion will direct future research and health promotion programs. The article presents strategies used to improve access to cancer screening programs for diverse Asian sub-groups as well as outcomes of the 2-year HAAP's BCCCP promotion among the target population. Discussion regarding lessons and experiences gained from integration of research and practice has implications on design and implementation of the cancer screening promotion for the rapidly increasing Asian American population as well as other medically underserved minority populations in the US.

  4. A practical approach to radiological evaluation of CT lung cancer screening examinations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xie, Xueqian; Heuvelmans, Marjolein A.; van Ooijen, Peter M. A.; Oudkerk, Matthijs; Vliegenthart, Rozemarijn

    2013-01-01

    Lung cancer is the most common cause of cancer-related death in the world. The Dutch-Belgian Randomized Lung Cancer Screening Trial (Dutch acronym: NELSON) was launched to investigate whether screening for lung cancer by low-dose multidetector computed tomography (CT) in high-risk patients will lead

  5. Liver (Hepatocellular) Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Treatment Liver Cancer Prevention Liver Cancer Screening Research Liver (Hepatocellular) Cancer Screening (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is ... These are called diagnostic tests . General Information About Liver (Hepatocellular) Cancer Key Points Liver cancer is a ...

  6. Novel simple and practical nutritional screening tool for cancer inpatients: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zekri, Jamal; Morganti, Julie; Rizvi, Azhar; Sadiq, Bakr Bin; Kerr, Ian; Aslam, Mohamed

    2014-05-01

    There is lack of consensus on how nutritional screening and intervention should be provided to cancer patients. Nutritional screening and support of cancer patients are not well established in the Middle East. We report our systematic and practical experience led by a qualified specialist dietician in a cancer inpatient setting, using a novel nutritional screening tool. Ninety-seven consecutive inpatients underwent nutritional screening and categorised into three nutritional risk groups based on oral intake, gastrointestinal symptoms, body mass index (BMI) and weight loss. Nutritional support was introduced accordingly. Statistical tests used included ANOVA, Bonferroni post hoc, chi-square and log rank tests. Median age was 48 (19-87)years. Patients were categorised into three nutritional risk groups: 55 % low, 37 % intermediate and 8 % high. Nutritional intervention was introduced for 36 % of these patients. Individually, weight, BMI, oral intake, serum albumin on admission and weight loss significantly affected nutritional risk and nutritional intervention (all significant P values). Eighty-seven, 60 and 55 % of patients admitted for chemotherapy, febrile neutropenia and other reasons, respectively, did not require specific nutritional intervention. There was a statistically significant relationship between nutritional risk and nutritional intervention (P=0.005). Significantly more patients were alive at 3 months in low (91 %) than intermediate (75 %) than high (37 %)-risk groups. About a third of cancer inpatients require nutritional intervention. The adopted nutritional risk assessment tool is simple and practical. The validity of this tool is supported by its significant relation with known individual nutritional risk factors. This should be confirmed in larger prospective study and comparing this new tool with other established ones.

  7. Colorectal cancer screening

    OpenAIRE

    McLoughlin, Monica Ramona

    2008-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is a major public health burden and is the most common cause of mortality from cancer in Europe. Over the last two decades robust evidence from randomised clinical trials and case-control series have confirmed that the mortality from colorectal cancer can be reduced by screening. The challenge over the next decade is how to implement this in clinical practice. This is what we set out to answer with this thesis. Not all individuals are equal when it comes to screening and tho...

  8. Validation and practical implementation of a multidisciplinary cancer distress screening questionnaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirchheiner, K.; Czajka, A.; Komarek, E.; Hohenberg, G.; Poetter, R. [Medical University of Vienna (Austria). Dept. of Radiation Oncology; Ponocny-Seliger, E. [Sigmund Freud Private University, Vienna (Austria). Dept. of Psychology; Doerr, W. [Medical University of Vienna (Austria). Dept. of Radiation Oncology; Medical University of Vienna (Austria). Christian Doppler Laboratory for Medical Radiation Research for Radiation Oncology

    2013-07-15

    Background: In order to identify cancer patients with psychosocial needs during radiotherapy, a routine screening questionnaire is widely recommended in the literature. Several tools focusing mainly on psychological issues have been developed during the past decade. However, problems with their implementation into clinical routine have been repeatedly reported, due to a lack of practicability for clinicians and nurses. This study reports the compilation of a multidisciplinary screening questionnaire and an analysis of the effectiveness of its implementation into clinical routine at the Department of Radiotherapy, Medical University of Vienna. Materials and methods: The screening questionnaire is based on a compilation of several subscales from established and validated assessment tools. It focuses on comprehensive information with high a clinical relevance for all professions. In a pilot study, patients' acceptance was assessed qualitatively. Analysis of missing screening data in consecutively admitted patients reflects the effectiveness of implementation and representativity of the data. A validation analysis of the psychological subscales was performed using external criteria and its internal consistency was tested with Cronbachs' {alpha}. Results: Qualitative patient acceptance of the screening questionnaire is good. The overall response rate in the screening procedure was 75 %. Missing patient screening data sets arose randomly - mainly due to organizational problems - and did not result in systematic errors. The psychological subscales identify highly distressed patients with a sensitivity of 89 and 78 %, and an internal consistency of 0.843 and 0.617. Conclusion: The multidisciplinary screening questionnaire compiled in this study has a high patient acceptance, provides reliable and representative data and identifies highly distressed patients with excellent sensitivity. Although requiring additional personnel resources, it can be implemented

  9. Validation and practical implementation of a multidisciplinary cancer distress screening questionnaire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirchheiner, K.; Czajka, A.; Komarek, E.; Hohenberg, G.; Poetter, R.; Ponocny-Seliger, E.; Doerr, W.; Medical University of Vienna

    2013-01-01

    Background: In order to identify cancer patients with psychosocial needs during radiotherapy, a routine screening questionnaire is widely recommended in the literature. Several tools focusing mainly on psychological issues have been developed during the past decade. However, problems with their implementation into clinical routine have been repeatedly reported, due to a lack of practicability for clinicians and nurses. This study reports the compilation of a multidisciplinary screening questionnaire and an analysis of the effectiveness of its implementation into clinical routine at the Department of Radiotherapy, Medical University of Vienna. Materials and methods: The screening questionnaire is based on a compilation of several subscales from established and validated assessment tools. It focuses on comprehensive information with high a clinical relevance for all professions. In a pilot study, patients' acceptance was assessed qualitatively. Analysis of missing screening data in consecutively admitted patients reflects the effectiveness of implementation and representativity of the data. A validation analysis of the psychological subscales was performed using external criteria and its internal consistency was tested with Cronbachs' α. Results: Qualitative patient acceptance of the screening questionnaire is good. The overall response rate in the screening procedure was 75 %. Missing patient screening data sets arose randomly - mainly due to organizational problems - and did not result in systematic errors. The psychological subscales identify highly distressed patients with a sensitivity of 89 and 78 %, and an internal consistency of 0.843 and 0.617. Conclusion: The multidisciplinary screening questionnaire compiled in this study has a high patient acceptance, provides reliable and representative data and identifies highly distressed patients with excellent sensitivity. Although requiring additional personnel resources, it can be implemented successfully in

  10. Do socioeconomic factors influence breast cancer screening practices among Arab women in Qatar?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnelly, Tam Truong; Al Khater, Al-Hareth; Al Kuwari, Mohamed Ghaith; Al-Bader, Salha Bujassoum; Al-Meer, Nabila; Abdulmalik, Mariam; Singh, Rajvir; Chaudhry, Sofia; Fung, Tak

    2015-01-22

    Breast cancer incidence rates are rising in Qatar. Although the Qatari government provides subsidised healthcare and screening programmes that reduce cost barriers for residents, breast cancer screening (BCS) practices among women remain low. This study explores the influence of socioeconomic status on BCS among Arab women in Qatar. A multicentre, cross-sectional quantitative survey was conducted with 1063 Arab women (87.5% response rate) in Qatar from March 2011 to July 2011. Women who were 35 years or older and had lived in Qatar for at least 10 years were recruited from seven primary healthcare centres and women's health clinics in urban and semiurban regions of Qatar. Associations between socioeconomic factors and BCS practice were estimated using χ(2) tests and multivariate logistic regression analyses. Findings indicate that less than one-third of the participants practised BCS appropriately, whereas less than half of the participants were familiar with recent BCS guidelines. Married women and women with higher education and income levels were significantly more likely to be aware of and to practise BCS than women who had lower education and income levels. Findings indicate low levels of awareness and low participation rates in BCS among Arab women in Qatar. Socioeconomic factors influence these women's participation in BCS activities. The strongest predictors for BCS practice are higher education and higher income levels. Additional research is needed to explore the impact of economic factors on healthcare seeking behaviours in the Middle Eastern countries that have a high national gross domestic product where healthcare services are free or heavily subsidised by the government; promotion of BCS and intervention strategies in these countries should focus on raising awareness about breast cancer, the cost and benefit of early screening for this disease, particularly among low-income women. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to

  11. Primary prevention and screening practices among long-term breast cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandelzweig, Lori; Chetrit, Angela; Amitai, Tova; Silverman, Barbara; Siegelmann-Danieli, Nava; Sadetzki, Siegal

    2017-07-01

    Parallel to increasing survival of breast cancer (BC) patients, a need has arisen to characterize the follow-up required to improve and maintain their health. Our study aimed to assess changes in lifestyle habits over time among the study population, compare compliance rates of selected primary and secondary prevention practices between long-term BC survivors and an age-matched comparison group, and identify factors associated with compliance to these practices. The study population comprised 250 Israeli BC survivors, diagnosed with BC between 1999 and 2003, without evidence of disease after 8-12 years, and 250 women with no cancer history, individually matched to survivors by age and area of residence. Data collection and analysis were conducted during August 2012-June 2015 and included socio-demographic variables, lifestyle habits, health promotion by the family physician, and participation in screening procedures and prevention measures. Higher performance rates of mammography and colonoscopy among BC survivors were observed, as well as a greater likelihood of receiving an influenza vaccine and undergoing a bone mineral density scan (adjusted-ORs: 7.7, 1.48, 1.42, and 2.59, respectively) compared to controls. Factors identified with compliance to selected practices were age, higher levels of education and income, never smoking, and strenuous physical activity. The survivors adopted healthier lifestyles, which were similar to those of women who never had cancer. About 10 years after BC diagnosis, the survivors generally comply with primary and secondary prevention practices.

  12. Cervical cancer screening: knowledge, attitude and practices among nursing staff in a tertiary level teaching institution of rural India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shekhar, Shashank; Sharma, Chanderdeep; Thakur, Sita; Raina, Nidhi

    2013-01-01

    Assessment of the nursing staff knowledge, attitude and practices about cervical cancer screening in a tertiary care teaching institute of rural India. A cross sectional, descriptive, interview- based survey was conducted with a pretested questionnaire among 262 staff nurses of a tertiary care teaching and research institute. In this study 77% respondents knew that Pap smear is used for detection of cervical cancer, but less than half knew that Pap smear can detect even precancerous lesions of cervix. Only 23.4% knew human papilloma virus infection as a risk factor. Only 26.7% of the respondents were judged as having adequate knowledge based on scores allotted for questions evaluating knowledge about cervical cancer and screening. Only 17 (7%) of the staff nurses had themselves been screened by Pap smear, while 85% had never taken a Pap smear of a patient. Adequate knowledge of cervical cancer and screening, higher parity and age >30 years were significantly associated with self screening for cervical cancer. Most nurses held a view that Pap test is a doctor procedure, and nearly 90% of nurses had never referred a patient for Pap testing. The majority of nursing staff in rural India may have inadequate knowledge about cervical cancer screening, and their attitude and practices towards cervical cancer screening could not be termed positive.

  13. Mammography requests in general practice during the introduction of nationwide breast cancer screening, 1988-1995.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beemsterboer, P.M.M.; Koning, H.J. de; Looman, C.W.N.; Borsboom, G.J.J.M.; Bartelds, A.I.M.; Maas, P.J. van der

    1999-01-01

    Introducing an organised breast cancer screening programme for certain age groups in a population might induce opportunistic screening in adjacent (non-invited) age groups and influence health behaviour in the target population. We analysed the effect of the start of the Dutch national screening

  14. Lay health educators within primary care practices to improve cancer screening uptake for South Asian patients: challenges in quality improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lofters AK

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available AK Lofters,1–4 M Vahabi,5 V Prakash,6 L Banerjee,7 P Bansal,8 S Goel,7,8 S Dunn1,2,9 1Department of Family and Community Medicine, 2Dalla Lana School of Public Health, University of Toronto, 3Department of Family and Community Medicine, 4Centre for Urban Health Solutions, St Michael’s Hospital, 5Daphne Cockwell School of Nursing, Ryerson University, Toronto, 6Screening Saves Lives Program, Canadian Cancer Society, Mississauga, 7Wise Elephant Family Health Team, Brampton, 8Mississauga Halton Central West Regional Cancer Program, Mississauga, 9Women’s College Research Institute, Women’s College Hospital, Toronto, ON, Canada Background: Cancer screening uptake is known to be low among South Asian residents of Ontario. The objective of this pilot study was to determine if lay health educators embedded within the practices of primary care providers could improve willingness to screen and cancer screening uptake for South Asian patients taking a quality improvement approach.Materials and methods: Participating physicians selected quality improvement initiatives to use within their offices that they felt could increase willingness to screen and cancer screening uptake. They implemented initiatives, adapting as necessary, for six months.Results: Four primary care physicians participated in the study. All approximated that at least 60% of their patients were of South Asian ethnicity. All physicians chose to work with a preexisting lay health educator program geared toward South Asians. Health ambassadors spoke to patients in the office and telephoned patients. For all physicians, ~60% of South Asian patients who were overdue for cancer screening and who spoke directly to health ambassadors stated they were willing to be screened. One physician was able to track actual screening among contacted patients and found that screening uptake was relatively high: from 29.2% (colorectal cancer to 44.6% (breast cancer of patients came in for screening

  15. Cervical Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cancer found early may be easier to treat. Cervical cancer screening is usually part of a woman's health ... may do more tests, such as a biopsy. Cervical cancer screening has risks. The results can sometimes be ...

  16. Knowledge, attitude and practice for breast cancer risk factors and screening modalities in staff nurses of Ayub teaching hospital Abbottabad

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, S.; Riaz, A.; Rizwan, M.; Qureshi, N.A.; Atta, S.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Breast cancer is the commonest cancer modality in female worldwide. Avoiding the risk factors can reduce its incidence and adhering to screening and early detection can reduce its mortality. A sufficient knowledge regarding the risk factors and screening modalities is therefore essential. We assessed the knowledge level about these parameters in our staff nurses. Methods: A self-administered questionnaire survey was performed. Knowledge regarding the risk factors and screening modalities were categorised into good, fair, poor and very poor categories. Results: Knowledge regarding most of the factors was found to be fair. A few things were termed as good knowledge like role of breast-feeding in protecting against breast cancer. Practice regarding the screening modalities was not satisfactory. Only a few nurses had good knowledge of the risk factors and screening modalities. Practice of the Screening modalities was also poor. Conclusion: There is a need to improve the nursing curriculum, training at the workplace and motivate them for screening practices. They should be encouraged to talk to their patients and their female attendants about prevention and early detection of breast cancer. (author)

  17. Clinical Practice Guidelines on the Screening and Treatment of Precancerous Lesions for Cervical Cancer Prevention in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Mandeel, Hazem Mahmoud; Sagr, Emad; Sait, Khalid; Latifah, Hassan Mohamed; Al-Obaid, Abdulaziz; Al-Badawi, Ismail A; Alkushi, Abdulmohsen O; Salem, Hany; Massoudi, Nada S; Schunemann, Holger; Mustafa, Reem A; Brignardello-Petersen, Romina

    2016-01-01

    Cervical cancer is the third most common gynecological malignancy in Saudi women with an estimated incidence rate of 1.9 cases per 100 000 women-years. More than 40% of cervical cancer cases are diagnosed at advanced stages due to lack of a routine screening program in Saudi Arabia. Thus, national guidelines for routine screening and treatment of precancerous cervical lesions are needed. The Saudi Centre for Evidence-Based Healthcare invited a panel of local experts and partnered them with a team from McMaster University in Canada for methodological support, to develop national clinical practice guidelines on the screening and treatment of precancerous lesions for cervical cancer. After the panel identified key clinical questions, the McMaster University working group updated existing systematic reviews that had been used for the 2013 WHO Guidelines for screening and treatment of precancerous lesions for cervical cancer prevention. Recommendations were based on the GRADE (Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluation) approach. Those recommendations took into account the available evidence, patient values and preferences, and resource use in the Saudi context. The panel provided recommendations on two major issues: screening for precancerous lesions (cervical intraepithelial neoplasia 2 & 3) and treatment of those lesions to prevent cervical cancer in women who tested positive after screening. The Saudi expert panel recommends using the HPV DNA test followed by colposcopy or cytology (Pap test) followed by colposcopy to screen for CIN2+ in women at risk of cervical cancer. The panel recommends cryotherapy or loop excision electrosurgery procedure (LEEP) over cold knife cone biopsy to treat women at risk of cervical cancer that tests positive for CIN2+. Universal screening for precancerous cervical dysplasia in women in Saudi Arabia is recommended using HPV testing and or cytology. Either cryotherapy or LEEP are preferred for treatment. National

  18. Breast cancer screening awareness, knowledge, and practice among arab women in the United Arab Emirates: a cross-sectional survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusra E Elobaid

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Breast cancer screening can reduce morbidity and mortality and improve the survival rate for this malignancy. Low participation in screening programs has been attributable to many factors including lack of knowledge. The aim of this study was to assess breast cancer screening knowledge, attitudes and practices among women of screening age (≥40 years old in the city of Al Ain, United Arab Emirates (UAE. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 2013 using the Breast Cancer Awareness Measure (CAM. Four out of twelve cultural and religious community centers in Al Ain city were randomly selected. Two hundred and forty seven women were interviewed. Chi Square test and regression analysis were used to analyze the data. RESULTS: Despite the increase in the uptake of screening modalities in our study group, a lack of knowledge about breast cancer screening is still evident. Almost half (44.8% of women who never had a Clinical Breast Exam (CBE and 44.1% of women who never had a mammography expressed a lack of knowledge about the existence of these screening techniques. Nearly one third of the participants interpreted the presence of a breast lump incorrectly and, moreover, expressed fewer worries about the nature of the lump than would normally be expected. CONCLUSIONS: The National screening program needs to be improved and directed towards more efficient and targeted utilization of resources. Healthcare professionals play a major role in alerting women to the importance of periodic screening.

  19. Knowledge, attitude and practice of screening for cervical cancer among female students of a tertiary institution in South Eastern Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akujobi, C N; Ikechebelu, J I; Onunkwo, I; Onyiaorah, I V

    2008-09-01

    Cervical cancer is the second commonest cancer of females worldwide and the commonest cancer of the female genital tract in our environment. It can be prevented through early detection by cervical screening (Pap smear). The objective of this study is to determine the knowledge, attitude and practice of cervical cancer screening among female undergraduates. A pre tested questionnaire was administered to third and fourth year female students of the Faculty of Natural Sciences, Nnamdi Azikiwe University Awka, Nigeria. Out of the 220 students involved in the study, 134 (60.9) had knowledge of cervical cancer and 118 (53.6%) were sexually active with the average age at sexual debut being 21.2 years. The mean age of the students was 23.8 years and the age range was 17 to 39 years with 175 (80%) in the age range of 20-29 years. About 2/3 of the students did not know about Pap smear and worse still, none of them had undergone a Pap screening test before. This low participation in screening for cervical cancer was attributed to several reasons including ignorance of the existence of such a test, lack of awareness of centers where such services are obtainable, ignorance of the importance of screening and the risk factors to the development of cervical cancer. There is good level of awareness of cervical cancer among the female undergraduates but poor knowledge and participation in cervical cancer screening. The development of a comprehensive cervical cancer screening strategy is being recommended to improve participation with a view to prevent cervical cancer by early detection and treatment of the pre-malignant stages.

  20. Estimating the harms and benefits of prostate cancer screening as used in common practice versus recommended good practice: A microsimulation screening analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Carlsson (Sigrid); T.M. de Carvalho Delgado Marques (Tiago); M.J. Roobol-Bouts (Monique); J. Hugosson (Jonas); A. Auvinen (Anssi); M. Kwiatkowski (Maciej); A. Villers (Arnoud); M. Zappa (Marco); V. Nelen (Vera); A. Páez (Alvaro); J.A. Eastham (James); H. Lilja (Hans); H.J. de Koning (Harry); A.J. Vickers (Andrew); E.A.M. Heijnsdijk (Eveline)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractBACKGROUND: Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) screening and concomitant treatment can be implemented in several ways. The authors investigated how the net benefit of PSA screening varies between common practice versus “good practice.”. METHODS: Microsimulation screening analysis (MISCAN)

  1. Breast Cancer Screening Practice and Health-Promoting Behavior Among Chinese Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong Im Kim, RN, PhD

    2011-09-01

    Conclusion: On the basis of these results, public education about importance of breast cancer screening and health promoting behavior should be strongly advocated by health professionals and mass media in China.

  2. Impact of Cancer Awareness Drive on Generating Understanding and Improving Screening Practices for Breast Cancer: a Study on College Teachers in India

    OpenAIRE

    Shankar, Abhishek; Roy, Shubham; Rath, Goura Kishor; Chakraborty, Abhijit; Kamal, Vineet Kumar; Biswas, Aalekhya Sarma

    2017-01-01

    Background: Breast cancer is the most common cancer among women in India and most present at advanced stage. Although early detection is the only way to reduce morbidity and mortality, people have a very low awareness about breast cancer signs and symptoms and screening practices. The purpose of this study was to assess the level of awareness and impact of awareness programs in adoption of safe practices in prevention and early detection. Methods: This assessment was part of a pink chain camp...

  3. Breast Cancer Screening among Older Hispanic Women: Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saint-Germain, Michelle A.; Longman, Alice J.

    1993-01-01

    Data from 409 Hispanic-American and 138 Anglo older women in Tucson identified few differences in their use of breast cancer screening and low levels of risk knowledge. Both groups fell well below recommended frequency of screening. Clinical examination and self-examination were used more than mammography. (SK)

  4. Association of Indoor Tanning Frequency With Risky Sun Protection Practices and Skin Cancer Screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Alexander H; Wang, Timothy S; Yenokyan, Gayane; Kang, Sewon; Chien, Anna L

    2016-10-12

    Indoor tanning is prevalent among young adults and women and is associated with increased risk of melanoma. Evidence suggests that indoor tanners may be more inclined to adopt poor photoprotective practices that further increase their risk of skin cancer; however, gaps in the literature exist in young adults and by indoor tanning frequency. To examine the association between indoor tanning frequency and behaviors related to skin cancer prevention and to investigate whether these associations vary by age group or sex. Cross-sectional population-based study of US 2015 National Health Interview Survey data including 10 262 non-Hispanic white adults aged 18 to 60 years without a history of skin cancer. Rare/never use of sunscreen, protective clothing, shade; multiple sunburns within the past year; previous full-body skin examination. Of the 10 262 individuals in our study population (49% female; median age, 39 y), 787 (7.0%) reported having tanned indoors in the past year. Among individuals aged 18 to 34 years, frequent indoor tanners (≥10 times in the past year) were more likely to report never/rare use of protective clothing (adjusted prevalence ratio [aPR], 1.28; 95% CI, 1.10-1.49) and shade (aPR, 1.32; 95% CI, 1.03-1.70), compared with individuals who did not tan indoors. Among women aged 18 to 60 years, those who frequently tanned indoors were more likely to rarely/never use sunscreen (aPR, 1.34; 95% CI, 1.11-1.62), protective clothing (aPR, 1.27; 95% CI, 1.15-1.42), and shade (aPR, 1.54; 95% CI, 1.25-1.90) on a warm sunny day, as well as more likely to report multiple sunburns in the past year (aPR, 1.21; 95% CI, 1.00-1.45) compared with those who did not tan indoors. Individuals who tanned indoors in the past year were not significantly more likely to have undergone a previous full-body skin examination in any subpopulation examined. Individuals who tan indoors often exhibited a concurrent tendency to sunburn, avoid sun protection, and avoid skin cancer

  5. Knowledge, attitude and practice of cervical cancer screening (pap smear) among female nurses in Nnewi, South Eastern Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udigwe, G O

    2006-06-01

    To determine the knowledge and practice of cervical cancer screening among practicing female nurses with a view to sensitizing them as a first step towards increasing screening uptake in the community. A self administered questionnaire survey of all the female nurses working in Nnamdi Azikiwe university Teaching Hospital Nnewi center. 144 out of 166 questionnaires were correctly completed and returned. 122 (87%) were aware of the existence of screening services. Although 9.3% had lost relations to cancer of the cervix, only 5.7% had ever undergone a pap smear. While 52 (37.1%) had no reason for not screening, 21 (15%) were afraid of the possible outcome and 35 (25%) felt they were not likely candidates for cancer of the cervix. knowledge of cervical cancer screening services among female nurses in Nnewi is high while uptake rate is abysmally poor. There is need to further educate the nurses who will play a major role in enlightening the public on the availability and need for cervical screening services.

  6. Screening for Cervical Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Understanding Task Force Recommendations Screening for Cervical Cancer The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (Task Force) has issued final recommendations on Screening for Cervical Cancer . These recommendations are for women ...

  7. Screen Practice in Curating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft, Tanya Søndergaard

    2014-01-01

    During the past one and a half decade, a curatorial orientation towards "screen practice" has expanded the moving image and digital art into the public domain, exploring alternative artistic uses of the screen. The emergence of urban LED screens in the late 1990s provided a new venue that allowed...... for digital art to expand into public space. It also offered a political point of departure, inviting for confrontation with the Spectacle and with the politics and ideology of the screen as a mass communication medium that instrumentalized spectator positions. In this article I propose that screen practice...... to the dispositif of screen practice in curating, resulting in a medium-based curatorial discourse. With reference to the nomadic exhibition project Nordic Outbreak that I co-curated with Nina Colosi in 2013 and 2014, I suggest that the topos of the defined visual display area, frequently still known as "the screen...

  8. Risks of Colorectal Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Genetics of Colorectal Cancer Colorectal Cancer Screening Research Colorectal Cancer Screening (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is screening? Go ... These are called diagnostic tests . General Information About Colorectal Cancer Key Points Colorectal cancer is a disease in ...

  9. Cervical cancer - screening and prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancer cervix - screening; HPV - cervical cancer screening; Dysplasia - cervical cancer screening; Cervical cancer - HPV vaccine ... Almost all cervical cancers are caused by HPV (human papilloma virus). HPV is a common virus that spreads through sexual contact. Certain ...

  10. SCREENING FOR CERVICAL CANCER

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Enrique

    Cervical cancer remains a major health concern worldwide, especially in devel- ... Important aspects of cervical cancer screening include the age at which .... High-risk types HPV (16,18) are impli- cated in the pathogenesis of cervical cancer.

  11. Smoking, dietary, and breast and cervical cancer screening knowledge and screening practices of employees in an urban medical center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyman, R B; Greenwald, E S; Hacker, S

    1995-01-01

    This paper reports results of a survey of 500 health care workers in a private New York City Hospital that assessed knowledge and behaviors in the areas of smoking and cancer, diet and cancer, and breast and cervical cancer screening. Given the small number of knowledge items, the results indicated good knowledge concerning diet and cancer, smoking and cancer, and mammography and Pap test guidelines. Conformity with American Cancer Society guidelines for Pap testing was comparable to national figures, but with women over 50 as likely to obtain Pap smears as younger women. Conformity with mammography guidelines was excellent, although compliance with breast self-examination recommendations was low (25.4%). Of female employees over age 50, 87.4% had ever had mammography and 77.6% reported yearly mammography. Only 19% of the respondents admitted to current smoking. Although methodologic differences made comparison of knowledge of diet and cancer with the work of others difficult, knowledge of the risks of smoking was comparable to levels found in other studies.

  12. Lung cancer screening. What have we learnt for the practice so far?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaefer-Prokop, C.; Prosch, H.; Prokop, M.

    2014-01-01

    Lung cancer is the most frequent cause of tumor-associated death and only has a good prognosis if detected at a very early tumor stage. For the first time the American National Lung Screening Trial (NLST) could prove that low-dose computed tomography (CT) screening is able to reduce lung cancer mortality by 20 %. To date, however, three much smaller and therefore statistically underpowered European trials could not confirm the positive results of the NLST. The results of the largest European trial NELSON are expected within the next 2 years. In addition, there are a number of open or not yet satisfactorily answered questions, such as the definition of the appropriate screening population, the management of nodules detected by screening, the effects of over-diagnosis and the risk of cumulative radiation exposure. The success of the NLST prompted several predominantly American professional societies to issue a positive recommendation about the implementation of lung cancer screening in a population at risk. However, potentially conflicting results of European studies and a number of not yet optimized issues justify caution and call for a pooled analysis of European studies in order to provide statistically sound results and to ensure a high efficiency of screening with respect to the radiation applied, mental and physical patient burden and, last but not least, the financial efforts. (orig.) [de

  13. Cancer screening guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoorob, R; Anderson, R; Cefalu, C; Sidani, M

    2001-03-15

    Numerous medical organizations have developed cancer screening guidelines. Faced with the broad, and sometimes conflicting, range of recommendations for cancer screening, family physicians must determine the most reasonable and up-to-date method of screening. Major medical organizations have generally achieved consensus on screening guidelines for breast, cervical and colorectal cancer. For breast cancer screening in women ages 50 to 70, clinical breast examination and mammography are generally recommended every one or two years, depending on the medical organization. For cervical cancer screening, most organizations recommend a Papanicolaou test and pelvic examination at least every three years in patients between 20 and 65 years of age. Annual fecal occult blood testing along with flexible sigmoidoscopy at five-year to 10-year intervals is the standard recommendation for colorectal cancer screening in patients older than 50 years. Screening for prostate cancer remains a matter of debate. Some organizations recommend digital rectal examination and a serum prostate-specific antigen test for men older than 50 years, while others do not. In the absence of compelling evidence to indicate a high risk of endometrial cancer, lung cancer, oral cancer and ovarian cancer, almost no medical organizations have developed cancer screening guidelines for these types of cancer.

  14. Association of eHealth literacy with colorectal cancer knowledge and screening practice among internet users in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitsutake, Seigo; Shibata, Ai; Ishii, Kaori; Oka, Koichiro

    2012-11-13

    In rapidly developing Internet-user societies, eHealth literacy has become important in promoting wellness. Although previous studies have observed that poor health literacy is associated with less knowledge and screening practice of colorectal cancer (CRC), little is known about whether eHealth literacy is associated with these variables. The present study examined associations between eHealth literacy, knowledge of CRC, and CRC screening practices. Data were analyzed for 2970 Japanese adults (men, 49.9%; mean age±SD, 39.7±10.9 years) who responded to an Internet-based cross-sectional survey. Knowledge of the definition of CRC, its risk factors and screening practice, previous experience of CRC screening, score on the Japanese version of the eHEALS (J-eHEALS), sociodemographic attributes (sex, age, marital status, educational attainment, and household income level), and frequency of Internet usage were obtained. Sociodemographic attributes and frequency of Internet usage were used as control variables in the multiple regression and logistic regression models. eHealth literacy was positively associated with CRC knowledge (β=.116, increase of 1 point in the eHEALS score signified that participants were 1.03 times (95% CI=1.01-1.05) more likely to undergo CRC screening. Internet users with high eHealth literacy are more likely to have knowledge and previous screening practice related to CRC compared to those with low eHealth literacy.

  15. An economic evaluation of colorectal cancer screening in primary care practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meenan, Richard T; Anderson, Melissa L; Chubak, Jessica; Vernon, Sally W; Fuller, Sharon; Wang, Ching-Yun; Green, Beverly B

    2015-06-01

    Recent colorectal cancer screening studies focus on optimizing adherence. This study evaluated the cost effectiveness of interventions using electronic health records (EHRs); automated mailings; and stepped support increases to improve 2-year colorectal cancer screening adherence. Analyses were based on a parallel-design, randomized trial in which three stepped interventions (EHR-linked mailings ["automated"]; automated plus telephone assistance ["assisted"]; or automated and assisted plus nurse navigation to testing completion or refusal [navigated"]) were compared to usual care. Data were from August 2008 to November 2011, with analyses performed during 2012-2013. Implementation resources were micro-costed; research and registry development costs were excluded. Incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs) were based on number of participants current for screening per guidelines over 2 years. Bootstrapping examined robustness of results. Intervention delivery cost per participant current for screening ranged from $21 (automated) to $27 (navigated). Inclusion of induced testing costs (e.g., screening colonoscopy) lowered expenditures for automated (ICER=-$159) and assisted (ICER=-$36) relative to usual care over 2 years. Savings arose from increased fecal occult blood testing, substituting for more expensive colonoscopies in usual care. Results were broadly consistent across demographic subgroups. More intensive interventions were consistently likely to be cost effective relative to less intensive interventions, with willingness to pay values of $600-$1,200 for an additional person current for screening yielding ≥80% probability of cost effectiveness. Two-year cost effectiveness of a stepped approach to colorectal cancer screening promotion based on EHR data is indicated, but longer-term cost effectiveness requires further study. Copyright © 2015 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. International Cancer Screening Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    The International Cancer Screening Network promotes evidence-based cancer screening implementation and evaluation with cooperation from multilateral organizations around the globe. Learn more about how ICSN aims to reduce the global burden of cancer by supporting research and international collaboration.

  17. Depression Screening and Patient Outcomes in Cancer : A Systematic Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, Anna; Roseman, Michelle; Milette, Katherine; Coyne, James C.; Stefanek, Michael E.; Ziegelstein, Roy C.; Arthurs, Erin; Leavens, Allison; Palmer, Steven C.; Stewart, Donna E.; de Jonge, Peter; Thombs, Brett D.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Several practice guidelines recommend screening for depression in cancer care, but no systematic reviews have examined whether there is evidence that depression screening benefits cancer patients. The objective was to evaluate the potential benefits of depression screening in cancer

  18. Quality improvement project in cervical cancer screening: practical measures for monitoring laboratory performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarkkanen, Jussi; Geagea, Antoine; Nieminen, Pekka; Anttila, Ahti

    2003-01-01

    We conducted a quality improvement project in a cervical cancer screening programme in Helsinki in order to see if detection of precancerous lesions could be influenced by external (participation rate) and internal (laboratory praxis) quality measures. In order to increase the participation rate, a second personal invitation to Pap-test was mailed to nonparticipants of the first call. In order to improve the quality of screening, the cytotechnicians monitored their performance longitudinally by recording the number of slides reviewed per day, the pick-up rate of abnormal smears, the report of the consulting cytopathologist, and the number of histologically verified lesions detected from the cases that they had screened. Regular sessions were held to compare the histological findings with the cytological findings of all cases referred for colposcopy. No pressure was applied on the cytotechnicians to ensure that they felt comfortable with their daily workload. A total of 110 000 smears were screened for cervical cancer at the Helsinki City Hospital during 1996-99. Initially, the overall participation rate increased from 62% to 71%. The number of histologically confirmed precancerous lesions (CIN 1-3) more than doubled and their detection rate increased from 0.32% to 0.72%. Continuous education and feedback from daily work performance were important, yet rather inexpensive means in increasing laboratory performance. Additional measures are needed to further increase the participation rate. Impact of the quality measures on cancer incidence needs to be assessed later on.

  19. Prostate Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... treat. There is no standard screening test for prostate cancer. Researchers are studying different tests to find those ... PSA level may be high if you have prostate cancer. It can also be high if you have ...

  20. [Cancer screening in clinical practice: the value of shared decision-making].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornuz, Jacques; Junod, Noëlle; Pasche, Olivier; Guessous, Idris

    2010-07-14

    Shared decision-making approach to uncertain clinical situations such as cancer screening seems more appropriate than ever. Shared decision making can be defined as an interactive process where physician and patient share all the stages of the decision making process. For patients who wish to be implicated in the management of their health conditions, physicians might express difficulty to do so. Use of patient decision aids appears to improve such process of shared decision making.

  1. C ERVICAL CANCER SCREENING: KNOWLEDGE, ATTITUDE AND PRACTICES IN A PRIMARY HEALTH CENTRE S IN RURAL INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhivya

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVES: Cervical cancer is the most common preventable cancer noted in Indian women , having a major impact on their lives. Approximately , 70% of people reside in villages in India. Hence, the objectives of this study were to find the knowledge of women regarding cervical cancer, to determine attitude and practices towards screening. METHODS : A cross - sectional study was conducted in Primary Health Centre , Periapodu, Tamil Nadu, India between January 2015 and May 2015 where 1670 participants between the ages of 21 - 65 years were randomly chosen by selecting every 3 rd woman attending the PHC for any reason. After exclusion, 1200 participants were included in the study. RESULTS : Mean age of the study population was 45.3 years. An awa reness of 75.42% was noted for cervical cancer, 43.25% for Human Papillomavirus and 32.42% that it was vaccine preventable, the major source of information being Healthcare Providers (70%. Despite 50.58% thinking that they were at risk of cervical cancer, only 31% had undergone a pap smear. However, 69.96% of the unscreened population were ready to undergo screening. Independent predictors for doing Pap test included age >35, higher parity, literacy and adequate knowledge of cervical cancer screening ( P <0. 05. CONCLUSION: This study shows a low level of knowledge, attitude and practice on cervical cancer among women in rural India. Increasing women’s awareness would be a first step in the long chain of conditions to attain a lower incidence and mortality

  2. Screening for colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Hans J.; Jakobsen, Karen V.; Christensen, Ib J.

    2011-01-01

    Emerging results indicate that screening improves survival of patients with colorectal cancer. Therefore, screening programs are already implemented or are being considered for implementation in Asia, Europe and North America. At present, a great variety of screening methods are available including...... into improvements of screening for colorectal cancer includes blood-based biological markers, such as proteins, DNA and RNA in combination with various demographically and clinically parameters into a "risk assessment evaluation" (RAE) test. It is assumed that such a test may lead to higher acceptance among...... procedures for colorectal cancer. Therefore, results of present research, validating RAE tests, are awaited with interest....

  3. Mass screening in breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strax, P.

    1977-01-01

    Some questions about mass screening in breast cancer are answered it being concluded that: 1. mass screening for the detection of early breast cancer is the only means with proven potential for lowering the death rate of the disease; 2. mammography is an importante - if not the most important modality in mass screening; 3. new film - screen combinations generally available are capable of producing mammograms of excelent quality with radiation doses down to .1 rad into the body of breast. The risk of malignant changes from such dosage - even when given periodically is negligeable. New equipment, to be available, shortly, will use the new film - screen combinations in an automated manner with must reduce cost in time, filme, personnel and processing - of more than 50%. This would make mass screening more practical. (M.A.) [pt

  4. Colorectal Cancer Screening

    OpenAIRE

    Quintero, Enrique; Saito, Yutaka; Hassan, Cessare; Senore, Carlo

    2012-01-01

    Colorectal cancer, which is the leading cancer in Singapore, can be prevented by increased use of screening and polypectomy. A range of screening strategies such as stool-based tests, flexible sigmoidoscopy, colonoscopy and computed tomography colonography are available, each with different strengths and limitations. Primary care physicians should discuss appropriate screening modalities with their patients, tailored to their individual needs. Physicians, patients and the government should wo...

  5. Colorectal cancer screening

    OpenAIRE

    Plumb, A. A.; Halligan, S.

    2015-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is a major public health burden worldwide. There is clear-cut evidence that screening will reduce colorectal cancer mortality and the only contentious issue is which screening tool to use. Most evidence points towards screening with fecal occult blood testing. The immunochemical fecal occult blood tests have a higher sensitivity than the guaiac-based tests. In addition, their automation and haemoglobin quantification allows a threshold for colonoscopy to be selected that can...

  6. Breast Cancer Screening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altaf, Fadwa J.

    2004-01-01

    Breast cancer is a very common health problem in Saudi females that can be reduced by early detection through introducing breast cancer screening. Literature review reveals significant reduction in breast cancer incidence and outcome after the beginning of breast cancer screening. The objectives of this article are to highlight the significance of breast cancer screening in different international societies and to write the major guidelines of breast cancer screening in relation to other departments involved with more emphasis on the Pathology Department guidelines in tissue handling, diagnostic criteria and significance of the diagnosis. This article summaries and acknowledges major work carried out before, and recommends similar modified work in order to meet the requirement for the Saudi society. (author)

  7. Cervical cancer screening, human papillomavirus vaccination practices and current infrastructure in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schejter, Eduardo; Bornstein, Jacob; Siegler, Efraim

    2013-11-22

    The incidence rates for premalignant lesions in Jewish women in Israel are similar to those observed in Western countries, but the incidence of cervical cancer in Israel is low; this discrepancy is not yet clearly understood. Because of the low incidence of cervical cancer in Israel, it was decided to base cervical cancer prevention on opportunistic screening: every woman from the ages of 35-54 years can have a Pap test smear free of charge every 3 years. Over the last decade 12.2% of the women population had an annual Pap test. From 36 to 50% of women who attended the Clalit Health Maintenance Organization (HMO) and the Maccabi HMO, the two largest HMOs in Israel, did so. There were also discrepancies between women of different socio-economic status (SES): Israel Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology recommends continuing cytologic screening in vaccinated women as recommended for the general population. This article forms part of a regional report entitled "Comprehensive Control of HPV Infections and Related Diseases in Israel" Vaccine Volume 31, Supplement 8, 2013. Updates of the progress in the field are presented in a separate monograph entitled "Comprehensive Control of HPV Infections and Related Diseases" Vaccine Volume 30, Supplement 5, 2012. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Shared decision making for prostate cancer screening: the results of a combined analysis of two practice-based randomized controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheridan, Stacey L; Golin, Carol; Bunton, Audrina; Lykes, John B; Schwartz, Bob; McCormack, Lauren; Driscoll, David; Bangdiwala, Shrikant I; Harris, Russell P

    2012-11-13

    Professional societies recommend shared decision making (SDM) for prostate cancer screening, however, most efforts have promoted informed rather than shared decision making. The objective of this study is to 1) examine the effects of a prostate cancer screening intervention to promote SDM and 2) determine whether framing prostate information in the context of other clearly beneficial men's health services affects decisions. We conducted two separate randomized controlled trials of the same prostate cancer intervention (with or without additional information on more clearly beneficial men's health services). For each trial, we enrolled a convenience sample of 2 internal medicine practices, and their interested physicians and male patients with no prior history of prostate cancer (for a total of 4 practices, 28 physicians, and 128 men across trials). Within each practice site, we randomized men to either 1) a video-based decision aid and researcher-led coaching session or 2) a highway safety video. Physicians at each site received a 1-hour educational session on prostate cancer and SDM. To assess intervention effects, we measured key components of SDM, intent to be screened, and actual screening. After finding that results did not vary by trial, we combined data across sites, adjusting for the random effects of both practice and physician. Compared to an attention control, our prostate cancer screening intervention increased men's perceptions that screening is a decision (absolute difference +41%; 95% CI 25 to 57%) and men's knowledge about prostate cancer screening (absolute difference +34%; 95% CI 19% to 50%), but had no effect on men's self-reported participation in shared decisions or their participation at their preferred level. Overall, the intervention decreased screening intent (absolute difference -34%; 95% CI -50% to -18%) and actual screening rates (absolute difference -22%; 95% CI -38 to -7%) with no difference in effect by frame. SDM interventions can

  9. Increasing Cervical Cancer Screening in Underserved Populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorsainvil, Merlyn A

    The incidence of cervical cancer has declined dramatically due to Papanicolaou smear testing. However, some minority populations continue to suffer with high incidences and/or death rates of cervical cancer, due to lack of screening. This article updates on cervical cancer screening and prevention and discusses cultural impacts on screening. Knowledge deficits disproportionately affect ethnic minority groups and contribute to cancer incidence, whereas lack of healthcare coverage and low socioeconomic status contribute to screening disparities. Although minority women have cultural beliefs and practices that influence screening, recommendation and/or education from a provider often lead to screening.

  10. Knowledge about cervical cancer screening and its practice among female health care workers in southern Ethiopia: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dulla D

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Dubale Dulla,1 Deresse Daka,2 Negash Wakgari1 1School of Nursing and Midwifery, 2Department of Medical Science, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Hawassa University, Hawassa, Ethiopia Background: Cervical cancer remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality among the women in the world. Early screening for cervical cancer is a key intervention in reduction of maternal deaths. Health care workers have a significant contribution to improve cervical cancer screening practice among women. Hence, this study aimed to assess the knowledge and practice of cervical cancer screening among female health care workers in southern Ethiopia.Methods: Institution-based cross-sectional study was conducted during March and April, 2015. All hospitals in Hawassa city administration and Sidama zone were purposively selected. A simple random sampling technique was used to draw the health centers. After proportional allocations to their respective health facilities, a total of 367 female health workers were selected by simple random sampling technique. A structured and pretested questionnaire was used to collect the data. Data were entered to SPSS version 20.0 for further analysis. Logistic regression analyses were used to see the association of different variables.Results: Out of the total respondents, 319 (86.9% had a good level of knowledge on cervical cancer. Similarly, a majority of them, 329 (89.6%, 321 (87.5%, and 295 (80.4%, knew about the risk factors, symptoms, and outcomes of cervical cancer, respectively. More than two thirds of the respondents, 283 (77.1%, knew that there is a procedure used to detect premalignant cervical lesions and 138 (37.6% of them mentioned visual inspection with acetic acid as a screening method. In this study, only 42 (11.4% of the respondents were screened for cervical cancer (confidence interval [CI]: 8.7, 13.9. Being a physician (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] =0.12, 95% CI: 0.02, 0.79 and working in a cervical cancer

  11. PET in cancer screening: a controversial imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su Minggang; Tan Tianzhi

    2012-01-01

    Malignancy has been one of the most dangerous threats to human health. Early diagnosis and treatment are key factors for improving prognosis. Cancer screening is an important way to detect early stage cancer and precancerous lesion. PET has been used increasingly in cancer screening in accordance with the requirement of the public. Though a great number of data show that PET can find some subclinical malignancy, yet as a cancer screening modality, PET is still controversial in contemporary medical practice. The aim of this article is to review the application status and existing problem of PET in cancer screening, and to offer some recognition and view about cancer srceening. (authors)

  12. Screening for oral cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jitender, Solanki; Sarika, Gupta; Varada, Hiremath R; Omprakash, Yadav; Mohsin, Khan

    2016-11-01

    Oral cancer is considered as a serious health problem resulting in high morbidity and mortality. Early detection and prevention play a key role in controlling the burden of oral cancer worldwide. The five-year survival rate of oral cancer still remains low and delayed diagnosis is considered as one of the major reasons. This increases the demand for oral screening. Currently, screening of oral cancer is largely based on visual examination. Various evidence strongly suggest the validity of visual inspection in reducing mortality in patients at risk for oral cancer. Simple visual examination is accompanied with adjunctive techniques for subjective interpretation of dysplastic changes. These include toluidine blue staining, brush biopsy, chemiluminescence and tissue autofluorescence. This review highlights the efficacy of various diagnostic methods in screening of oral cancer. © 2016 Old City Publishing, Inc.

  13. Breast cancer screening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vandenbroucke, A.

    1987-01-01

    Many studies have shown that breast cancer screening is able to reduce breast cancer mortality, including the HIP study, the Swedish Trial and the Netherlands studies. Mammography is considered as the most effective method for breast cancer screening but it might be unfeasible for some reasons: - the population acceptability of the method might be low. Indeed, most populations of the South of Europe are less compliant to mass screening than populations of the North of Europe; - the medical equipment and personnel - radiologists and pathologists - might be insufficient; - it might be too costly for the National Health Service, specially where the incidence rate of breast cancer is relatively low (i.e. Greece, Portugal). The validity of screening tests is judged by their sensitivity and their specificity

  14. Practicalities of developing a breast magnetic resonance imaging screening service for women at high risk for breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiely, Belinda E; Hossack, Lucinda K; Shadbolt, Clair L; Davis, Anna; Cassumbhoy, Robin; Moodie, Kate; Antill, Yoland; Mitchell, Gillian

    2011-10-01

    Demand for screening breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for women with a hereditary predisposition to breast cancer has increased since the introduction of a medicare item number. To aid future service planning, we examined the practicalities of establishing and running a breast MRI screening programme for high risk women and to describe the early outcomes of our screening programme. We undertook a retrospective audit of prospectively collected data. Women detection rate; and patient satisfaction via questionnaire. From 2006 to 2009, 82 women completed a round one screening MRI and 45, 21 and one women completed second, third and fourth round annual MRI studies, respectively. Median MRI process times were: booking 20 min; attendance in radiology department 90 min; imaging duration 45 min; reporting by one radiologist 30 min. Of the 82 round one studies, 23 (28%) were reported as ≥Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System three requiring further investigation. Of the round two and three studies completed, 13/45 (28%) and 2/21 (9%) have been recalled, respectively. Seven malignancies were detected. Questionnaires revealed women were satisfied with the service. Significant time, staff and equipment is required to run an effective breast MRI screening programme and this must be considered by future service providers.

  15. Screening for lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Infante, Maurizio V; Pedersen, Jesper H

    2010-01-01

    In lung cancer screening with low-dose spiral computed tomography (LDCT), the proportion of stage I disease is 50-85%, and the survival rate for resected stage I disease can exceed 90%, but proof of real benefit in terms of lung cancer mortality reduction must come from the several randomized...

  16. Cervical cancer prevention: Asian-American women's knowledge and participation in screening practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robison, Katina; Clark, Lindsay; Eng, Whitney; Wu, Lily; Raker, Christina; Clark, Melissa; Tejada-Berges, Trevor; Dizon, Don S

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare cervical cancer knowledge and prevention strategy participation among Chinese-American women compared with Southeast-Asian-American women. We performed a cross-sectional survey of Chinese and Southeast Asian women in Rhode Island. Anonymous surveys were administered following informed consent. The survey included demographics and questions related to health care practices, cervical cancer, and the human papilloma virus (HPV). Categorical variables were compared by Fisher's exact test. Mean scores of correct answers on the knowledge questions were compared by Student's t-test and analysis of variance. Ninety-six Chinese women and 132 Southeast Asian women were included in the analysis. Sixty-seven percent of Chinese women had at least a college education compared with 37% of Southeast Asian women (p women reported annual household incomes of greater than $100,000 compared with 3% of Southeast Asian women (p = .0003). Twenty percent of Southeast Asian women did not have health insurance compared with 10% of Chinese women (p = .06). Among both groups, 25% of participants either never had a pap test or did not know if they ever had a pap test. There was a greater lack of knowledge about the relationship between HPV and cervical cancer among Chinese (mean 2.9 out of 8 questions) compared with Southeast Asian (mean 3.6 out of 8 questions; p = .02). Regardless of ethnic subgroup, education, or income, all participants had a poor knowledge of cervical cancer and HPV. This study supports the need for improvement in cervical cancer prevention education among all Asian women. Copyright © 2014 Jacobs Institute of Women's Health. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Lung cancer screening: Update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyea Young [Dept. of Radiology, Center for Lung Cancer, National Cancer Center, Goyang (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-09-15

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths worldwide as well as in Korea. A recent National Lung Screening Trial in U.S. revealed that low-dose CT (LDCT) screening reduced lung cancer specific mortality by 20% in high risk individuals as compared to chest radiograph screening. Based on this evidence, several expert societies in U.S. and Korean multisociety collaborative committee developed guidelines for recommendation of lung cancer screening using annual LDCT in high risk populations. In most of the societies high risk groups are defined as persons aged 55 to 74 years, who are current smokers with history of smoking of more than 30 packs per year or ex-smokers, who quit smoking up to 15 or more years ago. The benefits of LDCT screening are modestly higher than the harms in high risk individuals. The harms included a high rate of false-positive findings, over-diagnosis and radiation-related deaths. Invasive diagnostic procedure due to false positive findings may lead to complications. LDCT should be performed in qualified hospitals and interpreted by expert radiologists. Recently, the American College of Radiology released the current version of Lung cancer CT screening Reporting and Data Systems. Education and actions to stop smoking must be offered to current smokers.

  18. Lung cancer screening: Update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hyea Young

    2015-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths worldwide as well as in Korea. A recent National Lung Screening Trial in U.S. revealed that low-dose CT (LDCT) screening reduced lung cancer specific mortality by 20% in high risk individuals as compared to chest radiograph screening. Based on this evidence, several expert societies in U.S. and Korean multisociety collaborative committee developed guidelines for recommendation of lung cancer screening using annual LDCT in high risk populations. In most of the societies high risk groups are defined as persons aged 55 to 74 years, who are current smokers with history of smoking of more than 30 packs per year or ex-smokers, who quit smoking up to 15 or more years ago. The benefits of LDCT screening are modestly higher than the harms in high risk individuals. The harms included a high rate of false-positive findings, over-diagnosis and radiation-related deaths. Invasive diagnostic procedure due to false positive findings may lead to complications. LDCT should be performed in qualified hospitals and interpreted by expert radiologists. Recently, the American College of Radiology released the current version of Lung cancer CT screening Reporting and Data Systems. Education and actions to stop smoking must be offered to current smokers

  19. Screening for skin cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helfand, M; Mahon, S M; Eden, K B; Frame, P S; Orleans, C T

    2001-04-01

    Malignant melanoma is often lethal, and its incidence in the United States has increased rapidly over the past 2 decades. Nonmelanoma skin cancer is seldom lethal, but, if advanced, can cause severe disfigurement and morbidity. Early detection and treatment of melanoma might reduce mortality, while early detection and treatment of nonmelanoma skin cancer might prevent major disfigurement and to a lesser extent prevent mortality. Current recommendations from professional societies regarding screening for skin cancer vary. To examine published data on the effectiveness of routine screening for skin cancer by a primary care provider, as part of an assessment for the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force. We searched the MEDLINE database for papers published between 1994 and June 1999, using search terms for screening, physical examination, morbidity, and skin neoplasms. For information on accuracy of screening tests, we used the search terms sensitivity and specificity. We identified the most important studies from before 1994 from the Guide to Clinical Preventive Services, second edition, and from high-quality reviews. We used reference lists and expert recommendations to locate additional articles. Two reviewers independently reviewed a subset of 500 abstracts. Once consistency was established, the remainder were reviewed by one reviewer. We included studies if they contained data on yield of screening, screening tests, risk factors, risk assessment, effectiveness of early detection, or cost effectiveness. We abstracted the following descriptive information from full-text published studies of screening and recorded it in an electronic database: type of screening study, study design, setting, population, patient recruitment, screening test description, examiner, advertising targeted at high-risk groups or not targeted, reported risk factors of participants, and procedure for referrals. We also abstracted the yield of screening data including probabilities and numbers

  20. [Latest international guidelines for screening, prevention and treatment of familial breast cancer - implications for the relevant practice in Hungary].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romics, László; Kocsis, Judit; Ormándi, Katalin; Molnár, Béla Ákos

    2016-07-01

    Screening, prevention and treatment of familial breast cancer require a multidisciplinary approach. New guidelines were published in the United Kingdom for the management of familial breast cancer. The authors summarise these new guidelines and analyse the relevant practice in Hungary. Relevant guidelines of the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence and Familial Breast Cancer Report (NHS Scotland) are described. New guidelines will increase the number of genetic tests as well as genetic counselling. An increase in the number of breast magnetic resonance imaging is expected, too. Chemoprevention can be offered for individuals with medium risk and above. Promising trials are underway with platinum based chemotherapy and polyADP-ribose polimerase inhibitors for the systemic treatment of familial breast cancer. The increase in the number of genetic tests, counselling, and breast magnetic resonance imaging may have a significant impact on health care budget. These guidelines will change some aspects of the current management of familial breast cancer. Orv. Hetil., 2016, 157(28), 1117-1125.

  1. Differences in diagnostic activity in general practice and findings for individuals invited to the danish screening programme for colorectal cancer: a population-based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juul, Jakob Søgaard; Andersen, Berit; Laurberg, Søren; Carlsen, Anders Helles; Olesen, Frede; Vedsted, Peter

    2018-06-22

    To investigate the diagnostic activity in general practice and the cumulative incidence of colorectal cancer (CRC) in individuals invited to the Danish national screening programme for CRC. A historical population-based cohort study. The Danish CRC screening programme and general practice. The 376,198 individuals invited to the Danish CRC screening programme from 1 March to 31 December 2014. The diagnostic activity (consultations and haemoglobin measures) in general practice in the year preceding the screening invitation and the cumulated incidence of CRC in the year following the screening invitation. Screening participants had significantly higher diagnostic activity than non-participants. Individuals with a positive faecal immunochemical test (FIT) had higher diagnostic activity compared to individuals with a negative FIT, and a small increase in the months leading up to the invitation. Individuals with a screen-detected CRC had lower diagnostic activity than individuals with no CRC. In total, 308 (25.3%) of CRCs diagnosed in the invited population were diagnosed outside the screening programme. Non-participants with CRC more often had low socio-economic status, high comorbidity and stage IV CRC than participants with CRC. There was a tendency that participants and those with a positive FIT had a higher diagnostic activity the year before the screening. This was not seen for those with CRC detected through screening. CRC must still be diagnosed in general practice in the invited population and non-participants are of special interest as they have higher risk of late stage CRC. Key Points Current awareness:Individuals with colorectal cancer (CRC) in screening may be symptomatic and CRC may still occur outside screening in the invited population. Most important points:The majority of individuals with CRC in screening cannot be expected to be diagnosed on symptomatic presentation in general practice GPs have to be aware that CRC still occurs outside screening in

  2. Cancer Screening Among Patients Who Self-Identify as Muslim: Combining Self-Reported Data with Medical Records in a Family Practice Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lofters, A K; Slater, M; Vahabi, M

    2018-02-01

    Cancer screening is a core component of family medicine but screening inequalities are well documented in Canada for foreign-born persons. Although people of Muslim faith and culture are the fastest growing immigrant population in Canada, there is little information in the literature about their cancer screening practices. Determining screening gaps could inform practice-based quality improvement initiatives. We conducted a retrospective chart review combining patient-level medical record data with self-reported religious affiliation to examine the relationship between religion and cancer screening in a large multi-site urban family practice. Religious affiliation was classified as Muslim, other affiliation, or atheist/no religious affiliation. 5311 patients were included in the study sample. Muslim patients were significantly less likely to prefer English for spoken communication than the other two groups, less likely to be Canadian-born, more likely to have a female family physician, and were over-represented in the lowest income quintile. Muslim women were most likely to be up-to-date on breast cancer screening (85.2 vs. 77.5 % for those with other religions vs. 69.5 % for those with no religious affiliation). There were no significant differences in cancer screening by physician sex. In this pilot study conducted within a primary care practice, we used self-reported data on religious affiliation to examine possible inequities in cancer screening and observed intriguing variations in screening by self-identified religious affiliation. Future efforts to collect and use similar patient-level data should incorporate non-official languages and intensively outreach to patients with less health system contact. Regardless, the family medicine context may be the ideal setting to collect and act on patient-level sociodemographic data such as religious affiliation.

  3. Knowledge, attitude and practice of cervical cancer screening among women attending gynecology clinics in a tertiary level medical care center in southeastern Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbamara, Sunday U; Ikpeze, Okechukwu C; Okonkwo, John E N; Onyiaorah, Igwebuike V; Ukah, Cornelius O

    2011-01-01

    To describe the knowledge, attitudes and practices of gynecology clinic attendees in a tertiary level healthcare center in Nigeria. This is a descriptive, cross-sectional, questionnaire-based study conducted at Nnamdi Azikwe University Teaching Hospital in Nigeria in December 2007. A total of 200 questionnaires were distributed, and 198 were properly completed. The 198 completely and properly filled questionnaires formed the basis of the analysis. Twenty-five (12.6%) of the women were aware of the cervical cancer screening test, while 173 (87.4%) had never heard of the test before. Only 8% of the respondents had knowledge of the prevention of cervical cancer, but none of them were aware of the introduction of the human papillomavirus vaccine. Twenty-one (84.0%) of those women who were aware of the cervical cancer screening test got their information from healthcare providers, 3 (12.0%) from television and 2 (8.0%) from radio. Of the 25 respondents who were aware of the cervical cancer screening test, 15 (60.0%) had received at least a Pap smear test. All of the screening was done as an opportunistic screening exercise. A total of 119 (85.0%) of the women were not able to be screened because they were not aware of the cervical cancer smear screening, while 4 (3.2%) felt that it was unnecessary. There is a significant association between the educational status and the knowledge of the cervical smear Pap test (chi2 = 10.14, p value = 0.001). Eighty (57.1%) of the women agreed that they would like to undertake cervical cancer screening, while 60 (42.9%) would decline the cervical cancer screening test. The knowledge about cervical cancer in this study was very low. This poor knowledge may limit the utilization of cervical cancer prevention programs. This study underscores the need to establish an intensive and sustainable awareness campaign on the prevention of cancer of the cervix.

  4. Abnormal Cervical Cancer Screening Test Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... AQ FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS FAQ187 GYNECOLOGIC PROBLEMS Abnormal Cervical Cancer Screening Test Results • What is cervical cancer screening? • What causes abnormal cervical cancer screening test ...

  5. Primary care colorectal cancer screening correlates with breast cancer screening: implications for colorectal cancer screening improvement interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Jennifer M; Pandhi, Nancy; Kraft, Sally; Potvien, Aaron; Carayon, Pascale; Smith, Maureen A

    2018-04-25

    National colorectal cancer (CRC) screening rates have plateaued. To optimize interventions targeting those unscreened, a better understanding is needed of how this preventive service fits in with multiple preventive and chronic care needs managed by primary care providers (PCPs). This study examines whether PCP practices of other preventive and chronic care needs correlate with CRC screening. We performed a retrospective cohort study of 90 PCPs and 33,137 CRC screening-eligible patients. Five PCP quality metrics (breast cancer screening, cervical cancer screening, HgbA1c and LDL testing, and blood pressure control) were measured. A baseline correlation test was performed between these metrics and PCP CRC screening rates. Multivariable logistic regression with clustering at the clinic-level estimated odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for these PCP quality metrics, patient and PCP characteristics, and their relationship to CRC screening. PCP CRC screening rates have a strong correlation with breast cancer screening rates (r = 0.7414, p < 0.001) and a weak correlation with the other quality metrics. In the final adjusted model, the only PCP quality metric that significantly predicted CRC screening was breast cancer screening (OR 1.25; 95% CI 1.11-1.42; p < 0.001). PCP CRC screening rates are highly concordant with breast cancer screening. CRC screening is weakly concordant with cervical cancer screening and chronic disease management metrics. Efforts targeting PCPs to increase CRC screening rates could be bundled with breast cancer screening improvement interventions to increase their impact and success.

  6. [Organized breast cancer screening].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouëssé, Jacques; Sancho-Garnier, Hélèn

    2014-02-01

    Breast screening programs are increasingly controversial, especially regarding two points: the number of breast cancer deaths they avoid, and the problem of over-diagnosis and over-treatment. The French national breast cancer screening program was extended to cover the whole country in 2004. Ten years later it is time to examine the risk/benefit ratio of this program and to discuss the need for change. Like all forms of cancer management, screening must be regularly updated, taking into account the state of the art, new evidence, and uncertainties. All screening providers should keep themselves informed of the latest findings. In the French program, women aged 50-74 with no major individual or familial risk factors for breast cancer are offered screening mammography and clinical breast examination every two years. Images considered non suspicious of malignancy by a first reader are re-examined by a second reader. The devices and procedures are subjected to quality controls. Participating radiologists (both public and private) are required to read at least 500 mammographies per year. The program's national participation rate was 52.7 % in 2012. When individual screening outside of the national program is taken into account (nearly 15 % of women), coverage appears close to the European recommendation of 65 %. Breast cancer mortality has been falling in France by 0.6 % per year for over 30 years, starting before mass screening was implemented, and by 1.5 % since 2005. This decline can be attributed in part to earlier diagnosis and better treatment, so that the specific impact of screening cannot easily be measured. Over-treatment, defined as the detection and treatment of low-malignancy tumors that would otherwise not have been detected in a person's lifetime, is a major negative effect of screening, but its frequency is not precisely known (reported to range from 1 % to 30 %). In view of these uncertainties, it would be advisable to modify the program in order to

  7. Knowledge, attitude about breast cancer and practice of breast cancer screening among female health care professionals: a study from Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akpinar, Yeliz Yelen; Baykan, Zeynep; Naçar, Melis; Gün, Iskender; Çetinkaya, Fevziye

    2011-01-01

    The awareness of health professionals about breast cancer prevention is of vital importance, since their beliefs and behaviors may have a major impact on other women. The aim of this study was to investigate the knowledge, and attitudes regarding risk factors for breast cancer as well as screening such as breast self-examination, clinical breast examination and mammography among different groups of female health professionals. In this cross- sectional study, 444 female health professionals in various health centers located in Corum Province, Turkey, were interviewed using a self-administered questionnaire. The mean age was 33.1 ± 6.1 and most were married (81.3%). The rate of feeling under risk regarding breast cancer among female health personnel was 31.3%. The majority (98.4 %) perceived breast self-examination as a beneficial method for the early detection of breast cancer. Although 81.3 % of the participants stated that they did breast self examination, only 27.3 % reported doing so on a regular basis (performed monthly or once per menstrual cycle). The most common reason for not doing breast self-examination was the belief that it was not necessary (45.8 %). Of the entire group, the rate of having a mammography was 10.1% and the rate of clinical breast examination was 24.8%. Health professionals are a direct source of medical information to the public. The use of breast self-examination and mammography was found lower than expected when considering the fact that participants were health care professionals.

  8. Shared decision making for prostate cancer screening: the results of a combined analysis of two practice-based randomized controlled trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheridan Stacey L

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Professional societies recommend shared decision making (SDM for prostate cancer screening, however, most efforts have promoted informed rather than shared decision making. The objective of this study is to 1 examine the effects of a prostate cancer screening intervention to promote SDM and 2 determine whether framing prostate information in the context of other clearly beneficial men’s health services affects decisions. Methods We conducted two separate randomized controlled trials of the same prostate cancer intervention (with or without additional information on more clearly beneficial men’s health services. For each trial, we enrolled a convenience sample of 2 internal medicine practices, and their interested physicians and male patients with no prior history of prostate cancer (for a total of 4 practices, 28 physicians, and 128 men across trials. Within each practice site, we randomized men to either 1 a video-based decision aid and researcher-led coaching session or 2 a highway safety video. Physicians at each site received a 1-hour educational session on prostate cancer and SDM. To assess intervention effects, we measured key components of SDM, intent to be screened, and actual screening. After finding that results did not vary by trial, we combined data across sites, adjusting for the random effects of both practice and physician. Results Compared to an attention control, our prostate cancer screening intervention increased men’s perceptions that screening is a decision (absolute difference +41%; 95% CI 25 to 57% and men’s knowledge about prostate cancer screening (absolute difference +34%; 95% CI 19% to 50%, but had no effect on men’s self-reported participation in shared decisions or their participation at their preferred level. Overall, the intervention decreased screening intent (absolute difference −34%; 95% CI −50% to −18% and actual screening rates (absolute difference −22%; 95% CI −38 to

  9. Risks of Endometrial Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health history and certain medicines can affect the risk of developing endometrial cancer. Anything that increases your ... have abnormal vaginal bleeding, check with your doctor. Risks of Endometrial Cancer Screening Key Points Screening tests ...

  10. Risks of Esophageal Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... alcohol use, and Barrett esophagus can affect the risk of developing esophageal cancer. Anything that increases the ... tissue gives off less light than normal tissue. Risks of Esophageal Cancer Screening Key Points Screening tests ...

  11. Risks of Cervical Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... women. Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is the major risk factor for cervical cancer. Although most women with ... clinical trials is available from the NCI website . Risks of Cervical Cancer Screening Key Points Screening tests ...

  12. Knowledge of cervical cancer and screening practices of nurses at a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Cervical cancer, the most common cancer among women in Tanzania is strongly linked to Human Papilloma Virus. Precancerous lesions can be ... There was a significant association between knowledge levels of causes of cervical cancer and transmission of HPV and age. Knowledge was more adequate ...

  13. Brief Distress Screening in Clinical Practice: Does it Help to Effectively Allocate Psycho-Oncological Support to Female Cancer Inpatients?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermelink, Kerstin; Höhn, Henrik; Hasmüller, Stephan; Gallwas, Julia; Härtl, Kristin; Würstlein, Rachel; Köhm, Janna

    2014-05-01

    The usefulness of distress screening in cancer inpatient settings has rarely been investigated. This study evaluated a brief distress screening of inpatients in a breast cancer centre and a gynaecological cancer centre. Hospitalised patients with breast or gynaecological cancers were screened with the Distress Thermometer. Patients who scored above the cut-off, were referred by the medical staff, or self-referred were offered bedside psycho-oncological counselling. Of 125 patients, 68 (54.4%) received an offer of counselling, and 62 patients (49.6%) accepted. Most of the counselling was induced by distress screening. Only 4 (3.2%) patients self-referred to the counselling service. Of the counselled patients, 65.8% stated that they had substantially benefited from psycho-oncological support; only 5.6% of the non-counselled patients indicated that they might have benefited from psycho-oncological support. Almost all patients who will accept and benefit from psycho-oncological counselling can be identified if distress screening is used in conjunction with referrals by physicians and nurses. Distress screening is a worthwhile component in a framework of psycho-oncological support in a cancer inpatient setting. It paves the way to counselling for cancer inpatients who need it and are willing to accept it but hesitate to self-refer to psycho-oncological services.

  14. Costs Associated with Cervical Cancer Screening

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    Dr. Tom Cox, a practicing gynecologist and president of the American Society of Colposcopy and Cervical Pathology, provides a brief introduction to cervical cancer screening guidelines and human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA testing.

  15. Impact of Cancer Awareness Drive on Generating Understanding and Improving Screening Practices for Breast Cancer: a Study on College Teachers in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shankar, Abhishek; Roy, Shubham; Rath, Goura Kishor; Chakraborty, Abhijit; Kamal, Vineet Kumar; Biswas, Aalekhya Sarma

    2017-07-27

    Background: Breast cancer is the most common cancer among women in India and most present at advanced stage. Although early detection is the only way to reduce morbidity and mortality, people have a very low awareness about breast cancer signs and symptoms and screening practices. The purpose of this study was to assess the level of awareness and impact of awareness programs in adoption of safe practices in prevention and early detection. Methods: This assessment was part of a pink chain campaign on cancer awareness. During events from 2011 to 2015 at various women colleges in different parts in India, a pre-test of knowledge related to breast cancer was followed by an awareness program. Post-tests using the same questionnaire were conducted at the end of the interactive sessions, at 6 months and after1 year. Results: A total of 872 out of 985 teachers participated in the study (overall response rate of 88.5 %). Mean age of the study population was 41.6 years (range 28-59 yrs). There was a significant increase in level of knowledge regarding breast cancer at 6 months and this was sustained at 1 year. Adoption of breast self-examination (BSE) was significantly more frequent in comparison to CBE and mammography. Magazines and newspapers were sources for knowledge regarding screening tests for breast cancer for more than 60% of teachers. Regarding post-awareness at 6 months and 1 year, there was a significant change in alcohol and smoking habits. Major reasons came out to be ignorance (83%) at the start of the campaign which was changed to lack of time (37.7%), lethargic attitude (32.2 %) and lack of time (31.5 %) at 6 months and same at 1 year also. Conclusions: With our awareness program there was a significant increase in level of knowledge regarding breast cancer at 6 months and this was sustained at 1 year. Adoption of BSE was significantly greater in comparison to CBE, mammography. To inculcate safe lifestyle practices in people, awareness programmes such as

  16. Developments in Colorectal Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Colorectal Cancer Developments in Colorectal Cancer Screening Past Issues / Summer 2016 Table of ... at the National Cancer Institute, shared developments in colorectal cancer screening methods with NIH MedlinePlus magazine. What ...

  17. The association of breast density with breast cancer mortality in African American and white women screened in community practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shengfan; Ivy, Julie S; Diehl, Kathleen M; Yankaskas, Bonnie C

    2013-01-01

    The effect of breast density on survival outcomes for American women who participate in screening remains unknown. We studied the role of breast density on both breast cancer and other cause of mortality in screened women. Data for women with breast cancer, identified from the community-based Carolina Mammography Registry, were linked with the North Carolina cancer registry and NC death tapes for this study. Cause-specific Cox proportional hazards models were developed to analyze the effect of several covariates on breast cancer mortality-namely, age, race (African American/White), cancer stage at diagnosis (in situ, local, regional, and distant), and breast density (BI-RADS( ® ) 1-4). Two stratified Cox models were considered controlling for (1) age and race, and (2) age and cancer stage, respectively, to further study the effect of density. The cumulative incidence function with confidence interval approximation was used to quantify mortality probabilities over time. For this study, 22,597 screened women were identified as having breast cancer. The non-stratified and stratified Cox models showed no significant statistical difference in mortality between dense tissue and fatty tissue, while controlling for other covariate effects (p value = 0.1242, 0.0717, and 0.0619 for the non-stratified, race-stratified, and cancer stage-stratified models, respectively). The cumulative mortality probability estimates showed that women with dense breast tissues did not have significantly different breast cancer mortality than women with fatty breast tissue, regardless of age (e.g., 10-year confidence interval of mortality probabilities for whites aged 60-69 white: 0.056-0.090 vs. 0.054-0.083). Aging, African American race, and advanced cancer stage were found to be significant risk factors for breast cancer mortality (hazard ratio >1.0). After controlling for cancer incidence, there was not a significant association between mammographic breast density and mortality, adjusting

  18. Oral cancer screening: knowledge is not enough.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tax, C L; Haslam, S Kim; Brillant, Mgs; Doucette, H J; Cameron, J E; Wade, S E

    2017-08-01

    The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to investigate whether dental hygienists are transferring their knowledge of oral cancer screening into practice. This study also wanted to gain insight into the barriers that might prevent dental hygienists from performing these screenings. A 27-item survey instrument was constructed to study the oral cancer screening practices of licensed dental hygienists in Nova Scotia. A total of 623 practicing dental hygienists received the survey. The response rate was 34% (n = 212) yielding a maximum margin of error of 5.47 at a 95% confidence level. Descriptive statistics were calculated using IBM SPSS Statistics v21 software (Armonk, NY:IBM Corp). Qualitative thematic analysis was performed on any open-ended responses. This study revealed that while dental hygienists perceived themselves as being knowledgeable about oral cancer screening, they were not transferring this knowledge to actual practice. Only a small percentage (13%) of respondents were performing a comprehensive extra-oral examination, and 7% were performing a comprehensive intra-oral examination. The respondents identified several barriers that prevented them from completing a comprehensive oral cancer screening. Early detection of oral cancer reduces mortality rates so there is a professional responsibility to ensure that comprehensive oral cancer screenings are being performed on patients. Dental hygienists may not have the authority in a dental practice to overcome all of the barriers that are preventing them from performing these screenings. Public awareness about oral cancer screenings could increase the demand for screenings and thereby play a role in changing practice norms. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Knowledge Regarding Symptoms and Risk Factors and Screening of Breast Cancer in Women Under 30 Years and Their Practice Relative to Self-Examination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Jafari

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Breast cancer is the most common malignancy among women worldwide. In Iran, breast cancer ranks first among cancers diagnosed in women. Nevertheless, many of women haven’t enough knowledge about breast cancer risk factors and symptoms. The main reason for this escalating mortality is lack of awareness and late diagnosis of disease. The aim of present study assessed the knowledge about risk factors and symptoms of breast cancer, also the screening method and practice (Breast self examination about it. Methods: This is a descriptive and cross-sectional study. In this study 340 red crescent volunteer women participated in a national congress were selected with convenience sampling method. The data collection instrument consisted of a three part questionnaire which included demographic factors, Knowledge level about risk factors, symptoms and screening methods of breast cancer and questions concerning practice about breast self examination (BSE.The study tool was a researcher-designed questionnaire which could evaluated a number of variables. After data collection, analysis was carried out with descriptive tests by SPSS.16 software. Results: The mean age of subjects was 23±2.1yrs. Knowledge about breast cancer risk factors was very poor, the most widely known risk factor and lowest among the participants was family history of breast cancer (30.6 % and early menarche (under 12 years (0.3% respectively. Only 47.9% respondents correctly recognized breast lump and 11.2% breast discharge as the most common symptoms of breast cancer.30% of subjects were aware of BSE. However, a lesser proportion (9.4% was done BSE regular monthly every few months. Conclusion: Regarding the low level of the women’s knowledge about breast cancer especially in young educated women, screening and interventional programs to improve awareness and practice is essential.

  20. Cancer screening in patients infected with HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigel, Keith; Dubrow, Robert; Silverberg, Michael; Crothers, Kristina; Braithwaite, Scott; Justice, Amy

    2011-09-01

    Non-AIDS-defining cancers are a rising health concern among HIV-infected patients. Cancer screening is now an important component of health maintenance in HIV clinical practice. The decision to screen an HIV-infected patient for cancer should include an assessment of individualized risk for the particular cancer, life expectancy, and the harms and benefits associated with the screening test and its potential outcome. HIV-infected patients are at enhanced risk of several cancers compared to the general population; anal cancer, hepatocellular carcinoma, Hodgkin's lymphoma, and lung cancer all have good evidence demonstrating an enhanced risk in HIV-infected persons. A number of cancer screening interventions have shown benefit for specific cancers in the general population, but data on the application of these tests to HIV-infected persons are limited. Here we review the epidemiology and background literature relating to cancer screening interventions in HIV-infected persons. We then use these data to inform a conceptual model for evaluating HIV-infected patients for cancer screening.

  1. Development and initial testing of a computer-based patient decision aid to promote colorectal cancer screening for primary care practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fowler Beth

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although colorectal cancer screening is recommended by major policy-making organizations, rates of screening remain low. Our aim was to develop a patient-directed, computer-based decision aid about colorectal cancer screening and investigate whether it could increase patient interest in screening. Methods We used content from evidence-based literature reviews and our previous decision aid research to develop a prototype. We performed two rounds of usability testing with representative patients to revise the content and format. The final decision aid consisted of an introductory segment, four test-specific segments, and information to allow comparison of the tests across several key parameters. We then conducted a before-after uncontrolled trial of 80 patients 50–75 years old recruited from an academic internal medicine practice. Results Mean viewing time was 19 minutes. The decision aid improved patients' intent to ask providers for screening from a mean score of 2.8 (1 = not at all likely to ask, 4 = very likely to ask before viewing the decision aid to 3.2 afterwards (difference, 0.4; p Conclusion We conclude that a computer-based decision aid can increase patient intent to be screened and increase interest in screening. Practice Implications: This decision aid can be viewed by patients prior to provider appointments to increase motivation to be screened and to help them decide about which modality to use for screening. Further work is required to integrate the decision aid with other practice change strategies to raise screening rates to target levels.

  2. [Primary cervical cancer screening].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas-Hernández, Víctor Manuel; Vargas-Aguilar, Víctor Manuel; Tovar-Rodríguez, José María

    2015-01-01

    Cervico-uterine cancer screening with cytology decrease incidence by more than 50%. The cause of this cancer is the human papilloma virus high risk, and requires a sensitive test to provide sufficient sensitivity and specificity for early detection and greater interval period when the results are negative. The test of the human papilloma virus high risk, is effective and safe because of its excellent sensitivity, negative predictive value and optimal reproducibility, especially when combined with liquid-based cytology or biomarkers with viral load, with higher sensitivity and specificity, by reducing false positives for the detection of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2 or greater injury, with excellent clinical benefits to cervical cancer screening and related infection of human papilloma virus diseases, is currently the best test for early detection infection of human papillomavirus and the risk of carcinogenesis. Copyright © 2015 Academia Mexicana de Cirugía A.C. Published by Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  3. Testicular Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... undescended testicle) is a risk factor for testicular cancer. Testicular cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) ... Testicular Cancer Treatment for more information about testicular cancer. Testicular cancer is the most common cancer in men ...

  4. Effects of peer health education on perception and practice of screening for cervical cancer among urban residential women in south-east Nigeria: a before and after study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbachu, Chinyere; Dim, Cyril; Ezeoke, Uche

    2017-06-09

    Effective female education on cervical cancer prevention has been shown to increase awareness and uptake of screening. However, sustaining increase in uptake poses a challenge to control efforts. Peer health education has been used as an effective tool for ensuring sustained behavior change. This study was undertaken to assess the effectiveness of peer health education on perception, willingness to screen and uptake of cervical cancer screening by women. A before and after intervention study was undertaken in 2 urban cities in Enugu state, Nigeria among women of reproductive age attending women's meeting in Anglican churches. Multistage sampling was used to select 300 women. Peer health education was provided once monthly for 3 consecutive sessions over a period of 3 months. Data was collected at baseline and after the intervention using pre-tested questionnaires. Descriptive statistics and tests of significance of observed differences and associations were done at p-value of education, employment status and parity (p education is an effective strategy for increasing women's perception of benefits of early detection of cervical cancer through screening. It is also effective for increasing their practice of screening for cervical cancer.

  5. Colorectal cancer screening: World Gastroenterology Organisation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Colorectal cancer screening: World Gastroenterology Organisation/International Digestive Cancer Alliance Practice Guidelines. S Winawer, M Classen, R Lambert, M Fried, P Dite, K L Goh, F Guarner, D Lieberman, R Eliakim, B Levin, R Saenz, A G Khan, I Khalif, A Lanas, G Lindberg, M J O'Brien, G Young, J Krabshuis ...

  6. Toward standardizing and reporting colorectal cancer screening indicators on an international level: The International Colorectal Cancer Screening Network

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benson, Victoria S.; Atkin, Wendy S.; Green, Jane; Nadel, Marion R.; Patnick, Julietta; Smith, Robert A.; Villain, Patricia; Patnick, J.; Atkin, W. S.; Altenhofen, L.; Ancelle-Park, R.; Benson, V. S.; Green, J.; Levin, T. R.; Moss, S. M.; Nadel, M.; Ransohoff, D.; Segnan, N.; Smith, R. A.; Villain, P.; Weller, D.; Koukari, A.; Young, G.; López-Kostner, F.; Antoljak, N.; Suchánek, S.; Zavoral, M.; Holten, I.; Malila, N.; Salines, E.; Brenner, G.; Herszényi, L.; Tulassay, Z.; Rennert, G.; Senore, C.; Zappa, M.; Zorzi, M.; Saito, H.; Leja, M.; Dekker, E.; Jansen, J.; Hol, L.; Kuipers, E.; Kaminski, M. F.; Regula, J.; Sfarti, C.; Trifan, A.; Tang, C.-L.; Hrcka, R.; Binefa, G.; Espinàs, J. A.; Peris, M.; Chen, T. H.; Steele, R.; Pou, G.; Bisges, D.; Dwyer, D.; Groves, C.; Courteau, S.; Kramer, R.; Siegenthaler, K.; Lane, D.; Herrera, C.; Rogers, J.; Rojewski, M.; Wolf, Holly; Sung, J. J.; Ling, K.; Bryant, H.; Rabeneck, L.; Dale, J.; Sware, L.; Yang, H.; Viguier, J.; Von Karsa, L.; Kupcinskas, L.; Deutekom, M.; Törnberg, S.; Austoker, J.; Beral, V.; Monk, C.; Valori, R.; Watson, J.; Kobrin, S.; Pignone, M.; Taplin, S.

    2012-01-01

    The International Colorectal Cancer Screening Network was established in 2003 to promote best practice in the delivery of organized colorectal cancer screening programs. To facilitate evaluation of such programs, we defined a set of universally applicable colorectal cancer screening measures and

  7. Screening diagnostic program breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Portnoj, L.M.; Zhakova, I.I.; Budnikova, N.V.; Rukhlyadko, E.D.

    1995-01-01

    The authors propose their screening program for detection of breast cancer. It includes the entire complex of present-day screening diagnostic methods, starting from an original system for the formation of groups at risk of breast cancer and completed by the direct diagnostic model of detection of the condition, oriented at a differentiated approach to the use of mammographic techniques. The proposed organizational and methodologic screening measures are both economic and diagnostically effective, thus meeting the principal requirements to screening programs. Screening of 8541 risk-groups patients helped detect 867 nodular formations, 244 of which were cancer and 623 benign formations. 8 refs., 3 figs.,

  8. Risks of Lung Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in women. Different factors increase or decrease the risk of lung cancer. Anything that increases your chance ... been studied to see if they decrease the risk of dying from lung cancer. The following screening ...

  9. Lung Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... factors increase or decrease the risk of lung cancer. Lung cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) ... following PDQ summaries for more information about lung cancer: Lung Cancer Prevention Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Treatment ...

  10. Early Detection and Screening for Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Cathy

    2017-05-01

    To review the history, current status, and future trends related to breast cancer screening. Peer-reviewed articles, web sites, and textbooks. Breast cancer remains a complex, heterogeneous disease. Serial screening with mammography is the most effective method to detect early stage disease and decrease mortality. Although politics and economics may inhibit organized mammography screening programs in many countries, the judicious use of proficient clinical and self-breast examination can also identify small tumors leading to reduced morbidity. Oncology nurses have exciting opportunities to lead, facilitate, and advocate for delivery of high-quality screening services targeting individuals and communities. A practical approach is needed to translate the complexities and controversies surrounding breast cancer screening into improved care outcomes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Overdiagnosis in breast cancer screening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynge, Elsebeth; Beau, Anna-Belle; Christiansen, Peer

    2017-01-01

    Overdiagnosis in breast cancer screening is an important issue. A recent study from Denmark concluded that one in three breast cancers diagnosed in screening areas in women aged 50-69 years were overdiagnosed. The purpose of this short communication was to disentangle the study's methodology...

  12. Psychosocial consequences of skin cancer screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Markham Risica

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Screening for melanoma may save lives, but may also cause patient distress. One key reason that preventative visual skin examinations for skin cancer are not currently recommended is the inadequate available evidence to assess potential harm to psychosocial wellbeing. We investigated potential psychological harms and benefits of skin examinations by conducting telephone surveys in 2015 of 187 screened participants; all were ≥35 years old. Participants had their skin examined by practitioners who had completed INFORMED, a validated web-based training for detection of skin cancers, particularly melanoma. Participants underwent the Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI, Psychological Consequences of Screening (PCQ, Hospital Anxiety and Depression (HAD scale, and the 12-Item Short Form Health Survey (SF-12. Analyses were conducted in 2017. Of the entire study sample, 40% were thoroughly screened as determined by patient-reported level of undress and skin areas examined. Participants who were thoroughly screened: did not differ on negative psychosocial measures; scored higher on measures of positive psychosocial wellbeing (PCQ; and were more motivated to conduct monthly self-examinations and seek annual clinician skin examinations, compared to other participants (p < 0.05. Importantly, thoroughly screened patients were more likely to report skin prevention practices (skin self-examinations to identify a concerning lesion, practitioner provided skin exam, recommend skin examinations to peers, and feel satisfied with their skin cancer education than less thoroughly screened individuals (p < 0.01. Our results suggest that visual screening for skin cancer does not worsen patient psychosocial wellbeing and may be associated with improved skin cancer-related practices and attitudes. Keywords: Cancer, Melanoma, Cancer prevention, Screening

  13. Prostate cancer screening practices of African-American and non-African-American US primary care physicians: a cross-sectional survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richards TB

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Thomas B Richards,1 Sun Hee Rim,1 Ingrid J Hall,1 Lisa C Richardson,1 Louie E Ross21Division of Cancer Prevention and Control, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA, USA; 2North Carolina A and T State University, Greensboro, NC, USAPurpose: We explored whether African-American (AA primary care physicians (PCPs have different prostate cancer screening practices compared to non-AA PCPs, after adjustment for potential confounding factors such as the proportion of AA patients in PCP practices.Methods: We used SAS/SUDAAN to compare weighted responses from AA PCPs (n = 604 with those from non-AA PCPs (n = 647 in the 2007–2008 National Survey of Primary Care Physician Practices Regarding Prostate Cancer Screening. We used multivariate logistic regression to calculate the weighted odds ratios (OR and 95% confidence intervals (CI.Results: We found that AA PCPs had higher odds of working in practices with above-the-median (≥21% proportions of AA male patients (OR, 9.02; 95% CI: 5.85–13.91. A higher proportion of AA PCPs (53.5%; 95% CI: 49.5–57.4 reported an above-the-median proportion (≥91% of PSA testing during health maintenance exams as compared to non-AA PCPs (39.4%; 95% CI: 35.5–43.4; P < 0.0002. After adjusting for the proportion of AA patients and other factors, we found that AA PCPs had higher odds of using PSA tests to screen men (OR, 1.74; 95% CI: 1.11–2.73.Conclusion: This study quantifies the magnitude of the differences reported in previous focus group studies. Our results may be helpful in hypothesis generation and in planning future research studies.Keywords: African-American, physician practice patterns, prostate-specific antigen, screening tests

  14. Awareness and Practice of Cervical Smear as A Screening Procedure for Cervical Cancer among Female Nurses in A Tertiary Hospital in South-South Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imoh Unang

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available AIM: Carcinoma of the cervix, the second most common cancer among women remains a public health problem. Though this preventable cancer occurs more commonly in the developing world, it is almost non-existent in developed countries where there are well established screening programs. The aim of this study is to determine the degree of awareness and practice of cervical smear as a screening procedure for cervical cancer among female nurses in a tertiary health facility in south-south Nigeria. METHOD: Semi-structured questionnaires were distributed to all the female nurses at the University of Uyo Teaching Hospital. RESULTS: The ages of the respondents were between 21 - 60 years with the modal age group being 31- 40 years (48.9%. Majority of the respondents were married (59.7% and 36.4% of them had practiced nursing for over 10 years. Majority of the respondents (94.3% had heard of the cervical smear and 79.5% of the nurses knew that cervical smears were used to detect premalignant diseases of the cervix. Only 7.4% of the nurses had undergone screening for cervical cancer. Common reasons given by the respondents who had not screened were not being a candidate for cervical cancer (31.9% and ignorance as to where screening is done (28.8%. The most common sources of information about cervical smear were the hospital (87.5% and textbooks (13.6%. CONCLUSION: The level of awareness of the cervical smear as a preventive tool for cervical cancer was high but utilization of the test was disappointingly low. Modern concepts of cancer prevention and control should be included in the curriculum of the school of nursing and nurses should be involved in the organisation of health talks to members of the community on cervical cancer and its prevention. The print and electronic media should be made to participate in the dissemination of information on the prevention of cervical cancer in our environment. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2011; 10(6.000: 675-680

  15. Oral Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... decrease the risk of oral cavity and oropharyngeal cancer. Oral cavity, pharyngeal, and laryngeal cancer are diseases in ... and treatment of oral cavity, pharyngeal, and laryngeal cancer: Oral Cavity and Oropharyngeal Cancer Prevention Lip and Oral ...

  16. PET or PET-CT with cancer screening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Taisong; Zhao Jinhua; Song Jianhua

    2007-01-01

    At present, cancer screening remains a lot of debate in contemporary medical practice. Many constitutes have done a lot of experiments in cancer screening. The same version is that recommendations and decisions regarding cancer screening should be based on reliable data, not self- approbation. Now, some institutes advocate 18 F-FDG PET or 18 F-FDG PET-CT for cancer screening, here, discussed status quo, potential financial, radiation safety and statistical data in 18 F-FDG PET or 18 F-FDG PET- CT cancer screening. (authors)

  17. Integrating evidence-based practices for increasing cancer screenings in safety net health systems: a multiple case study using the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Shuting; Kegler, Michelle C; Cotter, Megan; Emily, Phillips; Beasley, Derrick; Hermstad, April; Morton, Rentonia; Martinez, Jeremy; Riehman, Kara

    2016-08-02

    Implementing evidence-based practices (EBPs) to increase cancer screenings in safety net primary care systems has great potential for reducing cancer disparities. Yet there is a gap in understanding the factors and mechanisms that influence EBP implementation within these high-priority systems. Guided by the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research (CFIR), our study aims to fill this gap with a multiple case study of health care safety net systems that were funded by an American Cancer Society (ACS) grants program to increase breast and colorectal cancer screening rates. The initiative funded 68 safety net systems to increase cancer screening through implementation of evidence-based provider and client-oriented strategies. Data are from a mixed-methods evaluation with nine purposively selected safety net systems. Fifty-two interviews were conducted with project leaders, implementers, and ACS staff. Funded safety net systems were categorized into high-, medium-, and low-performing cases based on the level of EBP implementation. Within- and cross-case analyses were performed to identify CFIR constructs that influenced level of EBP implementation. Of 39 CFIR constructs examined, six distinguished levels of implementation. Two constructs were from the intervention characteristics domain: adaptability and trialability. Three were from the inner setting domain: leadership engagement, tension for change, and access to information and knowledge. Engaging formally appointed internal implementation leaders, from the process domain, also distinguished level of implementation. No constructs from the outer setting or individual characteristics domain differentiated systems by level of implementation. Our study identified a number of influential CFIR constructs and illustrated how they impacted EBP implementation across a variety of safety net systems. Findings may inform future dissemination efforts of EBPs for increasing cancer screening in similar settings. Moreover

  18. Cervical cancer screening at crossroads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynge, Elsebeth; Rygaard, Carsten; Baillet, Miguel Vazquez-Prada

    2014-01-01

    Cervical screening has been one of the most successful public health prevention programmes. For 50 years, cytology formed the basis for screening, and detected cervical intraepithelial lesions (CIN) were treated surgically to prevent progression to cancer. In a high-risk country as Denmark......, screening decreased the incidence of cervical cancer from 34 to 11 per 100,000, age-standardized rate (World Standard Population). Screening is, however, also expensive; Denmark (population: 5.6 million) undertakes close to half a million tests per year, and has 6-8 CIN-treated women for each prevented...... cancer case. The discovery of human papillomavirus (HPV) as the cause of cervical cancer dramatically changed perspectives for disease control. Screening with HPV testing was launched around 1990, and preventive HPV vaccination was licensed in 2006. Long-term randomized controlled trials (RCT...

  19. Assessing the efficacy of cancer screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gemma Jacklyn

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Population-based cancer screening has been established for several types of cancer in Australia and internationally. Screening may perform differently in practice from randomised controlled trials, which makes evaluating programs complex. Materials and methods: We discuss how to assess the evidence of benefits and harms of cancer screening, including the main biases that can mislead clinicians and policy makers (such as volunteer, lead-time, length-time and overdiagnosis bias. We also discuss ways in which communication of risks can inform or mislead the community. Results: The evaluation of cancer screening programs should involve balancing the benefits and harms. When considering the overall worth of an intervention and allocation of scarce health resources, decisions should focus on the net benefits and be informed by systematic reviews. Communication of screening outcomes can be misleading. Many messages highlight the benefits while downplaying the harms, and often use relative risks and 5-year survival to persuade people to screen rather than support informed choice. Lessons learned: An evidence based approach is essential when evaluating and communicating the benefits and harms of cancer screening, to minimise misleading biases and the reliance on intuition.

  20. Barriers to utilization of cervical cancer screening services among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cervical cancer (CC) is the second most commonly diagnosed cancer among women of reproductive age group; yet screening for early detection of the disease among them is not a common practice in Nigeria. This study therefore, investigated the barriers to utilization of cervical cancer screening service among women of ...

  1. Breast Cancer Screening in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Karsten Juhl; Gøtzsche, Peter C; Kalager, Mette

    2017-01-01

    Background: Effective breast cancer screening should detect early-stage cancer and prevent advanced disease. Objective: To assess the association between screening and the size of detected tumors and to estimate overdiagnosis (detection of tumors that would not become clinically relevant). Design......) and nonadvanced (≤20 mm) breast cancer tumors in screened and nonscreened women were measured. Two approaches were used to estimate the amount of overdiagnosis: comparing the incidence of advanced and nonadvanced tumors among women aged 50 to 84 years in screening and nonscreening areas; and comparing...... rate ratio, 1.49 [95% CI, 1.43 to 1.54]). The first estimation approach found that 271 invasive breast cancer tumors and 179 ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) lesions were overdiagnosed in 2010 (overdiagnosis rate of 24.4% [including DCIS] and 14.7% [excluding DCIS]). The second approach, which accounted...

  2. Costs Associated with Cervical Cancer Screening

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-10-15

    Dr. Tom Cox, a practicing gynecologist and president of the American Society of Colposcopy and Cervical Pathology, provides a brief introduction to cervical cancer screening guidelines and human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA testing.  Created: 10/15/2009 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP), Division of Cancer Prevention and Control (DCPC).   Date Released: 6/9/2010.

  3. Costs of Colorectal Cancer Screening

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2017-04-04

    A health economist talks about studies on figuring out the costs of running a colorectal cancer screening program, and how this can lead to better screening.  Created: 4/4/2017 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 4/4/2017.

  4. Using lessons from breast, cervical, and colorectal cancer screening to inform the development of lung cancer screening programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Katrina; Kim, Jane J; Halm, Ethan A; Ballard, Rachel M; Schnall, Mitchell D

    2016-05-01

    Multiple advisory groups now recommend that high-risk smokers be screened for lung cancer by low-dose computed tomography. Given that the development of lung cancer screening programs will face many of the same issues that have challenged other cancer screening programs, the National Cancer Institute-funded Population-based Research Optimizing Screening through Personalized Regimens (PROSPR) consortium was used to identify lessons learned from the implementation of breast, cervical, and colorectal cancer screening that should inform the introduction of lung cancer screening. These lessons include the importance of developing systems for identifying and recruiting eligible individuals in primary care, ensuring that screening centers are qualified and performance is monitored, creating clear communication standards for reporting screening results to referring physicians and patients, ensuring follow-up is available for individuals with abnormal test results, avoiding overscreening, remembering primary prevention, and leveraging advances in cancer genetics and immunology. Overall, this experience emphasizes that effective cancer screening is a multistep activity that requires robust strategies to initiate, report, follow up, and track each step as well as a dynamic and ongoing oversight process to revise current screening practices as new evidence regarding screening is created, new screening technologies are developed, new biological markers are identified, and new approaches to health care delivery are disseminated. Cancer 2016;122:1338-1342. © 2016 American Cancer Society. © 2016 American Cancer Society.

  5. BREAST CANCER SCREENING IN A RESOURCE POOR ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    al rates of breast cancer, hence screening of asympto- matic, apparently healthy ... screening tools in women who attended free breast cancer screening exercise in a ..... signs of malignancy. www.appliedradiology.mobi/uploadedfiles/Issues/2.

  6. Risk Profiling May Improve Lung Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    A new modeling study suggests that individualized, risk-based selection of ever-smokers for lung cancer screening may prevent more lung cancer deaths and improve the effectiveness and efficiency of screening compared with current screening recommendations

  7. Eurogin 2016 Roadmap: how HPV knowledge is changing screening practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wentzensen, Nicolas; Arbyn, Marc; Berkhof, Johannes; Bower, Mark; Canfell, Karen; Einstein, Mark; Farley, Christopher; Monsonego, Joseph; Franceschi, Silvia

    2017-05-15

    Human papillomaviruses (HPVs) are the necessary cause of most cervical cancers, a large proportion of other anogenital cancers, and a subset of oropharyngeal cancers. The knowledge about HPV has led to development of novel HPV-based prevention strategies with important impact on clinical and public health practice. Two complementary reviews have been prepared following the 2015 Eurogin Conference to evaluate how knowledge about HPV is changing practice in HPV infection and disease control through vaccination and screening. This review focuses on screening for cervical and anal cancers in increasingly vaccinated populations. The introduction of HPV vaccines a decade ago has led to reductions in HPV infections and early cancer precursors in countries with wide vaccination coverage. Despite the high efficacy of HPV vaccines, cervical cancer screening will remain important for many decades. Many healthcare systems are considering switching to primary HPV screening, which has higher sensitivity for cervical precancers and allows extending screening intervals. We describe different approaches to implementing HPV-based screening efforts in different healthcare systems with a focus in high-income countries. While the population prevalence for other anogenital cancers is too low for population-based screening, anal cancer incidence is very high in HIV-infected men who have sex with men, warranting consideration of early detection approaches. We summarize the current evidence on HPV-based prevention of anal cancers and highlight important evidence gaps. © 2016 UICC.

  8. Impact of a randomized controlled educational trial to improve physician practice behaviors around screening for inherited breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Robert A; McDermott, Haley; Fancher, Tonya L; Green, Michael J; Day, Frank C; Wilkes, Michael S

    2015-03-01

    Many primary care physicians (PCPs) are ill-equipped to provide screening and counseling for inherited breast cancer. To evaluate the outcomes of an interactive web-based genetics curriculum versus text curriculum for primary care physicians. Randomized two-group design. 121 California and Pennsylvania community physicians. Web-based interactive genetics curriculum, evaluated against a control group of physicians who studied genetics review articles. After education, physicians interacted with an announced standardized patient (SP) at risk for inherited breast cancer. Transcripts of visit discussions were coded for presence or absence of 69 topics relevant to inherited breast cancer. Across all physicians, history-taking, discussions of test result implications, and exploration of ethical and legal issues were incomplete. Approximately half of physicians offered a genetic counseling referral (54.6%), and fewer (43.8%) recommended testing. Intervention physicians were more likely than controls to explore genetic counseling benefits (78.3% versus 60.7%, P = 0.048), encourage genetic counseling before testing (38.3% versus 21.3%, P = 0.048), ask about a family history of prostate cancer (25.0% versus 6.6%, P = 0.006), and report that a positive result indicated an increased risk of prostate cancer for male relatives (20.0% versus 1.6%, P = 0.001). Intervention-group physicians were less likely than controls to ask about Ashkenazi heritage (13.3% versus 34.4%, P = 0.01) or to reply that they would get tested when asked, "What would you do?" (33.3% versus 54.1%, P = 0.03). Physicians infrequently performed key counseling behaviors, and this was true regardless of whether they had completed the web-based interactive training or read clinical reviews.

  9. Colorectal Cancer Awareness and Screening

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2017-04-06

    An oncologist (cancer doctor) shares her medical and personal advice for people between the ages of 50 and 75 about getting screened for colorectal cancer.  Created: 4/6/2017 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 4/6/2017.

  10. [Overdiagnosis in cancer screening].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervera Deval, J; Sentís Crivillé, M; Zulueta, J J

    2015-01-01

    In screening programs, overdiagnosis is defined as the detection of a disease that would have gone undetected without screening when that disease would not have resulted in morbimortality and was treated unnecessarily. Overdiagnosis is a bias inherent in screening and an undesired effect of secondary prevention and improved sensitivity of diagnostic techniques. It is difficult to discriminate a priori between clinically relevant diagnoses and those in which treatment is unnecessary. To minimize the effects of overdiagnosis, screening should be done in patients at risk. Copyright © 2014 SERAM. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  11. Colorectal Cancer Screening: An Educational Intervention for Nurse Practitioners to Increase Screening Awareness and Participation
.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slyne, Tai C; Gautam, Ramraj; King, Valerie

    2017-10-01

    Colorectal cancer screening aims to detect colorectal cancer at an early stage, when treatment is more likely to be curative. Lack of participation in such screening is a major issue in primary care practices, where nurse practitioners (NPs) often provide care. This study aimed to determine whether an educational intervention for NPs would increase their awareness of, and increase patients' participation in, colorectal cancer screening. 
.

  12. Prostate Cancer Screening Results from PLCO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learn the results of the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian (PLCO) Cancer Screening Trial, a large-scale clinical trial to determine whether certain cancer screening tests can help reduce deaths from prostate, lung, colorectal, and ovarian cancer.

  13. Risks of Liver (Hepatocellular) Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cancer. Having hepatitis or cirrhosis can increase the risk of developing liver cancer. Anything that increases the ... clinical trials is available from the NCI website . Risks of Liver (Hepatocellular) Cancer Screening Key Points Screening ...

  14. Initiation of universal tumor screening for Lynch syndrome in colorectal cancer patients as a model for the implementation of genetic information into clinical oncology practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Stacey A; Laurino, Mercy; Bowen, Deborah J; Upton, Melissa P; Pritchard, Colin; Hisama, Fuki; Jarvik, Gail; Fichera, Alessandro; Sjoding, Britta; Bennett, Robin L; Naylor, Lorraine; Jacobson, Angela; Burke, Wylie; Grady, William M

    2016-02-01

    Lynch syndrome confers a hereditary predisposition to colorectal and other cancers. Universal tumor screening (UTS) for Lynch syndrome is recommended by several professional societies, but the implementation can be complex. This article describes the evaluation, process development, and initiation of Lynch syndrome UTS at a tertiary referral cancer center. A multidisciplinary team developed the new process design. Issues in 5 themes were noted: timing, funding, second-opinion patients, result processing, and the role of genetics providers. A committee approach was used to examine each issue for process-improvement development. The issues related to testing were addressed individually for the successful implementation of UTS at the institutional level. In the conventional-care period, 9 of 30 cases (30%) received Lynch syndrome screening, and 4 cases were referred to medical genetics. During the 6 months following the implementation of UTS, 32 of 44 patients (73%) received Lynch syndrome screening. The 13 unscreened patients all had identified reasons for nonscreening (eg, financial limitations). Ten patients were referred to medical genetics, which identified no new cases of Lynch syndrome, but a low-risk adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) variant was detected in 1 individual. The implementation of effective Lynch syndrome UTS can feasibly alter practice at the institutional level. This experience with the assessment and management of issues relevant to the successful implementation of a new clinical care paradigm based on emerging technology has implications for the uptake of advances across molecular oncology into clinical practice, and this is highly relevant in the current era of rapidly evolving genomic technology. © 2015 American Cancer Society.

  15. Non-small cell lung cancer brain metastasis screening in the era of positron emission tomography-CT staging: Current practice and outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, Mauricio E; Debowski, Maciej; Hukins, Craig; Fielding, David; Fong, Kwun M; Bettington, Catherine S

    2018-05-10

    Several clinical guidelines indicate that brain metastasis screening (BMS) should be guided by disease stage in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). We estimate that screening is performed more broadly in practice, and patients undergo brain imaging at considerable cost with questionable benefit. Our aim was to quantify the use and detection rate of BMS in a contemporary cohort staged with 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET-CT). We conducted a retrospective review of prospectively collected data from three major lung cancer referral centres in Brisbane between January 2011 and December 2015. Patients included had a new diagnosis of NSCLC and had undergone a PET-CT to stage extra-cranial disease. BMS was defined as dedicated brain imaging with contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CE-CT) or magnetic resonance (MR), in the absence of clinically apparent neurological deficits. A total of 1751 eligible cases were identified and of these 718 (41%) underwent BMS. The majority had CE-CT imaging (n = 703). Asymptomatic brain metastases (BM) were detected in 18 patients (2.5%). Of these patients, 12 had concurrent non-brain metastases. Only six patients (0.8%) had BM alone. The rate of detection increased with N-stage (P = 0.02) and overall stage (P < 0.001). It was 0.5%, 1%, 1.6% and 7.3% for stage I, II, III and IV respectively. The overall screening rate increased with T-stage (P = 0.001), N-Stage (P < 0.001) and overall stage (P < 0.001). Non-small cell lung cancer BMS practices remain at odds with published guidelines. The low number of occult BMs detected supports the existing international recommendations. Rationalising BMS would minimise the burden on patients and the health care system. © 2018 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Radiologists.

  16. Effectiveness of testis cancer screening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feucht, H.

    1983-04-01

    In the Federal Republic of Germany there are about thousand to two-thousand incidences of testis cancer yearly. The screening (and examination) program currently used for the early detection of cancer includes the screening of malignant tumours of the testis. Since only males 45 years and older are invited to make use of the preventive measures, the most seriously affected age-group between twenty and forty is hereby not considered. The objective of this study is to find out which of the generally conceivable preventive measures could lead to an improvement of the present situation. The analysis shows that, for a diagnostic accuracy of 1 and a participation of 100%, the quantifyable cost of a yearly performed special screening is higher than the quantifyable cost savings achieved. A final judgement of other ways of execution is only possible when the diagnostic accuracy of suitable screening methods and the percentage of the participants of the groups of people concerned are known. (orig.)

  17. Screening for colorectal cancer in defunctioned colons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbar, Fayyaz; Quyn, Aaron; Steele, Robert

    2018-01-01

    Objectives Population-based colorectal (bowel) cancer screening using faecal occult blood tests leads to a reduction in cause-specific mortality. However, in people where the colon is defunctioned, the use of standard faecal occult blood test is not appropriate. The aim of this study was to examine the current trends of clinical practice for colorectal cancer screening in people with defunctioned colons. Methods An online survey was performed using SurveyMonkey. All members of the Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland were invited by email to participate. Reminders were sent to non-responders and partial responders till six weeks. All responses were included in our analysis. Results Of the 206 (34.59%) questionnaires completed, all questions were answered in 110 (55.8%). Among responders, 94 (85.4%) were colorectal consultant surgeons, 72% had worked in their current capacity for more than five years, and 105 (50.9%) had encountered colorectal cancer in defunctioned colons during their career. Some 72.2% of responders stated that a screening test for colorectal cancer in patients with defunctioned colons was currently not offered, or that they did not know whether or not it was offered in their area. Conclusions Bowel screening in the United Kingdom is currently not offered to 72.2% of the age appropriate population with defunctioned colons. Among responding colorectal surgeons, 50% had encountered colorectal cancer in such patients. There is considerable variability in clinical practice regarding the optimal age for onset of screening, time interval, and the optimal modality to offer for screening in such cases.

  18. Breast cancer literacy and health beliefs related to breast cancer screening among American Indian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roh, Soonhee; Burnette, Catherine E; Lee, Yeon-Shim; Jun, Jung Sim; Lee, Hee Yun; Lee, Kyoung Hag

    2018-08-01

    The purpose of this article is to examine the health beliefs and literacy about breast cancer and their relationship with breast cancer screening among American Indian (AI) women. Using the Health Belief Model (HBM) and hierarchical logistic regression with data from a sample of 286 AI female adults residing in the Northern Plains, we found that greater awareness of breast cancer screening was linked to breast cancer screening practices. However, perceived barriers, one of the HBM constructs, prevented such screening practices. This study suggested that culturally relevant HBM factors should be targeted when developing culturally sensitive breast cancer prevention efforts.

  19. Cervical cancer screening among Lebanese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bou-Orm, I R; Sakr, R E; Adib, S M

    2018-02-01

    Cervical cancer is a very common malignancy amongst women worldwide. Pap smear is an effective and inexpensive screening test in asymptomatic women. The aim of this paper was to assess the prevalence of Pap smear screening for cervical cancer among Lebanese women and to determine associated sociodemographic and psychosocial characteristics. This national survey included 2255 women, selected by multi-stage random cluster sampling across Lebanon. A questionnaire about practices and perceptions related to cervical cancer screening was developed based on the "Health Belief Model". The weighted national prevalence of "ever-use" of the Pap smear for screening purposes was 35%. Most important determinants of screening behavior were: residence within Greater Beirut, higher socio-economic status and educational attainment, marriage status, presence of a health coverage, awareness of Pap smear usefulness, knowing someone who had already done it, and a balance between perceived benefits and perceived barriers to Pap smear screening. Regular information campaigns regarding the availability and effectiveness of the test should be devised, targeting in priority the sexually vulnerable women in Lebanon. Moreover, healthcare providers should be encouraged to discuss with their patients the opportunity of obtaining a Pap smear. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. Colorectal cancer screening awareness among physicians in Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chatzimichalis Georgios

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Data comparison between SEER and EUROCARE database provided evidence that colorectal cancer survival in USA is higher than in European countries. Since adjustment for stage at diagnosis markedly reduces the survival differences, a screening bias was hypothesized. Considering the important role of primary care in screening activities, the purpose of the study was to investigate the colorectal cancer screening awareness among Hellenic physicians. Methods 211 primary care physicians were surveyed by mean of a self-reported prescription-habits questionnaire. Both physicians' colorectal cancer screening behaviors and colorectal cancer screening recommendations during usual check-up visits were analyzed. Results Only 50% of physicians were found to recommend screening for colorectal cancer during usual check-up visits, and only 25% prescribed cost-effective procedures. The percentage of physicians recommending stool occult blood test and sigmoidoscopy was 24% and 4% respectively. Only 48% and 23% of physicians recognized a cancer screening value for stool occult blood test and sigmoidoscopy. Colorectal screening recommendations were statistically lower among physicians aged 30 or less (p = 0.012. No differences were found when gender, level and type of specialization were analyzed, even though specialists in general practice showed a trend for better prescription (p = 0.054. Conclusion Contemporary recommendations for colorectal cancer screening are not followed by implementation in primary care setting. Education on presymptomatic control and screening practice monitoring are required if primary care is to make a major impact on colorectal cancer mortality.

  1. Colorec tal cancer screening

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2009-05-12

    May 12, 2009 ... The operator must be skilled in the management of adverse events. • The operator must arrange appropriate follow-up of histopathological results. • The operator must provide appropriate recommendations for follow-up surveil- lance and screening. The average- risk person has a lifetime risk of developing.

  2. Methods for Cervical Cancer Screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Vargas-Revilla

    2014-12-01

    This article is divided in three sections: the first one focuses on the general impact of cervical cancer has hadin CostaRica, these condsection gathers information about different methodologies used around the world to detect this cancer and the third one makes reference to the current development of the screening devise in Mexico that works as a monitoring system and can used by women without external assistance.

  3. Knowledge, Attitude and Practice of Cervical Smear as a Screening ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Context: Carcinoma of the cervix is a preventable disease but it remains the most common genital cancer in African women. Objective: To determine the knowledge, attitude and practice of cervical smear as screening procedure for cervical cancer by female health workers in Ilorin, Nigeria. Study Design, Setting and ...

  4. breast cancer screening in

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    impact of the increasing incidence and mortality due to breast cancer. ... ported to be increasing in sub-Saharan Africa. ... A lump with more than three quarters of its margin being .... accounted for 36.8% of the false negative cases rate. The.

  5. Lung Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... detected on a lung CT scan. If your doctor finds another health problem, you may undergo further testing and, possibly, invasive treatments that wouldn't have been pursued if you hadn't had lung cancer ... need to: Inform your doctor if you have a respiratory tract infection. If ...

  6. [Practice guideline 'Prostate cancer: diagnosis and treatment'

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reijke, T.M. de; Battermann, J.J.; Moorselaar, R.J.A. van; Jong, I.J. de; Visser, A.P.; Burgers, J.S.

    2008-01-01

    --A national, multidisciplinary practice guideline was developed concerning diagnosis and treatment of patients with prostate cancer. Because of the lack of sufficient scientific evidence at this moment no practice guideline on screening is included. --The diagnosis of prostate cancer is made by

  7. European position statement on lung cancer screening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oudkerk, Matthijs; Devaraj, Anand; Vliegenthart, Rozemarijn

    2017-01-01

    Lung cancer screening with low-dose CT can save lives. This European Union (EU) position statement presents the available evidence and the major issues that need to be addressed to ensure the successful implementation of low-dose CT lung cancer screening in Europe. This statement identified...... specific actions required by the European lung cancer screening community to adopt before the implementation of low-dose CT lung cancer screening. This position statement recommends the following actions: a risk stratification approach should be used for future lung cancer low-dose CT programmes...... need to set a timeline for implementing lung cancer screening....

  8. Effects of screening for psychological distress on patient outcomes in cancer : A systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, Anna; Roseman, Michelle; Delisle, Vanessa C.; Milette, Katherine; Levis, Brooke; Syamchandra, Achyuth; Stefanek, Michael E.; Stewart, Donna E.; de Jonge, Peter; Coyne, James C.; Thombs, Brett D.

    Objective: Several practice guidelines recommend routine screening for psychological distress in cancer care. The objective was to evaluate the effect of screening cancer patients for psychological distress by assessing the (1) effectiveness of interventions to reduce distress among patients

  9. Screening for Cervical Cancer: Experience from a University ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    KEY WORDS: Cervical cancer, cervical cytology, north-west Nigeria. Access this article .... involving a larger sample size will give better picture about the prevalent of ... Ridsdale LL. Cervical screening in general practice: Call and recall. J R.

  10. Cancer screening tests for small animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schleis, Stephanie E

    2014-09-01

    Cancer is increasingly more common. Several tests for the diagnosis and treatment of cancer in companion animals have been developed. Screening tests discussed include those for lymphoid neoplasia, hemangiosarcoma, and transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder. None of these tests should be used in isolation for diagnosis. Vincristine and doxorubicin are mainstays in the treatment of canine lymphoma. However, it is important and accepted practice to test individuals of predisposed breeds for this mutation before administering these drugs in a lymphoma protocol. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Outcome of breast cancer screening in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynge, Elsebeth; Bak, Martin; von Euler-Chelpin, My

    2017-01-01

    were node negative and 40% ≤10 mm. False-positive rate was around 2%; higher for North Denmark Region than for the rest of Denmark. Three out of 10 breast cancers in screened women were diagnosed as interval cancers. Conclusions: High coverage by examination and low interval cancer rate are required...... for screening to decrease breast cancer mortality. Two pioneer local screening programs starting in the 1990s were followed by a decrease in breast cancer mortality of 22-25%. Coverage by examination and interval cancer rate of the national program were on the favorable side of values from the pioneer programs...... Region than in the rest of Denmrk. Detection rate was slightly below 1% at first screen, 0.6% at subsequent screens, and one region had some fluctuation over time. Ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) constituted 13-14% of screen-detected cancers. In subsequent rounds, 80% of screen-detected invasive cancers...

  12. Pitfalls and Opportunities in Colorectal Cancer Screening

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.G. van Putten (Paul)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractColorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common cancer and the second leading cause of death from cancer in the Western world. Screening has been shown to reduce CRC incidence and mortality. The first evidence that colorectal cancer screening could effectively reduce mortality dates

  13. The balance sheet of benefits and harms of breast cancer population-based screening in Europe: outcome research, practice and future challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broeders, Mireille; Paci, Eugenio

    2015-11-01

    Breast cancer screening programs are still object of harsh debate. In 2012, the Independent UK Panel reviewed the benefits and harms of mammography screening based on randomized trials and the EUROSCREEN Working Group reviewed European observational outcome studies. The conclusion was that screening programs should continue, while acknowledging that harms, such as the occurrence of false-positive results and overdiagnosis, can have a negative impact on a woman's life. Information on the balance sheet of the benefits and harms of breast cancer screening should help women and their physicians to make an informed choice. The future challenge for breast screening programs is to assess the feasibility, acceptability, effectiveness and impact of risk-based screening in order to maximize benefit-to-harm ratios.

  14. A questionnaire study of cervical cancer screening beliefs and practices of Chinese and Caucasian mother-daughter pairs living in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Sabrina C H; Woo, Jane S T; Gorzalka, Boris B; Brotto, Lori A

    2010-03-01

    Papanicolaou (Pap) testing rates among Chinese women remain low compared with their Caucasian counterparts despite extensive efforts to raise awareness of the importance of regular screening. We examined three potential predictors of Pap testing behaviour in Chinese women: acculturation, cervical cancer screening belief accuracy, and intergenerational transmission. Caucasian (n = 78) and Chinese (n = 93) female university students and their mothers completed questionnaires concerning acculturation, Pap testing beliefs, and behaviours. Ethnic group comparisons revealed that Chinese daughters and mothers had lower Pap testing rates and less accurate beliefs regarding cervical cancer screening. Among women who had had at least one Pap test, there was no ethnic difference in the proportion of women who adhered to the recommended screening frequency. Among the Chinese women, lower heritage acculturation was correlated with higher cancer screening belief accuracy in both the daughters and their mothers. Maternal Pap testing behaviour was predicted by level of cancer screening belief accuracy, whereas daughters' Pap testing behaviour was predicted by previous experience of sexual intercourse and heritage acculturation. No intergenerational transmission of Pap testing beliefs or behaviours was found. The accuracy of cancer screening beliefs, level of acculturation and experience of sexual intercourse may be predictors of Pap testing behaviour in Chinese women. Contrary to our prediction, we found no support for intergenerational transmission, suggesting that Pap testing beliefs and behaviours of Chinese women are independent of the beliefs and behaviours of their mothers.

  15. Regulation and practice of X-ray screening in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouvet, E.; Weill, C.; Lefaure, C.

    1987-01-01

    Trends in radiological mass screening practice in France over the last few years have been two-ways. On one side, the use of radiological diagnosis, the use of which is generally controversial, has continued as in the case of radiological mass screening for pulmonary tuberculosis. However, new practices in the field of radiological screening have developed. Thus the diagnostic usefulness of mammography for cancer of the breast and X-raying the hip for the screening of congenital hip dysplasia, are subject to a wide degree of consensus among specialists, although no regulations have been drawn up in the field. Thus, on the one hand, a large number of items equipment and specialists are available for an activity which may be considered as obsolete (screening for tuberculosis) and, on the other hand, a medical practice is developing with limited equipment. Reorganization may be usefully considered (screening for congenital hip dysplasia, screening for cancer of the breast). This presentation examines radiological screening in France from two points of view: regulation and practice

  16. SCREENING FOR EARLY DETECTION OF BREAST CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. A. Rasskazova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a brief overview of the main methods of breast cancer screening. Proven effectiveness of mammography as a screening method in reducing mortality from breast cancer, specified limits of the method. The main trend of increasing the effectiveness of screening is the transition to digital technologies. Properly organized screening with the active participation of the population reduces mortality from breast cancer by 30%.

  17. More misinformation on breast cancer screening

    OpenAIRE

    Kopans, Daniel B.

    2017-01-01

    Unfortunately, a great deal of misinformation has accumulated in the breast cancer screening literature that is based on flawed analyses in an effort to reduce access to screening. Quite remarkably, much of this has come from publications in previously highly respected medical journals. In several papers the intervention (mammography screening) is faulted yet the analyses provided no data on who participated in mammography screening, and which cancers were detected by mammography screening. I...

  18. Behavioral economics: "nudging" underserved populations to be screened for cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purnell, Jason Q; Thompson, Tess; Kreuter, Matthew W; McBride, Timothy D

    2015-01-15

    Persistent disparities in cancer screening by race/ethnicity and socioeconomic status require innovative prevention tools and techniques. Behavioral economics provides tools to potentially reduce disparities by informing strategies and systems to increase prevention of breast, cervical, and colorectal cancers. With an emphasis on the predictable, but sometimes flawed, mental shortcuts (heuristics) people use to make decisions, behavioral economics offers insights that practitioners can use to enhance evidence-based cancer screening interventions that rely on judgments about the probability of developing and detecting cancer, decisions about competing screening options, and the optimal presentation of complex choices (choice architecture). In the area of judgment, we describe ways practitioners can use the availability and representativeness of heuristics and the tendency toward unrealistic optimism to increase perceptions of risk and highlight benefits of screening. We describe how several behavioral economic principles involved in decision-making can influence screening attitudes, including how framing and context effects can be manipulated to highlight personally salient features of cancer screening tests. Finally, we offer suggestions about ways practitioners can apply principles related to choice architecture to health care systems in which cancer screening takes place. These recommendations include the use of incentives to increase screening, introduction of default options, appropriate feedback throughout the decision-making and behavior completion process, and clear presentation of complex choices, particularly in the context of colorectal cancer screening. We conclude by noting gaps in knowledge and propose future research questions to guide this promising area of research and practice.

  19. Smoking cessation and lung cancer screening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jesper Johannes Holst; Tønnesen, Philip; Ashraf, Haseem

    2016-01-01

    Smoking behavior may have a substantial influence on the overall effect of lung cancer screening. Non-randomized studies of smoking behavior during screening have indicated that computer tomography (CT) screening induces smoking cessation. Randomized studies have further elaborated that this effect...... and decrease smoking relapse rate. Also low smoking dependency and high motivation to quit smoking at baseline predicted smoking abstinence in screening trials. Lung cancer screening therefore seems to be a teachable moment for smoking cessation. Targeted smoking cessation counselling should be an integrated...... part of future lung cancer screening trials....

  20. App Improves Colorectal Cancer Screening Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colorectal cancer screening reduces deaths from the disease, yet about one-third of Americans aren’t up to date with screening. In this Cancer Currents blog post, learn what happened when people waiting for routine checkups could order their own screening test using a computer app.

  1. Evaluation Of Cervical Cancer Screening Program At A Rural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    But the condition is preventable through regular screening of women those are 'at risk\\' for abnormal changes in the cervix and treating them who have positive results. Although screening facilities are ... Keywords: Cervical cancer, Pap smear test, knowledge, practice, programme coverage. East African Journal of Public ...

  2. Celebrity endorsements of cancer screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Robin J; Woloshin, Steven; Schwartz, Lisa M; Welch, H Gilbert

    2005-05-04

    Celebrities often promote cancer screening by relating personal anecdotes about their own diagnosis or that of a loved one. We used data obtained from a random-digit dialing survey conducted in the United States from December 2001 through July 2002 to examine the extent to which adults of screening age without a history of cancer had seen or heard or been influenced by celebrity endorsements of screening mammography, prostate-specific antigen (PSA) testing, or sigmoidoscopy or colonoscopy. The survey response rate was 72% among those known to be eligible and 51% among potentially eligible people accounting for those who could not be contacted. A total of 360 women aged 40 years or older and 140 men aged 50 years or older participated in the survey. Most respondents reported they "had seen or heard a celebrity talk about" mammography (73% of women aged 40 years or older), PSA testing (63% of men aged 50 years or older), or sigmoidoscopy or colonoscopy (52% of adults aged 50 years or older). At least one-fourth of respondents who had seen or heard a celebrity endorsement said that the endorsement made them more likely to undergo mammography (25%), PSA testing (31%), or sigmoidoscopy or colonoscopy (37%).

  3. Cancer Screening Considerations and Cancer Screening Uptake for Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceres, Marc; Quinn, Gwendolyn P; Loscalzo, Matthew; Rice, David

    2018-02-01

    To describe the current state of cancer screening and uptake for lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) persons and to propose cancer screening considerations for LGBT persons. Current and historic published literature on cancer screening and LGBT cancer screening; published national guidelines. Despite known cancer risks for members of the LGBT community, cancer screening rates are often low, and there are gaps in screening recommendations for LGBT persons. We propose evidence-based cancer screening considerations derived from the current literature and extant cancer screening recommendations. The oncology nurse plays a key role in supporting patient preventive care and screening uptake through assessment, counseling, education, advocacy, and intervention. As oncology nurses become expert in the culturally competent care of LGBT persons, they can contribute to the improvement of quality of care and overall well-being of this health care disparity population. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Cost-effectiveness of colorectal cancer screening

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I. Lansdorp-Vogelaar (Iris); A.B. Knudsen (Amy); H. Brenner (Hermann)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractColorectal cancer is an important public health problem. Several screening methods have been shown to be effective in reducing colorectal cancer mortality. The objective of this review was to assess the cost-effectiveness of the different colorectal cancer screening methods and to

  5. Screening for Breast Cancer: Staging and Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Screening For Breast Cancer Staging and Treatment Past Issues / Summer 2014 Table ... oncology nurse and a registered dietitian. Read More "Screening For Breast Cancer" Articles #BeBrave: A life-saving test / Breast Cancer ...

  6. Enhancing citizen engagement in cancer screening through deliberative democracy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rychetnik, Lucie; Carter, Stacy M; Abelson, Julia; Thornton, Hazel; Barratt, Alexandra; Entwistle, Vikki A; Mackenzie, Geraldine; Salkeld, Glenn; Glasziou, Paul

    2013-03-20

    Cancer screening is widely practiced and participation is promoted by various social, technical, and commercial drivers, but there are growing concerns about the emerging harms, risks, and costs of cancer screening. Deliberative democracy methods engage citizens in dialogue on substantial and complex problems: especially when evidence and values are important and people need time to understand and consider the relevant issues. Information derived from such deliberations can provide important guidance to cancer screening policies: citizens' values are made explicit, revealing what really matters to people and why. Policy makers can see what informed, rather than uninformed, citizens would decide on the provision of services and information on cancer screening. Caveats can be elicited to guide changes to existing policies and practices. Policies that take account of citizens' opinions through a deliberative democracy process can be considered more legitimate, justifiable, and feasible than those that don't.

  7. Breast cancer screening: ''reassuring'' the worried well?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodersen, John; Siersma, Volkert; Ryle, Mette

    2011-01-01

    of women offered screening compared to a population of women not offered screening for breast cancer. METHODS: One thousand women, aged 50-69 years, were randomly drawn from the Danish Civil Registration System to receive part I of the questionnaire Consequences of Screening in Breast Cancer (COS-BC1......): the sample consisted of 500 women living in a geographical area where screening mammography had been offered for more than 10 years and 500 women living in an area where the public health authorities had never invited women to breast cancer screening. RESULTS: A total of 759 women returned the questionnaire....... Those living in areas where screening was not offered reported more negative psychosocial aspects compared to women living in areas where screening was offered. CONCLUSIONS: The results indicate that women tend to perceive breast cancer screening as a reassuring preventive initiative. Alternatively...

  8. Testing Precision Screening for Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    An NCI research article about individualized approaches that could help identify those at risk of breast cancer who need to be screened and testing screening intervals that are appropriate for each person’s level of risk.

  9. International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer Computed Tomography Screening Workshop 2011 report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Field, John K; Smith, Robert A; Aberle, Denise R

    2011-01-01

    national screening programs; (iii) develop guidelines for the clinical work-up of "indeterminate nodules" resulting from CT screening programmers; (iv) guidelines for pathology reporting of nodules from lung cancer CT screening programs; (v) recommendations for surgical and therapeutic interventions...... of suspicious nodules identified through lung cancer CT screening programs; and (vi) integration of smoking cessation practices into future national lung cancer CT screening programs....

  10. Meta-analysis of screening and case finding tools for depression in cancer: evidence based recommendations for clinical practice on behalf of the Depression in Cancer Care consensus group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Alex J; Meader, Nick; Davies, Evan; Clover, Kerrie; Carter, Gregory L; Loscalzo, Matthew J; Linden, Wolfgang; Grassi, Luigi; Johansen, Christoffer; Carlson, Linda E; Zabora, James

    2012-10-01

    To examine the validity of screening and case-finding tools used in the identification of depression as defined by an ICD10/DSM-IV criterion standard. We identified 63 studies involving 19 tools (in 33 publications) designed to help clinicians identify depression in cancer settings. We used a standardized rating system. We excluded 11 tools without at least two independent studies, leaving 8 tools for comparison. Across all cancer stages there were 56 diagnostic validity studies (n=10,009). For case-finding, one stem question, two stem questions and the BDI-II all had level 2 evidence (2a, 2b and 2c respectively) and given their better acceptability we gave the stem questions a grade B recommendation. For screening, two stem questions had level 1b evidence (with high acceptability) and the BDI-II had level 2c evidence. For every 100 people screened in advanced cancer, the two questions would accurately detect 18 cases, while missing only 1 and correctly reassure 74 with 7 falsely identified. For every 100 people screened in non-palliative settings the BDI-II would accurately detect 17 cases, missing 2 and correctly re-assure 70, with 11 falsely identified as cases. The main cautions are the reliance on DSM-IV definitions of major depression, the large number of small studies and the paucity of data for many tools in specific settings. Although no single tool could be offered unqualified support, several tools are likely to improve upon unassisted clinical recognition. In clinical practice, all tools should form part of an integrated approach involving further follow-up, clinical assessment and evidence based therapy. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Breast cancer screening in older women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caplan, L S; Haynes, S G

    1996-01-01

    There is currently an epidemic of breast cancer in women 65 years of age and older. The purposes of this paper are to explore the breast cancer screening behaviors of older women and to identify some of the determinants of screening in these women. Data were analyzed from the 1987 National Health Interview Survey, a continuous nationwide household interview survey of the U.S. civilian, noninstitutionalized population. As in other studies, the utilization of breast cancer screening by older women was less in older women than in younger women. This was true for both mammography and clinical breast examination. A number of determinants of screening in older women were identified here. Women with a usual source of care and/or no activity limitation, as well as high school graduates, were the ones most likely to have received a screening mammogram and/or a screening clinical breast exam during the past year. The failure of older women to receive adequate breast cancer screening is an important concern which should be reevaluated, given the breast cancer epidemic in this population. This study identified a number of determinants of breast cancer screening in older women. For the most part, these determinants point to the primary care physician as the key to breast cancer screening in these women. Therefore, the primary care physician must be informed of, and encouraged to follow, the recommendations for periodic breast cancer screening in older women.

  12. International Collaboration Enhances Cancer Screening Efforts

    Science.gov (United States)

    CGH is working with the International Agency for Research on CancerExit Disclaimer (IARC) and the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) on the ESTAMPA Study, a multi-centric study of cervical cancer screening and triage with HPV testing.

  13. Computer screens and brain cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, A.W.

    1995-01-01

    Australia, both in the media and at the federal government level, over possible links between screen-based computer use and cancer, brain tumour in particular. The screen emissions assumed to be the sources of the putative hazard are the magnetic fields responsible for horizontal and vertical scanning of the display. Time-varying fluctuations in these magnetic fields induce electrical current flows in exposed tissues. This paper estimates that the induced current densities in the brain of the computer user are up to 1 mA/m 2 (due to the vertical flyback). Corresponding values for other electrical appliances or installations are in general much less than this. The epidemiological literature shows no obvious signs of a sudden increase in brain tumour incidence, but the widespread use of computers is a relatively recent phenomenon. The occupational use of other equipment based on cathode ray tubes (such as TV repair) has a much longer history and has been statistically linked to brain tumour in some studies. A number of factors make this an unreliable indicator of the risk from computer screens, however. 42 refs., 3 tabs., 2 figs

  14. Risks of Skin Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... factors increase or decrease the risk of skin cancer. Skin cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) ... following PDQ summaries for more information about skin cancer: Skin Cancer Prevention Skin Cancer Treatment Melanoma Treatment Genetics ...

  15. Breast cancer screening with digital breast tomosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skaane, Per

    2017-01-01

    To give an overview of studies comparing full-field digital mammography (FFDM) and digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) in breast cancer screening. The implementation of tomosynthesis in breast imaging is rapidly increasing world-wide. Experimental clinical studies of relevance for DBT screening have shown that tomosynthesis might have a great potential in breast cancer screening, although most of these retrospective reading studies are based on small populations, so that final conclusions are difficult to draw from individual reports. Several retrospective studies and three prospective trials on tomosynthesis in breast cancer screening have been published so far, confirming the great potential of DBT in mammography screening. The main results of these screening studies are presented. The retrospective screening studies from USA have all shown a significant decrease in the recall rate using DBT as adjunct to mammography. Most of these studies have also shown an increase in the cancer detection rate, and the non-significant results in some studies might be explained by a lack of statistical power. All the three prospective European trials have shown a significant increase in the cancer detection rate. The retrospective and the prospective screening studies comparing FFDM and DBT have all demonstrated that tomosynthesis has a great potential for improving breast cancer screening. DBT should be regarded as a better mammogram that could improve or overcome limitations of the conventional mammography, and tomosynthesis might be considered as the new technique in the next future of breast cancer screening.

  16. [Women's willingness to pay for cancer screening].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwak, Min-Son; Sung, Na-Young; Yang, Jeong Hee; Park, Eun-Cheol; Choi, KuiSon

    2006-07-01

    The goal of this study is to measure women's willingness to pay for cancer screening and to identify those factors associated with this willingness to pay A population-based telephone survey was performed on 1,562 women (aged 30 years or over) for 2 weeks (9-23th, July, 2004). Data about sociodemographic characteristics, health behaviors, the intention of the cancer screenings and willingness to pay for cancer screening were collected. 1,400 respondents were included in the analysis. The women's willingness to pay for cancer screening and the factors associated with this willingness to pay were evaluated. The results show that 76% of all respondents have a willingness to pay for cancer screening. Among those who are willing to pay, the average and median amount of money for which the respondents are willing to pay are 126,636 (s.d.: 58,414) and 120,000 won, respectively. As the status of education & the income are higher, the average amount that women are willing to pay becomes much more. The amount of money women are willing to pay is the highest during the 'contemplation' stage. Being willing to pay or not is associated with a change of behavior (transtheoretical model), the income, the concern about the cancer risk, the family cancer history, the marital status, the general health exam, age and the place of residence. Income is associated with a greater willingness to pay. Old age was associated with a lower willingness to pay. According to the two-part model, income and TTM are the most important variables associated with the willingness to pay for cancer screening. The cancer screening participation rate is low compared with the willingness to pay for cancer screening. It is thought that we have to consider the participants' behavior that's associated with cancer screening and their willingness to pay in order to organize and manage cancer screening program.

  17. Self-reported colorectal cancer screening of Medicare beneficiaries in family medicine vs. internal medicine practices in the United States: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Higgins Angela Y

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The benefit of screening for decreasing the risk of death from colorectal cancer (CRC has been shown, yet many patients in primary care are still not undergoing screening according to guidelines. There are known variations in delivery of preventive health care services among primary care physicians. This study compared self-reported CRC screening rates and patient awareness of the need for CRC screening of patients receiving care from family medicine (FPs vs. internal medicine (internists physicians. Methods Nationally representative sample of non-institutionalized beneficiaries who received medical care from FPs or internists in 2006 (using Medicare Current Beneficiary Survey. The main outcome was the percentage of patients screened in 2007. We also examined the percentage of patients offered screening. Results Patients of FPs, compared to those of internists, were less likely to have received an FOBT kit or undergone home FOBT, even after accounting for patients' characteristics. Compared to internists, FPs' patients were more likely to have heard of colonoscopy, but were less likely to receive a screening colonoscopy recommendation (18% vs. 27%, or undergo a colonoscopy (43% vs. 46%, adjusted odds ratios [AOR], 95% confidence interval [CI]-- 0.65, 0.51-0.81 or any CRC screening (52% vs. 60%, AOR, CI--0.80, 0.68-0.94. Among subgroups examined, higher income beneficiaries receiving care from internists had the highest screening rate (68%, while disabled beneficiaries receiving care from FPs had the lowest screening rate (34%. Conclusion Patients cared for by FPs had a lower rate of screening compared to those cared for by internists, despite equal or higher levels of awareness; a difference that remained statistically significant after accounting for socioeconomic status and access to healthcare. Both groups of patients remained below the national goal of 70 percent.

  18. Lung cancer: principles and practice

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pass, Harvey I

    2005-01-01

    "A comprehensive review of lung cancer, from screening, early detection, and prevention, to management strategies including surgery, chemotherapy, radiation therapy, and multimodality therapy, as well...

  19. Hydroxychloroquine screening practice patterns within a large multispecialty ophthalmic practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Au, Adrian; Parikh, Vishal; Modi, Yasha S; Ehlers, Justis P; Schachat, Andrew P; Singh, Rishi P

    2015-09-01

    To determine provider compliance with hydroxychloroquine screening following the revised recommendations published in 2011 by the American Academy of Ophthalmology. Evaluation of adherence to a screening protocol. Subjects were identified with hydroxychloroquine as a medication by electronic query at a large multispecialty ophthalmic practice. Patients were excluded if patients: (1) were screened by an outside physician; (2) lacked recorded height, weight, start date, or dosing; or (3) took hydroxychloroquine for malaria prophylaxis. Screening tests were stratified by ophthalmic subspecialty. Guidelines define proper screening as 1 subjective test-Humphrey visual field (HVF), and 1 objective test-spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD OCT), fundus autofluorescence (FAF), or multifocal electroretinography (mfERG). Adherence to guidelines was determined by categorizing practices as: (1) "appropriate"-consistent with guidelines; (2) "underscreened"-insufficient testing; or (3) "inappropriate"-no testing. The study comprised 756 patients with a mean age of 56 years undergoing 1294 screening visits. Twenty-one patients received initial screenings outside the institution. Most common screening tests employed included SD OCT (56.6%), 10-2 HVF (55.0%), and Amsler grid (40.0%). Of the 735 initial screenings, 341 (46.4%) were appropriately screened, 204 (27.8%) underscreened, and 190 (25.9%) inappropriately screened. Of those who presented solely for screening (560), 307 (54.8%) were appropriately screened, 144 (25.7%) underscreened, and 109 (19.5%) inappropriately screened. Of patients presenting for hydroxychloroquine screening, 54.8% of patients received appropriate evaluation, indicating lack of adherence to guidelines. Overall, SD OCT and 10-2 HVF were the preferred screening modalities, with FAF and mfERG less frequently ordered. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Artificial intelligence for breast cancer screening: Opportunity or hype?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houssami, Nehmat; Lee, Christoph I; Buist, Diana S M; Tao, Dacheng

    2017-12-01

    Interpretation of mammography for breast cancer (BC) screening can confer a mortality benefit through early BC detection, can miss a cancer that is present or fast growing, or can result in false-positives. Efforts to improve screening outcomes have mostly focused on intensifying imaging practices (double instead of single-reading, more frequent screens, or supplemental imaging) that may add substantial resource expenditures and harms associated with population screening. Less attention has been given to making mammography screening practice 'smarter' or more efficient. Artificial intelligence (AI) is capable of advanced learning using large complex datasets and has the potential to perform tasks such as image interpretation. With both highly-specific capabilities, and also possible un-intended (and poorly understood) consequences, this viewpoint considers the promise and current reality of AI in BC detection. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Screening for breast cancer with mammography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gøtzsche, Peter C; Jørgensen, Karsten Juhl

    2013-01-01

    A variety of estimates of the benefits and harms of mammographic screening for breast cancer have been published and national policies vary.......A variety of estimates of the benefits and harms of mammographic screening for breast cancer have been published and national policies vary....

  2. REVIEW ARTICLE: PROSTATE CANCER SCREENING USING ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    FOBUR

    ABSTRACT. Background: Prostate cancer is the commonest cancer among men in Nigeria and early detection is key to cure and survival but its screening through prostate specific antigen (PSA) has remain controversial in literature. Screening with prostate specific antigen (PSA) has led to more men diagnosed with ...

  3. Patient-initiated breast cancer screening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chilcote, W.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reviews the results of a breast cancer screening program sponsored by organizations at workplace or community locations. A comprehensive mobile breast cancer screening program, including education, breast physical examination, and mammography, was provided to 89 local organizations at $50.00 per examination over an 18-month period. The examination was patient initiated, following the ACS screening guidelines. Estimates of eligible women were provided by each organization. A total of 5,030 women at 89 organizations were screened for breast cancer. Approximately 25,727 women were eligible

  4. Cancer screening is not only about numbers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knottnerus, B. J.

    2017-01-01

    In the cancer screening debate, arguments for and against screening are often based on statistics, whereas for individuals personal, non-statistical factors are at least as important when deciding whether to participate in screening. Health care professionals have a responsibility in helping

  5. Outcome of breast cancer screening in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynge, Elsebeth; Bak, Martin; von Euler-Chelpin, My

    2017-01-01

    were node negative and 40% ≤10 mm. False-positive rate was around 2%; higher for North Denmark Region than for the rest of Denmark. Three out of 10 breast cancers in screened women were diagnosed as interval cancers. Conclusions: High coverage by examination and low interval cancer rate are required...... for screening to decrease breast cancer mortality. Two pioneer local screening programs starting in the 1990s were followed by a decrease in breast cancer mortality of 22-25%. Coverage by examination and interval cancer rate of the national program were on the favorable side of values from the pioneer programs...... calculated coverage by examination; participation after invitation; detection-, interval cancer- and false-positive rates; cancer characteristics; sensitivity and specificity, for Denmark and for the five regions. Results: At the national level coverage by examination remained at 75-77%; lower in the Capital...

  6. Gastric cancer screening, literature review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porras Alfaro, Erika

    2014-01-01

    A comprehensive literature review was made of the methods of screening (pepsinogen test, gastrin-17, anti HP, SGD and Endoscopy). The review and descriptive study of the scientific literature related to the subject was conducted in the scientific databases: Pud Med, MD Consult and Medscape, from August 2013 to March 2014. 65 articles were found related to the topic. The review has included 47 items, assigned according to the criteria of inclusion and exclusion. Available methods were defined of high cost, difficult to spread, little sensitive, little specific and invasive. Endoscopy has had limitations of cost, quality, morbidity, mortality and availability. Pepsinogen tests and helicobacter pylori have helped identify the population at risk for later sift with endoscopy; but it is a very sensitive method. Endoscopy is recommended every two years in the population at risk (patients between 50 and 70 years with a family history of gastric cancer, chronic atrophic gastritis, Helicobacter pylori infection, intestinal metaplasia and dysplasia, patients with symptomatology of dyspepsia and with positive pepsinogen test) is a higher method than SGD in cost, sensitivity and specificity similar to invasive level. The training of the endoscopists should be strengthened in early gastric cancer detection since the detection depends on the quality of endoscopy [es

  7. Men and women: beliefs about cancer and about screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Whynes David K

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cancer screening programmes in England are publicly-funded. Professionals' beliefs in the public health benefits of screening can conflict with individuals' entitlements to exercise informed judgement over whether or not to participate. The recognition of the importance of individual autonomy in decision making requires greater understanding of the knowledge, attitudes and beliefs upon which people's screening choices are founded. Until recently, the technology available required that cancer screening be confined to women. This study aimed to discover whether male and female perceptions of cancer and of screening differed. Methods Data on the public's cancer beliefs were collected by means of a postal survey (anonymous questionnaire. Two general practices based in Nottingham and in Mansfield, in east-central England, sent questionnaires to registered patients aged 30 to 70 years. 1,808 completed questionnaires were returned for analysis, 56.5 per cent from women. Results Women were less likely to underestimate overall cancer incidence, although each sex was more likely to cite a sex-specific cancer as being amongst the most common cancer site. In terms of risk factors, men were most uncertain about the role of stress and sexually-transmitted diseases, whereas women were more likely to rate excessive alcohol and family history as major risk factors. The majority of respondents believed the public health care system should provide cancer screening, but significantly more women than men reported having benefiting from the nationally-provided screening services. Those who were older, in better health or had longer periods of formal education were less worried about cancer than those who had illness experiences, lower incomes, or who were smokers. Actual or potential participation in bowel screening was higher amongst those who believed bowel cancer to be common and amongst men, despite women having more substantial worries about

  8. Systematic skin cancer screening in Northern Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breitbart, Eckhard W; Waldmann, Annika; Nolte, Sandra; Capellaro, Marcus; Greinert, Ruediger; Volkmer, Beate; Katalinic, Alexander

    2012-02-01

    The incidence of skin cancer is increasing worldwide. For decades, opportunistic melanoma screening has been carried out to respond to this burden. However, despite potential positive effects such as reduced morbidity and mortality, there is still a lack of evidence for feasibility and effectiveness of organized skin cancer screening. The main aim of the project was to evaluate the feasibility of systematic skin cancer screening. In 2003, the Association of Dermatological Prevention was contracted to implement the population-based SCREEN project (Skin Cancer Research to Provide Evidence for Effectiveness of Screening in Northern Germany) in the German state of Schleswig-Holstein. A two-step program addressing malignant melanoma and nonmelanocytic skin cancer was implemented. Citizens (aged ≥ 20 years) with statutory health insurance were eligible for a standardized whole-body examination during the 12-month study period. Cancer registry and mortality data were used to assess first effects. Of 1.88 million eligible citizens, 360,288 participated in SCREEN. The overall population-based participation rate was 19%. A total of 3103 malignant skin tumors were found. On the population level, invasive melanoma incidence increased by 34% during SCREEN. Five years after SCREEN a substantial decrease in melanoma mortality was seen (men: observed 0.79/100,000 and expected 2.00/100,000; women: observed 0.66/100,000 and expected 1.30/100,000). Because of political reasons (resistance as well as lack of support from major German health care stakeholders), it was not possible to conduct a randomized controlled trial. The project showed that large-scale systematic skin cancer screening is feasible and has the potential to reduce skin cancer burden, including mortality. Based on the results of SCREEN, a national statutory skin cancer early detection program was implemented in Germany in 2008. Copyright © 2010 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All

  9. Screening for breast cancer post reduction mammoplasty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muir, T.M.; Tresham, J.; Fritschi, L.; Wylie, E.

    2010-01-01

    Aim: To investigate whether remodelling of the breast after breast reduction surgery has an effect on mammographic cancer detection. Methods and materials: For women who attended population-based screening between January 1998 to December 2007, data were extracted on their age, history of previous breast reduction, and the result of screening (recall for further assessment, cancer, or no cancer). The number of cancers detected, recalls per 1000 screens and the characteristics of the cancers detected in the two groups was compared. Results: In total 244,147 women with 736,219 screening episodes were reviewed. In the 4743 women who had a breast reduction, 51 breast cancers were detected [age standardized rate (ASR) of 4.28 per 1000 screening episodes; 95% CI 3.11-5.46], compared with 4342 breast cancers in 239 404 women screened in the non-reduction group (ASR of 5.99 per 1000 screening episodes; 95% CI 5.81-6.16). There were fewer cancers in the breast reduction group with a relative risk of 0.71. There was no significant difference in the rate of recall between the two groups, with a crude recall rate of 46.1 per 1000 screening episodes post-breast reduction compared with 50.7 per 1000 screening episodes for women without breast reduction. There was no significant difference in the pathological type or location of the cancer between the two groups of women. Conclusion: Postoperative breast changes following reduction mammoplasty do not significantly hinder analysis of the screening mammogram.

  10. Lung cancer screening. What have we learnt for the practice so far?; Bronchialkarzinomscreening. Was haben wir fuer die Praxis bisher gelernt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaefer-Prokop, C. [Meander Medisch Centrum, Abteilung Radiologie, Amersfoort (Netherlands); Radboudumc, Abteilung Radiologie und Nuklearmedizin, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Prosch, H. [AKH Wien, Abteilung Radiologie und Nuklearmedizin, Wien (Austria); Prokop, M. [Meander Medisch Centrum, Abteilung Radiologie, Amersfoort (Netherlands)

    2014-05-15

    Lung cancer is the most frequent cause of tumor-associated death and only has a good prognosis if detected at a very early tumor stage. For the first time the American National Lung Screening Trial (NLST) could prove that low-dose computed tomography (CT) screening is able to reduce lung cancer mortality by 20 %. To date, however, three much smaller and therefore statistically underpowered European trials could not confirm the positive results of the NLST. The results of the largest European trial NELSON are expected within the next 2 years. In addition, there are a number of open or not yet satisfactorily answered questions, such as the definition of the appropriate screening population, the management of nodules detected by screening, the effects of over-diagnosis and the risk of cumulative radiation exposure. The success of the NLST prompted several predominantly American professional societies to issue a positive recommendation about the implementation of lung cancer screening in a population at risk. However, potentially conflicting results of European studies and a number of not yet optimized issues justify caution and call for a pooled analysis of European studies in order to provide statistically sound results and to ensure a high efficiency of screening with respect to the radiation applied, mental and physical patient burden and, last but not least, the financial efforts. (orig.) [German] Das Bronchialkarzinom ist die haeufigste tumorassoziierte Todesursache und hat nur dann eine gute Prognose, wenn es in einem sehr fruehen Stadium erkannt wird. Der amerikanische National Lung Screening Trial (NLST) konnte zum ersten Mal nachweisen, dass durch Low-dose-CT-Screening eine signifikante Reduktion der Bronchialkarzinommortalitaet um 20 % moeglich ist. Drei deutlich kleinere und daher statistisch weniger untermauerte europaeische Studien konnten jedoch nicht annaehernd die positiven Ergebnisse der NLST-Studie bestaetigen. Die Ergebnisse der groessten

  11. CT screening for lung cancer. Update 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henschke, C.I.; Yip, R.; Yankelevitz, D.F.

    2009-01-01

    Screening for a cancer should be considered when the cancer is significant in terms of incidence and mortality, treatment of early stage disease is better than treatment of late stage disease, and there is a screening regimen that provides for earlier diagnosis rather than later, symptom-prompted diagnosis. Lung cancer qualifies as it kills more people than any other cancer worldwide. In the United States it kills more people than colon, breast, and prostate cancer combined and more women than breast cancer. The fundamental concepts of screening are presented. Screening for a cancer is a repetitive process, starting with the baseline round followed by repeat rounds of screening at set intervals. The regimen of screening defines the initial diagnostic test and the sequence of tests to be performed leading to a rule-in diagnosis of the cancer. The regimen should provide lead time of the diagnosis of the cancer. The regimen for the first, baseline round may be different from the regimen for the repeat rounds as the former is inherently different from the subsequent repeat rounds. Baseline screening identifies a greater proportion of cancers with a longer latent (asymptomatic) phase than repeat screening, called length bias. Length bias exists for any screening program, regardless of the design of the study or the cancer. Repeat rounds of screening identify the same proportion of cancer diagnoses found in absence of screening for people having the same risk of the cancer and these repeat rounds of screening can be pooled. It is also a consequence of length bias that cancers found in repeat rounds are earlier in their latent phase than those of the baseline round, a less frequently mentioned consequence. Overdiagnosis bias, another bias of screening, can occur in two ways: a cancer' detected by the screening, pathologically proven, that is not life-threatening even when not resected and a genuine life-threatening cancer that is diagnosed and treated but the person dies

  12. Risk factors & screening modalities for oral cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chau, Steven

    2008-01-01

    Dentists are at the forefront for screening oral cancer. In addition to the well known carcinogenic potential of tobacco and alcohol, betel nut chewing and human papilloma virus are important risk factors in the development of oral cancer. To aid in screening and decreasing morbidity and mortality from oral cancer, a variety of techniques have been developed. These techniques show promise but they require additional investigations to determine their usefulness in oral cancer detection. Dentists need to be well educated and vigilant when dealing with all patients they encounter. Early detection, diagnosis and treatment are critical for the effective management of oral cancers.

  13. Screening of colorectal early cancer by radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsukawa, M.; Usui, Y.; Kobayashi, S.

    1988-01-01

    The incidence of colorectal cancer has been gradually increasing in Japan, and if the present rate of increase is maintained it has been estimated that it will become the most common of all malignant neoplasms by the year 2000. It has been proved that colorectal cancer can be completely cured, if it is treated in its early phase. Early cancer of the large bowel is defined as a cancer which is limited to the mucosal membrane or submucosal layer, regardless of lymph node and distant metastases. Detection of early cancer improves the overall curability of colorectal cancer. The greatest number of early cancers of the large bowel are polypoid lesions in their macroscopic form, and depressed lesions are rarely encountered. Accordingly, the first step in the detection of early cancer starts with the screening of polypoid lesion by radiology and endoscopy. This paper is concerned with diagnostic accuracy of radiology in the screening of colorectal cancer with endoscopic correlation

  14. Optimizing Outcomes of Colorectal Cancer Screening

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.G.S. Meester (Reinier)

    2017-01-01

    markdownabstractColorectal cancer is a leading cause of cancer deaths. Screening for colorectal cancer is implemented in an increasing number of settings, but performance of programs is often suboptimal. In this thesis, advanced modeling, informed by empirical data, was used to identify areas for

  15. Breast Cancer Screening, Mammography, and Other Modalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorica, James V

    2016-12-01

    This article is an overview of the modalities available for breast cancer screening. The modalities discussed include digital mammography, digital breast tomosynthesis, breast ultrasonography, magnetic resonance imaging, and clinical breast examination. There is a review of pertinent randomized controlled trials, studies and meta-analyses which contributed to the evolution of screening guidelines. Ultimately, 5 major medical organizations formulated the current screening guidelines in the United States. The lack of consensus in these guidelines represents an ongoing controversy about the optimal timing and method for breast cancer screening in women. For mammography screening, the Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System lexicon is explained which corresponds with recommended clinical management. The presentation and discussion of the data in this article are designed to help the clinician individualize breast cancer screening for each patient.

  16. Text Messaging Interventions on Cancer Screening Rates: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uy, Catherine; Lopez, Jennifer; Trinh-Shevrin, Chau; Kwon, Simona C; Sherman, Scott E; Liang, Peter S

    2017-08-24

    Despite high-quality evidence demonstrating that screening reduces mortality from breast, cervical, colorectal, and lung cancers, a substantial portion of the population remains inadequately screened. There is a critical need to identify interventions that increase the uptake and adoption of evidence-based screening guidelines for preventable cancers at the community practice level. Text messaging (short message service, SMS) has been effective in promoting behavioral change in various clinical settings, but the overall impact and reach of text messaging interventions on cancer screening are unknown. The objective of this systematic review was to assess the effect of text messaging interventions on screening for breast, cervical, colorectal, and lung cancers. We searched multiple databases for studies published between the years 2000 and 2017, including PubMed, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library, to identify controlled trials that measured the effect of text messaging on screening for breast, cervical, colorectal, or lung cancers. Study quality was evaluated using the Cochrane risk of bias tool. Our search yielded 2238 citations, of which 31 underwent full review and 9 met inclusion criteria. Five studies examined screening for breast cancer, one for cervical cancer, and three for colorectal cancer. No studies were found for lung cancer screening. Absolute screening rates for individuals who received text message interventions were 0.6% to 15.0% higher than for controls. Unadjusted relative screening rates for text message recipients were 4% to 63% higher compared with controls. Text messaging interventions appear to moderately increase screening rates for breast and cervical cancer and may have a small effect on colorectal cancer screening. Benefit was observed in various countries, including resource-poor and non-English-speaking populations. Given the paucity of data, additional research is needed to better quantify the effectiveness of this promising intervention

  17. The Japanese Guidelines for Breast Cancer Screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamashima, Chisato; Hamashima C, Chisato; Hattori, Masakazu; Honjo, Satoshi; Kasahara, Yoshio; Katayama, Takafumi; Nakai, Masahiro; Nakayama, Tomio; Morita, Takako; Ohta, Koji; Ohnuki, Koji; Sagawa, Motoyasu; Saito, Hiroshi; Sasaki, Seiju; Shimada, Tomoyuki; Sobue, Tomotaka; Suto, Akihiko

    2016-05-01

    The incidence of breast cancer has progressively increased, making it the leading cause of cancer deaths in Japan. Breast cancer accounts for 20.4% of all new cancers with a reported age-standardized rate of 63.6 per 100 000 women. The Japanese guidelines for breast cancer screening were developed based on a previously established method. The efficacies of mammography with and without clinical breast examination, clinical breast examination and ultrasonography with and without mammography were evaluated. Based on the balance of the benefits and harms, recommendations for population-based and opportunistic screenings were formulated. Five randomized controlled trials of mammographic screening without clinical breast examination were identified for mortality reduction from breast cancer. The overall relative risk for women aged 40-74 years was 0.75 (95% CI: 0.67-0.83). Three randomized controlled trials of mammographic screening with clinical breast examination served as eligible evidence for mortality reduction from breast cancer. The overall relative risk for women aged 40-64 years was 0.87 (95% confidence interval: 0.77-0.98). The major harms of mammographic screening were radiation exposure, false-positive cases and overdiagnosis. Although two case-control studies evaluating mortality reduction from breast cancer were found for clinical breast examination, there was no study assessing the effectiveness of ultrasonography for breast cancer screening. Mammographic screening without clinical breast examination for women aged 40-74 years and with clinical breast examination for women aged 40-64 years is recommended for population-based and opportunistic screenings. Clinical breast examination and ultrasonography are not recommended for population-based screening because of insufficient evidence regarding their effectiveness. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. More misinformation on breast cancer screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopans, Daniel B

    2017-02-01

    Unfortunately, a great deal of misinformation has accumulated in the breast cancer screening literature that is based on flawed analyses in an effort to reduce access to screening. Quite remarkably, much of this has come from publications in previously highly respected medical journals. In several papers the intervention (mammography screening) is faulted yet the analyses provided no data on who participated in mammography screening, and which cancers were detected by mammography screening. It is remarkable that a highly respected journal can fault an intervention with no data on the intervention. Claims of massive over diagnosis of invasive breast cancer due to breast cancer screening have been made using "guesses" that have no scientific basis. No one has ever seen a mammographically detected, invasive breast cancer, disappear on its own, yet analysts have claimed that this occurs thousands of times each year. In fact, the" miraculous" resolution, without intervention, of a handful of breast cancers have all been palpable cancers, yet there is no suggestion to stop treating palpable cancers. A review of several publications in the New England Journal of Medicine shows some of the flaws in these analyses. There is clearly a problem with peer review that is allowing scientifically unsupportable material, which is misleading women and their physicians, to be published in prestigious journals.

  19. The 'grey' assessment practice of IA screening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bidstrup, Morten

    2017-01-01

    Research focusing on the practices surrounding screening in Impact Assessment (IA) is limited. Yet, it has been found that development proposals sometimes are adjusted through an informal dialog with IA practitioners prior to or during screening. Such practice is often referred to as ‘grey IA......’ in Denmark. This article explores the prevalence, influence and applied rationale of grey IA. Through a questionnaire, data was collected from 121 IA practitioners working within the fields of environmental impact assessment and strategic environmental assessment. It was found that grey IA is a common...... practice, which influences the outcomes of formal screening procedures through consideration of impacts on neighbours and spatial zones of protection. Grey IA is to some extent motivated by the opportunity to save the resources required for full-scale IA, but an additional ‘green’ rationale also exists...

  20. Cancer screening with FDG-PET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ide, M.

    2006-01-01

    Aim: This study is based on medical health check-up and cancer screening on of a medical health club using PET, MRI, spiral CT and other conventional examinations. Methods: Between October 1994 and June 2005, 9357 asymptomatic members of the health club participated in 24772 screening session (5693 men and 3664 women, mean age 52.2±10.4 years). Results: Malignant tumors were discovered in 296 of the 9357 participants (3.16%) and 24772 screening sessions (1.19%). The detection rate of our program is much higher than that of mass screening in Japan. The thyroid, lung, colon and breast cancers were PET positive, but the prostate, renal and bladder cancers were generally PET negative. Conclusion: FDG-PET has the potential to detect a wide variety of cancers at curable stages in asymptomatic individuals. To reduce false-positive and false-negative results of PET examination, there is a need of experienced radiologist and/or oncologists who had training in the wide aspect of FDG-PET. FDG-PET has limitations in the detection of urological cancers, cancers of low cell density, small cancers and hypo metabolic or FDG non-avid cancers. Therefore, conventional examinations and/or PET/CT are also needed for cancer screening in association with FDG-PET

  1. Older Adults’ Views and Communication Preferences About Cancer Screening Cessation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenborn, Nancy L.; Lee, Kimberley; Pollack, Craig E.; Armacost, Karen; Dy, Sydney M.; Bridges, John F. P.; Xue, Qian-Li; Wolff, Antonio C.; Boyd, Cynthia

    2017-01-01

    unnecessarily harsh compared with the more positive messaging of “this test would not help you live longer.” CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE Although research and clinical practice guidelines recommend using life expectancy to inform cancer screening, older adults may not consider life expectancy important in screening and may not prefer to hear about life expectancy when discussing screening. The described communication preferences can help inform future screening discussions. Better delineating patient-centered approaches to discuss screening cessation is an important step toward optimizing cancer screening in older adults. PMID:28604917

  2. Esophageal cancer screening in achalasia: is there a consensus?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravi, K; Geno, D M; Katzka, D A

    2015-04-01

    Achalasia is an important but relatively uncommon disorder. While highly effective therapeutic options exist, esophageal cancer remains a long-term potential complication. The risk of esophageal cancer in achalasia remains unclear, with current guidelines recommending against routine endoscopic screening. However, given limited data and conflicting opinion, it is unknown whether consensus regarding screening practices in achalasia among experts exists. A 10-question survey to assess screening practices in achalasia was created and distributed to 28 experts in the area of achalasia. Experts were identified based on publications and meeting presentations in the field. Survey responses were received from 17 of 28 (61%) experts. Wide geographic distribution was seen among respondents, with eight (47%) from Europe or Australia, seven (41%) from the United States, and two (12%) from Asia. Screening for esophageal cancer was inconsistent, with nine (53%) experts endorsing the practice and eight (47%) not. Screening practices did not differ among geographic regions. No consensus regarding the risk for esophageal cancer in achalasia was seen, with three experts reporting no increased risk compared with the general population, eight experts a lifetime risk of 0.1-0.5%, three experts a 0.5-1% risk, two experts a 1-2% risk, and one expert a 3-5% risk. However, these differences in perception of risk did not influence screening practices. Upper endoscopy was utilized among all experts who endorsed screening. However, practices still varied with screening commencing at or within 1 year of diagnosis in two practices compared with 5 and 10 years in three respective practices each. Surveillance intervals also varied, performed every 2 years in four practices, every 3 years in four practices, and every 5 years in one practice. Practice variation in the management of achalasia itself was also seen, with initial treatment with Heller myotomy endorsed by eight experts, pneumatic

  3. Final screening round of the NELSON lung cancer screening trial: the effect of a 2.5-year screening interval

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yousaf-Khan, U.; Aalst, C. van der; Jong, P.A. de; Heuvelmans, M.; Scholten, E.T.; Lammers, J.-W.J.; Ooijen, P. van; Nackaerts, K.; Weenink, C.; Groen, H.; Vliegenthart, R.; Haaf, K. Ten; Oudkerk, M.; Koning, H. de

    2016-01-01

    In the USA annual lung cancer screening is recommended. However, the optimal screening strategy (eg, screening interval, screening rounds) is unknown. This study provides results of the fourth screening round after a 2.5-year interval in the Dutch-Belgian Lung Cancer Screening trial

  4. Final screening round of the NELSON lung cancer screening trial : the effect of a 2.5-year screening interval

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yousaf-Khan, Uraujh; van der Aalst, Carlijn; de Jong, Pim A; Heuvelmans, Marjolein; Scholten, Ernst; Lammers, Jan-Willem; van Ooijen, Peter; Nackaerts, Kristiaan; Weenink, Carla; Groen, Harry; Vliegenthart, Rozemarijn; Ten Haaf, Kevin; Oudkerk, Matthijs; de Koning, Harry

    BACKGROUND: In the USA annual lung cancer screening is recommended. However, the optimal screening strategy (eg, screening interval, screening rounds) is unknown. This study provides results of the fourth screening round after a 2.5-year interval in the Dutch-Belgian Lung Cancer Screening trial

  5. Final screening round of the NELSON lung cancer screening trial : the effect of a 2.5-year screening interval

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yousaf-Khan, Uraujh; van der Aalst, Carlijn; de Jong, Pim A.; Heuvelmans, Marjolein; Scholten, Ernst; Lammers, Jan-Willem; van Ooijen, Peter; Nackaerts, Kristiaan; Weenink, Carla; Groen, Harry; Vliegenthart, Rozemarijn; Ten Haaf, Kevin; Oudkerk, Matthijs; de Koning, Harry

    Background In the USA annual lung cancer screening is recommended. However, the optimal screening strategy (eg, screening interval, screening rounds) is unknown. This study provides results of the fourth screening round after a 2.5-year interval in the Dutch-Belgian Lung Cancer Screening trial

  6. [Screening of ovarian cancer : not for tomorrow].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuilleumier, Aurélie; Labidi-Galy, Intidhar

    2017-05-17

    As the worldwide incidence of cancer continuously rises, one of the measures to reduce mortality is early diagnosis while the disease is still curable. Colonoscopy screening and PAP-smears are worthwhile examples illustrating the impact of early diagnosis on mortality. Ovarian cancer is the first cause of mortality by gynecological cancers in Switzerland (incidence of 600 new cases / year), mostly diagnosed at advanced stages with a poor prognosis. Could surveillance measures improve survival ? Three large-scale randomized control trials failed to show mortality reduction from ovarian cancer with the methods currently available. A better comprehension of pathogenesis can allow the development of new strategies of screening.

  7. Knowledge, Practices and Education of Clients on Cervical Cancer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Most patients with cancer of the cervix present late with poor prognosis. Health workers' knowledge and utilization of the screening services might influence their clients. The aim of this study was to determine the knowledge, practice and education of clients on cervical cancer and its screening among female ...

  8. Cervical Cancer Screening in Underserved Populations

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    Dr. Lisa Flowers, a specialist in human papillovarius (HPV)-related diseases and Director of Colposcopy at Emory University School of Medicine, talks about cervical cancer screening in underinsured or uninsured women.

  9. Computer Simulation of Breast Cancer Screening

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Boone, John

    1999-01-01

    Breast cancer will affect approximately 12.5% of the women in the United States, and currently mammographic screening is considered the best way to reduce mortality from this disease through early detection...

  10. A marketing campaign to promote screening for oral cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Amid I; Jedele, Jenefer M; Lim, Sungwoo; Tellez, Marisol

    2012-09-01

    Organizers of the Detroit Oral Cancer Prevention Project at the University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, launched a multifaceted media campaign targeted toward a high-risk population to raise awareness about oral cancer, educate the public regarding the importance of early detection and increase screening rates. The authors present data about the effectiveness of the campaign with regard to the screening behaviors of medical and dental providers. Before the start of the campaign and during each of the three years of the campaign, the authors mailed surveys to random samples of physicians and dentists practicing in targeted and non-targeted areas. More dentists than physicians reported screening patients routinely, and dentists reported that they referred more patients for biopsy or further evaluation compared with physicians. A larger proportion of dentists and physicians in the targeted area than in the nontargeted area reported that their patients had seen or heard the advertisements. A larger proportion of dentists in the targeted area than in the nontargeted area reported an increase in patients' questions and requests for screening, even after the authors accounted for demographic characteristics (adjusted odds ratio = 2.47). The survey findings show that the media campaign was effective in influencing providers' screening for signs and symptoms of oral cancer. An increase in patients' requests for screening as a result of the implementation of mass media campaigns may promote oral cancer screening and improve patients' chances of survival.

  11. Cervical Cancer Screening Among Adult Women in China, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Baohua; He, Minfu; Chao, Ann; Engelgau, Michael M.; Saraiya, Mona; Wang, Limin

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Cervical cancer is one of the most commonly diagnosed cancers among women in China. The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends routine screening for cervical cancer, and the WHO Global Monitoring Framework suggests that every nation monitors cervical cancer screening. However, little information is available on cervical cancer screening behavior among women in China. Methods. We used data from the 2010 China Chronic Disease and Risk Factor Surveillance System that included 51,989 women aged 18 years and older. We report the proportion of women who reported ever having had a Papanicolaou (Pap) test, stratified by sociodemographic characteristics and geographic region. Multivariable logistic regression modeling was performed to adjust for potential confounders. Results. Overall, 21% of 51,989 women reported having ever had a Pap test. The highest proportion was reported among women aged 30–39 years (30.1%, 95% confidence interval, 26.8%–33.4%). In all geographic regions, women in rural areas were consistently less likely than women in urban areas to report having had a Pap test. Among women who reported ever having a Pap test, 82% reported having the most recent test in the past 3 years. Factors associated with reporting ever having a test were being aged 30–49 years, higher education, being married, and having urban health insurance. Conclusion. Our results indicate that screening programs need to be strengthened along with a more intense focus on specific demographic groups. National cervical cancer screening guidelines and comprehensive implementation strategies are needed to make screening services available and accessible to all women. Implications for Practice: This study is the largest nationwide and population-based assessment of self-reported history of Pap test for cervical cancer screening in China. This article describes cervical cancer screening behavior among women and examines key demographic and geographic factors. Only one

  12. Ethical issues in cancer screening and prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plutynski, Anya

    2012-06-01

    November 2009's announcement of the USPSTF's recommendations for screening for breast cancer raised a firestorm of objections. Chief among them were that the panel had insufficiently valued patients' lives or allowed cost considerations to influence recommendations. The publicity about the recommendations, however, often either simplified the actual content of the recommendations or bypassed significant methodological issues, which a philosophical examination of both the science behind screening recommendations and their import reveals. In this article, I discuss two of the leading ethical considerations at issue in screening recommendations: respect for patient autonomy and beneficence and then turn to the most significant methodological issues raised by cancer screening: the potential biases that may infect a trial of screening effectiveness, the problem of base rates in communicating risk, and the trade-offs involved in a judgment of screening effectiveness. These issues reach more broadly, into the use of "evidence-based" medicine generally, and have important implications for informed consent.

  13. Promoting cancer screening within the patient centered medical home.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarfaty, Mona; Wender, Richard; Smith, Robert

    2011-01-01

    While consensus has grown that primary care is the essential access point in a high-performing health care system, the current model of primary care underperforms in both chronic disease management and prevention. The Patient Centered Medical Home model (PCMH) is at the center of efforts to reinvent primary care practice, and is regarded as the most promising approach to addressing the burden of chronic disease, improving health outcomes, and reducing health spending. However, the potential for the medical home to improve the delivery of cancer screening (and preventive services in general) has received limited attention in both conceptualization and practice. Medical home demonstrations to date have included few evidence-based preventive services in their outcome measures, and few have evaluated the effect of different payment models. Decreasing use of hospitals and emergency rooms and an emphasis on improving chronic care represent improvements in effective delivery of healthcare, but leave opportunities for reducing the burden of cancer untouched. Data confirm that what does or does not happen in the primary care setting has a substantial impact on cancer outcomes. Insofar as cancer is the leading cause of death before age 80, the PCMH model must prioritize adherence to cancer screening according to recommended guidelines, and systems, financial incentives, and reimbursements must be aligned to achieve that goal. This article explores capacities that are needed in the medical home model to facilitate the integration of cancer screening and other preventive services. These capacities include improved patient access and communication, health risk assessments, periodic preventive health exams, use of registries that store cancer risk information and screening history, ability to track and follow up on tests and referrals, feedback on performance, and payment models that reward cancer screening. Copyright © 2011 American Cancer Society, Inc.

  14. THE CERVICAL CANCER SCREENING - UNSOLVED PROBLEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. D. Kaprin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The problem of cervical cancer (CC for many decades continues to be the center of attention leading foreign and domestic oncologists. Malignant cervical tumors occupy the leading position among malignant neoplasms of reproductive system in women, second only to breast cancer, despite having far more effective screening compared with this disease. On predictive expert estimates (taking into account population growth and the expected increase in life expectancy by 2020 in developing countries, the rising incidence and prevalence of cervical cancer is 40%, while in developed countries - 11%. If we do not perform timely interventions for prevention and treatment of cervical cancer, after 2050 cervical cancer every year in the world will become sick 1 million women. In the last decade inRussiathere has been a gradual increase in the incidence of cervical cancer: average annual growth rate of 2.21%, General 25,18%. Cervical cancer is one of nosological forms that meet all the requirements of population-based screening. The current Russian normative documents do not give clear answers to questions concerning the age of onset of cervical cancer screening and the time interval between tests, no clear program organized cytological screening of cervical cancer.

  15. Screening for breast cancer with mammography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gøtzsche, Peter C; Nielsen, Margrethe

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A variety of estimates of the benefits and harms of mammographic screening for breast cancer have been published and national policies vary. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effect of screening for breast cancer with mammography on mortality and morbidity. SEARCH STRATEGY: We searched Pub...... excluded a biased trial and included 600,000 women in the analyses. Three trials with adequate randomisation did not show a significant reduction in breast cancer mortality at 13 years (relative risk (RR) 0.90, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.79 to 1.02); four trials with suboptimal randomisation showed...... a significant reduction in breast cancer mortality with an RR of 0.75 (95% CI 0.67 to 0.83). The RR for all seven trials combined was 0.81 (95% CI 0.74 to 0.87). We found that breast cancer mortality was an unreliable outcome that was biased in favour of screening, mainly because of differential...

  16. Breast cancer screening: An outpatient clinic study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Girgin

    2017-03-01

    Conclusion: A multidisciplinary cancer screening program should be maintained. With such a process, the aim is to reduce the morbidity and mortality of the disease without adversely affecting the health conditions of asymptomatic individuals based on the screening. Success is brought about by the combination of individual features. [Arch Clin Exp Surg 2017; 6(1.000: 23-27

  17. Cervical cancer screening by high risk HPV testing in routine practice: results at one year recall of high risk HPV-positive and cytology-negative women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Mistro, Annarosa; Frayle, Helena; Ferro, Antonio; Callegaro, Susanna; Del Sole, Annamaria; Stomeo, Anna; Cirillo, Emanuela; Fedato, Chiara; Pagni, Silvana; Barzon, Luisa; Zorzi, Manuel

    2014-03-01

    Cervical cancer screening by human papillomavirus (HPV) testing requires the use of additional triage and follow-up analyses. We evaluated women's compliance with and the performance of this strategy in a routine setting. Five cervical service screening programmes in North-East Italy. Eligible women aged 25-64 invited for a new screening episode underwent HPV testing for high risk types (hrHPV by Hybrid Capture 2) and cytology triage. Women with positive HPV and cytology results were referred for colposcopy; women with positive HPV but negative cytology results were referred to 1-year repeat hrHPV testing. Of 46,694 women screened by HPV testing up to December 2011, 3,211 (6.9%) tested hrHPV positive; 45% of these had a positive triage cytology. Those with negative cytology were invited for 1-yr repeat testing. Compliance with invitation was 61.6% at baseline and 85.3% at 1-yr repeat. Rate of persistent hrHPV positivity was 58% (830/1,435). Colposcopy performed in women with a positive hrHPV test at 1-yr repeat accounted for 36% of all colposcopies performed within the screening programmes. Cumulatively, a histological high-grade lesion was detected in 276 women (5.9‰ detection rate), 234 at baseline (85%), and 42 (15%) at 1-yr repeat. Compliance with hrHPV-based screening programmes was high both at baseline and at 1-yr repeat. Compared with the randomized trials, a higher proportion of triage cytology was read as positive, and only a small number of high-grade lesions were detected among the group of hrHPV positive cytology negative women who repeated testing 1-yr after baseline.

  18. Sociocultural Influences on Arab Women's Participation in Breast Cancer Screening in Qatar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Jasmine J; Donnelly, Tam T; Ewashen, Carol; McKiel, Elaine; Raffin, Shelley; Kinch, Janice

    2017-04-01

    Breast cancer, the most common cancer among Arab women in Qatar, significantly affects the morbidity and mortality of Arab women largely because of low participation rates in breast cancer screening. We used a critical ethnographic approach to uncover and describe factors that influence Arab women's breast cancer screening practices. We conducted semistructured interviews with 15 health care practitioners in Qatar. Through thematic analysis of the data, we found three major factors influencing breast cancer screening practices: (a) beliefs, attitudes, and practices regarding women's bodies, health, and illness; (b) religious beliefs and a culturally sensitive health care structure; and (c) culturally specific gender relations and roles. Arab women's health practices cannot be understood in isolation from the sociocultural environment. The problem of low rates of breast cancer screening practices and supportive interventions must be addressed within the context and not be limited to the individual.

  19. New Developments in Breast Cancer Screening and Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilstra, Sarah; McNeil, Melissa

    2017-01-01

    The clinical update serves as a brief review of recently published, high-impact, and potentially practice-changing journal articles summarized for our readers. In this clinical update, we selected top recent articles regarding breast health that may change the clinical practice of women's health providers. We identified articles by reviewing high-impact medical and women's health journals as well as national practice guidelines. Three of our articles are dedicated to the rapid changes in breast cancer screening. With regard to breast cancer treatment, we focused on two articles that impact who we treat with traditional aggressive regimens.

  20. Crunching Numbers: What Cancer Screening Statistics Really Tell Us

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancer screening studies have shown that more screening does not necessarily translate into fewer cancer deaths. This article explains how to interpret the statistics used to describe the results of screening studies.

  1. [CT-Screening for Lung Cancer - what is the Evidence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watermann, Iris; Reck, Martin

    2018-04-01

    In patients with lung cancer treatment opportunities and prognosis are correlated to the stage of disease with a chance for curative treatment in patients with early stage disease. Therefore, early detection of lung cancer is of paramount importance for improving the prognosis of lung cancer patients.The National Lung Screening Trial (NLST) has already shown that low-dose CT increases the number of identified early stage lung cancer patients and reduces lung cancer related mortality. Critically considered in terms of CT-screening are false-positive results, overdiagnosis and unessential invasive clarification. Preliminary results of relatively small European trials haven´t yet confirmed the results of the NLST-study.Until now Lung Cancer Screening by low dose CT-scan or other methods is neither approved nor available in Germany.To improve the efficacy of CT-Screening and to introduce early detection of lung cancer in standard practice, additional, complementing methods should be further evaluated. One option might be the supplementary analysis of biomarkers in liquid biopsies or exhaled breath condensates. In addition, defining the high-risk population is of great relevance to identify candidates who might benefit of early detection programs. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  2. Cervical cancer screening in the Faroe Islands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hammer, Turið; Lynge, Elsebeth; Djurhuus, Gisela W

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The Faroe Islands have had nationally organised cervical cancer screening since 1995. Women aged 25-60 years are invited every third year. Participation is free of charge. Although several European overviews on cervical screening are available, none have included the Faroe Islands. Our...... 1999. At present, 7.0% of samples have abnormal cytology. Of all ASCUS samples, 76-95% were tested for HPV. A total of 58% of women diagnosed with cervical cancer did not participate in screening prior to their diagnosis, and 32% had normal cytology in the previous four years. CONCLUSION: Despite...

  3. Oral cancer screening: serum Raman spectroscopic approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahu, Aditi K.; Dhoot, Suyash; Singh, Amandeep; Sawant, Sharada S.; Nandakumar, Nikhila; Talathi-Desai, Sneha; Garud, Mandavi; Pagare, Sandeep; Srivastava, Sanjeeva; Nair, Sudhir; Chaturvedi, Pankaj; Murali Krishna, C.

    2015-11-01

    Serum Raman spectroscopy (RS) has previously shown potential in oral cancer diagnosis and recurrence prediction. To evaluate the potential of serum RS in oral cancer screening, premalignant and cancer-specific detection was explored in the present study using 328 subjects belonging to healthy controls, premalignant, disease controls, and oral cancer groups. Spectra were acquired using a Raman microprobe. Spectral findings suggest changes in amino acids, lipids, protein, DNA, and β-carotene across the groups. A patient-wise approach was employed for data analysis using principal component linear discriminant analysis. In the first step, the classification among premalignant, disease control (nonoral cancer), oral cancer, and normal samples was evaluated in binary classification models. Thereafter, two screening-friendly classification approaches were explored to further evaluate the clinical utility of serum RS: a single four-group model and normal versus abnormal followed by determining the type of abnormality model. Results demonstrate the feasibility of premalignant and specific cancer detection. The normal versus abnormal model yields better sensitivity and specificity rates of 64 and 80% these rates are comparable to standard screening approaches. Prospectively, as the current screening procedure of visual inspection is useful mainly for high-risk populations, serum RS may serve as a useful adjunct for early and specific detection of oral precancers and cancer.

  4. Cervical Cancer Screening with HPV Test

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    Dr. Stewart Massad, a professor in the Division of Gynecologic Oncology at Washington University in Saint Louis and a board member of the American Society for Colposcopy and Cervical Cancer Prevention (ASCCP), talks about cotesting with human papillomavirus (HPV) as part of a cervical cancer screening program.

  5. Screening for colorectal cancer: what fits best?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Lee, Chun Seng

    2012-06-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) screening has been shown to be effective in reducing CRC incidence and mortality. There are currently a number of screening modalities available for implementation into a population-based CRC screening program. Each screening method offers different strengths but also possesses its own limitations as a population-based screening strategy. We review the current evidence base for accepted CRC screening tools and evaluate their merits alongside their challenges in fulfilling their role in the detection of CRC. We also aim to provide an outlook on the demands of a low-risk population-based CRC screening program with a view to providing insight as to which modality would best suit current and future needs.

  6. Breast cancer screening implementation and reassurance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østerø, J; Siersma, Volkert Dirk; Brodersen, John

    2013-01-01

    difference in reported psychosocial aspects had disappeared or been reduced because of the nationwide screening implementation. METHODS: The 1000 women included in the previous survey were posted part I of the questionnaire Consequences of Screening in Breast Cancer (COS-BC1) in August 2011, nearly 5 years......BACKGROUND: Women not offered screening mammography reported higher levels of negative psychosocial aspects than women offered screening. This was demonstrated in a questionnaire survey where 1000 women were included: 500 women living in areas where the public authorities had never offered...... screening mammography and 500 women living in areas where women had been invited to screening mammography for >10 years. After this baseline survey, nationwide screening mammography was implemented. The aim of this follow-up study was to resurvey the 1000 women and to investigate if the identified...

  7. Implementing academic detailing for breast cancer screening in underserved communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashford Alfred R

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background African American and Hispanic women, such as those living in the northern Manhattan and the South Bronx neighborhoods of New York City, are generally underserved with regard to breast cancer prevention and screening practices, even though they are more likely to die of breast cancer than are other women. Primary care physicians (PCPs are critical for the recommendation of breast cancer screening to their patients. Academic detailing is a promising strategy for improving PCP performance in recommending breast cancer screening, yet little is known about the effects of academic detailing on breast cancer screening among physicians who practice in medically underserved areas. We assessed the effectiveness of an enhanced, multi-component academic detailing intervention in increasing recommendations for breast cancer screening within a sample of community-based urban physicians. Methods Two medically underserved communities were matched and randomized to intervention and control arms. Ninety-four primary care community (i.e., not hospital based physicians in northern Manhattan were compared to 74 physicians in the South Bronx neighborhoods of the New York City metropolitan area. Intervention participants received enhanced physician-directed academic detailing, using the American Cancer Society guidelines for the early detection of breast cancer. Control group physicians received no intervention. We conducted interviews to measure primary care physicians' self-reported recommendation of mammography and Clinical Breast Examination (CBE, and whether PCPs taught women how to perform breast self examination (BSE. Results Using multivariate analyses, we found a statistically significant intervention effect on the recommendation of CBE to women patients age 40 and over; mammography and breast self examination reports increased across both arms from baseline to follow-up, according to physician self-report. At post-test, physician

  8. Risks of Breast Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is small. Different factors increase or decrease the risk of breast cancer. Anything that increases your chance ... magnetic resonance imaging) in women with a high risk of breast cancer MRI is a procedure that ...

  9. The Vaccine and Cervical Cancer Screen project 2 (VACCS 2 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Vaccine and Cervical Cancer Screen project 2 (VACCS 2): Linking cervical cancer screening to a two-dose HPV vaccination ... In VACCS 1 the feasibility of linking cervical cancer with HPV vaccination was demonstrated. ... Article Metrics.

  10. Cervical Cancer Screening with HPV Test

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-10-15

    Dr. Stewart Massad, a professor in the Division of Gynecologic Oncology at Washington University in Saint Louis and a board member of the American Society for Colposcopy and Cervical Cancer Prevention (ASCCP), talks about cotesting with human papillomavirus (HPV) as part of a cervical cancer screening program.  Created: 10/15/2009 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP), Division of Cancer Prevention and Control (DCPC).   Date Released: 6/9/2010.

  11. Cervical cancer screening in the Faroe Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, Turið; Lynge, Elsebeth; Djurhuus, Gisela W; Joensen, John E; Køtlum, Jóanis E; Hansen, Sæunn Ó; Sander, Bente B; Mogensen, Ole; Rebolj, Matejka

    2015-02-01

    The Faroe Islands have had nationally organised cervical cancer screening since 1995. Women aged 25-60 years are invited every third year. Participation is free of charge. Although several European overviews on cervical screening are available, none have included the Faroe Islands. Our aim was to provide the first description of cervical cancer screening, and to determine the screening history of women diagnosed with cervical cancer in the Faroe Islands. Screening data from 1996 to 2012 were obtained from the Diagnostic Centre at the National Hospital of the Faroe Islands. They included information on cytology and HPV testing whereas information on histology was not registered consistently. Process indicators were calculated, including coverage rate, excess smears, proportion of abnormal cytological samples, and frequency of HPV testing. Data on cervical cancer cases were obtained from the Faroese Ministry of Health Affairs. The analysis of the screening history was undertaken for cases diagnosed in 2000-2010. A total of 52 457 samples were taken in 1996-2012. Coverage varied between 67% and 81% and was 71% in 2012. Excess smears decreased after 1999. At present, 7.0% of samples have abnormal cytology. Of all ASCUS samples, 76-95% were tested for HPV. A total of 58% of women diagnosed with cervical cancer did not participate in screening prior to their diagnosis, and 32% had normal cytology in the previous four years. Despite the difficult geographical setting, the organised cervical cancer screening programme in the Faroe Islands has achieved a relatively high coverage rate. Nevertheless, challenges, e.g. consistent histology registration and sending reminders, still exist.

  12. Early detection of breast cancer: results of a screening programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beahrs, O.H.

    1980-01-01

    The results of a mammography screening programme launched by the American Cancer Society and the National Cancer Institute are discussed. Twenty-seven Breast Cancer Detection Demonstration Projects (BCDDP) screened 280,000 women annually for 5 years. During the first 2 screenings, 1810 cancers were detected. An increased rate of discovery in all age groups was achieved. The radiation risk of mammography is also discussed. The results of the BCDDP were evaluated by a review panel. Of the 1810 cancers detected, 45% had been detected by mammography alone, 47% by mammography and physical examination and only 7% by physical examination alone. 592 of the cancers were < 1 cm in diameter. Two-thirds of these lesions were considered to be in-situ carcinoma and one-third invasive cancer. In 66 instances, the tissue first presented was considered not to be cancerous; these cases were further studied clinically and pathologically. It is concluded that, in the experience of the BCDDP, mammography proved to be an excellent method of detection, but it does have a small theoretical risk. As a widely used approach to detection, mammography is probably not practical due to the number of experts necessary for image evaluation. (UK)

  13. Prostate Cancer Screening | Cancer Trends Progress Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Cancer Trends Progress Report, first issued in 2001, summarizes our nation's advances against cancer in relation to Healthy People targets set forth by the Department of Health and Human Services.

  14. Colorectal Cancer Screening | Cancer Trends Progress Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Cancer Trends Progress Report, first issued in 2001, summarizes our nation's advances against cancer in relation to Healthy People targets set forth by the Department of Health and Human Services.

  15. Cervical Cancer Screening | Cancer Trends Progress Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Cancer Trends Progress Report, first issued in 2001, summarizes our nation's advances against cancer in relation to Healthy People targets set forth by the Department of Health and Human Services.

  16. China National Lung Cancer Screening Guideline with Low-dose Computed 
Tomography (2018 version

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qinghua ZHOU

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related death in China. The results from a randomized controlled trial using annual low-dose computed tomography (LDCT in specific high-risk groups demonstrated a 20% reduction in lung cancer mortality. The aim of tihs study is to establish the China National lung cancer screening guidelines for clinical practice. Methods The China lung cancer early detection and treatment expert group (CLCEDTEG established the China National Lung Cancer Screening Guideline with multidisciplinary representation including 4 thoracic surgeons, 4 thoracic radiologists, 2 medical oncologists, 2 pulmonologists, 2 pathologist, and 2 epidemiologist. Members have engaged in interdisciplinary collaborations regarding lung cancer screening and clinical care of patients with at risk for lung cancer. The expert group reviewed the literature, including screening trials in the United States and Europe and China, and discussed local best clinical practices in the China. A consensus-based guidelines, China National Lung Cancer Screening Guideline (CNLCSG, was recommended by CLCEDTEG appointed by the National Health and Family Planning Commission, based on results of the National Lung Screening Trial, systematic review of evidence related to LDCT screening, and protocol of lung cancer screening program conducted in rural China. Results Annual lung cancer screening with LDCT is recommended for high risk individuals aged 50-74 years who have at least a 20 pack-year smoking history and who currently smoke or have quit within the past five years. Individualized decision making should be conducted before LDCT screening. LDCT screening also represents an opportunity to educate patients as to the health risks of smoking; thus, education should be integrated into the screening process in order to assist smoking cessation. Conclusion A lung cancer screening guideline is recommended for the high-risk population in China

  17. [China National Lung Cancer Screening Guideline with Low-dose Computed 
Tomography (2018 version)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Qinghua; Fan, Yaguang; Wang, Ying; Qiao, Youlin; Wang, Guiqi; Huang, Yunchao; Wang, Xinyun; Wu, Ning; Zhang, Guozheng; Zheng, Xiangpeng; Bu, Hong; Li, Yin; Wei, Sen; Chen, Liang'an; Hu, Chengping; Shi, Yuankai; Sun, Yan

    2018-02-20

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related death in China. The results from a randomized controlled trial using annual low-dose computed tomography (LDCT) in specific high-risk groups demonstrated a 20% reduction in lung cancer mortality. The aim of tihs study is to establish the China National lung cancer screening guidelines for clinical practice. The China lung cancer early detection and treatment expert group (CLCEDTEG) established the China National Lung Cancer Screening Guideline with multidisciplinary representation including 4 thoracic surgeons, 4 thoracic radiologists, 2 medical oncologists, 2 pulmonologists, 2 pathologist, and 2 epidemiologist. Members have engaged in interdisciplinary collaborations regarding lung cancer screening and clinical care of patients with at risk for lung cancer. The expert group reviewed the literature, including screening trials in the United States and Europe and China, and discussed local best clinical practices in the China. A consensus-based guidelines, China National Lung Cancer Screening Guideline (CNLCSG), was recommended by CLCEDTEG appointed by the National Health and Family Planning Commission, based on results of the National Lung Screening Trial, systematic review of evidence related to LDCT screening, and protocol of lung cancer screening program conducted in rural China. Annual lung cancer screening with LDCT is recommended for high risk individuals aged 50-74 years who have at least a 20 pack-year smoking history and who currently smoke or have quit within the past five years. Individualized decision making should be conducted before LDCT screening. LDCT screening also represents an opportunity to educate patients as to the health risks of smoking; thus, education should be integrated into the screening process in order to assist smoking cessation. A lung cancer screening guideline is recommended for the high-risk population in China. Additional research , including LDCT combined with biomarkers, is

  18. Mammographic screening practices among Chinese-Australian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwok, Cannas; Fethney, Judith; White, Kate

    2012-03-01

    To report mammographic screening practice among Chinese-Australian women, and to examine the relationship between demographic characteristics, acculturation factors (English proficiency and length of stay in Australia), cultural beliefs, and having a mammogram as recommended. Cross-sectional and descriptive. The study was conducted in 2009 in Sydney, Australia. Of 988 Chinese-Australian women over 18 years of age invited to participate in the study, 785 (79%) completed and returned the questionnaire. Of these women, 320 (40.8%) were in the target age range of 50 to 69 years. The Chinese Breast Cancer Screening Beliefs Questionnaire (CBCSB) was used as a data collection instrument. Analysis included descriptive statistics, bivariate analysis using chi-square and t tests, and logistic regression. Of the 320 women in the targeted age range of 50 to 69 years, 238 (74.4%) had a mammogram as recommended biannually. Being married-de facto, in the 60 to 69 age group, and speaking Cantonese at home were positively associated with women's mammographic screening practice. However, no statistically significant differences in acculturation factors and having a mammogram as recommended were found. In terms of CBCSB score, women who had mammograms as recommended had more positive attitudes toward health checkups and perceived fewer barriers to mammographic screening. Effort should be focused on specific subgroups of Chinese-Australian women in order to fully understand the barriers involved in participating in mammographic screening. Nurses can use the findings from the present study to design culturally sensitive breast cancer screening programs to encourage women's participation in mammography. © 2011 Sigma Theta Tau International.

  19. Screening for breast cancer with mammography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sickles, E.A.

    1991-01-01

    Mammography is generally accepted as a useful problem-solving clinical tool in characterizing known breast lesions, so that appropriate and timely treatment can be given. However, it remains grossly underutilized at what it does best: screening. The major strengths of mammography are (a) its ability to detect breast cancer at a smaller, potentially more curable stage than any other examination, and (b) its proved efficacy in reducing breast cancer mortality in asymptomatic women aged 40-74. If, as has recently been estimated, screening with mammography and physical examination can be expected to lower breast cancer deaths by 40%-50% among those actually examined (13), then the lives of almost 20,000 U.S. women might be saved each year if screening were to become very widely used. The challenges of the next decade are clear, to mount much more effective campaigns to educate physicians and lay women about the life-saving benefits of breast cancer screening, to devise increasingly effective and lower cost screening strategies, to further improve the current high quality of mammographic imaging despite its increasing proliferation, and to train large numbers of breast imaging specialists to guarantee that the growing case load of screening and problem-solving mammograms is interpreted with a very high level of skill

  20. Prostate cancer screening: and yet it moves!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maciej Kwiatkowski

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The debate of prostate cancer (PCa screening has been shaped over decades. There is a plethora of articles in the literature supporting as well as declining prostate-specific antigen (PSA screening. Does screening decrease PCa mortality? With the long-term results of the European Randomized Study of Screening for Prostate (ERSPC the answer is clearly YES. It moves! However, in medicine there are no benefits without any harm and thus, screening has to be performed in targeted and smart way-or in other words-in a risk-adapted fashion when compared with the way it was done in the past. Here, we discuss the main findings of the ERSPC trials and provide insights on how the future screening strategies should be implemented.

  1. Who wants cancer screening with PET?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasunaga, Hideo

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: Cancer screening using whole-body fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) has gradually become popular in Japan. Although some studies have reported high cancer detection rates with PET screening, the justification for such an approach is still unclear, and no evidence has been provided to indicate that PET screening reduces cancer mortality. We measured the general public's willingness to pay (WTP) for this service using a contingent valuation method, after providing them with sufficient information regarding the efficacy and limitations of the service. Methods: A computer-assisted questionnaire survey was conducted on males and females in Japan aged between 40 and 59 years. The study participants (n = 390) were provided with sufficient information about the PET procedure, the high cancer detection rate, false-negatives/false-positives and the fact that the mortality-reducing effect of PET screening has not yet been demonstrated. The participants' WTP was ascertained by a double-bound dichotomous choice approach. Results: The average WTP among all the participants was $68.0 (95% confidence interval: $56.9-79.2). A Weibull regression analysis showed that income, degree of concern about health, and family history of cancer were significant factors affecting WTP. Conclusions: The actual charge for PET screening in Japan is approximately $1000 on average, which is significantly higher than the participants' WTP for the actual benefit obtained from the service. If the Japanese healthcare consumers are well-informed, most of them would avoid purchasing such a costly service.

  2. Interest in screening examinations among cancer patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Humeniuk Ewa

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To determine the influence of socio-demographic variables on attendance rate at screening examinations in cancer patients. Material and methods. The research group comprised of 100 cancer patients. The method applied in the research was a diagnostic survey. The research instrument was the authors‘ own questionnaire specially compiled to measure cancer patients‘ interest in screening examinations. The research material was analysed with the statistical packet STATISTICA 12 and Microsoft Office Excel software. Significance level was assumed at p<0.05 to determine statistically significant differences and dependencies. A Chi2 test was used in the research. Results. The surveyed patients mostly did not participate in screening examinations aimed at diagnosing cancer (66%. Their Age (p=0.05, gender (p=0.003 and place of residence (p=0.04 determined their participation rate in screening tests. The patients‘ marital status (p=0.47, education (p=0.85 and economic status (p=0.13 did not affect their willingness to attend screening examinations. Conclusions. The process of cancer incidence and death rate limitation requires greater participation of the population in prevention programmes.

  3. Primary care physicians' reported use of pre-screening discussions for prostate cancer screening: a cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linder, Suzanne K; Hawley, Sarah T; Cooper, Crystale P; Scholl, Lawrence E; Jibaja-Weiss, Maria; Volk, Robert J

    2009-03-18

    Professional medical organizations recommend individualized patient decision making about prostate cancer screening. Little is known about primary care physicians' use of pre-screening discussions to promote informed decision making for prostate cancer screening. The aim of this study is to explore physicians' use of pre-screening discussions and reasons why physicians would or would not try to persuade patients to be screened if they initially refuse testing. Primary care physicians completed a self-administered survey about prostate cancer screening practices for informed decision making. Sixty-six physicians (75.9%) completed the survey, and 63 were used in the analysis. Thirteen physicians (20.6%) reported not using prescreening discussions, 45 (71.4%) reported the use of prescreening discussions, and 3 (4.8%) reported neither ordering the PSA test nor discussing it with patients. Sixty-nine percent of physicians who reported not having discussions indicated they were more likely to screen African American patients for prostate cancer, compared to 50% of physicians who reported the use of discussions (Chi-square(1) = 1.62, p = .20). Similarly, 91% of physicians who reported not having discussions indicated they are more likely to screen patients with a family history of prostate cancer, compared to 46% of those who reported the use of discussion (Chi-square(1) = 13.27, p practice styles. Future research needs to consider the nature of discussions and the degree to which informed decision making is being achieved in clinical practice.

  4. Promoting Breast Cancer Screening through Storytelling by Chamorro Cancer Survivors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manglona, Rosa Duenas; Robert, Suzanne; Isaacson, Lucy San Nicolas; Garrido, Marie; Henrich, Faye Babauta; Santos, Lola Sablan; Le, Daisy; Peters, Ruth

    2017-01-01

    The largest Chamorro population outside of Guam and the Mariana Islands reside in California. Cancer health disparities disproportionally affect Pacific Islander communities, including the Chamorro, and breast cancer is the most common cancer affecting women. To address health concerns such as cancer, Pacific Islander women frequently utilize storytelling to initiate conversations about health and to address sensitive topics such as breast health and cancer. One form of storytelling used in San Diego is a play that conveys the message of breast cancer screening to the community in a culturally and linguistically appropriate way. This play, Nan Nena’s Mammogram, tells the story of an older woman in the community who learns about breast cancer screening from her young niece. The story builds upon the underpinnings of Chamorro culture - family, community, support, and humor - to portray discussing breast health, getting support for breast screening, and visiting the doctor. The story of Nan Nena’s Mammogram reflects the willingness of a few pioneering Chamorro women to use their personal experiences of cancer survivorship to promote screening for others. Through the support of a Chamorro community-based organization, these Chamorro breast cancer survivors have used the success of Nan Nena’s Mammogram to expand their education activities and to form a new cancer survivor organization for Chamorro women in San Diego.

  5. Breast and cervical cancer screening programme implementation in 16 countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dowling, Emily C; Klabunde, Carrie; Patnick, Julietta

    2010-01-01

    There is a continuing need to monitor and evaluate the impact of organized screening programmes on cancer incidence and mortality. We report results from a programme assessment conducted within the International Cancer Screening Network (ICSN) to understand the characteristics of cervical screening...... programmes within countries that have established population-based breast cancer screening programmes....

  6. The German cervical cancer screening model: development and validation of a decision-analytic model for cervical cancer screening in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siebert, Uwe; Sroczynski, Gaby; Hillemanns, Peter; Engel, Jutta; Stabenow, Roland; Stegmaier, Christa; Voigt, Kerstin; Gibis, Bernhard; Hölzel, Dieter; Goldie, Sue J

    2006-04-01

    We sought to develop and validate a decision-analytic model for the natural history of cervical cancer for the German health care context and to apply it to cervical cancer screening. We developed a Markov model for the natural history of cervical cancer and cervical cancer screening in the German health care context. The model reflects current German practice standards for screening, diagnostic follow-up and treatment regarding cervical cancer and its precursors. Data for disease progression and cervical cancer survival were obtained from the literature and German cancer registries. Accuracy of Papanicolaou (Pap) testing was based on meta-analyses. We performed internal and external model validation using observed epidemiological data for unscreened women from different German cancer registries. The model predicts life expectancy, incidence of detected cervical cancer cases, lifetime cervical cancer risks and mortality. The model predicted a lifetime cervical cancer risk of 3.0% and a lifetime cervical cancer mortality of 1.0%, with a peak cancer incidence of 84/100,000 at age 51 years. These results were similar to observed data from German cancer registries, German literature data and results from other international models. Based on our model, annual Pap screening could prevent 98.7% of diagnosed cancer cases and 99.6% of deaths due to cervical cancer in women completely adherent to screening and compliant to treatment. Extending the screening interval from 1 year to 2, 3 or 5 years resulted in reduced screening effectiveness. This model provides a tool for evaluating the long-term effectiveness of different cervical cancer screening tests and strategies.

  7. Gender Identity Disparities in Cancer Screening Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabaac, Ariella R; Sutter, Megan E; Wall, Catherine S J; Baker, Kellan E

    2018-03-01

    Transgender (trans) and gender-nonconforming adults have reported reduced access to health care because of discrimination and lack of knowledgeable care. This study aimed to contribute to the nascent cancer prevention literature among trans and gender-nonconforming individuals by ascertaining rates of breast, cervical, prostate, and colorectal cancer screening behaviors by gender identity. Publicly available de-identified data from the 2014-2016 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System surveys were utilized to evaluate rates of cancer screenings by gender identity, while controlling for healthcare access, sociodemographics, and survey year. Analyses were conducted in 2017. Weighted chi-square tests identified significant differences in the proportion of cancer screening behaviors by gender identity among lifetime colorectal cancer screenings, Pap tests, prostate-specific antigen tests, discussing prostate-specific antigen test advantages/disadvantages with their healthcare provider, and up-to-date colorectal cancer screenings and Pap tests (pgender identity were fully explained by covariates, trans women had reduced odds of having up-to-date colorectal cancer screenings compared to cisgender (cis) men (AOR=0.20) and cis women (AOR=0.24), whereas trans men were more likely to ever receive a sigmoidoscopy/colonoscopy as compared to cis men (AOR=2.76) and cis women (AOR=2.65). Trans women were more likely than cis men to have up-to-date prostate-specific antigen tests (AOR=3.19). Finally, trans men and gender-nonconforming individuals had reduced odds of lifetime Pap tests versus cis women (AOR=0.14 and 0.08, respectively), and gender-nonconforming individuals had lower odds of discussing prostate-specific antigen tests than cis men (AOR=0.09; all pgender identity disparities in cancer screenings persist beyond known sociodemographic and healthcare factors. It is critical that gender identity questions are included in cancer and other health-related surveillance

  8. Cystic Fibrosis Colorectal Cancer Screening Consensus Recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadjiliadis, Denis; Khoruts, Alexander; Zauber, Ann G; Hempstead, Sarah E; Maisonneuve, Patrick; Lowenfels, Albert B

    2018-02-01

    Improved therapy has substantially increased survival of persons with cystic fibrosis (CF). But the risk of colorectal cancer (CRC) in adults with CF is 5-10 times greater compared to the general population, and 25-30 times greater in CF patients after an organ transplantation. To address this risk, the CF Foundation convened a multi-stakeholder task force to develop CRC screening recommendations. The 18-member task force consisted of experts including pulmonologists, gastroenterologists, a social worker, nurse coordinator, surgeon, epidemiologist, statistician, CF adult, and a parent. The committee comprised 3 workgroups: Cancer Risk, Transplant, and Procedure and Preparation. A guidelines specialist at the CF Foundation conducted an evidence synthesis February-March 2016 based on PubMed literature searches. Task force members conducted additional independent searches. A total of 1159 articles were retrieved. After initial screening, the committee read 198 articles in full and analyzed 123 articles to develop recommendation statements. An independent decision analysis evaluating the benefits of screening relative to harms and resources required was conducted by the Department of Public Health at Erasmus Medical Center, Netherlands using the Microsimulation Screening Analysis model from the Cancer Innervation and Surveillance Modeling Network. The task force included recommendation statements in the final guideline only if they reached an 80% acceptance threshold. The task force makes 10 CRC screening recommendations that emphasize shared, individualized decision-making and familiarity with CF-specific gastrointestinal challenges. We recommend colonoscopy as the preferred screening method, initiation of screening at age 40 years, 5-year re-screening and 3-year surveillance intervals (unless shorter interval is indicated by individual findings), and a CF-specific intensive bowel preparation. Organ transplant recipients with CF should initiate CRC screening

  9. Lung Cancer Screening (PDQ®)—Health Professional Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lung cancer screening with low-dose spiral CT scans has been shown to decrease the risk of dying from lung cancer in heavy smokers. Screening with chest x-ray or sputum cytology does not reduce lung cancer mortality. Get detailed information about lung cancer screening in this clinician summary.

  10. Screening history in women with cervical cancer in a Danish population-based screening program

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirschner, Benny; Poll, Susanne; Rygaard, Carsten

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the screening histories of all cervical cancers in a Danish screening population. The intention was to decide suboptimal sides of the screening program and to evaluate the significance of routine screening in the development of cervical cancer.......The aim of this study was to explore the screening histories of all cervical cancers in a Danish screening population. The intention was to decide suboptimal sides of the screening program and to evaluate the significance of routine screening in the development of cervical cancer....

  11. Psychosocial consequences of skin cancer screening

    OpenAIRE

    Patricia Markham Risica; Natalie H. Matthews; Laura Dionne; Jennifer Mello; Laura K. Ferris; Melissa Saul; Alan C. Geller; Francis Solano; John M. Kirkwood; Martin A. Weinstock

    2018-01-01

    Screening for melanoma may save lives, but may also cause patient distress. One key reason that preventative visual skin examinations for skin cancer are not currently recommended is the inadequate available evidence to assess potential harm to psychosocial wellbeing. We investigated potential psychological harms and benefits of skin examinations by conducting telephone surveys in 2015 of 187 screened participants; all were ≥35 years old. Participants had their skin examined by practitioners ...

  12. Imaging and screening in lung cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo Giaj Levra

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Lung cancer is the main cause of death for neoplasia in the world. Hence it’s growing the necessity to investigate screening tests to detect tumoral lesions at the early stages: several trials have been performed to establish the best method, target and frequence of the screening to offer. CT, X-ray, PET, sputum citology and CAD software are here analyzed, together with the associated statistics and bias.

  13. Subtypes of Ovarian Cancer and Ovarian Cancer Screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masafumi Koshiyama

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Ovarian cancer is the foremost cause of gynecological cancer death in the developed world, as it is usually diagnosed at an advanced stage. In this paper we discuss current issues, the efficacy and problems associated with ovarian cancer screening, and compare the characteristics of ovarian cancer subtypes. There are two types of ovarian cancer: Type I carcinomas, which are slow-growing, indolent neoplasms thought to arise from a precursor lesion, which are relatively common in Asia; and Type II carcinomas, which are clinically aggressive neoplasms that can develop de novo from serous tubal intraepithelial carcinomas (STIC and/or ovarian surface epithelium and are common in Europe and the USA. One of the most famous studies on the subject reported that annual screening using CA125/transvaginal sonography (TVS did not reduce the ovarian cancer mortality rate in the USA. In contrast, a recent study in the UK showed an overall average mortality reduction of 20% in the screening group. Another two studies further reported that the screening was associated with decreased stage at detection. Theoretically, annual screening using CA125/TVS could easily detect precursor lesions and could be more effective in Asia than in Europe and the USA. The detection of Type II ovarian carcinoma at an early stage remains an unresolved issue. The resolving power of CA125 or TVS screening alone is unlikely to be successful at resolving STICs. Biomarkers for the early detection of Type II carcinomas such as STICs need to be developed.

  14. Subtypes of Ovarian Cancer and Ovarian Cancer Screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koshiyama, Masafumi; Matsumura, Noriomi; Konishi, Ikuo

    2017-03-02

    Ovarian cancer is the foremost cause of gynecological cancer death in the developed world, as it is usually diagnosed at an advanced stage. In this paper we discuss current issues, the efficacy and problems associated with ovarian cancer screening, and compare the characteristics of ovarian cancer subtypes. There are two types of ovarian cancer: Type I carcinomas, which are slow-growing, indolent neoplasms thought to arise from a precursor lesion, which are relatively common in Asia; and Type II carcinomas, which are clinically aggressive neoplasms that can develop de novo from serous tubal intraepithelial carcinomas (STIC) and/or ovarian surface epithelium and are common in Europe and the USA. One of the most famous studies on the subject reported that annual screening using CA125/transvaginal sonography (TVS) did not reduce the ovarian cancer mortality rate in the USA. In contrast, a recent study in the UK showed an overall average mortality reduction of 20% in the screening group. Another two studies further reported that the screening was associated with decreased stage at detection. Theoretically, annual screening using CA125/TVS could easily detect precursor lesions and could be more effective in Asia than in Europe and the USA. The detection of Type II ovarian carcinoma at an early stage remains an unresolved issue. The resolving power of CA125 or TVS screening alone is unlikely to be successful at resolving STICs. Biomarkers for the early detection of Type II carcinomas such as STICs need to be developed.

  15. ESR/ERS white paper on lung cancer screening

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kauczor, Hans-Ulrich; Stackelberg, Oyunbileg von [University Hospital Heidelberg, Dept of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Heidelberg (Germany); Member of the German Lung Research Center, Translational Lung Research Center, Heidelberg (Germany); Bonomo, Lorenzo [A. Gemelli University Hospital, Institute of Radiology, Rome (Italy); Gaga, Mina [Athens Chest Hospital, 7th Resp. Med. Dept and Asthma Center, Athens (Greece); Nackaerts, Kristiaan [KU Leuven-University of Leuven, University Hospitals Leuven, Department of Respiratory Diseases/Respiratory Oncology Unit, Leuven (Belgium); Peled, Nir [Tel Aviv University, Davidoff Cancer Center, Rabin Medical Center, Tel Aviv (Israel); Prokop, Mathias [Radboud University Medical Center, Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Remy-Jardin, Martine [Department of Thoracic Imaging, Hospital Calmette (EA 2694), CHRU et Universite de Lille, Lille (France); Sculier, Jean-Paul [Universite Libre de Bruxelles, Thoracic oncology, Institut Jules Bordet, Brussels (Belgium); Collaboration: on behalf of the European Society of Radiology (ESR) and the European Respiratory Society (ERS)

    2015-09-15

    Lung cancer is the most frequently fatal cancer, with poor survival once the disease is advanced. Annual low-dose computed tomography has shown a survival benefit in screening individuals at high risk for lung cancer. Based on the available evidence, the European Society of Radiology and the European Respiratory Society recommend lung cancer screening in comprehensive, quality-assured, longitudinal programmes within a clinical trial or in routine clinical practice at certified multidisciplinary medical centres. Minimum requirements include: standardised operating procedures for low-dose image acquisition, computer-assisted nodule evaluation, and positive screening results and their management; inclusion/exclusion criteria; expectation management; and smoking cessation programmes. Further refinements are recommended to increase quality, outcome and cost-effectiveness of lung cancer screening: inclusion of risk models, reduction of effective radiation dose, computer-assisted volumetric measurements and assessment of comorbidities (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and vascular calcification). All these requirements should be adjusted to the regional infrastructure and healthcare system, in order to exactly define eligibility using a risk model, nodule management and a quality assurance plan. The establishment of a central registry, including a biobank and an image bank, and preferably on a European level, is strongly encouraged. (orig.)

  16. ESR/ERS white paper on lung cancer screening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kauczor, Hans-Ulrich; Stackelberg, Oyunbileg von; Bonomo, Lorenzo; Gaga, Mina; Nackaerts, Kristiaan; Peled, Nir; Prokop, Mathias; Remy-Jardin, Martine; Sculier, Jean-Paul

    2015-01-01

    Lung cancer is the most frequently fatal cancer, with poor survival once the disease is advanced. Annual low-dose computed tomography has shown a survival benefit in screening individuals at high risk for lung cancer. Based on the available evidence, the European Society of Radiology and the European Respiratory Society recommend lung cancer screening in comprehensive, quality-assured, longitudinal programmes within a clinical trial or in routine clinical practice at certified multidisciplinary medical centres. Minimum requirements include: standardised operating procedures for low-dose image acquisition, computer-assisted nodule evaluation, and positive screening results and their management; inclusion/exclusion criteria; expectation management; and smoking cessation programmes. Further refinements are recommended to increase quality, outcome and cost-effectiveness of lung cancer screening: inclusion of risk models, reduction of effective radiation dose, computer-assisted volumetric measurements and assessment of comorbidities (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and vascular calcification). All these requirements should be adjusted to the regional infrastructure and healthcare system, in order to exactly define eligibility using a risk model, nodule management and a quality assurance plan. The establishment of a central registry, including a biobank and an image bank, and preferably on a European level, is strongly encouraged. (orig.)

  17. Cancer Investigation in General Practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jacob Reinholdt; Møller, Henrik; Thomsen, Janus Laust

    2014-01-01

    Initiation of cancer investigations in general practice Background Close to 90% of all cancers are diagnosed because the patient presents symptoms and signs. Of these patients, 85% initiate the diagnostic pathway in general practice. Therefore, the initiation of a diagnostic pathway in general...... practice becomes extremely important. On average, a general practitioner (GP) is involved in 7500 consultations each year, and in the diagnostic process of 8-10 incident cancers. One half of cancer patients consult their GP with either general symptoms, which are not indicative of cancer, or vague and non......-specific symptoms. The other half present with what the GP assess as alarm symptoms. Three months prior to diagnosis, patients who are later diagnosed with cancer have twice as many GP consultations than a comparable reference population. Thus the complex diagnostic process in general practice requires the GP...

  18. European Breast Cancer Service Screening Outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paci, Eugenio; Broeders, Mireille; Hofvind, Solveig

    2014-01-01

    A recent comprehensive review has been carried out to quantify the benefits and harms of the European population-based mammographic screening programs. Five literature reviews were conducted on the basis of the observational published studies evaluating breast cancer mortality reduction, breast...... seven to nine breast cancer deaths are avoided, four cases are overdiagnosed, 170 women have at least one recall followed by noninvasive assessment with a negative result, and 30 women have at least one recall followed by invasive procedures yielding a negative result. The chance of a breast cancer...... cancer overdiagnosis, and false-positive results. On the basis of the studies reviewed, the authors present a first estimate of the benefit and harm balance sheet. For every 1,000 women screened biennially from ages 50 to 51 years until ages 68 to 69 years and followed up until age 79 years, an estimated...

  19. Implementation and organization of lung cancer screening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jesper Johannes Holst; Ashraf, Haseem

    2016-01-01

    CT screening for lung cancer is now being implemented in the US and China on a widespread national scale but not in Europe so far. The review gives a status for the implementation process and the hurdles to overcome in the future. It also describes the guidelines and requirements for the structure...... and components of high quality CT screening programs. These are essential in order to achieve a successful program with the fewest possible harms and a possible mortality benefit like that documented in the American National Lung Screening Trial (NLST). In addition the importance of continued research in CT...

  20. Factors Influencing Colorectal Cancer Screening Participation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Z. Gimeno García

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Colorectal cancer (CRC is a major health problem worldwide. Although population-based CRC screening is strongly recommended in average-risk population, compliance rates are still far from the desirable rates. High levels of screening uptake are necessary for the success of any screening program. Therefore, the investigation of factors influencing participation is crucial prior to design and launches a population-based organized screening campaign. Several studies have identified screening behaviour factors related to potential participants, providers, or health care system. These influencing factors can also be classified in non-modifiable (i.e., demographic factors, education, health insurance, or income and modifiable factors (i.e., knowledge about CRC and screening, patient and provider attitudes or structural barriers for screening. Modifiable determinants are of great interest as they are plausible targets for interventions. Interventions at different levels (patient, providers or health care system have been tested across the studies with different results. This paper analyzes factors related to CRC screening behaviour and potential interventions designed to improve screening uptake.

  1. Physician-patient discussions of controversial cancer screening tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, A S; Shridharani, K V; Lou, W; Bernstein, J; Horowitz, C R

    2001-02-01

    Screening mammography for younger women and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) measurement have controversial benefits and known potential adverse consequences. While providing informed consent and eliciting patient preference have been advocated for these tests, little is known about how often these discussions take place or about barriers to these discussions. We administered a survey to medical house staff and attending physicians practicing primary care. The survey examined physicians' likelihood of discussing screening mammography and PSA testing, and factors influencing the frequency and quality of these discussions. For the three scenarios, 16% to 34% of physicians stated that they do not discuss the screening tests. The likelihood of having a discussion was significantly associated with house staff physicians' belief that PSA screening is advantageous; house staff and attending physicians' intention to order a PSA test, and attending physicians' intention to order a mammogram; and a controversial indication for screening. The most commonly identified barriers to discussions were lack of time, the complexity of the topic, and a language barrier. Physicians report they often do not discuss cancer screening tests with their patients. Our finding that physicians' beliefs and intention to order the tests, and extraneous factors such as time constraints and a language barrier, are associated with discussions indicates that some patients may be inappropriately denied the opportunity to choose whether to screen for breast and prostate cancer.

  2. Physician–Patient Discussions of Controversial Cancer Screening Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Andrew S.; Shridharani, Kanan V.; Lou, Wendy; Bernstein, Jeffrey; Horowitz, Carol R.

    2016-01-01

    Background Screening mammography for younger women and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) measurement have controversial benefits and known potential adverse consequences. While providing informed consent and eliciting patient preference have been advocated for these tests, little is known about how often these discussions take place or about barriers to these discussions. Methods We administered a survey to medical house staff and attending physicians practicing primary care. The survey examined physicians’ likelihood of discussing screening mammography and PSA testing, and factors influencing the frequency and quality of these discussions. Results For the three scenarios, 16% to 34% of physicians stated that they do not discuss the screening tests. The likelihood of having a discussion was significantly associated with house staff physicians’ belief that PSA screening is advantageous; house staff and attending physicians’ intention to order a PSA test, and attending physicians’ intention to order a mammogram; and a controversial indication for screening. The most commonly identified barriers to discussions were lack of time, the complexity of the topic, and a language barrier. Conclusions Physicians report they often do not discuss cancer screening tests with their patients. Our finding that physicians’ beliefs and intention to order the tests, and extraneous factors such as time constraints and a language barrier, are associated with discussions indicates that some patients may be inappropriately denied the opportunity to choose whether to screen for breast and prostate cancer. PMID:11165455

  3. Cervical Cancer Screening in Underserved Populations

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-10-15

    Dr. Lisa Flowers, a specialist in human papillovarius (HPV)-related diseases and Director of Colposcopy at Emory University School of Medicine, talks about cervical cancer screening in underinsured or uninsured women.  Created: 10/15/2009 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP), Division of Cancer Prevention and Control (DCPC).   Date Released: 6/9/2010.

  4. Knowledge, attitude and preventive practices for breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pervez, T.; Anwar, M.S.

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To determine the knowledge and practice of the breast cancer in medical community. The study was carried out in the Department of Oncology, Service Hospital, Lahore and completed in one month. Subjects and Methods: About 200 female doctors and nurses of the Hospital were involved. Each subject was asked to fill up a pro forma designed to assess knowledge, risk factors and preventive practices of the breast cancer. Using non-probability convenience sampling technique, breast self-examination (BSE) and mammography was performed as screening of breast cancer. Results: A majority had good knowledge of the risk factors and screening method for the early detection of breast cancer. Majority had the consensus on the benefit of mammography. Conclusions: The study shows that although medical professionals had fairly good knowledge about screening methods and risk factors of breast cancer. Their preventive practices were scanty in high risk population and, therefore, physicians and nurses need proper training. (author)

  5. Screening for distress in cancer patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grassi, Luigi; Johansen, Christoffer; Annunziata, Maria Antonietta

    2013-01-01

    Routine screening for distress is internationally recommended as a necessary standard for good cancer care, given its high prevalence and negative consequences on quality of life. The objective of the current study was to contribute to the Italian validation of the Distress Thermometer (DT...

  6. Pre-screening Discussions and Prostate-Specific Antigen Testing for Prostate Cancer Screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jun; Zhao, Guixiang; Hall, Ingrid J

    2015-08-01

    For many men, the net benefit of prostate cancer screening with prostate-specific antigen (PSA) tests may be small. Many major medical organizations have issued recommendations for prostate cancer screening, stressing the need for shared decision making before ordering a test. The purpose of this study is to better understand associations between discussions about benefits and harms of PSA testing and uptake of the test among men aged ≥40 years. Associations between pre-screening discussions and PSA testing were examined using self-reported data from the 2012 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. Unadjusted prevalence of PSA testing was estimated and AORs were calculated using logistic regression in 2014. The multivariate analysis showed that men who had ever discussed advantages of PSA testing only or discussed both advantages and disadvantages were more likely, respectively, to report having had a test within the past year than men who had no discussions (ptesting with their healthcare providers were more likely (AOR=2.75, 95% CI=2.00, 3.79) to report getting tested than men who had no discussions. Discussions of the benefits or harms of PSA testing are positively associated with increased uptake of the test. Given the conflicting recommendations for prostate cancer screening and increasing importance of shared decision making, this study points to the need for understanding how pre-screening discussions are being conducted in clinical practice and the role played by patients' values and preferences in decisions about PSA testing. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. Non-visit-based cancer screening using a novel population management system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atlas, Steven J; Zai, Adrian H; Ashburner, Jeffrey M; Chang, Yuchiao; Percac-Lima, Sanja; Levy, Douglas E; Chueh, Henry C; Grant, Richard W

    2014-01-01

    Advances in information technology (IT) now permit population-based preventive screening, but the best methods remain uncertain. We evaluated whether involving primary care providers (PCPs) in a visit-independent population management IT application led to more effective cancer screening. We conducted a cluster-randomized trial involving 18 primary care practice sites and 169 PCPs from June 15, 2011, to June 14, 2012. Participants included adults eligible for breast, cervical, and/or colorectal cancer screening. In practices randomized to the intervention group, PCPs reviewed real-time rosters of their patients overdue for screening and provided individualized contact (via a letter, practice delegate, or patient navigator) or deferred screening (temporarily or permanently). In practices randomized to the comparison group, overdue patients were automatically sent reminder letters and transferred to practice delegate lists for follow-up. Intervention patients without PCP action within 8 weeks defaulted to the automated control version. The primary outcome was adjusted average cancer screening completion rates over 1-year follow-up, accounting for clustering by physician or practice. Baseline cancer screening rates (80.8% vs 80.3%) were similar among patients in the intervention (n = 51,071) and comparison group (n = 52,799). Most intervention providers used the IT application (88 of 101, 87%) and users reviewed 7984 patients overdue for at least 1 cancer screening (73% sent reminder letter, 6% referred directly to a practice delegate or patient navigator, and 21% deferred screening). In addition, 6128 letters were automatically sent to patients in the intervention group (total of 12,002 letters vs 16,378 letters in comparison practices; P management IT application resulted in similar cancer screening rates compared with an automated reminder system, but fewer patients were sent reminder letters. This suggests that PCPs were able to identify and exclude from contact

  8. Breast Cancer Screening (PDQ®)—Health Professional Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breast cancer screening most often includes mammography but can also include ultrasound, MRI, and other tests. Get detailed information about the potential benefits and harms of the tests used to screen for breast cancer in this summary for clinicians.

  9. Testicular Cancer Screening (PDQ®)—Health Professional Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    For testicular cancer, there is no standard or routine screening test. Review the limited evidence on the benefits and harms of screening for testicular cancer using ultrasound, physical examination, and self-examination in this expert-reviewed summary.

  10. Considering culture in physician-- patient communication during colorectal cancer screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge Gao; Burke, Nancy; Somkin, Carol P; Pasick, Rena

    2009-06-01

    Racial and ethnic disparities exist in both incidence and stage detection of colorectal cancer (CRC). We hypothesized that cultural practices (i.e., communication norms and expectations) influence patients' and their physicians' understanding and talk about CRC screening. We examined 44 videotaped observations of clinic visits that included a CRC screening recommendation and transcripts from semistructured interviews that doctors and patients separately completed following the visit. We found that interpersonal relationship themes such as power distance, trust, directness/ indirectness, and an ability to listen, as well as personal health beliefs, emerged as affecting patients' definitions of provider-patient effective communication. In addition, we found that in discordant physician-patient interactions (when each is from a different ethnic group), physicians did not solicit or address cultural barriers to CRC screening and patients did not volunteer culture-related concerns regarding CRC screening.

  11. Considering Culture in Physician– Patient Communication During Colorectal Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Ge; Burke, Nancy; Somkin, Carol P.; Pasick, Rena

    2010-01-01

    Racial and ethnic disparities exist in both incidence and stage detection of colorectal cancer (CRC). We hypothesized that cultural practices (i.e., communication norms and expectations) influence patients’ and their physicians’ understanding and talk about CRC screening. We examined 44 videotaped observations of clinic visits that included a CRC screening recommendation and transcripts from semistructured interviews that doctors and patients separately completed following the visit. We found that interpersonal relationship themes such as power distance, trust, directness/indirectness, and an ability to listen, as well as personal health beliefs, emerged as affecting patients’ definitions of provider–patient effective communication. In addition, we found that in discordant physician–patient interactions (when each is from a different ethnic group), physicians did not solicit or address cultural barriers to CRC screening and patients did not volunteer culture-related concerns regarding CRC screening. PMID:19363141

  12. Breast cancer screening controversies: who, when, why, and how?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chetlen, Alison; Mack, Julie; Chan, Tiffany

    2016-01-01

    Mammographic screening is effective in reducing mortality from breast cancer. The issue is not whether mammography is effective, but whether the false positive rate and false negative rates can be reduced. This review will discuss controversies including the reduction in breast cancer mortality, overdiagnosis, the ideal screening candidate, and the optimal imaging modality for breast cancer screening. The article will compare and contrast screening mammography, tomosynthesis, whole-breast screening ultrasound, magnetic resonance imaging, and molecular breast imaging. Though supplemental imaging modalities are being utilized to improve breast cancer diagnosis, mammography still remains the gold standard for breast cancer screening. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Colorectal Cancer Screening: A Guide to the Guidelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas K Rex

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The two most recent guidelines for colorectal cancer screening are those of the Agency for Healthcare Policy and Research, and the American Cancer Society. The guidelines are similar in many regards and reflect current literature, consensus opinion and compromise between members of multidisciplinary panels. The emphasis of both guidelines is to increase the options available for colorectal cancer screening. Increasing choice should expand the attractiveness of colorectal cancer screening to more patients and physicians, and the development of guidelines should help compel payers to provide reimbursement for colorectal cancer screening. These guidelines are summarized and evaluated as they pertain to colorectal cancer screening.

  14. Cost-effectiveness and radiation risk of breast cancer screening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rombach, J.J.

    1987-01-01

    Base cost effectiveness risk associated with radiological screening for tuberculosis and lung tumor the Government of Netherlands advised against mass screening. However, mass screening remains an important method in the case of breast cancer

  15. [Thoughts on optimizing the breast cancer screening strategies and implementation effects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, K J

    2018-02-01

    Reasonable and effective breast cancer screening can make early diagnosis of breast cancer, improve the cure rate, prolong survival and improve the patients' quality of life. China has made preliminary exploration and attempt in breast cancer screening, however, there are still some problems that have not been solved in terms of the proportion of opportunistic screening, the selection of screening targets, methods and frequency, and the judgment of screening results. Therefore, this article analyzes the above problems in details, and presents some thoughts and recommendations on how to optimize the breast cancer screening strategies and implementation effects in China, from the experience of clinical practice, under the background of constantly emerging new research results and techniques and the rapid development of artificial intelligence, that is, to adjust measures to local conditions, provide personalized strategies, achieve precise screening, preach and educate, ensure health insurance coverage, improve quality control, offer technical support and employ artificial intelligence.

  16. Prostate cancer mortality in screen and clinically detected prostate cancer : Estimating the screening benefit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Leeuwen, Pim J.; Connolly, David; Gavin, Anna; Roobol, Monique J.; Black, Amanda; Bangma, Chris H.; Schroder, Fritz H.

    Background: To estimate the benefits of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) screening on prostate cancer (Pca) metastasis and Pca-specific mortality, we compared two populations with a well-defined difference in intensity of screening. Methods: Between 1997 and 1999, a total of 11,970 men, aged 55-74

  17. National survey by specialty of U.S. physicians' HPV screening practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCree, Donna Hubbard; Leichliter, Jami S; Hogben, Matthew; St Lawrence, Janet S

    2003-02-01

    High-risk types of HPV are the primary cause of cervical cancer. This article reports HPV screening and diagnosis from a survey evaluating community-based physicians' screening, testing, and clinical practices for sexually transmitted diseases. Surveys mailed to physicians (n = 7,300) obtained information on patients they screen for HPV and cases of HPV diagnosed. Seventy percent (70%) of the physicians returned completed surveys. HPV screening was most frequently conducted in female patients by obstetrician/gynecologists and family practice physicians.

  18. Primary care physicians' reported use of pre-screening discussions for prostate cancer screening: a cross-sectional survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cooper Crystale P

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Professional medical organizations recommend individualized patient decision making about prostate cancer screening. Little is known about primary care physicians' use of pre-screening discussions to promote informed decision making for prostate cancer screening. The aim of this study is to explore physicians' use of pre-screening discussions and reasons why physicians would or would not try to persuade patients to be screened if they initially refuse testing. Methods Primary care physicians completed a self-administered survey about prostate cancer screening practices for informed decision making. Results Sixty-six physicians (75.9% completed the survey, and 63 were used in the analysis. Thirteen physicians (20.6% reported not using prescreening discussions, 45 (71.4% reported the use of prescreening discussions, and 3 (4.8% reported neither ordering the PSA test nor discussing it with patients. Sixty-nine percent of physicians who reported not having discussions indicated they were more likely to screen African American patients for prostate cancer, compared to 50% of physicians who reported the use of discussions (Chi-square(1 = 1.62, p = .20. Similarly, 91% of physicians who reported not having discussions indicated they are more likely to screen patients with a family history of prostate cancer, compared to 46% of those who reported the use of discussion (Chi-square(1 = 13.27, p Conclusion Although guidelines recommend discussing the risks and benefits of prostate cancer screening, physicians report varying practice styles. Future research needs to consider the nature of discussions and the degree to which informed decision making is being achieved in clinical practice.

  19. Screening for thyroid cancer in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagataki, S.; Ashizawa, K.

    1996-01-01

    In the screening of the thyroid diseases in the radiation exposed cohort, it is essential to make correct diagnosis and to measure radiation dose in every subjects in the cohort and to analyze the dose response relationship by the most appropriate statistical method. Thus, thyroid cancer, thyroid adenoma and autoimmune hypothyroidism were confirmed to be radiation-induced thyroid diseases among atomic bomb survivors. A group of investigators from Nagasaki university have been working in the thyroid part of Chernobyl Sasakawa Health and Medical Cooperation Project, and more than 80000 children were screened in 5 diagnostic centers (Mogilev, Gomel, Kiev, Korosten and Klincy). In order to make correct diagnosis, thyroid echo-tomography, measurements of serum levels of free thyroxine, TSH, titers of anti-thyroid antibodies were performed in every children in the cohort and aspiration biopsy was performed when necessary. Whole body Cs 137 radioactivity was also determined in every subjects. Children with thyroid cancer confirmed by histology (biopsy or operation) were 2 in Mogilev, 19 in Gomel, 6 in Kiev, 5 in Korosten and 4 in Klincy (until 1994). Since children screened in each center were less than 20000, prevalence of thyroid cancer was remarkably high (lowest 100 and highest 1000/million children) when compared to the other parts of the world (0.2 to 5/million/year). However, there was no dose response relationship between the prevalence of cancer or nodule and whole body Cs 137 radioactivity. Although a significant correlation between thyroid cancer and reconstructed thyroid I 131 dose was presented, there are no previous reports to prove that I 131 produces thyroid cancer in human. Investigation on external radiation and short lived isotopes along with I 131 may be important to elucidate the cause of thyroid cancer

  20. Prostate Cancer Screening in Jamaica: Results of the Largest National Screening Clinic Prostate Cancer Screening in Jamaica: Results of the Largest National Screening Clinic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrison, B. F.; Aiken, W.; Mayhew, R.; Gordon, Y.; Reid, M.

    2016-01-01

    Prostate cancer is highly prevalent in Jamaica and is the leading cause of cancer-related deaths. Our aim was to evaluate the patterns of screening in the largest organized screening clinic in Jamaica at the Jamaica Cancer Society. A retrospective analysis of all men presenting for screening at the Jamaica Cancer Society from 1995 to 2005 was done. All patients had digital rectal examinations (DRE) and prostate specific antigen (PSA) tests done. Results of prostate biopsies were noted. 1117 men of mean age 59.9 ± 8.2 years presented for screening. The median documented PSA was 1.6 ng/mL (maximum of 5170 ng/mL). Most patients presented for only 1 screen. There was a gradual reduction in the mean age of presentation for screening over the period. Prostate biopsies were requested on 11% of screening visits; however, only 59% of these were done. 5.6% of all persons screened were found to have cancer. Of the cancers diagnosed, Gleason 6 adenocarcinoma was the commonest grade and median PSA was 8.9 ng/mL (range 1.5-1059 ng/mL). Older men tend to screen for prostate cancer in Jamaica. However, compliance with regular maintenance visits and requests for confirmatory biopsies are poor. Screening needs intervention in the Jamaican population.

  1. Smoking cessation results in a clinical lung cancer screening program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borondy Kitts, Andrea K; McKee, Andrea B; Regis, Shawn M; Wald, Christoph; Flacke, Sebastian; McKee, Brady J

    2016-07-01

    Lung cancer screening may provide a "teachable moment" for promoting smoking cessation. This study assessed smoking cessation and relapse rates among individuals undergoing follow-up low-dose chest computed tomography (CT) in a clinical CT lung screening program and assessed the influence of initial screening results on smoking behavior. Self-reported smoking status for individuals enrolled in a clinical CT lung screening program undergoing a follow-up CT lung screening exam between 1st February, 2014 and 31st March, 2015 was retrospectively reviewed and compared to self-reported smoking status using a standardized questionnaire at program entry. Point prevalence smoking cessation and relapse rates were calculated across the entire population and compared with exam results. All individuals undergoing screening fulfilled the National Comprehensive Cancer Network Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology: Lung Cancer Screening v1.2012(®) high-risk criteria and had an order for CT lung screening. A total of 1,483 individuals underwent a follow-up CT lung screening exam during the study interval. Smoking status at time of follow-up exam was available for 1,461/1,483 (98.5%). A total of 46% (678/1,461) were active smokers at program entry. The overall point prevalence smoking cessation and relapse rates were 20.8% and 9.3%, respectively. Prior positive screening exam results were not predictive of smoking cessation (OR 1.092; 95% CI, 0.715-1.693) but were predictive of reduced relapse among former smokers who had stopped smoking for 2 years or less (OR 0.330; 95% CI, 0.143-0.710). Duration of program enrollment was predictive of smoking cessation (OR 0.647; 95% CI, 0.477-0.877). Smoking cessation and relapse rates in a clinical CT lung screening program rates are more favorable than those observed in the general population. Duration of participation in the screening program correlated with increased smoking cessation rates. A positive exam result correlated with reduced

  2. Regulations and practices for systematic radiological screening within countries of the European community

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lefaure, C.

    1987-01-01

    The presentation of the situation concerning the various types of mass radiological screening within the countries of the European community is a brief description of the following: - the status of public regulations, - recommendations issued by medical authorities in various countries, - the actual practices of the medical profession, whether governed or not by the aforementioned regulations and official recommendations. Regulations, recommendations and/or systematic mass radiological screening practices concern mainly three diseases: - tuberculosis, - cancer of the breast, - congenital dislocation of the hip

  3. Early diagnosis and screening for colorectal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laufer, I.

    1986-01-01

    The barium enema has been a neglected tool in the diagnosis of early colon cancer. With appropriate attention to technical detail, the double contrast enema is capable of detecting the smallest malignant and pre-malignant lesions. Many of these early colon cancers are found in asymptomatic patients and these lesions are curable. The goal of a screening program should be to identify by history or by fecal occult blood testing patients at high risk for the development of colon cancer. These patients should be examined by high-quality double contrast enema in the search for these potentially lethal but curable lesions. In addition, we believe that any patient undergoing radiologic examination of the colon for whatever reason, should receive an examination of adequate quality to rule out an early colon cancer. (Author)

  4. Digital breast tomosynthesis (3D-mammography) screening: A pictorial review of screen-detected cancers and false recalls attributed to tomosynthesis in prospective screening trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houssami, Nehmat; Lång, Kristina; Bernardi, Daniela; Tagliafico, Alberto; Zackrisson, Sophia; Skaane, Per

    2016-04-01

    This pictorial review highlights cancers detected only at tomosynthesis screening and screens falsely recalled in the course of breast tomosynthesis screening, illustrating both true-positive (TP) and false-positive (FP) detection attributed to tomosynthesis. Images and descriptive data were used to characterise cases of screen-detection with tomosynthesis, sourced from prospective screening trials that performed standard (2D) digital mammography (DM) and tomosynthesis (3D-mammography) in the same screening participants. Exemplar cases from four trials highlight common themes of relevance to screening practice including: the type of lesions frequently made more conspicuous or perceptible by tomosynthesis (spiculated masses, and architectural distortions); the histologic findings (both TP and FP) of tomosynthesis-only detection; and the need to extend breast work-up protocols (additional imaging including ultrasound and MRI, and tomosynthesis-guided biopsy) if tomosynthesis is adopted for primary screening. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Screening for cancer: advice for high-value care from the American College of Physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilt, Timothy J; Harris, Russell P; Qaseem, Amir

    2015-05-19

    Cancer screening is one approach to reducing cancer-related morbidity and mortality rates. Screening strategies vary in intensity. Higher-intensity strategies are not necessarily higher value. High-value strategies provide a degree of benefits that clearly justifies the harms and costs incurred; low-value screening provides limited or no benefits to justify the harms and costs. When cancer screening leads to benefits, an optimal intensity of screening maximizes value. Some aspects of screening practices, especially overuse and underuse, are low value. Screening strategies for asymptomatic, average-risk adults for 5 common types of cancer were evaluated by reviewing clinical guidelines and evidence syntheses from the American College of Physicians (ACP), U.S. Preventive Services Task Force, American Academy of Family Physicians, American Cancer Society, American Congress of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, American Gastroenterological Association, and American Urological Association. "High value" was defined as the lowest screening intensity threshold at which organizations agree about screening recommendations for each type of cancer and "low value" as agreement about not recommending overly intensive screening strategies. This information is supplemented with additional findings from randomized, controlled trials; modeling studies; and studies of costs or resource use, including information found in the National Cancer Institute's Physician Data Query and UpToDate. The ACP provides high-value care screening advice for 5 common types of cancer; the specifics are outlined in this article. The ACP strongly encourages clinicians to adopt a cancer screening strategy that focuses on reaching all eligible persons with these high-value screening options while reducing overly intensive, low-value screening.

  6. Patient and provider characteristics associated with colorectal, breast, and cervical cancer screening among Asian Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Caroline A; Gomez, Scarlett Lin; Chan, Albert; Chan, John K; McClellan, Sean R; Chung, Sukyung; Olson, Cliff; Nimbal, Vani; Palaniappan, Latha P

    2014-11-01

    Routinely recommended screening for breast, cervical, and colorectal cancers can significantly reduce mortality from these types of cancer, yet screening is underutilized among Asians. Surveys rely on self-report and often are underpowered for analysis by Asian ethnicities. Electronic health records (EHR) include validated (as opposed to recall-based) rates of cancer screening. In this article, we seek to better understand cancer screening patterns in a population of insured Asian Americans. We calculated rates of compliance with cervical, breast, and colorectal cancer screening among Asians from an EHR population and compared them with non-Hispanic whites. We performed multivariable modeling to evaluate potential predictors (at the provider- and patient-level) of screening completion among Asian patients. Aggregation of Asian subgroups masked heterogeneity in screening rates. Asian Indians and native Hawaiians and Pacific Islanders had the lowest rates of screening in our sample, well below that of non-Hispanic whites. In multivariable analyses, screening completion was negatively associated with patient-physician language discordance for mammography [OR, 0.81; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.71-0.92] and colorectal cancer screening (OR, 0.79; CI, 0.72-0.87) and positively associated with patient-provider gender concordance for mammography (OR, 1.16; CI, 1.00-1.34) and cervical cancer screening (OR, 1.66; CI, 1.51-1.82). In addition, patient enrollment in online health services increased mammography (OR, 1.32; CI, 1.20-1.46) and cervical cancer screening (OR, 1.31; CI, 1.24-1.37). Language- and gender-concordant primary care providers and culturally tailored online health resources may help improve preventive cancer screening in Asian patient populations. This study demonstrates how the use of EHR data can inform investigations of primary prevention practices within the healthcare delivery setting. ©2014 American Association for Cancer Research.

  7. Barriers and Motivators Related to Cervical and Breast Cancer Screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Bokaee

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: modern knowledge could protect against cancer for individuals in community with early stage and premalignat state. Screening of cancer is best instrument for early detection of malignancy. Between women’s cancers breast and cervical cancer have more incidence and mortality than other cancers . But could be prevented by simple and cheep screening programs. Despite specific statistics in Iran evidence shows that women’s participation in screening program is poor , so cancers are diagnosed in advanced stage. The purpose of this study was to identify major barriers and motivators for breast and cervical screening . Methods: This survey was a descriptive study in which 400 women participated in health and treatment centers in Yazd. Sampling method was done in two simple and random stages. Data was collected by inventory and questionnaire . Then data were analyzed by SPSS soft ware . Results: Findings showed that 80% of them never refereed to a health provider for clinical breast exam (C B E and only 3% of them did regularly C B E . 46% of them had never done pap smear and only 14.5 % of them did regularly pap smear. The findings showed that major motivators were as follow: advice of health’s personnel , using of contraceptive methods , and awareness of media. Also the major barriers were as follow : Not having knowledge of these exams , not having knowledge of the existence of these centers of education and practice , not having precious health problems , fear of examination , Embarrassment of examination and health providers not to teach them . to consider the most important barriers were propounded which showed that health education role to eliminate barriers for referring women for screening . Discussion: Based on the results of this sample , screening was the least expected . considering barriers and motivators observed it was revealed that health education was required for prevention of common women’s cancers. Also

  8. The Danish randomized lung cancer CT screening trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jesper H; Ashraf, Haseem; Dirksen, Asger

    2009-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Lung cancer screening with low dose computed tomography (CT) has not yet been evaluated in randomized clinical trials, although several are underway. METHODS: In The Danish Lung Cancer Screening Trial, 4104 smokers and previous smokers from 2004 to 2006 were randomized to either...... lung cancer. Ten of these had stage I disease. Eleven of 17 lung cancers at baseline were treated surgically, eight of these by video assisted thoracic surgery resection. CONCLUSIONS: Screening may facilitate minimal invasive treatment and can be performed with a relatively low rate of false......-positive screen results compared with previous studies on lung cancer screening....

  9. A history of breast cancer screening and future problems in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morimoto, Tadaoki

    2009-01-01

    In Europe and the United States, mortality due to breast cancer is decreasing. There are various reasons for this trend, including an increase in the detection of early-stage breast cancers due to the increased use of mammographic screening, and the establishment of standardized systemic treatments derived from evidence-based medicine (EBM). On the other hand, in Japanese women, both morbidity and mortality due to breast cancer are increasing. This paper describes the process of breast cancer screening in the past, its current status, and the quality control system for mammographic screening in Japan, as well as the status of breast cancer screening in Europe and the United States. Furthermore, problems of breast cancer screening in Japan discussed, together with the need for practical measures such as implementation of quality control systems aimed at improving the cancer screening rate (with a target of 50%), financial support, and population-based screening (organized screening), based on the Cancer Control Act. Current measures for screening of dense breast tissue in women in their 40s in Japan are also described. (author)

  10. A Study on Knowledge and Screening for Cervical Cancer among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A Study on Knowledge and Screening for Cervical Cancer among Women in ... and source of information for awareness of women about cervical cancer in India. ... Results: Majority of the women have poor knowledge about cervical cancer ...

  11. Fecal Molecular Markers for Colorectal Cancer Screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rani Kanthan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite multiple screening techniques, including colonoscopy, flexible sigmoidoscopy, radiological imaging, and fecal occult blood testing, colorectal cancer remains a leading cause of death. As these techniques improve, their sensitivity to detect malignant lesions is increasing; however, detection of precursor lesions remains problematic and has generated a lack of general acceptance for their widespread usage. Early detection by an accurate, noninvasive, cost-effective, simple-to-use screening technique is central to decreasing the incidence and mortality of this disease. Recent advances in the development of molecular markers in faecal specimens are encouraging for its use as a screening tool. Genetic mutations and epigenetic alterations that result from the carcinogenetic process can be detected by coprocytobiology in the colonocytes exfoliated from the lesion into the fecal matter. These markers have shown promising sensitivity and specificity in the detection of both malignant and premalignant lesions and are gaining popularity as a noninvasive technique that is representative of the entire colon. In this paper, we summarize the genetic and epigenetic fecal molecular markers that have been identified as potential targets in the screening of colorectal cancer.

  12. Breast cancer screening: the underuse of mammography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fox, S.; Baum, J.K.; Klos, D.S.; Tsou, C.V.

    1985-01-01

    The early detection of breast cancer is promoted by the American Cancer Society (ACS) and the American College of Radiology (ACR) by encouraging the regular use of three types of screening: breast self-examination (BSE), the clinical breast examination, and mammography. In August 1983, the ACS publicized seven recommendations pertaining to screening, including a revised statement about the routine use of mammography for women between the ages of 40 and 49 years. In response to the ACS statement, the present study assessed compliance with the updated recommendations for all three types of screening. The results show reasonable rates of compliance for the BSE (53%-69%) and clinical examination (70%-78%). In contrast, only 19% of the women between the ages of 35 and 49 and 25% of the women older than 50 reported complying with the recommendation to undergo one baseline screening mammogram. Some implications for health education by physicians and the professional education of physicians in the use of mammography are discussed

  13. Low-dose CT: new tool for screening lung cancer?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diederich, S.; Wormanns, D.; Heindel, W.

    2001-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of death from malignant tumours as it is very common and has a poor prognosis at advanced tumour stages. Prognosis could be improved by treatment at early stages. As these stages are usually asymptomatic, a diagnostic test that would allow detection of early tumour stages in a population at risk could potentially reduce mortality from lung cancer. Previous approaches using chest radiography and sputum cytology in smokers have been disappointing. Fluorescent bronchoscopy and molecular markers are not yet applicable in clinical routine. Because of its high sensitivity for small pulmonary nodules, which are the most common manifestation of early lung cancer, CT appears suitable as a screening test. Low-dose examination parameters can and should be used for this purpose. From clinical practice it is well known that chest CT often demonstrates small pulmonary nodules, which do not represent lung cancer. Therefore, non-invasive diagnostic algorithms are required to avoid unnecessary biopsies in benign lesions. In preliminary studies of low-dose CT using algorithms based on size and density of detected nodules a large proportion of asymptomatic lung cancers and a large proportion of early, resectable tumour stages were found with a small proportion of invasive procedures for benign nodules. Before this technology can be recommended for broad application, however, further information is required regarding appropriate inclusion criteria (smoking habits, age groups) and screening intervals. Most importantly, further data are required to clarify whether lung cancer screening using low-dose CT can actually reduce mortality from lung cancer. (orig.)

  14. Patient and provider characteristics associated with colorectal, breast, and cervical cancer screening among Asian Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Caroline A.; Gomez, Scarlett Lin; Chan, Albert; Chan, John K.; McClellan, Sean R.; Chung, Sukyung; Olson, Cliff; Nimbal, Vani; Palaniappan, Latha P.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Routinely recommended screening for breast, cervical, and colorectal cancers can significantly reduce mortality from these types of cancer, yet screening is underutilized among Asians. Surveys rely on self-report and often are underpowered for analysis by Asian ethnicities. Electronic health records include validated (as opposed to recall-based) rates of cancer screening. In this paper we seek to better understand cancer screening patterns in a population of insured Asian Americans. METHODS We calculated rates of compliance with cervical, breast, and colorectal cancer screening among Asians from an EHR population, and compared them to non-Hispanic whites. We performed multivariable modeling to evaluate potential predictors (at the provider- and patient- level) of screening completion among Asian patients. RESULTS Aggregation of Asian subgroups masked heterogeneity in screening rates. Asian Indians and Native Hawaiians and Pacific Islanders had the lowest rates of screening in our sample, well below that of non-Hispanic whites. In multivariable analyses, screening completion was negatively associated with patient-physician language discordance for mammography (OR:0.81 95% CI:0.71–0.92) and colorectal cancer screening (OR:0.79 CI:0.72–0.87) and positively associated with patient-provider gender concordance for mammography (OR:1.16 CI:1.00–1.34) and cervical cancer screening (OR:1.66 CI:1.51–1.82). Additionally, patient enrollment in online health services increased mammography (OR:1.32 CI:1.20–1.46) and cervical cancer screening (OR:1.31 CI:1.24–1.37). CONCLUSIONS Language- and gender- concordant primary care providers, and culturally tailored online health resources may help improve preventive cancer screening in Asian patient populations. IMPACT This study demonstrates how use of EHR data can inform investigations of primary prevention practices within the healthcare delivery setting. PMID:25368396

  15. Screening Mammography for Women in Their 40s: The Potential Impact of the American Cancer Society and U.S. Preventive Services Task Force Breast Cancer Screening Recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitman, Jenifer A; McGinty, Geraldine B; Soman, Rohan R; Drotman, Michele B; Reichman, Melissa B; Arleo, Elizabeth Kagan

    2017-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to review screening mammograms obtained in one practice with the primary endpoint of determining the rate of detection of breast cancer and associated prognostic features in women 40-44 and 45-49 years old. The retrospective cohort study included women in their 40s with breast cancer detected at screening from June 2014 through May 2016. The focus was on cancer detection rate, pathologic findings, and risk factors. A total of 32,762 screens were performed, and 808 biopsies were recommended. These biopsies yielded 224 breast cancers (cancer detection rate, 6.84 per 1000 screens). Women 40-49 years old had 18.8% of cancers detected; 50-59 years, 21.8%; 60-69 years, 32.6%; and 70-79 years, 21.4%. Among the 40- to 49-year-old women, women 40-44 years old underwent 5481 (16.7%) screens, had 132 biopsies recommended, and had 20 breast cancers detected (cancer detection rate, 3.6/1000). Women 45-49 years old underwent 5319 (16.2%) screens, had 108 biopsies recommended, and had 22 breast cancers detected (cancer detection rate, 4.1/1000). Thus, women 40-44 years old had 8.9% and women 45-49 years old had 9.8% of all screen-detected breast cancers. Of these only a small percentage of women with detected cancers had a first-degree relative with breast cancer (40-44 years, 15%; 45-49 years, 32%) or a BRCA mutation (40-44 years, 5%; 45-49 years, 5%), and over 60% of the cancers were invasive. Women 40-49 years old had 18.8% of all screen-detected breast cancers. The two cohorts (40-44 and 45-49 years old) had similar incidences of screen-detected breast cancer (8.9%, 9.8%) and cancer detection rates within performance benchmark standards, supporting a similar recommendation for both cohorts and the American College of Radiology recommendation of annual screening mammography starting at age 40.

  16. Responses to Overdiagnosis in Thyroid Cancer Screening among Korean Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sangeun; Lee, Yoon Young; Yoon, Hyo Joong; Choi, Eunji; Suh, Mina; Park, Boyoung; Jun, Jae Kwan; Kim, Yeol; Choi, Kui Son

    2016-07-01

    Communicating the harms and benefits of thyroid screening is necessary to help individuals decide on whether or not to undergo thyroid cancer screening. This study was conducted to assess changes in thyroid cancer screening intention in response to receiving information about overdiagnosis and to determine factors with the greatest influence thereon. Data were acquired from subjects included in the 2013 Korean National Cancer Screening Survey (KNCSS), a nationwide, population-based, cross-sectional survey. Of the 4,100 respondents in the 2013 KNCSS, women were randomly subsampled and an additional face-to-face interview was conducted. Finally, a total of 586 female subjects were included in this study. Intention to undergo thyroid cancer screening was assessed before and after receiving information on overdiagnosis. Prior awareness of overdiagnosis in thyroid cancer screening was 27.8%. The majority of subjects intended to undergo thyroid cancer screening before and after receiving information on overdiagnosis (87% and 74%, respectively). Only a small number of subjects changed their intention to undergo thyroid cancer screening from positive to negative after receiving information on overdiagnosis. Women of higher education level and Medical Aid Program recipients reported being significantly more likely to change their intention to undergo thyroid cancer screening afterreceiving information on overdiagnosis,whilewomen with stronger beliefs on the efficacy of cancer screening were less likely to change their intention. Women in Korea appeared to be less concerned about overdiagnosis when deciding whether or not to undergo thyroid cancer screening.

  17. Recommended Screening Practices for Launch Collision Aviodance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaver, Brian A.; Hametz, Mark E.; Ollivierre, Jarmaine C.; Newman, Lauri K.; Hejduk, Matthew D.

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this document is to assess the value of launch collision avoidance (COLA) practices and provide recommendations regarding its implementation for NASA robotic missions. The scope of this effort is limited to launch COLA screens against catalog objects that are either spacecraft or debris. No modifications to manned safety COLA practices are considered in this effort. An assessment of the value of launch COLA can be broken down into two fundamental questions: 1) Does collision during launch represent a significant risk to either the payload being launched or the space environment? 2) Can launch collision mitigation be performed in a manner that provides meaningful risk reduction at an acceptable level of operational impact? While it has been possible to piece together partial answers to these questions for some time, the first attempt to comprehensively address them is documented in reference (a), Launch COLA Operations: an Examination of Data Products, Procedures, and Thresholds, Revision A. This report is the product of an extensive study that addressed fundamental technical questions surrounding launch collision avoidance analysis and practice. The results provided in reference (a) will be cited throughout this document as these two questions are addressed. The premise of this assessment is that in order to conclude that launch COLA is a value-added activity, the answer to both of these questions must be affirmative. A "no" answer to either of these questions points toward the conclusion that launch COLA provides little or no risk mitigation benefit. The remainder of this assessment will focus on addressing these two questions.

  18. Provider Perspectives on Promoting Cervical Cancer Screening Among Refugee Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ying; Ornelas, India J; Do, H Hoai; Magarati, Maya; Jackson, J Carey; Taylor, Victoria M

    2017-06-01

    Many refugees in the United States emigrated from countries where the incidence of cervical cancer is high. Refugee women are unlikely to have been screened for cervical cancer prior to resettlement in the U.S. National organizations recommend cervical cancer screening for refugee women soon after resettlement. We sought to identify health and social service providers' perspectives on promoting cervical cancer screening in order to inform the development of effective programs to increase screening among recently resettled refugees. This study consisted of 21 in-depth key informant interviews with staff from voluntary refugee resettlement agencies, community based organizations, and healthcare clinics serving refugees in King County, Washington. Interview transcripts were analyzed to identify themes. We identified the following themes: (1) refugee women are unfamiliar with preventive care and cancer screening; (2) providers have concerns about the timing of cervical cancer education and screening; (3) linguistic and cultural barriers impact screening uptake; (4) provider factors and clinic systems facilitate promotion of screening; and (5) strategies for educating refugee women about screening. Our findings suggest that refugee women are in need of health education on cervical cancer screening during early resettlement. Frequent messaging about screening could help ensure that women receive screening within the early resettlement period. Health education videos may be effective for providing simple, low literacy messages in women's native languages. Appointments with female clinicians and interpreters, as well as clinic systems that remind clinicians to offer screening at each appointment could increase screening among refugee women.

  19. BREAST CANCER IN SLOVENIA: EPIDEMIOLOGY AND SCREENING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja Primic Žakelj

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. Breast is the most frequent cancer site in Slovenian female population. In the year 2000 there were 932 new breast cancer cases registered (91.2/100,000, the incidence is expected to increase in the next ten years. Primary prevention includes general recommendations for healthy life style, e.g. avoidance of obesity, diet, physical activity and moderate alcohol consumption. Randomised controlled trials conducted in the USA, Canada, Scotland and Sweden have shown that regular mammography, alone or in combination with clinical examination, is effective in reducing mortality for about 25% in women over the age of 50, and much less in younger population. However, mammography screening has several drawbacks, the major being its tendency towards false positive and false negative results with all their potential psychosocial consequences. High quality assurance and control, as well as effective and readily available diagnostics and treatment, all of which demand high investments, are indispensable for good results.Conclusions. In Slovenia there are standards for breast cancer screening units, but their implementation in every day’s work is still a problem. In any case, breast cancer control could be achieved only by combined efforts directed into primary prevention and early detection, as well as by improving availability of effective treatment.

  20. OPPORTUNISTIC CERVICAL CANCER SCREENING IN PREGNANCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radha Bai Prabhu T

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Cervical cancer is the most common malignancy diagnosed during pregnancy. In developing countries where organized screening programmes are lacking, antenatal clinics may provide an opportunity for screening. Objectives: The aim of this study was to analyse the prevalence and management of abnormal cervical cytology in pregnancy. Methodology: This was a prospective study conducted at the Meenakshi Medical College and RI, Kancheepuram, India, from July 2013 to June 2014. Convenience sampling technique was used. After adequate counselling, 300 antenatal mothers between 12 and 34 weeks of gestation were screened with conventional Pap smear. Colposcopy directed biopsy was taken where and when necessary. Results: Among the 300 pregnant women, 90 (30% were primigravidae and 210 (70% were multigravidae. 80% were between 21 and 30 years of age. 290 (96.6% women have never had a pap smear in the past. Conventional Pap smear was taken at 21 weeks of gestation in 20% of cases. ASCUS , LSIL and HSIL were reported in one case each. In those with LSIL and HSIL , Colposcopy directed biopsy was reported as CIN 1 and CIN 2 respectively. These two cases were kept under observation during the antenatal period. The CIN II lesion persisted on postpartum follow up and was treated with LLETZ. Conclusion: In countries like India Pap smear screening during pregnancy is worthwhile and the antenatal clinics provide ample opportunities for the screening.

  1. Breast cancer screening behavior, attitude, barriers among middle-aged Chinese women in Macao, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Yan Xiang; Lao, Cheng-Kin; Chan, Alexandre

    2018-05-08

    Breast cancer is the third leading cause of death from cancer among females in Macao, but little is known about local practice of breast cancer screening. The study aims to evaluate breast cancer screening behaviors and to identify the predictors of insufficient knowledge and attitudes towards breast cancer and its screening among female residents. This was a cross-sectional study conducted from April to June 2016 in Macao. Quota sampling of women completed the modified Chinese Breast Cancer Screening Beliefs questionnaire (CBCSB) to assess their breast cancer-related perceptions, screening attitudes and behaviors. Univariate and multivariate logistic regressions were performed to identify the predictors of poor-screening practices, attitudes, knowledge and perceived barriers to mammography. A total of 417 women (mean age±SD: 50.5±5.7) completed surveys, with 160 (38.4%), 196 (47.0%) and 103 (24.7%) women received breast self-examination, clinical breast examination and mammography as recommended, respectively. Nulliparity (OR=2.56, 95% CI = 1.14-5.73) and low education (OR = 1.72, 95% CI = 1.04-2.84) were significantly associated with negative attitude towards health check-ups. Women did not know anyone with breast cancer (OR = 2.30, 95% CI = 1.50-3.55) were more likely to have insufficient knowledge about breast cancer. Low education (OR = 1.95, 95% CI = 1.25-3.04) and not knowing anyone with breast cancer (OR = 2.02, 95% CI = 1.31-3.13) were identified as predictors for perceived barriers to mammography. Recommendations for breast cancer screening are poorly followed by the residents in Macao, and a culturally tailored educational program is urgently needed to raise the public's awareness of the disease and the screening practices.

  2. Association of physicians' knowledge and behavior with prostate cancer counseling and screening in Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mostafa A. Arafa

    2010-01-01

    To investigate the knowledge, attitudes and practices of primary care physicians towards prostate cancer counseling and screening. This cross sectional study was conducted in May 2009 to October 2009 through a survey questionnaire, which was distributed to all licensed primary care physicians in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. The study took place in the Princes Al-Johara Al-Ibrahim Center for Cancer Research, King Saud University, Saudi Arabia. Data was obtained from 204 primary care physicians using self-reports of prostate cancer screening practices, knowledge, attitudes towards prostate cancer screening, and continuous medical education preferences. Respondents' characteristics were also collected. Approximately 54.7% of the respondents were practicing counseling and referring prostate cancer patients. The mean correct knowledge score was 54.3%, their attitude was not strong; the only statement that approximately 70% of physicians agreed upon was about the value of screening, however, the reliability and evidence to support digital rectal examination and prostatic specific antigen were in question. Our primary care physicians had self-confidence in suspecting and referring high-risk patients for screening, but not for management and treatment. Knowledge and attitude were found to be the most significant predictors that determine physicians' self practice. Physicians' practice towards a screening procedures or early detection of diseases should rely on a good background of information, which in turn enhances their self-efficacy and develops a good and positive attitude towards their practice skills (Author).

  3. Behavioral Economics: “Nudging” Underserved Populations to Be Screened for Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Tess; Kreuter, Matthew W.; McBride, Timothy D.

    2015-01-01

    Persistent disparities in cancer screening by race/ethnicity and socioeconomic status require innovative prevention tools and techniques. Behavioral economics provides tools to potentially reduce disparities by informing strategies and systems to increase prevention of breast, cervical, and colorectal cancers. With an emphasis on the predictable, but sometimes flawed, mental shortcuts (heuristics) people use to make decisions, behavioral economics offers insights that practitioners can use to enhance evidence-based cancer screening interventions that rely on judgments about the probability of developing and detecting cancer, decisions about competing screening options, and the optimal presentation of complex choices (choice architecture). In the area of judgment, we describe ways practitioners can use the availability and representativeness of heuristics and the tendency toward unrealistic optimism to increase perceptions of risk and highlight benefits of screening. We describe how several behavioral economic principles involved in decision-making can influence screening attitudes, including how framing and context effects can be manipulated to highlight personally salient features of cancer screening tests. Finally, we offer suggestions about ways practitioners can apply principles related to choice architecture to health care systems in which cancer screening takes place. These recommendations include the use of incentives to increase screening, introduction of default options, appropriate feedback throughout the decision-making and behavior completion process, and clear presentation of complex choices, particularly in the context of colorectal cancer screening. We conclude by noting gaps in knowledge and propose future research questions to guide this promising area of research and practice. PMID:25590600

  4. Obesity and Cancer Screening according to Race and Gender

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather Bittner Fagan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between obesity and cancer screening varies by screening test, race, and gender. Most studies on cervical cancer screening found a negative association between increasing weight and screening, and this negative association was most consistent in white women. Recent literature on mammography reports no association with weight. However, some studies show a negative association in white, but not black, women. In contrast, obese/overweight men reported higher rates of prostate-specific antigen (PSA testing. Comparison of prostate cancer screening, mammography, and Pap smears implies a gender difference in the relationship between screening behavior and weight. In colorectal cancer (CRC screening, the relationship between weight and screening in men is inconsistent, while there is a trend towards lower CRC screening in higher weight women.

  5. Overdiagnosis in mammographic screening for breast cancer in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Puliti, Donella; Duffy, Stephen W; Miccinesi, Guido

    2012-01-01

    Overdiagnosis, the detection through screening of a breast cancer that would never have been identified in the lifetime of the woman, is an adverse outcome of screening. We aimed to determine an estimate range for overdiagnosis of breast cancer in European mammographic service screening programmes....

  6. Psychological distress associated with cancer screening: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chad-Friedman, Emma; Coleman, Sarah; Traeger, Lara N; Pirl, William F; Goldman, Roberta; Atlas, Steven J; Park, Elyse R

    2017-10-15

    Current national cancer screening recommendations include the potential risk of psychological harm related to screening. However, data on the relation of psychological distress to cancer screening is limited. The authors conducted a systematic review to assess psychological distress associated with cancer screening procedures. Studies that administered measures of psychological distress between 2 weeks before and 1 month after the screening procedure were included. In total, 22 eligible studies met criteria for review, including 13 observational trials and 9 randomized controlled trials. Eligible studies used a broad range of validated and unvalidated measures. Anxiety was the most commonly assessed construct and was measured using the State Trait Anxiety Inventory. Studies included breast, colorectal, prostate, lung, and cervical screening procedures. Distress was low across procedures, with the exception of colorectal screening. Distress did not vary according to the time at which distress was measured. None of the studies were conducted exclusively with the intention of assessing distress at the time of screening. Evidence of low distress during the time of cancer screening suggests that distress might not be a widespread barrier to screening among adults who undergo screening. However, more studies are needed using validated measures of distress to further understand the extent to which screening may elicit psychological distress and impede adherence to national screening recommendations. Cancer 2017;123:3882-94. © 2017 American Cancer Society. © 2017 American Cancer Society.

  7. Meta-analysis of screening and case finding tools for depression in cancer: Evidence based recommendations for clinical practice on behalf of the Depression in Cancer Care consensus group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mitchell, A. J.; Meader, N.; Davies, E.

    2012-01-01

    Background: To examine the validity of screening and case-finding tools used in the identification of depression as defined by an ICD10/DSM-IV criterion standard. Methods: We identified 63 studies involving 19 tools (in 33 publications) designed to help clinicians identify depression in cancer...... as cases. The main cautions are the reliance on DSM-IV definitions of major depression, the large number of small studies and the paucity of data for many tools in specific settings. Conclusions: Although no single tool could be offered unqualified support, several tools are likely to improve upon...

  8. Gastric Cancer Screening by Combined Determination of Serum Helicobacter pylori Antibody and Pepsinogen Concentrations: ABC Method for Gastric Cancer Screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xian-Zhe; Huang, Cheng-Zhi; Hu, Wei-Xian; Liu, Ying; Yao, Xue-Qing

    2018-05-20

    Gastroscopy combined with gastric mucosa biopsies is currently regarded as a gold standard for diagnosis of gastric cancer. However, its application is restricted in clinical practice due to its invasive property. A new noninvasive population screening process combining the assay of anti-Helicobacter pylori antibody and serum pepsinogen (PG) (ABC method) is adopted to recognize the high-risk patients for further endoscopy examination, avoiding the unnecessary gastroscopy for most population and saving the cost consumption for mass screening annually. Nevertheless, controversies exist for the grouping of ABC method and the intervals of gastroscopy surveillance for each group. In this review, we summarized these popular concerned topics for providing useful references to the healthcare practitioner in clinical practice. The PubMed databases were systematically searched from the inception dates to November 22, 2017, using the keywords "Helicobacter pylori," "Pepsinogens," and "Stomach Neoplasms." Original articles and reviews on the topics were selected. Anti-H. pylori antibody and serum PG concentration showed significant changes under the different status of H. pylori infection and the progression of atrophic gastritis, which can be used for risk stratification of gastric cancer in clinic. In addition, anti-H. pylori antibody titer can be used for further risk stratification of gastric cancer contributing to determine better endoscopy surveillance interval. The early detection and diagnosis of gastric cancer benefit from the risk stratification, but the cutoff values for H. pylori antibody and serum PG concentration require further modification.

  9. Skin Cancer Screening (PDQ®)—Patient Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    Having a skin exam to screen for skin cancer has not been shown to decrease your chance of dying from skin cancer. Learn about this and other tests that have been studied to detect or screen for skin cancer in this expert reviewed summary.

  10. Lung Cancer Screening May Benefit Those at Highest Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    People at the highest risk for lung cancer, based on a risk model, may be more likely to benefit from screening with low-dose CT, a new analysis suggests. The study authors believe the findings may better define who should undergo lung cancer screening, as this Cancer Currents blog post explains.

  11. Stomach (Gastric) Cancer Screening (PDQ®)—Patient Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    There is no standard or routine screening test for stomach (gastric) cancer. Stomach (gastric) cancer is not common in the U.S. Learn about tests that have been studied to detect or screen for stomach cancer in this expert-reviewed summary.

  12. Review article: Prostate cancer screening using prostate specific ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Prostate cancer is the commonest cancer among men in Nigeria and early detection is key to cure and survival but its screening through prostate specific antigen (PSA) has remain controversial in literature. Screening with prostate specific antigen (PSA) has led to more men diagnosed with prostate cancer than ...

  13. Breast cancer mortality in mammographic screening in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Njor, Sisse Helle; Nyström, Lennarth; Moss, Sue

    2012-01-01

    To estimate the impact of service mammography screening on breast cancer mortality using European incidence-based mortality (IBM) studies (or refined mortality studies). IBM studies include only breast cancer deaths occurring in women with breast cancer diagnosed after their first invitation...... to screening....

  14. Beliefs Underlying Messages of Anti-Cancer-Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okuhara, Tsuyoshi; Ishikawa, Hirono; Okada, Masahumi; Kato, Mio; Kiuchi, Takahiro

    2018-02-26

    Background: Cancer screening rates are lower in Japan than in Western countries. Meanwhile, anti-cancer-screening activists take to the internet to spread their messages that cancer screening has little or no efficacy, poses substantial health risks such as side effects from radiation exposure, and that people should forgo cancer screening. We applied a qualitative approach to explore the beliefs underlying the messages of anti-cancer-screening websites, by focusing on perceived value the beliefs provided to those who held them. Methods: We conducted online searches using Google Japan and Yahoo! Japan, targeting websites we classified as “pro,” “anti,” or “neutral” depending on their claims. We applied a dual analytic approach- inductive thematic analysis and deductive interpretative analysis- to the textual data of the anti websites. Results: Of the 88 websites analyzed, five themes that correspond to beliefs were identified: destruction of common knowledge, denial of standard cancer control, education about right cancer control, education about hidden truths, and sense of superiority that only I know the truth. Authors of anti websites ascribed two values (“safety of people” and “self-esteem”) to their beliefs. Conclusion: The beliefs of authors of anti-cancer-screening websites were supposed to be strong. It would be better to target in cancer screening promotion not outright screening refusers but screening hesitant people who are more amenable to changing their attitudes toward screening. The possible means to persuade them were discussed. Creative Commons Attribution License

  15. [Cervical cancer screening: past--present--future].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breitenecker, G

    2009-12-01

    Despite the undisputed and impressive success which has been achieved since the 1960s by cervical cytology in the fight against cervical cancer and its precursor stages, during which the mortality rate in industrialized countries over the last 40 years has been reduced by two-thirds to three-quarters, a perfect and error-free screening procedure is still a long way off and will probably never be reached. There are two main reasons for this, the lack of adequate coverage and suboptimal quality and assessment of smears. Two screening procedures are in use Europe, an opportunistic and an organized system. Both systems have many advantages but also disadvantages. In organized programs the coverage is higher (up to 80%), although similar numbers are also achieved by non-organized programs over a 3-year cycle, even if they cannot be so exactly documented. The decision on which system is used depends on the health system of the country, public or non-public, and many other national circumstances. However, in both systems prerequisites for a satisfactory result is a high quality in the sampling technique, the processing and the assessment. Therefore, several guidelines have been introduced by state and medical societies for internal and external quality assurance. New technologies, such as thin-layer cytology or automation for replacement or support of conventional cytology liquid-based cytology proved not to be superior enough to justify the high costs of these systems. The recognition of the strong causal relationship between persistent infection with high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) types and cervical cancer and its precursors has resulted in the development of comparably simple tests. Primary screening using HPV typing alone is not recommended in opportunistic screening due to the low specificity but high sensitivity because it leads to many clinically irrelevant results which place women under stress. In organized screening HPV testing is always and only possible

  16. Implementation and process evaluation of a workplace colorectal cancer screening program in eastern Washington.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannon, Peggy A; Vu, Thuy; Ogdon, Sara; Fleury, Emily M; Yette, Emily; Wittenberg, Reva; Celedonia, Megan; Bowen, Deborah J

    2013-03-01

    Colorectal cancer screening is a life-saving intervention, but screening rates are low. The authors implemented and evaluated the Spokane Colorectal Cancer Screening Program-a novel worksite intervention to promote colorectal cancer screening that used a combination of evidence-based strategies recommended by the Guide to Community Preventive Services, as well as additional strategies. Over a period of approximately 3 months, participating worksites held one or more physician-led seminars about colorectal cancer screening for employees. They also distributed free fecal immunochemical tests at the worksite to employees 50 years and older, and they provided test results to employees and their primary care physician. The authors measured attendance at seminars, test kits taken and returned, employee awareness of the program, and colorectal cancer screening rates in participating and comparison worksites. It is estimated that 9% of eligible employees received kits at the worksite, and 4% were screened with these kits. The Spokane Colorectal Cancer Screening Program was a promising pilot test of an innovative worksite screening program that successfully translated evidence-based strategies into practical use in a brief period of time, and it merits a larger study to be able to test its effects more rigorously.

  17. An Educational Training on Cervical Cancer Screening Program for Rural Healthcare Providers in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Caroline Isaac

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Conventional, cytology based Cervical cancer screening programmes used in the developed world is often not practical in developing countries. Training of health care work force on a feasible, low-tech, screening methods is urgently needed in low resource settings. Twenty providers including doctors and nurses participated in a 2-days training workshop organized by a Community Health Center in rural South India. The pre-post-training assessment showed significant improvement in knowledge about cervical cancer, ‘low tech’ screening, treatment options and counseling among the participants.  Twenty volunteers screened at the workshop, 2 women (10% tested positive and one had CINIII lesion and the other had cervical cancer stage IIIB. After the training, the participants felt confident about their ability to counsel and screen women for cervical cancer.

  18. Effects of Screening for Psychological Distress on Patient Outcomes in Cancer: a Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meijer, Anna; Roseman, Michelle; Delisle, Vanessa C.; Milette, Katherine; Levis, Brooke; Syamchandra, Achyuth; Stefanek, Michael E.; Stewart, Donna E.; de Jonge, Peter; Coyne, James C.; Thombs, Brett D.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Several practice guidelines recommend routine screening for psychological distress in cancer care. The objective was to evaluate the effect of screening cancer patients for psychological distress by assessing the (1) effectiveness of interventions to reduce distress among patients identified as distressed; and (2) effects of screening for distress on distress outcomes. Methods CINAHL, Cochrane, EMBASE, ISI, MEDLINE, PsycINFO, and SCOPUS databases were searched through April 6, 2011 with manual searches of 45 relevant journals, reference list review, citation tracking of included articles, and trial registry reviews through June 30, 2012. Articles in any language on cancer patients were included if they (1) compared treatment for patients with psychological distress to placebo or usual care in a randomized controlled trial (RCT); or (2) assessed the effect of screening on psychological distress in a RCT. Results There were 14 eligible RCTs for treatment of distress, and 1 RCT on the effects of screening on patient distress. Pharmacological, psychotherapy and collaborative care interventions generally reduced distress with small to moderate effects. One study investigated effects of screening for distress on psychological outcomes, and it found no improvement. Conclusion Treatment studies reported modest improvement in distress symptoms, but only a single eligible study was found on the effects of screening cancer patients for distress, and distress did not improve in screened patients versus those receiving usual care. Because of the lack of evidence of beneficial effects of screening cancer patients for distress, it is premature to recommend or mandate implementation of routine screening. PMID:23751231

  19. European randomized lung cancer screening trials: Post NLST

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Field, JK; Klaveren, R; Pedersen, JH

    2013-01-01

    Overview of the European randomized lung cancer CT screening trials (EUCT) is presented with regard to the implementation of CT screening in Europe; post NLST. All seven principal investigators completed a questionnaire on the epidemiological, radiological, and nodule management aspects...

  20. Tailored information about cancer risk and screening: a systematic review.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Albada, A.; Ausems, M.G.E.M.; Bensing, J.M.; Dulmen, S. van

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study interventions that provide people with information about cancer risk and about screening that is tailored to their personal characteristics. We assess the tailoring characteristics, theory base and effects on risk perception, knowledge and screening behavior of these

  1. Medicare Cancer Screening in the Context of Clinical Guidelines: 2000 to 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maroongroge, Sean; Yu, James B

    2018-04-01

    Cancer screening is a ubiquitous and controversial public health issue, particularly in the elderly population. Despite extensive evidence-based guidelines for screening, it is unclear how cancer screening has changed in the Medicare population over time. We characterize trends in cancer screening for the most common cancer types in the Medicare fee-for-service (FFS) program in the context of conflicting guidelines from 2000 to 2012. We performed a descriptive analysis of retrospective claims data from the Medicare FFS program based on billing codes. Our data include all claims for Medicare part B beneficiaries who received breast, colorectal (CRC), or prostate cancer screening from 2000 to 2012 based on billing codes. We utilize a Monte Carlo permutation method to detect changes in screening trends. In total, 231,416,732 screening tests were analyzed from 2000 to 2012, representing an average of 436.8 tests per 1000 beneficiaries per year. Mammography rates declined 7.4%, with digital mammography extensively replacing film. CRC cancer screening rates declined overall. As a percentage of all CRC screening tests, colonoscopy grew from 32% to 71%. Prostate screening rates increased 16% from 2000 to 2007, and then declined to 7% less than its 2000 rate by 2012. Both the aggressiveness of screening guidelines and screening rates for the Medicare FFS population peaked and then declined from 2000 to 2012. However, guideline publications did not consistently precede utilization trend shifts. Technology adoption, practical and financial concerns, and patient preferences may have also contributed to the observed trends. Further research should be performed on the impact of multiple, conflicting guidelines in cancer screening.

  2. Implications of Overdiagnosis: Impact on Screening Mammography Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Elizabeth; Feig, Stephen A.; Drexler, Madeline

    2015-01-01

    Abstract This review article explores the issue of overdiagnosis in screening mammography. Overdiagnosis is the screen detection of a breast cancer, histologically confirmed, that might not otherwise become clinically apparent during the lifetime of the patient. While screening mammography is an imperfect tool, it remains the best tool we have to diagnose breast cancer early, before a patient is symptomatic and at a time when chances of survival and options for treatment are most favorable. In 2015, an estimated 231,840 new cases of breast cancer (excluding ductal carcinoma in situ) will be diagnosed in the United States, and some 40,290 women will die. Despite these data, screening mammography for women ages 40–69 has contributed to a substantial reduction in breast cancer mortality, and organized screening programs have led to a shift from late-stage diagnosis to early-stage detection. Current estimates of overdiagnosis in screening mammography vary widely, from 0% to upwards of 30% of diagnosed cancers. This range reflects the fact that measuring overdiagnosis is not a straightforward calculation, but usually one based on different sets of assumptions and often biased by methodological flaws. The recent development of tomosynthesis, which creates high-resolution, three-dimensional images, has increased breast cancer detection while reducing false recalls. Because the greatest harm of overdiagnosis is overtreatment, the key goal should not be less diagnosis but better treatment decision tools. (Population Health Management 2015;18:S3–S11) PMID:26414384

  3. [New guidelines in regard to cervical cancer screening].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas-Hernández, Víctor Manuel; Acosta-Altamirano, Gustavo; Moreno-Eutimio, Mario Adán; Vargas-Aguilar, Víctor Manuel

    2014-01-01

    Cancer screening programs have been successful in reducing the incidence and mortality due to cervical cancer. For more than a decade, the human papillomavirus test has been recommended as part of these programs, however, Pap tests is not currently recommended for women 65 years of age who participated adequately in screening programs, continuing with these screening programs is not needed. Screening programs will be different in special populations at greatest risk where tests are frequently needed or use of alternative methods.

  4. Screen-detected versus interval cancers: Effect of imaging modality and breast density in the Flemish Breast Cancer Screening Programme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Timmermans, Lore; Bacher, Klaus; Thierens, Hubert [Ghent University, Department of Basic Medical Sciences, QCC-Gent, Ghent (Belgium); Bleyen, Luc; Herck, Koen van [Ghent University, Centrum voor Preventie en Vroegtijdige Opsporing van Kanker, Ghent (Belgium); Lemmens, Kim; Ongeval, Chantal van; Steen, Andre van [University Hospitals Leuven, Department of Radiology, Leuven (Belgium); Martens, Patrick [Centrum voor Kankeropsporing, Bruges (Belgium); Brabander, Isabel de [Belgian Cancer Registry, Brussels (Belgium); Goossens, Mathieu [UZ Brussel, Dienst Kankerpreventie, Brussels (Belgium)

    2017-09-15

    To investigate if direct radiography (DR) performs better than screen-film mammography (SF) and computed radiography (CR) in dense breasts in a decentralized organised Breast Cancer Screening Programme. To this end, screen-detected versus interval cancers were studied in different BI-RADS density classes for these imaging modalities. The study cohort consisted of 351,532 women who participated in the Flemish Breast Cancer Screening Programme in 2009 and 2010. Information on screen-detected and interval cancers, breast density scores of radiologist second readers, and imaging modality was obtained by linkage of the databases of the Centre of Cancer Detection and the Belgian Cancer Registry. Overall, 67% of occurring breast cancers are screen detected and 33% are interval cancers, with DR performing better than SF and CR. The interval cancer rate increases gradually with breast density, regardless of modality. In the high-density class, the interval cancer rate exceeds the cancer detection rate for SF and CR, but not for DR. DR is superior to SF and CR with respect to cancer detection rates for high-density breasts. To reduce the high interval cancer rate in dense breasts, use of an additional imaging technique in screening can be taken into consideration. (orig.)

  5. Screen-detected versus interval cancers: Effect of imaging modality and breast density in the Flemish Breast Cancer Screening Programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Timmermans, Lore; Bacher, Klaus; Thierens, Hubert; Bleyen, Luc; Herck, Koen van; Lemmens, Kim; Ongeval, Chantal van; Steen, Andre van; Martens, Patrick; Brabander, Isabel de; Goossens, Mathieu

    2017-01-01

    To investigate if direct radiography (DR) performs better than screen-film mammography (SF) and computed radiography (CR) in dense breasts in a decentralized organised Breast Cancer Screening Programme. To this end, screen-detected versus interval cancers were studied in different BI-RADS density classes for these imaging modalities. The study cohort consisted of 351,532 women who participated in the Flemish Breast Cancer Screening Programme in 2009 and 2010. Information on screen-detected and interval cancers, breast density scores of radiologist second readers, and imaging modality was obtained by linkage of the databases of the Centre of Cancer Detection and the Belgian Cancer Registry. Overall, 67% of occurring breast cancers are screen detected and 33% are interval cancers, with DR performing better than SF and CR. The interval cancer rate increases gradually with breast density, regardless of modality. In the high-density class, the interval cancer rate exceeds the cancer detection rate for SF and CR, but not for DR. DR is superior to SF and CR with respect to cancer detection rates for high-density breasts. To reduce the high interval cancer rate in dense breasts, use of an additional imaging technique in screening can be taken into consideration. (orig.)

  6. Cervical and breast cancer screening participation for women with chronic conditions in France: results from a national health survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constantinou, Panayotis; Dray-Spira, Rosemary; Menvielle, Gwenn

    2016-03-31

    Comorbidity at the time of diagnosis is an independent prognostic factor for survival among women suffering from cervical or breast cancer. Although cancer screening practices have proven their efficacy for mortality reduction, little is known about adherence to screening recommendations for women suffering from chronic conditions. We investigated the association between eleven chronic conditions and adherence to cervical and breast cancer screening recommendations in France. Using data from a cross-sectional national health survey conducted in 2008, we analyzed screening participation taking into account self-reported: inflammatory systemic disease, cancer, cardiovascular disease, chronic respiratory disease, depression, diabetes, dyslipidemia, hypertension, obesity, osteoarthritis and thyroid disorders. We first computed age-standardized screening rates among women who reported each condition. We then estimated the effect of having reported each condition on adherence to screening recommendations in logistic regression models, with adjustment for sociodemographic characteristics, socioeconomic position, health behaviours, healthcare access and healthcare use. Finally, we investigated the association between chronic conditions and opportunistic versus organized breast cancer screening using multinomial logistic regression. The analyses were conducted among 4226 women for cervical cancer screening and 2056 women for breast cancer screening. Most conditions studied were not associated with screening participation. Adherence to cervical cancer screening recommendations was higher for cancer survivors (OR = 1.73 [0.98-3.05]) and lower for obese women (OR = 0.73 [0.57-0.93]), when accounting for our complete range of screening determinants. Women reporting chronic respiratory disease or diabetes participated less in cervical cancer screening, except when adjusting for socioeconomic characteristics. Adherence to breast cancer screening recommendations was lower for

  7. Cervical and breast cancer screening participation for women with chronic conditions in France: results from a national health survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Constantinou, Panayotis; Dray-Spira, Rosemary; Menvielle, Gwenn

    2016-01-01

    Comorbidity at the time of diagnosis is an independent prognostic factor for survival among women suffering from cervical or breast cancer. Although cancer screening practices have proven their efficacy for mortality reduction, little is known about adherence to screening recommendations for women suffering from chronic conditions. We investigated the association between eleven chronic conditions and adherence to cervical and breast cancer screening recommendations in France. Using data from a cross-sectional national health survey conducted in 2008, we analyzed screening participation taking into account self-reported: inflammatory systemic disease, cancer, cardiovascular disease, chronic respiratory disease, depression, diabetes, dyslipidemia, hypertension, obesity, osteoarthritis and thyroid disorders. We first computed age-standardized screening rates among women who reported each condition. We then estimated the effect of having reported each condition on adherence to screening recommendations in logistic regression models, with adjustment for sociodemographic characteristics, socioeconomic position, health behaviours, healthcare access and healthcare use. Finally, we investigated the association between chronic conditions and opportunistic versus organized breast cancer screening using multinomial logistic regression. The analyses were conducted among 4226 women for cervical cancer screening and 2056 women for breast cancer screening. Most conditions studied were not associated with screening participation. Adherence to cervical cancer screening recommendations was higher for cancer survivors (OR = 1.73 [0.98–3.05]) and lower for obese women (OR = 0.73 [0.57–0.93]), when accounting for our complete range of screening determinants. Women reporting chronic respiratory disease or diabetes participated less in cervical cancer screening, except when adjusting for socioeconomic characteristics. Adherence to breast cancer screening recommendations was lower for

  8. Implications of false-positive results for future cancer screenings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taksler, Glen B; Keating, Nancy L; Rothberg, Michael B

    2018-06-01

    False-positive cancer screening results may affect a patient's willingness to obtain future screening. The authors conducted logistic regression analysis of 450,484 person-years of electronic medical records (2006-2015) in 92,405 individuals aged 50 to 75 years. Exposures were false-positive breast, prostate, or colorectal cancer screening test results (repeat breast imaging or negative breast biopsy ≤3 months after screening mammography, repeat prostate-specific antigen [PSA] test ≤3 months after PSA test result ≥4.0 ng/mL or negative prostate biopsy ≤3 months after any PSA result, or negative colonoscopy [without biopsy/polypectomy] ≤6 months after a positive fecal occult blood test). Outcomes were up-to-date status with breast or colorectal cancer screening. Covariates included prior screening history, clinical information (eg, family history, obesity, and smoking status), comorbidity, and demographics. Women were more likely to be up to date with breast cancer screening if they previously had false-positive mammography findings (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 1.43 [95% confidence interval, 1.34-1.51] without breast biopsy and AOR, 2.02 [95% confidence interval, 1.56-2.62] with breast biopsy; both Pfalse-positive PSA testing were more likely to be up to date with colorectal cancer screening (AOR, 1.22 [P = .039] without prostate imaging/biopsy and AOR, 1.60 [P = .028] with imaging/biopsy). Results were stronger for individuals with more false-positive results (all P≤.005). However, women with previous false-positive colorectal cancer fecal occult blood test screening results were found to be less likely to be up to date with breast cancer screening (AOR, 0.73; Pfalse-positive breast or prostate cancer screening test were more likely to engage in future screening. Cancer 2018;124:2390-8. © 2018 American Cancer Society. © 2018 American Cancer Society.

  9. A simple way to measure the burden of interval cancers in breast cancer screening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Sune Bangsbøll; Törnberg, Sven; Lynge, Elsebeth

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The sensitivity of a mammography program is normally evaluated by comparing the interval cancer rate to the expected breast cancer incidence without screening, i.e. the proportional interval cancer rate (PICR). The expected breast cancer incidence in absence of screening is, however...... a systematic review and included studies: 1) covering a service screening program, 2) women aged 50-69 years, 3) observed data, 4) interval cancers, women screened, or interval cancer rate, screen detected cases, or screen detection rate, and 5) estimated breast cancer incidence rate of background population...... correlation between the ICR and the PICR for initial screens (r = 0.81), but less so for subsequent screens (r = 0.65). CONCLUSION: This alternate measure seems to capture the burden of interval cancers just as well as the traditional PICR, without need for the increasingly difficult estimation of background...

  10. Knowledge and attitude towards cervical cancer screening among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    McRoy

    Background: Cervical cancer is a largely preventable disease. In western countries, the ... students) wrongly believed that blood test is used for cervical cancer screening. There is a ... [1] About half a million new cases are seen annually ...

  11. Computerized Analysis and Detection of Missed Cancer in Screening Mammogram

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Li, Lihua

    2005-01-01

    This project is to explore an innovative CAD strategy for improving early detection of breast cancer in screening mammograms by focusing on computerized analysis and detection of cancers missed by radiologists...

  12. Computerized Analysis and Detection of Missed Cancer in Screening Mammogram

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Li, Lihua

    2004-01-01

    This project is to explore an innovative CAD strategy for improving early detection of breast cancer in screening mammograms by focusing on computerized analysis and detection of cancers missed by radiologists...

  13. Epidemiology, aetiology, diagnosis and screening of lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berzinec, P.

    2006-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death globally. Smoking causes about 90 % of all lung cancer cases. Passive, i.e. involuntary smoking has been confirmed to enhance the risk of lung cancer in exposed people. Individual susceptibility is one of important factors in lung cancer formation. New knowledge in epidemiology and aetiology of lung cancer gives new possibilities in diagnostic and screening of this disease. Results of large randomised trials aimed at new technologies in lung cancer screening will be available in a few years. (author)

  14. Organizational Factors Affecting the Likelihood of Cancer Screening Among VA Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Ann F; Rose, Danielle E; Farmer, Melissa; Canelo, Ismelda; Yano, Elizabeth M

    2015-12-01

    Preventive service delivery, including cancer screenings, continues to pose a challenge to quality improvement efforts. Although many studies have focused on person-level characteristics associated with screening, less is known about organizational influences on cancer screening. This study aims to understand the association between organizational factors and adherence to cancer screenings. This study employed a cross-sectional design using organizational-level, patient-level, and area-level data. Dependent variables included breast, cervical, and colorectal cancer screening. Organizational factors describing resource sufficiency were constructed using factor analyses from a survey of 250 Veterans Affairs primary care directors. We conducted random-effects logistic regression analyses, modeling cancer screening as a function of organizational factors, controlling for patient-level and area-level factors. Overall, 87% of the patients received mammograms, 92% received cervical and 78% had colorectal screening. Quality improvement orientation increased the odds of cervical [odds ratio (OR): 1.27; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.03-1.57] and colorectal cancer screening (OR: 1.10; 95% CI, 1.00-1.20). Authority in determining primary care components increased the odds of mammography screening (OR: 1.23; 95% CI, 1.03-1.51). Sufficiency in clinical staffing increased the odds of mammography and cervical cancer screenings. Several patient-level factors, serving as control variables, were associated with achievement of screenings. Resource sufficiency led to increased odds of screening possibly because they promote excellence in patient care by conveying organizational goals and facilitate goal achievement with resources. Complementary to patient-level factors, our findings identified organizational processes associated with better performance, which offer concrete strategies in which facilities can evaluate their capabilities to implement best practices to foster and

  15. Results and analysis of screening for breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, G.

    1986-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most frequent cause of death in most countries of the world. Screening of asymptomatic women can detect a large percentage of cancers at an early stage. This is the basis for a possible cure or at least a prolongation of the survival time. The percentage of minimal cancers (smaller than 1 cm without dissemination) may be as high as 48% depending on the screening modality (10% without screening), axillary lymph node involvement can be reduced to 20% (40% without screening), and the percentage of stage II to IV cancers can be reduced to 8-20% (60% without screening). Mortality in the study group over age 50 years was reduced by 30%. Disadvantages of screening are: high cost; biopsies prompted by false positive results; psychological stress for the patients; radiation hazards which have, however, become almost negligible thanks to improved technique (2 cancers in 1 million mammographies and year). (Author)

  16.   Personal invitations for population-based breast cancer screening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saalasti-Koskinen, Ulla; Mäkelä, Marjukka; Saarenmaa, Irma

    2010-01-01

    participation free of charge and the benefits of detecting breast cancer early. Harm associated with screening was seldom mentioned; no unit mentioned the possibility of false-negative results or overtreatment. CONCLUSION: The screening units provided very variable information, which often was biased toward......RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES: Women who are invited for breast cancer screening should get enough information about the benefits and harms of screening to make an informed decision on participation. Personal invitations are an important source of information, because all invited women receive them....... The objective of this study was to evaluate the information breast cancer screening units send to women invited for screening in Finland. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A questionnaire was sent to all breast cancer screening units in Finland in 2005 and 2008, and the information (eg, invitations, results letters...

  17. Integrative review of cervical cancer screening in Western Asian and Middle Eastern Arab countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Suhailah; Skirton, Heather; Clark, Maria T; Donaldson, Craig

    2017-12-01

    Population-based screening programs have resulted in minimizing mortality and morbidity from cervical cancer. The aim of this integrative review was to explore the factors influencing access of women from Western Asian and Middle Eastern Arab countries to cervical cancer screening. A systematic search for studies conducted in Arab countries in those regions, and published in English between January 2002 and January 2017, was undertaken. Thirteen papers were selected and subjected to quality appraisal. A three step analysis was used, which involved a summary of the evidence, analysis of both quantitative and qualitative data, and integration of the results in narrative form. Few population-based cervical cancer screening programs had been implemented in the relevant countries, with low knowledge of, and perceptions about, cervical screening among Arab women, the majority of whom are Muslim. Factors affecting the uptake of cervical cancer screening practices were the absence of organized, systematic programs, low screening knowledge among women, healthcare professionals' attitudes toward screening, pain and embarrassment, stigma, and sociocultural beliefs. Policy changes are urgently needed to promote population-based screening programs. Future research should address the promotion of culturally-sensitive strategies to enable better access of Arab Muslim women to cervical cancer screening. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  18. Cultural Factors Associated with Breast and Cervical Cancer Screening in Korean American Women in the US: An Integrative Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shin-Young Lee, PhD

    2015-06-01

    Conclusions: Theories focusing on interpersonal relationships and standardized, reliable, and valid instruments to measure cultural concepts are needed to breast and cervical cancer screening research in KA women. Traditional cultural factors associated with cancer screening should be considered for practical implications and future research with KA women.

  19. Predictors of participation in prostate cancer screening at worksites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinrich, S P; Greiner, E; Reis-Starr, C; Yoon, S; Weinrich, M

    1998-01-01

    Unfortunately, African American men have a higher incidence of and a higher mortality rate for prostate cancer than White men but are less likely to participate in prostate cancer screening. This correlational survey research identifies predictors for participation in a free prostate cancer screening in 179 men, 64% of whom are African American. Each man was invited to see his personal physician for a free prostate cancer screening following a prostate cancer educational program given at his worksite. Forty-seven percent of the African American men went to their personal physician following the educational program and received a digital rectal examination (DRE) and a prostate specific antigen (PSA) screening. In the original cohort of educational program attendees, only 16% of the African Americans had obtained a DRE in the previous 12 months. However, 44% subsequently did participate in free DRE screening. Similarly, only 6% of the African American men had received a PSA screening in the previous 12 months, yet 42% obtained a PSA screening after the educational program, a sevenfold increase. Implications for allocating limited resources for education and screening to the high-risk group of African American men are discussed. This study's model of a prostate cancer educational program at worksites followed by attendees visiting their personal physician for screening could be replicated throughout the United States to increase African American men's participation in prostate cancer screening.

  20. Optimal breast cancer screening strategies for older women: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Braithwaite D

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Dejana Braithwaite,1 Joshua Demb,1 Louise M Henderson2 1Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, University of California, San Francisco, CA, 2Department of Radiology, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC, USA Abstract: Breast cancer is a major cause of cancer-related deaths among older women, aged 65 years or older. Screening mammography has been shown to be effective in reducing breast cancer mortality in women aged 50–74 years but not among those aged 75 years or older. Given the large heterogeneity in comorbidity status and life expectancy among older women, controversy remains over screening mammography in this population. Diminished life expectancy with aging may decrease the potential screening benefit and increase the risk of harms. In this review, we summarize the evidence on screening mammography utilization, performance, and outcomes and highlight evidence gaps. Optimizing the screening strategy will involve separating older women who will benefit from screening from those who will not benefit by using information on comorbidity status and life expectancy. This review has identified areas related to screening mammography in older women that warrant additional research, including the need to evaluate emerging screening technologies, such as tomosynthesis among older women and precision cancer screening. In the absence of randomized controlled trials, the benefits and harms of continued screening mammography in older women need to be estimated using both population-based cohort data and simulation models. Keywords: aging, breast cancer, precision cancer screening

  1. Increasingly strong reduction in breast cancer mortality due to screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Schoor, G; Moss, S M; Otten, J D M; Donders, R; Paap, E; den Heeten, G J; Holland, R; Broeders, M J M; Verbeek, A L M

    2011-01-01

    Background: Favourable outcomes of breast cancer screening trials in the 1970s and 1980s resulted in the launch of population-based service screening programmes in many Western countries. We investigated whether improvements in mammography and treatment modalities have had an influence on the effectiveness of breast cancer screening from 1975 to 2008. Methods: In Nijmegen, the Netherlands, 55 529 women received an invitation for screening between 1975 and 2008. We designed a case–referent study to evaluate the impact of mammographic screening on breast cancer mortality over time from 1975 to 2008. A total number of 282 breast cancer deaths were identified, and 1410 referents aged 50–69 were sampled from the population invited for screening. We estimated the effectiveness by calculating the odds ratio (OR) indicating the breast cancer death rate for screened vs unscreened women. Results: The breast cancer death rate in the screened group over the complete period was 35% lower than in the unscreened group (OR=0.65; 95% CI=0.49–0.87). Analysis by calendar year showed an increasing effectiveness from a 28% reduction in breast cancer mortality in the period 1975–1991 (OR=0.72; 95% CI=0.47–1.09) to 65% in the period 1992–2008 (OR=0.35; 95% CI=0.19–0.64). Conclusion: Our results show an increasingly strong reduction in breast cancer mortality over time because of mammographic screening. PMID:21343930

  2. Patterns of cancer screening in primary care from 2005 to 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martires, Kathryn J; Kurlander, David E; Minwell, Gregory J; Dahms, Eric B; Bordeaux, Jeremy S

    2014-01-15

    Cancer screening recommendations vary widely, especially for breast, prostate, and skin cancer screening. Guidelines are provided by the American Cancer Society, the US Preventive Services Task Force, and various professional organizations. The recommendations often differ with regard to age and frequency of screening. The objective of this study was to determine actual rates of screening in the primary care setting. Data from the National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey were used. Only adult visits to non-federally employed, office-based physicians for preventive care from 2005 through 2010 were examined. Prevalence rates for breast, pelvic, and rectal examinations were calculated, along with the rates for mammograms, Papanicolaou smears, and prostate-specific antigen tests. Factors associated with screening, including age, race, smoking status, and insurance type, were examined using t tests and chi-square tests. In total, 8521 visits were examined. The rates of most screening examinations and tests were stable over time. Clinical breast examinations took place significantly more than mammography was ordered (54.8% vs 34.6%; P<.001). White patients received more mammography (P=.031), skin examinations (P<.010), digital rectal examinations (P<.010), and prostate-specific antigen tests (P=.003) than patients of other races. Patients who paid with Medicare or private insurance received more screening than patients who had Medicaid or no insurance (P<.010). Current cancer screening practices in primary care vary significantly. Cancer screening may not follow evidence-based practices and may not be targeting patients considered most at risk. Racial and socioeconomic disparities are present in cancer screening in primary care. © 2013 American Cancer Society.

  3. Cervical Cancer Screening by Female Workers in South East Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    India, with approximately 71,600 new cases occurring ... cancer is the most common cancer among women and ... The poor utilization of the cervical ... known that pre-cancerous lesions are detectable for 10 ... of cervical cancer deaths decreased from 70% between .... screening should be 30 - 40 years, which is the age.

  4. Breast Cancer Screening in an Era of Personalized Regimens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onega, Tracy; Beaber, Elisabeth F.; Sprague, Brian L.; Barlow, William E.; Haas, Jennifer S.; Tosteson, Anna N.A.; Schnall, Mitchell D.; Armstrong, Katrina; Schapira, Marilyn M.; Geller, Berta; Weaver, Donald L.; Conant, Emily F.

    2014-01-01

    Breast cancer screening holds a prominent place in public health, health care delivery, policy, and women’s health care decisions. Several factors are driving shifts in how population-based breast cancer screening is approached, including advanced imaging technologies, health system performance measures, health care reform, concern for “overdiagnosis,” and improved understanding of risk. Maximizing benefits while minimizing the harms of screening requires moving from a “1-size-fits-all” guideline paradigm to more personalized strategies. A refined conceptual model for breast cancer screening is needed to align women’s risks and preferences with screening regimens. A conceptual model of personalized breast cancer screening is presented herein that emphasizes key domains and transitions throughout the screening process, as well as multilevel perspectives. The key domains of screening awareness, detection, diagnosis, and treatment and survivorship are conceptualized to function at the level of the patient, provider, facility, health care system, and population/policy arena. Personalized breast cancer screening can be assessed across these domains with both process and outcome measures. Identifying, evaluating, and monitoring process measures in screening is a focus of a National Cancer Institute initiative entitled PROSPR (Population-based Research Optimizing Screening through Personalized Regimens), which will provide generalizable evidence for a risk-based model of breast cancer screening, The model presented builds on prior breast cancer screening models and may serve to identify new measures to optimize benefits-to-harms tradeoffs in population-based screening, which is a timely goal in the era of health care reform. PMID:24830599

  5. Oncological screening for Bilateral Breast Reduction: a survey of practice variations in UK Breast and Plastics surgeons 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennedige, Anusha A; Kong, Tze Yean; Gandhi, Ashu

    2011-07-01

    Bilateral Breast Reduction (BBR) is a common procedure performed by Breast and Plastic surgeons in the UK. No consensus exists regarding preoperative screening for malignancy or for selective criteria for such screening. Preoperative BBR screening practices among UK Breast and Plastic surgeons are unknown. Ascertain the preoperative and postoperative BBR screening practices of UK Breast and Plastic surgeons. A questionnaire was posted to all 434 Breast and 335 Plastic surgeons in the UK. All results were analysed with relevant statistical methods. 64% of Breast surgeons and 72% of Plastic surgeons responded. 40% of Breast surgeons and 91% of Plastic surgeons perform BBR. Routine radiological screening: 92% Breast 41% Plastic (p Plastic. Routine histology for BBR specimens: 96% Breast 90% Plastic. Selective screening of patients aged 30-40 years old: Breast 38% Plastic 10%. Selective screening of patients aged 40-50: Breast 78%, Plastic 53%. Selective screening of patients with strong family history of breast cancer: Breast 72%, Plastic 91%. Selective screening of patients with previous breast cancer: Breast 77%, Plastic 93%. There are significant differences in practice between UK Breast surgeons and Plastic surgeons in preoperative oncological screening for BBR. The large discrepancy in preoperative radiological screening, reflects a ubiquitous pro-screening ideology among Breast surgeons not prevalent among Plastic surgeons. These results will provoke debate towards the direction of consensus to ultimately reflect best practice. Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Automated recommendation for cervical cancer screening and surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagholikar, Kavishwar B; MacLaughlin, Kathy L; Casey, Petra M; Kastner, Thomas M; Henry, Michael R; Hankey, Ronald A; Peters, Steve G; Greenes, Robert A; Chute, Christopher G; Liu, Hongfang; Chaudhry, Rajeev

    2014-01-01

    Because of the complexity of cervical cancer prevention guidelines, clinicians often fail to follow best-practice recommendations. Moreover, existing clinical decision support (CDS) systems generally recommend a cervical cytology every three years for all female patients, which is inappropriate for patients with abnormal findings that require surveillance at shorter intervals. To address this problem, we developed a decision tree-based CDS system that integrates national guidelines to provide comprehensive guidance to clinicians. Validation was performed in several iterations by comparing recommendations generated by the system with those of clinicians for 333 patients. The CDS system extracted relevant patient information from the electronic health record and applied the guideline model with an overall accuracy of 87%. Providers without CDS assistance needed an average of 1 minute 39 seconds to decide on recommendations for management of abnormal findings. Overall, our work demonstrates the feasibility and potential utility of automated recommendation system for cervical cancer screening and surveillance.

  7. Trends in adherence to recommended cancer screening: The US population and working cancer survivors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tainya C. Clarke

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Over the past decade the United States has seen a decrease in advanced cancer diagnoses. There has also been an increase in the number of cancer survivors returning to work. Cancer screening behaviors among survivors may play an important role in their return-to-work process. Adherence to a post-treatment cancer screening protocol increases early detection of secondary tumors and reduces potentially limiting side-effects. We compared screening trends among all cancer survivors, working survivors, and the general population over the last decade.Methods: Trends in adherence to recommended screening were analyzed by site-specific cancer. We used the Healthy People goals as a measure of desired adherence. We selected participants 18+ years from 1997 to 2010 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS for years where detailed cancer screening information was available. Using the recommendations of the American Cancer Society as a guide, we assessed adherence to cancer screening across the decade. There were 174,393 participants. Analyses included 7,528 working cancer survivors representing 3.8 million US workers, and 119,374 adults representing more than 100 million working Americans with no cancer history.Results: The US population met the Healthy People 2010 goal for colorectal screening, but declined in all other recommended cancer screening. Cancer survivors met and maintained the HP2010 goal for all, except cervical cancer screening. Survivors had higher screening rates than the general population. Among survivors, white-collar and service occupations had higher screening rates than blue-collar survivors.Conclusions: Cancer survivors report higher screening rates than the general population. Nevertheless, national screening rates are lower than desired, and disparities exist by cancer history and occupation. Understanding existing disparities, and the impact of cancer screening on survivors is crucial as the number of working survivors

  8. Positive predictive values by mammographic density and screening mode in the Norwegian Breast Cancer Screening Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moshina, Nataliia; Ursin, Giske; Roman, Marta; Sebuødegård, Sofie; Hofvind, Solveig

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the probability of breast cancer among women recalled due to abnormal findings on the screening mammograms (PPV-1) and among women who underwent an invasive procedure (PPV-2) by mammographic density (MD), screening mode and age. We used information about 28,826 recall examinations from 26,951 subsequently screened women in the Norwegian Breast Cancer Screening Program, 1996-2010. The radiologists who performed the recall examinations subjectively classified MD on the mammograms into three categories: fatty (70%). Screening mode was defined as screen-film mammography (SFM) and full-field digital mammography (FFDM). We examined trends of PPVs by MD, screening mode and age. We used logistic regression to estimate odds ratio (OR) of screen-detected breast cancer associated with MD among women recalled, adjusting for screening mode and age. PPV-1 and PPV-2 decreased by increasing MD, regardless of screening mode (p for trend breasts. Among women recalled, the adjusted OR of breast cancer decreased with increasing MD. Compared with women with fatty breasts, the OR was 0.90 (95% CI: 0.84-0.96) for those with medium dense breasts and 0.85 (95% CI: 0.76-0.95) for those with dense breasts. PPVs decreased by increasing MD. Fewer women needed to be recalled or undergo an invasive procedure to detect one breast cancer among those with fatty versus dense breasts in the screening program in Norway, 1996-2010. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Innovative approaches to cervical cancer screening for sex trade workers: an international scoping review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thulien, Naomi S

    2014-03-01

    Female sex trade workers are among those at highest risk for developing and dying of cervical cancer, and yet many-particularly the most marginalized-are less likely than other women to be screened. This review summarizes global findings on innovative approaches to cervical cancer screening for female sex trade workers, highlights current gaps in the delivery of cervical cancer screening for female sex trade workers globally, and suggests areas for future research and policy development. A scoping review of peer-reviewed publications and grey literature was conducted. Medline (OVID), PubMed, EMBASE, and SCOPUS were searched for relevant studies written in English. There were no limitations placed on dates. Grey literature was identified by hand searching and through discussion with health care providers and community outreach workers currently working with sex trade workers. Twenty-five articles were deemed suitable for review. Articles detailing innovative ways for female sex trade workers to access cervical cancer screening were included. Articles about screening for sexually transmitted infections were also included if the findings could be generalized to screening for cervical cancer. Articles limited to exploring risk factors, knowledge, awareness, education, prevalence, and incidence of cervical cancer among sex trade workers were excluded from the review. Successful screening initiatives identified in the studies reviewed had unconventional hours of operation, understood the difference between street-based and venue-based sex trade workers, and/or used peers for outreach. Two significant gaps in health care service delivery were highlighted in this review: the limited use of unorthodox hours and the nearly exclusive practice of providing sexually transmitted infection screening for female sex trade workers without cervical cancer screening. In addition, although street-based (as opposed to venue-based) sex trade workers are likely at higher risk for

  10. Preferences for cervical cancer screening: The role of implicit associations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korfage, I.J.; Kwaadsteniet, E.W. de; Voorst, A. van; Stiggelbout, A.M.; Vries, M. de; Pieterse, A.H.

    2018-01-01

    Objectives: Implicit associations influence behaviour, but their impact on cancer screening intentions is unknown. Methods: We assessed implicit associations with cervical cancer screening using an evaluative priming task. Participants were shown primes ('Pap test', neutral or non-word) followed by

  11. Prostate cancer screening in Ghana - a clinical benefit? | Arthur ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In Ghana and most African countries, prostate cancer is the most common cancer in males after hepatocellular carcinoma. Whereas in the advanced countries, screening for prostate specific antigen (PSA) has led to early detection and management of the disease, screening has been very low in Ghana, thus leading to low ...

  12. Targeting women with free cervical cancer screening: challenges ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: the study was conducted to determine the challenges and suggest solutions to conducting free cervical cancer screening among Nigerian women. Methods: awareness was created among women groups and mass media in Osun State for women to undergo free cervical cancer screening programme.

  13. Women's Attitude Towards Cervical Cancer Screening in North ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Women's Attitude Towards Cervical Cancer Screening in North Eastern ... of obstetrics and gynaecology in two tertiary institutions in Northeastern Nigeria ... be used to increase both awareness and utilization of cervical cancer screening services. Adoption of social marketing strategy may lead to improvement in the use of ...

  14. Cancer Screening in Women with Intellectual Disabilities: An Irish perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reidy, Mary; Denieffe, Suzanne; Foran, Sinéad

    2014-01-01

    In the Republic of Ireland, more than 8000 women with intellectual disabilities (IDs), aged 20 years and over, are registered for service provision. Their health needs challenge preventative health services including breast and cervical cancer screening programmes. This review explores the literature about cancer screening participation rates and…

  15. Screening for Cervical Cancer: A Review of Outcome among Infertile ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    the second leading female cancer world-wide and the most common female ... Interestingly, it has a pre-invasive stage, which can be detected through screening. ... primarily to screen for cervical cancer and where they exist, the acceptance ...

  16. Stomach (Gastric) Cancer Screening (PDQ®)—Health Professional Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    For stomach (gastric) cancer, there is no standard or routine screening test for the general U.S. population. Review the evidence on the benefits and harms of screening for gastric cancer using barium-meal photofluorography, gastric endoscopy, or serum pepsinogen in this expert-reviewed summary.

  17. Beachfront screening for skin cancer in Texas Gulf coast surfers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dozier, S; Wagner, R F; Black, S A; Terracina, J

    1997-01-01

    Skin cancer screening programs may attract the "worried well," while those at greatest risk for skin cancer are less likely to attend. Our purpose was to compare the results of skin cancer screening examinations between persons participating in the 1992 American Academy of Dermatology-sponsored free skin cancer screening and surfers participating in a free beachfront skin cancer screening held in conjunction with a regional surfing competition. The hypothesis was that screening an at-risk population (ie, surfers) would be more productive in terms of incidence of clinically diagnosed malignant skin lesions. Surfers were significantly younger and predominantly male. The incidence of basal cell carcinoma was significantly greater in the surfing population than in the self-selected population with similar ages. This study indicates that directed skin cancer screening of an at-risk population was more productive in finding skin cancer than screening of a self-selected population. Future efforts to identify individuals with skin cancer should be broadened to include high-risk populations such as daytime outdoor athletes and high-risk occupational groups, since they may not be reached by current screening efforts.

  18. Breast Cancer Screening (PDQ®)—Patient Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breast cancer screening is performed using mammogram, clinical breast exam (CBE), and MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) tests. Learn about these and other tests that have been studied to detect or screen for breast cancer in this expert-reviewed and evidence-based summary.

  19. Communicating the balance sheet in breast cancer screening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giordano, Livia; Cogo, Carla; Patnick, Julietta

    2012-01-01

    Despite the difficulties, there is a moral responsibility to provide the public with the best estimates of benefits and harms of breast cancer screening.......Despite the difficulties, there is a moral responsibility to provide the public with the best estimates of benefits and harms of breast cancer screening....

  20. Rural physicians' perspectives on cervical and breast cancer screening: a gender-based analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, F; Stewart, D E; Cameron, J I; Hyman, I

    2001-03-01

    Several studies highlight the role of physicians in determining cervical and breast cancer screening rates, and some urban studies report higher screening rates by female physicians. Rural women in North America remain underscreened for breast and cervical cancers. This survey was conducted to determine if there were significant gender differences in practices and perceptions of barriers to breast and cervical cancer screening among rural family physicians in Ontario, Canada. One hundred ninety-one family physicians (response rate 53.1%) who practiced in rural areas, small towns, or small cities completed a mail questionnaire. The physicians' mean age was 44.4 years (SD 9.9), and mean number of years in practice was 16.6 years (SD 10.3). Over 90% of physicians reported that they were very likely to conduct a Pap test and clinical breast examination (CBE) during a periodic health examination, and they had high levels of confidence and comfort in performing these procedures. Male (68%) and female (32%) physicians were similar in their likelihood to conduct screening, levels of confidence and comfort, and knowledge of breast and cervical cancer screening guidelines. However, the self-reported screening rates for Pap tests and CBE performed during last year were higher for female than male physicians (p gender differences were observed in screening rates or related barriers to mammography referrals. These findings suggest that physicians' gender plays a role in sex-sensitive examination, such as Pap tests and CBE. There is a need to facilitate physician-patient interactions for sex-sensitive cancer screening examinations by health education initiatives targeting male physicians and women themselves. The feasibility of providing sex-sensitive cancer screening examinations by a same-sex health provider should also be explored.

  1. [Colonoscopy quality control as a requirement of colorectal cancer screening].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintero, Enrique; Alarcón-Fernández, Onofre; Jover, Rodrigo

    2013-11-01

    The strategies used in population-based colorectal screening strategies culminate in colonoscopy and consequently the success of these programs largely depends on the quality of this diagnostic test. The main factors to consider when evaluating quality are scientific-technical quality, safety, patient satisfaction, and accessibility. Quality indicators allow variability among hospitals, endoscopy units and endoscopists to be determined and can identify those not achieving recommended standards. In Spain, the working group for colonoscopy quality of the Spanish Society of Gastroenterology and the Spanish Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy have recently drawn up a Clinical Practice Guideline that contains the available evidence on the quality of screening colonoscopy, as well as the basic requirements that must be met by endoscopy units and endoscopists carrying out this procedure. The implementation of training programs and screening colonoscopy quality controls are strongly recommended to guarantee the success of population-based colorectal cancer screening. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. and AEEH y AEG. All rights reserved.

  2. Screening for colorectal cancer in Italy: 2011-2012 survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zorzi, Manuel; Mangone, Lucia; Anghinoni, Emanuela; Baracco, Susanna; Borciani, Elisabetta; Caldarella, Adele; Falcini, Fabio; Fanetti, Anna Clara; Ferretti, Stefano; Giorgi Rossi, Paolo; Michiara, Maria; Randi, Giorgia; Stracci, Fabrizio; Vicentini, Massimo; Zucchetto, Antonella; Zappa, Marco

    2015-01-01

    The impact of organized screening programmes on colorectal cancer (CRC) can be observed at a population level only several years after the implementation of screening. We compared CRC characteristics by diagnostic modality (screen-detected, non-screen-detected) as an early outcome to monitor screening programme effectiveness. Data on CRCs diagnosed in Italy from 2000 to 2008 were collected by several cancer registries. Linkage with screening datasets made it possible to divide the cases by geographic area, implementation of screening, and modality of diagnosis (screen-detected, non-screen-detected).We compared the main characteristics of the different subgroups of CRCs through multivariate logistic regression models. The study included 23,668 CRCs diagnosed in subjects aged 50-69 years, of which 11.9% were screen-detected (N=2,806), all from the North-Centre of Italy. Among screen-detected CRCs, we observed a higher proportion of males, of cases in the distal colon, and a higher mean age of the patients. Compared with pre-screening cases, screen-detected CRCs showed a better distribution by stage at diagnosis (OR for stage III or IV: 0.40, 95%CI: 0.36-0.44) and grading (OR for poorly differentiated CRCs was 0.86, 95%CI: 0.75-1.00). Screen-detected CRCs have more favourable prognostic characteristics than non-screen-detected cases. A renewed effort to implement screening programmes throughout the entire country is recommended.

  3. PRESSING MORTALITY RATE THROUGH SCREENING oral cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. K. Widnyani Wulan Laksmi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Based on World Health Organization (WHO data, oral cancer is one of malignancy with the highest mortality. In USA, there are more than 30.000 new cases every year. We can find many risk factors of oral cancer in our daily living. Moreover, it’s easy to find the main risk factors in our society, they are smoking, alcohol consumption, tobacco consumtion, viral infection, and bad oral hygiene. For the early stadium, Five-years survival rate is about 82% and 61% for all stadium. But, more than 50% of oral cancer has been distributed (metastatic regionally and also into the other organ far away from the oral itself when it’s detected. It will decrease 5-years survival rate to be less than 50%. So that, it’s really important to detect the oral cancer at the earlier stadium. Screening is the way to find the earlier stadium. Screening is done by some methods, start from the anamnesis, physical examination, toluidine blue staining, endoscopy, cytology, telomerase examination, and also PET-scan if it’s possible (because of the financial reasons. /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;}

  4. Breast cancer knowledge, attitudes and screening behaviors among Indian-Australian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwok, C; Tranberg, R; Lee, F C

    2015-12-01

    The aims of the study were to report breast cancer screening practices among Indian-Australian women and to examine the relationship between demographic characteristics, cultural beliefs and women's breast cancer screening (BCS) behaviors. A descriptive and cross-sectional method was used. Two hundred and forty two Indian-Australian women were recruited from several Indian organizations. English versions of the Breast Cancer Screening Beliefs Questionnaire (BCSBQ) were administered. The main research variables are BCS practices, demographic characteristics and total scores on each of the BCSBQ subscales. The majority of participants (72.7%-81.4%) had heard of breast awareness, clinical breast examination (CBE) and mammograms. Only 28.9% performed a BSE monthly and although 60% had practiced CBE, only 27.3% of women within the targeted age group had annual CBE. Only 23.6% of women within the targeted age group reported they had a mammogram biennial. Marital status and length of stay in Australia were positively associated with women's screening behaviors. In terms of BCSBQ score, women who had the three screening practices regularly as recommended obtained significantly higher scores on the "attitude towards general health check-ups" and "barriers to mammographic screening" subscales. There was a significant difference in the mean score of the "knowledge and perceptions about breast cancer" between women who did and who did not engage in breast awareness. Our study reveals that attitudes toward health check-ups and perceived barriers to mammographic screening were influential in determining compliance with breast cancer screening practices among Indian-Australian women. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Colorectal Cancer Screening (PDQ®)—Health Professional Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) screening reduces CRC mortality; some screening modalities also reduce CRC incidence. Get detailed information about CRC screening tests (e.g., fecal occult blood test, sigmoidoscopy, colonoscopy, stool DNA) including potential benefits and harms in this clinician summary.

  6. Acceptability of Cervical Cancer Screening in Rural Mozambique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Audet, Carolyn M.; Matos, Carla Silva; Blevins, Meridith; Cardoso, Aventina; Moon, Troy D.; Sidat, Mohsin

    2012-01-01

    In Zambezia province, Mozambique, cervical cancer (CC) screening was introduced to rural communities in 2010. Our study sought to determine whether women would accept screening via pelvic examination and visual inspection with acetic acid (VIA) at two clinical sites near the onset of a new CC screening program. A cross-sectional descriptive study…

  7. Cost-effectiveness of breast cancer screening policies using simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gocgun, Y; Banjevic, D; Taghipour, S; Montgomery, N; Harvey, B J; Jardine, A K S; Miller, A B

    2015-08-01

    In this paper, we study breast cancer screening policies using computer simulation. We developed a multi-state Markov model for breast cancer progression, considering both the screening and treatment stages of breast cancer. The parameters of our model were estimated through data from the Canadian National Breast Cancer Screening Study as well as data in the relevant literature. Using computer simulation, we evaluated various screening policies to study the impact of mammography screening for age-based subpopulations in Canada. We also performed sensitivity analysis to examine the impact of certain parameters on number of deaths and total costs. The analysis comparing screening policies reveals that a policy in which women belonging to the 40-49 age group are not screened, whereas those belonging to the 50-59 and 60-69 age groups are screened once every 5 years, outperforms others with respect to cost per life saved. Our analysis also indicates that increasing the screening frequencies for the 50-59 and 60-69 age groups decrease mortality, and that the average number of deaths generally decreases with an increase in screening frequency. We found that screening annually for all age groups is associated with the highest costs per life saved. Our analysis thus reveals that cost per life saved increases with an increase in screening frequency. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. [Breast cancer screening in Austria: Key figures, age limits, screening intervals and evidence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeitler, Klaus; Semlitsch, Thomas; Posch, Nicole; Siebenhofer, Andrea; Horvath, Karl

    2015-01-01

    In January 2014, the first nationwide quality-assured breast cancer screening program addressing women aged ≥ 40 years was introduced in Austria. As part of the process of developing a patient information leaflet, the Evidence Based Medicine (EBM) Review Center of the Medical University of Graz was charged with the task of assessing the potential benefits and harms of breast cancer screening from the available evidence. Based on these results, key figures were derived for mortality, false-positive and false-negative mammography results, and overdiagnosis, considering Austria-specific incidence rates for breast cancer and breast cancer mortality. Furthermore, the current evidence regarding age limits and screening interval, which were the subjects of controversial public discussions, was analyzed. A systematic search for primary and secondary literature was performed and additional evidence was screened, e. g., evaluation reports of European breast cancer screening programs. On the basis of the available evidence and of the Austrian breast cancer mortality and incidence rates, it can be assumed that - depending on the age group - 1 to 4 breast cancer deaths can be avoided per 1,000 women screened in a structured breast cancer screening program, while the overall mortality remains unchanged. On the other hand, 150 to 200 of these 1,000 women will be affected by false-positive results and 1 to 9 women by overdiagnosis due to the structured breast cancer screening. Therefore, the overall benefit-harm balance is uncertain. If women from 40 to 44 or above 70 years of age are considered, who can also participate in the Austrian screening program, even a negative benefit-harm balance seems possible. However, with the implementation of quality standards in breast cancer screening and the dissemination of a patient information leaflet, an improvement in the medical treatment situation, specifically in terms of informed decision-making, can be expected. Copyright © 2015

  9. CANCER SCREENING AWARENESS AMONG NURSING STAFF IN GOVERNMENT MEDICAL COLLEGE: A PROSPECTIVE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukesh Shanthilal

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Cervical and breast cancers are the common malignancies among female population in India. Though there are approved screening methods available to prevent and detect these cancers at an early stage, there is a lack of awareness about cancer screening among general public as well as the health care professionals. This study is aimed to identify the knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP among the nursing staff regarding cancer screening in these two diseases. METHOD A cross-sectional interview based survey was conducted among 303 female nursing staff working in a government medical college hospital from November 2015 to December 2015. Ethical committee approval was taken. Verbal informed consent was sought from the study subjects. Nursing staff who gave consent to participate in the study were enrolled. There were no specific inclusion or exclusion criteria for the study subjects. A structured pretested questionnaire regarding knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP was used to collect the data. The questions were open-ended. Recall and recognition type of questions were used. The data was entered into MS Excel worksheet and analysed using descriptive statistics. RESULTS Total of 303 nurses included in the study. The age ranged from 21 to 64 years. Median age is 38 years. Only 24.4% (74/303 of Nurses were aware of cancer screening and many of them were aware of Pap smear (55.1%, 167/303 and mammogram (66.3%, 201/303 as investigational tools in diagnosing cancer. Only 17 out of 303 (5.6% nurses had Pap smear test done with an average of 1.23% Pap smear per individual. Mammogram screening was done in 13% (15/115 of the eligible nurses with an average of 1.2% mammogram per individual. The most common reason for not undergoing screening as expressed was they did not feel the need to be screened unless they were symptomatic (55%, they are too young for screening (14.8%, shyness (11.1%, fear (11.1% and lack of time (7.4%. However, 90% of them

  10. Perceived barriers to prostate cancer screenings among middle-aged men in north-eastern Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannöver, Wolfgang; Köpke, David; Hannich, Hans-Joachim

    2010-01-01

    Prostate cancer ranks high in mortality. Only 18% of men entitled for screenings take advantage of this. Social-cognitive models of health psychology describe and predict health behavior. This study investigates what barriers men perceive that impede the utilization of cancer screenings. Semistructured interviews were conducted in 2 general practices and 3 hospital wards. One hundred and seventy-eight men over 45 years were addressed; 64 utilized cancer screenings regularly, 3 had a diagnosis of prostate cancer, and 18 declined participation. Content analyses were conducted with 83 interviews. The interview tapped into the following domains: barriers, risk perception, outcome expectancies, self-efficacy, and intentions. 57 men regarded their health as very important, while 47 had never utilized cancer screenings. Barriers were divided into emotional/cognitive versus organizational/structural. Sixty-four men did not utilize cancer screenings because of lack of symptoms, 22 feared a positive result, 20 had more pertinent health issues, and 18 assumed that their physicians would screen for cancer "automatically." Mainly emotional/cognitive barriers were seen as important for nonutilization, especially the absence of symptoms. Following the reasoning of social-cognitive models, a first step to enhance utilization rates would be to enhance risk perception. © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Exploring factors that might influence primary-care provider discussion of and recommendation for prostate and colon cancer screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kistler, Christine E; Vu, Maihan; Sutkowi-Hemstreet, Anne; Gizlice, Ziya; Harris, Russell P; Brewer, Noel T; Lewis, Carmen L; Dolor, Rowena J; Barclay, Colleen; Sheridan, Stacey L

    2018-01-01

    Background Primary-care providers may contribute to the use of low-value cancer screening. Objective We sought to examine circumstances under which primary-care providers would discuss and recommend two types of cancer screening services across a spectrum of net benefit and other factors known to influence screening. Patients and methods This was a cross sectional survey of 126 primary-care providers in 24 primary-care clinics in the US. Participants completed surveys with two hypothetical screening scenarios for prostate or colorectal cancer (CRC). Patients in the scenarios varied by age and screening-request status. For each scenario, providers indicated whether they would discuss and recommend screening. Providers also reported on their screening attitudes and the influence of other factors known to affect screening (short patient visits, worry about lawsuits, clinical reminders/performance measures, and screening guidelines). We examined associations between providers’ attitudes and their screening recommendations for hypothetical 90-year-olds (the lowest-value screening). Results Providers reported they would discuss cancer screening more often than they would recommend it (P<0.001). More providers would discuss and recommend screening for CRC than prostate cancer (P<0.001), for younger than older patients (P<0.001), and when the patient requested it than when not (P<0.001). For a 90-year-old patient, every point increase in cancer-specific screening attitude increased the likelihood of a screening recommendation (30% for prostate cancer and 30% for CRC). Discussion While most providers’ reported practice patterns aligned with net benefit, some providers would discuss and recommend low-value cancer screening, particularly when faced with a patient request. Conclusion More work appears to be needed to help providers to discuss and recommend screening that aligns with value. PMID:29844698

  12. Screening for diabetes in optometry practices: acceptability to users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howse, Jennifer H; Jones, Steve; Hungin, A Pali S

    2011-07-01

    Diabetes is a leading cause of blindness in the working age population. While optometrists have an established role in screening people with known diabetes for eye disease, their role in screening for diabetes has not been evaluated. For diabetes screening in optometry practices to be successful it must be acceptable to both optometrists and to the public. The purpose of this study was to determine acceptability to people attending optometry practices of using random capillary blood glucose (rCBG) tests to detect raised blood glucose levels in optometry practices. A screening service offering people with risk factors or symptoms of diabetes rCBG tests was piloted in five high street opticians' practices in North East England. One thousand and two people used the screening service during a 20 week period. Each was given a questionnaire to complete and return following a rCBG test. Nine hundred and thirty-nine questionnaires were returned (return rate 93.7%). The mean age of participants was 54.5 years, 63.3% were female and 75.0% had not been screened for diabetes previously. 99.1% agreed or strongly agreed that the location was convenient for them and 98.0% would recommend others to use the screening service. 83.8% of the participants would not have gone elsewhere to have any tests done and 148 (16.2%) responded that they would have sought a test elsewhere; 14.2% at the GP, 0.8% at a pharmacy and 0.5% elsewhere. Only 3.2% reported that the test procedure was uncomfortable.   To those attending opticians' practices, screening using rCBG tests is acceptable in terms of convenience and test comfort, and they would recommend the test to others. Screening in optometry practices provides an opportunity to identify people at risk of diabetes in a hitherto unutilised setting. Ophthalmic & Physiological Optics © 2011 The College of Optometrists.

  13. Do pre-diagnosis primary care consultation patterns explain deprivation-specific differences in net survival among women with breast cancer? An examination of individually-linked data from the UK West Midlands cancer registry, national screening programme and Clinical Practice Research Datalink.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, M; Woods, L M; Bhaskaran, K; Rachet, B

    2017-02-23

    In England and Wales breast cancer survival is higher among more affluent women. Our aim was to investigate the potential of pre-diagnostic factors for explaining deprivation-related differences in survival. Individually-linked data from women aged 50-70 in the West Midlands region of England, diagnosed with breast cancer 1989-2006 and continuously eligible for screening, was retrieved from the cancer registry, screening service and Clinical Practice Research Datalink. Follow-up was to the end of July 2012. Deprivation was measured at small area level, based on the quintiles of the income domain of the English indices of deprivation. Consultation rates per woman per week, time from last breast-related GP consultation to diagnosis, and from diagnosis to first surgery were calculated. We estimated net survival using the non-parametric Pohar-Perme estimator. The rate of primary care consultations was similar during the 18 months prior to diagnosis in each deprivation group for breast and non-breast symptoms. Survival was lower for more deprived women from 4 years after diagnosis. Lower net survival was associated with more advanced extent of disease and being non-screen-detected. There was a persistent trend of lower net survival for more deprived women, irrespective of the woman's obesity, alcohol, smoking or comorbidity status. There was no significant variation in time from last breast symptom to diagnosis by deprivation. However, women in more deprived categories experienced significantly longer periods between cancer diagnosis and first surgery (mean = 21.5 vs. 28.4 days, p = 0.03). Those whose surgery occurred more than 12 weeks following their cancer diagnosis had substantially lower net survival. Our data suggest that although more deprived women with breast cancer display lifestyle factors associated with poorer outcomes, their consultation frequency, comorbidities and the breast cancer symptoms they present with are similar. We found weak

  14. Review of Private Sector Personnel Screening Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-10-01

    private sector investigative sources or methods would be useful to the DoD for conducting national security background investigations. The federal government by and large examines more sources and conducts more thorough investigations than industry. In general, private employers (1) have less access to information about applicants...outsource many elements of background checks. It is recommended that the DoD periodically evaluate private sector screening programs and data sources in order to monitor

  15. Cervical cancer screening programs in Latin America and the Caribbean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murillo, Raul; Almonte, Maribel; Pereira, Ana; Ferrer, Elena; Gamboa, Oscar A; Jerónimo, José; Lazcano-Ponce, Eduardo

    2008-08-19

    Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) have a significant burden of cervical cancer. Prophylactic human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines are an opportunity for primary prevention and new screening methods, such as new HPV DNA testing, are promising alternatives to cytology screening that should be analyzed in the context of regional preventive programs. Cytology-based screening programs have not fulfilled their expectations and coverage does not sufficiently explain the lack of impact on screening in LAC. While improved evaluation of screening programs is necessary to increase the impact of screening on the reduction of incidence and mortality, other programmatic aspects will need to be addressed such as follow-up of positive tests and quality control. The implementation of new technologies might enhance screening performance and reduce mortality in the region. The characteristics, performance and impact of cervical cancer screening programs in LAC are reviewed in this article.

  16. Participation and barriers to colorectal cancer screening in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusoff, Harmy Mohamed; Daud, Norwati; Noor, Norhayati Mohd; Rahim, Amry Abdul

    2012-01-01

    In Malaysia, colorectal cancer is the most common cancer in males and the third most common in females. Mortality due to colorectal cancer can be effectively reduced with early diagnosis. This study was designed to look into colorectal cancer screening participation and its barriers among average risk individuals in Malaysia. A cross sectional study was conducted from August 2009 till April 2010 involving average risk individuals from 44 primary care clinics in West Malaysia. Each individual was asked whether they have performed any of the colorectal cancer screening methods in the past five years. The barrier questions had three domains: patient factors, test factors and health care provider factors. Descriptive analysis was achieved using Statistical Program for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 12.0. A total of 1,905 average risk individuals responded making a response rate of 93.8%. Only 13 (0.7%) respondents had undergone any of the colorectal cancer screening methods in the past five years. The main patient and test factors for not participating were embarrassment (35.2%) and feeling uncomfortable (30.0%), respectively. There were 11.2% of respondents who never received any advice to do screening. The main reason for them to undergo screening was being advised by health care providers (84.6%). The study showed that participation in colorectal cancer screening in Malaysia is extremely low and multiple factors contribute to this situation. Given the importance of the disease, efforts should be made to increase colorectal cancer screening activities in Malaysia.

  17. Need for and relevance of prostate cancer screening in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akinremi, To; Adeniyi, A; Olutunde, A; Oduniyi, A; Ogo, Cn

    2014-01-01

    Prostate cancer (PCa) has become the most prevalent cancer among males in Nigeria, and similar to other black populations, Nigerian men present with more advanced disease at an earlier age than in several other ethnic groups. In this unscreened, high-risk group, the reference range for early detection and diagnosis as well as risk factors need to be determined through large-scale screening. Over 4 years, 1124 previously unscreened men between 40 and 85 years of age were screened at free community health programmes for PCa, using the common parameters of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) plus digital rectal examination (DRE). We thereby assessed the practicality and importance of screening. Consent was obtained, demographic data obtained, PSA measured using qualitative laboratory kits, and DRE performed by surgeons. We found that the number of men attending and consenting to screening increases from year to year. Of 40-85-year-old men, 85.4% consented, of whom 33.3% (a third) and 60% were 51-60 years old and 51-65 years, respectively. While 11.5% of men had PSA >4 ng/ml, 31.45% showed abnormal DRE. Of the men who took the PSA test, 79.2% also consented to the DRE, of whom 5.8% had combined abnormal DRE and PSA >4 ng/ml. Our findings suggest that Nigerian men are a willing group for screening by both the PSA and DRE with the positive response to calls for health screening and interest in prostate health. The finding of PSA >4 ng/ml in 11.15% of this population reveals the need for greater awareness and measures to increase early detection. However, the value and validity of established PSA reference ranges and cutoff of 'normal' still need to be established. Screening is very important to better define the PCa prevalence and characteristics in our population; otherwise political and economic circumstances will ensure that men still present late with aggressive PCa.

  18. Screen-detected versus interval cancers: Effect of imaging modality and breast density in the Flemish Breast Cancer Screening Programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmermans, Lore; Bleyen, Luc; Bacher, Klaus; Van Herck, Koen; Lemmens, Kim; Van Ongeval, Chantal; Van Steen, Andre; Martens, Patrick; De Brabander, Isabel; Goossens, Mathieu; Thierens, Hubert

    2017-09-01

    To investigate if direct radiography (DR) performs better than screen-film mammography (SF) and computed radiography (CR) in dense breasts in a decentralized organised Breast Cancer Screening Programme. To this end, screen-detected versus interval cancers were studied in different BI-RADS density classes for these imaging modalities. The study cohort consisted of 351,532 women who participated in the Flemish Breast Cancer Screening Programme in 2009 and 2010. Information on screen-detected and interval cancers, breast density scores of radiologist second readers, and imaging modality was obtained by linkage of the databases of the Centre of Cancer Detection and the Belgian Cancer Registry. Overall, 67% of occurring breast cancers are screen detected and 33% are interval cancers, with DR performing better than SF and CR. The interval cancer rate increases gradually with breast density, regardless of modality. In the high-density class, the interval cancer rate exceeds the cancer detection rate for SF and CR, but not for DR. DR is superior to SF and CR with respect to cancer detection rates for high-density breasts. To reduce the high interval cancer rate in dense breasts, use of an additional imaging technique in screening can be taken into consideration. • Interval cancer rate increases gradually with breast density, regardless of modality. • Cancer detection rate in high-density breasts is superior in DR. • IC rate exceeds CDR for SF and CR in high-density breasts. • DR performs better in high-density breasts for third readings and false-positives.

  19. Screening for psychological distress in cancer: renewing the research agenda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmon, Peter; Clark, Louise; McGrath, Elly; Fisher, Peter

    2015-03-01

    Although health policy for cancer care promotes screening of patients for emotional distress, the utility and validity of screening have been questioned. Continued research to refine detection of distress or to evaluate outcomes of screening programmes is unlikely to end this controversy. Instead, we need to identify more fundamental research questions that address the validity or utility of screening in this context. We critically and selectively review research and policy literature on psychological screening in cancer care, drawing also from research literature about the nature of psychological needs in cancer care and from relevant literature on psychological screening in mental health. We identify three broad research questions: (i) Apart from intensity of distress, what further information should screening seek about the context of distress, psychological processes that promote distress and patients' own perspective on their needs? (ii) What are the implications of the contextual dependence of disclosure of emotional feelings, given that screening questions can be asked in contexts ranging from an impersonal questionnaire to dialogue with a trusted practitioner? (iii) How should a screen be responded to, given the inherent uncertainty associated with screening results and given that distress in a cancer context can indicate instrumental as well as psychological needs? Examining these questions will mean exchanging a diagnostic framework for screening, in which health need is indicated by the presence of a psychological disorder, for a public health framework, in which health need is identified from multiple perspectives. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Comprehensive outreach, prevention education, and skin cancer screening for Utah ski resorts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varedi, Amir; Secrest, Aaron M; Harding, Garrett; Maness, Lori; Branson, Donna; Smith, Kristi; Hull, Christopher M

    2018-02-15

    Outdoor recreation can lead to substantial sun exposure. Employees of outdoor recreation establishments with extended time outdoors have amplified cumulative exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation and an increased risk of skin cancer. The "Sun Safe on the Slopes" program was created by Huntsman Cancer Institute at the University of Utah and the Utah Cancer Action Network to address increased UV exposure and skin cancer risk with free skin cancer screenings, outreach, and prevention education to local ski resorts. Herein, we describe the processes and barriers to implementation of a ski resort skin screening and education program and our 5-year report of the experience and screening data. Nine free skin cancer screenings were held at Utah ski resorts between 2011 and 2016, resulting in the presumptive diagnosis of 38 skin cancers (9.6%) in 394 participants. Behavioral data collected from participants indicates suboptimal sun safety practices, including underuse of sunscreen and protective clothing. Ski resort employees who experience sun exposure during peak hours at high altitudes and UV reflection from the snow are at an increased risk of skin cancer. These data indicate a need for emphasis on sun safety education and screening and can serve as a model for future endeavors.

  1. Screening for diabetes in unconventional locations: resource implications and economics of screening in optometry practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howse, Jennifer H; Jones, Steve; Hungin, A Pali S

    2011-10-01

    Unconventional locations outwith general medical practice may prove opportunities for screening. The aim was to determine the resource implications and economics of a screening service using random capillary blood glucose (rCBG) tests to detect raised blood glucose levels in the "at risk" population attending high street optometry practices. A screening service was implemented in optometry practices in North East England: the cost of the service and the implication of different screening strategies was estimated. The cost of a screening test was £5.53-£11.20, depending on the screening strategy employed and who carried out the testing. Refining the screening strategy to target those ≥40 years with BMI of ≥25 kg/m(2) and/or family history of diabetes resulted in a cost per case referred to the GP of £14.38-£26.36. Implementing this strategy in half of optometric practices in England would have the potential to identify up to 150,000 new cases of diabetes and prediabetes a year. Optometry practices provide an effective way of identifying people who would benefit from further investigation for diabetes. Effectiveness could be improved further by improving cooperation and communication between optometrists and medical practitioners. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Lung Cancer Screening (PDQ®)—Patient Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lung cancer screening with low-dose spiral CT scans has been shown to decrease the risk of dying from lung cancer in heavy smokers. Learn more about tests to detect lung cancer and their potential benefits and harms in this expert-reviewed summary.

  3. Barriers to colorectal cancer screening in Asia: A systematic review ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is among the top five cancers afflicting both men and women globally. Once predominantly a Western disease, it has begun to rise in Asian countries as well. This systematic review aims to compile and analyze the various barriers towards colorectal cancer screening in Asia, and to ...

  4. Computed tomographic characteristics of interval and post screen carcinomas in lung cancer screening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scholten, Ernst T.; Horeweg, Nanda; Koning, Harry J. de; Vliegenthart, Rozemarijn; Oudkerk, Matthijs; Mali, Willem P.T.M.; Jong, Pim A. de

    2015-01-01

    To analyse computed tomography (CT) findings of interval and post-screen carcinomas in lung cancer screening. Consecutive interval and post-screen carcinomas from the Dutch-Belgium lung cancer screening trial were included. The prior screening and the diagnostic chest CT were reviewed by two experienced radiologists in consensus with knowledge of the tumour location on the diagnostic CT. Sixty-one participants (53 men) were diagnosed with an interval or post-screen carcinoma. Twenty-two (36 %) were in retrospect visible on the prior screening CT. Detection error occurred in 20 cancers and interpretation error in two cancers. Errors involved intrabronchial tumour (n = 5), bulla with wall thickening (n = 5), lymphadenopathy (n = 3), pleural effusion (n = 1) and intraparenchymal solid nodules (n = 8). These were missed because of a broad pleural attachment (n = 4), extensive reticulation surrounding a nodule (n = 1) and extensive scarring (n = 1). No definite explanation other than human error was found in two cases. None of the interval or post-screen carcinomas involved a subsolid nodule. Interval or post-screen carcinomas that were visible in retrospect were mostly due to detection errors of solid nodules, bulla wall thickening or endobronchial lesions. Interval or post-screen carcinomas without explanation other than human errors are rare. (orig.)

  5. Computed tomographic characteristics of interval and post screen carcinomas in lung cancer screening

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scholten, Ernst T. [University Medical Centre, Department of Radiology, Utrecht (Netherlands); Kennemer Gasthuis, Department of Radiology, Haarlem (Netherlands); Horeweg, Nanda [Erasmus University Medical Centre, Department of Public Health, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Erasmus University Medical Centre, Department of Pulmonary Medicine, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Koning, Harry J. de [Erasmus University Medical Centre, Department of Public Health, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Vliegenthart, Rozemarijn [University of Groningen, University Medical Centre Groningen, Department of Radiology, Groningen (Netherlands); University of Groningen, University Medical Centre Groningen, Center for Medical Imaging-North East Netherlands, Groningen (Netherlands); Oudkerk, Matthijs [University of Groningen, University Medical Centre Groningen, Center for Medical Imaging-North East Netherlands, Groningen (Netherlands); Mali, Willem P.T.M.; Jong, Pim A. de [University Medical Centre, Department of Radiology, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2015-01-15

    To analyse computed tomography (CT) findings of interval and post-screen carcinomas in lung cancer screening. Consecutive interval and post-screen carcinomas from the Dutch-Belgium lung cancer screening trial were included. The prior screening and the diagnostic chest CT were reviewed by two experienced radiologists in consensus with knowledge of the tumour location on the diagnostic CT. Sixty-one participants (53 men) were diagnosed with an interval or post-screen carcinoma. Twenty-two (36 %) were in retrospect visible on the prior screening CT. Detection error occurred in 20 cancers and interpretation error in two cancers. Errors involved intrabronchial tumour (n = 5), bulla with wall thickening (n = 5), lymphadenopathy (n = 3), pleural effusion (n = 1) and intraparenchymal solid nodules (n = 8). These were missed because of a broad pleural attachment (n = 4), extensive reticulation surrounding a nodule (n = 1) and extensive scarring (n = 1). No definite explanation other than human error was found in two cases. None of the interval or post-screen carcinomas involved a subsolid nodule. Interval or post-screen carcinomas that were visible in retrospect were mostly due to detection errors of solid nodules, bulla wall thickening or endobronchial lesions. Interval or post-screen carcinomas without explanation other than human errors are rare. (orig.)

  6. Observed and Predicted Risk of Breast Cancer Death in Randomized Trials on Breast Cancer Screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Autier, Philippe; Boniol, Mathieu; Smans, Michel; Sullivan, Richard; Boyle, Peter

    2016-01-01

    The role of breast screening in breast cancer mortality declines is debated. Screening impacts cancer mortality through decreasing the number of advanced cancers with poor diagnosis, while cancer treatment works through decreasing the case-fatality rate. Hence, reductions in cancer death rates thanks to screening should directly reflect reductions in advanced cancer rates. We verified whether in breast screening trials, the observed reductions in the risk of breast cancer death could be predicted from reductions of advanced breast cancer rates. The Greater New York Health Insurance Plan trial (HIP) is the only breast screening trial that reported stage-specific cancer fatality for the screening and for the control group separately. The Swedish Two-County trial (TCT)) reported size-specific fatalities for cancer patients in both screening and control groups. We computed predicted numbers of breast cancer deaths, from which we calculated predicted relative risks (RR) and (95% confidence intervals). The Age trial in England performed its own calculations of predicted relative risk. The observed and predicted RR of breast cancer death were 0.72 (0.56-0.94) and 0.98 (0.77-1.24) in the HIP trial, and 0.79 (0.78-1.01) and 0.90 (0.80-1.01) in the Age trial. In the TCT, the observed RR was 0.73 (0.62-0.87), while the predicted RR was 0.89 (0.75-1.05) if overdiagnosis was assumed to be negligible and 0.83 (0.70-0.97) if extra cancers were excluded. In breast screening trials, factors other than screening have contributed to reductions in the risk of breast cancer death most probably by reducing the fatality of advanced cancers in screening groups. These factors were the better management of breast cancer patients and the underreporting of breast cancer as the underlying cause of death. Breast screening trials should publish stage-specific fatalities observed in each group.

  7. Clinical practice guidelines in breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyagi, N. Kumar; Dhesy-Thind, S.

    2018-01-01

    Background A number of clinical practice guidelines (cpgs) concerning breast cancer (bca) screening and management are available. Here, we review the strengths and weaknesses of cpgs from various professional organizations and consensus groups with respect to their methodologic quality, recommendations, and implementability. Methods Guidelines from four groups were reviewed with respect to two clinical scenarios: adjuvant ovarian function suppression (ofs) in premenopausal women with early-stage estrogen receptor–positive bca, and use of sentinel lymph node biopsy (slnb) after neoadjuvant chemotherapy (nac) for locally advanced bca. Guidelines from the American Society of Clinical Oncology (asco); Cancer Care Ontario’s Program in Evidence Based Care (cco’s pebc); the U.S. National Comprehensive Cancer Network (nccn); and the St. Gallen International Breast Cancer Consensus Conference were reviewed by two independent assessors. Guideline methodology and applicability were evaluated using the agree ii tool. Results The quality of the cpgs was greatest for the guidelines developed by asco and cco’s pebc. The nccn and St. Gallen guidelines were found to have lower scores for methodologic rigour. All guidelines scored poorly for applicability. The recommendations for ofs were similar in three guidelines. Recommendations by the various organizations for the use of slnb after nac were contradictory. Conclusions Our review demonstrated that cpgs can be heterogeneous in methodologic quality. Low-quality cpg implementation strategies contribute to low uptake of, and adherence to, bca cpgs. Further research examining the barriers to recommendations—such as intrinsic guideline characteristics and the needs of end users—is required. The use of bca cpgs can improve the knowledge-to-practice gap and patient outcomes.

  8. Identifying Communication Barriers to Colorectal Cancer Screening Adherence among Appalachian Kentuckians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachman, Audrey Smith; Cohen, Elisia L; Collins, Tom; Hatcher, Jennifer; Crosby, Richard; Vanderpool, Robin C

    2017-08-18

    Utilizing data from 40 in-depth interviews, this article identifies both barriers and facilitators to colorectal screening guideline adherence among Appalachian Kentucky adults recruited through a community-based research network. Key findings identify (a) varying levels of knowledge about screening guidelines, (b) reticence to engage in screening processes, and (c) nuanced communication with healthcare providers and family members regarding screening adherence. What participants knew about the screening process was often derived from personal stories or recalled stories from family members about their screening experiences. Reticence to engage in screening processes reflected reports of cumbersome preparation, privacy issues, embarrassment, medical mistrust, fear of receiving a cancer diagnosis, and lack of symptoms. Participants cited many ways to enhance patient-centered communication, and the findings from this study have implications for health communication message design and communication strategies for healthcare practices in Appalachian Kentucky clinics.

  9. Breast cancer screening-opportunistic use of registry and linked screening data for local evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roder, David; Farshid, Gelareh; Gill, Grantley; Kollias, Jim; Koczwara, Bogda; Karapetis, Chris; Adams, Jacqui; Joshi, Rohit; Keefe, Dorothy; Powell, Kate; Fusco, Kellie; Eckert, Marion; Buckley, Elizabeth; Beckmann, Kerri

    2017-06-01

    Screening has been found to reduce breast cancer mortality at a population level in Australia, but these studies did not address local settings where numbers of deaths would generally have been too low for evaluation. Clinicians, administrators, and consumer groups are also interested in local service outcomes. We therefore use more common prognostic and treatment measures and survivals to gain evidence of screening effects among patients attending 4 local hospitals for treatment. To compare prognostic, treatment, and survival measures by screening history to determine whether expected screening effects are occurring. Employing routine clinical registry and linked screening data to investigate associations of screening history with these measures, using unadjusted and adjusted analyses. Screened women had a 10-year survival from breast cancer of 92%, compared with 78% for unscreened women; and 79% of screened surgical cases had breast conserving surgery compared with 64% in unscreened women. Unadjusted analyses indicated that recently screened cases had earlier tumor node metastasis stages, smaller diameters, less nodal involvement, better tumor differentiation, more oestrogen and progesterone receptor positive lesions, more hormone therapy, and less chemotherapy. Radiotherapy tended to be more common in screening participants. More frequent use of adjunctive radiotherapy applied when breast conserving surgery was used. Results confirm the screening effects expected from the scientific literature and demonstrate the value of opportunistic use of available registry and linked screening data for indicating to local health administrations, practitioners, and consumers whether local screening services are having the effects expected. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Cancer screening delivery in persistent poverty rural counties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Kevin J; Pumkam, Chaiporn; Bellinger, Jessica D; Probst, Janice C

    2011-10-01

    Rural populations are diagnosed with cancer at different rate and stages than nonrural populations, and race/ethnicity as well as the area-level income exacerbates the differences. The purpose of this analysis was to explore cancer screening rates across persistent poverty rural counties, with emphasis on nonwhite populations. The 2008 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System was used, combined with data from the Area Resource File (analytic n = 309 937 unweighted, 196 344 347 weighted). Unadjusted analysis estimated screening rates for breast, cervical, and colorectal cancer. Multivariate analysis estimated the odds of screening, controlling for individual and county-level effects. Rural residents, particularly those in persistent poverty counties, were less likely to be screened than urban residents. More African Americans in persistent poverty rural counties reported not having mammography screening (18.3%) compared to 15.9% of urban African Americans. Hispanics had low screening rates across all service types. Multivariate analysis continued to find disparities in screening rates, after controlling for individual and county-level factors. African Americans in persistent poverty rural counties were more likely to be screened for both breast cancer (odds ratio, 1.44; 95% confidence interval, 1.12-1.85) and cervical cancer (1.46; 1.07-1.99) when compared with urban whites. Disparities in cancer screening rates exist across not only race/ethnicity but also county type. These disparities cannot be fully explained by either individual or county-level effects. Programs have been successful in improving screening rates for African American women and should be expanded to target other vulnerable women as well as other services such as colorectal cancer screening.

  11. The cumulative risk of false-positive screening results across screening centres in the Norwegian Breast Cancer Screening Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roman, M., E-mail: Marta.Roman@kreftregisteret.no [Cancer Registry of Norway, Oslo (Norway); Department of Women and Children’s Health, Oslo University Hospital, Oslo (Norway); Skaane, P., E-mail: PERSK@ous-hf.no [Department of Radiology, Oslo University Hospital Ullevaal, University of Oslo, Oslo (Norway); Hofvind, S., E-mail: Solveig.Hofvind@kreftregisteret.no [Cancer Registry of Norway, Oslo (Norway); Oslo and Akershus University College of Applied Sciences, Faculty of Health Science, Oslo (Norway)

    2014-09-15

    Highlights: • We found variation in early performance measures across screening centres. • Radiologists’ performance may play a key role in the variability. • Potential to improve the effectiveness of breast cancer screening programs. • Continuous surveillance of screening centres and radiologists is essential. - Abstract: Background: Recall for assessment in mammographic screening entails an inevitable number of false-positive screening results. This study aimed to investigate the variation in the cumulative risk of a false positive screening result and the positive predictive value across the screening centres in the Norwegian Breast Cancer Screening Program. Methods: We studied 618,636 women aged 50–69 years who underwent 2,090,575 screening exams (1996–2010. Recall rate, positive predictive value, rate of screen-detected cancer, and the cumulative risk of a false positive screening result, without and with invasive procedures across the screening centres were calculated. Generalized linear models were used to estimate the probability of a false positive screening result and to compute the cumulative false-positive risk for up to ten biennial screening examinations. Results: The cumulative risk of a false-positive screening exam varied from 10.7% (95% CI: 9.4–12.0%) to 41.5% (95% CI: 34.1–48.9%) across screening centres, with a highest to lowest ratio of 3.9 (95% CI: 3.7–4.0). The highest to lowest ratio for the cumulative risk of undergoing an invasive procedure with a benign outcome was 4.3 (95% CI: 4.0–4.6). The positive predictive value of recall varied between 12.0% (95% CI: 11.0–12.9%) and 19.9% (95% CI: 18.3–21.5%), with a highest to lowest ratio of 1.7 (95% CI: 1.5–1.9). Conclusions: A substantial variation in the performance measures across the screening centres in the Norwegian Breast Cancer Screening Program was identified, despite of similar administration, procedures, and quality assurance requirements. Differences in the

  12. The cumulative risk of false-positive screening results across screening centres in the Norwegian Breast Cancer Screening Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roman, M.; Skaane, P.; Hofvind, S.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We found variation in early performance measures across screening centres. • Radiologists’ performance may play a key role in the variability. • Potential to improve the effectiveness of breast cancer screening programs. • Continuous surveillance of screening centres and radiologists is essential. - Abstract: Background: Recall for assessment in mammographic screening entails an inevitable number of false-positive screening results. This study aimed to investigate the variation in the cumulative risk of a false positive screening result and the positive predictive value across the screening centres in the Norwegian Breast Cancer Screening Program. Methods: We studied 618,636 women aged 50–69 years who underwent 2,090,575 screening exams (1996–2010. Recall rate, positive predictive value, rate of screen-detected cancer, and the cumulative risk of a false positive screening result, without and with invasive procedures across the screening centres were calculated. Generalized linear models were used to estimate the probability of a false positive screening result and to compute the cumulative false-positive risk for up to ten biennial screening examinations. Results: The cumulative risk of a false-positive screening exam varied from 10.7% (95% CI: 9.4–12.0%) to 41.5% (95% CI: 34.1–48.9%) across screening centres, with a highest to lowest ratio of 3.9 (95% CI: 3.7–4.0). The highest to lowest ratio for the cumulative risk of undergoing an invasive procedure with a benign outcome was 4.3 (95% CI: 4.0–4.6). The positive predictive value of recall varied between 12.0% (95% CI: 11.0–12.9%) and 19.9% (95% CI: 18.3–21.5%), with a highest to lowest ratio of 1.7 (95% CI: 1.5–1.9). Conclusions: A substantial variation in the performance measures across the screening centres in the Norwegian Breast Cancer Screening Program was identified, despite of similar administration, procedures, and quality assurance requirements. Differences in the

  13. Radiation risk from CT: implications for cancer screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert, Jeffrey M

    2013-07-01

    The cancer risks associated with patient exposure to radiation from medical imaging have become a major topic of debate. The higher doses necessary for technologies such as CT and the increasing utilization of these technologies further increase medical radiation exposure to the population. Furthermore, the use of CT for population-based cancer screening continues to be explored for common malignancies such as lung cancer and colorectal cancer. Given the known carcinogenic effects of ionizing radiation, this warrants evaluation of the balance between the benefit of early cancer detection and the risk of screening-induced malignancy. This report provides a brief review of the process of radiation carcino-genesis and the literature evaluating the risk of malignancy from CT, with a focus on the risks and benefits of CT for cancer screening. The available data suggest a small but real risk of radiation-induced malignancy from CT that could become significant at the population level with widespread use of CT-based screening. However, a growing body of literature suggests that the benefits of CT screening for lung cancer in high-risk patients and CT colonography for colorectal cancer may significantly outweigh the radiation risk. Future studies evaluating the benefits of CT screening should continue to consider potential radiation risks.

  14. Correlation Between Screening Mammography Interpretive Performance on a Test Set and Performance in Clinical Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miglioretti, Diana L; Ichikawa, Laura; Smith, Robert A; Buist, Diana S M; Carney, Patricia A; Geller, Berta; Monsees, Barbara; Onega, Tracy; Rosenberg, Robert; Sickles, Edward A; Yankaskas, Bonnie C; Kerlikowske, Karla

    2017-10-01

    Evidence is inconsistent about whether radiologists' interpretive performance on a screening mammography test set reflects their performance in clinical practice. This study aimed to estimate the correlation between test set and clinical performance and determine if the correlation is influenced by cancer prevalence or lesion difficulty in the test set. This institutional review board-approved study randomized 83 radiologists from six Breast Cancer Surveillance Consortium registries to assess one of four test sets of 109 screening mammograms each; 48 radiologists completed a fifth test set of 110 mammograms 2 years later. Test sets differed in number of cancer cases and difficulty of lesion detection. Test set sensitivity and specificity were estimated using woman-level and breast-level recall with cancer status and expert opinion as gold standards. Clinical performance was estimated using women-level recall with cancer status as the gold standard. Spearman rank correlations between test set and clinical performance with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated. For test sets with fewer cancers (N = 15) that were more difficult to detect, correlations were weak to moderate for sensitivity (woman level = 0.46, 95% CI = 0.16, 0.69; breast level = 0.35, 95% CI = 0.03, 0.61) and weak for specificity (0.24, 95% CI = 0.01, 0.45) relative to expert recall. Correlations for test sets with more cancers (N = 30) were close to 0 and not statistically significant. Correlations between screening performance on a test set and performance in clinical practice are not strong. Test set performance more accurately reflects performance in clinical practice if cancer prevalence is low and lesions are challenging to detect. Copyright © 2017 The Association of University Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. A practice-centered intervention to increase screening for domestic violence in primary care practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palla Shana L

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Interventions to change practice patterns among health care professionals have had mixed success. We tested the effectiveness of a practice centered intervention to increase screening for domestic violence in primary care practices. Methods A multifaceted intervention was conducted among primary care practice in North Carolina. All practices designated two individuals to serve as domestic violence resources persons, underwent initial training on screening for domestic violence, and participated in 3 lunch and learn sessions. Within this framework, practices selected the screening instrument, patient educational material, and content best suited for their environment. Effectiveness was evaluated using a pre/post cross-sectional telephone survey of a random selection of female patients from each practice. Results Seventeen practices were recruited and fifteen completed the study. Baseline screening for domestic violence was 16% with a range of 2% to 49%. An absolute increase in screening of 10% was achieved (range of increase 0 to 22%. After controlling for clustering by practice and other patient characteristics, female patients were 79% more likely to have been screened after the intervention (OR 1.79, 95% CI 1.43–2.23. Conclusion An intervention that allowed practices to tailor certain aspects to fit their needs increased screening for domestic violence. Further studies testing this technique using other outcomes are needed.

  16. People's willingness to accept overdetection in cancer screening: population survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van den Bruel, Ann; Jones, Caroline; Yang, Yaling; Oke, Jason; Hewitson, Paul

    2015-03-03

    To describe the level of overdetection people would find acceptable in screening for breast, prostate, and bowel cancer and whether acceptability is influenced by the magnitude of the benefit from screening and the cancer specific harms from overdetection. Online survey. Women were presented with scenarios on breast and bowel cancer, men with scenarios on prostate and bowel cancer. For each particular cancer, we presented epidemiological information and described the treatment and its consequences. Secondly, we presented two different scenarios of benefit: one indicating a 10% reduction in cancer specific mortality and the second indicating a 50% reduction. Online survey of the population in the United Kingdom. Respondents were part of an existing panel of people who volunteer for online research and were invited by email or online marketing. We recruited 1000 respondents, representative for age and sex for the UK population. Number of cases of overdetection people were willing to accept, ranging from 0-1000 (complete screened population) for each cancer modality and each scenario of benefit. There was large variability between respondents in the level of overdetection they would find acceptable, with medians ranging from 113 to 313 cases of overdetection per 1000 people screened. Across all scenarios, 4-7% of respondents indicated they would accept no overdetection at all compared with 7-14% who thought that it would be acceptable for the entire screened population to be overdetected. Acceptability in screening for bowel cancer was significantly lower than for breast and prostate cancer. People aged 50 or over accepted significantly less overdetection, whereas people with higher education levels accepted more; 29% of respondents had heard of overdetection before. Acceptability of overdetection in cancer screening is variable. Invitations for screening should include clear information on the likelihood and consequences of overdetection to allow people to make an

  17. Prostate and Colon Cancer Screening Messages in Popular Magazines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Mira L; Sheridan, Stacey; Pignone, Michael; Lewis, Carmen; Battle, Jamila; Gollop, Claudia; O'Malley, Michael

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To 1) compare the number of articles published about prostate, colon, and breast cancer in popular magazines during the past 2 decades, and 2) evaluate the content of in-depth prostate and colon cancer screening articles identified from 1996 to 2001. DESIGN We used a searchable database to identify the number of prostate, colon, and breast cancer articles published in three magazines with the highest circulation from six categories. In addition, we performed a systematic review on the in-depth (≥2 pages) articles on prostate and colon cancer screening that appeared from 1996 through 2001. RESULTS Although the number of magazine articles on prostate and colon cancer published in the 1990s increased compared to the 1980s, the number of articles is approximately one third of breast cancer articles. There were 36 in-depth articles from 1996 to 2001 in which prostate or colon cancer screening were mentioned. Over 90% of the articles recommended screening. However, of those articles, only 76% (25/33; 95% confidence interval [CI], 58% to 89%) cited screening guidelines. The benefits of screening were mentioned in 89% (32/36; 95% CI, 74% to 97%) but the harms were only found in 58% (21/36; 95% CI, 41% to 75%). Only 28% (10/36; 95% CI, 14% to 45%) of the articles provided all the necessary information needed for the reader to make an informed decision. CONCLUSIONS In-depth articles about prostate and colon cancer in popular magazines do not appear as frequently as articles about breast cancer. The available articles on prostate and colon cancer screening often do not provide the information necessary for the reader to make an informed decision about screening. PMID:15242469

  18. Domestic violence screening practices of obstetrician-gynecologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horan, D L; Chapin, J; Klein, L; Schmidt, L A; Schulkin, J

    1998-11-01

    To ascertain the current knowledge base and screening practices of obstetrician-gynecologists in the area of domestic violence. We mailed a survey to 189 ACOG Fellows who are members of the Collaborative Ambulatory Research Network. Questionnaires were also mailed to a random sample of 1250 nonmember Fellows. Obstetrician-gynecologists are aware of the nature of domestic violence and are familiar with common symptomatology that may be associated with domestic violence. For pregnant patients, 39% of respondents routinely screen at the first prenatal visit; 27% of respondents routinely screen nonpregnant patients at the initial visit. Screening is most likely to occur when the obstetrician-gynecologist suspects a patient is being abused, both during pregnancy (68%) and when the patient is not pregnant (72%). Only 30% of obstetrician-gynecologists received training on domestic violence during medical school; 37% received such instruction during residency training. The majority (67%) have received continuing education on the subject. Years since training and personal experiences with intimate-partner violence were associated with increased screening practices. Routine screening of all women for domestic violence has been recommended by ACOG for more than a decade. The majority of obstetrician-gynecologists screen both pregnant and nonpregnant patients when they suspect abuse. However, with universal screening, more female victims of violence can be identified and can receive needed services.

  19. Breast cancer screening in Korean woman with dense breast tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Hee Jung; Ko, Eun Sook; Yi, Ann

    2015-01-01

    Asian women, including Korean, have a relatively higher incidence of dense breast tissue, compared with western women. Dense breast tissue has a lower sensitivity for the detection of breast cancer and a higher relative risk for breast cancer, compared with fatty breast tissue. Thus, there were limitations in the mammographic screening for women with dense breast tissue, and many studies for the supplemental screening methods. This review included appropriate screening methods for Korean women with dense breasts. We also reviewed the application and limitation of supplemental screening methods, including breast ultrasound, digital breast tomosynthesis, and breast magnetic resonance imaging; and furthermore investigated the guidelines, as well as the study results

  20. Breast cancer screening in Korean woman with dense breast tissue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Hee Jung [Dept. of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Ko, Eun Sook [Dept. of Radiology, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Samsung Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Yi, Ann [Dept. of Radiology, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-11-15

    Asian women, including Korean, have a relatively higher incidence of dense breast tissue, compared with western women. Dense breast tissue has a lower sensitivity for the detection of breast cancer and a higher relative risk for breast cancer, compared with fatty breast tissue. Thus, there were limitations in the mammographic screening for women with dense breast tissue, and many studies for the supplemental screening methods. This review included appropriate screening methods for Korean women with dense breasts. We also reviewed the application and limitation of supplemental screening methods, including breast ultrasound, digital breast tomosynthesis, and breast magnetic resonance imaging; and furthermore investigated the guidelines, as well as the study results.

  1. Implementation of lung cancer CT screening in the Nordic countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jesper Holst; Sørensen, Jens Benn; Saghir, Zaigham

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: We review the current knowledge of CT screening for lung cancer and present an expert-based, joint protocol for the proper implementation of screening in the Nordic countries. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Experts representing all the Nordic countries performed literature review...... and concensus for a joint protocol for lung cancer screening. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: Areas of concern and caution are presented and discussed. We suggest to perform CT screening pilot studies in the Nordic countries in order to gain experience and develop specific and safe protocols for the implementation...

  2. Study of mammography in mass screening for breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitada, Masahiro; Sakai, Hiroko; Kubo, Yoshihiko; Samejima, Natsuki; Kurowarabi, Kunio; Iwabuchi, Shuji.

    1995-01-01

    In order to examine the rate of correct diagnosis by mammography at initial mass screening for breast cancer, we carried out a retrospective study of mammography findings in 267 cases of breast cancer detected at Asahikawa Cancer Screening Center. The screening was performed by physical examination, and in cases where disease was suspected, mammography, ultrasonography, and needle biopsy were done. Mammographically, 172 cases (64.4%) were cancer-positive, 58 cases (21.7%) were suspicious for cancer, and 37 cases (13.9%) were cancer-negative. Patients below 50 years of age and those with tumors of small diameter (<20 mm) showed a significantly lower rate of cancer positivity than patients aged 50 years or more and those with tumors 20 mm or more in diameter. Mammographic abnormalities were not specific, since these changes were also found in normal subjects and patients with benign diseases. Therefore, we concluded that mammography without physical examination at initial mass screening has a high risk of missing breast cancer. Mass screening for breast cancer should be performed by physical examination involving inspection and palpation at the first instance. If any suspicious findings are obtained, mammography, ultrasonography, and needle biopsy should be done. (author)

  3. Screening for breast cancer in a high-risk series

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woodard, E.D.; Hempelmann, L.H.; Janus, J.; Logan, W.; Dean, P.

    1982-01-01

    A unique cohort of women at increased risk of breast cancer because of prior X-ray treatment of acute mastitis and their selected high-risk siblings were offered periodic breast cancer screening including physical examination of the breasts, mammography, and thermography. Twelve breast cancers were detected when fewer than four would have been expected based on age-specific breast cancer detection rates from the National Cancer institute/American Cancer Society Breast Cancer Demonstration Detection Projects. Mammograpy was positive in all cases but physical examination was positive in only three cases. Thermography was an unreliable indicator of disease. Given the concern over radiation-induced risk, use of low-dose technique and of criteria for participation that select women at high risk of breast cancer will maximize the benefit/risk ratio for mammography screening

  4. Original article Prostate Screening Practices Among Male Staff of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2010-11-03

    Nov 3, 2010 ... leading cause of cancer related death in the world. ... Objective: This study assessed the knowledge, attitude and practice of prostate cancer ... method known by these respondents was serum Prostate Specific Antigen ... Asia (1.9 cases per 100.000 in China) and ... Nigeria, is a tertiary academic institution.

  5. Eliciting population preferences for mass colorectal cancer screening organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayaradou, Maximilien; Berchi, Célia; Dejardin, Olivier; Launoy, Guy

    2010-01-01

    The implementation of mass colorectal cancer (CRC) screening is a public health priority. Population participation is fundamental for the success of CRC screening as for any cancer screening program. The preferences of the population may influence their likelihood of participation. The authors sought to elicit population preferences for CRC screening test characteristics to improve the design of CRC screening campaigns. A discrete choice experiment was used. Questionnaires were compiled with a set of pairs of hypothetical CRC screening scenarios. The survey was conducted by mail from June 2006 to October 2006 on a representative sample of 2000 inhabitants, aged 50 to 74 years from the northwest of France, who were randomly selected from electoral lists. Questionnaires were sent to 2000 individuals, each of whom made 3 or 4 discrete choices between hypothetical tests that differed in 7 attributes: how screening is offered, process, sensitivity, rate of unnecessary colonoscopy, expected mortality reduction, method of screening test result transmission, and cost. Complete responses were received from 656 individuals (32.8%). The attributes that influenced population preferences included expected mortality reduction, sensitivity, cost, and process. Participants from high social classes were particularly influenced by sensitivity. The results demonstrate that the discrete choice experiment provides information on patient preferences for CRC screening: improving screening program effectiveness, for instance, by improving test sensitivity (the most valued attribute) would increase satisfaction among the general population with regard to CRC screening programs. Additional studies are required to study how patient preferences actually affect adherence to regular screening programs.

  6. Lynch Syndrome: Female Genital Tract Cancer Diagnosis and Screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Anne M; Longacre, Teri A

    2016-06-01

    Lynch syndrome is responsible for approximately 5% of endometrial cancers and 1% of ovarian cancers. The molecular basis for Lynch syndrome is a heritable functional deficiency in the DNA mismatch repair system, typically due to a germline mutation. This review discusses the rationales and relative merits of current Lynch syndrome screening tests for endometrial and ovarian cancers and provides pathologists with an informed algorithmic approach to Lynch syndrome testing in gynecologic cancers. Pitfalls in test interpretation and strategies to resolve discordant test results are presented. The potential role for next-generation sequencing panels in future screening efforts is discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Women's opinions about attending for breast cancer screening: Stability of cognitive determinants during three rounds of screening.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drossaert, Constance H.C.; Boer, Hendrik; Seydel, E.R.

    2005-01-01

    Examines women's opinions about attending breast cancer screening. Stability of beliefs and intentions towards repeat attendance at breast cancer screening; Assessment of whether cognitions changed in the course of the programme; Increase of attendance in subsequent rounds of breast cancer screening

  8. Cervical cancer screening policies and coverage in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anttila, Ahti; von Karsa, Lawrence; Aasmaa, Auni

    2009-01-01

    with education, training and communication among women, medical professionals and authorities are required, accordingly. The study indicates that, despite substantial efforts, the recommendations of the Council of the EU on organised population-based screening for cervical cancer are not yet fulfilled. Decision......The aim of the study was to compare current policy, organisation and coverage of cervical cancer screening programmes in the European Union (EU) member states with European and other international recommendations. According to the questionnaire-based survey, there are large variations in cervical...... cancer screening policies and inadequacies in the key organisational elements of the programme such as registration and monitoring required for quality-assurance and fail-safe mechanisms. Based on data from available screening registers, coverage of the screening test taken within the population...

  9. Reader practice in mammography screen reporting in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reed, W.; Poulos, A.; Brennan, P.

    2009-01-01

    Full text: Reader variability is a problem in mammography image reporting and compromises the efficacy of screening programmes. The purpose of this exploratory study was to survey reader practice in reporting screening mammograms in Australia to identify aspects of practice that warrant further investigation. Mammography reporting practice and influences on concentration and attention were investigated by using an original questionnaire distributed to screen readers in Australia. A response rate of 71% (83 out of 117) was achieved. Demographic data indicated that the majority of readers were over 46 years of age (73%), have been reporting on screening mammograms for over 10 years (61%), take less than 1 min to report upon a screening mammogram examination (66%), report up to 200 examinations in a single session (83%) and take up to 2 h to report one session (61%). A majority report on more than 5000 examinations annually (66%); 93% of participants regard their search strategy as systematic, 87% agreed that their concentration can vary throughout a session, 64% agreed that the relatively low number of positives can lead to lapses in concentration and attention and almost all (94%) participants agreed that methods to maximise concentration should be explored. Participants identified a range of influences on concentration within their working environment including volume of images reported in one session, image types and aspects of the physical environment. This study has provided important evidence of the need to investigate adverse influences on concentration during mammography screen reporting

  10. Barriers to cancer screening among Orthodox Jewish women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tkatch, Rifky; Hudson, Janella; Katz, Anne; Berry-Bobovski, Lisa; Vichich, Jennifer; Eggly, Susan; Penner, Louis A; Albrecht, Terrance L

    2014-12-01

    The increased risk of genetic cancer mutations for Ashkenazi Jews is well known. However, little is known about the cancer-related health behaviors of a subset of Ashkenazi Jews, Orthodox Jews, who are a very religious and insular group. This study partnered with Rabbinical leadership and community members in an Orthodox Jewish community to investigate barriers to cancer screening in this community. Orthodox Jewish women were recruited to participate in focus groups designed to elicit their perspectives on barriers to cancer screening. A total of five focus groups were conducted, consisting of 3-5 members per group, stratified by age and family history of cancer. Focus groups were audio recorded and transcribed. Transcripts were coded using conventional content analysis. The resulting themes identified as barriers to cancer screening were: preservation of hidden miracles, fate, cost, competing priorities, lack of culturally relevant programming, lack of information, and fear. These results provide a unique perspective on barriers to cancer screening in a high risk but understudied population. Findings from this study may serve to inform culturally appropriate cancer education programs to overcome barriers to screening in this and other similar communities.

  11. ACOG Recommendations and Guidelines for Cervical Cancer Screening and Management

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    Dr. Alan Waxman, a professor of obstetrics and gynecology at the University of New Mexico and chair of the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG) committee for the underserved, talks about ACOG's recommendations for cervical cancer screening and management.

  12. Grantee Spotlight: Dr. Kolawole Okuyemi - Improving Cervical Cancer Screening Attitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dr. Kolawole Okuyumi is studying cervical cancer screening attitudes and behaviors of African immigrants and refugees (Ethiopians, Nigerians, and Somalis) in Minnesota, and introducing “cancer” and “cervix” to their everyday vocabulary.

  13. Colorectal Cancer Screening (PDQ®)—Patient Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    There are five types of tests that are used to screen for colorectal cancer: fecal occult blood test, sigmoidoscopy, colonoscopy, virtual colonoscopy, and DNA stool test. Learn more about these and other tests in this expert-reviewed summary.

  14. CLINIC VISITS AND CERVICAL CANCER SCREENING IN ACCRA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2010-06-01

    Jun 1, 2010 ... Design: A cross-sectional study. Methods: A ... graphic factors influencing cervical cancer screening was assessed. Results: ... Conclusion: While we wait for a national program for cervical .... Mean age at first inter- course(yrs).

  15. Breast cancer screening: evidence for false reassurance?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. de Gelder (Rianne); E. As, van (Elisabeth); M.M.A. Tilanus-Linthorst (Madeleine); C.C.M. Bartels (Carina); R. Boer (Rob); G. Draisma (Gerrit); H.J. de Koning (Harry)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractTumour stage distribution at repeated mammography screening is, unexpectedly, often not more favourable than stage distribution at first screenings. False reassurance, i.e., delayed symptom presentation due to having participated in earlier screening rounds, might be associated with

  16. Screening vs. non-screening detected colorectal cancer: Differences in pre-therapeutic work up and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saraste, D; Martling, A; Nilsson, P J; Blom, J; Törnberg, S; Janson, M

    2017-06-01

    Objectives To compare preoperative staging, multidisciplinary team-assessment, and treatment in patients with screening detected and non-screening detected colorectal cancer. Methods Data on patient and tumour characteristics, staging, multidisciplinary team-assessment and treatment in patients with screening and non-screening detected colorectal cancer from 2008 to 2012 were collected from the Stockholm-Gotland screening register and the Swedish Colorectal Cancer Registry. Results The screening group had a higher proportion of stage I disease (41 vs. 15%; p team-assessed than the non-screening group ( p team-assessed than patients with surgically resected cancers ( p team assessed more extensively than patients with non-screening detected cancers. Staging and multidisciplinary team assessment prior to endoscopic resection was less complete compared with surgical resection. Extensive surgical and (neo)adjuvant treatment was given in stage I disease. Participation in screening reduced the risk of emergency surgery for colorectal cancer.

  17. Dissemination of colorectal cancer screening by Filipino American community health advisors: a feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, Annette E; Danao, Leda L; Bastani, Roshan

    2013-07-01

    Filipino Americans underutilize life-saving screening tests for colorectal cancer, resulting in late stage of diagnosis and poor survival relative to other racial/ethnic groups. Education regarding colorectal cancer screening and distribution of free fecal occult blood test (FOBT) kits are evidence-based interventions that can significantly increase screening. However, this community will only benefit if the intervention is broadly disseminated. We assessed the feasibility of promoting colorectal cancer screening in Filipino American community settings working with community health advisors, and the practicality of conducting one-on-one or small group education, in addition to passing out free FOBT kits. Twenty community health advisors from 4 organizations engaged in recruitment and education activities with 132 participants. Community health advisors consistently completed screening questionnaires to establish eligibility and kept logs of FOBT distribution. However, they did not consistently record eligible participants who did not consent to participate. Process checklists that indicated what information was covered in each educational session and postsession follow-up logs were partially completed. Almost all participants reported receipt of intervention components and receipt of screening at 4-month follow-up and reported high acceptability of the program. The pilot study established the feasibility of working with community health advisors to promote colorectal cancer screening in Filipino American community settings. Findings informed the design of a dissemination trial that is currently ongoing with regards to monitoring recruitment, intervention implementation and follow-up and allowing flexibility regarding one-on-one or small group education.

  18. Cancer Screening and Genetics: A Tale of Two Paradigms

    OpenAIRE

    Hamilton, Jada G.; Edwards, Heather M.; Khoury, Muin J.; Taplin, Stephen H.

    2014-01-01

    The long-standing medical tradition to “first do no harm” is reflected in population-wide evidence-based recommendations for cancer screening tests that focus primarily on reducing morbidity and mortality. The conventional cancer screening process is predicated on finding early-stage disease that can be treated effectively; yet emerging genetic and genomic testing technologies have moved the target earlier in the disease development process to identify a probabilistic predisposition to diseas...

  19. A new focus for the International Cancer Screening Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    The ICSN is thinking about how to take advantage of the nearly three decades of work in cancer screening program research and implementation and reach out more actively to low- and middle-income countries considering screening. For that purpose, ICSN is migrating from its historical place under NCI Division of Cancer Control and Population Sciences to assume its new role within the Center for Global Health.

  20. Developing Partnerships to Reduce Disparities in Cancer Screening

    OpenAIRE

    Breslau, Erica S.; Rochester, Phyllis W.; Saslow, Debbie; Crocoll, Caroline E.; Johnson, Lenora E.; Vinson, Cynthia A.

    2010-01-01

    Background Interventions in scientific settings to improve the well-being of women who are not regularly screened for cancer have failed. Consequently, community-based prevention and control efforts are needed. Community Context From 2003 through 2007, three federal agencies and 1 nongovernmental agency collaborated with county-level public health counterparts from 6 states to address screening disparities in cervical and breast cancer in counties with the highest prevalence. This case study ...

  1. Cost-effectiveness of the Norwegian breast cancer screening program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Luijt, P A; Heijnsdijk, E A M; de Koning, H J

    2017-02-15

    The Norwegian Breast Cancer Screening Programme (NBCSP) has a nation-wide coverage since 2005. All women aged 50-69 years are invited biennially for mammography screening. We evaluated breast cancer mortality reduction and performed a cost-effectiveness analysis, using our microsimulation model, calibrated to most recent data. The microsimulation model allows for the comparison of mortality and costs between a (hypothetical) situation without screening and a situation with screening. Breast cancer incidence in Norway had a steep increase in the early 1990s. We calibrated the model to simulate this increase and included recent costs for screening, diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer and travel and productivity loss. We estimate a 16% breast cancer mortality reduction for a cohort of women, invited to screening, followed over their complete lifetime. Cost-effectiveness is estimated at NOK 112,162 per QALY gained, when taking only direct medical costs into account (the cost of the buses, examinations, and invitations). We used a 3.5% annual discount rate. Cost-effectiveness estimates are substantially below the threshold of NOK 1,926,366 as recommended by the WHO guidelines. For the Norwegian population, which has been gradually exposed to screening, breast cancer mortality reduction for women exposed to screening is increasing and is estimated to rise to ∼30% in 2020 for women aged 55-80 years. The NBCSP is a highly cost-effective measure to reduce breast cancer specific mortality. We estimate a breast cancer specific mortality reduction of 16-30%, at the cost of 112,162 NOK per QALY gained. © 2016 UICC.

  2. Impact of awareness of cancer among acquaintances on cancer screening attendance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisinger, François; Blay, Jean-Yves; Morère, Jean-François; Coscas, Yvan; Calazel-Benque, Anne; Roussel, Claire; Pivot, Xavier

    2011-01-01

    Two nationwide observational surveys were carried out in France in 2005 and 2008 with the aim of assessing the impact on attitudes towards cancer screening of a positive history of cancer among a person's close circle of acquaintances (relatives, friends or colleagues). In 2005, 67% (993/1482) of people interviewed reported having someone in their close circle of acquaintances affected by cancer and in 2008, the rate was 80% (1158/1454). In 2008, having someone within a person's close circle of acquaintances affected by cancer did not increase the rate of screening for breast cancer (already high at >80%). However, it did increase the rate of screening for colorectal cancer [odds ratio (OR)=2.3; 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.6-3.3] and prostate cancer (OR=2.2; 95% CI=1.4-3.5). Knowing someone affected by cancer within the close circle of acquaintances clearly increases awareness, and thus could be an incentive for undergoing cancer screening. With regard to cancer types, such as prostate cancer, for which there is no national programme or media communication, this awareness might be the main source of information and motivation. The impact of awareness on screening behaviour seems to be greatest for the same cancer location as that in the affected acquaintance, as opposed to cancers at other sites. Increased awareness as observed in our survey, which may be attributable to less social stigma associated with a diagnosis of cancer, might increase the rate of screening attendance in the general population.

  3. Diagnostic mode and tumor stage of breast cancers in the setting of opportunistic screening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graf, O.; Hopf, G.; Obermayer, M.; Fruehwald, F.; Scheurecker, A.; Kramer, J.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To analyze data at the time of diagnosis of breast cancer in three radiology practices in Austria in the setting of opportunistic screening. Materials and methods: In 529 women (ages 31 - 89, mean age 61.1) with breast cancer, the mode of diagnosis (detected clinically or by opportunistic screening), the local tumor stages, and intervals between screening examinations were assessed. Results: In 33.6% (178 of 529) of the cases, the breast cancer was detected clinically, and in 66.4% (351 of 529) of the cases, the cancer was detected by opportunistic screening. Cancers in prognostically favorable stages (in situ carcinomas, pT1 a, pT1 b, pT1c) were detected by opportunistic screening in 79.9% of the cases. The clinically detected cancers were in locally advanced stages (pT2, pT3) in 58.4% of the cases. In the majority of clinically detected cases (75%), the women had never had a mammogram before or had not had a recent one. In 13% of the cases detected by opportunistic screening, diagnosis was made during the first exam, in 40% of the cases, the period since the last mammogram was less than 24 months, and in 47% of the cases, this period was greater than 24 months. Conclusion: In our patients the majority of breast cancers were detected in early stages by opportunistic screening. The use of an organized system with exams at regular intervals may further reduce the number of advanced cancers. (orig.)

  4. Korean Guidelines for Colorectal Cancer Screening and Polyp Detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Bo In; Hong, Sung Pil; Kim, Seong Eun

    2012-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is currently the second most common cancer among Korean males and the fourth most common among females. Since the majority of colorectal cancer case present following the prolonged transformation of adenomas into carcinomas, early detection and removal of colorectal adenomas are vital methods in its prevention. Considering the increasing incidence of colorectal cancer and polyps in Korea, it is very important to establish national guidelines for colorectal cancer screening and polyp detection. The proposed guidelines have been developed by the Korean Multi-Society Task Force using evidence-based methods. Systematic reviews and meta-analyses have been used to form the statements contained in the guidelines. This paper discusses the epidemiology of colorectal cancers and adenomas in Korea as well as optimal methods for screening of colorectal cancer and detection of adenomas including fecal occult blood tests, radiologic tests, and endoscopic examinations.

  5. Structuring Health in Colorectal Cancer Screening Conversations: An Analysis of Intersecting Activity Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Canary, Heather; Bullis, Connie; Cummings, Jennifer; Kinney, Anita Y.

    2015-01-01

    This study used structurating activity theory to analyze 21 conversations between genetic counselors and individuals at increased risk for familial colorectal cancer (CRC). The qualitative analysis revealed ways elements of family, primary healthcare, cancer prevention and treatment, and other systems emerged in intervention conversations as shaping CRC screening attitudes and behaviors. Results indicate that family stories, norms, and roles are resources for enacting health practices in fami...

  6. The Effect of Personal Characteristics, Perceived Threat, Efficacy and Breast Cancer Anxiety on Breast Cancer Screening Activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick De Pelsmacker

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In order to activate women to participate in breast cancer screening programs, a good understanding is needed of the personal characteristics that influence how women can be activated to search for more information, consult friends and doctors, and participate in breast cancer screening programs. In the current study, we investigate the effect of six personal characteristics that have in previous research been identified as important triggers of health behavior on breast cancer screening activation: Health awareness, Need for Cognition, Affect Intensity, Breast cancer knowledge, Topic involvement, and the Perceived breast cancer risk. We test the effect of these factors on four activation variables: intention of future information seeking, forwarding the message to a friend, talking to a doctor, and actual breast cancer screening attendance. Additionally, we try to unravel the process by means of which the antecedents (the six personal characteristics lead to activation. To that end, we test the mediating role of perceived breast cancer threat, perceived efficacy of screening, and the evoked breast cancer anxiety as mediators in this process. The data were collected by means of a cross-sectional survey in a sample of 700 Flemish (Belgium women who were invited to the free-of-charge breast cancer population screening. Screening attendance of this sample was provided by the government agency in charge of the organisation of the screening. Health awareness, affects intensity, topic involvement, and perceived risk have the strongest influence on activation. Breast cancer anxiety and perceived breast cancer threat have a substantial mediation effect on these effects. Efficacy perceptions are less important in the activation process. Increased health awareness and a higher level of perceived risk lead to less participation in the free of charge population based breast screening program. Implications for theory and practice are offered. The limitation

  7. The Effect of Personal Characteristics, Perceived Threat, Efficacy and Breast Cancer Anxiety on Breast Cancer Screening Activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Pelsmacker, Patrick; Lewi, Martine; Cauberghe, Veroline

    2017-01-01

    In order to activate women to participate in breast cancer screening programs, a good understanding is needed of the personal characteristics that influence how women can be activated to search for more information, consult friends and doctors, and participate in breast cancer screening programs. In the current study, we investigate the effect of six personal characteristics that have in previous research been identified as important triggers of health behavior on breast cancer screening activation: Health awareness, Need for Cognition, Affect Intensity, Breast cancer knowledge, Topic involvement, and the Perceived breast cancer risk. We test the effect of these factors on four activation variables: intention of future information seeking, forwarding the message to a friend, talking to a doctor, and actual breast cancer screening attendance. Additionally, we try to unravel the process by means of which the antecedents (the six personal characteristics) lead to activation. To that end, we test the mediating role of perceived breast cancer threat, perceived efficacy of screening, and the evoked breast cancer anxiety as mediators in this process. The data were collected by means of a cross-sectional survey in a sample of 700 Flemish (Belgium) women who were invited to the free-of-charge breast cancer population screening. Screening attendance of this sample was provided by the government agency in charge of the organisation of the screening. Health awareness, affects intensity, topic involvement, and perceived risk have the strongest influence on activation. Breast cancer anxiety and perceived breast cancer threat have a substantial mediation effect on these effects. Efficacy perceptions are less important in the activation process. Increased health awareness and a higher level of perceived risk lead to less participation in the free of charge population based breast screening program. Implications for theory and practice are offered. The limitation of the study is

  8. Low adherence to cervical cancer screening after subtotal hysterectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lea Laird; Møller, Lars Mikael Alling; Gimbel, Helga Margrethe

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: A reason for not recommending subtotal hysterectomy is the risk of cervical pathology. We aimed to evaluate cervical cancer screening and to describe cervical pathology after subtotal and total hysterectomy for benign indications. METHODS: Data regarding adherence to screening...... Hospital, Rigs-hospitalet and Roskilde Hospital, Denmark. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01880710....

  9. Advanced breast cancer and its prevention by screening

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Koning, H. J.; van Ineveld, B. M.; de Haes, J. C.; van Oortmarssen, G. J.; Klijn, J. G.; van der Maas, P. J.

    1992-01-01

    In discussions on breast cancer screening, much attention has been focussed on the possible morbidity generated by screening. Favourable effects like the prevention of advanced disease seem underestimated, probably because quantification is that difficult. To analyse the amount of care and treatment

  10. Value of audits in breast cancer screening quality assurance programmes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geertse, Tanya D.; Holland, Roland; Timmers, Janine M. H.; Paap, Ellen; Pijnappel, Ruud M.; Broeders, Mireille J. M.; den Heeten, Gerard J.

    2015-01-01

    Our aim was to retrospectively evaluate the results of all audits performed in the past and to assess their value in the quality assurance of the Dutch breast cancer screening programme. The audit team of the Dutch Reference Centre for Screening (LRCB) conducts triennial audits of all 17 reading

  11. Analysis of previous screening examinations for patients with breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Eun Hye; Cha, Joo Hee; Han, Dae Hee; Choi, Young Ho; Hwang, Ki Tae; Ryu, Dae Sik; Kwak, Jin Ho; Moon, Woo Kyung

    2007-01-01

    We wanted to improve the quality of subsequent screening by reviewing the previous screening of breast cancer patients. Twenty-four breast cancer patients who underwent previous screening were enrolled. All 24 took mammograms and 15 patients also took sonograms. We reviewed the screening retrospectively according to the BI-RADS criteria and we categorized the results into false negative, true negative, true positive and occult cancers. We also categorized the causes of false negative cancers into misperception, misinterpretation and technical factors and then we analyzed the attributing factors. Review of the previous screening revealed 66.7% (16/24) false negative, 25.0% (6/24) true negative, and 8.3% (2/24) true positive cancers. False negative cancers were caused by the mammogram in 56.3% (9/16) and by the sonogram in 43.7% (7/16). For the false negative cases, all of misperception were related with mammograms and this was attributed to dense breast, a lesion located at the edge of glandular tissue or the image, and findings seen on one view only. Almost all misinterpretations were related with sonograms and attributed to loose application of the final assessment. To improve the quality of breast screening, it is essential to overcome the main causes of false negative examinations, including misperception and misinterpretation. We need systematic education and strict application of final assessment categories of BI-RADS. For effective communication among physicians, it is also necessary to properly educate them about BI-RADS

  12. Psychometric Properties of the Breast Cancer Screening Beliefs Questionnaire Among Women of Indian Ethnicity Living in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwok, Cannas; Pillay, Rona; Lee, Chun Fan

    2016-01-01

    Indian women have been consistently reported as having low participation in breast cancer screening practices. A valid and reliable instrument to explore their breast cancer beliefs is essential for development of interventions to promote breast cancer screening practices. The aim of this study was to report the psychometric properties of the Breast Cancer Screening Beliefs Questionnaire (BCSBQ) in an Indian community in Australia. A convenience sample of 242 Indian Australian women was recruited from Indian community organizations and personal networking. Explanatory factor analysis was conducted to study the factor structure. Clinical validity was examined by Cuzick's nonparametric test, and Cronbach's α was used to assess internal consistency reliability. Exploratory factor analysis showed a similar fit to the hypothesized 3-factor structure. The frequency of breast cancer screening practices was significantly associated with attitudes toward general health check-up. Knowledge and perceptions about the breast cancer scale were not significantly associated with clinical breast examinations and mammography. Perceived barriers to mammography were much less evident among women who engaged in breast awareness and clinical breast examination. Results indicated that the BCSBQ had satisfactory validity and internal consistency. Cronbach's α of the 3 subscales ranged from .81 to .91. The BCSBQ is a culturally appropriate, valid, and reliable instrument for assessing the beliefs, knowledge, and attitudes about breast cancer and breast cancer screening practices among women of Indian ethnic extraction living in Australia. The BCSBQ can be used to provide nurses with information relevant for the development of culturally sensitive breast health education programs.

  13. Imaging screening of breast cancer: primary results in 5307 cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao Qin; Zheng Xiaojing; Wang Xiaohong; Liu Quan; Jiang Chaoxia; Xu Linghui; Peng Weijun; Hu Danting; Wang Yufang; Gu Yajia; Liu Guangyu; Shao Zhimin; Shen Kunwei; Chang Cai; Han Chao

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To discuss the values of three screening methods for the detection of early breast cancer, and to analyze the features of the screening cancer. Methods: The first screening of breast cancer were performed in 5307 women who aged from 20 to 76 years with median age of 49 years. The three screening methods included physical examination with ultrasound and mammography, physical examination with mammography and mammography only. The rate of recall, biopsy, cancer detection of three methods were analyzed and the mammographic findings were reviewed. Chi-square test or Fisher's exact test were used for the statistics. Results: The recall rates were 4.90% (49/1001), 6.90% (166/2407) and 4. 48% (85/1899) in three methods respectively, the biopsy rates were 1.60% (16/1001), 1.04% (25/2407) and 0.63% (12/1899), the cancer detection rates were 0.50% (5/1001), 0.17% (4/2407) and 0 (0/1899). There were statistical differences among the three groups (χ 2 =12.99,6.264,8.764, P<0.05). Physical examination with ultrasound and mammography had the highest cancer detection rate, ten breast cancers were detected and 8 were early stage breast cancer. Of seven cancers detected by mammography, only two were found by ultrasound. A cluster of calcifications were found in 2 cases, linear calcifications in 2 cases. One case presented as a asymmetric density, one as a asymmetric density with calcifications, one as multiple nodules with a cluster of calcifications. Two breast cancers presented as asymmetric density were missed on mammography and diagnosed correctly after retrospective review. Conclusion: Physical examination with ultrasound and mammography is the best method for breast cancer screening. The breast cancer can be detected by mammography earlier than other methods. (authors)

  14. Interval Cancers in a Population-Based Screening Program for Colorectal Cancer in Catalonia, Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Garcia

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To analyze interval cancers among participants in a screening program for colorectal cancer (CRC during four screening rounds. Methods. The study population consisted of participants of a fecal occult blood test-based screening program from February 2000 to September 2010, with a 30-month follow-up (n = 30,480. We used hospital administration data to identify CRC. An interval cancer was defined as an invasive cancer diagnosed within 30 months of a negative screening result and before the next recommended examination. Gender, age, stage, and site distribution of interval cancers were compared with those in the screen-detected group. Results. Within the study period, 97 tumors were screen-detected and 74 tumors were diagnosed after a negative screening. In addition, 17 CRC (18.3% were found after an inconclusive result and 2 cases were diagnosed within the surveillance interval (2.1%. There was an increase of interval cancers over the four rounds (from 32.4% to 46.0%. When compared with screen-detected cancers, interval cancers were found predominantly in the rectum (OR: 3.66; 95% CI: 1.51–8.88 and at more advanced stages (P=0.025. Conclusion. There are large numbers of cancer that are not detected through fecal occult blood test-based screening. The low sensitivity should be emphasized to ensure that individuals with symptoms are not falsely reassured.

  15. [Nutritional risk screening and nutrition assessment for gastrointestinal cancer patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Yan-ping; Li, Ling-ling; He, Qing; Li, Yun; Song, Hu; Lin, Yi-jia; Peng, Jun-sheng

    2012-05-01

    To investigate the nutritional status, and provide evidence for nutritional treatment option. A total of 452 patients with gastrointestinal cancer were selected, including 156 gastric cancer,117 colon cancer, and 180 rectal cancer. The nutritional risk screening 2002(NRS2002) was applied to grade the nutritional risk. A multi-frequency bioelectrical impedance analysis was used to measure the patients' body composition. Albumin (Alb), prealbumin(PA), transferring(Tf), retinol binding protein(RBP), red blood cell(RBC), hemoglobin (Hb), haematocrit(Hct) were measured after fasting. The rate of patients with NRS2002 score more than 3 was 70.5%(110/156) for gastric cancer, 53.8%(63/117) for colon cancer, and 46.7%(86/180) for rectal cancer. The score for impaired nutritional status more than 1 for gastric cancer was higher than that for colorectal cancer(Pgastric cancer(Pgastric cancer patients as compared to colorectal cancer patients(Pgastric cancer patients(Pgastric cancer and colon cancer(Pgastric cancer are prone to fat loss and therefore have a higher nutritional risk and malnutrition than those with colorectal cancer. Combination of body composition analysis and laboratory examination may achieve comprehensive evaluation of the nutritional status of patients, and provide the evidence of nutritional therapy by being combined with NRS2002 score.

  16. Setting the stage for universal financial distress screening in routine cancer care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khera, Nandita; Holland, Jimmie C; Griffin, Joan M

    2017-11-01

    Financial burden from cancer treatment is increasingly being recognized as a threat to optimal access, quality, and outcomes of cancer care for patients. Although research in the area is moving at a fast pace, multiple questions remain unanswered, such as how to practically integrate the assessment and management of financial burden into routine health care delivery for patients with cancer. Although psychological distress screening for patients undergoing cancer treatment now is commonplace, the authors raise the provocative idea of universal screening for financial distress to identify and assist vulnerable groups of patients. Herein, the authors outline the arguments to support screening for financial burden in addition to psychological distress, examining it as an independent patient-reported outcome for all patients with cancer at various time points during their treatment. The authors describe the proximal and downstream impact of such a strategy and reflect on some challenges and potential solutions to help integrate this concept into routine cancer care delivery. Cancer 2017;123:4092-4096. © 2017 American Cancer Society. © 2017 American Cancer Society.

  17. [Classification and characteristics of interval cancers in the Principality of Asturias's Breast Cancer Screening Program].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prieto García, M A; Delgado Sevillano, R; Baldó Sierra, C; González Díaz, E; López Secades, A; Llavona Amor, J A; Vidal Marín, B

    2013-09-01

    To review and classify the interval cancers found in the Principality of Asturias's Breast Cancer Screening Program (PDPCM). A secondary objective was to determine the histological characteristics, size, and stage of the interval cancers at the time of diagnosis. We included the interval cancers in the PDPCM in the period 2003-2007. Interval cancers were classified according to the breast cancer screening program protocol, with double reading without consensus, without blinding, with arbitration. Mammograms were interpreted by 10 radiologists in the PDPCM. A total of 33.7% of the interval cancers could not be classified; of the interval cancers that could be classified, 40.67% were labeled true interval cancers, 31.4% were labeled false negatives on screening, 23.7% had minimal signs, and 4.23% were considered occult. A total of 70% of the interval cancers were diagnosed in the year of the period between screening examinations and 71.7% were diagnosed after subsequent screening. A total of 76.9% were invasive ductal carcinomas, 61.1% were stage II when detected, and 78.7% were larger than 10mm when detected. The rate of interval cancers and the rate of false negatives in the PDPCM are higher than those recommended in the European guidelines. Interval cancers are diagnosed later than the tumors detected at screening. Studying interval cancers provides significant training for the radiologists in the PDPCM. Copyright © 2011 SERAM. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  18. Do doctors understand the test characteristics of lung cancer screening?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Richard; Breyer, Marie; Breyer-Kohansal, Robab; Urban, Matthias; Funk, Georg-Christian

    2018-04-01

    Screening for lung cancer with a low-dose computed tomography (CT) scan is estimated to prevent 3 deaths per 1000 individuals at high risk; however, false positive results and radiation exposure are relevant harms and deserve careful consideration. Screening candidates can only make an autonomous decision if doctors correctly inform them of the pros and cons of the method; therefore, this study aimed to evaluate whether doctors understand the test characteristics of lung cancer screening. In a randomized trial 556 doctors (members of the Austrian Respiratory Society) were invited to answer questions regarding lung cancer screening based on online case vignettes. Half of the participants were randomized to the group 'solutions provided' and received the correct solutions in advance. The group 'solutions withheld' had to rely on prior knowledge or estimates. The primary endpoint was the between-group difference in the estimated number of deaths preventable by screening. Secondary endpoints were the between-group differences in the prevalence of lung cancer, prevalence of a positive screening results, sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and false negative rate. Estimations were also compared with current data from the literature. The response rate was 29% in both groups. The reduction in the number of deaths due to screening was overestimated six-fold (95% confidence interval CI: 4-8) compared with the actual data, and there was no effect of group allocation. Providing the correct solutions to doctors had no systematic effect on their answers. Doctors poorly understand the test characteristics of lung cancer screening. Providing the correct solutions in advance did not improve the answers. Continuing education regarding lung cancer screening and the interpretation of test characteristics may be a simple remedy. Clinical trial registered with www.clinicaltrials.gov (NCT02542332).

  19. Pathways of cervical cancer screening among Chinese women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma GX

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Grace X Ma,1 Min Qi Wang,2 Xiang S Ma,3 Steven E Shive,4 Yin Tan,5 Jamil I Toubbeh51Department of Public Health, College of Health Professions, Temple University, Philadelphia, PA, 2Department of Public and Community Health, University of Maryland, College Park, MD, 3College of Health Professions and School of Medicine, Temple University, Philadelphia, PA, 4Center for Asian Health, Temple University, and Department of Health, East Stroudsburg University, East Stroudsburg, PA, 5Center for Asian Health, Department of Public Health, College of Health Professions, Temple University, Philadelphia, PA, USABackground: The purpose of this community-based study was to develop a structural equation model for factors contributing to cervical cancer screening among Chinese American women.Methods: A cross-sectional design included a sample of 573 Chinese American women aged 18 years and older. The initial step involved use of confirmatory factor analysis, that included the following variables: access to and satisfaction with health care, and enabling and predisposing cultural and health beliefs. Structural equation model analyses were conducted on factors related to cervical cancer screening.Results: Age, marital status, employment, household income, and having health insurance, but not educational level, were significantly related to cervical screening status. Predisposing and enabling factors were positively associated with cervical cancer screening. The cultural factor was significantly related to the enabling factor or the satisfaction with health care factor.Conclusion: This model highlights the significance of sociocultural factors in relation to cervical cancer screening. These factors were significant, with cultural, predisposing, enabling, and health belief factors and access to and satisfaction with health care reinforcing the need to assist Chinese American women with poor English fluency in translation and awareness of the importance of cervical

  20. Experience with breast cancer, pre-screening perceived susceptibility and the psychological impact of screening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Absetz, Pilvikki; Aro, Arja R; Sutton, Stephen R

    2003-01-01

    responded to the follow-ups. Psychological impact was measured as anxiety (STAI-S), depression (BDI), health-related concerns (IAS), and breast cancer-specific beliefs and concerns. Data was analyzed with repeated measures analyses of variance, with estimates of effect size based on Eta-squared. Women......This prospective study examined whether the psychological impact of organized mammography screening is influenced by women's pre-existing experience with breast cancer and perceived susceptibility (PS) to the disease. From a target population of 16,886, a random sample of women with a normal...... with breast cancer experience had higher risk perception already before screening invitation; after screening they were also more distressed. Women with high PS were more distressed than women with low PS also at pre-invitation. The distress was not alleviated by screening, but instead remained even after...

  1. Low Cost Technology for Screening Early Cancerous Lesions of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hanumantp

    [1] The detection rate for early cancerous lesions improved. 60% by unaided visual ... no agreement as how to screen and where to refer patients with oral cancer for ... External and internal examination of the oral cavity was done by the dentist ...

  2. Knowledge and attitude towards cervical cancer screening among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Cervical cancer is a largely preventable disease. In western countries, the incidence of and mortality associated with cervical cancer has reduced substantially following the introduction of effective cervical screening programmes. This is in contrast to what is obtained in Africa including Nigeria where cervical ...

  3. Register-based studies of cancer screening effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Von Euler-Chelpin, My; Lynge, Elsebeth; Rebolj, Matejka

    2011-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: There are two organised cancer screening programmes in Denmark, against cervical and breast cancers. The aim with this study was to give an overview of the available register-based research regarding these two programmes, to demonstrate the usefulness of data from the national regis...

  4. Social Construction of Cervical Cancer Screening among Panamanian Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvo, Arlene; Brown, Kelli McCormack; McDermott, Robert J.; Bryant, Carol A.; Coreil, Jeanine; Loseke, Donileen

    2012-01-01

    Background: Understanding how "health issues" are socially constructed may be useful for creating culturally relevant programs for Hispanic/Latino populations. Purpose: We explored the constructed meanings of cervical cancer and cervical cancer screening among Panamanian women, as well as socio-cultural factors that deter or encourage…

  5. Internet-Based Cervical Cancer Screening Program

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wilbur, David C; Crothers, Barbara A; Eichhorn, John H; Ro, Min S; Gelfand, Jeffrey A

    2008-01-01

    This project explores the combination of computerized automated primary screening of cervical cytology specimens in remote sites with interpretation of device-selected images transmitted via the Internet...

  6. Breast, prostate, and thyroid cancer screening tests and overdiagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Minsoo

    The purpose of this study was to examine overdiagnosis and overtreatment related to cancer screening and to review relevant reports and studies. A comprehensive search of peer-reviewed and gray literature was conducted for relevant studies published between January 2000 and December 2015 reporting breast, prostate, and thyroid cancer screening tests and overdiagnosis. This study revealed no dichotomy on where screening would lower risk or cause overdiagnosis and overtreatment. Many screening tests did both, that is, at population level, there were both benefit (decreased disease-specific mortality) and harm (overdiagnosis and overtreatment). Therefore, we need to consider a balanced argument with citations for the potential benefits of screening along with the harms associated with screening. Although the benefits and harms can only be tested through randomized trials, important data from cohort studies, diagnostic accuracy studies, and modeling work can help define the extent of benefits and harms in the population. The health care cycle that prompt patients to undergo periodic screening tests is self-reinforcing. In most developed countries, screening test recommendations encourage periodic testing. Therefore, patients are continuing their screening. It is necessary for patients to become wise consumers of screening tests and make decisions with their physicians regarding further testing and treatments. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. The impact of radiologists' expertise on screen results decisions in a CT lung cancer screening trial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heuvelmans, Marjolein A.; Vliegenthart, Rozemarijn; Oudkerk, Matthijs; Jong, Pim A. de; Mali, Willem P.; Groen, Harry J.M.

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the impact of radiological expertise on screen result decisions in a CT lung cancer screening trial. In the NELSON lung cancer screening trial, the baseline CT result was based on the largest lung nodule's volume. The protocol allowed radiologists to manually adjust screen results in cases of high suspicion of benign or malignant nodule nature. Participants whose baseline CT result was based on a solid or part-solid nodule were included in this study. Adjustments by radiologists at baseline were evaluated. Histology was the reference for diagnosis or to confirm benignity and stability on subsequent CT examinations. A total of 3,318 participants (2,796 male, median age 58.0 years) were included. In 195 participants (5.9 %) the initial baseline screen result was adjusted by the radiologist. Adjustment was downwards from positive or indeterminate to negative in two and 119 participants, respectively, and from positive to indeterminate in 65 participants. None of these nodules turned out to be malignant. In 9/195 participants (4.6 %) the screen result was adjusted upwards from negative to indeterminate or indeterminate to positive; two nodules were malignant. In one in 20 cases of baseline lung cancer screening, nodules were reclassified by the radiologist, leading to a reduction of false-positive screen results. (orig.)

  8. Syphilis screening practices in blood transfusion facilities in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francis Sarkodie

    2016-02-01

    Conclusions: Despite international and national recommendations, more than half of the studied health facilities that provide blood transfusions in Ghana are not screening blood donations for syphilis. These data show a considerable mismatch between recommendations and practice, with serious consequences for blood safety and public health.

  9. Health Risk Screening Practices of Pharmacy and Chemist Shops in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methodology: Fifty two pharmacy and chemist shops were selected using simple random number sampling technique from 120 registered pharmacy and chemist shops in Jos Metropolis. A semi-structured questionnaire, examining the screening practice of the sales persons was interviewer administered to all the sales ...

  10. Syphilis screening practices in blood transfusion facilities in Ghana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sarkodie, Francis; Hassall, Oliver; Owusu-Dabo, Ellis

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The primary objective of this study was to compare laboratory practices for screening blood donors for syphilis at blood transfusion facilities in Ghana with the recommendations of the World Health Organization and the National Blood Service, Ghana (NBSG). The prevalence of syphilis a...

  11. Breast cancer screening utilization among women from Muslim majority countries in Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vahabi, Mandana; Lofters, Aisha; Kim, Eliane; Wong, Josephine Pui-Hing; Ellison, Lisa; Graves, Erin; Glazier, Richard H

    2017-12-01

    Breast cancer screening disparities continue to prevail with immigrant women being at the forefront of the under screened population. There is a paucity of knowledge about the role of religious affiliation or cultural orientation on immigrant women's cancer screening uptake. This study examined differences in uptake of breast cancer screening among women from Muslim and non- Muslim majority countries in Ontario, Canada. A cohort of 1,851,834 screening-eligible women living in Ontario during April 1, 2013 to March 31, 2015 was created using linked health and social administrative databases. The study found that being born in a Muslim majority country was associated with lower breast cancer screening uptake after adjusting for region of origin, neighbourhood income, and primary care-related factors. However, screening uptake in Muslim majority countries varied by world region with the greatest differences found in Sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia. Screening uptake was lower for women who had no primary care provider, were in a traditional fee-for service model of primary care, had a male physician, had an internationally trained physician, resided in a low income neighbourhood, and entered Canada under the family class of immigration. Religion may play a role in screening uptake, however, the variation in rates by regions of origin, immigration class, and access to primary care providers alludes to confluence of socio-demographic, cultural beliefs and practices, immigration trajectories and system level factors. Facilitating access for immigrant women to regular primary care providers, particularly female providers and enrollment in primary care models could enhance screening uptake. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. The benefits and harms of screening for cancer with a focus on breast screening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodersen, John; Juhl Jørgensen, Karsten; Gøtzsche, Peter C.

    2010-01-01

    . The effects of routine clinical breast examination are unknown, but considering the results of the breast self-examination trials, it is likely that it is harmful. The effects of screening for breast cancer with thermography, ultrasound or magnetic resonance imaging are unknown. It is not clear whether......The balance between benefits and harms is delicate for cancer screening programs. By attending screening with mammography some women will avoid dying from breast cancer or receive less aggressive treatment. But many more women will be overdiagnosed, receive needless treatment, have a false...... and will be treated unnecessarily. Furthermore, more than 200 women will experience substantial psychosocial distress for months because of false-positive findings. Regular breast self-examination does not reduce breast cancer mortality, but doubles the number of biopsies, and it therefore cannot be recommended...

  13. Quality control in screening programs for cervical cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarduy Napoles, Miguel

    2012-01-01

    The malignancy of the cervix is one of the few locations avoidable cancers, if detected before it progresses to the infiltration. The most efficient way of early detection is through a screening program to provide women undertaking a regular and quality Pap smear. If this test results abnormal, the program offers easier access to specialized care, effective treatment, and follow-up. The objective of this article is to present usefulness of methods for quality control used in screening programs for cervical cancer to detect their inadequacies. Here are some factors and conditions that must be considered in each of the steps to take, for a cervical cancer screening program to be successful and to meet the objectives proposed in reducing mortality due to this cause. This document contains some useful indexes calculated to ensure quality throughout the process. There should be the measurement of quality throughout the screening process that allows collecting of reliable data as well as correcting deficiencies

  14. Decision aid for women considering breast cancer screening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pasternack, Iris; Saalasti-Koskinen, Ulla; Mäkelä, Marjukka

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to describe the process and challenges of developing a decision aid for the national public breast cancer screening program in Finland. METHODS: An expert team with stakeholder representation used European guidelines and other literature as basis for selecting...... relevant content and format for the decision aid for breast cancer screening. Feedback from women was sought for the draft documents. RESULTS: A decision aid attached to the invitation letter for screening was considered the best way to ensure access to information. In addition, tailored letter templates...... information for women invited to breast cancer screening is demanding and requires careful planning. Professionals and service providers need to be engaged in the HTA process to ensure proper dissemination and implementation of the information. End user participation is essential in the formulation...

  15. Caregiving associated with selected cancer risk behaviors and screening utilization among women: cross-sectional results of the 2009 BRFSS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reeves Katherine W

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Informal caregiving is increasingly common as the U.S. population ages, and there is concern that caregivers are less likely than non-caregivers to practice health-promoting behaviors, including cancer screening. We examined caregiving effects on cancer risk behaviors and breast and cervical cancer screening in the 2009 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. Methods Women age ≥41 with data on breast and cervical cancer screening were included (weighted frequency 3,478,000 women. Cancer screening was classified according to American Cancer Society guidelines. We evaluated the association of caregiving with cancer risk behaviors (obesity, physical activity, alcohol intake, smoking status, and fruit/vegetable consumption and cancer screening (mammography, clinical breast exam [CBE], and Pap test using logistic regression overall and with stratification on age ( Results Caregivers had greater odds of being obese, physically active, and current smokers. Subgroup analyses revealed that caregiving was associated with obesity in younger women and whites, and with less obesity in older women. Also, caregiving was associated with smoking only among younger women and non-whites. Caregivers had greater odds of ever having had a mammogram or CBE, yet there was no association with mammogram, CBE, or Pap test within guidelines. Conclusions Caregiving was associated with some health behaviors that increase cancer risk, yet not with cancer screening within guidelines. Effects of caregiving by age and race require confirmation by additional studies.

  16. A qualitative exploration of Malaysian cancer patients’ perceptions of cancer screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farooqui Maryam

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite the existence of different screening methods, the response to cancer screening is poor among Malaysians. The current study aims to examine cancer patients’ perceptions of cancer screening and early diagnosis. Methods A qualitative methodology was used to collect in-depth information from cancer patients. After obtaining institutional ethical approval, patients with different types and stages of cancer from the three major ethnic groups (Malay, Chinese and Indian were approached. Twenty semi-structured interviews were conducted. All interviews were audiotaped, transcribed verbatim, and translated into English for thematic content analysis. Results Thematic content analysis yielded four major themes: awareness of cancer screening, perceived benefits of cancer screening, perceived barriers to cancer screening, and cues to action. The majority of respondents had never heard of cancer screening before their diagnosis. Some participants reported hearing about mammogram and Pap smear tests but did not undergo screening due to a lack of belief in personal susceptibility. Those who had negative results from screening prior to diagnosis perceived such tests as untrustworthy. Lack of knowledge and financial constraints were reported as barriers to cancer screening. Finally, numerous suggestions were given to improve screening behaviour among healthy individuals, including the role of mass media in disseminating the message ‘prevention is better than cure’. Conclusions Patients’ narratives revealed some significant issues that were in line with the Health Belief Model which could explain negative health behaviour. The description of the personal experiences of people with cancer could provide many cues to action for those who have never encountered this potentially deadly disease, if incorporated into health promotion activities.

  17. Barriers and facilitators of cervical cancer screening among women of Hmong origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Dao Moua; Baker, Dian L

    2013-05-01

    This qualitative study explored the barriers and facilitators of cancer screening among women of Hmong origin. Using a community-based participatory research approach, we conducted focus groups (n=44) with Hmong women who represented four distinct demographic groups among the Hmong community. The participants described sociocultural barriers to screening, which included a lack of accurate knowledge about the causes of cervical cancer, language barriers, stigma, fear, lack of time, and embarrassment. Structural barriers included attitudes and practices of health care providers, lack of insurance, and negative perceptions of services at clinics for the uninsured. Health care providers may require additional training and increased time per visit to provide culturally sensitive care for refugee groups such as the Hmong. Health-related social marketing efforts aimed at improving health literacy may also help to reduce health inequities related to cancer screening among the Hmong.

  18. Colorectal Cancer Screening: What Is the Population's Opinion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Teixeira

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Colorectal cancer (CRC is the first cause of death by cancer in Portugal and mortality has been increasing in the last 30 years. Materials and Methods: During a raising awareness campaign performed by our Gastroenterology Department, in Setúbal, Portugal, an anonymous written questionnaire was developed and presented in order to evaluate the population's knowledge and attitude regarding CRC screening. Results: The following results were reported: 140 persons; mean age 54.6 years; 61.4% women; 22.1% had a family history of colorectal cancer. The main risk factors mentioned by the respondents were family history of CRC, previous history of intestinal polyps, and intestinal infection. Screening was considered useful by all respondents. About 60% of the respondents had been counselled, at least, on one screening technique, mainly by their general practitioner: colonoscopy in 31, fecal occult blood test in 44, and flexible sigmoidoscopy in 9. Most of the respondents had had the appropriate screening test, according to their age and family history. Fourteen of the respondents had not undergone the recommended screening. Their answers showed that this was due to fear of pain/discovering a disease as well as embarrassment. Conclusion: Although the majority of the respondents were aware of the importance of CRC screening, results show that there are still several misconceptions about risk factors, fear, and reluctance concerning the screening techniques. Awareness actions are useful to clarify possible questions and inform the population in order to increase compliance with screening.

  19. Korean Americans' Beliefs about Colorectal Cancer Screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shin-Young Lee, PhD, RN

    2013-06-01

    Conclusion: Results show the critical need for in-depth understanding of unique health and cultural beliefs about CRC screening in KAs. These beliefs could be useful for future intervention strategies to change health and cultural beliefs in order to increase CRC screening participation in KAs.

  20. A Literature Review of Cervical Cancer Screening in Transgender Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatos, Kayla C

    2018-02-01

    Most female-to-male (FTM) transgender men retain their cervixes and need comprehensive sexual health care, including cervical cancer screening. According to the literature, FTM individuals obtain cervical cancer screening less frequently and are less likely to be up to date on their Pap tests compared with cisgender women. Misinformation related to human papillomavirus and cervical cancer risk was noted for health care providers and FTM individuals. Absence of transgender-specific guidelines or trained health care providers presents barriers to cervical cancer screening for FTM individuals, and further research is indicated to develop comprehensive guidelines unique to the needs and experiences of this population. © 2018 AWHONN, the Association of Women’s Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses.

  1. Prospects for population screening and diagnosis of lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Field, John K; Oudkerk, Matthijs; Pedersen, Jesper Holst

    2013-01-01

    Deaths from lung cancer exceed those from any other type of malignancy, with 1·5 million deaths in 2010. Prevention and smoking cessation are still the main methods to reduce the death toll. The US National Lung Screening Trial, which compared CT screening with chest radiograph, yielded a mortality......, and pooled analysis of European CT screening trials, we discuss the main topics that will need consideration. These unresolved issues are risk prediction models to identify patients for CT screening; radiological protocols that use volumetric analysis for indeterminate nodules; options for surgical resection...

  2. Screening and prevention of breast cancer in primary care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tice, Jeffrey A; Kerlikowske, Karla

    2009-09-01

    Mammography remains the mainstay of breast cancer screening. There is little controversy that mammography reduces the risk of dying from breast cancer by about 23% among women between the ages of 50 and 69 years, although the harms associated with false-positive results and overdiagnosis limit the net benefit of mammography. Women in their 70s may have a small benefit from screening mammography, but overdiagnosis increases in this age group as do competing causes of death. While new data support a 16% reduction in breast cancer mortality for 40- to 49-year-old women after 10 years of screening, the net benefit is less compelling in part because of the lower incidence of breast cancer in this age group and because mammography is less sensitive and specific in women younger than 50 years. Digital mammography is more sensitive than film mammography in young women with similar specificity, but no improvements in breast cancer outcomes have been demonstrated. Magnetic resonance imaging may benefit the highest risk women. Randomized trials suggest that self-breast examination does more harm than good. Primary prevention with currently approved medications will have a negligible effect on breast cancer incidence. Public health efforts aimed at increasing mammography screening rates, promoting regular exercise in all women, maintaining a healthy weight, limiting alcohol intake, and limiting postmenopausal hormone therapy may help to continue the recent trend of lower breast cancer incidence and mortality among American women.

  3. Perceptions of breast and cervical cancer risk and screening among Dominicans and Puerto Ricans in Rhode Island.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, Roberta E; Risica, Patricia Markham

    2004-01-01

    This study explored perceptions of cancer, risk, and screening among Dominicans and Puerto Ricans in Rhode Island. Qualitative interviews were conducted with a community-based sample of 147 adults. Perceived risks for breast cancer were predominantly associated with carelessness about health care, trauma to the breast, and breastfeeding. Cervical cancer risks were mostly attributed to carelessness about health care and sexual behaviors. A strong sense of fatalism and embarrassment coexisted with positive beliefs about check-ups and screening. Participants cited confianza (trust, confidence) in their doctor, and their doctor's provision of information and explanations, as important factors in decreasing embarrassment and increasing their likelihood of getting screened. While familiarity with mammography and Pap testing was great among participants, many did not practice sustained, regular screening, and held misconceptions about tests and screening guidelines. Respondents' perceptions of having sufficient information often did not correspond to their having the accurate information necessary to promote informed screening decisions.

  4. Radiologic aspects of breast cancers detected through a breast cancer screening program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azavedo, E.; Svane, G.

    1991-01-01

    Early detection in breast cancer and reduced mortality in women with this disease is today attributed to widespread use of mammography. High-quality performance is essential in all steps of breast cancer screening programs in order to avoid unnecessary anxiety and surgery in the women concerned. This report presents radiologic aspects of screening cancers. A total of 8370 asymptomatic women aged 50-69 years were screened with 2-view mammography, of which only 70 (0.84 percent) were selected for surgery after a thorough work-up. Cancers were verified histologically in 61 women and 9 showed non-malignant histology, giving a cancer detection rate of 7.3 cancers per thousand screened asymptomatic women. The benign/malignant ratio in the operated cases is thus approximately 1:7. The cancers detected showed all existing types of mammographic features where 77 percent (47 cases) showed rather typical findings, such as spiculated densities both with and without microcalcifications. The results indicate that surgery can be minimized without impairing the breast cancer detection rate. Radiologists in screening programs should be aware that a large proportion of non-palpable breast cancers present in rather unconventional forms. This point is important in order to maintain a high cancer detection rate and thereby justify the widespread use of mammography as a screening tool for breast cancer in asymptomatic women. (author). 20 refs.; 1 tab

  5. Risk-benefit analysis for mass screening of breast cancer utilizing mammography as a screening test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iinuma, T.A.; Tateno, Yukio

    1989-01-01

    Incidence of breast cancers in Japanese women is increasing steadily. Mass screening of breast cancer was started in Japan under auspices of Adult Health Promotion Act of the Japanese Government from 1987. As the first screening method, the palpation of breasts is employed at present, but it is expected to be replaced by the mammography. In this report, the risk-benefit analysis is presented between risk of breast carcinogenesis due to radiation and benefit of mass screening of breast cancer. The benefit of mass screening is taken as the net elongation of average life expectancy of women due to survival from breast cancers. The risk of mammography is taken as the net loss of average life expectancy of women due to breast carcinogenesis. In the latter, the latency time and plateau period of radiation carcinogenesis were taken into consideration in the calculation. The results show that the ages at which the benefit and risk become equal are between 30 and 35 years old when dose equivalent of mammography is between 10 and 20 mSv, that are conventionally used. However, the critical age will be reduced to 20 years old if the dose equivalent becomes 1 mSv. Therefore, it is strongly recommended that a low dose mammographic system should be developed in order to achieve 1 mSv for the mass screening of breast cancer of Japanese women. In author's opinion, this is quite feasible by employing a new digital radiography with imaging plate. (author)

  6. Oral cancer: knowledge, practices and opinions of dentists in yemen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alaizari, Nader Ahmed; Al-Maweri, Sadeq Ali

    2014-01-01

    Oral cancer presents with high mortality rates, and the likelihood of survival is remarkably superior when detected early. Dental professionals have an important role and responsibility in prevention and early detection of oral cancer. The aim of this study was to assess the knowledge, practices and opinions regarding oral cancer among dentists in Yemen. A cross-sectional survey was conducted using a self-administered questionnaire involving private and public dental practitioners, working in different governorates in Yemen. Of the 800 dentists surveyed, a total of 221 questionnaires were completed and returned (response rate 27.6%). A vast majority of dentists (96.38%) identified tobacco as the major risk factor for oral cancer, and 82.8% knew that squamous cell carcinoma is the most common form. While 47.1% of the dentists agreed that they were adequately trained in oral cancer screening, the majority (86%) believed that they need further training in oral cancer screening. These results suggest that additional training and continuing educational programs on prevention and early detection of oral cancer for dentists are to be highly recommended.

  7. Intelligent Screening Systems for Cervical Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yessi Jusman

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Advent of medical image digitalization leads to image processing and computer-aided diagnosis systems in numerous clinical applications. These technologies could be used to automatically diagnose patient or serve as second opinion to pathologists. This paper briefly reviews cervical screening techniques, advantages, and disadvantages. The digital data of the screening techniques are used as data for the computer screening system as replaced in the expert analysis. Four stages of the computer system are enhancement, features extraction, feature selection, and classification reviewed in detail. The computer system based on cytology data and electromagnetic spectra data achieved better accuracy than other data.

  8. Race/Ethnicity, Gender, Weight Status, and Colorectal Cancer Screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather Bittner Fagan

    2011-01-01

    The literature on colorectal cancer (CRC screening is contradictory regarding the impact of weight status on CRC screening. This study was intended to determine if CRC screening rates among 2005 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS respondent racial/ethnic and gender subgroups were influenced by weight status. Methods. Univariable and multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed to determine if CRC screening use differed significantly among obese, overweight, and normal-weight individuals in race/ethnic and gender subgroups. Results. Multivariable analyses showed that CRC screening rates did not differ significantly for individuals within these subgroups who were obese or overweight as compared to their normal-weight peers. Conclusion. Weight status does not contribute to disparities in CRC screening in race/ethnicity and gender subgroups.

  9. [Screening for colorectal cancer in Italy, 2010 survey].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zorzi, Man