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Sample records for cancer screening participation

  1. Social support and non-participation in breast cancer screening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Line Flytkjær; Pedersen, Anette Fischer; Andersen, Berit;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Social support may have an impact on screening participation. We studied the association between social support in 2006, defined as frequencies of contacts, instrumental support and emotional support and participation in breast cancer screening in 2008-09. METHODS: This population......-based cohort study included 4512 women who had participated in a Health Survey in 2006 and who also were in the target group for the first round of organized breast cancer screening in the Central Denmark region in 2008-09. RESULTS: Women with infrequent contacts with friends and family in 2006 were more...... non-participation in breast cancer screening in 2008-09. Targeted social interventions may, therefore, have an impact on future screening behaviour, which calls for further research....

  2. Participation in bowel cancer screening: a qualitative exploration of the factors influencing participation and uptake

    OpenAIRE

    Azodo, Ijeoma

    2013-01-01

    Bowel cancer is major global public health problem. In the United Kingdom, it is the third most common cancer in men and women and second major cause of cancer deaths. It has been suggested that the risk of bowel cancer deaths can be reduced by 16% through regular bowel screening. However, screening uptake remains low. This research explored factors influencing participation in the NHS bowel cancer screening programme, specifically ‘the faecal occult blood test (FOBt)’ in the North East, York...

  3. The association between general practitioners’ attitudes towards breast cancer screening and women’s screening participation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jensen Line

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Breast cancer screening in Denmark is organised by the health services in the five regions. Although general practitioners (GPs are not directly involved in the screening process, they are often the first point of contact to the health care system and thus play an important advisory role. No previous studies, in a health care setting like the Danish system, have investigated the association between GPs’ attitudes towards breast cancer screening and women’s participation in the screening programme. Methods Data on women’s screening participation was obtained from the regional screening authorities. Data on GPs’ attitudes towards breast cancer screening was taken from a previous survey among GPs in the Central Denmark Region. This study included women aged 50-69 years who were registered with a singlehanded GP who had participated in the survey. Results The survey involved 67 singlehanded GPs with a total of 13,288 women on their lists. Five GPs (7% had a negative attitude towards breast cancer screening. Among registered women, 81% participated in the first screening round. Multivariate analyses revealed that women registered with a GP with a negative attitude towards breast cancer screening were 17% (95% CI: 2-34% more likely to be non-participants compared with women registered with a GP with a positive attitude towards breast cancer screening. Conclusion The GPs' attitudes may influence the participation rate even in a system where GPs are not directly involved in the screening process. However, further studies are needed to investigate this association.

  4. Determinants of participation in colorectal cancer screening with faecal occult blood testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Euler-Chelpin, My; Brasso, Klaus; Lynge, Elsebeth

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Colorectal cancer is one of the most common cancers in men and women. Participation rates in faecal occult blood testing (FOBT) screening activities are, however, relatively low. In terms of lowering the colorectal cancer mortality, high participation rates are essential, and therefor...... screening. This stresses the need for monitoring of individual screening programmes and developing information strategies targeted to the local participation pattern....... it is important to understand the barriers to FOBT screening. METHODS: We undertook a systematic search through PUBMED, Medline, EMBASE and PsycINFO in order to identify studies that provide information on socio-demographic determinants of participation in FOBT screening. RESULTS: FOBT participation...

  5. Socioeconomic position and participation in colorectal cancer screening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, B L; Jørgensen, Torben; Brasso, K;

    2010-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) screening with faecal occult blood test (FOBT) has the potential to reduce the incidence and mortality of CRC. Screening uptake is known to be inferior in people with low socioeconomic position (SEP) when compared with those with high position; however, the results of most...... information on education, employment, and income to encompass different but related aspects of socioeconomic stratification. Also, the impact of ethnicity and cohabiting status was analysed....

  6. Pecuniary compensation increases the participation rate in screening for colorectal cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Aas, Eline

    2009-01-01

    Typically, the participation rate is below 100 per cent. In this paper pecuniary compensation is used to increase the participation rate. In a postal questionnaire to 5,000 people invited to screening for colorectal cancer, those not participating were asked "would you participate if you were given NOK X in compensation?" The results show that compensation increases participation and that the participation probability systematically varies with travel expenses, income, age, county, native cou...

  7. Interventional Education Methods for Increasing Women's Participation in Breast Cancer Screening Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seven, Memnun; Akyüz, Aygül; Robertson, Lyn B

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of the three methods of education-individual, individual with an educational brochure for spouses, and group-on participation on breast cancer screening in Turkey. A total of 550 home visits were made and 446 women were interviewed to accrue 327 women for the study, 26.7% of whom reported receiving a screening mammogram within the past 2 years. Participants were divided into one of the three educational groups, and following the educational session, they were invited to attend a breast cancer screening program. The results indicated that the decision to have a screening mammogram was influenced by the method of education and the knowledge score. Women, who were educated, within a group scored the highest. These results demonstrate that group education is an effective method of increasing breast cancer knowledge and screening awareness. PMID:25077769

  8. Cervical cancer screening in immigrant women in Italy: a survey on participation, cytology and histology results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campari, Cinzia; Fedato, Chiara; Iossa, Anna; Petrelli, Alessio; Zorzi, Manuel; Anghinoni, Emanuela; Bietta, Carla; Brachini, Angela; Brezzi, Silvia; Cogo, Carla; Giordano, Livia; Giorgi, Daniela; Palazzi, Mauro; Petrella, Marco; Schivardi, Maria R; Visioli, Carmen B; Giorgi Rossi, Paolo

    2016-07-01

    Cervical cancer screening programmes in Italy actively invite all 25-64-year-old resident women for the Pap test every 3 years irrespective of their citizenship. Immigrant women come from countries where screening is absent or poorly implemented and the prevalence of human papillomavirus is often high. These women therefore have significant risk factors for cervical cancer. The Italian Group for Cervical Cancer Screening promoted a survey of all the screening programmes on the participation and the positivity and detection rates in Italian and foreign women in 2009-2011. Aggregated data for participation, cytology results, compliance with colposcopy and histology results were collected, distinguishing between women born in Italy and abroad. All comparisons were age adjusted. Forty-eight programmes out of 120 participated in the immigrant survey, with 3 147 428 invited and 1 427 412 screened Italian women and 516 291 invited and 205 948 screened foreign women. Foreign women had a slightly lower participation rate compared with Italians (39.9 vs. 45.4%), whereas compliance with colposcopy was similar (90%). Foreigners showed a higher risk of pathological findings than Italians: cytology positivity [relative risk (RR)=1.25, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.24-1.27] and detection rate for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2 (CIN2) (RR=1.39, 95% CI 1.31-1.47), CIN3 (RR=2.07, 95% CI 1.96-2.18) and cancer (RR=2.68, 95% CI 2.24-3.22). The ratio between cancer and CIN was higher in immigrants (0.06 vs. 0.04, P<0.01). Foreign women had a higher risk of cervical precancer and cancer. Because of their high risk and because opportunistic screening does not cover this often disadvantaged group, achieving high participation in screening programmes for foreigners is critical to further reducing the cervical cancer burden in Italy. PMID:26207563

  9. Systematic Review and Meta-study Synthesis of Qualitative Studies Evaluating Facilitators and Barriers to Participation in Colorectal Cancer Screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honein-AbouHaidar, Gladys N; Kastner, Monika; Vuong, Vincent; Perrier, Laure; Daly, Corinne; Rabeneck, Linda; Straus, Sharon; Baxter, Nancy N

    2016-06-01

    Screening reduces the incidence, morbidity, and mortality of colorectal cancer, yet participation tends to be low. We undertook a systematic review and meta-study synthesis of qualitative studies to identify facilitators and barriers to colorectal cancer screening participation. We searched major bibliographic databases for records published in all languages from inception to February 2015. Included primary studies that elicited views and perceptions towards colorectal cancer screening were appraised for relevance and quality. We used a two-stage synthesis to create an interpretation of colorectal cancer screening decisions grounded in primary studies; a thematic analysis to group themes and systematically compare studies and a meta-synthesis to generate an expanded theory of colorectal cancer screening participation. Ninety-four studies were included. The decision to participate in colorectal cancer screening depended on an individual's awareness of colorectal cancer screening. Awareness affected views of cancer, attitudes towards colorectal cancer screening modalities, and motivation for screening. Factors mediating awareness included public education to address misconceptions, primary care physician efforts to recommend screening, and the influence of friends and family. Specific barriers to participation in populations with lower participation rates included language barriers, logistical challenges to attending screening tests, and cultural beliefs. This study identifies key barriers, facilitators, and mediators to colorectal cancer screening participation. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 25(6); 907-17. ©2016 AACR. PMID:27197277

  10. Participation bias in a randomised trial of screening for lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hestbech, Mie Sara; Siersma, Volkert; Dirksen, Asger;

    2011-01-01

    following socio-demographic aspects: social group, living alone, gender, age and geographical area. DLCST participants reported less negative psychosocial aspects than the comparable population sample. CONCLUSION: The present study has shown substantial socio-demographic and psychosocial participation bias......INTRODUCTION: Participation bias might affect the results and the representability of randomised controlled trials. We investigated the degree of socio-demographic and psychosocial participation bias in the Danish Lung Cancer Screening Trial (DLCST). METHODS: In DLCST the questionnaire COS...

  11. Demographic, social cognitive and social ecological predictors of intention and participation in screening for colorectal cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duncan Amy

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous research points to differences between predictors of intention to screen for colorectal cancer (CRC and screening behavior, and suggests social ecological factors may influence screening behavior. The aim of this study was to compare the social cognitive and social ecological predictors of intention to screen with predictors of participation. Methods People aged 50 to 74 years recruited from the electoral roll completed a baseline survey (n = 376 and were subsequently invited to complete an immunochemical faecal occult blood test (iFOBT. Results Multivariate analyses revealed five predictors of intention to screen and two predictors of participation. Perceived barriers to CRC screening and perceived benefits of CRC screening were the only predictor of both outcomes. There was little support for social ecological factors, but measurement problems may have impacted this finding. Conclusions This study has confirmed that the predictors of intention to screen for CRC and screening behaviour, although overlapping, are not the same. Research should focus predominantly on those factors shown to predict participation. Perceptions about the barriers to screening and benefits of screening are key predictors of participation, and provide a focus for intervention programs.

  12. A trial for improving the rate of participation in breast cancer screening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to search for a good method of increasing the rate of participation in breast cancer screening, we reviewed our previous records of breast cancer screening carried out by inspection and palpation during the preceding 32-year period. Screening by mammography was started in 2004, and in the following year became employed in all districts of Kochi Prefecture. When mammography screening began, we hoped that the participation rate would be at least 20%, which was the level when breast cancer screening was performed by inspection and palpation. In fact, the participation rate was as high as 27.6% in the period 2004-2005, and the breast cancer detection rate was 0.38%. We think that this high participation rate was achieved through complete transition from screening by inspection and palpation to that by mammography, offering guidance to district health nurses and local government administrative staff, education of the public about the importance of breast self-palpation, and other informative activities. (author)

  13. Questionnaire survey of current status and reserve for breast cancer screening in Mie prefecture. Achievement of a 50% participation rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mie Medical Network of Breast Cancer Screening, a NPO, was assigned the task of breast cancer screening in Mie prefecture in April, 2010. For breast cancer screening in Mie prefecture in 2009, a questionnaire survey was performed toward both consigner and consignee. Consigners were local public offices managing breast cancer screening for local inhabitants, and consignees were facilities offering breast cancer screening. The number of breast cancer screening was investigated toward all 29 of consigners in Mie prefecture. The questionnaire survey was conducted toward all 52 of the facilities possessing mammography systems (breast cancer screening being performed at 48 of them) in Mie prefecture in 2009. We investigated the predictive additional number of breast cancer screening and also investigated the requisite number of staff to achieve the predictive maximum number of breast cancer screening. As a result, the total number of breast cancer screenings was 93,525, and the participation rate was 27.5% which was calculated by reduction of continuator in Mie prefecture in 2009. The continuator accounted for over 30% of all breast cancer screenings. The predictive additional number was 126,950, this indicates that a possible participation rate of 75.2% after 2011. To achieve this high participation rate, active support is essential for short-handed facilities, and about 20% increase of medical staff is necessary. To achieve a participation rate of over 50% as a goal, new screenees should be recruited and breast cancer screening of every other year should be enlightened. (author)

  14. Breast cancer correlates in a cohort of breast screening program participants in Riyadh, KSA

    OpenAIRE

    Fahad A. Al-Amri; Mohammed Y. Saeedi; Fatina M. Al-Tahan; Ali, Arwa M.; Shaker A. Alomary; Mostafa Arafa; Ibrahim, Ahmed K.; Kassim A. Kassim

    2015-01-01

    Background: Breast cancer is the first cancer among females in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, accounting for 27.4% of all newly diagnosed female cancers in 2010. There are several risk factors affecting the incidence of breast cancer where some factors influence the risk more than the others. Aim: We aimed to identify the different risk factors related to breast cancer among females participating in the breast-screening program in Riyadh, KSA. Methods: Based on data from phase-I of the br...

  15. Impact of invitation and reminder letters on cervical cancer screening participation rates in an organized screening program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavasoli, Simon M; Pefoyo, Anna J Kone; Hader, Joanne; Lee, Alex; Kupets, Rachel

    2016-07-01

    Study's Objective was to explore the impact of invitation and reminder letters on cervical cancer screening participation among eligible Ontario women 30 to 69years of age. A cross-sectional study was used to describe factors and screening patterns for 1,150,783 eligible women. A cohort design was used to compare the impact of invitation and reminder letters on Pap uptake comparing women who received the intervention (n=99,278) with a historical non-intervention group (n=130,181). Factors that might influence screening participation were included as covariates in a multivariable logistic regression models. Overall, 26.7% of women who had a Pap test 3 to 5years prior and 9.8% of women with no Pap test in the previous 5years were screened within 9months after the intervention. On cohort analysis, 14.1% of women in the intervention group and 8.5% of women in the non-intervention group were screened within 9months. Being mailed an invitation letter was associated with greater likelihood of screening (OR=1.8, CI 1.7-1.8). Controlling for covariates, the letter intervention was associated with 9month screening for both women with a Pap test 3 to 5years prior (AOR=1.7, CI 1.6-1.8) and those with no Pap test in the previous 5years (AOR=1.8, CI 1.7-1.9). There was a significant effect of all covariates on the participation. The invitation and reminder letter strategy increased cervical cancer screening participation. Additional strategies that could encourage eligible women to participate and/or removing barriers to screening for eligible women may be necessary. PMID:27143497

  16. Adherence to Cancer Screening Guidelines and Predictors of Improvement Among Participants in the Kansas State Employee Wellness Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siu-kuen Azor Hui, PhD, MSPH

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Employee wellness programs (EWPs have been used to implement worksite-based cancer prevention and control interventions. However, little is known about whether these programs result in improved adherence to cancer screening guidelines or how participants’ characteristics affect subsequent screening. This study was conducted to describe cancer screening behaviors among participants in a state EWP and identify factors associated with screening adherence among those who were initially nonadherent. Methods We identified employees and their dependents who completed health risk assessments (HRAs as part of the Kansas state EWP in both 2008 and 2009. We examined baseline rates of adherence to cancer screening guidelines in 2008 and factors associated with adherence in 2009 among participants who were initially nonadherent. Results Of 53,095 eligible participants, 13,222 (25% participated in the EWP in 2008 and 6,205 (12% participated in both years. Among the multiyear participants, adherence was high at baseline to screening for breast (92.5%, cervical (91.8%, and colorectal cancer (72.7%. Of participants who were initially nonadherent in 2008, 52.4%, 41.3%, and 33.5%, respectively, became adherent in the following year to breast, cervical, and colorectal cancer screening. Suburban/urban residence and more frequent doctor visits predicted adherence to breast and colorectal cancer screening guidelines. Conclusion The effectiveness of EWPs for increasing cancer screening is limited by low HRA participation rates, high rates of adherence to screening at baseline, and failure of nonadherent participants to get screening. Improving overall adherence to cancer screening guidelines among employees will require efforts to increase HRA participation, stronger interventions for nonadherent participants, and better access to screening for rural employees.

  17. Perceived obstacles of colorectal cancer screening and their associated factors among 10,078 Chinese participants.

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    Martin C S Wong

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: to evaluate the proportion of self-referred screening participants having various psychological barriers and the factors associated with these barriers. METHODS: A territory-wide bowel cancer screening centre sent an invitation via the media to all Hong Kong residents aged 50-70 years who were asymptomatic of CRC to join a free screening programme. Upon attendance they were requested to complete self-administered surveys on their perceived barriers of screening. Binary logistic regression analyses were used to evaluate the factors associated with these barriers. RESULTS: From 10,078 consecutive screening participants (mean age 57.5 years; female 56.4% completed the surveys between May 2008 to September 2012. There were high proportions who agreed or strongly agreed with the following barriers: financial difficulty (86.0%, limited service accessibility (58.2%, screening-induced bodily discomfort (55.2%, physical harm (44.4%, embarrassment (40.1%, apprehension (38.8% and time constraints (13.9%. From regression models, older participants (aged ≥ 56 were less likely to have these barriers (Adjusted odds ratio [AOR] ranged from 0.738 to 0.952 but they encountered more difficulties to access to screening services (AOR ranged from 1.141 to 1.371. Female subjects were more likely to encounter most of these barriers (AOR ranged from 1.188 to 2.179. Participants who were uncertain of the necessity of CRC screening for people aged ≥ 50 were more likely to report these barriers (AOR ranged from 1.151 to 1.671. CONCLUSION: The proportions of perceptual barriers of CRC screening were high among these participants. Those with these associated factors should receive more thorough explanation of the screening test procedures.

  18. Adherence to Cancer Screening Guidelines and Predictors of Improvement Among Participants in the Kansas State Employee Wellness Program

    OpenAIRE

    Siu-kuen Azor Hui, PhD, MSPH; Kimberly K. Engelman, PhD; Theresa I. Shireman, PhD, RPh; Edward F. Ellerbeck, MD, MPH

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Employee wellness programs (EWPs) have been used to implement worksite-based cancer prevention and control interventions. However, little is known about whether these programs result in improved adherence to cancer screening guidelines or how participants’ characteristics affect subsequent screening. This study was conducted to describe cancer screening behaviors among participants in a state EWP and identify factors associated with screening adherence among those who were initia...

  19. Cancer screening

    OpenAIRE

    Krishna Prasad

    1987-01-01

    Cancer screening is a means to detect cancer early with the goal of decreasing morbidity and mortality. At present, there is a reasonable consensus regarding screening for breast, cervical and colorectal cances and the role of screening is under trial in case of cancers of the lung,  ovaries and prostate. On the other hand, good screening tests are not available for some of the commonest cancers in India like the oral, pharyngeal, esophageal and stomach cancers.

  20. Breast cancer correlates in a cohort of breast screening program participants in Riyadh, KSA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: Breast cancer is the first cancer among females in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, accounting for 27.4% of all newly diagnosed female cancers in 2010. There are several risk factors affecting the incidence of breast cancer where some factors influence the risk more than the others. Aim: We aimed to identify the different risk factors related to breast cancer among females participating in the breast-screening program in Riyadh, KSA. Methods: Based on data from phase-I of the breast-screening program, a case-control study was conducted on women living in Riyadh, KSA. A sample of 349 women (58 cases and 290 controls) was recruited to examine the different breast cancer correlates. Multivariate regression model was built to investigate the most important risk factors. Results: The mean age of cases was 48.5 ± 7.1 years. Age at marriage, number of pregnancy, age at menopause, oral contraceptive pills, breast feeding and family history of breast cancer in first-degree relative were identified as the most important correlates among the studied cohort. Conclusions: The findings of the current work suggested that age at marriage, age at menopause ≥50 years, and 1st degree family history of breast cancer were risk factors for breast cancer, while, age at menopause<50 years, number of pregnancies and practicing breast feeding were protective factors against breast cancer. There was no effect of body mass index or physical inactivity. Further studies are needed to explore the hereditary, familial and genetic background risk factors in Saudi population.

  1. Invitation to cervical cancer screening does increase participation in Germany: Results from the MARZY study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radde, Kathrin; Gottschalk, Andrea; Bussas, Ulrike; Schülein, Stefanie; Schriefer, Dirk; Seifert, Ulrike; Neumann, Anne; Kaiser, Melanie; Blettner, Maria; Klug, Stefanie J

    2016-09-01

    The effect of different invitation models on participation in cervical cancer screening (CCS) was investigated in a randomized population-based cohort study in Germany. Participants were randomly selected via population registries and randomized into intervention Arm A (invitation letter) and Arm B (invitation letter and information brochure) or control Arm C (no invitation). The intervention and control arms were compared with regard to 3-year participation and the two invitation models were compared between intervention arms. Of the 7,758 eligible women aged 30-65 years, living in the city of Mainz and in the rural region of Mainz-Bingen, 5,265 were included in the analysis. Differences in proportions of women attending CCS were investigated and logistic regression was performed to analyze various factors influencing participation. In the intervention group, 91.8% participated in CCS compared to 85.3% in the control group (p education, migrant women and older women. No difference in participation was found between the intervention Arm A and Arm B. An accompanying information brochure did not motivate more women to undergo CCS. However, a written invitation statistically significantly increased participation in CCS in Germany. PMID:27083776

  2. Breast Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Breast & Gynecologic Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Breast Cancer Screening (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is screening? Screening ... cancer screening: Cancer Screening Overview General Information About Breast Cancer Key Points Breast cancer is a disease in ...

  3. The association between general practitioners' attitudes towards breast cancer screening and women's screening participation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Line F; Mukai, Thomas; Andersen, Berit;

    2012-01-01

    Artiklen undersøger om der er sammenhæng mellem den praktiserede læges holdning til brystkræftscreening og kvinders deltagelse i screening. Data omkring de praktiserende lægers holdning til screening blev indsamlet via en spørgeskemaundersøgelse blandt praktiserende læger i Region Midtjylland. Data...... brystkræft screening var mere tilbøjelig til ikke at deltage, sammenlignet med kvinder som var tilknyttet en læge med en positiv holdning. Ved justering for kvindes socio-demografi og afstand til screeningenheden blev estimatet reduceret lidt og konfidensintervallet kom tættere på 0, men var stadigvæk...

  4. Non-participation in breast cancer screening for persons with chronic diseases and multimorbidity: a population-based cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Berit

    2015-01-01

    Background Chronic diseases and multimorbidity are common in western countries and associated with increased breast cancer mortality. This study aims to investigate non-participation in breast cancer screening among women with chronic diseases and multimorbidity and the role of time in this...... association. Method This population-based cohort study used regional and national registries. Women who were invited to the first breast cancer screening round in the Central Denmark Region in 2008–09 were included (n = 149,234). Selected chronic diseases and multimorbidity were assessed up to 10 years before...... the screening date. Prevalence ratios (PR) were used as an association measure. Results The results indicated that women with at least one chronic condition were significantly more likely not to participate in breast cancer screening. In adjusted analysis, a significantly higher likelihood of non...

  5. Distance to screening site and non-participation in screening for breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, L F; Pedersen, A F; Andersen, B;

    2013-01-01

    Dette studie undersøger, om der er en sammenhæng mellem afstand til screeningsenhederne og deltagelse i screening for brystkræft. Resultaterne viser, at kvinder, som bor tæt på screeningsenheden, og kvinder, som bor længere væk, er mere tilbøjelige til ikke at deltage i første screeningsrunde. Ved...

  6. Women's knowledge about cervical cancer risk factors, screening, and reasons for non-participation in cervical cancer screening programme in Estonia

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    Anttila Ahti

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The attendance rate in Estonian cervical cancer screening programme is too low therefore the programme is hardly effective. A cross-sectional population based survey was performed to identify awareness of cervical cancer risk factors, reasons why women do not want to participate in cervical screening programme and wishes for better organisation of the programme. Method An anonymous questionnaire with a covering letter and a prepaid envelope was sent together with the screening invitation to 2942 randomly selected women. Results are based on the analysis of 1054 (36% returned questionnaires. Results Main reasons for non-participation in the national screening programme were a recent visit to a gynaecologist (42.3%, fear to give a Pap-smear (14.3%, long appointment queues (12.9% and unsuitable reception hours (11.8%. Fear to give a Pap-smear was higher among women aged 30 and 35 than 50 and 55 (RR 1.46; 95% CI: 0.82-2.59 and women with one or no deliveries (RR 1.56, 95% CI: 0.94-2.58. In general, awareness of cervical cancer risk factors is poor and it does not depend on socio-demographic factors. Awareness of screening was higher among Estonians than Russians (RR 1.64, 95% CI: 1.46-1.86. Most women prefer to receive information about screening from personally mailed invitation letters (74.8%. Conclusions Women need more information about cervical cancer risk factors and the screening programme. They prefer personally addressed information sharing. Minority groups should be addressed in their own language. A better collaboration with service providers and discouraging smears outside the programme are also required.

  7. Decisional Stage Distribution for Colorectal Cancer Screening among Diverse, Low-Income Study Participants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hester, C. M.; Born, W. K.; Yeh, H. W.; Young, K. L.; James, A. S.; Daley, C. M.; Greiner, K. A.

    2015-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) screening uptake among minorities and those with lower incomes is suboptimal. Behavioral interventions specifically tailored to these populations can increase screening rates and save lives. The Precaution Adoption Process Model (PAPM) allows assignment of a decisional stage for adoption of a behavior such as CRC screening.…

  8. A project for increasing the rate of participation in mammographic breast cancer screening in Kyoto prefecture to 50%

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The rate of participation in breast cancer screening carried out by inspection and palpation associated with mammography in Kyoto Prefecture has been still low. In order to decrease the rate of breast cancer death, a high rate of screening participation must be achieved. We have organized the Kyoto Executive Committee of Pink Ribbon Activity aiming at the goal of achieving a 50% rate of participation in mammography screening by the end of 2010, and undertaken the following campaign activities: performing free screening, distribution and display of posters and leaflets about breast cancer screening, cooperation with various media to spread educational and informative messages, cooperation with a commercial institute in Kyoto City to distribute useful information, performing free breast cancer screening, and holding public lecture meetings, distribution of leaflets at student festivals at universities and colleges in Kyoto, and holding a ''Pink Ribbon symposium'' in a cosponsored company. All the above projects were performed successfully and many participants attended. We will continue these activities until the 50% participation rate is achieved. (author)

  9. Intent to Participate in Future Cervical Cancer Screenings Is Lower when Satisfaction with the Decision to Be Vaccinated Is Neutral

    OpenAIRE

    Alexander, Natalie Marya; Harper, Diane Medved; Comes, Johanna Claire; Smith, Melissa Smith; Heutinck, Melinda Ann; Handley, Sandra Martin; Ahern, Debra Ann

    2014-01-01

    Background HPV vaccination programs have adversely affected participation in future cervical cancer screening. The purpose of this study is to determine the influence of decision satisfaction with accepting/rejecting the HPV vaccine, as well as traditional clinical factors, on the intent to participate in future screening. Methods and Findings From January 2011 through August 2012 women 18–26 years old presenting for health care in an urban college student health and wellness clinic in the US...

  10. Intent to participate in future cervical cancer screenings is lower when satisfaction with the decision to be vaccinated is neutral.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalie Marya Alexander

    Full Text Available HPV vaccination programs have adversely affected participation in future cervical cancer screening. The purpose of this study is to determine the influence of decision satisfaction with accepting/rejecting the HPV vaccine, as well as traditional clinical factors, on the intent to participate in future screening.From January 2011 through August 2012 women 18-26 years old presenting for health care in an urban college student health and wellness clinic in the US Midwest were asked to complete a descriptive and medical history survey including a six element decisional satisfaction survey scored on 5-point Likert scales, where the intent to participate in future cervical cancer screening was measured. Of the 568 women who completed the decisional satisfaction survey, 17% of those <21 years and 7% ≥ 21 years indicated no intent to participate in future cervical cancer screenings. Among women of current screening age, the univariate risk factors of race/ethnicity, contraceptive use, number of lifetime sexual partners, and receipt of HPV vaccine were not predictors of intent for future cervical cancer screening. Instead, only a history of a prior Pap test was a significant positive predictor and only a decisional satisfaction of 'neutral' (Likert score = 3 for any of the four decisional satisfaction elements was a significant negative predictor. For the decisional satisfaction element "best for me personally", there was a 78% decreased likelihood of intending to participate in future screening if the satisfaction was neutral rather than firm (aOR = 0.22, 95% CI: 0.05-0.91 and a 26 fold increased likelihood if she had had a prior Pap test (aOR = 26, 95% CI: 5-133.HPV vaccination implementation programs must help women be the owner of their decision around HPV vaccination and understand the importance of future participation in cervical cancer screening.

  11. How do women who choose not to participate in population-based cervical cancer screening reason about their decision?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blomberg, Karin; Ternestedt, Britt-Marie; Törnberg, Sven; Tishelman, Carol

    2008-06-01

    In Stockholm, Sweden, women are invited to a cost-free population-based cervical cancer screening programme (PCCSP) at regular intervals. Despite this, many women choose not to attend screening at all or to take opportunistic tests instead. This study explores how women who actively declined participation in the PCCSP reasoned about their choice. Qualitative telephone interviews and fax messages from women who actively declined participation in the PCCSP were analysed inductively. The manner in which women defined and conceptualized distinctions between, and the roles and responsibilities of, both private and public spheres were found to be central in explanations of decision making. Factors related to women's decisions not to participate in screening at all include a lack of confidence in the benefits of screening, previous negative health care and preventive experiences, a belief in one's own ability to discern health changes or a belief that one was not at risk for cervical cancer, as well as a number of unconventional standpoints on social and political issues. Women who chose not to participate in the organized PCCSP, but who did use private opportunistic screening, generally motivated this with direct or indirect criticism of the screening programme itself. Not only was the examination itself sensitive but also all facets of the PCCSP, from invitation letter on, were found to influence women's decisions. Using Jepson et al.'s ethical framework to peruse the evidence-base underlying women's 'informed decision-making' about CCS is suggested to be more constructive than discussing potential participants' knowledge versus lack of knowledge. PMID:17886262

  12. Gender Differences in Elders’ Participation in the National Can-cer Screening Program: Evidence from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2010–12

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang-Hyun KIM

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cancer-screening programs are effective in reducing cancer prevalence and mortality; however, cancer remains the leading cause of death in elderly people in Korea. The aim of this study was to identify the factors associated with elders’ participation in the National Cancer Screening Program (NCSP and differences in screening rates by gender.Methods: Original data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition and Examination Survey were analyzed by logistic regression analysis. The sample consisted of 5,505 elderly individuals over age 60. Selected demographic variables, cancer screening participation, physical and psychological health status, and lifestyle were examined.Results: The NCSP participation rates decreased in both men and women as age increased. Private medical insurance (OR 95% CI: 1.04–1.78, one or more chronic disease (OR 95% CI: 1.07–1.71, and current smoker (OR 95% CI: 0.52–0.94 had the strongest associations with cancer screening participation among men after multivariate adjustment. In contrast, cancer screening participation among women was significantly associated only with living place (OR 95% CI: 1.06–2.203 after multivariate adjustment.Conclusions: Effective health promoting interventions for elders require individualized programs that address gender-related factors associated with elders’ participation in cancer screening programs.

  13. Lung Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Treatment Lung Cancer Prevention Lung Cancer Screening Research Lung Cancer Screening (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is screening? Go ... These are called diagnostic tests . General Information About Lung Cancer Key Points Lung cancer is a disease in ...

  14. Skin Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Genetics of Skin Cancer Skin Cancer Screening Research Skin Cancer Screening (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is screening? Go ... These are called diagnostic tests . General Information About Skin Cancer Key Points Skin cancer is a disease in ...

  15. A cross-sectional analysis of participation in National Bowel Cancer Screening Program in Adelaide by age, gender and geographical location of residence.

    OpenAIRE

    Sara Javanparast; Ward, Paul R.; Stephen Cole; Tiffany Gill; Michelle Ah Matt; Paul Aylward; Genevieve Baratiny; Moyez Jiwa; Angelita Martini; Gary Misan; George Tsourtos; Carlene Wilson; Graeme Young

    2010-01-01

    BackgroundThe National Bowel Cancer Screening Program (NBCSP) is apopulation-based screening program based on a mailedscreening invitation and immunochemical faecal occult bloodtest. Initial published evidence from the NBCSP concurs withinternational evidence on similar colorectal cancer screeningprograms about the unequal participation by differentpopulation sub-groups. The aim of the paper is to present across-sectional analysis of participation in the NBCSP forAdelaide, in order to identif...

  16. Non-participation in screening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dugué, Pierre-Antoine; Lynge, Elsebeth; Bjerregaard, Beth;

    2012-01-01

    To determine the impact of comprehensiveness of cytology registration on the proportion of cervical cancer patients without a recent screening history.......To determine the impact of comprehensiveness of cytology registration on the proportion of cervical cancer patients without a recent screening history....

  17. Prostate cancer screenings

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000846.htm Prostate cancer screenings To use the sharing features on this ... Intern Med . 2011;155(11):762-71. National Cancer Institute. Prostate Cancer Screening -- for health professionals. Revised April 2, ...

  18. Breast cancer screenings

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000837.htm Breast cancer screenings To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Breast cancer screenings can help find breast cancer early, before ...

  19. Prostate Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... man's bladder that produces fluid for semen. Cancer screening is looking for cancer before you have any ... be easier to treat. There is no standard screening test for prostate cancer. Researchers are studying different ...

  20. Cervical Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cancer found early may be easier to treat. Cervical cancer screening is usually part of a woman's health ... may do more tests, such as a biopsy. Cervical cancer screening has risks. The results can sometimes be ...

  1. Breast cancer correlates in a cohort of breast screening program participants in Riyadh, KSA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahad A. Al-Amri

    2015-06-01

    Conclusions: The findings of the current work suggested that age at marriage, age at menopause ⩾50 years and 1st degree family history of breast cancer were risk factors for breast cancer, while, age at menopause <50 years, number of pregnancies and practicing breast feeding were protective factors against breast cancer. There was no effect of body mass index or physical inactivity. Further studies are needed to explore the hereditary, familial and genetic background risk factors in Saudi population.

  2. Risks of Cervical Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Treatment Cervical Cancer Prevention Cervical Cancer Screening Research Cervical Cancer Screening (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is screening? Screening ... These are called diagnostic tests . General Information About Cervical Cancer Key Points Cervical cancer is a disease in ...

  3. Body mass index and participation in organized mammographic screening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hellmann, Sophie Sell; Njor, Sisse Helle; Lynge, Elsebeth;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Breast cancer is the leading cancer among women, and early diagnosis is essential for future prognosis. Evidence from mainly cross-sectional US studies with self-reported exposure and outcome found positive association of body mass index (BMI) with non-participation in mammographic sc...... with normal weight, while BMI was not related to screening in premenopausal women. Effect of BMI on mammographic screening participation was not significantly modified by HT, previous screening participation, or morbidities....

  4. Pulmonary function and CT biomarkers as risk factors for cardiovascular events in male lung cancer screening participants: the NELSON study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this study was to investigate the association of spirometry and pulmonary CT biomarkers with cardiovascular events. In this lung cancer screening trial 3,080 male participants without a prior cardiovascular event were analysed. Fatal and non-fatal cardiovascular events were included. Spirometry included forced expiratory volume measured in units of one-second percent predicted (FEV1%predicted) and FEV1 divided by forced vital capacity (FVC; FEV1/FVC). CT examinations were quantified for coronary artery calcium volume, pulmonary emphysema (perc15) and bronchial wall thickness (pi10). Data were analysed via a Cox proportional hazard analysis, net reclassification improvement (NRI) and C-indices. 184 participants experienced a cardiovascular event during a median follow-up of 2.9 years. Age, pack-years and smoking status adjusted hazard ratios were 0.992 (95 % confidence interval (CI) 0.985-0.999) for FEV1%predicted, 1.000 (95%CI 0.986-1.015) for FEV1/FVC, 1.014 (95%CI 1.005-1.023) for perc15 per 10 HU, and 1.269 (95%CI 1.024-1.573) for pi10 per 1 mm. The incremental C-index (3, an increase in C-index of 0.076 and an NRI of 16.9 % (P < 0.0001). Pulmonary CT biomarkers and spirometry measurements were significantly associated with cardiovascular events, but did not contain clinically relevant independent prognostic information for cardiovascular events. (orig.)

  5. Screening for Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Internal Medicine Summaries for Patients Screening for Prostate Cancer: A Guidance Statement From the Clinical Guidelines Committee ... Physicians The full report is titled “Screening for Prostate Cancer: A Guidance Statement From the Clinical Guidelines Committee ...

  6. Screening for Ovarian Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Understanding Task Force Recommendations Screening for Ovarian Cancer The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (Task Force) has issued a final recommendation on Screening for Ovarian Cancer . This recommendation is ...

  7. Can an alert in primary care electronic medical records increase participation in a population-based screening programme for colorectal cancer? COLO-ALERT, a randomised clinical trial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colorectal cancer is an important public health problem in Spain. Over the last decade, several regions have carried out screening programmes, but population participation rates remain below recommended European goals. Reminders on electronic medical records have been identified as a low-cost and high-reach strategy to increase participation. Further knowledge is needed about their effect in a population-based screening programme. The main aim of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of an electronic reminder to promote the participation in a population-based colorectal cancer screening programme. Secondary aims are to learn population’s reasons for refusing to take part in the screening programme and to find out the health professionals’ opinion about the official programme implementation and on the new computerised tool. This is a parallel randomised trial with a cross-sectional second stage. Participants: all the invited subjects to participate in the public colorectal cancer screening programme that includes men and women aged between 50–69, allocated to the eleven primary care centres of the study and all their health professionals. The randomisation unit will be the primary care physician. The intervention will consist of activating an electronic reminder, in the patient’s electronic medical record, in order to promote colorectal cancer screening, during a synchronous medical appointment, throughout the year that the intervention takes place. A comparison of the screening rates will then take place, using the faecal occult blood test of the patients from the control and the intervention groups. We will also take a questionnaire to know the opinions of the health professionals. The main outcome is the screening status at the end of the study. Data will be analysed with an intention-to-treat approach. We expect that the introduction of specific reminders in electronic medical records, as a tool to facilitate and encourage direct referral by

  8. Pulmonary function and CT biomarkers as risk factors for cardiovascular events in male lung cancer screening participants: the NELSON study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takx, Richard A.P.; Hoesein, Firdaus A.A.M.; Mali, Willem P.T.M.; Leiner, Tim; Jong, Pim A. de [University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Radiology, Utrecht (Netherlands); Vliegenthart, Rozemarijn [University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Center for Medical Imaging - North East Netherlands, Groningen (Netherlands); University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Department of Radiology, Groningen (Netherlands); Isgum, Ivana [University Medical Center Utrecht, Image Sciences Institute, Utrecht (Netherlands); Koning, Harry J. de; Aalst, Carlijn M. van der [Erasmus Medical Center Rotterdam, Department of Public Health, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Zanen, Pieter; Lammers, Jan-Willem J. [University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Pulmonology, Utrecht (Netherlands); Groen, Harry J.M. [University Medical Center Groningen, Department of Pulmonology, Groningen (Netherlands); Rikxoort, Eva M. van; Ginneken, Bram van [Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Department of Radiology, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Institute for Medical Image Computing, Fraunhofer MEVIS, Bremen (Germany); Schmidt, Michael [Institute for Medical Image Computing, Fraunhofer MEVIS, Bremen (Germany); Oudkerk, Matthijs [University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Center for Medical Imaging - North East Netherlands, Groningen (Netherlands)

    2015-01-15

    The objective of this study was to investigate the association of spirometry and pulmonary CT biomarkers with cardiovascular events. In this lung cancer screening trial 3,080 male participants without a prior cardiovascular event were analysed. Fatal and non-fatal cardiovascular events were included. Spirometry included forced expiratory volume measured in units of one-second percent predicted (FEV{sub 1}%predicted) and FEV{sub 1} divided by forced vital capacity (FVC; FEV{sub 1}/FVC). CT examinations were quantified for coronary artery calcium volume, pulmonary emphysema (perc15) and bronchial wall thickness (pi10). Data were analysed via a Cox proportional hazard analysis, net reclassification improvement (NRI) and C-indices. 184 participants experienced a cardiovascular event during a median follow-up of 2.9 years. Age, pack-years and smoking status adjusted hazard ratios were 0.992 (95 % confidence interval (CI) 0.985-0.999) for FEV{sub 1}%predicted, 1.000 (95%CI 0.986-1.015) for FEV{sub 1}/FVC, 1.014 (95%CI 1.005-1.023) for perc15 per 10 HU, and 1.269 (95%CI 1.024-1.573) for pi10 per 1 mm. The incremental C-index (<0.015) and NRI (<2.8 %) were minimal. Coronary artery calcium volume had a hazard ratio of 1.046 (95%CI 1.034-1.058) per 100 mm{sup 3}, an increase in C-index of 0.076 and an NRI of 16.9 % (P < 0.0001). Pulmonary CT biomarkers and spirometry measurements were significantly associated with cardiovascular events, but did not contain clinically relevant independent prognostic information for cardiovascular events. (orig.)

  9. Risks of Skin Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Genetics of Skin Cancer Skin Cancer Screening Research Skin Cancer Screening (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is screening? Go ... These are called diagnostic tests . General Information About Skin Cancer Key Points Skin cancer is a disease in ...

  10. A cross-sectional analysis of participation in National Bowel Cancer Screening Program in Adelaide by age, gender and geographical location of residence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Javanparast

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundThe National Bowel Cancer Screening Program (NBCSP is apopulation-based screening program based on a mailedscreening invitation and immunochemical faecal occult bloodtest. Initial published evidence from the NBCSP concurs withinternational evidence on similar colorectal cancer screeningprograms about the unequal participation by differentpopulation sub-groups. The aim of the paper is to present across-sectional analysis of participation in the NBCSP forAdelaide, in order to identify geographical areas andpopulation groups which may benefit from targetedapproaches to increase participation rates in colorectal cancerscreening.MethodDe-identified data from the NBCSP (February 2007 to July2008 were provided by Medicare Australia. Mapping andanalysis of the NBCSP data was performed using ESRI ArcGISsoftware, MapInfo, Microsoft Access and Microsoft Excel.Data was aggregated to postcode and participation was thenmapped according to overall participation rates, sex and age.ResultsThe overall participation rate was 46.9%, although thisdiffered by age, gender and geographical location. Mapsprovided in the paper reveal a socio-economic patterningof participation in the NBCSP, whereby areas with higherparticipation rates are also more affluent, whereas areaswith lower participation rates tend to be moredisadvantaged.ConclusionFindings from this study suggest inequities in participationin the NBCSP on the basis of gender, geographicallocation, and socio-economic status.

  11. Cervical cancer - screening and prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancer cervix - screening; HPV - cervical cancer screening; Dysplasia - cervical cancer screening ... Almost all cervical cancers are caused by HPV (human papilloma virus). HPV is a common virus that spreads through sexual contact. Certain ...

  12. Screening for colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jin; Efron, Jonathan E

    2011-01-01

    March is national colorectal cancer awareness month. It is estimated that as many as 60% of colorectal cancer deaths could be prevented if all men and women aged 50 years or older were screened routinely. In 2000, Katie Couric's televised colonoscopy led to a 20% increase in screening colonoscopies across America, a stunning rise called the "Katie Couric Effect". This event demonstrated how celebrity endorsement affects health behavior. Currently, discussion is ongoing about the optimal strategy for CRC screening, particularly the costs of screening colonoscopy. The current CRC screening guidelines are summarized in Table 2. Debates over the optimum CRC screening test continue in the face of evidence that 22 million Americans aged 50 to 75 years are not screened for CRC by any modality and 25,000 of those lives may have been saved if they had been screened for CRC. It is clear that improving screening rates and reducing disparities in underscreened communities and population subgroups could further reduce colorectal cancer morbidity and mortality. National Institutes of Health consensus identified the following priority areas to enhance the use and quality of colorectal cancer screening: Eliminate financial barriers to colorectal cancer screening and appropriate follow-up of positive results of colorectal cancer screening. Develop systems to ensure the high quality of colorectal cancer screening programs. Conduct studies to determine the comparative effectiveness of the various colorectal cancer screening methods in usual practice settings. Encouraging population adherence to screening tests and allowing patients to select the tests they prefer may do more good (as long as they choose something) than whatever procedure is chosen by the medical profession as the preferred test. PMID:21954677

  13. Prostate Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... treat. There is no standard screening test for prostate cancer. Researchers are studying different tests to find those ... PSA level may be high if you have prostate cancer. It can also be high if you have ...

  14. Mortality of non-participants in cervical screening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dugué, Pierre-Antoine; Lynge, Elsebeth; Rebolj, Matejka

    2014-01-01

    -participants had a HR of 2.09 (95% CI: 2.05-2.14) compared to regular participants. The HR for human papillomavirus (HPV)-related cancers other than cervical cancer was 3.80 (95% CI: 2.67-5.41). Younger women, whose coverage rates were higher, had higher all-cause mortality HRs. Women screened more frequently than...

  15. Annual change in the rate of participation in breast cancer screening through active encouragement of sports participation. A survey of women participants at the annual meetings of the Pink Ribbon Ladies' Tennis Tournament organized by the Japan Women's Tennis Players' League

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In March 2002, an initial attempt was made to decrease breast cancer mortality by the Japan Society of Breast Health, by means of encouraging participation in sports. This was followed by other similar events. The present study was designed to examine whether these kinds of sport-associated events are actually effective for increasing the screening participation rate. We hoped that the results would reveal practical ways of organizing such programs. One of these activities, the All Japan Women's Tennis Players' League, has called for amateur players to participate in an annual meeting of the Pink Ribbon Ladies' Tennis Tournament since 2003. A survey of their knowledge about breast cancer and their will to participate in breast cancer screening has been carried out annually in 2003, 2004 and 2005, by asking the participants to respond to our questionnaires. As a result, the number of participants has increased: from 7,201 women in 2003, to 7,846 in 2004 and to 8,572 in 2005. The questionnaires included items about participation in breast cancer screening, performance of self-examination, and participation in mammography screening. The participation rate increased year by year. The participation rate at mammography screening was 21% in 2003, and this increased to 26% in 2005. Thus this kind of sports event appears to promote knowledge about breast cancer screening and to increase the participation rate. On the other hand, it was found that the rate of self-examination decreased from 53% to 22%. Therefore problems that need to be addressed in the future include not only increasing women's motivation to undergo screening, but also the selection of appropriate screening methods, their combination, and distribution of accurate information. (author)

  16. Lung Cancer Screening Update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruchalski, Kathleen L; Brown, Kathleen

    2016-07-01

    Since the release of the US Preventive Services Task Force and Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services recommendations for lung cancer screening, low-dose chest computed tomography screening has moved from the research arena to clinical practice. Lung cancer screening programs must reach beyond image acquisition and interpretation and engage in a multidisciplinary effort of clinical shared decision-making, standardization of imaging and nodule management, smoking cessation, and patient follow-up. Standardization of radiologic reports and nodule management will systematize patient care, provide quality assurance, further reduce harm, and contain health care costs. Although the National Lung Screening Trial results and eligibility criteria of a heavy smoking history are the foundation for the standard guidelines for low-dose chest computed tomography screening in the United States, currently only 27% of patients diagnosed with lung cancer would meet US lung cancer screening recommendations. Current and future efforts must be directed to better delineate those patients who would most benefit from screening and to ensure that the benefits of screening reach all socioeconomic strata and racial and ethnic minorities. Further optimization of lung cancer screening program design and patient eligibility will assure that lung cancer screening benefits will outweigh the potential risks to our patients. PMID:27306387

  17. Screening for colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Hans J; Jakobsen, Karen V; Christensen, Ib J;

    2011-01-01

    Emerging results indicate that screening improves survival of patients with colorectal cancer. Therefore, screening programs are already implemented or are being considered for implementation in Asia, Europe and North America. At present, a great variety of screening methods are available including...... into improvements of screening for colorectal cancer includes blood-based biological markers, such as proteins, DNA and RNA in combination with various demographically and clinically parameters into a "risk assessment evaluation" (RAE) test. It is assumed that such a test may lead to higher acceptance among...... procedures for colorectal cancer. Therefore, results of present research, validating RAE tests, are awaited with interest....

  18. Mind the gap: Racial differences in breast cancer incidence and biologic phenotype, but not stage, among low-income women participating in a government-funded screening program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Joan E.; Walters, Christine A.; Hill, Elizabeth G.; Ford, Marvella E.; Barker-Elamin, Tiffany; Bennett, Charles L.

    2013-01-01

    Background Breast cancer mortality rates in South Carolina (SC) are 40% higher among African-American (AA) than European-American (EA) women. Proposed reasons include race-associated variations in care and/or tumor characteristics, which may be subject to income effects. We evaluated race-associated differences in tumor biologic phenotype and stage among low-income participants in a government-funded screening program. Methods Best Chance Network (BCN) data were linked with the SC Central Cancer Registry. Characteristics of breast cancers diagnosed in BCN participants aged 47–64 years during 1996–2006 were abstracted. Race-specific case proportions and incidence rates based on estrogen receptor (ER) status and histologic grade were estimated. Results Among 33,880 low-income women accessing BCN services, repeat breast cancer screening utilization was poor, especially among EAs. Proportionally, stage at diagnosis did not differ by race (607 cancers, 53% among AAs), with about 40% advanced stage. Compared to EAs, invasive tumors in AAs were 67% more likely (proportions) to be of poor-prognosis phenotype (both ER-negative and high-grade); this was more a result of the 46% lesser AA incidence (rates) of better-prognosis (ER+ lower-grade) cancer than the 32% greater incidence of poor-prognosis disease (p-values <0.01). When compared to the general SC population, racial disparities in poor prognostic features within the BCN population were attenuated; this was due to more frequent adverse tumor features in EAs rather than improvements for AAs. Conclusion Among low-income women in SC, closing the breast cancer racial and income mortality gaps will require improved early diagnosis, addressing causes of racial differences in tumor biology, and improved care for cancers of poor-prognosis biology. PMID:23239148

  19. Participation in cancer screening among female migrants and non-migrants in Germany: A cross-sectional study on the role of demographic and socioeconomic factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brzoska, Patrick; Abdul-Rida, Chadi

    2016-07-01

    In many European countries, migrants utilize cancer screening less often than non-migrants. In Germany, in contrast, higher rates of utilization among migrants as compared with non-migrants have been reported. The role of demographic and socioeconomic factors potentially confounding the association between migration status and participation in screening, however, could not be studied. The present study aims to investigate the utilization of cancer screening among migrant and nonmigrant women residing in Germany, adjusting for potential confounders.We used self-reported information from women surveyed on whether they have ever participated in screening for cancer (n = 11,709). The data was collected as part of a cross-sectional representative telephone survey conducted by the Robert Koch-Institute in 2010. We distinguished between three groups of women: (1) respondents of non-German nationality, those who had immigrated to Germany after their birth or those who have two foreign-born parents ("migrants with two-sided migration background"), (2) respondents who only have one foreign-born parent ("migrant with one-sided migration background"), and (3) all others ("non-migrants").To account for confounders, logistic regression analysis was performed. Only individuals proficient in German were included in the survey, allowing to control for a bias arising from poor language proficiency.84.9% of nonmigrant women, 82.1% of women with a one-sided, and 70.5% of women with a two-sided migration background had utilized screening for cancer at least once in their lifetime before the survey. The adjusted odds ratios (OR) as compared with nonmigrant women were 0.99 (95% confidence interval [95% CI]: 0.77-1.27) and 0.55 (95% CI: 0.47-0.64), respectively.The study shows that migrant women with a two-sided migration background residing in Germany utilize screening for cancer less often than nonmigrant women-independently of demographic and socioeconomic factors. This is in line

  20. Breast cancer screening

    OpenAIRE

    Skrabanek, P

    1988-01-01

    Consensus is still lacking on guidelines for breast-cancer screening with mammography: who should be screened, how frequently at what age, to what benefits and at what risks. American, Dutch, Swedish and Italian studies spanning the 1960s to the 1980s reveal a benefit from screening (reduced mortality from breast cancer) that occurs unambiguously only in women 50 years of age and over. Physicians who choose to screen mammographically their over-49-year-old female patients must do so with the ...

  1. Screening for Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... absolute reduction in mortal- ity. Preliminary results from PIVOT (Prostate Cancer In- tervention Versus Observation Trial), in ... early PSA screening era, prelim- inary findings from PIVOT show that, after 12 years, in- tention to ...

  2. Endometrial Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... may detect (find) endometrial cancer are being studied: Pap test A Pap test is a procedure to collect cells from ... are abnormal . This procedure is also called a Pap smear. Pap tests are not used to screen ...

  3. Screening for Cervical Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cervical cancer: • Cytology: This test, also called a Pap test or Pap smear, looks for abnormal changes in cells in ... women ages 21 to 65, screening with a Pap test every 3 years has the highest benefits ...

  4. Colorectal Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... laxatives to clear the colon, shows polyps clearly. DNA stool test This test checks DNA in stool cells for genetic changes that may be a sign of colorectal cancer. Screening clinical trials are taking place in many parts of the ... Screening tests have risks. False-negative test results can occur. ...

  5. Colorectal cancer screening

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ramona M McLoughlin; Colm A O'Morain

    2006-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is a major public health burden worldwide.There is clear-cut evidence that screening will reduce colorectal cancer mortality and the only contentious issue is which screening tool to use.Most evidence points towards screening with fecal occult blood testing.The immunochemical fecal occult blood tests have a higher sensitivity than the guaiac-based tests.In addition,their automation and haemoglobin quantification allows a threshold for colonoscopy to be selected that can be accommodated within individual health care systems.

  6. Screening for lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Infante, Maurizio V; Pedersen, Jesper H

    2010-01-01

    In lung cancer screening with low-dose spiral computed tomography (LDCT), the proportion of stage I disease is 50-85%, and the survival rate for resected stage I disease can exceed 90%, but proof of real benefit in terms of lung cancer mortality reduction must come from the several randomized...

  7. Tailored Telephone Counseling Increases Colorectal Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawl, Susan M.; Christy, Shannon M.; Monahan, Patrick O.; Ding, Yan; Krier, Connie; Champion, Victoria L.; Rex, Douglas

    2015-01-01

    To compare the efficacy of two interventions to promote colorectal cancer screening participation and forward stage movement of colorectal cancer screening adoption among first-degree relatives of individuals diagnosed with adenomatous polyps. One hundred fifty-eight first-degree relatives of individuals diagnosed with adenomatous polyps were…

  8. Lung cancer screening: Update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths worldwide as well as in Korea. A recent National Lung Screening Trial in U.S. revealed that low-dose CT (LDCT) screening reduced lung cancer specific mortality by 20% in high risk individuals as compared to chest radiograph screening. Based on this evidence, several expert societies in U.S. and Korean multisociety collaborative committee developed guidelines for recommendation of lung cancer screening using annual LDCT in high risk populations. In most of the societies high risk groups are defined as persons aged 55 to 74 years, who are current smokers with history of smoking of more than 30 packs per year or ex-smokers, who quit smoking up to 15 or more years ago. The benefits of LDCT screening are modestly higher than the harms in high risk individuals. The harms included a high rate of false-positive findings, over-diagnosis and radiation-related deaths. Invasive diagnostic procedure due to false positive findings may lead to complications. LDCT should be performed in qualified hospitals and interpreted by expert radiologists. Recently, the American College of Radiology released the current version of Lung cancer CT screening Reporting and Data Systems. Education and actions to stop smoking must be offered to current smokers

  9. Lung cancer screening: Update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyea Young [Dept. of Radiology, Center for Lung Cancer, National Cancer Center, Goyang (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-09-15

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths worldwide as well as in Korea. A recent National Lung Screening Trial in U.S. revealed that low-dose CT (LDCT) screening reduced lung cancer specific mortality by 20% in high risk individuals as compared to chest radiograph screening. Based on this evidence, several expert societies in U.S. and Korean multisociety collaborative committee developed guidelines for recommendation of lung cancer screening using annual LDCT in high risk populations. In most of the societies high risk groups are defined as persons aged 55 to 74 years, who are current smokers with history of smoking of more than 30 packs per year or ex-smokers, who quit smoking up to 15 or more years ago. The benefits of LDCT screening are modestly higher than the harms in high risk individuals. The harms included a high rate of false-positive findings, over-diagnosis and radiation-related deaths. Invasive diagnostic procedure due to false positive findings may lead to complications. LDCT should be performed in qualified hospitals and interpreted by expert radiologists. Recently, the American College of Radiology released the current version of Lung cancer CT screening Reporting and Data Systems. Education and actions to stop smoking must be offered to current smokers.

  10. Developments in Colorectal Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... on. Feature: Colorectal Cancer Developments in Colorectal Cancer Screening Summer 2016 Table of Contents Dr. Asad Umar, ... know to help determine the best colon cancer screening test for them? Colonoscopy is considered the gold ...

  11. Colorectal cancer screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almeida Frederico Ferreira Novaes de

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Colorectal cancer (CRC is the third most common cancer in the world, and mortality has remained the same for the past 50 years, despite advances in diagnosis and treatment. Because significant numbers of patients present with advanced or incurable stages, patients with pre-malignant lesions (adenomatous polyps that occur as result of genetic inheritance or age should be screened, and patients with long-standing inflammatory bowel disease should undergo surveillance. There are different risk groups for CRC, as well as different screening strategies. It remains to be determined which screening protocol is the most cost-effective for each risk catagory. The objective of screening is to reduce morbidity and mortality in a target population. The purpose of this review is to analyze the results of the published CRC screening studies, with regard to the measured reduction of morbidity and mortality, due to CRC in the studied populations, following various screening procedures. The main screening techniques, used in combination or alone, include fecal occult blood tests, flexible sigmoidoscopy, and colonoscopy. Evidence from the published literature on screening methods for specific risk groups is scanty and frequently does not arise from controlled studies. Nevertheless, data from these studies, combined with recent advances in molecular genetics, certainly lead the way to greater efficacy and lower cost of CRC screening.

  12. Long-term exposure to fine particulate matter air pollution and the risk of lung cancer among participants of the Canadian National Breast Screening Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomczak, Anna; Miller, Anthony B; Weichenthal, Scott A; To, Teresa; Wall, Claus; van Donkelaar, Aaron; Martin, Randall V; Crouse, Dan Lawson; Villeneuve, Paul J

    2016-11-01

    Recently, air pollution has been classified as a carcinogen largely on the evidence of epidemiological studies of lung cancer. However, there have been few prospective studies that have evaluated associations between fine particulate matter (PM2.5 ) and cancer at lower concentrations. We conducted a prospective analysis of 89,234 women enrolled in the Canadian National Breast Screening Study between 1980 and 1985, and for whom residential measures of PM2.5 could be assigned. The cohort was linked to the Canadian Cancer Registry to identify incident lung cancers through 2004. Surface PM2.5 concentrations were estimated using satellite data. Cox proportional hazards models were used to characterize associations between PM2.5 and lung cancer. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) computed from these models were adjusted for several individual-level characteristics, including smoking. The cohort was composed predominantly of Canadian-born (82%), married (80%) women with a median PM2.5 exposure of 9.1 µg/m(3) . In total, 932 participants developed lung cancer. In fully adjusted models, a 10 µg/m(3) increase in PM2.5 was associated with an elevated risk of lung cancer (HR: 1.34; 95% CI = 1.10, 1.65). The strongest associations were observed with small cell carcinoma (HR: 1.53; 95% CI = 0.93, 2.53) and adenocarcinoma (HR: 1.44; 95% CI = 1.06, 1.97). Stratified analyses suggested increased PM2.5 risks were limited to those who smoked cigarettes. Our findings are consistent with previous epidemiological investigations of long-term exposure to PM2.5 and lung cancer. Importantly, they suggest associations persist at lower concentrations such as those currently found in Canadian cities. PMID:27380650

  13. Cervical cancer screening in the Faroe Islands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hammer, Turið; Lynge, Elsebeth; Djurhuus, Gisela W;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The Faroe Islands have had nationally organised cervical cancer screening since 1995. Women aged 25-60 years are invited every third year. Participation is free of charge. Although several European overviews on cervical screening are available, none have included the Faroe Islands. Our...... aim was to provide the first description of cervical cancer screening, and to determine the screening history of women diagnosed with cervical cancer in the Faroe Islands. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Screening data from 1996 to 2012 were obtained from the Diagnostic Centre at the National Hospital...... 1999. At present, 7.0% of samples have abnormal cytology. Of all ASCUS samples, 76-95% were tested for HPV. A total of 58% of women diagnosed with cervical cancer did not participate in screening prior to their diagnosis, and 32% had normal cytology in the previous four years. CONCLUSION: Despite...

  14. Abnormal Cervical Cancer Screening Test Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... AQ FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS FAQ187 GYNECOLOGIC PROBLEMS Abnormal Cervical Cancer Screening Test Results • What is cervical cancer screening? • What causes abnormal cervical cancer screening test ...

  15. Screening for Lung Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stiles, Brendon M; Pua, Bradley; Altorki, Nasser K

    2016-07-01

    Lung cancer is a global health burden and is among the most common and deadliest of all malignancies worldwide. The goal of screening programs is to detect tumors in earlier, curable stages, consequently reducing disease-specific mortality. The issue of screening has great relevance to thoracic surgeons, who should play a leading role in the debate over screening and its consequences. The burden is on thoracic surgeons to work in a multidisciplinary setting to guide and treat these patients safely and responsibly, ensuring low morbidity and mortality of potential diagnostic or therapeutic interventions. PMID:27261909

  16. Increased FDG uptake in the wall of the right atrium in people who participated in a cancer screening program with whole-body PET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujii, Hirofumi; Ide, Michiru; Yasuda, Seiei; Takahashi, Wakoh; Shohtsu, Akira [HIMEDIC Imaging Center at Lake Yamanaka, Yamanashi (Japan); Kubo, Atsushi

    1999-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the characteristics of patients who showed increased FDG uptake in the wall of the right atrium. We have encountered 10 patients with increased activity in the wall of the right atrium among a total of 2,367 examinees who participated in our cancer screening program with whole-body PET. The mean age of these examinees was 62.9 yr, higher than that of the total population. All suffered from cardiac disorders, especially atrial fibrillation. FDG accumulated almost exclusively in the wall of the right atrium, whereas only slight activity was seen in the wall of the left atrium. Although the average size of the right atria was significantly enlarged, left atria were more severely dilated than right ones. Therefore overload does not seem to account for the FDG accumulation in the wall of the right atrium. In conclusion, the increased activity in the wall of the right atrium was a rare finding that was made in older people who suffered from cardiac disease. Although the mechanism of induction of the high metabolic state of glucose in the wall of the right atrium remains unclear, this unusual activity would be another false positive finding in cancer screening with whole-body FDG PET. (author)

  17. Increased FDG uptake in the wall of the right atrium in people who participated in a cancer screening program with whole-body PET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the characteristics of patients who showed increased FDG uptake in the wall of the right atrium. We have encountered 10 patients with increased activity in the wall of the right atrium among a total of 2,367 examinees who participated in our cancer screening program with whole-body PET. The mean age of these examinees was 62.9 yr, higher than that of the total population. All suffered from cardiac disorders, especially atrial fibrillation. FDG accumulated almost exclusively in the wall of the right atrium, whereas only slight activity was seen in the wall of the left atrium. Although the average size of the right atria was significantly enlarged, left atria were more severely dilated than right ones. Therefore overload does not seem to account for the FDG accumulation in the wall of the right atrium. In conclusion, the increased activity in the wall of the right atrium was a rare finding that was made in older people who suffered from cardiac disease. Although the mechanism of induction of the high metabolic state of glucose in the wall of the right atrium remains unclear, this unusual activity would be another false positive finding in cancer screening with whole-body FDG PET. (author)

  18. Self-assessed health, perceived stress and non-participation in breast cancer screening: A Danish cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Line Flytkjær; Pedersen, Anette Fischer; Andersen, Berit;

    2015-01-01

    Dette studie undersøger sammenhængen mellem selvvurderet helbred og opfattet stres vurderet i 2006 og sammenhængen med ikke-deltagelse i brystkræft screening. Studiet inkluderer 4512 kvinder som blev inviteret til første screeningsrunde i Region Midtjylland i 2008-2009 og som besvarede ”hvordan h...... helbred som middel. Kvinder der vurderede deres mentale helbred som dårligt og kvinder som oplevede høj stress var ligeledes mindre tilbøjelige til at deltage i screening. Studiet indikerer at kvinders egen opfattelse af sundhed påvirker deltagelse i screening....

  19. SCREENING FOR COLORECTAL CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Bărbulescu

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is a review of the main procedures for early diagnosis of colorectal cancer, especially for the asymptomatic individuals with high risk to develop this neoplasm, devise the risk groups to develop this cancer and to study the management of these. The advantages and disadvantages or limitations of screening modalities for colorectal cancer, such as faecal occult blood testing with old guaiac-based tests or the new tests for detecting faecal deoxyribonucleic acid of tumor cells, endoscopic screening by flexible sigmoidoscopy, colonoscopy, or CT-colonography and double contrast barium enema examination, are evaluated. The most accurate diagnosed sensibility (95-97% belong to total colonoscopy with biopsy, barium enema having a lower sensibility (83%; the easiest and cheaper screening method represent guaiac-based faecal occult blood tests but with a global predictive positive value of only 5-10%. In our country, as it’s known, most of the colorectal cancer patients presents to the doctor in an advanced local stage or with distant metastases or in other situations like perforation, obstructive or hemorrhaged complications. In all these cases the therapeutic resources are limited and the survival is much diminished. The situation would be different if in the precocious diagnosis in the incipient stage of the colorectal neoplasm, proper treatment resources may assure to these patients a higher life hope. A proper national healthy political program that will promote some fesabile screening programs could diagnose and treat patients with colorectal neoplasm in incipient stages, with the result of prolonged survival and disease-free interval and complete socio-professional reinstatement. These national screening programs may absolve the expensiveness on the patients care with the colorectal neoplasm cancer in the advanced stages that have a poor prognosis.

  20. Screening methods of ovarian cancer in adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milenković Vera

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Ovarian cancer is associated with high mortality rate which has improved a little despite therapeutic advances. It causes more deaths than combined cervical and uterine cancer. High mortality is believed to be a direct result of already advanced stage at the time of diagnosis. Survival is excellent in case of early stage disease but poor in late stage disease, regardless of histology. The goal of screening for ovarian cancer is restricted to detection of asymptomatic early stage disease, as precursor lesions of ovarian cancer have not been identified. At present, there is no reliable method of ovarian cancer screening which has been shown to reduce mortality from ovarian cancer. Therefore, routine screening of women in general population can not be currently advised. Screening should be limited to high-risk population and subjects participating in research projects as long as the results of current studies are available.

  1. Assessment of a cancer screening program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabeneck, Linda; Lansdorp-Vogelaar, Iris

    2015-12-01

    Several Asian countries are implementing nationwide cancer screening programs. Assessment of the effectiveness of these programs is critical to their success as this is the only way to ensure that the benefits of screening outweigh the harms. In this paper we focus on colorectal cancer (CRC) screening to illustrate the principles of screening program assessment. The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) has defined organized screening, distinguishing it from opportunistic screening. The key advantage of organized screening is that it provides greater protection against the possible harms of screening. Since screening is a process, not simply a test, the effectiveness of a program depends on the quality of each step in the cancer screening process. The evaluation of long-term screening program outcomes (CRC incidence and mortality) will not be observable for many years, given the time it takes to plan, pilot and implement a program. However, early performance indicators of the impact of screening should be monitored to give an early indication whether the program is on track. The European Union (EU) has recommended a minimum dataset to be collected and reported regularly by a screening program. Using information from these data tables, early performance indicators can be generated (e.g., participation rate, proportion of screen-detected cancers that are early-stage). Subsequently, modeling the natural history of the disease can be very helpful to estimate long-term outcomes, making use of these directly measured early performance indicators. Modeling can also be used to estimate the cost-effectiveness of a screening program and the potential impact of changes in policy, as illustrated by its recent use in the Netherlands to change the definition of a positive fecal immunochemical test (FIT) for the CRC screening program. Programs should consider modeling as an important component of screening program evaluation. PMID:26651258

  2. Does educational level determine screening participation?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Euler-Chelpin, My; Olsen, Anne Helene; Njor, Sisse;

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that nonparticipation in organized mammography screening is due to insufficient understanding of the information in the invitation letter by relating educational level to user pattern. Data from two Danish mammography screening programmes in...... Copenhagen, 1991-1999, and Funen, 1993-2001 were taken for this study. The Danish Central Population Register was used to define target groups; screened participation data were provided by the health authority, and data on highest obtained education came from Statistics Denmark. Data on all breast imaging in...... this study. Main outcome measures were age-adjusted relative risks (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) of 'never use' versus 'always use' of screening by educational level, using women with secretarial/sales education as baseline. The RR of 'never use' was 1.65 (95% CI: 1.37-1.99) in Copenhagen and...

  3. Who wants cancer screening with PET?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objectives: Cancer screening using whole-body fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) has gradually become popular in Japan. Although some studies have reported high cancer detection rates with PET screening, the justification for such an approach is still unclear, and no evidence has been provided to indicate that PET screening reduces cancer mortality. We measured the general public's willingness to pay (WTP) for this service using a contingent valuation method, after providing them with sufficient information regarding the efficacy and limitations of the service. Methods: A computer-assisted questionnaire survey was conducted on males and females in Japan aged between 40 and 59 years. The study participants (n = 390) were provided with sufficient information about the PET procedure, the high cancer detection rate, false-negatives/false-positives and the fact that the mortality-reducing effect of PET screening has not yet been demonstrated. The participants' WTP was ascertained by a double-bound dichotomous choice approach. Results: The average WTP among all the participants was $68.0 (95% confidence interval: $56.9-79.2). A Weibull regression analysis showed that income, degree of concern about health, and family history of cancer were significant factors affecting WTP. Conclusions: The actual charge for PET screening in Japan is approximately $1000 on average, which is significantly higher than the participants' WTP for the actual benefit obtained from the service. If the Japanese healthcare consumers are well-informed, most of them would avoid purchasing such a costly service.

  4. Celebrity endorsements of cancer screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Robin J; Woloshin, Steven; Schwartz, Lisa M; Welch, H Gilbert

    2005-05-01

    Celebrities often promote cancer screening by relating personal anecdotes about their own diagnosis or that of a loved one. We used data obtained from a random-digit dialing survey conducted in the United States from December 2001 through July 2002 to examine the extent to which adults of screening age without a history of cancer had seen or heard or been influenced by celebrity endorsements of screening mammography, prostate-specific antigen (PSA) testing, or sigmoidoscopy or colonoscopy. The survey response rate was 72% among those known to be eligible and 51% among potentially eligible people accounting for those who could not be contacted. A total of 360 women aged 40 years or older and 140 men aged 50 years or older participated in the survey. Most respondents reported they "had seen or heard a celebrity talk about" mammography (73% of women aged 40 years or older), PSA testing (63% of men aged 50 years or older), or sigmoidoscopy or colonoscopy (52% of adults aged 50 years or older). At least one-fourth of respondents who had seen or heard a celebrity endorsement said that the endorsement made them more likely to undergo mammography (25%), PSA testing (31%), or sigmoidoscopy or colonoscopy (37%). PMID:15870440

  5. Controversies in Lung Cancer Screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Ritu R; Jaklitsch, Michael T; Jacobson, Francine L

    2016-02-01

    There remains an extensive debate over lung cancer screening, with lobbying for and against screening for very compelling reasons. The National Lung Screening Trial, International Early Lung Cancer Program, and other major screening studies favor screening with low-dose CT scans and have shown a reduction in lung cancer-specific mortality. The increasing incidence of lung cancer and the dismal survival rate for advanced disease despite improved multimodality therapy have sparked an interest in the implementation of national lung cancer screening. Concerns over imaging workflow, radiation dose, management of small nodules, overdiagnosis bias, lead-time and length-time bias, emerging new technologies, and cost-effectiveness continue to be debated. The authors address each of these issues as they relate to radiologic practice. PMID:26846531

  6. Risks of Lung Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and former heavy smokers. Current smokers whose LDCT scan results show possible signs of cancer may be more likely to quit smoking. A Guide is available for patients and doctors to learn more about the benefits and harms of low-dose helical CT screening for lung cancer. Screening with chest x- ...

  7. Examining Factors Influencing Colorectal Cancer Screening of Rural Nebraskans Using Data from Clinics Participating in an Accountable Care Organization: A Study Protocol [v1; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/5me

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lufei Young

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although mortality rates of colorectal cancer (CRC can be significantly reduced through increased screening, rural communities are still experiencing lower rates of screening compared to urban counterparts. Understanding and eliminating barriers to cancer screening will decrease cancer burden and lead to substantial gains in quality and quantity of life for rural populations. However, existing studies have shown inconsistent findings and fail to address how contextual and provider-level factors impact CRC screening in addition to individual-level factors.  Purpose: The purpose of the study is to examine multi-level factors related to CRC screening, and providers’ perception of barriers and facilitators of CRC screening in rural patients cared for by accountable care organization (ACO clinics. Methods/Design: This is a convergent mixed method design. For the quantitative component, multiple data sources, such as electronic health records (EHRs, Area Resource File (ARF, and provider survey data, will be used to examine patient-, provider-, clinic-, and county-level factors. About 21,729 rural patients aged between 50 and 75 years who visited the participating ACO clinics in the past 12 months are included in the quantitative analysis. The qualitative methods include semi-structured in-depth interviews with healthcare professionals in selected rural clinics. Both quantitative and qualitative data will be merged for result interpretation. Quantitative data identifies “what” factors influence CRC screening, while qualitative data explores “how” these factors interact with CRC screening. The study setting is 10 ACO clinics located in nine rural Nebraska counties. Discussion: This will be the first study examining multi-level factors related to CRC screening in the new healthcare delivery system (i.e., ACO clinics in rural communities. The study findings will enhance our understanding of how the ACO model, particularly in rural

  8. Abdominal ultrasonographic screening of adult health study participants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To assess ultrasonography's capabilities in the detection of cancer and other diseases, abdominal ultrasonographic screening was performed for 3,707 Hiroshima and 2,294 Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors and comparison subjects who participated in the Adult Health Study from 1 November 1981 to 31 October 1985 in Hiroshima and from 1 August 1984 to 31 July 1986 in Nagasaki. A total of 20 cancers was detected, consisting of 7 hepatomas, 3 gastric cancers, 3 renal cancers, 2 cancers of the urinary bladder, and 1 cancer each of the ovary, pancreas, colon, ureter and liver (metastatic). The cancer detection rate was 0.33 %. The diagnoses of seven cancer subjects in each city were subsequently confirmed at autopsy or surgery; diagnoses of four cancer subjects in Hiroshima and two in Nagasaki were obtained from death certificates. Among the 20 cancer patients, 13 were asymptomatic. After the ultrasonographic detection and diagnosis of these 20 cancers, the medical records of each of the 20 cancer patients were reviewed for any evidence of cancer detection by other examining techniques, and the records of only 3 patients revealed such recent detection. The tumor and tissue registries were similarly checked, but no evidence of earlier diagnosis of their disease was found. Ten of the cancer patients had received ionizing radiation doses from the A-bombs ranging up to 3,421 mGy (DS86), but no correlation was established between cancer prevalence and the A-bomb doses. A variety of tumors, 259 in number and most probably benign, were also detected with ultrasonography. In addition, numerous other abnormalities were diagnosed, with prevalences of 7.7 % for cholelithiasis, 5.7 % for renal cysts, and 3.8 % for liver cysts. No statistical analysis was performed concerning the prevalence of the diseases detected. (author)

  9. How do people interpret information about colorectal cancer screening: observations from a think-aloud study

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, S. G.; Vart, G.; Wolf, M. S.; Obichere, A; Baker, H. J.; Raine, R; Wardle, J.; Von Wagner, C.

    2013-01-01

    The English NHS Bowel Cancer Screening Programme biennially invites individuals aged 60-74 to participate in screening. The booklet, 'Bowel Cancer Screening: The Facts' accompanies this invitation. Its primary aim is to inform potential participants about the aims, advantages and disadvantages of colorectal cancer screening.

  10. Cervical cancer screening at crossroads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynge, Elsebeth; Rygaard, Carsten; Baillet, Miguel Vazquez-Prada;

    2014-01-01

    Cervical screening has been one of the most successful public health prevention programmes. For 50 years, cytology formed the basis for screening, and detected cervical intraepithelial lesions (CIN) were treated surgically to prevent progression to cancer. In a high-risk country as Denmark......, screening decreased the incidence of cervical cancer from 34 to 11 per 100,000, age-standardized rate (World Standard Population). Screening is, however, also expensive; Denmark (population: 5.6 million) undertakes close to half a million tests per year, and has 6-8 CIN-treated women for each prevented...... cancer case. The discovery of human papillomavirus (HPV) as the cause of cervical cancer dramatically changed perspectives for disease control. Screening with HPV testing was launched around 1990, and preventive HPV vaccination was licensed in 2006. Long-term randomized controlled trials (RCT...

  11. CDC Vital Signs: Cancer Screenings: Colorectal Cancer and Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... aged 50–75 need to be screened for colorectal cancer, and 7 million women aged 50–74 need ... aged 50–75 are up-to-date with colorectal cancer screening. 56% Only 56% of uninsured women aged ...

  12. Access to cancer screening for women with mobility disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angus, Jan; Seto, Lisa; Barry, Nancy; Cechetto, Naomi; Chandani, Samira; Devaney, Julie; Fernando, Sharmini; Muraca, Linda; Odette, Fran

    2012-03-01

    Women with mobility disabilities are less likely to access cancer screening, even when they have a primary care provider. The Gateways to Cancer Screening project was initiated to document the challenges for women with disabilities in their access and experiences of screening for breast, cervical and colorectal cancer. The study followed the tenets of participatory action research. Five peer-led focus groups were held with 24 women with mobility disabilities. Study participants identified multiple and interacting institutional barriers to cancer screening. Their discussions highlighted the complex work of (1) arranging and attending health-related appointments, (2) confronting normative assumptions about women's bodies and (3) securing reliable health care and information. These overlapping, mutually reinforcing issues interact to shape how women with disabilities access and experience cancer screening. We explore implications for redesign of cancer screening services and education of health providers, providing specific recommendations suggested by our participants and the findings. PMID:21927868

  13. Colon cancer screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... screening; Virtual colonoscopy - screening; Fecal immunochemical test; Stool DNA test; sDNA test ... called the fecal immunochemical test (FIT) and stool DNA test (sDNA). Sigmoidoscopy : This test uses a small flexible ...

  14. Risks of Endometrial Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... may detect (find) endometrial cancer are being studied: Pap test A Pap test is a procedure to collect cells from ... are abnormal . This procedure is also called a Pap smear. Pap tests are not used to screen ...

  15. Public Awareness of Colorectal Cancer Screening: Knowledge, Attitudes, and Interventions for Increasing Screening Uptake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gimeno Garcia, Antonio Z.; Hernandez Alvarez Buylla, Noemi; Nicolas-Perez, David; Quintero, Enrique

    2014-01-01

    Colorectal cancer ranks as one of the most incidental and death malignancies worldwide. Colorectal cancer screening has proven its benefit in terms of incidence and mortality reduction in randomized controlled trials. In fact, it has been recommended by medical organizations either in average-risk or family-risk populations. Success of a screening campaign highly depends on how compliant the target population is. Several factors influence colorectal cancer screening uptake including sociodemographics, provider and healthcare system factors, and psychosocial factors. Awareness of the target population of colorectal cancer and screening is crucial in order to increase screening participation rates. Knowledge about this disease and its prevention has been used across studies as a measurement of public awareness. Some studies found a positive relationship between knowledge about colorectal cancer, risk perception, and attitudes (perceived benefits and barriers against screening) and willingness to participate in a colorectal cancer screening campaign. The mentioned factors are modifiable and therefore susceptible of intervention. In fact, interventional studies focused on average-risk population have tried to increase colorectal cancer screening uptake by improving public knowledge and modifying attitudes. In the present paper, we reviewed the factors impacting adherence to colorectal cancer screening and interventions targeting participants for increasing screening uptake. PMID:24729896

  16. Correlates of Cervical Cancer Screening among Vietnamese American Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grace X. Ma

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Vietnamese American women are at the greatest risk for cervical cancer but have the lowest cervical cancer screening rates. This study was to determine whether demographic and acculturation, healthcare access, and knowledge and beliefs are associated with a prior history of cervical cancer screening among Vietnamese women. Methods. Vietnamese women (n=1450 from 30 Vietnamese community-based organizations located in Pennsylvania and New Jersey participated in the study and completed baseline assessments. Logistic regression analyses were performed. Results. Overall levels of knowledge about cervical cancer screening and human papillomavirus (HPV are low. Factors in knowledge, attitude, and beliefs domains were significantly associated with Pap test behavior. In multivariate analyses, physician recommendation for screening and having health insurance were positively associated with prior screening. Conclusion. Understanding the factors that are associated with cervical cancer screening will inform the development of culturally appropriate intervention strategies that would potentially lead to increasing cervical cancer screening rates among Vietnamese women.

  17. Risks of Colorectal Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... laxatives to clear the colon, shows polyps clearly. DNA stool test This test checks DNA in stool cells for genetic changes that may be a sign of colorectal cancer. Screening clinical trials are taking place in many parts of the ... Screening tests have risks. False-negative test results can occur. ...

  18. Lethal Prostate Cancer in the PLCO Cancer Screening Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoag, Jonathan; Mittal, Sameer; Halpern, Joshua A; Scherr, Douglas; Hu, Jim C; Barbieri, Christopher E

    2016-07-01

    The Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian (PLCO) Cancer Screening Trial randomized men to usual care or annual prostate-specific antigen (PSA) screening for 6 yr and digital rectal examination for 4 yr. This trial found no difference between the intervention and usual care arms of the study in the primary end point of prostate cancer (PCa)-specific mortality. The PLCO trial results have had a major impact on health policy and the rate of PSA screening in the United States. We analyzed the 13-yr screening and outcomes data from the 151 participants who died of PCa in the screening arm of the trial to better understand how randomization to screening failed to prevent PCa death in these men. We found that of these men, 81 (53.6%) either were never screened as part of the trial or had an initial positive screen. Only 17 (11.3%) of those who died reached year 6 of the trial with a PSA <4.0 ng/ml. The men who died in the screening arm were also older at study entry than the average PLCO participant (66 vs 62 yr; p < 0.001). Our analysis should inform the interpretation of the PLCO trial and provide insight into future trial design. PMID:27166670

  19. Risk Profiling May Improve Lung Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    A new modeling study suggests that individualized, risk-based selection of ever-smokers for lung cancer screening may prevent more lung cancer deaths and improve the effectiveness and efficiency of screening compared with current screening recommendations

  20. Attendance in cancer screening programmes in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grazia Grazzini

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available

    Background: The European Community recommends mammography, cervical and colorectal cancer screening programmes. In Italy, cancer screening programmes have been included in the Basic Healthcare Parameters (Livelli Essenziali di Assistenza since 2001. Full national coverage of a population-based organized screening programme has been planned for in Italy and is being implemented. Since 2005, the Ministry of Health - Department of Prevention has formally charged The National Centre for Screening Monitoring (Osservatorio Nazionale Screening –ONS- with monitoring and promoting screening programmes nationwide. Participation of target populations is a key indicator of the impact and efficacy of a screening programme in reducing cancer mortality.

    Methods: Attendance of invitees is one of the indicators calculated every year in the quality control of Italian screening programmes. Data collection is organized by means of a structured questionnaire, sent by ONS to the referent for data collection in each Region, who then returns the completed questionnaires to the Regional Centre. Questionnaires are then sent to the National Centre. Logical and epidemiologic checks are performed at both levels. Every year ONS publishes reports on the results of the surveys. A feasibility study for a National data warehouse based on individual records is in progress. The national survey “Multiscopo sulle famiglie” and the Passi Study (Progetti delle Aziende Sanitarie per la Salute in Italia provided additional information regarding spontaneous preventive health care activities in the Italian population.

    Results: Mammography screening: In 2006, 78.2% of Italian women aged 50-69 lived in areas where organised screening was in place (theoretical extension, however, the distribution of the screening activity is not uniform (higher in Northern/Central Italy compared with Southern

  1. Liver (Hepatocellular) Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cancer is present in the body. Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) is the most widely used tumor marker for ... and other types of cancer, may also increase AFP levels. Specific tumor markers that may lead to ...

  2. Mammographic screening for breast cancer: A review

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Warwick; Peters, Gudrun

    2013-01-01

    In 2011, BreastScreen Australia celebrated 20 years of mammographic screening for breast cancer in Australia. There has been a reduction in mortality from breast cancer over the last two decades, coincident with mammographic screening. However, there are concerns that mammographic screening may result in overdiagnosis of breast cancer and that the reduction in mortality from breast cancer is the result of better treatment rather than screening. This article reviews the evidence on which mammo...

  3. Discovery – Lung Cancer Screening Saves Lives: The NLST

    Science.gov (United States)

    NCI funded the National Lung Screening Trial, an eight-year study that used new technology to detect small, aggressive tumors early enough to surgically remove them. This approach reduced lung cancer deaths among participants by 20 percent.

  4. Performance indicators for participation in organized mammography screening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Euler-Chelpin, My Catarina; Jacobsen, Katja Kemp

    2012-01-01

    A population's acceptance of a screening programme is reflected by its participation. Participation can be measured by cross-section, in an individual screening round, or by cumulative examination rate, which covers participation in numerous rounds at a pre-specified frequency. To establish an in...

  5. On what grounds do women participate in prenatal screening?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Santalahti, P; Aro, A R; Hemminki, E;

    1998-01-01

    procedure. The aim of this study was to examine Finnish women's knowledge and perceptions of, and stated reasons to participate in, two prenatal screening tests: serum screening and mid-trimester ultrasound screening. Subjects (n=1035) for the serum screening survey were catered for in the maternity care...... hospital of another town; the response rate was 85 per cent. Women's perceptions of the studied prenatal screening tests, serum screening and mid-trimester ultrasound screening, differed significantly, even though both are used to detect fetal malformations. Serum screening was far more often perceived to...

  6. Methods for Cervical Cancer Screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Vargas-Revilla

    2014-12-01

    This article is divided in three sections: the first one focuses on the general impact of cervical cancer has hadin CostaRica, these condsection gathers information about different methodologies used around the world to detect this cancer and the third one makes reference to the current development of the screening devise in Mexico that works as a monitoring system and can used by women without external assistance.

  7. Psychological distress following fecal occult blood test in colorectal cancer screening--a population-based study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brasso, Klaus; Ladelund, Steen; Frederiksen, Birgitte Lidegaard; Jørgensen, Torben

    2010-01-01

    To evaluate the possible psychological side-effect of participating in a colorectal cancer (CRC)-screening program.......To evaluate the possible psychological side-effect of participating in a colorectal cancer (CRC)-screening program....

  8. Examining Factors Influencing Colorectal Cancer Screening of Rural Nebraskans Using Data from Clinics Participating in an Accountable Care Organization: A Study Protocol [v1; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/5me

    OpenAIRE

    Lufei Young; Jungyoon Kim; Hongmei Wang; Li-Wu Chen

    2015-01-01

    Background: Although mortality rates of colorectal cancer (CRC) can be significantly reduced through increased screening, rural communities are still experiencing lower rates of screening compared to urban counterparts. Understanding and eliminating barriers to cancer screening will decrease cancer burden and lead to substantial gains in quality and quantity of life for rural populations. However, existing studies have shown inconsistent findings and fail to address how contextual and provide...

  9. The impact of radiologists' expertise on screen results decisions in a CT lung cancer screening trial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate the impact of radiological expertise on screen result decisions in a CT lung cancer screening trial. In the NELSON lung cancer screening trial, the baseline CT result was based on the largest lung nodule's volume. The protocol allowed radiologists to manually adjust screen results in cases of high suspicion of benign or malignant nodule nature. Participants whose baseline CT result was based on a solid or part-solid nodule were included in this study. Adjustments by radiologists at baseline were evaluated. Histology was the reference for diagnosis or to confirm benignity and stability on subsequent CT examinations. A total of 3,318 participants (2,796 male, median age 58.0 years) were included. In 195 participants (5.9 %) the initial baseline screen result was adjusted by the radiologist. Adjustment was downwards from positive or indeterminate to negative in two and 119 participants, respectively, and from positive to indeterminate in 65 participants. None of these nodules turned out to be malignant. In 9/195 participants (4.6 %) the screen result was adjusted upwards from negative to indeterminate or indeterminate to positive; two nodules were malignant. In one in 20 cases of baseline lung cancer screening, nodules were reclassified by the radiologist, leading to a reduction of false-positive screen results. (orig.)

  10. Randomization to screening for prostate, lung, colorectal and ovarian cancers and thyroid cancer incidence in two large cancer screening trials.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas J O'Grady

    Full Text Available Thyroid cancer incidence has increased significantly over the past three decades due, in part, to incidental detection. We examined the association between randomization to screening for lung, prostate, colorectal and/or ovarian cancers and thyroid cancer incidence in two large prospective randomized screening trials.We assessed the association between randomization to low-dose helical CT scan versus chest x-ray for lung cancer screening and risk of thyroid cancer in the National Lung Screening Trial (NLST. In the Prostate Lung Colorectal and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial (PLCO, we assessed the association between randomization to regular screening for said cancers versus usual medical care and thyroid cancer risk. Over a median 6 and 11 years of follow-up in NLST and PLCO, respectively, we identified 60 incident and 234 incident thyroid cancer cases. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to calculate the cause specific hazard ratios (HR and 95% confidence intervals (CI for thyroid cancer.In NLST, randomization to lung CT scan was associated with a non-significant increase in thyroid cancer risk (HR = 1.61; 95% CI: 0.96-2.71. This association was stronger during the first 3 years of follow-up, during which participants were actively screened (HR = 2.19; 95% CI: 1.07-4.47, but not subsequently (HR = 1.08; 95% CI: 0.49-2.37. In PLCO, randomization to cancer screening compared with usual care was associated with a significant decrease in thyroid cancer risk for men (HR = 0.61; 95% CI: 0.49-0.95 but not women (HR = 0.91; 95% CI: 0.66-1.26. Similar results were observed when restricting to papillary thyroid cancer in both NLST and PLCO.Our study suggests that certain medical encounters, such as those using low-dose helical CT scan for lung cancer screening, may increase the detection of incidental thyroid cancer.

  11. Randomization to Screening for Prostate, Lung, Colorectal and Ovarian Cancers and Thyroid Cancer Incidence in Two Large Cancer Screening Trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Grady, Thomas J.; Kitahara, Cari M.; DiRienzo, A. Gregory; Boscoe, Francis P.; Gates, Margaret A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Thyroid cancer incidence has increased significantly over the past three decades due, in part, to incidental detection. We examined the association between randomization to screening for lung, prostate, colorectal and/or ovarian cancers and thyroid cancer incidence in two large prospective randomized screening trials. Methods We assessed the association between randomization to low-dose helical CT scan versus chest x-ray for lung cancer screening and risk of thyroid cancer in the National Lung Screening Trial (NLST). In the Prostate Lung Colorectal and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial (PLCO), we assessed the association between randomization to regular screening for said cancers versus usual medical care and thyroid cancer risk. Over a median 6 and 11 years of follow-up in NLST and PLCO, respectively, we identified 60 incident and 234 incident thyroid cancer cases. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to calculate the cause specific hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for thyroid cancer. Results In NLST, randomization to lung CT scan was associated with a non-significant increase in thyroid cancer risk (HR  = 1.61; 95% CI: 0.96–2.71). This association was stronger during the first 3 years of follow-up, during which participants were actively screened (HR  = 2.19; 95% CI: 1.07–4.47), but not subsequently (HR  = 1.08; 95% CI: 0.49–2.37). In PLCO, randomization to cancer screening compared with usual care was associated with a significant decrease in thyroid cancer risk for men (HR  = 0.61; 95% CI: 0.49–0.95) but not women (HR  = 0.91; 95% CI: 0.66–1.26). Similar results were observed when restricting to papillary thyroid cancer in both NLST and PLCO. Conclusion Our study suggests that certain medical encounters, such as those using low-dose helical CT scan for lung cancer screening, may increase the detection of incidental thyroid cancer. PMID:25192282

  12. Predictors of non-participation in cervical screening in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensson, Jenny Hansen; Sander, Bente Braad; von Euler-Chelpin, My;

    2014-01-01

    , nationality, level of education, and use of health care. Associations with non-participation in screening were determined with logistic regression. RESULTS: Main predictors of non-participation were limited or no contact with dental services (odds ratio (OR)=2.36), general practitioners (OR=1.75), and high......PURPOSE: The aims of this study were to identify demographic and socio-economic predictors of non-participation in cervical screening in Denmark, and to evaluate the influence of health care use on screening participation. METHODS: A population based register study was undertaken using data from...... age (OR=1.98). Other important factors for non-participation were primary school education only (OR=1.53), not being married (OR=1.49), and foreign nationality (OR=1.32). CONCLUSION: A 2-1.5-fold difference in non-participation in cervical screening in Denmark was found across various population sub...

  13. Sociocultural Barriers to Lung Cancer Screening Among Korean Immigrant Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sin, Mo-Kyung; Ha, Ara; Taylor, Vicky

    2016-08-01

    Lung cancer is a commonly occurring cancer among Korean American men. Korean Americans have lower rates of cancer screening participation than other Asian American sub-groups. However, little is known about factors that influence the cancer screening behavior of Korean immigrants. The purpose of this study was to explore facilitators of and barriers to lung cancer screening (i.e., low dose CT of the chest) among Korean immigrant men, using qualitative individual interviews and focus groups. A convenience sample of 24 Korean men who were immigrants, Washington State residents, able to speak Korean, aged 55-79, and eligible for lung cancer screening (based on current guidelines) were recruited from Korean churches and senior centers. Five focus groups (that included between two and five men) and nine individual interviews were conducted. Content analysis was used to analyze the qualitative data. Facilitators of lung cancer screening included perceptions about positive aspects of the health care system in South Korea, recommendations from others (physicians, family members, and community organizations), existing health problems and respiratory symptoms, interest in health, and the health consequences of aging. Barriers included costs of health care in the US, lack of time, lack of knowledge (about lung cancer and screening), attitudes about prevention, and lack of physician recommendation. This study adds new knowledge to a field where little information is available. It also lays the groundwork for developing culturally relevant lung cancer screening interventions for Korean Americans and the health care providers who serve them. PMID:26846627

  14. Screening and cervical cancer cure: population based cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Andrae, B.; Andersson, T. M.-L.; Lambert, P C; Kemetli, L.; Silfverdal, L.; Strander, B.; Ryd, W; Dillner, J; Tornberg, S; Sparen, P

    2012-01-01

    Objective To determine whether detection of invasive cervical cancer by screening results in better prognosis or merely increases the lead time until death. Design Nationwide population based cohort study. Setting Sweden. Participants All 1230 women with cervical cancer diagnosed during 1999-2001 in Sweden prospectively followed up for an average of 8.5 years. Main outcome measures Cure proportions and five year relative survival ratios, stratified by screening history, mode of detection, age...

  15.   Personal invitations for population-based breast cancer screening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saalasti-Koskinen, Ulla; Mäkelä, Marjukka; Saarenmaa, Irma;

    2010-01-01

    objective of this study was to evaluate the information breast cancer screening units send to women invited for screening in Finland. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A questionnaire was sent to all breast cancer screening units in Finland in 2005 and 2008, and the information (eg, invitations, results letters......, leaflets) the units sent to women was collected. Results from 2005 were sent as feedback to the units. Data were analyzed descriptively, and results from the 2 years were compared. RESULTS: Screening units sent personal invitation letters usually providing fixed appointment times. Most units informed about...... participation free of charge and the benefits of detecting breast cancer early. Harm associated with screening was seldom mentioned; no unit mentioned the possibility of false-negative results or overtreatment. CONCLUSION: The screening units provided very variable information, which often was biased toward...

  16. The National Lung Screening Trial (NLST) | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The National Lung Screening Trial (NLST) compared two ways of detecting lung cancer: low-dose helical computed tomography (CT) and standard chest X-ray. Both chest X-rays and low-dose helical CT scans have been used to find lung cancer early, but the effects of these screening techniques on lung cancer mortality rates had not been determined. NLST enrolled 53,454 current or former heavy smokers from 33 sites and coordinating centers across the United States. | The National Lung Screening Trial (NLST) compared two ways of detecting lung cancer: participants who received low-dose helical CT scans had a 20% lower risk of dying from lung cancer than participants who received standard chest X-rays.

  17. Seventeen-years overview of breast cancer inside and outside screening in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Domingo, Laia; Jacobsen, Katja Kemp; von Euler-Chelpin, My Catarina;

    2013-01-01

    Background. Long-term data on breast cancer detection in mammography screening programs are warranted to better understand the mechanisms by which screening changes the breast cancer pattern in the population. We aimed to analyze 17 years of breast cancer detection rates inside and outside...... to women aged 50-69 years. We identified targeted, eligible, invited and participating women. We calculated screening detection and interval cancer rates for participants, and breast cancer incidence in non-screened women (= targeted women excluding participants) by biennial invitation rounds. Tumor...... characteristics were tabulated for each of the three groups of cancers. Results. Start of screening resulted in a prevalence peak in participants, followed by a decrease to a fairly stable detection rate in subsequent invitation rounds. A similar pattern was found for breast cancer incidence in non-screened women...

  18. 上海地区女性宫颈癌筛查意识及行为的现状调查%Status of women′s perception on and participation in cervical cancer screening in Shanghai

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陶花; 丁焱

    2014-01-01

    The self-designed questionnaire related to cervical cancer screening was distributed to 4 882 patients in two women′s hospitals in Shanghai from March to June 2010.Results Only 46.0% of the participants had ever taken the cervical cancer screening test , of which, 8.0% took the pap smear test three years ago and 8.0%were not sure about the exact time of the latest pap smear test they took .27.0%of the participants had never heard about it and 15.0%had not known about it .Logistic regression analysis showed that having ever heard a-bout cervical cancer screening or not , age, having sexual life or not , employed or not , and family income were four significant predictors for participation in cervical cancer screening .Face-to-face education from medical professionals , printed education brochures and media advertisements for cervical cancer screening were regarded as three most effective methods to improve women′s participation in cervical cancer screening .Conclusion If the medical professionals could effectively take advantage of the chances that the women visit hospitals to provide oral and printed information , the women are most likely to take the subsequent pap smear test .Meanwhile , the public education via media advertisements is also regarded as a useful method to arouse women ′s awareness of the existence and importance of cervical cancer screening , thereby urging them to take the screening test .%目的:了解上海地区女性对宫颈癌筛查的认知及参加情况,探索阻碍女性参加宫颈癌筛查的影响因素。方法选择2010年3—6月上海市2所3级甲等妇产科医院就诊的女性4882例,采用自制调查问卷表进行有关宫颈癌筛查意识和行为的问卷调查。结果4882例女性中,46.0%曾经参加过宫颈癌筛查,但其中8.0%距上次筛查时间已超过3年,不确定上一次行宫颈涂片检查时间的占8.0%;27.0%女性未听说过宫颈癌筛查;另有15.0%就

  19. Screening for Breast Cancer: Staging and Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Screening For Breast Cancer Staging and Treatment Past Issues / Summer 2014 Table ... oncology nurse and a registered dietitian. Read More "Screening For Breast Cancer" Articles #BeBrave: A life-saving test / Breast Cancer ...

  20. Cancer Screening on the Hopi Reservation: A Model for Success in a Native American Community

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, Sylvia R.; Joshweseoma, Lori; Saboda, Kathylynn; Sanderson, Priscilla; Ami, Delores; Harris, Robin

    2015-01-01

    American Indian women have lower cancer survival rates compared to non-Hispanic White women. Increased cancer screening fostered by culturally sensitive education and community programs may help decrease this disparity. This study assesses the effectiveness of Hopi Cancer Support Services (HCSS) in maintaining high rates of breast and cervical cancer screening among Hopi women and evaluates the impact of participation in HCSS programs on colorectal cancer (CRC) screening. A population-based s...

  1. Cancer Screening: How Do Screening Tests Become Standard Tests?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... have grown and spread. This can make the cancer harder to treat or cure. It is important to remember that when your ... Finds cancer before symptoms appear. Screens for a cancer that is easier to treat and cure when found early. Has few false-negative test ...

  2. Screening for Breast Cancer: Detection and Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Screening For Breast Cancer Detection and Diagnosis Past Issues / Summer 2014 Table of Contents Screening Mammography In November 2009, the United States Preventive ...

  3. Screening for breast cancer in a high-risk series

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A unique cohort of women at increased risk of breast cancer because of prior X-ray treatment of acute mastitis and their selected high-risk siblings were offered periodic breast cancer screening including physical examination of the breasts, mammography, and thermography. Twelve breast cancers were detected when fewer than four would have been expected based on age-specific breast cancer detection rates from the National Cancer Institute/American Cancer Society Breast Cancer Demonstration Detection Projects. Mammography was positive in all cases but physical examination was positive in only three cases. Thermography was an unreliable indicator of disease. Given the concern over radiation-induced risk, use of low-dose technique and of criteria for participation that select women at high risk of breast cancer will maximize the benefit/risk ratio for mammography screening

  4. Cancer Worry, Perceived Risk and Cancer Screening in First-Degree Relatives of Patients with Familial Gastric Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jenny; Hart, Tae L; Aronson, Melyssa; Crangle, Cassandra; Govindarajan, Anand

    2016-06-01

    Currently, there is a lack of evidence evaluating the psychological impact of cancer-related risk perception and worry in individuals at high risk for gastric cancer. We examined the relationships between perceived risk, cancer worry and screening behaviors among first-degree relatives (FDRs) of patients with familial gastric cancer. FDRs of patients diagnosed with familial gastric cancer with a non-informative genetic analysis were identified and contacted. Participants completed a telephone interview that assessed socio-demographic information, cancer risk perception, cancer worry, impact of worry on daily functioning, and screening behaviors. Twenty-five FDRs completed the telephone interview. Participants reported high levels of comparative and absolute cancer risk perception, with an average perceived lifetime risk of 54 %. On the other hand, cancer-related worry scores were low, with a significant minority (12 %) experiencing high levels of worry. Study participants exhibited high levels of confidence (median = 70 %) in the effectiveness of screening at detecting a curable cancer. Participants that had undergone screening in the past showed significantly lower levels of cancer-related worry compared to those that had never undergone screening. In conclusion, individuals at high-risk for gastric cancer perceived a very high personal risk of cancer, but reported low levels of cancer worry. This paradoxical result may be attributed to participants' high levels of confidence in the effectiveness of screening. These findings highlight the importance for clinicians to discuss realistic risk appraisals and expectations towards screening with unaffected members of families at risk for gastric cancer, in an effort to help mitigate anxiety and help with coping. PMID:26493173

  5. Computed tomographic characteristics of interval and post screen carcinomas in lung cancer screening

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scholten, Ernst T. [University Medical Centre, Department of Radiology, Utrecht (Netherlands); Kennemer Gasthuis, Department of Radiology, Haarlem (Netherlands); Horeweg, Nanda [Erasmus University Medical Centre, Department of Public Health, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Erasmus University Medical Centre, Department of Pulmonary Medicine, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Koning, Harry J. de [Erasmus University Medical Centre, Department of Public Health, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Vliegenthart, Rozemarijn [University of Groningen, University Medical Centre Groningen, Department of Radiology, Groningen (Netherlands); University of Groningen, University Medical Centre Groningen, Center for Medical Imaging-North East Netherlands, Groningen (Netherlands); Oudkerk, Matthijs [University of Groningen, University Medical Centre Groningen, Center for Medical Imaging-North East Netherlands, Groningen (Netherlands); Mali, Willem P.T.M.; Jong, Pim A. de [University Medical Centre, Department of Radiology, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2015-01-15

    To analyse computed tomography (CT) findings of interval and post-screen carcinomas in lung cancer screening. Consecutive interval and post-screen carcinomas from the Dutch-Belgium lung cancer screening trial were included. The prior screening and the diagnostic chest CT were reviewed by two experienced radiologists in consensus with knowledge of the tumour location on the diagnostic CT. Sixty-one participants (53 men) were diagnosed with an interval or post-screen carcinoma. Twenty-two (36 %) were in retrospect visible on the prior screening CT. Detection error occurred in 20 cancers and interpretation error in two cancers. Errors involved intrabronchial tumour (n = 5), bulla with wall thickening (n = 5), lymphadenopathy (n = 3), pleural effusion (n = 1) and intraparenchymal solid nodules (n = 8). These were missed because of a broad pleural attachment (n = 4), extensive reticulation surrounding a nodule (n = 1) and extensive scarring (n = 1). No definite explanation other than human error was found in two cases. None of the interval or post-screen carcinomas involved a subsolid nodule. Interval or post-screen carcinomas that were visible in retrospect were mostly due to detection errors of solid nodules, bulla wall thickening or endobronchial lesions. Interval or post-screen carcinomas without explanation other than human errors are rare. (orig.)

  6. Screening for Psychosocial Risk in Pediatric Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Kazak, Anne E.; Brier, Moriah; Alderfer, Melissa A.; Reilly, Anne; Parker, Stephanie Fooks; Rogerwick, Stephanie; Ditaranto, Susan; Barakat, Lamia P.

    2012-01-01

    Major professional organizations have called for psychosocial risk screening to identify specific psychosocial needs of children with cancer and their families and facilitate the delivery of appropriate evidence-based care to address these concerns. However, systematic screening of risk factors at diagnosis is rare in pediatric oncology practice. Subsequent to a brief summary of psychosocial risks in pediatric cancer and the rationale for screening, this review identified three screening mode...

  7. Socio-demographic determinants of participation in mammography screening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Euler-Chelpin, My; Olsen, Anne Helene; Njor, Sisse;

    2008-01-01

    Our objective was to use individual data on socio-demographic characteristics to identify predictors of participation in mammography screening and control to what extent they can explain the regional difference. We used data from mammography screening programmes in Copenhagen, 1991-1999, and Funen.......68-3.10) for Copenhagen and Funen, respectively. Other important predictive factors for nonparticipation were not being married and not being Danish. In conclusion, to enhance participation in mammography screening programmes special attention needs to be given to women not using other primary health care services. All...

  8. Women's perspectives on illness in being screened for cervical cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hounsgaard, Lise; Augustussen, Mikaela; Møller, Helle;

    2013-01-01

    Background In Greenland, the incidence of cervical cancer caused by human papillomavirus (HPV) is 25 per 100,000 women; 2.5 times the Danish rate. In Greenland, the disease is most frequent among women aged 30–40. Systematic screening can identify women with cervical cell changes, which...... if untreated may cause cervical cancer. In 2007, less than 40% of eligible women in Greenland participated in screening. Objective To examine Greenlandic women's perception of disease, their understanding of the connection between HPV and cervical cancer, and the knowledge that they deem necessary to decide...... whether to participate in cervical cancer screening. Study design The methods used to perform this research were 2 focus-group interviews with 5 Danish-speaking women and 2 individual interviews with Greenlandic-speaking women. The analysis involved a phenomenological-hermeneutic approach with 3 levels...

  9. Women's perspectives on illness when being screened for cervical cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hounsgaard, Lise; Augustussen, Mikaela; Møller, Helle;

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In Greenland, the incidence of cervical cancer caused by human papillomavirus (HPV) is 25 per 100,000 women; 2.5 times the Danish rate. In Greenland, the disease is most frequent among women aged 30-40. Systematic screening can identify women with cervical cell changes, which...... if untreated may cause cervical cancer. In 2007, less than 40% of eligible women in Greenland participated in screening. OBJECTIVE: To examine Greenlandic women's perception of disease, their understanding of the connection between HPV and cervical cancer, and the knowledge that they deem necessary to decide...... whether to participate in cervical cancer screening. STUDY DESIGN: The methods used to perform this research were 2 focus-group interviews with 5 Danish-speaking women and 2 individual interviews with Greenlandic-speaking women. The analysis involved a phenomenological-hermeneutic approach with 3 levels...

  10. Identifying specific non-attending groups in breast cancer screening - population-based registry study of participation and socio-demography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Line Flytkjær; Pedersen, Anette Fischer; Andersen, Berit;

    2012-01-01

    inviteret til første screeningrunde i Region Midtjylland (n=149.234). Resultaterne viste, at der er sociale forskelle blandt kvinder som deltager og kvinder som ikke deltager i brystkræft screening. De ældste kvinder, ugifte kvinder, kvinder med lav indkomst og lav uddannelse, kvinder ude for arbejdsmarked...

  11. Vibrational Microspectroscopy for Cancer Screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fiona M. Lyng

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Vibrational spectroscopy analyses vibrations within a molecule and can be used to characterise a molecular structure. Raman spectroscopy is one of the vibrational spectroscopic techniques, in which incident radiation is used to induce vibrations in the molecules of a sample, and the scattered radiation may be used to characterise the sample in a rapid and non-destructive manner. Infrared (IR spectroscopy is a complementary vibrational spectroscopic technique based on the absorption of IR radiation by the sample. Molecules absorb specific frequencies of the incident light which are characteristic of their structure. IR and Raman spectroscopy are sensitive to subtle biochemical changes occurring at the molecular level allowing spectral variations corresponding to disease onset to be detected. Over the past 15 years, there have been numerous reports demonstrating the potential of IR and Raman spectroscopy together with multivariate statistical analysis techniques for the detection of a variety of cancers including, breast, lung, brain, colon, oral, oesophageal, prostate and cervical cancer. This paper discusses the recent advances and the future perspectives in relation to cancer screening applications, focussing on cervical and oral cancer.

  12. Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial (PLCO) | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The PLCO Cancer Screening Trial was a population-based randomized trial to determine the effects of screening on cancer-related mortality and secondary endpoints in more than 150,000 men and women aged 55 to 74.  The PLCO Biorepository, accessible by the Cancer Data Access System (CDAS) web portal, contains about 2.7 million biologic specimens from intervention participants during their six trial screening years, and buccal cell specimens from control participants. The Etiology and Early Marker Studies (EEMS) component has biologic materials and risk factor information from trial participants before diagnosis of disease.  | A repository of data from a large randomized trial on the effects of screening on cancer-related mortality and secondary endpoints in men and women aged 55 to 74.

  13. Computer screens and brain cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Australia, both in the media and at the federal government level, over possible links between screen-based computer use and cancer, brain tumour in particular. The screen emissions assumed to be the sources of the putative hazard are the magnetic fields responsible for horizontal and vertical scanning of the display. Time-varying fluctuations in these magnetic fields induce electrical current flows in exposed tissues. This paper estimates that the induced current densities in the brain of the computer user are up to 1 mA/m2 (due to the vertical flyback). Corresponding values for other electrical appliances or installations are in general much less than this. The epidemiological literature shows no obvious signs of a sudden increase in brain tumour incidence, but the widespread use of computers is a relatively recent phenomenon. The occupational use of other equipment based on cathode ray tubes (such as TV repair) has a much longer history and has been statistically linked to brain tumour in some studies. A number of factors make this an unreliable indicator of the risk from computer screens, however. 42 refs., 3 tabs., 2 figs

  14. Breast Cancer Screening: What are the Last Changes?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selda Secginli

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Mammography, clinical breast-examination (CBE and breast self-examination (BSE are the mainly recommended screening methods for early diagnosis of breast cancer. In recent years, guidelines concerning screening methods were revised. To date, CBE and BSE are not routinely recommended for early diagnosis of breast cancer in western countries. Due to important value in decreasing breast cancer mortality rate, mammography, is the recommended breast cancer screening method; but the changes related with the time of mammography screening is rised to notice. In 2010, the US Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF which is one of the important health authority, guidelines concerning screening mammography were revised. Accordingly, while the mammography that is recommended for women starting aged 40 years by many health authorities, the USPSTF no longer advises routine screening mammography for women aged 40–49 and for those aged ≥75.; and biennial screening is advised for those aged 50–74. It is necessary for health professionals working in breast health area to learn the last changes concerning about breast cancer screening methods. Together with CBE and BSE, it is also important to encourage women to participate mammography screening with an understanding of its benefits and risks. In this article, it is aimed to critique new guidelines about breast cancer screening methods. It is also critiqued the potential benefits and risks of mammography that is currently considered the ‘‘gold standard’’ for breast cancer screening for women. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2011; 10(2.000: 193-200

  15. Breast Cancer Screening in Black and Hispanic Subpopulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah J. Miller

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The primary objective was to examine and compare the breast cancer screening adherence rates between black (African American and Afro-Caribbean and Hispanic (foreign born Hispanic and US-born Hispanic subpopulations. Methods: Study data was collected in community settings in New York City between the years of 2011-2012. Participants (N=592 were black and Hispanic individuals who attended a breast cancer screening community outreach program. Breast cancer screening rates as well as demographic data were collected. Results: Results revealed that Afro-Caribbean and foreign-born Hispanics are at a greater risk for non-adherence in breast cancer screening compared with African Americans and US-born Hispanics. Conclusions: The majority of breast screening research and community outreach programs categorize people into broad racial and ethnic groups (e.g., black and Hispanic. The results revealed significant variability within these broader racial/ethnic categories with regard to breast cancer screening. Community outreach programs and future research efforts should target the subpopulations that are at particular risk for breast cancer screening non-adherence.

  16. Reducing inequities in colorectal cancer screening in North America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen M Decker

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Colorectal cancer (CRC is an important cause of mortality and morbidity in North America. Screening using a fecal occult blood test, flexible sigmoidoscopy, or colonoscopy reduces CRC mortality through the detection and treatment of precancerous polyps and early stage CRC. Although CRC screening participation has increased in recent years, large inequities still exist. Minorities, new immigrants, and those with lower levels of education or income are much less likely to be screened. This review provides an overview of the commonly used tests for CRC screening, disparities in CRC screening, and promising methods at the individual, provider, and system levels to reduce these disparities. Overall, to achieve high CRC participation rates and reduce the burden of CRC in the population, a multi-faceted approach that uses strategies at all levels to reduce CRC screening disparities is urgently required.

  17. Screening for breast cancer with mammography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gøtzsche, Peter C; Nielsen, Margrethe

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A variety of estimates of the benefits and harms of mammographic screening for breast cancer have been published and national policies vary. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effect of screening for breast cancer with mammography on mortality and morbidity. SEARCH STRATEGY: We searched Pub...

  18. Screening for breast cancer with mammography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gøtzsche, Peter C; Jørgensen, Karsten Juhl

    2013-01-01

    A variety of estimates of the benefits and harms of mammographic screening for breast cancer have been published and national policies vary.......A variety of estimates of the benefits and harms of mammographic screening for breast cancer have been published and national policies vary....

  19. Patient-initiated breast cancer screening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reviews the results of a breast cancer screening program sponsored by organizations at workplace or community locations. A comprehensive mobile breast cancer screening program, including education, breast physical examination, and mammography, was provided to 89 local organizations at $50.00 per examination over an 18-month period. The examination was patient initiated, following the ACS screening guidelines. Estimates of eligible women were provided by each organization. A total of 5,030 women at 89 organizations were screened for breast cancer. Approximately 25,727 women were eligible

  20. Healthcare costs in the Danish randomised controlled lung cancer CT-screening trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, J.F.; Siersma, V.; Pedersen, Jesper H.;

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Low dose computerised tomography (CT) screening for lung cancer can reduce lung-cancer-specific mortality. The objective of this study was to analyse healthcare costs and healthcare utilisation of participants in the Danish lung cancer CT-screening trial (DLCST). MATERIALS AND METHODS...

  1. A qualitative exploration of Malaysian cancer patients’ perceptions of cancer screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farooqui Maryam

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite the existence of different screening methods, the response to cancer screening is poor among Malaysians. The current study aims to examine cancer patients’ perceptions of cancer screening and early diagnosis. Methods A qualitative methodology was used to collect in-depth information from cancer patients. After obtaining institutional ethical approval, patients with different types and stages of cancer from the three major ethnic groups (Malay, Chinese and Indian were approached. Twenty semi-structured interviews were conducted. All interviews were audiotaped, transcribed verbatim, and translated into English for thematic content analysis. Results Thematic content analysis yielded four major themes: awareness of cancer screening, perceived benefits of cancer screening, perceived barriers to cancer screening, and cues to action. The majority of respondents had never heard of cancer screening before their diagnosis. Some participants reported hearing about mammogram and Pap smear tests but did not undergo screening due to a lack of belief in personal susceptibility. Those who had negative results from screening prior to diagnosis perceived such tests as untrustworthy. Lack of knowledge and financial constraints were reported as barriers to cancer screening. Finally, numerous suggestions were given to improve screening behaviour among healthy individuals, including the role of mass media in disseminating the message ‘prevention is better than cure’. Conclusions Patients’ narratives revealed some significant issues that were in line with the Health Belief Model which could explain negative health behaviour. The description of the personal experiences of people with cancer could provide many cues to action for those who have never encountered this potentially deadly disease, if incorporated into health promotion activities.

  2. A qualitative exploration of Malaysian cancer patients’ perceptions of cancer screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Despite the existence of different screening methods, the response to cancer screening is poor among Malaysians. The current study aims to examine cancer patients’ perceptions of cancer screening and early diagnosis. Methods A qualitative methodology was used to collect in-depth information from cancer patients. After obtaining institutional ethical approval, patients with different types and stages of cancer from the three major ethnic groups (Malay, Chinese and Indian) were approached. Twenty semi-structured interviews were conducted. All interviews were audiotaped, transcribed verbatim, and translated into English for thematic content analysis. Results Thematic content analysis yielded four major themes: awareness of cancer screening, perceived benefits of cancer screening, perceived barriers to cancer screening, and cues to action. The majority of respondents had never heard of cancer screening before their diagnosis. Some participants reported hearing about mammogram and Pap smear tests but did not undergo screening due to a lack of belief in personal susceptibility. Those who had negative results from screening prior to diagnosis perceived such tests as untrustworthy. Lack of knowledge and financial constraints were reported as barriers to cancer screening. Finally, numerous suggestions were given to improve screening behaviour among healthy individuals, including the role of mass media in disseminating the message ‘prevention is better than cure’. Conclusions Patients’ narratives revealed some significant issues that were in line with the Health Belief Model which could explain negative health behaviour. The description of the personal experiences of people with cancer could provide many cues to action for those who have never encountered this potentially deadly disease, if incorporated into health promotion activities. PMID:23331785

  3. Ovarian cancer screening in the general population.

    OpenAIRE

    Menon, U

    2007-01-01

    Despite significant improvements in therapy, ovarian cancer continues to be a leading cause of death amongst women with gynaecological malignancies. Advanced stage at diagnosis is thought to be a major contributor to mortality. Hence, there is considerable interest in early detection through screening. In the 1990s, Professor Jacobs pioneered the development of a multimodal ovarian cancer screening (OCS) strategy using serum CA125 as the first line screen and pelvic ultrasound as the second l...

  4. Is mammography screening history a predictor of future breast cancer risk?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Sune Bangsbøll; Törnberg, Sven; Kilpeläinen, Sini;

    2015-01-01

    Inspired by the model by Walter and Day for risk of cervical cancer following negative screens, one might hypothesize that women in a mammography screening programme with a certain number of negative screens had a lower remaining breast cancer risk than that of women in general. We studied whether...... number of negative screens was a predictor for a low remaining breast cancer risk in women participating in the mammography screening programmes in Stockholm, Copenhagen and Funen. Data were collected from the mammography screening programmes in Stockholm, Sweden (1989-2012), Copenhagen, Denmark (1991...... was not a predictor of a low remaining breast cancer risk in women participating in the mammography screening programmes in Stockholm, Sweden, Copenhagen and Funen, Denmark. The history of previous negative screens is therefore not suitable for personalisation of mammography screening....

  5. Continuous quality improvement of colorectal cancer screening

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mariusz; Madalinski

    2013-01-01

    Quality assurance is a key issue in colorectal cancer screening, because effective screening is able to improve primary prevention of the cancer. The quality measure may be described in terms:how well the screening test tells who truly has a disease (sensitivity) and who truly does not have a disease (specificity). This paper raises concerns about identification of the optimal screening test for colorectal cancer. Colonoscopy vs flexible sigmoidoscopy in colorectal cancer screening has been a source of ongoing debate. A multicentre randomised controlled trial comparing flexible sigmoidoscopy with usual care showed that flexible sigmoidoscopy screening is able to diminish the incidence of distal and proximal colorectal cancer, and also mortality related to the distal colorectal cancer. However, colonoscopy provides a more complete examination and remains the more sensitive exam than flexible sigmoidoscopy. Moreover, colonoscopy with polypectomy significantly reduces colorectal cancer incidence and colorectal cancer-related mortality in the general population. The article considers the relative merits of both methods and stresses an ethical aspect of patient’s involvement in decision-making. Patients should be informed not only about tests tolerability and risk of endoscopy complications, but also that different screening tests for bowel cancer have different strength to exclude colonic cancer and polyps. The authorities calculate effectiveness and costs of the screening tests, but patients may not be interested in statistics regarding flexible sigmoidoscopy screening and from an ethical point of view, they have the right to chose colonoscopy, which is able to exclude a cancer and precancerous lesions in the whole large bowel.

  6. Cancer screening with CT: dose controversy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Computed tomographic (CT) cancer screening has seen a steady increase in interest with the introduction of multislice scanners. While the potential benefits of screening are obvious, radiation dose may pose a long-term risk for the screened individual. This article will discuss the basis for radiation risk estimation and give an overview of the current dose controversy surrounding CT screening. Given the current evidence, a non-negligible radiation risk has to be postulated even at very low doses, but estimates depend heavily on the chosen mathematical model. Lung cancer risk is the most important factor in a screening population because it peaks in the time interval between 40 and 70 years of age. Substantial risks for lung cancer development from yearly screening CT examinations are currently discussed in the literature. Risks for colon cancer screening are less because of less frequent screening intervals. For both indications substantial dose reduction up to factors of 5-10 may be possible. Full-body screening remains critical when performed at regular intervals because of the large doses required and the direct exposure of the lungs. If performed in a dose-conscious fashion, individual risks with lung and colon cancer screening are very small, but estimated population risks are non-negligible. (orig.)

  7. Understanding male cancer patients' barriers to participating in cancer rehabilitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Handberg, Charlotte; Lomborg, Kirsten; Nielsen, Claus Vinther;

    2015-01-01

    The aim was to describe male cancer survivors' barriers towards participation in cancer rehabilitation as a means to guiding future targeted men's cancer rehabilitation. Symbolic Interactionism along with the interpretive descriptive methodology guided the study of 35 male cancer survivors...... representing seven cancer types. Data were generated through a 5-month fieldwork study comprising participant observations, semi-structured individual interviews and informal conversations. The analyses revealed two overarching findings shedding light on male cancer survivors' barriers to rehabilitation: ‘Fear...... hinder: ‘Autonomy and purpose’, ‘Solidarity and fellowship’ and ‘Forget and move on’. This study of male cancer survivors' and cancer rehabilitation documents how masculine ideals may constitute barriers for participation in rehabilitation and provides insights about why men are underrepresented in...

  8. Cancer screening: Should cancer screening be essential component of primary health care in developing countries?

    OpenAIRE

    Saurabh Bobdey; Ganesh Balasubramanium; Abhinendra Kumar; Aanchal Jain

    2015-01-01

    Background: Cancer is a fatal disease and is on the rise across the globe. In India, breast, cervix and the oral cavity are the leading cancer sites, but, unfortunately, in-spite of availability of screening tools, there is no organized cancer screening program in India. The main objective of this study was to review the performance of various cancer screening modalities in a resource poor setting. Methods: MEDLINE and web of science electronic database was searched from January 1990 to D...

  9. Screening for breast cancer post reduction mammoplasty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aim: To investigate whether remodelling of the breast after breast reduction surgery has an effect on mammographic cancer detection. Methods and materials: For women who attended population-based screening between January 1998 to December 2007, data were extracted on their age, history of previous breast reduction, and the result of screening (recall for further assessment, cancer, or no cancer). The number of cancers detected, recalls per 1000 screens and the characteristics of the cancers detected in the two groups was compared. Results: In total 244,147 women with 736,219 screening episodes were reviewed. In the 4743 women who had a breast reduction, 51 breast cancers were detected [age standardized rate (ASR) of 4.28 per 1000 screening episodes; 95% CI 3.11-5.46], compared with 4342 breast cancers in 239 404 women screened in the non-reduction group (ASR of 5.99 per 1000 screening episodes; 95% CI 5.81-6.16). There were fewer cancers in the breast reduction group with a relative risk of 0.71. There was no significant difference in the rate of recall between the two groups, with a crude recall rate of 46.1 per 1000 screening episodes post-breast reduction compared with 50.7 per 1000 screening episodes for women without breast reduction. There was no significant difference in the pathological type or location of the cancer between the two groups of women. Conclusion: Postoperative breast changes following reduction mammoplasty do not significantly hinder analysis of the screening mammogram.

  10. The PLCO Cancer Screening Trial: Background, Goals, Organization, Operations, Results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gohagan, John K; Prorok, Philip C; Greenwald, Peter; Kramer, Barnett S

    2015-01-01

    The randomized PLCO trial was designed to answer four primary questions: does screening for these cancers using often promoted tests reduce cancer-specific mortality? Nearly 155,000 men and women were allocated to screening or usual care arms in a 1:1 ratio under a centralized, secure randomization algorithm at ten competitively selected screening centers nationwide. Screened men received PSA blood tests and digital rectal examinations. Screened women received CA125 blood tests and trans-vaginal ultrasound. Both men and women in the screened arm received anterolateral view chest x-ray and 60 cm flexible sigmoidoscopy. Blood specimens were collected at each screening visit and buccal cell DNA was collected once from the usual care participants. Histology slides were collected for cancer cases. Participants completed a baseline questionnaire covering health and risk factors and a dietary questionnaire. Data collected on standardized machine-readable forms were scanned remotely at screening and laboratory sites utilizing PLCO dedicated, NCI provided and configured computer systems for quality checks, archiving, and analysis. Comprehensive quality assurance was implemented over recruitment, consenting, randomization, screening, data management, records keeping, patient-specific screening results reporting, follow-up, and data analysis. Performance and data quality were monitored on-site and remotely by data edits, site visits, and random record audits. Specially trained and certified professionals performed screening procedures and medical record abstracting. An independent committee of medical specialists reviewed and certified case-specific cause of death. Scientific leadership was provided by NCI Project Officers, PLCO principal investigators, external consultants, and an independent data and safety monitoring board. PMID:26238115

  11. Lung cancer screening overdiagnosis: reports of overdiagnosis in screening for lung cancer are grossly exaggerated.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortani Barbosa, Eduardo J

    2015-08-01

    The National Lung Cancer Screening Trial (NLST) demonstrated a mortality reduction benefit associated with low-dose computed tomography (LDCT) screening for lung cancer. There has been considerable debate regarding the benefits and harms of LDCT lung cancer screening, including the challenges related to its practical implementation. One of the controversies regards overdiagnosis, which conceptually denotes diagnosing a cancer that, either because of its indolent, low-aggressiveness biologic behavior or because of limited life expectancy, is unlikely to result in significant morbidity during the patient's remainder lifetime. In theory, diagnosing and treating these cancers offer no measurable benefit while incurring costs and risks. Therefore, if a screening test detects a substantial number of overdiagnosed cancers, it is less likely to be effective. It has been argued that LDCT screening for lung cancer results in an unacceptably high rate of overdiagnosis. This article aims to defend the opposite stance. Overdiagnosis does exist and to a certain extent is inherent to any cancer-screening test. Nonetheless, the concept is less dualistic and more nuanced than it has been suggested. Furthermore, the average estimates of overdiagnosis in LDCT lung cancer screening based on the totality of published data are likely much lower than the highest published estimates, if a careful definition of a positive screening test reflecting our current understanding of lung cancer biology is utilized. This article presents evidence on why reports of overdiagnosis in lung cancer screening have been exaggerated. PMID:25772581

  12. The Effect of National Cancer Screening on Disparity Reduction in Cancer Stage at Diagnosis by Income Level.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hye-Min Jung

    Full Text Available Early detection of cancer is an effective and efficient cancer management strategy. In South Korea, the National Health Insurance administers the National Cancer Screening Program to its beneficiaries. We examined the impact of the National Cancer Screening Program on socioeconomic disparities in cancer stage at diagnosis.Cancer patients registered in the Korean Central Cancer Registry from January 1, 2010 to December 31, 2010 with a diagnosis of gastric cancer (n = 22,470, colon cancer (n = 16,323, breast cancer (n = 10,076, or uterine cervical cancer (n = 2,447 were included. Income level was divided into three groups according to their monthly contribution of National Health Insurance. We employed absolute (age-standardized prevalence rate, slope index of inequality and relative (relative index of inequality measures to separately examine social disparities among participants and non-participants of the National Cancer Screening Program in terms of the early-stage rate.Age-standardized prevalence rates of early-stage by income group were always higher in participants than in non-participants. Furthermore, the age-standardized prevalence rate of early-stage in the low income group of the participants was also higher than that of the high income group of the non-participants. The sizes of disparities (both slope index of inequality and relative index of inequality are smaller in participants compared to non-participants.National Cancer Screening Program participation reduced income disparity in cancer stage at diagnosis. Population-based cancer screening programs can be used as an effective measure to reduce income disparity in cancer care.

  13. Decision aid for women considering breast cancer screening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pasternack, Iris; Saalasti-Koskinen, Ulla; Mäkelä, Marjukka

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to describe the process and challenges of developing a decision aid for the national public breast cancer screening program in Finland. METHODS: An expert team with stakeholder representation used European guidelines and other literature as basis for selecting...... balanced information for women invited to breast cancer screening is demanding and requires careful planning. Professionals and service providers need to be engaged in the HTA process to ensure proper dissemination and implementation of the information. End user participation is essential in the...

  14. Canadian cancer screening disparities: a recent historical perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Kerner, J.; Liu, J; Wang, K.; Fung, S; Landry, C; Lockwood, G.; Zitzelsberger, L; Mai, V

    2015-01-01

    Across Canada, introduction of the Pap test for cervical cancer screening, followed by mammography for breast cancer screening and, more recently, the fecal occult blood test for colorectal cancer screening, has contributed to a reduction in cancer mortality. However, another contribution of screening has been disparities in cancer mortality between certain populations. Here, we explore the disparities associated with breast and cervical cancer screening and preliminary data concerning dispar...

  15. Attitudes towards Lung Cancer Screening in an Australian High-Risk Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra E. Flynn

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To determine whether persons at high risk of lung cancer would participate in lung cancer screening test if available in Australia and to elicit general attitudes towards cancer screening and factors that might affect participation in a screening program. Methods. We developed a 20-item written questionnaire, based on two published telephone interview scripts, addressing attitudes towards cancer screening, perceived risk of lung cancer, and willingness to be screened for lung cancer and to undertake surgery if lung cancer were detected. The questionnaire was given to 102 current and former smokers attending the respiratory clinic and pulmonary rehabilitation programmes. Results. We gained 90 eligible responses (M:F, 69:21. Mean [SD] age was 63 [11] and smoking history was 32 [21] pack years. 95% of subjects would participate in a lung cancer screening test, and 91% of these would consider surgery if lung cancer was detected. 44% of subjects considered that they were at risk of lung cancer. This was lower in ex-smokers than in current smokers. Conclusions. There is high willingness for lung cancer screening and surgical treatment. There is underrecognition of risk among ex-smokers. This misperception could be a barrier to a successful screening or case-finding programme in Australia.

  16. Attitudes to colorectal cancer screening among ethnic minority groups in the UK

    OpenAIRE

    Atkin Wendy; Power Emily; Solarin Ijeoma; Robb Kathryn A; Wardle Jane

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Colorectal screening by Flexible Sigmoidoscopy (FS) is under evaluation in the UK. Evidence from existing cancer screening programmes indicates lower participation among minority ethnic groups than the white-British population. To ensure equality of access, it is important to understand attitudes towards screening in all ethnic groups so that barriers to screening acceptance can be addressed. Methods Open- and closed-ended questions on knowledge about colorectal cancer and...

  17. Cervical cancer - screening and prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervical cancer is cancer that starts in the cervix. The cervix is the lower part of the uterus ( ... can do to decrease your chance of having cervical cancer. Also, tests done by your health care provider ...

  18. 乳腺癌教育项目对乳腺癌筛查知识及参加意愿的影响%The effect of breast cancer screening educational program on breast cancer screening knowledge and willingness to participation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张艳君; 刘彩刚

    2014-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of a breast cancer screening educational program on women's knowledge and intention to seek breast cancer screening in China.Methods 60 patients were divided into the experimental group (30 cases) and the control group (32 cases).The experimental group received breast cancer screening educational program,while the control group did not.A pre-test and post-test were used in both the experimental and the control groups.A convenience sampling was used.Two structured questionnaires were used.Results The mean scores of knowledge of breast cancer screening and intention to seek breast cancer screening of the experimental group were statistically different from those of the control group after the education.Statistical difference also existed in the experimental group in the above aspects within the experimental group.Conclusions Application of breast cancer screening educational program can improve women's knowledge and intention to seek breast cancer screening,as well as supply reference for prevention item of breast cancer.%目的 调查乳腺癌教育项目对妇女的乳腺癌筛查知识以及筛查意愿的影响.方法 将62例被调查者随机分为实验组30人和对照组32人.实验组接受乳腺癌教育项目,对照组参与者未接受.实验组和对照组均进行了教育前测试和教育后测试.采用抽样调查以及调查问卷的方法对2组患者乳腺癌筛查知识及筛查意愿进行测评.结果 2组接受教育后,筛查知识和筛查意愿得分比较差异均有统计学意义.实验组内教育前后在筛查知识和筛查意愿方面比较差异也同样具有统计学意义.结论 实施乳腺癌筛查教育项目可提高筛查知识水平以及筛查意愿,可以为临床乳腺癌预防项目提供参考.

  19. Cancer Screening Among Peer-Led Community Wellness Center Enrollees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rockson, Lois E; Swarbrick, Margaret A; Pratt, Carlos

    2016-03-01

    Growing evidence suggests health disparities exist in services for individuals with mental disorders served by the public mental health system. The current study assessed the use of cancer screening services among New Jersey residents in publicly funded mental health programs. Self-administered written surveys were completed by 148 adults using peer-led community wellness centers throughout New Jersey. Information was collected on (a) the use of breast, cervical, and colorectal cancer screening services; (b) barriers to receiving preventive services; and (c) perceptions of overall health. More males than females participated in the study, with equal participation among White and African American individuals. Schizophrenia spectrum disorders were the most common self-reported psychiatric condition. Colorectal cancers had lower screening levels compared to those of the general population. Physicians not advising patients to complete tests emerged as a main cause of low screening rates. Wellness initiatives designed by peers collaborating with health care providers may improve adherence to preventive cancer screening measures. [Journal of Psychosocial Nursing and Mental Health Services, 54(3), 36-40.]. PMID:26935189

  20. Experience with breast cancer, pre-screening perceived susceptibility and the psychological impact of screening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Absetz, Pilvikki; Aro, Arja R; Sutton, Stephen R

    2003-01-01

    This prospective study examined whether the psychological impact of organized mammography screening is influenced by women's pre-existing experience with breast cancer and perceived susceptibility (PS) to the disease. From a target population of 16,886, a random sample of women with a normal...... screening finding and all women with a false positive or a benign biopsy finding were included (N=1942). Data were collected with postal questionnaires 1-month before screening invitation and 2 and 12 months after screening. Response rate was 63% at baseline; 86, and 80% of the baseline participants...... responded to the follow-ups. Psychological impact was measured as anxiety (STAI-S), depression (BDI), health-related concerns (IAS), and breast cancer-specific beliefs and concerns. Data was analyzed with repeated measures analyses of variance, with estimates of effect size based on Eta-squared. Women with...

  1. More than lung cancer: Automated analysis of low-dose screening CT scans

    OpenAIRE

    Mets, O.M.

    2012-01-01

    Smoking is a major health care problem and is projected to cause over 8 million deaths per year worldwide in the coming decades. To reduce lung cancer mortality in heavy smokers, several randomized screening trials were initiated in the past years using screening with low-dose Computed Tomography (CT). Recently, the National Lung Screening Trial (NLST), which was performed in the United States of America and compared about 25,000 participants screened with CT against 25,000 participants scree...

  2. Breast cancer screening implementation and reassurance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østerø, J; Siersma, Volkert Dirk; Brodersen, John

    2013-01-01

    difference in reported psychosocial aspects had disappeared or been reduced because of the nationwide screening implementation. METHODS: The 1000 women included in the previous survey were posted part I of the questionnaire Consequences of Screening in Breast Cancer (COS-BC1) in August 2011, nearly 5 years...

  3. Reducing Cancer Screening Disparities in Medicare Beneficiaries Through Cancer Patient Navigation

    OpenAIRE

    Braun, Kathryn L; Thomas, William L.; Domingo, Jermy-Leigh B.; Allison, Amanda L; Ponce, Avette; Kamakana, P. Haunani; Brazzel, Sandra S.; Aluli, N. Emmett; Tsark, JoAnn U.

    2015-01-01

    Significant racial disparities in cancer mortality are seen between Medicare beneficiaries. A randomized controlled trial tested the use of lay navigators (care managers) to increase cancer screening of Asian and Pacific Islander Medicare beneficiaries. The study setting was Moloka‘i General Hospital on the island of Moloka‘i, Hawai‘i, which was one of six sites participating in the Cancer Prevention and Treatment Demonstration sponsored by the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services. Betw...

  4. Screening for colorectal cancer: what fits best?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Lee, Chun Seng

    2012-06-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) screening has been shown to be effective in reducing CRC incidence and mortality. There are currently a number of screening modalities available for implementation into a population-based CRC screening program. Each screening method offers different strengths but also possesses its own limitations as a population-based screening strategy. We review the current evidence base for accepted CRC screening tools and evaluate their merits alongside their challenges in fulfilling their role in the detection of CRC. We also aim to provide an outlook on the demands of a low-risk population-based CRC screening program with a view to providing insight as to which modality would best suit current and future needs.

  5. Cervical Cancer Knowledge, Perceptions and Screening Behaviour Among Female University Students in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binka, Charity; Nyarko, Samuel H; Doku, David T

    2016-06-01

    Cervical cancer is becoming a leading cause of death among women in developing countries. Nevertheless, little is known regarding knowledge and perception of cervical cancer and screening behaviour particularly among female tertiary students in Ghana. This study sought to examine the knowledge and perceptions of cervical cancer and screening behaviour among female students in the University of Cape Coast and Ghana Institute of Management and Public Administration in Ghana. A cross-sectional survey design was adopted for the study. Systematic and stratified random sampling techniques were used to select 410 participants for the study. The study found that the participants lacked knowledge on specific risk factors and symptoms of cervical cancer. Also, even though the participants had a fair perception of cervical cancer, they had a poor cervical cancer screening behaviour. Awareness of cervical cancer was significantly influenced by religious affiliation while cervical cancer screening was significantly determined by the working status of the participants. Specific knowledge on cervical cancer and its risk factors as well as regular screening behaviour is paramount to the prevention of cervical cancer. Consequently, the University Health Services should focus on promoting regular cervical cancer awareness campaigns and screening among the students particularly, females. PMID:25957285

  6. Participation in cancer rehabilitation and unmet needs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Lise Vilstrup; Hansen, Dorte Gilså; Johansen, Christoffer;

    2012-01-01

    -based cohort study was performed on incident cancer patients diagnosed from 1 October 2007 to 30 September 2008. Fourteen months after diagnosis, participants completed a questionnaire developed to measure the aspects of rehabilitation. Logistic regression analyses were used to explore the association between...

  7. Screening for Lynch syndrome in colorectal cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘晓红

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the application of mismatch repair(MMR)genes proteins expression to screen for Lynch syndrome in colorectal cancer patients.Methods One hundred consecutive colorectal cancers cases collected from 2012 to 2013 were tested immunohistochemically for the protein expression of MLH1,MSH2,MSH6 and PMS2,and also by the ARMS method for the mutation

  8. Improving Screening Strategies for Prostate Cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T. Wolters (Tineke)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractTh is thesis describes research on screening for prostate cancer. To improve understanding of the thesis, some background information will be provided in this introduction. First, a short description of the prostate and of prostate cancer will be given in Chapter 1, followed by more deta

  9. Oral cancer screening: serum Raman spectroscopic approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahu, Aditi K.; Dhoot, Suyash; Singh, Amandeep; Sawant, Sharada S.; Nandakumar, Nikhila; Talathi-Desai, Sneha; Garud, Mandavi; Pagare, Sandeep; Srivastava, Sanjeeva; Nair, Sudhir; Chaturvedi, Pankaj; Murali Krishna, C.

    2015-11-01

    Serum Raman spectroscopy (RS) has previously shown potential in oral cancer diagnosis and recurrence prediction. To evaluate the potential of serum RS in oral cancer screening, premalignant and cancer-specific detection was explored in the present study using 328 subjects belonging to healthy controls, premalignant, disease controls, and oral cancer groups. Spectra were acquired using a Raman microprobe. Spectral findings suggest changes in amino acids, lipids, protein, DNA, and β-carotene across the groups. A patient-wise approach was employed for data analysis using principal component linear discriminant analysis. In the first step, the classification among premalignant, disease control (nonoral cancer), oral cancer, and normal samples was evaluated in binary classification models. Thereafter, two screening-friendly classification approaches were explored to further evaluate the clinical utility of serum RS: a single four-group model and normal versus abnormal followed by determining the type of abnormality model. Results demonstrate the feasibility of premalignant and specific cancer detection. The normal versus abnormal model yields better sensitivity and specificity rates of 64 and 80% these rates are comparable to standard screening approaches. Prospectively, as the current screening procedure of visual inspection is useful mainly for high-risk populations, serum RS may serve as a useful adjunct for early and specific detection of oral precancers and cancer.

  10. Understanding male cancer patients' barriers to participating in cancer rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handberg, C; Lomborg, K; Nielsen, C V; Oliffe, J L; Midtgaard, J

    2015-11-01

    The aim was to describe male cancer survivors' barriers towards participation in cancer rehabilitation as a means to guiding future targeted men's cancer rehabilitation. Symbolic Interactionism along with the interpretive descriptive methodology guided the study of 35 male cancer survivors representing seven cancer types. Data were generated through a 5-month fieldwork study comprising participant observations, semi-structured individual interviews and informal conversations. The analyses revealed two overarching findings shedding light on male cancer survivors' barriers to rehabilitation: 'Fear of losing control' and 'Striving for normality'. While 'Fear of losing control' signified what the men believed rehabilitation would invoke: 'Reduced manliness', 'Sympathy and dependency' and 'Confrontation with death', 'Striving for normality' was based on what the men believed rehabilitation would hinder: 'Autonomy and purpose', 'Solidarity and fellowship' and 'Forget and move on'. This study of male cancer survivors' and cancer rehabilitation documents how masculine ideals may constitute barriers for participation in rehabilitation and provides insights about why men are underrepresented in rehabilitation. The findings can guide practice to develop research-based rehabilitation approaches focused on preserving control and normality. Further empirical evidence is needed to: (1) explore the conduct of health professionals' towards male cancer patients and (2) address gender inequalities in cancer rehabilitation. PMID:26223855

  11. Voluntary cognitive screening: characteristics of participants in an Asian setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ho V

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Vanda Ho,1,2 Nur Hani Zainal,1 Linda Lim,1 Aloysius Ng,1 Eveline Silva,1 Nagaendran Kandiah1,3 1Department of Neurology, National Neuroscience Institute, Singapore; 2School of Clinical Medicine, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK; 3Duke-NUS Graduate Medical School, Singapore Background: Mild cognitive impairment (MCI and dementia are reaching epidemic proportions in Asia. Lack of awareness and late presentation are major obstacles to early diagnosis and timely intervention. Cognitive screening may be an effective method for early detection of dementia in Asia. The purpose of this work was to study the characteristics of subjects volunteering for cognitive screening in an Asian setting and to determine the prevalence of MCI.Methods: Retrospective and cross-sectional data from community subjects attending a screening program from 2008 to 2013 were analyzed. Information on demographics, vascular risk factors, subjective symptoms, and cognitive measures were analyzed over the 6-year period.Results: Over the 6 years from 2008 to 2013, 1,243 community subjects voluntarily turned up for cognitive screening (91.2% were Chinese, 5.23% were Indian, 1.37% were Malay, and 2.25% were Eurasian. The mean age of the participants was 61.3 years and the mean number of years of education was 11.0 years. A total of 71.1% of participants were living in public housing, 59.8% had at least one cardiovascular risk factor, and 56.2% reported subjective cognitive symptoms. Over a period of 6 years, no significant change in demographic or clinical variables was noted. High cholesterol and hypertension were consistently the top two risk factors found in the population screened. In total, 17.2% of the total cohort had MCI. Across the 6 years, the proportion with MCI and depression was relatively constant.Conclusion: A significant proportion of participants attending voluntary cognitive screening have MCI. Low level of education and presence of vascular risk factors are

  12. What Women Need to Know about Colon Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... you love): What Women Need to Know about Colon Cancer Screening March is National Colorectal Cancer Awareness Month ... the United States. Tests used for screening for colon cancer include digital rectal exam, stool blood test, barium ...

  13. Effect of adding screening ultrasonography to screening mammography on patient recall and cancer detection rates: A retrospective study in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tohno, Eriko, E-mail: tohno@tmch.or.jp [Total Health Evaluation Center Tsukuba, 1-2, Amakubo, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0005 (Japan); Umemoto, Takeshi, E-mail: umemoto@tmch.or.jp [Tsukuba Medical Center Hospital, 1-3-1, Amakubo, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0005 (Japan); Sasaki, Kyoko, E-mail: kdon@za.cyberhome.ne.jp [Tsukuba Medical Center Hospital, 1-3-1, Amakubo, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0005 (Japan); Morishima, Isamu, E-mail: morishima@tmch.or.jp [Tsukuba Medical Center Hospital, 1-3-1, Amakubo, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0005 (Japan); Ueno, Ei, E-mail: e-ueno@tmch.or.jp [Tsukuba Medical Center Hospital, 1-3-1, Amakubo, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0005 (Japan)

    2013-08-15

    Purpose: To determine whether adding screening ultrasonography to screening mammography can reduce patient recall rates and increase cancer detection rates. Materials and methods: We analyzed the results of mammography and ultrasonography breast screenings performed at the Total Health Evaluation Center Tsukuba, Japan, between April 2011 and March 2012. We also reviewed the modalities and results of diagnostic examinations from women with mammographic abnormalities who visited the Tsukuba Medical Center Hospital for further testing. Results: Of 11,753 women screened, cancer was diagnosed in 10 (0.22%) of the 4529 participants who underwent mammography alone, 23 (0.37%) of the 6250 participants who underwent ultrasonography alone, and 5 (0.51%) of the 974 participants who underwent mammography and ultrasonography. The recall rate due to mammographic abnormalities was 4.9% for women screened only with mammography and 2.6% for those screened with both modalities. The cancer detection rate was 0.22% for women screened only with mammography (positive predictive value, 4.5%) and 0.31% for those screened with both modalities (positive predictive value, 12.0%). Of the 211 lesions presenting as mammographic abnormalities investigated further, diagnostic ultrasonography found no abnormalities in 63 (29.9%) and benign findings in 69 (33.7%). The rest 36.4% needed mammography, cytological or histological examinations or follow-up in addition to diagnostic ultrasonography. Conclusions: It is possible to reduce the recall rate in screening mammography by combining mammography and ultrasonography for breast screening.

  14. Effect of adding screening ultrasonography to screening mammography on patient recall and cancer detection rates: A retrospective study in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To determine whether adding screening ultrasonography to screening mammography can reduce patient recall rates and increase cancer detection rates. Materials and methods: We analyzed the results of mammography and ultrasonography breast screenings performed at the Total Health Evaluation Center Tsukuba, Japan, between April 2011 and March 2012. We also reviewed the modalities and results of diagnostic examinations from women with mammographic abnormalities who visited the Tsukuba Medical Center Hospital for further testing. Results: Of 11,753 women screened, cancer was diagnosed in 10 (0.22%) of the 4529 participants who underwent mammography alone, 23 (0.37%) of the 6250 participants who underwent ultrasonography alone, and 5 (0.51%) of the 974 participants who underwent mammography and ultrasonography. The recall rate due to mammographic abnormalities was 4.9% for women screened only with mammography and 2.6% for those screened with both modalities. The cancer detection rate was 0.22% for women screened only with mammography (positive predictive value, 4.5%) and 0.31% for those screened with both modalities (positive predictive value, 12.0%). Of the 211 lesions presenting as mammographic abnormalities investigated further, diagnostic ultrasonography found no abnormalities in 63 (29.9%) and benign findings in 69 (33.7%). The rest 36.4% needed mammography, cytological or histological examinations or follow-up in addition to diagnostic ultrasonography. Conclusions: It is possible to reduce the recall rate in screening mammography by combining mammography and ultrasonography for breast screening

  15. Magnetic resonance imaging for lung cancer screen

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Yi-Xiang J.; Lo, Gladys G.; Yuan, Jing; Larson, Peder E.Z.; Zhang, Xiaoliang

    2014-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer related death throughout the world. Lung cancer is an example of a disease for which a large percentage of the high-risk population can be easily identified via a smoking history. This has led to the investigation of lung cancer screening with low-dose helical/multi-detector CT. Evidences suggest that early detection of lung cancer allow more timely therapeutic intervention and thus a more favorable prognosis for the patient. The positive relationshi...

  16. Screening for prostatic cancer. Investigational models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, P; Torp-Pedersen, S T

    1991-01-01

    Prostatic cancer has a long natural history and a significant preclinical period, during which the disease is detectable. Thus, this common malignancy in males fulfills some of the most important criteria for initiating screening programs. However, the still enigmatic epidemiology also includes...... features of the disease, which make the possible gain from screening programs questionable. Thus, before embarking on expensive community or national screening programs, the beneficial effect of such an effort on morbidity and mortality must be demonstrated in large-scale trials comparing a screened...

  17. Cervical Cancer Screening with HPV Test

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-10-15

    Dr. Stewart Massad, a professor in the Division of Gynecologic Oncology at Washington University in Saint Louis and a board member of the American Society for Colposcopy and Cervical Cancer Prevention (ASCCP), talks about cotesting with human papillomavirus (HPV) as part of a cervical cancer screening program.  Created: 10/15/2009 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP), Division of Cancer Prevention and Control (DCPC).   Date Released: 6/9/2010.

  18. The Role of Effective Communication to Enhance Participation in Screening Mammography: A New Zealand Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret A. Brunton

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Changes in the organisation of health care have dominated policy initiatives over the past two decades in many countries. An increasing reliance on public health initiatives to prevent or detect disease early has resulted in an increase in programs that screen for cancer in the community. In turn, this accentuates the need to persuasively communicate the value of such initiatives to encourage continued participation. Merely placing screening programs into a community setting is not sufficient to ensure that adequate numbers will voluntarily participate regularly to achieve anticipated cost and mortality savings in the population. In this research the influence of managing communication in a public screening mammography program was investigated. The results revealed that significant opportunities were overlooked for reassurance and information during the physical mammography process. In turn, this highlights the influence of constraints imposed by the structure of the screening program and the resources allocated to the process. This research suggests that it is important to address multiple influences, including ethnic differences, when asking questions about the effectiveness of public health policy, particularly when considering the choices women make about ongoing participation in breast screening programs.

  19. Public views on participating in newborn screening using genome sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bombard, Yvonne; Miller, Fiona A; Hayeems, Robin Z; Barg, Carolyn; Cressman, Celine; Carroll, June C; Wilson, Brenda J; Little, Julian; Avard, Denise; Painter-Main, Michael; Allanson, Judith; Giguere, Yves; Chakraborty, Pranesh

    2014-11-01

    Growing discussion on the use of whole-genome or exome sequencing (WG/ES) in newborn screening (NBS) has raised concerns regarding the generation of incidental information on millions of infants annually. It is unknown whether integrating WG/ES would alter public expectations regarding participation in universal NBS. We assessed public willingness to participate in NBS using WG/ES compared with current NBS. Our secondary objective was to assess the public's beliefs regarding a parental responsibility to participate in WG/ES-based NBS compared with current NBS. We examined self-reported attitudes regarding willingness to participate in NBS using a cross-sectional national survey of Canadian residents recruited through an internet panel, reflective of the Canadian population by age, gender and region. Our results showed that fewer respondents would be willing to participate in NBS using WG/ES compared with NBS using current technologies (80 vs 94%, Pparental responsibility to participate in WG/ES-based NBS vs current NBS (30 vs 48%, Pauthority that NBS programmes rely upon to ensure population benefits. These findings point to the need for caution in the untargeted use of WG/ES in public health contexts. PMID:24549052

  20. Breast and cervical cancer screening in Great Britain: Dynamic interrelated processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labeit, Alexander; Peinemann, Frank

    2015-12-01

    No previous analysis has investigated the determinants of screening uptake for breast and cervical cancer screening for possible spillover effects from one type of screening examination to the other type of screening examination with a dynamic bivariate panel probit model. For our analysis, we used a dynamic random effects bivariate panel probit model with initial conditions (Wooldridge-type estimator) and dependent variables were the participation of breast and cervical cancer screening in the recent year. The balanced panel sample consisted of 844 women from the British Household Panel Survey (BHPS) from the time period 1992 to 2008. Our analysis showed the high relevance of past screening behaviour and the importance of state dependency for the same and the other type of cancer screening examinations even after controlling for covariates and unobserved heterogeneity. The uptake for breast and cervical cancer screening was higher when the same screening examination was done one or three years earlier. This result is in accordance with the medical screening programmes in Great Britain. With regard to breast and cervical cancer screening positive spillover effects existed between screening examinations in the third order lags. Women with a previous visit to a general practitioner and individuals in the recommended age groups had a higher uptake for breast and cervical cancer screening. Other socioeconomic and health related variables had non-uniform results in both screening examinations. Promoting the uptake of one female prevention activity could also enhance the uptake of the other prevention activity. PMID:26487452

  1. Screening for breast cancer with mammography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mammography is generally accepted as a useful problem-solving clinical tool in characterizing known breast lesions, so that appropriate and timely treatment can be given. However, it remains grossly underutilized at what it does best: screening. The major strengths of mammography are (a) its ability to detect breast cancer at a smaller, potentially more curable stage than any other examination, and (b) its proved efficacy in reducing breast cancer mortality in asymptomatic women aged 40-74. If, as has recently been estimated, screening with mammography and physical examination can be expected to lower breast cancer deaths by 40%-50% among those actually examined (13), then the lives of almost 20,000 U.S. women might be saved each year if screening were to become very widely used. The challenges of the next decade are clear, to mount much more effective campaigns to educate physicians and lay women about the life-saving benefits of breast cancer screening, to devise increasingly effective and lower cost screening strategies, to further improve the current high quality of mammographic imaging despite its increasing proliferation, and to train large numbers of breast imaging specialists to guarantee that the growing case load of screening and problem-solving mammograms is interpreted with a very high level of skill

  2. Breast cancer screening in Canada: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Organized screening for breast cancer in Canada began in 1988 and has been implemented in all provinces and 2 of the 3 territories. Quality initiatives are promoted through national guidelines which detail best practices in various areas, including achieving quality through a client-service approach, recruitment and capacity, retention, quality of mammography, reporting, communication of results, follow-up and diagnostic workup, and program evaluation; it also offers detailed guidelines for the pathological examination and reporting of breast specimens. The Canadian Breast Cancer Data Base is a national breast cancer screening surveillance system whose objective is to collect information from provincial-screening programs. These data are used to monitor and evaluate the performance of programs and allow comparison with national and international results. A series of standardized performance indicators and targets for the evaluation of performance and quality of organized breast cancer screening programs have been developed from the data base. Although health care is a provincial responsibility in Canada, the collective reporting and comparison of results both nationally and internationally is beneficial in evaluating and refining both screening programs and individual radiologist performance. The results of Canadian performance indicators compare favourably with those of other well-established international screening programs. There are variations in performance indicators across the provinces and territories, but these differences are not extreme. (author)

  3. Breast and cervical cancer screening programme implementation in 16 countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dowling, Emily C; Klabunde, Carrie; Patnick, Julietta;

    2010-01-01

    There is a continuing need to monitor and evaluate the impact of organized screening programmes on cancer incidence and mortality. We report results from a programme assessment conducted within the International Cancer Screening Network (ICSN) to understand the characteristics of cervical screening...... programmes within countries that have established population-based breast cancer screening programmes....

  4. Barriers and Motivators Related to Cervical and Breast Cancer Screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Bokaee

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: modern knowledge could protect against cancer for individuals in community with early stage and premalignat state. Screening of cancer is best instrument for early detection of malignancy. Between women’s cancers breast and cervical cancer have more incidence and mortality than other cancers . But could be prevented by simple and cheep screening programs. Despite specific statistics in Iran evidence shows that women’s participation in screening program is poor , so cancers are diagnosed in advanced stage. The purpose of this study was to identify major barriers and motivators for breast and cervical screening . Methods: This survey was a descriptive study in which 400 women participated in health and treatment centers in Yazd. Sampling method was done in two simple and random stages. Data was collected by inventory and questionnaire . Then data were analyzed by SPSS soft ware . Results: Findings showed that 80% of them never refereed to a health provider for clinical breast exam (C B E and only 3% of them did regularly C B E . 46% of them had never done pap smear and only 14.5 % of them did regularly pap smear. The findings showed that major motivators were as follow: advice of health’s personnel , using of contraceptive methods , and awareness of media. Also the major barriers were as follow : Not having knowledge of these exams , not having knowledge of the existence of these centers of education and practice , not having precious health problems , fear of examination , Embarrassment of examination and health providers not to teach them . to consider the most important barriers were propounded which showed that health education role to eliminate barriers for referring women for screening . Discussion: Based on the results of this sample , screening was the least expected . considering barriers and motivators observed it was revealed that health education was required for prevention of common women’s cancers. Also

  5. Telenovela: an innovative colorectal cancer screening health messaging tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melany Cueva

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background. Alaska Native people have nearly twice the rate of colorectal cancer (CRC incidence and mortality as the US White population. Objective. Building upon storytelling as a culturally respectful way to share information among Alaska Native people, a 25-minute telenovela-style movie, What's the Big Deal?, was developed to increase CRC screening awareness and knowledge, role-model CRC conversations, and support wellness choices. Design. Alaska Native cultural values of family, community, storytelling, and humor were woven into seven, 3–4 minute movie vignettes. Written post-movie viewing evaluations completed by 71.3% of viewers (305/428 were collected at several venues, including the premiere of the movie in the urban city of Anchorage at a local movie theater, seven rural Alaska community movie nights, and five cancer education trainings with Community Health Workers. Paper and pencil evaluations included check box and open-ended questions to learn participants' response to a telenovela-style movie. Results. On written-post movie viewing evaluations, viewers reported an increase in CRC knowledge and comfort with talking about recommended CRC screening exams. Notably, 81.6% of respondents (249/305 wrote positive intent to change behavior. Multiple responses included: 65% talking with family and friends about colon screening (162, 24% talking with their provider about colon screening (59, 31% having a colon screening (76, and 44% increasing physical activity (110. Conclusions. Written evaluations revealed the telenovela genre to be an innovative way to communicate colorectal cancer health messages with Alaska Native, American Indian, and Caucasian people both in an urban and rural setting to empower conversations and action related to colorectal cancer screening. Telenovela is a promising health communication tool to shift community norms by generating enthusiasm and conversations about the importance of having recommended colorectal

  6. An Educational Training on Cervical Cancer Screening Program for Rural Healthcare Providers in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Caroline Isaac

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Conventional, cytology based Cervical cancer screening programmes used in the developed world is often not practical in developing countries. Training of health care work force on a feasible, low-tech, screening methods is urgently needed in low resource settings. Twenty providers including doctors and nurses participated in a 2-days training workshop organized by a Community Health Center in rural South India. The pre-post-training assessment showed significant improvement in knowledge about cervical cancer, ‘low tech’ screening, treatment options and counseling among the participants.  Twenty volunteers screened at the workshop, 2 women (10% tested positive and one had CINIII lesion and the other had cervical cancer stage IIIB. After the training, the participants felt confident about their ability to counsel and screen women for cervical cancer.

  7. Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices Regarding Cervical Cancer and Screening among Haitian Health Care Workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leilah Zahedi

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available It is estimated that Haiti has the highest incidence of cervical cancer in the Western Hemisphere. There are currently no sustainable and affordable cervical cancer screening programs in Haiti. The current status of screening services and knowledge of health care professionals was assessed through a Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices survey on cervical cancer screening and prevention. It was distributed to Project Medishare for Haiti health care workers (n = 27 in the Central Plateau. The majority (22/27 of participants stated pre-cancerous cells could be detected through screening, however, only four had ever performed a pap smear. All of the participants felt a screening program should be started in their area. Our data establishes that knowledge is fairly lacking among healthcare workers and there is an opportunity to train them in simple, cost effective “screen-and-treat” programs that could have a great impact on the overall health of the population.

  8. Knowledge, attitudes and practices regarding cervical cancer and screening among Haitian health care workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahedi, Leilah; Sizemore, Emma; Malcolm, Stuart; Grossniklaus, Emily; Nwosu, Oguchi

    2014-11-01

    It is estimated that Haiti has the highest incidence of cervical cancer in the Western Hemisphere. There are currently no sustainable and affordable cervical cancer screening programs in Haiti. The current status of screening services and knowledge of health care professionals was assessed through a Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices survey on cervical cancer screening and prevention. It was distributed to Project Medishare for Haiti health care workers (n = 27) in the Central Plateau. The majority (22/27) of participants stated pre-cancerous cells could be detected through screening, however, only four had ever performed a pap smear. All of the participants felt a screening program should be started in their area. Our data establishes that knowledge is fairly lacking among healthcare workers and there is an opportunity to train them in simple, cost effective "screen-and-treat" programs that could have a great impact on the overall health of the population. PMID:25390794

  9. Contributions of the European trials (European randomized screening group) in computed tomography lung cancer screening

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heuvelmans, Marjolein A; Vliegenthart, Rozemarijn; Oudkerk, Matthijs

    2015-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide. In 2011, the largest lung cancer screening trial worldwide, the US National Lung Screening Trial, published a 20% decrease in lung cancer-specific mortality in the computed tomography (CT)-screened group, compared with the group scr

  10. Equity and practice issues in colorectal cancer screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchman, Sandy; Rozmovits, Linda; Glazier, Richard H.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective To investigate overall colorectal cancer (CRC) screening rates, patterns in the use of types of CRC screening, and sociodemographic characteristics associated with CRC screening; and to gain insight into physicians’ perceptions about and use of fecal occult blood testing [FOBT] and colonoscopy for patients at average risk of CRC. Design Mixed-methods study using cross-sectional administrative data on patient sociodemographic characteristics and semistructured telephone interviews with physicians. Setting Toronto, Ont. Participants Patients aged 50 to 74 years and physicians in family health teams in the Toronto Central Local Health Integration Network. Main outcome measures Rates of CRC screening by type; sociodemographic characteristics associated with CRC screening; thematic analysis using constant comparative method for semistructured interviews. Main findings Ontario administrative data on CRC screening showed lower overall screening rates among those who were younger, male patients, those who had lower income, and recent immigrants. Colonoscopy rates were especially low among those with lower income and those who were recent immigrants. Semistructured interviews revealed that physician opinions about CRC screening for average-risk patients were divided: one group of physicians accepted the evidence and recommendations for FOBT and the other group of physicians strongly supported colonoscopy for these patients, believing that the FOBT was an inferior screening method. Physicians identified specialist recommendations and patient expectations as factors that influenced their decisions regarding CRC screening type. Conclusion There was considerable variation in CRC screening by sociodemographic characteristics. A key theme that emerged from the interviews was that physicians were divided in their preference for FOBT or colonoscopy; factors that influenced physician preference included the health care system, recommendations by other

  11. Using hair to screen for breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Veronica; Kearsley, John; Irving, Tom; Amemiya, Yoshiyuki; Cookson, David

    1999-03-01

    We have studied hair using fibre X-ray diffraction studies with synchrotron radiation and find that hair from breast-cancer patients has a different intermolecular structure to hair from healthy subjects. These changes are seen in all samples of scalp and pubic hair taken from women diagnosed with breast cancer. All the hair samples from women who tested positive for a mutation of the BRCA1 gene, which is associated with a higher risk of breast cancer, also show these changes. Because our results are so consistent, we propose that such hair analyses may be used as a simple, non-invasive screening method for breast cancer.

  12. Human papillomavirus testing in cervical cancer screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castle, Philip E; Cremer, Miriam

    2013-06-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) testing is more reliable and sensitive but less specific than Papanicolaou (Pap) testing/cervical cytology for the detection of cervical precancer and cancer. HPV-negative women are at lower risk of cervical cancer than Pap-negative women. In high-resource settings, HPV testing can be used to make cervical cancer prevention programs more efficient by focusing clinical attention on women who have HPV. In lower-resource settings, where Pap testing has not been sustained or widespread, new, lower-cost HPV tests may make cervical cancer screening feasible. PMID:23732037

  13. Beyond Adherence: Health Care Disparities and the Struggle to Get Screened for Colon Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunleth, Jean M; Steinmetz, Emily K; McQueen, Amy; James, Aimee S

    2016-01-01

    Dominant health care professional discourses on cancer take for granted high levels of individual responsibility in cancer prevention, especially in expectations about preventive screening. At the same time, adhering to screening guidelines can be difficult for lower income and under-insured individuals. Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a prime example. Since the advent of CRC screening, disparities in CRC mortality have widened along lines of income, insurance, and race in the United States. We used a community-engaged research method, Photovoice, to examine how people from medically under-served areas experienced and gave meaning to CRC screening. In our analysis, we first discuss ways in which participants recounted screening as a struggle. Second, we highlight a category that participants suggested was key to successful screening: social connections. Finally, we identify screening as an emotionally laden process that is underpinned by feelings of uncertainty, guilt, fear, and relief. We discuss the importance of these findings to research and practice. PMID:26160775

  14. Yield of claims data and surveys for determining colon cancer screening among health plan members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pignone, Michael; Scott, Tracy L; Schild, Laura A; Lewis, Carmen; Vázquez, Raquel; Glanz, Karen

    2009-03-01

    Screening can reduce incidence and mortality from colorectal cancer but has been underutilized. Efforts to increase screening depend on accurate data about screening status. We sought to evaluate the independent and combined yield of claims and direct survey for identifying colorectal cancer screening among average-risk health plan beneficiaries. Participants were Aetna members ages between 52 and 80 years from 32 primary care practices in Florida and Georgia participating in the Communicating Health Options through Information and Cancer Education study. Main outcomes were the proportion of average-risk patients who were up-to-date with colorectal cancer screening based on claims data and the estimated additional yield of survey data for patients with no evidence of screening in their claims history. Of 4,020 average-risk members identified, claims data indicated that 1,066 (27%) had recent colorectal cancer screening. Among the 1,269 average-risk members with no evidence of screening by claims data who returned surveys, 498 (39%) reported being up-to-date with screening. Combining claims data and survey data and accounting for survey nonresponse, we estimate that 47% to 59% of member patients were actually up-to-date with screening, an additional yield of 20 to 32 percentage points. We conclude that, among health plan members, the combination of claims data and survey information had substantially higher yield than claims data alone for identifying colorectal cancer screening. PMID:19273480

  15. Imaging and screening in lung cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo Giaj Levra

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Lung cancer is the main cause of death for neoplasia in the world. Hence it’s growing the necessity to investigate screening tests to detect tumoral lesions at the early stages: several trials have been performed to establish the best method, target and frequence of the screening to offer. CT, X-ray, PET, sputum citology and CAD software are here analyzed, together with the associated statistics and bias.

  16. Factors influencing the decline in lung density in a Danish lung cancer screening cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shaker, Saher B.; Dirksen, Asger; Lo, Pechin; Skovgaard, L.T.; de Bruijne, Marleen; Pedersen, Jesper H.

    2012-01-01

    Lung cancer screening trials provide an opportunity to study the natural history of emphysema by using CT lung density as a surrogate parameter.In the Danish Lung Cancer Screening Trial, 2,052 participants were included. At screening rounds, smoking habits were recorded and spirometry was performed....... CT lung density was measured as the volume-adjusted 15th percentile density (PD15). A mixed effects model was used with former smoking males with...

  17. Evolving Recommendations on Prostate Cancer Screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brawley, Otis W; Thompson, Ian M; Grönberg, Henrik

    2016-01-01

    Results of a number of studies demonstrate that the serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) in and of itself is an inadequate screening test. Today, one of the most pressing questions in prostate cancer medicine is how can screening be honed to identify those who have life-threatening disease and need aggressive treatment. A number of efforts are underway. One such effort is the assessment of men in the landmark Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial that has led to a prostate cancer risk calculator (PCPTRC), which is available online. PCPTRC version 2.0 predicts the probability of the diagnosis of no cancer, low-grade cancer, or high-grade cancer when variables such as PSA, age, race, family history, and physical findings are input. Modern biomarker development promises to provide tests with fewer false positives and improved ability to find high-grade cancers. Stockholm III (STHLM3) is a prospective, population-based, paired, screen-positive, prostate cancer diagnostic study assessing a combination of plasma protein biomarkers along with age, family history, previous biopsy, and prostate examination for prediction of prostate cancer. Multiparametric MRI incorporates anatomic and functional imaging to better characterize and predict future behavior of tumors within the prostate. After diagnosis of cancer, several genomic tests promise to better distinguish the cancers that need treatment versus those that need observation. Although the new technologies are promising, there is an urgent need for evaluation of these new tests in high-quality, large population-based studies. Until these technologies are proven, most professional organizations have evolved to a recommendation of informed or shared decision making in which there is a discussion between the doctor and patient. PMID:27249774

  18. Psychological barriers and facilitators of colorectal cancer screening: a French qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morgiane Bridou

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this qualitative study was to explore the psychological barriers to and facilitators of undergoing the Hemoccult-II® colorectal cancer screening test in France. Sixty-nine French people aged 50 to 74 years were divided into seven qualitative focus groups. Three issues were discussed with participants: knowledge and beliefs about colorectal cancer screening; facilitators of colorectal cancer screening by Hemoccult-II®; barriers to colorectal cancer screening by Hemoccult-II®. All the discussions were led by two psychologists and were recorded, transcribed verbatim and analyzed using qualitative data analysis software. Correspondence factor analyses identified three dimensions for each topic. The main psychological facilitators of colorectal cancer screening were: information about colorectal cancer screening, perceived simplicity of using Hemoccult-II®, and perception of risk. Uncertainty about the reliability of Hemoccult-II®, health anxiety, and embarrassment emerged as the main barriers to colorectal cancer screening. Cross-sectional analyses identified the differences between the views expressed by women and men. Women appeared more embarrassed about Hemoccult-II® and men seemed to be more worried about colorectal cancer. This preliminary study suggests that psychological factors play an important role in colorectal cancer screening by Hemoccult-II®. This finding may help health organizations to conceive better awareness campaigns to promote colorectal cancer screening in order to reduce the related mortality rate by taking into account psychological determinants.

  19. Readiness of primary care clinicians to implement lung cancer screening programs

    OpenAIRE

    Volk, Robert J.; Lewis E. Foxhall

    2015-01-01

    We examined the readiness of primary care clinicians to implement lung cancer screening programs in their practice settings in light of recent policy changes in the U.S. Attendees of two large continuing medical education events in Texas held in October and November of 2014 completed surveys about their current lung cancer screening practices and implementation needs. Surveys were completed by 350 participants (57.2% of registered attendees). Although 89.5% of participants routinely scr...

  20. European Breast Cancer Service Screening Outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paci, Eugenio; Broeders, Mireille; Hofvind, Solveig;

    2014-01-01

    A recent comprehensive review has been carried out to quantify the benefits and harms of the European population-based mammographic screening programs. Five literature reviews were conducted on the basis of the observational published studies evaluating breast cancer mortality reduction, breast...... seven to nine breast cancer deaths are avoided, four cases are overdiagnosed, 170 women have at least one recall followed by noninvasive assessment with a negative result, and 30 women have at least one recall followed by invasive procedures yielding a negative result. The chance of a breast cancer...... cancer overdiagnosis, and false-positive results. On the basis of the studies reviewed, the authors present a first estimate of the benefit and harm balance sheet. For every 1,000 women screened biennially from ages 50 to 51 years until ages 68 to 69 years and followed up until age 79 years, an estimated...

  1. Cervical Cancer Screening in Underserved Populations

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-10-15

    Dr. Lisa Flowers, a specialist in human papillovarius (HPV)-related diseases and Director of Colposcopy at Emory University School of Medicine, talks about cervical cancer screening in underinsured or uninsured women.  Created: 10/15/2009 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP), Division of Cancer Prevention and Control (DCPC).   Date Released: 6/9/2010.

  2. Costs Associated with Cervical Cancer Screening

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-10-15

    Dr. Tom Cox, a practicing gynecologist and president of the American Society of Colposcopy and Cervical Pathology, provides a brief introduction to cervical cancer screening guidelines and human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA testing.  Created: 10/15/2009 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP), Division of Cancer Prevention and Control (DCPC).   Date Released: 6/9/2010.

  3. Colorectal cancer development and advances in screening

    OpenAIRE

    Simon K

    2016-01-01

    Karen Simon Ventura County Gastroenterology Medical Group, Inc., Camarillo, CA, USA Abstract: Most colon tumors develop via a multistep process involving a series of histological, morphological, and genetic changes that accumulate over time. This has allowed for screening and detection of early-stage precancerous polyps before they become cancerous in individuals at average risk for colorectal cancer (CRC), which may lead to substantial decreases in the incidence of CRC. Despite the known b...

  4. Screening for prostatic cancer. Investigational models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, P; Torp-Pedersen, S T

    1991-01-01

    Prostatic cancer has a long natural history and a significant preclinical period, during which the disease is detectable. Thus, this common malignancy in males fulfills some of the most important criteria for initiating screening programs. However, the still enigmatic epidemiology also includes...

  5. Cervical Cancer Screening and Perceived Information Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whynes, David K.; Clarke, Katherine; Philips, Zoe; Avis, Mark

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To identify women's sources of information about cervical cancer screening, information which women report receiving during Pap consultations, information they would like to receive, and the relationships between perceived information needs, personal characteristics and information sources. Design/methodology/approach: Logistic regression…

  6. Risk-based prostate cancer screening

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    X.D. Zhu (Xiaoye); P.C. Albertsen (Peter); G.L. Andriole (Gerald); M.J. Roobol-Bouts (Monique); F.H. Schröder (Fritz); A.J. Vickers (Andrew)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractContext: Widespread mass screening of prostate cancer (PCa) is not recommended because the balance between benefits and harms is still not well established. The achieved mortality reduction comes with considerable harm such as unnecessary biopsies, overdiagnoses, and overtreatment. There

  7. Knowledge of Breast Cancer and Screening Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vahabi, Mandana

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To assess young women's breast health knowledge and explore its relation to the use of screening mammography. Methods: A convenience sample of 180 women aged 25-45 residing in Toronto, Canada, with no history of breast cancer and mammography received an information brochure and four questionnaires which assessed their knowledge of…

  8. Breast cancer screening: ''reassuring'' the worried well?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodersen, John; Siersma, Volkert; Ryle, Mette

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: One of the suggested benefits of cancer screening is the peace of mind and reassurance experienced by those women who are given negative results. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether there was a difference in the expression of psychosocial aspects in a population of...

  9. Screening for distress in cancer patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grassi, Luigi; Johansen, Christoffer; Annunziata, Maria Antonietta;

    2013-01-01

    Routine screening for distress is internationally recommended as a necessary standard for good cancer care, given its high prevalence and negative consequences on quality of life. The objective of the current study was to contribute to the Italian validation of the Distress Thermometer (DT) to...

  10. [Sharing uncertainties of prostate cancer screening].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selby, Kevin; Auer, Reto; Valerio, Massimo; Jichlinski, Patrice; Cornuz, Jacques

    2015-11-25

    The decision of whether our patients should undergo prostate cancer screening with the prostate specifc antigen (PSA) test remains daunting. The role of the primary care doctor is to help men decide between a potential decrease in mortality from a slow evolving but sometimes lethal cancer, and the risk of diagnosing and treating cancers that would have otherwise been indolent and asymptomatic. We can structure our discussions with three steps: choice, option, and decision making. A decision aid, such as the one that we have adapted and simplifed from the Collège des médecins du Québec, can help with this complex decision. PMID:26742351

  11. Reducing Barriers to Use of Breast Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Investigation to determine whether a telephone counseling intervention aimed at women who are known to underuse breast cancer screening can with, or without, an accompanying educational intervention for their physicians, increase use of breast cancer screening.

  12. Stage distribution of breast cancer diagnosed before and after implementation of population-based mammographic screening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: The German mammographic screening program is very similar to the Norwegian Breast Cancer Screening Program (NBCSP), which started about 10 years earlier. This study analyzes the stage distribution of invasive breast cancers diagnosed in the pre-screening and screening period, and evaluates the overall mortality in women aged 55 - 74 in the pilot and non-pilot counties of the NBCSP. Materials and Methods: The NBCSP invites women aged 50 - 69 to participate in two-view mammography biennially. Chi-square statistics were used to compare percentages of the stage and treatment of invasive breast cancers diagnosed in women residing in the four pilot counties in the pre-screening (1984 - 1995) and screening (1996 - 2007) period. An ecological approach was used to analyze the age-specific mortality in the pilot and non-pilot counties for the period 1970 - 2007. Results: 50 % of the breast cancers diagnosed in the pre-screening period, 70 % of the cases detected with screening, 43 % of the interval cancers, and 52 % of the cancers diagnosed outside the NBCSP were stage I. Stage III + was present in 11 % of the cancers in the pre-screening period, and in 1 % of the cancers detected with screening. In the screening period, the breast cancer mortality rate decreased substantially more in the pilot counties than in the non-pilot counties. Conclusion: The stage distribution of breast cancer diagnosed in the NBCSP is prognostically favorable compared to cancers diagnosed outside the screening program. The reduction in the breast cancer mortality rate was more pronounced in the four pilot counties compared to the non-pilot counties. It is necessary to evaluate the program based on individual data. (orig.)

  13. Prostate Cancer – To screen, or not to screen, is that the question?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosser Charles J

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract There continues to be controversy regarding serum Prostate-Specific Antigen (PSA and prostate cancer screening. We anxiously await the results of two large prospective randomized clinical trials (Prostate, Lung, Colon, and Ovary-PCLO screening trial in the US and European Randomized Study of Screening for Prostate Cancer-ERSPC in Europe assessing the benefits of prostate cancer screening. However the true question to answer may be which cancer to treat and when should we treat it.

  14. Pap smear screening among Asian Pacific Islander women in a multisite community-based cancer screening program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Maria E; Lin, Jennifer; Leong-Wu, Cindy; Aday, Luann

    2009-04-01

    This study assessed screening completion rates (SCR) and sociodemographic factors associated with Pap test screening among previously nonadherent, foreign-born Asian Pacific Islander (API) women across four sites participating in a community-based cancer screening program called ENCOREplus. At intake, 926 out of 1,140 women were nonadherent to recommended Pap test screening guidelines. Most participants were age 51 and older, had a high school education or higher, had been in the U.S. less than a decade, had annual household incomes less than $10,000, and were uninsured. Women with limited resources were more likely to get a Pap test after participating in ENCOREplus. Women from the Glendale site were almost 18 times more likely to get a Pap test than API women in other sites. Over half of the women in Glendale reported that help getting low cost Pap tests and having translators available were instrumental in completing screening. PMID:19372282

  15. Screening history in women with cervical cancer in a Danish population-based screening program

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirschner, Benny; Poll, Susanne; Rygaard, Carsten;

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the screening histories of all cervical cancers in a Danish screening population. The intention was to decide suboptimal sides of the screening program and to evaluate the significance of routine screening in the development of cervical cancer....

  16. Screening spectroscopy of prostate cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yermolenko, S. B.; Voloshynskyy, D. I.; Fedoruk, O. S.

    2015-11-01

    The aim of the study was to establish objective parameters of the field of laser and incoherent radiation of different spectral ranges (UV, visible, IR) as a non-invasive optical method of interaction with different samples of biological tissues and fluids of patients to determine the state of prostate cancer and choosing the best personal treatment. The objects of study were selected venous blood plasma of patient with prostate cancer, histological sections of rat prostate gland in the postoperative period. As diagnostic methods have been used ultraviolet spectrometry samples of blood plasma in the liquid state, infrared spectroscopy middle range (2,5-25 microns) dry residue of plasma by spectral diagnostic technique of thin histological sections of biological tissues.

  17. Community-Based Health Education has Positive Influence on the Attitude to Cervical Cancer Screening among Women in Rural Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakya, Sunila; Karmacharya, Biraj Man; Afset, Jan Egil; Bofin, Anna; Åsvold, Bjørn Olav; Syversen, Unni; Tingulstad, Solveig

    2016-09-01

    The main purpose of this study was to assess the knowledge of cervical cancer among women in rural Nepal and explore the feasibility and impact of a community-based awareness program on cervical cancer. Community-based educational meetings on cervical cancer and its prevention were conducted among women's groups in rural Nepal. Through a questionnaire, the women's baseline knowledge of risk factors, symptoms, and perceived risk of cervical cancer were identified. The willingness to participate in cervical cancer screening was compared before and after the educational meeting. The meetings were followed by a cervical cancer screening program. Among the 122 participants at the educational meeting, only 6 % had heard of cervical cancer. Their baseline knowledge of risk factors and symptoms was poor. The proportion of women willing to participate in cervical screening increased from 15.6 to 100 % after attending the educational meeting. All the study subjects participated in the screening program. Additionally, the study participants recruited a further 222 of their peers for screening. Poor knowledge of cervical cancer among women in rural Nepal highlights the urgency of public awareness programs for cervical cancer at a national level. A community-based awareness program can change women's attitude to cervical screening, and women's groups can play a major role in promoting participation in cervical cancer screening programs. PMID:26031906

  18. Cancer screening: Should cancer screening be essential component of primary health care in developing countries?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saurabh Bobdey

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: Our study highlights the availability and success of visual screening tools in early detection and mortality reduction of major neoplasia in resource-poor health care settings and recommends implementation of oral and cervical cancer screening as part of assured primary health care package in developing countries.

  19. Genetic Screening for Familial Gastric Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliveira Carla

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Approximately 10% of gastric cancer cases show familial clustering but only 1-3% of gastric carcinomas arise as a result of inherited gastric cancer predisposition syndromes. Direct proof that Hereditary Gastric Cancer a genetic disease with a germline gene defect has come from the demonstration of co-segregation of germline E-cadherin (CDH1 mutations with early onset diffuse gastric cancer in families with an autosomal dominant pattern of inheritance (HDGC. E-cadherin is a transmembrane calcium-dependent cell-adhesion molecule involved in cell-junction formation and the maintenance of epithelial integrity. In this review, we describe frequency and type of CDH1 mutations in sporadic and familial gastric cancer. Further we demonstrate the functional significance of some CDH1 germline missense mutations found in HDGC. We also discuss the CDH1 polymorphisms that have been associated to gastric cancer. We report other types of malignancies associated to HDGC, besides diffuse gastric cancer. Moreover, we review the data available on putative alternative candidate genes screened in familial gastric cancer. Finally, we briefly discuss the role of low-penetrance genes and Helicobacter pylori in gastric cancer. This knowledge is a fundamental step towards accurate genetic counselling, in which a highly specialised pre-symptomatic therapeutic intervention should be offered.

  20. Impact of Job Status on Accessibility of Cancer Screening

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Seung Ju; Han, Kyu-Tae; Park, Eun-Cheol

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Cancer is a leading cause of death worldwide with approximately 75,000 cancer deaths in Korea alone in 2013. Cancer screening is an important method of prevention; however, only 63.4% of Koreans sought cancer screening in 2012 even though it was widely offered at no cost. We focused on part time workers because they often experience job instability and relative discrimination. Therefore, we investigated the correlation between job status and cancer screening. Materials and Methods Dat...

  1. Screening for thyroid cancer in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the screening of the thyroid diseases in the radiation exposed cohort, it is essential to make correct diagnosis and to measure radiation dose in every subjects in the cohort and to analyze the dose response relationship by the most appropriate statistical method. Thus, thyroid cancer, thyroid adenoma and autoimmune hypothyroidism were confirmed to be radiation-induced thyroid diseases among atomic bomb survivors. A group of investigators from Nagasaki university have been working in the thyroid part of Chernobyl Sasakawa Health and Medical Cooperation Project, and more than 80000 children were screened in 5 diagnostic centers (Mogilev, Gomel, Kiev, Korosten and Klincy). In order to make correct diagnosis, thyroid echo-tomography, measurements of serum levels of free thyroxine, TSH, titers of anti-thyroid antibodies were performed in every children in the cohort and aspiration biopsy was performed when necessary. Whole body Cs137 radioactivity was also determined in every subjects. Children with thyroid cancer confirmed by histology (biopsy or operation) were 2 in Mogilev, 19 in Gomel, 6 in Kiev, 5 in Korosten and 4 in Klincy (until 1994). Since children screened in each center were less than 20000, prevalence of thyroid cancer was remarkably high (lowest 100 and highest 1000/million children) when compared to the other parts of the world (0.2 to 5/million/year). However, there was no dose response relationship between the prevalence of cancer or nodule and whole body Cs137 radioactivity. Although a significant correlation between thyroid cancer and reconstructed thyroid I131 dose was presented, there are no previous reports to prove that I131 produces thyroid cancer in human. Investigation on external radiation and short lived isotopes along with I131 may be important to elucidate the cause of thyroid cancer

  2. Cervical cancer screening in primary health care setting in Sudan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibrahim, Ahmed; Aro, Arja R.; Rasch, Vibeke;

    2012-01-01

    of this study showed that VIA has higher sensitivity and lower specificity compared to Pap smear, but a combination of both tests has greater sensitivity and specificity than each test independently. It indicates that VIA is useful for screening of cervical cancer in the primary health care setting in Sudan......OBJECTIVE: To determine the feasibility of visual inspection with the use of acetic acid (VIA) as a screening method for cervical cancer, an alternative to the Pap smear used in primary health care setting in Sudan, and to compare sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values......, and histological diagnosis of positive cases of both tests. METHODS: A cross-sectional study of 934 asymptomatic women living in Khartoum, Sudan, was conducted during 2009-2010. A semi-structured questionnaire containing socio-economic and reproductive variables was used to collect data from each participant...

  3. Colorectal cancers detected through screening are associated with lower stages and improved survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindebjerg, Jan; Osler, Merete; Bisgaard, Claus

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Population screening for colorectal cancer (CRC) using faecal occult blood test (FOBT) will be introduced in Denmark in 2014. Prior to the implementation of the screening programme, a feasibility study was performed in 2005-2006. In this paper, occurrences of colorectal cancer in the...... feasibility study cohort were reviewed with respect to the effect of screening participation on stages and survival. MATERIAL AND METHODS: All cases of CRC in a feasibility study cohort diagnosed from the beginning of the study until two years after the study ended were identified. Differences in the...... distribution of colon cancer stages and rectal cancer groups between the various screening categories were analysed through χ(2)-tests. Survival analysis with respect to screening groups was done by Kaplan-Meier and Cox-Mantel hazard ratios, and survival was corrected for lead time. RESULTS: Colon cancers...

  4. Pre-participation Cardiovascular Screening of Elderly Wrestlers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farahani

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose Sudden death of a competitive athlete is a tragedy that is usually caused by a previously unsuspected cardiovascular disease. The aim of this study was to clarify the role of noninvasive testing in pre-participation cardiovascular evaluation of elderly wrestlers. Methods We included 63 Iranian elderly wrestlers who participated in Tehran international elderly wrestlers’ preparation camping by census method. A questionnaire including past medical and family history as well as coronary risk factors was filled out and then a complete physical examination of the cardiovascular system was done by an internist for all wrestlers. Electrocardiogram (ECG, complete echocardiographic examination and then symptom limited exercise test were performed and reported by the cardiologists who did not know the other examinations results. Results Exertional dyspnea and typical chest pain (FC=I or II were present in 5% and 1.7% of the examinees, respectively. There were one or more risk factors in 64.5% of the cases. Cardiovascular examination revealed abnormal heart sounds in 27.1%. ECG showed ischemic changes in 13.6% and premature atrial contractions and premature ventricular contractions in 11.4%. Echocardiography showed mild left ventricular systolic dysfunction in 3.4%, regional wall motion abnormality in 8.5%, valvular disease in 32.3%, diastolic dysfunction in 45.7%, and left ventricular hypertrophy in 16.9% of the cases. Exercise test results were negative, equivocal, positive and highly positive in 70.4%, 15.8%, 5.2%, and 8.6% of cases, respectively. Conclusion Beside physical examination, pre-participation screening of elderly wrestling athletes with ECG and exercise testing is feasible and recommended in the presence of coronary risk factors or cardiac symptoms. Echocardiography can also be recommended to detect other relevant abnormalities when there is a clue in the standard history, physical examination or ECG.

  5. Assessment of Breast Cancer Risk and Belief in Breast Cancer Screening Among the Primary Healthcare Nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    İz, Fatma Başalan; Tümer, Adile

    2016-09-01

    Breast cancer is the most frequently diagnosed cancer in women. Early detection of breast cancer is known to increase survival rates significantly after diagnosis. This research was carried out to determine the level of breast cancer risk among primary healthcare nurses and their belief in breast cancer screening. In this descriptive research, the data were collected in face-to-face interviews with the participants. The researchers contacted all primary healthcare nurses currently working in the province. The data collection tools included a questionnaire form on sociodemographic characteristics, breast cancer risk assessment form, and Champion's Health Belief Model Scale (CHBMS) for breast cancer screening. In data analysis, descriptive statistics, t test, and analysis of variance (ANOVA) were used. The mean age of nurses was 35 ± 3.6. The mean score for the breast cancer risk assessment form was calculated as 82.9 ± 18.7. The subscale scores for the CHBMS for breast cancer screening were as follows: susceptibility 7.3 ± 1.8, seriousness 19.5 ± 4.1, benefits of breast self-exam 15.5 ± 2.6, barriers to breast self-exam 15.1 ± 2.8, self-efficacy 40.3 ± 7.0, and motivation 19.5 ± 4.1. The risk of breast cancer was found to be low in the study group. The analysis of the subscale scores for the CHBMS for breast cancer screening revealed that nurses had a below-average susceptibility perception, a somewhat lower perception of seriousness, an above-average mean score for perceived benefits, a moderate barrier perception, a relatively high perceived self-efficacy, and motivation above average. PMID:26758047

  6. Improved detection of breast cancer on FDG-PET cancer screening using breast positioning device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study was to investigate the detection rate of breast cancer by positron emission tomography cancer screening using a breast positioning device. Between January 2004 and January 2006, 1,498 healthy asymptomatic individuals underwent cancer screening by fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) at our institution; 660 of 1498 asymptomatic healthy women underwent breast PET imaging in the prone position using the breast positioning device to examine the mammary glands in addition to whole-body PET imaging. All subjects that showed abnormal 18F-FDG uptake in the mammary glands were referred for further examination or surgery at our institution or a local hospital. Our data were compared with the histopathological findings or findings of other imaging modalities in our institution and replies from the doctors at another hospital. Of the 660 participants, 7 (1.06%) were found to have breast cancers at a curable stage. All the seven cancers were detected by breast PET imaging, but only five of these were detected by whole-body PET imaging; the other two were detected by breast PET imaging using the breast positioning device. In cancer screening, prone breast imaging using a positioning device may help to improve the detection rate of breast cancer. However, overall cancer including mammography and ultrasonography screening should be performed to investigate the false-negative cases and reduce false-positive cases. The effectiveness of prone breast PET imaging in cancer screening should be investigated using a much larger number of cases in the near future. (author)

  7. Improving colorectal cancer screening: fact and fantasy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Dam, Jacques

    2008-02-01

    Premalignant diseases of the gastrointestinal tract, such as Barrett's esophagus, long-standing ulcerative colitis, and adenomatous polyps, have a significantly increased risk for development of adenocarcinoma, most often through an intermediate stage of dysplasia. Adenocarcinoma of the colon is the second most common cancer in the United States. Because patients with colorectal cancer often present with advanced disease, the outcomes are associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Effective methods of early detection are essential. As non-polypoid dysplasia is not visible using conventional endoscopy, surveillance of patients with Barrett's esophagus and ulcerative colitis is performed via a system in which multiple random biopsies are obtained at prescribed intervals. Sampling error and missed diagnoses occur frequently and render current screening methods inadequate. Also, the examination of a tissue biopsy is time consuming and costly, and significant intra- and inter-observer variation may occur. The newer methods discussed herein demonstrate the potential to solve these problems by early detection of disease with high sensitivity and specificity. Conventional endoscopy is based on the observation of white light reflected off the tissue surface. Subtle changes in color and shadow reveal structural changes. New developments in optical imaging go beyond white light, exploiting other properties of light. Several promising methods will be discussed at this meeting and shall be briefly discussed below. However, few such imaging modalities have arrived at our clinical practice. Some much more practical methods to improve colorectal cancer screening are currently being evaluated for their clinical impact. These methods seek to overcome limitations other than those of detecting dysplasia not visible under white light endoscopy. The current standard practice of colorectal cancer screening utilizes colonoscopy, an uncomfortable, sometimes difficult medical

  8. Early diagnosis and screening for colorectal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The barium enema has been a neglected tool in the diagnosis of early colon cancer. With appropriate attention to technical detail, the double contrast enema is capable of detecting the smallest malignant and pre-malignant lesions. Many of these early colon cancers are found in asymptomatic patients and these lesions are curable. The goal of a screening program should be to identify by history or by fecal occult blood testing patients at high risk for the development of colon cancer. These patients should be examined by high-quality double contrast enema in the search for these potentially lethal but curable lesions. In addition, we believe that any patient undergoing radiologic examination of the colon for whatever reason, should receive an examination of adequate quality to rule out an early colon cancer. (Author)

  9. [Shared decision making in the colorectal cancer screening program in the canton of Vaud].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auer, Reto; Selby, Kevin; Bulliard, Jean-Luc; Nichita, Christina; Dorta, Gian; Ducros, Cyril; Cornuz, Jacques

    2015-11-25

    The colorectal cancer screening program of the canton of Vaud aims to facilitate screening for this cancer for the population aged 50 to 69 years old. The two screening modalities offered are fecal immunochemical testing (FIT) and colonoscopy. The decision to undergo screening and the screening modality is based on an individual medical encounter with a primary care physician. Both screening modalities are reimbursed through basic health coverage in Switzerland. The participation to the screening program allows the exemption of the deductible for the medical encounter and the chosen screening modality. A copay of 10% is maintained for all costs. Communication tools were developed on the basis of recommendations in the literature to facilitate shared decision-making in a medical encounter. PMID:26742350

  10. Cervical cancer screening coverage in a high-incidence region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cibelli Navarro

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE To analyze the coverage of a cervical cancer screening program in a city with a high incidence of the disease in addition to the factors associated with non-adherence to the current preventive program. METHODS A cross-sectional study based on household surveys was conducted. The sample was composed of women between 25 and 59 years of age of the city of Boa Vista, RR, Northern Brazil who were covered by the cervical cancer screening program. The cluster sampling method was used. The dependent variable was participation in a women’s health program, defined as undergoing at least one Pap smear in the 36 months prior to the interview; the explanatory variables were extracted from individual data. A generalized linear model was used. RESULTS 603 women were analyzed, with an mean age of 38.2 years (SD = 10.2. Five hundred and seventeen women underwent the screening test, and the prevalence of adherence in the last three years was up to 85.7% (95%CI 82.5;88.5. A high per capita household income and recent medical consultation were associated with the lower rate of not being tested in multivariate analysis. Disease ignorance, causes, and prevention methods were correlated with chances of non-adherence to the screening system; 20.0% of the women were reported to have undergone opportunistic and non-routine screening. CONCLUSIONS The informed level of coverage is high, exceeding the level recommended for the control of cervical cancer. The preventive program appears to be opportunistic in nature, particularly for the most vulnerable women (with low income and little information on the disease. Studies on the diagnostic quality of cervicovaginal cytology and therapeutic schedules for positive cases are necessary for understanding the barriers to the control of cervical cancer.

  11. Factors associated with use of gastric cancer screening services in Korea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Young Min Kwon; Hyung Taek Lim; Kiheon Lee; Be Long Cho; Min Sun Park; Ki Young Son; Sang Min Park

    2009-01-01

    AIM: To identify the factors associated with participation in gastric cancer screening programs. METHODS: Using data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005 (KNHANES Ⅲ), a nationwide health-related survey in Korea, a cross-sectional study was performed to investigate the multiple factors associated with gastric cancer screening attendance among persons aged at least 40 years. The study population included 4593 individuals who completed a gastric cancer screening questionnaire and had no previous cancer history. Four groups of individual-level or environmental level covariates were considered as potential associated factors. RESULTS: Using KNHANES Ⅲ data, an estimated 31.71% of Korean individuals aged at least 40 years adhered to gastric cancer screening recommendations. Subjects who graduated from elementary school [adjusted odds ratio (aOR), 1.66; 95% CI: 1.21-2.26], middle/high school (aOR, 1.38; 95% CI: 1.01-1.89), and university or higher (aOR, 1.64; 95% CI: 1.13-2.37) were more likely to undergo gastric cancer screening than those who received no formal education at all. The population with the highest income tertile had more attendance at gastric screening compared to those with the lowest income tertile (aOR, 1.36; 95% CI: 1.06-1.73). Gastric screening was also negatively associated with excessive alcohol consumption (aOR, 0.71; 95% CI: 0.53-0.96). A positive attitude to preventive medical evaluation was significantly associated with better participation in gastric cancer screening programs (aOR, 5.26; 95% CI: 4.35-6.35). CONCLUSION: Targeted interventions for vulnerable populations and public campaigns about preventivemedical evaluation are needed to increase gastric cancer screening participation and reduce gastric cancer mortality.

  12. Breast cancer screening: the underuse of mammography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The early detection of breast cancer is promoted by the American Cancer Society (ACS) and the American College of Radiology (ACR) by encouraging the regular use of three types of screening: breast self-examination (BSE), the clinical breast examination, and mammography. In August 1983, the ACS publicized seven recommendations pertaining to screening, including a revised statement about the routine use of mammography for women between the ages of 40 and 49 years. In response to the ACS statement, the present study assessed compliance with the updated recommendations for all three types of screening. The results show reasonable rates of compliance for the BSE (53%-69%) and clinical examination (70%-78%). In contrast, only 19% of the women between the ages of 35 and 49 and 25% of the women older than 50 reported complying with the recommendation to undergo one baseline screening mammogram. Some implications for health education by physicians and the professional education of physicians in the use of mammography are discussed

  13. Fecal Molecular Markers for Colorectal Cancer Screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rani Kanthan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite multiple screening techniques, including colonoscopy, flexible sigmoidoscopy, radiological imaging, and fecal occult blood testing, colorectal cancer remains a leading cause of death. As these techniques improve, their sensitivity to detect malignant lesions is increasing; however, detection of precursor lesions remains problematic and has generated a lack of general acceptance for their widespread usage. Early detection by an accurate, noninvasive, cost-effective, simple-to-use screening technique is central to decreasing the incidence and mortality of this disease. Recent advances in the development of molecular markers in faecal specimens are encouraging for its use as a screening tool. Genetic mutations and epigenetic alterations that result from the carcinogenetic process can be detected by coprocytobiology in the colonocytes exfoliated from the lesion into the fecal matter. These markers have shown promising sensitivity and specificity in the detection of both malignant and premalignant lesions and are gaining popularity as a noninvasive technique that is representative of the entire colon. In this paper, we summarize the genetic and epigenetic fecal molecular markers that have been identified as potential targets in the screening of colorectal cancer.

  14. Feasibility of Utilizing Ethnic Beauty Salons for Cervical Cancer Screening Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jongwon; Carvallo, Mauricio; Lee, Eunice

    2015-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the feasibility of using ethnic beauty salons to reach out to Vietnamese and Korean American women for cervical cancer screening education. Participants (N = 62) were conveniently recruited from ethnic beauty salons located in Albuquerque, New Mexico. Two feasibility questionnaires were separately administered to cosmetologists and their customers. Findings support the view that ethnic beauty salons can be used as a gateway to reach out to these populations, and cosmetologists have the potential to operate as community lay health workers to deliver cervical cancer screening education aimed at reducing disparities in cervical cancer and screening to their ethnic customers. PMID:24698810

  15. Opinion of nurses regarding breast cancer screening programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Venkatramana

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Found to be effective in its treatment. The increased incidence of breast cancer supports the implementation of breast cancer screening programs. The present study evaluates the opinion among nurses regarding breast cancer screening programs in United Arab Emirates (UAE. Materials and Methods: The study population included 154 nurses practicing at different hospitals in United Arab Emirates (UAE, all nurses who participated in the breast cancer awareness programme organized by Gulf Medical University, Ajman, UAE. A self-administered, pretested, structured, close-ended questionnaire was used for data collection. Statistical Analysis was performed using Predictive Analytic Software (PASW 17. Results: The participants′ age ranged between 20 and 59 years. Fifty percent of the participants strongly agreed with the early detection of breast cancer by performing breast self examination. Thirty-nine percent were of the opinion that women aged 40 years and older should have a mammogram every year and continue to do so and 25.3% strongly felt that women in their 20s and 30s should have clinical breast examination as part of their periodic health examination by health professionals. 33.8% of the respondents strongly agree on providing information on the benefits and limitations of BSE to the female population. Twenty-six percent of the participants strongly agree that women at high risk should get magnetic resonance imaging and mammogram done every year. Conclusion: The present study indicates the need for providing workplace training programs thus equipping them with better knowledge and enhancing their service among the general population.

  16. Using lessons from breast, cervical, and colorectal cancer screening to inform the development of lung cancer screening programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Katrina; Kim, Jane J; Halm, Ethan A; Ballard, Rachel M; Schnall, Mitchell D

    2016-05-01

    Multiple advisory groups now recommend that high-risk smokers be screened for lung cancer by low-dose computed tomography. Given that the development of lung cancer screening programs will face many of the same issues that have challenged other cancer screening programs, the National Cancer Institute-funded Population-based Research Optimizing Screening through Personalized Regimens (PROSPR) consortium was used to identify lessons learned from the implementation of breast, cervical, and colorectal cancer screening that should inform the introduction of lung cancer screening. These lessons include the importance of developing systems for identifying and recruiting eligible individuals in primary care, ensuring that screening centers are qualified and performance is monitored, creating clear communication standards for reporting screening results to referring physicians and patients, ensuring follow-up is available for individuals with abnormal test results, avoiding overscreening, remembering primary prevention, and leveraging advances in cancer genetics and immunology. Overall, this experience emphasizes that effective cancer screening is a multistep activity that requires robust strategies to initiate, report, follow up, and track each step as well as a dynamic and ongoing oversight process to revise current screening practices as new evidence regarding screening is created, new screening technologies are developed, new biological markers are identified, and new approaches to health care delivery are disseminated. Cancer 2016;122:1338-1342. © 2016 American Cancer Society. PMID:26929386

  17. Anal cancer and intraepithelial neoplasia screening: A review

    OpenAIRE

    Leeds, Ira L.; Fang, Sandy H

    2016-01-01

    This review focuses on the early diagnosis of anal cancer and its precursor lesions through routine screening. A number of risk-stratification strategies as well as screening techniques have been suggested, and currently little consensus exists among national societies. Much of the current clinical rationale for the prevention of anal cancer derives from the similar tumor biology of cervical cancer and the successful use of routine screening to identify cervical cancer and its precursors earl...

  18. Regret on choice of colorectal cancer screening modality was associated with poorer screening compliance: a 4-year prospective cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin C S Wong

    Full Text Available Very few studies examined the issue of regret on choosing colorectal cancer (CRC screening tests. We evaluated the determinants of regret and tested the hypothesis that regret over screening choices was associated with poorer screening compliance.A bowel cancer screening centre invited all Hong Kong citizens aged 50-70 years who were asymptomatic of CRC to participate in free-of-charge screening programmes. Upon attendance they attended health seminars on CRC and its screening, and were offered an option to choose yearly faecal immunochemical test (FIT for up to four years vs. one direct colonoscopy. They were not allowed to switch the screening option after decision. A self-administered, four-item validated survey was used to assess whether they regretted over their choice (> 2 = regretful from a scale of 0 [no regret]-5 [extreme regret]. A binary logistic regression model evaluated if initial regret over their choice was associated with poorer programme compliance.From 4,341 screening participants who have chosen FIT or colonoscopy, 120 (2.8% regretted over their decision and 1,029 (23.7% were non-compliant with the screening programme. Younger subjects and people who felt pressure when making their decision were associated with regret. People who regretted their decision were 2.189 (95% C.I. 1.361-3.521, p = 0.001 times more likely to be non-compliant with the programme.This study is the first to show that regret over the initial CRC screening choice was associated with later non-compliance. Screening participants who expressed regret over their choice should receive additional reminders to improve their programmatic compliance.

  19. Cancer screening in a middle-aged general population: factors associated with practices and attitudes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perneger Thomas V

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to identify factors associated with cancer screening practices and with general attitudes toward cancer screening in a general population. Methods Mailed survey of 30–60 year old residents of Geneva, Switzerland, that included questions about screening for five cancers (breast, cervix uteri, prostate, colon, skin in the past 3 years, attitudes toward screening, health care use, preventive behaviours and socio-demographic characteristics. Cancer screening practice was dichotomised as having done at least one screening test in the past 3 years versus none. Results The survey response rate was 49.3% (2301/4670. More women than men had had at least one cancer screening test in the past 3 years (83.2% vs 34.5%, p Conclusion Attitudes play an important role in cancer screening practices among middle-aged adults in the general population, independent of demographic variables (age and sex that determine in part screening recommendations. Negative attitudes were the most frequent among men and the most socio-economically disadvantaged. The moderate participation rate raises the possibility of selection bias.

  20. Obesity and Cancer Screening according to Race and Gender

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather Bittner Fagan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between obesity and cancer screening varies by screening test, race, and gender. Most studies on cervical cancer screening found a negative association between increasing weight and screening, and this negative association was most consistent in white women. Recent literature on mammography reports no association with weight. However, some studies show a negative association in white, but not black, women. In contrast, obese/overweight men reported higher rates of prostate-specific antigen (PSA testing. Comparison of prostate cancer screening, mammography, and Pap smears implies a gender difference in the relationship between screening behavior and weight. In colorectal cancer (CRC screening, the relationship between weight and screening in men is inconsistent, while there is a trend towards lower CRC screening in higher weight women.

  1. Overdiagnosis in mammographic screening for breast cancer in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Puliti, Donella; Duffy, Stephen W; Miccinesi, Guido;

    2012-01-01

    Overdiagnosis, the detection through screening of a breast cancer that would never have been identified in the lifetime of the woman, is an adverse outcome of screening. We aimed to determine an estimate range for overdiagnosis of breast cancer in European mammographic service screening programmes....

  2. Prostate cancer screening with PSA: new data, old debate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefania Sciallero

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Two prostate cancer screening randomised controlled trials from Europe (European Randomised Study of Screening for Prostate Cancer—ERSPC and U.S. (Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian Cancer Screening Program— PLCO have been published earlier this year...

  3. Sociodemographic gradients in breast and cervical cancer screening in Korea: the Korean National Cancer Screening Survey (KNCSS 2005-2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Jae

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cancer screening rates in Korea for five cancer types have increased steadily since 2002. With regard to the life-time cancer screening rates in 2009 according to cancer sites, the second highest was breast cancer (78.1% and the third highest was cervical cancer (76.1%. Despite overall increases in the screening rate, disparities in breast and cervical cancer screening, based on sociodemographic characteristics, still exist. Methods Data from 4,139 women aged 40 to74 years from the 2005 to 2009 Korea National Cancer Screening Survey were used to analyze the relationship between sociodemographic characteristics and receiving mammograms and Pap smears. The main outcome measures were ever having had a mammogram and ever having had a Pap smear. Using these items of information, we classified women into those who had had both types of screening, only one screening type, and neither screening type. We used logistic regression to investigate relationships between screening history and sociodemographic characteristics of the women. Results Being married, having a higher education, a rural residence, and private health insurance were significantly associated with higher rates of breast and cervical cancer screening after adjusting for age and sociodemographic factors. Household income was not significantly associated with mammograms or Pap smears after adjusting for age and sociodemographic factors. Conclusions Disparities in breast and cervical cancer screening associated with low sociodemographic status persist in Korea.

  4. Knowledge, attitude, and practice of cervical cancer screening among Greek students: a short report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakogianni, Giannoula D; Goutsou, Spiridoula C; Liti, Maria V; Rizopoulou, Sophia I; Nikolakopoulos, Konstantinos M; Nikolakopoulou, Nikoleta M

    2012-01-01

    Cervical cancer is a major cause of death in the developing world. The Papanicolaou (Pap) smear is a screening test that detects abnormal cells before they advance to cancer. The objective of this study was to assess the knowledge, attitude, and practice of cervical cancer screening among Greek students. A sample of 472 female students participated in the present study. Interviews were performed using a structured questionnaire. Of the participants, 94.07% were aware of the Pap test and 67.34% reported that the Pap test should be done yearly. The majority of them were informed about cervical cancer screening test by their parents. Of the participants, 44.82% had received Pap testing at least once in their life, whereas 36.2% had a Pap test yearly. The reported mean time of the respondents' first Pap test was 13.3±10.6 months after their first sexual intercourse. The reasons given by the participants for being noncompliant were lack of appreciation of the importance of the screening, embarrassment, fear, and high cost. Of the participants, 9.23% declared that those who had been administered the human papillomavirus vaccine do not need a Pap test. The results highlight the need for additional education and health promotion regarding cervical cancer screening. PMID:23183733

  5. Social participation of women with breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolić Snežana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. The general problems of persons with malignant diseases (stages of asthenia, chronic fatigue and exhaustion, followed by depression and anxiety lead to a decrease in functional abilities and a declining quality of life. The aim of this study was to determine the level of difficulty, the type of required assistance and the level of satisfaction that derives from maintaining life habits. The study also examined the correlation between the level of accomplishment of life habits and the level of satisfaction with how they are maintained. Methods. The research was conducted at the Military Medical Academy in Belgrade and in the “Get Together” Association of Women with Breast Cancer from June to September 2012 on a sample of 30 women. A standardised questionnaire, Assessment of Life Habits - LIFE-H v.3.0, was administered. Results. The lowest level of maintaining normal activities was related to education, housing and recreation. The greatest need for support to maintain normal activities was in the domains of housing, interpersonal relationships and employment. The greatest satisfaction in the accomplishment of normal activities was observed in the domains of mobility, nutrition and housing, and the lowest level of satisfaction was in the domains of recreation, communication and interpersonal relationships. The correlation between the level of accomplishment of normal activities and the level of satisfaction was the highest in the domains of general physical activity, responsibility and life in a community; the lowest level was in the domains of personal hygiene, housing, mobility, employment and recreation (p < 0.001. Conclusion. The results indicate that research participants found it more difficult to maintain their social activities than their everyday activities. This clearly indicates the necessity to develop and implement special advisory and educational programs aimed at preventing social exclusion and to strengthen and

  6. Breast cancer mortality in mammographic screening in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Njor, Sisse Helle; Nyström, Lennarth; Moss, Sue;

    2012-01-01

    To estimate the impact of service mammography screening on breast cancer mortality using European incidence-based mortality (IBM) studies (or refined mortality studies). IBM studies include only breast cancer deaths occurring in women with breast cancer diagnosed after their first invitation to...... screening....

  7. Promoting Quality of Cervical Cancer Screening and Treatment in India

    OpenAIRE

    Krishnan, S.; Madsen, E.; Porterfield, D.; Varghese, B.

    2015-01-01

    Cervical cancer screening is highly cost effective, feasible, and culturally acceptable in higher and lower income settings across the world. According to the World Health Organization and the World Economic Forum, screening for cervical cancer is an evidence-based best buy prevention intervention (1). However, to be effective in reducing cervical cancer incidence and mortality, screenin...

  8. Validity of fecal occult blood test in the national cancer screening program, Korea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aesun Shin

    Full Text Available AIM: The aims of the current study were to assess the validity of the fecal occult blood test (FOBT in an organized screening setting in Korea and to determine factors associated with FOBT validity, such as screening round, age group, and anatomical location of the cancer. METHODS: Study participants were those who were 50 years and older who received an FOBT through the National Cancer Screening Program between 2004 and 2007. Colorectal cancer diagnoses were ascertained through linkage with the Korean National Cancer Incidence Database. The positivity rate, colorectal cancer detection rate, interval cancer rate, sensitivity, specificity, and positive predictive value of the FOBT were calculated. RESULTS: A total of 2,193,093 tests were included in the analysis. Overall, the sensitivity of the FOBT for colorectal cancer was 59.7% for the first round and 56.1% for the subsequent round. Sensitivity was highest for distal colon cancer (65.9% in the first round, and for rectal cancer (58.4% for the subsequent round. The sensitivity and positive predictive value of the FOBT generally improved between 2004 and 2008. CONCLUSIONS: The FOBT showed reasonable validity in an organized screening setting, and the validity of the FOBT varied by screening round, anatomical location, and screening year.

  9. Australia's National Bowel Cancer Screening Program: does it work for Indigenous Australians?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katzenellenbogen Judith M

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite a lower incidence of bowel cancer overall, Indigenous Australians are more likely to be diagnosed at an advanced stage when prognosis is poor. Bowel cancer screening is an effective means of reducing incidence and mortality from bowel cancer through early identification and prompt treatment. In 2006, Australia began rolling out a population-based National Bowel Cancer Screening Program (NBCSP using the Faecal Occult Blood Test. Initial evaluation of the program revealed substantial disparities in bowel cancer screening uptake with Indigenous Australians significantly less likely to participate in screening than the non-Indigenous population. This paper critically reviews characteristics of the program which may contribute to the discrepancy in screening uptake, and includes an analysis of organisational, structural, and socio-cultural barriers that play a part in the poorer participation of Indigenous and other disadvantaged and minority groups. Methods A search was undertaken of peer-reviewed journal articles, government reports, and other grey literature using electronic databases and citation snowballing. Articles were critically evaluated for relevance to themes that addressed the research questions. Results The NBCSP is not reaching many Indigenous Australians in the target group, with factors contributing to sub-optimal participation including how participants are selected, the way the screening kit is distributed, the nature of the test and comprehensiveness of its contents, cultural perceptions of cancer and prevailing low levels of knowledge and awareness of bowel cancer and the importance of screening. Conclusions Our findings suggest that the population-based approach to implementing bowel cancer screening to the Australian population unintentionally excludes vulnerable minorities, particularly Indigenous and other culturally and linguistically diverse groups. This potentially contributes to exacerbating

  10. To screen or not to screen: ongoing debate in the early detection of prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marroquin, Joanna Marie

    2011-02-01

    Debate about the use of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) tests to screen prostate cancer in men is ongoing. Prostate cancer is the most common cancer after skin cancer in men and the second most deadly after lung cancer. An elevated PSA level can lead to this cancer's diagnosis and treatment even before the onset of symptoms. However, other causes also can create a high PSA level, which may lead to men being unnecessarily treated for prostate cancer. This article will shed some light on the issue and discuss prostate cancer screening. PMID:21278045

  11. Radiation doses to screened women in the Norwegian Breast Cancer Screening Program in 2005 and 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radiographers report exposure data for approximately 50 women annually to the Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority. Based on reported data from all laboratories involved in the Norwegian Breast Cancer Screening Program average glandular dose (AGD) to the screened. (author)

  12. Proportional incidence and radiological review of large (T2+) breast cancers as surrogate indicators of screening programme performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ciatto, S.; Bernardi, D.; Pellegrini, M.; Borsato, G.; Peterlongo, P. [APSS, U.O. Senologia Clinica e Screening Mammografico, Dipartimento di Radiodiagnostica, Trento (Italy); Gentilini, M.A. [APSS, Servizio Osservatorio Epidemiologico, Direzione promozione ed educazione alla salute, Trento (Italy); Caumo, F. [Centro di Prevenzione Senologica, Verona (Italy); Frigerio, A. [CRR, Centro di Riferimento Regionale per lo Screening Mammografico, Torino (Italy); Houssami, N. [University of Sydney, Screening and Test Evaluation Program, School of Public Health, Sydney Medical School, Sydney (Australia)

    2012-06-15

    Surrogate measures of screening performance [e.g. interval cancer (IC) proportional incidence] allow timely monitoring of sensitivity and quality. This study explored measures using large (T2+) breast cancers as potential indicators of screening performance. The proportional incidence of T2+ cancers (observed/expected cases) in a population-based screening programme (Trento, 2001-2009) was estimated. A parallel review of 'negative' preceding mammograms for screen-detected T2+ and for all ICs, using 'blinded' independent readings and case-mixes (54 T2+, 50 ICs, 170 controls) was also performed. T2+ cancers were observed in 168 screening participants: 48 at first screen, 67 at repeat screening and 53 ICs. The T2+ estimated proportional incidence was 68% (observed/expected = 168/247), corresponding to an estimated 32% reduction in the rate of T2+ cancers in screening participants relative to that expected without screening. Majority review classified 27.8% (15/54) of T2+ and 28% (14/50) of ICs as screening error (P = 0.84), with variable recall rates amongst radiologists (8.8-15.2%). T2+ review could be integrated as part of quality monitoring and potentially prove more feasible than IC review for some screening services. circle Interval breast cancers, assumed as screening failures, are monitored to estimate screening performance circle Large (T2+) cancers at screening may also represent failed prior screening detection circle Analysis of T2+ lesions may be more feasible than assessing interval cancers circle Analysis of T2+ cancers is a potential further measure of screening performance. (orig.)

  13. Impact of risk factors on different interval cancer subtypes in a population-based breast cancer screening programme.

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    Jordi Blanch

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Interval cancers are primary breast cancers diagnosed in women after a negative screening test and before the next screening invitation. Our aim was to evaluate risk factors for interval cancer and their subtypes and to compare the risk factors identified with those associated with incident screen-detected cancers. METHODS: We analyzed data from 645,764 women participating in the Spanish breast cancer screening program from 2000-2006 and followed-up until 2009. A total of 5,309 screen-detected and 1,653 interval cancers were diagnosed. Among the latter, 1,012 could be classified on the basis of findings in screening and diagnostic mammograms, consisting of 489 true interval cancers (48.2%, 235 false-negatives (23.2%, 172 minimal-signs (17.2% and 114 occult tumors (11.3%. Information on the screening protocol and women's characteristics were obtained from the screening program registry. Cause-specific Cox regression models were used to estimate the hazard ratios (HR of risks factors for interval cancer and incident screen-detected cancer. A multinomial regression model, using screen-detected tumors as a reference group, was used to assess the effect of breast density and other factors on the occurrence of interval cancer subtypes. RESULTS: A previous false-positive was the main risk factor for interval cancer (HR = 2.71, 95%CI: 2.28-3.23; this risk was higher for false-negatives (HR = 8.79, 95%CI: 6.24-12.40 than for true interval cancer (HR = 2.26, 95%CI: 1.59-3.21. A family history of breast cancer was associated with true intervals (HR = 2.11, 95%CI: 1.60-2.78, previous benign biopsy with a false-negatives (HR = 1.83, 95%CI: 1.23-2.71. High breast density was mainly associated with occult tumors (RRR = 4.92, 95%CI: 2.58-9.38, followed by true intervals (RRR = 1.67, 95%CI: 1.18-2.36 and false-negatives (RRR = 1.58, 95%CI: 1.00-2.49. CONCLUSION: The role of women's characteristics differs among

  14. [Cervical cancer screening: past--present--future].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breitenecker, G

    2009-12-01

    Despite the undisputed and impressive success which has been achieved since the 1960s by cervical cytology in the fight against cervical cancer and its precursor stages, during which the mortality rate in industrialized countries over the last 40 years has been reduced by two-thirds to three-quarters, a perfect and error-free screening procedure is still a long way off and will probably never be reached. There are two main reasons for this, the lack of adequate coverage and suboptimal quality and assessment of smears. Two screening procedures are in use Europe, an opportunistic and an organized system. Both systems have many advantages but also disadvantages. In organized programs the coverage is higher (up to 80%), although similar numbers are also achieved by non-organized programs over a 3-year cycle, even if they cannot be so exactly documented. The decision on which system is used depends on the health system of the country, public or non-public, and many other national circumstances. However, in both systems prerequisites for a satisfactory result is a high quality in the sampling technique, the processing and the assessment. Therefore, several guidelines have been introduced by state and medical societies for internal and external quality assurance. New technologies, such as thin-layer cytology or automation for replacement or support of conventional cytology liquid-based cytology proved not to be superior enough to justify the high costs of these systems. The recognition of the strong causal relationship between persistent infection with high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) types and cervical cancer and its precursors has resulted in the development of comparably simple tests. Primary screening using HPV typing alone is not recommended in opportunistic screening due to the low specificity but high sensitivity because it leads to many clinically irrelevant results which place women under stress. In organized screening HPV testing is always and only possible

  15. Older adults' attitudes about continuing cancer screening later in life: a pilot study interviewing residents of two continuing care communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter Louise C

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Individualized decision making has been recommended for cancer screening decisions in older adults. Because older adults' preferences are central to individualized decisions, we assessed older adults' perspectives about continuing cancer screening later in life. Methods Face to face interviews with 116 residents age 70 or over from two long-term care retirement communities. Interview content included questions about whether participants had discussed cancer screening with their physicians since turning age 70, their attitudes about information important for individualized decisions, and their attitudes about continuing cancer screening later in life. Results Forty-nine percent of participants reported that they had an opportunity to discuss cancer screening with their physician since turning age 70; 89% would have preferred to have had these discussions. Sixty-two percent believed their own life expectancy was not important for decision making, and 48% preferred not to discuss life expectancy. Attitudes about continuing cancer screening were favorable. Most participants reported that they would continue screening throughout their lives and 43% would consider getting screened even if their doctors recommended against it. Only 13% thought that they would not live long enough to benefit from cancer screening tests. Factors important to consider stopping include: age, deteriorating or poor health, concerns about the effectiveness of the tests, and doctors recommendations. Conclusion This select group of older adults held positive attitudes about continuing cancer screening later in life, and many may have had unrealistic expectations. Individualized decision making could help clarify how life expectancy affects the potential survival benefits of cancer screening. Future research is needed to determine whether educating older adults about the importance of longevity in screening decisions would be acceptable, affect older adults

  16. Most Breast Cancer Screening Trials Have a Flawed Design

    OpenAIRE

    Gurnani, Nishant; Srivastava, Anurag

    2011-01-01

    In the present article, we discuss that why most breast cancer screening trials have a flawed origin. We suggest some solutions to correct these flaws so that more valid and reliable screening trials can be conducted in the future.

  17. Data on Medicare eligibility and cancer screening utilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian P. Meyer

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Health insurance is associated with increased utilization of cancer screening services. Data on breast, prostate and colorectal cancer screening were abstracted from the 2012 Behavioral Risk Factor and Surveillance System. This data in brief includes two sets of analyses: (i the use of cancer screening in individuals within the low-income bracket and (ii determinants for each of the three approaches to colorectal cancer screening (fecal occult blood test, colonoscopy and sigmoidoscopy+fecal occult blood test. Covariates included education attainment, residency, and access to health care provider. The data supplement our original research article on the effect of Medicare eligibility on cancer screening utilization “The impact of Medicare eligibility on cancer screening behaviors” [1].

  18. European randomized lung cancer screening trials: Post NLST

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Field, JK; Klaveren, R; Pedersen, JH;

    2013-01-01

    Overview of the European randomized lung cancer CT screening trials (EUCT) is presented with regard to the implementation of CT screening in Europe; post NLST. All seven principal investigators completed a questionnaire on the epidemiological, radiological, and nodule management aspects of their ......Overview of the European randomized lung cancer CT screening trials (EUCT) is presented with regard to the implementation of CT screening in Europe; post NLST. All seven principal investigators completed a questionnaire on the epidemiological, radiological, and nodule management aspects...

  19. The Knowledge and Practice of Breast Cancer Screening Among Women in Kerman, Iran

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    Narges Khanjani

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women, and if diagnosed on time, the chance of treatment will increase. There is limited information about the knowledge and practice of Iranian women about early detection of breast cancer and in this study we aimed to investigate it in Kerman. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study done on 120 women; from 6 randomly selected maternal and childcare centers spread around Kerman, women were questioned about the primary signs of breast cancer and the screening methods. Results: The results show that 70% of women thought that with on time detection, breast cancer can be successfully treated, but 47% had no idea about any screening method. The most common breast cancer sign mentioned by women was a painless lump. Breast self examination as the easiest and cheapest screening method was never done in 51% of women. The most common reason for not performing screening tests in the participants, was not knowing anything about it. Conclusion: Although breast cancer when diagnosed on time is treatable, the knowledge and attitude of Iranian women about breast cancer screening and the signs of breast cancer are very low. Educational programs to increase women's knowledge about breast cancer should be foreseen and performed

  20. Intermittent attendance at breast cancer screening

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    Padraic Fleming

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background. To determine why women skip rounds and factors influencing return of previous non attenders (PNAs to breast screening. Design and methods. Retrospective, quantitative, structured questionnaire posted to 2500 women. First PNAs did not attend their first screening appointment in 2007/2008 but then attended in 2010; First Controls first attended in 2010 without missed previous appointments. Women who attended screening in 2006 or earlier then skipped a round but returned in 2010 were Subsequent PNAs; Subsequent Controls attended all appointments.Results. More First Controls than First PNAs had family history of cancer (72.7% vs 63.2%; P=0.003; breast cancer (31.3% vs 24.8%; P=0.04. More PNAs lived rurally; more First PNAs had 3rd level education (33.2% vs 23.6%; P=0.002 and fewer had private insurance than First Controls (57.7% vs 64.8%; P=0.04. Excellent/good health was reported in First PNAs and First Controls (82.9% vs 83.2%, but fewer Subsequent PNAs than Subsequent Controls (72.7% vs 84.9%; P=0.000. Common considerations at time of missed appointment were had mammogram elsewhere (33% First PNA and postponed to next round (16% First PNA, 18.8% Subsequent PNA. Considerations when returning to screening were similar for First PNAs and Subsequent PNAs: I am older (35.4%, 29.6%, I made sure I remembered (29%, 23.6%, could reschedule (17.6%, 20.6%, illness of more concern (16.5%, 19%. More First PNAs stated my family/friends advised (22.3% vs 15.2% or my GP (12.6% vs 4.6% advised me to attend, heard good things about BreastCheck (28.8% vs 13.6%.Conclusions. Intermittent attenders do not fit socio-demographic patterns of non-attenders; GP recommendation and word of mouth were important in women’s return to screening. Fear and anxiety seem to act as a screening facilitator rather than an inhibitor.

  1. What dentists should know about oral cancer screening?

    OpenAIRE

    Omar B Kujan

    2013-01-01

    Although the advances in the diagnosis and treatment of oral cancer, it remains one of the most devastating malignancies. Early detection and prevention is a major key in combating policy of cancer. Screening offers an important opportunity for early detection. Several screening methods, visual examination, toluidine blue, fluorescence imaging, and brush biopsy, were used in oral cancer screening programs. General dental practitioner plays an important role in such programs. Therefore, this r...

  2. Environmental scan of anal cancer screening practices: worldwide survey results

    OpenAIRE

    Patel, Jigisha; Salit, Irving E.; Berry, Michael J.; de Pokomandy, Alexandra; Nathan, Mayura; Fishman, Fred; Palefsky, Joel; Tinmouth, Jill

    2014-01-01

    Anal squamous cell carcinoma is rare in the general population but certain populations, such as persons with HIV, are at increased risk. High-risk populations can be screened for anal cancer using strategies similar to those used for cervical cancer. However, little is known about the use of such screening practices across jurisdictions. Data were collected using an online survey. Health care professionals currently providing anal cancer screening services were invited to complete the survey ...

  3. Mammographic screening programmes in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giordano, Livia; von Karsa, Lawrence; Tomatis, Mariano; Majek, Ondrej; de Wolf, Chris; Lancucki, Lesz; Hofvind, Solveig; Nyström, Lennarth; Segnan, Nereo; Ponti, Antonio; Van Hal, G; Martens, P; Májek, O; Danes, J; von Euler-Chelpin, My Catarina; Aasmaa, A; Anttila, A; Becker, N; Péntek, Z; Budai, A; Mádai, S; Fitzpatrick, P; Mooney, T; Zappa, M; Ventura, L; Scharpantgen, A; Hofvind, S; Seroczynski, P; Morais, A; Rodrigues, V; Bento, M J; Gomes de Carvalho, J; Natal, C; Prieto, M; Sánchez-Contador Escudero, C; Zubizarreta Alberti, R; Fernández Llanes, S B; Ascunce, N; Ederra Sanza, M; Sarriugarte Irigoien, G; Salas Trejo, D; Ibáñez Cabanell, J; Wiege, M; Ohlsson, G; Törnberg, S; Korzeniewska, M; de Wolf, C; Fracheboud, J; Patnick J, J; Lancucki, L; Ducarroz, S; Suonio, E

    To summarize participation and coverage rates in population mammographic screening programmes for breast cancer in Europe.......To summarize participation and coverage rates in population mammographic screening programmes for breast cancer in Europe....

  4. Colorectal cancer screening awareness among physicians in Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chatzimichalis Georgios

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Data comparison between SEER and EUROCARE database provided evidence that colorectal cancer survival in USA is higher than in European countries. Since adjustment for stage at diagnosis markedly reduces the survival differences, a screening bias was hypothesized. Considering the important role of primary care in screening activities, the purpose of the study was to investigate the colorectal cancer screening awareness among Hellenic physicians. Methods 211 primary care physicians were surveyed by mean of a self-reported prescription-habits questionnaire. Both physicians' colorectal cancer screening behaviors and colorectal cancer screening recommendations during usual check-up visits were analyzed. Results Only 50% of physicians were found to recommend screening for colorectal cancer during usual check-up visits, and only 25% prescribed cost-effective procedures. The percentage of physicians recommending stool occult blood test and sigmoidoscopy was 24% and 4% respectively. Only 48% and 23% of physicians recognized a cancer screening value for stool occult blood test and sigmoidoscopy. Colorectal screening recommendations were statistically lower among physicians aged 30 or less (p = 0.012. No differences were found when gender, level and type of specialization were analyzed, even though specialists in general practice showed a trend for better prescription (p = 0.054. Conclusion Contemporary recommendations for colorectal cancer screening are not followed by implementation in primary care setting. Education on presymptomatic control and screening practice monitoring are required if primary care is to make a major impact on colorectal cancer mortality.

  5. Colorectal cancer screening awareness among physicians in Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xilomenos, Apostolos; Mauri, Davide; Kamposioras, Konstantinos; Gkinosati, Athanasia; Zacharias, Georgios; Sidiropoulou, Varvara; Papadopoulos, Panagiotis; Chatzimichalis, Georgios; Golfinopoulos, Vassilis; Peponi, Christina

    2006-01-01

    Background Data comparison between SEER and EUROCARE database provided evidence that colorectal cancer survival in USA is higher than in European countries. Since adjustment for stage at diagnosis markedly reduces the survival differences, a screening bias was hypothesized. Considering the important role of primary care in screening activities, the purpose of the study was to investigate the colorectal cancer screening awareness among Hellenic physicians. Methods 211 primary care physicians were surveyed by mean of a self-reported prescription-habits questionnaire. Both physicians' colorectal cancer screening behaviors and colorectal cancer screening recommendations during usual check-up visits were analyzed. Results Only 50% of physicians were found to recommend screening for colorectal cancer during usual check-up visits, and only 25% prescribed cost-effective procedures. The percentage of physicians recommending stool occult blood test and sigmoidoscopy was 24% and 4% respectively. Only 48% and 23% of physicians recognized a cancer screening value for stool occult blood test and sigmoidoscopy. Colorectal screening recommendations were statistically lower among physicians aged 30 or less (p = 0.012). No differences were found when gender, level and type of specialization were analyzed, even though specialists in general practice showed a trend for better prescription (p = 0.054). Conclusion Contemporary recommendations for colorectal cancer screening are not followed by implementation in primary care setting. Education on presymptomatic control and screening practice monitoring are required if primary care is to make a major impact on colorectal cancer mortality. PMID:16756674

  6. Exploration of knowledge of cervical cancer and cervical cancer screening amongst HIV-positive women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna E. Maree

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although preventable, cervical cancer, an AIDS-related disease, is the second most common cancer amongst South African women and the most common cancer amongst black women. Objective: The objective of the study was to determine what women being treated for HIV and AIDS at a specific healthcare centre in Johannesburg knew about cervical cancer and cervical screening. Method: A survey design was used, with data gathered by means of a self-administered questionnaire. Convenience sampling selected 315 women to participate (n = 315. Descriptive statistics were used to analyse the data and chi-square testing found associations between categorical variables. Results: The majority of respondents (78.7%; n = 248 indicated that they had heard of cervical cancer and 62.9% (n = 198 knew about the Pap smear, with nurses and doctors being the primary source of information. Of the women who knew about the Pap smear, less than one-third had had a smear done, the main reason being fear of the procedure. Conclusion: The study provided evidence that women attending the specific HIV clinic were more knowledgeable about cervical cancer and screening than those of unknown HIV status involved in previous studies. Knowledge was still at a low level, especially when their exceptionally high risk was taken into account. Once again it was found that having knowledge did not necessarily mean having had a Pap smear, which remains a huge challenge in the prevention of cervical cancer.

  7. A simple way to measure the burden of interval cancers in breast cancer screening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Sune Bangsbøll; Törnberg, Sven; Lynge, Elsebeth;

    2014-01-01

    . This resulted in 5 papers describing 12 mammography screening programs. RESULTS: Covering initial screens only, the ICR varied from 0.10 to 0.28 while the PICR varied from 0.22 to 0.51. For subsequent screens only, the ICR varied from 0.22 to 0.37 and the PICR from 0.28 to 0.51. There was a strong......BACKGROUND: The sensitivity of a mammography program is normally evaluated by comparing the interval cancer rate to the expected breast cancer incidence without screening, i.e. the proportional interval cancer rate (PICR). The expected breast cancer incidence in absence of screening is, however...... systematic review and included studies: 1) covering a service screening program, 2) women aged 50-69 years, 3) observed data, 4) interval cancers, women screened, or interval cancer rate, screen detected cases, or screen detection rate, and 5) estimated breast cancer incidence rate of background population...

  8. Perception of cervical cancer screening among Japanese university students who have never had a pap smear: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oshima, Sumiko; Maezawa, Masaji

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to explore attitudes towards cervical cancer screening among Japanese university students who had never had a Pap smear. Four focus-group discussions, each with 15 female university students, took place in November and December 2009. Discussions were recorded and transcripts were analyzed to extract attitudes of young women towards cervical cancer screening. The four themes that emerged were: i) a low sense of reality about cervical cancer; ii) a lack of knowledge about both cervical cancer and Pap smears; iii) a lack of motivation to get screened, and iv) a reluctance to visit the gynecologist. Participants who were interested in undergoing screening for cervical cancer cited the influence of conversations with friends and family, a diagnosis of cancer within their family, and relevant information from the media. The results indicate the importance of getting young women more interested in cervical cancer screening and overcoming their tendency to avoid visiting a gynecologist. PMID:23991995

  9. Breast Cancer-Related Lymphedema: Implications for Family Leisure Participation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radina, M. Elise

    2009-01-01

    An estimated 20% of breast cancer survivors face the chronic condition of breast cancer-related lymphedema. This study explored the ways in which women with this condition experienced changes in their participation in family leisure as one indicator of family functioning. Participants (N = 27) were interviewed regarding lifestyles before and after…

  10. Pancreatic Cancer and Cancer Screening Programs: From Nihilism to Hope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raffaele Pezzilli

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The most common incipit of papers published regarding exocrine pancreatic neoplasms is that pancreatic cancer is one of the most lethal cancers, with a rate of incidence equal to that of mortality. Pancreatic cancer is a heterogeneous group of neoplasms in which pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma is the most common. For the most part, the problems related to the early diagnosis of pancreatic adenocarcinoma are three: 1 to better understand the biology of this tumor; 2 to better investigate the precursors of this tumor; and 3 to plan projects for pancreatic cancer screening in high-risk individuals. Recently, Yachida et al. [1] performed rapid autopsies on seven individuals with Stage IV pancreatic cancer and they found that the clonal populations which give rise to distant metastases are represented within the primary carcinoma, but these clones are genetically evolved from the original parental, non-metastatic clone. Thus, the genetic heterogeneity of the metastases reflects that of the primary carcinoma. Most important, when the authors performed a quantitative analysis of the timing of the genetic evolution of pancreatic cancer, they found that there was at least a decade between the occurrence of the initial mutation and the birth of the parental, non-metastatic founder cell. At least five more years are required for the acquisition of metastatic ability and patients die an average two years thereafter. As underscored by the authors, these data have an important implication in planning population screening for the purpose of preventing pancreatic cancer deaths: in fact, quantitative analysis indicated a large window, of at least a decade, in which the disease could be diagnosed while it is still in the curative stage. This model also predicts an average of 6.8 years between the birth of the cell giving rise to the parental clone and the seeding of the index metastasis.

  11. Ethnic Differences in Prenatal Screening for Down Syndrome: information, decision-making and participation

    OpenAIRE

    Fransen, Mirjam

    2010-01-01

    textabstractPregnant women and their partners are increasingly confronted with choices whether or not to participate in prenatal screening for structural, genetic, and chromosomal disorders, such as Down syndrome. Studies in several countries have documented ethnic differences in the provision of information about prenatal screening and Down syndrome, pregnant women’s knowledge and attitude and their participation in prenatal screening for Down syndrome.1-27 This thesis addresses the question...

  12. Epidemiology, aetiology, diagnosis and screening of lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death globally. Smoking causes about 90 % of all lung cancer cases. Passive, i.e. involuntary smoking has been confirmed to enhance the risk of lung cancer in exposed people. Individual susceptibility is one of important factors in lung cancer formation. New knowledge in epidemiology and aetiology of lung cancer gives new possibilities in diagnostic and screening of this disease. Results of large randomised trials aimed at new technologies in lung cancer screening will be available in a few years. (author)

  13. Results and analysis of screening for breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breast cancer is the most frequent cause of death in most countries of the world. Screening of asymptomatic women can detect a large percentage of cancers at an early stage. This is the basis for a possible cure or at least a prolongation of the survival time. The percentage of minimal cancers (smaller than 1 cm without dissemination) may be as high as 48% depending on the screening modality (10% without screening), axillary lymph node involvement can be reduced to 20% (40% without screening), and the percentage of stage II to IV cancers can be reduced to 8-20% (60% without screening). Mortality in the study group over age 50 years was reduced by 30%. Disadvantages of screening are: high cost; biopsies prompted by false positive results; psychological stress for the patients; radiation hazards which have, however, become almost negligible thanks to improved technique (2 cancers in 1 million mammographies and year). (Author)

  14. Breast cancer screening in British Columbia: implications of diagnostic trajectories

    OpenAIRE

    McKay, Rachel

    2008-01-01

    Despite reductions in mortality rates, breast cancer remains the most common cancer and the second most common cause of cancer death in Canadian women. Organized screening programs have contributed to the decrease in breast cancer mortality by allowing for early diagnosis and treatment. The diagnostic phase following an abnormal screen has implications for patient well-being, clinical practice, and resource management in health care. We present data from British Columbia that show that improv...

  15. Importance of Smoking Cessation in a Lung Cancer Screening Program

    OpenAIRE

    Munshi, Vidit; McMahon, Pamela

    2013-01-01

    Early detection of lung cancer and smoking cessation interventions can decrease lung cancer mortality, but information on the effectiveness and interaction between smoking cessation and lung cancer screening is sparse and inconsistent. This review aims to synthesize recent studies in two major areas of interest. First, we explore the interactions and potential for synergies between lung cancer screening programs and smoking cessation by summarizing reported changes in smoking behavior observe...

  16. Pre-participation screening for athletes and the role of advanced practice providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickham, David; Chan, Garrett; Carey, Mary

    2015-01-01

    Pre-participation screening of athletes for underlying cardiovascular disease is recommended by the AHA/ACC. However, vigorous debate continues as to whether the ECG should be used as part of a broad-based screening program. The AHA/ACC "do not support national mandatory screening ECGs of athletes, because the logistics, manpower, financial and resource considerations make such a program inapplicable to US". In an effort to address these impediments and to increase access for communities, we explore the use of advanced practice providers (Nurse Practitioners and Physician Assistants) in providing pre-participation screening to athletes with ECG interpretation. In the current healthcare environment with limited primary care resources, advanced practice providers are an important new element in improving access to care. Pre-participation screening with ECG interpretation is currently within an advanced practice provider's scope of practice. Emerging data shows that advanced practice providers perform care that is within acceptable patient care standards, safely, and cost effectively, compared to physician counterparts. To further improve pre-participation screening, a national education and certification program on 12-lead ECG interpretation is needed. Standardized screening tools and mass screening protocols that include screening ECGs for targeted athlete populations who are at high risk for SCD are needed. These recommendations are aimed at addressing some of the barriers raised by the AHA/ACC group to pre-participation screening with ECG. PMID:25791248

  17. Optimal breast cancer screening strategies for older women: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Braithwaite D

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Dejana Braithwaite,1 Joshua Demb,1 Louise M Henderson2 1Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, University of California, San Francisco, CA, 2Department of Radiology, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC, USA Abstract: Breast cancer is a major cause of cancer-related deaths among older women, aged 65 years or older. Screening mammography has been shown to be effective in reducing breast cancer mortality in women aged 50–74 years but not among those aged 75 years or older. Given the large heterogeneity in comorbidity status and life expectancy among older women, controversy remains over screening mammography in this population. Diminished life expectancy with aging may decrease the potential screening benefit and increase the risk of harms. In this review, we summarize the evidence on screening mammography utilization, performance, and outcomes and highlight evidence gaps. Optimizing the screening strategy will involve separating older women who will benefit from screening from those who will not benefit by using information on comorbidity status and life expectancy. This review has identified areas related to screening mammography in older women that warrant additional research, including the need to evaluate emerging screening technologies, such as tomosynthesis among older women and precision cancer screening. In the absence of randomized controlled trials, the benefits and harms of continued screening mammography in older women need to be estimated using both population-based cohort data and simulation models. Keywords: aging, breast cancer, precision cancer screening

  18. The Effects of New Screening Tests in the Dutch Cervical Cancer Screening Programme

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K. Rozemeijer (Kirsten)

    2016-01-01

    markdownabstractCervical cancer is the fourth most common cancer in women all over the world, mainly affecting young women. As cervical cancer is easy to prevent by early detection and treatment of the disease, screening was introduced in the Netherlands in the 1970s. The number of cervical cancer c

  19. Trends in adherence to recommended cancer screening: The US population and working cancer survivors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TainyaC.Clarke

    2012-12-01

    Conclusions: Cancer survivors report higher screening rates than the general population. Nevertheless, national screening rates are lower than desired, and disparities exist by cancer history and occupation. Understanding existing disparities, and the impact of cancer screening on survivors is crucial as the number of working survivors increases.

  20. Screening for familial and hereditary prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Henry T; Kosoko-Lasaki, Omofolasade; Leslie, Stephen W; Rendell, Marc; Shaw, Trudy; Snyder, Carrie; D'Amico, Anthony V; Buxbaum, Sarah; Isaacs, William B; Loeb, Stacy; Moul, Judd W; Powell, Isaac

    2016-06-01

    Prostate cancer (PC) has the highest degree of genetic transmission of any form of malignancy. In some families, the hereditary pattern is so strong as to mimic an autosomal dominance trait. We reviewed the known predisposing genetic markers to assess possible strategies for screening of families at risk. We carried out a systematic literature search using the Pubmed service of the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) and several gene libraries, including the NCBI SNP Library, the Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man® Catalog of Human Genes and Genetic Disorders (OMIM) and SNPedia to obtain known gene loci, SNPs and satellite markers associated with PC. We further cross referenced information on identified loci comparing data from different articles and gene reference sites. Whenever possible, we recorded the odds ratio (OR) for the allele associated with PC. In multiple different linkage studies, many independent PC associated loci have been identified on separate chromosomes. Genome-wide association studies have added many more markers to the set derived from linkage investigations. A subset of the alleles is associated with early onset and aggressive cancer. Due to the great heterogeneity, the OR for any one allele predicting future development of this malignancy is low. The strongest predictors are the BRCA2 mutations, and the highly penetrant G84E mutation in HOXB13. The presence of multiple risk alleles is more highly predictive than a single allele. Technical limitations on screening large panels of alleles are being overcome. It is appropriate to begin supplementing prostate specific antigen testing with alleles, such as BRCA2 and HOXB13, disclosed by targeted genomic analysis in families with an unfavorable family cancer history. Future population studies of PC should include genomic sequencing protocols, particularly in families with a history of PC and other malignancies. PMID:26638190

  1. Targeted Cancer Screening in Average-Risk Individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcus, Pamela M; Freedman, Andrew N; Khoury, Muin J

    2015-11-01

    Targeted cancer screening refers to use of disease risk information to identify those most likely to benefit from screening. Researchers have begun to explore the possibility of refining screening regimens for average-risk individuals using genetic and non-genetic risk factors and previous screening experience. Average-risk individuals are those not known to be at substantially elevated risk, including those without known inherited predisposition, without comorbidities known to increase cancer risk, and without previous diagnosis of cancer or pre-cancer. In this paper, we describe the goals of targeted cancer screening in average-risk individuals, present factors on which cancer screening has been targeted, discuss inclusion of targeting in screening guidelines issued by major U.S. professional organizations, and present evidence to support or question such inclusion. Screening guidelines for average-risk individuals currently target age; smoking (lung cancer only); and, in some instances, race; family history of cancer; and previous negative screening history (cervical cancer only). No guidelines include common genomic polymorphisms. RCTs suggest that targeting certain ages and smoking histories reduces disease-specific cancer mortality, although some guidelines extend ages and smoking histories based on statistical modeling. Guidelines that are based on modestly elevated disease risk typically have either no or little evidence of an ability to affect a mortality benefit. In time, targeted cancer screening is likely to include genetic factors and past screening experience as well as non-genetic factors other than age, smoking, and race, but it is of utmost importance that clinical implementation be evidence-based. PMID:26165196

  2. Cancer Screening among Immigrants Living in Urban and Regional Australia: Results from the 45 and Up Study

    OpenAIRE

    Weber, Marianne F.; May Chiew; Eleonora Feletto; Clare Kahn; Freddy Sitas; Lucy Webster

    2014-01-01

    Over 25% of the Australian population are immigrants, and are less active participants in cancer screening programmes. Most immigrants live in urban areas of Australia, but a significant proportion (~20%), live in regional areas. This study explored differences in cancer screening participation by place of birth and residence. Self-reported use of mammogram, faecal occult blood test (FOBT), and/or prostate specific antigen (PSA) tests was obtained from 48,642 immigrants and 141,275 Australian...

  3. Diabetes and cancer I: risk, survival, and implications for screening

    OpenAIRE

    Onitilo, Adedayo A.; Engel, Jessica M.; Glurich, Ingrid; Stankowski, Rachel V.; Williams, Gail M.; Doi, Suhail A.

    2012-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) and cancer are common diseases that are frequently diagnosed in the same individual. An association between the two conditions has long been postulated. Here, we review the epidemiological evidence for increased risk of cancer, decreased cancer survival, and decreased rates of cancer screening in diabetic patients. The risk for several cancers, including cancers of the pancreas, liver, colorectum, breast, urinary tract, and endometrium, is increased in patients w...

  4. No effect of meat, meat cooking preferences, meat mutagens or heme iron on lung cancer risk in the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial

    OpenAIRE

    Tasevska, Nataša; Cross, Amanda J.; Dodd, Kevin W.; Ziegler, Regina G.; Caporaso, Neil E; Sinha, Rashmi

    2010-01-01

    Recent epidemiological studies have suggested that red and processed meat may increase the risk of lung cancer. Possible underlying mechanisms include mutagens produced during high temperature cooking or preservation, or formed endogenously from heme iron in meat. We used data from 99,579 participants of both screened and non-screened arms of the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial (PLCO), aged 55–74 years, to investigate whether meat type, cooking method, doneness ...

  5. Recruitment for 'A pilot study of randomized controlled trial to evaluate the efficacy of lung cancer screening by thoracic CT'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of lung cancer screening by thoracic computed tomography (CT), a randomized controlled trial was planned in Japan. The randomized trial was designed as follows: participants were randomly assigned into 2 groups, CT group and XP group; XP group would receive 10 times of lung cancer screening by chest x-ray annually for 10 years; smokers in CT group would receive 10 times of lung cancer screening by thoracic CT annually for 10 years; non-smokers in CT group would receive 3 times of lung cancer screening by thoracic CT and 7 times of chest x-ray during 10 years. A pilot study was performed to evaluate the feasibility of the trial. A letter for recruitment to participate in the above trial was mailed to the citizens in Hakui City, who were 50-64 years old and underwent regular lung cancer screening using chest x-ray this year. In the letter we explained that the efficacy of lung cancer screening by thoracic CT had not been proved yet; only half of the participants could undergo thoracic CT screening; thoracic CT screening might cause unfavorable consequences like radiation exposure, false positives or overdiagnosis. Of 329 persons who received the letter of recruitment, 117 replied. After meeting with us for detailed explanation, 111 persons participated in the above randomized trial. The compliance of recruitment is high (approximately one third) and the above trial may be feasible. (author)

  6. The patient's subjective attitude towards screening for breast cancer. Should screening be extended to other forms of cancer?

    OpenAIRE

    Taylor, T V; Rimmer, S.; Forrest, A P

    1980-01-01

    A sample of 500 consecutive women without symptoms of breast disease attending a breast screening clinic were investigated regarding their attitude to breast screening and to the extension of the screening programme to other forms of cancer. Attendance at the screening clinic was found to be reassuring by 94.2%, and 96.4% felt that the screening programme should be extended to include other forms of malignancy. There was a history of either respiratory or alimentary tract symptoms, and of smo...

  7. Pre-participation Cardiovascular Screening of Elderly Wrestlers

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Purpose Sudden death of a competitive athlete is a tragedy that is usually caused by a previously unsuspected cardiovascular disease. The aim of this study was to clarify the role of noninvasive testing in pre-participation cardiovascular evaluation of elderly wrestlers. Methods We included 63 Iranian elderly wrestlers who participated in Tehran international elderly wrestlers’ preparation camping by census method. A questionnaire...

  8. Sensitivity of ultrasonographic breast cancer screening in relation to partipant age

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to reduce death due to breast cancer, which has recently been increasing in Japan, we must develop a high-quality screening system and ensure it is widely employed. Of course, promotion of mammographic screening is important, but since breast cancer frequently occurs in Japanese women their 5th and 6th decades, when breast tissue is dense, introduction of ultrasonography screening for women in this age brackets should also be urgently be considered. We performed both mammography and ultrasonography on all breast cancer screening participants during a 5-year period from 2000 through 2004. In this period, 69,220 women participated and breast cancers were detected in 170 of them (cancer detection rate 0.25%, recall rate 9.5%, and proportion of early cancers 76.2%). Based on an analysis of breast cancer detection rates according to age, the comparative sensitivity of each modality was studied. In women in their 5th decade, the sensitivity of ultrasonography was 82.5% and that of mammography was also 82.5%. In women in their 6th decade, the corresponding sensitivities were 75.9% and 70.7%, respectively. These results imply that if we perform either ultrasonography or mammography alone, then the cancer detection rate would be lowered to between 29% and 17%. We think that both mammography and ultrasonography must be used for breast cancer screening in women of these age brackets. We assume that breast cancers detected only by ultrasound were mostly small invasive cancers, whereas those detected only by mammography were mostly noninvasive ductal carcinomas revealed by microcalcifications. Thus, adoption of both modalities appears to be reasonable for raising the cancer detection rate in women in their 5th and 6th decades. (author)

  9. Breast and Cervical Cancer Screening in Women Referred to Urban Healthcare Centers in Kerman, Iran, 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadipour, Habibeh; Sheikhizade, Sahar

    2016-01-01

    Breast and cervical cancers are among leading causes of morbidity and mortality in women worldwide. Regular screening is very important for early detection of these cancers, but studies indicate low rates of screening participation. In this survey we studied the rate of screening participation among women 18-64 years old referred to urban health centers in Kerman, Iran in 2015. A cross-sectional study was carried out on 240 women who were selected using a multistage sampling method. Data collected using a questionnaire covered demographics and questions about common cancer screening status in women. Analysis was by SPSS 19. The mean age of participants was 31.7± 7. Most (97.1%) were married, housewives (83.3%), had high school diploma (43.8%) and a monthly income more than ten million Rls. The frequency of the Pap test performance was higher in women who were employed and with a university degree (pperformance in women over 40 years was also higher in women with university degree (p0.05). Our study found that the rate of screening participation among women is low. Investigation of the barriers, increasing the awareness of women about the importance and advantages of screening and also more incentives for health personnel especially family physicians to pay more attention to preventive programs could be effective. PMID:27165219

  10. Colorectal cancer screening behavior and willingness: An outpatient survey in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shang-Xin Deng; Jie Gao; Wei An; Jie Yin; Quan-Cai Cai; Hua Yang; Zhao-Shen Li

    2011-01-01

    AIM: To identity the factors influencing colorectal cancer (CRC) screening behavior and willingness among Chinese outpatients. METHODS: An outpatient-based face-to-face survey was conducted from August 18 to September 7, 2010 in Changhai Hospital. A total of 1200 consecutive patients aged ≥ 18 years were recruited for interview. The patient's knowledge about CRC and screening was pre-measured as a predictor variable, and other predictors included age, gender, educational level, monthly household income and health insurance status. The relationship between these predictors and screening behavior, screening willingness and screening approach were examined using Pearson's χ2 test and logistic regression analyses. RESULTS: Of these outpatients, 22.5% had undergone CRC screening prior to this study. Patients who had participated in the screening were more likely to have good knowledge about CRC and screening (OR: 5.299, 95% CI: 3.415-8.223), have health insurance (OR: 1.996, 95% CI: 1.426-2.794) and older in age. Higher income, however, was found to be a barrier to the screening (OR: 0.633, 95% CI: 0.467-0.858). An analysis of screening willingness showed that 37.5% of the patients would voluntarily participated in a screen at the recommended age, but 41.3% would do so under doctor's advice. Screening willingness was positively correlated with the patient's knowledge status. Patients with higher knowledge levels would like to participate in the screening (OR: 4.352, 95% CI: 3.008-6.298), and they would select colonoscopy as a screening approach (OR: 3.513, 95% CI: 2.290-5.389). However, higher income level was, again, a barrier to colonoscopic screening (OR: 0.667, 95% CI: 0.505-0.908). CONCLUSION: Patient's level of knowledge and income should be taken into consideration when conducting a feasible CRC screening.

  11. New Screening Proposals: the Federal Joint Commission Defines the Parameters for Cervical Cancer Screening from 2018

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillemanns, P.; Mallmann, P.; Beckmann, M. W.

    2016-01-01

    The Gynecology Oncology Working Group (AGO e. V.) unequivocally welcomes the decision taken by the German Federal Joint Commission (Gemeinsamer Bundesausschuss, G-BA) on March 19, 2015 regarding screening for cervical cancer. AGO is convinced that, in view of recent medical advances, this evidence-based decision will improve screening for cervical cancer. PMID:26941445

  12. Big screens with small RNAs : loss of function genetic screens to identify novel cancer genes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mullenders, J.

    2009-01-01

    This thesis described the construction and screening of one of the first large scale RNAi libraries for use in human cells. Functional genetic screens with this library have led to the identification of novel cancer genes. These cancer genes function in several pathways including the p53 tumor suppr

  13. Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer: Screening, Diagnosis, and Staging

    OpenAIRE

    Ferreira, J; Magalhães, M; Rocha, E; Marques, F

    2012-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths worldwide. Tobacco consumption is the primary cause of lung cancer, accounting for more than 85% 90% of all lung cancer deaths. Non-small cell lung cancer accounts for about 85% of all lung cancers. Several studies have shown that low-dose helical CT of the lung detects more nodules and lung cancers, including early-stage cancers, than does chest radiography. The National Lung Cancer Screening Trial results show that three annual roun...

  14. Screening for breast cancer in England: past and future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    The NHS Breast Screening Programme (NHSBSP) began in 1988. It aims to invite all women aged 50-70 years for mammographic screening once every three years. The programme now screens 1.3 million women each year, about 75% of those invited, and diagnoses about 10,000 breast cancers annually. Although some have questioned the value of screening for breast cancer, the scientific evidence demonstrates clearly that regular mammographic screening between the ages of 50 and 70 years reduces mortality from the malignancy. Screened women are slightly more likely than unscreened women to be diagnosed with breast cancer. The cancers in screened women are smaller and are less likely to be treated with mastectomy than they would have been if diagnosed without screening. For every 400 women screened regularly by the NHSBSP over a 10-year period, one woman fewer will die from breast cancer than would have died without screening. The current NHSBSP saves an estimated 1400 lives each year in England. The screening programme spends about pound sterling 3000 for every year of life saved. PMID:16792825

  15. The relative effect of mammographic screening on breast cancer mortality by socioeconomic status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ripping, Theodora M.; van der Waal, Danielle; Verbeek, André L.M.; Broeders, Mireille J.M.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Breast cancer incidence and mortality are higher in women with a high socioeconomic status (SES). The potential to prevent death from breast cancer is therefore greater in the high SES group. This does, however, require that the effectiveness of screening in the high SES group is equal to or greater than the effectiveness in the low SES group. The aim of this study is to assess the relative effectiveness of mammographic screening on breast cancer mortality by SES. In Nijmegen, the Netherlands, women are invited to participate in biennial mammographic screening since 1975. Postal code is collected at each round and is used to calculate the SES of each woman based on the SES indicator of the Netherlands Institute for Social Research. The Dutch average was used to classify the SES score of each woman as either high or low. We designed a case-control study to investigate the effect of mammographic screening in women aged 50 to 75, 40 to 75, and 50 to 69 years, and calculated the odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Among the women invited to the mammographic screening program in Nijmegen, 10% had a high SES. In women aged 50 to 75 years, the breast cancer death rate was 38% lower in screened women than in unscreened women. The ORs for women with high SES (OR 0.82, 95% CI 0.31–2.19) and low SES did not differ significantly (OR 0.61, 95% CI 0.47–0.78). Mammographic screening reduces breast cancer mortality, but we did not observe a significant difference in the relative effectiveness of screening by SES. If the effectiveness of mammographic screening is indeed not dependent on SES status, the absolute number of breast cancer deaths prevented by mammographic screening will be greater in the high SES than low SES group, because women with a high SES have a greater risk of breast cancer death. PMID:27495038

  16. Communicating the balance sheet in breast cancer screening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giordano, Livia; Cogo, Carla; Patnick, Julietta;

    2012-01-01

    Despite the difficulties, there is a moral responsibility to provide the public with the best estimates of benefits and harms of breast cancer screening.......Despite the difficulties, there is a moral responsibility to provide the public with the best estimates of benefits and harms of breast cancer screening....

  17. The Danish randomized lung cancer CT screening trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jesper H; Ashraf, Haseem; Dirksen, Asger;

    2009-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Lung cancer screening with low dose computed tomography (CT) has not yet been evaluated in randomized clinical trials, although several are underway. METHODS: In The Danish Lung Cancer Screening Trial, 4104 smokers and previous smokers from 2004 to 2006 were randomized to either...

  18. European cervical cancer screening:experiences and results

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Europe has devoted great efforts to cervical cancer screening over 30 years.The mortality was generally declining although incidence rates of cervical cancer among young women have been increasing in many countries of Europe.The efficiency of screening,however,needs to be addressed by planners for an improved cost-effectiveness in the future.

  19. Anal cancer and intraepithelial neoplasia screening: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leeds, Ira L; Fang, Sandy H

    2016-01-27

    This review focuses on the early diagnosis of anal cancer and its precursor lesions through routine screening. A number of risk-stratification strategies as well as screening techniques have been suggested, and currently little consensus exists among national societies. Much of the current clinical rationale for the prevention of anal cancer derives from the similar tumor biology of cervical cancer and the successful use of routine screening to identify cervical cancer and its precursors early in the disease process. It is thought that such a strategy of identifying early anal intraepithelial neoplasia will reduce the incidence of invasive anal cancer. The low prevalence of anal cancer in the general population prevents the use of routine screening. However, routine screening of selected populations has been shown to be a more promising strategy. Potential screening modalities include digital anorectal exam, anal Papanicolaou testing, human papilloma virus co-testing, and high-resolution anoscopy. Additional research associating high-grade dysplasia treatment with anal cancer prevention as well as direct comparisons of screening regimens is necessary to develop further anal cancer screening recommendations. PMID:26843912

  20. Colorectal cancer screening: Time for action in Iran

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is now the third most common cause of cancer-related deaths in the world. According to the Iranian Annual National Cancer Registration Report, CRC is the third most common cancer in Iranian women and fifth in men. The incidence of CRC has increased during the last 25 years. CRC screening is an efficient way to reduce the burden of CRC through detection of precursor lesions of cancer or early stage cancer. Iran may benefit even more from screening programs. According to...

  1. Influence of a screening navigation program on social inequalities in health beliefs about colorectal cancer screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallet, Fanny; Guillaume, Elodie; Dejardin, Olivier; Guittet, Lydia; Bouvier, Véronique; Mignon, Astrid; Berchi, Célia; Salinas, Agnès; Launoy, Guy; Christophe, Véronique

    2016-08-01

    The aim of the study was to test whether a screening navigation program leads to more favorable health beliefs and decreases social inequalities in them. The selected 261 noncompliant participants in a screening navigation versus a usual screening program arm had to respond to health belief measures inspired by the Protection Motivation Theory. Regression analyses showed that social inequalities in perceived efficacy of screening, favorable attitude, and perceived facility were reduced in the screening navigation compared to the usual screening program. These results highlight the importance of health beliefs to understand the mechanism of screening navigation programs in reducing social inequalities. PMID:25549659

  2. PRESSING MORTALITY RATE THROUGH SCREENING oral cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. K. Widnyani Wulan Laksmi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Based on World Health Organization (WHO data, oral cancer is one of malignancy with the highest mortality. In USA, there are more than 30.000 new cases every year. We can find many risk factors of oral cancer in our daily living. Moreover, it’s easy to find the main risk factors in our society, they are smoking, alcohol consumption, tobacco consumtion, viral infection, and bad oral hygiene. For the early stadium, Five-years survival rate is about 82% and 61% for all stadium. But, more than 50% of oral cancer has been distributed (metastatic regionally and also into the other organ far away from the oral itself when it’s detected. It will decrease 5-years survival rate to be less than 50%. So that, it’s really important to detect the oral cancer at the earlier stadium. Screening is the way to find the earlier stadium. Screening is done by some methods, start from the anamnesis, physical examination, toluidine blue staining, endoscopy, cytology, telomerase examination, and also PET-scan if it’s possible (because of the financial reasons. /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;}

  3. Prostate Cancer Screening (Beyond the Basics)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... best in your individual situation. WHAT IS PROSTATE CANCER? — Prostate cancer is a cancer of the prostate, a ... most of them do not die from their cancer. Prostate cancer often grows so slowly that many men ...

  4. Socioecological perspectives on cervical cancer and cervical cancer screening among Asian American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jongwon; Carvallo, Mauricio

    2014-10-01

    Although cervical cancer is one of the most commonly diagnosed cancers among Vietnamese American women (VAW) and Korean American women (KAW), both groups consistently report much lower rates of cervical cancer screening compared with other Asian ethnic subgroups and non-Hispanic Whites. This study aimed to explore multilevel factors that may underlie low screening rates among VAW and KAW living in a city where their ethnic communities are relatively small. The socioecological model was used as a conceptual framework. Thirty participants were conveniently recruited from ethnic beauty salons run by VA and KA cosmetologists in Albuquerque, New Mexico. The participants' average age was 44.6 years (SD = .50; range = 21-60). Most participants were married (80 %) and employed (73.3 %), and had health insurance (83.3 %). A qualitative interview was conducted in Vietnamese or Korean and transcribed verbatim. A thematic content analysis was used to identify major codes, categories, and patterns across the transcripts. The study identified several factors at the individual (e.g., pregnancy, poverty, personality), interpersonal (e.g., family responsibility, mother as influential referent), and community (e.g., lack of availability, community size) levels. The study sheds light on four major areas that must be taken into consideration in the development of culturally appropriate, community-based interventions aimed to reduce disparities in cervical cancer screening among ethnic minority women in the United States: (1) ethnic community size and geographic location; (2) cross-cultural similarities and dissimilarities; (3) targeting of not only unmarried young women, but also close referents; and (4) utilization of trusted resources within social networks. PMID:24863746

  5. Determinants of mammography screening participation among Turkish immigrant women in Germany--a qualitative study reflecting key informants' and women's perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berens, E-M; Yilmaz-Aslan, Y; Spallek, J; Razum, O

    2016-01-01

    Mammography screening programmes aiming to reduce mortality from breast cancer are implemented in most European countries. Immigrant women are less likely to participate than women of the respective autochthonous populations in several European countries but not in Germany. Qualitative, semi-structured interviews were conducted with 16 key informants and 10 Turkish immigrant women aged 50-69 years to analyse the factors influencing their screening participation in Germany. Interviews were analysed using summarising content analysis. The Theory of Planned Behaviour was used for structuring the results. Key informants stated poor German language skills and insufficient knowledge about breast cancer and screening as factors influencing screening participation. Immigrant women demonstrated basic knowledge about screening, but their attitudes towards screening varied. Information from the invitation letter of the screening programme was often filtered by family members. Key informants tended to emphasise barriers and system-related factors while the Turkish women focused more on factors on the individual level. Contrasting both perspectives is helpful for health professionals to critically assess their own views. Measures to improve screening participation need to address not only barriers but also take women's attitudes and norms into account, thus helping women to make an informed decision. PMID:26052964

  6. Informed Choice for Participation in Down Syndrome Screening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skjøth, Mette Maria; Hansen, Helle Ploug; Draborg, Eva;

    2015-01-01

    developing patient decision aids and eHealth technologies, an interactive website containing information about Down syndrome, methods of screening, and consequences of the test was developed. The intervention was based on user requests and needs, and reflected the current hospital practice and national...... guidelines. CONCLUSIONS: This paper describes the development and content of an interactive website to support pregnant women in making informed choices about Down syndrome screening. To develop the website, we used a well-structured process based on scientific evidence and involved pregnant women, care...... increasing interest in the use of Web-based technology to provide information and digital solutions for the delivery of health care. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to develop an eHealth tool that contained accurate and relevant information to allow pregnant women to make an informed choice about...

  7. The utility of cancer-related cultural constructs to understand colorectal cancer screening among African Americans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vetta L. Sanders Thompson

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background. Data suggest that colorectal cancer could be cut by approximately 60% if all people aged 50 years or older received regular screening. Studies have identified socio-cultural attitudes that might inform cancer education and screening promotion campaigns. This article applies item response theory (IRT to a set of survey items selected to assess sociocultural attitudes in order to determine how current measures may affect what we know about how these attitudes affect colorectal cancer screening (CRCS.Design and Methods. A survey of colorectal cancer screening, screening attitudes and cultural beliefs was administered to 1021 African Americans – 683 women and 338 men, ages 50 to 75. Eligibility crite ria for participation included being born in the United States, self-identified African American male or female, age 50 to 75 years. The IRT analysis was performed on 655 individuals with complete data for the 43 observed variables. Results. Twenty-nine items comprise the Multi-construct African American Cultural Survey (MAACS that addresses seven cultural con- structs: mistrust/distrust, privacy, ethnic identity, collectivism, empowerment, and male gender roles. The items provide adequate information about the attitudes of the population across most levels of the constructs assessed. Among the sociocultural variables considered, empowerment (OR=1.078; 95% CI: 1.008, 1.151 had the strongest association with CRCS adherence and privacy showed promise. Conclusions. The MAACS provides a fixed length questionnaire to assess African American CRCS attitudes, two new constructs that might assist in CRCS promotion, and a suggested focus for identification of additional constructs of interest.

  8. Temporal Trends in Colorectal Cancer Screening among Asian Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedewa, Stacey A; Sauer, Ann Goding; Siegel, Rebecca L; Smith, Robert A; Torre, Lindsey A; Jemal, Ahmedin

    2016-06-01

    Asian Americans (AA) are less likely to be screened for colorectal cancer compared with non-Hispanic Whites (NHW), with a widening disparity for some AA subgroups in the early 2000s. Whether these patterns have continued in more recent years is unknown. We examined temporal trends in colorectal cancer screening among AA overall compared with NHWs and by AA subgroup (Chinese, Japanese, Korean, Filipino, South Asian, Vietnamese) using data from the 2003, 2005, 2007, and 2009 California Health Interview Surveys. Unadjusted (PR) and adjusted (aPR) prevalence ratios for colorectal cancer screening, accounting for sociodemographic, health care, and acculturation factors, were calculated for respondents ages 50 to 75 years (NHW n = 60,125; AA n = 6,630). Between 2003 and 2009, colorectal cancer screening prevalence increased from 43.3% to 64.6% in AA (P ≤ 0.001) and from 58.1% to 71.4% in NHW (P ≤ 0.001). Unadjusted colorectal cancer screening was significantly lower among AA compared with NHW in 2003 [PR = 0.74; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.68-0.82], 2005 (PR = 0.78; 95% CI, 0.72-0.84), 2007 (PR = 0.91; 95% CI, 0.85-0.96), and 2009 (PR = 0.90; 95% CI, 0.84-0.97), though disparities narrowed over time. After adjustment, there were no significant differences in colorectal cancer screening between the two groups, except in 2003. In subgroup analyses, between 2003 and 2009, colorectal cancer screening significantly increased by 22% in Japanese, 56% in Chinese, 47% in Filipino, and 94% in Koreans. In our study of California residents, colorectal cancer screening disparities between AA and NHW narrowed, but were not eliminated and screening prevalence among AA remains below nationwide goals, including the Healthy People 2020 goal of increasing colorectal cancer screening prevalence to 70.5%. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 25(6); 995-1000. ©2016 AACR. PMID:27197273

  9. The associations between objective numeracy and colorectal cancer screening knowledge, attitudes and defensive processing in a deprived community sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Samuel G; Kobayashi, Lindsay C; Wolf, Michael S; Raine, Rosalind; Wardle, Jane; von Wagner, Christian

    2016-08-01

    We examined associations between numeracy and sociocognitive factors associated with colorectal cancer screening uptake (n = 964). Nearly half (45.7%) of the respondents incorrectly answered a numeracy question (low numeracy). Low numeracy respondents were less knowledgeable about colorectal cancer (p processing of cancer information (p = .001). Sociocognitive factors fully mediated the relationship between numeracy and screening intention. Addressing numeracy issues may reduce inequalities in CRC screening participation, but communication strategies could be limited by the tendency process cancer information defensively. PMID:25512199

  10. Identifying Barriers to Colonoscopy Screening for Nonadherent African American Participants in a Patient Navigation Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sly, Jamilia R.; Edwards, Tiffany; Shelton, Rachel C.; Jandorf, Lina

    2013-01-01

    African Americans have a higher rate of colorectal cancer (CRC) mortality than other racial/ethnic groups. This disparity is alarming given that CRC is largely preventable through the use of endoscopy (screening colonoscopy or sigmoidoscopy), yet rates of CRC screening among African Americans is suboptimal. Only 48.9% of African Americans are…

  11. "Is It Worth Knowing?" Focus Group Participants' Perceived Utility of Genomic Preconception Carrier Screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Jennifer L; Goddard, Katrina A B; Davis, James; Wilfond, Benjamin; Kauffman, Tia L; Reiss, Jacob A; Gilmore, Marian; Himes, Patricia; Lynch, Frances L; Leo, Michael C; McMullen, Carmit

    2016-02-01

    As genome sequencing technology advances, research is needed to guide decision-making about what results can or should be offered to patients in different clinical settings. We conducted three focus groups with individuals who had prior preconception genetic testing experience to explore perceived advantages and disadvantages of genome sequencing for preconception carrier screening, compared to usual care. Using a discussion guide, a trained qualitative moderator facilitated the audio-recorded focus groups. Sixteen individuals participated. Thematic analysis of transcripts started with a grounded approach and subsequently focused on participants' perceptions of the value of genetic information. Analysis uncovered two orientations toward genomic preconception carrier screening: "certain" individuals desiring all possible screening information; and "hesitant" individuals who were more cautious about its value. Participants revealed valuable information about barriers to screening: fear/anxiety about results; concerns about the method of returning results; concerns about screening necessity; and concerns about partner participation. All participants recommended offering choice to patients to enhance the value of screening and reduce barriers. Overall, two groups of likely users of genome sequencing for preconception carrier screening demonstrated different perceptions of the advantages or disadvantages of screening, suggesting tailored approaches to education, consent, and counseling may be warranted with each group. PMID:26093606

  12. Crafting Appealing Text Messages to Encourage Colorectal Cancer Screening Test Completion: A Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Shellie D; Denizard-Thompson, Nancy; Kronner, Donna; Miller, David P

    2015-01-01

    Background mHealth interventions that incorporate text messages have great potential to increase receipt of preventive health services such as colorectal cancer screening. However, little is known about older adult perspectives regarding the receipt of text messages from their health care providers. Objective To assess whether older adults would value and access text messages from their physician’s practice regarding colorectal cancer screening. Methods We conducted four focus groups with 26 adults, aged 50 to 75 years, who had either recently completed or were overdue for colorectal cancer screening. A trained moderator followed a semistructured interview guide covering participant knowledge and attitudes regarding colorectal cancer screening, potential barriers to colorectal cancer screening, attitudes about receiving electronic communications from a doctor’s office, and reactions to sample text messages. Results Participant responses to three primary research questions were examined: (1) facilitators and barriers to colorectal cancer screening, (2) attitudes toward receiving text messages from providers, and (3) characteristics of appealing text messages. Two themes related to facilitators of colorectal cancer screening were perceived benefits/need and family experiences and encouragement. Themes related to barriers included unpleasantness, discomfort, knowledge gaps, fear of complications, and system factors. Four themes emerged regarding receipt of text messages from health care providers: (1) comfort and familiarity with technology, (2) privacy concerns/potential for errors, (3) impact on patient-provider relationship, and (4) perceived helpfulness. Many participants expressed initial reluctance to receiving text messages but responded favorably when shown sample messages. Participants preferred messages that contained content that was important to them and were positive and reassuring, personalized, and friendly to novice texters (eg, avoided the use of

  13. Lung Cancer Screening and clinical implications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.C. van 't Westeinde (Susan)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractLung cancer is the most frequently diagnosed major cancer worldwide and the leading cause of death from cancer. Lung cancer is divided into two subgroups: small-cell lung cancer (SCLC) and non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC), accounting for 10-20% and 75% of lung cancer cases, respectivel

  14. Population based screening for prostate cancer : tumor characteristics

    OpenAIRE

    Cruijsen, Ingrid W

    2008-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ The European Randomized study of Screening for Prostate Cancer is a multi-centre randomized controlled trial to examine whether screening for prostate cancer has an effect on prostate cancer mortality. The total study cohort consists of 268.000 men in eight different European Countries. In the Netherlands the study is being conducted in the region of Rotterdam by the study group of the Erasmus Medical Centre Rotterdam. Between 1993 and 2000 a total of 42,376 men (...

  15. Effects of Cognitive Status on Life Participation of Cancer Survivors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary F. Baxter PhD, OT, FAOTA

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The purposes of this study were to identify the cognitive status of cancer survivors, determine the effect of cognitive status on function and participation in daily activities, and explore how cancer survivors perceive changes in their cognition. The study used a quantitative nonexperimental cross-sectional design. The participants included 35 cancer survivors from two different sites. Instruments included the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA and the Reintegration to Normal Index-Postal Version (RNLI-P in the measurement of cognitive impairment and functional performance respectively. Data were also collected with a supplemental questionnaire to explore participants’ perspectives on their cognitive difficulties and current function. The participant scores on the MoCA indicated cognitive impairment (μ= 25 and their scores on the RNLI-P demonstrated subpar reintegration (μ=9.64. Twenty-one participants answered the supplemental questionnaire. In content analysis of questionnaire responses, 17/21 participants reported some level of cognitive change related to cancer and cancer treatment. Data from an open-ended question were organized into four categories: decreased participation, more selective in activities, balance in activities, and cognitive changes. Study results indicate a large percentage of cancer survivors demonstrate mild cognitive impairment as well as changes in participation in instrumental activities of daily living.

  16. Image quality assurance in the prostate, lung, colorectal, and ovarian cancer screening trial network of the National Lung Screening Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Stephen M; Gierada, David S; Clark, Kenneth W; Blaine, G James

    2005-09-01

    The National Lung Screening Trial is evaluating the effectiveness of low-dose spiral CT and conventional chest X-ray as screening tests for persons who are at high risk for developing lung cancer. This multicenter trial requires quality assurance (QA) for the image quality and technical parameters of the scans. The electronic system described here helps manage the QA process. The system includes a workstation at each screening center that de-identifies the data, a DICOM storage service at the QA Coordinating Center, and Web-based systems for presenting images and QA evaluation forms to the QA radiologists. Quality assurance data are collated and analyzed by an independent statistical organization. We describe the design and implementation of this electronic QA system, emphasizing issues relating to data security and privacy, the various obstacles encountered in the installation of a common system at different participating screening centers, and the functional success of the system deployed. PMID:15924251

  17. Metoder til screening for kolorektal cancer kan forbedres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Louise; Jørgensen, Lars Nannestad; Madsen, Mogens Rørbæk; Vilandt, Jesper; Klærke, Michael; Andersen, Jens; Nielsen, Knud T; Khalid, Ali; Laurberg, Søren; Andersen, Claus Lindbjerg; Christensen, Ib Jarle; Brünner, Nils; Nielsen, Hans Jørgen

    Screening programmes for colorectal cancer (CRC) are being implemented in various countries worldwide including Denmark. The majority of programmes rely on faecal occult blood testing with subsequent colonoscopy. This approach is challenged by limited compliance, which reduces the efficiency of the...... screening programme. Current research into improve-ments of screening of CRC includes biological markers identified in blood. Combining blood-based biological markers with clinical and demographical parameters have shown promising results, which may improve the present approach to screening....

  18. Effectiveness of ultrasound for breast cancer screening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate the effectiveness of ultrasound (US) for breast cancer screening, we conducted a retrospective survey of 856 breast cancer patients who were preoperatively examined by mammography (MMG) and US. Their average age was 54.7 years, with a range of 24 to 92 years. MMG revealed positive findings in 771 patients (90.1%), and negative findings in the remaining 85 patients (9.9%). Likewise, US revealed positive findings in 835 patients (97.5%), and negative findings in the remaining 21 patients (2.5%). Accordingly, the proportion of positive finding in US was significantly higher than that in MMG (chi-square test, p<0.0001). The incidence of negative findings with MMG was inversely related to age: 5.8% for patients in their 70s, 5.7% for those in their 60s, 8.3% for those in their 50s, 11.1% for those in their 40s, and 26.2% for those in their 30s or younger, because of the higher breast density in younger women (chi-square test, p<0.0001). The incidence of positive findings was 99.4% for tumors 2.1 to 3.0 cm in size, 96.3% for those measuring 1.6 to 2.0 cm, 94.3% for those measuring 1.1 to 1.5 cm, and 75.4% for those less than or equal to 1.0 cm (chi-square test, p<0.0001). Among the 85 patients with negative findings by MMG, 70(82.4%) were positive and 15 (17.6%) were negative by US. As findings of calcification by US, high echo spots plus a tumor lesion were observed in 59 patients (71.1%), high echo spots only were noted in 22 patients (26.5%), and high echo spots were not seen in 2 patients (2.4%). In conclusion, parallel use of MMG and US is recommended for breast cancer screening, especially for women in their 50s or younger, to reduce the incidence of misdiagnosis. (author)

  19. Poor HPV vaccine-related awareness and knowledge among Utah Latinas overdue for recommended cancer screenings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, Brynn; Bodson, Julia; Warner, Echo L; Dyer, Jane; Kepka, Deanna

    2016-08-01

    Individuals overdue for recommended cancer screenings may not be receiving adequate cancer prevention education. Since Latinas have the highest incidence of cervical cancer among all racial/ethnic groups, human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination education is especially important for this population. The correlates of HPV vaccine-related awareness and knowledge were assessed among Latinas who were overdue for recommended cancer screenings. N = 206 Latinas who were overdue for recommended cancer screenings were recruited by health educators from local community groups. Bivariate analyses and multivariable regression models were used to investigate factors associated with HPV vaccine-related awareness and knowledge among participants as well as to assess correlates of HPV vaccine receipt for eligible children of participants. In multivariable regression analyses, years living in the U.S. (p = 0.05) and health insurance status (p = 0.03) were significantly related to HPV vaccine-related knowledge measures. Age (p vaccine-related knowledge measures (p vaccination outcomes for eligible daughters of participants. Cervical cancer screening status (p = 0.02) and HPV vaccine-related knowledge measures (p = 0.01) were significantly associated with HPV vaccination outcomes for eligible sons of participants. Results indicate poor HPV vaccine-related awareness and knowledge among Latinas. Interventions to improve HPV vaccine-related awareness and knowledge in Utah's growing Latino population should target vulnerable individuals (e.g., not employed outside the home, less educated, less acculturated, poor, uninsured, overdue for cervical cancer screening) by using materials that are culturally sensitive, linguistically appropriate, and easily accessible. PMID:26860277

  20. The benefits and harms of screening for cancer with a focus on breast screening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodersen, John; Juhl Jørgensen, Karsten; Gøtzsche, Peter C.

    2010-01-01

    The balance between benefits and harms is delicate for cancer screening programs. By attending screening with mammography some women will avoid dying from breast cancer or receive less aggressive treatment. But many more women will be overdiagnosed, receive needless treatment, have a false......-positive result, or live more years as a patient with breast cancer. Systematic reviews of the randomized trials have shown that for every 2000 women invited for mammography screening throughout 10 years, only 1 will have her life prolonged. In addition, 10 healthy women will be overdiagnosed with breast cancer...... whether screening with mammography does more good than harm. Women invited to screening should be informed according to the best available evidence, data should be reported in absolute numbers, and benefits and harms should be reported using the same denominator so that they can be readily compared....

  1. Development of lung cancer CT screening operating support system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishigaki, Rikuta; Hanai, Kozou; Suzuki, Masahiro; Kawata, Yoshiki; Niki, Noboru; Eguchi, Kenji; Kakinuma, Ryutaro; Moriyama, Noriyuki

    2009-02-01

    In Japan, lung cancer death ranks first among men and third among women. Lung cancer death is increasing yearly, thus early detection and treatment are needed. For this reason, CT screening for lung cancer has been introduced. The CT screening services are roughly divided into three sections: office, radiology and diagnosis sections. These operations have been performed through paper-based or a combination of paper-based and an existing electronic health recording system. This paper describes an operating support system for lung cancer CT screening in order to make the screening services efficient. This operating support system is developed on the basis of 1) analysis of operating processes, 2) digitalization of operating information, and 3) visualization of operating information. The utilization of the system is evaluated through an actual application and users' survey questionnaire obtained from CT screening centers.

  2. Breast cancer and breast screening: perceptions of Chinese migrant women living in New Zealand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang W

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Migrant Chinese constitute a significant and increasing proportion of New Zealand women. They have lower rates of participation in breast cancer screening than other New Zealanders, but reasons for this are unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate factors affecting Chinese women’s understanding of, and access to, breast health services, to better understand reasons for low participation in screening and their experiences of breast cancer clinic care. METHODS: The participants were 26 Chinese migrant women—19 recruited in the community and seven recruited from 17 eligible women attending a breast clinic between 2008 and 2010 in Wellington, New Zealand. The design was that of a qualitative study, using semi-structured interviews and thematic content analysis. FINDINGS: There were low levels of awareness about the national breast screening programme and limited engagement with preventive primary care services. Concerns about privacy and a range of communication difficulties were identified that related to oral language, lack of written information in Chinese, and limited understanding about Chinese perceptions of ill health and traditional Chinese medicine by New Zealand health professionals. CONCLUSION: Addressing communication barriers for Chinese migrant women has the potential to raise awareness about breast cancer and breast health, and to increase successful participation in breast cancer screening. Greater efforts are needed to ensure this group has an understanding of, and is engaged with a primary care provider. Such efforts are key to improving health for this growing sector of the New Zealand population.

  3. Health literacy and informed decision making regarding colorectal cancer screening: a systematic review.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heide, I. van der; Uiters, E.; Schuit, J.; Rademakers, J.; Fransen, M.

    2015-01-01

    Making an informed decision about participation in colorectal cancer (CRC) screening may be challenging for invitees with lower health literacy skills. The aim of this systematic review is to explore to what extent the level of a person’s health literacy is related to their informed decision making

  4. Factors Associated with Uptake of Visual Inspection with Acetic Acid (VIA) for Cervical Cancer Screening in Western Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orang’o, Elkanah Omenge; Wachira, Juddy; Asirwa, Fredrick Chite; Busakhala, Naftali; Naanyu, Violet; Kisuya, Job; Otieno, Grieven; Keter, Alfred; Mwangi, Ann; Inui, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Cervical cancer screening has been successful in reducing the rates of cervical cancer in developed countries, but this disease remains the leading cause of cancer deaths among women in sub-Saharan Africa. We sought to understand factors associated with limited uptake of screening services in our cervical cancer-screening program in Western Kenya. Participants and Methods Using items from a previously validated cancer awareness questionnaire repurposed for use in cervical cancer and culturally adapted for use in Kenya, we interviewed 2,505 women aged 18–55 years receiving care in gynecology clinics or seeking other services in 4 health facilities in Western Kenya between April 2014 and September 2014. We used logistic regression modeling to assess factors associated with uptake (or non-uptake), associated odds ratios (ORs) and the 95% confidence intervals (95% CI). Results Only two hundred and seventy-three women out of 2505 (11%) accepted VIA cervical cancer screening. Knowledge of just how women are screened for cervical cancer was significantly associated with reduced uptake of cervical cancer screening (OR: 0.53; CI 0.38–0.73) as was fear that screening would reveal a cancer (OR 0.70; CI 0.63–0.77), and reliance on prayer with the onset of illness (OR 0.43; CI 0.26–0.71). Participants who thought that one should get cervical cancer screening even if there were no symptoms were more than twice as likely to accept cervical cancer screening (OR 2.21; 95% CI 1.24–3.93). Older patients, patients living with HIV and women who do not know if bleeding immediately after sex might be a sign of cervical cancer were also more likely to accept screening (OR 1.03, CI 1.02–1.04; OR 1.78, CI 1.01–3.14; OR 2.39, CI 1.31–4.39, respectively). Conclusions In our population, a high percent of women knew that it is appropriate for all women to get cervical cancer screening, but only a small proportion of women actually got screening. There may be an

  5. Colon and Rectal Cancer Screening (Beyond the Basics)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... on Colorectal Cancer, and the American College of Radiology. CA Cancer J Clin 2008; 58:130. Whitlock EP, Lin JS, Liles E, et al. Screening for colorectal cancer: a targeted, updated systematic review for the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force. Ann Intern Med 2008; 149:638. ...

  6. Hepatitis B vaccinations among Koreans: Results from 2005 Korea National Cancer Screening Survey

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    Kwak Min-Son

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Liver cancer is one of most commonly diagnosed cancers among Koreans. Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV infection is a major risk factor for liver cancer. HBV infection can be prevented by effective screening and vaccination programs. The purpose of this study is to examine the status of HBV infection and the predictors associated with HBV vaccination. Methods The study population was derived from the 2005 Korea National Cancer Screening Survey (KNCSS. The KNCSS is an annual cross-sectional survey that uses a nationally-representative random sampling to investigate cancer screening rates. A total of 1,786 Koreans over 40 years of age participated in this study. Results Of all the participants, 5.9% reported HBV positive (HBsAg+, HBsAb-, 41.8% were HBV negative but protected (HBsAg-, HBsAb+, and 52.3% were unprotected (HBsAg-, HBsAb-. Among unprotected individuals (n = 934, 23.1% reported to have received the vaccination. About half of those who had vaccinations completed the 3-shot vaccine series. In multiple analyses, education, having private cancer insurance, alcohol use, having regular check-up, and doing regular exercise were associated with completed HBV vaccination. Conclusion This study result suggests that we need a liver cancer education program to increase HBV awareness and to increase the liver cancer prevention message among low educated populations.

  7. Prognosis of screen-detected breast cancers: results of a population based study

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    Rashid Ivan

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The reduced mortality rate from breast carcinoma among women offered screening mammography is demonstrated after 15–20 years of follow-up. However, the assessment of 5-year overall and event-free survival could represent an earlier measure of the efficacy of mammography screening program (MSP. Methods All cases of breast cancer diagnosed in the Province of Modena between years 1996 and 2000 in women aged 50 to 69 years, were identified through the Modena Cancer Registry (MCR. Stage of disease and treatment information were obtained from clinical records. All the events occurring up to June 30, 2003 were retrieved by experienced monitors. Five-year overall and event-free survival were the principal end-points of the study. Results During a 5-year period, 587 primary breast cancers were detected by the MSP and 471 primary breast cancers were diagnosed out of the MSP. The screen-detected breast cancers were smaller, more likely node negative, with low histological grade, low proliferative activity and positive receptors status. Furthermore, the breast cancer diagnosed through the MSP more frequently received a conservative surgery. The 5-year survival rate was 94% in the screen-detected group, versus 84% in the other group (p = 0.0001. The rate of 5-year event-free survival was 89% and 75% for the MSP participants and not participants, respectively (p = 0.0001. Conclusions Our data confirm a favourable outcome of screen-detected breast cancers in terms of five-year overall and event-free survival, which reflect the good quality assurance parameters of the MSP. Finally, a cancer registry should be implemented in every area covered by screening programs.

  8. Transvaginal ultrasonography in ovarian cancer screening: current perspectives

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    van Nagell Jr JR

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available John R van Nagell Jr, John T HoffDepartment of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Kentucky Chandler Medical Center/Markey Cancer Center, Lexington, KY, USAAbstract: Transvaginal ultrasonography (TVS is an integral part of all major ovarian cancer screening trials. TVS is accurate in detecting abnormalities in ovarian volume and morphology, but is less reliable in differentiating benign from malignant ovarian tumors. When used as the only screening test, TVS is sensitive, but has a low positive predictive value. Therefore, serum biomarkers and tumor morphology indexing are used together with TVS to identify ovarian tumors at high risk for malignancy. This allows preoperative triage of high-risk cases to major cancer centers for therapy while decreasing unnecessary surgery for benign disease. Ovarian cancer screening has been associated with a decrease in stage at detection in most trials, thereby allowing treatment to be initiated when the disease is most curable.Keywords: ovarian cancer, ultrasound, screening, serum Ca-125

  9. The cumulative risk of false-positive screening results across screening centres in the Norwegian Breast Cancer Screening Program

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    Roman, M., E-mail: Marta.Roman@kreftregisteret.no [Cancer Registry of Norway, Oslo (Norway); Department of Women and Children’s Health, Oslo University Hospital, Oslo (Norway); Skaane, P., E-mail: PERSK@ous-hf.no [Department of Radiology, Oslo University Hospital Ullevaal, University of Oslo, Oslo (Norway); Hofvind, S., E-mail: Solveig.Hofvind@kreftregisteret.no [Cancer Registry of Norway, Oslo (Norway); Oslo and Akershus University College of Applied Sciences, Faculty of Health Science, Oslo (Norway)

    2014-09-15

    Highlights: • We found variation in early performance measures across screening centres. • Radiologists’ performance may play a key role in the variability. • Potential to improve the effectiveness of breast cancer screening programs. • Continuous surveillance of screening centres and radiologists is essential. - Abstract: Background: Recall for assessment in mammographic screening entails an inevitable number of false-positive screening results. This study aimed to investigate the variation in the cumulative risk of a false positive screening result and the positive predictive value across the screening centres in the Norwegian Breast Cancer Screening Program. Methods: We studied 618,636 women aged 50–69 years who underwent 2,090,575 screening exams (1996–2010. Recall rate, positive predictive value, rate of screen-detected cancer, and the cumulative risk of a false positive screening result, without and with invasive procedures across the screening centres were calculated. Generalized linear models were used to estimate the probability of a false positive screening result and to compute the cumulative false-positive risk for up to ten biennial screening examinations. Results: The cumulative risk of a false-positive screening exam varied from 10.7% (95% CI: 9.4–12.0%) to 41.5% (95% CI: 34.1–48.9%) across screening centres, with a highest to lowest ratio of 3.9 (95% CI: 3.7–4.0). The highest to lowest ratio for the cumulative risk of undergoing an invasive procedure with a benign outcome was 4.3 (95% CI: 4.0–4.6). The positive predictive value of recall varied between 12.0% (95% CI: 11.0–12.9%) and 19.9% (95% CI: 18.3–21.5%), with a highest to lowest ratio of 1.7 (95% CI: 1.5–1.9). Conclusions: A substantial variation in the performance measures across the screening centres in the Norwegian Breast Cancer Screening Program was identified, despite of similar administration, procedures, and quality assurance requirements. Differences in the

  10. The cumulative risk of false-positive screening results across screening centres in the Norwegian Breast Cancer Screening Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • We found variation in early performance measures across screening centres. • Radiologists’ performance may play a key role in the variability. • Potential to improve the effectiveness of breast cancer screening programs. • Continuous surveillance of screening centres and radiologists is essential. - Abstract: Background: Recall for assessment in mammographic screening entails an inevitable number of false-positive screening results. This study aimed to investigate the variation in the cumulative risk of a false positive screening result and the positive predictive value across the screening centres in the Norwegian Breast Cancer Screening Program. Methods: We studied 618,636 women aged 50–69 years who underwent 2,090,575 screening exams (1996–2010. Recall rate, positive predictive value, rate of screen-detected cancer, and the cumulative risk of a false positive screening result, without and with invasive procedures across the screening centres were calculated. Generalized linear models were used to estimate the probability of a false positive screening result and to compute the cumulative false-positive risk for up to ten biennial screening examinations. Results: The cumulative risk of a false-positive screening exam varied from 10.7% (95% CI: 9.4–12.0%) to 41.5% (95% CI: 34.1–48.9%) across screening centres, with a highest to lowest ratio of 3.9 (95% CI: 3.7–4.0). The highest to lowest ratio for the cumulative risk of undergoing an invasive procedure with a benign outcome was 4.3 (95% CI: 4.0–4.6). The positive predictive value of recall varied between 12.0% (95% CI: 11.0–12.9%) and 19.9% (95% CI: 18.3–21.5%), with a highest to lowest ratio of 1.7 (95% CI: 1.5–1.9). Conclusions: A substantial variation in the performance measures across the screening centres in the Norwegian Breast Cancer Screening Program was identified, despite of similar administration, procedures, and quality assurance requirements. Differences in the

  11. Trust, choice and obligation: a qualitative study of enablers of colorectal cancer screening in South Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Paul R; Coffey, Cushla; Meyer, Samantha

    2015-09-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) has the second highest cancer prevalence and mortality rates in Australia. The Australian National Bowel Cancer Screening Program (NBCSP) aims to increase early detection of CRC by offering free faecal occult blood testing. The NBCSP aims to offer choice to consumers about whether or not to participate in screening. This article presents data on trust, choice and perceived obligation to participate in the NBCSP by population groups with low uptake. A qualitative study was undertaken in South Australia. We interviewed 94 people from four culturally distinct groups: Greek, Iranian, Anglo-Australian and Indigenous peoples. This article demonstrates the complexity of factors shaping the choice, or lack thereof, to participate in the NBCSP. Informed choice is based on adequate knowledge, although this varied among our participants, highlighting the need for more health education in appropriate languages. An obligation to participate was found in the Iranian and Anglo-Australian groups and resulted from an established personal relationship with the doctor, a sense of duty, the acknowledgement of government investment and appreciation. Overall, this article makes a link between trust, choice and obligation, adding to literature on the sociology of trust and medical screening and highlighting important issues in the need of a policy and practice to improve CRC screening rates. PMID:25912247

  12. From state care to self-care: cancer screening behaviours among Russian-speaking Australian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Team, Victoria; Manderson, Lenore H; Markovic, Milica

    2013-01-01

    In this article, we report on a small qualitative scale study with immigrant Russian-speaking Australian women, carers of dependent family members. Drawing on in-depth interviews, we explore women's health-related behaviours, in particular their participation in breast and cervical cancer screening. Differences in preventive health care policies in country of origin and Australia explain their poor participation in cancer screening. Our participants had grown up in the former Soviet Union, where health checks were compulsory but where advice about frequency and timing was the responsibility of doctors. Following migration, women continued to believe that the responsibility for checks was their doctor's, and they maintained that, compared with their experience of preventive medicine in the former Soviet Union, Australian practice was poor. Women argued that if reproductive health screening were important in cancer prevention, then health care providers would take a lead role to ensure that all women participated. Data suggest how women's participation in screening may be improved. PMID:22951044

  13. The benefits and harms of screening for cancer with a focus on breast screening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodersen, John; Juhl Jørgensen, Karsten; Gøtzsche, Peter C.

    2010-01-01

    The balance between benefits and harms is delicate for cancer screening programs. By attending screening with mammography some women will avoid dying from breast cancer or receive less aggressive treatment. But many more women will be overdiagnosed, receive needless treatment, have a false...... recommended. The effects of routine clinical breast examination are unknown, but considering the results of the breast self-examination trials, it is likely that it is harmful. The effects of screening for breast cancer with thermography, ultrasound or magnetic resonance imaging are unknown. It is not clear...

  14. Barriers to cervical cancer screening in Mulanje, Malawi: a qualitative study

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    Victoria K Fort

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Victoria K Fort1, Mary Sue Makin2, Aaron J Siegler1, Kevin Ault3, Roger Rochat11Rollins School of Public Health, Atlanta, Georgia, USA; 2Mulanje Mission Hospital, Mulanje, Malawi; 3Emory University Medical School, Atlanta, Georgia, USABackground: In Malawi, cervical cancer is the most prevalent form of cancer among women, with an 80% mortality rate. The Mulanje Mission Hospital has offered free cervical cancer screening for eight years; however, patients primarily seek medical help for gynecologic complaints after the disease is inoperable.Methods: We investigated how women in rural Malawi make health-seeking decisions regarding cervical cancer screening using qualitative research methods. The study was conducted between May and August of 2009 in Mulanje, Malawi.Results: This study found that the primary cue to action for cervical cancer screening was symptoms of cervical cancer. Major barriers to seeking preventative screening included low knowledge levels, low perceived susceptibility and low perceived benefits from the service. Study participants did not view cervical cancer screening as critical health care. Interviews suggested that use of the service could increase if women are recruited while visiting the hospital for a different service.Conclusion: This study recommends that health care providers and health educators target aspects of perceived susceptibility among their patients, including knowledge levels and personal risk assessment. We believe that continued support and advertisement of cervical cancer screening programs along with innovative recruitment strategies will increase usage density and decrease unnecessary deaths from cervical cancer in Malawi.Keywords: cervical cancer, interviews, health care, Mulanje Mission Hospital

  15. Does screening participation affect cigarette smokers’ decision to quit? A long-horizon panel data analysis

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    Bretteville-Jensen Anne Line

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND - Despite decades of intensive anti-tobacco initiatives, millions of people are still smoking. The health authorities are seeking new tools and extended knowledge. Screening programs may, in addition to the potential health benefits from early detection of smoking related diseases, also increase smoking cessation among participants. This study examines the effect of screening participation by comparing the smokers’ cessation hazard in screening years to nonscreening years. METHODS - All smokers (n=10,471 participated in a three-wave cardiovascular screening and were followed up over a maximum of 14 years. The panel was merged with administrative registers. We used a flexible discrete-time duration model to investigate the effect of the screening program while simultaneously accounting for the possible influence of personal characteristics, addiction indicators, economic factors, health status and health changes. Specifically, we examined and compared long-term smokers (LT; smoked ≥25 years with short-term (ST; smoked ≤ 5 years and medium-term (MT; smoked 10-20 years smokers. RESULTS - We found that 29% of LT smokers quitted smoking during the follow-up whereas 32% of MT and 48% of ST smokers reported the same. The screening participation years stood out as especially important for all groups. The impact of the first screening was particularly high, and for the first two screenings, the effect was higher for long-term smokers than for the smokers with shorter smoking careers. Receiving an abnormal test result was not associated with a significant increase in cessation hazard for any group of smokers. CONCLUSIONS - The substantial effect of being invited to and participating in a screening appears robust, and may prove useful when discussing future policies for smoking cessation. This paper suggests that further initiatives for consultations with health personnel, in this case through a screening program, could increase the

  16. The attitudes of primary care providers towards screening for colorectal cancer

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    Jesús López-Torres Hidalgo

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective: the scientific community supports the appropriateness of colorectal cancer screening, and there is consensus on the need to raise awareness about the significance of prevention among both health care professionals and the population. The goal was to record the attitude of primary care providers towards colorectal cancer screening, as well as the main barriers to both patient and provider participation. Methods: a cross-sectional, observational study was performed of 511 professionals in Albacete Health District. Variables included views on screening effectiveness and cost-effectiveness, acceptance by providers and patients, barriers to participation, frequency of prevention recommendations, and education needs. Results: most (76 % considered screening was effective; 85 % said acceptance of fecal occult blood testing was intermediate or high, and 68.2 % this is also the case for colonoscopy when needed; 71.9 % would recommend screening should a population-based program be implemented (currently only 9.7 % recommends this. Correspondence analysis revealed that recommendation is more common when assigned populations are smaller. Conclusions: most providers consider screening is both effective and acceptable for patients. In today's situation, where screening is only performed in an opportunistic manner, the proportion of professionals who commonly recommend screening for the mid-risk population is low, especially when assigned populations are huge.

  17. Screening study on new tumor marker periplakin for lung cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shuqin Dai; Wei Li; Mian Kong; Yuzhen Zheng; Shuying Chen; Junye Wang; Linquan Zang

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to use lung cancer targeting binding polypeptide ZS-9 to screen cDNA library of human lung cancer and obtain ZS-9 specific ligand to confirm tumor marker of non small-cell lung cancer. Methods: Artificially synthesize biotin labeled peptide ZS-9, anchored ZS-9 in the enzyme label plate coupled by avidin, used ZS-9 as probe to screen cDNA library of human lung cancer, after screening, obtained bacteriophage clone specifically binding with anchored polypeptide ZS-9. Extracted plasmid of bacteriophage and performed sequencing after amplified by PCR. Results: It was demonstrated by bioinformatic analysis on the sequence of ligand binded by lung cancer specific peptide ZS-9 that the ligand was the cytoskeletal protein periplakin on the surface of lung cancer cells, suggesting that periplakin might be a new marker for non-small-cell lung cancer in lung cancer. Conclusion: Use specific lung cancer binding peptide to screen new tumor marker periplakin in lung cancer and further studies on its biologic functions in genesis and development of lung cancer are still needed.

  18. Improving Breast Cancer Outcomes among Women in China: Practices, Knowledge, and Attitudes Related to Breast Cancer Screening

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    Tsu-Yin Wu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Breast cancer is a major public health issue and the most commonly diagnosed cancer for women worldwide. Despite lower incidence rates than those living in Western countries, breast cancer incidence among Chinese women has increased dramatically in the past 20 years. Nevertheless, there is a paucity of studies reporting the attitudes toward and practices of breast cancer screening among Chinese women. Methods. This cross-sectional study examined the practices, knowledge, and attitudes toward breast cancer screening (BCS on a convenience sample of 400 Chinese women. Results. Among study participants, 75% of the women never had a mammogram and the top three barriers reported were low priority, feeling OK, and lack of awareness/knowledge toward breast cancer screening. The results from the logistic regression model showed increased self-efficacy; having performed monthly self-exams, and having had clinical breast exams in the past two years were significant correlates while demographic variables were not correlated with screening behaviors. Conclusion. The findings provide a foundation to better understand beliefs and practices of Chinese women toward BCS and highlight the critical need for general public, health professionals, and the health care system to work collaboratively toward improving the quality of breast cancer care in this population.

  19. Cervical cancer screening in women referred to healthcare centres in Tabriz, Iran

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    Azizeh Farshbaf-Khalili

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cervical cancer is the second most common cancer among Iranian women and among the few cancers that could be easily diagnosed in the pre-malignant stage. We aimed to assess the status of cervical cancer screening in women referred to health care centres in Tabriz, northwest Iran. Materials and Methods: This descriptive-analytical study was done on 441 women referred to health care centres of Tabriz, northwest Iran. The centres were selected using the multi-stage cluster sampling method. The participants were selected from the active records of those centres. A questionnaire regarding the socio-demographic characteristics and cervical cancer screening and reasons for referring or not referring for screening was completed by the participants A P < 0.05 was considered as significant. Results: Out of the participants 49.4% of women had done the Pap smear test while 50.6% had never done this test. The main reason why women had not performed cervical cancer screening was being unaware of the importance of it (46.1%. Logistic regression analysis with adjustment showed a significant relationship between screening and awareness scores (OR = 1.17, CI = 95%:1.12-1.23, when the effect of other confounding factors [total awareness scores, risk factors (marriage or having sexual intercourse at a young age, history of obvious cervical infection, cautery, cryotherapy or repeated curettage, age and type of family planning] in screening was controlled. Conclusion: Suitable and continuous educational programmes especially for high risk women should be implemented through the health care services. Preparing educational brochures and pamphlets and providing adequate training on the necessity of early referral and marriage counseling could also be effective in improving woman′s awareness and performance.

  20. Identifying factors to improve oral cancer screening uptake: a qualitative study.

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    Fatemeh Vida Zohoori

    Full Text Available AIMS: To engage with high risk groups to identify knowledge and awareness of oral cancer signs and symptoms and the factors likely to contribute to improved screening uptake. METHODS: Focus group discussions were undertaken with 18 males; 40+ years of age; smokers and/or drinkers (15+ cigarettes per day and/or 15+ units of alcohol per week, irregular dental attenders living in economically deprived areas of Teesside. RESULTS: There was a striking reported lack of knowledge and awareness of oral cancer and its signs and symptoms among the participants. When oral/mouth cancer leaflets produced by Cancer Research UK were presented to the participants, they claimed that they would seek help on noticing such a condition. There was a preference to seek help from their general practitioner rather than their dentist due to perceptions that a dentist is 'inaccessible' on a physical and psychological level, costly, a 'tooth specialist' not a 'mouth specialist', and also not able to prescribe medication and make referrals to specialists. Interestingly, none of the 18 participants who were offered a free oral cancer examination at a dental practice took up this offer. CONCLUSIONS: The uptake of oral cancer screening may be improved by increasing knowledge of the existence and signs and symptoms of oral cancer. Other factors that may increase uptake are increased awareness of the role of dentists in diagnosing oral cancer, promotion of oral cancer screening by health professionals during routine health checks, and the use of a "health" screening setting as opposed to a "dental" setting for such checks.

  1. Study of mammography in mass screening for breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to examine the rate of correct diagnosis by mammography at initial mass screening for breast cancer, we carried out a retrospective study of mammography findings in 267 cases of breast cancer detected at Asahikawa Cancer Screening Center. The screening was performed by physical examination, and in cases where disease was suspected, mammography, ultrasonography, and needle biopsy were done. Mammographically, 172 cases (64.4%) were cancer-positive, 58 cases (21.7%) were suspicious for cancer, and 37 cases (13.9%) were cancer-negative. Patients below 50 years of age and those with tumors of small diameter (<20 mm) showed a significantly lower rate of cancer positivity than patients aged 50 years or more and those with tumors 20 mm or more in diameter. Mammographic abnormalities were not specific, since these changes were also found in normal subjects and patients with benign diseases. Therefore, we concluded that mammography without physical examination at initial mass screening has a high risk of missing breast cancer. Mass screening for breast cancer should be performed by physical examination involving inspection and palpation at the first instance. If any suspicious findings are obtained, mammography, ultrasonography, and needle biopsy should be done. (author)

  2. Awareness of endometrial cancer risk and compliance with screening in hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ketabi, Zohreh; Mosgaard, Berit J; Gerdes, Anne-Marie; Ladelund, Steen; Bernstein, Inge T

    2012-01-01

    Women with hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC) have a 40-60% lifetime risk for endometrial cancer. Guidelines in Denmark recommend gynecologic screening for female members of families with HNPCC. We estimated the knowledge of endometrial cancer risk and identified possible predictors...... of compliance with the screening among women from families with HNPCC....

  3. Cervical cancer screening: knowledge, health perception and attendance rate among Hong Kong Chinese women

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    Sharron SK Leung

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Sharron SK Leung1, Ivy Leung21School of Nursing, Li Ka Shing Faculty of Medicine, The University of Hong Kong; 2Quality Healthcare Medical Services, Hong KongPurpose: Cervical cancer screening has been consistently shown to be effective in reducing the incidence rate and mortality from cervical cancer. However, cervical screening attendance rates are still far from satisfactory in many countries. Strategies, health promotion and education programs need to be developed with clear evidence of the causes and factors relating to the low attendance rate. The study aims to assess the prediction of cervical screening attendance rate by Chinese women’s knowledge about cervical cancer and cervical screening as well as their perception of health.Patients and methods: A survey with self-reported questionnaires was conducted on 385 Chinese women recruited from a community clinic in Hong Kong. Participants were Chinese women, Hong Kong residents, aged 18–65 years, able to read Chinese or English, and were not pregnant.Results: Women aged 37 years or less, with at least tertiary education, who perceived having control over their own health and had better knowledge on risk factors, were more likely to attend cervical cancer screening. Many participants had adequate general knowledge but were unable to identify correct answers on the risk factors.Conclusion: Health promotion efforts need to focus on increasing women’s knowledge on risk factors and enhancing their perceived health control by providing more information on the link between screening and early detection with lower incidence rates and mortality from cervical cancer.Keywords: cervical screening attendance, cervical cancer, health perception and knowledge, perceived health control, Chinese

  4. Lung Cancer Screening: The Radiologist's Perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prokop, M.

    2014-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death worldwide and accounts for more deaths than breast, prostate, colon, and pancreatic cancers combined. A distinct minority (15\\%) of lung cancers are diagnosed at an early stage; 5-year survival (all lung cancers) approximates 15\\%. Randomized, control

  5. Skin cancer screening in Okinawa, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagano, T; Ueda, M; Suzuki, T; Naruse, K; Nakamura, T; Taguchi, M; Araki, K; Nakagawa, K; Nagai, H; Hayashi, K; Watanabe, S; Ichihashi, M

    1999-04-01

    Depletion of the ozone layer has been observed on a global scale. Ozone depletion increases the amount of biologically harmful solar ultraviolet radiation (UV) that reaches the surface of the Earth, leading to an increased incidence of skin cancer. We previously reported the prevalence and incidence of actinic keratosis (AK) in Kasai City, which is located almost at the center of Japan. To evaluate the effects of different ambient annual UV doses on the prevalence and incidence of non-melanoma skin cancer and AK in Japan, we screened for skin cancer on Ie Island in Okinawa at the southern end of Japan, where the annual cumulative dose of UV is assumed to be the highest in Japan. The island had a population of 5562 in 1993. A prospective 4-year population-based study on the prevalence and incidence of cutaneous neoplasms was conducted by examining the sun-exposed skin of people over 40 years of age living on Ie Island. In 1993 1996, 86 cases of AK, nine of basal cell carcinoma (BCC), and two of squamous cell carcinoma were identified. The annual prevalence of AK on Ie Island was 1159.4 in 1993, 572.8 in 1994, 1014.3 in 1995 and 988.9 per 100000 Japanese in 1996. These values were significantly higher than those in Kasai City. The annual age-adjusted odds ratios for AK of Ie Island to Kasai City were 2.79, 1.38, 2.45 and 2.39, respectively. The incidences of AK on Ie Island per 100,000 were 637.0 in 1995 and 625.5 in 1996, which were also significantly higher than those in Kasai City (223.6 in 1993 and 171.2 in 1994). The prevalence of BCC was 123.6 and the incidence was 26.1. Together with our previous reports, the present results show a possible inverse relationship between the prevalence and incidence of AK and latitude among Japanese people. PMID:10215187

  6. First epidemiological analysis of breast cancer incidence and tumor characteristics after implementation of population-based digital mammography screening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: to epidemiologically evaluate the impact of digital mammography screening on incidence rates and tumor characteristics for breast cancer. Materials and methods: the first German digital screening units in the clinical routine were evaluated during the implementation period by using data from the cancer registry to compare the incidence rate of breast cancers and prognostic characteristics. 74% of women aged 50-69 within the region of Muenster/Coesfeld/Warendorf were invited between 10/2005 and 12/2007 for initial screening; 55% participated (n = 35961). Results: in 2002-2004 the average breast cancer incidence rate (per 100000) was 297.9. During the implementation of screening, the rate rose to 532.9 in 2007. Of the 349 cancers detected with screening, 76% (265/349) were invasive compared to 90% (546/608) of cases not detected with screening during the same period. 37% (97/265) of cancers detected in the screening program had a diameter of ≤ 10 mm and 75% (198/265) were node-negative compared to 15% (79/546) and 64% (322/503), respectively, in cancers detected outside the screening program. The distribution of invasive tumor size (pT categories) and the nodal status differed with statistical significance between cancers detected in and outside the program (p = 0.005 and p = 0.004, respectively). (orig.)

  7. Are the correlates of sport participation similar to those of screen time?

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    Mark S. Allen

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: Our findings show that demographic, socioeconomic and environmental factors measured at age 4 predict sport participation and screen time at age 12, and that the correlates of childhood sport participation and childhood sedentary behavior may be more similar than previously estimated.

  8. Screening for colorectal cancer: possible improvements by risk assessment evaluation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Hans J; Jakobsen, Karen V; Christensen, Ib J; Brünner, Nils

    2011-11-01

    Emerging results indicate that screening improves survival of patients with colorectal cancer. Therefore, screening programs are already implemented or are being considered for implementation in Asia, Europe and North America. At present, a great variety of screening methods are available including colono- and sigmoidoscopy, CT- and MR-colonography, capsule endoscopy, DNA and occult blood in feces, and so on. The pros and cons of the various tests, including economic issues, are debated. Although a plethora of evaluated and validated tests even with high specificities and reasonable sensitivities are available, an international consensus on screening procedures is still not established. The rather limited compliance in present screening procedures is a significant drawback. Furthermore, some of the procedures are costly and, therefore, selection methods for these procedures are needed. Current research into improvements of screening for colorectal cancer includes blood-based biological markers, such as proteins, DNA and RNA in combination with various demographically and clinically parameters into a "risk assessment evaluation" (RAE) test. It is assumed that such a test may lead to higher acceptance among the screening populations, and thereby improve the compliances. Furthermore, the involvement of the media, including social media, may add even more individuals to the screening programs. Implementation of validated RAE and progressively improved screening methods may reform the cost/benefit of screening procedures for colorectal cancer. Therefore, results of present research, validating RAE tests, are awaited with interest. PMID:21854094

  9. Access to Cancer Screening in People with Learning Disabilities in the UK: Cohort Study in the Health Improvement Network, a Primary Care Research Database

    OpenAIRE

    Osborn, D. P.; Horsfall, L.; Hassiotis, A.; Petersen, I.; Walters, K; Nazareth, I

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To assess whether people with learning disability in the UK have poorer access to cancer screening. Design Four cohort studies comparing people with and without learning disability, within the recommended age ranges for cancer screening in the UK. We used Poisson regression to determine relative incidence rates of cancer screening. Setting The Health Improvement Network, a UK primary care database with over 450 General practices. Participants Individuals with a...

  10. Implementation of population screening for colorectal cancer by repeated Fecal Immunochemical Test (FIT: third round

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    Stegeman Inge

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Colorectal cancer (CRC is the most common cancer in Europe with a mortality rate of almost 50%. The prognosis of patients is largely determined by the clinical and pathological stage at the time of diagnosis. Population screening has been shown to reduce CRC-related mortality rate. Most screening programs worldwide rely on fecal immunochemical testing (FIT. The effectiveness of a FIT screening program is not only influenced by initial participation rate, but also by program adherence during consecutive screening rounds. We aim to evaluate the participation rate in and yield of a third CRC screening round using FIT. Methods and design Four years after the first screening round and two years after the second round, a total number of approximately 11,000 average risk individuals (50 to 75 years of age will be invited to participate in a third round of FIT-based CRC screening. We will select individuals in the same target area as in the previous screening rounds, using the electronic database of the regional municipal administration registrations. We will invite all FIT-negatives and all non-participants in previous screening rounds, as well as eligible first time invitees who have moved into the area or have become 50 years of age. FITs will be analyzed in the special technique laboratory of the Academic Medical Center of the University of Amsterdam. All FIT-positives will be invited for a consultation at the outpatient clinic. In the absence of contra-indications, a colonoscopy will follow at the Academic Medical Center or at the Flevohospital. The primary outcome measures are the participation rate, defined as the proportion of invitees that return a FIT in this third round of FIT-screening, and the diagnostic yield of the program. Implications This study will provide precise data on the participation in later FIT screening rounds. This enables to estimate the effectiveness of CRC screening programs that rely on repeated

  11. Reasons why patients fail screening in Indian breast cancer trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Mahajan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: An increased number of screen failure patients in a clinical trial increases time and cost required for the recruitment. Assessment of reasons for screen failure can help reduce screen failure rates and improve recruitment. Materials and Methods: We collected retrospective data of human epidermal growth factor receptor (HER2 positive Indian breast cancer patients, who failed screening for phase 3 clinical trials and ascertained their reasons for screen failure from screening logs. Statistical comparison was done to ascertain if there are any differences between private and public sites. Results: Of 727 patients screened at 14 sites, 408 (56.1% failed screening. The data on the specific reasons for screen failures was not available at one of the public sites (38 screen failures out of 83 screened patients. Hence, after excluding that site, further analysis is based on 644 patients, of which 370 failed screening. Of these, 296 (80% screen failure patients did not meet selection criteria. The majority -266 were HER2 negative. Among logistical issues, 39 patients had inadequate breast tissue sample. Sixteen patients withdrew their consent at private sites as compared to six at public sites. The difference between private and public sites for the above three reasons was statistically significant. Conclusion: Use of prescreening logs to reduce the number of patients not meeting selection criteria and protocol logistics, and patient counseling to reduce consent withdrawals could be used to reduce screen failure rate.

  12. 4690例无症状健康体检者低剂量CT早期肺癌筛查研究%Results of low-dose computed tomography (LDCT)screening for early lung cancer: prevalence in 4 690 asymptomatic participants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐威; 吴宁; 黄遥; 王建卫; 赵世俊; 徐志坚; 张凯; 姜勇; 蔡强

    2014-01-01

    Objective To report the results of low-dose computed tomography (LDCT) screening for early lung cancer in 4 690 asymptomatic participants at the Cancer Hospital,Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences between July 2007 and June 2012.Methods After informed consent and questionnaire forms were obtained,4 690 asymptomatic participants ≥ 40 years underwent chest low dose spiral CT scanning.According to the National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) guideline for lung cancer screening (version 1.1,2012),all participants were assigned to three groups,namely high-risk,moderaterisk and low-risk groups.In terms of gender,smoking history and second-hand tobacco smoking exposure history,two other groups named male and female never-smoker groups who were exposed to second-hand tobacco smoking were designated.The positive results were identified as at least one solid or part-solid nodule measuring ≥5 mm,or non-solid nodule ≥8 mm in diameter.LDCT scanning protocol,criteria of management according to the size and consistency of pulmonary nodules were compliant with the International Early Lung Cancer Active Program (I-ELCAP).TNM staging of all lung cancers were based on the clinical evidence and pathological findings.Results In various risk status group of the participants,the percentage of positive results of baseline CT were 27.0% (86/319),19.3 % (199/1 029) and 11.3 % (377/3 342),respectively.A total of 26 participants (27 lesions) were diagnosed as lung cancer (11 in men,15 in women).The detection rate of lung cancer was 0.6% (26/4 690).Besides a SCLC (limited-disease,LD),25 cases (76.0%) were stage Ⅰ including 24 NSCLC and one cacinoid on baseline LDCT and the surgical resection rate was 88.5% (23/26).The diameter of resected cancers was 6.9-29.5 mm (median,16.3 mm).For female never smokers aged 40 years or older who were exposed to second-hand smoking,the detection rate of lung cancer was higher than that of the high-risk and male never smokers who were

  13. Are the correlates of sport participation similar to those of screen time?

    OpenAIRE

    Allen, Mark S; Vella, Stewart A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To explore longitudinal and cross-sectional correlates of sport participation and screen time in a nationally representative sample of Australian children. Methods: The sample included 3956 child participants taken from the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children. Data were collected in 2004 (age range = 4–5 years) and 2012 (age range = 12–13 years) and included parental estimates of sport participation and total screen time (electronic gaming and television viewing) in additi...

  14. Grantee Spotlight: Dr. Kolawole Okuyemi - Improving Cervical Cancer Screening Attitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dr. Kolawole Okuyumi is studying cervical cancer screening attitudes and behaviors of African immigrants and refugees in Minnesota, and introducing “cancer” and “cervix” to their everyday vocabulary.

  15. Low adherence to cervical cancer screening after subtotal hysterectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lea Laird; Møller, Lars Mikael Alling; Gimbel, Helga Margrethe

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: A reason for not recommending subtotal hysterectomy is the risk of cervical pathology. We aimed to evaluate cervical cancer screening and to describe cervical pathology after subtotal and total hysterectomy for benign indications. METHODS: Data regarding adherence to screening.......7% were not screened. We found a minimum of one abnormal test in 28 (10.8%) after subtotal hysterectomy and one after total hysterectomy. No cervical cancers were found. CONCLUSIONS: Adherence to cervical cancer screening after subtotal hysterectomy in a Danish population is suboptimal and some patients...... have unnecessary tests performed after total hysterectomy. Clarification of the use of cervical/vaginal smears after hysterectomy is needed to identify women at risk of cervical dysplasia or cancer. FUNDING: Research Foundation of Region Zealand, University of Southern Denmark, Nykøbing Falster...

  16. Increasing uptake of colorectal cancer screening in Korea: a population-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oh Jae

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Colorectal cancer (CRC screening rates are low in most Asian countries and remain largely unknown. This study examined trends in CRC screening rates after the introduction of the Korean National Cancer Screening Programme (NCSP and determined the factors associated with uptake of CRC screening by test modality over time. Methods An annual population-based survey conducted through nationally representative random sampling from 2005-2008. In total, 3,699 participants from the 2005-2008 surveys were selected as study subjects. Face-to-face interviews were performed to assess the utilization rate of CRC screening by each screening modality. Results Overall, CRC screening within the recommended time interval increased significantly from 22.9% in 2005 to 36.6% in 2008 (p p Conclusions This study revealed a substantial increase in up-to-date CRC screening in the general population from 2005 to 2008. However, more than half of adults in Korea are still not up-to-date with their CRC tests. It will be important to continue to investigate factors associated with up-to-date CRC screening by each modality.

  17. Family Support and Colorectal Cancer Screening among Urban African Americans

    OpenAIRE

    Brittain, Kelly; Taylor, Jacquelyn Y.; Loveland-Cherry, Carol; Northouse, Laurel; Caldwell, Cleopatra H.

    2012-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third leading cause of cancer death among African Americans. Less than 50% of African Americans have had CRC screening. This study examined the relationships between family support and influence, cultural identity, CRC beliefs, and a screening informed decision among 129 urban African Americans. Family support (p < .01) significantly predicted CRC beliefs and CRC beliefs significantly predicted informed decision (p < .01). Based on study results, practitioners s...

  18. New Molecular Tools for Efficient Screening of Cervical Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Magnus von Knebel Doeberitz

    2001-01-01

    Cytological screening using the Pap-smear led to a remarkable reduction of the mortality of cervical cancer. However, due to subjective test criteria it is hampered by poor inter- and intra-observer agreement. More reproducible assays are expected to improve the current screening and avoid unnecessary medical intervention and psychological distress for the affected women. Cervical cancer arises as consequence of persistent high risk papillomavirus (HR-HPV) infections. Expression of two viral ...

  19. Socioeconomic Disparities across Ethnicities: An Application to Cervical Cancer Screening

    OpenAIRE

    Walsh, B.; O'Neill, C

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Our aim is to investigate socioeconomic disparities in cervical cancer screening utilization among and between ethnic groups in the United States. Study Design: Observational study. Methods: Data on 26,338 women aged 21 to 64 years were obtained from the 2007 to 2011 years of the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey. Data on cervical cancer screening utilization in the preceding 12 months and 3 years, and a range of sociodemographic characteristics were included. Analyses were...

  20. Colorectal cancer screening with odour material by canine scent detection

    OpenAIRE

    Sonoda, Hideto; Kohnoe, Shunji; Yamazato, Tetsuro; Satoh, Yuji; Morizono, Gouki; Shikata, Kentaro; Morita, Makoto; Watanabe, Akihiro; Morita, Masaru; Kakeji, Yoshihiro; Inoue, Fumio; Maehara, Yoshihiko

    2011-01-01

    Objective Early detection and early treatment are of vital importance to the successful treatment of various cancers. The development of a novel screening method that is as economical and non-invasive as the faecal occult blood test (FOBT) for early detection of colorectal cancer (CRC) is needed. A study was undertaken using canine scent detection to determine whether odour material can become an effective tool in CRC screening. Design Exhaled breath and watery stool samples were obtained fro...

  1. [How to assess and reduce social inequalities in cancer screening programmes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binefa, Gemma; García, Montse; Peiró, Rosana; Molina-Barceló, Ana; Ibáñez, Raquel

    2016-01-01

    This field note presents the conclusions and recommendations made at the meeting 'How to reduce social inequalities in cancer screening programmes?' held at the XXVI School of Public Health of Mahon (Menorca, Spain). Participants developed recommendations based on experiences of population-based screening programmes (breast and colorectal) and opportunistic screening (cervical). The conclusions and recommendations focused on four main areas (information systems, evaluation and quality, research, and interventions): the inclusion of social variables at an individual level in health information systems; the establishment of minimum standards for gathering information regarding inequalities in access to preventive services; the performance of actions in vulnerable populations; and the promotion of the exchange of experiences and best practices through the Cancer Screening Programmes Network and working groups of the scientific societies. PMID:26920750

  2. Strategies for Increasing Cervical Cancer Screening Amongst First Nations Communities in Northwest Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maar, Marion; Wakewich, Pamela; Wood, Brianne; Severini, Alberto; Little, Julian; Burchell, Ann N; Ogilvie, Gina; Zehbe, Ingeborg

    2016-04-01

    The high burden of cervical cancer in Indigenous populations worldwide is due to underscreening and inadequate follow-up. Using qualitative, participatory action research, we interviewed health care staff to identify ways to increase screening recruitment in First Nations communities in Northwest Ontario, Canada. Our findings suggest the value of a multilevel social-ecological model to promote behavioral changes at the community, health care service and stakeholder, and decision-maker level. Participants emphasized the central role of First Nations women as nurturers of life and for the well-being of their family members. They stressed the importance of building awareness and motivation for cervical cancer screening through various activities including continuous education, hosting screening events specifically for women, improving the attitude and service of health care providers, and promoting screening tools and policies that complement and are respectful of First Nations women. PMID:25375661

  3. Resource Utilization and Costs during the Initial Years of Lung Cancer Screening with Computed Tomography in Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Stephen; Tammemagi, Martin C.; Evans, William K.; Leighl, Natasha B.; Regier, Dean A.; Bolbocean, Corneliu; Shepherd, Frances A.; Tsao, Ming-Sound; Manos, Daria; Liu, Geoffrey; Atkar-Khattra, Sukhinder; Cromwell, Ian; Johnston, Michael R.; Mayo, John R.; McWilliams, Annette; Couture, Christian; English, John C.; Goffin, John; Hwang, David M.; Puksa, Serge; Roberts, Heidi; Tremblay, Alain; MacEachern, Paul; Burrowes, Paul; Bhatia, Rick; Finley, Richard J.; Goss, Glenwood D.; Nicholas, Garth; Seely, Jean M.; Sekhon, Harmanjatinder S.; Yee, John; Amjadi, Kayvan; Cutz, Jean-Claude; Ionescu, Diana N.; Yasufuku, Kazuhiro; Martel, Simon; Soghrati, Kamyar; Sin, Don D.; Tan, Wan C.; Urbanski, Stefan; Xu, Zhaolin; Peacock, Stuart J.

    2014-01-01

    Background: It is estimated that millions of North Americans would qualify for lung cancer screening and that billions of dollars of national health expenditures would be required to support population-based computed tomography lung cancer screening programs. The decision to implement such programs should be informed by data on resource utilization and costs. Methods: Resource utilization data were collected prospectively from 2059 participants in the Pan-Canadian Early Detection of Lung Cancer Study using low-dose computed tomography (LDCT). Participants who had 2% or greater lung cancer risk over 3 years using a risk prediction tool were recruited from seven major cities across Canada. A cost analysis was conducted from the Canadian public payer’s perspective for resources that were used for the screening and treatment of lung cancer in the initial years of the study. Results: The average per-person cost for screening individuals with LDCT was $453 (95% confidence interval [CI], $400–$505) for the initial 18-months of screening following a baseline scan. The screening costs were highly dependent on the detected lung nodule size, presence of cancer, screening intervention, and the screening center. The mean per-person cost of treating lung cancer with curative surgery was $33,344 (95% CI, $31,553–$34,935) over 2 years. This was lower than the cost of treating advanced-stage lung cancer with chemotherapy, radiotherapy, or supportive care alone, ($47,792; 95% CI, $43,254–$52,200; p = 0.061). Conclusion: In the Pan-Canadian study, the average cost to screen individuals with a high risk for developing lung cancer using LDCT and the average initial cost of curative intent treatment were lower than the average per-person cost of treating advanced stage lung cancer which infrequently results in a cure. PMID:25105438

  4. Environmental scan of anal cancer screening practices: worldwide survey results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anal squamous cell carcinoma is rare in the general population but certain populations, such as persons with HIV, are at increased risk. High-risk populations can be screened for anal cancer using strategies similar to those used for cervical cancer. However, little is known about the use of such screening practices across jurisdictions. Data were collected using an online survey. Health care professionals currently providing anal cancer screening services were invited to complete the survey via email and/or fax. Information was collected on populations screened, services and treatments offered, and personnel. Over 300 invitations were sent; 82 providers from 80 clinics around the world completed the survey. Fourteen clinics have each examined more than 1000 patients. Over a third of clinics do not restrict access to screening; in the rest, eligibility is most commonly based on HIV status and abnormal anal cytology results. Fifty-three percent of clinics require abnormal anal cytology prior to performing high-resolution anoscopy (HRA) in asymptomatic patients. Almost all clinics offer both anal cytology and HRA. Internal high-grade anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN) is most often treated with infrared coagulation (61%), whereas external high-grade AIN is most commonly treated with imiquimod (49%). Most procedures are performed by physicians, followed by nurse practitioners. Our study is the first description of global anal cancer screening practices. Our findings may be used to inform practice and health policy in jurisdictions considering anal cancer screening

  5. Environmental scan of anal cancer screening practices: worldwide survey results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Jigisha; Salit, Irving E; Berry, Michael J; de Pokomandy, Alexandra; Nathan, Mayura; Fishman, Fred; Palefsky, Joel; Tinmouth, Jill

    2014-08-01

    Anal squamous cell carcinoma is rare in the general population but certain populations, such as persons with HIV, are at increased risk. High-risk populations can be screened for anal cancer using strategies similar to those used for cervical cancer. However, little is known about the use of such screening practices across jurisdictions. Data were collected using an online survey. Health care professionals currently providing anal cancer screening services were invited to complete the survey via email and/or fax. Information was collected on populations screened, services and treatments offered, and personnel. Over 300 invitations were sent; 82 providers from 80 clinics around the world completed the survey. Fourteen clinics have each examined more than 1000 patients. Over a third of clinics do not restrict access to screening; in the rest, eligibility is most commonly based on HIV status and abnormal anal cytology results. Fifty-three percent of clinics require abnormal anal cytology prior to performing high-resolution anoscopy (HRA) in asymptomatic patients. Almost all clinics offer both anal cytology and HRA. Internal high-grade anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN) is most often treated with infrared coagulation (61%), whereas external high-grade AIN is most commonly treated with imiquimod (49%). Most procedures are performed by physicians, followed by nurse practitioners. Our study is the first description of global anal cancer screening practices. Our findings may be used to inform practice and health policy in jurisdictions considering anal cancer screening. PMID:24740973

  6. Korean Guidelines for Colorectal Cancer Screening and Polyp Detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Bo In [The Catholic University of Korea College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Hong, Sung Pil [Yensei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Seong Eun [Ewha Womans University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-04-15

    Colorectal cancer is currently the second most common cancer among Korean males and the fourth most common among females. Since the majority of colorectal cancer case present following the prolonged transformation of adenomas into carcinomas, early detection and removal of colorectal adenomas are vital methods in its prevention. Considering the increasing incidence of colorectal cancer and polyps in Korea, it is very important to establish national guidelines for colorectal cancer screening and polyp detection. The proposed guidelines have been developed by the Korean Multi-Society Task Force using evidence-based methods. Systematic reviews and meta-analyses have been used to form the statements contained in the guidelines. This paper discusses the epidemiology of colorectal cancers and adenomas in Korea as well as optimal methods for screening of colorectal cancer and detection of adenomas including fecal occult blood tests, radiologic tests, and endoscopic examinations.

  7. Korean Guidelines for Colorectal Cancer Screening and Polyp Detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colorectal cancer is currently the second most common cancer among Korean males and the fourth most common among females. Since the majority of colorectal cancer case present following the prolonged transformation of adenomas into carcinomas, early detection and removal of colorectal adenomas are vital methods in its prevention. Considering the increasing incidence of colorectal cancer and polyps in Korea, it is very important to establish national guidelines for colorectal cancer screening and polyp detection. The proposed guidelines have been developed by the Korean Multi-Society Task Force using evidence-based methods. Systematic reviews and meta-analyses have been used to form the statements contained in the guidelines. This paper discusses the epidemiology of colorectal cancers and adenomas in Korea as well as optimal methods for screening of colorectal cancer and detection of adenomas including fecal occult blood tests, radiologic tests, and endoscopic examinations.

  8. Value of audits in breast cancer screening quality assurance programmes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geertse, Tanya D.; Holland, Roland; Timmers, Janine M. H.; Paap, Ellen; Pijnappel, Ruud M.; Broeders, Mireille J. M.; den Heeten, Gerard J.

    2015-01-01

    Our aim was to retrospectively evaluate the results of all audits performed in the past and to assess their value in the quality assurance of the Dutch breast cancer screening programme. The audit team of the Dutch Reference Centre for Screening (LRCB) conducts triennial audits of all 17 reading uni

  9. Prospects for population screening and diagnosis of lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Field, John K; Oudkerk, Matthijs; Pedersen, Jesper Holst;

    2013-01-01

    Deaths from lung cancer exceed those from any other type of malignancy, with 1·5 million deaths in 2010. Prevention and smoking cessation are still the main methods to reduce the death toll. The US National Lung Screening Trial, which compared CT screening with chest radiograph, yielded a mortality...

  10. A Social Marketing Approach To Increasing Breast Cancer Screening Rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Carol A.; Forthofer, Melinda S.; McCormack Brown, Kelli; Alfonso, Moya Lynn; Quinn, Gwen

    2000-01-01

    Used social marketing to identify factors influencing women's breast cancer screening behaviors. Data from focus groups and interviews with diverse women highlighted women's attitudes, knowledge, and barriers regarding screening. Results were used to develop a comprehensive social marketing plan to motivate irregular users of breast cancer…

  11. Attitudes of women about breast cancer and cervical cancern screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ilknur Aydin Avci

    2015-06-01

    Conclusion: This research revealed that the women had moderate knowlege about breast and cervical cancer screening and artcipation in screening is low. Beside, the women who had BSE and mammography had more PAP smear. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2015; 14(3.000: 235-239

  12. Resource Utilization and Costs during the Initial Years of Lung Cancer Screening with Computed Tomography in Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Cressman, Sonya; Lam, Stephen; Tammemagi, Martin C.; Evans, William K.; Leighl, Natasha B.; Regier, Dean A; Bolbocean, Corneliu; Shepherd, Frances A.; Tsao, Ming-Sound; Manos, Daria; Liu, Geoffrey; Atkar-Khattra, Sukhinder; Cromwell, Ian; Johnston, Michael R.; Mayo, John R

    2014-01-01

    Background: It is estimated that millions of North Americans would qualify for lung cancer screening and that billions of dollars of national health expenditures would be required to support population-based computed tomography lung cancer screening programs. The decision to implement such programs should be informed by data on resource utilization and costs. Methods: Resource utilization data were collected prospectively from 2059 participants in the Pan-Canadian Early Detection of Lung Canc...

  13. Adapting the Australian system: is an organized screening program feasible in Malaysia?--an overview of cervical cancer screening in both countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashid, Rima Ma; Dahlui, Maznah; Mohamed, Majdah; Gertig, Dorota

    2013-01-01

    Cervical cancer is the third most common form of cancer that strikes Malaysian women. The National Cancer Registry in 2006 and 2007 reported that the age standardized incidence (ASR) of cervical cancer was 12.2 and 7.8 per 100,000 women, respectively. The cumulative risk of developing cervical cancer for a Malaysian woman is 0.9 for 74 years. Among all ethnic groups, the Chinese experienced the highest incidence rate in 2006, followed by Indians and Malays. The percentage cervical cancer detected at stage I and II was 55% (stage I: 21.0%, stage II: 34.0%, stage III: 26.0% and stage IV: 19.0%). Data from Ministry of Health Malaysia (2006) showed a 58.9% estimated coverage of pap smear screening conducted among those aged 30-49 years. Only a small percentage of women aged 50-59 and 50-65 years old were screened, 14% and 13.8% coverage, respectively. Incidence of cervical cancer was highest (71.6%) among those in the 60-65 age group (MOH, 2003). Currently, there is no organized population-based screening program available for the whole of Malaysia. A pilot project was initiated in 2006, to move from opportunistic cervical screening of women who attend antenatal and postnatal visits to a population based approach to be able to monitor the women through the screening pathway and encourage women at highest risk to be screened. The project was modelled on the screening program in Australia with some modifications to suit the Malaysian setting. Substantial challenges have been identified, particularly in relation to information systems for call and recall of women, as well as laboratory reporting and quality assurance. A cost-effective locally-specific approach to organized screening, that will provide the infrastructure for increasing participation in the cervical cancer screening program, is urgently required. PMID:23679334

  14. Lung cancer screening: history, current perspectives, and future directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Divakar; Newman, Thomas G.

    2015-01-01

    Lung cancer has remained the leading cause of death worldwide among all cancers. The dismal 5-year survival rate of 16% is in part due to the lack of symptoms during early stages and lack of an effective screening test until recently. Chest X-ray and sputum cytology were studied extensively as potential screening tests for lung cancer and were conclusively proven to be of no value. Subsequently, a number of studies compared computed tomography (CT) with the chest X-ray. These studies did identify lung cancer in earlier stages. However, they were not designed to prove a reduction in mortality. Later trials have focused on low-dose CT (LDCT) as a screening tool. The largest US trial – the National Lung Screening Trial (NLST) – enrolled approximately 54,000 patients and revealed a 20% reduction in mortality. While a role for LDCT in lung cancer screening has been established, the issues of high false positive rates, radiation risk, and cost effectiveness still need to be addressed. The guidelines of the international organizations that now include LDCT in lung cancer screening are reviewed. Other methods that may improve earlier detection such as positron emission tomography, autofluorescence bronchoscopy, and molecular biomarkers are also discussed. PMID:26528348

  15. Analysis of previous screening examinations for patients with breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We wanted to improve the quality of subsequent screening by reviewing the previous screening of breast cancer patients. Twenty-four breast cancer patients who underwent previous screening were enrolled. All 24 took mammograms and 15 patients also took sonograms. We reviewed the screening retrospectively according to the BI-RADS criteria and we categorized the results into false negative, true negative, true positive and occult cancers. We also categorized the causes of false negative cancers into misperception, misinterpretation and technical factors and then we analyzed the attributing factors. Review of the previous screening revealed 66.7% (16/24) false negative, 25.0% (6/24) true negative, and 8.3% (2/24) true positive cancers. False negative cancers were caused by the mammogram in 56.3% (9/16) and by the sonogram in 43.7% (7/16). For the false negative cases, all of misperception were related with mammograms and this was attributed to dense breast, a lesion located at the edge of glandular tissue or the image, and findings seen on one view only. Almost all misinterpretations were related with sonograms and attributed to loose application of the final assessment. To improve the quality of breast screening, it is essential to overcome the main causes of false negative examinations, including misperception and misinterpretation. We need systematic education and strict application of final assessment categories of BI-RADS. For effective communication among physicians, it is also necessary to properly educate them about BI-RADS

  16. Secondary solid cancer screening following hematopoietic cell transplantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inamoto, Y; Shah, NN; Savani, BN; Shaw, BE; Abraham, AA; Ahmed, IA; Akpek, G; Atsuta, Y; Baker, KS; Basak, GW; Bitan, M; DeFilipp, Z; Gregory, TK; Greinix, HT; Hamadani, M; Hamilton, BK; Hayashi, RJ; Jacobsohn, DA; Kamble, RT; Kasow, KA; Khera, N; Lazarus, HM; Malone, AK; Lupo-Stanghellini, MT; Margossian, SP; Muffly, LS; Norkin, M; Ramanathan, M; Salooja, N; Schoemans, H; Wingard, JR; Wirk, B; Wood, WA; Yong, A; Duncan, CN; Flowers, MED; Majhail, NS

    2016-01-01

    Hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HCT) recipients have a substantial risk of developing secondary solid cancers, particularly beyond 5 years after HCT and without reaching a plateau overtime. A working group was established through the Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research and the European Group for Blood and Marrow Transplantation with the goal to facilitate implementation of cancer screening appropriate to HCT recipients. The working group reviewed guidelines and methods for cancer screening applicable to the general population and reviewed the incidence and risk factors for secondary cancers after HCT. A consensus approach was used to establish recommendations for individual secondary cancers. The most common sites include oral cavity, skin, breast and thyroid. Risks of cancers are increased after HCT compared with the general population in skin, thyroid, oral cavity, esophagus, liver, nervous system, bone and connective tissues. Myeloablative TBI, young age at HCT, chronic GVHD and prolonged immunosuppressive treatment beyond 24 months were well-documented risk factors for many types of secondary cancers. All HCT recipients should be advised of the risks of secondary cancers annually and encouraged to undergo recommended screening based on their predisposition. Here we propose guidelines to help clinicians in providing screening and preventive care for secondary cancers among HCT recipients. PMID:25822223

  17. Testing the Feasibility of a Culturally Tailored Breast Cancer Screening Intervention with Native Hawaiian Women in Rural Churches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ka'opua, Lana Sue I.; Park, Soon H.; Ward, Margaret E.; Braun, Kathryn L.

    2011-01-01

    The authors report on the feasibility of delivering a church-based breast cancer screening intervention tailored on the cultural strengths of rural-dwelling Hawaiians. Native Hawaiian women are burdened by disproportionately high mortality from breast cancer, which is attributed to low participation in routine mammography. Mammography is proven to…

  18. Screening in breast cancer: a view from the front line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mammography screning presents the only real breakthrough in breast cancer in this century. Twenty-five percent of all cancer in women is breast cancer. About 50 percent of these women die from their disease. It has not been possible to reduce breast cancer mortality more than marginally by any mode of treatment. Single view mammography screening can do so, however, at the rate of 30 to 40 percent. Screening has many detractors, especially in the treatment camp. These detractors do not always act in the patients' best interests. Considering the vast resources used up until now in trying to improve on breast cancer treatment, and to little avail, it is time to divert some of these efforts to set up screening programmes wherever possible. Well handled, these are able to reduce suffering and health care costs and save lines

  19. Development of computer aided diagnosis for lung cancer CT screening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The introduction of low dose lung cancer helical CT screening to the clinical site has been the fundamental basis of research on Computer Aided Diagnosis (CAD) using thoracic CT images. Our purpose is the early detection of lung cancer leading to its early treatment, in order to reduce the mortality of lung cancer. From multi-slice CT, lung cancer screening has been activated more. Since CT screening contains a lot of images compared with the conventional X-ray, research and development on the utilization of computer and network using the new diagnosis support technology is required. Due to the demand from actual clinical site, the research group from The University of Tokushima has started the research and development of CAD using lung cancer CT images. We report the result and the future works. (author)

  20. Functional health literacy in Spanish-speaking Latinas seeking breast cancer screening through the National Breast and Cervical Cancer Screening Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha Garbers

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Samantha Garbers1, Karen Schmitt2, Anne Marie Rappa2, Mary Ann Chiasson11Public Health Solutions, New York, NY, USA; 2Columbia University Breast Cancer Screening Program, New York, NY, USABackground: This analysis examines the association between functional health literacy and follow-up after mammography among women receiving breast cancer screening at a National Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Program site in New York City that provides universal bilingual case management.Methods: A total of 707 Latinas who spoke Spanish as their primary language completed a survey of health and demographic characteristics and the Test of Functional Health Literacy in Spanish (TOFHLA-S. Survey results were matched with clinical outcome data.Results: Among the survey participants, 98% were foreign-born and 99% had no health insurance. While the study found significant differences in access to health information and past screening behavior, women without adequate health literacy in Spanish were no less likely to receive clinical resolution of abnormal mammograms within 60 days (81.8% overall; n = 110 or to return for a repeat mammogram within 18 months (57.2% overall; n = 697. In fact, among those referred for a Pap test (n = 310, women without adequate health literacy were more likely to receive a Pap test within 60 days of their mammogram than those with adequate health literacy (82% compared to 71%, OR: 1.83, 95% CI: 1.04–3.22.Discussion: The lack of significantly lower follow-up outcomes among women with inadequate and marginal functional health literacy in this population of primary Spanish-speaking Latinas suggests that, once women have accessed screening services, programmatic approaches may exist to mitigate barriers to follow-up and to ensure optimal cancer screening outcomes for women of all literacy levels.Keywords: health literacy, mammography, Latinas, case management, cancer screening

  1. Effects of Prostate Cancer Screening and Treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.M. Wever (Elisabeth)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractProstate cancer is the second most frequently diagnosed cancer of men worldwide. The number of new cases worldwide was estimated at 899,000 and accounted for 13.6% of all cancers in men in 2008. With an estimated 258,000 deaths in 2008, prostate cancer is the sixth leading cause of death

  2. Screening history of cervical cancers in Emilia-Romagna, Italy: defining priorities to improve cervical cancer screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Paolo Giorgi; Caroli, Stefania; Mancini, Silvia; de' Bianchi, Priscilla Sassoli; Finarelli, Alba C; Naldoni, Carlo; Bucchi, Lauro; Falcini, Fabio

    2015-03-01

    Most invasive cervical cancers in industrialized countries are due to the lack of Pap test coverage, very few are due to screening failures. This study aimed at quantifying the proportion of invasive cancers occurring in nonscreened or underscreened women and that in women with a previous negative screening, that is, screening failure, during the first two screening rounds (1996-2002) and in the following rounds (2003-2008) in the Emilia-Romagna region. All cases of invasive cancers registered in the regional cancer registry between 1996 and 2008 were classified according to screening history through a record linkage with the screening programme registry. The incidence significantly decreased from 11.6/100 000 to 8.7/100 000; this decrease is due to a reduction in squamous cell cancers (annual percentage change -6.2; confidence interval: -7.8, -4.6) and advanced cancers (annual percentage change -6.6; confidence interval: -8.8, -4.3), whereas adenocarcinomas and microinvasive cancers were essentially stable. The proportion of cancers among women not yet invited and among nonresponders decreased over the two periods, from 45.5 to 33.3%. In contrast, the proportion of women with a previous negative Pap test less than 5 years and 5 years or more before cancer incidence increased from 5.7 to 13.3% and from 0.3 to 5.5%, respectively. Although nonattendance of the screening programme remains the main barrier to cervical cancer control, the introduction of a more sensitive test, such as the human papillomavirus DNA test, could significantly reduce the burden of disease. PMID:24787379

  3. Imaging screening of breast cancer: primary results in 5307 cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To discuss the values of three screening methods for the detection of early breast cancer, and to analyze the features of the screening cancer. Methods: The first screening of breast cancer were performed in 5307 women who aged from 20 to 76 years with median age of 49 years. The three screening methods included physical examination with ultrasound and mammography, physical examination with mammography and mammography only. The rate of recall, biopsy, cancer detection of three methods were analyzed and the mammographic findings were reviewed. Chi-square test or Fisher's exact test were used for the statistics. Results: The recall rates were 4.90% (49/1001), 6.90% (166/2407) and 4. 48% (85/1899) in three methods respectively, the biopsy rates were 1.60% (16/1001), 1.04% (25/2407) and 0.63% (12/1899), the cancer detection rates were 0.50% (5/1001), 0.17% (4/2407) and 0 (0/1899). There were statistical differences among the three groups (χ2=12.99,6.264,8.764, P<0.05). Physical examination with ultrasound and mammography had the highest cancer detection rate, ten breast cancers were detected and 8 were early stage breast cancer. Of seven cancers detected by mammography, only two were found by ultrasound. A cluster of calcifications were found in 2 cases, linear calcifications in 2 cases. One case presented as a asymmetric density, one as a asymmetric density with calcifications, one as multiple nodules with a cluster of calcifications. Two breast cancers presented as asymmetric density were missed on mammography and diagnosed correctly after retrospective review. Conclusion: Physical examination with ultrasound and mammography is the best method for breast cancer screening. The breast cancer can be detected by mammography earlier than other methods. (authors)

  4. Determinants of Cervical Cancer Screening Uptake among Women in Ilorin, North Central Nigeria: A Community-Based Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajibola Idowu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Cancer of the cervix is the leading cause of cancer deaths among women in developing countries. Screening is one of the most cost effective control strategies for the disease. This study assessed the determinants of cervical cancer screening uptake among Nigerian women. Methodology. This cross-sectional study was conducted using multistage sampling technique among 338 participants in Ilorin, North Central Nigeria. A pretested questionnaire was used for data collection and data analysis was done using SPSS version 21. Chi-square test was used for bivariate analysis while binary logistic regression was used for multivariate analysis. Statistical significance was set at p<0.05. Results. Only 8.0% of the respondents had ever been screened for cancer of the cervix. The proportion of women who had ever been screened was significantly higher among those who demonstrated positive attitude to screening (81.5%, p=0.001, respondents who were aware of the disease (100.0%, p=0.001, and those who were aware of cervical cancer screening (88.9%, p=0.001. Respondents who had negative attitude had 63% lesser odds of being screened compared to those who had positive attitudes towards screening (AOR; 0.37, 95% CI; 0.01–0.28. Conclusion. There is urgent need to improve the knowledge base and attitude of Nigerian women to enhance cervical cancer screening uptake among them.

  5. Breast cancer screening for severely disabled patients. Present status and future problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recently, the attendance rate for breast screening has been increasing in Japan. However, little is known about how to conduct effective breast cancer screening, especially for patients with mental disability. The purpose of this study was to clarify the present status of breast cancer screening for severely disabled patients. Breast screening was performed for 160 disabled patients by physical examination and ultrasound from 2002 to 2005. The patients included 158 women and two men, with an average age of 59 years old. Ten disabled patients (10/160; 6.3%) showed abnormal findings on physical examination and four (4/160; 2.5%) showed probably benign findings by ultrasound examination. Mammography (MMG) screening was performed for only 33 patients (33/160; 21%), one of whom needed further examination. One lesion was diagnosed as breast cancer (1/160; 0.63%). Breast ultrasound is useful for severely disabled patients because it is painless, easy and rapid to perform. On the other hand, it is sometimes difficult for such patients to participate in MMG screening because of their inability to adapt to the examination. Therefore, some psychological method, for example operant conditioning, will be necessary for breast screening of patients with severe mental disability. (author)

  6. Pathways of cervical cancer screening among Chinese women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma GX

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Grace X Ma,1 Min Qi Wang,2 Xiang S Ma,3 Steven E Shive,4 Yin Tan,5 Jamil I Toubbeh51Department of Public Health, College of Health Professions, Temple University, Philadelphia, PA, 2Department of Public and Community Health, University of Maryland, College Park, MD, 3College of Health Professions and School of Medicine, Temple University, Philadelphia, PA, 4Center for Asian Health, Temple University, and Department of Health, East Stroudsburg University, East Stroudsburg, PA, 5Center for Asian Health, Department of Public Health, College of Health Professions, Temple University, Philadelphia, PA, USABackground: The purpose of this community-based study was to develop a structural equation model for factors contributing to cervical cancer screening among Chinese American women.Methods: A cross-sectional design included a sample of 573 Chinese American women aged 18 years and older. The initial step involved use of confirmatory factor analysis, that included the following variables: access to and satisfaction with health care, and enabling and predisposing cultural and health beliefs. Structural equation model analyses were conducted on factors related to cervical cancer screening.Results: Age, marital status, employment, household income, and having health insurance, but not educational level, were significantly related to cervical screening status. Predisposing and enabling factors were positively associated with cervical cancer screening. The cultural factor was significantly related to the enabling factor or the satisfaction with health care factor.Conclusion: This model highlights the significance of sociocultural factors in relation to cervical cancer screening. These factors were significant, with cultural, predisposing, enabling, and health belief factors and access to and satisfaction with health care reinforcing the need to assist Chinese American women with poor English fluency in translation and awareness of the importance of cervical

  7. Adherence to Competing Strategies for Colorectal Cancer Screening Over 3 Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Peter S.; Wheat, Chelle L.; Abhat, Anshu; Brenner, Alison T.; Fagerlin, Angela; Hayward, Rodney A.; Thomas, Jennifer P.; Vijan, Sandeep; Inadomi, John M.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives We have shown that, in a randomized trial comparing adherence to different colorectal cancer (CRC) screening strategies, participants assigned to either fecal occult blood testing (FOBT) or given a choice between FOBT and colonoscopy had significantly higher adherence than those assigned to colonoscopy during the first year. However, how adherence to screening changes over time is unknown. Methods In this trial, 997 participants were cluster randomized to one of the three screening strategies: (i) FOBT, (ii) colonoscopy, or (iii) a choice between FOBT and colonoscopy. Research assistants helped participants to complete testing only in the first year. Adherence to screening was defined as completion of three FOBT cards in each of 3 years after enrollment or completion of colonoscopy within the first year of enrollment. The primary outcome was adherence to assigned strategy over 3 years. Additional outcomes included identification of sociodemographic factors associated with adherence. Results Participants assigned to annual FOBT completed screening at a significantly lower rate over 3 years (14%) than those assigned to colonoscopy (38%, P<0.001) or choice (42%, P<0.001); however, completion of any screening test fell precipitously, indicating the strong effect of patient navigation. In multivariable logistic regression analysis, being randomized to the choice or colonoscopy group, Chinese language, homosexuality, being married/partnered, and having a non-nurse practitioner primary care provider were independently associated with greater adherence to screening (P<0.01). Conclusions In a 3-year follow-up of a randomized trial comparing competing CRC screening strategies, participants offered a choice between FOBT and colonoscopy continued to have relatively high adherence, whereas adherence in the FOBT group fell significantly below that of the choice and colonoscopy groups. Patient navigation is crucial to achieving adherence to CRC screening, and FOBT is

  8. Knowledge, attitudes and practice toward cervical cancer screening among Sikkimese nursing staff in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hafizur Rahman

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To assess baseline knowledge of cancer cervix, screening and practice of Pap smear screening among Sikkimese staff nurses in India. Materials and Methods: Between April 2012 and February 2013, a predesigned, pretested, self -administered multiple responses questionnaire survey was conducted among staff nurses′ working in various hospitals of Sikkim. Questionnaire contained information about their demographics, knowledge of cervical cancer, its risk factors, screening methods, attitudes toward cervical cancer screening and practice of Pap smear amongst themselves. Results: Overall, 90.4% nurses responded that they were aware of cancer cervix. Three quarter of the staff nurses were not aware of commonest site being cancer cervix in women. Of the 320 participants, who had heard of cancer cervix, 253 (79.1% were aware of cancer cervix screening. Pap smear screening should start at 21 years or 3 years after sexual debut was known to only one-third of the nursing staff. Age was found to be a significant predictor of awareness of Pap smear screening among nursing staff. Awareness was significantly more prevalent among older staff (P < 0.007. Married nursing staffs were significantly more likely to be aware of screening methods, and nursing staff of Christian and Buddhist religion were 1.25 times and 2.03 times more likely to aware of screening methods than Hindu religion respectively. Only 16.6% nurses, who were aware of a Pap smear (11.9% of the total sample, had ever undergone a Pap smear test. Most common reason offered for not undergoing Pap smear test were, they felt they were not at risk (41%, uncomfortable pelvic examination (25% and fear of a bad result (16.6%. Conclusion: Knowledge of cancer cervix, screening and practice of Pap smear was low among Sikkimese nursing staff in India. There is an urgent need for re-orientation course for working nurses and integration of cervical cancer prevention issues in the nurses′ existing

  9. Cervical cancer screening: on the way to a shift from cytology to full molecular screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dijkstra, M G; Snijders, P J F; Arbyn, M; Rijkaart, D C; Berkhof, J; Meijer, C J L M

    2014-05-01

    Cytology-based nation-wide cervical screening has led to a substantial reduction of the incidence of cervical cancer in western countries. However, the sensitivity of cytology for the detection of high-grade precursor lesions or cervical cancer is limited; therefore, repeated testing is necessary to achieve program effectiveness. Additionally, adenocarcinomas and its precursors are often missed by cytology. Consequently, there is a need for a better screening test. The insight that infection with high-risk human papillomavirus (hrHPV) is the causal agent of cervical cancer and its precursors has led to the development of molecular tests for the detection of hrHPV. Strong evidence now supports the use of hrHPV testing in the prevention of cervical cancer. In this review, we will discuss the arguments in favor of, and concerns on aspects of implementation of hrHPV testing in primary cervical cancer screening, such as the age to start hrHPV-based screening, ways to increase screening attendance, requirements for candidate hrHPV tests to be used, and triage algorithms for screen-positive women. PMID:24445150

  10. Social Construction of Cervical Cancer Screening among Panamanian Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvo, Arlene; Brown, Kelli McCormack; McDermott, Robert J.; Bryant, Carol A.; Coreil, Jeanine; Loseke, Donileen

    2012-01-01

    Background: Understanding how "health issues" are socially constructed may be useful for creating culturally relevant programs for Hispanic/Latino populations. Purpose: We explored the constructed meanings of cervical cancer and cervical cancer screening among Panamanian women, as well as socio-cultural factors that deter or encourage screening…

  11. PSA Screening Has Led to Overtreatment of Many Prostate Cancers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Screening for prostate cancer with the prostate-specific antigen (PSA) test has led to overtreatment of many prostate cancers, including aggressive treatments in older men considered to be at low risk for progression of the disease according to a study published in the July 26, 2010 Archives of Internal Medicine.

  12. Our approach for breast cancer screening using both mammography and echography, with special reference to detection of nonpalpable minute invasive cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present the results of our approach for breast cancer screening using both mammography and echography. A total of 4,632 participants underwent screening with our own combined method using mammography and echography at our clinic during a two-year period in 2005 and 2006. Recall studies were carried out in 364 women (recall rate, 79%), and breast cancer was detected in 36 women (cancer detection rate, 0.78%). When the detected cancers were classified histopathologically, 22 were invasive ductal cancers and the remaining 14 were non-invasive cancers. Of the 22 women who proved to have invasive cancers, 14 had been unaware of their tumors, which were non-palpable. If an invasive cancer is overlooked, the consequences may be more serious than if a non-invasive cancer is missed, because the former is can be potentially fatal. In order to decrease breast cancer mortality, invasive cancers must be detected when they are small. Since we were able to detect many small and non-palpable breast cancers that had not been noticed by the participants, our current breast cancer screening system appears to be more efficient for life-saving than other systems. (author)

  13. Making decisions about colorectal cancer screening. A qualitative study among citizens with lower educational attainment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, Pia; Mortensen, Gitte Lee; Larsen, Mette Bach;

    2015-01-01

    Background: Few decision aids (DAs) have been developed to support an informed choice to citizens with lower educational attainment about colorectal cancer screening. The aim of this study was to identify information needs and preferences for formats and content in a DA for this group of citizens....... Methods: Four focus groups were conducted among Danish men and women aged 50–74 years with lower educational attainment. A semi-structured interview guide was developed to explore participants’ perceptions about colorectal cancer screening and wishes for a DA. The interviews were transcribed and analysed...... using an ethnographic approach. Results: The participants appreciated information about the causes, symptoms, incidence and mortality of colorectal cancer compared with other common cancers. The majority preferred the information to be presented in a clear and simple way with numbers and figures kept to...

  14. Reasons for women's non-participation in follow-up screening after gestational diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jane Hyldgaard; Olesen, Christinna Rebecca; Kristiansen, Tine Mechlenborg;

    2015-01-01

    Background: Due to the increased risk of type 2 diabetes, follow-up screening after birth is recommended to women with previous gestational diabetes. Low participation in such screening has been shown to delay detection of diabetes with potentially serious consequences for the women's future health...... qualitative study was undertaken drawing on a phenomenological methodology. Seven women treated for gestational diabetes at a university hospital in the North Denmark Region participated in interviews. Findings: The women experienced lack of continuity in care between hospital departments and health sectors...... treatment and care. Participation in follow-up screening after gestational diabetes may be increased by sending reminders to the women. Raised awareness of the women's individual needs and preferences for treatment and care offers potential for improvement....

  15. Contributing Factors to Colorectal Cancer Screening among Chinese People: A Review of Quantitative Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Doris Y P; Chow, Ka Ming; Lo, Sally W S; So, Winnie K W; Chan, Carmen W H

    2016-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a major health problem in Asia. It has been reported that the Chinese are more susceptible to CRC than many other ethnic groups. Screening for CRC is a cost-effective prevention and control strategy; however, the screening rates among the Chinese are sub-optimal. We conducted a review to identify the factors associated with CRC screening participation among Chinese people. Twenty-two studies that examined the factors related to CRC screening behaviors among the Chinese were identified through five databases. Seven factors were consistently reported to influence CRC screening behaviors in at least one of the studies: socio-demographic characteristics (educational level, health insurance, and knowledge about CRC and its screening); psychological factors (perceived severity of CRC, susceptibility of having CRC, and barriers to screening); and contact with medical provider (physician recommendation). The evidence base for many of these relationships is quite limited. Furthermore, the associations of many factors, including age, gender, income, cancer worry/fear, and self-efficacy with CRC screening behaviors, were mixed or inconsistent across these studies, thereby indicating that more studies are needed in this area. PMID:27196920

  16. Quality control in screening programs for cervical cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The malignancy of the cervix is one of the few locations avoidable cancers, if detected before it progresses to the infiltration. The most efficient way of early detection is through a screening program to provide women undertaking a regular and quality Pap smear. If this test results abnormal, the program offers easier access to specialized care, effective treatment, and follow-up. The objective of this article is to present usefulness of methods for quality control used in screening programs for cervical cancer to detect their inadequacies. Here are some factors and conditions that must be considered in each of the steps to take, for a cervical cancer screening program to be successful and to meet the objectives proposed in reducing mortality due to this cause. This document contains some useful indexes calculated to ensure quality throughout the process. There should be the measurement of quality throughout the screening process that allows collecting of reliable data as well as correcting deficiencies

  17. Transillumination in breast cancer detection: screening failures and potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This prospective study of 1265 women referred to a multimodality breast diagnostic center compares the sensitivity for breast cancer detection of state-of-the-art transillumination light scanning and film-screen mammography. Of 33 biopsy-proven cancers, transillumination light scanning detected 58%, while mammography detected 97% of the cancers. Light scanning did detect 55% of the nonpalpable breast cancers, and 30% of those tumors smaller than 1 cm. Detection of breast cancer by light scanning was affected by breast size, but not architecture, and was directly related to tumor size. Although transillumination light scanning can detect some small curable breast cancers (smaller than 1 cm), it does not do so at a sensitivity adequate for screening

  18. Risks of Liver (Hepatocellular) Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cancer is present in the body. Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) is the most widely used tumor marker for ... and other types of cancer, may also increase AFP levels. Specific tumor markers that may lead to ...

  19. Cancer Information Summaries: Screening/Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... type Progress Annual Report to the Nation Cancer Portfolio Snapshots Milestones in Cancer Research & Discovery Stories of ... Editorial Board Integrative Therapies Editorial Board Levels of Evidence Levels of Evidence: Treatment Levels of Evidence: Supportive & ...

  20. Register-based studies of cancer screening effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Von Euler-Chelpin, My; Lynge, Elsebeth; Rebolj, Matejka

    INTRODUCTION: There are two organised cancer screening programmes in Denmark, against cervical and breast cancers. The aim with this study was to give an overview of the available register-based research regarding these two programmes, to demonstrate the usefulness of data from the national...... registers. RESEARCH TOPICS: The register-based studies on cancer screening in Denmark could be grouped into research concerning effectiveness, in terms of mortality and incidence reduction, short-term indicators, e.g. in relation to recommended quality assurance indicators, and side effects, e.g. as false...

  1. Cervical cancer screening policies and coverage in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anttila, Ahti; von Karsa, Lawrence; Aasmaa, Auni;

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the study was to compare current policy, organisation and coverage of cervical cancer screening programmes in the European Union (EU) member states with European and other international recommendations. According to the questionnaire-based survey, there are large variations in cervical...... with education, training and communication among women, medical professionals and authorities are required, accordingly. The study indicates that, despite substantial efforts, the recommendations of the Council of the EU on organised population-based screening for cervical cancer are not yet fulfilled. Decision......-makers and health service providers should consider stronger measures or incentives in order to improve cervical cancer control in Europe....

  2. Chemical genetics and drug screening in Drosophila cancer models

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mara Gladstone; Tin Tin Su

    2011-01-01

    Drug candidates often fail in preclinical and clinical testing because of reasons of efficacy and/or safety.It would be time- and cost-efficient to have screening models that reduce the rate of such false positive candidates that appear promising at first but fail later.In this regard,it would be particularly useful to have a rapid and inexpensive whole animal model that can pre-select hits from high-throughput screens but before testing in costly rodent assays.Drosophila melanogaster has emerged as a potential whole animal model for drug screening.Of particular interest have been drugs that must act in the context of multi-cellularity such as those for neurological disorders and cancer.A recent review provides a comprehensive summary of drug screening in Drosophila,but with an emphasis on neurodegenerative disorders.Here,we review Drosophila screens in the literature aimed at cancer therapeutics.

  3. Potential of casein kinase I in digestive cancer screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Modak

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Casein kinase I is a group of ubiquitous Serine/Threonine kinases that have been implicated in both normal cellular functions and several pathological conditions including Alzheimer’ s disease and cancer. Recent findings in colon and pancreatic cancer have brought tremendous attention to these molecules as potential therapeutic targets in treatment of digestive cancers. In this review, we summarize up to date what is known about this family of kinases and their involvement in carcinogenesis and other pathological conditions. Our emphasis is on their implications in digestive cancers and their potential for cancer screening and therapy.

  4. December 2013 Phoenix pulmonary journal club: lung cancer screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoj Mathew

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available No abstract available. Article truncated at 150 words. During this month’s pulmonary journal club we reviewed several of the sentinel studies looking at lung cancer screening. Since the National Lung Screening Research Team (NLSRT (1 published the impressive results showing a 20% reduction in lung cancer mortality, the debate on when and if to initiate a national lung cancer screening program has been at the forefront of debate. The American Lung Association and American Cancer Society have issued statements that are not guidelines, but did offer insight on the price we pay for earlier lung cancer detection and reduction in mortality…which is the increased rates of false positives detected and increased rates of biopsies. The US Task Force on Lung Cancer Screening has yet to decide on a screening program and have yielded a statement that neither supports nor refutes the current level of evidence. Prior to the NLSRT study there were others that showed conflicting results on …

  5. Lung cancer screening: from imaging to biomarker

    OpenAIRE

    Xiang, Dong; Zhang, Bicheng; Doll, Donald; Shen, Kui; Kloecker, Goetz; Freter, Carl

    2013-01-01

    Despite several decades of intensive effort to improve the imaging techniques for lung cancer diagnosis and treatment, primary lung cancer is still the number one cause of cancer death in the United States and worldwide. The major causes of this high mortality rate are distant metastasis evident at diagnosis and ineffective treatment for locally advanced disease. Indeed, approximately forty percent of newly diagnosed lung cancer patients have distant metastasis. Currently, the only potential ...

  6. Evaluation of complement proteins as screening markers for colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storm, Line; Christensen, Ib J; Jensenius, Jens C;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a leading cause of cancer death worldwide. Lack of symptoms results in late detection and increased mortality. Inflammation, including complement activation, plays an important role in tumorigenesis. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: The concentrations of nine proteins of....... CONCLUSION: CL-L1, M-ficolin and MAp44 in combination discriminate between CRC and patients without cancer. The markers did not have sufficient discriminatory value for CRC detection, but may prove useful for screening when combined with other markers....

  7. Gastric Cancer: Descriptive Epidemiology, Risk Factors, Screening, and Prevention

    OpenAIRE

    Karimi, Parisa; Islami, Farhad; Anandasabapathy, Sharmila; Neal D Freedman; Kamangar, Farin

    2014-01-01

    Less than a century ago, gastric cancer (GC) was the most common cancer in the United States and perhaps throughout the world. Despite its worldwide decline in incidence over the past century, GC remains a major killer across the globe. This article reviews the epidemiology, screening, and prevention of gastric cancer. We first discuss the descriptive epidemiology of GC, including its incidence, survival, and mortality, including trends over time. Next, we characterize the risk factors for ga...

  8. Diagnostic aids in the screening of oral cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Fedele, S.

    2009-01-01

    The World Health Organization has clearly indentified prevention and early detection as major objectives in the control of the oral cancer burden worldwide. At the present time, screening of oral cancer and its pre-invasive intra-epithelial stages, as well as its early detection, is still largely based on visual examination of the mouth. There is strong available evidence to suggest that visual inspection of the oral mucosa is effective in reducing mortality from oral cancer in individuals ex...

  9. Joint breast and colorectal cancer screenings in medically underserved women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Terry C; Arnold, Connie L; Wolf, Michael S; Bennett, Charles L; Liu, Dachao; Rademaker, Alfred

    2016-01-01

    Background Breast and colon cancer screening in rural community clinics is underused. Objective To evaluate the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of alternative interventions designed to promote simultaneous screening for breast and colon cancer in community clinics. Methods A 3-arm, quasi-experimental evaluation was conducted during May 2008-August 2011 in 8 federally qualifed health clinics in predominately rural Louisiana. Baseline screening rates reported by the clinics was <10% for breast cancer (using mammography) and 1%-2% for colon cancer (using the fecal occult blood test [FOBT]). 744 women aged 50 years or older who were eligible for routine mammography and an FOBT were recruited. The combined screening efforts included: enhanced care; health literacy-informed education (education alone), or health literacy-informed education with nurse support (nurse support). Results Postintervention screening rates for completing both tests were 28.1% with enhanced care, 23.7% with education alone, and 38.7% with nurse support. After adjusting for age, race, and literacy, patients who received nurse support were 2.21 times more likely to complete both screenings than were those who received the education alone (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.12-4.38; P = .023). The incremental cost per additional woman completing both screenings was $3,987 for education with nurse support over education alone, and $5,987 over enhanced care. Limitations There were differences between the 3 arms in sociodemographic characteristics, literacy, and previous screening history. Not all variables that were significantly different between arms were adjusted for, therefore adjustments for key variables (age, race, literacy) were made in statistical analyses. Other limitations related generalizability of results. Conclusions Although joint breast and colon cancer screening rates were increased substantially over existing baseline rates in all 3 arms, the completion rate for both tests was

  10. Focused Decision Support: a Data Mining Tool to Query the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial Dataset and Guide Screening Management for the Individual Patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Arjun; Hostetter, Jason; Morrison, James; Wang, Kenneth; Siegel, Eliot

    2016-04-01

    The Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian Cancer (PLCO) Screening Trial enrolled ~155,000 participants to determine whether certain screening exams reduced mortality from prostate, lung, colorectal, and ovarian cancer. Repurposing the data provides an unparalleled resource for matching patients with the outcomes of demographically or diagnostically comparable patients. A web-based application was developed to query this subset of patient information against a given patient's demographics and risk factors. Analysis of the matched data yields outcome information which can then be used to guide management decisions and imaging software. Prognostic information is also estimated via the proportion of matched patients that progress to cancer. The US Preventative Services Task Force provides screening recommendations for cancers of the breast, colorectal tract, and lungs. There is wide variability in adherence of clinicians to these guidelines and others published by the Fleischner Society and various cancer organizations. Data mining the PLCO dataset for clinical decision support can optimize the use of limited healthcare resources, focusing screening on patients for whom the benefit to risk ratio is the greatest and most efficacious. A data driven, personalized approach to cancer screening maximizes the economic and clinical efficacy and enables early identification of patients in which the course of disease can be improved. Our dynamic decision support system utilizes a subset of the PLCO dataset as a reference model to determine imaging and testing appropriateness while offering prognostic information for various cancers. PMID:26385814

  11. Role of prevention and screening in epithelial ovarian cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peddireddi Reddi Rani

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Epithelial ovarian carcinoma is a disease with poor prognosis and high mortality among gynaecological cancers due to inaccessibility of ovary for inspection or sampling and lack of proper screening methods. Strategies to detect early ovarian cancer include estimation of serum CA-125 and transvaginal ultrasound (TVS for morphological index. Studies have shown that screening of asymptomatic average risk post-menopausal women did not show any benefit and are associated with false positive results which may lead to unnecessary surgery and resultant morbidity. The risks outweigh benefits. Present recommendation is to screen high risk women especially hereditary cancers and offer risk reducing surgery when needed. Prophylactic salpingectomy/oophorectomy may offer the opportunity to prevent ovarian cancer. More trials and more research in newer biomarkers are needed. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2015; 4(4.000: 941-946

  12. Correlates of women's cancer screening and contraceptive knowledge among female emergency department patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bock Beth C

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lack of knowledge regarding preventive health services for women might impede campaigns to expand these services in the emergency department setting. For 18–55-year-old English-speaking women visiting an urban emergency department, we aimed to: (1 Ascertain their knowledge regarding the applicability, purpose, and recommended intervals of three women's cancer screening and three contraceptive methods; and (2 Determine if patient age, race/ethnicity, medical insurance status, and current or recent usage of these methods are associated with greater or lesser knowledge about them. Methods Emergency department-based survey on recent or current usage and knowledge about Pap smears, breast self-examinations, mammograms, condoms, birth control, and emergency contraception. Analyses included calculation of summary statistics and creation of multivariable logistic regression models. Results Of 1,100 patients eligible for the study, 69.9% agreed to participate. Most of the participants were Conclusion Although these female ED patients demonstrated strong knowledge on some women's cancer screening and contraceptive methods, there were several areas of knowledge deficit. Women without private medical insurance and those who have not used a particular cancer screening or contraceptive method demonstrated less knowledge. Reduced knowledge about women's cancer screening and contraceptive methods should be considered during clinical encounters and when instituting or evaluating emergency department-based initiatives that assess the need for these methods.

  13. Oral Cancer Screening in Dental Set Up

    OpenAIRE

    Saini, Rajiv

    2015-01-01

    Cancer is a major public health problem in the United States and many other parts of the world. One in 4 deaths in the United States is due to cancer. Oral cancer (OC) is the sixth most common cancer worldwide. Oral cancer can be divided into three clinic-pathological categories: carcinoma of the lip vermillion, carcinoma of the oral cavity proper, and carcinoma of the oropharynx. The chief predisposing factors are tobacco use, alcohol consumption, and persistent viral infections such as HPV ...

  14. Radiologic aspects of breast cancers detected through a breast cancer screening program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Early detection in breast cancer and reduced mortality in women with this disease is today attributed to widespread use of mammography. High-quality performance is essential in all steps of breast cancer screening programs in order to avoid unnecessary anxiety and surgery in the women concerned. This report presents radiologic aspects of screening cancers. A total of 8370 asymptomatic women aged 50-69 years were screened with 2-view mammography, of which only 70 (0.84 percent) were selected for surgery after a thorough work-up. Cancers were verified histologically in 61 women and 9 showed non-malignant histology, giving a cancer detection rate of 7.3 cancers per thousand screened asymptomatic women. The benign/malignant ratio in the operated cases is thus approximately 1:7. The cancers detected showed all existing types of mammographic features where 77 percent (47 cases) showed rather typical findings, such as spiculated densities both with and without microcalcifications. The results indicate that surgery can be minimized without impairing the breast cancer detection rate. Radiologists in screening programs should be aware that a large proportion of non-palpable breast cancers present in rather unconventional forms. This point is important in order to maintain a high cancer detection rate and thereby justify the widespread use of mammography as a screening tool for breast cancer in asymptomatic women. (author). 20 refs.; 1 tab

  15. Ovarian Cancer Screening Method Fails to Reduce Deaths from the Disease | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    New results from the NCI-sponsored Prostate, Lung, Colorectal and Ovarian (PLCO) Cancer Screening Trial show that screening for ovarian cancer with transvaginal ultrasound (TVU) and the CA-125 blood test did not result in fewer deaths from the disease compared with usual care. |

  16. Knowledge and acceptability of human papillomavirus vaccination and cervical cancer screening among women in Karnataka, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, Martha P; Dune, Tanaka; Shetty, Prasanna K; Shetty, Avinash K

    2015-03-01

    Cervical cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related mortality among women in India; however, participation in prevention and screening is low and the reasons for this are not well understood. In a cross-sectional survey in August 2008, 202 healthy women in Karnataka, India completed a questionnaire regarding knowledge, attitudes, and practices related to human papillomavirus (HPV) and cervical cancer. Factors associated with vaccination and Papanicolau (Pap) smear screening acceptance were explored. Thirty-six percent of women had heard of HPV while 15% had heard of cervical cancer. Five percent of women reported ever having a Pap smear, and 4% of women felt at risk of HPV infection. Forty-six percent of women were accepting of vaccination, but fewer (21%) were willing to have a Pap smear. Overall, knowledge related to HPV and cervical cancer topics was low. Women with negative attitudes toward HPV infection were 5.3 (95% confidence interval (CI) 2.8-10) times more likely to accept vaccination but were not significantly more likely to accept Pap smear (odds ratio 1.5, 95% CI 0.7-3.0). Cost and a low level of perceived risk were the most frequent factors cited as potential barriers. Improving awareness of HPV and cervical cancer through health care providers in addition to increasing access to vaccination and screening through government-sponsored programs may be feasible and effective methods to reduce cervical cancer burden in India. PMID:25355525

  17. Risk-benefit analysis for mass screening of breast cancer utilizing mammography as a screening test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Incidence of breast cancers in Japanese women is increasing steadily. Mass screening of breast cancer was started in Japan under auspices of Adult Health Promotion Act of the Japanese Government from 1987. As the first screening method, the palpation of breasts is employed at present, but it is expected to be replaced by the mammography. In this report, the risk-benefit analysis is presented between risk of breast carcinogenesis due to radiation and benefit of mass screening of breast cancer. The benefit of mass screening is taken as the net elongation of average life expectancy of women due to survival from breast cancers. The risk of mammography is taken as the net loss of average life expectancy of women due to breast carcinogenesis. In the latter, the latency time and plateau period of radiation carcinogenesis were taken into consideration in the calculation. The results show that the ages at which the benefit and risk become equal are between 30 and 35 years old when dose equivalent of mammography is between 10 and 20 mSv, that are conventionally used. However, the critical age will be reduced to 20 years old if the dose equivalent becomes 1 mSv. Therefore, it is strongly recommended that a low dose mammographic system should be developed in order to achieve 1 mSv for the mass screening of breast cancer of Japanese women. In author's opinion, this is quite feasible by employing a new digital radiography with imaging plate. (author)

  18. Screening for cervical cancer in French Guiana: screening rates from 2006 to 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douine, M; Roué, T; Lelarge, C; Adenis, A; Thomas, N; Nacher, M

    2015-12-01

    In French Guiana, the age-standardized incidence rate of cervical cancer is four times higher than in France and the mortality rate 5.5 times higher. A survival study revealed that stage at diagnosis was the main factor influencing the prognosis, showing that early detection is crucial to increase cervical cancer survival. The present study aimed at evaluating the cervical cancer screening rate between 2006 and 2011 by age and for a 3-year period in French Guiana. All pap smears realised in French Guiana were analysed in two laboratories allowing exhaustive review of screening data. The screening rate was estimated at about 54% from 2006 to 2011, with a statistical difference between coastal and rural area (56.3% versus 18.7%). Although the methodological difference did not allow comparisons with metropolitan France, these results could be used to evaluate the impact of organised cervical cancer screening by the French Guiana Association for Organized Screening of Cancers which has been implemented in French Guiana since 2012. PMID:26608273

  19. Race/Ethnicity, Gender, Weight Status, and Colorectal Cancer Screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather Bittner Fagan

    2011-01-01

    The literature on colorectal cancer (CRC screening is contradictory regarding the impact of weight status on CRC screening. This study was intended to determine if CRC screening rates among 2005 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS respondent racial/ethnic and gender subgroups were influenced by weight status. Methods. Univariable and multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed to determine if CRC screening use differed significantly among obese, overweight, and normal-weight individuals in race/ethnic and gender subgroups. Results. Multivariable analyses showed that CRC screening rates did not differ significantly for individuals within these subgroups who were obese or overweight as compared to their normal-weight peers. Conclusion. Weight status does not contribute to disparities in CRC screening in race/ethnicity and gender subgroups.

  20. Cancer literacy as a mediator for cancer screening behaviour in Korean adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hee Yun; Rhee, Taeho Greg; Kim, Nam Keol

    2016-09-01

    This study investigates the cancer literacy level in Korean adults and examines whether cancer literacy plays a mediating role in the relationship between population characteristics and cancer screening behaviours. We collected data from 585 community-dwelling adults in Korea using self-administered surveys and face-to-face interviews from October to December in 2009. Guided by Andersen's behavioural model, we used a structural equation model to estimate the effect of cancer literacy as a mediator and found that cancer literacy mediated cancer screening behaviour. In the individual path analysis models, cancer literacy played a significant mediating role for the use of eastern medicine, fatalism, health status and the number of chronic diseases. When controlling for other relevant covariates, we found that in the optimal path model, cancer literacy played a mediating role in the relationship between the use of eastern medicine and self-rated health status as well as cancer screening behaviour. Thus, developing community-based cancer education programmes and training clinical practitioners in eastern medicine clinics about the importance of informing their patients about regular cancer screening may be an option to boost cancer literacy and screening behaviour in Korea. PMID:25975449

  1. Panel Reviews Benefits and Harms of CT Scans for Lung Cancer Screening | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    A panel of experts has reviewed the evidence regarding the benefits and harms of screening for lung cancer with low-dose computed tomography (CT) and concluded that the technology may benefit some individuals at high risk for lung cancer. But the panel cautioned that many questions remain about the potential harms of screening and how to translate screening into clinical practice. |

  2. Perception And Attitude About Breast And Cervical Cancer Screening Among Muslim Women In A Midwest University Campus

    OpenAIRE

    Yeasmeen, Tahira

    2013-01-01

    Early detection of breast and cervical cancer through mammograms and Pap smears can improve survival rates. Muslim women in the United States are faced with traditional beliefs and diverse socioeconomic and cultural backgrounds that may affect their knowledge and perceptions about these cancer screening practices. The objective of this study is to determine the overall health status and participation rates, knowledge, and perceptions about, and barriers to, breast and cervical cancer screenin...

  3. Breast cancer screening interventions for Arabic women: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnelly, Tam Truong; Hwang, Jasmine

    2015-06-01

    Similar to other Middle Eastern countries, breast cancer is the most common cancer among women in Qatar with increasing incidence and mortality rates. High mortality rates of breast cancer in the Middle Eastern countries are primarily due to delayed diagnosis of the disease. Thus screening and early detection of breast cancer are important in reducing cancer morbidity and mortality. With the aim of updating knowledge on existing interventions and developing effective intervention programs to promote breast cancer screening in Arabic populations in Qatar, this review addresses the question: What interventions are effective in increasing breast cancer knowledge and breast cancer screening rates in Arabic populations in Arabic countries and North America? Systematic literature review was performed to answer the proposed question. As the result of the search, six research studies were identified and appraised. From the findings, we infer several insights: (a) a language-appropriate and culturally sensitive educational program is the most important component of a successful intervention regardless of the study setting, (b) multi-level interventions that target both women, men, health care professionals, and/or larger health care system are more likely to be successful than single educational interventions or public awareness campaigns, and (c) more vigorous, personal and cognitive interventions that address psychosocial factors are likely to be more effective than less personal and informative interventions. This review has important implications for health care providers, intervention planners, and researchers. PMID:23975014

  4. The current status and future prospects of breast cancer screening using ultrasonography at our facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report the results obtained by breast cancer screening of the general population using both ultrasonography and mammography conducted by the Tochigi Public Health Service Association. An investigation of breast cancer screening carried out on approximately 140,000 participants between 2000 and 2007 showed that ultrasonography and mammography are remarkably complementary for detection of breast cancer, particularly for women in their 40s and 50s, and that each modality improves the sensitivity of breast cancer detection by approximately 20%. The following issues are pivotal for establishing a breast cancer ultrasonography screening system that is able to maintain high precision and adequate efficiency: technical training of sonographers and physicians who must interpret the sonographic images, quality control of equipment, and an interpretation system that allows previous sonographs to be used as a reference. In independent combined screening systems using ultrasonography and mammography, the high recall rate becomes an issue. Comparative interpretation of sonographic images with previous sonographs is effective for resolving this. However, hopes abound for a comprehensive assessment system that allows simultaneous imaging and interpretation of both ultrasonography and mammography. (author)

  5. Patient Test Preference for Colorectal Cancer Screening and Screening Uptake in an Insured Urban Minority Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Randi L; Basch, Charles E; Zybert, Patricia; Basch, Corey H; Ullman, Ralph; Shmukler, Celia; King, Fionnuala; Neugut, Alfred I

    2016-06-01

    The study examines the role of patient colorectal cancer (CRC) screening test preference and CRC screening uptake in an insured, urban minority population. Study subjects were enrolled in a randomized controlled trial to promote CRC screening. The interventions were educational, with an emphasis on colonoscopy screening. Subjects were 50+ years of age, fully insured for CRC screening, and out of compliance with current CRC screening recommendations. This paper includes those who answered a question about CRC screening test preference and indicated that they intended to receive such a test in the coming year (n = 453). CRC screening uptake was ascertained from medical claims data. Regardless of test preference, few received CRC screening (22.3 %). Those preferring the home stool test (HST) were less likely to get tested than those preferring a colonoscopy (16.6 vs 29.9 %, χ(2) = 9.9, p = .002). Preference for HST was more strongly associated with beliefs about colonoscopy than with knowledge about colonoscopy. In the context of an RCT emphasizing colonoscopy screening for CRC, patients expressing a preference for HST are at heightened risk of remaining unscreened. Colonoscopy should be recommended as the preferred CRC test, but HSTs should be accessible and encouraged for patients who are averse to colonoscopy.Clinical trials.gov: Identifier: NCT02392143. PMID:26585609

  6. Tiempo de viaje y participación en el cribado del cáncer de mama en una región de alta dispersión poblacional Travel time and participation in breast cancer screening in a region with high population dispersion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Borda

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Análisis de ámbito municipal de la asociación entre el tiempo de viaje y la participación en el programa de cribado del cáncer de mama ajustando por variables contextuales en la provincia de Segovia. Método: Estudio ecológico utilizando como fuentes de datos el Programa de Detección Precoz de Cáncer de Mama de la Gerencia de Atención Primaria de Segovia, el Censo de Población y Vivienda de 2001, y el Padrón municipal de habitantes de 2006-2007. El periodo de estudio fue de enero de 2006 a diciembre de 2007. Como variables dependientes se consideraron la tasa de participación municipal y el nivel deseado de participación municipal (>70%. La variable independiente principal fue el tiempo de viaje del municipio a la Unidad Mamográfica, y las covariables agregadas por municipio fueron las características sociodemográficas y socioeconómicas. Se realizó un análisis univariado y multivariado por regresión de Poisson de la tasa de participación municipal, y por regresión logística del nivel deseado de participación. Resultados: La muestra estuvo formada por 178 municipios. La tasa de participación media fue del 75,2%. Ciento diecinueve (67% municipios tuvieron la participación deseada (>70%. En el análisis multivariado por regresión de Poisson y logística, el mayor tiempo de viaje se asoció tanto a una menor tasa de participación como a un menor nivel de participación, una vez ajustado por la densidad geográfica, la edad, el nivel socioeconómico y la razón de dependencia, con un índice de riesgo relativo de 0,88 (intervalo de confianza del 95% [IC95%]: 0,81-0,96 y una odds ratio de 0,22 (IC95%: 0,1-0,47, respectivamente. Conclusión: El tiempo de viaje hasta la Unidad de Mamografía puede ayudar a explicar la participación poblacional en los programas de detección precoz del cáncer de mama.Objective: To analyze the association between travel time and participation in a breast cancer screening program

  7. Screening Technologies for Target Identification in Pancreatic Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michl, Patrick, E-mail: michlp@med.uni-marburg.de; Ripka, Stefanie; Gress, Thomas; Buchholz, Malte [Department of Gastroenterology and Endocrinology, University Hospital, Philipps-University Marburg, Baldinger Strasse, D-35043 Marburg (Germany)

    2010-12-29

    Pancreatic cancer exhibits an extraordinarily high level of resistance to almost any kind of systemic therapy evaluated in clinical trials so far. Therefore, the identification of novel therapeutic targets is urgently required. High-throughput screens have emerged as an important tool to identify putative targets for diagnosis and therapy in an unbiased manner. More than a decade ago, microarray technology was introduced to identify differentially expressed genes in pancreatic cancer as compared to normal pancreas, chronic pancreatitis and other cancer types located in close proximity to the pancreas. In addition, proteomic screens have facilitated the identification of differentially secreted proteins in body fluids of pancreatic cancer patients, serving as possible biomarkers. Recently, RNA interference-based loss-of-function screens have been used to identify functionally relevant genes, whose knock-down has impact on pancreatic cancer cell viability, thereby representing potential new targets for therapeutic intervention. This review summarizes recent results of transcriptional, proteomic and functional screens in pancreatic cancer and discusses potentials and limitations of the respective technologies as well as their impact on future therapeutic developments.

  8. Screening Technologies for Target Identification in Pancreatic Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pancreatic cancer exhibits an extraordinarily high level of resistance to almost any kind of systemic therapy evaluated in clinical trials so far. Therefore, the identification of novel therapeutic targets is urgently required. High-throughput screens have emerged as an important tool to identify putative targets for diagnosis and therapy in an unbiased manner. More than a decade ago, microarray technology was introduced to identify differentially expressed genes in pancreatic cancer as compared to normal pancreas, chronic pancreatitis and other cancer types located in close proximity to the pancreas. In addition, proteomic screens have facilitated the identification of differentially secreted proteins in body fluids of pancreatic cancer patients, serving as possible biomarkers. Recently, RNA interference-based loss-of-function screens have been used to identify functionally relevant genes, whose knock-down has impact on pancreatic cancer cell viability, thereby representing potential new targets for therapeutic intervention. This review summarizes recent results of transcriptional, proteomic and functional screens in pancreatic cancer and discusses potentials and limitations of the respective technologies as well as their impact on future therapeutic developments

  9. Dieting Behavior and Alcohol Use Behaviors among National Eating Disorders Screening Program Participants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidelberg, Natalie F.; Correia, Christopher J.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Research has shown that college students have elevated rates of alcohol use and problematic eating behaviors. The current study focused on the relationships between dieting behaviors and alcohol use among a sample of undergraduates attending National Eating Disorder Screening Program. Method: All participants (n=70, 100% female, average…

  10. Participation in prenatal screening tests and intentions concerning selective termination in Finnish maternity care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Santalahti, P; Hemminki, E; Aro, A R;

    1999-01-01

    , require an adequate process of informed consent. Because the aim of such tests is to detect fetal malformations and syndromes, health care professionals should discuss the implications with women before they decide. Because acquaintance with a disabled person was found to associate with participation......AIMS: The study examined how prenatal screening tests are presented to women, factors associated with women's participation in screening, their experience of decision-making and intentions concerning pregnancy termination, and hospital data on rates of selective terminations. METHODS...... asking about selective terminations following detected fetal disorders were sent in 1993 to all public hospitals with obstetrics or gynaecology departments (response rate 100%). RESULTS: The serum screening test had usually been offered to women as a free choice, but for 22% of them it was presented...

  11. Assessment of the psychological distress difficulties in patients with cancer using the national comprehensive cancer network rapid screening measure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hamid Saeedi Saedi; Mona Koochak Pour; Emad Sabahi; Soodabeh Shahidsales

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Clinical guidelines like National Comprehensive Cancer Network Disease recommend routine psychological distress screening as a common problem among patients with cancer. The purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence of clinically significant emotional distress related to demographic and clinical association by standard distress thermometer (DT) within the patients lived in different regions of Gilan state, Iran. Methods: Participants (n = 256) completed the DT, rapid screening measure for distress and identified the presence or absence of 34 problems using the standardized checklist. Results: More than 59 percent of participants had more than 4 cut-off score for distress. The scores varied significantly in case of reported emotional source of distress, physical, physiological and total number of concerns (P < 0.001).DT scores more than four were more likely to report 22 of 32 problems on the problem list. In case of the practical and family problems, the main problems were related to child care and dealing with children, respectively. Moreover worrisome and nervousness were considered the prominent emotional problems in the list. Conclusion: Our result promise that distress thermometer measurement tool compare favorably with longer measures used to screening of distress in cancerous patients. Accompaniment of a psychologist expert in lethal or chronic disease consultation with the therapeutic team and training the rest of members of the team might be able to decrease the emotional distress problems of the cancerous patients.

  12. Risk Stratification System for Oral Cancer Screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Lutécia H Mateus; Reis, Isildinha M; Reategui, Erika P; Gordon, Claudia; Saint-Victor, Sandra; Duncan, Robert; Gomez, Carmen; Bayers, Stephanie; Fisher, Penelope; Perez, Aymee; Goodwin, W Jarrard; Hu, Jennifer J; Franzmann, Elizabeth J

    2016-06-01

    Oral cavity and oropharyngeal cancer (oral cancer) is a deadly disease that is increasing in incidence. Worldwide 5-year survival is only 50% due to delayed intervention with more than half of the diagnoses at stage III and IV, whereas earlier detection (stage I and II) yields survival rates up to 80% to 90%. Salivary soluble CD44 (CD44), a tumor-initiating marker, and total protein levels may facilitate oral cancer risk assessment and early intervention. This study used a hospital-based design with 150 cases and 150 frequency-matched controls to determine whether CD44 and total protein levels in oral rinses were associated with oral cancer independent of age, gender, race, ethnicity, tobacco and alcohol use, and socioeconomic status (SES). High-risk subjects receiving oral cancer prevention interventions as part of a community-based program (n = 150) were followed over 1 year to determine marker specificity and variation. CD44 ≥5.33 ng/mL was highly associated with case status [adjusted OR 14.489; 95% confidence interval (CI), 5.973-35.145; P cancer. In contrast, specificity in the high-risk community was 74% and reached 95% after annual retesting. Simple and inexpensive salivary CD44 and total protein measurements may help identify individuals at heightened risk for oral cancer from the millions who partake in risky behaviors. Cancer Prev Res; 9(6); 445-55. ©2016 AACR. PMID:27020654

  13. Clinical trials of cancer screening in the developing world and their impact on cancer healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankaranarayanan, R; Sauvaget, C; Ramadas, K; Ngoma, T; Teguete, I; Muwonge, R; Naud, P; Nessa, A; Kuhaprema, T; Qiao, Y

    2011-11-01

    Several research and training initiatives were organized by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) in collaboration with national institutions in countries such as Angola, Brazil, Burkina Faso, China, Republic of Congo, Guinea, India, Mali, Mauritania, Nepal, Niger, Peru, Tanzania and Thailand among others, to address feasible and effective means of early detection and prevention of cervical, breast and oral cancers. The impact of these activities, that involved over 600 000 participants and more than 1200 healthcare personnel trained on strengthening the local health services in terms of infrastructure, human resources and service delivery aspects in host countries and other regions, is addressed here. These studies, inbuilt in appropriate health services platforms, have resulted in the development and sustenance of several continuing point of care services of screening and treatment in most host countries, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa, and have catalysed regional early detection programmes in India, China and Thailand. The IARC collaborative studies have evolved into major focal points of training and extending services in many countries. The large evidence base, resulting from ours and other studies is likely, in due course, to facilitate much wider scaling up of screening and treatment services through organised programmes. PMID:22039141

  14. [Cigarette smoking among women attending cervical cancer screening program].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walentowicz-Sadłecka, Małgorzata; Sadłecki, Paweł; Marszałek, Andrzej; Grabiec, Marek

    2012-01-01

    Cervical cancer is recognized as tobacco-related malignancy. HPV vaccination and introducing screening protocols were found as the best way to decrease cervical cancer related mortality. Besides the cytological screening programs of the uterine cervix smear, nowadays co-factors of carcinogenesis are taken into consideration, also. The aim of our study was to analyse data included in questionnaire of 310 women who underwent cytological examination wi thin cervical cancer screening program in our Department in 2011. There were no differences found between studied groups on rate of oral contraceptive or hormonal therapy use, as well as age and tobacco smoking. However, taking into account education and smoking, there was a significant correlation observed. Patients with higher education level smoked less often. The special attention should be paid to promote smoking cessation in the group of women who finished education on elementary level. PMID:23421059

  15. Overcoming Barriers to Cervical Cancer Screening Among Asian American Women

    OpenAIRE

    Fang, Carolyn Y.; Ma, Grace X.; Tan, Yin

    2011-01-01

    Significant disparities in cervical cancer incidence and mortality exist among ethnic minority women, and in particular, among Asian American women. These disparities have been attributed primarily to differences in screening rates across ethnic/racial groups. Asian American women have one of the lowest rates of screening compared to other ethnic/racial groups. Yet Asian Americans, who comprise one of the fastest growing populations in the United States, have received the least attention in c...

  16. Mammography - importance, possibilities, current screening situation of the breast cancer and further expansion possibilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breast cancer still remains the most frequent cancer in women population. Incidence of breast cancer is increasing, but mortality is decreasing. The most important for decreasing of breast cancer mortality is early diagnostic, especially screening. Screening is a form of secondary prevention. Although many screening studies have shown that mammography decreases of the breast cancer death, there are still many controversies. The published recommendations for the breast screening are sometimes very different. (author)

  17. Cancer screening, prevention, and treatment in people with mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstein, Lara C; Stefancic, Ana; Cunningham, Amy T; Hurley, Katelyn E; Cabassa, Leopodo J; Wender, Richard C

    2016-03-01

    Answer questions and earn CME/CNE People with mental illness die decades earlier in the United States compared with the general population. Most of this disparity is related to preventable and treatable chronic conditions, with many studies finding cancer as the second leading cause of death. Individual lifestyle factors, such as smoking or limited adherence to treatment, are often cited as highly significant issues in shaping risk among persons with mental illness. However, many contextual or systems-level factors exacerbate these individual factors and may fundamentally drive health disparities among people with mental illness. The authors conducted an integrative review to summarize the empirical literature on cancer prevention, screening, and treatment for people with mental illness. Although multiple interventions are being developed and tested to address tobacco dependence and obesity in these populations, the evidence for effectiveness is quite limited, and essentially all prevention interventions focus at the individual level. This review identified only one published article describing evidence-based interventions to promote cancer screening and improve cancer treatment in people with mental illness. On the basis of a literature review and the experience and expertise of the authors, each section in this article concludes with suggestions at the individual, interpersonal, organizational, community, and policy levels that may improve cancer prevention, screening, and treatment in people with mental illness. CA Cancer J Clin 2016;66:133-151. © 2015 American Cancer Society. PMID:26663383

  18. A Review of Barriers to Minorities' Participation in Cancer Clinical Trials: Implications for Future Cancer Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salman, Ali; Nguyen, Claire; Lee, Yi-Hui; Cooksey-James, Tawna

    2016-04-01

    To enhance nurses' awareness and competencies in practice and research by reporting the common barriers to participation of minorities in cancer clinical trials and discussing facilitators and useful strategies for recruitment. Several databases were searched for articles published in peer reviewed journals. Some of the barriers to minorities' participation in clinical trials were identified within the cultural social-context of cancer patients. The involvement of community networking was suggested as the most effective strategy for the recruitment of minorities in cancer clinical trials. Using culturally sensitive approaches to enhance ethnic minorities' participation is important for advancing cancer care and eliminating health disparities. Awareness of barriers and potential facilitators to the enrollment of ethnic minority cancer patients may contribute to enhancing nurses' competencies of recruiting ethnic minorities in nursing research, playing efficient roles in cancer clinical trials team, and providing culturally competent quality care. PMID:25822567

  19. The Effect of National Cancer Screening on Disparity Reduction in Cancer Stage at Diagnosis by Income Level

    OpenAIRE

    Jung, Hye-Min; Lee, Jin-Seok; Lairson, David R.; Kim, Yoon

    2015-01-01

    Background Early detection of cancer is an effective and efficient cancer management strategy. In South Korea, the National Health Insurance administers the National Cancer Screening Program to its beneficiaries. We examined the impact of the National Cancer Screening Program on socioeconomic disparities in cancer stage at diagnosis. Methods Cancer patients registered in the Korean Central Cancer Registry from January 1, 2010 to December 31, 2010 with a diagnosis of gastric cancer (n = 22,470...

  20. Insights into preferences for psycho-oncology services among women with gynecologic cancer following distress screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Sylvie D; Kelly, Brian; Boyes, Allison; Cameron, Alexander; Adams, Catherine; Proietto, Anthony; Girgis, Afaf

    2014-06-01

    Much attention has been given to implementing routine screening programs in cancer care to improve the management of distress following diagnosis. Although patients might screen positive for distress, several studies have found that most then refuse additional psychosocial support. To inform the development of successful models of distress screening, this qualitative study explored preferences for psychosocial care among 18 women diagnosed with a gynecologic cancer who scored at least 4 on the Distress Thermometer (DT). Participants were recruited from a gynecologic oncology outpatient clinic in Newcastle, Australia, and interviewed. Unanimously, participants felt that completing the DT was an integral part of their cancer care. However, half then refused the referral to see a psychologist. These women typically reported that a referral was not needed, because their rating on the DT reflected transient stressors or physical distress. Many also spoke about their need to cope with the challenges they were facing on their own and the extensive social support they already had in place to help them overcome these challenges. In contrast, women who accepted referral to the psychologist often struggled to cope with several losses they felt had existential and long-term effects. Commonly, these women reported not having the social support they needed, managing several concurrent life stressors, and/or not having the repertoire of coping skills they required to "remain afloat." Findings from this study begin to bridge the gap between clinicians' and patients' expectations of how psychosocial services should be used in response to distress screening. PMID:24925200

  1. Psychosocial consequences of cancer screening - development and validation of a questionnaire

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodersen, John; Thorsen, H; Kreiner, Svend

    2010-01-01

    COS were tested on participants in a lung cancer screening program. The results were thematically analyzed to identify the key consequences of abnormal and false-positive screening results. Item Response Theory and Classical Test Theory were used to analyze data. Dimensionality, objectivity, and...... reliability were established by item analysis, examining the fit between item responses and Rasch models. Results: Eight themes specifically relevant for participants in lung cancer screening results were identified: “self-blame,” “focus on symptoms,” “stigmatization,” “introvert,” “harm of smoking...... experience in lung cancer screening. Part I: “anxiety,” “behavior,” “dejection,” “sleep,” “selfblame,” “focus on airway symptoms,” “stigmatization,” “introvert,” and “harm of smoking.” Part II: “calm/relax,” “social network,” “existential values,” “impulsivity,” “empathy,” and “regretful of still smoking...

  2. Knowledge, attitudes and practices toward breast cancer screening in a rural South African community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorah U. Ramathuba

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The study assessed the knowledge, attitudes and breast cancer screening practices amongst women aged 30–65 years residing in a rural South African community.Method: A quantitative, descriptive cross-sectional design was used and a systematic sampling technique was employed to select 150 participants. The questionnaire was pretested for validity and consistency. Ethical considerations were adhered to in protecting the rights of participants. Thereafter, data were collected and analysed descriptively using the Predictive Analytics Software program.Results: Findings revealed that the level of knowledge about breast cancer of women in Makwarani Community was relatively low. The attitude toward breast cancer was negative whereas the majority of women had never performed breast cancer diagnostic methods.Conclusion: Health education on breast cancer screening practices is lacking and the knowledge deficit can contribute negatively to early detection of breast cancer and compound late detection. Based on the findings, community-based intervention was recommended in order to bridge the knowledge gap

  3. What we thought we knew: African American males' perceptions of prostate cancer and screening methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke-Tasker, Veronica A; Wade, Revia

    2002-01-01

    This study applied the Health Belief Model in determining African American male's knowledge, attitudes and perceptions of prostate cancer and early detection methods. The ultimate value of the information assessed from this population was used to design specific theory-based, culturally relevant interventions which may decrease mortality in this high-risk population. Two focus groups were conducted with African-American men whose ages ranged from 38-80 years. After consenting to audio-taping, participants completed a survey questionnaire and viewed a culturally appropriate video on prostate cancer. Results indicate that, on average, the men believed in the efficacy of prostate cancer early detection methods. Study participants felt physicians did not adequately screen or suggest that they be screened for prostate cancer. Men between 40 and 50 years of age expressed concern about possible changes in their sex life if diagnosed with prostate cancer. Despite having limited knowledge of prostate cancer they considered a digital rectal examination to be embarrassing and uncomfortable. However, they were not opposed to having the procedure done. PMID:12108141

  4. Optoelectronic image processing for cervical cancer screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanswamy, Ramkumar; Sharpe, John P.; Johnson, Kristina M.

    1994-05-01

    Automation of the Pap-smear cervical screening method is highly desirable as it relieves tedium for the human operators, reduces cost and should increase accuracy and provide repeatability. We present here the design for a high-throughput optoelectronic system which forms the first stage of a two stage system to automate pap-smear screening. We use a mathematical morphological technique called the hit-or-miss transform to identify the suspicious areas on a pap-smear slide. This algorithm is implemented using a VanderLugt architecture and a time-sequential ANDing smart pixel array.

  5. Preferences and acceptance of colorectal cancer screening in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saengow, Udomsak; Chongsuwiwatvong, Virasakdi; Geater, Alan; Birch, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is now common in Thailand with an increase in incidence over time. Health authorities are planning to implement a nationwide CRC screening program using fecal immunochemical test (FIT) as a primary screening tool. This study aimed to estimate preferences and acceptance of FIT and colonoscopy, explore factors influencing the acceptance, and investigate reasons behind choosing and rejecting to screen before the program was implemented. Patients aged 50-69, visiting the primary care unit during the study period, were invited to join this study. Patients with a history of cancer or past CRC screening were excluded. Face-to-face interviews were conducted. Subjects were informed about CRC and the screening tests: FIT and colonoscopy. Then, they were asked for their opinions regarding the screening. The total number of subjects was 437 (86.7% response rate). Fifty-eight percent were females. The median age was 58 years. FIT was accepted by 74.1% of subjects compared to 55.6% for colonoscopy. The acceptance of colonoscopy was associated with perceived susceptibility to CRC and family history of cancer. No symptoms, unwilling to screen, healthy, too busy and anxious about diagnosis were reasons for refusing to screen. FIT was preferred for its simplicity and non-invasiveness compared with colonoscopy. Those rejecting FIT expressed a strong preference for colonoscopy. Subjects chose colonoscopy because of its accuracy; it was refused for the process and complications. If the screening program is implemented for the entire target population in Thailand, we estimate that 106,546 will have a positive FIT, between 8,618 and 12,749 identified with advanced adenoma and between 2,645 and 3,912 identified with CRC in the first round of the program. PMID:25824749

  6. Is prostate cancer screening responsible for the negative results of prostate cancer treatment trials?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Vinay

    2016-08-01

    Clinical guidelines continue to move away from routine prostate specific antigen screening (PSA), once a widespread medical practice. A curious difference exists between early prostate cancer and early breast cancer. While randomized trials of therapy in early breast cancer continue to show overall survival benefit, this is not the case in prostate cancer, where prostatectomy was no better than observation in a recent trial, and where early androgen deprivation is no better than late androgen deprivation. Here, I make the case that prostate cancer screening contributes so greatly to over diagnosis that even treatment trials yield null results due to contamination with non-life threatening disease. PMID:27372859

  7. Breast cancer screening; cost-effective in practice?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main aim of national breast screening is a reduction in breast cancer mortality. The data on the reduction in breast cancer mortality from three (of the five) Swedish trials in particular gave rise to the expectation that the Dutch programme of 2-yearly screening for women aged 50-70 would produce a 16% reduction in the total population. In all likelihood, many of the years of life gained as a result of screening are enjoyed in good health. According to its critics the actual benefit that can be achieved from the national breast cancer screening programmes is overstated. Considerable benefits have recently been demonstrated in England and Wales. However, the fall was so considerable in such a relatively short space of time that screening (started in 1987) was thought to only have played a small part. As far as the Dutch screening programme is concerned it is still too early to reach any conclusions about a possible reduction in mortality. The first short-term results of the screening are favourable and as good as (or better than) expectations. In Swedish regions where mammographic screening was introduced, a 19% reduction in breast cancer mortality can be estimated at population level, and recently a 20% reduction was presented in the UK. In countries where women are expected to make appointments for screening themselves, the attendance figures are significantly lower and the quality of the process as a whole is sometimes poorer. The benefits of breast cancer screening need to be carefully balanced against the burden to women and to the health care system. Mass breast screening requires many resources and will be a costly service. Cost-effectiveness of a breast cancer screening programme can be estimated using a computer model. Published cost-effectiveness ratios may differ tremendously, but are often the result of different types of calculation, time periods considered, including or excluding downstream cost. The approach of simulation and estimation is here

  8. ESR/ERS white paper on lung cancer screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauczor, Hans-Ulrich; Bonomo, Lorenzo; Gaga, Mina; Nackaerts, Kristiaan; Peled, Nir; Prokop, Mathias; Remy-Jardin, Martine; von Stackelberg, Oyunbileg; Sculier, Jean-Paul

    2015-07-01

    Lung cancer is the most frequently fatal cancer, with poor survival once the disease is advanced. Annual low dose computed tomography has shown a survival benefit in screening individuals at high risk for lung cancer. Based on the available evidence, the European Society of Radiology and the European Respiratory Society recommend lung cancer screening in comprehensive, quality-assured, longitudinal programmes within a clinical trial or in routine clinical practice at certified multidisciplinary medical centres. Minimum requirements include: standardised operating procedures for low dose image acquisition, computer-assisted nodule evaluation, and positive screening results and their management; inclusion/exclusion criteria; expectation management; and smoking cessation programmes. Further refinements are recommended to increase quality, outcome and cost-effectiveness of lung cancer screening: inclusion of risk models, reduction of effective radiation dose, computer-assisted volumetric measurements and assessment of comorbidities (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and vascular calcification). All these requirements should be adjusted to the regional infrastructure and healthcare system, in order to exactly define eligibility using a risk model, nodule management and quality assurance plan. The establishment of a central registry, including biobank and image bank, and preferably on a European level, is strongly encouraged. PMID:25929956

  9. New Molecular Tools for Efficient Screening of Cervical Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magnus von Knebel Doeberitz

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Cytological screening using the Pap-smear led to a remarkable reduction of the mortality of cervical cancer. However, due to subjective test criteria it is hampered by poor inter- and intra-observer agreement. More reproducible assays are expected to improve the current screening and avoid unnecessary medical intervention and psychological distress for the affected women. Cervical cancer arises as consequence of persistent high risk papillomavirus (HR-HPV infections. Expression of two viral oncogenes, E6 and E7, in epithelial stem cells is required to initiate and maintain cervical carcinogenesis and results in significant overexpression of the cellular p16INK4a protein. Since this protein is not expressed in normal cervical squamous epithelia, screening for p16INK4a over-expressing cells allows to specifically identify dysplastic lesions, and significantly reduces the inter-observer disagreement of the conventional cytological or histological tests. Progression of preneoplastic lesions to invasive cancers is associated with extensive recombination of viral and cellular genomes which can be monitored by detection of papillomavirus oncogene transcripts (APOT assay derived from integrated viral genome copies. Detection of integrated type oncogene transcripts points to far advanced dysplasia or invasive cancers and thus represents a progression marker for cervical lesions. These new assays discussed here will help to improve current limitations in cervical cancer screening, diagnosis, and therapy control.

  10. ESR/ERS white paper on lung cancer screening

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kauczor, Hans-Ulrich; Stackelberg, Oyunbileg von [University Hospital Heidelberg, Dept of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Heidelberg (Germany); Member of the German Lung Research Center, Translational Lung Research Center, Heidelberg (Germany); Bonomo, Lorenzo [A. Gemelli University Hospital, Institute of Radiology, Rome (Italy); Gaga, Mina [Athens Chest Hospital, 7th Resp. Med. Dept and Asthma Center, Athens (Greece); Nackaerts, Kristiaan [KU Leuven-University of Leuven, University Hospitals Leuven, Department of Respiratory Diseases/Respiratory Oncology Unit, Leuven (Belgium); Peled, Nir [Tel Aviv University, Davidoff Cancer Center, Rabin Medical Center, Tel Aviv (Israel); Prokop, Mathias [Radboud University Medical Center, Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Remy-Jardin, Martine [Department of Thoracic Imaging, Hospital Calmette (EA 2694), CHRU et Universite de Lille, Lille (France); Sculier, Jean-Paul [Universite Libre de Bruxelles, Thoracic oncology, Institut Jules Bordet, Brussels (Belgium); Collaboration: on behalf of the European Society of Radiology (ESR) and the European Respiratory Society (ERS)

    2015-09-15

    Lung cancer is the most frequently fatal cancer, with poor survival once the disease is advanced. Annual low-dose computed tomography has shown a survival benefit in screening individuals at high risk for lung cancer. Based on the available evidence, the European Society of Radiology and the European Respiratory Society recommend lung cancer screening in comprehensive, quality-assured, longitudinal programmes within a clinical trial or in routine clinical practice at certified multidisciplinary medical centres. Minimum requirements include: standardised operating procedures for low-dose image acquisition, computer-assisted nodule evaluation, and positive screening results and their management; inclusion/exclusion criteria; expectation management; and smoking cessation programmes. Further refinements are recommended to increase quality, outcome and cost-effectiveness of lung cancer screening: inclusion of risk models, reduction of effective radiation dose, computer-assisted volumetric measurements and assessment of comorbidities (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and vascular calcification). All these requirements should be adjusted to the regional infrastructure and healthcare system, in order to exactly define eligibility using a risk model, nodule management and a quality assurance plan. The establishment of a central registry, including a biobank and an image bank, and preferably on a European level, is strongly encouraged. (orig.)

  11. ESR/ERS white paper on lung cancer screening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lung cancer is the most frequently fatal cancer, with poor survival once the disease is advanced. Annual low-dose computed tomography has shown a survival benefit in screening individuals at high risk for lung cancer. Based on the available evidence, the European Society of Radiology and the European Respiratory Society recommend lung cancer screening in comprehensive, quality-assured, longitudinal programmes within a clinical trial or in routine clinical practice at certified multidisciplinary medical centres. Minimum requirements include: standardised operating procedures for low-dose image acquisition, computer-assisted nodule evaluation, and positive screening results and their management; inclusion/exclusion criteria; expectation management; and smoking cessation programmes. Further refinements are recommended to increase quality, outcome and cost-effectiveness of lung cancer screening: inclusion of risk models, reduction of effective radiation dose, computer-assisted volumetric measurements and assessment of comorbidities (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and vascular calcification). All these requirements should be adjusted to the regional infrastructure and healthcare system, in order to exactly define eligibility using a risk model, nodule management and a quality assurance plan. The establishment of a central registry, including a biobank and an image bank, and preferably on a European level, is strongly encouraged. (orig.)

  12. Prostate Cancer Screening : The effect on prostate cancer mortality and incidence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.J. van Leeuwen (Pim)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractAt first glance, deciding whether to get the PSA screening test for prostate cancer seems to be pretty straightforward and attractive. It’s a simple blood test that can pick up the prostate cancer long before your symptoms appear. After all, your prostate cancer is earlier treated result

  13. Colorectal cancer screening:The role of CT colonography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Andrea; Laghi; Franco; Iafrate; Marco; Rengo; Cesare; Hassan

    2010-01-01

    Computed tomography colonography(CTC) in colorectal cancer(CRC) screening has two roles:one present and the other potential.The present role is,without any further discussion,the integration into established screening programs as a replacement for barium enema in the case of incomplete colonoscopy.The potential role is the use of CTC as a first-line screening method together with Fecal Occult Blood Test,sigmoidoscopy and colonoscopy.However,despite the fact that CTC has been officially endorsed for CRC scre...

  14. Breast cancer knowledge, attitudes, and screening behaviors among African American women: the Black cosmetologists promoting health program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weldon Rai-nesha

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background African American women have higher rates of breast cancer mortality than their white counterparts. Studies have suggested that this is partly caused by discovery of cancer at a later stage, highlighting the importance of encouraging early detection of breast cancer in this population. To guide the creation of a breast cancer education intervention and help focus other health educators' and clinicians' health promotion efforts, this study explored whether a cohort of African American women living in San Diego would demonstrate the possession of adequate baseline knowledge about breast cancer screening and adherence to widely recommended screening guidelines. Methods African American women (N = 1,055 from San Diego, California participated in a beauty salon-based survey about breast cancer knowledge, attitudes, and screening practices. Women's ages ranged from 20 to 94 years, with average age of 42.20 (SD = 13.53 years. Thirty-four percent reported completing college and/or some graduate school training, and 52% reported having some college or post high school formal training. Seventy-five percent of the sample reported working outside their home. Participating cosmetologists and their salons were recruited to the study through word-of-mouth referral by highly respected African American community leaders. Results Salon clients reported low rates of adherence to recommended breast cancer screening guidelines. Of the 1,055 participants, 31% reporting performing breast self-exam every month. Of those participants 40 and older, 57% reported having had a clinical breast exam and 43% reported having had a mammogram in the past year. Knowledge of breast cancer was associated with adherence to screening guidelines. While women recognized the serious health threat that breast cancer poses and that early detection of breast cancer is important, only 30% of women reported feeling well informed about the disease. Many participants

  15. Lung cancer screening: Computed tomography or chest radiographs?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Edwin; JR; van; Beek; Saeed; Mirsadraee; John; T; Murchison

    2015-01-01

    Worldwide, lung cancer is the leading cause of mortalitydue to malignancy. The vast majority of cases of lung cancer are smoking related and the most effective way of reducing lung cancer incidence and mortality is by smoking cessation. In the Western world, smoking cessation policies have met with limited success. The other major means of reducing lung cancer deaths is to diagnose cases at an earlier more treatable stage employing screening programmes using chest radiographs or low dose computed tomography. In many countries smoking is still on the increase, and the sheer scale of the problem limits the affordability of such screening programmes. This short review article will evaluate the current evidence and potential areas of research which may benefit policy making across the world.

  16. Age-specific interval breast cancers in Japan. Estimation of the proper sensitivity of screening using a population-based cancer registry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The age-specific sensitivity of a screening program was investigated using a population-based cancer registry as a source of false-negative cancer cases. A population-based screening program for breast cancer was run using either clinical breast examinations (CBE) alone or mammography combined with CBE in the Miyagi Prefecture from 1997 to 2002. Interval cancers were newly identified by linking the screening records to the population-based cancer registry to estimate the number of false-negative cases of screening program. Among 112071 women screened by mammography combined with CBE, the number of detected cancers, false-negative cases and the sensitivity were 289, 22 and 92.9%, respectively, based on the reports from participating municipalities. The number of newly found false-negative cases and corrected sensitivity when using the registry were 34 and 83.8%, respectively. In detected cancers, the sensitivity of screening by mammography combined with CBE in women ranging from 40 to 49 years of age based on a population-based cancer registry was much lower than that in women 50-59 and 60-69 years of age (40-49: 18, 71.4%, 50-59: 19, 85.8%, 60-69: 19, 87.2%). These data suggest that the accurate outcome of an evaluation of breast cancer screening must include the use of a population-based cancer registry for detecting false-negative cases. Screening by mammography combined with CBE may therefore not be sufficiently sensitive for women ranging from 40 to 49 years of age. (author)

  17. Risk of cancer radioinduced by mammographic screening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work aims to estimate the risk benefit of mammography, in terms of the number of lives saved/number of lives lost, in the female population of the State of Goias, Brazil, depending on the age range indicated for screening and the type of technology available

  18. Estudio de la no participación en el programa de prevención de cáncer de mama en la ciudad de Valencia Study of non-participation in the breast cancer screening program in the city of Valencia [Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Alcaraz

    2002-06-01

    alta, que llevan THS y de nivel cultural medio o alto tienen mayor probabilidad de estar estudiadas. Conclusiones: El perfil de las mujeres que no participan, pertenece, por un lado, a la clase social media o alta, que toman THS y que están siendo revisadas por otros servicios sanitarios, y por otro, a un grupo de mujeres con nivel socioeconómico bajo y cuyo motivo de no participación es por temor o dificultades de horario.Aim: To determine the reasons for non-participation of women in a breast cancer screening program. Methods: We performed an observational, cross-sectional study in women who were invited to participate in the breast cancer screening program in the city of Valencia and who failed to attend. The women were interviewed in their homes through a questionnaire consisting of 25 questions grouped as follows: knowledge of the program, reasons for nonparcitipation, attitudes or beliefs and characteristics of the interviewees (socioeconomic and educational variables and age. A descriptive analysis was performed. Differences in the characteristics of women were evaluated thorugh bivariate analysis. Multivariate analysis was performed through logistic regression. Results: A total of 783 addreses were used, 411 questionnaires were completed and 361 were analyzed. The 50 questionnaires used in the pilot study were excluded because, as a consequence of this study, the questionnaire had been modified. Most of the women (93,4% (CI: 90.3-95.7 remembered having an appointment. The main reason for not attending was being screened in another health service in 48.8% (CI: 43.6-53.9, followed by various personal reasons in 16.1% (CI: 12.3-19.9 and inability to keep the appointment at the specified time in 15.5% (CI: 11.8-19.2. Comparison of women in the middle and upper social classes with those in the lower classes revealed important differences. Middle and upper class women had a higher probability of knowing about the program and of being on hormone replacement therapy

  19. Are Religious Women More Likely to Have Breast Cancer Screening?

    OpenAIRE

    Van Ness, Peter H.; Kasl, Stanislav V; Jones, Beth A.

    2002-01-01

    The study objective was to investigate whether women who frequently attend religious services are more likely to have breast cancer screening—mammography and clinical breast examinations—than other women. Multivariate logistic regression models show that white women who attended religious services frequently had more than twice the odds of breast cancer screening than white women who attended less frequently (Odds Ratio (OR) = 2.61; 95% Confidence Interval (CI) = 1.12, 6.06). The behavior of ...

  20. Hereditary Colorectal Cancer: Registration, Screening and Prognostic Biomarker Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Barrow, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Aims: The purpose of the research was to investigate the benefits of a hereditary colorectal cancer registry in the management of patients and families with Lynch syndrome. In study one, a systematic review was performed to quantify the impact of registration and screening on colorectal cancer (CRC) incidence and mortality, with comparison between familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) and Lynch syndrome (LS). In study two, a regional Lynch syndrome registry was utilised to evaluate the uptake ...

  1. Filipina American women's breast cancer knowledge, attitudes, and screening behaviors

    OpenAIRE

    Ryujin Lisa; Sadler Georgia; Ko Celine M; Dong Adam

    2003-01-01

    Abstract Background Filipino Americans are the fastest growing Asian minority group in the United States. There is limited knowledge about their breast cancer knowledge, screening practices and attitudes. Methods As part of the evaluation of the Asian Grocery Store-Based Cancer Education Program, 248 Filipino American women completed baseline and follow-up surveys, while an additional 58 took part in focus groups. Results Compliance with annual clinical breast exam guidelines among women 40 t...

  2. Lung cancer screening in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    OpenAIRE

    Gonzalez, Jessica; Marín, Marta; Sánchez-Salcedo, Pablo; Zulueta, Javier J.

    2016-01-01

    Lung cancer and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are two intimately related diseases, with great impact on public health. Annual screening using low-dose computed tomography (LDCT) of the chest significantly reduces mortality due to lung cancer, and several scientific societies now recommend this technique. COPD, defined by the presence of airflow obstruction [forced expiratory volume and forced vital capacity (FVC) ratio less than 0.70], and their clinical phenotypes, namely emph...

  3. ACOG Recommendations and Guidelines for Cervical Cancer Screening and Management

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-10-15

    Dr. Alan Waxman, a professor of obstetrics and gynecology at the University of New Mexico and chair of the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG) committee for the underserved, talks about ACOG's recommendations for cervical cancer screening and management.  Created: 10/15/2009 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP), Division of Cancer Prevention and Control (DCPC).   Date Released: 6/9/2010.

  4. A brief measure of Smokers' knowledge of lung cancer screening with low-dose computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowenstein, Lisa M; Richards, Vincent F; Leal, Viola B; Housten, Ashley J; Bevers, Therese B; Cantor, Scott B; Cinciripini, Paul M; Cofta-Woerpel, Ludmila M; Escoto, Kamisha H; Godoy, Myrna C B; Linder, Suzanne K; Munden, Reginald F; Volk, Robert J

    2016-12-01

    We describe the development and psychometric properties of a new, brief measure of smokers' knowledge of lung cancer screening with low-dose computed tomography (LDCT). Content experts identified key facts smokers should know in making an informed decision about lung cancer screening. Sample questions were drafted and iteratively refined based on feedback from content experts and cognitive testing with ten smokers. The resulting 16-item knowledge measure was completed by 108 heavy smokers in Houston, Texas, recruited from 12/2014 to 09/2015. Item difficulty, item discrimination, internal consistency and test-retest reliability were assessed. Group differences based upon education levels and smoking history were explored. Several items were dropped due to ceiling effects or overlapping constructs, resulting in a 12-item knowledge measure. Additional items with high item uncertainty were retained because of their importance in informed decision making about lung cancer screening. Internal consistency reliability of the final scale was acceptable (KR-20 = 0.66) and test-retest reliability of the overall scale was 0.84 (intraclass correlation). Knowledge scores differed across education levels (F = 3.36, p = 0.04), while no differences were observed between current and former smokers (F = 1.43, p = 0.24) or among participants who met or did not meet the 30-pack-year screening eligibility criterion (F = 0.57, p = 0.45). The new measure provides a brief, valid and reliable indicator of smokers' knowledge of key concepts central to making an informed decision about lung cancer screening with LDCT, and can be part of a broader assessment of the quality of smokers' decision making about lung cancer screening. PMID:27512650

  5. BREAST CANCER SCREENING KNOWLEDGE AND PRACTICE AMONG WOMEN IN SOUTHEAST OF IRAN

    OpenAIRE

    Z Heidari; H. R Mahmoudzadeh-Sagheb; N. Sakhavar

    2008-01-01

    "nBreast cancer is the most common cancer occurring among women. The mortality rate of breast cancer can be reduced by regular breast cancer screening program. This study was carried out to identify the knowledge and practice of women about breast cancer screening in Zahedan, southeast of Iran. In this cross- sectional study, 384 women were selected as an improbability sample of women referring to Qouds maternity hospital. Knowledge and practice of them about breast cancer screening were...

  6. Breast cancer screening: Evidence of the effect of adjunct ultrasound screening in women with unilateral mammography-negative dense breasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atoosa Adibi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Patients with the previous history of breast cancer are in risk of contralateral breast cancer. On the other hand, increased breast density is a risk factor for breast cancer and the sensitivity of detecting nonpalpable cancers in screening mammography in radiographically dense breasts is low. The use of ultrasonography in dense breast remains a controversial topic. The purpose of this study was to assess the usefulness of routine ultrasonography in follow-up of women with the previous history of breast cancer and negative mammography but dense breasts. Materials and Methods: In a cross-sectional study, a total of 267 individuals with unilateral postmastectomy mammogram screened and 153 subjects assigned to study. There were 28 subjects with American College of Radiology (ACR breast density 2 and 125 with ACR breast density 3-4, which there was no new finding in their mammogram in comparison to previous studies. We assumed subjects with ACR breast density 3-4 as mammographic Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS category 0 for malignancy. Standard two-view mammogram was performed for all participants, and breast ultrasound (US examinations were performed by an expert radiologist in radial and anti-radial planes. The data were analyzed using SPSS version 20.0 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, Illinois, USA. Results: The results showed that in subjects with ACR breast density 3-4, when there was no new density in two consecutive mammograms in comparison to previous studies, US also showed no possibility for malignancy (BI-RADS 1-2. And also in subjects with ACR breast density 2, when the mammographic results were BI-RADS 1-2, the US results was the same. Conclusion: Our data indicate that for the detection of breast cancer, sensitivity of US was not greater than mammography in patients with postmastectomy unilateral dense breast if there is not any new density.

  7. Comparison of two types of mass screening for lung cancer in terms of cost-effectiveness. Indirect chest X-ray vs LSCT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mass screening for lung cancer is widely performed in Japan, with the photofluoroscopic examination and sputum cytology used as the screening methods. However, the clinical efficacy of these screening methods is considered to be inadequate in terms of the survival rate of the screened population. In the previous report we proposed that a specially designed CT technique, called lung cancer screening CT (LSCT), may be useful in screening for lung cancer. In this paper a preliminary comparison is made between the present and future methods of lung cancer screening in terms of cost-effectiveness. A model for cost-effectiveness analysis estimates the net life-years saved by screening and then determines the direct cost of screening including cost of therapy. Various factors are taken into account such as sensitivity of the screening methods, rate of participation in detailed examination, 5-year survival rate of the screened population, cost of the screening method, and average cost of therapy for screen-detected patients and outpatients. An example of the results is as follows: for a population with a lung cancer incidence of 200 x 10-5 person/year and life expectancy of 30 years, the net person years saved are 672 x 10-5 for the present screening method and 2376 x 10-5 for LSCT screening. The cost required to save one person year are 1.46 x 105 yen for the present screening method and 2.03 x 105 yen for LSCT screening. In summary, LSCT screening is about four times better in terms of the net person years saved, but about 1.4 times worse in cost-effectiveness compared with the present method. We conclude that LSCT screening should be promoted steadily to save more lives from lung cancer, although its cost is slightly higher. Our economic position should easily be able to tolerate this amount of increase in cost. (author)

  8. Psychiatric morbidity and non-participation in breast cancer screening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Line Flytkjær; Pedersen, Anette Fischer; Bech, Bodil Hammer;

    2015-01-01

    Dette registerstudie undersøger sammenhængen mellem psykiatrisk morbiditet og ikke-deltagelse i brystkræftscreening. Kvinder med en indikation på psykisk morbiditet havde en 21 % øget sandsynlighed for ikke-deltagelse sammenliget med kvinder uden indikation på psykiatrisk morbiditet (95 % CI: 18-...

  9. Morphological feature detection for cervical cancer screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanswamy, Ramkumar; Sharpe, John P.; Duke, Heather J.; Stewart, Rosemary J.; Johnson, Kristina M.

    1995-03-01

    An optoelectronic system has been designed to pre-screen pap-smear slides and detect the suspicious cells using the hit/miss transform. Computer simulation of the algorithm tested on 184 pap-smear images detected 95% of the suspicious region as suspect while tagging just 5% of the normal regions as suspect. An optoelectronic implementation of the hit/miss transform using a 4f Vander-Lugt correlator architecture is proposed and demonstrated with experimental results.

  10. Cervical cancer screening in Belgium and overscreening of adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Kerrebroeck, Helena; Makar, Amin

    2016-03-01

    There has been a marked decrease in the incidence of cervical cancer thanks to cytological screening with the Pap smear test. In Belgium, this screening is rather opportunistic. Over 39% of Belgian women between 25 and 64 years of age are never or only rarely screened by cytological tests. Moreover, there is an excess use of Pap smears because of women who rely on their yearly cervical smear and because many Pap smears are obtained from women beyond the target age range of 25 to 64 years. Sexually active adolescents are increasingly being recognized as a population distinct from adult women. They are at a high risk of acquiring the human papillomavirus (HPV), but most infections and cervical intraepithelial lesions caused by HPV are efficiently cleared by the immune system. We present a description of cervical cancer screening in Belgium using the database of the National Health Insurance Institute (RIZIV/INAMI) and the Belgian Health Care Knowledge Centre (KCE). We describe why elimination of Pap testing in the adolescent population reduces costs and harms without increasing cervical cancer rates. Expectant management, education on the risk factors for cervical cancer and HPV persistence, and HPV vaccination are very important in adolescents and young adults. PMID:25812038

  11. Breast Cancer Screening: Cultural Beliefs and Diverse Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Cassandra E.

    2006-01-01

    This article addresses the role of culture in breast cancer screening behavior among African American, American Indian/Alaskan Native, Asian American/Pacific Islander, and Hispanic/Latina women. It reviews cultural beliefs, attitudes, and knowledge and their relative influence on women's decisions regarding health tests. The article explores how…

  12. Knowledge and Attitudes about Colon Cancer Screening among African Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Aimee S.; Daley, Christine M.; Greiner, K. Allen

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: To explore knowledge and attitudes about colorectal cancer (CRC) screening among African American patients age 45 and older at a community health center serving low-income and uninsured patients. Methods: We conducted 7 focus groups and 17 additional semistructured interviews. Sessions were audio-recorded, transcribed, and analyzed…

  13. Message from Terrence Howard: Screening for Colorectal Cancer PSA (:20)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-04-13

    A message from the actor/musician Terrence Howard about the importance of screening for colorectal cancer.  Created: 4/13/2010 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 4/13/2010.

  14. Message from Terrence Howard: Screening for Colorectal Cancer PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-04-13

    A message from the actor/musician Terrence Howard about the importance of screening for colorectal cancer.  Created: 4/13/2010 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 4/13/2010.

  15. Electrical Bioimpedance Analysis: A New Method in Cervical Cancer Screening

    OpenAIRE

    Lopamudra Das; Soumen Das; Jyotirmoy Chatterjee

    2015-01-01

    Cervical cancer is the second most common female cancer worldwide and a disease of concern due to its high rate of incidence of about 500,000 women annually and is responsible for about 280,000 deaths in a year. The mortality and morbidity of cervical cancer are reduced through mass screening via Pap smear, but this technique suffers from very high false negativity of around 30% to 40% and hence the sensitivity of this technique is not more than 60%. Electrical bioimpedance study employing cy...

  16. Ovarian Cancer Screening Method Fails to Reduce Deaths from the Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    New results from the NCI-sponsored PLCO Cancer Screening Trial show that screening for ovarian cancer with transvaginal ultrasound (TVU) and the CA-125 blood test did not result in fewer deaths from the disease compared with usual care.

  17. Effects of screening for psychological distress on patient outcomes in cancer : A systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, Anna; Roseman, Michelle; Delisle, Vanessa C.; Milette, Katherine; Levis, Brooke; Syamchandra, Achyuth; Stefanek, Michael E.; Stewart, Donna E.; de Jonge, Peter; Coyne, James C.; Thombs, Brett D.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Several practice guidelines recommend routine screening for psychological distress in cancer care. The objective was to evaluate the effect of screening cancer patients for psychological distress by assessing the (1) effectiveness of interventions to reduce distress among patients identif

  18. Screening for Breast Cancer: #BeBrave: A Life-Saving Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Screening For Breast Cancer #BeBrave: A Life-Saving Test ... cancer survivor, you may not have gotten your screening mammogram. What is your message to other women ...

  19. Racial and ethnic disparities in U.S. cancer screening rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    The percentage of U.S. citizens screened for cancer remains below national targets, with significant disparities among racial and ethnic populations, according to the first federal study to identify cancer screening disparities among Asian and Hispanic gr

  20. Screening for Bladder and Other Urothelial Cancers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Using tobacco , especially smoking cigarettes. Having a family history of bladder cancer. Having certain changes in the genes . Being exposed to paints, dyes, metals or petroleum products in the workplace. Past treatment with radiation therapy to the pelvis or with certain anticancer drugs, ...

  1. An update in breast cancer screening and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warrier, Sanjay; Tapia, Grace; Goltsman, David; Beith, Jane

    2016-03-01

    This article provides an overview of the main controversies in a number of key areas of breast cancer management. Relevant studies that have contributed to guide the treatment of this heterogeneous disease in the field of breast screening, surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy are highlighted. Mammography and ultrasound are the main methods of breast screening. MRI and tomosynthesis are emerging as new screening tools for a selected group of breast cancer patients. From a surgical perspective, oncoplastic techniques and neoadjuvant chemotherapy are improving cosmetic results in breast-conserving surgery. For high-risk patients, controversies still remain regarding prophylactic mastectomies. Finally, the appropriate management of the axilla continues evolving with the increasing role of radiotherapy as an alternative treatment to axillary dissection. PMID:26689336

  2. Two cytological methods for screening for cervical cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirschner, B.; Simonsen, K.; Junge, J.

    2008-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Denmark has had an organized screening programme for cervical cancer since the 1960s. In spite of this, almost 150 Danish women die from the disease each year. There are currently two different methods for preparation of cervical samples: conventional Papanicolaou smear and liquid......-based cytology. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In 2002, the Department of Pathology, Hvidovre Hospital changed over from the conventional Papanicolaou smear screening method to SurePath liquid-based cytology. This article is based on a retrospective comparison on data from the population screening programme for cervical...... cancer in the Municipality of Copenhagen. RESULTS: The number of tests with the diagnosis of "normal cells" decreased 1% after the conversion to liquid-based cytology, whilst the number of tests with "atypical cells" and "cells suspicious for malignancy" increased by 64.3% and 41.2% respectively...

  3. CT Lung Cancer Screening Program Development: Part 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yates, Teri

    2015-01-01

    Radiology administrators must use innovative strategies around clinical collaboration and marketing to ensure that patients access the service in sufficient numbers. Radiology Associates of South Florida in collaboration with Baptist Health South Florida have developed a successful lung cancer screening program. The biggest factors in their success have been the affordability of their service and the quality of the program. Like mammography, lung cancer screening programs serve as an entry point to other services that generate revenue for the hospital. Patients may require further evaluation in the form of more imaging or surgical services for biopsy. Part 1 provided background and laid out fundamentals for starting a program. Part 2 focuses on building patient volume, marketing, and issues related to patient management after the screen is performed. PMID:26314180

  4. Implementing low-dose computed tomography screening for lung cancer in Canada: implications of alternative at-risk populations, screening frequency, and duration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, W.K.; Flanagan, W.M.; Miller, A.B.; Goffin, J.R.; Memon, S.; Fitzgerald, N.; Wolfson, M.C.

    2016-01-01

    Background Low-dose computed tomography (ldct) screening has been shown to reduce mortality from lung cancer; however, the optimal screening duration and “at risk” population are not known. Methods The Cancer Risk Management Model developed by Statistics Canada for the Canadian Partnership Against Cancer includes a lung screening module based on data from the U.S. National Lung Screening Trial (nlst). The base-case scenario reproduces nlst outcomes with high fidelity. The impact in Canada of annual screening on the number of incident cases and life-years gained, with a wider range of age and smoking history eligibility criteria and varied participation rates, was modelled to show the magnitude of clinical benefit nationally and by province. Life-years gained, costs (discounted and undiscounted), and resource requirements were also estimated. Results In 2014, 1.4 million Canadians were eligible for screening according to nlst criteria. Over 10 years, screening would detect 12,500 more lung cancers than the expected 268,300 and would gain 9200 life-years. The computed tomography imaging requirement of 24,000–30,000 at program initiation would rise to between 87,000 and 113,000 by the 5th year of an annual nlst-like screening program. Costs would increase from approximately $75 million to $128 million at 10 years, and the cumulative cost nationally over 10 years would approach $1 billion, partially offset by a reduction in the costs of managing advanced lung cancer. Conclusions Modelling various ways in which ldct might be implemented provides decision-makers with estimates of the effect on clinical benefit and on resource needs that clinical trial results are unable to provide.

  5. Ultrasound screening of contralateral breast after surgery for breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Seung Ja [Department of Radiology, Seoul Metropolitan Government Seoul National University, Boramae Medical Center (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Se-Yeong; Chang, Jung Min; Cho, Nariya [Department of Radiology, Seoul National University Hospital (Korea, Republic of); Han, Wonshik [Department of Surgery, Seoul National University Hospital (Korea, Republic of); Moon, Woo Kyung, E-mail: moonwk@snu.ac.kr [Department of Radiology, Seoul National University Hospital (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-01-15

    Highlights: • The addition of supplemental US to mammography depicted additional 5.0 cancers per 1000 postoperative women. • Positive biopsy rate of mammography-detected lesions was 66.7% (4 of 6) and that of US-detected lesions was 40.0% (6 of 15). • US can be helpful to detect mammographically occult breast cancer in the contralateral breast in women with previous history of cancer and dense breast. - Abstract: Objective: To determine whether supplemental screening ultrasound (US) to mammography could improve cancer detection rate of the contralateral breast in patients with a personal history of breast cancer and dense breasts. Materials and methods: During a one-year study period, 1314 screening patients with a personal history of breast cancer and dense breasts simultaneously underwent mammography and breast US. BI-RADS categories were given for mammography or US-detected lesions in the contralateral breast. The reference standard was histology and/or 1-year imaging follow-up, and the cancer rate according to BI-RADS categories and cancer detection rate and positive biopsy rate according to detection modality were analyzed. Results: Of 1314 patients, 84 patients (6.4%) were categorized as category 3 with one interval cancer and one cancer which was upgraded to category 4A after 6-month follow-up US (2.5% cancer rate, 95% CIs 1.5–9.1%). Fifteen patients (1.1%) had category 4A or 4B lesions in the contralateral breast. Four lesions were detected on mammography (two lesions were also visible on US) and 11 lesions were detected on US and 5 cancers were confirmed (33.3%, 95% CIs 15.0–58.5%). Six patients (0.5%) had category 4C lesions, 2 detected on mammography and 4 on US and 4 cancers were confirmed (66.7%, 95% CIs 29.6–90.8%). No lesions were categorized as category 5 in the contralateral breast. Cancer detection rate by mammography was 3.3 per 1000 patients and that by US was 5.0 per 1000 patients, therefore overall cancer detection rate by

  6. Ultrasound screening of contralateral breast after surgery for breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • The addition of supplemental US to mammography depicted additional 5.0 cancers per 1000 postoperative women. • Positive biopsy rate of mammography-detected lesions was 66.7% (4 of 6) and that of US-detected lesions was 40.0% (6 of 15). • US can be helpful to detect mammographically occult breast cancer in the contralateral breast in women with previous history of cancer and dense breast. - Abstract: Objective: To determine whether supplemental screening ultrasound (US) to mammography could improve cancer detection rate of the contralateral breast in patients with a personal history of breast cancer and dense breasts. Materials and methods: During a one-year study period, 1314 screening patients with a personal history of breast cancer and dense breasts simultaneously underwent mammography and breast US. BI-RADS categories were given for mammography or US-detected lesions in the contralateral breast. The reference standard was histology and/or 1-year imaging follow-up, and the cancer rate according to BI-RADS categories and cancer detection rate and positive biopsy rate according to detection modality were analyzed. Results: Of 1314 patients, 84 patients (6.4%) were categorized as category 3 with one interval cancer and one cancer which was upgraded to category 4A after 6-month follow-up US (2.5% cancer rate, 95% CIs 1.5–9.1%). Fifteen patients (1.1%) had category 4A or 4B lesions in the contralateral breast. Four lesions were detected on mammography (two lesions were also visible on US) and 11 lesions were detected on US and 5 cancers were confirmed (33.3%, 95% CIs 15.0–58.5%). Six patients (0.5%) had category 4C lesions, 2 detected on mammography and 4 on US and 4 cancers were confirmed (66.7%, 95% CIs 29.6–90.8%). No lesions were categorized as category 5 in the contralateral breast. Cancer detection rate by mammography was 3.3 per 1000 patients and that by US was 5.0 per 1000 patients, therefore overall cancer detection rate by

  7. Population screening for breast cancer in the European Community

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although our understanding of the causes of breast cancer is increasing, it is as yet not possible to recommend measures to decrease its occurrence. Therefore we have to resort to a substitute called secondary prevention which aims at preventing the occurrence of metastatic breast cancer and death by detecting the primary cancer in the breast at an earlier point in its natural history. The question whether this can be achieved can only be answered by scientific study. Such studies are being called: population-based screening programmes. Screening requires one or more tests by which one can partition a population in those who probably have a cancer and those who have not. Since an early breast cancer does not produce symptoms like pain the test has to be some sort of objective assessment. In the field of detecting breast cancer we have been greatly helped by the development of a radiologic technique called mammography. Mammography basically is not an easy technique since there is little contrast between structures in the breast compared with e.g. bone. The quality of mammograms, therefore, was not very high in the pioneering era during the nineteen-fifties and -sixties. This presentation discusses a move of a few doctors in New York city: a radiologist, a surgeon and epidemiologist, to design a scientific study which could answer the question whether mammography, added to a standard clinical examination of the breast would decrease mortality from breast cancer

  8. Breast cancer mortality in organised mammography screening in Denmark: comparative study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhl Jørgensen, Karsten; Zahl, Per-Henrik; Gøtzsche, Peter C

    2010-01-01

    To determine whether the previously observed 25% reduction in breast cancer mortality in Copenhagen following the introduction of mammography screening was indeed due to screening, by using an additional screening region and five years additional follow-up....

  9. The measurement of willingness to pay for mass cancer screening with whole-body PET (positron emission tomography)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recently, we have seen an increase in the number of studies that measured the willingness to pay (WTP) for medical services using the contingent valuation method (CVM) and evaluated the benefits of these services. This study aimed to measure the general public's WTP for cancer screening with positron emission tomography (PET) and to determine consumer characteristics that may affect their WTP. A questionnaire survey of males and females living in Japan aged between 40 and 59 years was conducted via the Internet. A total of 274 individuals accepted the offer to participate and were enrolled in the study. The study participants were divided into two groups: Group A (n=138) and Group B (n=136). Group A was provided only with information about the PET procedure and the high cancer detection rate; Group B was provided with additional information regarding the possibility of ''false negative'' and false positive'' results and the fact that the efficacy of PET screening for reducing mortality has not yet been demonstrated. Participants were then asked to answer their WTP for cancer screening with PET by payment cards approach. The overall average amount consumers were willing to pay for PET cancer screening was $103.7 (n=274). The average value in Group A was $107.3, the average value in Group B was $100.0 and there was no statistically significant difference between the groups. The results of categorical regression analysis showed that household annual income was the only significant factor affecting WTP. Our study showed that household annual income affected the WTP for cancer screening with PET and therefore the demand for PET screening would be limited to the high-income group. Negative information about PET did not reduce the WTP. This finding suggests that test subjects mainly evaluated the high detection rate of PET screening and the reassurance'' value of receiving negative screening results. (author)

  10. Health literacy and meeting breast and cervical cancer screening guidelines among Asians and whites in California

    OpenAIRE

    Sentell, Tetine; Braun, Kathryn L; Davis, James; Davis, Terry

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Empirical evidence regarding cancer screening and health literacy is mixed. Cancer is the leading cause of death in Asian Americans, yet screening rates are notably low. Using a population-based sample, we determined if health literacy: (1) was associated with breast and cervical cancer screening, and (2) helped to explain Asian cancer screening disparities. Methods We analyzed the 2007 California Health Interview Survey for Asian (Japanese, Chinese, Filipino, Korean, Vietnamese, o...

  11. Development and Validation of the Assessment of Health Literacy in Breast and Cervical Cancer Screening

    OpenAIRE

    Han, Hae-Ra; Huh, Boyun; Kim, Miyong T.; Kim, Jiyun; Nguyen, Tam

    2014-01-01

    For many people limited health literacy is a major barrier to effective preventive health behavior such as cancer screening, yet a comprehensive health literacy measure that is specific to breast and cervical cancer screening is not readily available. The purpose of this paper is to describe the development and testing of a new instrument to measure health literacy in the context of breast and cervical cancer screening, the Assessment of Health Literacy in Cancer Screening (AHL-C). The AHL-C ...

  12. Melanoma skin cancer screenings. A how-to approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobes, W L

    1995-01-15

    Development of a workshop on skin cancer screening should begin with physicians who are able to best diagnose and treat skin cancer, that is, dermatologists who are board certified or board eligible. Local societies should then be involved as well as organizations that can offer ancillary help such as screening, clinics' location and assisting with personnel financial aid, and exposure to the public, such as advertising. Support groups then become essential to a good screening. The help of the American Cancer Society, local churches, clubs, and others is beneficial. The organization should have a central organizing body that sets the dates and locations for the clinics and that helps get supplies, such as tables, screens for privacy, and literature. Volunteers can help with sign-in and sign-out sheets for the screening and can act as traffic directors and assist the physicians. Media exposure then becomes important. A TV or radio show can get the public's attention, for example, by releasing the latest data on skin cancer or by presenting a solar meter project showing the local risk of ultraviolet radiation. The workshop itself should begin on time. Additionally, a cutoff time is also needed. In the final stage, the forms should be processed and a follow-up evaluation should be done on the number of patients seen, precancerous and cancerous lesions found, and the potential for future functions. Popular ancillary aids are good literature on the subjects discussed, and samples of sunscreens (SPF 15 or better) that are donated by pharmaceutical companies. PMID:7804998

  13. Rationale and design of the iPap trial: a randomized controlled trial of home-based HPV self-sampling for improving participation in cervical screening by never- and under-screened women in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Organized screening based on Pap tests has substantially reduced deaths from cervical cancer in many countries, including Australia. However, the impact of the program depends upon the degree to which women participate. A new method of screening, testing for human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA to detect the virus that causes cervical cancer, has recently become available. Because women can collect their own samples for this test at home, it has the potential to overcome some of the barriers to Pap tests. The iPap trial will evaluate whether mailing an HPV self-sampling kit increases participation by never- and under-screened women within a cervical screening program. The iPap trial is a parallel randomized controlled, open label, trial. Participants will be Victorian women age 30–69 years, for whom there is either no record on the Victorian Cervical Cytology Registry (VCCR) of a Pap test (never-screened) or the last recorded Pap test was between five to fifteen years ago (under-screened). Enrolment information from the Victorian Electoral Commission will be linked to the VCCR to determine the never-screened women. Variables that will be used for record linkage include full name, address and date of birth. Never- and under-screened women will be randomly allocated to either receive an invitation letter with an HPV self-sampling kit or a reminder letter to attend for a Pap test, which is standard practice for women overdue for a test in Victoria. All resources have been focus group tested. The primary outcome will be the proportion of women who participate, by returning an HPV self-sampling kit for women in the self-sampling arm, and notification of a Pap test result to the Registry for women in the Pap test arm at 3 and 6 months after mailout. The most important secondary outcome is the proportion of test-positive women who undergo further investigations at 6 and 12 months after mailout of results. The iPap trial will provide strong evidence about whether HPV self

  14. Contrary to Evidence, Some Doctors Recommend Ovarian Cancer Screening | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    One in three doctors believes that screening for ovarian cancer is effective, according to a recently published survey of practicing physicians, even though substantial evidence to the contrary exists. |

  15. International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer Computed Tomography Screening Workshop 2011 report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, John K; Smith, Robert A; Aberle, Denise R; Oudkerk, Matthijs; Baldwin, David R; Yankelevitz, David; Pedersen, Jesper Holst; Swanson, Scott James; Travis, William D; Wisbuba, Ignacio I; Noguchi, Masayuki; Mulshine, Jim L

    2012-01-01

    The International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer (IASLC) Board of Directors convened a computed tomography (CT) Screening Task Force to develop an IASLC position statement, after the National Cancer Institute press statement from the National Lung Screening Trial showed that lung cancer deaths fell by 20%. The Task Force's Position Statement outlined a number of the major opportunities to further improve the CT screening in lung cancer approach, based on experience with cancer screening from other organ sites.The IASLC CT Screening Workshop 2011 further developed these discussions, which are summarized in this report. The recommendation from the workshop, and supported by the IASLC Board of Directors, was to set up the Strategic CT Screening Advisory Committee (IASLC-SSAC). The Strategic CT Screening Advisory Committee is currently engaging professional societies and organizations who are stakeholders in lung cancer CT screening implementation across the globe, to focus on delivering guidelines and recommendations in six specific areas: (i) identification of high-risk individuals for lung cancer CT screening programs; (ii) develop radiological guidelines for use in developing national screening programs; (iii) develop guidelines for the clinical work-up of "indeterminate nodules" resulting from CT screening programmers; (iv) guidelines for pathology reporting of nodules from lung cancer CT screening programs; (v) recommendations for surgical and therapeutic interventions of suspicious nodules identified through lung cancer CT screening programs; and (vi) integration of smoking cessation practices into future national lung cancer CT screening programs. PMID:22173661

  16. [Why reconsider the recommendation of breast cancer screening?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tesser, Charles Dalcanale; d'Ávila, Thiago Luiz de Campos

    2016-05-31

    The aim of this article was to discuss the recommendation of mammogram screening for breast cancer and its technical basis. The first part discusses criteria for the decision, which should be consistent with high-quality scientific evidence. The second part discusses over-diagnosis (the greatest harm of screening) and its meaning in questioning the natural history of disease model. The third part summarizes studies on the efficacy, effectiveness, and harms of screening, showing that the latter (especially over-diagnosis and false-positives) are significant, shedding doubt on the balance between harms and benefits. In conclusion, the recommendation of mammogram screening at any age should be reconsidered by Brazilian health authorities. PMID:27253456

  17. Breast cancer mortality in organised mammography screening in Denmark: comparative study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhl Jørgensen, Karsten; Zahl, Per-Henrik; Gøtzsche, Peter C

    2010-01-01

    To determine whether the previously observed 25% reduction in breast cancer mortality in Copenhagen following the introduction of mammography screening was indeed due to screening, by using an additional screening region and five years additional follow-up.......To determine whether the previously observed 25% reduction in breast cancer mortality in Copenhagen following the introduction of mammography screening was indeed due to screening, by using an additional screening region and five years additional follow-up....

  18. 42 CFR 410.39 - Prostate cancer screening tests: Conditions for and limitations on coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Prostate cancer screening tests: Conditions for and... Medical and Other Health Services § 410.39 Prostate cancer screening tests: Conditions for and limitations... of early detection of prostate cancer: (i) A screening digital rectal examination. (ii) A...

  19. Barriers to colorectal cancer screening: A case-control study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shan-Rong Cai; Su-Zhan Zhang; Shu Zheng; Hong-Hong Zhu

    2009-01-01

    AIM:To investigate barriers to colorectal cancer (CRC) screening in a community population. METHODS:We conducted a community-based case-control study in an urban Chinese population by questionnaire. Cases were selected from those completing both a fecal occult blood test (FOBT) case and colonoscopy in a CRC screening program in 2004. Control groups were matched by gender, age group and community. Control 1 included those having a positive FOBT but refusing a colonoscopy. Control 2 included those who refused both an FOBT and colonoscopy. RESULTS:The impact of occupation on willingness to attend a colorectal screening program differed by gender. P for heterogeneity was 0.009 for case vs control group 1, 0.01 for case versus control group 2, and 0.80 for control group 1 vs 2. Poor awareness of CRC and its screening program, characteristics of screening tests, and lack of time affected the screening rate. Financial support, fear of pain and bowel preparation were barriers to a colonoscopy as a screening test. Eighty-two percent of control group 1 and 87.1% of control group 2 were willing attend if the colonoscopy was free, but only 56.3% and 53.1%,respectively, if it was self-paid. Multivariate odds ratios for case vs control group 1 were 0.10 among those unwilling to attend a free colonoscopy and 0.50 among those unwilling to attend a self-paid colonoscopy. CONCLUSION:Raising the public awareness of CRC and its screening, integrating CRC screening into the health care system, and using a painless colonoscopy would increase its screening rate.

  20. Determinants of breast cancer screening uptake in Kurdishwomen of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nayyereh Aminisani

    2016-03-01

    Conclusion: It was found that the level of breast screening uptake was low among Kurdish women compared to those reported in the previous studies. Designing participation enhancing interventions with a specific focus on older, illiterate and post-menopausal women are recommended.