WorldWideScience

Sample records for cancer screening overview

  1. Seventeen-years overview of breast cancer inside and outside screening in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Domingo, Laia; Jacobsen, Katja Kemp; von Euler-Chelpin, My Catarina

    2013-01-01

    Background. Long-term data on breast cancer detection in mammography screening programs are warranted to better understand the mechanisms by which screening changes the breast cancer pattern in the population. We aimed to analyze 17 years of breast cancer detection rates inside and outside...... to women aged 50-69 years. We identified targeted, eligible, invited and participating women. We calculated screening detection and interval cancer rates for participants, and breast cancer incidence in non-screened women (= targeted women excluding participants) by biennial invitation rounds. Tumor...... characteristics were tabulated for each of the three groups of cancers. Results. Start of screening resulted in a prevalence peak in participants, followed by a decrease to a fairly stable detection rate in subsequent invitation rounds. A similar pattern was found for breast cancer incidence in non-screened women...

  2. Colon cancer screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Screening for colon cancer; Colonoscopy - screening; Sigmoidoscopy - screening; Virtual colonoscopy - screening; Fecal immunochemical test; Stool DNA test; sDNA test; Colorectal cancer - screening; Rectal ...

  3. Breast Cancer Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are here Home > Types of Cancer > Breast Cancer Breast Cancer This is Cancer.Net’s Guide to Breast Cancer. Use the menu below to choose the Overview/ ... social workers, and patient advocates. Cancer.Net Guide Breast Cancer Introduction Statistics Medical Illustrations Risk Factors and Prevention ...

  4. Breast cancer screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mammogram - breast cancer screening; Breast exam - breast cancer screening; MRI - breast cancer screening ... is performed to screen women to detect early breast cancer when it is more likely to be cured. ...

  5. Skin Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Genetics of Skin Cancer Skin Cancer Screening Research Skin Cancer Screening (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is screening? ... These are called diagnostic tests . General Information About Skin Cancer Key Points Skin cancer is a disease ...

  6. Colorectal Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Genetics of Colorectal Cancer Colorectal Cancer Screening Research Colorectal Cancer Screening (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is screening? Go ... These are called diagnostic tests . General Information About Colorectal Cancer Key Points Colorectal cancer is a disease in ...

  7. Stomach (Gastric) Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Stomach Cancer Prevention Stomach Cancer Screening Research Stomach (Gastric) Cancer Screening (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is screening? Go ... are called diagnostic tests . General Information About Stomach (Gastric) Cancer Key Points Stomach cancer is a disease in ...

  8. European guidelines for quality assurance in colorectal cancer screening and diagnosis: Overview and introduction to the full Supplement publication

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Karsa, L.; Patnick, J.; Segnan, N.; Atkin, W.; Halloran, S.; Lansdorp-Vogelaar, I.; Malila, N.; Minozzi, S.; Moss, S.; Quirke, P.; Steele, R. J.; Vieth, M.; Aabakken, L.; Altenhofen, L.; Ancelle-Park, R.; Antoljak, N.; Anttila, A.; Armaroli, P.; Arrossi, S.; Austoker, J.; Banzi, R.; Bellisario, C.; Blom, J.; Brenner, H.; Bretthauer, M.; Camargo Cancela, M.; Costamagna, G.; Cuzick, J.; Dai, M.; Daniel, J.; Dekker, E.; Delicata, N.; Ducarroz, S.; Erfkamp, H.; Espinàs, J. A.; Faivre, J.; Faulds Wood, L.; Flugelman, A.; Frkovic-Grazio, S.; Geller, B.; Giordano, L.; Grazzini, G.; Green, J.; Hamashima, C.; Herrmann, C.; Hewitson, P.; Hoff, G.; Holten, I.; Jover, R.; Kaminski, M. F.; Kuipers, E. J.; Kurtinaitis, J.; Lambert, R.; Launoy, G.; Lee, W.; Leicester, R.; Leja, M.; Lieberman, D.; Lignini, T.; Lucas, E.; Lynge, E.; Mádai, S.; Marinho, J.; Maučec Zakotnik, J.; Minoli, G.; Monk, C.; Morais, A.; Muwonge, R.; Nadel, M.; Neamtiu, L.; Peris Tuser, M.; Pignone, M.; Pox, C.; Primic-Zakelj, M.; Psaila, J.; Rabeneck, L.; Ransohoff, D.; Rasmussen, M.; Regula, J.; Ren, J.; Rennert, G.; Rey, J.; Riddell, R. H.; Risio, M.; Rodrigues, V.; Saito, H.; Sauvaget, C.; Scharpantgen, A.; Schmiegel, W.; Senore, C.; Siddiqi, M.; Sighoko, D.; Smith, R.; Smith, S.; Suchanek, S.; Suonio, E.; Tong, W.; Törnberg, S.; Van Cutsem, E.; Vignatelli, L.; Villain, P.; Voti, L.; Watanabe, H.; Watson, J.; Winawer, S.; Young, G.; Zaksas, V.; Zappa, M.; Valori, R.

    2015-01-01

    Population-based screening for early detection and treatment of colorectal cancer (CRC) and precursor lesions, using evidence-based methods, can be effective in populations with a significant burden of the disease provided the services are of high quality. Multidisciplinary, evidence-based guidelines for quality assurance in CRC screening and diagnosis have been developed by experts in a project co-financed by the European Union. The 450-page guidelines were published in book format by the European Commission in 2010.They include 10 chapters and over 250 recommendations, individually graded according to the strength of the recommendation and the supporting evidence. Adoption of the recommendations can improve and maintain the quality and effectiveness of an entire screening process, including identification and invitation of the target population, diagnosis and management of the disease and appropriate surveillance in people with detected lesions. To make the principles, recommendations and standards in the guidelines known to a wider professional and scientific community and to facilitate their use in the scientific literature, the original content is presented in journal format in an open-access Supplement of Endoscopy. The editors have prepared the present overview to inform readers of the comprehensive scope and content of the guidelines. PMID:23212726

  9. Screening for Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancer screening is checking for cancer in people who don't have symptoms. Screening tests can help doctors find and treat several types of cancer early, but cancer screening can have harms as well as benefits.

  10. Liver (Hepatocellular) Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Treatment Liver Cancer Prevention Liver Cancer Screening Research Liver (Hepatocellular) Cancer Screening (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is ... These are called diagnostic tests . General Information About Liver (Hepatocellular) Cancer Key Points Liver cancer is a ...

  11. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Search About Cancer Causes and Prevention Risk Factors Genetics Cancer Prevention Overview Research Cancer Screening Cancer Screening ... Cancer Statistics Cancer Disparities Causes & Prevention Risk Factors Genetics Cancer Prevention Overview Screening Cancer Screening Overview Screening ...

  12. Cervical Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cancer found early may be easier to treat. Cervical cancer screening is usually part of a woman's health ... may do more tests, such as a biopsy. Cervical cancer screening has risks. The results can sometimes be ...

  13. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Overview Research Cancer Screening Cancer Screening Overview Screening Tests Research Diagnosis and Staging Symptoms Diagnosis Staging Prognosis ... Cancer Prevention Overview Screening Cancer Screening Overview Screening Tests Diagnosis & Staging Symptoms Diagnosis Staging Prognosis Treatment Types ...

  14. Cancer Screening Overview (PDQ)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of women who have regular Pap tests, and divide them into those who test positive for the ... use this content on your website or other digital platform? Our syndication services page shows you how. ...

  15. SCREENING FOR EARLY DETECTION OF BREAST CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. A. Rasskazova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a brief overview of the main methods of breast cancer screening. Proven effectiveness of mammography as a screening method in reducing mortality from breast cancer, specified limits of the method. The main trend of increasing the effectiveness of screening is the transition to digital technologies. Properly organized screening with the active participation of the population reduces mortality from breast cancer by 30%.

  16. Screening for Cervical Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Understanding Task Force Recommendations Screening for Cervical Cancer The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (Task Force) has issued final recommendations on Screening for Cervical Cancer . These recommendations are for women ...

  17. Risks of Colorectal Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Genetics of Colorectal Cancer Colorectal Cancer Screening Research Colorectal Cancer Screening (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is screening? Go ... These are called diagnostic tests . General Information About Colorectal Cancer Key Points Colorectal cancer is a disease in ...

  18. Cervical cancer - screening and prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancer cervix - screening; HPV - cervical cancer screening; Dysplasia - cervical cancer screening; Cervical cancer - HPV vaccine ... Almost all cervical cancers are caused by HPV (human papilloma virus). HPV is a common virus that spreads through sexual contact. Certain ...

  19. SCREENING FOR CERVICAL CANCER

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Enrique

    Cervical cancer remains a major health concern worldwide, especially in devel- ... Important aspects of cervical cancer screening include the age at which .... High-risk types HPV (16,18) are impli- cated in the pathogenesis of cervical cancer.

  20. Cancer screening guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoorob, R; Anderson, R; Cefalu, C; Sidani, M

    2001-03-15

    Numerous medical organizations have developed cancer screening guidelines. Faced with the broad, and sometimes conflicting, range of recommendations for cancer screening, family physicians must determine the most reasonable and up-to-date method of screening. Major medical organizations have generally achieved consensus on screening guidelines for breast, cervical and colorectal cancer. For breast cancer screening in women ages 50 to 70, clinical breast examination and mammography are generally recommended every one or two years, depending on the medical organization. For cervical cancer screening, most organizations recommend a Papanicolaou test and pelvic examination at least every three years in patients between 20 and 65 years of age. Annual fecal occult blood testing along with flexible sigmoidoscopy at five-year to 10-year intervals is the standard recommendation for colorectal cancer screening in patients older than 50 years. Screening for prostate cancer remains a matter of debate. Some organizations recommend digital rectal examination and a serum prostate-specific antigen test for men older than 50 years, while others do not. In the absence of compelling evidence to indicate a high risk of endometrial cancer, lung cancer, oral cancer and ovarian cancer, almost no medical organizations have developed cancer screening guidelines for these types of cancer.

  1. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Contact Dictionary Search About Cancer Causes and Prevention Risk Factors Genetics Cancer Prevention Overview Research Cancer Screening Cancer ... Is Cancer Cancer Statistics Cancer Disparities Causes & Prevention Risk Factors Genetics Cancer Prevention Overview Screening Cancer Screening Overview ...

  2. International Cancer Screening Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    The International Cancer Screening Network promotes evidence-based cancer screening implementation and evaluation with cooperation from multilateral organizations around the globe. Learn more about how ICSN aims to reduce the global burden of cancer by supporting research and international collaboration.

  3. Detection rate of serrated polyps and serrated polyposis syndrome in colorectal cancer screening cohorts: a European overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    IJspeert, J E G; Bevan, R; Senore, C; Kaminski, M F; Kuipers, E J; Mroz, A; Bessa, X; Cassoni, P; Hassan, C; Repici, A; Balaguer, F; Rees, C J; Dekker, E

    2017-07-01

    The role of serrated polyps (SPs) as colorectal cancer precursor is increasingly recognised. However, the true prevalence SPs is largely unknown. We aimed to evaluate the detection rate of SPs subtypes as well as serrated polyposis syndrome (SPS) among European screening cohorts. Prospectively collected screening cohorts of ≥1000 individuals were eligible for inclusion. Colonoscopies performed before 2009 and/or in individuals aged below 50 were excluded. Rate of SPs was assessed, categorised for histology, location and size. Age-sex-standardised number needed to screen (NNS) to detect SPs were calculated. Rate of SPS was assessed in cohorts with known colonoscopy follow-up data. Clinically relevant SPs (regarded as a separate entity) were defined as SPs ≥10 mm and/or SPs >5 mm in the proximal colon. Three faecal occult blood test (FOBT) screening cohorts and two primary colonoscopy screening cohorts (range 1.426-205.949 individuals) were included. Rate of SPs ranged between 15.1% and 27.2% (median 19.5%), of sessile serrated polyps between 2.2% and 4.8% (median 3.3%) and of clinically relevant SPs between 2.1% and 7.8% (median 4.6%). Rate of SPs was similar in FOBT-based cohorts as in colonoscopy screening cohorts. No apparent association between the rate of SP and gender or age was shown. Rate of SPS ranged from 0% to 0.5%, which increased to 0.4% to 0.8% after follow-up colonoscopy. The detection rate of SPs is variable among screening cohorts, and standards for reporting, detection and histopathological assessment should be established. The median rate, as found in this study, may contribute to define uniform minimum standards for males and females between 50 and 75 years of age. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  4. Screening for colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jin; Efron, Jonathan E

    2011-01-01

    March is national colorectal cancer awareness month. It is estimated that as many as 60% of colorectal cancer deaths could be prevented if all men and women aged 50 years or older were screened routinely. In 2000, Katie Couric's televised colonoscopy led to a 20% increase in screening colonoscopies across America, a stunning rise called the "Katie Couric Effect". This event demonstrated how celebrity endorsement affects health behavior. Currently, discussion is ongoing about the optimal strategy for CRC screening, particularly the costs of screening colonoscopy. The current CRC screening guidelines are summarized in Table 2. Debates over the optimum CRC screening test continue in the face of evidence that 22 million Americans aged 50 to 75 years are not screened for CRC by any modality and 25,000 of those lives may have been saved if they had been screened for CRC. It is clear that improving screening rates and reducing disparities in underscreened communities and population subgroups could further reduce colorectal cancer morbidity and mortality. National Institutes of Health consensus identified the following priority areas to enhance the use and quality of colorectal cancer screening: Eliminate financial barriers to colorectal cancer screening and appropriate follow-up of positive results of colorectal cancer screening. Develop systems to ensure the high quality of colorectal cancer screening programs. Conduct studies to determine the comparative effectiveness of the various colorectal cancer screening methods in usual practice settings. Encouraging population adherence to screening tests and allowing patients to select the tests they prefer may do more good (as long as they choose something) than whatever procedure is chosen by the medical profession as the preferred test.

  5. Prostate Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... treat. There is no standard screening test for prostate cancer. Researchers are studying different tests to find those ... PSA level may be high if you have prostate cancer. It can also be high if you have ...

  6. Screening for colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Hans J.; Jakobsen, Karen V.; Christensen, Ib J.

    2011-01-01

    Emerging results indicate that screening improves survival of patients with colorectal cancer. Therefore, screening programs are already implemented or are being considered for implementation in Asia, Europe and North America. At present, a great variety of screening methods are available including...... into improvements of screening for colorectal cancer includes blood-based biological markers, such as proteins, DNA and RNA in combination with various demographically and clinically parameters into a "risk assessment evaluation" (RAE) test. It is assumed that such a test may lead to higher acceptance among...... procedures for colorectal cancer. Therefore, results of present research, validating RAE tests, are awaited with interest....

  7. Colorectal Cancer Screening

    OpenAIRE

    Quintero, Enrique; Saito, Yutaka; Hassan, Cessare; Senore, Carlo

    2012-01-01

    Colorectal cancer, which is the leading cancer in Singapore, can be prevented by increased use of screening and polypectomy. A range of screening strategies such as stool-based tests, flexible sigmoidoscopy, colonoscopy and computed tomography colonography are available, each with different strengths and limitations. Primary care physicians should discuss appropriate screening modalities with their patients, tailored to their individual needs. Physicians, patients and the government should wo...

  8. Colorectal cancer screening

    OpenAIRE

    Plumb, A. A.; Halligan, S.

    2015-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is a major public health burden worldwide. There is clear-cut evidence that screening will reduce colorectal cancer mortality and the only contentious issue is which screening tool to use. Most evidence points towards screening with fecal occult blood testing. The immunochemical fecal occult blood tests have a higher sensitivity than the guaiac-based tests. In addition, their automation and haemoglobin quantification allows a threshold for colonoscopy to be selected that can...

  9. Breast Cancer Screening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altaf, Fadwa J.

    2004-01-01

    Breast cancer is a very common health problem in Saudi females that can be reduced by early detection through introducing breast cancer screening. Literature review reveals significant reduction in breast cancer incidence and outcome after the beginning of breast cancer screening. The objectives of this article are to highlight the significance of breast cancer screening in different international societies and to write the major guidelines of breast cancer screening in relation to other departments involved with more emphasis on the Pathology Department guidelines in tissue handling, diagnostic criteria and significance of the diagnosis. This article summaries and acknowledges major work carried out before, and recommends similar modified work in order to meet the requirement for the Saudi society. (author)

  10. Overview and Prevention of Cervical Cancer | Ogu | Nigerian Health ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Cervical cancer though a preventable disease, still has an estimated mortality of 80% from invasive cervical cancer in developing countries. The aim of this paper is to present an overview of cervical cancer and the various modalities available for screening and prevention of cervical cancer. Methodology: ...

  11. Gallbladder Cancer Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Content Español ASCO.org Conquer Cancer Foundation ASCO Journals Donate eNews Signup f Cancer.net on Facebook t Cancer.net on Twitter q Cancer.net on YouTube g Cancer.net on Google Menu Home Types of Cancer Navigating Cancer Care Coping With Cancer Research and Advocacy Survivorship Blog About ...

  12. Vulvar Cancer Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to Content ASCO.org Conquer Cancer Foundation ASCO Journals Donate eNews Signup f Cancer.net on Facebook t Cancer.net on Twitter q Cancer.net on YouTube g Cancer.net on Google Menu Home Types of Cancer Navigating Cancer Care Coping With Cancer Research and Advocacy Survivorship Blog About ...

  13. Vaginal Cancer Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are here Home > Types of Cancer > Vaginal Cancer Vaginal Cancer This is Cancer.Net’s Guide to Vaginal Cancer. Use the menu below to choose the ... social workers, and patient advocates. Cancer.Net Guide Vaginal Cancer Introduction Statistics Medical Illustrations Risk Factors and ...

  14. European randomized lung cancer screening trials: Post NLST

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Field, JK; Klaveren, R; Pedersen, JH

    2013-01-01

    Overview of the European randomized lung cancer CT screening trials (EUCT) is presented with regard to the implementation of CT screening in Europe; post NLST. All seven principal investigators completed a questionnaire on the epidemiological, radiological, and nodule management aspects...

  15. Screening for oral cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jitender, Solanki; Sarika, Gupta; Varada, Hiremath R; Omprakash, Yadav; Mohsin, Khan

    2016-11-01

    Oral cancer is considered as a serious health problem resulting in high morbidity and mortality. Early detection and prevention play a key role in controlling the burden of oral cancer worldwide. The five-year survival rate of oral cancer still remains low and delayed diagnosis is considered as one of the major reasons. This increases the demand for oral screening. Currently, screening of oral cancer is largely based on visual examination. Various evidence strongly suggest the validity of visual inspection in reducing mortality in patients at risk for oral cancer. Simple visual examination is accompanied with adjunctive techniques for subjective interpretation of dysplastic changes. These include toluidine blue staining, brush biopsy, chemiluminescence and tissue autofluorescence. This review highlights the efficacy of various diagnostic methods in screening of oral cancer. © 2016 Old City Publishing, Inc.

  16. Breast cancer screening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vandenbroucke, A.

    1987-01-01

    Many studies have shown that breast cancer screening is able to reduce breast cancer mortality, including the HIP study, the Swedish Trial and the Netherlands studies. Mammography is considered as the most effective method for breast cancer screening but it might be unfeasible for some reasons: - the population acceptability of the method might be low. Indeed, most populations of the South of Europe are less compliant to mass screening than populations of the North of Europe; - the medical equipment and personnel - radiologists and pathologists - might be insufficient; - it might be too costly for the National Health Service, specially where the incidence rate of breast cancer is relatively low (i.e. Greece, Portugal). The validity of screening tests is judged by their sensitivity and their specificity

  17. Screening for lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Infante, Maurizio V; Pedersen, Jesper H

    2010-01-01

    In lung cancer screening with low-dose spiral computed tomography (LDCT), the proportion of stage I disease is 50-85%, and the survival rate for resected stage I disease can exceed 90%, but proof of real benefit in terms of lung cancer mortality reduction must come from the several randomized...

  18. Lung cancer screening: Update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyea Young [Dept. of Radiology, Center for Lung Cancer, National Cancer Center, Goyang (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-09-15

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths worldwide as well as in Korea. A recent National Lung Screening Trial in U.S. revealed that low-dose CT (LDCT) screening reduced lung cancer specific mortality by 20% in high risk individuals as compared to chest radiograph screening. Based on this evidence, several expert societies in U.S. and Korean multisociety collaborative committee developed guidelines for recommendation of lung cancer screening using annual LDCT in high risk populations. In most of the societies high risk groups are defined as persons aged 55 to 74 years, who are current smokers with history of smoking of more than 30 packs per year or ex-smokers, who quit smoking up to 15 or more years ago. The benefits of LDCT screening are modestly higher than the harms in high risk individuals. The harms included a high rate of false-positive findings, over-diagnosis and radiation-related deaths. Invasive diagnostic procedure due to false positive findings may lead to complications. LDCT should be performed in qualified hospitals and interpreted by expert radiologists. Recently, the American College of Radiology released the current version of Lung cancer CT screening Reporting and Data Systems. Education and actions to stop smoking must be offered to current smokers.

  19. Lung cancer screening: Update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hyea Young

    2015-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths worldwide as well as in Korea. A recent National Lung Screening Trial in U.S. revealed that low-dose CT (LDCT) screening reduced lung cancer specific mortality by 20% in high risk individuals as compared to chest radiograph screening. Based on this evidence, several expert societies in U.S. and Korean multisociety collaborative committee developed guidelines for recommendation of lung cancer screening using annual LDCT in high risk populations. In most of the societies high risk groups are defined as persons aged 55 to 74 years, who are current smokers with history of smoking of more than 30 packs per year or ex-smokers, who quit smoking up to 15 or more years ago. The benefits of LDCT screening are modestly higher than the harms in high risk individuals. The harms included a high rate of false-positive findings, over-diagnosis and radiation-related deaths. Invasive diagnostic procedure due to false positive findings may lead to complications. LDCT should be performed in qualified hospitals and interpreted by expert radiologists. Recently, the American College of Radiology released the current version of Lung cancer CT screening Reporting and Data Systems. Education and actions to stop smoking must be offered to current smokers

  20. Breast cancer screening with digital breast tomosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skaane, Per

    2017-01-01

    To give an overview of studies comparing full-field digital mammography (FFDM) and digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) in breast cancer screening. The implementation of tomosynthesis in breast imaging is rapidly increasing world-wide. Experimental clinical studies of relevance for DBT screening have shown that tomosynthesis might have a great potential in breast cancer screening, although most of these retrospective reading studies are based on small populations, so that final conclusions are difficult to draw from individual reports. Several retrospective studies and three prospective trials on tomosynthesis in breast cancer screening have been published so far, confirming the great potential of DBT in mammography screening. The main results of these screening studies are presented. The retrospective screening studies from USA have all shown a significant decrease in the recall rate using DBT as adjunct to mammography. Most of these studies have also shown an increase in the cancer detection rate, and the non-significant results in some studies might be explained by a lack of statistical power. All the three prospective European trials have shown a significant increase in the cancer detection rate. The retrospective and the prospective screening studies comparing FFDM and DBT have all demonstrated that tomosynthesis has a great potential for improving breast cancer screening. DBT should be regarded as a better mammogram that could improve or overcome limitations of the conventional mammography, and tomosynthesis might be considered as the new technique in the next future of breast cancer screening.

  1. Colorectal cancer screening

    OpenAIRE

    McLoughlin, Monica Ramona

    2008-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is a major public health burden and is the most common cause of mortality from cancer in Europe. Over the last two decades robust evidence from randomised clinical trials and case-control series have confirmed that the mortality from colorectal cancer can be reduced by screening. The challenge over the next decade is how to implement this in clinical practice. This is what we set out to answer with this thesis. Not all individuals are equal when it comes to screening and tho...

  2. Screening for skin cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helfand, M; Mahon, S M; Eden, K B; Frame, P S; Orleans, C T

    2001-04-01

    Malignant melanoma is often lethal, and its incidence in the United States has increased rapidly over the past 2 decades. Nonmelanoma skin cancer is seldom lethal, but, if advanced, can cause severe disfigurement and morbidity. Early detection and treatment of melanoma might reduce mortality, while early detection and treatment of nonmelanoma skin cancer might prevent major disfigurement and to a lesser extent prevent mortality. Current recommendations from professional societies regarding screening for skin cancer vary. To examine published data on the effectiveness of routine screening for skin cancer by a primary care provider, as part of an assessment for the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force. We searched the MEDLINE database for papers published between 1994 and June 1999, using search terms for screening, physical examination, morbidity, and skin neoplasms. For information on accuracy of screening tests, we used the search terms sensitivity and specificity. We identified the most important studies from before 1994 from the Guide to Clinical Preventive Services, second edition, and from high-quality reviews. We used reference lists and expert recommendations to locate additional articles. Two reviewers independently reviewed a subset of 500 abstracts. Once consistency was established, the remainder were reviewed by one reviewer. We included studies if they contained data on yield of screening, screening tests, risk factors, risk assessment, effectiveness of early detection, or cost effectiveness. We abstracted the following descriptive information from full-text published studies of screening and recorded it in an electronic database: type of screening study, study design, setting, population, patient recruitment, screening test description, examiner, advertising targeted at high-risk groups or not targeted, reported risk factors of participants, and procedure for referrals. We also abstracted the yield of screening data including probabilities and numbers

  3. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and Prevention Risk Factors Genetics Cancer Prevention Overview Research Cancer Screening Cancer Screening Overview Screening Tests Research Diagnosis and Staging Symptoms Diagnosis Staging Prognosis Questions ...

  4. Cancer Prevention Overview (PDQ)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... that fruits and nonstarchy vegetables may protect against cancers of the mouth, esophagus , and stomach . Fruits may also protect against lung cancer . Some studies have shown that a diet high ...

  5. Breast Cancer Screening, Mammography, and Other Modalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorica, James V

    2016-12-01

    This article is an overview of the modalities available for breast cancer screening. The modalities discussed include digital mammography, digital breast tomosynthesis, breast ultrasonography, magnetic resonance imaging, and clinical breast examination. There is a review of pertinent randomized controlled trials, studies and meta-analyses which contributed to the evolution of screening guidelines. Ultimately, 5 major medical organizations formulated the current screening guidelines in the United States. The lack of consensus in these guidelines represents an ongoing controversy about the optimal timing and method for breast cancer screening in women. For mammography screening, the Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System lexicon is explained which corresponds with recommended clinical management. The presentation and discussion of the data in this article are designed to help the clinician individualize breast cancer screening for each patient.

  6. Abnormal Cervical Cancer Screening Test Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... AQ FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS FAQ187 GYNECOLOGIC PROBLEMS Abnormal Cervical Cancer Screening Test Results • What is cervical cancer screening? • What causes abnormal cervical cancer screening test ...

  7. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Menu Contact Dictionary Search About Cancer Causes and Prevention Risk Factors Genetics Cancer Prevention Overview Research Cancer Screening ... What Is Cancer Cancer Statistics Cancer Disparities Causes & Prevention Risk Factors Genetics Cancer Prevention Overview Screening Cancer Screening ...

  8. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Contact Dictionary Search About Cancer Causes and Prevention Risk Factors Genetics Cancer Prevention Overview Research Cancer Screening ... Is Cancer Cancer Statistics Cancer Disparities Causes & Prevention Risk Factors Genetics Cancer Prevention Overview Screening Cancer Screening ...

  9. Cervical cancer screening in the Faroe Islands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hammer, Turið; Lynge, Elsebeth; Djurhuus, Gisela W

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The Faroe Islands have had nationally organised cervical cancer screening since 1995. Women aged 25-60 years are invited every third year. Participation is free of charge. Although several European overviews on cervical screening are available, none have included the Faroe Islands. Our...... 1999. At present, 7.0% of samples have abnormal cytology. Of all ASCUS samples, 76-95% were tested for HPV. A total of 58% of women diagnosed with cervical cancer did not participate in screening prior to their diagnosis, and 32% had normal cytology in the previous four years. CONCLUSION: Despite...

  10. [Organized breast cancer screening].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouëssé, Jacques; Sancho-Garnier, Hélèn

    2014-02-01

    Breast screening programs are increasingly controversial, especially regarding two points: the number of breast cancer deaths they avoid, and the problem of over-diagnosis and over-treatment. The French national breast cancer screening program was extended to cover the whole country in 2004. Ten years later it is time to examine the risk/benefit ratio of this program and to discuss the need for change. Like all forms of cancer management, screening must be regularly updated, taking into account the state of the art, new evidence, and uncertainties. All screening providers should keep themselves informed of the latest findings. In the French program, women aged 50-74 with no major individual or familial risk factors for breast cancer are offered screening mammography and clinical breast examination every two years. Images considered non suspicious of malignancy by a first reader are re-examined by a second reader. The devices and procedures are subjected to quality controls. Participating radiologists (both public and private) are required to read at least 500 mammographies per year. The program's national participation rate was 52.7 % in 2012. When individual screening outside of the national program is taken into account (nearly 15 % of women), coverage appears close to the European recommendation of 65 %. Breast cancer mortality has been falling in France by 0.6 % per year for over 30 years, starting before mass screening was implemented, and by 1.5 % since 2005. This decline can be attributed in part to earlier diagnosis and better treatment, so that the specific impact of screening cannot easily be measured. Over-treatment, defined as the detection and treatment of low-malignancy tumors that would otherwise not have been detected in a person's lifetime, is a major negative effect of screening, but its frequency is not precisely known (reported to range from 1 % to 30 %). In view of these uncertainties, it would be advisable to modify the program in order to

  11. Overview of guidelines on breast screening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhl Jørgensen, Karsten; Kalager, Mette; Barratt, Alexandra

    2017-01-01

    Updated guidelines on breast cancer screening have been published by several major organisations over the past five years. Recommendations vary regarding both age range, screening interval, and even on whether breast screening should be offered at all. The variation between recommendations reflects....... The estimates vary according to the methodology of the randomised trials, and the design of the observational studies. Guideline recommendations reflect the choice of evidence informing them. While there are well-developed tools to deal with randomised trials in guideline work, these are not always used......, or they may not be followed as recommended. Further, results of trials performed decades ago may no longer be applicable. For observational studies, the framework for inclusion in guidelines is not similarly well-developed and there are methodological concerns specific to screening interventions...

  12. Breast screening with mammography: Overview of Swedish randomized trials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nystroem, L.; Wall, S.; Lindqvist, M.; Ryden, S.; Andersson, J.; Bjurstam, N.; Fagerberg, G.; Frisell, J.; Tabar, L.; Larson, L.G.

    1993-01-01

    Despite encouraging results from screening trials the efficacy of mammography in reducing mortality remains somewhat controversial. Five studies have been done in Sweden. This overview, reveals a 24% significant reduction of breast cancer mortality among those invited to mammography screening compared with those not invited. To avoid the potential risk of differential misclassification causes of death were assessed by an independent end-point committee after a blinded review of all fatal breast cancer cases. The mortality reduction was similar, irrespective of the end-point used for evaluation (breast cancer as underlying cause of death or breast cancer present at death). There was a consistent risk reduction associated with screening in all studies, although the point estimate of the relative risk for all ages varied non-significantly between 0.68 and 0.84. The cumulative breast cancer mortality by time since randomization was estimated at 1.3 per 1,000 within 6 years in the invited group compared with 1.6 in the control group. The corresponding figures after 9 years are 2.6 and 3.3 and after 12 years 3.9 and 5.1

  13. Risks of Endometrial Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health history and certain medicines can affect the risk of developing endometrial cancer. Anything that increases your ... have abnormal vaginal bleeding, check with your doctor. Risks of Endometrial Cancer Screening Key Points Screening tests ...

  14. Risks of Esophageal Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... alcohol use, and Barrett esophagus can affect the risk of developing esophageal cancer. Anything that increases the ... tissue gives off less light than normal tissue. Risks of Esophageal Cancer Screening Key Points Screening tests ...

  15. Risks of Cervical Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... women. Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is the major risk factor for cervical cancer. Although most women with ... clinical trials is available from the NCI website . Risks of Cervical Cancer Screening Key Points Screening tests ...

  16. Developments in Colorectal Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Colorectal Cancer Developments in Colorectal Cancer Screening Past Issues / Summer 2016 Table of ... at the National Cancer Institute, shared developments in colorectal cancer screening methods with NIH MedlinePlus magazine. What ...

  17. Approaching the Hard-to-Reach in Organized Colorectal Cancer Screening: an Overview of Individual, Provider and System Level Coping Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason Liwen Huang

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Despite the proven effectiveness of colorectal cancer (CRC screening on reduction of CRC mortality, the uptake of CRC screening remains low. Participation rate is one of determinants for the success of organized population-based screening program. This review aims to identify those who are hard-to-reach, and summarize the strategies to increase their screening rate from individual, provider and system levels. Methods: A systematic search of electronic English databases was conducted on the factors and strategies of uptake in CRC screening for the hard-to-reach population up to May 2017. Discussion: The coverage rate and participation rate are two indexes to identify the hard-to-reach population in organized CRC screening program. However, the homeless, new immigrants, people with severe mental illness, the jail intimates, and people with characteristics including lower education levels and/or low socioeconomic status, living in rural/remote areas, without insurance, and racial minorities are usually recognized as hard-to-reach populations. For them, organized screening programs offer a better coverage, while novel invitation approaches for eligible individuals and multiple strategies from primary care physicians are still needed to enhance screening rates among subjects who are hard-to-reach. Suggestions implied the effectiveness of interventions at the system level, including linkages to general practice; use of decision making tools; enlisting supports from coalition; and the continuum from screening to diagnosis and treatment. Conclusion: Organized CRC screening offers a system access to approach the hard-to-reach populations. To increase their uptake, multiple and novel strategies from individual, provider and system levels should be applied. For policymakers, public healthcare providers and community stakeholders, it is a test to tailor their potential needs and increase their participation rates through continuous efforts to

  18. Treatment Option Overview (Extrahepatic Bile Duct Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Treatment Liver Cancer Prevention Liver Cancer Screening Research Bile Duct Cancer (Cholangiocarcinoma) Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version Treatment ... are different types of treatment for patients with bile duct cancer. Different types of treatments are available ...

  19. [Primary cervical cancer screening].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas-Hernández, Víctor Manuel; Vargas-Aguilar, Víctor Manuel; Tovar-Rodríguez, José María

    2015-01-01

    Cervico-uterine cancer screening with cytology decrease incidence by more than 50%. The cause of this cancer is the human papilloma virus high risk, and requires a sensitive test to provide sufficient sensitivity and specificity for early detection and greater interval period when the results are negative. The test of the human papilloma virus high risk, is effective and safe because of its excellent sensitivity, negative predictive value and optimal reproducibility, especially when combined with liquid-based cytology or biomarkers with viral load, with higher sensitivity and specificity, by reducing false positives for the detection of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2 or greater injury, with excellent clinical benefits to cervical cancer screening and related infection of human papilloma virus diseases, is currently the best test for early detection infection of human papillomavirus and the risk of carcinogenesis. Copyright © 2015 Academia Mexicana de Cirugía A.C. Published by Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  20. Testicular Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... undescended testicle) is a risk factor for testicular cancer. Testicular cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) ... Testicular Cancer Treatment for more information about testicular cancer. Testicular cancer is the most common cancer in men ...

  1. Screening diagnostic program breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Portnoj, L.M.; Zhakova, I.I.; Budnikova, N.V.; Rukhlyadko, E.D.

    1995-01-01

    The authors propose their screening program for detection of breast cancer. It includes the entire complex of present-day screening diagnostic methods, starting from an original system for the formation of groups at risk of breast cancer and completed by the direct diagnostic model of detection of the condition, oriented at a differentiated approach to the use of mammographic techniques. The proposed organizational and methodologic screening measures are both economic and diagnostically effective, thus meeting the principal requirements to screening programs. Screening of 8541 risk-groups patients helped detect 867 nodular formations, 244 of which were cancer and 623 benign formations. 8 refs., 3 figs.,

  2. Risks of Lung Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in women. Different factors increase or decrease the risk of lung cancer. Anything that increases your chance ... been studied to see if they decrease the risk of dying from lung cancer. The following screening ...

  3. Lung Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... factors increase or decrease the risk of lung cancer. Lung cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) ... following PDQ summaries for more information about lung cancer: Lung Cancer Prevention Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Treatment ...

  4. Cervical cancer screening in the Faroe Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, Turið; Lynge, Elsebeth; Djurhuus, Gisela W; Joensen, John E; Køtlum, Jóanis E; Hansen, Sæunn Ó; Sander, Bente B; Mogensen, Ole; Rebolj, Matejka

    2015-02-01

    The Faroe Islands have had nationally organised cervical cancer screening since 1995. Women aged 25-60 years are invited every third year. Participation is free of charge. Although several European overviews on cervical screening are available, none have included the Faroe Islands. Our aim was to provide the first description of cervical cancer screening, and to determine the screening history of women diagnosed with cervical cancer in the Faroe Islands. Screening data from 1996 to 2012 were obtained from the Diagnostic Centre at the National Hospital of the Faroe Islands. They included information on cytology and HPV testing whereas information on histology was not registered consistently. Process indicators were calculated, including coverage rate, excess smears, proportion of abnormal cytological samples, and frequency of HPV testing. Data on cervical cancer cases were obtained from the Faroese Ministry of Health Affairs. The analysis of the screening history was undertaken for cases diagnosed in 2000-2010. A total of 52 457 samples were taken in 1996-2012. Coverage varied between 67% and 81% and was 71% in 2012. Excess smears decreased after 1999. At present, 7.0% of samples have abnormal cytology. Of all ASCUS samples, 76-95% were tested for HPV. A total of 58% of women diagnosed with cervical cancer did not participate in screening prior to their diagnosis, and 32% had normal cytology in the previous four years. Despite the difficult geographical setting, the organised cervical cancer screening programme in the Faroe Islands has achieved a relatively high coverage rate. Nevertheless, challenges, e.g. consistent histology registration and sending reminders, still exist.

  5. Treatment Option Overview (Endometrial Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Common Cancer Types Recurrent Cancer Common Cancer Types Bladder Cancer Breast Cancer Colorectal Cancer Kidney (Renal Cell) Cancer ... cancer cells have places where hormones can attach ( receptors ), drugs , surgery, or radiation therapy is used to ...

  6. Overdiagnosis in breast cancer screening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynge, Elsebeth; Beau, Anna-Belle; Christiansen, Peer

    2017-01-01

    Overdiagnosis in breast cancer screening is an important issue. A recent study from Denmark concluded that one in three breast cancers diagnosed in screening areas in women aged 50-69 years were overdiagnosed. The purpose of this short communication was to disentangle the study's methodology...

  7. Treatment Option Overview (Colon Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Common Cancer Types Recurrent Cancer Common Cancer Types Bladder Cancer Breast Cancer Colorectal Cancer Kidney (Renal Cell) Cancer ... VEGF inhibitors and angiogenesis inhibitors . Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibitor therapy: EGFRs are proteins found on ...

  8. Treatment Option Overview (Rectal Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Common Cancer Types Recurrent Cancer Common Cancer Types Bladder Cancer Breast Cancer Colorectal Cancer Kidney (Renal Cell) Cancer ... VEGF inhibitors and angiogenesis inhibitors . Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibitor therapy: EGFRs are proteins found on ...

  9. Treatment Option Overview (Breast Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Common Cancer Types Recurrent Cancer Common Cancer Types Bladder Cancer Breast Cancer Colorectal Cancer Kidney (Renal Cell) Cancer ... only hormone therapy after a hysterectomy . Selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs). Aromatase inhibitors . Less exposure of breast ...

  10. Oral Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... decrease the risk of oral cavity and oropharyngeal cancer. Oral cavity, pharyngeal, and laryngeal cancer are diseases in ... and treatment of oral cavity, pharyngeal, and laryngeal cancer: Oral Cavity and Oropharyngeal Cancer Prevention Lip and Oral ...

  11. Cervical cancer screening at crossroads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynge, Elsebeth; Rygaard, Carsten; Baillet, Miguel Vazquez-Prada

    2014-01-01

    Cervical screening has been one of the most successful public health prevention programmes. For 50 years, cytology formed the basis for screening, and detected cervical intraepithelial lesions (CIN) were treated surgically to prevent progression to cancer. In a high-risk country as Denmark......, screening decreased the incidence of cervical cancer from 34 to 11 per 100,000, age-standardized rate (World Standard Population). Screening is, however, also expensive; Denmark (population: 5.6 million) undertakes close to half a million tests per year, and has 6-8 CIN-treated women for each prevented...... cancer case. The discovery of human papillomavirus (HPV) as the cause of cervical cancer dramatically changed perspectives for disease control. Screening with HPV testing was launched around 1990, and preventive HPV vaccination was licensed in 2006. Long-term randomized controlled trials (RCT...

  12. Register-based studies of cancer screening effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Von Euler-Chelpin, My; Lynge, Elsebeth; Rebolj, Matejka

    2011-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: There are two organised cancer screening programmes in Denmark, against cervical and breast cancers. The aim with this study was to give an overview of the available register-based research regarding these two programmes, to demonstrate the usefulness of data from the national regis...

  13. Breast Cancer Screening in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Karsten Juhl; Gøtzsche, Peter C; Kalager, Mette

    2017-01-01

    Background: Effective breast cancer screening should detect early-stage cancer and prevent advanced disease. Objective: To assess the association between screening and the size of detected tumors and to estimate overdiagnosis (detection of tumors that would not become clinically relevant). Design......) and nonadvanced (≤20 mm) breast cancer tumors in screened and nonscreened women were measured. Two approaches were used to estimate the amount of overdiagnosis: comparing the incidence of advanced and nonadvanced tumors among women aged 50 to 84 years in screening and nonscreening areas; and comparing...... rate ratio, 1.49 [95% CI, 1.43 to 1.54]). The first estimation approach found that 271 invasive breast cancer tumors and 179 ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) lesions were overdiagnosed in 2010 (overdiagnosis rate of 24.4% [including DCIS] and 14.7% [excluding DCIS]). The second approach, which accounted...

  14. Mass screening in breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strax, P.

    1977-01-01

    Some questions about mass screening in breast cancer are answered it being concluded that: 1. mass screening for the detection of early breast cancer is the only means with proven potential for lowering the death rate of the disease; 2. mammography is an importante - if not the most important modality in mass screening; 3. new film - screen combinations generally available are capable of producing mammograms of excelent quality with radiation doses down to .1 rad into the body of breast. The risk of malignant changes from such dosage - even when given periodically is negligeable. New equipment, to be available, shortly, will use the new film - screen combinations in an automated manner with must reduce cost in time, filme, personnel and processing - of more than 50%. This would make mass screening more practical. (M.A.) [pt

  15. Costs of Colorectal Cancer Screening

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2017-04-04

    A health economist talks about studies on figuring out the costs of running a colorectal cancer screening program, and how this can lead to better screening.  Created: 4/4/2017 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 4/4/2017.

  16. BREAST CANCER SCREENING IN A RESOURCE POOR ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    al rates of breast cancer, hence screening of asympto- matic, apparently healthy ... screening tools in women who attended free breast cancer screening exercise in a ..... signs of malignancy. www.appliedradiology.mobi/uploadedfiles/Issues/2.

  17. Risk Profiling May Improve Lung Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    A new modeling study suggests that individualized, risk-based selection of ever-smokers for lung cancer screening may prevent more lung cancer deaths and improve the effectiveness and efficiency of screening compared with current screening recommendations

  18. Colorectal Cancer Awareness and Screening

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2017-04-06

    An oncologist (cancer doctor) shares her medical and personal advice for people between the ages of 50 and 75 about getting screened for colorectal cancer.  Created: 4/6/2017 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 4/6/2017.

  19. [Overdiagnosis in cancer screening].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervera Deval, J; Sentís Crivillé, M; Zulueta, J J

    2015-01-01

    In screening programs, overdiagnosis is defined as the detection of a disease that would have gone undetected without screening when that disease would not have resulted in morbimortality and was treated unnecessarily. Overdiagnosis is a bias inherent in screening and an undesired effect of secondary prevention and improved sensitivity of diagnostic techniques. It is difficult to discriminate a priori between clinically relevant diagnoses and those in which treatment is unnecessary. To minimize the effects of overdiagnosis, screening should be done in patients at risk. Copyright © 2014 SERAM. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  20. Prostate Cancer Screening Results from PLCO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learn the results of the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian (PLCO) Cancer Screening Trial, a large-scale clinical trial to determine whether certain cancer screening tests can help reduce deaths from prostate, lung, colorectal, and ovarian cancer.

  1. Risks of Liver (Hepatocellular) Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cancer. Having hepatitis or cirrhosis can increase the risk of developing liver cancer. Anything that increases the ... clinical trials is available from the NCI website . Risks of Liver (Hepatocellular) Cancer Screening Key Points Screening ...

  2. Treatment Option Overview (Cervical Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cancer is found early. Signs and symptoms of cervical cancer include vaginal bleeding and pelvic pain. These and other signs and symptoms may be caused by cervical cancer or by other conditions . Check with your ...

  3. Effectiveness of testis cancer screening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feucht, H.

    1983-04-01

    In the Federal Republic of Germany there are about thousand to two-thousand incidences of testis cancer yearly. The screening (and examination) program currently used for the early detection of cancer includes the screening of malignant tumours of the testis. Since only males 45 years and older are invited to make use of the preventive measures, the most seriously affected age-group between twenty and forty is hereby not considered. The objective of this study is to find out which of the generally conceivable preventive measures could lead to an improvement of the present situation. The analysis shows that, for a diagnostic accuracy of 1 and a participation of 100%, the quantifyable cost of a yearly performed special screening is higher than the quantifyable cost savings achieved. A final judgement of other ways of execution is only possible when the diagnostic accuracy of suitable screening methods and the percentage of the participants of the groups of people concerned are known. (orig.)

  4. Treatment Option Overview (Vaginal Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... factors affect prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options. The prognosis (chance of recovery ) depends on the ... or in other parts of the body. Treatment Option Overview Key Points There are different types of ...

  5. Treatment Option Overview (Prostate Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... factors affect prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options. The prognosis (chance of recovery ) and treatment options ... or in other parts of the body. Treatment Option Overview Key Points There are different types of ...

  6. Treatment Option Overview (Anal Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... affect the prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options. The prognosis (chance of recovery ) depends on the ... or in other parts of the body. Treatment Option Overview Key Points There are different types of ...

  7. Treatment Option Overview (Esophageal Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... factors affect prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options. The prognosis (chance of recovery ) and treatment options ... or in other parts of the body. Treatment Option Overview Key Points There are different types of ...

  8. Treatment Option Overview (Penile Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... factors affect prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options. The prognosis (chance of recovery ) and treatment options ... or in other parts of the body. Treatment Option Overview Key Points There are different types of ...

  9. Treatment Option Overview (Vulvar Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... factors affect prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options. The prognosis (chance of recovery ) and treatment options ... or in other parts of the body. Treatment Option Overview Key Points There are different types of ...

  10. Treatment Option Overview (Pancreatic Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... factors affect prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options. The prognosis (chance of recovery ) and treatment options ... or in other parts of the body. Treatment Option Overview Key Points There are different types of ...

  11. Colorec tal cancer screening

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2009-05-12

    May 12, 2009 ... The operator must be skilled in the management of adverse events. • The operator must arrange appropriate follow-up of histopathological results. • The operator must provide appropriate recommendations for follow-up surveil- lance and screening. The average- risk person has a lifetime risk of developing.

  12. Methods for Cervical Cancer Screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Vargas-Revilla

    2014-12-01

    This article is divided in three sections: the first one focuses on the general impact of cervical cancer has hadin CostaRica, these condsection gathers information about different methodologies used around the world to detect this cancer and the third one makes reference to the current development of the screening devise in Mexico that works as a monitoring system and can used by women without external assistance.

  13. Treatment Option Overview (Thyroid Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... child or being exposed to radiation from an atomic bomb. The cancer may occur as soon as 5 years ... thyroid cancer, drugs may be given to prevent the body from making thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), a hormone that can ...

  14. breast cancer screening in

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    impact of the increasing incidence and mortality due to breast cancer. ... ported to be increasing in sub-Saharan Africa. ... A lump with more than three quarters of its margin being .... accounted for 36.8% of the false negative cases rate. The.

  15. Lung Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... detected on a lung CT scan. If your doctor finds another health problem, you may undergo further testing and, possibly, invasive treatments that wouldn't have been pursued if you hadn't had lung cancer ... need to: Inform your doctor if you have a respiratory tract infection. If ...

  16. European position statement on lung cancer screening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oudkerk, Matthijs; Devaraj, Anand; Vliegenthart, Rozemarijn

    2017-01-01

    Lung cancer screening with low-dose CT can save lives. This European Union (EU) position statement presents the available evidence and the major issues that need to be addressed to ensure the successful implementation of low-dose CT lung cancer screening in Europe. This statement identified...... specific actions required by the European lung cancer screening community to adopt before the implementation of low-dose CT lung cancer screening. This position statement recommends the following actions: a risk stratification approach should be used for future lung cancer low-dose CT programmes...... need to set a timeline for implementing lung cancer screening....

  17. Radiolabeled antibodies in cancer. Oncology Overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-11-01

    Oncology Overviews are a service of the International Cancer Research Data Bank (ICRDB) Program of the National Cancer Institute, intended to facilitate and promote the exchange of information between cancer scientists by keeping them aware of literature related to their research being published by other laboratories through the world. Each Oncology Overview represents a survey of the literature associated with a selected area of cancer research. It contains abstracts of articles which have been selected and organized by researchers associated with the field. Contents: Radiolabeled antibodies--labeling and imaging techniques; Radiolabeled antibodies--carcinoembryonic antigen; Radiolabeled antibodies--alpha-fetoprotein; Radiolabeled antibodies--human chorionic gonadotropin; Radiolabeled antibodies--ferritin; Radiolabeled antibodies--imaging of colorectal tumors; Radiolabeled antibodies--imaging of malignant melanoma; Radiolabeled antibodies--imaging of urogenital tumors; Radiolabeled antibodies--imaging of thyroid tumors; Radiolabeled antibodies--other clinical studies; Radiolabeled antibodies--selected preclinical studies; Radiolabeled antibodies--reviews

  18. Outcome of breast cancer screening in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynge, Elsebeth; Bak, Martin; von Euler-Chelpin, My

    2017-01-01

    were node negative and 40% ≤10 mm. False-positive rate was around 2%; higher for North Denmark Region than for the rest of Denmark. Three out of 10 breast cancers in screened women were diagnosed as interval cancers. Conclusions: High coverage by examination and low interval cancer rate are required...... for screening to decrease breast cancer mortality. Two pioneer local screening programs starting in the 1990s were followed by a decrease in breast cancer mortality of 22-25%. Coverage by examination and interval cancer rate of the national program were on the favorable side of values from the pioneer programs...... Region than in the rest of Denmrk. Detection rate was slightly below 1% at first screen, 0.6% at subsequent screens, and one region had some fluctuation over time. Ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) constituted 13-14% of screen-detected cancers. In subsequent rounds, 80% of screen-detected invasive cancers...

  19. Increasing Cervical Cancer Screening in Underserved Populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorsainvil, Merlyn A

    The incidence of cervical cancer has declined dramatically due to Papanicolaou smear testing. However, some minority populations continue to suffer with high incidences and/or death rates of cervical cancer, due to lack of screening. This article updates on cervical cancer screening and prevention and discusses cultural impacts on screening. Knowledge deficits disproportionately affect ethnic minority groups and contribute to cancer incidence, whereas lack of healthcare coverage and low socioeconomic status contribute to screening disparities. Although minority women have cultural beliefs and practices that influence screening, recommendation and/or education from a provider often lead to screening.

  20. Pitfalls and Opportunities in Colorectal Cancer Screening

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.G. van Putten (Paul)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractColorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common cancer and the second leading cause of death from cancer in the Western world. Screening has been shown to reduce CRC incidence and mortality. The first evidence that colorectal cancer screening could effectively reduce mortality dates

  1. Treatment Option Overview (Gastric Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... liquid that contains barium (a silver-white metallic compound ). The liquid coats the esophagus and stomach, and ... tissues so they can be viewed under a microscope to check for signs of cancer. A biopsy ...

  2. Treatment Option Overview (Bladder Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... above the waist. Tiny tubules in the kidneys filter and clean the blood . They take out waste ... to bladder cancer. Being exposed to paints, dyes, metals, or petroleum products in the workplace. Past treatment ...

  3. PET in cancer screening: a controversial imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su Minggang; Tan Tianzhi

    2012-01-01

    Malignancy has been one of the most dangerous threats to human health. Early diagnosis and treatment are key factors for improving prognosis. Cancer screening is an important way to detect early stage cancer and precancerous lesion. PET has been used increasingly in cancer screening in accordance with the requirement of the public. Though a great number of data show that PET can find some subclinical malignancy, yet as a cancer screening modality, PET is still controversial in contemporary medical practice. The aim of this article is to review the application status and existing problem of PET in cancer screening, and to offer some recognition and view about cancer srceening. (authors)

  4. More misinformation on breast cancer screening

    OpenAIRE

    Kopans, Daniel B.

    2017-01-01

    Unfortunately, a great deal of misinformation has accumulated in the breast cancer screening literature that is based on flawed analyses in an effort to reduce access to screening. Quite remarkably, much of this has come from publications in previously highly respected medical journals. In several papers the intervention (mammography screening) is faulted yet the analyses provided no data on who participated in mammography screening, and which cancers were detected by mammography screening. I...

  5. Epidemiology of testicular cancer: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garner, Michael J; Turner, Michelle C; Ghadirian, Parviz; Krewski, Daniel

    2005-09-01

    Testicular cancer is a rare disease, accounting for 1.1% of all malignant neoplasms in Canadian males. Despite the low overall incidence of testicular cancer, it is the most common malignancy among young men. The incidence rate of testicular cancer has been increasing since the middle of the 20th century in many western countries. However, the etiology of testicular cancer is not well understood. A search of the peer-reviewed literature was conducted to identify important articles for review and inclusion in this overview of the epidemiology of testicular cancer. Most of the established risk factors are related to early life events, including cryptorchidism, carcinoma in situ and in utero exposure to estrogens. Occupational, lifestyle, socioeconomic and other risk factors have demonstrated mixed associations with testicular cancer. Although there are few established risk factors for testicular cancer, some appear to be related to hormonal balance at various life stages. Lifestyle and occupational exposures occurring later in life may play a role in promoting the disease, although they are not likely involved in cancer initiation. In addition to summarizing the current epidemiologic evidence on risk factors for testicular cancer, we suggest future research directions that may elucidate the etiology of testicular cancer.

  6. Primary care colorectal cancer screening correlates with breast cancer screening: implications for colorectal cancer screening improvement interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Jennifer M; Pandhi, Nancy; Kraft, Sally; Potvien, Aaron; Carayon, Pascale; Smith, Maureen A

    2018-04-25

    National colorectal cancer (CRC) screening rates have plateaued. To optimize interventions targeting those unscreened, a better understanding is needed of how this preventive service fits in with multiple preventive and chronic care needs managed by primary care providers (PCPs). This study examines whether PCP practices of other preventive and chronic care needs correlate with CRC screening. We performed a retrospective cohort study of 90 PCPs and 33,137 CRC screening-eligible patients. Five PCP quality metrics (breast cancer screening, cervical cancer screening, HgbA1c and LDL testing, and blood pressure control) were measured. A baseline correlation test was performed between these metrics and PCP CRC screening rates. Multivariable logistic regression with clustering at the clinic-level estimated odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for these PCP quality metrics, patient and PCP characteristics, and their relationship to CRC screening. PCP CRC screening rates have a strong correlation with breast cancer screening rates (r = 0.7414, p < 0.001) and a weak correlation with the other quality metrics. In the final adjusted model, the only PCP quality metric that significantly predicted CRC screening was breast cancer screening (OR 1.25; 95% CI 1.11-1.42; p < 0.001). PCP CRC screening rates are highly concordant with breast cancer screening. CRC screening is weakly concordant with cervical cancer screening and chronic disease management metrics. Efforts targeting PCPs to increase CRC screening rates could be bundled with breast cancer screening improvement interventions to increase their impact and success.

  7. Smoking cessation and lung cancer screening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jesper Johannes Holst; Tønnesen, Philip; Ashraf, Haseem

    2016-01-01

    Smoking behavior may have a substantial influence on the overall effect of lung cancer screening. Non-randomized studies of smoking behavior during screening have indicated that computer tomography (CT) screening induces smoking cessation. Randomized studies have further elaborated that this effect...... and decrease smoking relapse rate. Also low smoking dependency and high motivation to quit smoking at baseline predicted smoking abstinence in screening trials. Lung cancer screening therefore seems to be a teachable moment for smoking cessation. Targeted smoking cessation counselling should be an integrated...... part of future lung cancer screening trials....

  8. App Improves Colorectal Cancer Screening Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colorectal cancer screening reduces deaths from the disease, yet about one-third of Americans aren’t up to date with screening. In this Cancer Currents blog post, learn what happened when people waiting for routine checkups could order their own screening test using a computer app.

  9. Overview of gastrointestinal cancer prevention in Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jong-Min; Lee, Ho-Jae; Yoo, Jun Hwan; Ko, Weon Jin; Cho, Joo Young; Hahm, Ki Baik

    2015-12-01

    "War on cancer" was declared through the National Cancer Act by President Richard Nixon in 1971, but cancer statistics from the American Cancer Society and other sources indicated the failure of this war, suggesting instead focus on the message that a "prevention strategy" might be much more effective than cancer treatment. While cancer statistics notoriously showed sharp increases in incidence as well as in mortality concurrent with economic growth in Asia, fortunately Asian countries benefit from plentiful resources of natural compounds, which can prevent cancer. Just like cancer chemotherapeutics targeted to kill cancer cells in Western countries, natural agents activating molecular mechanisms for cancer prevention, reversion of premalignant tumors, and even ablation of cancer stem cells, are very abundant in Asia. Currently, these natural agents are under very active investigations targeting the hallmarks of cancer prevention, including selective induction of apoptosis in cancer cells, suppression of growth factors or their signaling, suppression of cell proliferation and of cancer-promoting angiogenesis, induction of mesenchymal-epithelial transition, and disruption of the tumor microenvironment, developing promising cancer preventive agents. However, Asia is the most populous continent in the world and some Asian countries do not have the resources to implement cancer screening programs for early detection or treatment. In addition, despite the excellent cancer preventive screening strategies in some Asian countries, well-designed clinical trials for cancer prevention are somewhat delayed compared to Western countries. In this review article, several phytochemicals/phytoceuticals produced and studied in different Asian countries will be introduced, including Korean red ginseng (pride of Korea), curcumin (Indian spice for life), black or green tea (popular in Japan/Sri Lanka), genistein from tofu (famous Chinese food), diallylsulfide or S-allylcysteine (garlic

  10. Celebrity endorsements of cancer screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Robin J; Woloshin, Steven; Schwartz, Lisa M; Welch, H Gilbert

    2005-05-04

    Celebrities often promote cancer screening by relating personal anecdotes about their own diagnosis or that of a loved one. We used data obtained from a random-digit dialing survey conducted in the United States from December 2001 through July 2002 to examine the extent to which adults of screening age without a history of cancer had seen or heard or been influenced by celebrity endorsements of screening mammography, prostate-specific antigen (PSA) testing, or sigmoidoscopy or colonoscopy. The survey response rate was 72% among those known to be eligible and 51% among potentially eligible people accounting for those who could not be contacted. A total of 360 women aged 40 years or older and 140 men aged 50 years or older participated in the survey. Most respondents reported they "had seen or heard a celebrity talk about" mammography (73% of women aged 40 years or older), PSA testing (63% of men aged 50 years or older), or sigmoidoscopy or colonoscopy (52% of adults aged 50 years or older). At least one-fourth of respondents who had seen or heard a celebrity endorsement said that the endorsement made them more likely to undergo mammography (25%), PSA testing (31%), or sigmoidoscopy or colonoscopy (37%).

  11. Cancer Screening Considerations and Cancer Screening Uptake for Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceres, Marc; Quinn, Gwendolyn P; Loscalzo, Matthew; Rice, David

    2018-02-01

    To describe the current state of cancer screening and uptake for lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) persons and to propose cancer screening considerations for LGBT persons. Current and historic published literature on cancer screening and LGBT cancer screening; published national guidelines. Despite known cancer risks for members of the LGBT community, cancer screening rates are often low, and there are gaps in screening recommendations for LGBT persons. We propose evidence-based cancer screening considerations derived from the current literature and extant cancer screening recommendations. The oncology nurse plays a key role in supporting patient preventive care and screening uptake through assessment, counseling, education, advocacy, and intervention. As oncology nurses become expert in the culturally competent care of LGBT persons, they can contribute to the improvement of quality of care and overall well-being of this health care disparity population. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Cost-effectiveness of colorectal cancer screening

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I. Lansdorp-Vogelaar (Iris); A.B. Knudsen (Amy); H. Brenner (Hermann)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractColorectal cancer is an important public health problem. Several screening methods have been shown to be effective in reducing colorectal cancer mortality. The objective of this review was to assess the cost-effectiveness of the different colorectal cancer screening methods and to

  13. Screening for Breast Cancer: Staging and Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Screening For Breast Cancer Staging and Treatment Past Issues / Summer 2014 Table ... oncology nurse and a registered dietitian. Read More "Screening For Breast Cancer" Articles #BeBrave: A life-saving test / Breast Cancer ...

  14. Cancer Genetics Overview (PDQ®)—Health Professional Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancer Genetics Overview discusses hereditary cancers and the role of genetic variants (mutations). Get information about genetic counseling, familial cancer syndromes, genomic sequencing, germline and somatic testing, ethical and legal issues and more in this summary for clinicians.

  15. Breast cancer screening: ''reassuring'' the worried well?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodersen, John; Siersma, Volkert; Ryle, Mette

    2011-01-01

    of women offered screening compared to a population of women not offered screening for breast cancer. METHODS: One thousand women, aged 50-69 years, were randomly drawn from the Danish Civil Registration System to receive part I of the questionnaire Consequences of Screening in Breast Cancer (COS-BC1......): the sample consisted of 500 women living in a geographical area where screening mammography had been offered for more than 10 years and 500 women living in an area where the public health authorities had never invited women to breast cancer screening. RESULTS: A total of 759 women returned the questionnaire....... Those living in areas where screening was not offered reported more negative psychosocial aspects compared to women living in areas where screening was offered. CONCLUSIONS: The results indicate that women tend to perceive breast cancer screening as a reassuring preventive initiative. Alternatively...

  16. Testing Precision Screening for Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    An NCI research article about individualized approaches that could help identify those at risk of breast cancer who need to be screened and testing screening intervals that are appropriate for each person’s level of risk.

  17. Breast cancer screening in older women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caplan, L S; Haynes, S G

    1996-01-01

    There is currently an epidemic of breast cancer in women 65 years of age and older. The purposes of this paper are to explore the breast cancer screening behaviors of older women and to identify some of the determinants of screening in these women. Data were analyzed from the 1987 National Health Interview Survey, a continuous nationwide household interview survey of the U.S. civilian, noninstitutionalized population. As in other studies, the utilization of breast cancer screening by older women was less in older women than in younger women. This was true for both mammography and clinical breast examination. A number of determinants of screening in older women were identified here. Women with a usual source of care and/or no activity limitation, as well as high school graduates, were the ones most likely to have received a screening mammogram and/or a screening clinical breast exam during the past year. The failure of older women to receive adequate breast cancer screening is an important concern which should be reevaluated, given the breast cancer epidemic in this population. This study identified a number of determinants of breast cancer screening in older women. For the most part, these determinants point to the primary care physician as the key to breast cancer screening in these women. Therefore, the primary care physician must be informed of, and encouraged to follow, the recommendations for periodic breast cancer screening in older women.

  18. Development and implementation of guidelines for quality assurance in breast cancer screening: The European experience.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawrence von Karsa

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In Europe, as in many other regions of the world, breast cancer is a major cause of suffering and death. Early detection of breast cancer by systematic mammography screening can find lesions for which treatment is more effective and generally more favourable for quality of life. Comprehensive quality assurance guidelines for breast cancer screening based on mammography have been developed in the Europe Against Cancer programme with the aim of maximising screening benefits while minimising adverse effects, such as unnecessary examination or treatment resulting from false-positive screening tests. The present report provides an overview of the European experience in developing and implementing quality assurance guidelines for breast cancer screening. It highlights implications relevant to those regions of the world in which the burden of breast cancer in the coming years will make population-based screening an option for cancer control.

  19. International Collaboration Enhances Cancer Screening Efforts

    Science.gov (United States)

    CGH is working with the International Agency for Research on CancerExit Disclaimer (IARC) and the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) on the ESTAMPA Study, a multi-centric study of cervical cancer screening and triage with HPV testing.

  20. Computer screens and brain cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, A.W.

    1995-01-01

    Australia, both in the media and at the federal government level, over possible links between screen-based computer use and cancer, brain tumour in particular. The screen emissions assumed to be the sources of the putative hazard are the magnetic fields responsible for horizontal and vertical scanning of the display. Time-varying fluctuations in these magnetic fields induce electrical current flows in exposed tissues. This paper estimates that the induced current densities in the brain of the computer user are up to 1 mA/m 2 (due to the vertical flyback). Corresponding values for other electrical appliances or installations are in general much less than this. The epidemiological literature shows no obvious signs of a sudden increase in brain tumour incidence, but the widespread use of computers is a relatively recent phenomenon. The occupational use of other equipment based on cathode ray tubes (such as TV repair) has a much longer history and has been statistically linked to brain tumour in some studies. A number of factors make this an unreliable indicator of the risk from computer screens, however. 42 refs., 3 tabs., 2 figs

  1. Risks of Skin Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... factors increase or decrease the risk of skin cancer. Skin cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) ... following PDQ summaries for more information about skin cancer: Skin Cancer Prevention Skin Cancer Treatment Melanoma Treatment Genetics ...

  2. [Women's willingness to pay for cancer screening].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwak, Min-Son; Sung, Na-Young; Yang, Jeong Hee; Park, Eun-Cheol; Choi, KuiSon

    2006-07-01

    The goal of this study is to measure women's willingness to pay for cancer screening and to identify those factors associated with this willingness to pay A population-based telephone survey was performed on 1,562 women (aged 30 years or over) for 2 weeks (9-23th, July, 2004). Data about sociodemographic characteristics, health behaviors, the intention of the cancer screenings and willingness to pay for cancer screening were collected. 1,400 respondents were included in the analysis. The women's willingness to pay for cancer screening and the factors associated with this willingness to pay were evaluated. The results show that 76% of all respondents have a willingness to pay for cancer screening. Among those who are willing to pay, the average and median amount of money for which the respondents are willing to pay are 126,636 (s.d.: 58,414) and 120,000 won, respectively. As the status of education & the income are higher, the average amount that women are willing to pay becomes much more. The amount of money women are willing to pay is the highest during the 'contemplation' stage. Being willing to pay or not is associated with a change of behavior (transtheoretical model), the income, the concern about the cancer risk, the family cancer history, the marital status, the general health exam, age and the place of residence. Income is associated with a greater willingness to pay. Old age was associated with a lower willingness to pay. According to the two-part model, income and TTM are the most important variables associated with the willingness to pay for cancer screening. The cancer screening participation rate is low compared with the willingness to pay for cancer screening. It is thought that we have to consider the participants' behavior that's associated with cancer screening and their willingness to pay in order to organize and manage cancer screening program.

  3. Cancer screening in patients infected with HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigel, Keith; Dubrow, Robert; Silverberg, Michael; Crothers, Kristina; Braithwaite, Scott; Justice, Amy

    2011-09-01

    Non-AIDS-defining cancers are a rising health concern among HIV-infected patients. Cancer screening is now an important component of health maintenance in HIV clinical practice. The decision to screen an HIV-infected patient for cancer should include an assessment of individualized risk for the particular cancer, life expectancy, and the harms and benefits associated with the screening test and its potential outcome. HIV-infected patients are at enhanced risk of several cancers compared to the general population; anal cancer, hepatocellular carcinoma, Hodgkin's lymphoma, and lung cancer all have good evidence demonstrating an enhanced risk in HIV-infected persons. A number of cancer screening interventions have shown benefit for specific cancers in the general population, but data on the application of these tests to HIV-infected persons are limited. Here we review the epidemiology and background literature relating to cancer screening interventions in HIV-infected persons. We then use these data to inform a conceptual model for evaluating HIV-infected patients for cancer screening.

  4. Screening for breast cancer with mammography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gøtzsche, Peter C; Jørgensen, Karsten Juhl

    2013-01-01

    A variety of estimates of the benefits and harms of mammographic screening for breast cancer have been published and national policies vary.......A variety of estimates of the benefits and harms of mammographic screening for breast cancer have been published and national policies vary....

  5. REVIEW ARTICLE: PROSTATE CANCER SCREENING USING ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    FOBUR

    ABSTRACT. Background: Prostate cancer is the commonest cancer among men in Nigeria and early detection is key to cure and survival but its screening through prostate specific antigen (PSA) has remain controversial in literature. Screening with prostate specific antigen (PSA) has led to more men diagnosed with ...

  6. Patient-initiated breast cancer screening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chilcote, W.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reviews the results of a breast cancer screening program sponsored by organizations at workplace or community locations. A comprehensive mobile breast cancer screening program, including education, breast physical examination, and mammography, was provided to 89 local organizations at $50.00 per examination over an 18-month period. The examination was patient initiated, following the ACS screening guidelines. Estimates of eligible women were provided by each organization. A total of 5,030 women at 89 organizations were screened for breast cancer. Approximately 25,727 women were eligible

  7. Cancer screening is not only about numbers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knottnerus, B. J.

    2017-01-01

    In the cancer screening debate, arguments for and against screening are often based on statistics, whereas for individuals personal, non-statistical factors are at least as important when deciding whether to participate in screening. Health care professionals have a responsibility in helping

  8. Outcome of breast cancer screening in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynge, Elsebeth; Bak, Martin; von Euler-Chelpin, My

    2017-01-01

    were node negative and 40% ≤10 mm. False-positive rate was around 2%; higher for North Denmark Region than for the rest of Denmark. Three out of 10 breast cancers in screened women were diagnosed as interval cancers. Conclusions: High coverage by examination and low interval cancer rate are required...... for screening to decrease breast cancer mortality. Two pioneer local screening programs starting in the 1990s were followed by a decrease in breast cancer mortality of 22-25%. Coverage by examination and interval cancer rate of the national program were on the favorable side of values from the pioneer programs...... calculated coverage by examination; participation after invitation; detection-, interval cancer- and false-positive rates; cancer characteristics; sensitivity and specificity, for Denmark and for the five regions. Results: At the national level coverage by examination remained at 75-77%; lower in the Capital...

  9. Depression Screening and Patient Outcomes in Cancer : A Systematic Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, Anna; Roseman, Michelle; Milette, Katherine; Coyne, James C.; Stefanek, Michael E.; Ziegelstein, Roy C.; Arthurs, Erin; Leavens, Allison; Palmer, Steven C.; Stewart, Donna E.; de Jonge, Peter; Thombs, Brett D.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Several practice guidelines recommend screening for depression in cancer care, but no systematic reviews have examined whether there is evidence that depression screening benefits cancer patients. The objective was to evaluate the potential benefits of depression screening in cancer

  10. Gastric cancer screening, literature review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porras Alfaro, Erika

    2014-01-01

    A comprehensive literature review was made of the methods of screening (pepsinogen test, gastrin-17, anti HP, SGD and Endoscopy). The review and descriptive study of the scientific literature related to the subject was conducted in the scientific databases: Pud Med, MD Consult and Medscape, from August 2013 to March 2014. 65 articles were found related to the topic. The review has included 47 items, assigned according to the criteria of inclusion and exclusion. Available methods were defined of high cost, difficult to spread, little sensitive, little specific and invasive. Endoscopy has had limitations of cost, quality, morbidity, mortality and availability. Pepsinogen tests and helicobacter pylori have helped identify the population at risk for later sift with endoscopy; but it is a very sensitive method. Endoscopy is recommended every two years in the population at risk (patients between 50 and 70 years with a family history of gastric cancer, chronic atrophic gastritis, Helicobacter pylori infection, intestinal metaplasia and dysplasia, patients with symptomatology of dyspepsia and with positive pepsinogen test) is a higher method than SGD in cost, sensitivity and specificity similar to invasive level. The training of the endoscopists should be strengthened in early gastric cancer detection since the detection depends on the quality of endoscopy [es

  11. Systematic skin cancer screening in Northern Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breitbart, Eckhard W; Waldmann, Annika; Nolte, Sandra; Capellaro, Marcus; Greinert, Ruediger; Volkmer, Beate; Katalinic, Alexander

    2012-02-01

    The incidence of skin cancer is increasing worldwide. For decades, opportunistic melanoma screening has been carried out to respond to this burden. However, despite potential positive effects such as reduced morbidity and mortality, there is still a lack of evidence for feasibility and effectiveness of organized skin cancer screening. The main aim of the project was to evaluate the feasibility of systematic skin cancer screening. In 2003, the Association of Dermatological Prevention was contracted to implement the population-based SCREEN project (Skin Cancer Research to Provide Evidence for Effectiveness of Screening in Northern Germany) in the German state of Schleswig-Holstein. A two-step program addressing malignant melanoma and nonmelanocytic skin cancer was implemented. Citizens (aged ≥ 20 years) with statutory health insurance were eligible for a standardized whole-body examination during the 12-month study period. Cancer registry and mortality data were used to assess first effects. Of 1.88 million eligible citizens, 360,288 participated in SCREEN. The overall population-based participation rate was 19%. A total of 3103 malignant skin tumors were found. On the population level, invasive melanoma incidence increased by 34% during SCREEN. Five years after SCREEN a substantial decrease in melanoma mortality was seen (men: observed 0.79/100,000 and expected 2.00/100,000; women: observed 0.66/100,000 and expected 1.30/100,000). Because of political reasons (resistance as well as lack of support from major German health care stakeholders), it was not possible to conduct a randomized controlled trial. The project showed that large-scale systematic skin cancer screening is feasible and has the potential to reduce skin cancer burden, including mortality. Based on the results of SCREEN, a national statutory skin cancer early detection program was implemented in Germany in 2008. Copyright © 2010 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All

  12. Screening for breast cancer post reduction mammoplasty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muir, T.M.; Tresham, J.; Fritschi, L.; Wylie, E.

    2010-01-01

    Aim: To investigate whether remodelling of the breast after breast reduction surgery has an effect on mammographic cancer detection. Methods and materials: For women who attended population-based screening between January 1998 to December 2007, data were extracted on their age, history of previous breast reduction, and the result of screening (recall for further assessment, cancer, or no cancer). The number of cancers detected, recalls per 1000 screens and the characteristics of the cancers detected in the two groups was compared. Results: In total 244,147 women with 736,219 screening episodes were reviewed. In the 4743 women who had a breast reduction, 51 breast cancers were detected [age standardized rate (ASR) of 4.28 per 1000 screening episodes; 95% CI 3.11-5.46], compared with 4342 breast cancers in 239 404 women screened in the non-reduction group (ASR of 5.99 per 1000 screening episodes; 95% CI 5.81-6.16). There were fewer cancers in the breast reduction group with a relative risk of 0.71. There was no significant difference in the rate of recall between the two groups, with a crude recall rate of 46.1 per 1000 screening episodes post-breast reduction compared with 50.7 per 1000 screening episodes for women without breast reduction. There was no significant difference in the pathological type or location of the cancer between the two groups of women. Conclusion: Postoperative breast changes following reduction mammoplasty do not significantly hinder analysis of the screening mammogram.

  13. CT screening for lung cancer. Update 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henschke, C.I.; Yip, R.; Yankelevitz, D.F.

    2009-01-01

    Screening for a cancer should be considered when the cancer is significant in terms of incidence and mortality, treatment of early stage disease is better than treatment of late stage disease, and there is a screening regimen that provides for earlier diagnosis rather than later, symptom-prompted diagnosis. Lung cancer qualifies as it kills more people than any other cancer worldwide. In the United States it kills more people than colon, breast, and prostate cancer combined and more women than breast cancer. The fundamental concepts of screening are presented. Screening for a cancer is a repetitive process, starting with the baseline round followed by repeat rounds of screening at set intervals. The regimen of screening defines the initial diagnostic test and the sequence of tests to be performed leading to a rule-in diagnosis of the cancer. The regimen should provide lead time of the diagnosis of the cancer. The regimen for the first, baseline round may be different from the regimen for the repeat rounds as the former is inherently different from the subsequent repeat rounds. Baseline screening identifies a greater proportion of cancers with a longer latent (asymptomatic) phase than repeat screening, called length bias. Length bias exists for any screening program, regardless of the design of the study or the cancer. Repeat rounds of screening identify the same proportion of cancer diagnoses found in absence of screening for people having the same risk of the cancer and these repeat rounds of screening can be pooled. It is also a consequence of length bias that cancers found in repeat rounds are earlier in their latent phase than those of the baseline round, a less frequently mentioned consequence. Overdiagnosis bias, another bias of screening, can occur in two ways: a cancer' detected by the screening, pathologically proven, that is not life-threatening even when not resected and a genuine life-threatening cancer that is diagnosed and treated but the person dies

  14. Risk factors & screening modalities for oral cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chau, Steven

    2008-01-01

    Dentists are at the forefront for screening oral cancer. In addition to the well known carcinogenic potential of tobacco and alcohol, betel nut chewing and human papilloma virus are important risk factors in the development of oral cancer. To aid in screening and decreasing morbidity and mortality from oral cancer, a variety of techniques have been developed. These techniques show promise but they require additional investigations to determine their usefulness in oral cancer detection. Dentists need to be well educated and vigilant when dealing with all patients they encounter. Early detection, diagnosis and treatment are critical for the effective management of oral cancers.

  15. Screening of colorectal early cancer by radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsukawa, M.; Usui, Y.; Kobayashi, S.

    1988-01-01

    The incidence of colorectal cancer has been gradually increasing in Japan, and if the present rate of increase is maintained it has been estimated that it will become the most common of all malignant neoplasms by the year 2000. It has been proved that colorectal cancer can be completely cured, if it is treated in its early phase. Early cancer of the large bowel is defined as a cancer which is limited to the mucosal membrane or submucosal layer, regardless of lymph node and distant metastases. Detection of early cancer improves the overall curability of colorectal cancer. The greatest number of early cancers of the large bowel are polypoid lesions in their macroscopic form, and depressed lesions are rarely encountered. Accordingly, the first step in the detection of early cancer starts with the screening of polypoid lesion by radiology and endoscopy. This paper is concerned with diagnostic accuracy of radiology in the screening of colorectal cancer with endoscopic correlation

  16. Optimizing Outcomes of Colorectal Cancer Screening

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.G.S. Meester (Reinier)

    2017-01-01

    markdownabstractColorectal cancer is a leading cause of cancer deaths. Screening for colorectal cancer is implemented in an increasing number of settings, but performance of programs is often suboptimal. In this thesis, advanced modeling, informed by empirical data, was used to identify areas for

  17. Diagnosis and treatment of pancreatic cancer. Oncology overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-09-01

    Oncology Overviews are a service of the International Cancer Research Data Bank (ICRDB) Program of the National Cancer Institute, intended to facilitate and promote the exchange of information between cancer scientists by keeping them aware of literature related to their research being published by other laboratories throughout the world. Each Oncology Overview represents a survey of the literature associated with a selected area of cancer research. It contains abstracts of articles which have been selected and organized by researchers associated with the field. Contents: Radiological diagnosis of pancreatic cancer; Biopsy and cytology in the diagnosis of pancreatic cancer; Pathology and morphology of pancreatic cancer; Staging and prognosis of pancreatic cancer; Biological and immunological markers in the diagnosis of pancreatic cancer; Surgical treatment of pancreatic cancer; Drug therapy of pancreatic cancer; Radiation therapy of pancreatic cancer; Selected studies on the epidemiology of pancreatic cancer; Clinical correlates and syndromes associated with pancreatic neoplasia

  18. The Japanese Guidelines for Breast Cancer Screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamashima, Chisato; Hamashima C, Chisato; Hattori, Masakazu; Honjo, Satoshi; Kasahara, Yoshio; Katayama, Takafumi; Nakai, Masahiro; Nakayama, Tomio; Morita, Takako; Ohta, Koji; Ohnuki, Koji; Sagawa, Motoyasu; Saito, Hiroshi; Sasaki, Seiju; Shimada, Tomoyuki; Sobue, Tomotaka; Suto, Akihiko

    2016-05-01

    The incidence of breast cancer has progressively increased, making it the leading cause of cancer deaths in Japan. Breast cancer accounts for 20.4% of all new cancers with a reported age-standardized rate of 63.6 per 100 000 women. The Japanese guidelines for breast cancer screening were developed based on a previously established method. The efficacies of mammography with and without clinical breast examination, clinical breast examination and ultrasonography with and without mammography were evaluated. Based on the balance of the benefits and harms, recommendations for population-based and opportunistic screenings were formulated. Five randomized controlled trials of mammographic screening without clinical breast examination were identified for mortality reduction from breast cancer. The overall relative risk for women aged 40-74 years was 0.75 (95% CI: 0.67-0.83). Three randomized controlled trials of mammographic screening with clinical breast examination served as eligible evidence for mortality reduction from breast cancer. The overall relative risk for women aged 40-64 years was 0.87 (95% confidence interval: 0.77-0.98). The major harms of mammographic screening were radiation exposure, false-positive cases and overdiagnosis. Although two case-control studies evaluating mortality reduction from breast cancer were found for clinical breast examination, there was no study assessing the effectiveness of ultrasonography for breast cancer screening. Mammographic screening without clinical breast examination for women aged 40-74 years and with clinical breast examination for women aged 40-64 years is recommended for population-based and opportunistic screenings. Clinical breast examination and ultrasonography are not recommended for population-based screening because of insufficient evidence regarding their effectiveness. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. More misinformation on breast cancer screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopans, Daniel B

    2017-02-01

    Unfortunately, a great deal of misinformation has accumulated in the breast cancer screening literature that is based on flawed analyses in an effort to reduce access to screening. Quite remarkably, much of this has come from publications in previously highly respected medical journals. In several papers the intervention (mammography screening) is faulted yet the analyses provided no data on who participated in mammography screening, and which cancers were detected by mammography screening. It is remarkable that a highly respected journal can fault an intervention with no data on the intervention. Claims of massive over diagnosis of invasive breast cancer due to breast cancer screening have been made using "guesses" that have no scientific basis. No one has ever seen a mammographically detected, invasive breast cancer, disappear on its own, yet analysts have claimed that this occurs thousands of times each year. In fact, the" miraculous" resolution, without intervention, of a handful of breast cancers have all been palpable cancers, yet there is no suggestion to stop treating palpable cancers. A review of several publications in the New England Journal of Medicine shows some of the flaws in these analyses. There is clearly a problem with peer review that is allowing scientifically unsupportable material, which is misleading women and their physicians, to be published in prestigious journals.

  20. Cancer screening with FDG-PET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ide, M.

    2006-01-01

    Aim: This study is based on medical health check-up and cancer screening on of a medical health club using PET, MRI, spiral CT and other conventional examinations. Methods: Between October 1994 and June 2005, 9357 asymptomatic members of the health club participated in 24772 screening session (5693 men and 3664 women, mean age 52.2±10.4 years). Results: Malignant tumors were discovered in 296 of the 9357 participants (3.16%) and 24772 screening sessions (1.19%). The detection rate of our program is much higher than that of mass screening in Japan. The thyroid, lung, colon and breast cancers were PET positive, but the prostate, renal and bladder cancers were generally PET negative. Conclusion: FDG-PET has the potential to detect a wide variety of cancers at curable stages in asymptomatic individuals. To reduce false-positive and false-negative results of PET examination, there is a need of experienced radiologist and/or oncologists who had training in the wide aspect of FDG-PET. FDG-PET has limitations in the detection of urological cancers, cancers of low cell density, small cancers and hypo metabolic or FDG non-avid cancers. Therefore, conventional examinations and/or PET/CT are also needed for cancer screening in association with FDG-PET

  1. Treatment Option Overview (Male Breast Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Common Cancer Types Recurrent Cancer Common Cancer Types Bladder Cancer Breast Cancer Colorectal Cancer Kidney (Renal Cell) Cancer ... back). Tests include the following: Estrogen and progesterone receptor test : A test to measure the amount of ...

  2. Final screening round of the NELSON lung cancer screening trial: the effect of a 2.5-year screening interval

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yousaf-Khan, U.; Aalst, C. van der; Jong, P.A. de; Heuvelmans, M.; Scholten, E.T.; Lammers, J.-W.J.; Ooijen, P. van; Nackaerts, K.; Weenink, C.; Groen, H.; Vliegenthart, R.; Haaf, K. Ten; Oudkerk, M.; Koning, H. de

    2016-01-01

    In the USA annual lung cancer screening is recommended. However, the optimal screening strategy (eg, screening interval, screening rounds) is unknown. This study provides results of the fourth screening round after a 2.5-year interval in the Dutch-Belgian Lung Cancer Screening trial

  3. Final screening round of the NELSON lung cancer screening trial : the effect of a 2.5-year screening interval

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yousaf-Khan, Uraujh; van der Aalst, Carlijn; de Jong, Pim A; Heuvelmans, Marjolein; Scholten, Ernst; Lammers, Jan-Willem; van Ooijen, Peter; Nackaerts, Kristiaan; Weenink, Carla; Groen, Harry; Vliegenthart, Rozemarijn; Ten Haaf, Kevin; Oudkerk, Matthijs; de Koning, Harry

    BACKGROUND: In the USA annual lung cancer screening is recommended. However, the optimal screening strategy (eg, screening interval, screening rounds) is unknown. This study provides results of the fourth screening round after a 2.5-year interval in the Dutch-Belgian Lung Cancer Screening trial

  4. Final screening round of the NELSON lung cancer screening trial : the effect of a 2.5-year screening interval

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yousaf-Khan, Uraujh; van der Aalst, Carlijn; de Jong, Pim A.; Heuvelmans, Marjolein; Scholten, Ernst; Lammers, Jan-Willem; van Ooijen, Peter; Nackaerts, Kristiaan; Weenink, Carla; Groen, Harry; Vliegenthart, Rozemarijn; Ten Haaf, Kevin; Oudkerk, Matthijs; de Koning, Harry

    Background In the USA annual lung cancer screening is recommended. However, the optimal screening strategy (eg, screening interval, screening rounds) is unknown. This study provides results of the fourth screening round after a 2.5-year interval in the Dutch-Belgian Lung Cancer Screening trial

  5. [Screening of ovarian cancer : not for tomorrow].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuilleumier, Aurélie; Labidi-Galy, Intidhar

    2017-05-17

    As the worldwide incidence of cancer continuously rises, one of the measures to reduce mortality is early diagnosis while the disease is still curable. Colonoscopy screening and PAP-smears are worthwhile examples illustrating the impact of early diagnosis on mortality. Ovarian cancer is the first cause of mortality by gynecological cancers in Switzerland (incidence of 600 new cases / year), mostly diagnosed at advanced stages with a poor prognosis. Could surveillance measures improve survival ? Three large-scale randomized control trials failed to show mortality reduction from ovarian cancer with the methods currently available. A better comprehension of pathogenesis can allow the development of new strategies of screening.

  6. Early Detection and Screening for Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Cathy

    2017-05-01

    To review the history, current status, and future trends related to breast cancer screening. Peer-reviewed articles, web sites, and textbooks. Breast cancer remains a complex, heterogeneous disease. Serial screening with mammography is the most effective method to detect early stage disease and decrease mortality. Although politics and economics may inhibit organized mammography screening programs in many countries, the judicious use of proficient clinical and self-breast examination can also identify small tumors leading to reduced morbidity. Oncology nurses have exciting opportunities to lead, facilitate, and advocate for delivery of high-quality screening services targeting individuals and communities. A practical approach is needed to translate the complexities and controversies surrounding breast cancer screening into improved care outcomes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Cervical Cancer Screening in Underserved Populations

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    Dr. Lisa Flowers, a specialist in human papillovarius (HPV)-related diseases and Director of Colposcopy at Emory University School of Medicine, talks about cervical cancer screening in underinsured or uninsured women.

  8. Costs Associated with Cervical Cancer Screening

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    Dr. Tom Cox, a practicing gynecologist and president of the American Society of Colposcopy and Cervical Pathology, provides a brief introduction to cervical cancer screening guidelines and human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA testing.

  9. Computer Simulation of Breast Cancer Screening

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Boone, John

    1999-01-01

    Breast cancer will affect approximately 12.5% of the women in the United States, and currently mammographic screening is considered the best way to reduce mortality from this disease through early detection...

  10. Oral cancer screening: knowledge is not enough.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tax, C L; Haslam, S Kim; Brillant, Mgs; Doucette, H J; Cameron, J E; Wade, S E

    2017-08-01

    The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to investigate whether dental hygienists are transferring their knowledge of oral cancer screening into practice. This study also wanted to gain insight into the barriers that might prevent dental hygienists from performing these screenings. A 27-item survey instrument was constructed to study the oral cancer screening practices of licensed dental hygienists in Nova Scotia. A total of 623 practicing dental hygienists received the survey. The response rate was 34% (n = 212) yielding a maximum margin of error of 5.47 at a 95% confidence level. Descriptive statistics were calculated using IBM SPSS Statistics v21 software (Armonk, NY:IBM Corp). Qualitative thematic analysis was performed on any open-ended responses. This study revealed that while dental hygienists perceived themselves as being knowledgeable about oral cancer screening, they were not transferring this knowledge to actual practice. Only a small percentage (13%) of respondents were performing a comprehensive extra-oral examination, and 7% were performing a comprehensive intra-oral examination. The respondents identified several barriers that prevented them from completing a comprehensive oral cancer screening. Early detection of oral cancer reduces mortality rates so there is a professional responsibility to ensure that comprehensive oral cancer screenings are being performed on patients. Dental hygienists may not have the authority in a dental practice to overcome all of the barriers that are preventing them from performing these screenings. Public awareness about oral cancer screenings could increase the demand for screenings and thereby play a role in changing practice norms. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Psychosocial consequences of skin cancer screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Markham Risica

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Screening for melanoma may save lives, but may also cause patient distress. One key reason that preventative visual skin examinations for skin cancer are not currently recommended is the inadequate available evidence to assess potential harm to psychosocial wellbeing. We investigated potential psychological harms and benefits of skin examinations by conducting telephone surveys in 2015 of 187 screened participants; all were ≥35 years old. Participants had their skin examined by practitioners who had completed INFORMED, a validated web-based training for detection of skin cancers, particularly melanoma. Participants underwent the Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI, Psychological Consequences of Screening (PCQ, Hospital Anxiety and Depression (HAD scale, and the 12-Item Short Form Health Survey (SF-12. Analyses were conducted in 2017. Of the entire study sample, 40% were thoroughly screened as determined by patient-reported level of undress and skin areas examined. Participants who were thoroughly screened: did not differ on negative psychosocial measures; scored higher on measures of positive psychosocial wellbeing (PCQ; and were more motivated to conduct monthly self-examinations and seek annual clinician skin examinations, compared to other participants (p < 0.05. Importantly, thoroughly screened patients were more likely to report skin prevention practices (skin self-examinations to identify a concerning lesion, practitioner provided skin exam, recommend skin examinations to peers, and feel satisfied with their skin cancer education than less thoroughly screened individuals (p < 0.01. Our results suggest that visual screening for skin cancer does not worsen patient psychosocial wellbeing and may be associated with improved skin cancer-related practices and attitudes. Keywords: Cancer, Melanoma, Cancer prevention, Screening

  12. Ethical issues in cancer screening and prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plutynski, Anya

    2012-06-01

    November 2009's announcement of the USPSTF's recommendations for screening for breast cancer raised a firestorm of objections. Chief among them were that the panel had insufficiently valued patients' lives or allowed cost considerations to influence recommendations. The publicity about the recommendations, however, often either simplified the actual content of the recommendations or bypassed significant methodological issues, which a philosophical examination of both the science behind screening recommendations and their import reveals. In this article, I discuss two of the leading ethical considerations at issue in screening recommendations: respect for patient autonomy and beneficence and then turn to the most significant methodological issues raised by cancer screening: the potential biases that may infect a trial of screening effectiveness, the problem of base rates in communicating risk, and the trade-offs involved in a judgment of screening effectiveness. These issues reach more broadly, into the use of "evidence-based" medicine generally, and have important implications for informed consent.

  13. Assessing the efficacy of cancer screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gemma Jacklyn

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Population-based cancer screening has been established for several types of cancer in Australia and internationally. Screening may perform differently in practice from randomised controlled trials, which makes evaluating programs complex. Materials and methods: We discuss how to assess the evidence of benefits and harms of cancer screening, including the main biases that can mislead clinicians and policy makers (such as volunteer, lead-time, length-time and overdiagnosis bias. We also discuss ways in which communication of risks can inform or mislead the community. Results: The evaluation of cancer screening programs should involve balancing the benefits and harms. When considering the overall worth of an intervention and allocation of scarce health resources, decisions should focus on the net benefits and be informed by systematic reviews. Communication of screening outcomes can be misleading. Many messages highlight the benefits while downplaying the harms, and often use relative risks and 5-year survival to persuade people to screen rather than support informed choice. Lessons learned: An evidence based approach is essential when evaluating and communicating the benefits and harms of cancer screening, to minimise misleading biases and the reliance on intuition.

  14. THE CERVICAL CANCER SCREENING - UNSOLVED PROBLEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. D. Kaprin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The problem of cervical cancer (CC for many decades continues to be the center of attention leading foreign and domestic oncologists. Malignant cervical tumors occupy the leading position among malignant neoplasms of reproductive system in women, second only to breast cancer, despite having far more effective screening compared with this disease. On predictive expert estimates (taking into account population growth and the expected increase in life expectancy by 2020 in developing countries, the rising incidence and prevalence of cervical cancer is 40%, while in developed countries - 11%. If we do not perform timely interventions for prevention and treatment of cervical cancer, after 2050 cervical cancer every year in the world will become sick 1 million women. In the last decade inRussiathere has been a gradual increase in the incidence of cervical cancer: average annual growth rate of 2.21%, General 25,18%. Cervical cancer is one of nosological forms that meet all the requirements of population-based screening. The current Russian normative documents do not give clear answers to questions concerning the age of onset of cervical cancer screening and the time interval between tests, no clear program organized cytological screening of cervical cancer.

  15. Screening for breast cancer with mammography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gøtzsche, Peter C; Nielsen, Margrethe

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A variety of estimates of the benefits and harms of mammographic screening for breast cancer have been published and national policies vary. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effect of screening for breast cancer with mammography on mortality and morbidity. SEARCH STRATEGY: We searched Pub...... excluded a biased trial and included 600,000 women in the analyses. Three trials with adequate randomisation did not show a significant reduction in breast cancer mortality at 13 years (relative risk (RR) 0.90, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.79 to 1.02); four trials with suboptimal randomisation showed...... a significant reduction in breast cancer mortality with an RR of 0.75 (95% CI 0.67 to 0.83). The RR for all seven trials combined was 0.81 (95% CI 0.74 to 0.87). We found that breast cancer mortality was an unreliable outcome that was biased in favour of screening, mainly because of differential...

  16. Breast cancer screening: An outpatient clinic study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Girgin

    2017-03-01

    Conclusion: A multidisciplinary cancer screening program should be maintained. With such a process, the aim is to reduce the morbidity and mortality of the disease without adversely affecting the health conditions of asymptomatic individuals based on the screening. Success is brought about by the combination of individual features. [Arch Clin Exp Surg 2017; 6(1.000: 23-27

  17. Crunching Numbers: What Cancer Screening Statistics Really Tell Us

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancer screening studies have shown that more screening does not necessarily translate into fewer cancer deaths. This article explains how to interpret the statistics used to describe the results of screening studies.

  18. Oral cancer screening: serum Raman spectroscopic approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahu, Aditi K.; Dhoot, Suyash; Singh, Amandeep; Sawant, Sharada S.; Nandakumar, Nikhila; Talathi-Desai, Sneha; Garud, Mandavi; Pagare, Sandeep; Srivastava, Sanjeeva; Nair, Sudhir; Chaturvedi, Pankaj; Murali Krishna, C.

    2015-11-01

    Serum Raman spectroscopy (RS) has previously shown potential in oral cancer diagnosis and recurrence prediction. To evaluate the potential of serum RS in oral cancer screening, premalignant and cancer-specific detection was explored in the present study using 328 subjects belonging to healthy controls, premalignant, disease controls, and oral cancer groups. Spectra were acquired using a Raman microprobe. Spectral findings suggest changes in amino acids, lipids, protein, DNA, and β-carotene across the groups. A patient-wise approach was employed for data analysis using principal component linear discriminant analysis. In the first step, the classification among premalignant, disease control (nonoral cancer), oral cancer, and normal samples was evaluated in binary classification models. Thereafter, two screening-friendly classification approaches were explored to further evaluate the clinical utility of serum RS: a single four-group model and normal versus abnormal followed by determining the type of abnormality model. Results demonstrate the feasibility of premalignant and specific cancer detection. The normal versus abnormal model yields better sensitivity and specificity rates of 64 and 80% these rates are comparable to standard screening approaches. Prospectively, as the current screening procedure of visual inspection is useful mainly for high-risk populations, serum RS may serve as a useful adjunct for early and specific detection of oral precancers and cancer.

  19. Colorectal cancer screening: World Gastroenterology Organisation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Colorectal cancer screening: World Gastroenterology Organisation/International Digestive Cancer Alliance Practice Guidelines. S Winawer, M Classen, R Lambert, M Fried, P Dite, K L Goh, F Guarner, D Lieberman, R Eliakim, B Levin, R Saenz, A G Khan, I Khalif, A Lanas, G Lindberg, M J O'Brien, G Young, J Krabshuis ...

  20. Cervical Cancer Screening with HPV Test

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    Dr. Stewart Massad, a professor in the Division of Gynecologic Oncology at Washington University in Saint Louis and a board member of the American Society for Colposcopy and Cervical Cancer Prevention (ASCCP), talks about cotesting with human papillomavirus (HPV) as part of a cervical cancer screening program.

  1. Overview of DOE's field screening technology development activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frank, C.W.; Anderson, T.D.; Cooley, C.R.; Hain, K.E.; Lien, S.C.T.; Erickson, M.D.

    1991-01-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has recently created the Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management, into which it consolidated those activities. Within this new organization, the Office of Technology Development (OTD) is responsible for research, development, demonstration, testing, and evaluation (RDDT ampersand E) activities aimed at meeting DOE cleanup goals, while minimizing cost and risk. Site characterization using traditional drilling, sampling, and analytical methods comprises a significant part of the environmental restoration efforts in terms of both cost and time to accomplish. It can also be invasive and create additional pathways for spread of contaminants. Consequently, DOE is focusing on site characterization as one of the areas in which significant technological advances are possible which will decrease cost, reduce risk, and shorten schedules for achieving restoration goals. DOE is investing considerably in R ampersand D and demonstration activities which will improve the abilities to screen chemical, radiological, and physical parameters in the field. This paper presents an overview of the program objectives and status and reviews some of the projects which are currently underway in the area. 1 ref

  2. Screening for colorectal cancer: what fits best?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Lee, Chun Seng

    2012-06-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) screening has been shown to be effective in reducing CRC incidence and mortality. There are currently a number of screening modalities available for implementation into a population-based CRC screening program. Each screening method offers different strengths but also possesses its own limitations as a population-based screening strategy. We review the current evidence base for accepted CRC screening tools and evaluate their merits alongside their challenges in fulfilling their role in the detection of CRC. We also aim to provide an outlook on the demands of a low-risk population-based CRC screening program with a view to providing insight as to which modality would best suit current and future needs.

  3. Breast cancer screening implementation and reassurance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østerø, J; Siersma, Volkert Dirk; Brodersen, John

    2013-01-01

    difference in reported psychosocial aspects had disappeared or been reduced because of the nationwide screening implementation. METHODS: The 1000 women included in the previous survey were posted part I of the questionnaire Consequences of Screening in Breast Cancer (COS-BC1) in August 2011, nearly 5 years......BACKGROUND: Women not offered screening mammography reported higher levels of negative psychosocial aspects than women offered screening. This was demonstrated in a questionnaire survey where 1000 women were included: 500 women living in areas where the public authorities had never offered...... screening mammography and 500 women living in areas where women had been invited to screening mammography for >10 years. After this baseline survey, nationwide screening mammography was implemented. The aim of this follow-up study was to resurvey the 1000 women and to investigate if the identified...

  4. Risks of Breast Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is small. Different factors increase or decrease the risk of breast cancer. Anything that increases your chance ... magnetic resonance imaging) in women with a high risk of breast cancer MRI is a procedure that ...

  5. The Vaccine and Cervical Cancer Screen project 2 (VACCS 2 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Vaccine and Cervical Cancer Screen project 2 (VACCS 2): Linking cervical cancer screening to a two-dose HPV vaccination ... In VACCS 1 the feasibility of linking cervical cancer with HPV vaccination was demonstrated. ... Article Metrics.

  6. Cervical Cancer Screening with HPV Test

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-10-15

    Dr. Stewart Massad, a professor in the Division of Gynecologic Oncology at Washington University in Saint Louis and a board member of the American Society for Colposcopy and Cervical Cancer Prevention (ASCCP), talks about cotesting with human papillomavirus (HPV) as part of a cervical cancer screening program.  Created: 10/15/2009 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP), Division of Cancer Prevention and Control (DCPC).   Date Released: 6/9/2010.

  7. Prostate Cancer Screening | Cancer Trends Progress Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Cancer Trends Progress Report, first issued in 2001, summarizes our nation's advances against cancer in relation to Healthy People targets set forth by the Department of Health and Human Services.

  8. Colorectal Cancer Screening | Cancer Trends Progress Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Cancer Trends Progress Report, first issued in 2001, summarizes our nation's advances against cancer in relation to Healthy People targets set forth by the Department of Health and Human Services.

  9. Cervical Cancer Screening | Cancer Trends Progress Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Cancer Trends Progress Report, first issued in 2001, summarizes our nation's advances against cancer in relation to Healthy People targets set forth by the Department of Health and Human Services.

  10. Screening for breast cancer with mammography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sickles, E.A.

    1991-01-01

    Mammography is generally accepted as a useful problem-solving clinical tool in characterizing known breast lesions, so that appropriate and timely treatment can be given. However, it remains grossly underutilized at what it does best: screening. The major strengths of mammography are (a) its ability to detect breast cancer at a smaller, potentially more curable stage than any other examination, and (b) its proved efficacy in reducing breast cancer mortality in asymptomatic women aged 40-74. If, as has recently been estimated, screening with mammography and physical examination can be expected to lower breast cancer deaths by 40%-50% among those actually examined (13), then the lives of almost 20,000 U.S. women might be saved each year if screening were to become very widely used. The challenges of the next decade are clear, to mount much more effective campaigns to educate physicians and lay women about the life-saving benefits of breast cancer screening, to devise increasingly effective and lower cost screening strategies, to further improve the current high quality of mammographic imaging despite its increasing proliferation, and to train large numbers of breast imaging specialists to guarantee that the growing case load of screening and problem-solving mammograms is interpreted with a very high level of skill

  11. Prostate cancer screening: and yet it moves!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maciej Kwiatkowski

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The debate of prostate cancer (PCa screening has been shaped over decades. There is a plethora of articles in the literature supporting as well as declining prostate-specific antigen (PSA screening. Does screening decrease PCa mortality? With the long-term results of the European Randomized Study of Screening for Prostate (ERSPC the answer is clearly YES. It moves! However, in medicine there are no benefits without any harm and thus, screening has to be performed in targeted and smart way-or in other words-in a risk-adapted fashion when compared with the way it was done in the past. Here, we discuss the main findings of the ERSPC trials and provide insights on how the future screening strategies should be implemented.

  12. Who wants cancer screening with PET?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasunaga, Hideo

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: Cancer screening using whole-body fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) has gradually become popular in Japan. Although some studies have reported high cancer detection rates with PET screening, the justification for such an approach is still unclear, and no evidence has been provided to indicate that PET screening reduces cancer mortality. We measured the general public's willingness to pay (WTP) for this service using a contingent valuation method, after providing them with sufficient information regarding the efficacy and limitations of the service. Methods: A computer-assisted questionnaire survey was conducted on males and females in Japan aged between 40 and 59 years. The study participants (n = 390) were provided with sufficient information about the PET procedure, the high cancer detection rate, false-negatives/false-positives and the fact that the mortality-reducing effect of PET screening has not yet been demonstrated. The participants' WTP was ascertained by a double-bound dichotomous choice approach. Results: The average WTP among all the participants was $68.0 (95% confidence interval: $56.9-79.2). A Weibull regression analysis showed that income, degree of concern about health, and family history of cancer were significant factors affecting WTP. Conclusions: The actual charge for PET screening in Japan is approximately $1000 on average, which is significantly higher than the participants' WTP for the actual benefit obtained from the service. If the Japanese healthcare consumers are well-informed, most of them would avoid purchasing such a costly service.

  13. Interest in screening examinations among cancer patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Humeniuk Ewa

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To determine the influence of socio-demographic variables on attendance rate at screening examinations in cancer patients. Material and methods. The research group comprised of 100 cancer patients. The method applied in the research was a diagnostic survey. The research instrument was the authors‘ own questionnaire specially compiled to measure cancer patients‘ interest in screening examinations. The research material was analysed with the statistical packet STATISTICA 12 and Microsoft Office Excel software. Significance level was assumed at p<0.05 to determine statistically significant differences and dependencies. A Chi2 test was used in the research. Results. The surveyed patients mostly did not participate in screening examinations aimed at diagnosing cancer (66%. Their Age (p=0.05, gender (p=0.003 and place of residence (p=0.04 determined their participation rate in screening tests. The patients‘ marital status (p=0.47, education (p=0.85 and economic status (p=0.13 did not affect their willingness to attend screening examinations. Conclusions. The process of cancer incidence and death rate limitation requires greater participation of the population in prevention programmes.

  14. Promoting Breast Cancer Screening through Storytelling by Chamorro Cancer Survivors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manglona, Rosa Duenas; Robert, Suzanne; Isaacson, Lucy San Nicolas; Garrido, Marie; Henrich, Faye Babauta; Santos, Lola Sablan; Le, Daisy; Peters, Ruth

    2017-01-01

    The largest Chamorro population outside of Guam and the Mariana Islands reside in California. Cancer health disparities disproportionally affect Pacific Islander communities, including the Chamorro, and breast cancer is the most common cancer affecting women. To address health concerns such as cancer, Pacific Islander women frequently utilize storytelling to initiate conversations about health and to address sensitive topics such as breast health and cancer. One form of storytelling used in San Diego is a play that conveys the message of breast cancer screening to the community in a culturally and linguistically appropriate way. This play, Nan Nena’s Mammogram, tells the story of an older woman in the community who learns about breast cancer screening from her young niece. The story builds upon the underpinnings of Chamorro culture - family, community, support, and humor - to portray discussing breast health, getting support for breast screening, and visiting the doctor. The story of Nan Nena’s Mammogram reflects the willingness of a few pioneering Chamorro women to use their personal experiences of cancer survivorship to promote screening for others. Through the support of a Chamorro community-based organization, these Chamorro breast cancer survivors have used the success of Nan Nena’s Mammogram to expand their education activities and to form a new cancer survivor organization for Chamorro women in San Diego.

  15. Breast and cervical cancer screening programme implementation in 16 countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dowling, Emily C; Klabunde, Carrie; Patnick, Julietta

    2010-01-01

    There is a continuing need to monitor and evaluate the impact of organized screening programmes on cancer incidence and mortality. We report results from a programme assessment conducted within the International Cancer Screening Network (ICSN) to understand the characteristics of cervical screening...... programmes within countries that have established population-based breast cancer screening programmes....

  16. Postoperative adjuvant therapy of breast cancer. Oncology Overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-12-01

    Oncology Overviews are a service of the International Cancer Research Data Bank (ICRDB) Program of the National Cancer Institute, intended to facilitate and promote the exchange of information between cancer scientists by keeping them aware of literature related to their research being published by other laboratories throughout the world. Each Oncology Overview represents a survey of the literature associated with a selected area of cancer research. It contains abstracts of articles which have been selected and organized by researchers associated with the field. Contents: Postoperative chemotherapy; Postoperative radiotherapy; Postoperative hormone therapy; Postoperative immunotherapy and chemoimmunotherapy; Postoperative multimodal therapy; Prognostic factors in postoperative adjuvant therapy

  17. Gender Identity Disparities in Cancer Screening Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabaac, Ariella R; Sutter, Megan E; Wall, Catherine S J; Baker, Kellan E

    2018-03-01

    Transgender (trans) and gender-nonconforming adults have reported reduced access to health care because of discrimination and lack of knowledgeable care. This study aimed to contribute to the nascent cancer prevention literature among trans and gender-nonconforming individuals by ascertaining rates of breast, cervical, prostate, and colorectal cancer screening behaviors by gender identity. Publicly available de-identified data from the 2014-2016 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System surveys were utilized to evaluate rates of cancer screenings by gender identity, while controlling for healthcare access, sociodemographics, and survey year. Analyses were conducted in 2017. Weighted chi-square tests identified significant differences in the proportion of cancer screening behaviors by gender identity among lifetime colorectal cancer screenings, Pap tests, prostate-specific antigen tests, discussing prostate-specific antigen test advantages/disadvantages with their healthcare provider, and up-to-date colorectal cancer screenings and Pap tests (pgender identity were fully explained by covariates, trans women had reduced odds of having up-to-date colorectal cancer screenings compared to cisgender (cis) men (AOR=0.20) and cis women (AOR=0.24), whereas trans men were more likely to ever receive a sigmoidoscopy/colonoscopy as compared to cis men (AOR=2.76) and cis women (AOR=2.65). Trans women were more likely than cis men to have up-to-date prostate-specific antigen tests (AOR=3.19). Finally, trans men and gender-nonconforming individuals had reduced odds of lifetime Pap tests versus cis women (AOR=0.14 and 0.08, respectively), and gender-nonconforming individuals had lower odds of discussing prostate-specific antigen tests than cis men (AOR=0.09; all pgender identity disparities in cancer screenings persist beyond known sociodemographic and healthcare factors. It is critical that gender identity questions are included in cancer and other health-related surveillance

  18. Cystic Fibrosis Colorectal Cancer Screening Consensus Recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadjiliadis, Denis; Khoruts, Alexander; Zauber, Ann G; Hempstead, Sarah E; Maisonneuve, Patrick; Lowenfels, Albert B

    2018-02-01

    Improved therapy has substantially increased survival of persons with cystic fibrosis (CF). But the risk of colorectal cancer (CRC) in adults with CF is 5-10 times greater compared to the general population, and 25-30 times greater in CF patients after an organ transplantation. To address this risk, the CF Foundation convened a multi-stakeholder task force to develop CRC screening recommendations. The 18-member task force consisted of experts including pulmonologists, gastroenterologists, a social worker, nurse coordinator, surgeon, epidemiologist, statistician, CF adult, and a parent. The committee comprised 3 workgroups: Cancer Risk, Transplant, and Procedure and Preparation. A guidelines specialist at the CF Foundation conducted an evidence synthesis February-March 2016 based on PubMed literature searches. Task force members conducted additional independent searches. A total of 1159 articles were retrieved. After initial screening, the committee read 198 articles in full and analyzed 123 articles to develop recommendation statements. An independent decision analysis evaluating the benefits of screening relative to harms and resources required was conducted by the Department of Public Health at Erasmus Medical Center, Netherlands using the Microsimulation Screening Analysis model from the Cancer Innervation and Surveillance Modeling Network. The task force included recommendation statements in the final guideline only if they reached an 80% acceptance threshold. The task force makes 10 CRC screening recommendations that emphasize shared, individualized decision-making and familiarity with CF-specific gastrointestinal challenges. We recommend colonoscopy as the preferred screening method, initiation of screening at age 40 years, 5-year re-screening and 3-year surveillance intervals (unless shorter interval is indicated by individual findings), and a CF-specific intensive bowel preparation. Organ transplant recipients with CF should initiate CRC screening

  19. Lung Cancer Screening (PDQ®)—Health Professional Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lung cancer screening with low-dose spiral CT scans has been shown to decrease the risk of dying from lung cancer in heavy smokers. Screening with chest x-ray or sputum cytology does not reduce lung cancer mortality. Get detailed information about lung cancer screening in this clinician summary.

  20. Screening history in women with cervical cancer in a Danish population-based screening program

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirschner, Benny; Poll, Susanne; Rygaard, Carsten

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the screening histories of all cervical cancers in a Danish screening population. The intention was to decide suboptimal sides of the screening program and to evaluate the significance of routine screening in the development of cervical cancer.......The aim of this study was to explore the screening histories of all cervical cancers in a Danish screening population. The intention was to decide suboptimal sides of the screening program and to evaluate the significance of routine screening in the development of cervical cancer....

  1. Psychosocial consequences of skin cancer screening

    OpenAIRE

    Patricia Markham Risica; Natalie H. Matthews; Laura Dionne; Jennifer Mello; Laura K. Ferris; Melissa Saul; Alan C. Geller; Francis Solano; John M. Kirkwood; Martin A. Weinstock

    2018-01-01

    Screening for melanoma may save lives, but may also cause patient distress. One key reason that preventative visual skin examinations for skin cancer are not currently recommended is the inadequate available evidence to assess potential harm to psychosocial wellbeing. We investigated potential psychological harms and benefits of skin examinations by conducting telephone surveys in 2015 of 187 screened participants; all were ≥35 years old. Participants had their skin examined by practitioners ...

  2. Imaging and screening in lung cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo Giaj Levra

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Lung cancer is the main cause of death for neoplasia in the world. Hence it’s growing the necessity to investigate screening tests to detect tumoral lesions at the early stages: several trials have been performed to establish the best method, target and frequence of the screening to offer. CT, X-ray, PET, sputum citology and CAD software are here analyzed, together with the associated statistics and bias.

  3. Subtypes of Ovarian Cancer and Ovarian Cancer Screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masafumi Koshiyama

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Ovarian cancer is the foremost cause of gynecological cancer death in the developed world, as it is usually diagnosed at an advanced stage. In this paper we discuss current issues, the efficacy and problems associated with ovarian cancer screening, and compare the characteristics of ovarian cancer subtypes. There are two types of ovarian cancer: Type I carcinomas, which are slow-growing, indolent neoplasms thought to arise from a precursor lesion, which are relatively common in Asia; and Type II carcinomas, which are clinically aggressive neoplasms that can develop de novo from serous tubal intraepithelial carcinomas (STIC and/or ovarian surface epithelium and are common in Europe and the USA. One of the most famous studies on the subject reported that annual screening using CA125/transvaginal sonography (TVS did not reduce the ovarian cancer mortality rate in the USA. In contrast, a recent study in the UK showed an overall average mortality reduction of 20% in the screening group. Another two studies further reported that the screening was associated with decreased stage at detection. Theoretically, annual screening using CA125/TVS could easily detect precursor lesions and could be more effective in Asia than in Europe and the USA. The detection of Type II ovarian carcinoma at an early stage remains an unresolved issue. The resolving power of CA125 or TVS screening alone is unlikely to be successful at resolving STICs. Biomarkers for the early detection of Type II carcinomas such as STICs need to be developed.

  4. Subtypes of Ovarian Cancer and Ovarian Cancer Screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koshiyama, Masafumi; Matsumura, Noriomi; Konishi, Ikuo

    2017-03-02

    Ovarian cancer is the foremost cause of gynecological cancer death in the developed world, as it is usually diagnosed at an advanced stage. In this paper we discuss current issues, the efficacy and problems associated with ovarian cancer screening, and compare the characteristics of ovarian cancer subtypes. There are two types of ovarian cancer: Type I carcinomas, which are slow-growing, indolent neoplasms thought to arise from a precursor lesion, which are relatively common in Asia; and Type II carcinomas, which are clinically aggressive neoplasms that can develop de novo from serous tubal intraepithelial carcinomas (STIC) and/or ovarian surface epithelium and are common in Europe and the USA. One of the most famous studies on the subject reported that annual screening using CA125/transvaginal sonography (TVS) did not reduce the ovarian cancer mortality rate in the USA. In contrast, a recent study in the UK showed an overall average mortality reduction of 20% in the screening group. Another two studies further reported that the screening was associated with decreased stage at detection. Theoretically, annual screening using CA125/TVS could easily detect precursor lesions and could be more effective in Asia than in Europe and the USA. The detection of Type II ovarian carcinoma at an early stage remains an unresolved issue. The resolving power of CA125 or TVS screening alone is unlikely to be successful at resolving STICs. Biomarkers for the early detection of Type II carcinomas such as STICs need to be developed.

  5. Cervical cancer screening among Lebanese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bou-Orm, I R; Sakr, R E; Adib, S M

    2018-02-01

    Cervical cancer is a very common malignancy amongst women worldwide. Pap smear is an effective and inexpensive screening test in asymptomatic women. The aim of this paper was to assess the prevalence of Pap smear screening for cervical cancer among Lebanese women and to determine associated sociodemographic and psychosocial characteristics. This national survey included 2255 women, selected by multi-stage random cluster sampling across Lebanon. A questionnaire about practices and perceptions related to cervical cancer screening was developed based on the "Health Belief Model". The weighted national prevalence of "ever-use" of the Pap smear for screening purposes was 35%. Most important determinants of screening behavior were: residence within Greater Beirut, higher socio-economic status and educational attainment, marriage status, presence of a health coverage, awareness of Pap smear usefulness, knowing someone who had already done it, and a balance between perceived benefits and perceived barriers to Pap smear screening. Regular information campaigns regarding the availability and effectiveness of the test should be devised, targeting in priority the sexually vulnerable women in Lebanon. Moreover, healthcare providers should be encouraged to discuss with their patients the opportunity of obtaining a Pap smear. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. European Breast Cancer Service Screening Outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paci, Eugenio; Broeders, Mireille; Hofvind, Solveig

    2014-01-01

    A recent comprehensive review has been carried out to quantify the benefits and harms of the European population-based mammographic screening programs. Five literature reviews were conducted on the basis of the observational published studies evaluating breast cancer mortality reduction, breast...... seven to nine breast cancer deaths are avoided, four cases are overdiagnosed, 170 women have at least one recall followed by noninvasive assessment with a negative result, and 30 women have at least one recall followed by invasive procedures yielding a negative result. The chance of a breast cancer...... cancer overdiagnosis, and false-positive results. On the basis of the studies reviewed, the authors present a first estimate of the benefit and harm balance sheet. For every 1,000 women screened biennially from ages 50 to 51 years until ages 68 to 69 years and followed up until age 79 years, an estimated...

  7. Implementation and organization of lung cancer screening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jesper Johannes Holst; Ashraf, Haseem

    2016-01-01

    CT screening for lung cancer is now being implemented in the US and China on a widespread national scale but not in Europe so far. The review gives a status for the implementation process and the hurdles to overcome in the future. It also describes the guidelines and requirements for the structure...... and components of high quality CT screening programs. These are essential in order to achieve a successful program with the fewest possible harms and a possible mortality benefit like that documented in the American National Lung Screening Trial (NLST). In addition the importance of continued research in CT...

  8. Factors Influencing Colorectal Cancer Screening Participation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Z. Gimeno García

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Colorectal cancer (CRC is a major health problem worldwide. Although population-based CRC screening is strongly recommended in average-risk population, compliance rates are still far from the desirable rates. High levels of screening uptake are necessary for the success of any screening program. Therefore, the investigation of factors influencing participation is crucial prior to design and launches a population-based organized screening campaign. Several studies have identified screening behaviour factors related to potential participants, providers, or health care system. These influencing factors can also be classified in non-modifiable (i.e., demographic factors, education, health insurance, or income and modifiable factors (i.e., knowledge about CRC and screening, patient and provider attitudes or structural barriers for screening. Modifiable determinants are of great interest as they are plausible targets for interventions. Interventions at different levels (patient, providers or health care system have been tested across the studies with different results. This paper analyzes factors related to CRC screening behaviour and potential interventions designed to improve screening uptake.

  9. Costs Associated with Cervical Cancer Screening

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-10-15

    Dr. Tom Cox, a practicing gynecologist and president of the American Society of Colposcopy and Cervical Pathology, provides a brief introduction to cervical cancer screening guidelines and human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA testing.  Created: 10/15/2009 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP), Division of Cancer Prevention and Control (DCPC).   Date Released: 6/9/2010.

  10. Cervical Cancer Screening in Underserved Populations

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-10-15

    Dr. Lisa Flowers, a specialist in human papillovarius (HPV)-related diseases and Director of Colposcopy at Emory University School of Medicine, talks about cervical cancer screening in underinsured or uninsured women.  Created: 10/15/2009 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP), Division of Cancer Prevention and Control (DCPC).   Date Released: 6/9/2010.

  11. Screening for colorectal cancer in defunctioned colons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbar, Fayyaz; Quyn, Aaron; Steele, Robert

    2018-01-01

    Objectives Population-based colorectal (bowel) cancer screening using faecal occult blood tests leads to a reduction in cause-specific mortality. However, in people where the colon is defunctioned, the use of standard faecal occult blood test is not appropriate. The aim of this study was to examine the current trends of clinical practice for colorectal cancer screening in people with defunctioned colons. Methods An online survey was performed using SurveyMonkey. All members of the Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland were invited by email to participate. Reminders were sent to non-responders and partial responders till six weeks. All responses were included in our analysis. Results Of the 206 (34.59%) questionnaires completed, all questions were answered in 110 (55.8%). Among responders, 94 (85.4%) were colorectal consultant surgeons, 72% had worked in their current capacity for more than five years, and 105 (50.9%) had encountered colorectal cancer in defunctioned colons during their career. Some 72.2% of responders stated that a screening test for colorectal cancer in patients with defunctioned colons was currently not offered, or that they did not know whether or not it was offered in their area. Conclusions Bowel screening in the United Kingdom is currently not offered to 72.2% of the age appropriate population with defunctioned colons. Among responding colorectal surgeons, 50% had encountered colorectal cancer in such patients. There is considerable variability in clinical practice regarding the optimal age for onset of screening, time interval, and the optimal modality to offer for screening in such cases.

  12. Treatment Option Overview (Renal Cell Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Tumors Treatment Genetics of Kidney Cancer Research Renal Cell Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Renal Cell Cancer Go to Health Professional Version Key Points Renal ...

  13. Screening for distress in cancer patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grassi, Luigi; Johansen, Christoffer; Annunziata, Maria Antonietta

    2013-01-01

    Routine screening for distress is internationally recommended as a necessary standard for good cancer care, given its high prevalence and negative consequences on quality of life. The objective of the current study was to contribute to the Italian validation of the Distress Thermometer (DT...

  14. Breast Cancer Screening (PDQ®)—Health Professional Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breast cancer screening most often includes mammography but can also include ultrasound, MRI, and other tests. Get detailed information about the potential benefits and harms of the tests used to screen for breast cancer in this summary for clinicians.

  15. Testicular Cancer Screening (PDQ®)—Health Professional Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    For testicular cancer, there is no standard or routine screening test. Review the limited evidence on the benefits and harms of screening for testicular cancer using ultrasound, physical examination, and self-examination in this expert-reviewed summary.

  16. Breast cancer screening controversies: who, when, why, and how?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chetlen, Alison; Mack, Julie; Chan, Tiffany

    2016-01-01

    Mammographic screening is effective in reducing mortality from breast cancer. The issue is not whether mammography is effective, but whether the false positive rate and false negative rates can be reduced. This review will discuss controversies including the reduction in breast cancer mortality, overdiagnosis, the ideal screening candidate, and the optimal imaging modality for breast cancer screening. The article will compare and contrast screening mammography, tomosynthesis, whole-breast screening ultrasound, magnetic resonance imaging, and molecular breast imaging. Though supplemental imaging modalities are being utilized to improve breast cancer diagnosis, mammography still remains the gold standard for breast cancer screening. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Colorectal Cancer Screening: A Guide to the Guidelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas K Rex

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The two most recent guidelines for colorectal cancer screening are those of the Agency for Healthcare Policy and Research, and the American Cancer Society. The guidelines are similar in many regards and reflect current literature, consensus opinion and compromise between members of multidisciplinary panels. The emphasis of both guidelines is to increase the options available for colorectal cancer screening. Increasing choice should expand the attractiveness of colorectal cancer screening to more patients and physicians, and the development of guidelines should help compel payers to provide reimbursement for colorectal cancer screening. These guidelines are summarized and evaluated as they pertain to colorectal cancer screening.

  18. Cost-effectiveness and radiation risk of breast cancer screening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rombach, J.J.

    1987-01-01

    Base cost effectiveness risk associated with radiological screening for tuberculosis and lung tumor the Government of Netherlands advised against mass screening. However, mass screening remains an important method in the case of breast cancer

  19. Treatment Option Overview (Small Intestine Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... factors affect prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options. The prognosis (chance of recovery ) and treatment options ... or in other parts of the body. Treatment Option Overview Key Points There are different types of ...

  20. Treatment Option Overview (Small Cell Lung Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... factors affect prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options. The prognosis (chance of recovery ) and treatment options ... or in other parts of the body. Treatment Option Overview Key Points There are different types of ...

  1. Prostate cancer mortality in screen and clinically detected prostate cancer : Estimating the screening benefit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Leeuwen, Pim J.; Connolly, David; Gavin, Anna; Roobol, Monique J.; Black, Amanda; Bangma, Chris H.; Schroder, Fritz H.

    Background: To estimate the benefits of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) screening on prostate cancer (Pca) metastasis and Pca-specific mortality, we compared two populations with a well-defined difference in intensity of screening. Methods: Between 1997 and 1999, a total of 11,970 men, aged 55-74

  2. Screening for thyroid cancer in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagataki, S.; Ashizawa, K.

    1996-01-01

    In the screening of the thyroid diseases in the radiation exposed cohort, it is essential to make correct diagnosis and to measure radiation dose in every subjects in the cohort and to analyze the dose response relationship by the most appropriate statistical method. Thus, thyroid cancer, thyroid adenoma and autoimmune hypothyroidism were confirmed to be radiation-induced thyroid diseases among atomic bomb survivors. A group of investigators from Nagasaki university have been working in the thyroid part of Chernobyl Sasakawa Health and Medical Cooperation Project, and more than 80000 children were screened in 5 diagnostic centers (Mogilev, Gomel, Kiev, Korosten and Klincy). In order to make correct diagnosis, thyroid echo-tomography, measurements of serum levels of free thyroxine, TSH, titers of anti-thyroid antibodies were performed in every children in the cohort and aspiration biopsy was performed when necessary. Whole body Cs 137 radioactivity was also determined in every subjects. Children with thyroid cancer confirmed by histology (biopsy or operation) were 2 in Mogilev, 19 in Gomel, 6 in Kiev, 5 in Korosten and 4 in Klincy (until 1994). Since children screened in each center were less than 20000, prevalence of thyroid cancer was remarkably high (lowest 100 and highest 1000/million children) when compared to the other parts of the world (0.2 to 5/million/year). However, there was no dose response relationship between the prevalence of cancer or nodule and whole body Cs 137 radioactivity. Although a significant correlation between thyroid cancer and reconstructed thyroid I 131 dose was presented, there are no previous reports to prove that I 131 produces thyroid cancer in human. Investigation on external radiation and short lived isotopes along with I 131 may be important to elucidate the cause of thyroid cancer

  3. Prostate Cancer Screening in Jamaica: Results of the Largest National Screening Clinic Prostate Cancer Screening in Jamaica: Results of the Largest National Screening Clinic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrison, B. F.; Aiken, W.; Mayhew, R.; Gordon, Y.; Reid, M.

    2016-01-01

    Prostate cancer is highly prevalent in Jamaica and is the leading cause of cancer-related deaths. Our aim was to evaluate the patterns of screening in the largest organized screening clinic in Jamaica at the Jamaica Cancer Society. A retrospective analysis of all men presenting for screening at the Jamaica Cancer Society from 1995 to 2005 was done. All patients had digital rectal examinations (DRE) and prostate specific antigen (PSA) tests done. Results of prostate biopsies were noted. 1117 men of mean age 59.9 ± 8.2 years presented for screening. The median documented PSA was 1.6 ng/mL (maximum of 5170 ng/mL). Most patients presented for only 1 screen. There was a gradual reduction in the mean age of presentation for screening over the period. Prostate biopsies were requested on 11% of screening visits; however, only 59% of these were done. 5.6% of all persons screened were found to have cancer. Of the cancers diagnosed, Gleason 6 adenocarcinoma was the commonest grade and median PSA was 8.9 ng/mL (range 1.5-1059 ng/mL). Older men tend to screen for prostate cancer in Jamaica. However, compliance with regular maintenance visits and requests for confirmatory biopsies are poor. Screening needs intervention in the Jamaican population.

  4. Childhood Cancer Survivor Study: An Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... To address this issue, the Children’s Oncology Group ( COG ) has prepared a resource for physicians called “ Long- ... of American Medical Association; see the journal article ) Breast cancer risk in childhood cancer survivors without a history ...

  5. Toward standardizing and reporting colorectal cancer screening indicators on an international level: The International Colorectal Cancer Screening Network

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benson, Victoria S.; Atkin, Wendy S.; Green, Jane; Nadel, Marion R.; Patnick, Julietta; Smith, Robert A.; Villain, Patricia; Patnick, J.; Atkin, W. S.; Altenhofen, L.; Ancelle-Park, R.; Benson, V. S.; Green, J.; Levin, T. R.; Moss, S. M.; Nadel, M.; Ransohoff, D.; Segnan, N.; Smith, R. A.; Villain, P.; Weller, D.; Koukari, A.; Young, G.; López-Kostner, F.; Antoljak, N.; Suchánek, S.; Zavoral, M.; Holten, I.; Malila, N.; Salines, E.; Brenner, G.; Herszényi, L.; Tulassay, Z.; Rennert, G.; Senore, C.; Zappa, M.; Zorzi, M.; Saito, H.; Leja, M.; Dekker, E.; Jansen, J.; Hol, L.; Kuipers, E.; Kaminski, M. F.; Regula, J.; Sfarti, C.; Trifan, A.; Tang, C.-L.; Hrcka, R.; Binefa, G.; Espinàs, J. A.; Peris, M.; Chen, T. H.; Steele, R.; Pou, G.; Bisges, D.; Dwyer, D.; Groves, C.; Courteau, S.; Kramer, R.; Siegenthaler, K.; Lane, D.; Herrera, C.; Rogers, J.; Rojewski, M.; Wolf, Holly; Sung, J. J.; Ling, K.; Bryant, H.; Rabeneck, L.; Dale, J.; Sware, L.; Yang, H.; Viguier, J.; Von Karsa, L.; Kupcinskas, L.; Deutekom, M.; Törnberg, S.; Austoker, J.; Beral, V.; Monk, C.; Valori, R.; Watson, J.; Kobrin, S.; Pignone, M.; Taplin, S.

    2012-01-01

    The International Colorectal Cancer Screening Network was established in 2003 to promote best practice in the delivery of organized colorectal cancer screening programs. To facilitate evaluation of such programs, we defined a set of universally applicable colorectal cancer screening measures and

  6. Early diagnosis and screening for colorectal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laufer, I.

    1986-01-01

    The barium enema has been a neglected tool in the diagnosis of early colon cancer. With appropriate attention to technical detail, the double contrast enema is capable of detecting the smallest malignant and pre-malignant lesions. Many of these early colon cancers are found in asymptomatic patients and these lesions are curable. The goal of a screening program should be to identify by history or by fecal occult blood testing patients at high risk for the development of colon cancer. These patients should be examined by high-quality double contrast enema in the search for these potentially lethal but curable lesions. In addition, we believe that any patient undergoing radiologic examination of the colon for whatever reason, should receive an examination of adequate quality to rule out an early colon cancer. (Author)

  7. The Danish randomized lung cancer CT screening trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jesper H; Ashraf, Haseem; Dirksen, Asger

    2009-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Lung cancer screening with low dose computed tomography (CT) has not yet been evaluated in randomized clinical trials, although several are underway. METHODS: In The Danish Lung Cancer Screening Trial, 4104 smokers and previous smokers from 2004 to 2006 were randomized to either...... lung cancer. Ten of these had stage I disease. Eleven of 17 lung cancers at baseline were treated surgically, eight of these by video assisted thoracic surgery resection. CONCLUSIONS: Screening may facilitate minimal invasive treatment and can be performed with a relatively low rate of false......-positive screen results compared with previous studies on lung cancer screening....

  8. PET or PET-CT with cancer screening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Taisong; Zhao Jinhua; Song Jianhua

    2007-01-01

    At present, cancer screening remains a lot of debate in contemporary medical practice. Many constitutes have done a lot of experiments in cancer screening. The same version is that recommendations and decisions regarding cancer screening should be based on reliable data, not self- approbation. Now, some institutes advocate 18 F-FDG PET or 18 F-FDG PET-CT for cancer screening, here, discussed status quo, potential financial, radiation safety and statistical data in 18 F-FDG PET or 18 F-FDG PET- CT cancer screening. (authors)

  9. Cancer screening tests for small animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schleis, Stephanie E

    2014-09-01

    Cancer is increasingly more common. Several tests for the diagnosis and treatment of cancer in companion animals have been developed. Screening tests discussed include those for lymphoid neoplasia, hemangiosarcoma, and transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder. None of these tests should be used in isolation for diagnosis. Vincristine and doxorubicin are mainstays in the treatment of canine lymphoma. However, it is important and accepted practice to test individuals of predisposed breeds for this mutation before administering these drugs in a lymphoma protocol. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. A Study on Knowledge and Screening for Cervical Cancer among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A Study on Knowledge and Screening for Cervical Cancer among Women in ... and source of information for awareness of women about cervical cancer in India. ... Results: Majority of the women have poor knowledge about cervical cancer ...

  11. Coffee and cancer risk: a summary overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alicandro, Gianfranco; Tavani, Alessandra; La Vecchia, Carlo

    2017-09-01

    We reviewed available evidence on coffee drinking and the risk of all cancers and selected cancers updated to May 2016. Coffee consumption is not associated with overall cancer risk. A meta-analysis reported a pooled relative risk (RR) for an increment of 1 cup of coffee/day of 1.00 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.99-1.01] for all cancers. Coffee drinking is associated with a reduced risk of liver cancer. A meta-analysis of cohort studies found an RR for an increment of consumption of 1 cup/day of 0.85 (95% CI: 0.81-0.90) for liver cancer and a favorable effect on liver enzymes and cirrhosis. Another meta-analysis showed an inverse relation for endometrial cancer risk, with an RR of 0.92 (95% CI: 0.88-0.96) for an increment of 1 cup/day. A possible decreased risk was found in some studies for oral/pharyngeal cancer and for advanced prostate cancer. Although data are mixed, overall, there seems to be some favorable effect of coffee drinking on colorectal cancer in case-control studies, in the absence of a consistent relation in cohort studies. For bladder cancer, the results are not consistent; however, any possible direct association is not dose and duration related, and might depend on a residual confounding effect of smoking. A few studies suggest an increased risk of childhood leukemia after maternal coffee drinking during pregnancy, but data are limited and inconsistent. Although the results of studies are mixed, the overall evidence suggests no association of coffee intake with cancers of the stomach, pancreas, lung, breast, ovary, and prostate overall. Data are limited, with RR close to unity for other neoplasms, including those of the esophagus, small intestine, gallbladder and biliary tract, skin, kidney, brain, thyroid, as well as for soft tissue sarcoma and lymphohematopoietic cancer.

  12. Using lessons from breast, cervical, and colorectal cancer screening to inform the development of lung cancer screening programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Katrina; Kim, Jane J; Halm, Ethan A; Ballard, Rachel M; Schnall, Mitchell D

    2016-05-01

    Multiple advisory groups now recommend that high-risk smokers be screened for lung cancer by low-dose computed tomography. Given that the development of lung cancer screening programs will face many of the same issues that have challenged other cancer screening programs, the National Cancer Institute-funded Population-based Research Optimizing Screening through Personalized Regimens (PROSPR) consortium was used to identify lessons learned from the implementation of breast, cervical, and colorectal cancer screening that should inform the introduction of lung cancer screening. These lessons include the importance of developing systems for identifying and recruiting eligible individuals in primary care, ensuring that screening centers are qualified and performance is monitored, creating clear communication standards for reporting screening results to referring physicians and patients, ensuring follow-up is available for individuals with abnormal test results, avoiding overscreening, remembering primary prevention, and leveraging advances in cancer genetics and immunology. Overall, this experience emphasizes that effective cancer screening is a multistep activity that requires robust strategies to initiate, report, follow up, and track each step as well as a dynamic and ongoing oversight process to revise current screening practices as new evidence regarding screening is created, new screening technologies are developed, new biological markers are identified, and new approaches to health care delivery are disseminated. Cancer 2016;122:1338-1342. © 2016 American Cancer Society. © 2016 American Cancer Society.

  13. Fecal Molecular Markers for Colorectal Cancer Screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rani Kanthan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite multiple screening techniques, including colonoscopy, flexible sigmoidoscopy, radiological imaging, and fecal occult blood testing, colorectal cancer remains a leading cause of death. As these techniques improve, their sensitivity to detect malignant lesions is increasing; however, detection of precursor lesions remains problematic and has generated a lack of general acceptance for their widespread usage. Early detection by an accurate, noninvasive, cost-effective, simple-to-use screening technique is central to decreasing the incidence and mortality of this disease. Recent advances in the development of molecular markers in faecal specimens are encouraging for its use as a screening tool. Genetic mutations and epigenetic alterations that result from the carcinogenetic process can be detected by coprocytobiology in the colonocytes exfoliated from the lesion into the fecal matter. These markers have shown promising sensitivity and specificity in the detection of both malignant and premalignant lesions and are gaining popularity as a noninvasive technique that is representative of the entire colon. In this paper, we summarize the genetic and epigenetic fecal molecular markers that have been identified as potential targets in the screening of colorectal cancer.

  14. Breast cancer screening: the underuse of mammography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fox, S.; Baum, J.K.; Klos, D.S.; Tsou, C.V.

    1985-01-01

    The early detection of breast cancer is promoted by the American Cancer Society (ACS) and the American College of Radiology (ACR) by encouraging the regular use of three types of screening: breast self-examination (BSE), the clinical breast examination, and mammography. In August 1983, the ACS publicized seven recommendations pertaining to screening, including a revised statement about the routine use of mammography for women between the ages of 40 and 49 years. In response to the ACS statement, the present study assessed compliance with the updated recommendations for all three types of screening. The results show reasonable rates of compliance for the BSE (53%-69%) and clinical examination (70%-78%). In contrast, only 19% of the women between the ages of 35 and 49 and 25% of the women older than 50 reported complying with the recommendation to undergo one baseline screening mammogram. Some implications for health education by physicians and the professional education of physicians in the use of mammography are discussed

  15. Responses to Overdiagnosis in Thyroid Cancer Screening among Korean Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sangeun; Lee, Yoon Young; Yoon, Hyo Joong; Choi, Eunji; Suh, Mina; Park, Boyoung; Jun, Jae Kwan; Kim, Yeol; Choi, Kui Son

    2016-07-01

    Communicating the harms and benefits of thyroid screening is necessary to help individuals decide on whether or not to undergo thyroid cancer screening. This study was conducted to assess changes in thyroid cancer screening intention in response to receiving information about overdiagnosis and to determine factors with the greatest influence thereon. Data were acquired from subjects included in the 2013 Korean National Cancer Screening Survey (KNCSS), a nationwide, population-based, cross-sectional survey. Of the 4,100 respondents in the 2013 KNCSS, women were randomly subsampled and an additional face-to-face interview was conducted. Finally, a total of 586 female subjects were included in this study. Intention to undergo thyroid cancer screening was assessed before and after receiving information on overdiagnosis. Prior awareness of overdiagnosis in thyroid cancer screening was 27.8%. The majority of subjects intended to undergo thyroid cancer screening before and after receiving information on overdiagnosis (87% and 74%, respectively). Only a small number of subjects changed their intention to undergo thyroid cancer screening from positive to negative after receiving information on overdiagnosis. Women of higher education level and Medical Aid Program recipients reported being significantly more likely to change their intention to undergo thyroid cancer screening afterreceiving information on overdiagnosis,whilewomen with stronger beliefs on the efficacy of cancer screening were less likely to change their intention. Women in Korea appeared to be less concerned about overdiagnosis when deciding whether or not to undergo thyroid cancer screening.

  16. Provider Perspectives on Promoting Cervical Cancer Screening Among Refugee Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ying; Ornelas, India J; Do, H Hoai; Magarati, Maya; Jackson, J Carey; Taylor, Victoria M

    2017-06-01

    Many refugees in the United States emigrated from countries where the incidence of cervical cancer is high. Refugee women are unlikely to have been screened for cervical cancer prior to resettlement in the U.S. National organizations recommend cervical cancer screening for refugee women soon after resettlement. We sought to identify health and social service providers' perspectives on promoting cervical cancer screening in order to inform the development of effective programs to increase screening among recently resettled refugees. This study consisted of 21 in-depth key informant interviews with staff from voluntary refugee resettlement agencies, community based organizations, and healthcare clinics serving refugees in King County, Washington. Interview transcripts were analyzed to identify themes. We identified the following themes: (1) refugee women are unfamiliar with preventive care and cancer screening; (2) providers have concerns about the timing of cervical cancer education and screening; (3) linguistic and cultural barriers impact screening uptake; (4) provider factors and clinic systems facilitate promotion of screening; and (5) strategies for educating refugee women about screening. Our findings suggest that refugee women are in need of health education on cervical cancer screening during early resettlement. Frequent messaging about screening could help ensure that women receive screening within the early resettlement period. Health education videos may be effective for providing simple, low literacy messages in women's native languages. Appointments with female clinicians and interpreters, as well as clinic systems that remind clinicians to offer screening at each appointment could increase screening among refugee women.

  17. BREAST CANCER IN SLOVENIA: EPIDEMIOLOGY AND SCREENING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja Primic Žakelj

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. Breast is the most frequent cancer site in Slovenian female population. In the year 2000 there were 932 new breast cancer cases registered (91.2/100,000, the incidence is expected to increase in the next ten years. Primary prevention includes general recommendations for healthy life style, e.g. avoidance of obesity, diet, physical activity and moderate alcohol consumption. Randomised controlled trials conducted in the USA, Canada, Scotland and Sweden have shown that regular mammography, alone or in combination with clinical examination, is effective in reducing mortality for about 25% in women over the age of 50, and much less in younger population. However, mammography screening has several drawbacks, the major being its tendency towards false positive and false negative results with all their potential psychosocial consequences. High quality assurance and control, as well as effective and readily available diagnostics and treatment, all of which demand high investments, are indispensable for good results.Conclusions. In Slovenia there are standards for breast cancer screening units, but their implementation in every day’s work is still a problem. In any case, breast cancer control could be achieved only by combined efforts directed into primary prevention and early detection, as well as by improving availability of effective treatment.

  18. OPPORTUNISTIC CERVICAL CANCER SCREENING IN PREGNANCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radha Bai Prabhu T

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Cervical cancer is the most common malignancy diagnosed during pregnancy. In developing countries where organized screening programmes are lacking, antenatal clinics may provide an opportunity for screening. Objectives: The aim of this study was to analyse the prevalence and management of abnormal cervical cytology in pregnancy. Methodology: This was a prospective study conducted at the Meenakshi Medical College and RI, Kancheepuram, India, from July 2013 to June 2014. Convenience sampling technique was used. After adequate counselling, 300 antenatal mothers between 12 and 34 weeks of gestation were screened with conventional Pap smear. Colposcopy directed biopsy was taken where and when necessary. Results: Among the 300 pregnant women, 90 (30% were primigravidae and 210 (70% were multigravidae. 80% were between 21 and 30 years of age. 290 (96.6% women have never had a pap smear in the past. Conventional Pap smear was taken at 21 weeks of gestation in 20% of cases. ASCUS , LSIL and HSIL were reported in one case each. In those with LSIL and HSIL , Colposcopy directed biopsy was reported as CIN 1 and CIN 2 respectively. These two cases were kept under observation during the antenatal period. The CIN II lesion persisted on postpartum follow up and was treated with LLETZ. Conclusion: In countries like India Pap smear screening during pregnancy is worthwhile and the antenatal clinics provide ample opportunities for the screening.

  19. Cost effectiveness analysis of screening in the early diagnosis of prostate cancer (PCA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller-Lisse, U.G.; Mueller-Lisse, U.L.

    2002-01-01

    Purpose. The authors attempted to provide an overview of current concepts and the status of research in the field of cost effectiveness analysis (CEA) of screening for prostate cancer (PCA).Material and methods. Basic concepts and methods of CEA were reviewed. Examples of CEA-related studies of PCA were obtained from pertinent literature through medical databases.Results. Screening for PCA has so far been restricted to limited groups of health care recipients, usually within the framework of clinical trials. In those trials, screening for PCA usually results in higher numbers of PCAs being detected at lower average stages in a given population. As a consequence of screening, the rate of potentially curable PCAs increases. However, it has not yet been demonstrated that screening for PCA decreases PCA-related mortality or morbidity from metastatic PCA. On the other hand, additional costs are associated with the screening measure and with increased use of resources for diagnosis and treatment of the additional PCAs detected through screening.Conclusions. Throughout the European Union and North America, mass screening for PCA has not been implemented. This may chiefly be due to the current lack of information on long term benefits of PCA screening, particularly disease-specific survival. Currently, major studies are underway to assess the effects of PCA screening and its cost effectiveness. These studies include the US-American prostate, lung, colon and ovary trials (PLCO) and the European randomised study of Screening for Prostate Cancer (ERSPC). (orig.) [de

  20. Obesity and Cancer Screening according to Race and Gender

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather Bittner Fagan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between obesity and cancer screening varies by screening test, race, and gender. Most studies on cervical cancer screening found a negative association between increasing weight and screening, and this negative association was most consistent in white women. Recent literature on mammography reports no association with weight. However, some studies show a negative association in white, but not black, women. In contrast, obese/overweight men reported higher rates of prostate-specific antigen (PSA testing. Comparison of prostate cancer screening, mammography, and Pap smears implies a gender difference in the relationship between screening behavior and weight. In colorectal cancer (CRC screening, the relationship between weight and screening in men is inconsistent, while there is a trend towards lower CRC screening in higher weight women.

  1. Overdiagnosis in mammographic screening for breast cancer in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Puliti, Donella; Duffy, Stephen W; Miccinesi, Guido

    2012-01-01

    Overdiagnosis, the detection through screening of a breast cancer that would never have been identified in the lifetime of the woman, is an adverse outcome of screening. We aimed to determine an estimate range for overdiagnosis of breast cancer in European mammographic service screening programmes....

  2. Overview on Patient Centricity in Cancer Care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šarunas Narbutas

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Successful implementation of treatment in cancer care partially depends on how patients' perspectives are taken into account, as preferences of health care professionals and patients may differ. Objectives of this exploratory research were (I to identify patient preferences and values (PPVs in cancer care as indicated by patient organizations (POs, (II to determine how these PPVs are captured in cancer care guidelines and (III to review how guidelines take into account these PPVs. Based on a survey developed and completed by 19 POs, a literature review was conducted to analyse how patient perspectives are incorporated in oncology treatment guidelines. Based on survey results traditional health technology assessment value propositions of oncology care, such as extended life, treatment-free remission and pain reduction, were also highly rated by POs. However, the heterogeneity of cancer PPVs were clearly reflected in the survey results. PPVs in cancer care guidelines were mostly limited to those micro-level aspects that are strictly related to health care provision, such as side-effects and comorbidities. Patient experience, emotional support and convenience of care were relatively neglected fields in the reviewed guidelines. Patient engagement was rarely presented in the guideline development phase. POs believe that patients should be encouraged to take an active role in their own care due to the heterogeneity of cancer patients and PPVs. Even if patient-centricity is a leading paradigm in cancer policy, based on our research it is not yet standard practice to include patients or POs at all appropriate levels of decision-making processes that are related to their health and well-being. Patient engagement should be an integral part of cancer care decision-making. This complexity must be reflected throughout policy making, avoiding a population level “one-size-fits-all” solution.

  3. Psychological distress associated with cancer screening: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chad-Friedman, Emma; Coleman, Sarah; Traeger, Lara N; Pirl, William F; Goldman, Roberta; Atlas, Steven J; Park, Elyse R

    2017-10-15

    Current national cancer screening recommendations include the potential risk of psychological harm related to screening. However, data on the relation of psychological distress to cancer screening is limited. The authors conducted a systematic review to assess psychological distress associated with cancer screening procedures. Studies that administered measures of psychological distress between 2 weeks before and 1 month after the screening procedure were included. In total, 22 eligible studies met criteria for review, including 13 observational trials and 9 randomized controlled trials. Eligible studies used a broad range of validated and unvalidated measures. Anxiety was the most commonly assessed construct and was measured using the State Trait Anxiety Inventory. Studies included breast, colorectal, prostate, lung, and cervical screening procedures. Distress was low across procedures, with the exception of colorectal screening. Distress did not vary according to the time at which distress was measured. None of the studies were conducted exclusively with the intention of assessing distress at the time of screening. Evidence of low distress during the time of cancer screening suggests that distress might not be a widespread barrier to screening among adults who undergo screening. However, more studies are needed using validated measures of distress to further understand the extent to which screening may elicit psychological distress and impede adherence to national screening recommendations. Cancer 2017;123:3882-94. © 2017 American Cancer Society. © 2017 American Cancer Society.

  4. Design and evaluation of new overview screens for the LABIHS simulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Mauro V.; Almeida, Jose C.S.; Jaime, Guilherme D.G.; Augusto, Silas C.

    2015-01-01

    The development and evaluation of Human-System Interfaces (HSIs) for control rooms is a research area at the Human-System Interface Laboratory (LABIHS). The main objective of this laboratory is to develop and evaluate projects of HSIs for industrial plants using different methodology construction. The evaluation of the interfaces is carried out in the LABIHS simulator at the Nuclear Engineering Institute (IEN). Previous evaluation of the overview screen of the nuclear power plant (NPP) simulator of the LABIHS showed the necessity of additional information to reduce the operator workload. To overcome this issue, a set of three 52-inch LCD TV was acquired to replace the projector in the task of showing the overview screen to the simulator operators. A new set of screens was developed to gather information in the three LCD screens. The approach used on the development of the new screens was based on human factors guidelines and recommendations. The objective of this work is present the design of these new overview screens and to evaluate their contribution to reduce the operators mental workload in this new scenario. (author)

  5. Skin Cancer Screening (PDQ®)—Patient Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    Having a skin exam to screen for skin cancer has not been shown to decrease your chance of dying from skin cancer. Learn about this and other tests that have been studied to detect or screen for skin cancer in this expert reviewed summary.

  6. Lung Cancer Screening May Benefit Those at Highest Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    People at the highest risk for lung cancer, based on a risk model, may be more likely to benefit from screening with low-dose CT, a new analysis suggests. The study authors believe the findings may better define who should undergo lung cancer screening, as this Cancer Currents blog post explains.

  7. Barriers to utilization of cervical cancer screening services among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cervical cancer (CC) is the second most commonly diagnosed cancer among women of reproductive age group; yet screening for early detection of the disease among them is not a common practice in Nigeria. This study therefore, investigated the barriers to utilization of cervical cancer screening service among women of ...

  8. Stomach (Gastric) Cancer Screening (PDQ®)—Patient Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    There is no standard or routine screening test for stomach (gastric) cancer. Stomach (gastric) cancer is not common in the U.S. Learn about tests that have been studied to detect or screen for stomach cancer in this expert-reviewed summary.

  9. Review article: Prostate cancer screening using prostate specific ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Prostate cancer is the commonest cancer among men in Nigeria and early detection is key to cure and survival but its screening through prostate specific antigen (PSA) has remain controversial in literature. Screening with prostate specific antigen (PSA) has led to more men diagnosed with prostate cancer than ...

  10. Breast cancer mortality in mammographic screening in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Njor, Sisse Helle; Nyström, Lennarth; Moss, Sue

    2012-01-01

    To estimate the impact of service mammography screening on breast cancer mortality using European incidence-based mortality (IBM) studies (or refined mortality studies). IBM studies include only breast cancer deaths occurring in women with breast cancer diagnosed after their first invitation...... to screening....

  11. Beliefs Underlying Messages of Anti-Cancer-Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okuhara, Tsuyoshi; Ishikawa, Hirono; Okada, Masahumi; Kato, Mio; Kiuchi, Takahiro

    2018-02-26

    Background: Cancer screening rates are lower in Japan than in Western countries. Meanwhile, anti-cancer-screening activists take to the internet to spread their messages that cancer screening has little or no efficacy, poses substantial health risks such as side effects from radiation exposure, and that people should forgo cancer screening. We applied a qualitative approach to explore the beliefs underlying the messages of anti-cancer-screening websites, by focusing on perceived value the beliefs provided to those who held them. Methods: We conducted online searches using Google Japan and Yahoo! Japan, targeting websites we classified as “pro,” “anti,” or “neutral” depending on their claims. We applied a dual analytic approach- inductive thematic analysis and deductive interpretative analysis- to the textual data of the anti websites. Results: Of the 88 websites analyzed, five themes that correspond to beliefs were identified: destruction of common knowledge, denial of standard cancer control, education about right cancer control, education about hidden truths, and sense of superiority that only I know the truth. Authors of anti websites ascribed two values (“safety of people” and “self-esteem”) to their beliefs. Conclusion: The beliefs of authors of anti-cancer-screening websites were supposed to be strong. It would be better to target in cancer screening promotion not outright screening refusers but screening hesitant people who are more amenable to changing their attitudes toward screening. The possible means to persuade them were discussed. Creative Commons Attribution License

  12. [Cervical cancer screening: past--present--future].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breitenecker, G

    2009-12-01

    Despite the undisputed and impressive success which has been achieved since the 1960s by cervical cytology in the fight against cervical cancer and its precursor stages, during which the mortality rate in industrialized countries over the last 40 years has been reduced by two-thirds to three-quarters, a perfect and error-free screening procedure is still a long way off and will probably never be reached. There are two main reasons for this, the lack of adequate coverage and suboptimal quality and assessment of smears. Two screening procedures are in use Europe, an opportunistic and an organized system. Both systems have many advantages but also disadvantages. In organized programs the coverage is higher (up to 80%), although similar numbers are also achieved by non-organized programs over a 3-year cycle, even if they cannot be so exactly documented. The decision on which system is used depends on the health system of the country, public or non-public, and many other national circumstances. However, in both systems prerequisites for a satisfactory result is a high quality in the sampling technique, the processing and the assessment. Therefore, several guidelines have been introduced by state and medical societies for internal and external quality assurance. New technologies, such as thin-layer cytology or automation for replacement or support of conventional cytology liquid-based cytology proved not to be superior enough to justify the high costs of these systems. The recognition of the strong causal relationship between persistent infection with high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) types and cervical cancer and its precursors has resulted in the development of comparably simple tests. Primary screening using HPV typing alone is not recommended in opportunistic screening due to the low specificity but high sensitivity because it leads to many clinically irrelevant results which place women under stress. In organized screening HPV testing is always and only possible

  13. NMR-Fragment Based Virtual Screening: A Brief Overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Meenakshi; Tam, Benjamin; Akabayov, Barak

    2018-01-25

    Fragment-based drug discovery (FBDD) using NMR has become a central approach over the last twenty years for development of small molecule inhibitors against biological macromolecules, to control a variety of cellular processes. Yet, several considerations should be taken into account for obtaining a therapeutically relevant agent. In this review, we aim to list the considerations that make NMR fragment screening a successful process for yielding potent inhibitors. Factors that may govern the competence of NMR in fragment based drug discovery are discussed, as well as later steps that involve optimization of hits obtained by NMR-FBDD.

  14. NMR-Fragment Based Virtual Screening: A Brief Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meenakshi Singh

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Fragment-based drug discovery (FBDD using NMR has become a central approach over the last twenty years for development of small molecule inhibitors against biological macromolecules, to control a variety of cellular processes. Yet, several considerations should be taken into account for obtaining a therapeutically relevant agent. In this review, we aim to list the considerations that make NMR fragment screening a successful process for yielding potent inhibitors. Factors that may govern the competence of NMR in fragment based drug discovery are discussed, as well as later steps that involve optimization of hits obtained by NMR-FBDD.

  15. Tailored information about cancer risk and screening: a systematic review.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Albada, A.; Ausems, M.G.E.M.; Bensing, J.M.; Dulmen, S. van

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study interventions that provide people with information about cancer risk and about screening that is tailored to their personal characteristics. We assess the tailoring characteristics, theory base and effects on risk perception, knowledge and screening behavior of these

  16. Psychosomatic Aspects of Cancer: An Overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, John B.

    1980-01-01

    It is suggested in this literature review on the psychosomatic aspects of cancer that psychoanalytic interpretations which focused on intrapsychic elements have given way to considerations of rehabilitation and assistance with the complex emotional reactions of patients and their families to terminal illness and death. (Author/DB)

  17. Colorectal Cancer Screening: An Educational Intervention for Nurse Practitioners to Increase Screening Awareness and Participation
.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slyne, Tai C; Gautam, Ramraj; King, Valerie

    2017-10-01

    Colorectal cancer screening aims to detect colorectal cancer at an early stage, when treatment is more likely to be curative. Lack of participation in such screening is a major issue in primary care practices, where nurse practitioners (NPs) often provide care. This study aimed to determine whether an educational intervention for NPs would increase their awareness of, and increase patients' participation in, colorectal cancer screening. 
.

  18. Skin cancer: an overview of epidemiology and risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Randy

    2013-08-01

    To provide a general overview of malignant melanoma and non-melanoma skin cancer, with an emphasis on epidemiology, clinical presentation, and the multiple and varied risk factors associated with skin cancer. Peer-reviewed journal articles, government health reports, book chapters, and Web-based resources. Skin cancer is the most common carcinoma, affecting millions worldwide. Incidence is increasing yearly, making it a pre-eminent public health threat. Myriad factors increase the risk of skin cancer and may serve as important prognostic indicators for the disease. To provide nurses with a clearer understanding of the causative mechanisms of skin cancer and an improved awareness of the risk factors associated with the disease. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. [New guidelines in regard to cervical cancer screening].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas-Hernández, Víctor Manuel; Acosta-Altamirano, Gustavo; Moreno-Eutimio, Mario Adán; Vargas-Aguilar, Víctor Manuel

    2014-01-01

    Cancer screening programs have been successful in reducing the incidence and mortality due to cervical cancer. For more than a decade, the human papillomavirus test has been recommended as part of these programs, however, Pap tests is not currently recommended for women 65 years of age who participated adequately in screening programs, continuing with these screening programs is not needed. Screening programs will be different in special populations at greatest risk where tests are frequently needed or use of alternative methods.

  20. Colorectal cancer screening awareness among physicians in Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chatzimichalis Georgios

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Data comparison between SEER and EUROCARE database provided evidence that colorectal cancer survival in USA is higher than in European countries. Since adjustment for stage at diagnosis markedly reduces the survival differences, a screening bias was hypothesized. Considering the important role of primary care in screening activities, the purpose of the study was to investigate the colorectal cancer screening awareness among Hellenic physicians. Methods 211 primary care physicians were surveyed by mean of a self-reported prescription-habits questionnaire. Both physicians' colorectal cancer screening behaviors and colorectal cancer screening recommendations during usual check-up visits were analyzed. Results Only 50% of physicians were found to recommend screening for colorectal cancer during usual check-up visits, and only 25% prescribed cost-effective procedures. The percentage of physicians recommending stool occult blood test and sigmoidoscopy was 24% and 4% respectively. Only 48% and 23% of physicians recognized a cancer screening value for stool occult blood test and sigmoidoscopy. Colorectal screening recommendations were statistically lower among physicians aged 30 or less (p = 0.012. No differences were found when gender, level and type of specialization were analyzed, even though specialists in general practice showed a trend for better prescription (p = 0.054. Conclusion Contemporary recommendations for colorectal cancer screening are not followed by implementation in primary care setting. Education on presymptomatic control and screening practice monitoring are required if primary care is to make a major impact on colorectal cancer mortality.

  1. ATMPs for Cancer Immunotherapy: A Regulatory Overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galli, Maria Cristina

    2016-01-01

    This chapter discusses European regulatory requirements for development of advanced therapy medicinal products (ATMP) for cancer immunotherapy approaches, describing the framework for clinical trials and for marketing authorization.Regulatory critical issues and challenges for developing ATMP are also discussed, with focus on potency determination, long-term follow-up, comparability, and insertional mutagenesis issues. Some of the most critical features of GMP application to ATMP are also described.

  2. Screen-detected versus interval cancers: Effect of imaging modality and breast density in the Flemish Breast Cancer Screening Programme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Timmermans, Lore; Bacher, Klaus; Thierens, Hubert [Ghent University, Department of Basic Medical Sciences, QCC-Gent, Ghent (Belgium); Bleyen, Luc; Herck, Koen van [Ghent University, Centrum voor Preventie en Vroegtijdige Opsporing van Kanker, Ghent (Belgium); Lemmens, Kim; Ongeval, Chantal van; Steen, Andre van [University Hospitals Leuven, Department of Radiology, Leuven (Belgium); Martens, Patrick [Centrum voor Kankeropsporing, Bruges (Belgium); Brabander, Isabel de [Belgian Cancer Registry, Brussels (Belgium); Goossens, Mathieu [UZ Brussel, Dienst Kankerpreventie, Brussels (Belgium)

    2017-09-15

    To investigate if direct radiography (DR) performs better than screen-film mammography (SF) and computed radiography (CR) in dense breasts in a decentralized organised Breast Cancer Screening Programme. To this end, screen-detected versus interval cancers were studied in different BI-RADS density classes for these imaging modalities. The study cohort consisted of 351,532 women who participated in the Flemish Breast Cancer Screening Programme in 2009 and 2010. Information on screen-detected and interval cancers, breast density scores of radiologist second readers, and imaging modality was obtained by linkage of the databases of the Centre of Cancer Detection and the Belgian Cancer Registry. Overall, 67% of occurring breast cancers are screen detected and 33% are interval cancers, with DR performing better than SF and CR. The interval cancer rate increases gradually with breast density, regardless of modality. In the high-density class, the interval cancer rate exceeds the cancer detection rate for SF and CR, but not for DR. DR is superior to SF and CR with respect to cancer detection rates for high-density breasts. To reduce the high interval cancer rate in dense breasts, use of an additional imaging technique in screening can be taken into consideration. (orig.)

  3. Screen-detected versus interval cancers: Effect of imaging modality and breast density in the Flemish Breast Cancer Screening Programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Timmermans, Lore; Bacher, Klaus; Thierens, Hubert; Bleyen, Luc; Herck, Koen van; Lemmens, Kim; Ongeval, Chantal van; Steen, Andre van; Martens, Patrick; Brabander, Isabel de; Goossens, Mathieu

    2017-01-01

    To investigate if direct radiography (DR) performs better than screen-film mammography (SF) and computed radiography (CR) in dense breasts in a decentralized organised Breast Cancer Screening Programme. To this end, screen-detected versus interval cancers were studied in different BI-RADS density classes for these imaging modalities. The study cohort consisted of 351,532 women who participated in the Flemish Breast Cancer Screening Programme in 2009 and 2010. Information on screen-detected and interval cancers, breast density scores of radiologist second readers, and imaging modality was obtained by linkage of the databases of the Centre of Cancer Detection and the Belgian Cancer Registry. Overall, 67% of occurring breast cancers are screen detected and 33% are interval cancers, with DR performing better than SF and CR. The interval cancer rate increases gradually with breast density, regardless of modality. In the high-density class, the interval cancer rate exceeds the cancer detection rate for SF and CR, but not for DR. DR is superior to SF and CR with respect to cancer detection rates for high-density breasts. To reduce the high interval cancer rate in dense breasts, use of an additional imaging technique in screening can be taken into consideration. (orig.)

  4. Overview of mechanisms of cancer chemopreventive agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Flora, Silvio; Ferguson, Lynnette R.

    2005-01-01

    Epidemiological data provide evidence that it is possible to prevent cancer and other chronic diseases, some of which share common pathogenetic mechanisms, such as DNA damage, oxidative stress, and chronic inflammation. An obvious approach is avoidance of exposure to recognized risk factors. As complementary strategies, it is possible to render the organism more resistant to mutagens/carcinogens and/or to inhibit progression of the disease by administering chemopreventive agents. In a primary prevention setting, addressed to apparently healthy individuals, it is possible to inhibit mutation and cancer initiation by triggering protective mechanisms either in the extracellular environment or inside cells, e.g., by modifying transmembrane transport, modulating metabolism, blocking reactive species, inhibiting cell replication, maintaining DNA structure, modulating DNA metabolism and repair, and controlling gene expression. Tumor promotion can be counteracted by inhibiting genotoxic effects, favoring antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity, inhibiting proteases and cell proliferation, inducing cell differentiation, modulating apoptosis and signal transduction pathways, and protecting intercellular communications. In a secondary prevention setting, when a premalignant lesion has been detected, it is possible to inhibit tumor progression via the same mechanisms, and in addition by affecting the hormonal status and the immune system in various ways, and by inhibiting tumor angiogenesis. Although tertiary prevention, addressed to cancer patients after therapy, is outside the classical definition of chemoprevention, it exploits similar mechanisms. It is also possible to affect cell-adhesion molecules, to activate antimetastasis genes, and to inhibit proteases involved in basement membrane degradation

  5. Implications of false-positive results for future cancer screenings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taksler, Glen B; Keating, Nancy L; Rothberg, Michael B

    2018-06-01

    False-positive cancer screening results may affect a patient's willingness to obtain future screening. The authors conducted logistic regression analysis of 450,484 person-years of electronic medical records (2006-2015) in 92,405 individuals aged 50 to 75 years. Exposures were false-positive breast, prostate, or colorectal cancer screening test results (repeat breast imaging or negative breast biopsy ≤3 months after screening mammography, repeat prostate-specific antigen [PSA] test ≤3 months after PSA test result ≥4.0 ng/mL or negative prostate biopsy ≤3 months after any PSA result, or negative colonoscopy [without biopsy/polypectomy] ≤6 months after a positive fecal occult blood test). Outcomes were up-to-date status with breast or colorectal cancer screening. Covariates included prior screening history, clinical information (eg, family history, obesity, and smoking status), comorbidity, and demographics. Women were more likely to be up to date with breast cancer screening if they previously had false-positive mammography findings (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 1.43 [95% confidence interval, 1.34-1.51] without breast biopsy and AOR, 2.02 [95% confidence interval, 1.56-2.62] with breast biopsy; both Pfalse-positive PSA testing were more likely to be up to date with colorectal cancer screening (AOR, 1.22 [P = .039] without prostate imaging/biopsy and AOR, 1.60 [P = .028] with imaging/biopsy). Results were stronger for individuals with more false-positive results (all P≤.005). However, women with previous false-positive colorectal cancer fecal occult blood test screening results were found to be less likely to be up to date with breast cancer screening (AOR, 0.73; Pfalse-positive breast or prostate cancer screening test were more likely to engage in future screening. Cancer 2018;124:2390-8. © 2018 American Cancer Society. © 2018 American Cancer Society.

  6. A simple way to measure the burden of interval cancers in breast cancer screening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Sune Bangsbøll; Törnberg, Sven; Lynge, Elsebeth

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The sensitivity of a mammography program is normally evaluated by comparing the interval cancer rate to the expected breast cancer incidence without screening, i.e. the proportional interval cancer rate (PICR). The expected breast cancer incidence in absence of screening is, however...... a systematic review and included studies: 1) covering a service screening program, 2) women aged 50-69 years, 3) observed data, 4) interval cancers, women screened, or interval cancer rate, screen detected cases, or screen detection rate, and 5) estimated breast cancer incidence rate of background population...... correlation between the ICR and the PICR for initial screens (r = 0.81), but less so for subsequent screens (r = 0.65). CONCLUSION: This alternate measure seems to capture the burden of interval cancers just as well as the traditional PICR, without need for the increasingly difficult estimation of background...

  7. Knowledge and attitude towards cervical cancer screening among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    McRoy

    Background: Cervical cancer is a largely preventable disease. In western countries, the ... students) wrongly believed that blood test is used for cervical cancer screening. There is a ... [1] About half a million new cases are seen annually ...

  8. Computerized Analysis and Detection of Missed Cancer in Screening Mammogram

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Li, Lihua

    2005-01-01

    This project is to explore an innovative CAD strategy for improving early detection of breast cancer in screening mammograms by focusing on computerized analysis and detection of cancers missed by radiologists...

  9. Computerized Analysis and Detection of Missed Cancer in Screening Mammogram

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Li, Lihua

    2004-01-01

    This project is to explore an innovative CAD strategy for improving early detection of breast cancer in screening mammograms by focusing on computerized analysis and detection of cancers missed by radiologists...

  10. Epidemiology, aetiology, diagnosis and screening of lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berzinec, P.

    2006-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death globally. Smoking causes about 90 % of all lung cancer cases. Passive, i.e. involuntary smoking has been confirmed to enhance the risk of lung cancer in exposed people. Individual susceptibility is one of important factors in lung cancer formation. New knowledge in epidemiology and aetiology of lung cancer gives new possibilities in diagnostic and screening of this disease. Results of large randomised trials aimed at new technologies in lung cancer screening will be available in a few years. (author)

  11. Vaccines against human papilloma virus and cervical cancer: An overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharma Savita

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The paradigm of preventing human papilloma virus (HPV infection through currently approved vaccines, namely, Gardasil, manufactured by Merck and Co., Inc. (Whitehouse Station, NJ and Cervarix, manufactured by GlaxoSmithKline (GSK, Philadelphia holds tremendous promise for the developing countries in decreasing the burden of HPV infection and its sequelae, such as cervical cancer, genital warts and anogenital cancers. Effective screening programs that have reduced the burden of this killer disease in the developed countries are still lacking in India, despite the high incidence of cervical cancer and the implementation of the National Cancer Control Programme since 1975. The recent breakthrough in the global war against cervical cancer will provide new insight for meeting the future challenge of the prevention of cervical cancer in India.

  12. An Overview on Prenatal Screening for Chromosomal Aberrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hixson, Lucas; Goel, Srishti; Schuber, Paul; Faltas, Vanessa; Lee, Jessica; Narayakkadan, Anjali; Leung, Ho; Osborne, Jim

    2015-10-01

    This article is a review of current and emerging methods used for prenatal detection of chromosomal aneuploidies. Chromosomal anomalies in the developing fetus can occur in any pregnancy and lead to death prior to or shortly after birth or to costly lifelong disabilities. Early detection of fetal chromosomal aneuploidies, an atypical number of certain chromosomes, can help parents evaluate their pregnancy options. Current diagnostic methods include maternal serum sampling or nuchal translucency testing, which are minimally invasive diagnostics, but lack sensitivity and specificity. The gold standard, karyotyping, requires amniocentesis or chorionic villus sampling, which are highly invasive and can cause abortions. In addition, many of these methods have long turnaround times, which can cause anxiety in mothers. Next-generation sequencing of fetal DNA in maternal blood enables minimally invasive, sensitive, and reasonably rapid analysis of fetal chromosomal anomalies and can be of clinical utility to parents. This review covers traditional methods and next-generation sequencing techniques for diagnosing aneuploidies in terms of clinical utility, technological characteristics, and market potential. © 2015 Society for Laboratory Automation and Screening.

  13. Results and analysis of screening for breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, G.

    1986-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most frequent cause of death in most countries of the world. Screening of asymptomatic women can detect a large percentage of cancers at an early stage. This is the basis for a possible cure or at least a prolongation of the survival time. The percentage of minimal cancers (smaller than 1 cm without dissemination) may be as high as 48% depending on the screening modality (10% without screening), axillary lymph node involvement can be reduced to 20% (40% without screening), and the percentage of stage II to IV cancers can be reduced to 8-20% (60% without screening). Mortality in the study group over age 50 years was reduced by 30%. Disadvantages of screening are: high cost; biopsies prompted by false positive results; psychological stress for the patients; radiation hazards which have, however, become almost negligible thanks to improved technique (2 cancers in 1 million mammographies and year). (Author)

  14.   Personal invitations for population-based breast cancer screening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saalasti-Koskinen, Ulla; Mäkelä, Marjukka; Saarenmaa, Irma

    2010-01-01

    participation free of charge and the benefits of detecting breast cancer early. Harm associated with screening was seldom mentioned; no unit mentioned the possibility of false-negative results or overtreatment. CONCLUSION: The screening units provided very variable information, which often was biased toward......RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES: Women who are invited for breast cancer screening should get enough information about the benefits and harms of screening to make an informed decision on participation. Personal invitations are an important source of information, because all invited women receive them....... The objective of this study was to evaluate the information breast cancer screening units send to women invited for screening in Finland. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A questionnaire was sent to all breast cancer screening units in Finland in 2005 and 2008, and the information (eg, invitations, results letters...

  15. Predictors of participation in prostate cancer screening at worksites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinrich, S P; Greiner, E; Reis-Starr, C; Yoon, S; Weinrich, M

    1998-01-01

    Unfortunately, African American men have a higher incidence of and a higher mortality rate for prostate cancer than White men but are less likely to participate in prostate cancer screening. This correlational survey research identifies predictors for participation in a free prostate cancer screening in 179 men, 64% of whom are African American. Each man was invited to see his personal physician for a free prostate cancer screening following a prostate cancer educational program given at his worksite. Forty-seven percent of the African American men went to their personal physician following the educational program and received a digital rectal examination (DRE) and a prostate specific antigen (PSA) screening. In the original cohort of educational program attendees, only 16% of the African Americans had obtained a DRE in the previous 12 months. However, 44% subsequently did participate in free DRE screening. Similarly, only 6% of the African American men had received a PSA screening in the previous 12 months, yet 42% obtained a PSA screening after the educational program, a sevenfold increase. Implications for allocating limited resources for education and screening to the high-risk group of African American men are discussed. This study's model of a prostate cancer educational program at worksites followed by attendees visiting their personal physician for screening could be replicated throughout the United States to increase African American men's participation in prostate cancer screening.

  16. Optimal breast cancer screening strategies for older women: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Braithwaite D

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Dejana Braithwaite,1 Joshua Demb,1 Louise M Henderson2 1Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, University of California, San Francisco, CA, 2Department of Radiology, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC, USA Abstract: Breast cancer is a major cause of cancer-related deaths among older women, aged 65 years or older. Screening mammography has been shown to be effective in reducing breast cancer mortality in women aged 50–74 years but not among those aged 75 years or older. Given the large heterogeneity in comorbidity status and life expectancy among older women, controversy remains over screening mammography in this population. Diminished life expectancy with aging may decrease the potential screening benefit and increase the risk of harms. In this review, we summarize the evidence on screening mammography utilization, performance, and outcomes and highlight evidence gaps. Optimizing the screening strategy will involve separating older women who will benefit from screening from those who will not benefit by using information on comorbidity status and life expectancy. This review has identified areas related to screening mammography in older women that warrant additional research, including the need to evaluate emerging screening technologies, such as tomosynthesis among older women and precision cancer screening. In the absence of randomized controlled trials, the benefits and harms of continued screening mammography in older women need to be estimated using both population-based cohort data and simulation models. Keywords: aging, breast cancer, precision cancer screening

  17. Increasingly strong reduction in breast cancer mortality due to screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Schoor, G; Moss, S M; Otten, J D M; Donders, R; Paap, E; den Heeten, G J; Holland, R; Broeders, M J M; Verbeek, A L M

    2011-01-01

    Background: Favourable outcomes of breast cancer screening trials in the 1970s and 1980s resulted in the launch of population-based service screening programmes in many Western countries. We investigated whether improvements in mammography and treatment modalities have had an influence on the effectiveness of breast cancer screening from 1975 to 2008. Methods: In Nijmegen, the Netherlands, 55 529 women received an invitation for screening between 1975 and 2008. We designed a case–referent study to evaluate the impact of mammographic screening on breast cancer mortality over time from 1975 to 2008. A total number of 282 breast cancer deaths were identified, and 1410 referents aged 50–69 were sampled from the population invited for screening. We estimated the effectiveness by calculating the odds ratio (OR) indicating the breast cancer death rate for screened vs unscreened women. Results: The breast cancer death rate in the screened group over the complete period was 35% lower than in the unscreened group (OR=0.65; 95% CI=0.49–0.87). Analysis by calendar year showed an increasing effectiveness from a 28% reduction in breast cancer mortality in the period 1975–1991 (OR=0.72; 95% CI=0.47–1.09) to 65% in the period 1992–2008 (OR=0.35; 95% CI=0.19–0.64). Conclusion: Our results show an increasingly strong reduction in breast cancer mortality over time because of mammographic screening. PMID:21343930

  18. Cervical Cancer Screening by Female Workers in South East Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    India, with approximately 71,600 new cases occurring ... cancer is the most common cancer among women and ... The poor utilization of the cervical ... known that pre-cancerous lesions are detectable for 10 ... of cervical cancer deaths decreased from 70% between .... screening should be 30 - 40 years, which is the age.

  19. Breast Cancer Screening in an Era of Personalized Regimens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onega, Tracy; Beaber, Elisabeth F.; Sprague, Brian L.; Barlow, William E.; Haas, Jennifer S.; Tosteson, Anna N.A.; Schnall, Mitchell D.; Armstrong, Katrina; Schapira, Marilyn M.; Geller, Berta; Weaver, Donald L.; Conant, Emily F.

    2014-01-01

    Breast cancer screening holds a prominent place in public health, health care delivery, policy, and women’s health care decisions. Several factors are driving shifts in how population-based breast cancer screening is approached, including advanced imaging technologies, health system performance measures, health care reform, concern for “overdiagnosis,” and improved understanding of risk. Maximizing benefits while minimizing the harms of screening requires moving from a “1-size-fits-all” guideline paradigm to more personalized strategies. A refined conceptual model for breast cancer screening is needed to align women’s risks and preferences with screening regimens. A conceptual model of personalized breast cancer screening is presented herein that emphasizes key domains and transitions throughout the screening process, as well as multilevel perspectives. The key domains of screening awareness, detection, diagnosis, and treatment and survivorship are conceptualized to function at the level of the patient, provider, facility, health care system, and population/policy arena. Personalized breast cancer screening can be assessed across these domains with both process and outcome measures. Identifying, evaluating, and monitoring process measures in screening is a focus of a National Cancer Institute initiative entitled PROSPR (Population-based Research Optimizing Screening through Personalized Regimens), which will provide generalizable evidence for a risk-based model of breast cancer screening, The model presented builds on prior breast cancer screening models and may serve to identify new measures to optimize benefits-to-harms tradeoffs in population-based screening, which is a timely goal in the era of health care reform. PMID:24830599

  20. Trends in adherence to recommended cancer screening: The US population and working cancer survivors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tainya C. Clarke

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Over the past decade the United States has seen a decrease in advanced cancer diagnoses. There has also been an increase in the number of cancer survivors returning to work. Cancer screening behaviors among survivors may play an important role in their return-to-work process. Adherence to a post-treatment cancer screening protocol increases early detection of secondary tumors and reduces potentially limiting side-effects. We compared screening trends among all cancer survivors, working survivors, and the general population over the last decade.Methods: Trends in adherence to recommended screening were analyzed by site-specific cancer. We used the Healthy People goals as a measure of desired adherence. We selected participants 18+ years from 1997 to 2010 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS for years where detailed cancer screening information was available. Using the recommendations of the American Cancer Society as a guide, we assessed adherence to cancer screening across the decade. There were 174,393 participants. Analyses included 7,528 working cancer survivors representing 3.8 million US workers, and 119,374 adults representing more than 100 million working Americans with no cancer history.Results: The US population met the Healthy People 2010 goal for colorectal screening, but declined in all other recommended cancer screening. Cancer survivors met and maintained the HP2010 goal for all, except cervical cancer screening. Survivors had higher screening rates than the general population. Among survivors, white-collar and service occupations had higher screening rates than blue-collar survivors.Conclusions: Cancer survivors report higher screening rates than the general population. Nevertheless, national screening rates are lower than desired, and disparities exist by cancer history and occupation. Understanding existing disparities, and the impact of cancer screening on survivors is crucial as the number of working survivors

  1. Positive predictive values by mammographic density and screening mode in the Norwegian Breast Cancer Screening Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moshina, Nataliia; Ursin, Giske; Roman, Marta; Sebuødegård, Sofie; Hofvind, Solveig

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the probability of breast cancer among women recalled due to abnormal findings on the screening mammograms (PPV-1) and among women who underwent an invasive procedure (PPV-2) by mammographic density (MD), screening mode and age. We used information about 28,826 recall examinations from 26,951 subsequently screened women in the Norwegian Breast Cancer Screening Program, 1996-2010. The radiologists who performed the recall examinations subjectively classified MD on the mammograms into three categories: fatty (70%). Screening mode was defined as screen-film mammography (SFM) and full-field digital mammography (FFDM). We examined trends of PPVs by MD, screening mode and age. We used logistic regression to estimate odds ratio (OR) of screen-detected breast cancer associated with MD among women recalled, adjusting for screening mode and age. PPV-1 and PPV-2 decreased by increasing MD, regardless of screening mode (p for trend breasts. Among women recalled, the adjusted OR of breast cancer decreased with increasing MD. Compared with women with fatty breasts, the OR was 0.90 (95% CI: 0.84-0.96) for those with medium dense breasts and 0.85 (95% CI: 0.76-0.95) for those with dense breasts. PPVs decreased by increasing MD. Fewer women needed to be recalled or undergo an invasive procedure to detect one breast cancer among those with fatty versus dense breasts in the screening program in Norway, 1996-2010. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Behavioral economics: "nudging" underserved populations to be screened for cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purnell, Jason Q; Thompson, Tess; Kreuter, Matthew W; McBride, Timothy D

    2015-01-15

    Persistent disparities in cancer screening by race/ethnicity and socioeconomic status require innovative prevention tools and techniques. Behavioral economics provides tools to potentially reduce disparities by informing strategies and systems to increase prevention of breast, cervical, and colorectal cancers. With an emphasis on the predictable, but sometimes flawed, mental shortcuts (heuristics) people use to make decisions, behavioral economics offers insights that practitioners can use to enhance evidence-based cancer screening interventions that rely on judgments about the probability of developing and detecting cancer, decisions about competing screening options, and the optimal presentation of complex choices (choice architecture). In the area of judgment, we describe ways practitioners can use the availability and representativeness of heuristics and the tendency toward unrealistic optimism to increase perceptions of risk and highlight benefits of screening. We describe how several behavioral economic principles involved in decision-making can influence screening attitudes, including how framing and context effects can be manipulated to highlight personally salient features of cancer screening tests. Finally, we offer suggestions about ways practitioners can apply principles related to choice architecture to health care systems in which cancer screening takes place. These recommendations include the use of incentives to increase screening, introduction of default options, appropriate feedback throughout the decision-making and behavior completion process, and clear presentation of complex choices, particularly in the context of colorectal cancer screening. We conclude by noting gaps in knowledge and propose future research questions to guide this promising area of research and practice.

  3. Mammographic breast cancer screening for women previously treated with high breast doses for diseases such as Hodgkin's

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faulkner, K.; Law, J.

    2005-01-01

    In screening of a general population for breast cancer, benefit/risk ratios are of the order of 100/1. For the very small subgroup of women treated by radiotherapy for Hodgkin's disease below age 35, calculations of this type require different considerations, an overview of which is given in this text. It is concluded that although such previous exposures will increase their radiation risk, their increased risk of carrying an undetected breast cancer means that the potential benefit for them of screening is increased even more. In the United Kingdom, the Dept. of Health has recommended annual screening for these women. (authors)

  4. Preferences for cervical cancer screening: The role of implicit associations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korfage, I.J.; Kwaadsteniet, E.W. de; Voorst, A. van; Stiggelbout, A.M.; Vries, M. de; Pieterse, A.H.

    2018-01-01

    Objectives: Implicit associations influence behaviour, but their impact on cancer screening intentions is unknown. Methods: We assessed implicit associations with cervical cancer screening using an evaluative priming task. Participants were shown primes ('Pap test', neutral or non-word) followed by

  5. Prostate cancer screening in Ghana - a clinical benefit? | Arthur ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In Ghana and most African countries, prostate cancer is the most common cancer in males after hepatocellular carcinoma. Whereas in the advanced countries, screening for prostate specific antigen (PSA) has led to early detection and management of the disease, screening has been very low in Ghana, thus leading to low ...

  6. Targeting women with free cervical cancer screening: challenges ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: the study was conducted to determine the challenges and suggest solutions to conducting free cervical cancer screening among Nigerian women. Methods: awareness was created among women groups and mass media in Osun State for women to undergo free cervical cancer screening programme.

  7. Women's Attitude Towards Cervical Cancer Screening in North ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Women's Attitude Towards Cervical Cancer Screening in North Eastern ... of obstetrics and gynaecology in two tertiary institutions in Northeastern Nigeria ... be used to increase both awareness and utilization of cervical cancer screening services. Adoption of social marketing strategy may lead to improvement in the use of ...

  8. Cancer Screening in Women with Intellectual Disabilities: An Irish perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reidy, Mary; Denieffe, Suzanne; Foran, Sinéad

    2014-01-01

    In the Republic of Ireland, more than 8000 women with intellectual disabilities (IDs), aged 20 years and over, are registered for service provision. Their health needs challenge preventative health services including breast and cervical cancer screening programmes. This review explores the literature about cancer screening participation rates and…

  9. Screening for Cervical Cancer: A Review of Outcome among Infertile ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    the second leading female cancer world-wide and the most common female ... Interestingly, it has a pre-invasive stage, which can be detected through screening. ... primarily to screen for cervical cancer and where they exist, the acceptance ...

  10. Stomach (Gastric) Cancer Screening (PDQ®)—Health Professional Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    For stomach (gastric) cancer, there is no standard or routine screening test for the general U.S. population. Review the evidence on the benefits and harms of screening for gastric cancer using barium-meal photofluorography, gastric endoscopy, or serum pepsinogen in this expert-reviewed summary.

  11. Beachfront screening for skin cancer in Texas Gulf coast surfers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dozier, S; Wagner, R F; Black, S A; Terracina, J

    1997-01-01

    Skin cancer screening programs may attract the "worried well," while those at greatest risk for skin cancer are less likely to attend. Our purpose was to compare the results of skin cancer screening examinations between persons participating in the 1992 American Academy of Dermatology-sponsored free skin cancer screening and surfers participating in a free beachfront skin cancer screening held in conjunction with a regional surfing competition. The hypothesis was that screening an at-risk population (ie, surfers) would be more productive in terms of incidence of clinically diagnosed malignant skin lesions. Surfers were significantly younger and predominantly male. The incidence of basal cell carcinoma was significantly greater in the surfing population than in the self-selected population with similar ages. This study indicates that directed skin cancer screening of an at-risk population was more productive in finding skin cancer than screening of a self-selected population. Future efforts to identify individuals with skin cancer should be broadened to include high-risk populations such as daytime outdoor athletes and high-risk occupational groups, since they may not be reached by current screening efforts.

  12. Breast Cancer Screening (PDQ®)—Patient Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breast cancer screening is performed using mammogram, clinical breast exam (CBE), and MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) tests. Learn about these and other tests that have been studied to detect or screen for breast cancer in this expert-reviewed and evidence-based summary.

  13. Communicating the balance sheet in breast cancer screening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giordano, Livia; Cogo, Carla; Patnick, Julietta

    2012-01-01

    Despite the difficulties, there is a moral responsibility to provide the public with the best estimates of benefits and harms of breast cancer screening.......Despite the difficulties, there is a moral responsibility to provide the public with the best estimates of benefits and harms of breast cancer screening....

  14. Screening for colorectal cancer in Italy: 2011-2012 survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zorzi, Manuel; Mangone, Lucia; Anghinoni, Emanuela; Baracco, Susanna; Borciani, Elisabetta; Caldarella, Adele; Falcini, Fabio; Fanetti, Anna Clara; Ferretti, Stefano; Giorgi Rossi, Paolo; Michiara, Maria; Randi, Giorgia; Stracci, Fabrizio; Vicentini, Massimo; Zucchetto, Antonella; Zappa, Marco

    2015-01-01

    The impact of organized screening programmes on colorectal cancer (CRC) can be observed at a population level only several years after the implementation of screening. We compared CRC characteristics by diagnostic modality (screen-detected, non-screen-detected) as an early outcome to monitor screening programme effectiveness. Data on CRCs diagnosed in Italy from 2000 to 2008 were collected by several cancer registries. Linkage with screening datasets made it possible to divide the cases by geographic area, implementation of screening, and modality of diagnosis (screen-detected, non-screen-detected).We compared the main characteristics of the different subgroups of CRCs through multivariate logistic regression models. The study included 23,668 CRCs diagnosed in subjects aged 50-69 years, of which 11.9% were screen-detected (N=2,806), all from the North-Centre of Italy. Among screen-detected CRCs, we observed a higher proportion of males, of cases in the distal colon, and a higher mean age of the patients. Compared with pre-screening cases, screen-detected CRCs showed a better distribution by stage at diagnosis (OR for stage III or IV: 0.40, 95%CI: 0.36-0.44) and grading (OR for poorly differentiated CRCs was 0.86, 95%CI: 0.75-1.00). Screen-detected CRCs have more favourable prognostic characteristics than non-screen-detected cases. A renewed effort to implement screening programmes throughout the entire country is recommended.

  15. PRESSING MORTALITY RATE THROUGH SCREENING oral cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. K. Widnyani Wulan Laksmi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Based on World Health Organization (WHO data, oral cancer is one of malignancy with the highest mortality. In USA, there are more than 30.000 new cases every year. We can find many risk factors of oral cancer in our daily living. Moreover, it’s easy to find the main risk factors in our society, they are smoking, alcohol consumption, tobacco consumtion, viral infection, and bad oral hygiene. For the early stadium, Five-years survival rate is about 82% and 61% for all stadium. But, more than 50% of oral cancer has been distributed (metastatic regionally and also into the other organ far away from the oral itself when it’s detected. It will decrease 5-years survival rate to be less than 50%. So that, it’s really important to detect the oral cancer at the earlier stadium. Screening is the way to find the earlier stadium. Screening is done by some methods, start from the anamnesis, physical examination, toluidine blue staining, endoscopy, cytology, telomerase examination, and also PET-scan if it’s possible (because of the financial reasons. /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;}

  16. Colorectal Cancer Screening (PDQ®)—Health Professional Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) screening reduces CRC mortality; some screening modalities also reduce CRC incidence. Get detailed information about CRC screening tests (e.g., fecal occult blood test, sigmoidoscopy, colonoscopy, stool DNA) including potential benefits and harms in this clinician summary.

  17. Acceptability of Cervical Cancer Screening in Rural Mozambique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Audet, Carolyn M.; Matos, Carla Silva; Blevins, Meridith; Cardoso, Aventina; Moon, Troy D.; Sidat, Mohsin

    2012-01-01

    In Zambezia province, Mozambique, cervical cancer (CC) screening was introduced to rural communities in 2010. Our study sought to determine whether women would accept screening via pelvic examination and visual inspection with acetic acid (VIA) at two clinical sites near the onset of a new CC screening program. A cross-sectional descriptive study…

  18. Cost-effectiveness of breast cancer screening policies using simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gocgun, Y; Banjevic, D; Taghipour, S; Montgomery, N; Harvey, B J; Jardine, A K S; Miller, A B

    2015-08-01

    In this paper, we study breast cancer screening policies using computer simulation. We developed a multi-state Markov model for breast cancer progression, considering both the screening and treatment stages of breast cancer. The parameters of our model were estimated through data from the Canadian National Breast Cancer Screening Study as well as data in the relevant literature. Using computer simulation, we evaluated various screening policies to study the impact of mammography screening for age-based subpopulations in Canada. We also performed sensitivity analysis to examine the impact of certain parameters on number of deaths and total costs. The analysis comparing screening policies reveals that a policy in which women belonging to the 40-49 age group are not screened, whereas those belonging to the 50-59 and 60-69 age groups are screened once every 5 years, outperforms others with respect to cost per life saved. Our analysis also indicates that increasing the screening frequencies for the 50-59 and 60-69 age groups decrease mortality, and that the average number of deaths generally decreases with an increase in screening frequency. We found that screening annually for all age groups is associated with the highest costs per life saved. Our analysis thus reveals that cost per life saved increases with an increase in screening frequency. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. [Breast cancer screening in Austria: Key figures, age limits, screening intervals and evidence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeitler, Klaus; Semlitsch, Thomas; Posch, Nicole; Siebenhofer, Andrea; Horvath, Karl

    2015-01-01

    In January 2014, the first nationwide quality-assured breast cancer screening program addressing women aged ≥ 40 years was introduced in Austria. As part of the process of developing a patient information leaflet, the Evidence Based Medicine (EBM) Review Center of the Medical University of Graz was charged with the task of assessing the potential benefits and harms of breast cancer screening from the available evidence. Based on these results, key figures were derived for mortality, false-positive and false-negative mammography results, and overdiagnosis, considering Austria-specific incidence rates for breast cancer and breast cancer mortality. Furthermore, the current evidence regarding age limits and screening interval, which were the subjects of controversial public discussions, was analyzed. A systematic search for primary and secondary literature was performed and additional evidence was screened, e. g., evaluation reports of European breast cancer screening programs. On the basis of the available evidence and of the Austrian breast cancer mortality and incidence rates, it can be assumed that - depending on the age group - 1 to 4 breast cancer deaths can be avoided per 1,000 women screened in a structured breast cancer screening program, while the overall mortality remains unchanged. On the other hand, 150 to 200 of these 1,000 women will be affected by false-positive results and 1 to 9 women by overdiagnosis due to the structured breast cancer screening. Therefore, the overall benefit-harm balance is uncertain. If women from 40 to 44 or above 70 years of age are considered, who can also participate in the Austrian screening program, even a negative benefit-harm balance seems possible. However, with the implementation of quality standards in breast cancer screening and the dissemination of a patient information leaflet, an improvement in the medical treatment situation, specifically in terms of informed decision-making, can be expected. Copyright © 2015

  20. The value of models in informing resource allocation in colorectal cancer screening – 1 the case of the Netherlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Hees, Frank; Zauber, Ann G.; van Veldhuizen, Harriët; Heijnen, Marie-Louise A.; Penning, Corine; de Koning, Harry J.; van Ballegooijen, Marjolein; Lansdorp-Vogelaar, Iris

    2015-01-01

    In May 2011, the Dutch government decided to implement a national programme for colorectal cancer (CRC) screening using biennial faecal immunochemical test (FIT) screening between ages 55 and 75.[1] Decision modelling played an important role in informing this decision, as well as in the planning and implementation of the programme afterwards. In this overview, we illustrate the value of models in informing resource allocation in CRC screening, using the role that decision modelling has played in the Dutch CRC screening programme as an example. PMID:26063755

  1. Role of carotid duplex imaging in carotid screening programmes – an overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gillard Jonathan H

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Stroke is the third most common cause of death in the UK and the largest single cause of severe disability. Each year more than 110,000 people in England suffer from a stroke which costs the National Health Service (NHS over GBP2.8 billion. Thus, it is imperative that patients at risk be screened for underlying carotid artery atherosclerosis. Aim To assess the role of carotid ultrasound in different carotid screening programmes. Methods A literature overview was carried out by using PubMed search engine, to identify different carotid screening programmes that had used ultrasound scan as a screening tool. Results It appears that the carotid ultrasound is an effective method for screening carotid artery disease in community as it effectively predicts the presence of stenosis with high accuracy. There is a need for primary care to recommend high risk patients for regular screening, to reduce stroke and transient ischemic attack (TIA related morbidity and mortality. Conclusion Screening programmes using carotid ultrasonography contribute to public health awareness and promotion which in long term could potentially benefit in disease prevention and essentially promote better standards of healthcare.

  2. Cervical cancer screening programs in Latin America and the Caribbean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murillo, Raul; Almonte, Maribel; Pereira, Ana; Ferrer, Elena; Gamboa, Oscar A; Jerónimo, José; Lazcano-Ponce, Eduardo

    2008-08-19

    Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) have a significant burden of cervical cancer. Prophylactic human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines are an opportunity for primary prevention and new screening methods, such as new HPV DNA testing, are promising alternatives to cytology screening that should be analyzed in the context of regional preventive programs. Cytology-based screening programs have not fulfilled their expectations and coverage does not sufficiently explain the lack of impact on screening in LAC. While improved evaluation of screening programs is necessary to increase the impact of screening on the reduction of incidence and mortality, other programmatic aspects will need to be addressed such as follow-up of positive tests and quality control. The implementation of new technologies might enhance screening performance and reduce mortality in the region. The characteristics, performance and impact of cervical cancer screening programs in LAC are reviewed in this article.

  3. Participation and barriers to colorectal cancer screening in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusoff, Harmy Mohamed; Daud, Norwati; Noor, Norhayati Mohd; Rahim, Amry Abdul

    2012-01-01

    In Malaysia, colorectal cancer is the most common cancer in males and the third most common in females. Mortality due to colorectal cancer can be effectively reduced with early diagnosis. This study was designed to look into colorectal cancer screening participation and its barriers among average risk individuals in Malaysia. A cross sectional study was conducted from August 2009 till April 2010 involving average risk individuals from 44 primary care clinics in West Malaysia. Each individual was asked whether they have performed any of the colorectal cancer screening methods in the past five years. The barrier questions had three domains: patient factors, test factors and health care provider factors. Descriptive analysis was achieved using Statistical Program for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 12.0. A total of 1,905 average risk individuals responded making a response rate of 93.8%. Only 13 (0.7%) respondents had undergone any of the colorectal cancer screening methods in the past five years. The main patient and test factors for not participating were embarrassment (35.2%) and feeling uncomfortable (30.0%), respectively. There were 11.2% of respondents who never received any advice to do screening. The main reason for them to undergo screening was being advised by health care providers (84.6%). The study showed that participation in colorectal cancer screening in Malaysia is extremely low and multiple factors contribute to this situation. Given the importance of the disease, efforts should be made to increase colorectal cancer screening activities in Malaysia.

  4. Screen-detected versus interval cancers: Effect of imaging modality and breast density in the Flemish Breast Cancer Screening Programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmermans, Lore; Bleyen, Luc; Bacher, Klaus; Van Herck, Koen; Lemmens, Kim; Van Ongeval, Chantal; Van Steen, Andre; Martens, Patrick; De Brabander, Isabel; Goossens, Mathieu; Thierens, Hubert

    2017-09-01

    To investigate if direct radiography (DR) performs better than screen-film mammography (SF) and computed radiography (CR) in dense breasts in a decentralized organised Breast Cancer Screening Programme. To this end, screen-detected versus interval cancers were studied in different BI-RADS density classes for these imaging modalities. The study cohort consisted of 351,532 women who participated in the Flemish Breast Cancer Screening Programme in 2009 and 2010. Information on screen-detected and interval cancers, breast density scores of radiologist second readers, and imaging modality was obtained by linkage of the databases of the Centre of Cancer Detection and the Belgian Cancer Registry. Overall, 67% of occurring breast cancers are screen detected and 33% are interval cancers, with DR performing better than SF and CR. The interval cancer rate increases gradually with breast density, regardless of modality. In the high-density class, the interval cancer rate exceeds the cancer detection rate for SF and CR, but not for DR. DR is superior to SF and CR with respect to cancer detection rates for high-density breasts. To reduce the high interval cancer rate in dense breasts, use of an additional imaging technique in screening can be taken into consideration. • Interval cancer rate increases gradually with breast density, regardless of modality. • Cancer detection rate in high-density breasts is superior in DR. • IC rate exceeds CDR for SF and CR in high-density breasts. • DR performs better in high-density breasts for third readings and false-positives.

  5. Screening for psychological distress in cancer: renewing the research agenda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmon, Peter; Clark, Louise; McGrath, Elly; Fisher, Peter

    2015-03-01

    Although health policy for cancer care promotes screening of patients for emotional distress, the utility and validity of screening have been questioned. Continued research to refine detection of distress or to evaluate outcomes of screening programmes is unlikely to end this controversy. Instead, we need to identify more fundamental research questions that address the validity or utility of screening in this context. We critically and selectively review research and policy literature on psychological screening in cancer care, drawing also from research literature about the nature of psychological needs in cancer care and from relevant literature on psychological screening in mental health. We identify three broad research questions: (i) Apart from intensity of distress, what further information should screening seek about the context of distress, psychological processes that promote distress and patients' own perspective on their needs? (ii) What are the implications of the contextual dependence of disclosure of emotional feelings, given that screening questions can be asked in contexts ranging from an impersonal questionnaire to dialogue with a trusted practitioner? (iii) How should a screen be responded to, given the inherent uncertainty associated with screening results and given that distress in a cancer context can indicate instrumental as well as psychological needs? Examining these questions will mean exchanging a diagnostic framework for screening, in which health need is indicated by the presence of a psychological disorder, for a public health framework, in which health need is identified from multiple perspectives. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. European Guidelines for Quality Assurance in Cervical Cancer Screening. Second edition--summary document.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbyn, M; Anttila, A; Jordan, J; Ronco, G; Schenck, U; Segnan, N; Wiener, H; Herbert, A; von Karsa, L

    2010-03-01

    European Guidelines for Quality Assurance in Cervical Cancer Screening have been initiated in the Europe Against Cancer Programme. The first edition established the principles of organised population-based screening and stimulated numerous pilot projects. The second multidisciplinary edition was published in 2008 and comprises approximately 250 pages divided into seven chapters prepared by 48 authors and contributors. Considerable attention has been devoted to organised, population-based programme policies which minimise adverse effects and maximise benefits of screening. It is hoped that this expanded guidelines edition will have a greater impact on countries in which screening programmes are still lacking and in which opportunistic screening has been preferred in the past. Other methodological aspects such as future prospects of human papillomavirus testing and vaccination in cervical cancer control have also been examined in the second edition; recommendations for integration of the latter technologies into European guidelines are currently under development in a related project supported by the European Union Health Programme. An overview of the fundamental points and principles that should support any quality-assured screening programme and key performance indicators are presented here in a summary document of the second guidelines edition in order to make these principles and standards known to a wider scientific community.

  7. Lung Cancer Screening (PDQ®)—Patient Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lung cancer screening with low-dose spiral CT scans has been shown to decrease the risk of dying from lung cancer in heavy smokers. Learn more about tests to detect lung cancer and their potential benefits and harms in this expert-reviewed summary.

  8. Barriers to colorectal cancer screening in Asia: A systematic review ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is among the top five cancers afflicting both men and women globally. Once predominantly a Western disease, it has begun to rise in Asian countries as well. This systematic review aims to compile and analyze the various barriers towards colorectal cancer screening in Asia, and to ...

  9. Computed tomographic characteristics of interval and post screen carcinomas in lung cancer screening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scholten, Ernst T.; Horeweg, Nanda; Koning, Harry J. de; Vliegenthart, Rozemarijn; Oudkerk, Matthijs; Mali, Willem P.T.M.; Jong, Pim A. de

    2015-01-01

    To analyse computed tomography (CT) findings of interval and post-screen carcinomas in lung cancer screening. Consecutive interval and post-screen carcinomas from the Dutch-Belgium lung cancer screening trial were included. The prior screening and the diagnostic chest CT were reviewed by two experienced radiologists in consensus with knowledge of the tumour location on the diagnostic CT. Sixty-one participants (53 men) were diagnosed with an interval or post-screen carcinoma. Twenty-two (36 %) were in retrospect visible on the prior screening CT. Detection error occurred in 20 cancers and interpretation error in two cancers. Errors involved intrabronchial tumour (n = 5), bulla with wall thickening (n = 5), lymphadenopathy (n = 3), pleural effusion (n = 1) and intraparenchymal solid nodules (n = 8). These were missed because of a broad pleural attachment (n = 4), extensive reticulation surrounding a nodule (n = 1) and extensive scarring (n = 1). No definite explanation other than human error was found in two cases. None of the interval or post-screen carcinomas involved a subsolid nodule. Interval or post-screen carcinomas that were visible in retrospect were mostly due to detection errors of solid nodules, bulla wall thickening or endobronchial lesions. Interval or post-screen carcinomas without explanation other than human errors are rare. (orig.)

  10. Computed tomographic characteristics of interval and post screen carcinomas in lung cancer screening

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scholten, Ernst T. [University Medical Centre, Department of Radiology, Utrecht (Netherlands); Kennemer Gasthuis, Department of Radiology, Haarlem (Netherlands); Horeweg, Nanda [Erasmus University Medical Centre, Department of Public Health, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Erasmus University Medical Centre, Department of Pulmonary Medicine, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Koning, Harry J. de [Erasmus University Medical Centre, Department of Public Health, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Vliegenthart, Rozemarijn [University of Groningen, University Medical Centre Groningen, Department of Radiology, Groningen (Netherlands); University of Groningen, University Medical Centre Groningen, Center for Medical Imaging-North East Netherlands, Groningen (Netherlands); Oudkerk, Matthijs [University of Groningen, University Medical Centre Groningen, Center for Medical Imaging-North East Netherlands, Groningen (Netherlands); Mali, Willem P.T.M.; Jong, Pim A. de [University Medical Centre, Department of Radiology, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2015-01-15

    To analyse computed tomography (CT) findings of interval and post-screen carcinomas in lung cancer screening. Consecutive interval and post-screen carcinomas from the Dutch-Belgium lung cancer screening trial were included. The prior screening and the diagnostic chest CT were reviewed by two experienced radiologists in consensus with knowledge of the tumour location on the diagnostic CT. Sixty-one participants (53 men) were diagnosed with an interval or post-screen carcinoma. Twenty-two (36 %) were in retrospect visible on the prior screening CT. Detection error occurred in 20 cancers and interpretation error in two cancers. Errors involved intrabronchial tumour (n = 5), bulla with wall thickening (n = 5), lymphadenopathy (n = 3), pleural effusion (n = 1) and intraparenchymal solid nodules (n = 8). These were missed because of a broad pleural attachment (n = 4), extensive reticulation surrounding a nodule (n = 1) and extensive scarring (n = 1). No definite explanation other than human error was found in two cases. None of the interval or post-screen carcinomas involved a subsolid nodule. Interval or post-screen carcinomas that were visible in retrospect were mostly due to detection errors of solid nodules, bulla wall thickening or endobronchial lesions. Interval or post-screen carcinomas without explanation other than human errors are rare. (orig.)

  11. Observed and Predicted Risk of Breast Cancer Death in Randomized Trials on Breast Cancer Screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Autier, Philippe; Boniol, Mathieu; Smans, Michel; Sullivan, Richard; Boyle, Peter

    2016-01-01

    The role of breast screening in breast cancer mortality declines is debated. Screening impacts cancer mortality through decreasing the number of advanced cancers with poor diagnosis, while cancer treatment works through decreasing the case-fatality rate. Hence, reductions in cancer death rates thanks to screening should directly reflect reductions in advanced cancer rates. We verified whether in breast screening trials, the observed reductions in the risk of breast cancer death could be predicted from reductions of advanced breast cancer rates. The Greater New York Health Insurance Plan trial (HIP) is the only breast screening trial that reported stage-specific cancer fatality for the screening and for the control group separately. The Swedish Two-County trial (TCT)) reported size-specific fatalities for cancer patients in both screening and control groups. We computed predicted numbers of breast cancer deaths, from which we calculated predicted relative risks (RR) and (95% confidence intervals). The Age trial in England performed its own calculations of predicted relative risk. The observed and predicted RR of breast cancer death were 0.72 (0.56-0.94) and 0.98 (0.77-1.24) in the HIP trial, and 0.79 (0.78-1.01) and 0.90 (0.80-1.01) in the Age trial. In the TCT, the observed RR was 0.73 (0.62-0.87), while the predicted RR was 0.89 (0.75-1.05) if overdiagnosis was assumed to be negligible and 0.83 (0.70-0.97) if extra cancers were excluded. In breast screening trials, factors other than screening have contributed to reductions in the risk of breast cancer death most probably by reducing the fatality of advanced cancers in screening groups. These factors were the better management of breast cancer patients and the underreporting of breast cancer as the underlying cause of death. Breast screening trials should publish stage-specific fatalities observed in each group.

  12. Oral cancer screening practices of oral health professionals in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariño, Rodrigo; Haresaku, Satoru; McGrath, Roisin; Bailey, Denise; Mccullough, Michael; Musolino, Ross; Kim, Boaz; Chinnassamy, Alagesan; Morgan, Michael

    2017-12-15

    To evaluate oral cancer-related screening practices of Oral Health Professionals (OHPs - dentists, dental hygienists, dental therapists, and oral health therapists) practising in Victoria, Australia. A 36-item survey was distributed to 3343 OHPs. Items included socio-demographic and work-related characteristics; self-assessed knowledge of oral cancer; perceived level of confidence in discussing oral health behaviors with patients; oral cancer screening practices; and self-evaluated need for additional training on screening procedures for oral cancer. A total of 380 OHPs responded this survey, achieving an overall response rate of 9.4%. Forty-five were excluded from further analysis. Of these 335 OHP, 72% were dentists; (n = 241); either GDP or Dental Specialists; 13.7% (n = 46) were dental hygienists; 12.2% (n = 41) were oral health therapists, and the remaining 2.1% (n = 7) were dental therapists. While the majority (95.2%) agreed that oral cancer screening should be routinely performed, in actual practice around half (51.4%) screened all their patients. Another 12.8% "Very rarely" conducted screening examinations. The probability of routinely conducting an oral cancer screening was explored utilising Logistic Regression Analysis. Four variables remained statistically significant (p oral cancer screening rose with increasing levels of OHPs' confidence in oral cancer-related knowledge (OR = 1.35; 95% CI: 1.09-1.67) and with higher levels of confidence in discussing oral hygiene practices with patients (OR = 1.25; 95% CI: 1.03-1.52). Results also showed that dental specialists were less likely to perform oral cancer screening examinations compared with other OHPs (OR = 0.18; 95% CI: 0.07-0.52) and the likelihood of performing an oral cancer screening decreased when the "patient complained of a problem" (OR = 0.21; 95% CI: 0.10-0.44). Only half the study sample performed oral cancer screening examinations for all of their patients

  13. Breast cancer screening-opportunistic use of registry and linked screening data for local evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roder, David; Farshid, Gelareh; Gill, Grantley; Kollias, Jim; Koczwara, Bogda; Karapetis, Chris; Adams, Jacqui; Joshi, Rohit; Keefe, Dorothy; Powell, Kate; Fusco, Kellie; Eckert, Marion; Buckley, Elizabeth; Beckmann, Kerri

    2017-06-01

    Screening has been found to reduce breast cancer mortality at a population level in Australia, but these studies did not address local settings where numbers of deaths would generally have been too low for evaluation. Clinicians, administrators, and consumer groups are also interested in local service outcomes. We therefore use more common prognostic and treatment measures and survivals to gain evidence of screening effects among patients attending 4 local hospitals for treatment. To compare prognostic, treatment, and survival measures by screening history to determine whether expected screening effects are occurring. Employing routine clinical registry and linked screening data to investigate associations of screening history with these measures, using unadjusted and adjusted analyses. Screened women had a 10-year survival from breast cancer of 92%, compared with 78% for unscreened women; and 79% of screened surgical cases had breast conserving surgery compared with 64% in unscreened women. Unadjusted analyses indicated that recently screened cases had earlier tumor node metastasis stages, smaller diameters, less nodal involvement, better tumor differentiation, more oestrogen and progesterone receptor positive lesions, more hormone therapy, and less chemotherapy. Radiotherapy tended to be more common in screening participants. More frequent use of adjunctive radiotherapy applied when breast conserving surgery was used. Results confirm the screening effects expected from the scientific literature and demonstrate the value of opportunistic use of available registry and linked screening data for indicating to local health administrations, practitioners, and consumers whether local screening services are having the effects expected. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Cancer screening delivery in persistent poverty rural counties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Kevin J; Pumkam, Chaiporn; Bellinger, Jessica D; Probst, Janice C

    2011-10-01

    Rural populations are diagnosed with cancer at different rate and stages than nonrural populations, and race/ethnicity as well as the area-level income exacerbates the differences. The purpose of this analysis was to explore cancer screening rates across persistent poverty rural counties, with emphasis on nonwhite populations. The 2008 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System was used, combined with data from the Area Resource File (analytic n = 309 937 unweighted, 196 344 347 weighted). Unadjusted analysis estimated screening rates for breast, cervical, and colorectal cancer. Multivariate analysis estimated the odds of screening, controlling for individual and county-level effects. Rural residents, particularly those in persistent poverty counties, were less likely to be screened than urban residents. More African Americans in persistent poverty rural counties reported not having mammography screening (18.3%) compared to 15.9% of urban African Americans. Hispanics had low screening rates across all service types. Multivariate analysis continued to find disparities in screening rates, after controlling for individual and county-level factors. African Americans in persistent poverty rural counties were more likely to be screened for both breast cancer (odds ratio, 1.44; 95% confidence interval, 1.12-1.85) and cervical cancer (1.46; 1.07-1.99) when compared with urban whites. Disparities in cancer screening rates exist across not only race/ethnicity but also county type. These disparities cannot be fully explained by either individual or county-level effects. Programs have been successful in improving screening rates for African American women and should be expanded to target other vulnerable women as well as other services such as colorectal cancer screening.

  15. The cumulative risk of false-positive screening results across screening centres in the Norwegian Breast Cancer Screening Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roman, M., E-mail: Marta.Roman@kreftregisteret.no [Cancer Registry of Norway, Oslo (Norway); Department of Women and Children’s Health, Oslo University Hospital, Oslo (Norway); Skaane, P., E-mail: PERSK@ous-hf.no [Department of Radiology, Oslo University Hospital Ullevaal, University of Oslo, Oslo (Norway); Hofvind, S., E-mail: Solveig.Hofvind@kreftregisteret.no [Cancer Registry of Norway, Oslo (Norway); Oslo and Akershus University College of Applied Sciences, Faculty of Health Science, Oslo (Norway)

    2014-09-15

    Highlights: • We found variation in early performance measures across screening centres. • Radiologists’ performance may play a key role in the variability. • Potential to improve the effectiveness of breast cancer screening programs. • Continuous surveillance of screening centres and radiologists is essential. - Abstract: Background: Recall for assessment in mammographic screening entails an inevitable number of false-positive screening results. This study aimed to investigate the variation in the cumulative risk of a false positive screening result and the positive predictive value across the screening centres in the Norwegian Breast Cancer Screening Program. Methods: We studied 618,636 women aged 50–69 years who underwent 2,090,575 screening exams (1996–2010. Recall rate, positive predictive value, rate of screen-detected cancer, and the cumulative risk of a false positive screening result, without and with invasive procedures across the screening centres were calculated. Generalized linear models were used to estimate the probability of a false positive screening result and to compute the cumulative false-positive risk for up to ten biennial screening examinations. Results: The cumulative risk of a false-positive screening exam varied from 10.7% (95% CI: 9.4–12.0%) to 41.5% (95% CI: 34.1–48.9%) across screening centres, with a highest to lowest ratio of 3.9 (95% CI: 3.7–4.0). The highest to lowest ratio for the cumulative risk of undergoing an invasive procedure with a benign outcome was 4.3 (95% CI: 4.0–4.6). The positive predictive value of recall varied between 12.0% (95% CI: 11.0–12.9%) and 19.9% (95% CI: 18.3–21.5%), with a highest to lowest ratio of 1.7 (95% CI: 1.5–1.9). Conclusions: A substantial variation in the performance measures across the screening centres in the Norwegian Breast Cancer Screening Program was identified, despite of similar administration, procedures, and quality assurance requirements. Differences in the

  16. The cumulative risk of false-positive screening results across screening centres in the Norwegian Breast Cancer Screening Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roman, M.; Skaane, P.; Hofvind, S.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We found variation in early performance measures across screening centres. • Radiologists’ performance may play a key role in the variability. • Potential to improve the effectiveness of breast cancer screening programs. • Continuous surveillance of screening centres and radiologists is essential. - Abstract: Background: Recall for assessment in mammographic screening entails an inevitable number of false-positive screening results. This study aimed to investigate the variation in the cumulative risk of a false positive screening result and the positive predictive value across the screening centres in the Norwegian Breast Cancer Screening Program. Methods: We studied 618,636 women aged 50–69 years who underwent 2,090,575 screening exams (1996–2010. Recall rate, positive predictive value, rate of screen-detected cancer, and the cumulative risk of a false positive screening result, without and with invasive procedures across the screening centres were calculated. Generalized linear models were used to estimate the probability of a false positive screening result and to compute the cumulative false-positive risk for up to ten biennial screening examinations. Results: The cumulative risk of a false-positive screening exam varied from 10.7% (95% CI: 9.4–12.0%) to 41.5% (95% CI: 34.1–48.9%) across screening centres, with a highest to lowest ratio of 3.9 (95% CI: 3.7–4.0). The highest to lowest ratio for the cumulative risk of undergoing an invasive procedure with a benign outcome was 4.3 (95% CI: 4.0–4.6). The positive predictive value of recall varied between 12.0% (95% CI: 11.0–12.9%) and 19.9% (95% CI: 18.3–21.5%), with a highest to lowest ratio of 1.7 (95% CI: 1.5–1.9). Conclusions: A substantial variation in the performance measures across the screening centres in the Norwegian Breast Cancer Screening Program was identified, despite of similar administration, procedures, and quality assurance requirements. Differences in the

  17. An overview on applications of optical spectroscopy in cervical cancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chilakapati Murali

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite advances in the treatment modalities, cervical cancers are one of the leading causes of cancer death among women. Pap smear and colposcopy are the existing screening methods and histopathology is the gold standard for diagnosis. However, these methods have been shown to be prone to reporting errors, which could be due to their subjective interpretation. Radiotherapy is the mainstay of treatment for the locally advanced stages of cervical cancers. The typical treatment regimen spans over 4 months, from the first fraction of radiation to clinical assessment of tumor response to radiotherapy. It is often noticed that due to intrinsic properties of tumors, patients with the same clinical stage and histological type respond differently to radiotherapy. Hence, there exists a need for the development of new methods for early diagnosis as well as for early prediction of tumor radioresponse. Optical spectroscopic methods have been shown to be potential alternatives for use in cancer diagnosis. In this review, we provide a brief background on the anatomy and histology of the uterine cervix and the etiology of cervical cancers; we briefly discuss the optical spectroscopic approach to cervical cancer diagnosis. A very brief discussion on radiation therapy and radiation resistance is also provided. We also share our experiences with the Raman spectroscopic methodologies in cervical cancer diagnosis as well as in the prediction of tumor radioresponse.

  18. Radiation risk from CT: implications for cancer screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert, Jeffrey M

    2013-07-01

    The cancer risks associated with patient exposure to radiation from medical imaging have become a major topic of debate. The higher doses necessary for technologies such as CT and the increasing utilization of these technologies further increase medical radiation exposure to the population. Furthermore, the use of CT for population-based cancer screening continues to be explored for common malignancies such as lung cancer and colorectal cancer. Given the known carcinogenic effects of ionizing radiation, this warrants evaluation of the balance between the benefit of early cancer detection and the risk of screening-induced malignancy. This report provides a brief review of the process of radiation carcino-genesis and the literature evaluating the risk of malignancy from CT, with a focus on the risks and benefits of CT for cancer screening. The available data suggest a small but real risk of radiation-induced malignancy from CT that could become significant at the population level with widespread use of CT-based screening. However, a growing body of literature suggests that the benefits of CT screening for lung cancer in high-risk patients and CT colonography for colorectal cancer may significantly outweigh the radiation risk. Future studies evaluating the benefits of CT screening should continue to consider potential radiation risks.

  19. People's willingness to accept overdetection in cancer screening: population survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van den Bruel, Ann; Jones, Caroline; Yang, Yaling; Oke, Jason; Hewitson, Paul

    2015-03-03

    To describe the level of overdetection people would find acceptable in screening for breast, prostate, and bowel cancer and whether acceptability is influenced by the magnitude of the benefit from screening and the cancer specific harms from overdetection. Online survey. Women were presented with scenarios on breast and bowel cancer, men with scenarios on prostate and bowel cancer. For each particular cancer, we presented epidemiological information and described the treatment and its consequences. Secondly, we presented two different scenarios of benefit: one indicating a 10% reduction in cancer specific mortality and the second indicating a 50% reduction. Online survey of the population in the United Kingdom. Respondents were part of an existing panel of people who volunteer for online research and were invited by email or online marketing. We recruited 1000 respondents, representative for age and sex for the UK population. Number of cases of overdetection people were willing to accept, ranging from 0-1000 (complete screened population) for each cancer modality and each scenario of benefit. There was large variability between respondents in the level of overdetection they would find acceptable, with medians ranging from 113 to 313 cases of overdetection per 1000 people screened. Across all scenarios, 4-7% of respondents indicated they would accept no overdetection at all compared with 7-14% who thought that it would be acceptable for the entire screened population to be overdetected. Acceptability in screening for bowel cancer was significantly lower than for breast and prostate cancer. People aged 50 or over accepted significantly less overdetection, whereas people with higher education levels accepted more; 29% of respondents had heard of overdetection before. Acceptability of overdetection in cancer screening is variable. Invitations for screening should include clear information on the likelihood and consequences of overdetection to allow people to make an

  20. Prostate and Colon Cancer Screening Messages in Popular Magazines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Mira L; Sheridan, Stacey; Pignone, Michael; Lewis, Carmen; Battle, Jamila; Gollop, Claudia; O'Malley, Michael

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To 1) compare the number of articles published about prostate, colon, and breast cancer in popular magazines during the past 2 decades, and 2) evaluate the content of in-depth prostate and colon cancer screening articles identified from 1996 to 2001. DESIGN We used a searchable database to identify the number of prostate, colon, and breast cancer articles published in three magazines with the highest circulation from six categories. In addition, we performed a systematic review on the in-depth (≥2 pages) articles on prostate and colon cancer screening that appeared from 1996 through 2001. RESULTS Although the number of magazine articles on prostate and colon cancer published in the 1990s increased compared to the 1980s, the number of articles is approximately one third of breast cancer articles. There were 36 in-depth articles from 1996 to 2001 in which prostate or colon cancer screening were mentioned. Over 90% of the articles recommended screening. However, of those articles, only 76% (25/33; 95% confidence interval [CI], 58% to 89%) cited screening guidelines. The benefits of screening were mentioned in 89% (32/36; 95% CI, 74% to 97%) but the harms were only found in 58% (21/36; 95% CI, 41% to 75%). Only 28% (10/36; 95% CI, 14% to 45%) of the articles provided all the necessary information needed for the reader to make an informed decision. CONCLUSIONS In-depth articles about prostate and colon cancer in popular magazines do not appear as frequently as articles about breast cancer. The available articles on prostate and colon cancer screening often do not provide the information necessary for the reader to make an informed decision about screening. PMID:15242469

  1. Breast cancer screening in Korean woman with dense breast tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Hee Jung; Ko, Eun Sook; Yi, Ann

    2015-01-01

    Asian women, including Korean, have a relatively higher incidence of dense breast tissue, compared with western women. Dense breast tissue has a lower sensitivity for the detection of breast cancer and a higher relative risk for breast cancer, compared with fatty breast tissue. Thus, there were limitations in the mammographic screening for women with dense breast tissue, and many studies for the supplemental screening methods. This review included appropriate screening methods for Korean women with dense breasts. We also reviewed the application and limitation of supplemental screening methods, including breast ultrasound, digital breast tomosynthesis, and breast magnetic resonance imaging; and furthermore investigated the guidelines, as well as the study results

  2. Breast cancer screening in Korean woman with dense breast tissue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Hee Jung [Dept. of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Ko, Eun Sook [Dept. of Radiology, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Samsung Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Yi, Ann [Dept. of Radiology, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-11-15

    Asian women, including Korean, have a relatively higher incidence of dense breast tissue, compared with western women. Dense breast tissue has a lower sensitivity for the detection of breast cancer and a higher relative risk for breast cancer, compared with fatty breast tissue. Thus, there were limitations in the mammographic screening for women with dense breast tissue, and many studies for the supplemental screening methods. This review included appropriate screening methods for Korean women with dense breasts. We also reviewed the application and limitation of supplemental screening methods, including breast ultrasound, digital breast tomosynthesis, and breast magnetic resonance imaging; and furthermore investigated the guidelines, as well as the study results.

  3. Implementation of lung cancer CT screening in the Nordic countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jesper Holst; Sørensen, Jens Benn; Saghir, Zaigham

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: We review the current knowledge of CT screening for lung cancer and present an expert-based, joint protocol for the proper implementation of screening in the Nordic countries. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Experts representing all the Nordic countries performed literature review...... and concensus for a joint protocol for lung cancer screening. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: Areas of concern and caution are presented and discussed. We suggest to perform CT screening pilot studies in the Nordic countries in order to gain experience and develop specific and safe protocols for the implementation...

  4. Breast cancer literacy and health beliefs related to breast cancer screening among American Indian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roh, Soonhee; Burnette, Catherine E; Lee, Yeon-Shim; Jun, Jung Sim; Lee, Hee Yun; Lee, Kyoung Hag

    2018-08-01

    The purpose of this article is to examine the health beliefs and literacy about breast cancer and their relationship with breast cancer screening among American Indian (AI) women. Using the Health Belief Model (HBM) and hierarchical logistic regression with data from a sample of 286 AI female adults residing in the Northern Plains, we found that greater awareness of breast cancer screening was linked to breast cancer screening practices. However, perceived barriers, one of the HBM constructs, prevented such screening practices. This study suggested that culturally relevant HBM factors should be targeted when developing culturally sensitive breast cancer prevention efforts.

  5. Men and women: beliefs about cancer and about screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Whynes David K

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cancer screening programmes in England are publicly-funded. Professionals' beliefs in the public health benefits of screening can conflict with individuals' entitlements to exercise informed judgement over whether or not to participate. The recognition of the importance of individual autonomy in decision making requires greater understanding of the knowledge, attitudes and beliefs upon which people's screening choices are founded. Until recently, the technology available required that cancer screening be confined to women. This study aimed to discover whether male and female perceptions of cancer and of screening differed. Methods Data on the public's cancer beliefs were collected by means of a postal survey (anonymous questionnaire. Two general practices based in Nottingham and in Mansfield, in east-central England, sent questionnaires to registered patients aged 30 to 70 years. 1,808 completed questionnaires were returned for analysis, 56.5 per cent from women. Results Women were less likely to underestimate overall cancer incidence, although each sex was more likely to cite a sex-specific cancer as being amongst the most common cancer site. In terms of risk factors, men were most uncertain about the role of stress and sexually-transmitted diseases, whereas women were more likely to rate excessive alcohol and family history as major risk factors. The majority of respondents believed the public health care system should provide cancer screening, but significantly more women than men reported having benefiting from the nationally-provided screening services. Those who were older, in better health or had longer periods of formal education were less worried about cancer than those who had illness experiences, lower incomes, or who were smokers. Actual or potential participation in bowel screening was higher amongst those who believed bowel cancer to be common and amongst men, despite women having more substantial worries about

  6. Study of mammography in mass screening for breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitada, Masahiro; Sakai, Hiroko; Kubo, Yoshihiko; Samejima, Natsuki; Kurowarabi, Kunio; Iwabuchi, Shuji.

    1995-01-01

    In order to examine the rate of correct diagnosis by mammography at initial mass screening for breast cancer, we carried out a retrospective study of mammography findings in 267 cases of breast cancer detected at Asahikawa Cancer Screening Center. The screening was performed by physical examination, and in cases where disease was suspected, mammography, ultrasonography, and needle biopsy were done. Mammographically, 172 cases (64.4%) were cancer-positive, 58 cases (21.7%) were suspicious for cancer, and 37 cases (13.9%) were cancer-negative. Patients below 50 years of age and those with tumors of small diameter (<20 mm) showed a significantly lower rate of cancer positivity than patients aged 50 years or more and those with tumors 20 mm or more in diameter. Mammographic abnormalities were not specific, since these changes were also found in normal subjects and patients with benign diseases. Therefore, we concluded that mammography without physical examination at initial mass screening has a high risk of missing breast cancer. Mass screening for breast cancer should be performed by physical examination involving inspection and palpation at the first instance. If any suspicious findings are obtained, mammography, ultrasonography, and needle biopsy should be done. (author)

  7. Screening for breast cancer in a high-risk series

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woodard, E.D.; Hempelmann, L.H.; Janus, J.; Logan, W.; Dean, P.

    1982-01-01

    A unique cohort of women at increased risk of breast cancer because of prior X-ray treatment of acute mastitis and their selected high-risk siblings were offered periodic breast cancer screening including physical examination of the breasts, mammography, and thermography. Twelve breast cancers were detected when fewer than four would have been expected based on age-specific breast cancer detection rates from the National Cancer institute/American Cancer Society Breast Cancer Demonstration Detection Projects. Mammograpy was positive in all cases but physical examination was positive in only three cases. Thermography was an unreliable indicator of disease. Given the concern over radiation-induced risk, use of low-dose technique and of criteria for participation that select women at high risk of breast cancer will maximize the benefit/risk ratio for mammography screening

  8. Overview of CDK9 as a target in cancer research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Fatima; Giordano, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    CDK9 is a protein in constant development in cancer therapy. Herein we present an overview of the enzyme as a target for cancer therapy. We provide data on its characteristics and mechanism of action. In recent years, CDK9 inhibitors that have been designed with molecular modeling have demonstrated good antitumoral activity in vitro. Clinical studies of the drugs flavopiridol, dinaciclib, seliciclib, SNS-032 and RGB-286638 used as CDK9 inhibitors are also reviewed, with their additional targets and their relative IC50 values. Unfortunately, treatment with these drugs remains unsuccessful and involves many adverse effects. We could conclude that there are many small molecules that bind to CDK9, but their lack of selectivity against other CDKs do not allow them to get to the clinical use. However, drug designers currently have the tools needed to improve the selectivity of CDK9 inhibitors and to make successful treatment available to patients.

  9. Text Messaging Interventions on Cancer Screening Rates: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uy, Catherine; Lopez, Jennifer; Trinh-Shevrin, Chau; Kwon, Simona C; Sherman, Scott E; Liang, Peter S

    2017-08-24

    Despite high-quality evidence demonstrating that screening reduces mortality from breast, cervical, colorectal, and lung cancers, a substantial portion of the population remains inadequately screened. There is a critical need to identify interventions that increase the uptake and adoption of evidence-based screening guidelines for preventable cancers at the community practice level. Text messaging (short message service, SMS) has been effective in promoting behavioral change in various clinical settings, but the overall impact and reach of text messaging interventions on cancer screening are unknown. The objective of this systematic review was to assess the effect of text messaging interventions on screening for breast, cervical, colorectal, and lung cancers. We searched multiple databases for studies published between the years 2000 and 2017, including PubMed, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library, to identify controlled trials that measured the effect of text messaging on screening for breast, cervical, colorectal, or lung cancers. Study quality was evaluated using the Cochrane risk of bias tool. Our search yielded 2238 citations, of which 31 underwent full review and 9 met inclusion criteria. Five studies examined screening for breast cancer, one for cervical cancer, and three for colorectal cancer. No studies were found for lung cancer screening. Absolute screening rates for individuals who received text message interventions were 0.6% to 15.0% higher than for controls. Unadjusted relative screening rates for text message recipients were 4% to 63% higher compared with controls. Text messaging interventions appear to moderately increase screening rates for breast and cervical cancer and may have a small effect on colorectal cancer screening. Benefit was observed in various countries, including resource-poor and non-English-speaking populations. Given the paucity of data, additional research is needed to better quantify the effectiveness of this promising intervention

  10. Eliciting population preferences for mass colorectal cancer screening organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayaradou, Maximilien; Berchi, Célia; Dejardin, Olivier; Launoy, Guy

    2010-01-01

    The implementation of mass colorectal cancer (CRC) screening is a public health priority. Population participation is fundamental for the success of CRC screening as for any cancer screening program. The preferences of the population may influence their likelihood of participation. The authors sought to elicit population preferences for CRC screening test characteristics to improve the design of CRC screening campaigns. A discrete choice experiment was used. Questionnaires were compiled with a set of pairs of hypothetical CRC screening scenarios. The survey was conducted by mail from June 2006 to October 2006 on a representative sample of 2000 inhabitants, aged 50 to 74 years from the northwest of France, who were randomly selected from electoral lists. Questionnaires were sent to 2000 individuals, each of whom made 3 or 4 discrete choices between hypothetical tests that differed in 7 attributes: how screening is offered, process, sensitivity, rate of unnecessary colonoscopy, expected mortality reduction, method of screening test result transmission, and cost. Complete responses were received from 656 individuals (32.8%). The attributes that influenced population preferences included expected mortality reduction, sensitivity, cost, and process. Participants from high social classes were particularly influenced by sensitivity. The results demonstrate that the discrete choice experiment provides information on patient preferences for CRC screening: improving screening program effectiveness, for instance, by improving test sensitivity (the most valued attribute) would increase satisfaction among the general population with regard to CRC screening programs. Additional studies are required to study how patient preferences actually affect adherence to regular screening programs.

  11. Cancer Screening Practice among Iranian Middle-aged Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behnaz Enjezab

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background & aim: Breast, cervical, and colorectal cancers are the leading causes of mortality among women, the incidence rate of which has an upward trend with advancing age. Although cost-effective, easy, and available screening programs can help control these types of cancer in their early stages, it seems that cancer screening programs have not been implemented effectively. In this study, we investigated the rate of cancer screening practice in middle-aged women and explained the influential factors. Methods: This cross-sectional study with a sequential mixed method approach was conducted on 483 middle-age women selected through cluster random sampling in Yazd, Iran. Data were obtained by a research made questionnaire and analyzed with descriptive statistics and performing Pearson product-moment correlation, Student’s t-test, and One-way ANOVA tests, using SPSS version 16. In the second phase of the study, qualitative, semi-structured interviews were performed and data were analyzed through content analysis. Results: The majority of the subjects had never been screened for cancer through mammogram (87.7%, Pap test (64.2%, or fecal occult blood test (FOBT (89.8%. Educational level, employment status, perceived adequacy of income, perceived health status, and the number of children were significantly associated with breast and colon cancer screening practice. Qualitative data showed that lack of knowledge, the cost of screening exams, lack of financial independence, negligence of spouse, fear of cancer, embarrassment, and belief in destiny were the main reasons for non-adherence to cancer screening tests. In addition, knowledge and observing cancer in acquaintances and relatives were the main motivators of cancer screening. Conclusion: Middle-aged housewives, as well as women with low educational level and income were the most vulnerable groups, who did not adhere to cancer screening. Planning and management of cancer preventive programs and

  12. Lynch Syndrome: Female Genital Tract Cancer Diagnosis and Screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Anne M; Longacre, Teri A

    2016-06-01

    Lynch syndrome is responsible for approximately 5% of endometrial cancers and 1% of ovarian cancers. The molecular basis for Lynch syndrome is a heritable functional deficiency in the DNA mismatch repair system, typically due to a germline mutation. This review discusses the rationales and relative merits of current Lynch syndrome screening tests for endometrial and ovarian cancers and provides pathologists with an informed algorithmic approach to Lynch syndrome testing in gynecologic cancers. Pitfalls in test interpretation and strategies to resolve discordant test results are presented. The potential role for next-generation sequencing panels in future screening efforts is discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Women's opinions about attending for breast cancer screening: Stability of cognitive determinants during three rounds of screening.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drossaert, Constance H.C.; Boer, Hendrik; Seydel, E.R.

    2005-01-01

    Examines women's opinions about attending breast cancer screening. Stability of beliefs and intentions towards repeat attendance at breast cancer screening; Assessment of whether cognitions changed in the course of the programme; Increase of attendance in subsequent rounds of breast cancer screening

  14. Cervical cancer screening policies and coverage in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anttila, Ahti; von Karsa, Lawrence; Aasmaa, Auni

    2009-01-01

    with education, training and communication among women, medical professionals and authorities are required, accordingly. The study indicates that, despite substantial efforts, the recommendations of the Council of the EU on organised population-based screening for cervical cancer are not yet fulfilled. Decision......The aim of the study was to compare current policy, organisation and coverage of cervical cancer screening programmes in the European Union (EU) member states with European and other international recommendations. According to the questionnaire-based survey, there are large variations in cervical...... cancer screening policies and inadequacies in the key organisational elements of the programme such as registration and monitoring required for quality-assurance and fail-safe mechanisms. Based on data from available screening registers, coverage of the screening test taken within the population...

  15. Bladder cancer: overview and disease management. Part 1: non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Beverley

    2018-05-10

    Part 1 of this two-part article provides an overview of bladder cancer and discusses its management. Since publication of a previous article entitled 'Understanding the role of smoking in the aetiology of bladder cancer' ( Anderson, 2009 ), the author has received many requests for an update. This article provides an overview of bladder cancer and its current management practices, underlining the continued role of smoking as the predominant risk factor in the disease's development. The management of bladder cancer is governed by specific guidelines. Management of non-muscle-invasive cancers, including surgical intervention with transurethral resection, and intravesical therapy using chemotherapy and immunotherapy agents, is discussed. Cystectomy (removal of the bladder), is sometimes necessary. Treatments are effective in reducing tumour recurrence, but the effects of the risks and side-effects on the individual's quality of life can be significant. The prevalence of bladder cancer, and the nature of its management make this cancer one of the most expensive for the NHS to treat. The effectiveness of health promotional strategies in increasing peoples' awareness of their risk of developing the disease, and in enabling them to change long-term health behaviours is discussed. The role of the multidisciplinary team is explored, along with that of the uro-oncology cancer nurse specialist. Part 2 will consider the management of muscle-invasive and metastatic bladder cancer.

  16. Barriers to cancer screening among Orthodox Jewish women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tkatch, Rifky; Hudson, Janella; Katz, Anne; Berry-Bobovski, Lisa; Vichich, Jennifer; Eggly, Susan; Penner, Louis A; Albrecht, Terrance L

    2014-12-01

    The increased risk of genetic cancer mutations for Ashkenazi Jews is well known. However, little is known about the cancer-related health behaviors of a subset of Ashkenazi Jews, Orthodox Jews, who are a very religious and insular group. This study partnered with Rabbinical leadership and community members in an Orthodox Jewish community to investigate barriers to cancer screening in this community. Orthodox Jewish women were recruited to participate in focus groups designed to elicit their perspectives on barriers to cancer screening. A total of five focus groups were conducted, consisting of 3-5 members per group, stratified by age and family history of cancer. Focus groups were audio recorded and transcribed. Transcripts were coded using conventional content analysis. The resulting themes identified as barriers to cancer screening were: preservation of hidden miracles, fate, cost, competing priorities, lack of culturally relevant programming, lack of information, and fear. These results provide a unique perspective on barriers to cancer screening in a high risk but understudied population. Findings from this study may serve to inform culturally appropriate cancer education programs to overcome barriers to screening in this and other similar communities.

  17. ACOG Recommendations and Guidelines for Cervical Cancer Screening and Management

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    Dr. Alan Waxman, a professor of obstetrics and gynecology at the University of New Mexico and chair of the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG) committee for the underserved, talks about ACOG's recommendations for cervical cancer screening and management.

  18. Grantee Spotlight: Dr. Kolawole Okuyemi - Improving Cervical Cancer Screening Attitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dr. Kolawole Okuyumi is studying cervical cancer screening attitudes and behaviors of African immigrants and refugees (Ethiopians, Nigerians, and Somalis) in Minnesota, and introducing “cancer” and “cervix” to their everyday vocabulary.

  19. Colorectal Cancer Screening (PDQ®)—Patient Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    There are five types of tests that are used to screen for colorectal cancer: fecal occult blood test, sigmoidoscopy, colonoscopy, virtual colonoscopy, and DNA stool test. Learn more about these and other tests in this expert-reviewed summary.

  20. CLINIC VISITS AND CERVICAL CANCER SCREENING IN ACCRA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2010-06-01

    Jun 1, 2010 ... Design: A cross-sectional study. Methods: A ... graphic factors influencing cervical cancer screening was assessed. Results: ... Conclusion: While we wait for a national program for cervical .... Mean age at first inter- course(yrs).

  1. Enhancing citizen engagement in cancer screening through deliberative democracy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rychetnik, Lucie; Carter, Stacy M; Abelson, Julia; Thornton, Hazel; Barratt, Alexandra; Entwistle, Vikki A; Mackenzie, Geraldine; Salkeld, Glenn; Glasziou, Paul

    2013-03-20

    Cancer screening is widely practiced and participation is promoted by various social, technical, and commercial drivers, but there are growing concerns about the emerging harms, risks, and costs of cancer screening. Deliberative democracy methods engage citizens in dialogue on substantial and complex problems: especially when evidence and values are important and people need time to understand and consider the relevant issues. Information derived from such deliberations can provide important guidance to cancer screening policies: citizens' values are made explicit, revealing what really matters to people and why. Policy makers can see what informed, rather than uninformed, citizens would decide on the provision of services and information on cancer screening. Caveats can be elicited to guide changes to existing policies and practices. Policies that take account of citizens' opinions through a deliberative democracy process can be considered more legitimate, justifiable, and feasible than those that don't.

  2. Cervical cancer screening and practice in low resource countries ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Key words: Cervical cancer screening; human papillomavirus, low resource countries; Nigeria; premalignant disease. ... has led to a significant decline in the incidence of cervical .... and malignant lesions as integration of the viral DNA into the.

  3. Screening for Cervical Cancer: Experience from a University ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    KEY WORDS: Cervical cancer, cervical cytology, north-west Nigeria. Access this article .... involving a larger sample size will give better picture about the prevalent of ... Ridsdale LL. Cervical screening in general practice: Call and recall. J R.

  4. Breast cancer screening: evidence for false reassurance?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. de Gelder (Rianne); E. As, van (Elisabeth); M.M.A. Tilanus-Linthorst (Madeleine); C.C.M. Bartels (Carina); R. Boer (Rob); G. Draisma (Gerrit); H.J. de Koning (Harry)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractTumour stage distribution at repeated mammography screening is, unexpectedly, often not more favourable than stage distribution at first screenings. False reassurance, i.e., delayed symptom presentation due to having participated in earlier screening rounds, might be associated with

  5. Screening vs. non-screening detected colorectal cancer: Differences in pre-therapeutic work up and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saraste, D; Martling, A; Nilsson, P J; Blom, J; Törnberg, S; Janson, M

    2017-06-01

    Objectives To compare preoperative staging, multidisciplinary team-assessment, and treatment in patients with screening detected and non-screening detected colorectal cancer. Methods Data on patient and tumour characteristics, staging, multidisciplinary team-assessment and treatment in patients with screening and non-screening detected colorectal cancer from 2008 to 2012 were collected from the Stockholm-Gotland screening register and the Swedish Colorectal Cancer Registry. Results The screening group had a higher proportion of stage I disease (41 vs. 15%; p team-assessed than the non-screening group ( p team-assessed than patients with surgically resected cancers ( p team assessed more extensively than patients with non-screening detected cancers. Staging and multidisciplinary team assessment prior to endoscopic resection was less complete compared with surgical resection. Extensive surgical and (neo)adjuvant treatment was given in stage I disease. Participation in screening reduced the risk of emergency surgery for colorectal cancer.

  6. Older Adults’ Views and Communication Preferences About Cancer Screening Cessation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenborn, Nancy L.; Lee, Kimberley; Pollack, Craig E.; Armacost, Karen; Dy, Sydney M.; Bridges, John F. P.; Xue, Qian-Li; Wolff, Antonio C.; Boyd, Cynthia

    2017-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Older adults with limited life expectancy are frequently screened for cancer even though it exposes them to risks of screening with minimal benefit. Patient preferences may be an important contributor to continued screening. OBJECTIVE To examine older adults’ views on the decision to stop cancer screening when life expectancy is limited and to identify older adults’ preferences for how clinicians should communicate recommendations to cease cancer screening. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS In this semistructured interview study, we interviewed 40 community-dwelling older adults (≥ 65 years) recruited at 4 clinical programs affiliated with an urban academic medical center. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURE We transcribed the audio recorded discussions and analyzed the transcripts using standard techniques of qualitative content analysis to identify major themes and subthemes. RESULTS The participants’ average age was 75.7 years. Twenty-three participants (57.5%) were female; 25 (62.5%) were white. Estimated life expectancy was less than 10 years for 19 participants (47.5%). We identified 3 key themes. First, participants were amenable to stopping cancer screening, especially in the context of a trusting relationship with their clinician. Second, although many participants supported using age and health status to individualize the screening decision, they did not often understand the role of life expectancy. All except 2 participants objected to a Choosing Wisely statement about not recommending cancer screening in those with limited life expectancy, often believing that clinicians cannot accurately predict life expectancy. Third, participants preferred that clinicians explain a recommendation to stop screening by incorporating individual health status but were divided on whether life expectancy should be mentioned. Specific wording of life expectancy was important; many felt the language of “you may not live long enough to benefit from this test” was

  7. Cancer Screening and Genetics: A Tale of Two Paradigms

    OpenAIRE

    Hamilton, Jada G.; Edwards, Heather M.; Khoury, Muin J.; Taplin, Stephen H.

    2014-01-01

    The long-standing medical tradition to “first do no harm” is reflected in population-wide evidence-based recommendations for cancer screening tests that focus primarily on reducing morbidity and mortality. The conventional cancer screening process is predicated on finding early-stage disease that can be treated effectively; yet emerging genetic and genomic testing technologies have moved the target earlier in the disease development process to identify a probabilistic predisposition to diseas...

  8. A new focus for the International Cancer Screening Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    The ICSN is thinking about how to take advantage of the nearly three decades of work in cancer screening program research and implementation and reach out more actively to low- and middle-income countries considering screening. For that purpose, ICSN is migrating from its historical place under NCI Division of Cancer Control and Population Sciences to assume its new role within the Center for Global Health.

  9. Developing Partnerships to Reduce Disparities in Cancer Screening

    OpenAIRE

    Breslau, Erica S.; Rochester, Phyllis W.; Saslow, Debbie; Crocoll, Caroline E.; Johnson, Lenora E.; Vinson, Cynthia A.

    2010-01-01

    Background Interventions in scientific settings to improve the well-being of women who are not regularly screened for cancer have failed. Consequently, community-based prevention and control efforts are needed. Community Context From 2003 through 2007, three federal agencies and 1 nongovernmental agency collaborated with county-level public health counterparts from 6 states to address screening disparities in cervical and breast cancer in counties with the highest prevalence. This case study ...

  10. Cost-effectiveness of the Norwegian breast cancer screening program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Luijt, P A; Heijnsdijk, E A M; de Koning, H J

    2017-02-15

    The Norwegian Breast Cancer Screening Programme (NBCSP) has a nation-wide coverage since 2005. All women aged 50-69 years are invited biennially for mammography screening. We evaluated breast cancer mortality reduction and performed a cost-effectiveness analysis, using our microsimulation model, calibrated to most recent data. The microsimulation model allows for the comparison of mortality and costs between a (hypothetical) situation without screening and a situation with screening. Breast cancer incidence in Norway had a steep increase in the early 1990s. We calibrated the model to simulate this increase and included recent costs for screening, diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer and travel and productivity loss. We estimate a 16% breast cancer mortality reduction for a cohort of women, invited to screening, followed over their complete lifetime. Cost-effectiveness is estimated at NOK 112,162 per QALY gained, when taking only direct medical costs into account (the cost of the buses, examinations, and invitations). We used a 3.5% annual discount rate. Cost-effectiveness estimates are substantially below the threshold of NOK 1,926,366 as recommended by the WHO guidelines. For the Norwegian population, which has been gradually exposed to screening, breast cancer mortality reduction for women exposed to screening is increasing and is estimated to rise to ∼30% in 2020 for women aged 55-80 years. The NBCSP is a highly cost-effective measure to reduce breast cancer specific mortality. We estimate a breast cancer specific mortality reduction of 16-30%, at the cost of 112,162 NOK per QALY gained. © 2016 UICC.

  11. Impact of awareness of cancer among acquaintances on cancer screening attendance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisinger, François; Blay, Jean-Yves; Morère, Jean-François; Coscas, Yvan; Calazel-Benque, Anne; Roussel, Claire; Pivot, Xavier

    2011-01-01

    Two nationwide observational surveys were carried out in France in 2005 and 2008 with the aim of assessing the impact on attitudes towards cancer screening of a positive history of cancer among a person's close circle of acquaintances (relatives, friends or colleagues). In 2005, 67% (993/1482) of people interviewed reported having someone in their close circle of acquaintances affected by cancer and in 2008, the rate was 80% (1158/1454). In 2008, having someone within a person's close circle of acquaintances affected by cancer did not increase the rate of screening for breast cancer (already high at >80%). However, it did increase the rate of screening for colorectal cancer [odds ratio (OR)=2.3; 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.6-3.3] and prostate cancer (OR=2.2; 95% CI=1.4-3.5). Knowing someone affected by cancer within the close circle of acquaintances clearly increases awareness, and thus could be an incentive for undergoing cancer screening. With regard to cancer types, such as prostate cancer, for which there is no national programme or media communication, this awareness might be the main source of information and motivation. The impact of awareness on screening behaviour seems to be greatest for the same cancer location as that in the affected acquaintance, as opposed to cancers at other sites. Increased awareness as observed in our survey, which may be attributable to less social stigma associated with a diagnosis of cancer, might increase the rate of screening attendance in the general population.

  12. Korean Guidelines for Colorectal Cancer Screening and Polyp Detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Bo In; Hong, Sung Pil; Kim, Seong Eun

    2012-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is currently the second most common cancer among Korean males and the fourth most common among females. Since the majority of colorectal cancer case present following the prolonged transformation of adenomas into carcinomas, early detection and removal of colorectal adenomas are vital methods in its prevention. Considering the increasing incidence of colorectal cancer and polyps in Korea, it is very important to establish national guidelines for colorectal cancer screening and polyp detection. The proposed guidelines have been developed by the Korean Multi-Society Task Force using evidence-based methods. Systematic reviews and meta-analyses have been used to form the statements contained in the guidelines. This paper discusses the epidemiology of colorectal cancers and adenomas in Korea as well as optimal methods for screening of colorectal cancer and detection of adenomas including fecal occult blood tests, radiologic tests, and endoscopic examinations.

  13. Environmental scan of anal cancer screening practices: worldwide survey results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patel, Jigisha; Salit, Irving E; Berry, Michael J; Pokomandy, Alexandra de; Nathan, Mayura; Fishman, Fred; Palefsky, Joel; Tinmouth, Jill

    2014-01-01

    Anal squamous cell carcinoma is rare in the general population but certain populations, such as persons with HIV, are at increased risk. High-risk populations can be screened for anal cancer using strategies similar to those used for cervical cancer. However, little is known about the use of such screening practices across jurisdictions. Data were collected using an online survey. Health care professionals currently providing anal cancer screening services were invited to complete the survey via email and/or fax. Information was collected on populations screened, services and treatments offered, and personnel. Over 300 invitations were sent; 82 providers from 80 clinics around the world completed the survey. Fourteen clinics have each examined more than 1000 patients. Over a third of clinics do not restrict access to screening; in the rest, eligibility is most commonly based on HIV status and abnormal anal cytology results. Fifty-three percent of clinics require abnormal anal cytology prior to performing high-resolution anoscopy (HRA) in asymptomatic patients. Almost all clinics offer both anal cytology and HRA. Internal high-grade anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN) is most often treated with infrared coagulation (61%), whereas external high-grade AIN is most commonly treated with imiquimod (49%). Most procedures are performed by physicians, followed by nurse practitioners. Our study is the first description of global anal cancer screening practices. Our findings may be used to inform practice and health policy in jurisdictions considering anal cancer screening

  14. Low adherence to cervical cancer screening after subtotal hysterectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lea Laird; Møller, Lars Mikael Alling; Gimbel, Helga Margrethe

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: A reason for not recommending subtotal hysterectomy is the risk of cervical pathology. We aimed to evaluate cervical cancer screening and to describe cervical pathology after subtotal and total hysterectomy for benign indications. METHODS: Data regarding adherence to screening...... Hospital, Rigs-hospitalet and Roskilde Hospital, Denmark. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01880710....

  15. Advanced breast cancer and its prevention by screening

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Koning, H. J.; van Ineveld, B. M.; de Haes, J. C.; van Oortmarssen, G. J.; Klijn, J. G.; van der Maas, P. J.

    1992-01-01

    In discussions on breast cancer screening, much attention has been focussed on the possible morbidity generated by screening. Favourable effects like the prevention of advanced disease seem underestimated, probably because quantification is that difficult. To analyse the amount of care and treatment

  16. Value of audits in breast cancer screening quality assurance programmes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geertse, Tanya D.; Holland, Roland; Timmers, Janine M. H.; Paap, Ellen; Pijnappel, Ruud M.; Broeders, Mireille J. M.; den Heeten, Gerard J.

    2015-01-01

    Our aim was to retrospectively evaluate the results of all audits performed in the past and to assess their value in the quality assurance of the Dutch breast cancer screening programme. The audit team of the Dutch Reference Centre for Screening (LRCB) conducts triennial audits of all 17 reading

  17. Evaluation Of Cervical Cancer Screening Program At A Rural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    But the condition is preventable through regular screening of women those are 'at risk\\' for abnormal changes in the cervix and treating them who have positive results. Although screening facilities are ... Keywords: Cervical cancer, Pap smear test, knowledge, practice, programme coverage. East African Journal of Public ...

  18. Analysis of previous screening examinations for patients with breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Eun Hye; Cha, Joo Hee; Han, Dae Hee; Choi, Young Ho; Hwang, Ki Tae; Ryu, Dae Sik; Kwak, Jin Ho; Moon, Woo Kyung

    2007-01-01

    We wanted to improve the quality of subsequent screening by reviewing the previous screening of breast cancer patients. Twenty-four breast cancer patients who underwent previous screening were enrolled. All 24 took mammograms and 15 patients also took sonograms. We reviewed the screening retrospectively according to the BI-RADS criteria and we categorized the results into false negative, true negative, true positive and occult cancers. We also categorized the causes of false negative cancers into misperception, misinterpretation and technical factors and then we analyzed the attributing factors. Review of the previous screening revealed 66.7% (16/24) false negative, 25.0% (6/24) true negative, and 8.3% (2/24) true positive cancers. False negative cancers were caused by the mammogram in 56.3% (9/16) and by the sonogram in 43.7% (7/16). For the false negative cases, all of misperception were related with mammograms and this was attributed to dense breast, a lesion located at the edge of glandular tissue or the image, and findings seen on one view only. Almost all misinterpretations were related with sonograms and attributed to loose application of the final assessment. To improve the quality of breast screening, it is essential to overcome the main causes of false negative examinations, including misperception and misinterpretation. We need systematic education and strict application of final assessment categories of BI-RADS. For effective communication among physicians, it is also necessary to properly educate them about BI-RADS

  19. Imaging screening of breast cancer: primary results in 5307 cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao Qin; Zheng Xiaojing; Wang Xiaohong; Liu Quan; Jiang Chaoxia; Xu Linghui; Peng Weijun; Hu Danting; Wang Yufang; Gu Yajia; Liu Guangyu; Shao Zhimin; Shen Kunwei; Chang Cai; Han Chao

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To discuss the values of three screening methods for the detection of early breast cancer, and to analyze the features of the screening cancer. Methods: The first screening of breast cancer were performed in 5307 women who aged from 20 to 76 years with median age of 49 years. The three screening methods included physical examination with ultrasound and mammography, physical examination with mammography and mammography only. The rate of recall, biopsy, cancer detection of three methods were analyzed and the mammographic findings were reviewed. Chi-square test or Fisher's exact test were used for the statistics. Results: The recall rates were 4.90% (49/1001), 6.90% (166/2407) and 4. 48% (85/1899) in three methods respectively, the biopsy rates were 1.60% (16/1001), 1.04% (25/2407) and 0.63% (12/1899), the cancer detection rates were 0.50% (5/1001), 0.17% (4/2407) and 0 (0/1899). There were statistical differences among the three groups (χ 2 =12.99,6.264,8.764, P<0.05). Physical examination with ultrasound and mammography had the highest cancer detection rate, ten breast cancers were detected and 8 were early stage breast cancer. Of seven cancers detected by mammography, only two were found by ultrasound. A cluster of calcifications were found in 2 cases, linear calcifications in 2 cases. One case presented as a asymmetric density, one as a asymmetric density with calcifications, one as multiple nodules with a cluster of calcifications. Two breast cancers presented as asymmetric density were missed on mammography and diagnosed correctly after retrospective review. Conclusion: Physical examination with ultrasound and mammography is the best method for breast cancer screening. The breast cancer can be detected by mammography earlier than other methods. (authors)

  20. Women with Disabilities and Breast Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... About CDC.gov . Disability & Health Home Disability Overview Disability Inclusion Barriers to Inclusion Inclusion Strategies Inclusion in Programs & Activities Resources Healthy Living Disability & Physical Activity Disability & Obesity Disability & Smoking Disability & Breast ...

  1. Interval Cancers in a Population-Based Screening Program for Colorectal Cancer in Catalonia, Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Garcia

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To analyze interval cancers among participants in a screening program for colorectal cancer (CRC during four screening rounds. Methods. The study population consisted of participants of a fecal occult blood test-based screening program from February 2000 to September 2010, with a 30-month follow-up (n = 30,480. We used hospital administration data to identify CRC. An interval cancer was defined as an invasive cancer diagnosed within 30 months of a negative screening result and before the next recommended examination. Gender, age, stage, and site distribution of interval cancers were compared with those in the screen-detected group. Results. Within the study period, 97 tumors were screen-detected and 74 tumors were diagnosed after a negative screening. In addition, 17 CRC (18.3% were found after an inconclusive result and 2 cases were diagnosed within the surveillance interval (2.1%. There was an increase of interval cancers over the four rounds (from 32.4% to 46.0%. When compared with screen-detected cancers, interval cancers were found predominantly in the rectum (OR: 3.66; 95% CI: 1.51–8.88 and at more advanced stages (P=0.025. Conclusion. There are large numbers of cancer that are not detected through fecal occult blood test-based screening. The low sensitivity should be emphasized to ensure that individuals with symptoms are not falsely reassured.

  2. Cervical Cancer Screening Among Adult Women in China, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Baohua; He, Minfu; Chao, Ann; Engelgau, Michael M.; Saraiya, Mona; Wang, Limin

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Cervical cancer is one of the most commonly diagnosed cancers among women in China. The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends routine screening for cervical cancer, and the WHO Global Monitoring Framework suggests that every nation monitors cervical cancer screening. However, little information is available on cervical cancer screening behavior among women in China. Methods. We used data from the 2010 China Chronic Disease and Risk Factor Surveillance System that included 51,989 women aged 18 years and older. We report the proportion of women who reported ever having had a Papanicolaou (Pap) test, stratified by sociodemographic characteristics and geographic region. Multivariable logistic regression modeling was performed to adjust for potential confounders. Results. Overall, 21% of 51,989 women reported having ever had a Pap test. The highest proportion was reported among women aged 30–39 years (30.1%, 95% confidence interval, 26.8%–33.4%). In all geographic regions, women in rural areas were consistently less likely than women in urban areas to report having had a Pap test. Among women who reported ever having a Pap test, 82% reported having the most recent test in the past 3 years. Factors associated with reporting ever having a test were being aged 30–49 years, higher education, being married, and having urban health insurance. Conclusion. Our results indicate that screening programs need to be strengthened along with a more intense focus on specific demographic groups. National cervical cancer screening guidelines and comprehensive implementation strategies are needed to make screening services available and accessible to all women. Implications for Practice: This study is the largest nationwide and population-based assessment of self-reported history of Pap test for cervical cancer screening in China. This article describes cervical cancer screening behavior among women and examines key demographic and geographic factors. Only one

  3. [Nutritional risk screening and nutrition assessment for gastrointestinal cancer patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Yan-ping; Li, Ling-ling; He, Qing; Li, Yun; Song, Hu; Lin, Yi-jia; Peng, Jun-sheng

    2012-05-01

    To investigate the nutritional status, and provide evidence for nutritional treatment option. A total of 452 patients with gastrointestinal cancer were selected, including 156 gastric cancer,117 colon cancer, and 180 rectal cancer. The nutritional risk screening 2002(NRS2002) was applied to grade the nutritional risk. A multi-frequency bioelectrical impedance analysis was used to measure the patients' body composition. Albumin (Alb), prealbumin(PA), transferring(Tf), retinol binding protein(RBP), red blood cell(RBC), hemoglobin (Hb), haematocrit(Hct) were measured after fasting. The rate of patients with NRS2002 score more than 3 was 70.5%(110/156) for gastric cancer, 53.8%(63/117) for colon cancer, and 46.7%(86/180) for rectal cancer. The score for impaired nutritional status more than 1 for gastric cancer was higher than that for colorectal cancer(Pgastric cancer(Pgastric cancer patients as compared to colorectal cancer patients(Pgastric cancer patients(Pgastric cancer and colon cancer(Pgastric cancer are prone to fat loss and therefore have a higher nutritional risk and malnutrition than those with colorectal cancer. Combination of body composition analysis and laboratory examination may achieve comprehensive evaluation of the nutritional status of patients, and provide the evidence of nutritional therapy by being combined with NRS2002 score.

  4. An overview of mortality & predictors of small-cell and non-small cell lung cancer among Saudi patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatim I. Alghamdi

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Lung cancer ranks as the top cancer worldwide in terms of incidence and constitutes a major health problem. About 90% of lung cancer cases are diagnosed at advance stage where treatment is not available. Despite evidence that lung cancer screening improves survival, guidelines for lung cancer screening are still a subject for debate. In Saudi Arabia, only 14% of lung cancers are diagnosed at early stage and researches on survival and its predictors are lacking. This overview analysis was conducted on predictors of lung cancer mortality according to the two major cancer types, small-cell lung cancers (SCLCs and non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLCs in Saudi Arabia. A secondary data analysis was performed on small-cell lung cancers (SCLCs and Non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLCs registered in the Saudi Cancer Registry (SCR for the period 2009–2013 to estimate predictors of mortality for both lung cancer types. A total of 404 cases (197 SCLC and 207 NSCLC were included in the analysis, all Saudi nationals. A total of 213 (52.75% deaths occurred among lung cancer patients, 108 (54.82% among SCLCs and 105 (50.72% among NCSLCs. Three quarter of patients are diagnosis with advance stage for both SCLC & NSCLC. Univariate analysis revealed higher mean age at diagnosis in dead patients compared to alive patients for SCLCs (p = 0.04; but not NSCLCs, a lower mortality for NSCLCs diagnosed in 2013 (p = 0.025 and a significant difference in stage of tumor (p = 0.006 and (p = 0.035 for both SCLC and NSCLC respectively. In multiple logistic regression, stage of tumor was a strong predictor of mortality, where distant metastasis increased morality by 6-fold (OR = 5.87, 95% CI: 2.01 – 17.19 in SCLC and by 3-fold (OR = 3.29, 95% CI: 1.22 – 8.85 in NSCLC, compared to localized tumors. Those with NSCLC who were diagnosed in 2013 were less likely to die by 64% compared to NSCLC diagnosed in 2009 (OR = 0.36, 95% CI: 0.14 – 0.93. Age, sex, topography

  5. An overview of mortality & predictors of small-cell and non-small cell lung cancer among Saudi patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alghamdi, Hatim I; Alshehri, Ali F; Farhat, Ghada N

    2018-03-01

    Lung cancer ranks as the top cancer worldwide in terms of incidence and constitutes a major health problem. About 90% of lung cancer cases are diagnosed at advance stage where treatment is not available. Despite evidence that lung cancer screening improves survival, guidelines for lung cancer screening are still a subject for debate. In Saudi Arabia, only 14% of lung cancers are diagnosed at early stage and researches on survival and its predictors are lacking. This overview analysis was conducted on predictors of lung cancer mortality according to the two major cancer types, small-cell lung cancers (SCLCs) and non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLCs) in Saudi Arabia. A secondary data analysis was performed on small-cell lung cancers (SCLCs) and Non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLCs) registered in the Saudi Cancer Registry (SCR) for the period 2009-2013 to estimate predictors of mortality for both lung cancer types. A total of 404 cases (197 SCLC and 207 NSCLC) were included in the analysis, all Saudi nationals. A total of 213 (52.75%) deaths occurred among lung cancer patients, 108 (54.82%) among SCLCs and 105 (50.72%) among NCSLCs. Three quarter of patients are diagnosis with advance stage for both SCLC & NSCLC. Univariate analysis revealed higher mean age at diagnosis in dead patients compared to alive patients for SCLCs (p=0.04); but not NSCLCs, a lower mortality for NSCLCs diagnosed in 2013 (p=0.025) and a significant difference in stage of tumor (p=0.006) and (p=0.035) for both SCLC and NSCLC respectively. In multiple logistic regression, stage of tumor was a strong predictor of mortality, where distant metastasis increased morality by 6-fold (OR=5.87, 95% CI: 2.01 - 17.19) in SCLC and by 3-fold (OR=3.29, 95% CI: 1.22 - 8.85) in NSCLC, compared to localized tumors. Those with NSCLC who were diagnosed in 2013 were less likely to die by 64% compared to NSCLC diagnosed in 2009 (OR=0.36, 95% CI: 0.14 - 0.93). Age, sex, topography and laterality were not associated with

  6. [Classification and characteristics of interval cancers in the Principality of Asturias's Breast Cancer Screening Program].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prieto García, M A; Delgado Sevillano, R; Baldó Sierra, C; González Díaz, E; López Secades, A; Llavona Amor, J A; Vidal Marín, B

    2013-09-01

    To review and classify the interval cancers found in the Principality of Asturias's Breast Cancer Screening Program (PDPCM). A secondary objective was to determine the histological characteristics, size, and stage of the interval cancers at the time of diagnosis. We included the interval cancers in the PDPCM in the period 2003-2007. Interval cancers were classified according to the breast cancer screening program protocol, with double reading without consensus, without blinding, with arbitration. Mammograms were interpreted by 10 radiologists in the PDPCM. A total of 33.7% of the interval cancers could not be classified; of the interval cancers that could be classified, 40.67% were labeled true interval cancers, 31.4% were labeled false negatives on screening, 23.7% had minimal signs, and 4.23% were considered occult. A total of 70% of the interval cancers were diagnosed in the year of the period between screening examinations and 71.7% were diagnosed after subsequent screening. A total of 76.9% were invasive ductal carcinomas, 61.1% were stage II when detected, and 78.7% were larger than 10mm when detected. The rate of interval cancers and the rate of false negatives in the PDPCM are higher than those recommended in the European guidelines. Interval cancers are diagnosed later than the tumors detected at screening. Studying interval cancers provides significant training for the radiologists in the PDPCM. Copyright © 2011 SERAM. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  7. Do doctors understand the test characteristics of lung cancer screening?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Richard; Breyer, Marie; Breyer-Kohansal, Robab; Urban, Matthias; Funk, Georg-Christian

    2018-04-01

    Screening for lung cancer with a low-dose computed tomography (CT) scan is estimated to prevent 3 deaths per 1000 individuals at high risk; however, false positive results and radiation exposure are relevant harms and deserve careful consideration. Screening candidates can only make an autonomous decision if doctors correctly inform them of the pros and cons of the method; therefore, this study aimed to evaluate whether doctors understand the test characteristics of lung cancer screening. In a randomized trial 556 doctors (members of the Austrian Respiratory Society) were invited to answer questions regarding lung cancer screening based on online case vignettes. Half of the participants were randomized to the group 'solutions provided' and received the correct solutions in advance. The group 'solutions withheld' had to rely on prior knowledge or estimates. The primary endpoint was the between-group difference in the estimated number of deaths preventable by screening. Secondary endpoints were the between-group differences in the prevalence of lung cancer, prevalence of a positive screening results, sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and false negative rate. Estimations were also compared with current data from the literature. The response rate was 29% in both groups. The reduction in the number of deaths due to screening was overestimated six-fold (95% confidence interval CI: 4-8) compared with the actual data, and there was no effect of group allocation. Providing the correct solutions to doctors had no systematic effect on their answers. Doctors poorly understand the test characteristics of lung cancer screening. Providing the correct solutions in advance did not improve the answers. Continuing education regarding lung cancer screening and the interpretation of test characteristics may be a simple remedy. Clinical trial registered with www.clinicaltrials.gov (NCT02542332).

  8. Pathways of cervical cancer screening among Chinese women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma GX

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Grace X Ma,1 Min Qi Wang,2 Xiang S Ma,3 Steven E Shive,4 Yin Tan,5 Jamil I Toubbeh51Department of Public Health, College of Health Professions, Temple University, Philadelphia, PA, 2Department of Public and Community Health, University of Maryland, College Park, MD, 3College of Health Professions and School of Medicine, Temple University, Philadelphia, PA, 4Center for Asian Health, Temple University, and Department of Health, East Stroudsburg University, East Stroudsburg, PA, 5Center for Asian Health, Department of Public Health, College of Health Professions, Temple University, Philadelphia, PA, USABackground: The purpose of this community-based study was to develop a structural equation model for factors contributing to cervical cancer screening among Chinese American women.Methods: A cross-sectional design included a sample of 573 Chinese American women aged 18 years and older. The initial step involved use of confirmatory factor analysis, that included the following variables: access to and satisfaction with health care, and enabling and predisposing cultural and health beliefs. Structural equation model analyses were conducted on factors related to cervical cancer screening.Results: Age, marital status, employment, household income, and having health insurance, but not educational level, were significantly related to cervical screening status. Predisposing and enabling factors were positively associated with cervical cancer screening. The cultural factor was significantly related to the enabling factor or the satisfaction with health care factor.Conclusion: This model highlights the significance of sociocultural factors in relation to cervical cancer screening. These factors were significant, with cultural, predisposing, enabling, and health belief factors and access to and satisfaction with health care reinforcing the need to assist Chinese American women with poor English fluency in translation and awareness of the importance of cervical

  9. The dark side of SOX2: cancer - a comprehensive overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wuebben, Erin L; Rizzino, Angie

    2017-07-04

    The pluripotency-associated transcription factor SOX2 is essential during mammalian embryogenesis and later in life, but SOX2 expression can also be highly detrimental. Over the past 10 years, SOX2 has been shown to be expressed in at least 25 different cancers. This review provides a comprehensive overview of the roles of SOX2 in cancer and focuses on two broad topics. The first delves into the expression and function of SOX2 in cancer focusing on the connection between SOX2 levels and tumor grade as well as patient survival. As part of this discussion, we address the developing connection between SOX2 expression and tumor drug resistance. We also call attention to an under-appreciated property of SOX2, its levels in actively proliferating tumor cells appear to be optimized to maximize tumor growth - too little or too much SOX2 dramatically alters tumor growth. The second topic of this review focuses on the exquisite array of molecular mechanisms that control the expression and transcriptional activity of SOX2. In addition to its complex regulation at the transcriptional level, SOX2 expression and activity are controlled carefully by microRNAs, long non-coding RNAs, and post-translational modifications. In the Conclusion and Future Perspectives section, we point out that there are still important unanswered questions. Addressing these questions is expected to lead to new insights into the functions of SOX2 in cancer, which will help design novels strategies for more effectively treating some of the most deadly cancers.

  10. Treatment Option Overview (Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Common Cancer Types Recurrent Cancer Common Cancer Types Bladder Cancer Breast Cancer Colorectal Cancer Kidney (Renal Cell) Cancer ... certain genes, such as the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) gene or the anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) ...

  11. Experience with breast cancer, pre-screening perceived susceptibility and the psychological impact of screening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Absetz, Pilvikki; Aro, Arja R; Sutton, Stephen R

    2003-01-01

    responded to the follow-ups. Psychological impact was measured as anxiety (STAI-S), depression (BDI), health-related concerns (IAS), and breast cancer-specific beliefs and concerns. Data was analyzed with repeated measures analyses of variance, with estimates of effect size based on Eta-squared. Women......This prospective study examined whether the psychological impact of organized mammography screening is influenced by women's pre-existing experience with breast cancer and perceived susceptibility (PS) to the disease. From a target population of 16,886, a random sample of women with a normal...... with breast cancer experience had higher risk perception already before screening invitation; after screening they were also more distressed. Women with high PS were more distressed than women with low PS also at pre-invitation. The distress was not alleviated by screening, but instead remained even after...

  12. Low Cost Technology for Screening Early Cancerous Lesions of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hanumantp

    [1] The detection rate for early cancerous lesions improved. 60% by unaided visual ... no agreement as how to screen and where to refer patients with oral cancer for ... External and internal examination of the oral cavity was done by the dentist ...

  13. Cervical cancer knowledge and screening practices among women ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Cervical cancer remains a major public health challenge in developing countries including Nigeria and contributes signi cantly as a major cause of death among women of reproductive age. This study was conducted to assess knowledge and cervical cancer screening practices among women of reproductive ...

  14. Knowledge and attitude towards cervical cancer screening among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Cervical cancer is a largely preventable disease. In western countries, the incidence of and mortality associated with cervical cancer has reduced substantially following the introduction of effective cervical screening programmes. This is in contrast to what is obtained in Africa including Nigeria where cervical ...

  15. Social Construction of Cervical Cancer Screening among Panamanian Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvo, Arlene; Brown, Kelli McCormack; McDermott, Robert J.; Bryant, Carol A.; Coreil, Jeanine; Loseke, Donileen

    2012-01-01

    Background: Understanding how "health issues" are socially constructed may be useful for creating culturally relevant programs for Hispanic/Latino populations. Purpose: We explored the constructed meanings of cervical cancer and cervical cancer screening among Panamanian women, as well as socio-cultural factors that deter or encourage…

  16. Internet-Based Cervical Cancer Screening Program

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wilbur, David C; Crothers, Barbara A; Eichhorn, John H; Ro, Min S; Gelfand, Jeffrey A

    2008-01-01

    This project explores the combination of computerized automated primary screening of cervical cytology specimens in remote sites with interpretation of device-selected images transmitted via the Internet...

  17. Breast, prostate, and thyroid cancer screening tests and overdiagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Minsoo

    The purpose of this study was to examine overdiagnosis and overtreatment related to cancer screening and to review relevant reports and studies. A comprehensive search of peer-reviewed and gray literature was conducted for relevant studies published between January 2000 and December 2015 reporting breast, prostate, and thyroid cancer screening tests and overdiagnosis. This study revealed no dichotomy on where screening would lower risk or cause overdiagnosis and overtreatment. Many screening tests did both, that is, at population level, there were both benefit (decreased disease-specific mortality) and harm (overdiagnosis and overtreatment). Therefore, we need to consider a balanced argument with citations for the potential benefits of screening along with the harms associated with screening. Although the benefits and harms can only be tested through randomized trials, important data from cohort studies, diagnostic accuracy studies, and modeling work can help define the extent of benefits and harms in the population. The health care cycle that prompt patients to undergo periodic screening tests is self-reinforcing. In most developed countries, screening test recommendations encourage periodic testing. Therefore, patients are continuing their screening. It is necessary for patients to become wise consumers of screening tests and make decisions with their physicians regarding further testing and treatments. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. The impact of radiologists' expertise on screen results decisions in a CT lung cancer screening trial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heuvelmans, Marjolein A.; Vliegenthart, Rozemarijn; Oudkerk, Matthijs; Jong, Pim A. de; Mali, Willem P.; Groen, Harry J.M.

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the impact of radiological expertise on screen result decisions in a CT lung cancer screening trial. In the NELSON lung cancer screening trial, the baseline CT result was based on the largest lung nodule's volume. The protocol allowed radiologists to manually adjust screen results in cases of high suspicion of benign or malignant nodule nature. Participants whose baseline CT result was based on a solid or part-solid nodule were included in this study. Adjustments by radiologists at baseline were evaluated. Histology was the reference for diagnosis or to confirm benignity and stability on subsequent CT examinations. A total of 3,318 participants (2,796 male, median age 58.0 years) were included. In 195 participants (5.9 %) the initial baseline screen result was adjusted by the radiologist. Adjustment was downwards from positive or indeterminate to negative in two and 119 participants, respectively, and from positive to indeterminate in 65 participants. None of these nodules turned out to be malignant. In 9/195 participants (4.6 %) the screen result was adjusted upwards from negative to indeterminate or indeterminate to positive; two nodules were malignant. In one in 20 cases of baseline lung cancer screening, nodules were reclassified by the radiologist, leading to a reduction of false-positive screen results. (orig.)

  19. A marketing campaign to promote screening for oral cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Amid I; Jedele, Jenefer M; Lim, Sungwoo; Tellez, Marisol

    2012-09-01

    Organizers of the Detroit Oral Cancer Prevention Project at the University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, launched a multifaceted media campaign targeted toward a high-risk population to raise awareness about oral cancer, educate the public regarding the importance of early detection and increase screening rates. The authors present data about the effectiveness of the campaign with regard to the screening behaviors of medical and dental providers. Before the start of the campaign and during each of the three years of the campaign, the authors mailed surveys to random samples of physicians and dentists practicing in targeted and non-targeted areas. More dentists than physicians reported screening patients routinely, and dentists reported that they referred more patients for biopsy or further evaluation compared with physicians. A larger proportion of dentists and physicians in the targeted area than in the nontargeted area reported that their patients had seen or heard the advertisements. A larger proportion of dentists in the targeted area than in the nontargeted area reported an increase in patients' questions and requests for screening, even after the authors accounted for demographic characteristics (adjusted odds ratio = 2.47). The survey findings show that the media campaign was effective in influencing providers' screening for signs and symptoms of oral cancer. An increase in patients' requests for screening as a result of the implementation of mass media campaigns may promote oral cancer screening and improve patients' chances of survival.

  20. The benefits and harms of screening for cancer with a focus on breast screening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodersen, John; Juhl Jørgensen, Karsten; Gøtzsche, Peter C.

    2010-01-01

    . The effects of routine clinical breast examination are unknown, but considering the results of the breast self-examination trials, it is likely that it is harmful. The effects of screening for breast cancer with thermography, ultrasound or magnetic resonance imaging are unknown. It is not clear whether......The balance between benefits and harms is delicate for cancer screening programs. By attending screening with mammography some women will avoid dying from breast cancer or receive less aggressive treatment. But many more women will be overdiagnosed, receive needless treatment, have a false...... and will be treated unnecessarily. Furthermore, more than 200 women will experience substantial psychosocial distress for months because of false-positive findings. Regular breast self-examination does not reduce breast cancer mortality, but doubles the number of biopsies, and it therefore cannot be recommended...

  1. Quality control in screening programs for cervical cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarduy Napoles, Miguel

    2012-01-01

    The malignancy of the cervix is one of the few locations avoidable cancers, if detected before it progresses to the infiltration. The most efficient way of early detection is through a screening program to provide women undertaking a regular and quality Pap smear. If this test results abnormal, the program offers easier access to specialized care, effective treatment, and follow-up. The objective of this article is to present usefulness of methods for quality control used in screening programs for cervical cancer to detect their inadequacies. Here are some factors and conditions that must be considered in each of the steps to take, for a cervical cancer screening program to be successful and to meet the objectives proposed in reducing mortality due to this cause. This document contains some useful indexes calculated to ensure quality throughout the process. There should be the measurement of quality throughout the screening process that allows collecting of reliable data as well as correcting deficiencies

  2. Decision aid for women considering breast cancer screening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pasternack, Iris; Saalasti-Koskinen, Ulla; Mäkelä, Marjukka

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to describe the process and challenges of developing a decision aid for the national public breast cancer screening program in Finland. METHODS: An expert team with stakeholder representation used European guidelines and other literature as basis for selecting...... relevant content and format for the decision aid for breast cancer screening. Feedback from women was sought for the draft documents. RESULTS: A decision aid attached to the invitation letter for screening was considered the best way to ensure access to information. In addition, tailored letter templates...... information for women invited to breast cancer screening is demanding and requires careful planning. Professionals and service providers need to be engaged in the HTA process to ensure proper dissemination and implementation of the information. End user participation is essential in the formulation...

  3. A qualitative exploration of Malaysian cancer patients’ perceptions of cancer screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farooqui Maryam

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite the existence of different screening methods, the response to cancer screening is poor among Malaysians. The current study aims to examine cancer patients’ perceptions of cancer screening and early diagnosis. Methods A qualitative methodology was used to collect in-depth information from cancer patients. After obtaining institutional ethical approval, patients with different types and stages of cancer from the three major ethnic groups (Malay, Chinese and Indian were approached. Twenty semi-structured interviews were conducted. All interviews were audiotaped, transcribed verbatim, and translated into English for thematic content analysis. Results Thematic content analysis yielded four major themes: awareness of cancer screening, perceived benefits of cancer screening, perceived barriers to cancer screening, and cues to action. The majority of respondents had never heard of cancer screening before their diagnosis. Some participants reported hearing about mammogram and Pap smear tests but did not undergo screening due to a lack of belief in personal susceptibility. Those who had negative results from screening prior to diagnosis perceived such tests as untrustworthy. Lack of knowledge and financial constraints were reported as barriers to cancer screening. Finally, numerous suggestions were given to improve screening behaviour among healthy individuals, including the role of mass media in disseminating the message ‘prevention is better than cure’. Conclusions Patients’ narratives revealed some significant issues that were in line with the Health Belief Model which could explain negative health behaviour. The description of the personal experiences of people with cancer could provide many cues to action for those who have never encountered this potentially deadly disease, if incorporated into health promotion activities.

  4. Cellular immunotherapy of cancer: an overview and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Ziqi; Li, Shuang; Ichim, Thomas E; Yang, Junbao; Riordan, Neil; Yenugonda, Venkata; Babic, Ivan; Kesari, Santosh

    2017-06-01

    The clinical success of checkpoint inhibitors has led to a renaissance of interest in cancer immunotherapies. In particular, the possibility of ex vivo expanding autologous lymphocytes that specifically recognize tumor cells has attracted much research and clinical trial interest. In this review, we discuss the historical background of tumor immunotherapy using cell-based approaches, and provide some rationale for overcoming current barriers to success of autologous immunotherapy. An overview of adoptive transfer of lymphocytes, tumor infiltrating lymphocytes and dendritic cell therapies is provided. We conclude with discussing the possibility of gene-manipulating immune cells in order to augment therapeutic activity, including silencing of the immune-suppressive zinc finger orphan nuclear receptor, NR2F6, as an attractive means of overcoming tumor-associated immune suppression.

  5. Colorectal Cancer Screening: What Is the Population's Opinion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Teixeira

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Colorectal cancer (CRC is the first cause of death by cancer in Portugal and mortality has been increasing in the last 30 years. Materials and Methods: During a raising awareness campaign performed by our Gastroenterology Department, in Setúbal, Portugal, an anonymous written questionnaire was developed and presented in order to evaluate the population's knowledge and attitude regarding CRC screening. Results: The following results were reported: 140 persons; mean age 54.6 years; 61.4% women; 22.1% had a family history of colorectal cancer. The main risk factors mentioned by the respondents were family history of CRC, previous history of intestinal polyps, and intestinal infection. Screening was considered useful by all respondents. About 60% of the respondents had been counselled, at least, on one screening technique, mainly by their general practitioner: colonoscopy in 31, fecal occult blood test in 44, and flexible sigmoidoscopy in 9. Most of the respondents had had the appropriate screening test, according to their age and family history. Fourteen of the respondents had not undergone the recommended screening. Their answers showed that this was due to fear of pain/discovering a disease as well as embarrassment. Conclusion: Although the majority of the respondents were aware of the importance of CRC screening, results show that there are still several misconceptions about risk factors, fear, and reluctance concerning the screening techniques. Awareness actions are useful to clarify possible questions and inform the population in order to increase compliance with screening.

  6. Artificial intelligence for breast cancer screening: Opportunity or hype?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houssami, Nehmat; Lee, Christoph I; Buist, Diana S M; Tao, Dacheng

    2017-12-01

    Interpretation of mammography for breast cancer (BC) screening can confer a mortality benefit through early BC detection, can miss a cancer that is present or fast growing, or can result in false-positives. Efforts to improve screening outcomes have mostly focused on intensifying imaging practices (double instead of single-reading, more frequent screens, or supplemental imaging) that may add substantial resource expenditures and harms associated with population screening. Less attention has been given to making mammography screening practice 'smarter' or more efficient. Artificial intelligence (AI) is capable of advanced learning using large complex datasets and has the potential to perform tasks such as image interpretation. With both highly-specific capabilities, and also possible un-intended (and poorly understood) consequences, this viewpoint considers the promise and current reality of AI in BC detection. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Korean Americans' Beliefs about Colorectal Cancer Screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shin-Young Lee, PhD, RN

    2013-06-01

    Conclusion: Results show the critical need for in-depth understanding of unique health and cultural beliefs about CRC screening in KAs. These beliefs could be useful for future intervention strategies to change health and cultural beliefs in order to increase CRC screening participation in KAs.

  8. A Literature Review of Cervical Cancer Screening in Transgender Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatos, Kayla C

    2018-02-01

    Most female-to-male (FTM) transgender men retain their cervixes and need comprehensive sexual health care, including cervical cancer screening. According to the literature, FTM individuals obtain cervical cancer screening less frequently and are less likely to be up to date on their Pap tests compared with cisgender women. Misinformation related to human papillomavirus and cervical cancer risk was noted for health care providers and FTM individuals. Absence of transgender-specific guidelines or trained health care providers presents barriers to cervical cancer screening for FTM individuals, and further research is indicated to develop comprehensive guidelines unique to the needs and experiences of this population. © 2018 AWHONN, the Association of Women’s Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses.

  9. Prospects for population screening and diagnosis of lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Field, John K; Oudkerk, Matthijs; Pedersen, Jesper Holst

    2013-01-01

    Deaths from lung cancer exceed those from any other type of malignancy, with 1·5 million deaths in 2010. Prevention and smoking cessation are still the main methods to reduce the death toll. The US National Lung Screening Trial, which compared CT screening with chest radiograph, yielded a mortality......, and pooled analysis of European CT screening trials, we discuss the main topics that will need consideration. These unresolved issues are risk prediction models to identify patients for CT screening; radiological protocols that use volumetric analysis for indeterminate nodules; options for surgical resection...

  10. Quantifying Overdiagnosis in Cancer Screening: A Systematic Review to Evaluate the Methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ripping, Theodora M; Ten Haaf, Kevin; Verbeek, André L M; van Ravesteyn, Nicolien T; Broeders, Mireille J M

    2017-10-01

    Overdiagnosis is the main harm of cancer screening programs but is difficult to quantify. This review aims to evaluate existing approaches to estimate the magnitude of overdiagnosis in cancer screening in order to gain insight into the strengths and limitations of these approaches and to provide researchers with guidance to obtain reliable estimates of overdiagnosis in cancer screening. A systematic review was done of primary research studies in PubMed that were published before January 1, 2016, and quantified overdiagnosis in breast cancer screening. The studies meeting inclusion criteria were then categorized by their methods to adjust for lead time and to obtain an unscreened reference population. For each approach, we provide an overview of the data required, assumptions made, limitations, and strengths. A total of 442 studies were identified in the initial search. Forty studies met the inclusion criteria for the qualitative review. We grouped the approaches to adjust for lead time in two main categories: the lead time approach and the excess incidence approach. The lead time approach was further subdivided into the mean lead time approach, lead time distribution approach, and natural history modeling. The excess incidence approach was subdivided into the cumulative incidence approach and early vs late-stage cancer approach. The approaches used to obtain an unscreened reference population were grouped into the following categories: control group of a randomized controlled trial, nonattenders, control region, extrapolation of a prescreening trend, uninvited groups, adjustment for the effect of screening, and natural history modeling. Each approach to adjust for lead time and obtain an unscreened reference population has its own strengths and limitations, which should be taken into consideration when estimating overdiagnosis. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. [CT-Screening for Lung Cancer - what is the Evidence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watermann, Iris; Reck, Martin

    2018-04-01

    In patients with lung cancer treatment opportunities and prognosis are correlated to the stage of disease with a chance for curative treatment in patients with early stage disease. Therefore, early detection of lung cancer is of paramount importance for improving the prognosis of lung cancer patients.The National Lung Screening Trial (NLST) has already shown that low-dose CT increases the number of identified early stage lung cancer patients and reduces lung cancer related mortality. Critically considered in terms of CT-screening are false-positive results, overdiagnosis and unessential invasive clarification. Preliminary results of relatively small European trials haven´t yet confirmed the results of the NLST-study.Until now Lung Cancer Screening by low dose CT-scan or other methods is neither approved nor available in Germany.To improve the efficacy of CT-Screening and to introduce early detection of lung cancer in standard practice, additional, complementing methods should be further evaluated. One option might be the supplementary analysis of biomarkers in liquid biopsies or exhaled breath condensates. In addition, defining the high-risk population is of great relevance to identify candidates who might benefit of early detection programs. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  12. Screening and prevention of breast cancer in primary care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tice, Jeffrey A; Kerlikowske, Karla

    2009-09-01

    Mammography remains the mainstay of breast cancer screening. There is little controversy that mammography reduces the risk of dying from breast cancer by about 23% among women between the ages of 50 and 69 years, although the harms associated with false-positive results and overdiagnosis limit the net benefit of mammography. Women in their 70s may have a small benefit from screening mammography, but overdiagnosis increases in this age group as do competing causes of death. While new data support a 16% reduction in breast cancer mortality for 40- to 49-year-old women after 10 years of screening, the net benefit is less compelling in part because of the lower incidence of breast cancer in this age group and because mammography is less sensitive and specific in women younger than 50 years. Digital mammography is more sensitive than film mammography in young women with similar specificity, but no improvements in breast cancer outcomes have been demonstrated. Magnetic resonance imaging may benefit the highest risk women. Randomized trials suggest that self-breast examination does more harm than good. Primary prevention with currently approved medications will have a negligible effect on breast cancer incidence. Public health efforts aimed at increasing mammography screening rates, promoting regular exercise in all women, maintaining a healthy weight, limiting alcohol intake, and limiting postmenopausal hormone therapy may help to continue the recent trend of lower breast cancer incidence and mortality among American women.

  13. Radiologic aspects of breast cancers detected through a breast cancer screening program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azavedo, E.; Svane, G.

    1991-01-01

    Early detection in breast cancer and reduced mortality in women with this disease is today attributed to widespread use of mammography. High-quality performance is essential in all steps of breast cancer screening programs in order to avoid unnecessary anxiety and surgery in the women concerned. This report presents radiologic aspects of screening cancers. A total of 8370 asymptomatic women aged 50-69 years were screened with 2-view mammography, of which only 70 (0.84 percent) were selected for surgery after a thorough work-up. Cancers were verified histologically in 61 women and 9 showed non-malignant histology, giving a cancer detection rate of 7.3 cancers per thousand screened asymptomatic women. The benign/malignant ratio in the operated cases is thus approximately 1:7. The cancers detected showed all existing types of mammographic features where 77 percent (47 cases) showed rather typical findings, such as spiculated densities both with and without microcalcifications. The results indicate that surgery can be minimized without impairing the breast cancer detection rate. Radiologists in screening programs should be aware that a large proportion of non-palpable breast cancers present in rather unconventional forms. This point is important in order to maintain a high cancer detection rate and thereby justify the widespread use of mammography as a screening tool for breast cancer in asymptomatic women. (author). 20 refs.; 1 tab

  14. Risk-benefit analysis for mass screening of breast cancer utilizing mammography as a screening test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iinuma, T.A.; Tateno, Yukio

    1989-01-01

    Incidence of breast cancers in Japanese women is increasing steadily. Mass screening of breast cancer was started in Japan under auspices of Adult Health Promotion Act of the Japanese Government from 1987. As the first screening method, the palpation of breasts is employed at present, but it is expected to be replaced by the mammography. In this report, the risk-benefit analysis is presented between risk of breast carcinogenesis due to radiation and benefit of mass screening of breast cancer. The benefit of mass screening is taken as the net elongation of average life expectancy of women due to survival from breast cancers. The risk of mammography is taken as the net loss of average life expectancy of women due to breast carcinogenesis. In the latter, the latency time and plateau period of radiation carcinogenesis were taken into consideration in the calculation. The results show that the ages at which the benefit and risk become equal are between 30 and 35 years old when dose equivalent of mammography is between 10 and 20 mSv, that are conventionally used. However, the critical age will be reduced to 20 years old if the dose equivalent becomes 1 mSv. Therefore, it is strongly recommended that a low dose mammographic system should be developed in order to achieve 1 mSv for the mass screening of breast cancer of Japanese women. In author's opinion, this is quite feasible by employing a new digital radiography with imaging plate. (author)

  15. Promoting cancer screening within the patient centered medical home.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarfaty, Mona; Wender, Richard; Smith, Robert

    2011-01-01

    While consensus has grown that primary care is the essential access point in a high-performing health care system, the current model of primary care underperforms in both chronic disease management and prevention. The Patient Centered Medical Home model (PCMH) is at the center of efforts to reinvent primary care practice, and is regarded as the most promising approach to addressing the burden of chronic disease, improving health outcomes, and reducing health spending. However, the potential for the medical home to improve the delivery of cancer screening (and preventive services in general) has received limited attention in both conceptualization and practice. Medical home demonstrations to date have included few evidence-based preventive services in their outcome measures, and few have evaluated the effect of different payment models. Decreasing use of hospitals and emergency rooms and an emphasis on improving chronic care represent improvements in effective delivery of healthcare, but leave opportunities for reducing the burden of cancer untouched. Data confirm that what does or does not happen in the primary care setting has a substantial impact on cancer outcomes. Insofar as cancer is the leading cause of death before age 80, the PCMH model must prioritize adherence to cancer screening according to recommended guidelines, and systems, financial incentives, and reimbursements must be aligned to achieve that goal. This article explores capacities that are needed in the medical home model to facilitate the integration of cancer screening and other preventive services. These capacities include improved patient access and communication, health risk assessments, periodic preventive health exams, use of registries that store cancer risk information and screening history, ability to track and follow up on tests and referrals, feedback on performance, and payment models that reward cancer screening. Copyright © 2011 American Cancer Society, Inc.

  16. Intelligent Screening Systems for Cervical Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yessi Jusman

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Advent of medical image digitalization leads to image processing and computer-aided diagnosis systems in numerous clinical applications. These technologies could be used to automatically diagnose patient or serve as second opinion to pathologists. This paper briefly reviews cervical screening techniques, advantages, and disadvantages. The digital data of the screening techniques are used as data for the computer screening system as replaced in the expert analysis. Four stages of the computer system are enhancement, features extraction, feature selection, and classification reviewed in detail. The computer system based on cytology data and electromagnetic spectra data achieved better accuracy than other data.

  17. Race/Ethnicity, Gender, Weight Status, and Colorectal Cancer Screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather Bittner Fagan

    2011-01-01

    The literature on colorectal cancer (CRC screening is contradictory regarding the impact of weight status on CRC screening. This study was intended to determine if CRC screening rates among 2005 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS respondent racial/ethnic and gender subgroups were influenced by weight status. Methods. Univariable and multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed to determine if CRC screening use differed significantly among obese, overweight, and normal-weight individuals in race/ethnic and gender subgroups. Results. Multivariable analyses showed that CRC screening rates did not differ significantly for individuals within these subgroups who were obese or overweight as compared to their normal-weight peers. Conclusion. Weight status does not contribute to disparities in CRC screening in race/ethnicity and gender subgroups.

  18. [Screening for colorectal cancer in Italy, 2010 survey].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zorzi, Manuel; Fedato, Chiara; Grazzini, Grazia; Sassoli de' Bianchi, Priscilla; Naldoni, Carlo; Pendenza, Melania; Sassatelli, Romano; Senore, Carlo; Visioli, Carmen Beatriz; Zappa, Marco

    2012-01-01

    We present the main results of the 2010 survey of the Italian screening programmes for colorectal cancer carried out by the National centre for screening monitoring (Osservatorio nazionale screening, ONS) on behalf of the Ministry of health. By the end of 2010, 105 programmes were active, 9 of which had been activated during the year, and 65% of Italians aged 50-69 years were residing in areas covered by organised screening programmes (theoretical extension). Twelve regions had their whole population covered. In the South of Italy and Islands, 5 new programmes were activated in 2010, with a theoretical extension of 29%. The majority of programmes employed the faecal occult blood test (FIT), while some adopted flexible sigmoidoscopy (FS) once in a lifetime and FIT for non-responders to FS. Overall, about 3,404,000 subjects were invited to undergo FIT, 47.2% of those to be invited within the year. The adjusted attendance rate was 48% and approximately 1,568,796 subjects were screened. Large differences in the attendance rate were observed among regions: 10% of programmes reported values lower than 24%. Positivity rate of FIT programmes was 5.5% at first screening (range: 1.6-11.3%) and 4.3% at repeat screening (range: 3.2-6.7%). The average attendance rate to total colonoscopy (TC) was 81.4% and in one region it was lower than 70%. Completion rate for total colonoscopy (TC) was 88.7%. Among the 740,281 subjects attending screening for the first time, the detection rate (DR) per 1,000 screened subjects was 2.4 for invasive cancer and 10.3 for advanced adenomas (AA - adenomas with a diameter ≥1 cm, with villous/tubulo-villous type or with high-grade dysplasia). As expected, the corresponding figures in the 843,204 subjects at repeat screening were lower (1.2‰ and 7.6‰ for invasive cancer and AA, respectively). The DR of cancer and adenomas increased with age and was higher among males. Many programmes reported some difficulties in guaranteeing TC in the

  19. A selective overview of feature screening for ultrahigh-dimensional data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    JingYuan, Liu; Wei, Zhong; RunZe, L I

    2015-10-01

    High-dimensional data have frequently been collected in many scientific areas including genomewide association study, biomedical imaging, tomography, tumor classifications, and finance. Analysis of high-dimensional data poses many challenges for statisticians. Feature selection and variable selection are fundamental for high-dimensional data analysis. The sparsity principle, which assumes that only a small number of predictors contribute to the response, is frequently adopted and deemed useful in the analysis of high-dimensional data. Following this general principle, a large number of variable selection approaches via penalized least squares or likelihood have been developed in the recent literature to estimate a sparse model and select significant variables simultaneously. While the penalized variable selection methods have been successfully applied in many high-dimensional analyses, modern applications in areas such as genomics and proteomics push the dimensionality of data to an even larger scale, where the dimension of data may grow exponentially with the sample size. This has been called ultrahigh-dimensional data in the literature. This work aims to present a selective overview of feature screening procedures for ultrahigh-dimensional data. We focus on insights into how to construct marginal utilities for feature screening on specific models and motivation for the need of model-free feature screening procedures.

  20. A Systematic Overview of Radiation Therapy Effects in Ovarian Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Einhorn, Nina; Trope, Claes; Ridderheim, Mona; Boman, Karin; Sorbe, Bengt; Cavallin-Staahl, Eva

    2003-01-01

    A systematic review of radiation therapy trials in several tumour types was performed by The Swedish Council of Technology Assessment in Health Care (SBU). The procedures for evaluation of the scientific literature are described separately. This synthesis of the literature on radiation therapy for ovarian cancer is based on data from six randomized trials. Moreover, data from one prospective study and three retrospective studies were used. In total, 10 scientific articles are included, involving 1,282 patients. The results were compared with those of a similar overview from 1996 including 15,042 patients. The conclusions reached can be summarized in the following points: There is no scientific documentation supporting adjuvant radiotherapy for early-stage, low-risk patients. No studies have been reported where adjuvant radiotherapy has been compared with no adjuvant therapy in early-stage, high-risk patients. Adjuvant radiotherapy, either whole abdominal irradiation or intraperitoneal P32, has been compared with adjuvant chemotherapy in early-stage, high-risk patients. There is no scientific evidence to show that there is a difference in efficacy. There is some evidence to suggest that adjuvant radiotherapy after radical surgery leads to an increase in disease-free survival rate for patients with advanced-stage ovarian cancer. There is little documentation on long-term side effects (second malignancy) after adjuvant radiotherapy and no conclusions can be drawn

  1. Early detection of breast cancer: results of a screening programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beahrs, O.H.

    1980-01-01

    The results of a mammography screening programme launched by the American Cancer Society and the National Cancer Institute are discussed. Twenty-seven Breast Cancer Detection Demonstration Projects (BCDDP) screened 280,000 women annually for 5 years. During the first 2 screenings, 1810 cancers were detected. An increased rate of discovery in all age groups was achieved. The radiation risk of mammography is also discussed. The results of the BCDDP were evaluated by a review panel. Of the 1810 cancers detected, 45% had been detected by mammography alone, 47% by mammography and physical examination and only 7% by physical examination alone. 592 of the cancers were < 1 cm in diameter. Two-thirds of these lesions were considered to be in-situ carcinoma and one-third invasive cancer. In 66 instances, the tissue first presented was considered not to be cancerous; these cases were further studied clinically and pathologically. It is concluded that, in the experience of the BCDDP, mammography proved to be an excellent method of detection, but it does have a small theoretical risk. As a widely used approach to detection, mammography is probably not practical due to the number of experts necessary for image evaluation. (UK)

  2. Interval lung cancer after a negative CT screening examination: CT findings and outcomes in National Lung Screening Trial participants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gierada, David S.; Pinsky, Paul F.; Duan, Fenghai; Garg, Kavita; Hart, Eric M.; Kazerooni, Ella A.; Nath, Hrudaya; Watts, Jubal R.; Aberle, Denise R.

    2017-01-01

    This study retrospectively analyses the screening CT examinations and outcomes of the National Lung Screening Trial (NLST) participants who had interval lung cancer diagnosed within 1 year after a negative CT screen and before the next annual screen. The screening CTs of all 44 participants diagnosed with interval lung cancer (cases) were matched with negative CT screens of participants who did not develop lung cancer (controls). A majority consensus process was used to classify each CT screen as positive or negative according to the NLST criteria and to estimate the likelihood that any abnormalities detected retrospectively were due to lung cancer. By retrospective review, 40/44 cases (91%) and 17/44 controls (39%) met the NLST criteria for a positive screen (P < 0.001). Cases had higher estimated likelihood of lung cancer (P < 0.001). Abnormalities included pulmonary nodules ≥4 mm (n = 16), mediastinal (n = 8) and hilar (n = 6) masses, and bronchial lesions (n = 6). Cancers were stage III or IV at diagnosis in 32/44 cases (73%); 37/44 patients (84%) died of lung cancer, compared to 225/649 (35%) for all screen-detected cancers (P < 0.0001). Most cases met the NLST criteria for a positive screen. Awareness of missed abnormalities and interpretation errors may aid lung cancer identification in CT screening. (orig.)

  3. Interval lung cancer after a negative CT screening examination: CT findings and outcomes in National Lung Screening Trial participants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gierada, David S. [Washington University School of Medicine, Mallinckrodt Institute of Radiology, Box 8131, St. Louis, MO (United States); Pinsky, Paul F. [National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, MD (United States); Duan, Fenghai [Brown University School of Public Health, Department of Biostatistics and Center for Statistical Sciences, Providence, RI (United States); Garg, Kavita [University of Colorado School of Medicine, Mail Stop F726, Box 6510, Aurora, CO (United States); Hart, Eric M. [Northwestern University, Feinberg School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Chicago, IL (United States); Kazerooni, Ella A. [University of Michigan Health System, Department of Radiology, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Nath, Hrudaya; Watts, Jubal R. [University of Alabama at Birmingham School of Medicine, Department of Radiology-JTN370, Birmingham, AL (United States); Aberle, Denise R. [David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Department of Radiological Sciences, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    2017-08-15

    This study retrospectively analyses the screening CT examinations and outcomes of the National Lung Screening Trial (NLST) participants who had interval lung cancer diagnosed within 1 year after a negative CT screen and before the next annual screen. The screening CTs of all 44 participants diagnosed with interval lung cancer (cases) were matched with negative CT screens of participants who did not develop lung cancer (controls). A majority consensus process was used to classify each CT screen as positive or negative according to the NLST criteria and to estimate the likelihood that any abnormalities detected retrospectively were due to lung cancer. By retrospective review, 40/44 cases (91%) and 17/44 controls (39%) met the NLST criteria for a positive screen (P < 0.001). Cases had higher estimated likelihood of lung cancer (P < 0.001). Abnormalities included pulmonary nodules ≥4 mm (n = 16), mediastinal (n = 8) and hilar (n = 6) masses, and bronchial lesions (n = 6). Cancers were stage III or IV at diagnosis in 32/44 cases (73%); 37/44 patients (84%) died of lung cancer, compared to 225/649 (35%) for all screen-detected cancers (P < 0.0001). Most cases met the NLST criteria for a positive screen. Awareness of missed abnormalities and interpretation errors may aid lung cancer identification in CT screening. (orig.)

  4. Colorectal-Cancer Incidence and Mortality with Screening Flexible Sigmoidoscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoen, Robert E.; Pinsky, Paul F.; Weissfeld, Joel L.; Yokochi, Lance A.; Church, Timothy; Laiyemo, Adeyinka O.; Bresalier, Robert; Andriole, Gerald L.; Buys, Saundra S.; Crawford, E. David; Fouad, Mona N.; Isaacs, Claudine; Johnson, Christine C.; Reding, Douglas J.; O'Brien, Barbara; Carrick, Danielle M.; Wright, Patrick; Riley, Thomas L.; Purdue, Mark P.; Izmirlian, Grant; Kramer, Barnett S.; Miller, Anthony B.; Gohagan, John K.; Prorok, Philip C.; Berg, Christine D.

    2013-01-01

    Background The benefits of endoscopic testing for colorectal-cancer screening are uncertain. We evaluated the effect of screening with flexible sigmoidoscopy on colorectal-cancer incidence and mortality. Methods From 1993 through 2001, we randomly assigned 154,900 men and women 55 to 74 years of age either to screening with flexible sigmoidoscopy, with a repeat screening at 3 or 5 years, or to usual care. Cases of colorectal cancer and deaths from the disease were ascertained. Results Of the 77,445 participants randomly assigned to screening (intervention group), 83.5% underwent baseline flexible sigmoidoscopy and 54.0% were screened at 3 or 5 years. The incidence of colorectal cancer after a median follow-up of 11.9 years was 11.9 cases per 10,000 person-years in the intervention group (1012 cases), as compared with 15.2 cases per 10,000 person-years in the usual-care group (1287 cases), which represents a 21% reduction (relative risk, 0.79; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.72 to 0.85; Pcolorectal cancer (479 cases in the intervention group vs. 669 cases in the usual-care group; relative risk, 0.71; 95% CI, 0.64 to 0.80; Pcolorectal cancer (512 cases vs. 595 cases; relative risk, 0.86; 95% CI, 0.76 to 0.97; P = 0.01). There were 2.9 deaths from colorectal cancer per 10,000 person-years in the intervention group (252 deaths), as compared with 3.9 per 10,000 person-years in the usual-care group (341 deaths), which represents a 26% reduction (relative risk, 0.74; 95% CI, 0.63 to 0.87; Pcolorectal cancer was reduced by 50% (87 deaths in the intervention group vs. 175 in the usual-care group; relative risk, 0.50; 95% CI, 0.38 to 0.64; Pcolorectal cancer was unaffected (143 and 147 deaths, respectively; relative risk, 0.97; 95% CI, 0.77 to 1.22; P = 0.81). Conclusions Screening with flexible sigmoidoscopy was associated with a significant decrease in colorectal-cancer incidence (in both the distal and proximal colon) and mortality (distal colon only). (Funded by the

  5. Screening Technologies for Target Identification in Pancreatic Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michl, Patrick, E-mail: michlp@med.uni-marburg.de; Ripka, Stefanie; Gress, Thomas; Buchholz, Malte [Department of Gastroenterology and Endocrinology, University Hospital, Philipps-University Marburg, Baldinger Strasse, D-35043 Marburg (Germany)

    2010-12-29

    Pancreatic cancer exhibits an extraordinarily high level of resistance to almost any kind of systemic therapy evaluated in clinical trials so far. Therefore, the identification of novel therapeutic targets is urgently required. High-throughput screens have emerged as an important tool to identify putative targets for diagnosis and therapy in an unbiased manner. More than a decade ago, microarray technology was introduced to identify differentially expressed genes in pancreatic cancer as compared to normal pancreas, chronic pancreatitis and other cancer types located in close proximity to the pancreas. In addition, proteomic screens have facilitated the identification of differentially secreted proteins in body fluids of pancreatic cancer patients, serving as possible biomarkers. Recently, RNA interference-based loss-of-function screens have been used to identify functionally relevant genes, whose knock-down has impact on pancreatic cancer cell viability, thereby representing potential new targets for therapeutic intervention. This review summarizes recent results of transcriptional, proteomic and functional screens in pancreatic cancer and discusses potentials and limitations of the respective technologies as well as their impact on future therapeutic developments.

  6. Screening Technologies for Target Identification in Pancreatic Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michl, Patrick; Ripka, Stefanie; Gress, Thomas; Buchholz, Malte

    2010-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer exhibits an extraordinarily high level of resistance to almost any kind of systemic therapy evaluated in clinical trials so far. Therefore, the identification of novel therapeutic targets is urgently required. High-throughput screens have emerged as an important tool to identify putative targets for diagnosis and therapy in an unbiased manner. More than a decade ago, microarray technology was introduced to identify differentially expressed genes in pancreatic cancer as compared to normal pancreas, chronic pancreatitis and other cancer types located in close proximity to the pancreas. In addition, proteomic screens have facilitated the identification of differentially secreted proteins in body fluids of pancreatic cancer patients, serving as possible biomarkers. Recently, RNA interference-based loss-of-function screens have been used to identify functionally relevant genes, whose knock-down has impact on pancreatic cancer cell viability, thereby representing potential new targets for therapeutic intervention. This review summarizes recent results of transcriptional, proteomic and functional screens in pancreatic cancer and discusses potentials and limitations of the respective technologies as well as their impact on future therapeutic developments

  7. [CBO guideline 'Breast cancer: screening and diagnosis'

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rutgers, E.; Tuut, M.K.; Verbeek, A.L.M.

    2001-01-01

    New developments in the diagnostic procedures for women with an increased risk for, or symptoms related to breast cancer led to development of new guidelines by a working group under the auspices of the Dutch Institute for Health Care Improvement, the Organisation of Comprehensive Cancer Centres and

  8. Colorectal cancer screening | Schneider | Continuing Medical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most common cancers in the Western world, with an estimated incidence of 148 810 cases in the USA in 2008, and about 50 000 deaths from this disease. If detected early, patients with disease localised to the colonic wall have a 5-year survival of 90%. The 5-year survival for patients ...

  9. Results of breast cancer screening in first generation migrants in Northwest Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, O.; van Peppen, AM; Ory, FG; van Leeuwen, F.E.

    2005-01-01

    To determine breast cancer screening results according to country of birth data were used from the breast cancer screening organization of the Comprehensive Cancer Centre Amsterdam, The Netherlands. Overall (age-adjusted) attendance of the breast cancer screening was 76% for women aged 50-69.

  10. Socioeconomic Disparities in Breast Cancer Screening in Hawaii

    OpenAIRE

    Timothy Halliday, PhD; Deborah A. Taira, ScD; James Davis, PhD; Henry Chan

    2007-01-01

    Introduction Despite evidence that breast cancer screening reduces morbidity and mortality, many women do not obtain mammograms. Our objective was to analyze the relationship between income and mammography screening for members enrolled in a large health plan in Hawaii. Methods We analyzed claims data for women (N = 46,328) aged 50 to 70 years during 2003 and 2004. We used parametric and nonparametric regression techniques. We used probit estimation to conduct multivariate analysis. Results A...

  11. Value of audits in breast cancer screening quality assurance programmes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geertse, Tanya D; Holland, Roland; Timmers, Janine M H; Paap, Ellen; Pijnappel, Ruud M; Broeders, Mireille J M; den Heeten, Gerard J

    2015-11-01

    Our aim was to retrospectively evaluate the results of all audits performed in the past and to assess their value in the quality assurance of the Dutch breast cancer screening programme. The audit team of the Dutch Reference Centre for Screening (LRCB) conducts triennial audits of all 17 reading units. During audits, screening outcomes like recall rates and detection rates are assessed and a radiological review is performed. This study investigates and compares the results of four audit series: 1996-2000, 2001-2005, 2003-2007 and 2010-2013. The analysis shows increased recall rates (from 0.66%, 1.07%, 1.22% to 1.58%), increased detection rates (from 3.3, 4.5, 4.8 to 5.4 per 1000) and increased sensitivity (from 64.5%, 68.7%, 70.5% to 71.6%), over the four audit series. The percentage of 'missed cancers' among interval cancers and advanced screen-detected cancers did not change (p = 0.4). Our audits not only provide an opportunity for assessing screening outcomes, but also provide moments of self-reflection with peers. For radiologists, an accurate understanding of their performance is essential to identify points of improvement. We therefore recommend a radiological review of screening examinations and immediate feedback as part of an audit. • Radiological review and immediate feedback are recommended as part of an audit. • For breast screening radiologists, audits provide moments of self-reflection with peers. • Radiological review of screening examinations provides insights in recall behaviour. • Accurate understanding of radiologists' performance is essential to identify points of improvement.

  12. Prostate cancer in Brazil and Latin America: epidemiology and screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Rocha Tourinho-Barbosa

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Introduction: Prostate cancer is one of the tumors with higher incidence and mortality among men in the World. Epidemiological data are influenced by life expectancy of population, available diagnostic methods, correct collection of data and quality of health services. Screening of the disease is not standardized around the World. Up till now there is no consensus about the risks versus benefits of early detection. There are still missing data about this pathology in Latin America. Objective: to revise current epidemiologic situation and early diagnosis policies of prostate cancer in Brazil and Latin America. Materials and Methods: Medline, Cochrane Library and SciELO databases were reviewed on the subject of epidemiology and screening of prostate cancer. Screening research was performed in websites on national public health organizations and Latin America. Screening recommendations were obtained from those governmental organizations and from Latin American urological societies and compared to the most prominent regulatory agencies and societies of specialists and generalists from around the World. Results: Brazil and Latin America have a special position in relation to incidence and mortality of prostate cancer. In Brazil, it occupies the first position regarding incidence of cancer in men and the second cause of mortality. Central America has the highest rate of mortality of the continent with lower incidence/mortality ratios. Screening recommendations are very distinct, mainly among regulatory organs and urological societies. Conclusion: prostate cancer epidemiology is an important health public topic. Data collection related to incidence and mortality is still precarious, especially in less developed countries. It is necessary to follow-up long term screening studies results in order to conclude its benefits.

  13. Mammography - importance, possibilities, current screening situation of the breast cancer and further expansion possibilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bella, V.

    2006-01-01

    Breast cancer still remains the most frequent cancer in women population. Incidence of breast cancer is increasing, but mortality is decreasing. The most important for decreasing of breast cancer mortality is early diagnostic, especially screening. Screening is a form of secondary prevention. Although many screening studies have shown that mammography decreases of the breast cancer death, there are still many controversies. The published recommendations for the breast screening are sometimes very different. (author)

  14. Should low-income countries invest in breast cancer screening?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyawali, Bishal; Shimokata, Tomoya; Honda, Kazunori; Tsukuura, Hiroaki; Ando, Yuichi

    2016-11-01

    With the increase in incidence and mortality of breast cancer in low-income countries (LICs), the question of whether LICs should promote breast cancer screening for early detection has gained tremendous importance. Because LICs have limited financial resources, the value of screening must be carefully considered before integrating screening programs into national healthcare system. Mammography-the most commonly used screening tool in developed countries-reduces breast cancer-specific mortality among women of age group 50-69, but the evidence is not so clear for younger women. Further, it does not reduce the overall mortality. Because the women in LICs tend to get breast cancer at younger age and are faced with various competing causes of mortality, LICs need to seriously evaluate whether mammographic screening presents a good value for the investment. Instead, we suggest a special module of clinical breast examination that could provide similar benefits at a very low cost. Nevertheless, we believe that LICs would obtain a much greater value for their investment if they promote primary prevention by tobacco cessation, healthier food and healthier lifestyle campaigns instead.

  15. Mammography Screening Among African-American Women with a Family History of Breast Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lipkus, Issac

    1997-01-01

    Comparisons were made between African-American women with and without a family history of breast cancer with respect to mammography screening, attitudes towards mammography screening and perceptions...

  16. Screening for lung cancer: Does MRI have a role?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biederer, Juergen; Ohno, Yoshiharu; Hatabu, Hiroto; Schiebler, Mark L.; Beek, Edwin J.R. van; Vogel-Claussen, Jens; Kauczor, Hans-Ulrich

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • From a technical point of view, the feasibility of using MRI for lung cancer screening is evident. • Experience with the clinical use of lung MRI is growing, standardized protocols are available. • If lung cancer screening becomes effective, there will be an opportunity for MRI as primary screening modality or adjunct to CT. • Validation of better patient outcomes (test effectiveness) for the use of MRI is still missing, therefore. • A simultaneous evaluation of MRI should be embedded into any future prospective lung cancer screening trials. - Abstract: While the inauguration of national low dose computed tomographic (LDCT) lung cancer screening programs has started in the USA, other countries remain undecided, awaiting the results of ongoing trials. The continuous technical development achieved by stronger gradients, parallel imaging and shorter echo time has made lung magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) an interesting alternative to CT. For the detection of solid lesions with lung MRI, experimental and clinical studies have shown a threshold size of 3–4 mm for nodules, with detection rates of 60–90% for lesions of 5–8 mm and close to 100% for lesions of 8 mm or larger. From experimental work, the sensitivity for infiltrative, non-solid lesions would be expected to be similarly high as that for solid lesions, but the published data for the MRI detection of lepidic growth type adenocarcinoma is sparse. Moreover, biological features such as a longer T2 time of lung cancer tissue, tissue compliance and a more rapid uptake of contrast material compared to granulomatous diseases, in principle should allow for the multi-parametric characterization of lung pathology. Experience with the clinical use of lung MRI is growing. There are now standardized protocols which are easy to implement on current scanner hardware configurations. The image quality has become more robust and currently ongoing studies will help to further contribute experience

  17. Screening for lung cancer: Does MRI have a role?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biederer, Juergen, E-mail: Juergen.biederer@uni-heidelberg.de [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University Hospital of Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld 110, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Translational Lung Research Center Heidelberg (TLRC), Member of the German Lung ResearchCenter (DZL), Im Neuenheimer Feld 430, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Radiologie Darmstadt, Gross-Gerau County Hospital, 64521 Gross-Gerau (Germany); Ohno, Yoshiharu [Division of Functional and Diagnostic Imaging Research, Department of Radiology, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Kobe (Japan); Advanced Biomedical Imaging Research Centre, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Kobe (Japan); Hatabu, Hiroto [Department of Radiology, Brigham and Women’s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Schiebler, Mark L. [Department of Radiology, UW-Madison School of Medicine and Public Health, Madison, WI (United States); Beek, Edwin J.R. van [Clinical Research Imaging Centre, University of Edinburgh, Scotland (United Kingdom); Vogel-Claussen, Jens [Institute for Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Hannover Medical School, Hannover (Germany); Biomedical Research in Endstage and Obstructive Lung Disease Hannover (BREATH), Member of the German Center for Lung Research, Hannover (Germany); Kauczor, Hans-Ulrich [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University Hospital of Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld 110, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Translational Lung Research Center Heidelberg (TLRC), Member of the German Lung ResearchCenter (DZL), Im Neuenheimer Feld 430, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany)

    2017-01-15

    Highlights: • From a technical point of view, the feasibility of using MRI for lung cancer screening is evident. • Experience with the clinical use of lung MRI is growing, standardized protocols are available. • If lung cancer screening becomes effective, there will be an opportunity for MRI as primary screening modality or adjunct to CT. • Validation of better patient outcomes (test effectiveness) for the use of MRI is still missing, therefore. • A simultaneous evaluation of MRI should be embedded into any future prospective lung cancer screening trials. - Abstract: While the inauguration of national low dose computed tomographic (LDCT) lung cancer screening programs has started in the USA, other countries remain undecided, awaiting the results of ongoing trials. The continuous technical development achieved by stronger gradients, parallel imaging and shorter echo time has made lung magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) an interesting alternative to CT. For the detection of solid lesions with lung MRI, experimental and clinical studies have shown a threshold size of 3–4 mm for nodules, with detection rates of 60–90% for lesions of 5–8 mm and close to 100% for lesions of 8 mm or larger. From experimental work, the sensitivity for infiltrative, non-solid lesions would be expected to be similarly high as that for solid lesions, but the published data for the MRI detection of lepidic growth type adenocarcinoma is sparse. Moreover, biological features such as a longer T2 time of lung cancer tissue, tissue compliance and a more rapid uptake of contrast material compared to granulomatous diseases, in principle should allow for the multi-parametric characterization of lung pathology. Experience with the clinical use of lung MRI is growing. There are now standardized protocols which are easy to implement on current scanner hardware configurations. The image quality has become more robust and currently ongoing studies will help to further contribute experience

  18. Screening for Bladder and Other Urothelial Cancers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cancer is the focus of this summary. Enlarge Anatomy of the male urinary system (left panel) and female urinary system (right panel) showing the kidneys, ureters, bladder, and urethra. Urine is made in ...

  19. Breast Cancer Screening Using Photonic Technology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Alfano, R. R

    1999-01-01

    ...) light for imaging and diagnosis of cancerous lesions of human breast. The imaging method involves illuminating the specimen with ultrashort pulses of NIR laser light and construction of images using two approaches...

  20. Metastatic prostate cancer in the modern era of PSA screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip A. Fontenot Jr

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Introduction To characterize initial presentation and PSA screening status in a contemporary cohort of men treated for metastatic prostate cancer at our institution. Materials and methods We reviewed records of 160 men treated for metastatic prostate cancer between 2008-2014 and assessed initial presentation, categorizing patients into four groups. Groups 1 and 2 presented with localized disease and received treatment. These men suffered biochemical recurrence late (>1 year or earlier (<1 year, respectively, and developed metastases. Groups 3 and 4 had asymptomatic and symptomatic metastases at the outset of their diagnosis. Patients with a first PSA at age 55 or younger were considered to have guideline-directed screening. Results Complete records were available on 157 men for initial presentation and 155 men for PSA screening. Groups 1, 2, 3 and 4 included 27 (17%, 7 (5%, 69 (44% and 54 (34% patients, respectively. Twenty (13% patients received guideline-directed PSA screening, 5/155 (3% patients presented with metastases prior to age 55 with their first PSA, and 130/155 (84% had their first PSA after age 55, of which 122/130 (94% had metastasis at the time of diagnosis. Conclusion Despite widespread screening, most men treated for metastatic prostate cancer at our institution presented with metastases rather than progressed after definitive treatment. Furthermore, 25 (16% patients received guideline-directed PSA screening at or before age 55. These data highlight that, despite mass screening efforts, patients treated for incurable disease at our institution may not have been a result of a failed screening test, but a failure to be screened.

  1. Metastatic prostate cancer in the modern era of PSA screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontenot, Philip A.; Nehra, Avinash; Parker, William; Wyre, Hadley; Mirza, Moben; Duchene, David A.; Holzbeierlein, Jeffrey; Thrasher, James Brantley; Veldhuizen, Peter Van; Lee, Eugene K.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Introduction To characterize initial presentation and PSA screening status in a contemporary cohort of men treated for metastatic prostate cancer at our institution. Materials and methods We reviewed records of 160 men treated for metastatic prostate cancer between 2008-2014 and assessed initial presentation, categorizing patients into four groups. Groups 1 and 2 presented with localized disease and received treatment. These men suffered biochemical recurrence late (>1 year) or earlier (<1 year), respectively, and developed metastases. Groups 3 and 4 had asymptomatic and symptomatic metastases at the outset of their diagnosis. Patients with a first PSA at age 55 or younger were considered to have guideline-directed screening. Results Complete records were available on 157 men for initial presentation and 155 men for PSA screening. Groups 1, 2, 3 and 4 included 27 (17%), 7 (5%), 69 (44%) and 54 (34%) patients, respectively. Twenty (13%) patients received guideline-directed PSA screening, 5/155 (3%) patients presented with metastases prior to age 55 with their first PSA, and 130/155 (84%) had their first PSA after age 55, of which 122/130 (94%) had metastasis at the time of diagnosis. Conclusion Despite widespread screening, most men treated for metastatic prostate cancer at our institution presented with metastases rather than progressed after definitive treatment. Furthermore, 25 (16%) patients received guideline-directed PSA screening at or before age 55. These data highlight that, despite mass screening efforts, patients treated for incurable disease at our institution may not have been a result of a failed screening test, but a failure to be screened. PMID:28338310

  2. Patient-provider language concordance and colorectal cancer screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linsky, Amy; McIntosh, Nathalie; Cabral, Howard; Kazis, Lewis E

    2011-02-01

    Patient-provider language barriers may play a role in health-care disparities, including obtaining colorectal cancer (CRC) screening. Professional interpreters and language-concordant providers may mitigate these disparities. DESIGN, SUBJECTS, AND MAIN MEASURES: We performed a retrospective cohort study of individuals age 50 years and older who were categorized as English-Concordant (spoke English at home, n = 21,594); Other Language-Concordant (did not speak English at home but someone at their provider's office spoke their language, n = 1,463); or Other Language-Discordant (did not speak English at home and no one at their provider's spoke their language, n = 240). Multivariate logistic regression assessed the association of language concordance with colorectal cancer screening. Compared to English speakers, non-English speakers had lower use of colorectal cancer screening (30.7% vs 50.8%; OR, 0.63; 95% CI, 0.51-0.76). Compared to the English-Concordant group, the Language-Discordant group had similar screening (adjusted OR, 0.84; 95% CI, 0.58-1.21), while the Language-Concordant group had lower screening (adjusted OR, 0.57; 95% CI, 0.46-0.71). Rates of CRC screening are lower in individuals who do not speak English at home compared to those who do. However, the Language-Discordant cohort had similar rates to those with English concordance, while the Language-Concordant cohort had lower rates of CRC screening. This may be due to unmeasured differences among the cohorts in patient, provider, and health care system characteristics. These results suggest that providers should especially promote the importance of CRC screening to non-English speaking patients, but that language barriers do not fully account for CRC screening rate disparities in these populations.

  3. Introduction of the colorectal cancer screening program: results from a single centre study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeer, Nina C A; Bahadoer, Renu R; Bastiaannet, Esther; Holman, Fabian A; Meershoek-Klein Kranenbarg, Elma; Liefers, Gerrit-Jan; van de Velde, Cornelis J H; Peeters, Koen C M J

    2018-06-19

    In 2014, a national colorectal cancer (CRC) screening program was launched in the Netherlands. It is difficult to assess for the individual CRC patient whether the oncological benefits of surgery will outweigh the morbidity of the procedure, especially in early lesions. This study compares patient and tumour characteristics between screen-detected and non-screen-detected patients. Secondly, we present an overview of treatment options and clinical dilemmas when treating patients with early stage colorectal disease. Between January 2014 and December 2016, all patients with non-malignant polyps or CRC who were referred to the Department of Surgery of the Leiden University Medical Centre in the Netherlands were included. Baseline characteristics, type of treatment and short-term outcomes of patients with screen-detected and non-screen-detected colorectal tumours were compared. A total of 426 patients were included, of whom 240 (56.3%) were identified by screening. Non-screen-detected patients more often had comorbidity (p=0.03), the primary tumour was more often located in the rectum (p=0.001) and there was a higher rate of metastatic disease (p<0.001). Among 354 surgically treated patients, postoperative adverse events did not significantly differ between the two groups (p=0.38). Of 46 patients with T1 CRC in the endoscopic resection specimen, 23 underwent surgical resection of which only 30.4% had residual invasive disease at colectomy. Despite differences in comorbidity and stage, surgical outcome of patients with screen-detected tumours compared to non-screen-detected tumours was not significantly different. Considering its limited oncological benefits as well as the rate of adverse events, surgery for non-malignant polyps and T1 CRC should be considered carefully. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  4. Risk-benefit analysis of 18FDG PET cancer screening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murano, Takeshi; Daisaki, Hiromitsu; Terauchi, Takashi; Iinuma, Takeshi; Tateno, Yukio; Tateishi, Ukihide; Kato, Kazuaki; Inoue, Tomio

    2008-01-01

    The benefits of 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose ( 18 FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) cancer screening are expected to include a large population of examinees and are intended for a healthy group. Therefore, we attempted to determine the benefit/risk ratio, estimated risk of radiation exposure, and benefit of cancer detection. We used software that embodied the method of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) to calculate the average duration of life of radiation exposure. We calculated the lifesaving person years of benefit to be obtained by 18 FDG PET cancer screening detection. We also calculated the benefit/risk ratio using life-shortening and lifesaving person years. According to age, the benefit/risk ratio was more than 1 at 35-39 years old for males and 30-34 years old for females. 18 FDG PET cancer screening also is effective for examinees older than this. A risk-benefit analysis of 18 FDG-PET/computed tomography (CT) cancer screening will be necessary in the future. (author)

  5. A deep learning method for early screening of lung cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kunpeng; Jiang, Huiqin; Ma, Ling; Gao, Jianbo; Yang, Xiaopeng

    2018-04-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related deaths among men. In this paper, we propose a pulmonary nodule detection method for early screening of lung cancer based on the improved AlexNet model. In order to maintain the same image quality as the existing B/S architecture PACS system, we convert the original CT image into JPEG format image by analyzing the DICOM file firstly. Secondly, in view of the large size and complex background of CT chest images, we design the convolution neural network on basis of AlexNet model and sparse convolution structure. At last we train our models on the software named DIGITS which is provided by NVIDIA. The main contribution of this paper is to apply the convolutional neural network for the early screening of lung cancer and improve the screening accuracy by combining the AlexNet model with the sparse convolution structure. We make a series of experiments on the chest CT images using the proposed method, of which the sensitivity and specificity indicates that the method presented in this paper can effectively improve the accuracy of early screening of lung cancer and it has certain clinical significance at the same time.

  6. ESR/ERS white paper on lung cancer screening

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kauczor, Hans-Ulrich; Stackelberg, Oyunbileg von [University Hospital Heidelberg, Dept of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Heidelberg (Germany); Member of the German Lung Research Center, Translational Lung Research Center, Heidelberg (Germany); Bonomo, Lorenzo [A. Gemelli University Hospital, Institute of Radiology, Rome (Italy); Gaga, Mina [Athens Chest Hospital, 7th Resp. Med. Dept and Asthma Center, Athens (Greece); Nackaerts, Kristiaan [KU Leuven-University of Leuven, University Hospitals Leuven, Department of Respiratory Diseases/Respiratory Oncology Unit, Leuven (Belgium); Peled, Nir [Tel Aviv University, Davidoff Cancer Center, Rabin Medical Center, Tel Aviv (Israel); Prokop, Mathias [Radboud University Medical Center, Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Remy-Jardin, Martine [Department of Thoracic Imaging, Hospital Calmette (EA 2694), CHRU et Universite de Lille, Lille (France); Sculier, Jean-Paul [Universite Libre de Bruxelles, Thoracic oncology, Institut Jules Bordet, Brussels (Belgium); Collaboration: on behalf of the European Society of Radiology (ESR) and the European Respiratory Society (ERS)

    2015-09-15

    Lung cancer is the most frequently fatal cancer, with poor survival once the disease is advanced. Annual low-dose computed tomography has shown a survival benefit in screening individuals at high risk for lung cancer. Based on the available evidence, the European Society of Radiology and the European Respiratory Society recommend lung cancer screening in comprehensive, quality-assured, longitudinal programmes within a clinical trial or in routine clinical practice at certified multidisciplinary medical centres. Minimum requirements include: standardised operating procedures for low-dose image acquisition, computer-assisted nodule evaluation, and positive screening results and their management; inclusion/exclusion criteria; expectation management; and smoking cessation programmes. Further refinements are recommended to increase quality, outcome and cost-effectiveness of lung cancer screening: inclusion of risk models, reduction of effective radiation dose, computer-assisted volumetric measurements and assessment of comorbidities (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and vascular calcification). All these requirements should be adjusted to the regional infrastructure and healthcare system, in order to exactly define eligibility using a risk model, nodule management and a quality assurance plan. The establishment of a central registry, including a biobank and an image bank, and preferably on a European level, is strongly encouraged. (orig.)

  7. ESR/ERS white paper on lung cancer screening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kauczor, Hans-Ulrich; Stackelberg, Oyunbileg von; Bonomo, Lorenzo; Gaga, Mina; Nackaerts, Kristiaan; Peled, Nir; Prokop, Mathias; Remy-Jardin, Martine; Sculier, Jean-Paul

    2015-01-01

    Lung cancer is the most frequently fatal cancer, with poor survival once the disease is advanced. Annual low-dose computed tomography has shown a survival benefit in screening individuals at high risk for lung cancer. Based on the available evidence, the European Society of Radiology and the European Respiratory Society recommend lung cancer screening in comprehensive, quality-assured, longitudinal programmes within a clinical trial or in routine clinical practice at certified multidisciplinary medical centres. Minimum requirements include: standardised operating procedures for low-dose image acquisition, computer-assisted nodule evaluation, and positive screening results and their management; inclusion/exclusion criteria; expectation management; and smoking cessation programmes. Further refinements are recommended to increase quality, outcome and cost-effectiveness of lung cancer screening: inclusion of risk models, reduction of effective radiation dose, computer-assisted volumetric measurements and assessment of comorbidities (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and vascular calcification). All these requirements should be adjusted to the regional infrastructure and healthcare system, in order to exactly define eligibility using a risk model, nodule management and a quality assurance plan. The establishment of a central registry, including a biobank and an image bank, and preferably on a European level, is strongly encouraged. (orig.)

  8. Implementing academic detailing for breast cancer screening in underserved communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashford Alfred R

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background African American and Hispanic women, such as those living in the northern Manhattan and the South Bronx neighborhoods of New York City, are generally underserved with regard to breast cancer prevention and screening practices, even though they are more likely to die of breast cancer than are other women. Primary care physicians (PCPs are critical for the recommendation of breast cancer screening to their patients. Academic detailing is a promising strategy for improving PCP performance in recommending breast cancer screening, yet little is known about the effects of academic detailing on breast cancer screening among physicians who practice in medically underserved areas. We assessed the effectiveness of an enhanced, multi-component academic detailing intervention in increasing recommendations for breast cancer screening within a sample of community-based urban physicians. Methods Two medically underserved communities were matched and randomized to intervention and control arms. Ninety-four primary care community (i.e., not hospital based physicians in northern Manhattan were compared to 74 physicians in the South Bronx neighborhoods of the New York City metropolitan area. Intervention participants received enhanced physician-directed academic detailing, using the American Cancer Society guidelines for the early detection of breast cancer. Control group physicians received no intervention. We conducted interviews to measure primary care physicians' self-reported recommendation of mammography and Clinical Breast Examination (CBE, and whether PCPs taught women how to perform breast self examination (BSE. Results Using multivariate analyses, we found a statistically significant intervention effect on the recommendation of CBE to women patients age 40 and over; mammography and breast self examination reports increased across both arms from baseline to follow-up, according to physician self-report. At post-test, physician

  9. Screening for second primary lung cancer after treatment of laryngeal cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ritoe, Savitri C; Krabbe, Paul F M; Jansen, Margriet M G; Festen, Jan; Joosten, Frank B M; Kaanders, J Hans A M; van den Hoogen, Frank J A; Verbeek, André L M; Marres, Henri A M

    OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS: As a result of smoking, patients who have received curative treatment for laryngeal cancer run a high risk of developing lung cancer. Therefore, these patients enter a screening program that aims to detect lung cancer at an asymptomatic stage. The study evaluated whether

  10. Screening for second primary lung cancer after treatment of laryngeal cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ritoe, Savitri C; Krabbe, Paul F M; Jansen, Margriet M G; Festen, Jan; Joosten, Frank B M; Kaanders, J Hans A M; van den Hoogen, Frank J A; Verbeek, André L M; Marres, Henri A M

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS: As a result of smoking, patients who have received curative treatment for laryngeal cancer run a high risk of developing lung cancer. Therefore, these patients enter a screening program that aims to detect lung cancer at an asymptomatic stage. The study evaluated whether

  11. Awareness of endometrial cancer risk and compliance with screening in hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ketabi, Zohreh; Mosgaard, Berit J; Gerdes, Anne-Marie

    2012-01-01

    Women with hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC) have a 40-60% lifetime risk for endometrial cancer. Guidelines in Denmark recommend gynecologic screening for female members of families with HNPCC. We estimated the knowledge of endometrial cancer risk and identified possible predictors...

  12. Urinary tract cancer and hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer : Risks and screening options

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sijmons, RH; Kiemeney, LALM; Witjes, JA; Vasen, HFA

    Purpose: We investigate the risk of the different types of urinary tract cancer in hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer families and review screening options. Materials and Methods: We retrospectively calculated the relative and cumulative risks of developing urinary tract cancer by comparing

  13. Prostate Cancer Screening : The effect on prostate cancer mortality and incidence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.J. van Leeuwen (Pim)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractAt first glance, deciding whether to get the PSA screening test for prostate cancer seems to be pretty straightforward and attractive. It’s a simple blood test that can pick up the prostate cancer long before your symptoms appear. After all, your prostate cancer is earlier treated

  14. Breast cancer screening; cost-effective in practice?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koning, Harry J. de

    2000-01-01

    The main aim of national breast screening is a reduction in breast cancer mortality. The data on the reduction in breast cancer mortality from three (of the five) Swedish trials in particular gave rise to the expectation that the Dutch programme of 2-yearly screening for women aged 50-70 would produce a 16% reduction in the total population. In all likelihood, many of the years of life gained as a result of screening are enjoyed in good health. According to its critics the actual benefit that can be achieved from the national breast cancer screening programmes is overstated. Considerable benefits have recently been demonstrated in England and Wales. However, the fall was so considerable in such a relatively short space of time that screening (started in 1987) was thought to only have played a small part. As far as the Dutch screening programme is concerned it is still too early to reach any conclusions about a possible reduction in mortality. The first short-term results of the screening are favourable and as good as (or better than) expectations. In Swedish regions where mammographic screening was introduced, a 19% reduction in breast cancer mortality can be estimated at population level, and recently a 20% reduction was presented in the UK. In countries where women are expected to make appointments for screening themselves, the attendance figures are significantly lower and the quality of the process as a whole is sometimes poorer. The benefits of breast cancer screening need to be carefully balanced against the burden to women and to the health care system. Mass breast screening requires many resources and will be a costly service. Cost-effectiveness of a breast cancer screening programme can be estimated using a computer model. Published cost-effectiveness ratios may differ tremendously, but are often the result of different types of calculation, time periods considered, including or excluding downstream cost. The approach of simulation and estimation is here

  15. Risk of cancer radioinduced by mammographic screening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Correa, Rosangela da Silveira; Peixoto, Joao Emilio; Ferreira, Rubemar de Souza; Freitas-Junior, Ruffo

    2013-01-01

    This work aims to estimate the risk benefit of mammography, in terms of the number of lives saved/number of lives lost, in the female population of the State of Goias, Brazil, depending on the age range indicated for screening and the type of technology available

  16. Screening adherence and cancer risk perceptions in colorectal cancer survivors with Lynch-like syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, L H; Burton-Chase, A M; Advani, S; Fellman, B; Polivka, K M; Yuan, Y; Lynch, P M; Peterson, S K

    2016-03-01

    Cancer screening recommendations for patients with Lynch-like syndrome (LLS) are not well defined. We evaluated adherence to Lynch syndrome (LS) screening recommendations, cancer risk perceptions, and communication within the families among colorectal cancer (CRC) survivors with LLS. Thirty-four participants with LLS completed a questionnaire about risk perception, adherence to LS screening recommendations, and communication with relatives. Clinical data were obtained from medical records. Most participants (76%) believed they should undergo colonoscopy every 1-2 years. Only 41% correctly interpreted their genetic tests as uninformative negative or as variant of unknown significance for LS. Less than half had had an upper gastrointestinal endoscopy for screening purpose. Among female participants, 86% had been screened for endometrial cancer (EC) and 71% for ovarian cancer. Most participants had informed relatives about the CRC diagnosis and advised them to undergo CRC screening, but only 50% advised female relatives to be screened for EC and only one-third advised relatives to have genetic counseling. Most CRC survivors with LLS follow the same cancer screening recommended for LS patients but do not understand the meaning of LLS. Greater care must be devoted to communicating the implications of nondiagnostic germline mutation testing among patients with LLS. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Physician-patient discussions of controversial cancer screening tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, A S; Shridharani, K V; Lou, W; Bernstein, J; Horowitz, C R

    2001-02-01

    Screening mammography for younger women and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) measurement have controversial benefits and known potential adverse consequences. While providing informed consent and eliciting patient preference have been advocated for these tests, little is known about how often these discussions take place or about barriers to these discussions. We administered a survey to medical house staff and attending physicians practicing primary care. The survey examined physicians' likelihood of discussing screening mammography and PSA testing, and factors influencing the frequency and quality of these discussions. For the three scenarios, 16% to 34% of physicians stated that they do not discuss the screening tests. The likelihood of having a discussion was significantly associated with house staff physicians' belief that PSA screening is advantageous; house staff and attending physicians' intention to order a PSA test, and attending physicians' intention to order a mammogram; and a controversial indication for screening. The most commonly identified barriers to discussions were lack of time, the complexity of the topic, and a language barrier. Physicians report they often do not discuss cancer screening tests with their patients. Our finding that physicians' beliefs and intention to order the tests, and extraneous factors such as time constraints and a language barrier, are associated with discussions indicates that some patients may be inappropriately denied the opportunity to choose whether to screen for breast and prostate cancer.

  18. Physician–Patient Discussions of Controversial Cancer Screening Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Andrew S.; Shridharani, Kanan V.; Lou, Wendy; Bernstein, Jeffrey; Horowitz, Carol R.

    2016-01-01

    Background Screening mammography for younger women and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) measurement have controversial benefits and known potential adverse consequences. While providing informed consent and eliciting patient preference have been advocated for these tests, little is known about how often these discussions take place or about barriers to these discussions. Methods We administered a survey to medical house staff and attending physicians practicing primary care. The survey examined physicians’ likelihood of discussing screening mammography and PSA testing, and factors influencing the frequency and quality of these discussions. Results For the three scenarios, 16% to 34% of physicians stated that they do not discuss the screening tests. The likelihood of having a discussion was significantly associated with house staff physicians’ belief that PSA screening is advantageous; house staff and attending physicians’ intention to order a PSA test, and attending physicians’ intention to order a mammogram; and a controversial indication for screening. The most commonly identified barriers to discussions were lack of time, the complexity of the topic, and a language barrier. Conclusions Physicians report they often do not discuss cancer screening tests with their patients. Our finding that physicians’ beliefs and intention to order the tests, and extraneous factors such as time constraints and a language barrier, are associated with discussions indicates that some patients may be inappropriately denied the opportunity to choose whether to screen for breast and prostate cancer. PMID:11165455

  19. Estimating cancer risks induced by CT screening for Korea population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Hye Jeong; Yang, Won Seok

    2016-01-01

    Computed Tomography(CT) has been used to diagnose early stages of cancer and other diseases. Since the number of CT screening has been increasing, there is now a debate about the possible benefits and risks of CT screening on asymptomatic individuals. CT screening has definite benefits, however the radiation risk of screening an asymptomatic individual is a serious problem that cannot be overlooked. Despite its potential risks, CT screening for asymptomatic individual has been gradually increased in Korea and it is attributed to increase collective effective dose. Therefore, we reported the risk level of each organ which is included in scan field for CT screening and analyzed and then evaluated the risk level of Korean population comparison to others, Hong Kong, U.S. and U.K. populations. LARs are lower with older ages for all populations of both sexes. We recommend CT screening after the age of 40 because from that age, LAR decreases and the danger of top 5 cancer increases.

  20. ACOG Recommendations and Guidelines for Cervical Cancer Screening and Management

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-10-15

    Dr. Alan Waxman, a professor of obstetrics and gynecology at the University of New Mexico and chair of the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG) committee for the underserved, talks about ACOG's recommendations for cervical cancer screening and management.  Created: 10/15/2009 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP), Division of Cancer Prevention and Control (DCPC).   Date Released: 6/9/2010.

  1. ACR Appropriateness Criteria® Colorectal Cancer Screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Courtney; Kim, David H; Bartel, Twyla B; Cash, Brooks D; Chang, Kevin J; Feig, Barry W; Fowler, Kathryn J; Garcia, Evelyn M; Kambadakone, Avinash R; Lambert, Drew L; Levy, Angela D; Marin, Daniele; Peterson, Christine M; Scheirey, Christopher D; Smith, Martin P; Weinstein, Stefanie; Carucci, Laura R

    2018-05-01

    This review summarizes the relevant literature regarding colorectal screening with imaging. For individuals at average or moderate risk for colorectal cancer, CT colonography is usually appropriate for colorectal cancer screening. After positive results on a fecal occult blood test or immunohistochemical test, CT colonography is usually appropriate for colorectal cancer detection. For individuals at high risk for colorectal cancer (eg, hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer, ulcerative colitis, or Crohn colitis), optical colonoscopy is preferred because of its ability to obtain biopsies to detect dysplasia. After incomplete colonoscopy, CT colonography is usually appropriate for colorectal cancer screening for individuals at average, moderate, or high risk. The American College of Radiology Appropriateness Criteria are evidence-based guidelines for specific clinical conditions that are reviewed annually by a multidisciplinary expert panel. The guideline development and revision include an extensive analysis of current medical literature from peer reviewed journals and the application of well-established methodologies (RAND/UCLA Appropriateness Method and Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation or GRADE) to rate the appropriateness of imaging and treatment procedures for specific clinical scenarios. In those instances where evidence is lacking or equivocal, expert opinion may supplement the available evidence to recommend imaging or treatment. Copyright © 2018 American College of Radiology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Guidelines for breast cancer screening in Lebanon Public Health Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adib, Salim M; El Saghir, Nagi S; Ammar, Walid

    2009-01-01

    The accumulation of national epidemiological data since the late 1990s has led to the adoption of evidence-based guidelines for breast cancer screening in Lebanon (2006). Almost 50% of breast cancer patients in Lebanon are below the age of 50 years and the age-adjusted incidence rate is estimated at 69 new cases per 100,000 per year (2004). This official notification calls for breast self-examination (BSE) every month starting age 20, and a clinical breast examination (CBE) performed by a physician every three years between the ages of 20 and 40 years. Starting age 40, and for as long as a woman is in good health, an annual CBE and mammography are recommended. Women with known genetic family history of breast cancer should start screening 10 years earlier than the first young patient in the family, or earlier depending on medical advice. The Breast Cancer National Task Force (BCNTF) recommends certification of mammography centers and continued training of personnel to assure high quality mammograms, and to minimize unnecessary investigations and surgeries.It recommends that a national program should record call-backs of women for annual screening and follow-up data on abnormal mammograms. BCNTF encourages the adoption of these guidelines and monitoring of their results, as well as follow-up of breast cancer epidemiology and registry in Lebanon, and scientific progress in early breast cancer detection to determine needs for modifications in the future.

  3. Breast Cancer Challenges and Screening in China: Lessons From Current Registry Data and Population Screening Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Qing-Kun; Wang, Xiao-Li; Zhou, Xin-Na; Yang, Hua-Bing; Li, Yu-Chen; Wu, Jiang-Ping; Ren, Jun; Lyerly, Herbert Kim

    2015-07-01

    As one of its responses to the increasing global burden of breast cancer (BC), China has deployed a national registration and BC screening campaign. The present report describes these programs and the initial results of these national BC control strategies, highlighting the challenges to be considered. The primary BC incidence and prevalence data were obtained from the Chinese National Central Cancer Registry. MapInfo software was used to map the geographic distribution and variation. The time trends were estimated by the annual percentage of change from 2003 to 2009. The description of the screening plans and preliminary results were provided by the Ministry of Health. Chinese cancer registries were primarily developed and activated in the East and Coastal regions of China, with only 12.5% of the registries located in West China. Geographic variation was noted, with the incidence of BC higher in North China than in South China and in urban areas compared with rural areas. Of great interest, these registries reported that the overall BC incidence has been increasing in China, with an earlier age of onset compared with Western countries and a peak incidence rate at age 50. In response to this increasing incidence and early age of onset, BC screening programs assessed 1.46 million women aged 35-59 years, using clinical breast examinations and ultrasound as primary screening tools between 2009 and 2011. The diagnostic rate for this screening program was only 48.0/10(5) with 440 cases of early stage BC. Early stage BC was detected in nearly 70% of screened patients. Subsequently, a second-generation screening program was conducted that included older women aged 35-64 years and an additional 6 million women were screened. The cancer registration system in China has been uneven, with a greater focus on East rather than West China. The data from these registries demonstrate regional variation, an increasing BC incidence, and an early age of onset. The 2009 to 2011 BC

  4. Helical CT for secondary screening of lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mori, Kiyoshi; Onishi, Tsukasa; Tominaga, Keigo; Kishiro, Izumi; Yokoyama, Kohki.

    1995-01-01

    Helical CT was used on a trial basis for secondary screening of lung cancer, and its clinical usefulness is discussed in this report. The subjects of 157 patients with abnormal shadows on plain chest X-ray images were chosen between November 1993 and August 1994. Imaging parameters used for screening CT were as follows: 50 mA, 120 kV, a couch-top movement speed of 20 mm/s, and a beam width of 10 mm. The entire lung field was scanned during a single breath-hold. Reconstructed images were generated at 10-mm intervals by the 180deg interpolation method, and films were produced. Images of the entire lung field were made during a single breath-hold in all patients. Abnormal shadows were detected in 73 of 157 patients by screening CT. These 73 patients included 14 with lung cancer, 53 with benign lesions, one under observation, and five others. The average diameter of the tumors was 11.1 mm. The lung cancers detected all arose in the periphery, and were classified into stage I (10 patients), stage IIIA (3 patients), and stage IV with bone metastases (1 patient). Lung cancers in clinical stage I (3 patients) and stage IV (1 patient) were difficult to see on plain chest X-ray films. We conclude that screening CT is useful for early diagnosis of lung cancer because the entire lung field can be imaged during a single breath-hold. Therefore, helical CT can be expected to be useful in screening for lung cancer. (author)

  5. Results of Screening in Familial Non-Medullary Thyroid Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klubo-Gwiezdzinska, Joanna; Yang, Lily; Merkel, Roxanne; Patel, Dhaval; Nilubol, Naris; Merino, Maria J; Skarulis, Monica; Sadowski, Samira M; Kebebew, Electron

    2017-08-01

    Although a family history of thyroid cancer is one of the main risk factors for thyroid cancer, the benefit of screening individuals with a family history of thyroid cancer is not known. A prospective cohort study was performed with yearly screening using neck ultrasound and fine-needle aspiration biopsy of thyroid nodule(s) >0.5 cm in at-risk individuals whose relatives were diagnosed with familial non-medullary thyroid cancer (FNMTC). The eligibility criteria were the presence of thyroid cancer in two or more first-degree relatives and being older than seven years of age. Twenty-five kindred were enrolled in the study (12 families with two members affected, and 13 with three or more members affected at enrollment). Thyroid cancer was detected by screening in 4.6% (2/43) of at-risk individuals from families with two members affected, and in 22.7% (15/66) of at-risk members from families with three or more patients affected (p = 0.01). FNMTC detected by screening was characterized by a smaller tumor size (0.7 ± 0.5 cm vs. 1.5 ± 1.1 cm; p = 0.006), a lower rate of central neck lymph node metastases (17.6% vs. 51.1%; p = 0.02), less extensive surgery (hemithyroidectomy 23.5% vs. 0%; p = 0.002), and a lower rate of radioactive iodine therapy (23.5% vs. 79%; p thyroid ultrasound should be considered in kindred with three or more family members affected by FNMTC. Since active screening might be associated with the risk of overtreatment, it should be implemented with caution, specifically in elderly individuals.

  6. Screening of cervical cancer in Catalonia 2006-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Sanjosé, Silvia; Ibáñez, Raquel; Rodríguez-Salés, Vanesa; Peris, Mercè; Roura, Esther; Diaz, Mireia; Torné, Aureli; Costa, Dolors; Canet, Yolanda; Falguera, Gemma; Alejo, Maria; Espinàs, Josep Alfons; Bosch, F Xavier

    2015-01-01

    The early detection of intraepithelial lesions of the cervix, through the periodic examination of cervical cells, has been fundamental for the prevention of invasive cervical cancer and its related mortality. In this report, we summarise the cervical cancer screening activities carried out in Catalonia, Spain, within the National Health System during 2008-2011. The study population covers over two million women resident in the area. The evaluation includes 758,690 cervical cytologies performed on a total of 595,868 women. The three-year coverage of cervical cytology among women aged between 25 and 65 years was 40.8%. About 50% of first screened women with negative results had not returned to the second screening round. The introduction of high-risk human papillomavirus DNA (HPV) detection, as a primary screening cotest with cytology among women over age 40 with a poor screening history, significantly improved the detection of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2 or worse (CIN2+), being far superior to cytology alone. Cotesting did not improve the detection of CIN2+. The use of the HPV test for the triage of atypical squamous cell undetermined significance (ASC-US) improved the selection of women at high risk of CIN2+. Sampling (both cytology and HPV test) was largely performed by midwives (66.7%), followed by obstetricians (23.8%) and nurses (7%). Over half of the centres (54.8%) had full use of online medical records. During the study period, educational activities for professionals and for women were carried out periodically. The organisation of screening as a population activity in which women are actively called to the screening visit and the introduction of HPV testing as a primary screening tool are strongly recommended to ensure the maximum population impact in the reduction of the cervical cancer burden.

  7. Pre-screening Discussions and Prostate-Specific Antigen Testing for Prostate Cancer Screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jun; Zhao, Guixiang; Hall, Ingrid J

    2015-08-01

    For many men, the net benefit of prostate cancer screening with prostate-specific antigen (PSA) tests may be small. Many major medical organizations have issued recommendations for prostate cancer screening, stressing the need for shared decision making before ordering a test. The purpose of this study is to better understand associations between discussions about benefits and harms of PSA testing and uptake of the test among men aged ≥40 years. Associations between pre-screening discussions and PSA testing were examined using self-reported data from the 2012 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. Unadjusted prevalence of PSA testing was estimated and AORs were calculated using logistic regression in 2014. The multivariate analysis showed that men who had ever discussed advantages of PSA testing only or discussed both advantages and disadvantages were more likely, respectively, to report having had a test within the past year than men who had no discussions (ptesting with their healthcare providers were more likely (AOR=2.75, 95% CI=2.00, 3.79) to report getting tested than men who had no discussions. Discussions of the benefits or harms of PSA testing are positively associated with increased uptake of the test. Given the conflicting recommendations for prostate cancer screening and increasing importance of shared decision making, this study points to the need for understanding how pre-screening discussions are being conducted in clinical practice and the role played by patients' values and preferences in decisions about PSA testing. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. Significance of endoscopic screening and endoscopic resection for esophageal cancer in patients with hypopharyngeal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morimoto, Masahiro; Nishiyama, Kinji; Nakamura, Satoaki

    2010-01-01

    The efficacy of endoscopic screening for esophageal cancer in patients with hypopharyngeal cancer remains controversial and its impact on prognosis has not been adequately discussed. We studied the use of endoscopic screening to detect esophageal cancer in hypopharyngeal cancer patients by analyzing the incidence, stage and prognosis. We included 64 patients with hypopharyngeal cancer who received radical radiotherapy at our institute. Chromoendoscopic esophageal examinations with Lugol dye solution were routinely performed at and after treatment for hypopharyngeal cancer. Twenty-eight esophageal cancers were detected in 28 (41%) patients (18 synchronous and 10 metachronous cancers). Of the 28 cancers, 23 were stage 0 or I cancer and 15 of these were treated with endoscopic resection. Local control was achieved in all of these 23 stage 0 or I cancers. The 5-year overall survival rates with esophageal cancer were 83% in stage 0, 47% in stage I and 0% in stage IIA-IVB. This study showed a strikingly high incidence of esophageal cancer in hypopharyngeal cancer patients. We suppose that the combination of early detection by chromoendoscopic examination and endoscopic resection for associated esophageal cancer in hypopharyngeal cancer patients improve prognosis and maintain quality of life. (author)

  9. Smoking cessation results in a clinical lung cancer screening program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borondy Kitts, Andrea K; McKee, Andrea B; Regis, Shawn M; Wald, Christoph; Flacke, Sebastian; McKee, Brady J

    2016-07-01

    Lung cancer screening may provide a "teachable moment" for promoting smoking cessation. This study assessed smoking cessation and relapse rates among individuals undergoing follow-up low-dose chest computed tomography (CT) in a clinical CT lung screening program and assessed the influence of initial screening results on smoking behavior. Self-reported smoking status for individuals enrolled in a clinical CT lung screening program undergoing a follow-up CT lung screening exam between 1st February, 2014 and 31st March, 2015 was retrospectively reviewed and compared to self-reported smoking status using a standardized questionnaire at program entry. Point prevalence smoking cessation and relapse rates were calculated across the entire population and compared with exam results. All individuals undergoing screening fulfilled the National Comprehensive Cancer Network Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology: Lung Cancer Screening v1.2012(®) high-risk criteria and had an order for CT lung screening. A total of 1,483 individuals underwent a follow-up CT lung screening exam during the study interval. Smoking status at time of follow-up exam was available for 1,461/1,483 (98.5%). A total of 46% (678/1,461) were active smokers at program entry. The overall point prevalence smoking cessation and relapse rates were 20.8% and 9.3%, respectively. Prior positive screening exam results were not predictive of smoking cessation (OR 1.092; 95% CI, 0.715-1.693) but were predictive of reduced relapse among former smokers who had stopped smoking for 2 years or less (OR 0.330; 95% CI, 0.143-0.710). Duration of program enrollment was predictive of smoking cessation (OR 0.647; 95% CI, 0.477-0.877). Smoking cessation and relapse rates in a clinical CT lung screening program rates are more favorable than those observed in the general population. Duration of participation in the screening program correlated with increased smoking cessation rates. A positive exam result correlated with reduced

  10. The efficacy of using CAD for detection of breast cancer in mammography screening A systematic review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Emilie; Lauridsen, Carsten Ammitzbøl

    Abstract Purpose: The aim of this systematic review is to present an overview of the available studies concerning the use of computer-aided detection (CAD) systems in screening mammography for early detection of breast cancer and compare the diagnostic accuracy and recall rates of single reading....... The literature search resulted in 1522 records after duplicates were removed. 1491 records were excluded by abstract and 18 were excluded after assessing the eligibility by full text reading. A total of 13 articles were included in this study. Results: The results for the single reading vs. single reading...... with CAD group indicate that the addition of CAD increases sensitivity and cancer detection rate (CDR). For the double reading vs. single reading with CAD group none of the studies reported significant differences in sensitivity and CDR. Adding CAD to single reading increased the recall rates and decreased...

  11. Knowledge and Attitudes about Colon Cancer Screening among African Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Aimee S.; Daley, Christine M.; Greiner, K. Allen

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: To explore knowledge and attitudes about colorectal cancer (CRC) screening among African American patients age 45 and older at a community health center serving low-income and uninsured patients. Methods: We conducted 7 focus groups and 17 additional semistructured interviews. Sessions were audio-recorded, transcribed, and analyzed…

  12. Cervical cancer screening and practice in low resource countries ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    While developed countries have recorded significant reduction in the incidence of cervical cancer owing to organizedscreening programs, treatment of premalignant cervical lesions, and follow‑up of treated cases, developing countries including Nigeria are yet to optimally utilize screening services due to lack of organized ...

  13. Women's perspectives on illness when being screened for cervical cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hounsgaard, Lise; Augustussen, Mikaela; Møller, Helle

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In Greenland, the incidence of cervical cancer caused by human papillomavirus (HPV) is 25 per 100,000 women; 2.5 times the Danish rate. In Greenland, the disease is most frequent among women aged 30-40. Systematic screening can identify women with cervical cell changes, which if untre...

  14. Message from Terrence Howard: Screening for Colorectal Cancer PSA (:20)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-04-13

    A message from the actor/musician Terrence Howard about the importance of screening for colorectal cancer.  Created: 4/13/2010 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 4/13/2010.

  15. Message from Terrence Howard: Screening for Colorectal Cancer PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-04-13

    A message from the actor/musician Terrence Howard about the importance of screening for colorectal cancer.  Created: 4/13/2010 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 4/13/2010.

  16. Knowledge and practice of cervical cancer screening among female ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cervical cancer is the commonest genital tract malignancies in the females and its burden is enormous, to the patient and her community. It is largely preventable or curable when detected at the very early stage through effective screening programme. Very poor clients' attendance has been noticed at the services provided ...

  17. Cervical Cancer Screening in Enugu, Nigeria. | Chukwuali | Tropical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Context: Though preventable by early detection and treatment of the pre-invasive stage, carcinoma of the cervix remains the commonest gynaecological malignancy in Nigeria and a leading cause of death among women. The preventive role of cervical cancer screening is directly related to the proportion of the population ...

  18. ACR Appropriateness Criteria® Ovarian Cancer Screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandharipande, Pari V; Lowry, Kathryn P; Reinhold, Caroline; Atri, Mostafa; Benson, Carol B; Bhosale, Priyadarshani R; Green, Edward D; Kang, Stella K; Lakhman, Yulia; Maturen, Katherine E; Nicola, Refky; Salazar, Gloria M; Shipp, Thomas D; Simpson, Lynn; Sussman, Betsy L; Uyeda, Jennifer; Wall, Darci J; Whitcomb, Bradford; Zelop, Carolyn M; Glanc, Phyllis

    2017-11-01

    There has been much interest in the identification of a successful ovarian cancer screening test, in particular, one that can detect ovarian cancer at an early stage and improve survival. We reviewed the currently available data from randomized and observational trials that examine the role of imaging for ovarian cancer screening in average-risk and high-risk women. We found insufficient evidence to recommend ovarian cancer screening, when considering the imaging modality (pelvic ultrasound) and population (average-risk postmenopausal women) for which there is the greatest available published evidence; randomized controlled trials have not demonstrated a mortality benefit in this setting. Screening high-risk women using pelvic ultrasound may be appropriate in some clinical situations; however, related data are limited because large, randomized trials have not been performed in this setting. The American College of Radiology Appropriateness Criteria are evidence-based guidelines for specific clinical conditions that are reviewed annually by a multidisciplinary expert panel. The guideline development and revision include an extensive analysis of current medical literature from peer reviewed journals and the application of well-established methodologies (RAND/UCLA Appropriateness Method and Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation or GRADE) to rate the appropriateness of imaging and treatment procedures for specific clinical scenarios. In those instances where evidence is lacking or equivocal, expert opinion may supplement the available evidence to recommend imaging or treatment. Copyright © 2017 American College of Radiology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. A Study on Knowledge and Screening for Cervical Cancer among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In India, it is one the leading causes of mortality among women accounting for ... Knowledge about cervical cancer, its screening among women. • Role of health ..... by health professional [14 (16.9)], lack of time [4 (4.8)], fear of having a bad ...

  20. Breast Cancer Screening: Cultural Beliefs and Diverse Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Cassandra E.

    2006-01-01

    This article addresses the role of culture in breast cancer screening behavior among African American, American Indian/Alaskan Native, Asian American/Pacific Islander, and Hispanic/Latina women. It reviews cultural beliefs, attitudes, and knowledge and their relative influence on women's decisions regarding health tests. The article explores how…

  1. Prostate cancer - epidemiology, etiology, diagnostics, clinical symptoms, screening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ondrus, D.

    2006-01-01

    Prostate cancer presents a real important medical and social problem at present. It is one of the most common malignancy in males. In global point of view it means permanent incidence increase of this disease. Despite improvement of prostate cancer diagnosis and complex treatment mortality does not decreased significantly. Knowledge of etiological factors are relatively limited. Important factors are: genetic disposition, age, life style, race, positive familial history, circulated androgens. Diagnostics is well known, based on routine clinical methods: digital rectal examination, measurement of PSA a transrectal ultrasound. Benefit of prostate cancer screening is until now unclear, controversial. (author)

  2. Ultrasound screening of contralateral breast after surgery for breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Seung Ja [Department of Radiology, Seoul Metropolitan Government Seoul National University, Boramae Medical Center (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Se-Yeong; Chang, Jung Min; Cho, Nariya [Department of Radiology, Seoul National University Hospital (Korea, Republic of); Han, Wonshik [Department of Surgery, Seoul National University Hospital (Korea, Republic of); Moon, Woo Kyung, E-mail: moonwk@snu.ac.kr [Department of Radiology, Seoul National University Hospital (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-01-15

    Highlights: • The addition of supplemental US to mammography depicted additional 5.0 cancers per 1000 postoperative women. • Positive biopsy rate of mammography-detected lesions was 66.7% (4 of 6) and that of US-detected lesions was 40.0% (6 of 15). • US can be helpful to detect mammographically occult breast cancer in the contralateral breast in women with previous history of cancer and dense breast. - Abstract: Objective: To determine whether supplemental screening ultrasound (US) to mammography could improve cancer detection rate of the contralateral breast in patients with a personal history of breast cancer and dense breasts. Materials and methods: During a one-year study period, 1314 screening patients with a personal history of breast cancer and dense breasts simultaneously underwent mammography and breast US. BI-RADS categories were given for mammography or US-detected lesions in the contralateral breast. The reference standard was histology and/or 1-year imaging follow-up, and the cancer rate according to BI-RADS categories and cancer detection rate and positive biopsy rate according to detection modality were analyzed. Results: Of 1314 patients, 84 patients (6.4%) were categorized as category 3 with one interval cancer and one cancer which was upgraded to category 4A after 6-month follow-up US (2.5% cancer rate, 95% CIs 1.5–9.1%). Fifteen patients (1.1%) had category 4A or 4B lesions in the contralateral breast. Four lesions were detected on mammography (two lesions were also visible on US) and 11 lesions were detected on US and 5 cancers were confirmed (33.3%, 95% CIs 15.0–58.5%). Six patients (0.5%) had category 4C lesions, 2 detected on mammography and 4 on US and 4 cancers were confirmed (66.7%, 95% CIs 29.6–90.8%). No lesions were categorized as category 5 in the contralateral breast. Cancer detection rate by mammography was 3.3 per 1000 patients and that by US was 5.0 per 1000 patients, therefore overall cancer detection rate by

  3. Ultrasound screening of contralateral breast after surgery for breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Seung Ja; Chung, Se-Yeong; Chang, Jung Min; Cho, Nariya; Han, Wonshik; Moon, Woo Kyung

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The addition of supplemental US to mammography depicted additional 5.0 cancers per 1000 postoperative women. • Positive biopsy rate of mammography-detected lesions was 66.7% (4 of 6) and that of US-detected lesions was 40.0% (6 of 15). • US can be helpful to detect mammographically occult breast cancer in the contralateral breast in women with previous history of cancer and dense breast. - Abstract: Objective: To determine whether supplemental screening ultrasound (US) to mammography could improve cancer detection rate of the contralateral breast in patients with a personal history of breast cancer and dense breasts. Materials and methods: During a one-year study period, 1314 screening patients with a personal history of breast cancer and dense breasts simultaneously underwent mammography and breast US. BI-RADS categories were given for mammography or US-detected lesions in the contralateral breast. The reference standard was histology and/or 1-year imaging follow-up, and the cancer rate according to BI-RADS categories and cancer detection rate and positive biopsy rate according to detection modality were analyzed. Results: Of 1314 patients, 84 patients (6.4%) were categorized as category 3 with one interval cancer and one cancer which was upgraded to category 4A after 6-month follow-up US (2.5% cancer rate, 95% CIs 1.5–9.1%). Fifteen patients (1.1%) had category 4A or 4B lesions in the contralateral breast. Four lesions were detected on mammography (two lesions were also visible on US) and 11 lesions were detected on US and 5 cancers were confirmed (33.3%, 95% CIs 15.0–58.5%). Six patients (0.5%) had category 4C lesions, 2 detected on mammography and 4 on US and 4 cancers were confirmed (66.7%, 95% CIs 29.6–90.8%). No lesions were categorized as category 5 in the contralateral breast. Cancer detection rate by mammography was 3.3 per 1000 patients and that by US was 5.0 per 1000 patients, therefore overall cancer detection rate by

  4. Barriers and Motivators Related to Cervical and Breast Cancer Screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Bokaee

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: modern knowledge could protect against cancer for individuals in community with early stage and premalignat state. Screening of cancer is best instrument for early detection of malignancy. Between women’s cancers breast and cervical cancer have more incidence and mortality than other cancers . But could be prevented by simple and cheep screening programs. Despite specific statistics in Iran evidence shows that women’s participation in screening program is poor , so cancers are diagnosed in advanced stage. The purpose of this study was to identify major barriers and motivators for breast and cervical screening . Methods: This survey was a descriptive study in which 400 women participated in health and treatment centers in Yazd. Sampling method was done in two simple and random stages. Data was collected by inventory and questionnaire . Then data were analyzed by SPSS soft ware . Results: Findings showed that 80% of them never refereed to a health provider for clinical breast exam (C B E and only 3% of them did regularly C B E . 46% of them had never done pap smear and only 14.5 % of them did regularly pap smear. The findings showed that major motivators were as follow: advice of health’s personnel , using of contraceptive methods , and awareness of media. Also the major barriers were as follow : Not having knowledge of these exams , not having knowledge of the existence of these centers of education and practice , not having precious health problems , fear of examination , Embarrassment of examination and health providers not to teach them . to consider the most important barriers were propounded which showed that health education role to eliminate barriers for referring women for screening . Discussion: Based on the results of this sample , screening was the least expected . considering barriers and motivators observed it was revealed that health education was required for prevention of common women’s cancers. Also

  5. Process evaluation of health fairs promoting cancer screenings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escoffery, Cam; Liang, Shuting; Rodgers, Kirsten; Haardoerfer, Regine; Hennessy, Grace; Gilbertson, Kendra; Heredia, Natalia I; Gatus, Leticia A; Fernandez, Maria E

    2017-12-18

    Low income and uninsured individuals often have lower adherence to cancer screening for breast, cervical and colorectal cancer. Health fairs are a common community outreach strategy used to provide cancer-related health education and services. This study was a process evaluation of seven health fairs focused on cancer screening across the U.S. We conducted key-informant interviews with the fair coordinator and conducted baseline and follow-up surveys with fair participants to describe characteristics of participants as well as their experiences. We collected baseline data with participants at the health fairs and telephone follow-up surveys 6 months following the fair. Attendance across the seven health fairs ranged from 41 to 212 participants. Most fairs provided group or individual education, print materials and cancer screening during the event. Overall, participants rated health fairs as very good and participants reported that the staff was knowledgeable and that they liked the materials distributed. After the fairs, about 60% of participants, who were reached at follow-up, had read the materials provided and had conversations with others about cancer screening, and 41% talked to their doctors about screening. Based on findings from evaluation including participant data and coordinator interviews, we describe 6 areas in planning for health fairs that may increase their effectiveness. These include: 1) use of a theoretical framework for health promotion to guide educational content and activities provided, 2) considering the community characteristics, 3) choosing a relevant setting, 4) promotion of the event, 5) considerations of the types of services to deliver, and 6) evaluation of the health fair. The events reported varied in reach and the participants represented diverse races and lower income populations overall. Most health fairs offered education, print materials and onsite cancer screening. Participants reported general satisfaction with these events

  6. Women's knowledge and attitudes regarding cervical cancer screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florencia Vicente Chiconela

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate women's knowledge and attitudes regarding the importance of cervical cancer screening. This is a descriptive, exploratory, with a qualitative approach study, carried out with 14 women assisted at a health service in Mozambique. Data collection occurred with a semi-structured interview from February to March 2015. The results were analyzed using the content analysis technique. Although most women have heard of cervical cancer (CC on television and in hospital lectures, they have little knowledge about prevention, are unaware of the importance of the screening and have the exam due to gynecological complaints. Women's knowledge is incipient and below the expectations about the importance of the screening.

  7. Validity of data in the Danish colorectal cancer screening database

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Mette Kielsholm; Njor, Sisse Helle; Rasmussen, Morten

    2017-01-01

    Background: In Denmark, a nationwide screening program for colorectal cancer was implemented in March 2014. Along with this, a clinical database for program monitoring and research purposes was established. Objective: The aim of this study was to estimate the agreement and validity of diagnosis...... and procedure codes in the Danish Colorectal Cancer Screening Database (DCCSD). Methods: All individuals with a positive immunochemical fecal occult blood test (iFOBT) result who were invited to screening in the first 3 months since program initiation were identified. From these, a sample of 150 individuals...... was selected using stratified random sampling by age, gender and region of residence. Data from the DCCSD were compared with data from hospital records, which were used as the reference. Agreement, sensitivity, specificity and positive and negative predictive values were estimated for categories of codes...

  8. Effects of screening for psychological distress on patient outcomes in cancer : A systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, Anna; Roseman, Michelle; Delisle, Vanessa C.; Milette, Katherine; Levis, Brooke; Syamchandra, Achyuth; Stefanek, Michael E.; Stewart, Donna E.; de Jonge, Peter; Coyne, James C.; Thombs, Brett D.

    Objective: Several practice guidelines recommend routine screening for psychological distress in cancer care. The objective was to evaluate the effect of screening cancer patients for psychological distress by assessing the (1) effectiveness of interventions to reduce distress among patients

  9. Racial and ethnic disparities in U.S. cancer screening rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    The percentage of U.S. citizens screened for cancer remains below national targets, with significant disparities among racial and ethnic populations, according to the first federal study to identify cancer screening disparities among Asian and Hispanic gr

  10. Communicating the balance sheet in breast cancer screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giordano, Livia; Cogo, Carla; Patnick, Julietta; Paci, Eugenio

    2012-01-01

    Despite the difficulties, there is a moral responsibility to provide the public with the best estimates of benefits and harms of breast cancer screening. In this paper we review the issues in communication of benefits and harms of medical interventions and discuss these in terms of the principles of the balance sheet proposed in this supplement. The balance sheet can be seen as a tool to convey estimates based on the best available evidence and addressed to a readership wider than just potential screening participants. It reflects a re-assessment of screening efficacy, showing again that screening is effective and brings more benefits than harms. It can be viewed as an opportunity to re-affirm some basic principles of good evidence-based communication. Further research is needed to improve communication strategy, to assess the impact of this communication on women's awareness and to evaluate its utility in the informed decision-making process. The balance sheet could be a starting point for a broader vision of informed decision-making in screening, which should also recognize the role played by 'non-numerical' factors on women's choice of participating in breast cancer screening.

  11. [Cervical cancer screening: Is active recruitment worth the effort?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales Martínez, Ángeles; Blanco Rodríguez, Lorena; Morales Martínez, Cristina; Tejuca Somoano, Sonia

    2015-12-01

    To determine the percentage of women who have had a Pap smear in the last 5 years, and the place where it was carried out. To detect cytological abnormalities and precursors of cervical cancer in un-screened or inadequately screened women and the prevalence of HPV-positive determinations. Cross sectional study. Natahoyo Health Centre, Gijón (Spain). Women aged 40-50 years living in the area and assigned to the Health Centre. The information was collected from databases, telephone and home surveys. There was active recruitment of unscreened women or inadequately screened in Primary Care as well as offering to perform cytology and HPV determination. Of the 1420 women aged 40 to 50 years, 1236 (87%) had cytology in the last 5 years, and 184 women (13%) had no screening or it was inadequate. Of these 184 women, 108 (58.7%) agreed to have cytology and HPV test performed. No high-grade cervical dysplasia was diagnosed. The prevalence of HPV-positive was 8.3%. In our population there is a high coverage of opportunistic screening for cervical cancer. The active recruitment of women who were not in the screening program was not useful. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  12. Population screening for breast cancer in the European Community

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waard, F. de

    1987-01-01

    Although our understanding of the causes of breast cancer is increasing, it is as yet not possible to recommend measures to decrease its occurrence. Therefore we have to resort to a substitute called secondary prevention which aims at preventing the occurrence of metastatic breast cancer and death by detecting the primary cancer in the breast at an earlier point in its natural history. The question whether this can be achieved can only be answered by scientific study. Such studies are being called: population-based screening programmes. Screening requires one or more tests by which one can partition a population in those who probably have a cancer and those who have not. Since an early breast cancer does not produce symptoms like pain the test has to be some sort of objective assessment. In the field of detecting breast cancer we have been greatly helped by the development of a radiologic technique called mammography. Mammography basically is not an easy technique since there is little contrast between structures in the breast compared with e.g. bone. The quality of mammograms, therefore, was not very high in the pioneering era during the nineteen-fifties and -sixties. This presentation discusses a move of a few doctors in New York city: a radiologist, a surgeon and epidemiologist, to design a scientific study which could answer the question whether mammography, added to a standard clinical examination of the breast would decrease mortality from breast cancer

  13. Imaging and Screening of Kidney Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz de Leon, Alberto; Pedrosa, Ivan

    2017-11-01

    Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) exhibits a diverse and heterogeneous disease spectrum, but insight into its molecular biology has provided an improved understanding of potential risk factors, oncologic behavior, and imaging features. Computed tomography (CT) and MR imaging may allow the identification and preoperative subtyping of RCC and assessment of a response to various therapies. Active surveillance is a viable management option in some patients and has provided further insight into the natural history of RCC, including the favorable prognosis of cystic neoplasms. This article reviews CT and MR imaging in RCC and the role of screening in selected high-risk populations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Controversies about cervical cancer screening: A qualitative study of Roma women's (non)participation in cervical cancer screening in Romania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreassen, Trude; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Nicula, Florian; Suteu, Ofelia; Itu, Andreea; Bumbu, Minodora; Tincu, Aida; Ursin, Giske; Moen, Kåre

    2017-06-01

    Romania has Europe's highest incidence and mortality of cervical cancer. While a free national cervical cancer-screening programme has been in operation since 2012, participation in the programme is low, particularly in minority populations. The aim of this study was to explore Roma women's (non)participation in the programme from women's own perspectives and those of healthcare providers and policy makers. We carried out fieldwork for a period of 125 days in 2015/16 involving 144 study participants in Cluj and Bucharest counties. Fieldwork entailed participant observation, qualitative interviewing and focus group discussions. A striking finding was that screening providers and Roma women had highly different takes on the national screening programme. We identified four fundamental questions about which there was considerable disagreement between them: whether a free national screening programme existed in the first place, whether Roma women were meant to be included in the programme if it did, whether Roma women wanted to take part in screening, and to what degree screening participation would really benefit women's health. On the background of insights from actor-network theory, the article discusses to what degree the programme could be said to speak to the interest of its intended Roma public, and considers the controversies in light of the literature on patient centred care and user involvement in health care. The paper contributes to the understanding of the health and health-related circumstances of the largest minority in Europe. It also problematizes the use of the concept of "barriers" in research into participation in cancer screening, and exemplifies how user involvement can potentially help transform and improve screening programmes. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  15. International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer Computed Tomography Screening Workshop 2011 report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Field, John K; Smith, Robert A; Aberle, Denise R

    2011-01-01

    national screening programs; (iii) develop guidelines for the clinical work-up of "indeterminate nodules" resulting from CT screening programmers; (iv) guidelines for pathology reporting of nodules from lung cancer CT screening programs; (v) recommendations for surgical and therapeutic interventions...... of suspicious nodules identified through lung cancer CT screening programs; and (vi) integration of smoking cessation practices into future national lung cancer CT screening programs....

  16. Barriers and facilitators of prostate cancer screening among Filipino men in Hawaii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conde, Francisco A; Landier, Wendy; Ishida, Dianne; Bell, Rose; Cuaresma, Charlene F; Misola, Jane

    2011-03-01

    To examine perceptions, attitudes, and beliefs regarding barriers and facilitators to prostate cancer screening, and to identify potential interventional strategies to promote prostate cancer screening among Filipino men in Hawaii. Exploratory, qualitative. Community-based settings in Hawaii. 20 Filipino men age 40 years or older. Focus group discussions were tape recorded and transcribed, and content analysis was performed for emergent themes. Perceptions regarding prostate cancer, barriers and facilitators to prostate cancer screening, and culturally relevant interventional strategies. Perceptions of prostate cancer included fatalism, hopelessness, and dread. Misconceptions regarding causes of prostate cancer, such as frequency of sexual activity, were identified. Barriers to prostate cancer screening included lack of awareness of the need for screening, reticence to seek health care when feeling well, fear of cancer diagnosis, financial issues, time constraints, and embarrassment. Presence of urinary symptoms, personal experience with family or friends who had cancer, and receiving recommendations from a healthcare provider regarding screening were facilitators for screening. Potential culturally relevant interventional strategies to promote prostate cancer screening included screening recommendations from healthcare professionals and cancer survivors; radio or television commercials and newspaper articles targeting the Filipino community; informational brochures in Tagalog, Ilocano, or English; and interactive, educational forums facilitated by multilingual Filipino male healthcare professionals. Culturally relevant interventions are needed that address barriers to prostate cancer screening participation and misconceptions about causes of prostate cancer. Findings provide a foundation for future research regarding development of interventional strategies to promote prostate cancer screening among Filipino men.

  17. Psychiatric morbidity and non-participation in breast cancer screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Line Flytkjær; Pedersen, Anette Fischer; Bech, Bodil Hammer; Andersen, Berit; Vedsted, Peter

    2016-02-01

    Organised breast cancer screening is currently one of the best strategies for early-stage breast cancer detection. However, early detection has proven challenging for women with psychiatric disease. This study aims to investigate psychiatric morbidity and non-participation in breast cancer screening. We conducted an observational cohort study including women invited to the first organised screening round in the Central Denmark Region. Data on psychiatric diagnosis, psychoactive prescription medicine and consultation with private psychiatrists were obtained from Danish registries and assessed for a period of up to 10 years before the screening date. The cohort comprised 144,264 women whereof 33.0% were registered with an indication of psychiatric morbidity. We found elevated non-participation propensity among women with a psychiatric diagnosis especially for women with schizophrenia and substance abuse. Also milder psychiatric morbidity was associated with higher non-participation likelihood as women who had redeemed psychoactive prescription medicine or have had minimum one consultation with a private psychiatrist were more likely not to participate. Finally, we found that the chronicity of psychiatric morbidity was associated with non-participation and that woman who had a psychiatric morbidity defined as 'persistent' had higher likelihood of non-participation than women with recently active morbidity or inactive psychiatric morbidity. This study showed a strong association between psychiatric morbidity and an increased likelihood of non-participation in breast cancer screening in a health care system with universal and tax-funded health services. This knowledge may inform interventions targeting women with psychiatric morbidity as they have poorer breast cancer prognosis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. What implementation interventions increase cancer screening rates? a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lent Barbara

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Appropriate screening may reduce the mortality and morbidity of colorectal, breast, and cervical cancers. However, effective implementation strategies are warranted if the full benefits of screening are to be realized. As part of a larger agenda to create an implementation guideline, we conducted a systematic review to evaluate interventions designed to increase the rate of breast, cervical, and colorectal cancer (CRC screening. The interventions considered were: client reminders, client incentives, mass media, small media, group education, one-on-one education, reduction in structural barriers, reduction in out-of-pocket costs, provider assessment and feedback interventions, and provider incentives. Our primary outcome, screening completion, was calculated as the overall median post-intervention absolute percentage point (PP change in completed screening tests. Methods Our first step was to conduct an iterative scoping review in the research area. This yielded three relevant high-quality systematic reviews. Serving as our evidentiary foundation, we conducted a formal update. Randomized controlled trials and cluster randomized controlled trials, published between 2004 and 2010, were searched in MEDLINE, EMBASE and PSYCHinfo. Results The update yielded 66 studies new eligible studies with 74 comparisons. The new studies ranged considerably in quality. Client reminders, small media, and provider audit and feedback appear to be effective interventions to increase the uptake of screening for three cancers. One-on-one education and reduction of structural barriers also appears effective, but their roles with CRC and cervical screening, respectively, are less established. More study is required to assess client incentives, mass media, group education, reduction of out-of-pocket costs, and provider incentive interventions. Conclusion The new evidence generally aligns with the evidence and conclusions from the original systematic

  19. Cervical cancer screening in primary health care setting in Sudan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibrahim, Ahmed; Aro, Arja R.; Rasch, Vibeke

    2012-01-01

    /119 (73.9%) were positive for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia. VIA had higher sensitivity than Pap smear (74.2% versus 72.9%; P = 0.05) respectively. Out of 88 confirmed positive cases, 22 (25.0%) cases were invasive cervical cancer in stage 1, of which 19 versus three were detected by VIA and Pap......OBJECTIVE: To determine the feasibility of visual inspection with the use of acetic acid (VIA) as a screening method for cervical cancer, an alternative to the Pap smear used in primary health care setting in Sudan, and to compare sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values...... of this study showed that VIA has higher sensitivity and lower specificity compared to Pap smear, but a combination of both tests has greater sensitivity and specificity than each test independently. It indicates that VIA is useful for screening of cervical cancer in the primary health care setting in Sudan...

  20. Is screening effective in detecting untreated psychiatric disorders among newly diagnosed breast cancer patients?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Palmer, Steven C.; Taggi, Alison; DeMichele, Angela; Coyne, James C.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A key purpose of routine distress screening is to ensure that cancer patients receive appropriate mental health care. Most studies validating screening instruments overestimate the effectiveness of screening by not differentiating between patients with untreated disorders and patients

  1. Breast cancer mortality in organised mammography screening in Denmark: comparative study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhl Jørgensen, Karsten; Zahl, Per-Henrik; Gøtzsche, Peter C

    2010-01-01

    To determine whether the previously observed 25% reduction in breast cancer mortality in Copenhagen following the introduction of mammography screening was indeed due to screening, by using an additional screening region and five years additional follow-up....

  2. Total body photography for skin cancer screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dengel, Lynn T; Petroni, Gina R; Judge, Joshua; Chen, David; Acton, Scott T; Schroen, Anneke T; Slingluff, Craig L

    2015-11-01

    Total body photography may aid in melanoma screening but is not widely applied due to time and cost. We hypothesized that a near-simultaneous automated skin photo-acquisition system would be acceptable to patients and could rapidly obtain total body images that enable visualization of pigmented skin lesions. From February to May 2009, a study of 20 volunteers was performed at the University of Virginia to test a prototype 16-camera imaging booth built by the research team and to guide development of special purpose software. For each participant, images were obtained before and after marking 10 lesions (five "easy" and five "difficult"), and images were evaluated to estimate visualization rates. Imaging logistical challenges were scored by the operator, and participant opinion was assessed by questionnaire. Average time for image capture was three minutes (range 2-5). All 55 "easy" lesions were visualized (sensitivity 100%, 90% CI 95-100%), and 54/55 "difficult" lesions were visualized (sensitivity 98%, 90% CI 92-100%). Operators and patients graded the imaging process favorably, with challenges identified regarding lighting and positioning. Rapid-acquisition automated skin photography is feasible with a low-cost system, with excellent lesion visualization and participant acceptance. These data provide a basis for employing this method in clinical melanoma screening. © 2014 The International Society of Dermatology.

  3. Considering culture in physician-- patient communication during colorectal cancer screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge Gao; Burke, Nancy; Somkin, Carol P; Pasick, Rena

    2009-06-01

    Racial and ethnic disparities exist in both incidence and stage detection of colorectal cancer (CRC). We hypothesized that cultural practices (i.e., communication norms and expectations) influence patients' and their physicians' understanding and talk about CRC screening. We examined 44 videotaped observations of clinic visits that included a CRC screening recommendation and transcripts from semistructured interviews that doctors and patients separately completed following the visit. We found that interpersonal relationship themes such as power distance, trust, directness/ indirectness, and an ability to listen, as well as personal health beliefs, emerged as affecting patients' definitions of provider-patient effective communication. In addition, we found that in discordant physician-patient interactions (when each is from a different ethnic group), physicians did not solicit or address cultural barriers to CRC screening and patients did not volunteer culture-related concerns regarding CRC screening.

  4. Considering Culture in Physician– Patient Communication During Colorectal Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Ge; Burke, Nancy; Somkin, Carol P.; Pasick, Rena

    2010-01-01

    Racial and ethnic disparities exist in both incidence and stage detection of colorectal cancer (CRC). We hypothesized that cultural practices (i.e., communication norms and expectations) influence patients’ and their physicians’ understanding and talk about CRC screening. We examined 44 videotaped observations of clinic visits that included a CRC screening recommendation and transcripts from semistructured interviews that doctors and patients separately completed following the visit. We found that interpersonal relationship themes such as power distance, trust, directness/indirectness, and an ability to listen, as well as personal health beliefs, emerged as affecting patients’ definitions of provider–patient effective communication. In addition, we found that in discordant physician–patient interactions (when each is from a different ethnic group), physicians did not solicit or address cultural barriers to CRC screening and patients did not volunteer culture-related concerns regarding CRC screening. PMID:19363141

  5. Lung cancer screening with low-dose CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diederich, S.; Wormanns, D.; Heindel, W.

    2003-01-01

    Screening for lung cancer is hoped to reduce mortality from this common tumour, which is characterised by a dismal overall survival, relatively well defined risk groups (mainly heavy cigarette smokers and workers exposed to asbestos) and a lack of early symptoms. In the past studies using sputum cytology and chest radiography have failed to demonstrate any reduction in lung cancer mortality through screening. One of the reasons is probably the relatively poor sensitivity of both these tests in early tumours. Low radiation dose computed tomography (CT) has been shown to have a much higher sensitivity for small pulmonary nodules, which are believed to be the most common presentation of early lung cancer. As, however, small pulmonary nodules are common and most are not malignant, non-invasive diagnostic algorithms are required to correctly classify the detected lesions and avoid invasive procedures in benign nodules. Nodule density, size and the demonstration of growth at follow-up have been shown to be useful in this respect and may in the future be supplemented by contrast-enhanced CT and positron emission tomography. Based on these diagnostic algorithms preliminary studies of low-dose CT in heavy smokers have demonstrated a high proportion of asymptomatic, early, resectable cancers with good survival. As, however, several biases could explain these findings in the absence of the ultimate goal of cancer screening, i.e. mortality reduction, most researchers believe that randomised controlled trials including several 10000 subjects are required to demonstrate a possible mortality reduction. Only then general recommendations to screen individuals at risk of lung cancer with low-dose CT should be made. It can be hoped that international cooperation will succeed in providing results as early as possible

  6. Detection of lung cancer through low-dose CT screening (NELSON): a prespecified analysis of screening test performance and interval cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horeweg, Nanda; Scholten, Ernst Th; de Jong, Pim A; van der Aalst, Carlijn M; Weenink, Carla; Lammers, Jan-Willem J; Nackaerts, Kristiaan; Vliegenthart, Rozemarijn; ten Haaf, Kevin; Yousaf-Khan, Uraujh A; Heuvelmans, Marjolein A; Thunnissen, Erik; Oudkerk, Matthijs; Mali, Willem; de Koning, Harry J

    2014-11-01

    Low-dose CT screening is recommended for individuals at high risk of developing lung cancer. However, CT screening does not detect all lung cancers: some might be missed at screening, and others can develop in the interval between screens. The NELSON trial is a randomised trial to assess the effect of screening with increasing screening intervals on lung cancer mortality. In this prespecified analysis, we aimed to assess screening test performance, and the epidemiological, radiological, and clinical characteristics of interval cancers in NELSON trial participants assigned to the screening group. Eligible participants in the NELSON trial were those aged 50-75 years, who had smoked 15 or more cigarettes per day for more than 25 years or ten or more cigarettes for more than 30 years, and were still smoking or had quit less than 10 years ago. We included all participants assigned to the screening group who had attended at least one round of screening. Screening test results were based on volumetry using a two-step approach. Initially, screening test results were classified as negative, indeterminate, or positive based on nodule presence and volume. Subsequently, participants with an initial indeterminate result underwent follow-up screening to classify their final screening test result as negative or positive, based on nodule volume doubling time. We obtained information about all lung cancer diagnoses made during the first three rounds of screening, plus an additional 2 years of follow-up from the national cancer registry. We determined epidemiological, radiological, participant, and tumour characteristics by reassessing medical files, screening CTs, and clinical CTs. The NELSON trial is registered at www.trialregister.nl, number ISRCTN63545820. 15,822 participants were enrolled in the NELSON trial, of whom 7915 were assigned to low-dose CT screening with increasing interval between screens, and 7907 to no screening. We included 7155 participants in our study, with

  7. Consequences of screening in lung cancer: development and dimensionality of a questionnaire

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodersen, John; Thorsen, Hanne; Kreiner, Svend

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to extend the Consequences of Screening (COS) Questionnaire for use in a lung cancer screening by testing for comprehension, content coverage, dimensionality, and reliability.......The objective of this study was to extend the Consequences of Screening (COS) Questionnaire for use in a lung cancer screening by testing for comprehension, content coverage, dimensionality, and reliability....

  8. CT-Screening for lung cancer does not increase the use of anxiolytic or antidepressant medication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaerlev, Linda; Iachina, Maria; Pedersen, Jesper Holst

    2012-01-01

    CT screening for lung cancer has recently been shown to reduce lung cancer mortality, but screening may have adverse mental health effects. We calculated risk ratios for prescription of anti-depressive (AD) or anxiolytic (AX) medication redeemed at Danish pharmacies for participants in The Danish...... Lung Cancer Screening Trial (DLCST)....

  9. Body Mass Index and Cancer Screening in Older American Indian and Alaska Native Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muus, Kyle J.; Baker-Demaray, Twyla; McDonald, Leander R.; Ludtke, Richard L.; Allery, Alan J.; Bogart, T. Andy; Goldberg, Jack; Ramsey, Scott D.; Buchwald, Dedra S.

    2009-01-01

    Context: Regular screenings are important for reducing cancer morbidity and mortality. There are several barriers to receiving timely cancer screening, including overweight/obesity. No study has examined the relationship between overweight/obesity and cancer screening among American Indian/Alaska Natives (AI/ANs). Purpose: To describe the…

  10. Does lowering the screening age for cervical cancer in The Netherlands make sense?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Aa, Maaike A.; de Kok, Inge M.C.M.; Siesling, Sabine; van Ballegooijen, Marjolein; Coebergh, Jan Willem W.

    2008-01-01

    Recommendations for the age to initiate cervical cancer screening should be directed towards maximum detection of early cervical cancer. However, the screening programme should do more good than harm. The aim of this analysis was to determine whether the target age for cervical cancer screening

  11. Factors influencing participation in colorectal cancer screening programs in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanaclocha-Espi, Mercedes; Ibáñez, Josefa; Molina-Barceló, Ana; Pérez, Elena; Nolasco, Andreu; Font, Rebeca; Pérez-Riquelme, Francisco; de la Vega, Mariola; Arana-Arri, Eunate; Oceja, MªElena; Espinàs, Josep Alfons; Portillo, Isabel; Salas, Dolores

    2017-12-01

    To analyze the sociodemographic and organizational factors influencing participation in population-based colorectal cancer screening programs (CRCSP) in Spain, a retrospective study was conducted in a cohort of people invited to participate in the first 3 screening rounds of 6 CRCSP from 2000 to 2012. Mixed logistic regression models were used to analyze the relationship between sociodemographic and organizational factors, such as the type of fecal occult blood test (FOBT) used and the FOBT delivery type. The analysis was performed separately in groups (Initial screening-first invitation, Subsequent invitation for previous never-responders, Subsequent invitation-regular, Subsequent invitation-irregular intervals). The results showed that, in the Initial screening-first invitation group, participation was higher in women than in men in all age groups (OR 1.05 in persons aged 50-59years and OR 1.12 in those aged 60-69years). Participation was also higher when no action was required to receive the FOBT kit, independently of the type of screening (Initial screening-first invitation [OR 2.24], Subsequent invitation for previous never-responders [OR 2.14], Subsequent invitation-regular [OR 2.03], Subsequent invitation-irregular intervals [OR 9.38]) and when quantitative rather than qualitative immunological FOBT (FIT) was offered (Initial screening-first invitation [OR 0.70], Subsequent invitation for previous never-responders [OR 0.12], Subsequent invitation-regular [OR 0.20]) or guaiac testing (Initial screening-first invitation [OR 0.81], Subsequent invitation for previous never-responders [OR 0.88], Subsequent invitation-regular [OR 0.73]). In conclusion, the results of this study show that screening participation could be enhanced by inclusion of the FOBT kit with the screening invitation and the use of the quantitative FIT. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. High affective risk perception is associated with more lung cancer-specific distress in CT screening for lung cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bunge, Eveline M.; van den Bergh, Karien A. M.; Essink-Bot, Marie-Louise; van Klaveren, Rob J.; de Koning, Harry J.

    2008-01-01

    Screening for cancer can cause distress. People who perceive their risk of cancer as high may be more vulnerable to distress. This study evaluated whether participants of a lung cancer Computed Tomography (CT) screening trial with a high affective risk perception of developing lung cancer had a

  13. Chinese peoples' perceptions of colorectal cancer screening: a New Zealand perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bong, Genevieve; McCool, Judith

    2011-03-25

    A national cancer screening programme requires a level of perceived acceptability of the procedure among the target population groups to be successful (that is, achieve a high uptake rate). In this study we explored Chinese immigrants' attitudes and perceptions towards colorectal cancer screening. A grounded theory methodology was used explore the determinants of colorectal cancer screening. In depth one-on-one interviews were conducted and subsequently analysed to develop an appreciation of the perspectives on colorectal cancer screening among Chinese people living in New Zealand. Findings indicated a high degree of perceived acceptability for the concept of a national colorectal cancer screening programme. Chinese participants valued health care and preventive health measures were highly prioritised. However, colorectal cancer suffered from the 'poor cousin' syndrome whereby other more highly publicised cancers, such breast cancer, or skin cancer, were perceived to be more relevant and serious, thus marginalising the perceived priority of colorectal cancer screening. Overall, participants paid close attention to their bodies' balance and were proactive in seeking medical advice. Patient practitioner interaction was also found to be influential in the patient's decision to seek screening. The results of the study suggest that the introduction of a colorectal cancer screening programme in New Zealand would benefit from close attention to cultural determinants of screening uptake to provide an equitable service and outcome. Chinese patients who are eligible for participating in the colorectal cancer screening would benefit from access to appropriately detailed and culturally relevant information on the risks, benefit and procedures associated with colorectal cancer screening.

  14. Colonoscopic screening for colorectal cancer improves quality of life measures: a population-based screening study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shadbolt Bruce

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Screening asymptomatic individuals for neoplasia can have adverse consequences on quality of life. Colon cancer screening is widespread but the quality of life (QOL consequences are unknown. This study determined the impact of screening colonoscopy on QOL measures in asymptomatic average-risk participants. Methods Asymptomatic male and female participants aged 55–74 years were randomly selected from the Australian Electoral Roll or six primary care physicians' databases. Participants completed the Short-Form (SF-36 Quality of Life Assessment at baseline and at a mean of 39 days after colonoscopy. Outcome measures were (i significant changes in raw scores in any of the eight SF-36 domains assessed following colonoscopic screening and (ii improvements or declines in previously validated categories, representing clinically significant changes, within any of the eight SF-36 domains. Results Baseline QOL measures were similar to those of a matched general population sample. Role Limitations due to Emotions, Mental Health and Vitality raw scores significantly improved following colonoscopy (P Conclusion Average-risk persons benefit significantly from colon cancer screening with colonoscopy, improving in Mental Health and Vitality domains of Quality of Life. This improvement is not offset by declines in other domains.

  15. A Systematic Overview of Radiation Therapy Effects in Rectal Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glimelius, Bengt; Groenberg, Henrik; Jaerhult, Johannes; Wallgren, Arne; Cavallin-Staahl, Eva

    2003-01-01

    A systematic review of radiation therapy trials in several tumour types was performed by The Swedish Council of Technology Assessment in Health Care (SBU). The procedures for evaluation of the scientific literature are described separately. This synthesis of the literature on radiation therapy for rectal cancer is based on data from 42 randomized trials and 3 meta-analyses. Moreover, data from 36 prospective studies, 7 retrospective studies and 17 other articles were used. A total of 131 scientific articles are included, involving 25,351 patients. The results were compared with those of a similar overview from 1996 including 15,042 patients. The conclusions reached can be summarized thus: The results after rectal cancer surgery have improved during the past decade. It is likely that local failure rates after 5 years of follow-up at hospitals adopting the TME-concept (TME=total mesorectal excision) have decreased from about 28% to 10-15%. Preoperative radiotherapy at biological effective doses above 30 Gy decreases the relative risk of a local failure by more than half (50-70%). Postoperative radiotherapy decreases the risk by 30-40% at doses that generally are higher than those used preoperatively. There is strong evidence that preoperative radiotherapy is more effective than postoperative. There is moderate evidence that preoperative radiotherapy significantly decreases the local failure rate (from 8% to 2% after 2 years) also with TME. There is strong evidence that preoperative radiotherapy improves survival (by about 10%). There is no evidence that postoperative radiotherapy improves survival. There is some indication that survival is prolonged when postoperative radiotherapy is combined with concomitant chemotherapy. Preoperative radiotherapy at adequate doses can be given with low acute toxicity. Higher, and unacceptable acute toxicity has been seen in some preoperative radiotherapy trials using suboptimal techniques. Postoperative radiotherapy can also be

  16. Population Based Screening for Prostate Cancer: assessment of diagnostic tools and cancers detected

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.B.W. Rietbergen (John)

    1998-01-01

    textabstractOver the past decade, considerable debate has occurred over the question whether or not to screen asymptomatic men for prostate cancer. It is unknown whether early detection and treatment of the disease will decrease the disease specific mortality. On theoretical grounds screening may

  17. Breast cancer screening halves the risk of breast cancer death: a case-referent study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paap, Ellen; Verbeek, André L. M.; Botterweck, Anita A. M.; van Doorne-Nagtegaal, Heidi J.; Imhof-Tas, Mechli; de Koning, Harry J.; Otto, Suzie J.; de Munck, Linda; van der Steen, Annemieke; Holland, Roland; den Heeten, Gerard J.; Broeders, Mireille J. M.

    2014-01-01

    Large-scale epidemiologic studies have consistently demonstrated the effectiveness of mammographic screening programs, however the benefits are still subject to debate. We estimated the effect of the Dutch screening program on breast cancer mortality. In a large multi-region case-referent study, we

  18. Prevention and Screening in Hereditary Breast and Ovarian Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeichner, Simon B; Stanislaw, Christine; Meisel, Jane L

    2016-10-15

    In recent years, we have learned a great deal about pathogenic mutations that increase the risk of breast and ovarian cancer, particularly mutations in the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes. Here we review current guidelines on breast and ovarian cancer screening, prophylactic surgery, and other risk-reduction strategies in patients with these mutations, and we detail the data that drive these recommendations. We also discuss guidelines on screening and management for other cancers associated with BRCA1 and BRCA2, such as male breast cancer, pancreatic cancer, and prostate cancer. Discussions about genetic testing have become more complex with the advent of panel testing, which often allows for testing of a more comprehensive panel of genes than traditional BRCA1 and BRCA2 testing, but which is also associated with a higher likelihood of obtaining results with less clear data to inform management. It is difficult to come to a consensus on how best to address the varied and potentially challenging situations that may arise from genetic testing. The complexity inherent in managing these cases makes a multidisciplinary team-including medical oncologists, surgical oncologists, genetic counselors, reproductive endocrinologists, and medical ethicists-critical to optimization of care.

  19. Understanding drugs in breast cancer through drug sensitivity screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uhr, Katharina; Prager-van der Smissen, Wendy J C; Heine, Anouk A J; Ozturk, Bahar; Smid, Marcel; Göhlmann, Hinrich W H; Jager, Agnes; Foekens, John A; Martens, John W M

    2015-01-01

    With substantial numbers of breast tumors showing or acquiring treatment resistance, it is of utmost importance to develop new agents for the treatment of the disease, to know their effectiveness against breast cancer and to understand their relationships with other drugs to best assign the right drug to the right patient. To achieve this goal drug screenings on breast cancer cell lines are a promising approach. In this study a large-scale drug screening of 37 compounds was performed on a panel of 42 breast cancer cell lines representing the main breast cancer subtypes. Clustering, correlation and pathway analyses were used for data analysis. We found that compounds with a related mechanism of action had correlated IC50 values and thus grouped together when the cell lines were hierarchically clustered based on IC50 values. In total we found six clusters of drugs of which five consisted of drugs with related mode of action and one cluster with two drugs not previously connected. In total, 25 correlated and four anti-correlated drug sensitivities were revealed of which only one drug, Sirolimus, showed significantly lower IC50 values in the luminal/ERBB2 breast cancer subtype. We found expected interactions but also discovered new relationships between drugs which might have implications for cancer treatment regimens.

  20. Esophageal cancer screening in achalasia: is there a consensus?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravi, K; Geno, D M; Katzka, D A

    2015-04-01

    Achalasia is an important but relatively uncommon disorder. While highly effective therapeutic options exist, esophageal cancer remains a long-term potential complication. The risk of esophageal cancer in achalasia remains unclear, with current guidelines recommending against routine endoscopic screening. However, given limited data and conflicting opinion, it is unknown whether consensus regarding screening practices in achalasia among experts exists. A 10-question survey to assess screening practices in achalasia was created and distributed to 28 experts in the area of achalasia. Experts were identified based on publications and meeting presentations in the field. Survey responses were received from 17 of 28 (61%) experts. Wide geographic distribution was seen among respondents, with eight (47%) from Europe or Australia, seven (41%) from the United States, and two (12%) from Asia. Screening for esophageal cancer was inconsistent, with nine (53%) experts endorsing the practice and eight (47%) not. Screening practices did not differ among geographic regions. No consensus regarding the risk for esophageal cancer in achalasia was seen, with three experts reporting no increased risk compared with the general population, eight experts a lifetime risk of 0.1-0.5%, three experts a 0.5-1% risk, two experts a 1-2% risk, and one expert a 3-5% risk. However, these differences in perception of risk did not influence screening practices. Upper endoscopy was utilized among all experts who endorsed screening. However, practices still varied with screening commencing at or within 1 year of diagnosis in two practices compared with 5 and 10 years in three respective practices each. Surveillance intervals also varied, performed every 2 years in four practices, every 3 years in four practices, and every 5 years in one practice. Practice variation in the management of achalasia itself was also seen, with initial treatment with Heller myotomy endorsed by eight experts, pneumatic

  1. Low-dose CT: new tool for screening lung cancer?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diederich, S.; Wormanns, D.; Heindel, W.

    2001-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of death from malignant tumours as it is very common and has a poor prognosis at advanced tumour stages. Prognosis could be improved by treatment at early stages. As these stages are usually asymptomatic, a diagnostic test that would allow detection of early tumour stages in a population at risk could potentially reduce mortality from lung cancer. Previous approaches using chest radiography and sputum cytology in smokers have been disappointing. Fluorescent bronchoscopy and molecular markers are not yet applicable in clinical routine. Because of its high sensitivity for small pulmonary nodules, which are the most common manifestation of early lung cancer, CT appears suitable as a screening test. Low-dose examination parameters can and should be used for this purpose. From clinical practice it is well known that chest CT often demonstrates small pulmonary nodules, which do not represent lung cancer. Therefore, non-invasive diagnostic algorithms are required to avoid unnecessary biopsies in benign lesions. In preliminary studies of low-dose CT using algorithms based on size and density of detected nodules a large proportion of asymptomatic lung cancers and a large proportion of early, resectable tumour stages were found with a small proportion of invasive procedures for benign nodules. Before this technology can be recommended for broad application, however, further information is required regarding appropriate inclusion criteria (smoking habits, age groups) and screening intervals. Most importantly, further data are required to clarify whether lung cancer screening using low-dose CT can actually reduce mortality from lung cancer. (orig.)

  2. Breast cancer screening in Japan. Present status and recent movement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endo, Tokiko

    2004-01-01

    As the incidence of breast cancer and deaths from breast cancer have been increasing, the Ministry of Public Welfare and Labor has been promoting breast cancer screening. Mammography screening began in fiscal year 2000 for those women 50 years of age or over, but attendance has not been increasing. This year (2004), the Ministry determined that mammography would be applicable to those 40 years of age or over and that screening with palpation alone would be abolished. To determine the effectiveness of the measures, mammography equipment, technologists, and readers were calculated. If the attendance were 50% of the 35,497 thousand women in this biennial screening, 40 persons would be examined by one apparatus per day, and, as there are 200 working days in a year, 1,109 apparatus would be needed. In the same way, if a technologist can examine 5,000 women, and a doctor can read 10,000 cases a year, both are apparently deficient in some prefectures. The standards of quality control for digital mammography have been determined by the Japan Radiological Society, and a ''step phantom for mammography'' has been developed. Qualitative evaluation of hard-copy clinical images has also started. All of the standards are presented in ''Mammography Guidelines, Second Edition,'' published by Igakushoin, Tokyo, Japan, 2004. (author)

  3. Predictors of advanced colorectal neoplasia for colorectal cancer screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Martin C S; Lam, Thomas Y T; Tsoi, Kelvin K F; Chan, Victor C W; Hirai, Hoyee W; Ching, Jessica Y L; Sung, Joseph J Y

    2014-05-01

    The Asia-Pacific Colorectal Screening (APCS) score based on age, gender, family history, and smoking is useful to predict advanced colorectal neoplasia (ACN) in asymptomatic Asian subjects. To evaluate the factors in addition to those of APCS associated with ACN colonoscopic findings. Data from 5,220 asymptomatic subjects aged between 50 and 70 years who underwent screening colonoscopy in a community center between 2008 and 2012 were analyzed. One binary logistic regression analysis was conducted in 2013 with the presence of ACN or cancer as the outcome, controlling for APCS score, alcohol consumption, BMI, hypertension, and other chronic diseases as independent variables. The average participant age was 57.7 years (SD=4.9) and 47.5% were men. Advanced neoplasms or cancers were identified at colonoscopy in 5.6% of all screening participants. From multivariate regression analysis, APCS score≥4 (adjusted OR [AOR]=1.74, 95% CI=1.34, 2.25, pstatistic of APCS score alone was 0.560 (95% CI=0.524, 0.595, p=0.001) and that of APCS score plus BMI, hypertension, and alcohol consumption was 0.613 (95% CI=0.578, 0.648, p<0.001). Alcohol consumption, hypertension, and BMI are independent predictors of ACN, which could be incorporated into the APCS for prioritizing Asian asymptomatic subjects for colorectal cancer screening. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. Scarce information about breast cancer screening: An Italian websites analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attena, Francesco; Cancellieri, Mariagrazia; Pelullo, Concetta Paola

    2016-12-01

    Although the public should have complete and correct information about risk/benefit ratio of breast cancer screening, public knowledge appears generally scarce and oriented to overestimate benefits, with little awareness of possible disadvantages of the screening.We evaluated any document specifically addressed to the general female public and posted on internet by Italian public health services. The presence of false positive, false positive after biopsy, false negative, interval cancer, overdiagnosis, lead-time bias, exposure to irradiation, and mortality reduction was analyzed.Of the 255 websites consulted, 136 (53.3%) had sites addressed to the female public. The most commonly reported information points were the false-positive (30.8% of sites) and radiation exposure (29.4%) rates. Only 11 documents mentioned overdiagnosis, 2 mentioned risk of false positive with biopsy, and only 1 mentioned lead-time bias. Moreover, only 15 sites (11.0%) reported quantitative data for any risk variables.Most documents about breast cancer screening published on the web for the female public contained little or no information about risk/benefit ratio and were biased in favor of screening.

  5. The West Midlands breast cancer screening status algorithm - methodology and use as an audit tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Gill; Kearins, Olive; O'Sullivan, Emma; Tappenden, Nancy; Wallis, Matthew; Walton, Jackie

    2005-01-01

    To illustrate the ability of the West Midlands breast screening status algorithm to assign a screening status to women with malignant breast cancer, and its uses as a quality assurance and audit tool. Breast cancers diagnosed between the introduction of the National Health Service [NHS] Breast Screening Programme and 31 March 2001 were obtained from the West Midlands Cancer Intelligence Unit (WMCIU). Screen-detected tumours were identified via breast screening units, and the remaining cancers were assigned to one of eight screening status categories. Multiple primaries and recurrences were excluded. A screening status was assigned to 14,680 women (96% of the cohort examined), 110 cancers were not registered at the WMCIU and the cohort included 120 screen-detected recurrences. The West Midlands breast screening status algorithm is a robust simple tool which can be used to derive data to evaluate the efficacy and impact of the NHS Breast Screening Programme.

  6. Colorectal Cancer in Iran: Molecular Epidemiology and Screening Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roya Dolatkhah

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The increasing incidence of colorectal cancer (CRC in the past three decades in Iran has made it a major public health burden. This study aimed to report its epidemiologic features, molecular genetic aspects, survival, heredity, and screening pattern in Iran. Methods. A comprehensive literature review was conducted to identify the relevant published articles. We used medical subject headings, including colorectal cancer, molecular genetics, KRAS and BRAF mutations, screening, survival, epidemiologic study, and Iran. Results. Age standardized incidence rate of Iranian CRCs was 11.6 and 10.5 for men and women, respectively. Overall five-year survival rate was 41%, and the proportion of CRC among the younger age group was higher than that of western countries. Depending on ethnicity, geographical region, dietary, and genetic predisposition, mutation genes were considerably diverse and distinct among CRCs across Iran. The high occurrence of CRC in records of relatives of CRC patients showed that family history of CRC was more common among young CRCs. Conclusion. Appropriate screening strategies for CRC which is amenable to early detection through screening, especially in relatives of CRCs, should be considered as the first step in CRC screening programs.

  7. Colorectal Cancer in Iran: Molecular Epidemiology and Screening Strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dolatkhah, R.; Somi, M. H.; Dolatkhah, R.; Kermani, I. A.; Dastgiri, S.

    2015-01-01

    The increasing incidence of colorectal cancer (CRC) in the past three decades in Iran has made it a major public health burden. This study aimed to report its epidemiologic features, molecular genetic aspects, survival, heredity, and screening pattern in Iran. Methods. A comprehensive literature review was conducted to identify the relevant published articles. We used medical subject headings, including colorectal cancer, molecular genetics, KRAS and BRAF mutations, screening, survival, epidemiologic study, and Iran. Results. Age standardized incidence rate of Iranian CRCs was 11.6 and 10.5 for men and women, respectively. Overall five-year survival rate was 41%, and the proportion of CRC among the younger age group was higher than that of western countries. Depending on ethnicity, geographical region, dietary, and genetic predisposition, mutation genes were considerably diverse and distinct among CRCs across Iran. The high occurrence of CRC in records of relatives of CRC patients showed that family history of CRC was more common among young CRCs. Conclusion. Appropriate screening strategies for CRC which is amenable to early detection through screening, especially in relatives of CRCs, should be considered as the first step in CRC screening programs.

  8. Daughter-Initiated Cancer Screening Appeals to Mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosavel, M; Genderson, M W

    2016-12-01

    Youth-initiated health interventions may provide a much needed avenue for intergenerational dissemination of health information among families who bear the greatest burden from unequal distribution of morbidity and mortality. The findings presented in this paper are from a pilot study of the feasibility and impact of female youth-initiated messages (mostly daughters) encouraging adult female relatives (mostly mothers) to obtain cancer screening within low-income African American families living in a Southern US state. Results are compared between an intervention and control group. Intervention group youth (n = 22) were exposed to a 60-min interactive workshop where they were assisted to prepare a factual and emotional appeal to their adult relative to obtain specific screening. The face-to-face workshops were guided by the Elaboration Likelihood Model (ELM) and the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB). Control group girls (n = 18) were only provided with a pamphlet with information about cancer screening and specific steps about how to encourage their relative to obtain screening. Intervention youth (86 %) and adults (82 %) reported that the message was shared while 71 % in the control group reported sharing or receiving the message. Importantly, more women in the intervention group reported that they obtained a screen (e.g., mammogram, Pap smear) directly based on the youth's appeal. These findings can have major implications for youth-initiated health promotion efforts, especially among hard-to-reach populations.

  9. Socioeconomic position and participation in colorectal cancer screening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, B L; Jørgensen, Torben; Brasso, K

    2010-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) screening with faecal occult blood test (FOBT) has the potential to reduce the incidence and mortality of CRC. Screening uptake is known to be inferior in people with low socioeconomic position (SEP) when compared with those with high position; however, the results of most...... information on education, employment, and income to encompass different but related aspects of socioeconomic stratification. Also, the impact of ethnicity and cohabiting status was analysed.......Colorectal cancer (CRC) screening with faecal occult blood test (FOBT) has the potential to reduce the incidence and mortality of CRC. Screening uptake is known to be inferior in people with low socioeconomic position (SEP) when compared with those with high position; however, the results of most...... previous studies have limited value because they are based on recall or area-based measures of socioeconomic position, and might thus be subject to selective participation and misclassification. In this study we investigated differences in CRC screening participation using register-based individual...

  10. Effects of repeated mammographic screening on breast cancer stage distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fagerberg, G.; Baldetorp, L.; Groentoft, O.; Lundstroem, B.; Maanson, J.C.; Nordenskjoeld, B.

    1985-01-01

    A randomised controlled trial of mass screening for breast cancer by single-view mammography was begun in Sweden in 1977. All women aged 40 and older and resident in the counties of Koppaberg and Oestergoetland were enrolled. The present report is confined to the Oestergoetland study, which started in 1978 and comprised 92934 women. After randomisation, which was done on the basis of communities rather than individuals, 47001 women were allocated to the study group and offered repeated mammographic screening; 45933 were allocated to the control group. As compliance among women over 74 years of age was poor these were excluded from the present report. The yearly incidence of stage II or more advanced breast cancers after the initial screening round up to and including the second was reduced by 40 per cent in the study group compared with the controls. This effect was less marked in the age group 40-49. After 5.5 years average from the date of entry the absolute number of women with stage II-IV disease in the control group exceeded that for the study group by 44, whereas there was a large excess of cancer in situ and stage I cancer in the study group. (orig.)

  11. Participants, Physicians or Programmes: Participants' educational level and initiative in cancer screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willems, Barbara; Bracke, Piet

    2018-04-01

    This study is an in-depth examination of at whose initiative (participant, physician or screening programme) individuals participate in cervical, breast and colorectal cancer screening across the EU-28. Special attention is paid to (1) the association with educational attainment and (2) the country's cancer screening strategy (organised, pilot/regional or opportunistic) for each type of cancer screened. Data were obtained from Eurobarometer 66.2 'Health in the European Union' (2006). Final samples consisted of 10,186; 5443 and 9851 individuals for cervical, breast, and colorectal cancer, respectively. Multinomial logistic regressions were performed. Surprisingly, even in countries with organised screening programmes, participation in screenings for cervical, breast and colorectal cancer was most likely to be initiated by the general practitioner (GP) or the participant. In general, GPs were found to play a crucial role in making referrals to screenings, regardless of the country's screening strategy. The results also revealed differences between educational groups with regard to their incentive to participate in cervical and breast cancer screening and, to a lesser extent, in colorectal cancer screening. People with high education are more likely to participate in cancer screening at their own initiative, while people with less education are more likely to participate at the initiative of a physician or a screening programme. Albeit, the results varied according to type of cancer screening and national screening strategy. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Cervical cancer screening in Greenland, 1997-2011

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, Signe; Wohlfahrt, Jan; Kjær, Susanne Krüger

    2016-01-01

    of the screening program and to examine possible changes in cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN3) incidence in Greenland during 1997-2011 according to calendar period and age. METHODS: Using nationwide registries, we calculated age-standardized incidence rates for all women born and living in Greenland......OBJECTIVE: In spite of the high incidence of cervical cancer in Greenland, no assessment has been made of the impact of organized cervical screening, introduced in 1998, in relation to occurrence of high-grade cervical lesions. The objectives of the present study were to estimate coverage...

  13. An updated Asia Pacific Consensus Recommendations on colorectal cancer screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, J J Y; Ng, S C; Chan, F K L; Chiu, H M; Kim, H S; Matsuda, T; Ng, S S M; Lau, J Y W; Zheng, S; Adler, S; Reddy, N; Yeoh, K G; Tsoi, K K F; Ching, J Y L; Kuipers, E J; Rabeneck, L; Young, G P; Steele, R J; Lieberman, D; Goh, K L

    2015-01-01

    Since the publication of the first Asia Pacific Consensus on Colorectal Cancer (CRC) in 2008, there are substantial advancements in the science and experience of implementing CRC screening. The Asia Pacific Working Group aimed to provide an updated set of consensus recommendations. Members from 14 Asian regions gathered to seek consensus using other national and international guidelines, and recent relevant literature published from 2008 to 2013. A modified Delphi process was adopted to develop the statements. Age range for CRC screening is defined as 50-75 years. Advancing age, male, family history of CRC, smoking and obesity are confirmed risk factors for CRC and advanced neoplasia. A risk-stratified scoring system is recommended for selecting high-risk patients for colonoscopy. Quantitative faecal immunochemical test (FIT) instead of guaiac-based faecal occult blood test (gFOBT) is preferred for average-risk subjects. Ancillary methods in colonoscopy, with the exception of chromoendoscopy, have not proven to be superior to high-definition white light endoscopy in identifying adenoma. Quality of colonoscopy should be upheld and quality assurance programme should be in place to audit every aspects of CRC screening. Serrated adenoma is recognised as a risk for interval cancer. There is no consensus on the recruitment of trained endoscopy nurses for CRC screening. Based on recent data on CRC screening, an updated list of recommendations on CRC screening is prepared. These consensus statements will further enhance the implementation of CRC screening in the Asia Pacific region. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  14. Breast and cervical cancer screening disparity among Asian American women: does race/ethnicity matter [corrected]?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hee Yun; Ju, Eunsu; Vang, Pa Der; Lundquist, Melissa

    2010-10-01

    Ethnic minorities are frequently considered as one homogeneous group in research, and this trend is particularly true for Asian Americans. This article seeks to uncover the intragroup differences in cancer screening behavior among subgroups of Asian American women by disaggregating them into six subgroups. The subgroups were compared with non-Latina white women to examine differences in breast and cancer screening rates and relevant factors associated with receiving these screenings. Three-year merged data from the 2001, 2003, and 2005 California Health Interview Survey (CHIS) were used to investigate the subgroup differences. Samples for the current study were restricted to non-Latina white and Asian American women whose age was ≥ 18 years (n = 58,000) for cervical cancer screening and ≥ 40 years (n = 43,518) for breast cancer screening at the time of the interview. Results showed marked differences in cancer screening rates among Asian American subgroups and between cancer types. Cervical cancer screening rates were noticeably higher than breast cancer screening rates in all groups. The Korean group consistently showed the lowest rates of both cancer screenings. Japanese ranked the highest (79.5%) in breast cancer screening but the second lowest (79.7%) in cervical cancer screening. Enabling factors, such as having private health insurance and a usual source of care, were found to be the strongest predictors of receiving both breast and cervical cancer screening. Screenings for both types of cancer increased if a woman was married or was born in the United States. The findings of this study illustrate the heterogeneity that exists among Asian American subgroups in their cancer screening behaviors. Further development of culturally relevant and ethnic-specific cancer prevention strategies and policies that address the subgroup differences within the larger racial/ethnic population are needed. Public health outreach and cancer education should be prioritized to

  15. Estimating time and travel costs incurred in clinic based screening: flexible sigmoidoscopy screening for colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frew, E; Wolstenholme, J L; Atkin, W; Whynes, D K

    1999-01-01

    To identify the characteristics of mode of travel to screening clinics; to estimate the time and travel costs incurred in attending; to investigate whether such costs are likely to bias screening compliance. Twelve centres in the trial of flexible sigmoidoscopy screening for colorectal cancer, drawn from across Great Britain. Analysis of 3525 questionnaires completed by screening subjects while attending clinics. Information supplied included sociodemographic characteristics, modes of travel, expenses, activities foregone owing to attendance, and details of companions. More than 80% of subjects arrived at the clinics by car, and about two thirds were accompanied. On average, the clinic visit involved a 14.4 mile (22.8 km) round trip, requiring 130 minutes. Mean travel costs amounted to 6.10 Pounds per subject. The mean gross direct non-medical and indirect cost per subject amounted to 16.90 Pounds, and the mean overall gross cost per attendance was 22.40 Pounds. Compared with the Great Britain population as a whole, non-manual classes were more strongly represented, and the self employed less strongly represented, among the attendees. In relation to direct medical costs, the time and travel costs of clinic based screening can be substantial, may influence the overall cost effectiveness of a screening programme, and may deter potential subjects from attending.

  16. Association of eHealth literacy with cancer information seeking and prior experience with cancer screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hyejin; Moon, Mikyung; Baeg, Jung Hoon

    2014-09-01

    Cancer is a critical disease with a high mortality rate in the US. Although useful information exists on the Internet, many people experience difficulty finding information about cancer prevention because they have limited eHealth literacy. This study aimed to identify relationships between the level of eHealth literacy and cancer information seeking experience or prior experience with cancer screening tests. A total of 108 adults participated in this study through questionnaires. Data covering demographics, eHealth literacy, cancer information seeking experience, educational needs for cancer information searching, and previous cancer screening tests were obtained. Study findings show that the level of eHealth literacy influences cancer information seeking. Individuals with low eHealth literacy are likely to be less confident about finding cancer information. In addition, people who have a low level of eHealth literacy need more education about seeking information than do those with a higher level of eHealth literacy. However, there is no significant relationship between eHealth literacy and cancer screening tests. More people today are using the Internet for access to information to maintain good health. It is therefore critical to educate those with low eHealth literacy so they can better self-manage their health.

  17. Breast cancer screening using tomosynthesis in combination with digital mammography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedewald, Sarah M; Rafferty, Elizabeth A; Rose, Stephen L; Durand, Melissa A; Plecha, Donna M; Greenberg, Julianne S; Hayes, Mary K; Copit, Debra S; Carlson, Kara L; Cink, Thomas M; Barke, Lora D; Greer, Linda N; Miller, Dave P; Conant, Emily F

    2014-06-25

    Mammography plays a key role in early breast cancer detection. Single-institution studies have shown that adding tomosynthesis to mammography increases cancer detection and reduces false-positive results. To determine if mammography combined with tomosynthesis is associated with better performance of breast screening programs in the United States. Retrospective analysis of screening performance metrics from 13 academic and nonacademic breast centers using mixed models adjusting for site as a random effect. Period 1: digital mammography screening examinations 1 year before tomosynthesis implementation (start dates ranged from March 2010 to October 2011 through the date of tomosynthesis implementation); period 2: digital mammography plus tomosynthesis examinations from initiation of tomosynthesis screening (March 2011 to October 2012) through December 31, 2012. Recall rate for additional imaging, cancer detection rate, and positive predictive values for recall and for biopsy. A total of 454,850 examinations (n=281,187 digital mammography; n=173,663 digital mammography + tomosynthesis) were evaluated. With digital mammography, 29,726 patients were recalled and 5056 biopsies resulted in cancer diagnosis in 1207 patients (n=815 invasive; n=392 in situ). With digital mammography + tomosynthesis, 15,541 patients were recalled and 3285 biopsies resulted in cancer diagnosis in 950 patients (n=707 invasive; n=243 in situ). Model-adjusted rates per 1000 screens were as follows: for recall rate, 107 (95% CI, 89-124) with digital mammography vs 91 (95% CI, 73-108) with digital mammography + tomosynthesis; difference, -16 (95% CI, -18 to -14; P tomosynthesis; difference, 1.3 (95% CI, 0.4-2.1; P = .004); for cancer detection, 4.2 (95% CI, 3.8-4.7) with digital mammography vs 5.4 (95% CI, 4.9-6.0) with digital mammography + tomosynthesis; difference, 1.2 (95% CI, 0.8-1.6; P tomosynthesis; difference, 1.2 (95% CI, 0.8-1.6; P tomosynthesis was associated with an increase

  18. The German cervical cancer screening model: development and validation of a decision-analytic model for cervical cancer screening in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siebert, Uwe; Sroczynski, Gaby; Hillemanns, Peter; Engel, Jutta; Stabenow, Roland; Stegmaier, Christa; Voigt, Kerstin; Gibis, Bernhard; Hölzel, Dieter; Goldie, Sue J

    2006-04-01

    We sought to develop and validate a decision-analytic model for the natural history of cervical cancer for the German health care context and to apply it to cervical cancer screening. We developed a Markov model for the natural history of cervical cancer and cervical cancer screening in the German health care context. The model reflects current German practice standards for screening, diagnostic follow-up and treatment regarding cervical cancer and its precursors. Data for disease progression and cervical cancer survival were obtained from the literature and German cancer registries. Accuracy of Papanicolaou (Pap) testing was based on meta-analyses. We performed internal and external model validation using observed epidemiological data for unscreened women from different German cancer registries. The model predicts life expectancy, incidence of detected cervical cancer cases, lifetime cervical cancer risks and mortality. The model predicted a lifetime cervical cancer risk of 3.0% and a lifetime cervical cancer mortality of 1.0%, with a peak cancer incidence of 84/100,000 at age 51 years. These results were similar to observed data from German cancer registries, German literature data and results from other international models. Based on our model, annual Pap screening could prevent 98.7% of diagnosed cancer cases and 99.6% of deaths due to cervical cancer in women completely adherent to screening and compliant to treatment. Extending the screening interval from 1 year to 2, 3 or 5 years resulted in reduced screening effectiveness. This model provides a tool for evaluating the long-term effectiveness of different cervical cancer screening tests and strategies.

  19. How many "Get Screened" messages does it take? Evidence from colorectal cancer screening promotion in the United States, 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Crystale Purvis; Gelb, Cynthia A; Hawkins, Nikki A

    2014-03-01

    Colorectal cancer screening has been widely promoted in the United States. We investigated the association between reported exposure to screening information during the past year and screening participation and knowledge. Data from the 2012 HealthStyles Fall survey of U.S. adults were examined using adjusted logistic regression to examine the frequency of exposure to screening information as a predictor of screening participation and knowledge; analyses were limited to participants aged ≥50years with no history of colorectal cancer or polyps (N=1714). Nearly half of the participants (44.9%) reported exposure to colorectal cancer screening information during the previous year. The most common sources of screening information were news reports, advertisements, and health care providers. Screening participation and knowledge consistently increased with the reported frequency of exposure to screening information, and these associations generally persisted when demographic variables were controlled. Compared with unexposed participants, significant gains in screening participation were associated with exposure to screening information 2-3 times (Adj. OR=1.84, p=0.001), 4-9 times (Adj. OR=2.00, p=0.001), and ≥10 times (Adj. OR=3.03, p<0.001) in the adjusted model. Increasing public exposure to screening promotion messages may augment screening participation and knowledge. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. A practical approach to radiological evaluation of CT lung cancer screening examinations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xie, Xueqian; Heuvelmans, Marjolein A.; van Ooijen, Peter M. A.; Oudkerk, Matthijs; Vliegenthart, Rozemarijn

    2013-01-01

    Lung cancer is the most common cause of cancer-related death in the world. The Dutch-Belgian Randomized Lung Cancer Screening Trial (Dutch acronym: NELSON) was launched to investigate whether screening for lung cancer by low-dose multidetector computed tomography (CT) in high-risk patients will lead