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Sample records for cancer screening behaviors

  1. Gender Identity Disparities in Cancer Screening Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabaac, Ariella R; Sutter, Megan E; Wall, Catherine S J; Baker, Kellan E

    2018-03-01

    Transgender (trans) and gender-nonconforming adults have reported reduced access to health care because of discrimination and lack of knowledgeable care. This study aimed to contribute to the nascent cancer prevention literature among trans and gender-nonconforming individuals by ascertaining rates of breast, cervical, prostate, and colorectal cancer screening behaviors by gender identity. Publicly available de-identified data from the 2014-2016 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System surveys were utilized to evaluate rates of cancer screenings by gender identity, while controlling for healthcare access, sociodemographics, and survey year. Analyses were conducted in 2017. Weighted chi-square tests identified significant differences in the proportion of cancer screening behaviors by gender identity among lifetime colorectal cancer screenings, Pap tests, prostate-specific antigen tests, discussing prostate-specific antigen test advantages/disadvantages with their healthcare provider, and up-to-date colorectal cancer screenings and Pap tests (pgender identity were fully explained by covariates, trans women had reduced odds of having up-to-date colorectal cancer screenings compared to cisgender (cis) men (AOR=0.20) and cis women (AOR=0.24), whereas trans men were more likely to ever receive a sigmoidoscopy/colonoscopy as compared to cis men (AOR=2.76) and cis women (AOR=2.65). Trans women were more likely than cis men to have up-to-date prostate-specific antigen tests (AOR=3.19). Finally, trans men and gender-nonconforming individuals had reduced odds of lifetime Pap tests versus cis women (AOR=0.14 and 0.08, respectively), and gender-nonconforming individuals had lower odds of discussing prostate-specific antigen tests than cis men (AOR=0.09; all pgender identity disparities in cancer screenings persist beyond known sociodemographic and healthcare factors. It is critical that gender identity questions are included in cancer and other health-related surveillance

  2. Cancer screening behaviors among smokers and non-smokers.

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    Byrne, Margaret M; Davila, Evelyn P; Zhao, Wei; Parker, Dorothy; Hooper, Monica Webb; Caban-Martinez, Alberto; Dietz, Noella; Huang, Youjie; Messiah, Antoine; Lee, David J

    2010-10-01

    We explored whether smoking is associated with cancer screening behaviors. We used data from the 2007 Florida Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System and the Florida Tobacco Callback Survey to examine screening behaviors related to four cancer types (breast, cervical, prostate, and colorectal). Using multiple logistic regression analyses, we examined the association between smoking status and health screening behaviors. For 10 of the 11 cancer screening variables, being a current smoker was significantly associated with being less likely to ever have been screened and also less likely to be compliant with screening guidelines. For breast and cervical cancer, level of nicotine dependence was also significantly related to compliance with screening recommendations; women with higher levels of dependence were less likely to be compliant. Our results support the notion that individuals' actions related to their health are consistent across different types of behaviors. We found that smokers were less likely to engage in cancer screening behaviors. In addition, among smokers, individuals with greater nicotine dependence had lower compliance with some screening tests. Physicians should ensure that their patients who smoke are receiving appropriate and adequate screening for cancer. Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Psychological and Behavioral Impact of Participation in Ovarian Cancer Screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael A. Andrykowski

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Evaluation of costs and benefits associated with cancer screening should include consideration of any psychological and behavioral impact associated with screening participation. Research examining the psychological and behavioral impact of screening asymptomatic women for ovarian cancer (OC was considered. Research has focused upon potential negative psychological (e.g., distress and behavioral (e.g., reduced future screening participation impact of false positive (FP OC test results. Results suggest FP OC screening results are associated with greater short-term OC-specific distress. While distress dissipates over time it may remain elevated relative to pre-screening levels for several weeks or months even after clinical follow-up has ruled out malignancy. The likelihood of participation in future OC screening may also be reduced. Research focused upon identification of any beneficial impact of participation in OC screening associated with receipt of “normal” results was also considered. This research suggests that a “normal” screening test result can have psychological benefits, including increased positive affect and beliefs in the efficacy of screening. It is concluded that any psychological or behavioral harms attributable to OC screening are generally very modest in severity and duration and might be counterbalanced by psychological benefits accruing to women who participate in routine OC screening and receive normal test results.

  4. Psychological and Behavioral Impact of Participation in Ovarian Cancer Screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrykowski, Michael A

    2017-03-08

    Evaluation of costs and benefits associated with cancer screening should include consideration of any psychological and behavioral impact associated with screening participation. Research examining the psychological and behavioral impact of screening asymptomatic women for ovarian cancer (OC) was considered. Research has focused upon potential negative psychological (e.g., distress) and behavioral (e.g., reduced future screening participation) impact of false positive (FP) OC test results. Results suggest FP OC screening results are associated with greater short-term OC-specific distress. While distress dissipates over time it may remain elevated relative to pre-screening levels for several weeks or months even after clinical follow-up has ruled out malignancy. The likelihood of participation in future OC screening may also be reduced. Research focused upon identification of any beneficial impact of participation in OC screening associated with receipt of "normal" results was also considered. This research suggests that a "normal" screening test result can have psychological benefits, including increased positive affect and beliefs in the efficacy of screening. It is concluded that any psychological or behavioral harms attributable to OC screening are generally very modest in severity and duration and might be counterbalanced by psychological benefits accruing to women who participate in routine OC screening and receive normal test results.

  5. Stomach cancer screening and preventive behaviors in relatives of gastric cancer patients.

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    Kang, Jung Min; Shin, Dong Wook; Kwon, Young Min; Park, Sang Min; Park, Min Sun; Park, Jin Ho; Son, Ki Young; Cho, Be Long

    2011-08-14

    To investigate gastric cancer screening and preventive behaviors among the relatives of patients with gastric cancer [i.e., gastric cancer relatives (GCRs)]. We examined the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005 (KNHANES III) database and compared the gastric cancer screening and preventive behaviors of GCRs (n = 261) with those of non-GCRs (n = 454) and controls without a family history of cancer (n = 2842). The GCRs were more likely to undergo gastric cancer screening compared with the control group (39.2% vs 32.3%, adjusted odds ratio: 1.43, CI: 1.05-1.95), although the absolute screening rate was low. Dietary patterns and smoking rates did not differ significantly between the groups, and a high proportion of GCRs reported inappropriate dietary habits (i.e., approximately 95% consumed excessive sodium, 30% were deficient in vitamin C, and 85% were deficient in dietary fiber). The gastric cancer screening and preventive behaviors of GCRs have yet to be improved. To increase awareness among GCRs, systematic family education programs should be implemented.

  6. Factors associated with breast and cervical cancer screening behavior among African immigrant women in Minnesota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harcourt, Nonyelum; Ghebre, Rahel G; Whembolua, Guy-Lucien; Zhang, Yan; Warfa Osman, S; Okuyemi, Kolawole S

    2014-06-01

    Immigrant populations in the United States (US) have lower cancer screening rates compared to none immigrant populations. The purpose of this study was to assess the rates of cancer screening and examine factors associated with cancer screening behavior among African immigrant women in Minnesota. A cross sectional survey of a community based sample was conducted among African immigrants in the Twin Cities. Cancer screening outcome measures were mammography and Papanicolau smear test. The revised theoretical model of health care access and utilization and the behavioral model for vulnerable populations were utilized to assess factors associated with cancer screening. Only 61 and 52% of the age eligible women in the sample had ever been screened for breast and cervical cancer respectively. Among these women, duration of residence in the US and ethnicity were significant determinants associated with non-screening. Programs to enhance screening rates among this population must begin to address barriers identified by the community.

  7. Using the Theory of Planned Behavior to Understand Cervical Cancer Screening among Latinas

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    Roncancio, Angelica M.; Ward, Kristy K.; Sanchez, Ingrid A.; Cano, Miguel A.; Byrd, Theresa L.; Vernon, Sally W.; Fernandez-Esquer, Maria Eugenia; Fernandez, Maria E.

    2015-01-01

    To reduce the high incidence of cervical cancer among Latinas in the United States it is important to understand factors that predict screening behavior. The aim of this study was to test the utility of theory of planned behavior in predicting cervical cancer screening among a group of Latinas. A sample of Latinas (N = 614) completed a baseline…

  8. Cancer Screening

    OpenAIRE

    Krishna Prasad

    2004-01-01

    Cancer screening is a means to detect cancer early with the goal of decreasing morbidity and mortality. At present, there is a reasonable consensus regarding screening for breast, cervical and colorectal cances and the role of screening is under trial in case of cancers of the lung,  ovaries and prostate. On the other hand, good screening tests are not available for some of the commonest cancers in India like the oral, pharyngeal, esophageal and stomach cancers.

  9. Using the Theory of Planned Behavior to Understand Cervical Cancer Screening Among Latinas.

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    Roncancio, Angelica M; Ward, Kristy K; Sanchez, Ingrid A; Cano, Miguel A; Byrd, Theresa L; Vernon, Sally W; Fernandez-Esquer, Maria Eugenia; Fernandez, Maria E

    2015-10-01

    To reduce the high incidence of cervical cancer among Latinas in the United States it is important to understand factors that predict screening behavior. The aim of this study was to test the utility of theory of planned behavior in predicting cervical cancer screening among a group of Latinas. A sample of Latinas (N = 614) completed a baseline survey about Pap test attitudes subjective norms, perceived behavioral control, and intention to be screened for cervical cancer. At 6 months postbaseline, cervical cancer screening behavior was assessed. Structural equation modeling was used to test the theory. Model fit statistics indicated good model fit: χ(2)(48) = 54.32, p = .246; comparative fit index = .992; root mean square error of approximation = .015; weighted root mean square residual = .687. Subjective norms (p = .005) and perceived behavioral control (p theory of planned behavior in predicting cervical cancer screening among Latinas. This knowledge can be used to inform the development of a theory of planned behavior-based intervention to increase cervical cancer screening among Latinas and reduce the high incidence of cervical cancer in this group of women. © 2015 Society for Public Health Education.

  10. Family history of cancer predicts Papanicolaou screening behavior for African American and white women.

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    Williams, Karen Patricia; Reiter, Paul; Mabiso, Athur; Maurer, Joel; Paskett, Electra

    2009-01-01

    Understanding women's motivations for getting Papanicolaou (Pap) screening has the potential to impact cancer disparities. This study examined whether having a family history of cancer was a predictor for Pap screening. By using the National Health Interview Survey 2000 Cancer Control and Family modules, we identified a subsample (n=15,509) of African American (n=2774) and white women (n=12,735) unaffected by cancer, with and without a family history of cancer. Data were analyzed using logistic regression models. African American and white women with a positive family history of cancer were 42% (Phistory of cancer. Among African American women, those with a positive family history of cancer were 53% more likely to have had a recent Pap test, whereas among white women those with a positive family history of cancer were 41% more likely to have received a Pap test. African American women with a family history of cancer were more likely to have had a recent Pap test than white women with or without a family history of cancer. This study presents a unique perspective on Pap screening behavior. Having an immediate family member with any cancer statistically predicted having a recent Pap test for both African American and white women. Because these results demonstrated that regardless of the cancer type, having an immediate affected family member is a motivator for cervical cancer screening behavior, healthcare providers managing cancer treatment patients have a teachable opportunity that extends beyond the patient. Copyright (c) 2008 American Cancer Society.

  11. Understanding Cervical Cancer Screening Intentions Among Latinas Using An Expanded Theory of Planned Behavior Model

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    Roncancio, Angelica M.; Ward, Kristy K.; Fernandez, Maria E.

    2016-01-01

    We examined the utility of an expanded Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) model in predicting cervical cancer screening intentions among Latinas. The model included acculturation and past cervical cancer screening behavior along with attitude, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control. This cross-sectional study included a sample of 206 Latinas who responded to a self-administered survey. Structural equation modeling was employed to test the expanded TPB model. Acculturation (p= .025) and past screening behavior (p= .001) along with attitude (p= .019), subjective norms (p= .028), and perceived behavioral control (p= .014) predicted the intention to be screened for cervical cancer. Our findings suggest that the TPB is a useful model for understanding cervical cancer screening intentions among Latinas when both past behavior and culture are included. This highlights the importance of culture on behavior and indicates a need to develop culturally sensitive, theory-based interventions to encourage screening and reduce cervical cancer-related health disparities in Latinas. PMID:23930898

  12. Cancer screening behaviors and risk perceptions among family members of colorectal cancer patients with unexplained mismatch repair deficiency.

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    Katz, Lior H; Advani, Shailesh; Burton-Chase, Allison M; Fellman, Bryan; Polivka, Katrina M; Yuan, Ying; Lynch, Patrick M; Peterson, Susan K

    2017-04-01

    Communication gaps in families with unexplained mismatch repair (MMR) deficiency (UMMRD) could negatively impact the screening behaviors of relatives of individual with UMMRD. We evaluated cancer risk perception, screening behaviors, and family communication among relatives of colorectal cancer (CRC) patients with UMMRD. Fifty-one family members of 17 probands with UMMRD completed a questionnaire about cancer risk perception, adherence to Lynch syndrome (LS) screening recommendations, and communication with relatives. Clinical data about the probands were obtained from medical records. Thirty-eight participants (78%) were worried from having cancer and twenty-one participants (42%) had undergone colonoscopy in the past 2 years, as recommended for LS families. In terms of screening for extracolonic cancers, only two eligible participants (3.9%) were screened for gastric, endometrial (10.0%), and ovarian (9.5%) cancers. Additionally, 5 participants (10%) underwent genetic counseling. Most participants were not told by anyone to be screened for extracolonic cancers (84, 85, and 95% for gastric, ovarian, and endometrial cancers, respectively). A minority of family members of CRC patients with UMMRD follow cancer screening as recommended for LS families. Health care providers should encourage patients with UMMRD to share information on LS-related cancers screening, especially extracolonic cancers, with their relatives.

  13. Culture, Emotion, and Cancer Screening: an Integrative Framework for Investigating Health Behavior

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    Betancourt, Hector; Ormseth, Sarah R.

    2013-01-01

    Background Although health disparity research has investigated social structural, cultural, or psychological factors, the interrelations among these factors deserve greater attention. Purpose This study aims to examine cancer screening emotions and their relations to screening fatalism as determinants of breast cancer screening among women from diverse socioeconomic and ethnic backgrounds. Methods An integrative conceptual framework was used to test the multivariate relations among socioeconomic status, age, screening fatalism, screening emotions, and clinical breast exam compliance among 281 Latino and Anglo women, using multi-group structural equation causal modeling. Results Screening emotions and screening fatalism had a negative, direct influence on clinical breast exam compliance for both ethnic groups. Still, ethnicity moderated the indirect effect of screening fatalism on clinical breast exam compliance through screening emotions. Conclusions Integrative conceptual frameworks and multivariate methods may shed light on the complex relations among factors influencing health behaviors relevant to disparities. Future research and intervention must recognize this complexity when working with diverse populations. PMID:21472484

  14. Exploring Chinese Women's Perception of Cervical Cancer Risk as It Impacts Screening Behavior: A Qualitative Study.

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    Gu, Can; Chen, Wei-Ti; Zhang, Qiue; Chow, Ka Ming; Wu, Jianzhen; Tao, Lijian; Chan, Carmen W H

    Chinese women rarely undergo regular cervical screening. Women's decisions about cervical screening may be influenced by their perception of the risk of cervical cancer. Therefore, understanding how women perceive the risk of cervical cancer, how personal risk factors are interpreted, and the influence of cultural issues on cervical screening behavior is important. The aim of this study is to understand cervical cancer risk perception and the role of personal risk factors as they influence screening behavior among Chinese women. An exploratory qualitative research design was used. We conducted semistructured, in-depth interviews of 27 women in Changsha, a medium-size city in Hunan province, China. Participants identified that cervical cancer had serious consequences, but they distanced themselves psychologically from the disease because they felt that "cervical cancer is a shameful and deadly disease." Although women identified some of the risk factors for the disease, they had little specific knowledge of human papillomavirus infection, its association with cervical cancer, and the importance of cervical screening. This study contributes new knowledge to the understanding of cervical screening behavior within a specific social and cultural context. Better efforts should be made to educate Chinese women on the risk of cervical cancer and emphasize that effective cancer treatments are available and that there is a good chance of survival. Nurses working with Chinese women should ensure that the information they provide is culturally sensitive, particularly by acknowledging the normative beliefs of this population group.

  15. Perceived medical discrimination and cancer screening behaviors of racial and ethnic minority adults.

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    Crawley, LaVera M; Ahn, David K; Winkleby, Marilyn A

    2008-08-01

    Discrimination has been shown as a major causal factor in health disparities, yet little is known about the relationship between perceived medical discrimination (versus general discrimination outside of medical settings) and cancer screening behaviors. We examined whether perceived medical discrimination is associated with lower screening rates for colorectal and breast cancers among racial and ethnic minority adult Californians. Pooled cross-sectional data from 2003 and 2005 California Health Interview Survey were examined for cancer screening trends among African American, American Indian/Alaskan Native, Asian, and Latino adult respondents reporting perceived medical discrimination compared with those not reporting discrimination (n = 11,245). Outcome measures were dichotomous screening variables for colorectal cancer among respondents ages 50 to 75 years and breast cancer among women ages 40 to 75 years. Women perceiving medical discrimination were less likely to be screened for colorectal [odds ratio (OR), 0.66; 95% confidence interval (95% CI), 0.64-0.69] or breast cancer (OR, 0.52; 95% CI, 0.51-0.54) compared with women not perceiving discrimination. Although men who perceived medical discrimination were no less likely to be screened for colorectal cancer than those who did not (OR, 1.02; 95% CI, 0.97-1.07), significantly lower screening rates were found among men who perceived discrimination and reported having a usual source of health care (OR, 0.30; 95% CI, 0.28-0.32). These findings of a significant association between perceived racial or ethnic-based medical discrimination and cancer screening behaviors have serious implications for cancer health disparities. Gender differences in patterns for screening and perceived medical discrimination warrant further investigation.

  16. Health seeking behavioral analysis associated with breast cancer screening among Asian American women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma GX

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Grace X Ma,1 Wanzhen Gao,1 Sunmin Lee,2 MinQi Wang,3 Yin Tan,1 Steven E Shive,1,41Department of Public Health, Center for Asian Health, College of Health Professions, Temple University, Philadelphia, PA, USA; 2Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, University of Maryland, College Park, MD, USA; 3Department of Public and Community Health, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland, MD, USA; 4East Stroudsburg University, East Stroudsburg, PA, USAObjective: The purpose of this community-based study was to apply a Sociocultural Health Behavior Model to determine the association of factors proposed in the model with breast cancer screening behaviors among Asian American women.Methods: A cross-sectional design included a sample of 682 Chinese, Korean, and Vietnamese women aged 40 years and older. The frequency distribution analysis and Chi-square analysis were used for the initial screening of the following variables: sociodemographic, cultural, enabling, environmental, and social support. Univariate and multivariate analyses were conducted on factors for breast cancer screening using multinomial logistic regression analysis.Results: Correlates to positive breast cancer screening included demographics (ethnicity, cultural factors (living in the United States for 15 years or more, speaking English well, enabling factors (having a regular physician to visit, health insurance covering the screening, and family/social support factors (those who had a family/friend receiving a mammogram.Conclusions: The results of this study suggest that breast cancer screening programs will be more effective if they include the cultural and health beliefs, enabling, and social support factors associated with breast cancer screening. The use of community organizations may play a role in helping to increase breast cancer screening rates among Asian American women.Keywords: breast cancer screening, Vietnamese, Korean, Chinese, breast

  17. Testicular Cancer Screening

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    ... Professional Testicular Cancer Treatment Testicular Cancer Screening Testicular Cancer Screening (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is screening? Go to ... testicles, and need to be followed closely. Testicular Cancer Screening Key Points Tests are used to screen for ...

  18. Use of Health Behavior Theory in Funded Grant Proposals: Cancer Screening Interventions as a Case Study.

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    Kobrin, Sarah; Ferrer, Rebecca; Meissner, Helen; Tiro, Jasmin; Hall, Kara; Shmueli-Blumberg, Dikla; Rothman, Alex

    2015-12-01

    Interventions using theory should change behavior and identify both mechanisms of effect and necessary conditions. To date, inconsistent description of "use of theory" has limited understanding of how theory improves intervention impact. The purpose of this study was to describe the use of theory in health behavior intervention development by coding grant proposals. We developed an abstraction tool to characterize investigators, interventions, and theory use and identified seven core elements describing both how and how much theory was used. We used the tool to review and code NCI's funded cancer screening intervention R01 proposals, 1998-2009. Of 116 proposals, 38 met criteria; all but one described a conceptual model unique to the proposed research. Few proposals included plans to identify mechanisms of effect or conditions necessary for intervention effectiveness. Cancer screening intervention grant proposals rarely use theory in ways that advance behavioral or theoretical sciences. Proposed core elements may classify and synthesize the use of theory in behavioral intervention research.

  19. Data Sources for the Model-based Small Area Estimates of Cancer Risk Factors and Screening Behaviors - Small Area Estimates

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    The model-based estimates of important cancer risk factors and screening behaviors are obtained by combining the responses to the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) and the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS).

  20. Cancer screening behaviors among Latina women: the role of the Latino male.

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    Treviño, Michelle; Jandorf, Lina; Bursac, Zoran; Erwin, Deborah O

    2012-06-01

    The purpose of this article is to determine, through a community-based breast and cervical cancer intervention program, the impact Latino males may have on Latinas and their cancer screening behaviors. This report includes data collected from 163 Latino males recruited throughout rural Arkansas and four New York City boroughs for the Esperanza y Vida program, designed to evaluate cancer screening outcomes among Latinas and address their health care needs and cancer control challenges. Basic demographics and identical pre- and post-program knowledge surveys were collected and analyzed using SPSS 15.0 and SAS 9.2. Results from this study suggest Latino men have little knowledge about breast or cervical cancer screening and are unfamiliar with their partners' screening histories. Male participants were also less likely to complete program assessment forms (pre, post, demographic questionnaires) and more likely to commit response errors (i.e. multiple answers, illegible responses). These findings suggest that including males in education programs for Latinas may be a crucial component in decreasing cancers among this segment of the population. The further development of programs such as Esperanza y Vida, that empowers Latino males, will be important in reducing the unequal burden of breast and cervical cancers for Latinas. It is important to continue including Latino men in these types of studies because the impact of their role on Latina's health remains understudied, unknown, and misunderstood.

  1. Breast cancer screening

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    Mammogram - breast cancer screening; Breast exam - breast cancer screening; MRI - breast cancer screening ... is performed to screen women to detect early breast cancer when it is more likely to be cured. ...

  2. Applying the Health Belief Model in Predicting Breast Cancer Screening Behavior of Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoudiyekta

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background Breast cancer is the most common cancer among Iranian women. However, early detection of this cancer leads to a timely treatment and better prognosis, which significantly improves the survival rate in patients. Objectives The purpose of this study was to predict the breast cancer screening behavior of women who referred to health centers in Dezful, Iran, using the health belief model (HBM. Patients and Methods This descriptive-analytical study was conducted on 226 women who were selected with cluster sampling method from those referred to Dezful health centers. Data collection tool was a researcher made questionnaire based on the constructs of the HBM. Data analysis was performed using SPSS software and through methods of descriptive statistics, Pearson correlation, and regression. Results According to the findings of the study, the knowledge and performance of women were poor, and there was a significant relationship between women’s performance and variables of knowledge, perceived sensitivity, perceived benefits, perceived barriers, self-efficacy, and cues to action. In addition, variables of knowledge (P = 0.001, perceived sensitivity (P = 0.022, and self-efficacy (P = 0.001 were predictors of performance in women participating in this study. Conclusions Poor knowledge and performance of women indicates a crucial need for formal educational programs to sensitize women regarding the importance of breast cancer screening. These educational programs should consider factors affecting breast cancer screening behaviors.

  3. Endometrial Cancer Screening

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    ... Treatment Endometrial Cancer Prevention Endometrial Cancer Screening Research Endometrial Cancer Screening (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is screening? ... These are called diagnostic tests . General Information About Endometrial Cancer Key Points Endometrial cancer is a disease ...

  4. Stomach (Gastric) Cancer Screening

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    ... Stomach Cancer Prevention Stomach Cancer Screening Research Stomach (Gastric) Cancer Screening (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is screening? Go ... are called diagnostic tests . General Information About Stomach (Gastric) Cancer Key Points Stomach cancer is a disease in ...

  5. Caregiving associated with selected cancer risk behaviors and screening utilization among women: cross-sectional results of the 2009 BRFSS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reeves Katherine W

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Informal caregiving is increasingly common as the U.S. population ages, and there is concern that caregivers are less likely than non-caregivers to practice health-promoting behaviors, including cancer screening. We examined caregiving effects on cancer risk behaviors and breast and cervical cancer screening in the 2009 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. Methods Women age ≥41 with data on breast and cervical cancer screening were included (weighted frequency 3,478,000 women. Cancer screening was classified according to American Cancer Society guidelines. We evaluated the association of caregiving with cancer risk behaviors (obesity, physical activity, alcohol intake, smoking status, and fruit/vegetable consumption and cancer screening (mammography, clinical breast exam [CBE], and Pap test using logistic regression overall and with stratification on age ( Results Caregivers had greater odds of being obese, physically active, and current smokers. Subgroup analyses revealed that caregiving was associated with obesity in younger women and whites, and with less obesity in older women. Also, caregiving was associated with smoking only among younger women and non-whites. Caregivers had greater odds of ever having had a mammogram or CBE, yet there was no association with mammogram, CBE, or Pap test within guidelines. Conclusions Caregiving was associated with some health behaviors that increase cancer risk, yet not with cancer screening within guidelines. Effects of caregiving by age and race require confirmation by additional studies.

  6. Physician behaviors to promote informed decisions for prostate cancer screening: a National Research Network study.

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    Linder, Suzanne K; Kallen, Michael A; Mullen, Patricia Dolan; Galliher, James M; Swank, Paul R; Chan, Evelyn C Y; Volk, Robert J

    2014-06-01

    Clinical guidelines for prostate cancer screening (PCS) advise physicians to discuss the potential harms and benefits of screening. However, there is a lack of training programs for informed decision-making (IDM), and it is unknown which IDM behaviors physicians have the most difficulty performing. Identifying difficult behaviors can help tailor training programs. In the context of developing a physician-IDM program for PCS, we aimed to describe physicians' use of nine key IDM behaviors for the PCS discussion and to examine the relation between the behaviors and physician characteristics. A cross-sectional sample of The American Academy of Family Physicians National Research Network completed surveys about their behavior regarding PCS (N = 246; response rate = 58%). The surveys included nine physician key IDM behaviors for PCS and a single-item question describing their general practice style for PCS. The most common IDM behavior was to invite men to ask questions. The two least common reported behaviors concerned patients uncertain about screening (i.e., arrange follow-up and provide additional information for undecided men). Physicians reported difficulty with these two behaviors regardless whether they reported to discuss or not to discuss PCS with patients. Reported use of key IDM behaviors was associated with a general practice style for PCS and being affiliated with a residency-training program. Physician training programs for IDM should include physician skills to address the needs of patients uncertain about screening. Future research should determine if actual behavior is associated with self-reported behavior for the PCS discussion.

  7. Breast Cancer Screening Behaviors of First Degree Relatives of Women Receiving Breast Cancer Treatment and the Affecting Factors

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    Kırca, Nurcan; Tuzcu, Ayla; Gözüm, Sebahat

    2018-01-01

    Objective First-degree relatives of women with breast cancer are under higher risk when compared with the general population. The aim of this study is to evaluate breast cancer screening behaviors of women who are first-degree relatives of women with breast cancer and factors affecting these behaviors. Materials and Methods This descriptive study included 240 patient relatives, who agreed to participate in the study through contact with first-degree relatives of 133 patients who were receiving breast cancer treatment at the Oncology and Chemotherapy unit of an university hospital in Turkey. Data were collected using the “Descriptive Characteristics Form,” which consisted of socio-demographic characteristics, health history, breast cancer risk level and health beliefs as well as the “Breast Cancer Screening Behavior Evaluation Form”. Results Out of the subjects, 17% reported doing breast self examination (BSE), 18% reported getting clinic breast examination (CBE) and 17% reported getting mammography. Logistic regression analysis showed that perceived susceptibility increased BSE by 0.57 times and increased mammography by 0.77 times. Physical exercise increased CBE by 0.21 times and increased mammography by 0.13 times. Conclusions It was found that women with familial breast cancer history (FBCH) had lower participation in screening behaviors. Higher susceptibility perception and regular physical exercise are the determinant variables. Women with a higher susceptibility can be led towards the screening and their participation can be increased. In women with family history, the development of healthy lifestyle behaviors like physical exercise should be supported. PMID:29322115

  8. Knowledge, behavior and beliefs related to cervical cancer and screening among Turkish women.

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    Reis, Nesrin; Bebis, Hatice; Kose, Sevinc; Sis, Asli; Engin, Raziye; Yavan, Tulay

    2012-01-01

    The aims of this study were to explore Turkish women's knowledge, behavior and beliefs related to cervical cancer and screening. The study was performed in two cities in the East of Turkey between September 2009 and April 2010, with a sampling group of 387 women. Data were collected by means of an interview form with the Health Belief Model Scale for Cervical Cancer and Pap Smear Test - Turkish Version. Women in the research group were found to have poor knowledge, inadequate health behavior and low/medium level false beliefs regarding cervical cancer screening. There was relation between health beliefs and characteristics of women and particularly education (F = 10.80, p = 0.01). Similarly, it was found that Pap smear barriers were influenced by demographic characteristics and that women with low-level education (p = 0.001), divorced women (p = 0.05), women with low-income(p = 0.05), women who gave their first birth when they were 18 or younger (p = 0.05) and women not applying any contraceptive method at all (p = 0.01) were determined to have negative Pap smear barriers. Primarily the knowledge, attitudes and beliefs of women in the target group should be evaluated to increase their participation in cervical cancer screening and to prepare effective education strategies.

  9. Effects of Interventions Based on Health Behavior Models on Breast Cancer Screening Behaviors of Migrant Women in Turkey.

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    Tuzcu, Ayla; Bahar, Zuhal; Gözüm, Sebahat

    2016-01-01

    Antalya is a city receiving internal and external migration in Turkey, including migrant women in need of developing breast cancer screening behaviors. The aim of this study was to develop breast cancer screening behaviors of migrant women through nursing interventions based on the Health Belief Model and the Health Promotion Model. This quasi-experimental study was conducted with 200 women (100 women in the intervention group, 100 women in the control group) in Antalya. The intervention group received training, consultancy service, and reminders and was followed up at 3 and 6 months after interventions. The rates of breast self-examination, clinical breast examination and mammography were higher at months 3 and 6 in women in the intervention group compared with the women in the control group. In the intervention group, perceptions of susceptibility and barriers decreased after the interventions, and benefit, health motivation, and self-efficacy perceptions increased. According to month 6 data, in the intervention group, the decrease of each unit in perception of barriers increased the rate of breast self-examination 0.8 times and the rate of mammography 0.7 times. An increase of each unit in health motivation increased the rate of clinical breast examination 1.3 times and the rate of mammography 1.5 times. Interventions based on health behavior models positively affected breast cancer screening behaviors of migrant women. Health motivations and perceptions of barriers are determinants in performing the screening behaviors. Migrant women should be supported more by healthcare professionals regarding recognition of breast health and disease and in transportation to screening centers in their new location.

  10. Men's information-seeking behavior regarding cancer risk and screening: A meta-narrative systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saab, Mohamad M; Reidy, Mary; Hegarty, Josephine; O'Mahony, Mairin; Murphy, Mike; Von Wagner, Christian; Drummond, Frances J

    2017-07-20

    Preventive strategies are known to reduce cancer risk and incidence and improve prognosis. Men seldom seek medical information about cancer prevention and risk reduction. The aim of this meta-narrative systematic review was to critically appraise evidence from qualitative, quantitative, and mixed-methods studies that explored men's information-seeking behaviors in relation to cancer prevention and risk reduction. MEDLINE, CINAHL Plus with Full Text, PsycINFO, PsycARTICLES, Psychology and Behavioral Sciences Collection, Education Full Text, and ERIC were systematically searched for studies published in English between January 1, 2006 and May 30, 2016. A total of 4117 titles were identified; of which, 31 studies were included (21 qualitative studies, 9 quantitative studies, and 1 mixed-methods study). The methodological quality of the studies was appraised by using different tools. Most studies focused on screening for prostate (n = 18) and colorectal cancer (n = 7). Most men were passive information-gatherers rather than active information-seekers. Key sources of information included the Internet for active information-seekers and health care professionals for passive information-gatherers. Barriers to information-seeking included information overload, embarrassment, and fear. Low literacy and health literacy levels were addressed in 3 studies and were identified as impediments to active information-seeking. Facilitators to information-seeking included family support, media, celebrity endorsements, and targeted information. Men's information-seeking behavior regarding cancer risk reduction, prevention, and screening is influenced by several factors. This necessitates targeted interventions aimed at raising awareness of cancer prevention and screening, while accounting for men's informational needs, preferred learning strategies, and literacy levels. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Changes in cervical cancer screening behavior for women attending Pap Test Week clinics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poliquin, V; Decker, K; Altman, Ad; Lotocki, R

    2013-01-01

    This retrospective study of all women who accessed the 2006 Manitoba Pap Test Week clinics was designed to determine factors associated with inadequate cervical cancer screening and changes in cervical cancer screening behavior. Data were acquired using the CervixCheck Manitoba registry and an ancillary database of demographic information collected from clinic attendees. The study included 1124 women. Of these, 53% (n = 598) were under-screened (no Pap test in the previous 2 years) prior to accessing the clinics. Logistic regression analyses demonstrated that older age (odds ratio [OR] = 1.02, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.01-1.03), no doctor (OR = 1.4, 95% CI 1.05-1.54), and living in Canada clinics. Thirty-seven percent (n = 223) of under-screened women demonstrated improved screening status subsequent to the 2006 Pap Test Week (had a subsequent Papanicolaou [Pap] test performed within 2 years) and these women were more likely to live in an urban setting (P = 0.003), be younger (P clinic compared to having a Pap test performed elsewhere (37% versus 60%, P clinics whose screening status might be most modifiable.

  12. Changes in cervical cancer screening behavior for women attending Pap Test Week clinics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poliquin V

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available V Poliquin,1 K Decker,2,3 AD Altman,1,2,4 R Lotocki1,2,4 1Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Sciences, University of Manitoba, Canada; 2CancerCare Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada; 3Department of Community Health Sciences, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba, 4Division of Gynecologic Oncology, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada Objective: This retrospective study of all women who accessed the 2006 Manitoba Pap Test Week clinics was designed to determine factors associated with inadequate cervical cancer screening and changes in cervical cancer screening behavior. Methods: Data were acquired using the CervixCheck Manitoba registry and an ancillary database of demographic information collected from clinic attendees. Results: The study included 1124 women. Of these, 53% (n = 598 were under-screened (no Pap test in the previous 2 years prior to accessing the clinics. Logistic regression analyses demonstrated that older age (odds ratio [OR] = 1.02, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.01–1.03, no doctor (OR = 1.4, 95% CI 1.05–1.54, and living in Canada < 1 year (OR = 5.5, 95% CI 2.73–11.12 were associated with being under-screened prior to accessing the Pap Test Week clinics. Thirty-seven percent (n = 223 of under-screened women demonstrated improved screening status subsequent to the 2006 Pap Test Week (had a subsequent Papanicolaou [Pap] test performed within 2 years and these women were more likely to live in an urban setting (P = 0.003, be younger (P < 0.001, originate outside Canada (P = 0.006, have lived in Canada for less than 1 year (P = 0.006, and have had an abnormal Pap test result in 2006 (P < 0.001. Previously under-screened women were less likely to become adequately-screened subsequent to 2006 if they had a Pap test performed at a Pap Test Week clinic compared to having a Pap test performed elsewhere (37% versus 60%, P < 0.001. Conclusion: This study identified a subset of under-screened

  13. Risks of Breast Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Breast & Gynecologic Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Breast Cancer Screening (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is screening? ... cancer screening: Cancer Screening Overview General Information About Breast Cancer Key Points Breast cancer is a disease ...

  14. Liver (Hepatocellular) Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Treatment Liver Cancer Prevention Liver Cancer Screening Research Liver (Hepatocellular) Cancer Screening (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is ... These are called diagnostic tests . General Information About Liver (Hepatocellular) Cancer Key Points Liver cancer is a ...

  15. Application of health behavior theories to breast cancer screening among Asian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadian, Maryam; Samah, Asnarulkhadi Abu

    2013-01-01

    Although breast cancer is a major public health worry among Asian women, adherence to screening for the disease remains an obstacle to its prevention. A variety of psycho-social and cultural factors predispose women to delay or avoidance of screening for breast cancer symptoms at the early stages when cure is most likely to be successful. Yet few interventions implemented to date to address this condition in this region have drawn on health behavior theory. This paper reviews the existing literature on several cognitive theories and models associated with breast cancer screening, with an emphasis on the work that has been done in relation to Asian women. To conduct this review, a number of electronic databases were searched with context-appropriate inclusion criteria. Little empirical work was found that specifically addressed the applicability of health theories in promoting adherence to the current breast cancer prevention programs Among Asian women. However, a few studies were found that addressed individual cognitive factors that are likely to encourage women's motivation to protect themselves against breast cancer in this region of the world. The findings suggest that multi-level, socio-cultural interventions that focus on cognitive factors have much promise with this issue. Interventions are needed that effectively and efficiently target the personal motivation of at-risk Asian women to seek out and engage in breast cancer prevention. Concerning implications, personal motivation to seek out and engage in individual preventive actions for breast cancer prevention among Asian women is a timely, high priority target with practical implications for community development and health promotion. Further studies using qualitative, anthropologic approaches shaped for implementation in multi-ethnic Asian settings are needed to inform and guide these interventions.

  16. Exploring the Perceptions of Anal Cancer Screening and Behaviors Among Gay and Bisexual Men Infected With HIV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koskan, Alexis M.; LeBlanc, Natalie; Rosa-Cunha, Isabella

    2016-01-01

    Background The incidence of anal cancer is on the rise among HIV-infected men who have sex with men (MSM). Given the increasing availability of screening, this study explored anal cancer screening awareness and behaviors among MSM infected with HIV. Methods In-depth interviews were conducted with 58 MSM infected with HIV. Results Other than 2 participants treated for anal cancer and 3 treated for precancerous anal lesions, the majority of participants had never heard of anal cancer. Men reported lack of awareness and recommendations from their health care professionals as the greatest barriers to screening. Upon learning about their risk for anal cancer and the availability of screening, the men were eager to discuss screening with their physicians. Participants provided numerous recommendations for future interventions, including training health care professionals to promote screening, disseminating information pertaining to anal cancer through social networks, and creating media campaigns to raise awareness about the need to screen for this type of cancer. Conclusions Future intervention work should focus on ensuring that health care professionals, particularly among HIV/primary care specialists, promote screening for anal dysplasia. It is critical that intervention methods use a community-based approach to raise awareness about the need to screen for anal cancer, especially among MSM infected with HIV. PMID:27009457

  17. Screening for Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... it might mean for you. What is prostate cancer? Prostate cancer is a cancer that occurs in the ... in front of the rectum. Screening for Prostate Cancer Prostate cancer is the second most common cancer in ...

  18. Risks of Skin Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Skin Cancer Skin Cancer Screening Research Skin Cancer Screening (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is screening? Go to ... all skin colors can get skin cancer. Skin Cancer Screening Key Points Tests are used to screen for ...

  19. Methodology for the Model-based Small Area Estimates of Cancer Risk Factors and Screening Behaviors - Small Area Estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    This model-based approach uses data from both the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) and the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) to produce estimates of the prevalence rates of cancer risk factors and screening behaviors at the state, health service area, and county levels.

  20. Oral Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Head and Neck Squamous Cell Cancer Screening Research Oral Cavity and Oropharyngeal Cancer Screening (PDQ®)–Patient Version ... These are called diagnostic tests . General Information About Oral Cavity and Oropharyngeal Cancer Key Points Oral cavity ...

  1. Diabetes Status and Being Up-to-Date on Colorectal Cancer Screening, 2012 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Nancy R; Eberth, Jan M; Samson, Marsha E; Garcia-Dominic, Oralia; Lengerich, Eugene J; Schootman, Mario

    2016-02-04

    Although screening rates for colorectal cancer are increasing, 22 million Americans are not up-to-date with recommendations. People with diabetes are an important and rapidly growing group at increased risk for colorectal cancer. Screening status and predictors of being up-to-date on screening are largely unknown in this population. This study used logistic regression modeling and data from the 2012 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System to examine the association between diabetes and colorectal cancer screening predictors with being up-to-date on colorectal cancer screening according to criteria of the US Preventive Services Task Force for adults aged 50 or older. State prevalence rates of up-to-date colorectal cancer screening were also calculated and mapped. The prevalence of being up-to-date with colorectal cancer screening for all respondents aged 50 or older was 65.6%; for respondents with diabetes, the rate was 69.2%. Respondents with diabetes were 22% more likely to be up-to-date on colorectal cancer screening than those without diabetes. Among those with diabetes, having a routine checkup within the previous year significantly increased the odds of being up-to-date on colorectal cancer screening (odds ratio, 1.90). Other factors such as age, income, education, race/ethnicity, insurance status, and history of cancer were also associated with up-to-date status. Regardless of diabetes status, people who had a routine checkup within the past year were more likely to be up-to-date than people who had not. Among people with diabetes, the duration between routine checkups may be of greater importance than the frequency of diabetes-related doctor visits. Continued efforts should be made to ensure that routine care visits occur regularly to address the preventive health needs of patients with and patients without diabetes.

  2. Principles of Cancer Screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinsky, Paul F

    2015-10-01

    Cancer screening has long been an important component of the struggle to reduce the burden of morbidity and mortality from cancer. Notwithstanding this history, many aspects of cancer screening remain poorly understood. This article presents a summary of basic principles of cancer screening that are relevant for researchers, clinicians, and public health officials alike. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. Mobile Phone Text Messaging Intervention for Cervical Cancer Screening: Changes in Knowledge and Behavior Pre-Post Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Cervical cancer poses a significant threat to Korean American women, who are reported to have one of the highest cervical cancer mortality rates in the United States. Studies consistently report that Korean American women have the lowest Pap test screening rates across US ethnic groups. Objective In response to the need to enhance cervical cancer screening in this vulnerable population, we developed and tested a 7-day mobile phone text message-based cervical cancer Screening (mScreening) intervention designed to promote the receipt of Pap tests by young Korean American women. Methods We developed and assessed the acceptability and feasibility of a 1-week mScreening intervention to increase knowledge of cervical cancer screening, intent to receive screening, and the receipt of a Pap test. Fogg’s Behavior Model was the conceptual framework that guided the development of the mScreening intervention. A series of focus groups were conducted to inform the development of the intervention. The messages were individually tailored for each participant and delivered to them for a 7-day period at each participant’s preferred time. A quasi-experimental research design of 30 Korean American women aged 21 to 29 years was utilized with baseline, post (1 week after the completion of mScreening), and follow-up (3 months after the completion of mScreening) testing. Results Findings revealed a significant increase in participants’ knowledge of cervical cancer (Pcancer screening (P=.006). A total of 23% (7/30) (95% CI 9.9-42.3) of the mScreening participants received a Pap test; 83% (25/30) of the participants expressed satisfaction with the intervention and 97% (29/30) reported that they would recommend the program to their friends, indicating excellent acceptability and feasibility of the intervention. Conclusions This study provides evidence of the effectiveness and feasibility of the mScreening intervention. Mobile technology is a promising tool to increase both

  4. Society of Behavioral Medicine supports implementation of high quality lung cancer screening in high-risk populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Karriem S; Blok, Amanda C; Buscemi, Joanna; Molina, Yamile; Fitzgibbon, Marian; Simon, Melissa A; Williams, Lance; Matthews, Kameron; Studts, Jamie L; Lillie, Sarah E; Ostroff, Jamie S; Carter-Harris, Lisa; Winn, Robert A

    2016-12-01

    The Society of Behavioral Medicine (SBM) supports the United States Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) recommendation of low-dose computed tomography (LDCT) screening of the chest for eligible populations to reduce lung cancer mortality. Consistent with efforts to translate research findings into real-world settings, SBM encourages health-care providers and health-care systems to (1) integrate evidence-based tobacco treatment as an essential component of LDCT-based lung cancer screening, (2) examine the structural barriers that may impact screening uptake, and (3) incorporate shared decision-making as a clinical platform to facilitate consultations and engagement with individuals at high risk for lung cancer about the potential benefits and harms associated with participation in a lung cancer screening program. We advise policy makers and legislators to support screening in high-risk populations by continuing to (1) expand access to high quality LDCT-based screening among underserved high-risk populations, (2) enhance cost-effectiveness by integrating evidence-based tobacco treatments into screening in high-risk populations, and (3) increase funding for research that explores implementation science and increased public awareness and access of diverse populations to participate in clinical and translational research.

  5. Screening for Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niell, Bethany L; Freer, Phoebe E; Weinfurtner, Robert Jared; Arleo, Elizabeth Kagan; Drukteinis, Jennifer S

    2017-11-01

    The goal of screening is to detect breast cancers when still curable to decrease breast cancer-specific mortality. Breast cancer screening in the United States is routinely performed with mammography, supplemental digital breast tomosynthesis, ultrasound, and/or MR imaging. This article aims to review the most commonly used breast imaging modalities for screening, discuss how often and when to begin screening with specific imaging modalities, and examine the pros and cons of screening. By the article's end, the reader will be better equipped to have informed discussions with patients and medical professionals regarding the benefits and disadvantages of breast cancer screening. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Risks of Endometrial Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Treatment Endometrial Cancer Prevention Endometrial Cancer Screening Research Endometrial Cancer Screening (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is screening? ... These are called diagnostic tests . General Information About Endometrial Cancer Key Points Endometrial cancer is a disease ...

  7. Cervical cancer knowledge and screening behaviors among female university graduates of year 2012 attending national graduate orientation program, Bhutan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhendup, Tshering; Tshering, Pandup

    2014-03-12

    Cervical cancer is the leading female cancer in Bhutan. This study describes the level of cervical cancer knowledge and screening behaviors among female university graduates attending the National Graduate Orientation Program (NGOP), 2012. A cross-sectional study of female graduates attending NGOP was conducted using self-administered anonymous questionnaire developed through literature reviews and expert discussions to elicit information on demographic characteristics, knowledge, screening behaviors and determinants of cervical cancer. The association of demographic and other important study characteristics with uptake of Pap test was investigated using cross tabulation and Fischer Exact test. Frequencies and percentages were calculated for all the questions. The average age of the participants was 23.43 ± SD 2.73. About 92% (n = 513) of the respondents were aged 25 years or less and 7.9% (n = 44) of the respondents were aged 26 or more. The study revealed low cervical cancer knowledge and poor screening behavior among the graduates. The mean knowledge score was 3.571 (SD1.75, Range 0-8). About 6% (n=34) of the respondents reported undergoing Pap test at least once and 94% reported as never having done Pap test. The most commonly cited reasons for not doing Pap test included "never thought I needed one" (57%, n = 320), "embarrassment of being examined by male health professional" and "fear of finding out cancer". The study revealed evidence of significant association between increasing age, those who are married, knowledge score and those recommended for screening by health professionals with the uptake of Pap test. Our study revealed poor knowledge and screening behaviors among female university graduates in Bhutan. This may be suggestive of even poorer awareness and screening practices among young unmarried women who are less educated or with no education. Although our study group is not appropriate for measuring practice of cervical cancer

  8. Perceptions of prostate cancer fatalism and screening behavior between United States-born and Caribbean-born Black males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobran, Ewan K; Wutoh, Anthony K; Lee, Euni; Odedina, Folakemi T; Ragin, Camille; Aiken, William; Godley, Paul A

    2014-06-01

    Cancer fatalism is believed to be a major barrier for cancer screening in Black males. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to compare perceptions of prostate cancer (CaP) fatalism and predictors of CaP screening with Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA) testing between U.S.-born and Caribbean-born Black males. The Powe Fatalism Inventory and the Personal Integrative Model of CaP Disparity Survey were used to collect the following data from males in South Florida. Multivariate logistic regression models were constructed to examine the statistically significant predictors of CaP screening. A total of 211 U.S.-born and Caribbean-born Black males between ages 39-75 were recruited. Nativity was not a significant predictor of CaP screening with PSA testing within the last year (Odds ratio [OR] = 0.80, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.26, 2.48, p = 0.70). Overall, higher levels of CaP fatalism were not a significant predictor of CaP screening with PSA testing within the last year (OR = 1.37, 95% CI = 0.48, 3.91, p = 0.56). The study results suggest that nativity did not influence CaP screening with PSA testing. However, further studies are needed to evaluate the association between CaP screening behavior and levels of CaP fatalism.

  9. Breast cancer screening behaviors among Korean American immigrant women: findings from the Health Belief Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hee Yun; Stange, Mia Ju; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S

    2015-11-01

    This study examined the utilization of clinical breast examinations (CBEs) and mammograms among Korean American immigrant women and investigated how the six constructs of Health Belief Model (HBM) are associated with the receipt of breast cancer screening. Using a quota sampling strategy, 202 Korean American immigrant women were recruited in metropolitan areas in the northeastern United States. Approximately 64% of the participants reported having had at least one CBE in their lifetime, and about 81% of the sample had undergone at least one mammogram in their lifetime. Women who perceived themselves to be susceptible to breast cancer were more likely to have undergone a CBE, and women who had lower barriers to screening or demonstrated a higher level of confidence were more likely than their counterparts to undergo a mammogram. Findings suggest that HBM constructs such as susceptibility, barriers, and confidence should be considered when designing interventions aimed at promoting breast cancer screening. © The Author(s) 2014.

  10. Breast cancer knowledge, attitudes, and screening behaviors among African American women: the Black cosmetologists promoting health program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadler, Georgia R; Ko, Celine M; Cohn, Jennifer A; White, Monique; Weldon, Rai-nesha; Wu, Phillis

    2007-04-17

    . The Health Belief Model postulates that access to such information is an essential element in the progression toward engaging in screening behaviors. Data from this study reflect a continuing need for increased breast cancer education for African American women. In light of the considerable mainstream information available related to breast cancer, these data reinforce the need for more breast cancer education programs that are clearly intended to attract the attention of African American women.

  11. Breast cancer knowledge, attitudes, and screening behaviors among African American women: the Black cosmetologists promoting health program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weldon Rai-nesha

    2007-04-01

    demonstrated a lack of basic knowledge about breast cancer. The Health Belief Model postulates that access to such information is an essential element in the progression toward engaging in screening behaviors. Conclusion Data from this study reflect a continuing need for increased breast cancer education for African American women. In light of the considerable mainstream information available related to breast cancer, these data reinforce the need for more breast cancer education programs that are clearly intended to attract the attention of African American women.

  12. The Effect of Health Belief Model-Based Education on Knowledge and Prostate Cancer Screening Behaviors: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Zare

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Prostate cancer has been reported as the second leading cause of cancer death among men in 2013. Prevention and early detection of cancer are considered as critical factors in controlling the disease and increasing the survival of patients. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the effect of Health Belief Model (HBM-based education onknowledge and prostate cancer screening behaviors in a randomized controlled trial. Methods: This study was a non-blinded randomized controlled trial. We enrolled 210 men aged 50-70. Balanced block randomization method was used to randomize the final participants who had inclusion criteria into intervention (n=93 and control (n=87 groups. The participants of the intervention group attended training workshops based on HBM. Data were collected using three questionnaires, i.e. demographic questionnaire, Prostate Cancer Screening-Health Belief Model Scale (PCS-HBMS, and the Knowledge about Prostate Cancer Screening questionnaire, all given before and immediately one month after the intervention. Results: The mean scores of the perceived susceptibility, severity, barriers and benefits increased significantly after the intervention (P>0.05 in the intervention group. In the control group, such a difference was reported only for perceived susceptibility (P>0.05. The rate of participation in prostate cancer screening in the intervention group increased from 7.5% to 24% and 43.3% one month and three months after the intervention, respectively. Conclusion: Our findings showed that the health education programs designed based on HBM could positively affect prostate cancer preventive behaviors of individuals by improving their knowledge level and leaving positive effects on perceived susceptibility and severity as well as considering the perceived barriers, benefits and health motivations.

  13. Screening for lung cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prosch, H.; Schaefer-Prokop, C.M.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to provide an update on the current data about low-dose computed tomography (LD-CT) lung cancer screening.The National Lung Screening Trial (NLST) was the first study that provided statistical evidence that LD-CT screening for lung cancer significantly reduces lung

  14. Breast cancer screening behavior in Turkish women: Relationships with health beliefs and self-esteem, body perception and hopelessness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cam, Olcay; Gümüs, Aysun Babacan

    2009-01-01

    The purpose was to examine breast cancer screening behavior in Turkish women, the reasons for not doing screening and the relationship between health beliefs and levels of self-esteem, body perception, and hopelessness. This research was conducted as a descriptive, correlational study in an area covered by three neighborhood primary health care clinics in Bornova, Izmir. The data were collected between April and November 2006 from 382 women over 40 years of age who were selected using a stratified random sampling method and a descriptive information form, Champion's Health Belief Model Scale (CHBMS), the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES), the Body Cathexis Scale (BCS) and the Beck Hopelessness Scale (BHS). The breast cancer screening methods used by women participating in the research were, respectively, mammography (34%), clinical breast examination (14.1%), breast self-examination (BSE) (59.4%). The reasons why women did not do breast cancer screening methods were determined to be: not having any symptoms, neglect, not sensing the need, and not knowing how BSE is done. In the examination of the women's CHBMS subscale score means and RSES, BCS and BHS score mean a statistically significant relationships were determined between Benefits-BSE, Barriers-BSE, Confidence, Health motivation, Benefits-mammography and barriers-mammography subscale score means and RSES, BCS and BHS mean scores (pself-esteem, high level of hope for the future and with a positive body perception have more positive health beliefs on breast cancer screening.

  15. Lung Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... experience complications from follow-up tests. For this reason, lung cancer screening is offered to people who are in ... is more likely to be cancerous. For that reason, you might be referred to a lung ... problems. Your lung cancer screening test may detect other lung and heart ...

  16. Men's information-seeking behavior regarding cancer risk and screening: A meta-narrative systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Saab, Mohamad M.; Reidy, Mary; Hegarty, Josephine; O'Mahony, Mairin; Murphy, Mike; von Wagner, Christian; Drummond, Frances J

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Preventive strategies are known to reduce cancer risk and incidence and improve prognosis. Men seldom seek medical information about cancer prevention and risk reduction. The aim of this meta-narrative systematic review was to critically appraise evidence from qualitative, quantitative, and mixed-methods studies that explored men's information-seeking behaviors in relation to cancer prevention and risk reduction. Methods: MEDLINE, CINAHL Plus with Full Text, PsycINFO, PsycARTICLES,...

  17. Assessing Colorectal Cancer Screening Behaviors and Knowledge among At-Risk Hispanics in Southern New Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Janeth I; Palacios, Rebecca; Thompson, Beti; Martinez, Vanessa; O'Connell, Mary A

    2013-07-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) mortality rates in New Mexico (NM) continue to be higher than national rates. Hispanic CRC mortality rates in NM surpass those of overall Hispanics in the US. This study was designed to characterize and understand factors contributing to low CRC screening rates in this border region. A CRC Knowledge Assessment Survey (KAS) was administered in either English or Spanish to 247 individuals attending community events throughout southern NM. A subset of these individuals completed an online CRC risk assessment survey managed by the National Cancer Institute (NCI). Data analysis tested for significant differences in knowledge, physician-patient CRC interactions, CRC risk level perception, and screening rates across diverse ethnic and age groups. Both CRC knowledge and physician-patient CRC interactions were positively associated with participant screening history. Significant age and ethnic differences for CRC knowledge, physician-patient CRC interactions, and screening history in the NM border sample were also seen. Age-eligible Hispanics (50+) as well as those less than 50 years of age had lower CRC knowledge and were less likely to engage in physician-patient CRC interactions than non-Hispanic Whites (NHWs). The age-eligible Hispanics also reported lower CRC screening rates than their NHW counterparts. Low CRC knowledge and limited physician-patient CRC interactions appear to contribute to low screening rates in this NM population. Expanding education and outreach efforts for this border population are essential to promote early CRC detection and thereby decrease overall CRC mortality rates.

  18. Screening for Lung Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzone, Peter J.; Naidich, David P.; Bach, Peter B.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Lung cancer is by far the major cause of cancer deaths largely because in the majority of patients it is at an advanced stage at the time it is discovered, when curative treatment is no longer feasible. This article examines the data regarding the ability of screening to decrease the number of lung cancer deaths. Methods: A systematic review was conducted of controlled studies that address the effectiveness of methods of screening for lung cancer. Results: Several large randomized controlled trials (RCTs), including a recent one, have demonstrated that screening for lung cancer using a chest radiograph does not reduce the number of deaths from lung cancer. One large RCT involving low-dose CT (LDCT) screening demonstrated a significant reduction in lung cancer deaths, with few harms to individuals at elevated risk when done in the context of a structured program of selection, screening, evaluation, and management of the relatively high number of benign abnormalities. Whether other RCTs involving LDCT screening are consistent is unclear because data are limited or not yet mature. Conclusions: Screening is a complex interplay of selection (a population with sufficient risk and few serious comorbidities), the value of the screening test, the interval between screening tests, the availability of effective treatment, the risk of complications or harms as a result of screening, and the degree with which the screened individuals comply with screening and treatment recommendations. Screening with LDCT of appropriate individuals in the context of a structured process is associated with a significant reduction in the number of lung cancer deaths in the screened population. Given the complex interplay of factors inherent in screening, many questions remain on how to effectively implement screening on a broader scale. PMID:23649455

  19. Survey of breast cancer mammography screening behaviors in Eastern Taiwan based on a health belief model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Li Wang

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer is the main form of cancer affecting women and the fourth most common cause of cancer mortality in women. The aim of this study was to explore regular mammography screening in Hualien women and to identify the factors that influence its uptake based on a health belief model. This cross-sectional study was performed between July 2012 and December 2012. A total of 776 women aged 45–69 years were enrolled in the study. The results of crude and adjusted analyses showed that there were significant differences in the prevalence of regular mammography screening, which were related to different age groups, residence areas, educational levels, hormone replacement therapy status, and history of breast cancer. Women in the older age groups, with a higher educational level, in receipt of hormone replacement therapy, and with a personal history of breast cancer had significantly higher odds ratios for regular mammography screening (2.75, 1.68, 1.75, and 1.98, respectively; all p < 0.05.

  20. What role do social norms play in the context of men’s cancer screening intention and behavior? Application of an extended theory of planned behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Sieverding, Monika; Matterne, Uwe; Ciccarello, Liborio

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Our research investigated the role of social norms in an extended theory of planned behavior (TPB) in the explanation of prostate/colorectal cancer screening (CS) intention and the prediction of CS uptake among men. Design: A cross-sectional study (Study 1) assessed sociodemographic and TPB variables (extended by descriptive norm) in 2,426 German men (mean age 56.3 years) who differed in their past CS behavior. A subsample of Study 1 (former nonattenders and irregular attenders, n ...

  1. Prostate Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... treat. There is no standard screening test for prostate cancer. Researchers are studying different tests to find those ... PSA level may be high if you have prostate cancer. It can also be high if you have ...

  2. Cancer Screening Overview (PDQ)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... screening research includes finding out who has an increased risk of cancer. Scientists are trying to better ... more people are surviving cancer longer, but in reality, these are people who would not have died ...

  3. Women and Cancer: Examining Breast Cancer-Screening Behaviors and Survival

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-07-24

    This podcast features Siran Koroukian, PhD, associate professor in the School of Medicine at Case Western Reserve University and lead author of one of PCD’s most recent articles. Dr. Koroukian answers questions about the National Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Program (BCCP) in Ohio and discusses the effectiveness of the program among low-income women enrolled Medicare.  Created: 7/24/2015 by Preventing Chronic Disease (PCD), National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 7/24/2015.

  4. Smoking cessation and lung cancer screening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jesper Johannes Holst; Tønnesen, Philip; Ashraf, Haseem

    2016-01-01

    Smoking behavior may have a substantial influence on the overall effect of lung cancer screening. Non-randomized studies of smoking behavior during screening have indicated that computer tomography (CT) screening induces smoking cessation. Randomized studies have further elaborated that this effect...... and decrease smoking relapse rate. Also low smoking dependency and high motivation to quit smoking at baseline predicted smoking abstinence in screening trials. Lung cancer screening therefore seems to be a teachable moment for smoking cessation. Targeted smoking cessation counselling should be an integrated...... part of future lung cancer screening trials....

  5. breast cancer screening in

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Is Breast transillumination a viable option for breast cancer screening in limited resource settings? Authors: Elobu EA M.Med, Galukande M M M.Med, MSc, FCS, Namuguzi D M.Med, Muyinda Z M.Med. Affiliations: breast cancer screening in limited resource settings? Authors: Elobu EA1 M.Med, Galukande M1 M M.Med, ...

  6. Risks of Cervical Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... infection is the major risk factor for cervical cancer. Cervical cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) ... following PDQ summaries for more information about cervical cancer: Cervical Cancer Prevention Cervical Cancer Treatment Screening for cervical ...

  7. [Colorectal cancer screening].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castells, Antoni

    2015-09-01

    Colorectal cancer is one of malignancies showing the greatest benefit from preventive measures, especially screening or secondary prevention. Several screening strategies are available with demonstrated efficacy and efficiency. The most widely used are the faecal occult blood test in countries with population-based screening programmes, and colonoscopy in those conducting opportunistic screening. The present article reviews the most important presentations on colorectal cancer screening at the annual congress of the American Gastroenterological Association held in Washington in 2015, with special emphasis on the medium-term results of faecal occult blood testing strategies and determining factors and on strategies to reduce the development of interval cancer after colonoscopy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  8. Examination of Chronic Smoking Behavior and Eligibility for Low-Dose Computed Tomography for Lung Cancer Screening Among Older Chinese Male Smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chien-Ching; Matthews, Alicia K; Dong, XinQi

    2017-07-01

    Low-dose computed tomography lung cancer (LDCT) screening is an effective way to decrease lung cancer mortality. Both Medicare and private insurers offer coverage of LDCT screening to beneficiaries who are at high risk of developing lung cancer. In this study, we examined rates and predictors of chronic smoking behavior and eligibility for coverage of LDCT screening among older Chinese men living in the greater Chicago area. Data were obtained from the Population Study of Chinese Elderly in Chicago, a population-based survey of community-dwelling, older Chinese adults in the Chicago metropolitan area. Eligibility criteria according to Centers of Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) and U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) for LDCT screening were used. Multivariate logistic regression was conducted to determine predictors of chronic smoking behavior which was operationalized as meeting criteria for LDCT screening. A quarter of the sample were current smokers and 42.5% reported a prior history of smoking. Eighteen percent and 22% of older Chinese men met the eligibility criteria for appropriateness for CMS and USPSTF LDCT screening, respectively. Furthermore, education, marital status, and number of children were significantly associated with chronic smoking behavior. Older Chinese men with chronic smoking behavior are at high risk of developing lung cancer and nearly one in five meet eligibility for LDCT screening. Increased outreach and education regarding early detection of lung cancer and smoking cessation are needed for this vulnerable and high-risk population.

  9. Screening for lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Infante, Maurizio V; Pedersen, Jesper H

    2010-01-01

    In lung cancer screening with low-dose spiral computed tomography (LDCT), the proportion of stage I disease is 50-85%, and the survival rate for resected stage I disease can exceed 90%, but proof of real benefit in terms of lung cancer mortality reduction must come from the several randomized tri...

  10. Screening for lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Infante, Maurizio V; Pedersen, Jesper H

    2010-01-01

    In lung cancer screening with low-dose spiral computed tomography (LDCT), the proportion of stage I disease is 50-85%, and the survival rate for resected stage I disease can exceed 90%, but proof of real benefit in terms of lung cancer mortality reduction must come from the several randomized...

  11. Factors affecting breast cancer screening behavior in Japan--assessment using the health belief model and conjoint analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsunematsu, Miwako; Kawasaki, Hiromi; Masuoka, Yuko; Kakehashi, Masayuki

    2013-01-01

    Japanese women in their 40s or older have been encouraged to attend breast cancer screening. However, the breast cancer screening rate in Japan is not as high as in Europe and the United States. The aim of this study was to identify psychological and personal characteristics of women concerning their participation in breast cancer screening using the Health Belief Model (HBM). In addition, the attributes of screening more easily accepted by participants were analyzed by conjoint analysis. In this cross sectional study of 3,200 age 20-69 women, data were collected by an anonymous questionnaire. Questions were based on HBM and personal characteristics, and included attitudes on hypothetical screening attributes. Data of women aged 40-69 were analyzed by logistic regression and conjoint analysis to clarify the factors affecting their participation in breast cancer screening. Among responses collected from 1,280 women of age 20-69, the replies of 993 women of age 40-69 were used in the analysis. Regarding the psychological characteristics based on HBM, the odds ratios were significantly higher in "importance of cancer screening" (95%CI: 1.21-2.47) and "benefits of cancer screening" (95%CI: 1.09-2.49), whereas the odds ratio was significantly lower in "barriers to participation before cancer screening" (95%CI: 0.27-0.51). Conjoint analysis revealed that the respondents, overall, preferred screening to be low cost and by female staff members. Furthermore, it was also clarified that attributes of screening dominant in decision-making were influenced by the employment status and the type of medical insurance of the women. In order to increase participation in breast cancer screening, it is necessary to disseminate accurate knowledge on cancer screening and to reduce barriers to participation. In addition, the attributes of screening more easily accepted were inexpensive, provided by female staff, executed in a hospital and finished in a short time.

  12. Lung cancer screening: Update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyea Young [Dept. of Radiology, Center for Lung Cancer, National Cancer Center, Goyang (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-09-15

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths worldwide as well as in Korea. A recent National Lung Screening Trial in U.S. revealed that low-dose CT (LDCT) screening reduced lung cancer specific mortality by 20% in high risk individuals as compared to chest radiograph screening. Based on this evidence, several expert societies in U.S. and Korean multisociety collaborative committee developed guidelines for recommendation of lung cancer screening using annual LDCT in high risk populations. In most of the societies high risk groups are defined as persons aged 55 to 74 years, who are current smokers with history of smoking of more than 30 packs per year or ex-smokers, who quit smoking up to 15 or more years ago. The benefits of LDCT screening are modestly higher than the harms in high risk individuals. The harms included a high rate of false-positive findings, over-diagnosis and radiation-related deaths. Invasive diagnostic procedure due to false positive findings may lead to complications. LDCT should be performed in qualified hospitals and interpreted by expert radiologists. Recently, the American College of Radiology released the current version of Lung cancer CT screening Reporting and Data Systems. Education and actions to stop smoking must be offered to current smokers.

  13. Developments in Colorectal Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... JavaScript on. Feature: Colorectal Cancer Developments in Colorectal Cancer Screening Past Issues / Summer 2016 Table of Contents Dr. ... patients know to help determine the best colon cancer screening test for them? Colonoscopy is considered the gold ...

  14. Colorectal Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Types Bladder Cancer Breast Cancer Colorectal Cancer Kidney (Renal Cell) Cancer Leukemia Liver Cancer Lung Cancer Lymphoma Pancreatic Cancer Prostate Cancer Skin Cancer Thyroid Cancer Uterine Cancer All ...

  15. Esophageal Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Types Bladder Cancer Breast Cancer Colorectal Cancer Kidney (Renal Cell) Cancer Leukemia Liver Cancer Lung Cancer Lymphoma Pancreatic Cancer Prostate Cancer Skin Cancer Thyroid Cancer Uterine Cancer All ...

  16. Gastric Cancer Screening

    OpenAIRE

    Ayala Acosta, Juan Carlos; Pontificia Universidad Javeriana; Lotero Gómez, Juan David; Pontificia Universidad Javeriana

    2012-01-01

    Gastric cancer is the fourth most common cancer worldwide and is the second leading cause of cancer mortality in the world, being more common in developing countries. An early detection of the disease and an early treatment are key strategies to reduce mortality. in this review will present recent data regarding epidemiology and the most effective methods for screening of gastric cancer, which remain subject to review and ongoing controversy in the world due to the emergence of new techniques...

  17. Screening for colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Hans J; Jakobsen, Karen V; Christensen, Ib J

    2011-01-01

    Emerging results indicate that screening improves survival of patients with colorectal cancer. Therefore, screening programs are already implemented or are being considered for implementation in Asia, Europe and North America. At present, a great variety of screening methods are available including...... colono- and sigmoidoscopy, CT- and MR-colonography, capsule endoscopy, DNA and occult blood in feces, and so on. The pros and cons of the various tests, including economic issues, are debated. Although a plethora of evaluated and validated tests even with high specificities and reasonable sensitivities...... into improvements of screening for colorectal cancer includes blood-based biological markers, such as proteins, DNA and RNA in combination with various demographically and clinically parameters into a "risk assessment evaluation" (RAE) test. It is assumed that such a test may lead to higher acceptance among...

  18. The validity and reliability of Champion's Health Belief Model Scale for breast cancer screening behaviors among Iranian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taymoori, Parvaneh; Berry, Tanya

    2009-01-01

    Breast cancer is a global issue that continues to be the most diagnosed cancer in women. The incidence of breast cancer is increasing, and the incidence age for Iranian women is at least 10 years earlier than in western countries. Beliefs related to breast cancer have been found to be a factor in a woman's decision about breast screening behavior, and a valid and reliable questionnaire is necessary to the development of education interventions in this area. The aim of the current study was to translate the Champion Health Belief Model Scale to Farsi and to examine the psychometric properties of the Farsi version. A random sample of 606 employed women (20-69 years old) from Sanandaj, Iran, participated in the study. Construct validity of the Farsi version was supported through factor analysis. Nine factors emerged for breast self-examination (2 barriers factors, 2 benefits factors, 2 confidence factors, and 1 factor each related to seriousness, motivation, and susceptibly) and 6 factors related to mammography (barriers, seriousness, susceptibly, benefits, and 2 motivation factors). All items loaded on their respective factors except 1 item. It was concluded that the Farsi version of the Champion Health Belief Model Scale has the potential to measure beliefs related to breast self-examination and mammography with Iranian women. Further evaluation of the measure with different populations is warranted.

  19. Screening for Pancreatic Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngamruengphong, Saowanee; Canto, Marcia Irene

    2016-12-01

    Pancreatic cancer (PC) is a highly fatal disease that can only be cured by complete surgical resection. However, most patients with PC have unresectable disease at the time of diagnosis, highlighting the need to detect PC and its precursor lesions earlier in asymptomatic patients. Screening is not cost-effective for population-based screening of PC. Individuals with genetic risk factors for PC based on family history or known PC-associated genetic syndromes, however, can be a potential target for PC screening programs. This article provides an overview of the epidemiology and genetic background of familial PC and discusses diagnostic and management approaches. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. [Organized breast cancer screening].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouëssé, Jacques; Sancho-Garnier, Hélèn

    2014-02-01

    Breast screening programs are increasingly controversial, especially regarding two points: the number of breast cancer deaths they avoid, and the problem of over-diagnosis and over-treatment. The French national breast cancer screening program was extended to cover the whole country in 2004. Ten years later it is time to examine the risk/benefit ratio of this program and to discuss the need for change. Like all forms of cancer management, screening must be regularly updated, taking into account the state of the art, new evidence, and uncertainties. All screening providers should keep themselves informed of the latest findings. In the French program, women aged 50-74 with no major individual or familial risk factors for breast cancer are offered screening mammography and clinical breast examination every two years. Images considered non suspicious of malignancy by a first reader are re-examined by a second reader. The devices and procedures are subjected to quality controls. Participating radiologists (both public and private) are required to read at least 500 mammographies per year. The program's national participation rate was 52.7 % in 2012. When individual screening outside of the national program is taken into account (nearly 15 % of women), coverage appears close to the European recommendation of 65 %. Breast cancer mortality has been falling in France by 0.6 % per year for over 30 years, starting before mass screening was implemented, and by 1.5 % since 2005. This decline can be attributed in part to earlier diagnosis and better treatment, so that the specific impact of screening cannot easily be measured. Over-treatment, defined as the detection and treatment of low-malignancy tumors that would otherwise not have been detected in a person's lifetime, is a major negative effect of screening, but its frequency is not precisely known (reported to range from 1 % to 30 %). In view of these uncertainties, it would be advisable to modify the program in order to

  1. The determinants of breast cancer screening behavior: a focus group study of women in the United Arab Emirates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bener, Abdulbari; Honein, Gladys; Carter, Anne O; Da'ar, Zahra; Miller, Campbell; Dunn, Earl V

    2002-10-01

    To explore perceptions, knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs about breast cancer and its screening among Emirati national women in Al Ain, United Arab Emirates. A qualitative study using focus group methods. Primary healthcare centers and a community-based women's association in the United Arab Emirates. 41 women, aged 25-45 years. Four 90-minute focus group discussions exploring perceptions, knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, and practices regarding breast cancer were audiotaped, transcribed, translated, and analyzed. Social and cultural themes related to breast cancer and its screening. Focus group methodology worked well in this setting. The women's perceptions, knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs regarding cancer and screening, together with aspects of the healthcare system and social milieu, appeared to strongly influence the women's preventive practices. Some of these factors had an encouraging effect on the women's practices, and others had a deterring effect. The encouraging factors included feelings of susceptibility, high levels of knowledge in some women, attitudes and beliefs about personal responsibility for health, and a supportive social milieu. Deterring factors included anxiety and fear leading to denial; lack of knowledge about cancer and the screening program; fear, embarrassment, and mistrust of health care; and belief in predestination. Health planners and healthcare providers must capitalize on encouraging factors and minimize deterring factors to optimize breast cancer screening practices among these women. Identifying and accounting for the factors that encourage or deter women in their breast cancer screening practices will help to optimize screening programs.

  2. Colorectal cancer screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bessa Caserras, Xavier

    2016-09-01

    In the latest meeting of the American Gastroenterological Association, several clinical studies were presented that aimed to evaluate the various colorectal cancer screening strategies, although most assessed the various aspects of faecal immunochemical testing (FIT) and colonoscopy. Data were presented from consecutive FIT-based screening rounds, confirming the importance of adherence to consecutive screening rounds, achieving a similar or superior diagnostic yield to endoscopic studies. There was confirmation of the importance of not delaying endoscopic study after a positive result. Participants with a negative FIT (score of 0) had a low risk for colorectal cancer. Several studies seemed to confirm the importance of high-quality colonoscopy in colorectal cancer screening programmes. The implementation of high-quality colonoscopies has reduced mortality from proximal lesions and reduced interval cancers in various studies. Finally, participants with a normal colonoscopy result or with a small adenoma are at low risk for developing advanced neoplasms during follow-up. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  3. [Nationwide colorectal cancer screening].

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rossum, L.G.M. van; Laheij, R.J.F.; Jansen, J.B.M.J.

    2010-01-01

    Usually, colorectal cancer presents with complaints in a late stage, but can be detected in an earlier stage, with better prognosis, by colonoscopy. Using colonoscopy, also precancerous tumours, adenomas, can be detected and excised, but only in a national screening programme. However primary

  4. Influence of continuing education on dental hygienists' knowledge and behavior related to oral cancer screening and tobacco cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Margaret M; Rankin, Kathleen V; Silverman, Sol

    2013-04-01

    There are more than 35,000 new cases of oral and pharyngeal cancers (OPC) diagnosed each year. Most OPCs are diagnosed in advanced stages, requiring aggressive treatment and resulting in higher morbidity and mortality than when diagnosed early. The overall 5 year survival rate of OPC is about 60%. Early detection of OPC lesions are the key to survival. A major risk factor for OPC is chronic tobacco use. The purpose of this paper is to report changes in dental hygienists' knowledge, attitudes and behaviors 6 months after attending a standardized lecture format continuing education (CE) course on early OPC detection and tobacco cessation counseling compared to baseline values. A total of 64 CE courses were given for dental professionals throughout the 10 U.S. public health districts to determine if OPC screenings and tobacco cessation counseling behaviors could be modified at 6 months post-training. Questionnaires were obtained at baseline and 6 months later using a pre-/post-test design. A total of 1,463 dental hygienists participated at baseline and 543 at a 6 month follow-up. Data showed a significant difference in knowledge and behavior compared to baseline values. CE appeared to have a significant influence on participants' OPC and tobacco cessation knowledge and behavior, and could potentially make a difference on prevention, early detection and ultimately on OPC control.

  5. Relationships of Fear of Breast Cancer and Fatalism with Screening Behavior in Women Referred to Health Centers of Tabriz in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghahramanian, Akram; Rahmani, Azad; Aghazadeh, Ahmad Mirza; Mehr, Lida Emami

    2016-01-01

    Fear and fatalism have been proposed as factors affecting breast cancer screening, but the evidence is not strong. This study aimed to determine relationships of fear and fatalism with breast cancer screening behavior among Tabriz women in Iran. In a cross- sectional study, 370 women referred to 12 health centers in Tabriz were selected with two-stage cluster sampling and data regarding breast cancer screening, fatalism and fear of breast cancer were collected respectively with a checklist for screening performance, Champions Fear and Pow Fatalism Questionnaires. Data were analyzed by logistic regression with SPSS software version 16. Only 43% and 23% of participants had undergone breast self- examination and clinical breast examination. Among women older than 40 years, 38.2% had mammography history and only 2.7% of them had done it annually. Although fatalism and fear had a stimulating effects on breast cancer screening performance th relationships were not signi cant (P>0.05). There was a negative significant correlation between fear and fatalism (r= -0.24, p=0.000). On logistic regression analysis, age (OR=1.037, p<0.01) and income status (OR= 0.411, p<0.05) significantly explained BSE and age (OR=1.051, p<0.01) and body mass index (OR= 0.879, p<0.01) explained CBE. Also BMI (OR= 0.074, p<0.05) and income status (OR=0.155, p<0.01) was significantly effective for mammography following. Breast cancer screening behavior is inappropriate and affected by family livelihood status and lifestyle leads to weight gain, so that for promoting of screening behavior, economic support to families, lifestyle modification and public education are suggested.

  6. Opportunities and challenges for the use of large-scale surveys in public health research: A comparison of the assessment of cancer screening behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Jada G.; Breen, Nancy; Klabunde, Carrie N.; Moser, Richard P.; Leyva, Bryan; Breslau, Erica S.; Kobrin, Sarah C.

    2014-01-01

    Large-scale surveys that assess cancer prevention and control behaviors are a readily-available, rich resource for public health researchers. Although these data are used by a subset of researchers who are familiar with them, their potential is not fully realized by the research community for reasons including lack of awareness of the data, and limited understanding of their content, methodology, and utility. Until now, no comprehensive resource existed to describe and facilitate use of these data. To address this gap and maximize use of these data, we catalogued the characteristics and content of four surveys that assessed cancer screening behaviors in 2005, the most recent year with concurrent periods of data collection: the National Health Interview Survey, Health Information National Trends Survey, Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, and California Health Interview Survey. We documented each survey's characteristics, measures of cancer screening, and relevant correlates; examined how published studies (n=78) have used the surveys’ cancer screening data; and reviewed new cancer screening constructs measured in recent years. This information can guide researchers in deciding how to capitalize on the opportunities presented by these data resources. PMID:25300474

  7. Cancer fear: facilitator and deterrent to participation in colorectal cancer screening

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Vrinten, Charlotte; Waller, Jo; von Wagner, Christian; Wardle, Jane

    2015-01-01

    Cancer fear has been associated with higher and lower screening uptake across different studies, possibly because different aspects of cancer fear have different effects on intentions versus behavior...

  8. [Colorectal cancer screening].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castells, Antoni

    2013-10-01

    Colorectal cancer is the paradigm of tumoral growth that is susceptible to preventive measures, especially screening. Various screening strategies with demonstrated efficacy and efficiency are currently available, notable examples being the fecal occult blood test and endoscopic tests. In addition, new modalities have appeared in the last few years that could become viable alternatives in the near future. The present article reviews the most important presentations on colorectal screening at the annual congress of the American Gastroenterological Association held in Orlando in May 2013, with special emphasis on the medium- and long-term results of strategies using the fecal occult blood test and flexible sigmoidoscopy, as well as initial experiences with the use of new biomarkers. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  9. Breast Cancer Knowledge, Beliefs, and Screening Behaviors of College Women: Application of the Health Belief Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guilford, Kendra; McKinley, Erin; Turner, Lori

    2017-01-01

    Background: Breast cancer, the second leading cause of cancer death among US women, causes severe physiological problems, including treatment outcomes of surgery, radiation, and chemotherapy. It results in severe psychological suffering, including anxiety, depression, and disfigurement. One out of every 8 American women will develop breast cancer…

  10. Lung cancer screening overdiagnosis: reports of overdiagnosis in screening for lung cancer are grossly exaggerated.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortani Barbosa, Eduardo J

    2015-08-01

    The National Lung Cancer Screening Trial (NLST) demonstrated a mortality reduction benefit associated with low-dose computed tomography (LDCT) screening for lung cancer. There has been considerable debate regarding the benefits and harms of LDCT lung cancer screening, including the challenges related to its practical implementation. One of the controversies regards overdiagnosis, which conceptually denotes diagnosing a cancer that, either because of its indolent, low-aggressiveness biologic behavior or because of limited life expectancy, is unlikely to result in significant morbidity during the patient's remainder lifetime. In theory, diagnosing and treating these cancers offer no measurable benefit while incurring costs and risks. Therefore, if a screening test detects a substantial number of overdiagnosed cancers, it is less likely to be effective. It has been argued that LDCT screening for lung cancer results in an unacceptably high rate of overdiagnosis. This article aims to defend the opposite stance. Overdiagnosis does exist and to a certain extent is inherent to any cancer-screening test. Nonetheless, the concept is less dualistic and more nuanced than it has been suggested. Furthermore, the average estimates of overdiagnosis in LDCT lung cancer screening based on the totality of published data are likely much lower than the highest published estimates, if a careful definition of a positive screening test reflecting our current understanding of lung cancer biology is utilized. This article presents evidence on why reports of overdiagnosis in lung cancer screening have been exaggerated. Copyright © 2015 AUR. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. The relevance of fatalism in the study of Latinas' cancer screening behavior: a systematic review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinosa de Los Monteros, Karla; Gallo, Linda C

    2011-12-01

    Fatalism has been identified as a dominant belief among Latinos and is believed to act as a barrier to cancer prevention. However, controversy exists over the utility of the construct in explaining health disparities experienced by disadvantaged populations above the influence of structural barriers such as low socioeconomic status (SES) and limited access to health care. This paper reviews the empirical research on fatalism and Latinas' participation in cancer screening in an attempt to determine whether fatalism predicts participation in cancer screening after accounting for structural barriers. Google Scholar, ERIC, CINAHL, Medline, PsychINFO, ProQuest, PubMed, and PsychARTICLES were searched for empirical studies published prior to February 25, 2010. A total of 43 articles were obtained and 11 met the inclusion criteria. The majority of studies (64%) reported a statistically significant association between fatalism and utilization of cancer screening services after accounting for structural barriers. However, mixed findings and limitations in measurement and design across studies preclude clear conclusions about the nature of the relationship. Preliminary evidence for an inverse association between fatalism and Latinas' utilization of cancer screening services after accounting for structural barriers was identified. However, additional research that addresses methodological limitations is warranted to advance our understanding of the utility of fatalism in explaining inequities in cancer burden experienced by this at-risk group.

  12. NELSON lung cancer screening study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Y. Zhao (Yingru); X. Xie (Xueqian); H.J. de Koning (Harry); W.P. Mali (Willem); R. Vliegenthart (Rozemarijn); M. Oudkerk (Matthijs)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractThe Dutch-Belgian Randomized Lung Cancer Screening Trial (Dutch acronym: NELSON study) was designed to investigate whether screening for lung cancer by low-dose multidetector computed tomography (CT) in high-risk subjects will lead to a decrease in 10-year lung cancer mortality of at

  13. [Primary cervical cancer screening].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas-Hernández, Víctor Manuel; Vargas-Aguilar, Víctor Manuel; Tovar-Rodríguez, José María

    2015-01-01

    Cervico-uterine cancer screening with cytology decrease incidence by more than 50%. The cause of this cancer is the human papilloma virus high risk, and requires a sensitive test to provide sufficient sensitivity and specificity for early detection and greater interval period when the results are negative. The test of the human papilloma virus high risk, is effective and safe because of its excellent sensitivity, negative predictive value and optimal reproducibility, especially when combined with liquid-based cytology or biomarkers with viral load, with higher sensitivity and specificity, by reducing false positives for the detection of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2 or greater injury, with excellent clinical benefits to cervical cancer screening and related infection of human papilloma virus diseases, is currently the best test for early detection infection of human papillomavirus and the risk of carcinogenesis. Copyright © 2015 Academia Mexicana de Cirugía A.C. Published by Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  14. Model-based Small Area Estimates of Cancer Risk Factors and Screening Behaviors - Small Area Estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    These model-based estimates use two surveys, the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) and the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS). The two surveys are combined using novel statistical methodology.

  15. Cervical cancer -- screening and prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... available to protect against the HPV types that cause most cervical cancer in women. The vaccine is: Given as a ... neoplasia of the lower genital tract (cervix, vulva): etiology, screening, ... Cervical Pathology, and American Society for Clinical Pathology screening ...

  16. American Cancer Society Lung Cancer Screening Guidelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wender, Richard; Fontham, Elizabeth T. H.; Barrera, Ermilo; Colditz, Graham A.; Church, Timothy R.; Ettinger, David S.; Etzioni, Ruth; Flowers, Christopher R.; Gazelle, G. Scott; Kelsey, Douglas K.; LaMonte, Samuel J.; Michaelson, James S.; Oeffinger, Kevin C.; Shih, Ya-Chen Tina; Sullivan, Daniel C.; Travis, William; Walter, Louise; Wolf, Andrew M. D.; Brawley, Otis W.; Smith, Robert A.

    2013-01-01

    Findings from the National Cancer Institute’s National Lung Screening Trial established that lung cancer mortality in specific high-risk groups can be reduced by annual screening with low-dose computed tomography. These findings indicate that the adoption of lung cancer screening could save many lives. Based on the results of the National Lung Screening Trial, the American Cancer Society is issuing an initial guideline for lung cancer screening. This guideline recommends that clinicians with access to high-volume, high-quality lung cancer screening and treatment centers should initiate a discussion about screening with apparently healthy patients aged 55 years to 74 years who have at least a 30-pack-year smoking history and who currently smoke or have quit within the past 15 years. A process of informed and shared decision-making with a clinician related to the potential benefits, limitations, and harms associated with screening for lung cancer with low-dose computed tomography should occur before any decision is made to initiate lung cancer screening. Smoking cessation counseling remains a high priority for clinical attention in discussions with current smokers, who should be informed of their continuing risk of lung cancer. Screening should not be viewed as an alternative to smoking cessation. PMID:23315954

  17. What role do social norms play in the context of men's cancer screening intention and behavior? Application of an extended theory of planned behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sieverding, Monika; Matterne, Uwe; Ciccarello, Liborio

    2010-01-01

    Our research investigated the role of social norms in an extended theory of planned behavior (TPB) in the explanation of prostate/colorectal cancer screening (CS) intention and the prediction of CS uptake among men. A cross-sectional study (Study 1) assessed sociodemographic and TPB variables (extended by descriptive norm) in 2,426 German men (mean age 56.3 years) who differed in their past CS behavior. A subsample of Study 1 (former nonattenders and irregular attenders, n = 1,032) were followed up 12 months later (Study 2). The authors measured cross-sectionally the intention to undergo a CS examination within the next 12 months (Study 1), and longitudinally self-reported uptake of prostate and/or colorectal CS within the last 12 months (Study 2). When sociodemographic variables were controlled, TPB variables predicted a substantial amount of CS-intention (Delta R2 = .49). Descriptive norm explained variance beyond the classic TPB variables and interacted significantly with subjective norm. Significant predictors of CS uptake were intention and subjective norm with the latter having a different effect in the two subgroups: a high subjective norm (assessed at T1) was associated with higher CS attendance in (former) nonattenders but lower CS attendance in irregular attenders in the following 12 months. Social norms play an important role in men's CS intention and behavior. For intention formation, descriptive norm is influential in addition to subjective norm. The fact that a high subjective norm resulted in a lower likelihood of screening among irregular attenders suggests possible reactance effects.

  18. Breast Cancer--Screening Behavior among Rural California American Indian Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodge, Felicia Schanche

    2009-01-01

    A community-based Wellness Circles Program was designed and implemented at 13 sites in California to evaluate a culturally appropriate community-based health care model for American Indian families. Data obtained from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) that was administered to a subset of women demonstrate that American Indian…

  19. Screening for Cervical Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... they might mean for you. What is cervical cancer? Cervical cancer is cancer that occurs in the cervix. ... to Know About™ Cancer of the Cervix ( National Cancer Institute) Cervical Cancer ( Centers for Disease Control and Prevention) March ...

  20. Lung Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... factors increase or decrease the risk of lung cancer. Lung cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) ... following PDQ summaries for more information about lung cancer: Lung Cancer Prevention Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Treatment ...

  1. The influence of spirituality and religiosity on breast cancer screening delay in African American women: application of the Theory of Reasoned Action and Planned Behavior (TRA/TPB).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gullate, Mary

    2006-01-01

    African American women (AAW) are 25% more likely to present with late stage breast cancer and 20% more likely to die from their disease than Caucasian women. Researchers report that a treatment delay of 3 months is a significant factor in breast cancer mortality. Socioeconomic factors, lack of access and knowledge, spiritual and religious beliefs, fear and fatalism are reported as contributing factors to screening delays. Studies have primarily applied the Health Belief Model (HBM) and modified versions like the Champion HBM to preventive health practices. Neither have significant inclusion of spirituality or religiosity. The TRA/TPB focus on beliefs, intent and attitude as individual determinants of the likelihood of performing a specific behavior; but have not had wide utility in studies related to screening delays among AAW. This paper explores the utility of applying the TRA/TPB as the theoretical framework for determining cultural relevance of spirituality and religiosity to screening delays among AAW.

  2. Colorectal Cancer Screening in Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Han-Mo; Hsu, Wen-Feng; Chang, Li-Chun; Wu, Ming-Hsiang

    2017-08-10

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is increasing in Asia, especially in regions with higher levels of economic development. Several Asian countries have launched population CRC screening programs to combat this devastating disease because previous studies have demonstrated that either fecal occult blood test or lower gastrointestinal endoscopy can effectively reduce CRC mortality. Screening includes engaging the population, testing, administering a confirmation examination, and treating screening-detected neoplasms; thus, monitoring the whole process using measurable indicators over time is of utmost importance. Only when the quality of every step is secured can the effectiveness of CRC screening be maximized. Screening and verification examination rates remain low in Asian countries, and important infrastructure, including cancer or death registry systems, colonoscopy capacity, and reasonable subsidization for screening, is lacking or insufficient. Future research should identify potential local barriers to screening. Good communication and dialog among screening organizers, clinicians, professional societies, and public health workers are indispensible for successful screening programs.

  3. Overdiagnosis in breast cancer screening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynge, Elsebeth; Beau, Anna-Belle; Christiansen, Peer

    2017-01-01

    Overdiagnosis in breast cancer screening is an important issue. A recent study from Denmark concluded that one in three breast cancers diagnosed in screening areas in women aged 50-69 years were overdiagnosed. The purpose of this short communication was to disentangle the study's methodology...

  4. PROSTATE CANCER SCREENING IN GHANA -

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In Ghana and most African countries, prostate cancer is the most common cancer in males after hepatocellnlar carcinoma. Whereas in the advanced countries, screening for prostate specific anti- gen (PSA) has led to early detection and management of the disease, screening has been very low in Ghana, thus leading to low ...

  5. The Effect of Electronic Health Record Use and Patient-Centered Communication on Cancer Screening Behavior: An Analysis of the Health Information National Trends Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Totzkay, Daniel; Silk, Kami J; Sheff, Sarah E

    2017-07-01

    The present study used the 2013 Health Information National Trends Survey (N = 3185) to examine the effects of patient-centered communication (PCC) and the use of electronic health records (EHRs) on the likelihood of patients receiving a recommended screening for cancer (i.e., mammogram, PSA test). Self-determination theory, a framework of self-initiated extrinsic behaviors, was applied to test mediation models of PCC and EHR use, respectively, through patient activation. The results demonstrated that PCC and EHR use predicted cancer screening (mediated through patient activation), but only for women recommended for biannual mammograms. The aforementioned relationship was not found for men who are recommended for prostate cancer screening. PCC and EHRs do appear to facilitate a patient's ability to take care of their own health, but only under certain circumstances. It was additionally found that men were more likely to report higher degrees of physician PCC when their physicians maintained an EHR, whereas women reported no difference. Future research should examine more nuanced personality factors that affect the perception of PCC in the presence of EHRs and the relationship between men's activation and likelihood of receiving a cancer screen.

  6. Effect of structured training programme on the knowledge and behaviors of breast and cervical cancer screening among the female teachers in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayık Temel, Ayla; Dağhan, Şafak; Kaymakçı, Şenay; Öztürk Dönmez, Renginar; Arabacı, Zeynep

    2017-12-07

    Breast cancer and cervical cancer are the most common cancers among women in the world. Many studies on the early detection of cancer have been conducted among women worldwide, but few studies have been performed in the world on female teachers regarding breast self-examination (BSE), mammography (MMG) and Pap smear test (PST). As teachers interact with students, this could play an important role in health education and in developing healthy behavior such as cancer screening. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of a structured teaching program on breast and cervical cancer screening on the knowledge and practice of teachers. The other objective was to encourage teachers to transfer this knowledge to the women who attended their courses. Semi -experimental designs with pre-intervention, post-intervention and six month follow-up tests were used in this study. The data were collected from 37 volunteer teachers and their 64 volunteer students with a sociodemographic form, a questionnaire form for breast and cervical cancer, and a Transtheoretical Model of behavior change for BSE, MMG and PST. Behavior of the teachers related to BSE, MMG, PST was evaluated in pre-training and in the first, third and sixth months post-training, and the behavior of the students was evaluated with point follow-up in the sixth month. In post-training, it was determined that the teachers' knowledge of breast cancer increased from 11.70 ± 2.80 to 14.81 ± 3.22 and their knowledge of cervical cancer increased from 7.75 ± 5.60 to 17.68 ± 3.79. For BSE behavior, 47.8% of teachers were in the action and maintenance stage in pre-training, but this ratio was 81.1% in the sixth month post-training. For MMG behavior, all of the teachers were in the precontemplation stage in pre-training, and 38.9% of them were in the action and maintenance stage in the sixth month post-training. For PST, while 24.3% were in the action and maintenance stage in pre

  7. Overdiagnosis in breast cancer screening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynge, Elsebeth; Beau, Anna-Belle; Christiansen, Peer

    2017-01-01

    Overdiagnosis in breast cancer screening is an important issue. A recent study from Denmark concluded that one in three breast cancers diagnosed in screening areas in women aged 50-69 years were overdiagnosed. The purpose of this short communication was to disentangle the study's methodology...... estimate of overdiagnosis. Screening affects cohorts of screened women. Danish registers allow very accurate mapping of the fate of every woman. We should be past the phase where studies of overdiagnosis are based on the fixed age groups from routine statistics....

  8. Overdiagnosis in cancer screening

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cervera Deval, J; Sentís Crivillé, M; Zulueta, J J

    2015-01-01

    In screening programs, overdiagnosis is defined as the detection of a disease that would have gone undetected without screening when that disease would not have resulted in morbimortality and was treated unnecessarily...

  9. Breast Cancer Screening in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Karsten Juhl; Gøtzsche, Peter C; Kalager, Mette

    2017-01-01

    Background: Effective breast cancer screening should detect early-stage cancer and prevent advanced disease. Objective: To assess the association between screening and the size of detected tumors and to estimate overdiagnosis (detection of tumors that would not become clinically relevant). Design......) and nonadvanced (≤20 mm) breast cancer tumors in screened and nonscreened women were measured. Two approaches were used to estimate the amount of overdiagnosis: comparing the incidence of advanced and nonadvanced tumors among women aged 50 to 84 years in screening and nonscreening areas; and comparing...... rate ratio, 1.49 [95% CI, 1.43 to 1.54]). The first estimation approach found that 271 invasive breast cancer tumors and 179 ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) lesions were overdiagnosed in 2010 (overdiagnosis rate of 24.4% [including DCIS] and 14.7% [excluding DCIS]). The second approach, which accounted...

  10. SCREENING FOR CERVICAL CANCER

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Enrique

    ing is started, frequency of screening, ideal and cost-effective technique, provi- sion of screening services to the most needy ... Based on data from Cali, Colombia, the impact of starting cervical screening at different ages shows that starting ... Hospital, Durban, and obtained his. Fellowship in 1996. His current field of.

  11. Lay Epistemology of Breast Cancer Screening Guidelines Among Appalachian Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Record, Rachael A; Scott, Allison M; Shaunfield, Sara; Jones, M Grace; Collins, Tom; Cohen, Elisia L

    2017-09-01

    Recent changes to the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force guidelines for breast cancer screening have contributed to increased patient uncertainty regarding the timing and appropriateness of screening behaviors. To gain insight into the lay epistemology of women regarding breast cancer screening practices, we conducted in-depth, face-to-face interviews with 24 adult women living in a medically underserved Appalachian region. We found that women were unaware of breast cancer screening guidelines (i.e., start age, frequency, stop age). Qualitative analysis revealed two lay epistemological narratives establishing (a) uncertain knowledge and ambiguity about breast cancer screening guidelines but certain knowledge of other women's experiences with breast cancer diagnoses, and (b) feelings of knowing one's own body best and seeing the value in "overscreening" to save even one life. Our findings have theoretical and practical implications for scholars and practitioners seeking to improve knowledge or behavior regarding adherence to breast cancer screening recommendations.

  12. Influence of sense of coherence, spirituality, social support and health perception on breast cancer screening motivation and behaviors in African American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conway-Phillips, Regina; Janusek, Linda

    2014-01-01

    Despite formidable barriers, some African American women (AAW) engage in breast cancer screening (BCS) behaviors. Understanding individual characteristics that allow AAW to overcome barriers to BCS is critical to reduce breast cancer mortality among AAW. A salutogenic model of health was used to evaluate the influence of sense of coherence, social support, spirituality and health perception on BCS motivation and behaviors in AAW, and to determine differences in these factors in AAW who participate in free BCS programs compared to AAW who do not. Findings revealed that greater levels of spirituality were significantly associated with greater motivation to practice BCS. Further, women who utilized free BCS programs reported significantly greater rates of both performing and of intent to perform breast self examinations (BSE) in the future, obtaining clinical breast exams and mammograms. Findings can inform the development of culturally specific programs to improve the utilization of BCS programs by AAW.

  13. Costs of Colorectal Cancer Screening

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2017-04-04

    A health economist talks about studies on figuring out the costs of running a colorectal cancer screening program, and how this can lead to better screening.  Created: 4/4/2017 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 4/4/2017.

  14. Risk Profiling May Improve Lung Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    A new modeling study suggests that individualized, risk-based selection of ever-smokers for lung cancer screening may prevent more lung cancer deaths and improve the effectiveness and efficiency of screening compared with current screening recommendations

  15. Colorectal Cancer Awareness and Screening

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2017-04-06

    An oncologist (cancer doctor) shares her medical and personal advice for people between the ages of 50 and 75 about getting screened for colorectal cancer.  Created: 4/6/2017 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 4/6/2017.

  16. Prostate Cancer Screening - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Polish (polski) Portuguese (português) Russian (Русский) Spanish (español) Urdu (اردو) Vietnamese (Tiếng Việt) HealthReach resources will open ... Cancer Screening - español (Spanish) PDF American Cancer Society Urdu (اردو) Expand Section It's No Big Deal - Prostate ...

  17. [Overdiagnosis in cancer screening].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervera Deval, J; Sentís Crivillé, M; Zulueta, J J

    2015-01-01

    In screening programs, overdiagnosis is defined as the detection of a disease that would have gone undetected without screening when that disease would not have resulted in morbimortality and was treated unnecessarily. Overdiagnosis is a bias inherent in screening and an undesired effect of secondary prevention and improved sensitivity of diagnostic techniques. It is difficult to discriminate a priori between clinically relevant diagnoses and those in which treatment is unnecessary. To minimize the effects of overdiagnosis, screening should be done in patients at risk. Copyright © 2014 SERAM. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  18. Obesity and Cancer Screening according to Race and Gender

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather Bittner Fagan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between obesity and cancer screening varies by screening test, race, and gender. Most studies on cervical cancer screening found a negative association between increasing weight and screening, and this negative association was most consistent in white women. Recent literature on mammography reports no association with weight. However, some studies show a negative association in white, but not black, women. In contrast, obese/overweight men reported higher rates of prostate-specific antigen (PSA testing. Comparison of prostate cancer screening, mammography, and Pap smears implies a gender difference in the relationship between screening behavior and weight. In colorectal cancer (CRC screening, the relationship between weight and screening in men is inconsistent, while there is a trend towards lower CRC screening in higher weight women.

  19. Skin Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 2012 Media Resources Media Contacts Multicultural Media Events Scientific Meetings & Lectures Conferences Advisory Board Meetings Social Media Cancer Currents Blog About NCI NCI Overview History Contributing to Cancer Research Leadership Director's Page Deputy Director's Page Previous NCI ...

  20. Colorectal Cancer Screening in 3 Racial Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Kimberly M.; Dickinson, Stephanie L.; DeGraffinreid, Cecilia R.; Tatum, Cathy M.; Paskett, Electra D.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To understand predictors of colorectal cancer (CRC) screening in African Americans, European Americans, and Native Americans as these groups differ in CRC incidence and mortality. Methods Participants were surveyed for knowledge, beliefs, and behaviors related to CRC. Results Predictive regression modeling found, after adjusting for race, CRC risk, and CRC worry, the odds of screening within guidelines were increased for men, those receiving doctor’s recommendation, those with polyp/tumor history, those under 70, those with more knowledge about CRC, and those with fewer barriers to screening. CRC screening rates did not differ by race. Conclusions These results reiterate the importance of knowledge, barriers, and physician recommendation for CRC screening in all racial groups. PMID:17555381

  1. Risks of Esophageal Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Types Bladder Cancer Breast Cancer Colorectal Cancer Kidney (Renal Cell) Cancer Leukemia Liver Cancer Lung Cancer Lymphoma Pancreatic Cancer Prostate Cancer Skin Cancer Thyroid Cancer Uterine Cancer All ...

  2. Risks of Colorectal Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Types Bladder Cancer Breast Cancer Colorectal Cancer Kidney (Renal Cell) Cancer Leukemia Liver Cancer Lung Cancer Lymphoma Pancreatic Cancer Prostate Cancer Skin Cancer Thyroid Cancer Uterine Cancer All ...

  3. Lung cancer screening: past, present and future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finigan, James H; Kern, Jeffrey A

    2013-09-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death for men and women. Most lung cancer cases are diagnosed at an advanced stage, when cure is no longer an option; this heavily influences mortality. Historically, attempts at lung cancer screening using chest x-rays and sputum cytology have failed to influence lung cancer mortality. However, the recent National Lung Screening Trial demonstrated that low-dose computed tomography screening for lung cancer decreases mortality. This article outlines the history of lung cancer screening, the current state of screening and possible future adjuncts to screening. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Cervical Cancer Screening with AMIGAS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lairson, David R.; Chang, Yu-Chia; Byrd, Theresa L.; Smith, Judith Lee; Fernandez, Maria E.; Wilson, Katherine M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Hispanic women have a higher incidence of cervical cancer than all other races and ethnicities. In Hispanic subgroups, Mexican American women were among the least likely to have received cervical cancer screening. In a recent RCT, Ayudando a las Mujeres con Información, Guia, y Amor para su Salud (AMIGAS) was shown to increase cervical cancer screening rates among women of Mexican descent at 6 months in all intervention arms compared to the control arm. Limited information exists about the economics of interventions to increase cervical cancer screening rates among women of Mexican descent. Purpose This study aims to estimate the cost-effectiveness of the alternative AMIGAS intervention methods for increasing cervical cancer screening among low-income women of Mexican descent in three U.S. communities. Methods Cost data were collected from 2008 to 2011 alongside the AMIGAS study of 613 women. Receipt of Pap test within 6 months of intervention was the primary outcome measure in the cost-effectiveness analysis, conducted during 2012–2013. Results The cost per additional woman screened comparing the video-only intervention to usual care was $980. The cost increased to $1,309 with participant time cost included. With an additional cost per participant of $3.90 compared to flipchart only, the full AMIGAS program (video plus flipchart) yielded 6.8% additional women screened. Conclusions Results on the average and incremental cost-effectiveness of the AMIGAS program elements may assist health policymakers and program managers to select and appropriately budget for interventions shown to increase cervical cancer screening among low-income women of Mexican descent. PMID:24842738

  5. Effects of education based on the health belief model on screening behavior in high risk women for breast cancer, Tehran, Iran

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hajian, Sepideh; Vakilian, Katayon; Najabadi, Khadijeh Mirzaii; Hosseini, Jalil; Mirzaei, Hamid Reza

    2011-01-01

    ...) is not sufficiently well established. The American Cancer Society aims to give women the opportunity to recognize the utility, limitations and adverse effects of breast cancer screening through education models based on psychological theories...

  6. African-American and Caribbean-Born Men's Perceptions of Prostate Cancer Fear and Facilitators for Screening Behavior: a Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobran, Ewan K; Hall, Jori N; Aiken, William D

    2017-01-16

    This study describes how a concurrent exploratory mixed methodology (CEMM) approach was used to investigate perceptions of prostate cancer (CaP) fear and facilitators of screening behavior in African-American (AA) and Caribbean-born (CB) black men for instrument development. A quantitative paper-based questionnaire was modified, adapted, and administered to participants from the Personal Integrative Model of Prostate Cancer Disparity Survey and the Powe Fatalism Inventory. Focus groups and individual interviews were conducted and analyzed using thematic analysis. Of the 31 participants, 17 (55%) were CB black men and 14 (45%) were AA men. CB black men reported significantly higher mean perception of CaP treatment scores compared to AA men (8.23 versus 6.14, p < 0.05). Overall, the focus group and interview data revealed highly interrelated key themes. These themes included perceived barriers to CaP screening (e.g., health-care affordability), misconceptions about CaP (e.g., limited knowledge), and misinformation about CaP (e.g., conflicting CaP screening information from health-care providers). Feeling responsible to make sure family members were taken care of and the role of a significant other were reported as motivation for visiting the doctor. As a result of the CEMM design, a reliable survey instrument was developed to measure CaP fear and facilitators for screening behavior within subpopulations of AA men, which is important because despite their shared genetic ancestry, AA and CB black males may have very different lifestyles.

  7. SCREENING FOR CERVICAL CANCER

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Enrique

    Cervical cancer remains a major health concern worldwide, especially in devel- oping countries. It is the commonest malignancy among black women in South. Africa. The quoted incidence of cervical cancer is approximately 30/100 000 women.1 Mortality is higher in developing countries, mainly due to the lack of.

  8. Colon cancer screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or polyps. This usually means close relatives (parent, sibling, or child) who developed these conditions younger than age 60. A personal history of colorectal cancer or polyps. A personal history of chronic inflammatory ...

  9. Prostate Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cancer that are being studied include the following: Digital rectal exam Digital rectal exam (DRE) is an exam of the ... lumps or anything else that seems unusual. Enlarge Digital rectal exam (DRE). The doctor inserts a gloved, ...

  10. Cervical cancer screening at crossroads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynge, Elsebeth; Rygaard, Carsten; Baillet, Miguel Vazquez-Prada

    2014-01-01

    , screening decreased the incidence of cervical cancer from 34 to 11 per 100,000, age-standardized rate (World Standard Population). Screening is, however, also expensive; Denmark (population: 5.6 million) undertakes close to half a million tests per year, and has 6-8 CIN-treated women for each prevented...... in women vaccinated later. The challenge now is therefore to find an algorithm for screening of a heterogeneous population including non-vaccinated women; women vaccinated prior to start of sexual activity; and women vaccinated later....

  11. Methods for Cervical Cancer Screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Vargas-Revilla

    2014-12-01

    This article is divided in three sections: the first one focuses on the general impact of cervical cancer has hadin CostaRica, these condsection gathers information about different methodologies used around the world to detect this cancer and the third one makes reference to the current development of the screening devise in Mexico that works as a monitoring system and can used by women without external assistance.

  12. Grantee Spotlight: Dr. Kolawole Okuyemi - Improving Cervical Cancer Screening Attitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dr. Kolawole Okuyumi is studying cervical cancer screening attitudes and behaviors of African immigrants and refugees in Minnesota, and introducing “cancer” and “cervix” to their everyday vocabulary.

  13. Women with Disabilities and Breast Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Reasonable Accommodations (RA) Women with Disabilities and Breast Cancer Screening Language: English (US) Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook ... Mammogram During the Past Two Years 1 Breast Cancer Screening Recommendations 2 If you are between the ages ...

  14. Adherence to Colorectal Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inadomi, John M.; Vijan, Sandeep; Janz, Nancy K.; Fagerlin, Angela; Thomas, Jennifer P.; Lin, Yunghui V.; Muñoz, Roxana; Lau, Chim; Somsouk, Ma; El-Nachef, Najwa; Hayward, Rodney A.

    2012-01-01

    Background Despite evidence that several colorectal cancer (CRC) screening strategies can reduce CRC mortality, screening rates remain low. This study aimed to determine whether the approach by which screening is recommended influences adherence. Methods We used a cluster randomization design with clinic time block as the unit of randomization. Persons at average risk for development of CRC in a racially/ethnically diverse urban setting were randomized to receive recommendation for screening by fecal occult blood testing (FOBT), colonoscopy, or their choice of FOBT or colonoscopy. The primary outcome was completion of CRC screening within 12 months after enrollment, defined as performance of colonoscopy, or 3 FOBT cards plus colonoscopy for any positive FOBT result. Secondary analyses evaluated sociodemographic factors associated with completion of screening. Results A total of 997 participants were enrolled; 58% completed the CRC screening strategy they were assigned or chose. However, participants who were recommended colonoscopy completed screening at a significantly lower rate (38%) than participants who were recommended FOBT (67%) (PChinese) completed screening more often than African Americans. Moreover, non-white participants adhered more often to FOBT, while white participants adhered more often to colonoscopy. Conclusions The common practice of universally recommending colonoscopy may reduce adherence to CRC screening, especially among racial/ethnic minorities. Significant variation in overall and strategy-specific adherence exists between racial/ethnic groups; however, this may be a proxy for health beliefs and/or language. These results suggest that patient preferences should be considered when making CRC screening recommendations. Trial Registration clinicals.gov Identifier: NCT00705731 PMID:22493463

  15. Colorectal cancer screening awareness among physicians in Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chatzimichalis Georgios

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Data comparison between SEER and EUROCARE database provided evidence that colorectal cancer survival in USA is higher than in European countries. Since adjustment for stage at diagnosis markedly reduces the survival differences, a screening bias was hypothesized. Considering the important role of primary care in screening activities, the purpose of the study was to investigate the colorectal cancer screening awareness among Hellenic physicians. Methods 211 primary care physicians were surveyed by mean of a self-reported prescription-habits questionnaire. Both physicians' colorectal cancer screening behaviors and colorectal cancer screening recommendations during usual check-up visits were analyzed. Results Only 50% of physicians were found to recommend screening for colorectal cancer during usual check-up visits, and only 25% prescribed cost-effective procedures. The percentage of physicians recommending stool occult blood test and sigmoidoscopy was 24% and 4% respectively. Only 48% and 23% of physicians recognized a cancer screening value for stool occult blood test and sigmoidoscopy. Colorectal screening recommendations were statistically lower among physicians aged 30 or less (p = 0.012. No differences were found when gender, level and type of specialization were analyzed, even though specialists in general practice showed a trend for better prescription (p = 0.054. Conclusion Contemporary recommendations for colorectal cancer screening are not followed by implementation in primary care setting. Education on presymptomatic control and screening practice monitoring are required if primary care is to make a major impact on colorectal cancer mortality.

  16. Trends in adherence to recommended cancer screening: The US population and working cancer survivors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tainya C. Clarke

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Over the past decade the United States has seen a decrease in advanced cancer diagnoses. There has also been an increase in the number of cancer survivors returning to work. Cancer screening behaviors among survivors may play an important role in their return-to-work process. Adherence to a post-treatment cancer screening protocol increases early detection of secondary tumors and reduces potentially limiting side-effects. We compared screening trends among all cancer survivors, working survivors, and the general population over the last decade.Methods: Trends in adherence to recommended screening were analyzed by site-specific cancer. We used the Healthy People goals as a measure of desired adherence. We selected participants 18+ years from 1997 to 2010 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS for years where detailed cancer screening information was available. Using the recommendations of the American Cancer Society as a guide, we assessed adherence to cancer screening across the decade. There were 174,393 participants. Analyses included 7,528 working cancer survivors representing 3.8 million US workers, and 119,374 adults representing more than 100 million working Americans with no cancer history.Results: The US population met the Healthy People 2010 goal for colorectal screening, but declined in all other recommended cancer screening. Cancer survivors met and maintained the HP2010 goal for all, except cervical cancer screening. Survivors had higher screening rates than the general population. Among survivors, white-collar and service occupations had higher screening rates than blue-collar survivors.Conclusions: Cancer survivors report higher screening rates than the general population. Nevertheless, national screening rates are lower than desired, and disparities exist by cancer history and occupation. Understanding existing disparities, and the impact of cancer screening on survivors is crucial as the number of working survivors

  17. Lung Cancer Screening and Smoking Cessation Clinical Trials: SCALE Collaboration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Anne M; Rothman, Alexander J; Almirall, Daniel; Begnaud, Abbie; Chiles, Caroline; Cinciripini, Paul M; Fu, Steven S; Graham, Amanda L; Lindgren, Bruce R; Melzer, Anne C; Ostroff, Jamie S; Seaman, Elizabeth L; Taylor, Kathryn L; Toll, Benjamin A; Zeliadt, Steven B; Vock, David M

    2017-10-04

    National recommendations for lung cancer screening for former and current smokers aged 55-80 years with a 30-pack year smoking history create demand to implement efficient and effective systems to offer smoking cessation on a large scale. These older, high-risk smokers differ from participants in past clinical trials of behavioral and pharmacologic interventions for tobacco dependence. There is a gap in knowledge about how to best design systems to extend reach and treatments to maximize smoking cessation in the context of lung cancer screening. Eight clinical trials, seven funded by the National Cancer Institute and one by the VHA, address this gap and form the Smoking Cessation within the Context of Lung Cancer Screening (SCALE) collaboration. This paper describes methodological issues related to the design of these clinical trials: clinical workflow, participant eligibility criteria, screening indication (baseline or annual repeat screen), assessment content, interest in stopping smoking, and treatment delivery method and dose, all of which will affect tobacco treatment outcomes. Tobacco interventions consider the "teachable moment" offered by lung cancer screening, how to incorporate positive and negative screening results, and coordination of smoking cessation treatment with clinical events associated with lung cancer screening. Unique data elements, such as perceived risk of lung cancer and costs of tobacco treatment are of interest. Lung cancer screening presents a new and promising opportunity to reduce morbidity and mortality from lung cancer that can be amplified by effective smoking cessation treatment. SCALE teamwork and collaboration promises to maximize knowledge gained from the clinical trials.

  18. European position statement on lung cancer screening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oudkerk, Matthijs; Devaraj, Anand; Vliegenthart, Rozemarijn

    2017-01-01

    Lung cancer screening with low-dose CT can save lives. This European Union (EU) position statement presents the available evidence and the major issues that need to be addressed to ensure the successful implementation of low-dose CT lung cancer screening in Europe. This statement identified...... specific actions required by the European lung cancer screening community to adopt before the implementation of low-dose CT lung cancer screening. This position statement recommends the following actions: a risk stratification approach should be used for future lung cancer low-dose CT programmes...... need to set a timeline for implementing lung cancer screening....

  19. Screen Violence and Youth Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Craig A; Bushman, Brad J; Bartholow, Bruce D; Cantor, Joanne; Christakis, Dimitri; Coyne, Sarah M; Donnerstein, Edward; Brockmyer, Jeanne Funk; Gentile, Douglas A; Green, C Shawn; Huesmann, Rowell; Hummer, Tom; Krahé, Barbara; Strasburger, Victor C; Warburton, Wayne; Wilson, Barbara J; Ybarra, Michele

    2017-11-01

    Violence in screen entertainment media (ie, television, film, video games, and the Internet), defined as depictions of characters (or players) trying to physically harm other characters (or players), is ubiquitous. The Workgroup on Media Violence and Violent Video Games reviewed numerous meta-analyses and other relevant research from the past 60 years, with an emphasis on violent video game research. Consistent with every major science organization review, the Workgroup found compelling evidence of short-term harmful effects, as well as evidence of long-term harmful effects. The vast majority of laboratory-based experimental studies have revealed that violent media exposure causes increased aggressive thoughts, angry feelings, physiologic arousal, hostile appraisals, aggressive behavior, and desensitization to violence and decreases prosocial behavior (eg, helping others) and empathy. Still, to more fully understand the potential for long-term harm from media violence exposure, the field is greatly in need of additional large-sample, high-quality, longitudinal studies that include validated measures of media violence exposure and measures of other known violence risk factors. Also, although several high-quality media violence intervention studies have been conducted, larger-scale studies with more comprehensive and longer-term assessments are needed to fully understand long-term effects and to inform the development of tools that will help to reduce problems associated with aggression and violence. The evidence that violent screen media constitutes a causal risk factor for increased aggression is compelling. Modern social-cognitive theories of social behavior provide useful frameworks for understanding how and why these effects occur. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  20. Ovarian, Fallopian Tube, and Primary Peritoneal Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Screening Research Ovarian, Fallopian Tube, and Primary Peritoneal Cancer Screening (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is screening? Go to ... ovarian cancer. Ovarian, Fallopian Tube, and Primary Peritoneal Cancer Screening Key Points Tests are used to screen for ...

  1. Risks of Ovarian, Fallopian Tube, and Primary Peritoneal Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Screening Research Ovarian, Fallopian Tube, and Primary Peritoneal Cancer Screening (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is screening? Go to ... ovarian cancer. Ovarian, Fallopian Tube, and Primary Peritoneal Cancer Screening Key Points Tests are used to screen for ...

  2. Outcome of breast cancer screening in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynge, Elsebeth; Bak, Martin; von Euler-Chelpin, My

    2017-01-01

    Region than in the rest of Denmrk. Detection rate was slightly below 1% at first screen, 0.6% at subsequent screens, and one region had some fluctuation over time. Ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) constituted 13-14% of screen-detected cancers. In subsequent rounds, 80% of screen-detected invasive cancers...... were node negative and 40% ≤10 mm. False-positive rate was around 2%; higher for North Denmark Region than for the rest of Denmark. Three out of 10 breast cancers in screened women were diagnosed as interval cancers. Conclusions: High coverage by examination and low interval cancer rate are required...... for screening to decrease breast cancer mortality. Two pioneer local screening programs starting in the 1990s were followed by a decrease in breast cancer mortality of 22-25%. Coverage by examination and interval cancer rate of the national program were on the favorable side of values from the pioneer programs...

  3. Cancer Screening: How Do Screening Tests Become Standard Tests?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... screening research includes finding out who has an increased risk of cancer. Scientists are trying to better ... more people are surviving cancer longer, but in reality, these are people who would not have died ...

  4. Cancer fear: facilitator and deterrent to participation in colorectal cancer screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrinten, Charlotte; Waller, Jo; von Wagner, Christian; Wardle, Jane

    2015-02-01

    Cancer fear has been associated with higher and lower screening uptake across different studies, possibly because different aspects of cancer fear have different effects on intentions versus behavior. The present study examined associations of three aspects of cancer fear with intention and uptake of endoscopic screening for colorectal cancer. A subsample of UK Flexible Sigmoidoscopy (FS) Trial participants received a baseline questionnaire that included three cancer fear items from a standard measure asking if: (i) cancer was feared more than other diseases, (ii) cancer worry was experienced frequently, and (iii) thoughts about cancer caused discomfort. Screening intention was assessed by asking participants whether, if invited, they would accept an invitation for FS screening. Positive responders were randomized to be invited or not in a 1:2 ratio. The behavioral outcome was clinic-recorded uptake. Control variables were age, gender, ethnicity, education, and marital status. The questionnaire return rate was 60% (7,971/13,351). The majority (82%) intended to attend screening; 1,920 were randomized to receive an invitation, and 71% attended. Fearing cancer more than other diseases (OR = 2.32, P cancer (OR = 2.34, P cancer uncomfortable did not influence intention, but predicted lower uptake (OR = 0.72, P cancer fear have different effects on the decision and action processes leading to screening participation. Knowledge of the different behavioral effects of cancer fear may aid the design of effective public health messages. ©2015 American Association for Cancer Research.

  5. Cervical cancer screening in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaffer, P; Sancho-Garnier, H; Fender, M; Dellenbach, P; Carbillet, J P; Monnet, E; Gauthier, G P; Garnier, A

    2000-11-01

    In France, as in other European countries the incidence and mortality rates of carcinoma of the cervix uteri indicate a clear decrease in invasive cancers. Opportunistic screening has spread and, presently, approximately 60% of the female population undergo a regular cytological test. This rate increases up to 80% in the younger age groups and decreases to 20% after the age of 60 years. In 1990, intervention procedures were defined at a consensus conference; the major recommendations were to screen all women exclusively by cervical smears, for ages 25-65 years over a 3-year period. Guidelines on the quality control of cervical smear taking and reading were published by the national agency of evaluation of health intervention (ANAES). Since 1990, four population-based, organised pilot programmes, have been implemented in Isère. Doubs, Bas-Rhin and Martinique. These programmes evaluate the participation rate (from approximately 20-80% depending upon the age and the geographical area), the rate of abnormal tests (0.2-3%), according to the laboratories, the cancer detection rate (0.04%-0.15%) and some other quality indicators. Recently (November 1998) a law was passed stipulating that the screening test will be free of charge when performed in agreement with the national recommendations. A specific organisation for cytological quality control will be implemented. An effort to better identify and to include the screening process the women in the population who are not yet participating has to be made.

  6. SCREENING FOR EARLY DETECTION OF BREAST CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. A. Rasskazova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a brief overview of the main methods of breast cancer screening. Proven effectiveness of mammography as a screening method in reducing mortality from breast cancer, specified limits of the method. The main trend of increasing the effectiveness of screening is the transition to digital technologies. Properly organized screening with the active participation of the population reduces mortality from breast cancer by 30%.

  7. Vulval cancer: prevention and screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maclean, Allan B

    2006-04-01

    The incidence of vulval cancer is rising, both in older women and those under 50 years of age. Vulval cancer has at least two types, one arising in association with lichen sclerosus (LS) and the other with vulval intraepithelial neoplasia (VIN). Recent pathological and aetiological descriptions are included, along with the latest description of VIN terminology. Prevention of and screening for vulval cancer will require greater understanding of why some women with LS and VIN are at greater risk: recent studies of molecular change might contribute to this. The use of vulval cytology and toluidine blue staining is described. Patient or vulval awareness may help but clinical features are non-specific. Prophylactic vaccination against HPV and campaigns against smoking may contribute in the future.

  8. Primary care perspectives on prostate cancer screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skolarus, Ted A; Holmes-Rovner, Margaret; Northouse, Laurel L; Fagerlin, Angela; Garlinghouse, Carol; Demers, Raymond Y; Rovner, David R; Darwish-Yassine, May; Wei, John T

    2011-06-01

    Although the effectiveness of prostate cancer screening is controversial, screening rates have risen dramatically among primary care providers in the United States. The authors' findings suggest more collaboration among primary care and specialty organizations, especially with respect to decision aid endorsement, is needed to achieve more discriminatory and patient-centered prostate cancer screening.

  9. Screening for Psychosocial Risk in Pediatric Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazak, Anne E.; Brier, Moriah; Alderfer, Melissa A.; Reilly, Anne; Parker, Stephanie Fooks; Rogerwick, Stephanie; Ditaranto, Susan; Barakat, Lamia P.

    2012-01-01

    Major professional organizations have called for psychosocial risk screening to identify specific psychosocial needs of children with cancer and their families and facilitate the delivery of appropriate evidence-based care to address these concerns. However, systematic screening of risk factors at diagnosis is rare in pediatric oncology practice. Subsequent to a brief summary of psychosocial risks in pediatric cancer and the rationale for screening, this review identified three screening models and two screening approaches (Distress Thermometer [DT], Psychosocial Assessment Tool [PAT]), among many more papers calling for screening. Implications of broadly implemented screening for all patients across treatment settings are discussed. PMID:22492662

  10. Cost-effectiveness of colorectal cancer screening

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I. Lansdorp-Vogelaar (Iris); A.B. Knudsen (Amy); H. Brenner (Hermann)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractColorectal cancer is an important public health problem. Several screening methods have been shown to be effective in reducing colorectal cancer mortality. The objective of this review was to assess the cost-effectiveness of the different colorectal cancer screening methods and to

  11. Public Preferences for Lung Cancer Screening Policies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broekhuizen, Henk; Groothuis-Oudshoorn, Catharina G. M.; Vliegenthart, Rozemarijn; Groen, Harry; IJzerman, Maarten J.

    Background: Because early detection of lung cancer can substantially improve survival, there is increasing attention for lung cancer screening.  Objectives: To estimate public preferences for lung cancer screening and to identify subgroups in preferences.  Methods: Seven important attributes were

  12. Impact of Cervical Cancer Screening Guidelines on Screening for Chlamydia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ursu, Allison; Sen, Ananda; Ruffin, Mack

    2015-01-01

    The highest prevalence of chlamydia infection in the United States is among people aged 15 to 24 years. We assessed the impact of not doing routine cervical cancer screening on the rates of chlamydia screening in women aged 15 to 21 years. We classified visits to family medicine ambulatory clinics according to their timing relative to the 2009 guideline change that led to more restrictive cervical cancer screening. Women had higher odds of being screened for chlamydia before vs after the guideline change (odds ratio = 13.97; 95% CI, 9.17-21.29; P <.001). Chlamydia and cervical cancer screening need to be uncoupled and new screening opportunities should be identified. © 2015 Annals of Family Medicine, Inc.

  13. Breast cancer screening: ''reassuring'' the worried well?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodersen, John; Siersma, Volkert; Ryle, Mette

    2011-01-01

    of women offered screening compared to a population of women not offered screening for breast cancer. METHODS: One thousand women, aged 50-69 years, were randomly drawn from the Danish Civil Registration System to receive part I of the questionnaire Consequences of Screening in Breast Cancer (COS-BC1......): the sample consisted of 500 women living in a geographical area where screening mammography had been offered for more than 10 years and 500 women living in an area where the public health authorities had never invited women to breast cancer screening. RESULTS: A total of 759 women returned the questionnaire....... Those living in areas where screening was not offered reported more negative psychosocial aspects compared to women living in areas where screening was offered. CONCLUSIONS: The results indicate that women tend to perceive breast cancer screening as a reassuring preventive initiative. Alternatively...

  14. Testing Precision Screening for Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    An NCI research article about individualized approaches that could help identify those at risk of breast cancer who need to be screened and testing screening intervals that are appropriate for each person’s level of risk.

  15. Underuse of Colorectal Cancer Screening Among Men Screened for Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Red, Sara N.; Kassan, Elisabeth C.; Williams, Randi M.; Penek, Sofiya; Lynch, John; Ahaghotu, Chiledum; Taylor, Kathryn L.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND Evidence suggests that colorectal cancer (CRC) screening reduces disease-specific mortality, whereas the utility of prostate cancer screening remains uncertain. However, adherence rates for prostate cancer screening and CRC screening are very similar, with population-based studies showing that approximately 50% of eligible US men are adherent to both tests. Among men scheduled to participate in a free prostate cancer screening program, the authors assessed the rates and correlates of CRC screening to determine the utility of this setting for addressing CRC screening nonadherence. METHODS Participants (N = 331) were 50 to 70 years old with no history of prostate cancer or CRC. Men registered for free prostate cancer screening and completed a telephone interview 1 to 2 weeks before undergoing prostate cancer screening. RESULTS One half of the participants who underwent free prostate cancer screening were eligible for but nonadherent to CRC screening. Importantly, 76% of the men who were nonadherent to CRC screening had a regular physician and/or health insurance, suggesting that CRC screening adherence was feasible in this group. Furthermore, multivariate analyses indicated that the only significant correlates of CRC screening adherence were having a regular physician, health insurance, and a history of prostate cancer screening. CONCLUSIONS Free prostate cancer screening programs may provide a teachable moment to increase CRC screening among men who may not have the usual systemic barriers to CRC screening, at a time when they may be very receptive to cancer screening messages. In the United States, a large number of men participate in annual free prostate cancer screening programs and represent an easily accessible and untapped group that can benefit from interventions to increase CRC screening rates. PMID:20578178

  16. Cancer screening delivery in persistent poverty rural counties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Kevin J; Pumkam, Chaiporn; Bellinger, Jessica D; Probst, Janice C

    2011-10-01

    Rural populations are diagnosed with cancer at different rate and stages than nonrural populations, and race/ethnicity as well as the area-level income exacerbates the differences. The purpose of this analysis was to explore cancer screening rates across persistent poverty rural counties, with emphasis on nonwhite populations. The 2008 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System was used, combined with data from the Area Resource File (analytic n = 309 937 unweighted, 196 344 347 weighted). Unadjusted analysis estimated screening rates for breast, cervical, and colorectal cancer. Multivariate analysis estimated the odds of screening, controlling for individual and county-level effects. Rural residents, particularly those in persistent poverty counties, were less likely to be screened than urban residents. More African Americans in persistent poverty rural counties reported not having mammography screening (18.3%) compared to 15.9% of urban African Americans. Hispanics had low screening rates across all service types. Multivariate analysis continued to find disparities in screening rates, after controlling for individual and county-level factors. African Americans in persistent poverty rural counties were more likely to be screened for both breast cancer (odds ratio, 1.44; 95% confidence interval, 1.12-1.85) and cervical cancer (1.46; 1.07-1.99) when compared with urban whites. Disparities in cancer screening rates exist across not only race/ethnicity but also county type. These disparities cannot be fully explained by either individual or county-level effects. Programs have been successful in improving screening rates for African American women and should be expanded to target other vulnerable women as well as other services such as colorectal cancer screening.

  17. Tailored Telephone Counseling Increases Colorectal Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawl, Susan M.; Christy, Shannon M.; Monahan, Patrick O.; Ding, Yan; Krier, Connie; Champion, Victoria L.; Rex, Douglas

    2015-01-01

    To compare the efficacy of two interventions to promote colorectal cancer screening participation and forward stage movement of colorectal cancer screening adoption among first-degree relatives of individuals diagnosed with adenomatous polyps. One hundred fifty-eight first-degree relatives of individuals diagnosed with adenomatous polyps were…

  18. REVIEW ARTICLE: PROSTATE CANCER SCREENING USING ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    FOBUR

    ABSTRACT. Background: Prostate cancer is the commonest cancer among men in Nigeria and early detection is key to cure and survival but its screening through prostate specific antigen (PSA) has remain controversial in literature. Screening with prostate specific antigen (PSA) has led to more men diagnosed with ...

  19. Screening for breast cancer with mammography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gøtzsche, Peter C; Jørgensen, Karsten Juhl

    2013-01-01

    A variety of estimates of the benefits and harms of mammographic screening for breast cancer have been published and national policies vary.......A variety of estimates of the benefits and harms of mammographic screening for breast cancer have been published and national policies vary....

  20. Effects of education based on the health belief model on screening behavior in high risk women for breast cancer, Tehran, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajian, Sepideh; Vakilian, Katayon; Najabadi, Khadijeh Mirzaii; Hosseini, Jalil; Mirzaei, Hamid Reza

    2011-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common malignancy in women. Early diagnosis allows efficient treatment and increases survival, but the efficacy of breast self examination (BSE) is not sufficiently well established. The American Cancer Society aims to give women the opportunity to recognize the utility, limitations and adverse effects of breast cancer screening through education models based on psychological theories. With the Health Belief Model, people's health perceptions and attitudes influence their practices, for example with screening. The purpose of this randomized controlled clinical trial was to determine the effect of education based on this model on breast cancer screening in high risk Iranian women. Participants were women with a family history of breast cancer (mother, sister, and daughter). After explanation of the study objectives to participants, they were recruited on obtaining oral consent and each filled out the study questionnaire based on the Health Belief Model. Allocation was into two groups by computerized randomization, control and intervention, receiving education on breast cancer screening. Perceived susceptibility to and seriousness of breast cancer, perceived usefulness of and barriers to BSE, clinical breast examination, and mammography, and self-efficacy in the ability to perform these, were assessed, with comparison of scores for BSE practice before and after education and doing mammography and clinical examination by a physician in intervention and control group. The mean age was 37.8 ± 11.7 (range 19-60). The mean rank in the intervention group significantly differed before and after the education, but except for " perceived threat" and "perceived usefulness of breast self examination", we did not find any significant differences from the control group. After educational sessions, breast self examination and clinical examination practice rates were elevated. Health education based on well known psychological theories for breast cancer

  1. Fatalism and cancer screening in Appalachian Kentucky.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royse, David; Dignan, Mark

    2011-01-01

    Fatalism may play a role in Appalachians' views about cancer screening and contribute to high rates of cancer incidence and mortality, but few studies have explored this issue. A probability telephone survey was conducted of 696 adults living in 51 Appalachian Kentucky counties inquiring about intentions to obtain cancer screening. The Life Orientation Test-Revised as a surrogate measure for fatalism and logistic regression was used to predict screening activity. Insurance coverage was the best overall predictor variable. Fatalism was significant in one model possibly reflecting an appreciation of the costs and barriers associated with obtaining screening in rural counties.

  2. Lung Cancer Screening: Why, When, and How?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fintelmann, Florian J; Gottumukkala, Ravi V; McDermott, Shaunagh; Gilman, Matthew D; Lennes, Inga T; Shepard, Jo-Anne O

    2017-11-01

    This article explains the rationale of lung cancer screening with low-dose computed tomography and provides a practical approach to all relevant aspects of a lung cancer screening program. Imaging protocols, patient eligibility criteria, facility readiness, and reimbursement criteria are addressed step by step. Diagnostic criteria and Lung-RADS (Lung Computed Tomography Screening Reporting and Data System) nodule management pathways are illustrated with examples. Pearls and pitfalls for interpretation of lung cancer screening low-dose chest computed tomography are discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Outcome of breast cancer screening in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynge, Elsebeth; Bak, Martin; von Euler-Chelpin, My

    2017-01-01

    were node negative and 40% ≤10 mm. False-positive rate was around 2%; higher for North Denmark Region than for the rest of Denmark. Three out of 10 breast cancers in screened women were diagnosed as interval cancers. Conclusions: High coverage by examination and low interval cancer rate are required...... for screening to decrease breast cancer mortality. Two pioneer local screening programs starting in the 1990s were followed by a decrease in breast cancer mortality of 22-25%. Coverage by examination and interval cancer rate of the national program were on the favorable side of values from the pioneer programs...... calculated coverage by examination; participation after invitation; detection-, interval cancer- and false-positive rates; cancer characteristics; sensitivity and specificity, for Denmark and for the five regions. Results: At the national level coverage by examination remained at 75-77%; lower in the Capital...

  4. Cervical cancer: screening, diagnosis and staging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsikouras, Panagiotis; Zervoudis, Stefanos; Manav, Bachar; Tomara, Eirini; Iatrakis, George; Romanidis, Constantinos; Bothou, Anastasia; Galazios, George

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Despite the widespread screening programs, cervical cancer remains the third most common cancer in developing countries. Based on the implementation of cervical screening programs with the referred adoption of improved screening methods in cervical cytology with the knowledge of the important role of the human papilloma virus (HPV) it's incidence is decreased in the developed world. Even if cervical HPV infection is incredibly common, cervical cancer is relatively rare. Depending on the rarity of invasive disease and the improvement of detection of pre-cancerous lesions due to the participation in screening programs, the goal of screening is to detect the cervical lesions early in order to be treated before cancer is developed. In populations with many preventive screening programs, a decrease in cervical cancer mortality of 50-75% is mentioned over the past 50 years. The preventive examination of vagina and cervix smear, Pap test, and the HPV DNA test are remarkable diagnostic tools according to the American Cancer Association guidelines, in the investigation of asymptomatic women and in the follow up of women after the treatment of pre-invasive cervical cancer. The treatment of cervical cancer is based on the FIGO 2009 cervical cancer staging.

  5. Screening methods of ovarian cancer in adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milenković Vera

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Ovarian cancer is associated with high mortality rate which has improved a little despite therapeutic advances. It causes more deaths than combined cervical and uterine cancer. High mortality is believed to be a direct result of already advanced stage at the time of diagnosis. Survival is excellent in case of early stage disease but poor in late stage disease, regardless of histology. The goal of screening for ovarian cancer is restricted to detection of asymptomatic early stage disease, as precursor lesions of ovarian cancer have not been identified. At present, there is no reliable method of ovarian cancer screening which has been shown to reduce mortality from ovarian cancer. Therefore, routine screening of women in general population can not be currently advised. Screening should be limited to high-risk population and subjects participating in research projects as long as the results of current studies are available.

  6. Cancer prevention and population-based screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luciani, Silvana; Vardy, Lianne; Paci, Eugenio; Adewole, Isaac; Sasco, Annie; Calvacante, Tania

    2009-01-01

    Cancer prevention, screening and early detection can provide some of the greatest public health benefits for cancer control. In low resource settings, where cancer control is challenged by limited human, financial and technical resources, cancer prevention and screening are of utmost importance and can provide significant impacts on the cancer burden. Public policies, social, environmental and individual level interventions which promote and support healthy eating and physical activity can lower cancer risks. Tobacco use, a significant cancer risk factor, can be reduced through the application of key mandates of the World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control. In addition, cancer screening programs, namely for cervical and breast cancers, can have a significant impact on reducing cancer mortality, including in low resource settings. Comprehensive cancer control programs require interventions for cancer prevention, screening and early detection, and involve sectors outside of health to create supportive environments for healthy ways of life. Sharing experiences in implementing cancer control programs in different settings can create opportunities for interchanging ideas and forming international alliances.

  7. Behavioral Screening for Toxicology | Science Inventory | US ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Screening for behavioral toxicity, or neurotoxicity, has been in use for decades; however, only in the past 20 years has this become a standard practice in toxicology. Current screening batteries, such as the functional observational battery (FOB), are derived from protocols used in pharmacology, toxicology, and psychology. Although there is a range of protocols in use today, all focus on detailed observations and specific tests of reflexes and responses. Several neurological functions are typically assessed, including autonomic, neuromuscular, and sensory, as well as levels of activity and excitability. The tests have been shown to be valid in detecting expected effects of known neurotoxicants, and reliable and reproducible whn compared across laboratories. Regardless of the specific protocol used, proper conduct and statistical analyses of the data are critical. Interpretation is based on the information from individual end points as well as the profile, or pattern, of effects observed. As long as continual refinements are made, behavioral screening methods will continue to be important tools with which to protect human health in the future.autonomic function; behavior; behavioral phenotypes; behavioral toxicity; excitability; functional observational battery ; motor activity; mouse; neuromuscular function; positive controls; rat; screening battery ; sensory function Screening for behavioral toxicity, or neurotoxicity, has been in use for decades; how

  8. Cancer screening in Korea, 2010: results from the Korean National Cancer Screening Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Boyoung; Lee, Hoo-Yeon; Choi, Kui Son; Lee, Yoon Young; Jun, Jae Kwan; Park, Eun-Cheol

    2011-01-01

    To investigate the participation rates in gastric, liver, colorectal, breast, and cervical cancer screening in Korea, including both organised and opportunistic programmes, a nationwide interview survey using multi-stage random sampling was conducted in 2010. A total of 4,056 cancer-free men aged over 40 years and women aged 30 years participated. Lifetime screening rates ranged from 54.2% (liver cancer) to 79.5% (breast cancer) and rates of screening in accordance with guidelines ranged from 22.9% (liver cancer) to 65.1% (gastric cancer). Upper endoscopy was the preferred method for gastric cancer, whereas the faecal occult blood test was conducted most often for colorectal cancer. The main reason stated for non attendance was 'no symptoms'. To increase attendance at cancer-screening programmes, efforts to increase education and accessibility of screening programmes are necessary.

  9. Lung Cancer Screening: Optimization through risk stratification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K. ten Haaf (Kevin)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractLung cancer is the leading cause of cancer related mortality worldwide. However, results from randomized controlled trials indicate that lung cancer mortality can be reduced by early detection through computed tomography screening. This thesis describes the development of a

  10. Awareness of cancer and cancer screening by Korean community residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Heui-Sug; Kwon, Myung Soon; Jung, Su-Mi; Lee, Bo-Young

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was through a survey of awareness of cancer and cancer screening of Korean community residents to identify the stereotypes of cancer and bases for development of improved screening programs for early detection. Subjects were residing in South Korea Gangwon-Province and were over 30 years and under 69 years old. The total was 2,700 persons which underwent structured telephone survey questionnaires considered with specific rates of gender, region, and age. For statistical analysis, PASW Statistics 17.0 WIN was utilized. Frequency analysis, the Chi-square (χ?) test for univariate analysis, and logistic regression analysis were performed. The awareness of cancer and cancer screening in subjects differed by gender, region and age. For the idea of cancer, women thought about death less than men (OR: 0.73, page, the more tension/anxiety/worry/burden/irritated/pressure (OR: 1.43, pdeath for cancer and of fear, terror, tension and anxiety for cancer screening. To change vague fear and negative attitudes of cancer could increase the rate of cancer screening as well as help to improve the quality of life for community cancer survivors and facilitate return to normal social life. Therefore, it is necessary to provide promotion and education to improve the awareness of cancer and cancer screening.

  11. Patient Beliefs About Colon Cancer Screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ely, John W; Levy, Barcey T; Daly, Jeanette; Xu, Yinghui

    2016-03-01

    Only about half of eligible individuals undergo colon cancer screening. We have limited knowledge about the patient beliefs that adversely affect screening decisions and about which beliefs might be amenable to change through education. As part of a clinical trial, 641 rural Iowans, aged 52 to 79 years, reported their beliefs about colon cancer screening in response to a mailed questionnaire. Consenting subjects were randomized into four groups, which were distinguished by four levels of increasingly intensive efforts to promote screening. Two of the groups received mailed educational materials and completed a follow-up questionnaire, which allowed us to determine whether their beliefs about screening changed following the education. We also completed a factor analysis to identify underlying (latent) factors that might explain the responses to 33 questions about readiness, attitudes, and perceived barriers related to colon cancer screening. The strongest predictors of a patient's stated readiness to be screened were a physician's recommendation to be screened (1 point difference on 10-point Likert scale, 95 % confidence interval [CI], 0.5 to 1.6 point difference), a family history of colon cancer (0.85-point Likert scale difference, 95 % CI, 0.1 to 1.6), and a belief that health-care decisions should be mostly left to physicians rather than patients (Spearman correlation coefficient 0.21, P colon cancer screening.

  12. Integrated Cancer Screening Performance Indicators: A Systematic Review

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mema, Silvina C; Yang, Huiming; Vaska, Marcus; Elnitsky, Sherry; Jiang, Zhichang

    2016-01-01

    .... Population-based screening programs use performance indicators to monitor uptake for each type of cancer screening, but integrated measures of adherence across multiple screenings are rarely reported...

  13. Risks of Lung Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Lung Cancer Treatment Small Cell Lung Cancer Treatment Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death in the United States. Lung ... which also have risks. A biopsy to diagnose lung cancer can cause part of the lung to collapse. Sometimes surgery ...

  14. Assessment of psychological barriers to cervical cancer screening ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EB

    Assessment of psychological barriers to cervical cancer screening among women in Kumasi, Ghana using a mixed methods approach. *Williams M1, Kuffour G2, Ekuadzi E3, Yeboah M4, ElDuah M1, Tuffour P2. 1. Department of Health Behavior, University of Alabama at Birmingham, USA. 2. Department of Pharmaceutics ...

  15. Knowledge, Behavioral, and Sociocultural Factors Related to Human Papillomavirus Infection and Cervical Cancer Screening Among Inner-City Women in Panama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vamos, Cheryl A; Calvo, Arlene E; Daley, Ellen M; Giuliano, Anna R; López Castillo, Humberto

    2015-12-01

    Cervical cancer remains a leading cause of mortality in developing countries regardless of biomedical advances in prevention modalities. Specifically, Panama experiences one of the highest rates of cervical cancer worldwide. The objective of this study was to explore knowledge, behavioral, and sociocultural factors related to cervical cancer prevention among Panamanian women. A theory-guided, population-based quantitative survey following participatory processes was administered to a randomized sample of females (18-44 years) residing in a high-risk Panamanian community. Participants (n = 324) reported low knowledge regarding HPV, cervical cancer, and the purpose of the Pap test. Furthermore, low perceived susceptibility, high-risk sexual behaviors (e.g., low contraception and condom use) and adverse attitudes toward the Pap test (e.g., shame, fear) were identified. Television, newspapers/magazines, and relatives/friends/neighbors were common sources to receive health information. Significant gaps in knowledge and behavioral factors were identified, which may interfere with cervical cancer prevention efforts. Future strategies should reflect the sociocultural context, such as interpersonal relations, when developing and implementing cervical cancer programs, with the ultimate goal of decreasing the persistent burden among Latin American women.

  16. The Korean guideline for cervical cancer screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Kyung-Jin; Lee, Yoon Jae; Suh, Mina; Yoo, Chong Woo; Lim, Myong Cheol; Choi, Jaekyung; Ki, Moran; Kim, Yong-Man; Kim, Jae-Weon; Kim, Jea-Hoon; Park, Eal Whan; Lee, Hoo-Yeon; Lim, Sung-Chul; Cho, Chi-Heum; Hong, Sung Ran; Dang, Ji Yeon; Kim, Soo Young; Kim, Yeol; Lee, Won-Chul

    2015-01-01

    The incidence rate of cervical cancer in Korea is still higher than in other developed countries, notwithstanding the national mass-screening program. Furthermore, a new method has been introduced in cervical cancer screening. Therefore, the committee for cervical cancer screening in Korea updated the recommendation statement established in 2002. The new version of the guideline was developed by the committee using evidence-based methods. The committee reviewed the evidence for the benefits and harms of the Papanicolaou test, liquid-based cytology, and human papillomavirus (HPV) testing, and reached conclusions after deliberation. The committee recommends screening for cervical cancer with cytology (Papanicolaou test or liquid-based cytology) every three years in women older than 20 years of age (recommendation A). The cervical cytology combined with HPV test is optionally recommended after taking into consideration individual risk or preference (recommendation C). The current evidence for primary HPV screening is insufficient to assess the benefits and harms of cervical cancer screening (recommendation I). Cervical cancer screening can be terminated at the age of 74 years if more than three consecutive negative cytology reports have been confirmed within 10 years (recommendation D). PMID:26197860

  17. Cancer Worry, Perceived Risk and Cancer Screening in First-Degree Relatives of Patients with Familial Gastric Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jenny; Hart, Tae L; Aronson, Melyssa; Crangle, Cassandra; Govindarajan, Anand

    2016-06-01

    Currently, there is a lack of evidence evaluating the psychological impact of cancer-related risk perception and worry in individuals at high risk for gastric cancer. We examined the relationships between perceived risk, cancer worry and screening behaviors among first-degree relatives (FDRs) of patients with familial gastric cancer. FDRs of patients diagnosed with familial gastric cancer with a non-informative genetic analysis were identified and contacted. Participants completed a telephone interview that assessed socio-demographic information, cancer risk perception, cancer worry, impact of worry on daily functioning, and screening behaviors. Twenty-five FDRs completed the telephone interview. Participants reported high levels of comparative and absolute cancer risk perception, with an average perceived lifetime risk of 54 %. On the other hand, cancer-related worry scores were low, with a significant minority (12 %) experiencing high levels of worry. Study participants exhibited high levels of confidence (median = 70 %) in the effectiveness of screening at detecting a curable cancer. Participants that had undergone screening in the past showed significantly lower levels of cancer-related worry compared to those that had never undergone screening. In conclusion, individuals at high-risk for gastric cancer perceived a very high personal risk of cancer, but reported low levels of cancer worry. This paradoxical result may be attributed to participants' high levels of confidence in the effectiveness of screening. These findings highlight the importance for clinicians to discuss realistic risk appraisals and expectations towards screening with unaffected members of families at risk for gastric cancer, in an effort to help mitigate anxiety and help with coping.

  18. Beliefs and behaviors of breast cancer screening in women referring to health care centers in northwest Iran according to the champion health belief model scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fouladi, Nasrin; Pourfarzi, Farhad; Mazaheri, Effat; Asl, Hossein Alimohammadi; Rezaie, Minoo; Amani, Fiouz; Nejad, Masumeh Rostam

    2013-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women. All ages are susceptible and more than 90% of the patients can be cured with early diagnosis. Breast self-examination (BSE) and mammography can be useful for this aim. In this study we examined the components of the Champion health belief model to identify if they could predict the intentions of women to perform such screening. A total of 380 women aged 30 and above who had referred to health-care centers were assessed for use of breast cancer screening over the past year with a modified health belief model questionnaire. Logistic regression was applied to identify leading independent predictors. In this study 27% of the women performed BSE in the last year but only 6.8% of them used mammography as a way of screening. There were significant differences regarding all components of the model except for perceived severity between women that underwent BSE. over the past year and those that did not. Findings were similar for mammography. Regression analysis revealed that intentions to perform BSE were predicted by perceived self-efficacy and perceived barriers to BSE while intentions to perform mammography were predicted by perceived barriers. This study indicated that self-efficacy can support performance of BSE while perceived barriers are important for not performing both BSE and mammography. Thus we must educate women to increase their self-efficacy and decrease their perceived barriers.

  19. Obesity and screening for breast, cervical, and colorectal cancer in women: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Sarah S; Palmieri, Rachel T; Nyante, Sarah J; Koralek, Daniel O; Kim, Sangmi; Bradshaw, Patrick; Olshan, Andrew F

    2008-05-01

    The literature examining obesity as a barrier to screening for breast, cervical, and colorectal cancer has not been evaluated systematically. With the increasing prevalence of obesity and its impact on cancer incidence and mortality, it is important to determine whether obesity is a barrier to screening so that cancers among women at increased risk because of their body size can be detected early or prevented entirely. On the basis of 32 relevant published studies (10 breast cancer studies, 14 cervical cancer studies, and 8 colorectal cancer studies), the authors reviewed the literature regarding associations between obesity and recommended screening tests for these cancer sites among women in the U.S. The most consistent associations between obesity and screening behavior were observed for cervical cancer. Most studies reported an inverse relation between decreased cervical cancer screening and increasing body size, and several studies reported that the association was more consistent among white women than among black women. For breast cancer, obesity was associated with decreased screening behavior among white women but not among black women. The literature regarding obesity and colorectal cancer screening adherence was mixed, with some studies reporting an inverse effect of body size on screening behavior and others reporting no effect. Overall, the results indicated that obesity most likely is a barrier to screening for breast and cervical cancers, particularly among white women; the evidence for colorectal cancer screening was inconclusive. Thus, efforts to identify barriers and increase screening for breast and cervical cancers may be targeted toward obese women, whereas outreach to all women should remain the objective for colorectal cancer screening programs.

  20. Screening for Anal Cancer in Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moscicki, Anna-Barbara; Darragh, Teresa M.; Berry-Lawhorn, J. Michael; Roberts, Jennifer Margaret; Khan, Michelle J.; Boardman, Lori A.; Chiao, Elizabeth; Einstein, Mark H.; Goldstone, Stephen E.; Jay, Naomi; Likes, Wendy M.; Stier, Elizabeth A.; Welton, Mark Lane; Wiley, Dorothy J.; Palefsky, Joel M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective The incidence of anal cancer is higher in women than men in the general population and has been increasing for several decades. Similar to cervical cancer, most anal cancers are associated with human papillomavirus (HPV) and it is believed that anal cancers are preceded by anal high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL). Our goal was to summarize the literature on anal cancer, HSIL and HPV infection in women, and provide screening recommendations in women. Methods A group of experts convened by the ASCCP and the International Anal Neoplasia Society reviewed the literature on anal HPV infection, anal SIL and anal cancer in women. Results Anal HPV infection is common in women but is relatively transient in most. The risk of anal HSIL and cancer varies considerably by risk group, with HIV-infected women and those with a history of lower genital tract neoplasia (LGTN) at highest risk compared with the general population. Conclusions While there are no data yet to demonstrate that identification and treatment of anal HSIL leads to reduced risk of anal cancer, women in groups at the highest risk should be queried for anal cancer symptoms and have digital anorectal examinations to detect anal cancers. HIV-infected women and women with LGTN, may be considered for screening with anal cytology with triage to treatment if HSIL is diagnosed. Healthy women with no known risk factors or anal cancer symptoms do not need to be routinely screened for anal cancer or anal HSIL. PMID:26103446

  1. Factors associated with never being screened for colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, Sandte L; King, Jessica B; Thomas, Cheryll C; Richardson, Lisa C

    2013-02-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) screening is underused in the United States, and non-adherence with screening recommendations is high in some populations. This study describes the characteristics of people who have never been screened for CRC. In addition, we use the health belief model to examine the constructs associated with screening behavior. We used data from the 2010 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) to create three study outcomes: people who have been screened for CRC and are up-to-date with current recommendations, people who have been screened but are not up-to-date, and people who have never been screened. We used multivariate logistic regression modeling to calculate predicted marginal estimates examining the associations between the screening outcomes and demographic and Health Belief Model (HBM) characteristics. Overall 29% of respondents had never been screened for CRC. In the adjusted model, 36.6% of US adults age 50-59 years and 29.1% of US men reported never being screened for CRC. More Asian/Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander, non-Hispanics (38.2%) reported never being screened than members of other racial and ethnic groups. Nearly 37% of people with less than a high school diploma reported never being screened. We found statistically significant differences among screening outcomes for all demographics and HBM constructs except could not see a doctor because of costs in the last 12 months, where approximately 29% reported no CRC screening. New interventions should focus on those subpopulations that have never been screened for CRC.

  2. Ethical issues in cancer screening and prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plutynski, Anya

    2012-06-01

    November 2009's announcement of the USPSTF's recommendations for screening for breast cancer raised a firestorm of objections. Chief among them were that the panel had insufficiently valued patients' lives or allowed cost considerations to influence recommendations. The publicity about the recommendations, however, often either simplified the actual content of the recommendations or bypassed significant methodological issues, which a philosophical examination of both the science behind screening recommendations and their import reveals. In this article, I discuss two of the leading ethical considerations at issue in screening recommendations: respect for patient autonomy and beneficence and then turn to the most significant methodological issues raised by cancer screening: the potential biases that may infect a trial of screening effectiveness, the problem of base rates in communicating risk, and the trade-offs involved in a judgment of screening effectiveness. These issues reach more broadly, into the use of "evidence-based" medicine generally, and have important implications for informed consent.

  3. Assessing the efficacy of cancer screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gemma Jacklyn

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Population-based cancer screening has been established for several types of cancer in Australia and internationally. Screening may perform differently in practice from randomised controlled trials, which makes evaluating programs complex. Materials and methods: We discuss how to assess the evidence of benefits and harms of cancer screening, including the main biases that can mislead clinicians and policy makers (such as volunteer, lead-time, length-time and overdiagnosis bias. We also discuss ways in which communication of risks can inform or mislead the community. Results: The evaluation of cancer screening programs should involve balancing the benefits and harms. When considering the overall worth of an intervention and allocation of scarce health resources, decisions should focus on the net benefits and be informed by systematic reviews. Communication of screening outcomes can be misleading. Many messages highlight the benefits while downplaying the harms, and often use relative risks and 5-year survival to persuade people to screen rather than support informed choice. Lessons learned: An evidence based approach is essential when evaluating and communicating the benefits and harms of cancer screening, to minimise misleading biases and the reliance on intuition.

  4. THE CERVICAL CANCER SCREENING - UNSOLVED PROBLEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. D. Kaprin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The problem of cervical cancer (CC for many decades continues to be the center of attention leading foreign and domestic oncologists. Malignant cervical tumors occupy the leading position among malignant neoplasms of reproductive system in women, second only to breast cancer, despite having far more effective screening compared with this disease. On predictive expert estimates (taking into account population growth and the expected increase in life expectancy by 2020 in developing countries, the rising incidence and prevalence of cervical cancer is 40%, while in developed countries - 11%. If we do not perform timely interventions for prevention and treatment of cervical cancer, after 2050 cervical cancer every year in the world will become sick 1 million women. In the last decade inRussiathere has been a gradual increase in the incidence of cervical cancer: average annual growth rate of 2.21%, General 25,18%. Cervical cancer is one of nosological forms that meet all the requirements of population-based screening. The current Russian normative documents do not give clear answers to questions concerning the age of onset of cervical cancer screening and the time interval between tests, no clear program organized cytological screening of cervical cancer.

  5. Cancer fatalism and breast cancer screening in African American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spurlock, Wanda Raby; Cullins, Leah S

    2006-01-01

    Despite significant advances in science, medicine, and technology African American women are more likely to die from breast cancer than Caucasian women. There is a growing body of literature that describes strategies to improve breast cancer screening among African American women. However, data suggest that African American women, compared to Caucasian women, are less likely to participate in regular breast cancer screening. The belief that a diagnosis of cancer will result in death has been identified as a potential barrier to cancer screening in African American population groups. However, research examining the degree to which perceptions of fatalism influence breast cancer screening in culturally and ethnically diverse population groups is scant. This repot describes the outcomes of a study undertaken to examine relationships between perceptions of cancer fatalism and breast cancer screening in African American women. Findings support the postulation that fatalism negatively influences health promoting practices such as breast cancer screening. However, contrary to prior research findings age was observed to be inversely associated with cancer fatalism.

  6. Breast cancer screening: An outpatient clinic study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Girgin

    2017-03-01

    Conclusion: A multidisciplinary cancer screening program should be maintained. With such a process, the aim is to reduce the morbidity and mortality of the disease without adversely affecting the health conditions of asymptomatic individuals based on the screening. Success is brought about by the combination of individual features. [Arch Clin Exp Surg 2017; 6(1.000: 23-27

  7. Screening for breast cancer with mammography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gøtzsche, Peter C; Nielsen, Margrethe

    2009-01-01

    were significantly larger in the screened groups (RR 1.31, 95% CI 1.22 to 1.42) for the two adequately randomised trials that measured this outcome; the use of radiotherapy was similarly increased. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Screening is likely to reduce breast cancer mortality. As the effect was lowest...

  8. Predicting breast and colon cancer screening among English-as-a-second-language older Chinese immigrant women to Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, Laura; Harvey, Erin; Hoffman-Goetz, Laurie

    2011-03-01

    Little is known about the cancer screening behaviors of older ESL Chinese immigrant women. To explore predictors of colon and breast cancer screening in this population, 103 Mandarin- and Cantonese-speaking immigrant women ages 50 years and older were recruited. Participants completed questionnaires to evaluate screening behaviors, health literacy, and demographic characteristics. Eighty-five percent self-reported that they were current breast cancer screeners, and 75% were current colon cancer screeners. Recommendation from a physician, having a female physician, and high or moderate proficiency in English predicted current mammography screening. Physician recommendation, first language, and self-efficacy predicted use of colon cancer screening. Bivariate analyses also revealed an association between use of colon cancer screening and greater health literacy and longer residency in Canada. Important predictors of screening emerged that potentially informs interventions to increase cancer prevention among older Chinese immigrants. The essential role of physician recommendation was identified for both breast and colon cancer screening.

  9. Women's perceptions of breast cancer screening. Spanish screening programme survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baena-Cañada, José M; Rosado-Varela, Petra; Expósito-Álvarez, Inmaculada; González-Guerrero, Macarena; Nieto-Vera, Juan; Benítez-Rodríguez, Encarnación

    2014-12-01

    Participants in breast cancer screening programmes may benefit from early detection but may also be exposed to the risks of overdiagnosis and false positives. We surveyed a sample of Spanish women to assess knowledge, information sources, attitudes and psychosocial impact. A total of 434 breast cancer screening programme participants aged 45-69 years were administered questionnaires regarding knowledge, information sources, attitudes and psychosocial impact. Scores of 5 or more (out of 10) and 12 or less (out of 24) were established as indicating adequate knowledge and a positive attitude, respectively. Psychosocial impact was measured using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale and the Cancer Worry Scale. Only 42 women (9.7%) had adequate knowledge. The mean (SD) knowledge score was 2.97 (1.16). Better educated women and women without previous false positives had higher scores. The main sources of information were television, press, Andalusian Health Service documentation and family and friends. Most participants (99.1%) had a positive attitude, with a mean (SD) score of 3.21 (2.66). Mean (SD) scores for anxiety, depression and cancer worry were 1.86 (3.26), 0.72 (1.99) and 9.4 (3.04), respectively. Women have a very positive attitude to breast cancer screening, but are poorly informed and use television as their main information source. They experience no negative psychosocial impact from participation in such programmes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Oral cancer screening: serum Raman spectroscopic approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahu, Aditi K.; Dhoot, Suyash; Singh, Amandeep; Sawant, Sharada S.; Nandakumar, Nikhila; Talathi-Desai, Sneha; Garud, Mandavi; Pagare, Sandeep; Srivastava, Sanjeeva; Nair, Sudhir; Chaturvedi, Pankaj; Murali Krishna, C.

    2015-11-01

    Serum Raman spectroscopy (RS) has previously shown potential in oral cancer diagnosis and recurrence prediction. To evaluate the potential of serum RS in oral cancer screening, premalignant and cancer-specific detection was explored in the present study using 328 subjects belonging to healthy controls, premalignant, disease controls, and oral cancer groups. Spectra were acquired using a Raman microprobe. Spectral findings suggest changes in amino acids, lipids, protein, DNA, and β-carotene across the groups. A patient-wise approach was employed for data analysis using principal component linear discriminant analysis. In the first step, the classification among premalignant, disease control (nonoral cancer), oral cancer, and normal samples was evaluated in binary classification models. Thereafter, two screening-friendly classification approaches were explored to further evaluate the clinical utility of serum RS: a single four-group model and normal versus abnormal followed by determining the type of abnormality model. Results demonstrate the feasibility of premalignant and specific cancer detection. The normal versus abnormal model yields better sensitivity and specificity rates of 64 and 80% these rates are comparable to standard screening approaches. Prospectively, as the current screening procedure of visual inspection is useful mainly for high-risk populations, serum RS may serve as a useful adjunct for early and specific detection of oral precancers and cancer.

  11. Improving Screening Strategies for Prostate Cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T. Wolters (Tineke)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractTh is thesis describes research on screening for prostate cancer. To improve understanding of the thesis, some background information will be provided in this introduction. First, a short description of the prostate and of prostate cancer will be given in Chapter 1, followed by

  12. Screening for colorectal cancer: what fits best?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Lee, Chun Seng

    2012-06-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) screening has been shown to be effective in reducing CRC incidence and mortality. There are currently a number of screening modalities available for implementation into a population-based CRC screening program. Each screening method offers different strengths but also possesses its own limitations as a population-based screening strategy. We review the current evidence base for accepted CRC screening tools and evaluate their merits alongside their challenges in fulfilling their role in the detection of CRC. We also aim to provide an outlook on the demands of a low-risk population-based CRC screening program with a view to providing insight as to which modality would best suit current and future needs.

  13. Cervical cancer screening in the Faroe Islands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hammer, Turið; Lynge, Elsebeth; Djurhuus, Gisela W

    2015-01-01

    aim was to provide the first description of cervical cancer screening, and to determine the screening history of women diagnosed with cervical cancer in the Faroe Islands. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Screening data from 1996 to 2012 were obtained from the Diagnostic Centre at the National Hospital...... of the Faroe Islands. They included information on cytology and HPV testing whereas information on histology was not registered consistently. Process indicators were calculated, including coverage rate, excess smears, proportion of abnormal cytological samples, and frequency of HPV testing. Data on cervical...... 1999. At present, 7.0% of samples have abnormal cytology. Of all ASCUS samples, 76-95% were tested for HPV. A total of 58% of women diagnosed with cervical cancer did not participate in screening prior to their diagnosis, and 32% had normal cytology in the previous four years. CONCLUSION: Despite...

  14. Dutch digital breast cancer screening: implications for breast cancer care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmers, Johanna M.; den Heeten, Gerard J.; Adang, Eddy M.; Otten, Johannes D.; Verbeek, André L.; Broeders, Mireille J.

    2012-01-01

    Background: In comparison to other European population-based breast cancer screening programmes, the Dutch programme has a low referral rate, similar breast cancer detection and a high breast cancer mortality reduction. The referral rate in the Netherlands has increased over time and is expected to

  15. Cervical Cancer Screening with HPV Test

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-10-15

    Dr. Stewart Massad, a professor in the Division of Gynecologic Oncology at Washington University in Saint Louis and a board member of the American Society for Colposcopy and Cervical Cancer Prevention (ASCCP), talks about cotesting with human papillomavirus (HPV) as part of a cervical cancer screening program.  Created: 10/15/2009 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP), Division of Cancer Prevention and Control (DCPC).   Date Released: 6/9/2010.

  16. Cervical cancer screening in the Faroe Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, Turið; Lynge, Elsebeth; Djurhuus, Gisela W; Joensen, John E; Køtlum, Jóanis E; Hansen, Sæunn Ó; Sander, Bente B; Mogensen, Ole; Rebolj, Matejka

    2015-02-01

    The Faroe Islands have had nationally organised cervical cancer screening since 1995. Women aged 25-60 years are invited every third year. Participation is free of charge. Although several European overviews on cervical screening are available, none have included the Faroe Islands. Our aim was to provide the first description of cervical cancer screening, and to determine the screening history of women diagnosed with cervical cancer in the Faroe Islands. Screening data from 1996 to 2012 were obtained from the Diagnostic Centre at the National Hospital of the Faroe Islands. They included information on cytology and HPV testing whereas information on histology was not registered consistently. Process indicators were calculated, including coverage rate, excess smears, proportion of abnormal cytological samples, and frequency of HPV testing. Data on cervical cancer cases were obtained from the Faroese Ministry of Health Affairs. The analysis of the screening history was undertaken for cases diagnosed in 2000-2010. A total of 52 457 samples were taken in 1996-2012. Coverage varied between 67% and 81% and was 71% in 2012. Excess smears decreased after 1999. At present, 7.0% of samples have abnormal cytology. Of all ASCUS samples, 76-95% were tested for HPV. A total of 58% of women diagnosed with cervical cancer did not participate in screening prior to their diagnosis, and 32% had normal cytology in the previous four years. Despite the difficult geographical setting, the organised cervical cancer screening programme in the Faroe Islands has achieved a relatively high coverage rate. Nevertheless, challenges, e.g. consistent histology registration and sending reminders, still exist.

  17. Screening for Gastric Cancer: The Usefulness of Endoscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Kui Son; Suh, Mina

    2014-01-01

    Gastric cancer screening is common in countries with high prevalence rates of gastric cancer. However, data supporting the effectiveness of gastric cancer screening are lacking. Thus, the aim of this review was to examine the current evidence on gastric cancer screening. Herein, we reviewed radiographic and endoscopic tests as methods of gastric cancer screening. Previous cohort studies and case-control studies have demonstrated reduced gastric cancer mortality in study populations that had u...

  18. Cervical Cancer Screening | Cancer Trends Progress Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Cancer Trends Progress Report, first issued in 2001, summarizes our nation's advances against cancer in relation to Healthy People targets set forth by the Department of Health and Human Services.

  19. A Community-Driven Intervention for Prostate Cancer Screening in African Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Kushal; Ukoli, Flora; Liu, Jianguo; Beech, Derrick; Beard, Katina; Brown, Byron; Sanderson, Maureen; Kenerson, Donna; Cooper, Leslie; Canto, Marie; Blot, Bill; Hargreaves, Margaret

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to assess the impact of an educational intervention on prostate cancer screening behavior and knowledge. Participants were 104 African American men, 45 years and older, who had not been screened for prostate cancer with a prostate-specific antigen and/or digital rectal exam within the past year. All participants…

  20. The Association of Perceived Provider-Patient Communication and Relationship Quality with Colorectal Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Underhill, Meghan L.; Kiviniemi, Marc T.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Two-thirds of adults aged 50 years and older are adherent to recommendations for colorectal cancer screening. Provider-patient communication and characteristics of the patient-provider relationship may relate to screening behavior. Methods: The association of provider communication quality, relationship, and colorectal cancer screening…

  1. Ring of Silence: African American Women's Experiences Related to Their Breasts and Breast Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Eileen

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore women's memories and feelings concerning their breasts and breast cancer screening experiences in relation to their current breast cancer screening behaviors. Twelve African American women shared stories that were generated in written narratives and individual interviews. Two core themes emerged from the…

  2. Methods for Cervical Cancer Screening

    OpenAIRE

    Vargas-Revilla, Tatiana; Seáñez-de-Villa, Jesús Manuel; León-Rovira, Noel; Barrón-Cano, Olivia Maricela

    2015-01-01

    Cervical cancer affects a great portion of the world’s female population,and it became the third cause of death for women in developing countries such as CostaRica.The most common method to diagnose this cancer is the Papanicolaou testor Papsmear; nevertheless, high levels of sensitivity and specificity are required. Consequently, different organizations have developed multiple methods to detect and classify this cancer. This article is divided in three sections: the first one focuses on the ...

  3. Computed tomographic characteristics of interval and post screen carcinomas in lung cancer screening

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholten, Ernst Th.; Horeweg, Nanda; de Koning, Harry J.; Vliegenthart, Rozemarijn; Oudkerk, Matthijs; Mali, Willem P. Th. M.; de Jong, Pim A.

    Objectives To analyse computed tomography (CT) findings of interval and post-screen carcinomas in lung cancer screening. Methods Consecutive interval and post-screen carcinomas from the Dutch-Belgium lung cancer screening trial were included. The prior screening and the diagnostic chest CT were

  4. Breast and cervical cancer screening programme implementation in 16 countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dowling, Emily C; Klabunde, Carrie; Patnick, Julietta

    2010-01-01

    There is a continuing need to monitor and evaluate the impact of organized screening programmes on cancer incidence and mortality. We report results from a programme assessment conducted within the International Cancer Screening Network (ICSN) to understand the characteristics of cervical screening...... programmes within countries that have established population-based breast cancer screening programmes....

  5. Contributions of the European trials (European randomized screening group) in computed tomography lung cancer screening

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heuvelmans, Marjolein A; Vliegenthart, Rozemarijn; Oudkerk, Matthijs

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide. In 2011, the largest lung cancer screening trial worldwide, the US National Lung Screening Trial, published a 20% decrease in lung cancer-specific mortality in the computed tomography (CT)-screened group, compared with the group

  6. Telenovela: an innovative colorectal cancer screening health messaging tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melany Cueva

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background. Alaska Native people have nearly twice the rate of colorectal cancer (CRC incidence and mortality as the US White population. Objective. Building upon storytelling as a culturally respectful way to share information among Alaska Native people, a 25-minute telenovela-style movie, What's the Big Deal?, was developed to increase CRC screening awareness and knowledge, role-model CRC conversations, and support wellness choices. Design. Alaska Native cultural values of family, community, storytelling, and humor were woven into seven, 3–4 minute movie vignettes. Written post-movie viewing evaluations completed by 71.3% of viewers (305/428 were collected at several venues, including the premiere of the movie in the urban city of Anchorage at a local movie theater, seven rural Alaska community movie nights, and five cancer education trainings with Community Health Workers. Paper and pencil evaluations included check box and open-ended questions to learn participants' response to a telenovela-style movie. Results. On written-post movie viewing evaluations, viewers reported an increase in CRC knowledge and comfort with talking about recommended CRC screening exams. Notably, 81.6% of respondents (249/305 wrote positive intent to change behavior. Multiple responses included: 65% talking with family and friends about colon screening (162, 24% talking with their provider about colon screening (59, 31% having a colon screening (76, and 44% increasing physical activity (110. Conclusions. Written evaluations revealed the telenovela genre to be an innovative way to communicate colorectal cancer health messages with Alaska Native, American Indian, and Caucasian people both in an urban and rural setting to empower conversations and action related to colorectal cancer screening. Telenovela is a promising health communication tool to shift community norms by generating enthusiasm and conversations about the importance of having recommended colorectal

  7. Telenovela: an innovative colorectal cancer screening health messaging tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cueva, Melany; Kuhnley, Regina; Slatton, Jozieta; Dignan, Mark; Underwood, Emily; Landis, Kate

    2013-01-01

    Alaska Native people have nearly twice the rate of colorectal cancer (CRC) incidence and mortality as the US White population. Building upon storytelling as a culturally respectful way to share information among Alaska Native people, a 25-minute telenovela-style movie, What's the Big Deal?, was developed to increase CRC screening awareness and knowledge, role-model CRC conversations, and support wellness choices. Alaska Native cultural values of family, community, storytelling, and humor were woven into seven, 3-4 minute movie vignettes. Written post-movie viewing evaluations completed by 71.3% of viewers (305/428) were collected at several venues, including the premiere of the movie in the urban city of Anchorage at a local movie theater, seven rural Alaska community movie nights, and five cancer education trainings with Community Health Workers. Paper and pencil evaluations included check box and open-ended questions to learn participants' response to a telenovela-style movie. On written-post movie viewing evaluations, viewers reported an increase in CRC knowledge and comfort with talking about recommended CRC screening exams. Notably, 81.6% of respondents (249/305) wrote positive intent to change behavior. Multiple responses included: 65% talking with family and friends about colon screening (162), 24% talking with their provider about colon screening (59), 31% having a colon screening (76), and 44% increasing physical activity (110). Written evaluations revealed the telenovela genre to be an innovative way to communicate colorectal cancer health messages with Alaska Native, American Indian, and Caucasian people both in an urban and rural setting to empower conversations and action related to colorectal cancer screening. Telenovela is a promising health communication tool to shift community norms by generating enthusiasm and conversations about the importance of having recommended colorectal cancer screening exams.

  8. New technology for cervical cancer screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Jiao-Mei; Shen, Yong; He, Yan-Xia; Lei, Dong-Mei; Zhang, Zhan; Li, Xiao-Fu

    2012-11-01

    Cervical cancer is the second most common cancer among women worldwide. With the introduction of organized cervical cytological screening programs, the incidence of cervical cancer has been dramatically reduced. This study aimed to determine the new technology that can potentially afford unique advantages for cervical cancer screening. Cervical specimens collected in PreservCyt were processed for ThinPrep cytological test, the new technology test and human papillomavirus detection. The concordance between the new technology and ThinPrep cytological test was 96.34%, with 931 cases positive and 148 cases negative with both tests (κ = 0.857). The sensitivity and the specificity of the new technology were 99.04% (931/940) and 82.22% (148/180), respectively. Youden index was 0.81. The positive predictive value and the negative predictive value were 96.68% (931/963) and 94.27% (148/157), respectively. In the 124 positive cases of the new technology, human papillomavirus DNA test was positive in 109 cases (87.9%) and negative in 15 cases (12.1%). Compared to the histopathological diagnosis, the sensitivity and the negative predictive value of the new technology were 98.57% (69/70) and 95.45% (21/22), respectively. The screening design will enable evaluation of several competing screening technologies in reducing the incidence of and mortality from cervical cancer. In particular, if the new technology is used as the screening test, it can be a quick screening test and does not depend on the subjective judgment of the doctors. As such, it could potentially afford unique advantages for screening.

  9. Imaging and screening in lung cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo Giaj Levra

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Lung cancer is the main cause of death for neoplasia in the world. Hence it’s growing the necessity to investigate screening tests to detect tumoral lesions at the early stages: several trials have been performed to establish the best method, target and frequence of the screening to offer. CT, X-ray, PET, sputum citology and CAD software are here analyzed, together with the associated statistics and bias.

  10. Risks of Prostate Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cancer that are being studied include the following: Digital rectal exam Digital rectal exam (DRE) is an exam of the ... lumps or anything else that seems unusual. Enlarge Digital rectal exam (DRE). The doctor inserts a gloved, ...

  11. Readers' theatre: a communication tool for colorectal cancer screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cueva, Melany; Dignan, Mark; Kuhnley, Regina

    2012-06-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the second leading cause of cancer mortality for Alaska Native people, yet it can be almost totally prevented through colonoscopy screenings. A 25-minute Readers' Theatre script was developed with and for Alaska Native and American Indian Community Health Workers (CHWs) and the people in their communities to provide CRC screening information, model ways to talk about CRC screening, increase comfort with talking about CRC, and encourage healthy lifestyle choices. Grounded in Indigenous methodologies, this paper describes the collaborative development, implementation, and evaluation of a CRC Readers' Theatre. 94% (161/172) of participants from 11 Readers' Theatre completed a written evaluation. 90% (145) of participants reported feeling more comfortable talking about CRC and 77% (124) described healthy changes they planned to make. Readers' Theatre was associated with increased knowledge, comfort talking about CRC, and served as a catalyst for positive intent to change behavior.

  12. Cancer screening in Korea, 2012: results from the Korean National Cancer Screening Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suh, Mina; Choi, Kui Son; Lee, Yoon Young; Park, Boyoung; Jun, Jae Kwan

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the cancer screening rates for five types of cancer (stomach, liver, colorectal, breast, and cervix uteri) using data from the Korean National Cancer Screening Survey (KNCSS), which is a nationwide, annual cross-sectional survey. The eligible study population included cancer-free men 40 years of age and older and women 30 years of age and older. The lifetime screening rate and screening rate with recommendation were calculated. The lifetime screening rates for gastric, liver, colorectal, breast, and cervical cancers were 77.9%, 69.9%, 65.8%, 82.9%, and 77.1%, respectively. The screening rates with recommendation were 70.9%, 21.5%, 44.7%, 70.9%, and 67.9%, respectively. The most common reason for all types of cancer was "no symptoms, " followed by "lack of time" and "fear of the examination procedure. " Efforts to facilitate participation in liver and colorectal cancer screening among Korean men and women are needed.

  13. Economic evaluation of prostate cancer screening test as a national cancer screening program in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Sangjin; Kim, Youn Hee; Hwang, Jin Sub; Lee, Yoon Jae; Lee, Sang Moo; Ahn, Jeonghoon

    2014-01-01

    Prostate cancer is rapidly increasing in Korea and professional societies have requested adding prostate specific antigen (PSA) testing to the National Cancer Screening Program (NCSP), but this started a controversy in Korea and neutral evidence on this issue is required more than ever. The purpose of this study was to provide economic evidence to the decision makers of the NCSP. A cost-utility analysis was performed on the adoption of PSA screening program among men aged 50-74-years in Korea from the healthcare system perspective. Several data sources were used for the cost-utility analysis, including general health screening data, the Korea Central Cancer Registry, national insurance claims data, and cause of mortality from the National Statistical Office. To solicit the utility index of prostate cancer, a face-to-face interview for typical men aged 40 to 69 was conducted using a Time-Trade Off method. As a result, the increase of effectiveness was estimated to be very low, when adopting PSA screening, and the incremental cost effectiveness ratio (ICER) was analyzed as about 94 million KRW. Sensitivity analyses were performed on the incidence rate, screening rate, cancer stage distribution, utility index, and treatment costs but the results were consistent with the base analysis. Under Korean circumstances with a relatively low incidence rate of prostate cancer, PSA screening is not cost-effective. Therefore, we conclude that adopting national prostate cancer screening would not be beneficial until further evidence is provided in the future.

  14. A review of different behavior modification strategies designed to reduce sedentary screen behaviors in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steeves, Jeremy A; Thompson, Dixie L; Bassett, David R; Fitzhugh, Eugene C; Raynor, Hollie A

    2012-01-01

    Previous research suggests that reducing sedentary screen behaviors may be a strategy for preventing and treating obesity in children. This systematic review describes strategies used in interventions designed to either solely target sedentary screen behaviors or multiple health behaviors, including sedentary screen behaviors. Eighteen studies were included in this paper; eight targeting sedentary screen behaviors only, and ten targeting multiple health behaviors. All studies used behavior modification strategies for reducing sedentary screen behaviors in children (aged 1-12 years). Nine studies only used behavior modification strategies, and nine studies supplemented behavior modification strategies with an electronic device to enhance sedentary screen behaviors reductions. Many interventions (50%) significantly reduced sedentary screen behaviors; however the magnitude of the significant reductions varied greatly (-0.44 to -3.1 h/day) and may have been influenced by the primary focus of the intervention, number of behavior modification strategies used, and other tools used to limit sedentary screen behaviors.

  15. European Breast Cancer Service Screening Outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paci, Eugenio; Broeders, Mireille; Hofvind, Solveig

    2014-01-01

    A recent comprehensive review has been carried out to quantify the benefits and harms of the European population-based mammographic screening programs. Five literature reviews were conducted on the basis of the observational published studies evaluating breast cancer mortality reduction, breast...... seven to nine breast cancer deaths are avoided, four cases are overdiagnosed, 170 women have at least one recall followed by noninvasive assessment with a negative result, and 30 women have at least one recall followed by invasive procedures yielding a negative result. The chance of a breast cancer...... cancer overdiagnosis, and false-positive results. On the basis of the studies reviewed, the authors present a first estimate of the benefit and harm balance sheet. For every 1,000 women screened biennially from ages 50 to 51 years until ages 68 to 69 years and followed up until age 79 years, an estimated...

  16. Implementation and organization of lung cancer screening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jesper Johannes Holst; Ashraf, Haseem

    2016-01-01

    CT screening for lung cancer is now being implemented in the US and China on a widespread national scale but not in Europe so far. The review gives a status for the implementation process and the hurdles to overcome in the future. It also describes the guidelines and requirements for the structure...... and components of high quality CT screening programs. These are essential in order to achieve a successful program with the fewest possible harms and a possible mortality benefit like that documented in the American National Lung Screening Trial (NLST). In addition the importance of continued research in CT...

  17. Effect of endoscopy screening on stage at gastric cancer diagnosis: results of the National Cancer Screening Programme in Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, K S; Jun, J K; Suh, M; Park, B; Noh, D K; Song, S H; Jung, K W; Lee, H-Y; Choi, I J; Park, E-C

    2014-01-01

    Background: Although gastric cancer screening is common among countries with a high prevalence of gastric cancer, there is little data to support the effectiveness of this screening. This study was designed to determine the differences in stage at diagnosis of gastric cancer according to the screening history and screening method (upper gastrointestinal series (UGIS) vs endoscopy). Methods: The study population was derived from the National Cancer Screening Programme (NCSP), a nationwide orga...

  18. Factors Influencing Colorectal Cancer Screening Participation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Z. Gimeno García

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Colorectal cancer (CRC is a major health problem worldwide. Although population-based CRC screening is strongly recommended in average-risk population, compliance rates are still far from the desirable rates. High levels of screening uptake are necessary for the success of any screening program. Therefore, the investigation of factors influencing participation is crucial prior to design and launches a population-based organized screening campaign. Several studies have identified screening behaviour factors related to potential participants, providers, or health care system. These influencing factors can also be classified in non-modifiable (i.e., demographic factors, education, health insurance, or income and modifiable factors (i.e., knowledge about CRC and screening, patient and provider attitudes or structural barriers for screening. Modifiable determinants are of great interest as they are plausible targets for interventions. Interventions at different levels (patient, providers or health care system have been tested across the studies with different results. This paper analyzes factors related to CRC screening behaviour and potential interventions designed to improve screening uptake.

  19. Access to Lung Cancer Screening Services: Preliminary Analysis of Geographic Service Distribution Using the ACR Lung Cancer Screening Registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charkhchi, Paniz; Kolenic, Giselle E; Carlos, Ruth C

    2017-11-01

    Lung cancer has the highest mortality rate among all types of cancer in the United States. The National Lung Screening Trial demonstrated that low-dose CT for lung cancer screening decreases both lung cancer-related mortality and all-cause mortality. Currently, the only CMS-approved lung cancer screening registry is the Lung Cancer Screening Registry (LCSR) administered by the ACR. The aims of this study were to assess access to lung cancer screening services as estimated by the number and distribution of screening facilities participating in the LCSR, by state, and to evaluate state-level covariates that correlate with access. The ACR LCSR list of participating lung cancer screening facilities was used as a proxy for the availability of lung cancer screening facilities in each state. Additionally, we normalized the number of facilities by state by the number of screening-eligible individuals using Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System data. State-level demographics were obtained from the 2015 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System: poverty level, insured population, unemployed, black, and Latino. State-specific lung cancer incidence and death rates, number of active physicians per 100,000, and Medicare expenditure per capita were obtained. Linear regression models were performed to examine the influence of these state-level covariates on state-level screening facility number. QGIS, an open-source geographic information system, was used to map the distribution of lung cancer screening facilities and to estimate the nearest neighbor index, a measure of facility clustering within each state. As of November 18, 2016, 2,423 facilities participated in the LCSR. When adjusted by the rate of screening-eligible individuals per 100,000, the median population-normalized facility number was 15.7 (interquartile range, 10.7-19.3). There was a positive independent effect (coefficient = 12.87; 95% confidence interval, 10.93-14.8) between state-level number of screening

  20. Cervical Cancer Screening in Underserved Populations

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-10-15

    Dr. Lisa Flowers, a specialist in human papillovarius (HPV)-related diseases and Director of Colposcopy at Emory University School of Medicine, talks about cervical cancer screening in underinsured or uninsured women.  Created: 10/15/2009 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP), Division of Cancer Prevention and Control (DCPC).   Date Released: 6/9/2010.

  1. Costs Associated with Cervical Cancer Screening

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-10-15

    Dr. Tom Cox, a practicing gynecologist and president of the American Society of Colposcopy and Cervical Pathology, provides a brief introduction to cervical cancer screening guidelines and human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA testing.  Created: 10/15/2009 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP), Division of Cancer Prevention and Control (DCPC).   Date Released: 6/9/2010.

  2. Are U.S. cancer screening test patterns consistent with guideline recommendations with respect to the age of screening initiation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadiyala Srikanth

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background U.S. cancer screening guidelines communicate important information regarding the ages for which screening tests are appropriate. Little attention has been given to whether breast, colorectal and prostate cancer screening test use is responsive to guideline age information regarding the age of screening initiation. Methods The 2006 Behavioral Risk Factor Social Survey and the 2003 National Health Interview Surveys were used to compute breast, colorectal and prostate cancer screening test rates by single year of age. Graphical and logistic regression analyses were used to compare screening rates for individuals close to and on either side of the guideline recommended screening initiation ages. Results We identified large discrete shifts in the use of screening tests precisely at the ages where guidelines recommend that screening begin. Mammography screening in the last year increased from 22% [95% CI = 20, 25] at age 39 to 36% [95% CI = 33, 39] at age 40 and 47% [95% CI = 44, 51] at age 41. Adherence to the colorectal cancer screening guidelines within the last year increased from 18% [95% CI = 15, 22] at age 49 to 19% [95% CI = 15, 23] at age 50 and 34% [95% CI = 28, 39] at age 51. Prostate specific antigen screening in the last year increased from 28% [95% CI = 25, 31] at age 49 to 33% [95% CI = 29, 36] and 42% [95% CI = 38, 46] at ages 50 and 51. These results are robust to multivariate analyses that adjust for age, sex, income, education, marital status and health insurance status. Conclusion The results from this study suggest that cancer screening test utilization is consistent with guideline age information regarding the age of screening initiation. Screening test and adherence rates increased by approximately 100% at the breast and colorectal cancer guideline recommended ages compared to only a 50% increase in the screening test rate for prostate cancer screening. Since information regarding the age of cancer screening

  3. Endoscopy in screening for digestive cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, René

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study is to describe the role of endoscopy in detection and treatment of neoplastic lesions of the digestive mucosa in asymptomatic persons. Esophageal squamous cell cancer occurs in relation to nutritional deficiency and alcohol or tobacco consumption. Esophageal adenocarcinoma develops in Barrett’s esophagus, and stomach cancer in chronic gastric atrophy with Helicobacter pylori infection. Colorectal cancer is favoured by a high intake in calories, excess weight, low physical activity. In opportunistic or individual screening endoscopy is the primary detection procedure offered to an asymptomatic individual. In organized or mass screening proposed by National Health Authorities to a population, endoscopy is performed only in persons found positive to a filter selection test. The indications of primary upper gastrointestinal endoscopy and colonoscopy in opportunistic screening are increasingly developing over the world. Organized screening trials are proposed in some regions of China at high risk for esophageal cancer; the selection test is cytology of a balloon or sponge scrapping; they are proposed in Japan for stomach cancer with photofluorography as a selection test; and in Europe, America and Japan; for colorectal cancer with the fecal occult blood test as a selection test. Organized screening trials in a country require an evaluation: the benefit of the intervention assessed by its impact on incidence and on the 5 year survival for the concerned tumor site; in addition a number of bias interfering with the evaluation have to be controlled. Drawbacks of screening are in the morbidity of the diagnostic and treatment procedures and in overdetection of none clinically relevant lesions. The strategy of endoscopic screening applies to early cancer and to benign adenomatous precursors of adenocarcinoma. Diagnostic endoscopy is conducted in 2 steps: at first detection of an abnormal area through changes in relief, in color or in the course of

  4. Factors Affecting Preferences of Iranian Women for Breast Cancer Screening Based on Marketing Mix Components

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pourfarzi, Farhad; Fouladi, Nasrin; Amani, Firouz; Ahari, Saeid Sadegieh; Roshani, Zohre; Alimohammadi, Sara

    2016-01-01

    .... There is a great need for change to promote breast cancer screening among women. Social marketing is a discipline that uses the systematic application of commercial marketing techniques to promote the adoption of behavior by the target audience...

  5. Screening of colorectal cancer: present and future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maida, Marcello; Macaluso, Fabio Salvatore; Ianiro, Gianluca; Mangiola, Francesca; Sinagra, Emanuele; Hold, Georgina; Maida, Carlo; Cammarota, Giovanni; Gasbarrini, Antonio; Scarpulla, Giuseppe

    2017-12-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common cancer in males and second in females, and the fourth most common cause of cancer death worldwide. Currently, about 60-70% of diagnosed cases in symptomatic patients are detected at an advanced stage of disease. Earlier stage detection through the use of screening strategies would allow for better outcomes in terms of reducing the disease burden. Areas covered: The aim of this paper is to review the current published evidence from literature which assesses the performance and effectiveness of different screening tests for the early detection of CRC. Expert commentary: Adequate screening strategies can reduce CRC incidence and mortality. In the last few decades, several tests have been proposed for CRC screening. To date, there is still insufficient evidence to identify which approach is definitively superior, and no screening strategy for CRC can therefore be defined as universally ideal. The best strategy would be the one that can be economically viable and to which the patient can adhere best to over time. The latest guidelines suggest colonoscopy every 10 years or annual fecal immuno-chemical test (FIT) for people with normal risk, while for individuals with high risk or hereditary syndromes specific recommendations are provided.

  6. [Current aspects of prostate cancer screening].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalón Monzón, A; Escaf Barmadah, S; Viña Alonso, L M; Jalón Monzón, M

    Screening programs for prostate cancer based on the determination of serum prostate specific antigen has led to overdiagnosis, and consequently overtreatment. A percentage of men diagnosed with prostate cancer have a tumour that will not progress, or do so slowly (overdiagnosis or pseudo-disease). This overdiagnosis rate ranges from 17-50%. Mass screening is defined as the systematic examination of asymptomatic men. Early detection or opportunistic screening involves the pursuit of individual cases being initiated by the doctor or the patient. In the case of a patient who requests a prostate specific antigen from their general practitioner, a number of issues on overdiagnosis, over-treatment and possible damage from the biopsy, should be explained to him. With data from randomised studies on prostate specific antigen and prostate cancer screening, population screening is not recommended by any urological society. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Médicos de Atención Primaria (SEMERGEN). Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  7. Screening for distress in cancer patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grassi, Luigi; Johansen, Christoffer; Annunziata, Maria Antonietta

    2013-01-01

    Routine screening for distress is internationally recommended as a necessary standard for good cancer care, given its high prevalence and negative consequences on quality of life. The objective of the current study was to contribute to the Italian validation of the Distress Thermometer (DT...

  8. Testicular Cancer Screening (PDQ®)—Health Professional Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    For testicular cancer, there is no standard or routine screening test. Review the limited evidence on the benefits and harms of screening for testicular cancer using ultrasound, physical examination, and self-examination in this expert-reviewed summary.

  9. Evaluation of cancer service screening: case referent studies recommended.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verbeek, A.L.M.; Broeders, M.J.M.

    2010-01-01

    Various cancer screening trials, randomised or otherwise controlled, have demonstrated reductions in cancer mortality. As a consequence, population screening programmes have been implemented. In the mean time, major advances are being made in early detection and treatment modalities of specific

  10. Knowledge of Prostate Cancer Screening Among Native African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Knowledge of Prostate Cancer Screening Among Native African Urban Population in Nigeria. ... Methods: It is a cross-sectional study involving 156 respondents. ... respondents are ready to pay for prostate cancer screening test by PSA assay.

  11. Screening for and surveillance of gastric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compare, Debora; Rocco, Alba; Nardone, Gerardo

    2014-10-14

    Although the prevalence of gastric cancer (GC) progressively decreased during the last decades, due to improved dietary habit, introduction of food refrigeration and recovered socio-economic level, it still accounts for 10% of the total cancer-related deaths. The best strategy to reduce the mortality for GC is to schedule appropriate screening and surveillance programs, that rises many relevant concerns taking into account its worldwide variability, natural history, diagnostic tools, therapeutic strategies, and cost-effectiveness. Intestinal-type, the most frequent GC histotype, develops through a multistep process triggered by Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) and progressing from gastritis to atrophy, intestinal metaplasia (IM), and dysplasia. However, the majority of patients infected with H. pylori and carrying premalignant lesions do not develop GC. Therefore, it remains unclear who should be screened, when the screening should be started and how the screening should be performed. It seems reasonable that screening programs should target the general population in eastern countries, at high prevalence of GC and the high-risk subjects in western countries, at low prevalence of GC. As far as concern surveillance, currently, we are lacking of standardized international recommendations and many features have to be defined regarding the optimal diagnostic approach, the patients at higher risk, the best timing and the cost-effectiveness. Anyway, patients with corpus atrophic gastritis, extensive incomplete IM and dysplasia should enter a surveillance program. At present, screening and surveillance programs need further studies to draw worldwide reliable recommendations and evaluate the impact on mortality for GC.

  12. Barriers to cancer screening in Hmong Americans: the influence of health care accessibility, culture, and cancer literacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hee Yun; Vang, Suzanne

    2010-06-01

    Hmong Americans face high cancer mortality rates even in comparison to their Asian American counterparts, and report low utilization of cancer screenings. To date, no study has been conducted on the cultural barriers this population faces in undergoing cancer screenings. A systematic review of the literature was conducted to examine the existing knowledge regarding the barriers to cancer screening for Hmong Americans. Potential barriers were identified from this examination to include: health access factors (type of health insurance, ethnicity of provider, low English proficiency, and years spent in the U.S.); cultural factors (belief in the spiritual etiology of diseases, patriarchal values, modesty, and mistrust of the western medical system); and cancer literacy factors (cancer and prevention illiteracy). Based on this review, potential cultural and ethnic group-specific prevention strategies and cancer health policies are discussed to address these barriers and enhance screening behavior among the Hmong.

  13. Screening for Gastric Cancer: The Usefulness of Endoscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suh, Mina

    2014-01-01

    Gastric cancer screening is common in countries with high prevalence rates of gastric cancer. However, data supporting the effectiveness of gastric cancer screening are lacking. Thus, the aim of this review was to examine the current evidence on gastric cancer screening. Herein, we reviewed radiographic and endoscopic tests as methods of gastric cancer screening. Previous cohort studies and case-control studies have demonstrated reduced gastric cancer mortality in study populations that had undergone gastric cancer screening with radiographic tests. Recently, a case-control study in Japan reported a 30% reduction in gastric cancer mortality when screening was undertaken via endoscopy. Also, endoscopic screening for gastric cancer exhibited higher sensitivity and specificity than radiographic screening. Moreover, most cost-effectiveness analyses on the best strategy for detecting early gastric cancer have generally concluded that endoscopy is more cost-effective than radiographic testing. Although data on the impact of endoscopy screening programs on gastric cancer mortality are limited, recent study results suggest that gastric cancer screening by endoscopy in average-risk populations performs better than radiography screening. Further evaluation of the impact of these screening methods should take into account cost and any associated reduction in gastric cancer mortality. PMID:25505713

  14. A Comparison of Breast and Cervical Cancer Legislation and Screening in Georgia, North Carolina, and South Carolina

    OpenAIRE

    Miles-Richardson, Stephanie; Blumenthal, Daniel; Alema-Mensah, Ernest

    2012-01-01

    We identified legislation (1989–2005) relating to breast and cervical cancer in Georgia, North Carolina, and South Carolina and examined its impact on screening rates for these cancers and on Black-White disparities in screening rates. Legislation was identi-fied using the National Cancer Institute’s (NCI) State Cancer Legislative Database (SCLD) Program. Screening rates were identified using the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. Georgia ...

  15. Screening spectroscopy of prostate cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yermolenko, S. B.; Voloshynskyy, D. I.; Fedoruk, O. S.

    2015-11-01

    The aim of the study was to establish objective parameters of the field of laser and incoherent radiation of different spectral ranges (UV, visible, IR) as a non-invasive optical method of interaction with different samples of biological tissues and fluids of patients to determine the state of prostate cancer and choosing the best personal treatment. The objects of study were selected venous blood plasma of patient with prostate cancer, histological sections of rat prostate gland in the postoperative period. As diagnostic methods have been used ultraviolet spectrometry samples of blood plasma in the liquid state, infrared spectroscopy middle range (2,5-25 microns) dry residue of plasma by spectral diagnostic technique of thin histological sections of biological tissues.

  16. Screening history in women with cervical cancer in a Danish population-based screening program

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirschner, Benny; Poll, Susanne; Rygaard, Carsten

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the screening histories of all cervical cancers in a Danish screening population. The intention was to decide suboptimal sides of the screening program and to evaluate the significance of routine screening in the development of cervical cancer....

  17. Mortality reduction from gastric cancer by endoscopic and radiographic screening

    OpenAIRE

    Hamashima, Chisato; Shabana, Michiko; Okada, Katsuo; Okamoto, Mikizo; Osaki, Yoneatsu

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate mortality reduction from gastric cancer by endoscopic screening, we undertook a population?based cohort study in which both radiographic and endoscopic screenings for gastric cancer have been carried out. The subjects were selected from the participants of gastric cancer screening in two cities in Japan, Tottori and Yonago, from 2007 to 2008. The subjects were defined as participants aged 40?79 years who had no gastric cancer screening in the previous year. Follow?up of mortality ...

  18. Colorectal Cancer Screening: A Guide to the Guidelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas K Rex

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The two most recent guidelines for colorectal cancer screening are those of the Agency for Healthcare Policy and Research, and the American Cancer Society. The guidelines are similar in many regards and reflect current literature, consensus opinion and compromise between members of multidisciplinary panels. The emphasis of both guidelines is to increase the options available for colorectal cancer screening. Increasing choice should expand the attractiveness of colorectal cancer screening to more patients and physicians, and the development of guidelines should help compel payers to provide reimbursement for colorectal cancer screening. These guidelines are summarized and evaluated as they pertain to colorectal cancer screening.

  19. Survival analysis of patients with interval cancer undergoing gastric cancer screening by endoscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamashima, Chisato; Shabana, Michiko; Okamoto, Mikizo; Osaki, Yoneatsu; Kishimoto, Takuji

    2015-01-01

    Interval cancer is a key factor that influences the effectiveness of a cancer screening program. To evaluate the impact of interval cancer on the effectiveness of endoscopic screening, the survival rates of patients with interval cancer were analyzed. We performed gastric cancer-specific and all-causes survival analyses of patients with screen-detected cancer and patients with interval cancer in the endoscopic screening group and radiographic screening group using the Kaplan-Meier method. Since the screening interval was 1 year, interval cancer was defined as gastric cancer detected within 1 year after a negative result. A Cox proportional hazards model was used to investigate the risk factors associated with gastric cancer-specific and all-causes death. A total of 1,493 gastric cancer patients (endoscopic screening group: n = 347; radiographic screening group: n = 166; outpatient group: n = 980) were identified from the Tottori Cancer Registry from 2001 to 2008. The gastric cancer-specific survival rates were higher in the endoscopic screening group than in the radiographic screening group and the outpatients group. In the endoscopic screening group, the gastric cancer-specific survival rate of the patients with screen-detected cancer and the patients with interval cancer were nearly equal (P = 0.869). In the radiographic screening group, the gastric cancer-specific survival rate of the patients with screen-detected cancer was higher than that of the patients with interval cancer (P = 0.009). For gastric cancer-specific death, the hazard ratio of interval cancer in the endoscopic screening group was 0.216 for gastric cancer death (95%CI: 0.054-0.868) compared with the outpatient group. The survival rate and the risk of gastric cancer death among the patients with screen-detected cancer and patients with interval cancer were not significantly different in the annual endoscopic screening. These results suggest the potential of endoscopic screening in reducing

  20. Genetic Screening for Familial Gastric Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliveira Carla

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Approximately 10% of gastric cancer cases show familial clustering but only 1-3% of gastric carcinomas arise as a result of inherited gastric cancer predisposition syndromes. Direct proof that Hereditary Gastric Cancer a genetic disease with a germline gene defect has come from the demonstration of co-segregation of germline E-cadherin (CDH1 mutations with early onset diffuse gastric cancer in families with an autosomal dominant pattern of inheritance (HDGC. E-cadherin is a transmembrane calcium-dependent cell-adhesion molecule involved in cell-junction formation and the maintenance of epithelial integrity. In this review, we describe frequency and type of CDH1 mutations in sporadic and familial gastric cancer. Further we demonstrate the functional significance of some CDH1 germline missense mutations found in HDGC. We also discuss the CDH1 polymorphisms that have been associated to gastric cancer. We report other types of malignancies associated to HDGC, besides diffuse gastric cancer. Moreover, we review the data available on putative alternative candidate genes screened in familial gastric cancer. Finally, we briefly discuss the role of low-penetrance genes and Helicobacter pylori in gastric cancer. This knowledge is a fundamental step towards accurate genetic counselling, in which a highly specialised pre-symptomatic therapeutic intervention should be offered.

  1. The Ehrlich Tumor Induces Pain-Like Behavior in Mice: A Novel Model of Cancer Pain for Pathophysiological Studies and Pharmacological Screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cassia Calixto-Campos

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The Ehrlich tumor is a mammary adenocarcinoma of mice that can be developed in solid and ascitic forms depending on its administration in tissues or cavities, respectively. The present study investigates whether the subcutaneous plantar administration of the Ehrlich tumor cells induces pain-like behavior and initial pharmacological susceptibility characteristics. The Ehrlich tumor cells (1 × 104–107 cells induced dose-dependent mechanical hyperalgesia (electronic version of the von Frey filaments, paw edema/tumor growth (caliper, and flinches compared with the saline group between days 2 and 12. There was no difference between doses of cells regarding thermal hyperalgesia in the hot-plate test. Indomethacin (a cyclooxygenase inhibitor and amitriptyline hydrochloride (a tricyclic antidepressant treatments did not affect flinches or thermal and mechanical hyperalgesia. On the other hand, morphine (an opioid inhibited the flinch behavior and the thermal and mechanical hyperalgesia. These effects of morphine on pain-like behavior were prevented by naloxone (an opioid receptor antagonist treatment. None of the treatments affected paw edema/tumor growth. The results showed that, in addition to tumor growth, administration of the Ehrlich tumor cells may represent a novel model for the study of cancer pain, specially the pain that is susceptible to treatment with opioids, but not to cyclooxygenase inhibitor or to tricyclic antidepressant.

  2. Rastreo del cáncer colorrectal: Conocimiento y actitud de la población Screening colorectal cancer: Perception and behavior of the population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique R. Casal

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available El rastreo de cáncer colorrectal (CCR cuenta con fuertes evidencias en su favor. Datos preliminares indican que a pesar de ello no se lleva a cabo con la frecuencia adecuada. Se intenta aquí determinar, dentro de un Sistema de Salud que cuenta con los recursos necesarios, los elementos que facilitan o generan barreras para concretar esta práctica preventiva, cuántos individuos lo ponen en práctica y qué predice esta conducta. Se realizó una encuesta telefónica a los afiliados de una Obra Social de empleados de la Universidad de Buenos Aires, de los que 132 completaron el cuestionario (tasa de respuesta 70%. Los elementos considerados facilitadores del rastreo obtuvieron respuestas afirmativas en el 64 a 97%, mientras que los que definían barreras un 11 a 27%. En este último grupo, una categoría diferenciada la constituía el miedo a los efectos adversos: 39%, y el sentimiento de vergüenza relacionado con los procedimientos: 30%. Un 33% de los encuestados tenían hecho un método de rastreo, mayoritariamente de sangre oculta (27, sigmoideoscopía (11 y colonoscopía (20. Una mayoría afirmó que "se haría el procedimiento si el médico se lo recomendara" (95%, o "no se lo haría excepto que su médico se lo aconseje" (87%. Contestar afirmativamente que "los médicos hacen lo mejor para los pacientes" se asoció con haberse hecho un método de rastreo de CCR, OR 1.55 (IC 95%: 1.02-2.37 p: 0.04. El grupo de individuos estudiado parece bien predispuesto para el rastreo del CCR, la recomendación médica sería aquí un determinante prominente para ponerlo en práctica.There is strong evidence favoring colorectal cancer screening. Preliminary data suggests that it is not included in routine practice with the adequate frequency. We intended to recognize in a Health Care System (HCS that provides the needed resources, the facilitators and barriers related with the implementation of this preventive practice, how many individuals have

  3. Cervical cancer screening in the United States, 1993-2010: characteristics of women who are never screened.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Han-Yang; Kessler, Courtenay L; Mori, Naoyo; Chauhan, Suneet P

    2012-11-01

    Regular Pap test screening has contributed to decreasing cervical cancer incidence and mortality over the past decades, yet half of the women diagnosed with cervical cancer have never had a Pap test. Our study aims to examine the cervical cancer screening rate, identify socioeconomic and demographic risk factors associated with adult women who have never had a Pap test, and examine the relationship of screening with use of related health services. Using Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System data (1993-2010), a multivariable survey logistic regression model was fitted to estimate odds ratios for associations between risk factors and the outcome of never screened. Between 1993 and 2010, 81.3% of respondents reported they had a Pap test within 3 years; 6.2% were never screened. For women who had a recent checkup, 5.5% were never screened. Among women who had a hysterectomy, 69.4% had a Pap test within 3 years. The multivariable analysis showed that age, race/ethnicity, education, annual household income, never married, and currently uninsured were significantly (pnever screened. Screening programs accompanied by adequate treatment options should target women at high risk for never being screened, which could decrease cervical cancer incidence and mortality.

  4. Current issues and future perspectives of gastric cancer screening

    OpenAIRE

    Hamashima, Chisato

    2014-01-01

    Gastric cancer remains the second leading cause of cancer death worldwide. About half of the incidence of gastric cancer is observed in East Asian countries, which show a higher mortality than other countries. The effectiveness of 3 new gastric cancer screening techniques, namely, upper gastrointestinal endoscopy, serological testing, and “screen and treat” method were extensively reviewed. Moreover, the phases of development for cancer screening were analyzed on the basis of the biomarker de...

  5. Colon Cancer Screening - Is It Time Yet?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhurgri, Hadi; Samiullah, Sami

    2017-06-01

    The month of March is dedicated to Colon Cancer Awareness. Worldwide, colorectal cancer (CRC) incidence has been on the rise. It is currently the third most common cancer in men (746,000 cases, 10.0% of the total) and the second in women (614,000 cases, 9.2% of the total).1 Arecent meta-analysis reported a 61% risk reduction in CRC incidence with colonoscopy.2 Unlike screening programs for breast and prostate cancers, not only has CRC screening reduced mortality from colon cancer and detected early CRC, it has also decreased the incidence of CRC through detection and removal of pre-cancerous lesions. Studies have shown that screening for colorectal cancer provided 152 to 313 life-years-gained (LYG) per 1000 forty-year-old individuals.3 Anumber of modalities exist for CRC screening, which can broadly be categorized into stool-based tests and direct visualization tests. Stool-based tests include fecal occult blood testing (FOBT), fecal immunochemical testing (FIT) and stool DNAtesting. Direct visualization tests include endoscopic procedures such as colonoscopy and flexible sigmoidoscopy; and radiographic tests such as CT colonography, which has largely replaced air contrast barium enemas.4 The only reported population-based data for CRC in Pakistan comes from Bhurgri et al. in 2011.5It described Pakistan as a low risk region with an age standardized incidence rate (ASR) world per 100,000 of 7.1 in males and 5.2 in females, but with a much younger age and advanced stage at diagnosis. The ratio for individuals diagnosed with CRC under the age of 40, as oppose to over 40 years, was 3:1, which is much higher than the international average. Noteworthy as well, is an increase in incidence especially among men, noted between the study periods of 1995-1997 and 1997-2002. It ranks 7th in incidence among males, and 8th among females, with tobacco related malignancies topping the list.6 There has since been additional cross-sectional data from Pakistan echoing these findings

  6. Interval cancer rates in the Irish national breast screening programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Katie M; Dwane, Fiona; Kelleher, Tracy; Sharp, Linda; Comber, Harry

    2015-09-01

    To compare interval cancer rates from the Irish breast screening programme, BreastCheck, for the period 2000-2007 with those from other European countries. Data from BreastCheck was linked to National Cancer Registry breast cancer registrations, to calculate numbers of women screened, screen-detected cancers, and interval cancers, by year of screening, in the first and second years after screening, and by initial or subsequent screen. Estimated underlying cancer incidence from the period 1996-1999 inclusive was used to calculate proportionate incidence. We calculated the interval cancer ratio as an alternative measure of the burden of interval cancers. There were 372,658 screening records for 178,147 women in the period 2000-2007. The overall interval rate was 9.6 per 10,000 screens. In the first year after screening, the interval cancer rate was 5.8 per 10,000 screens and this increased to 13.4 in the second year after screening. The screen detection rate for the period was 53.6 per 10,000 screened for all screens combined. Initial screens produced a higher detection rate at 66.9 per 10,000 screened compared with subsequent screens with a screen-detected rate of 41.4 per 10,000 screens. Interval breast cancer rates for the first years of the programme are within acceptable limits and are comparable with those in other European programmes. Nationwide roll-out together with the adoption of digital mammography may have an impact on interval cancer rates in future years. © The Author(s) 2015.

  7. Gastric cancer: prevention, screening and early diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasechnikov, Victor; Chukov, Sergej; Fedorov, Evgeny; Kikuste, Ilze; Leja, Marcis

    2014-10-14

    Gastric cancer continues to be an important healthcare problem from a global perspective. Most of the cases in the Western world are diagnosed at late stages when the treatment is largely ineffective. Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection is a well-established carcinogen for gastric cancer. While lifestyle factors are important, the efficacy of interventions in their modification, as in the use of antioxidant supplements, is unconvincing. No organized screening programs can be found outside Asia (Japan and South Korea). Although several screening approaches have been proposed, including indirect atrophy detection by measuring pepsinogen in the circulation, none of them have so far been implemented, and more study data is required to justify any implementation. Mass eradication of H. pylori in high-risk areas tends to be cost-effective, but its adverse effects and resistance remain a concern. Searches for new screening biomarkers, including microRNA and cancer-autoantibody panels, as well as detection of volatile organic compounds in the breath, are in progress. Endoscopy with a proper biopsy follow-up remains the standard for early detection of cancer and related premalignant lesions. At the same time, new advanced high-resolution endoscopic technologies are showing promising results with respect to diagnosing mucosal lesions visually and targeting each biopsy. New histological risk stratifications (classifications), including OLGA and OLGIM, have recently been developed. This review addresses the current means for gastric cancer primary and secondary prevention, the available and emerging methods for screening, and new developments in endoscopic detection of early lesions of the stomach.

  8. Gastric cancer: Prevention, screening and early diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasechnikov, Victor; Chukov, Sergej; Fedorov, Evgeny; Kikuste, Ilze; Leja, Marcis

    2014-01-01

    Gastric cancer continues to be an important healthcare problem from a global perspective. Most of the cases in the Western world are diagnosed at late stages when the treatment is largely ineffective. Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection is a well-established carcinogen for gastric cancer. While lifestyle factors are important, the efficacy of interventions in their modification, as in the use of antioxidant supplements, is unconvincing. No organized screening programs can be found outside Asia (Japan and South Korea). Although several screening approaches have been proposed, including indirect atrophy detection by measuring pepsinogen in the circulation, none of them have so far been implemented, and more study data is required to justify any implementation. Mass eradication of H. pylori in high-risk areas tends to be cost-effective, but its adverse effects and resistance remain a concern. Searches for new screening biomarkers, including microRNA and cancer-autoantibody panels, as well as detection of volatile organic compounds in the breath, are in progress. Endoscopy with a proper biopsy follow-up remains the standard for early detection of cancer and related premalignant lesions. At the same time, new advanced high-resolution endoscopic technologies are showing promising results with respect to diagnosing mucosal lesions visually and targeting each biopsy. New histological risk stratifications (classifications), including OLGA and OLGIM, have recently been developed. This review addresses the current means for gastric cancer primary and secondary prevention, the available and emerging methods for screening, and new developments in endoscopic detection of early lesions of the stomach. PMID:25320521

  9. Design issues in cancer screening trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, Sue

    2010-10-01

    Randomised controlled trials avoid many of the potential biases associated with the evaluation of cancer screening. Nevertheless there are many issues concerning the design of such trials that require careful consideration and that will influence interpretation of the results. This article discusses issues related to recruitment and randomisation, which will affect the extent to which the population studied, is representative of the eventual target population of a screening programme. It addresses sample size considerations, the use of appropriate outcome measures and the timing of the intervention. Finally, issues related to ensuring appropriate analyses are discussed.

  10. Improving colorectal cancer screening: fact and fantasy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Dam, Jacques

    2008-02-01

    Premalignant diseases of the gastrointestinal tract, such as Barrett's esophagus, long-standing ulcerative colitis, and adenomatous polyps, have a significantly increased risk for development of adenocarcinoma, most often through an intermediate stage of dysplasia. Adenocarcinoma of the colon is the second most common cancer in the United States. Because patients with colorectal cancer often present with advanced disease, the outcomes are associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Effective methods of early detection are essential. As non-polypoid dysplasia is not visible using conventional endoscopy, surveillance of patients with Barrett's esophagus and ulcerative colitis is performed via a system in which multiple random biopsies are obtained at prescribed intervals. Sampling error and missed diagnoses occur frequently and render current screening methods inadequate. Also, the examination of a tissue biopsy is time consuming and costly, and significant intra- and inter-observer variation may occur. The newer methods discussed herein demonstrate the potential to solve these problems by early detection of disease with high sensitivity and specificity. Conventional endoscopy is based on the observation of white light reflected off the tissue surface. Subtle changes in color and shadow reveal structural changes. New developments in optical imaging go beyond white light, exploiting other properties of light. Several promising methods will be discussed at this meeting and shall be briefly discussed below. However, few such imaging modalities have arrived at our clinical practice. Some much more practical methods to improve colorectal cancer screening are currently being evaluated for their clinical impact. These methods seek to overcome limitations other than those of detecting dysplasia not visible under white light endoscopy. The current standard practice of colorectal cancer screening utilizes colonoscopy, an uncomfortable, sometimes difficult medical

  11. Content analysis of news coverage on cancer prevention and screening in Japanese newspapers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyawaki, Rina; Ishii, Kaori; Shibata, Ai; Oka, Koichiro

    2017-01-01

    Objectives The present study investigated articles on cancer prevention published in Japanese newspapers in 2011.Methods A content analysis of news coverage on cancer primary prevention and screening was conducted. Articles which mentioned cancer risk, prevention, and screening were extracted. For all articles on prevention, the newspaper's name, month of publication, and information source were checked. Coding variables for articles on primary prevention included causes of human cancer, risk and/or prevention, and recommended screening criteria. Cancer screening articles were classified according to four coding variables: cancer screening site, subjects for screening, examination interval, and whether to promote the screening.Results A total of 272 articles were identified and subsequently coded as either articles on primary prevention or screening. The number of articles on primary prevention was 208. The focus of these articles was mostly on food/nutrition (n=56), cancer-causing infection (n=40), and smoking (n=32). Alcohol drinking (n=12), exercise/physical activity (n=11), and obesity (n=10), which are also major lifestyle factors for cancer, were rarely mentioned. Moreover, cancer risk was more frequently mentioned than prevention. The recommended criteria for major lifestyle factors were mentioned in 13 articles. Screening was mentioned in 92 articles. Breast cancer screening was the most frequently mentioned (n=31). The screening of colon (n=18), cervical (n=18),stomach (n=15), and lung cancer (n=10), which are recommended by the cancer control act, were mentioned in less than 20 articles. Seven articles on screening indicated subjects and interval. Only 39 articles discussed cancer-screening behaviors.Conclusions Articles on cancer prevention were found to be published in Japanese newspapers. However, the number of articles on both primary prevention and screening was not enough, and there were some disparities in the lifestyle factors and

  12. Mortality reduction from gastric cancer by endoscopic and radiographic screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamashima, Chisato; Shabana, Michiko; Okada, Katsuo; Okamoto, Mikizo; Osaki, Yoneatsu

    2015-12-01

    To evaluate mortality reduction from gastric cancer by endoscopic screening, we undertook a population-based cohort study in which both radiographic and endoscopic screenings for gastric cancer have been carried out. The subjects were selected from the participants of gastric cancer screening in two cities in Japan, Tottori and Yonago, from 2007 to 2008. The subjects were defined as participants aged 40-79 years who had no gastric cancer screening in the previous year. Follow-up of mortality was continued from the date of the first screening to the date of death or up to December 31, 2013. A Cox proportional hazards model was used to estimate the relative risk (RR) of gastric cancer incidence, gastric cancer death, all cancer deaths except gastric cancer death, and all-causes death except gastric cancer death. The number of subjects selected for endoscopic screening was 9950 and that for radiographic screening was 4324. The subjects screened by endoscopy showed a 67% reduction of gastric cancer compared with the subjects screened by radiography (adjusted RR by sex, age group, and resident city = 0.327; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.118-0.908). The adjusted RR of endoscopic screening was 0.968 (95%CI, 0.675-1.387) for all cancer deaths except gastric cancer death, and 0.929 (95%CI, 0.740-1.168) for all-causes death except gastric cancer death. This study indicates that endoscopic screening can reduce gastric cancer mortality by 67% compared with radiographic screening. This is consistent with previous studies showing that endoscopic screening reduces gastric cancer mortality. © 2015 The Authors. Cancer Science published by Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd on behalf of Japanese Cancer Association.

  13. Contributions of the European trials (European randomized screening group) in computed tomography lung cancer screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heuvelmans, Marjolein A; Vliegenthart, Rozemarijn; Oudkerk, Matthijs

    2015-03-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide. In 2011, the largest lung cancer screening trial worldwide, the US National Lung Screening Trial, published a 20% decrease in lung cancer-specific mortality in the computed tomography (CT)-screened group, compared with the group screened by chest x-ray. On the basis of this trial, different US guidelines recently have recommended CT lung cancer screening. However, several questions regarding the implementation of lung cancer screening need to be answered. In Europe, several lung cancer screening trials are ongoing. It is planned to pool the results of the lung cancer screening trials in European randomized lung cancer CT screening (EUCT). By pooling of the data, EUCT hopes to be able to provide additional information for the discussion of some important issues regarding the implementation of lung cancer screening by low-dose CT, including: the determination of the optimal screen population, the comparison between a volume-based and diameter-based nodule management protocol, and the determination of optimal screen intervals.

  14. The Danish randomized lung cancer CT screening trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jesper H; Ashraf, Haseem; Dirksen, Asger

    2009-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Lung cancer screening with low dose computed tomography (CT) has not yet been evaluated in randomized clinical trials, although several are underway. METHODS: In The Danish Lung Cancer Screening Trial, 4104 smokers and previous smokers from 2004 to 2006 were randomized to either...... lung cancer. Ten of these had stage I disease. Eleven of 17 lung cancers at baseline were treated surgically, eight of these by video assisted thoracic surgery resection. CONCLUSIONS: Screening may facilitate minimal invasive treatment and can be performed with a relatively low rate of false......-positive screen results compared with previous studies on lung cancer screening....

  15. Daughter-Initiated Cancer Screening Appeals to Mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosavel, M; Genderson, M W

    2016-12-01

    Youth-initiated health interventions may provide a much needed avenue for intergenerational dissemination of health information among families who bear the greatest burden from unequal distribution of morbidity and mortality. The findings presented in this paper are from a pilot study of the feasibility and impact of female youth-initiated messages (mostly daughters) encouraging adult female relatives (mostly mothers) to obtain cancer screening within low-income African American families living in a Southern US state. Results are compared between an intervention and control group. Intervention group youth (n = 22) were exposed to a 60-min interactive workshop where they were assisted to prepare a factual and emotional appeal to their adult relative to obtain specific screening. The face-to-face workshops were guided by the Elaboration Likelihood Model (ELM) and the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB). Control group girls (n = 18) were only provided with a pamphlet with information about cancer screening and specific steps about how to encourage their relative to obtain screening. Intervention youth (86 %) and adults (82 %) reported that the message was shared while 71 % in the control group reported sharing or receiving the message. Importantly, more women in the intervention group reported that they obtained a screen (e.g., mammogram, Pap smear) directly based on the youth's appeal. These findings can have major implications for youth-initiated health promotion efforts, especially among hard-to-reach populations.

  16. Low Cost Technology for Screening Early Cancerous Lesions of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Low Cost Technology for Screening Early Cancerous Lesions of Oral Cavity in Rural Settings. ... of 1329 tobacco users were motivated to come forward for oral examination ... Keywords: Low cost technology, Oral cancer, Pre‑cancer detection, ...

  17. Impact of colon cancer screening on family history phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newcomb, Polly A; Savu, Anamaria; Phipps, Amanda I; Coghill, Anna E; Yasui, Yutaka

    2012-03-01

    If effective cancer screening is more common in people with a family history of cancer, the relationship between family history and cancer incidence may become distorted. To assess the impact of screening on the association between colorectal cancer family history and risk of colorectal cancer, we developed a model to simulate screening patterns in those with and without a family history. The introduction of screening reduces the apparent risk of colorectal cancer associated with family history in subsequent generations. This reduction becomes more pronounced as the difference in the uptake of screening between those with a family history and those without becomes larger. A result of effective screening is that observed family history of colorectal cancer may no longer match inherited risk, and observed family history may fail to be a strong risk factor. This may have implications for exposure-disease relationships if screening is differentially associated with the exposure.

  18. Fecal Molecular Markers for Colorectal Cancer Screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rani Kanthan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite multiple screening techniques, including colonoscopy, flexible sigmoidoscopy, radiological imaging, and fecal occult blood testing, colorectal cancer remains a leading cause of death. As these techniques improve, their sensitivity to detect malignant lesions is increasing; however, detection of precursor lesions remains problematic and has generated a lack of general acceptance for their widespread usage. Early detection by an accurate, noninvasive, cost-effective, simple-to-use screening technique is central to decreasing the incidence and mortality of this disease. Recent advances in the development of molecular markers in faecal specimens are encouraging for its use as a screening tool. Genetic mutations and epigenetic alterations that result from the carcinogenetic process can be detected by coprocytobiology in the colonocytes exfoliated from the lesion into the fecal matter. These markers have shown promising sensitivity and specificity in the detection of both malignant and premalignant lesions and are gaining popularity as a noninvasive technique that is representative of the entire colon. In this paper, we summarize the genetic and epigenetic fecal molecular markers that have been identified as potential targets in the screening of colorectal cancer.

  19. Integrated Cancer Screening Performance Indicators: A Systematic Review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvina C Mema

    Full Text Available Cancer screening guidelines recommend that women over 50 years regularly be screened for breast, cervical and colorectal cancers. Population-based screening programs use performance indicators to monitor uptake for each type of cancer screening, but integrated measures of adherence across multiple screenings are rarely reported. Integrated measures of adherence that combine the three cancers cannot be inferred from measures of screening uptake of each cancer alone; nevertheless, they can help discern the proportion of women who, having received one or two types of screening, may be more amenable to receiving one additional screen, compared to those who haven't had any screening and may experience barriers to access screening such as distance, language, and so on. The focus of our search was to identify indicators of participation in the three cancers, therefore our search strategy included synonyms of integrated screening, cervical, breast and colorectal cancer screening. Additionally, we limited our search to studies published between 2000 and 2015, written in English, and pertaining to females over 50 years of age. The following databases were searched: MEDLINE, EMBASE, EBM Reviews, PubMed, PubMed Central, CINAHL, and Nursing Reference Center, as well as grey literature resources. Of the 78 initially retrieved articles, only 7 reported summary measures of screening across the three cancers. Overall, adherence to cervical, breast and colorectal cancer screening ranged from around 8% to 43%. Our review confirms that reports of screening adherence across breast, cervical and colorectal cancers are rare. This is surprising, as integrated cancer screening measures can provide additional insight into the needs of the target population that can help craft strategies to improve adherence to all three screenings.

  20. Integrated Cancer Screening Performance Indicators: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mema, Silvina C; Yang, Huiming; Vaska, Marcus; Elnitsky, Sherry; Jiang, Zhichang

    2016-01-01

    Cancer screening guidelines recommend that women over 50 years regularly be screened for breast, cervical and colorectal cancers. Population-based screening programs use performance indicators to monitor uptake for each type of cancer screening, but integrated measures of adherence across multiple screenings are rarely reported. Integrated measures of adherence that combine the three cancers cannot be inferred from measures of screening uptake of each cancer alone; nevertheless, they can help discern the proportion of women who, having received one or two types of screening, may be more amenable to receiving one additional screen, compared to those who haven't had any screening and may experience barriers to access screening such as distance, language, and so on. The focus of our search was to identify indicators of participation in the three cancers, therefore our search strategy included synonyms of integrated screening, cervical, breast and colorectal cancer screening. Additionally, we limited our search to studies published between 2000 and 2015, written in English, and pertaining to females over 50 years of age. The following databases were searched: MEDLINE, EMBASE, EBM Reviews, PubMed, PubMed Central, CINAHL, and Nursing Reference Center, as well as grey literature resources. Of the 78 initially retrieved articles, only 7 reported summary measures of screening across the three cancers. Overall, adherence to cervical, breast and colorectal cancer screening ranged from around 8% to 43%. Our review confirms that reports of screening adherence across breast, cervical and colorectal cancers are rare. This is surprising, as integrated cancer screening measures can provide additional insight into the needs of the target population that can help craft strategies to improve adherence to all three screenings.

  1. Impact of endoscopic screening on mortality reduction from gastric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamashima, Chisato; Ogoshi, Kazuei; Narisawa, Rintarou; Kishi, Tomoki; Kato, Toshiyuki; Fujita, Kazutaka; Sano, Masatoshi; Tsukioka, Satoshi

    2015-02-28

    To investigate mortality reduction from gastric cancer based on the results of endoscopic screening. The study population consisted of participants of gastric cancer screening by endoscopy, regular radiography, and photofluorography at Niigata city in 2005. The observed numbers of cumulative deaths from gastric cancers and other cancers were accumulated by linkage with the Niigata Prefectural Cancer Registry. The standardized mortality ratio (SMR) of gastric cancer and other cancer deaths in each screening group was calculated by applying the mortality rate of the reference population. Based on the results calculated from the mortality rate of the population of Niigata city, the SMRs of gastric cancer death were 0.43 (95%CI: 0.30-0.57) for the endoscopic screening group, 0.68 (95%CI: 0.55-0.79) for the regular radiographic screening group, and 0.85 (95%CI: 0.71-0.94) for the photofluorography screening group. The mortality reduction from gastric cancer was higher in the endoscopic screening group than in the regular radiographic screening group despite the nearly equal mortality rates of all cancers except gastric cancer. The 57% mortality reduction from gastric cancer might indicate the effectiveness of endoscopic screening for gastric cancer. Further studies and prudent interpretation of results are needed.

  2. Responses to Overdiagnosis in Thyroid Cancer Screening among Korean Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sangeun; Lee, Yoon Young; Yoon, Hyo Joong; Choi, Eunji; Suh, Mina; Park, Boyoung; Jun, Jae Kwan; Kim, Yeol; Choi, Kui Son

    2016-07-01

    Communicating the harms and benefits of thyroid screening is necessary to help individuals decide on whether or not to undergo thyroid cancer screening. This study was conducted to assess changes in thyroid cancer screening intention in response to receiving information about overdiagnosis and to determine factors with the greatest influence thereon. Data were acquired from subjects included in the 2013 Korean National Cancer Screening Survey (KNCSS), a nationwide, population-based, cross-sectional survey. Of the 4,100 respondents in the 2013 KNCSS, women were randomly subsampled and an additional face-to-face interview was conducted. Finally, a total of 586 female subjects were included in this study. Intention to undergo thyroid cancer screening was assessed before and after receiving information on overdiagnosis. Prior awareness of overdiagnosis in thyroid cancer screening was 27.8%. The majority of subjects intended to undergo thyroid cancer screening before and after receiving information on overdiagnosis (87% and 74%, respectively). Only a small number of subjects changed their intention to undergo thyroid cancer screening from positive to negative after receiving information on overdiagnosis. Women of higher education level and Medical Aid Program recipients reported being significantly more likely to change their intention to undergo thyroid cancer screening afterreceiving information on overdiagnosis,whilewomen with stronger beliefs on the efficacy of cancer screening were less likely to change their intention. Women in Korea appeared to be less concerned about overdiagnosis when deciding whether or not to undergo thyroid cancer screening.

  3. Factors Affecting Preferences of Iranian Women for Breast Cancer Screening Based on Marketing Mix Components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pourfarzi, Farhad; Fouladi, Nasrin; Amani, Firouz; Ahari, Saeid Sadegieh; Roshani, Zohre; Alimohammadi, Sara

    2016-01-01

    According to recent statistics, the breast cancer rate is growing fast in developing countries. In North West Iran, the incidence of breast cancer after esophageal and gastric cancers has the highest rate. Previous studies have also indicated that women in this region show reluctance to do breast cancer screening. There is a great need for change to promote breast cancer screening among women. Social marketing is a discipline that uses the systematic application of commercial marketing techniques to promote the adoption of behavior by the target audience. In the present qualitative study, thirty-two women with breast cancer were interviewed about their experiences of breast cancer screening. A semi-structured interview guide was designed to elicit information specific to the 4 P's in social marketing. Three main categories emerged from the analysis: price, service and promotion. Subcategories related to these main categories included factors effective in increasing and decreasing cost of screening, current and desirable features of screening services, and weakness of promotion. Screening programs should be designed to be of low cost, to meet patients' needs and should be provided in suitable places. Furthermore, it is essential that the cultural beliefs of society be improved through education. It seems necessary to design an executive protocol for breast cancer screening at different levels of primary health care to increase the women's willingness to undergo screening.

  4. Dutch digital breast cancer screening: implications for breast cancer care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmers, Johanna M; den Heeten, Gerard J; Adang, Eddy M; Otten, Johannes D; Verbeek, André L; Broeders, Mireille J

    2012-12-01

    In comparison to other European population-based breast cancer screening programmes, the Dutch programme has a low referral rate, similar breast cancer detection and a high breast cancer mortality reduction. The referral rate in the Netherlands has increased over time and is expected to rise further, mainly following nationwide introduction of digital mammography, completed in 2010. This study explores the consequences of the introduction of digital mammography on the balance between referral rate, detection of breast cancer, diagnostic work-up and associated costs. Detailed information on diagnostic work-up (chart review) was obtained from referred women (n = 988) in 2000-06 (100% analogue mammography) and 2007 (75% digital mammography) in Nijmegen, the Netherlands. The average referral rate increased from 15 (2000-06) to 34 (2007) per 1000 women screened. The number of breast cancers detected increased from 5.5 to 7.8 per 1000 screens, whereas the positive predictive value fell from 37% to 23%. A sharp rise in diagnostic work-up procedures and total diagnostic costs was seen. On the other hand, costs of a single work-up slightly decreased, as less surgical biopsies were performed. Our study shows that a low referral rate in combination with the introduction of digital mammography affects the balance between referral rate and detection rate and can substantially influence breast cancer care and associated costs. Referral rates in the Netherlands are now more comparable to other countries. This effect is therefore of value in countries where implementation of digital breast cancer screening has just started or is still under discussion.

  5. Colorectal cancer screening and prevention in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chacko, Lyssa; Macaron, Carole; Burke, Carol A

    2015-03-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the leading cancers and cause of cancer deaths in American women and men. Females and males share a similar lifetime cumulative risk of CRC however, substantial differences in risk factors, tumor biology, and effectiveness of cancer prevention services have been observed between them. This review distills the evidence documenting the unique variation observed between the genders relating to CRC risk factors, screening and prevention. Consistent evidence throughout the world demonstrates that women reach equivalent levels of adenomas and CRC as men but it occurs nearly a decade later in life than in their male counterparts. Women have a higher proportion of tumors which are hypermethylated, have microsatellite instability and located in the proximal colon suggesting the serrated pathway may be of greater consequence in them than in men. Other CRC risk factors such as smoking, diet and obesity have been shown to have disparate effects on women which may related to interactions between estrogen exposure, body fat distribution, and the biologic underpinnings of their tumors. There is data showing the uptake, choice, and efficacy of different CRC screening methods in women is dissimilar to that in men. The mortality benefit from FOBT, sigmoidoscopy, and protection from interval CRC by colonoscopy appears to be lower in women than men. A greater understanding of these gender idiosyncrasies will facilitate an personalized approach to CRC prevention and should ultimately lead to a reduced burden of disease.

  6. BREAST CANCER IN SLOVENIA: EPIDEMIOLOGY AND SCREENING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja Primic Žakelj

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. Breast is the most frequent cancer site in Slovenian female population. In the year 2000 there were 932 new breast cancer cases registered (91.2/100,000, the incidence is expected to increase in the next ten years. Primary prevention includes general recommendations for healthy life style, e.g. avoidance of obesity, diet, physical activity and moderate alcohol consumption. Randomised controlled trials conducted in the USA, Canada, Scotland and Sweden have shown that regular mammography, alone or in combination with clinical examination, is effective in reducing mortality for about 25% in women over the age of 50, and much less in younger population. However, mammography screening has several drawbacks, the major being its tendency towards false positive and false negative results with all their potential psychosocial consequences. High quality assurance and control, as well as effective and readily available diagnostics and treatment, all of which demand high investments, are indispensable for good results.Conclusions. In Slovenia there are standards for breast cancer screening units, but their implementation in every day’s work is still a problem. In any case, breast cancer control could be achieved only by combined efforts directed into primary prevention and early detection, as well as by improving availability of effective treatment.

  7. Asian and Hispanic Americans' cancer fatalism and colon cancer screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jun, Jungmi; Oh, Kyeung Mi

    2013-03-01

    To explore fatalistic attributions of colon cancer development among Asian and Hispanic Americans in comparison with non-Hispanic whites; also to examine the impacts of fatalism on adherence to the colon cancer screening guideline. For the analysis, the 2005 Health Information National Trends Survey data were employed. Both Asian and Hispanic Americans were more likely to make fatalistic attribution and were less likely to follow the guideline than whites. Particularly for Asians, fatalism was a significant predictor for not adhering to the guideline. These findings emphasize the need for cultural interventions to disrupt fatalistic attitudes towards colon cancer preventions.

  8. OPPORTUNISTIC CERVICAL CANCER SCREENING IN PREGNANCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radha Bai Prabhu T

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Cervical cancer is the most common malignancy diagnosed during pregnancy. In developing countries where organized screening programmes are lacking, antenatal clinics may provide an opportunity for screening. Objectives: The aim of this study was to analyse the prevalence and management of abnormal cervical cytology in pregnancy. Methodology: This was a prospective study conducted at the Meenakshi Medical College and RI, Kancheepuram, India, from July 2013 to June 2014. Convenience sampling technique was used. After adequate counselling, 300 antenatal mothers between 12 and 34 weeks of gestation were screened with conventional Pap smear. Colposcopy directed biopsy was taken where and when necessary. Results: Among the 300 pregnant women, 90 (30% were primigravidae and 210 (70% were multigravidae. 80% were between 21 and 30 years of age. 290 (96.6% women have never had a pap smear in the past. Conventional Pap smear was taken at 21 weeks of gestation in 20% of cases. ASCUS , LSIL and HSIL were reported in one case each. In those with LSIL and HSIL , Colposcopy directed biopsy was reported as CIN 1 and CIN 2 respectively. These two cases were kept under observation during the antenatal period. The CIN II lesion persisted on postpartum follow up and was treated with LLETZ. Conclusion: In countries like India Pap smear screening during pregnancy is worthwhile and the antenatal clinics provide ample opportunities for the screening.

  9. Optimal screening schedules for prevention of metastatic cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanin, Leonid; Pavlova, Lyudmila

    2013-01-30

    We develop methodological, mathematical, statistical, and computational approaches to constructing schedules of cancer screening that maximize the probability that by the time of primary tumor detection it has not yet metastasized. Solving this problem is based on a comprehensive mechanistic model of cancer progression. We apply the model with realistic parameters and the screening optimization methodology to mammographic screening for breast cancer within the American female population. We uncover some general patterns of optimal screening schedules. We show that optimization of screening regimens leads to a significant reduction in the probability of detecting breast cancer that has already disseminated. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Individualized Approach to Cancer Screening in Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kimberley T; Harris, Russell P; Schoenborn, Nancy L

    2018-02-01

    The primary goal of cancer screening is early detection of cancer to reduce cancer-specific mortality and morbidity. The benefits of screening in older adults are uncertain due to paucity of evidence. Extrapolating data from younger populations, evidence suggests that the benefit occurs years later from the time of initial screening and therefore may not be applicable in those older adults with limited life expectancy. Contrast this with the harms of screening, which are more immediate and increase with age and comorbidities. An individualized approach to cancer screening takes these factors into consideration, allowing for thoughtful decision making for older adults. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Upward communication about cancer screening: adolescent daughter to mother.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosavel, Maghboeba; Ports, Katie A

    2015-01-01

    Substantial breast and cervical cancer disparities exist in the United States, particularly among African American women with low socioeconomic status. There is considerable potential for discussions about cancer prevention between mothers and daughters. However, upward communication, from child to parent, remains a relatively novel research area, and it remains unclear how receptive mothers would be to messages from their daughter about cancer, a topic that may be considered culturally inappropriate for daughters to initiate. In this study, the authors simulated cancer message delivery to daughters and then conducted direct observation of daughters as they recalled and shared the message with their mother or female elder. The authors found that daughters were able to successfully recall and deliver a cancer appeal to their mother and mothers were generally receptive to this message. Not only did mothers listen to their daughters' appeals, but also daughters' knowledge of cancer was considerably improved by the opportunity to educate her female elder. Moreover, daughters' nonverbal communication suggested a surprisingly relaxed demeanor. The potential of young people to have an effect on the screening behavior of their female elders is very promising in terms of reducing cancer disparities.

  12. Overdiagnosis in mammographic screening for breast cancer in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Puliti, Donella; Duffy, Stephen W; Miccinesi, Guido

    2012-01-01

    Overdiagnosis, the detection through screening of a breast cancer that would never have been identified in the lifetime of the woman, is an adverse outcome of screening. We aimed to determine an estimate range for overdiagnosis of breast cancer in European mammographic service screening programmes....

  13. Towards improving cervical cancer screening in Nigeria: A review of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cervical cancer screening is the key to reducing the incidence and mortality of cervical cancer in developing countries. In the absence of a national screening program, healthcare givers in Nigeria are encouraged to routinely inform and screen eligible women. This review aims at equipping health workers for this task by ...

  14. [Cervical cancer screening in Switzerland - current practice and future challenges].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Untiet, Sarah; Schmidt, Nicole; Low, Nicola; Petignat, Patrick

    2013-04-01

    At the beginning of the 20th Century, cervical cancer was the leading cause of death from cancer in women. A marked decline in cervical cancer has been observed since the 1960s, in parallel with the introduction of the Papanicolau (Pap) test as a cytological screening method. Today, Pap smear screening is still the most widely used tool for cervical cancer prevention. Testing for human papillomavirus (HPV) in cervical specimens or a combination of Pap and HPV testing are also now available. In this article we compare current guidelines for cervical cancer screening in Switzerland with those in other European countries. In view of the opportunities offered by HPV testing and, since 2008, HPV vaccination, current guidelines for cervical cancer screening should be updated. Both the choice of screening tests and general organization of cervical cancer screening should be reviewed.

  15. Psychological distress associated with cancer screening: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chad-Friedman, Emma; Coleman, Sarah; Traeger, Lara N; Pirl, William F; Goldman, Roberta; Atlas, Steven J; Park, Elyse R

    2017-10-15

    Current national cancer screening recommendations include the potential risk of psychological harm related to screening. However, data on the relation of psychological distress to cancer screening is limited. The authors conducted a systematic review to assess psychological distress associated with cancer screening procedures. Studies that administered measures of psychological distress between 2 weeks before and 1 month after the screening procedure were included. In total, 22 eligible studies met criteria for review, including 13 observational trials and 9 randomized controlled trials. Eligible studies used a broad range of validated and unvalidated measures. Anxiety was the most commonly assessed construct and was measured using the State Trait Anxiety Inventory. Studies included breast, colorectal, prostate, lung, and cervical screening procedures. Distress was low across procedures, with the exception of colorectal screening. Distress did not vary according to the time at which distress was measured. None of the studies were conducted exclusively with the intention of assessing distress at the time of screening. Evidence of low distress during the time of cancer screening suggests that distress might not be a widespread barrier to screening among adults who undergo screening. However, more studies are needed using validated measures of distress to further understand the extent to which screening may elicit psychological distress and impede adherence to national screening recommendations. Cancer 2017;123:3882-94. © 2017 American Cancer Society. © 2017 American Cancer Society.

  16. Sociodemographic gradients in breast and cervical cancer screening in Korea: the Korean National Cancer Screening Survey (KNCSS) 2005-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Mi Jin; Park, Eun-Cheol; Choi, Kui Son; Jun, Jae Kwan; Lee, Hoo-Yeon

    2011-06-17

    Cancer screening rates in Korea for five cancer types have increased steadily since 2002. With regard to the life-time cancer screening rates in 2009 according to cancer sites, the second highest was breast cancer (78.1%) and the third highest was cervical cancer (76.1%). Despite overall increases in the screening rate, disparities in breast and cervical cancer screening, based on sociodemographic characteristics, still exist. Data from 4,139 women aged 40 to 74 years from the 2005 to 2009 Korea National Cancer Screening Survey were used to analyze the relationship between sociodemographic characteristics and receiving mammograms and Pap smears. The main outcome measures were ever having had a mammogram and ever having had a Pap smear. Using these items of information, we classified women into those who had had both types of screening, only one screening type, and neither screening type. We used logistic regression to investigate relationships between screening history and sociodemographic characteristics of the women. Being married, having a higher education, a rural residence, and private health insurance were significantly associated with higher rates of breast and cervical cancer screening after adjusting for age and sociodemographic factors. Household income was not significantly associated with mammograms or Pap smears after adjusting for age and sociodemographic factors. Disparities in breast and cervical cancer screening associated with low sociodemographic status persist in Korea.

  17. Performance of gastric cancer screening by endoscopy testing through the National Cancer Screening Program of Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Kui Son; Jun, Jae Kwan; Lee, Hoo-Yeon; Park, Sohee; Jung, Kyu Won; Han, Mi Ah; Choi, Il Ju; Park, Eun-Cheol

    2011-08-01

    Recent reports have proposed endoscopy as an alternative strategy to radiography for gastric cancer (GC) screening. The current study presents the first reported population-based data from a large GC screening program that provided endoscopic examinations. A retrospective population-based study was conducted using the National Cancer Screening Program (NCSP) database. We evaluated GC detection rates, sensitivity, specificity, and the positive predictive value of an endoscopic screening program for the average-risk Korean population, aged 40 years and older, who underwent the NCSP from 2002 to 2005. The detection rates of GC by endoscopy in the first and subsequent rounds were 2.71 and 2.14 per 1000 examinations, respectively. Localized cancer accounted for 45.7% of screen-detected GC cases. The sensitivity of endoscopy was 69% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 66.3-71.8). The endoscopic screening was less sensitive for the detection of localized GC (65.7%, 95% CI = 61.8-69.5) than for regional or distant GC (73.6%, 95% CI = 67.4-79.8). In the multiple logistic models for localized GC and all combined GC, the odds ratio (OR) of sensitivity for the undifferentiated type was statistically significantly higher than that for the differentiated type, whereas the OR of sensitivity for the mixed type was lower than that for the differentiated type. The sensitivity of the endoscopic test in a population-based screening was slightly higher for the detection of regional or distant GC than for localized GC. Further evaluation of the impact of endoscopic screening should take into account the balance of cost and mortality reduction. © 2011 Japanese Cancer Association.

  18. Lung cancer screening by low-dose spiral computed tomography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Klaveren, RJ; Habbema, JDF; Pedersen, JH; de Koning, HJ; Oudkerk, M; Hoogsteden, HC

    2001-01-01

    The poor prognosis of lung cancer has barely changed in the last decades, but the prognosis is better when the disease is detected earlier. Lung cancer screening by chest radiography did not lead to a decrease in lung cancer mortality, presumably because the chest radiograph is a poor screening tool

  19. Skin Cancer Screening (PDQ®)—Patient Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    Having a skin exam to screen for skin cancer has not been shown to decrease your chance of dying from skin cancer. Learn about this and other tests that have been studied to detect or screen for skin cancer in this expert reviewed summary.

  20. Review article: Prostate cancer screening using prostate specific ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Prostate cancer is the commonest cancer among men in Nigeria and early detection is key to cure and survival but its screening through prostate specific antigen (PSA) has remain controversial in literature. Screening with prostate specific antigen (PSA) has led to more men diagnosed with prostate cancer than ...

  1. Barriers to utilization of cervical cancer screening services among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cervical cancer (CC) is the second most commonly diagnosed cancer among women of reproductive age group; yet screening for early detection of the disease among them is not a common practice in Nigeria. This study therefore, investigated the barriers to utilization of cervical cancer screening service among women of ...

  2. Breast and Cervical Cancers Awareness and Screening Practices ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Only 4/11(36.4%) of those who knew something about cervical cancer mentioned vaginal examination for cervical cancer screening and only one (0.1%) respondent mentioned Pap smear. The poor level of awareness and screening practices for breast and cervical cancers among women in these rural communities ...

  3. Stomach (Gastric) Cancer Screening (PDQ®)—Patient Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    There is no standard or routine screening test for stomach (gastric) cancer. Stomach (gastric) cancer is not common in the U.S. Learn about tests that have been studied to detect or screen for stomach cancer in this expert-reviewed summary.

  4. Population based screening for prostate cancer : tumor characteristics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I.W. van der Cruijsen (Ingrid W)

    2008-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ The European Randomized study of Screening for Prostate Cancer is a multi-centre randomized controlled trial to examine whether screening for prostate cancer has an effect on prostate cancer mortality. The total study cohort consists of 268.000 men in eight

  5. Cancer screening in the United States, 2017: A review of current American Cancer Society guidelines and current issues in cancer screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Robert A; Andrews, Kimberly S; Brooks, Durado; Fedewa, Stacey A; Manassaram-Baptiste, Deana; Saslow, Debbie; Brawley, Otis W; Wender, Richard C

    2017-03-01

    Answer questions and earn CME/CNE Each year, the American Cancer Society publishes a summary of its guidelines for early cancer detection, data and trends in cancer screening rates, and select issues related to cancer screening. In this issue of the journal, the authors summarize current American Cancer Society cancer screening guidelines, describe an update of their guideline for using human papillomavirus vaccination for cancer prevention, describe updates in US Preventive Services Task Force recommendations for breast and colorectal cancer screening, discuss interim findings from the UK Collaborative Trial on Ovarian Cancer Screening, and provide the latest data on utilization of cancer screening from the National Health Interview Survey. CA Cancer J Clin 2017;67:100-121. © 2017 American Cancer Society. © 2017 American Cancer Society.

  6. Effect of endoscopy screening on stage at gastric cancer diagnosis: results of the National Cancer Screening Programme in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, K S; Jun, J K; Suh, M; Park, B; Noh, D K; Song, S H; Jung, K W; Lee, H-Y; Choi, I J; Park, E-C

    2015-02-03

    Although gastric cancer screening is common among countries with a high prevalence of gastric cancer, there is little data to support the effectiveness of this screening. This study was designed to determine the differences in stage at diagnosis of gastric cancer according to the screening history and screening method (upper gastrointestinal series (UGIS) vs endoscopy). The study population was derived from the National Cancer Screening Programme (NCSP), a nationwide organised screening programme in Korea. The study cohort consisted of 19 168 gastric cancer patients who had been diagnosed in 2007 and who were invited to undergo gastric cancer screening via the NCSP between 2002 and 2007. Compared with never-screened patients, the odds ratios for being diagnosed with localised gastric cancer in endoscopy-screened patients and UGIS-screened patients were 2.10 (95% CI=1.90-2.33) and 1.24 (95% CI=1.13-1.36), respectively. Screening by endoscopy was more strongly associated with a diagnosis of localised stage gastric cancer compared with screening by UGIS.

  7. Adherence to cervical cancer screening in an Italian SLE cohort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Talarico

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Papanicolau (Pap smear abnormalities are more frequently observed in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE respect to the general population. The primary objective of the present study was to evaluate the adherence to cervical cancer (CC screening in an Italian cohort of SLE patients and, secondly, to evaluate the disease-related factors possibly influencing the patients’ behavior. Methods: Consecutive 25 to 64 year old SLE patients and aged- matched healthy women were enrolled for the study. All patients were interviewed during ambulatory visits, at admission to the clinic or by a telephone contact; disease related variables were also collected from the clinical charts. Results: 140 SLE patients (mean age 48.3±12 years and 70 controls matched for demographic and sociocultural characteristics were enrolled. Ninety-three SLE patients (66.4% declared to perform the Pap test at least every three years (23.6% yearly and 42.8% when asked by the screening programs while 47 (33.6% did not perform regular CC screening (16.4% never did the test and 17.1% only occasionally. No significant differences were observed between patients and controls in cancer screening adherence. No significant associations were observed between the screening program behaviours and disease-related variables. Conclusions: Despite the growing evidence of an increased risk of CC in SLE, and regardless of the broad availability of screening programs and official recommendations, our results show insufficient CC surveillance among SLE patients and emphasize to rheumatologists and/or general practitioners the importance to discuss with patients this aspect during routine evaluations in order to encourage compliance to the recommended preventive measures.

  8. Current issues and future perspectives of gastric cancer screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamashima, Chisato

    2014-01-01

    Gastric cancer remains the second leading cause of cancer death worldwide. About half of the incidence of gastric cancer is observed in East Asian countries, which show a higher mortality than other countries. The effectiveness of 3 new gastric cancer screening techniques, namely, upper gastrointestinal endoscopy, serological testing, and “screen and treat” method were extensively reviewed. Moreover, the phases of development for cancer screening were analyzed on the basis of the biomarker development road map. Several observational studies have reported the effectiveness of endoscopic screening in reducing mortality from gastric cancer. On the other hand, serologic testing has mainly been used for targeting the high-risk group for gastric cancer. To date, the effectiveness of new techniques for gastric cancer screening has remained limited. However, endoscopic screening is presently in the last trial phase of development before their introduction to population-based screening. To effectively introduce new techniques for gastric cancer screening in a community, incidence and mortality reduction from gastric cancer must be initially and thoroughly evaluated by conducting reliable studies. In addition to effectiveness evaluation, the balance of benefits and harms must be carefully assessed before introducing these new techniques for population-based screening. PMID:25320514

  9. Current issues and future perspectives of gastric cancer screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamashima, Chisato

    2014-10-14

    Gastric cancer remains the second leading cause of cancer death worldwide. About half of the incidence of gastric cancer is observed in East Asian countries, which show a higher mortality than other countries. The effectiveness of 3 new gastric cancer screening techniques, namely, upper gastrointestinal endoscopy, serological testing, and "screen and treat" method were extensively reviewed. Moreover, the phases of development for cancer screening were analyzed on the basis of the biomarker development road map. Several observational studies have reported the effectiveness of endoscopic screening in reducing mortality from gastric cancer. On the other hand, serologic testing has mainly been used for targeting the high-risk group for gastric cancer. To date, the effectiveness of new techniques for gastric cancer screening has remained limited. However, endoscopic screening is presently in the last trial phase of development before their introduction to population-based screening. To effectively introduce new techniques for gastric cancer screening in a community, incidence and mortality reduction from gastric cancer must be initially and thoroughly evaluated by conducting reliable studies. In addition to effectiveness evaluation, the balance of benefits and harms must be carefully assessed before introducing these new techniques for population-based screening.

  10. Men and women: beliefs about cancer and about screening

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sach, Tracey H; Whynes, David K

    2009-01-01

    Cancer screening programmes in England are publicly-funded. Professionals' beliefs in the public health benefits of screening can conflict with individuals' entitlements to exercise informed judgement over whether or not to...

  11. European randomized lung cancer screening trials: Post NLST

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Field, JK; Klaveren, R; Pedersen, JH

    2013-01-01

    Overview of the European randomized lung cancer CT screening trials (EUCT) is presented with regard to the implementation of CT screening in Europe; post NLST. All seven principal investigators completed a questionnaire on the epidemiological, radiological, and nodule management aspects...

  12. Systematic Screening at the Elementary Level: Considerations for Exploring and Installing Universal Behavior Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oakes, Wendy Peia; Lane, Kathleen Lynne; Ennis, Robin Parks

    2016-01-01

    This descriptive study reports data from one elementary school whose leadership team explored and installed systematic behavior screening as part of their tiered model of prevention. The authors compared student performance on two school-selected screening tools: the Student Risk Screening Scale for Internalizing and Externalizing (SRSS-IE) and…

  13. Colorectal Cancer Screening in Inflammatory Bowel Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sengupta, Neil; Yee, Eric; Feuerstein, Joseph D

    2016-04-01

    Patients with long-standing ulcerative colitis (UC) or Crohn's colitis are at increased risk of developing colorectal cancer (CRC). Given that most cases of CRC are thought to arise from dysplasia, previous guidelines have recommended endoscopic surveillance with random biopsies obtained from all segments of the colon involved by endoscopic or microscopic inflammation. However, recent evidence has suggested that the majority of dysplastic lesions in patients with inflammatory disease (IBD) are visible, and data have been supportive of chromoendoscopy with targeted biopsies of visible lesions versus traditional random biopsies. This review article will discuss the risk of colon cancer in patients with IBD, as well as current recommendations for CRC screening and surveillance in patients with UC or Crohn's colitis.

  14. Breast and cervical cancer screening behaviours among colorectal cancer survivors in Nova Scotia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corkum, M.; Urquhart, R.; Kephart, G.; Hayden, J.A.; Porter, G.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose We analyzed patterns and factors associated with receipt of breast and cervical cancer screening in a cohort of colorectal cancer survivors. Methods Individuals diagnosed with colorectal cancer in Nova Scotia between January 2001 and December 2005 were eligible for inclusion. Receipt of breast and cervical cancer screening was determined using administrative data. General-population age restrictions were used in the analysis (breast: 40–69 years; cervical: 21–75 years). Kaplan–Meier and Cox proportional hazards models were used to assess time to first screen. Results Of 318 and 443 colorectal cancer survivors eligible for the breast and cervical cancer screening analysis respectively, 30.1% [95% confidence interval (ci): 21.2% to 39.0%] never received screening mammography, and 47.9% (95% ci: 37.8% to 58.0%) never received cervical cancer screening during the study period. Receipt of screening before the colorectal cancer diagnosis was strongly associated with receipt of screening after diagnosis (hazard ratio for breast cancer screening: 4.71; 95% ci: 3.42 to 6.51; hazard ratio for cervical cancer screening: 6.83; 95% ci: 4.58 to 10.16). Conclusions Many colorectal cancer survivors within general-population screening age recommendations did not receive breast and cervical cancer screening. Future research should focus on survivors who meet age recommendations for population-based cancer screening. PMID:25302037

  15. Intermittent attendance at breast cancer screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Padraic Fleming

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background. To determine why women skip rounds and factors influencing return of previous non attenders (PNAs to breast screening. Design and methods. Retrospective, quantitative, structured questionnaire posted to 2500 women. First PNAs did not attend their first screening appointment in 2007/2008 but then attended in 2010; First Controls first attended in 2010 without missed previous appointments. Women who attended screening in 2006 or earlier then skipped a round but returned in 2010 were Subsequent PNAs; Subsequent Controls attended all appointments.Results. More First Controls than First PNAs had family history of cancer (72.7% vs 63.2%; P=0.003; breast cancer (31.3% vs 24.8%; P=0.04. More PNAs lived rurally; more First PNAs had 3rd level education (33.2% vs 23.6%; P=0.002 and fewer had private insurance than First Controls (57.7% vs 64.8%; P=0.04. Excellent/good health was reported in First PNAs and First Controls (82.9% vs 83.2%, but fewer Subsequent PNAs than Subsequent Controls (72.7% vs 84.9%; P=0.000. Common considerations at time of missed appointment were had mammogram elsewhere (33% First PNA and postponed to next round (16% First PNA, 18.8% Subsequent PNA. Considerations when returning to screening were similar for First PNAs and Subsequent PNAs: I am older (35.4%, 29.6%, I made sure I remembered (29%, 23.6%, could reschedule (17.6%, 20.6%, illness of more concern (16.5%, 19%. More First PNAs stated my family/friends advised (22.3% vs 15.2% or my GP (12.6% vs 4.6% advised me to attend, heard good things about BreastCheck (28.8% vs 13.6%.Conclusions. Intermittent attenders do not fit socio-demographic patterns of non-attenders; GP recommendation and word of mouth were important in women’s return to screening. Fear and anxiety seem to act as a screening facilitator rather than an inhibitor.

  16. The association between general practitioners' attitudes towards breast cancer screening and women's screening participation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Line Flytkjær; Mukai, Thomas Ostersen; Andersen, Berit; Vedsted, Peter

    2012-06-18

    Breast cancer screening in Denmark is organised by the health services in the five regions. Although general practitioners (GPs) are not directly involved in the screening process, they are often the first point of contact to the health care system and thus play an important advisory role. No previous studies, in a health care setting like the Danish system, have investigated the association between GPs' attitudes towards breast cancer screening and women's participation in the screening programme. Data on women's screening participation was obtained from the regional screening authorities. Data on GPs' attitudes towards breast cancer screening was taken from a previous survey among GPs in the Central Denmark Region. This study included women aged 50-69 years who were registered with a singlehanded GP who had participated in the survey. The survey involved 67 singlehanded GPs with a total of 13,288 women on their lists. Five GPs (7%) had a negative attitude towards breast cancer screening. Among registered women, 81% participated in the first screening round. Multivariate analyses revealed that women registered with a GP with a negative attitude towards breast cancer screening were 17% (95% CI: 2-34%) more likely to be non-participants compared with women registered with a GP with a positive attitude towards breast cancer screening. The GPs' attitudes may influence the participation rate even in a system where GPs are not directly involved in the screening process. However, further studies are needed to investigate this association.

  17. [New guidelines in regard to cervical cancer screening].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas-Hernández, Víctor Manuel; Acosta-Altamirano, Gustavo; Moreno-Eutimio, Mario Adán; Vargas-Aguilar, Víctor Manuel

    2014-01-01

    Cancer screening programs have been successful in reducing the incidence and mortality due to cervical cancer. For more than a decade, the human papillomavirus test has been recommended as part of these programs, however, Pap tests is not currently recommended for women 65 years of age who participated adequately in screening programs, continuing with these screening programs is not needed. Screening programs will be different in special populations at greatest risk where tests are frequently needed or use of alternative methods.

  18. Obesity and Cancer Screening according to Race and Gender

    OpenAIRE

    Heather Bittner Fagan; Richard Wender; Myers, Ronald E; Nicholas Petrelli

    2011-01-01

    The relationship between obesity and cancer screening varies by screening test, race, and gender. Most studies on cervical cancer screening found a negative association between increasing weight and screening, and this negative association was most consistent in white women. Recent literature on mammography reports no association with weight. However, some studies show a negative association in white, but not black, women. In contrast, obese/overweight men reported higher rates of prostate-sp...

  19. Emerging role for colorectal cancer screening in Asian countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, Anil; Al Kaabi, Saad; Dweik, Nazeeh; Yakoub, Rafie; John, Anjum; Al Mohannadi, Muneera; Sharma, Manik; Wani, Hamid; Butt, M T; Derbala, M F; Rasul, Kakil; Al Qahtani, Durraiya; Taher, Mona; Al Sada, Hayam; Suleiman, Jamal; Ghanem, Issa; Abdulla, Farida

    2014-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the leading causes of cancer related mortality globally. Though Asia has traditionally been considered a relatively low incidence area for colorectal cancer, the incidence is reportedly increasing. The Asia Pacific Working Group for Colorectal Cancer has recommended screening of individuals at average risk starting from 50 years of age. Based on these recommendations we conducted a pilot study to assess the need and feasibility of a colorectal cancer screening program in the state of Qatar. We screened 1385 individuals by fecal immunochemical testing for occult blood, at the primary health center level and positive cases were referred for colonoscopy. Among those who tested positive for fecal occult blood, we picked up five patients with cancers and seven with neoplastic polyps. Our results compare with the yield of screening programs in western countries thus suggesting an emerging role for colorectal cancer screening in Asian countries.

  20. Benefits and harms of endoscopic screening for gastric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamashima, Chisato

    2016-07-28

    Gastric cancer has remained a serious burden worldwide, particularly in East Asian countries. However, nationwide prevention and screening programs for gastric cancer have not yet been established in most countries except in South Korea and Japan. Although evidence regarding the effectiveness of endoscopic screening for gastric cancer has been increasingly accumulated, such evidence remains weak because it is based on results from studies other than randomized controlled trials. Specifically, evidence was mostly based on the results of cohort and case-control studies mainly conducted in South Korea and Japan. However, the consistent positive results from these studies suggest promising evidence of mortality reduction from gastric cancer by endoscopic screening. The major harms of endoscopic screening include infection, adverse effects, false-positive results, and overdiagnosis. Despite the possible harms of endoscopic screening, information regarding these harms remains insufficient. To provide appropriate cancer screening, a balance of benefits and harms should always be considered when cancer screening is introduced as a public policy. Quality assurance is very important for the implementation of cancer screening to provide high-quality and safe screening and minimize harms. Endoscopic screening for gastric cancer has shown promising results, and thus deserves further evaluation to reliably establish its effectiveness and optimal use.

  1. Screen-detected versus interval cancers: Effect of imaging modality and breast density in the Flemish Breast Cancer Screening Programme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Timmermans, Lore; Bacher, Klaus; Thierens, Hubert [Ghent University, Department of Basic Medical Sciences, QCC-Gent, Ghent (Belgium); Bleyen, Luc; Herck, Koen van [Ghent University, Centrum voor Preventie en Vroegtijdige Opsporing van Kanker, Ghent (Belgium); Lemmens, Kim; Ongeval, Chantal van; Steen, Andre van [University Hospitals Leuven, Department of Radiology, Leuven (Belgium); Martens, Patrick [Centrum voor Kankeropsporing, Bruges (Belgium); Brabander, Isabel de [Belgian Cancer Registry, Brussels (Belgium); Goossens, Mathieu [UZ Brussel, Dienst Kankerpreventie, Brussels (Belgium)

    2017-09-15

    To investigate if direct radiography (DR) performs better than screen-film mammography (SF) and computed radiography (CR) in dense breasts in a decentralized organised Breast Cancer Screening Programme. To this end, screen-detected versus interval cancers were studied in different BI-RADS density classes for these imaging modalities. The study cohort consisted of 351,532 women who participated in the Flemish Breast Cancer Screening Programme in 2009 and 2010. Information on screen-detected and interval cancers, breast density scores of radiologist second readers, and imaging modality was obtained by linkage of the databases of the Centre of Cancer Detection and the Belgian Cancer Registry. Overall, 67% of occurring breast cancers are screen detected and 33% are interval cancers, with DR performing better than SF and CR. The interval cancer rate increases gradually with breast density, regardless of modality. In the high-density class, the interval cancer rate exceeds the cancer detection rate for SF and CR, but not for DR. DR is superior to SF and CR with respect to cancer detection rates for high-density breasts. To reduce the high interval cancer rate in dense breasts, use of an additional imaging technique in screening can be taken into consideration. (orig.)

  2. The Vaccine and Cervical Cancer Screen (VACCS) project: Linking ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    cancer remains high and the majority of women who are diagnosed present with ... Linking cervical cancer screening to HPV vaccination in ... the distribution of information leaflets in English or Tswana. During ...... Men and women/girls.

  3. Perception and utilization of cervical cancer screening services ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    raoul

    2012-04-15

    Apr 15, 2012 ... Key words: Female nurses, cervical cancer, cancer screening, utilization, ..... This notion has to be corrected in intervention programs as it could lead to ... Upgrading the knowledge base of nurses therefore becomes ...

  4. Prostate Cancer Screening in Jamaica: Results of the Largest National Screening Clinic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belinda F. Morrison

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Prostate cancer is highly prevalent in Jamaica and is the leading cause of cancer-related deaths. Our aim was to evaluate the patterns of screening in the largest organized screening clinic in Jamaica at the Jamaica Cancer Society. A retrospective analysis of all men presenting for screening at the Jamaica Cancer Society from 1995 to 2005 was done. All patients had digital rectal examinations (DRE and prostate specific antigen (PSA tests done. Results of prostate biopsies were noted. 1117 men of mean age 59.9 ± 8.2 years presented for screening. The median documented PSA was 1.6 ng/mL (maximum of 5170 ng/mL. Most patients presented for only 1 screen. There was a gradual reduction in the mean age of presentation for screening over the period. Prostate biopsies were requested on 11% of screening visits; however, only 59% of these were done. 5.6% of all persons screened were found to have cancer. Of the cancers diagnosed, Gleason 6 adenocarcinoma was the commonest grade and median PSA was 8.9 ng/mL (range 1.5–1059 ng/mL. Older men tend to screen for prostate cancer in Jamaica. However, compliance with regular maintenance visits and requests for confirmatory biopsies are poor. Screening needs intervention in the Jamaican population.

  5. Screening for prostate cancer: the current evidence and guidelines controversy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomella, Leonard G; Liu, Xiaolong S; Trabulsi, Edouard J; Kelly, Wm Kevin; Myers, Ronald; Showalter, Timothy; Dicker, Adam; Wender, Richard

    2011-10-01

    Prostate cancer presents a global public health dilemma. While screening with prostate specific antigen (PSA) has led to more men diagnosed with prostate cancer than in previous years, the potential for negative effects from over-diagnosis and treatment cannot be ignored. We reviewed Medline for recent articles that discuss clinical trials, evidence based recommendations and guidelines from major medical organizations in the United States and worldwide concerning prostate cancer screening. Results from the European Randomized Screening for Prostate Cancer (ERSPC), the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian (PLCO) Cancer Screening Trial, and Göteborg Swedish trials regarding prostate screening are controversial with the ERSPC and Göteborg showing a reduction in prostate cancer mortality and the PLCO trial showing no benefit. Recommendations from the American Urological Association (AUA), Japanese Urological Association (JUA), and National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) have recommended that all men obtain a baseline PSA beginning at age 40. The American Cancer Society (ACS) stratifies screening recommendations based on age and risk, but states that screening should take place only after an informed discussion between provider and patient. The United States Preventative Health Service Task Force (USPSTF) states that evidence is insufficient to assess the risks and benefits of prostate cancer screening in men younger than 75 years. Other major international health organizations offer a similar reserved approach or recommend against screening for prostate cancer. Most groups indicate that screening to determine who should undergo prostate biopsy typically includes both a serum PSA and digital rectal examination, with the latest ACS publications noting that the rectal exam is optional. A common theme from all groups is that an informed discussion with the patients is strongly recommended and that screening does increase the number of men diagnosed with non

  6. The Effects of New Screening Tests in the Dutch Cervical Cancer Screening Programme

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K. Rozemeijer (Kirsten)

    2016-01-01

    markdownabstractCervical cancer is the fourth most common cancer in women all over the world, mainly affecting young women. As cervical cancer is easy to prevent by early detection and treatment of the disease, screening was introduced in the Netherlands in the 1970s. The number of cervical cancer

  7. Imaging and Screening of Kidney Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz de Leon, Alberto; Pedrosa, Ivan

    2017-11-01

    Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) exhibits a diverse and heterogeneous disease spectrum, but insight into its molecular biology has provided an improved understanding of potential risk factors, oncologic behavior, and imaging features. Computed tomography (CT) and MR imaging may allow the identification and preoperative subtyping of RCC and assessment of a response to various therapies. Active surveillance is a viable management option in some patients and has provided further insight into the natural history of RCC, including the favorable prognosis of cystic neoplasms. This article reviews CT and MR imaging in RCC and the role of screening in selected high-risk populations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Optimal breast cancer screening strategies for older women: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Braithwaite D

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Dejana Braithwaite,1 Joshua Demb,1 Louise M Henderson2 1Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, University of California, San Francisco, CA, 2Department of Radiology, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC, USA Abstract: Breast cancer is a major cause of cancer-related deaths among older women, aged 65 years or older. Screening mammography has been shown to be effective in reducing breast cancer mortality in women aged 50–74 years but not among those aged 75 years or older. Given the large heterogeneity in comorbidity status and life expectancy among older women, controversy remains over screening mammography in this population. Diminished life expectancy with aging may decrease the potential screening benefit and increase the risk of harms. In this review, we summarize the evidence on screening mammography utilization, performance, and outcomes and highlight evidence gaps. Optimizing the screening strategy will involve separating older women who will benefit from screening from those who will not benefit by using information on comorbidity status and life expectancy. This review has identified areas related to screening mammography in older women that warrant additional research, including the need to evaluate emerging screening technologies, such as tomosynthesis among older women and precision cancer screening. In the absence of randomized controlled trials, the benefits and harms of continued screening mammography in older women need to be estimated using both population-based cohort data and simulation models. Keywords: aging, breast cancer, precision cancer screening

  9. Increasingly strong reduction in breast cancer mortality due to screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Schoor, G; Moss, S M; Otten, J D M; Donders, R; Paap, E; den Heeten, G J; Holland, R; Broeders, M J M; Verbeek, A L M

    2011-01-01

    Background: Favourable outcomes of breast cancer screening trials in the 1970s and 1980s resulted in the launch of population-based service screening programmes in many Western countries. We investigated whether improvements in mammography and treatment modalities have had an influence on the effectiveness of breast cancer screening from 1975 to 2008. Methods: In Nijmegen, the Netherlands, 55 529 women received an invitation for screening between 1975 and 2008. We designed a case–referent study to evaluate the impact of mammographic screening on breast cancer mortality over time from 1975 to 2008. A total number of 282 breast cancer deaths were identified, and 1410 referents aged 50–69 were sampled from the population invited for screening. We estimated the effectiveness by calculating the odds ratio (OR) indicating the breast cancer death rate for screened vs unscreened women. Results: The breast cancer death rate in the screened group over the complete period was 35% lower than in the unscreened group (OR=0.65; 95% CI=0.49–0.87). Analysis by calendar year showed an increasing effectiveness from a 28% reduction in breast cancer mortality in the period 1975–1991 (OR=0.72; 95% CI=0.47–1.09) to 65% in the period 1992–2008 (OR=0.35; 95% CI=0.19–0.64). Conclusion: Our results show an increasingly strong reduction in breast cancer mortality over time because of mammographic screening. PMID:21343930

  10. PSA screening for prostate cancer: why so much controversy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labrie, Fernand

    2013-09-01

    Since prostate cancer reaches the advanced and non curable stage in the absence of any specific symptom or sign, it seems reasonable to diagnose this cancer at an early and curable stage. Screening by prostate-specific antigen (PSA) has been the common technology used. The last follow-up of the first two prospective and randomized screening studies for prostate cancer, namely the Quebec and ERSPC (European Randomized Study of Screening for Prostate Cancer) clinical trials started in 1988 and 1991, respectively, have shown reductions of prostate cancer death of 62% (PProstate Lung Colorectal and Ovarian Cancer) screening trial reported no benefit. It has been estimated, however, that 85% of men in the planned 'non-screened' group of the US study have been screened. With such a serious flaw, the PLCO study does not have the statistical power to reach any valid conclusion. In the Quebec study, only 7.3% of men were screened in the control arm. The important benefit observed in the ERSPC study was achieved using a less than optimal 4-year PSA screening interval which misses a significant number of cancers while the Quebec study used the optimal 1-year interval. With proper information obtained from their physicians or otherwise using data collected only from the clinical trials having the required statistical power, men should be in a good position to decide about being or not being screened for prostate cancer.

  11. A Three-Factor Cancer-Related Mental Condition Model and Its Relationship With Cancer Information Use, Cancer Information Avoidance, and Screening Intention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chae, Jiyoung

    2015-01-01

    Cancer-related affect and cognition, such as cancer fear, cancer worry, and cancer risk perception, are important predictors of cancer prevention and communication behaviors. However, they have not been clearly conceptualized in cancer communication literature, and in particular, the role of affect (i.e., cancer fear) in cancer prevention and communication has not been fully investigated. The present study developed a 3-factor cancer-related mental condition model encompassing affective (cancer fear), cognitive (cancer risk perception), and affective-cognitive (cancer worry) conditions. Two studies were conducted. Study 1 developed the model with Sample 1 (U.S. undergraduates, N = 309), and subsequently validated the model with Sample 2 (Korean general population, ages 40 years or older, N = 1,130). Study 2, using Sample 2, tested the model's relationship with cancer information use, cancer information avoidance, and screening intention. While Sample 1 participants were asked about cancer in general, Sample 2 participants were asked specifically about stomach cancer. Thus, the model derived from the specific sample in a general context was confirmed via the general sample in a specific context. The results showed that both cancer worry and cancer risk perception are positively associated with cancer information use and screening intention, but they are negatively associated with cancer information avoidance. Cancer fear was positively associated with cancer information use, but it was also positively related to cancer information avoidance. Moreover, cancer fear was negatively associated with screening intention. Although the three components of the model are positively related to one another, they function differently in the cancer context.

  12. What promotes cervical cancer screening among Chamorro women in California?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanjasiri, Sora P; Mouttapa, Michele; Sablan-Santos, Lola; Quitugua, Lourdes F

    2012-12-01

    Pacific Islander women represent a significant at-risk population for cervical cancer, yet little is known about the modifiable factors associated with routine Pap testing. Therefore, the aims of this paper are to report and discuss the known and unknown factors associated with cervical cancer screening among Chamorro women in California. This cross-sectional study explored the factors associated with receipt of regular Pap testing among Chamorro women age 18 years and older in California. A self-administered survey was designed and distributed to women in order to understand their knowledge, beliefs and behaviors regarding routine receipt of Pap tests. Only about two-thirds of women had received a Pap test within the past 2 years, which is below the U.S. average of 72 %. Significant predictors included younger age, health insurance coverage, knowledge of screening frequency, and medically correct beliefs regarding risk groups. These factors, however, accounted for less than 16 % of the variance in Pap testing behavior. We discuss the poor predictive value of existing demographic and theoretical variables, and discuss potentially new areas of research that can aid in the development of future intervention studies. Study limitations and implications are also discussed.

  13. Breast Cancer Screening in an Era of Personalized Regimens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onega, Tracy; Beaber, Elisabeth F.; Sprague, Brian L.; Barlow, William E.; Haas, Jennifer S.; Tosteson, Anna N.A.; Schnall, Mitchell D.; Armstrong, Katrina; Schapira, Marilyn M.; Geller, Berta; Weaver, Donald L.; Conant, Emily F.

    2014-01-01

    Breast cancer screening holds a prominent place in public health, health care delivery, policy, and women’s health care decisions. Several factors are driving shifts in how population-based breast cancer screening is approached, including advanced imaging technologies, health system performance measures, health care reform, concern for “overdiagnosis,” and improved understanding of risk. Maximizing benefits while minimizing the harms of screening requires moving from a “1-size-fits-all” guideline paradigm to more personalized strategies. A refined conceptual model for breast cancer screening is needed to align women’s risks and preferences with screening regimens. A conceptual model of personalized breast cancer screening is presented herein that emphasizes key domains and transitions throughout the screening process, as well as multilevel perspectives. The key domains of screening awareness, detection, diagnosis, and treatment and survivorship are conceptualized to function at the level of the patient, provider, facility, health care system, and population/policy arena. Personalized breast cancer screening can be assessed across these domains with both process and outcome measures. Identifying, evaluating, and monitoring process measures in screening is a focus of a National Cancer Institute initiative entitled PROSPR (Population-based Research Optimizing Screening through Personalized Regimens), which will provide generalizable evidence for a risk-based model of breast cancer screening, The model presented builds on prior breast cancer screening models and may serve to identify new measures to optimize benefits-to-harms tradeoffs in population-based screening, which is a timely goal in the era of health care reform. PMID:24830599

  14. Knowledge and Practice of Breast Cancer Screening Among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Breast cancer is the most common cancer among African women. Most researchers have attributed the late presentation to poor knowledge of breast cancer symptoms. Objective: This study was designed to evaluate the relationship between knowledge and practice of breast cancer screening in two groups of ...

  15. Knowledge of Prostate Cancer Screening Among Native African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Prostate cancer is the must commonlydiagnosed cancer in men worldwide and ranked second as the cause of death in cancer-related diseases. Objective: To evaluate the awareness and attitude of the populace to screening for cancer of the prostate. Methods: It is a cross-sectional study involving 156 ...

  16. Cervical Cancer Awareness and Screening Uptake among Rural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    femi oloka

    Cervical Cancer Awareness and Screening Uptake among Rural. Women in Lagos, Nigeria. 1. 2. 1. 3. Oluwole E.O ., Mohammed A.S ., Akinyinka M.R ., Salako O . ABSTRACT. Background: Cervical cancer is the most common cause of female genital cancer and female cancer deaths in developing countries such as ...

  17. Survival analysis of patients with interval cancer undergoing gastric cancer screening by endoscopy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chisato Hamashima

    Full Text Available Interval cancer is a key factor that influences the effectiveness of a cancer screening program. To evaluate the impact of interval cancer on the effectiveness of endoscopic screening, the survival rates of patients with interval cancer were analyzed.We performed gastric cancer-specific and all-causes survival analyses of patients with screen-detected cancer and patients with interval cancer in the endoscopic screening group and radiographic screening group using the Kaplan-Meier method. Since the screening interval was 1 year, interval cancer was defined as gastric cancer detected within 1 year after a negative result. A Cox proportional hazards model was used to investigate the risk factors associated with gastric cancer-specific and all-causes death.A total of 1,493 gastric cancer patients (endoscopic screening group: n = 347; radiographic screening group: n = 166; outpatient group: n = 980 were identified from the Tottori Cancer Registry from 2001 to 2008. The gastric cancer-specific survival rates were higher in the endoscopic screening group than in the radiographic screening group and the outpatients group. In the endoscopic screening group, the gastric cancer-specific survival rate of the patients with screen-detected cancer and the patients with interval cancer were nearly equal (P = 0.869. In the radiographic screening group, the gastric cancer-specific survival rate of the patients with screen-detected cancer was higher than that of the patients with interval cancer (P = 0.009. For gastric cancer-specific death, the hazard ratio of interval cancer in the endoscopic screening group was 0.216 for gastric cancer death (95%CI: 0.054-0.868 compared with the outpatient group.The survival rate and the risk of gastric cancer death among the patients with screen-detected cancer and patients with interval cancer were not significantly different in the annual endoscopic screening. These results suggest the potential of endoscopic screening in

  18. Clinical recommendations for oral cancer screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Derek

    2010-01-01

    To address the benefits and limitations of oral cancer screening and the use of adjunctive screening aids to visualise and detect potentially malignant and malignant oral lesions. Squamous cell carcinomas of the lips and cancers of the oropharynx (including the posterior one-third of the base of the tongue and the tonsils were excluded. A specially convened expert panel evaluated the available evidence which was derived from a systematic search of Medline and the Cochrane Library. Further details about the search are available in a supplement to the published article available on the Journal of the America Dental Association's website (http://jada.ada.org/cgi/content/full/141/5/509). Qualitative synthesis of the data was performed by the panel. Where consensus could not be reached majority voting was employed. Recommendations were reviewed by internal and external scientific experts and organisations. After review recommendations were revised where appropriate and the ADA Council on Scientific Affairs approved the final clinical recommendations. No information provided in article. The key recommendations were all classified as level D being based on grade IV evidence or extrapolated from grade I, II or III evidence using a system based on Shekelle et al.(1) The main recommendations can be summarised as:1) Clinicians should remain alert for signs of potentially malignant lesions or early-stage cancers in all patients while performing routine visual and tactile examinations, particularly for patients who use tobacco or who are heavy consumers of alcohol. 2) For seemingly innocuous lesions, clinicians should follow up in seven to 14 days to confirm persistence after removing any possible cause to reduce the potential for false-positive screening results. 3) For lesions that raise suspicion of cancer or for lesions that persist after removal of a possible cause, clinicians should communicate the potential benefits and risks of early diagnosis. Considerations include

  19. Low-dose computed tomography screening for lung cancer : Results of the first screening round

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horeweg, Nanda; Nackaerts, Kristiaan; Oudkerk, Matthijs; de Koning, Harry J.

    Evaluation of: National Lung Screening Trial Research Team, Church TR, Black WC, Aberle DR et al. Results of initial low-dose computed tomographic screening for lung cancer. N. Engl. J. Med. 368, 1980-1991 (2013). In 2011, the US NLST trial demonstrated that mortality from lung cancer can be reduced

  20. Big screens with small RNAs : loss of function genetic screens to identify novel cancer genes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mullenders, J.

    2009-01-01

    This thesis described the construction and screening of one of the first large scale RNAi libraries for use in human cells. Functional genetic screens with this library have led to the identification of novel cancer genes. These cancer genes function in several pathways including the p53 tumor

  1. [Organized or individual breast cancer screening: what motivates women?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalecinski, Julie; Régnier-Denois, Véronique; Ouédraogo, Samiratou; Dabakuyo-Yonli, Tienhan Sandrine; Dumas, Agnès; Arveux, Patrick; Chauvin, Franck

    2015-01-01

    The breast cancer screening programme, proposed to all women between 50 and 69 years, consisting of two-view mammography screening every two years, has been generalized in France since 2004. The programme coexists with opportunistic mammography screening, provided outside official frameworks. This qualitative study was designed to identify the pros and cons of these two screening modes. Three hundred and forty-five women were randomly selected from women who had participated in a previous quantitative study and who were invited to attend for breast cancer screening in 13 French departments between 2010 and 2011. These women were asked to participate in a face-to-face semistructured interview conducted by a sociologist. 48 women (17 from deprived areas) were interviewed. All chose to be screened for breast cancer either because they feared cancer, or because they wanted to control their own health. Twenty-seven women chose the organized screening programme, which they considered to be trustworthy, as negative mammograms are double checked by a second radiologist. Twenty-one women preferred individual screening, which they considered to be more reliable, less anonymous and providing them with more liberty to take control of their own health. Gynaecologists play an important role in women’s decision to undergo individual breast cancer screening. They also have an important role to play in the promotion of organized breast cancer screening programme with this public.

  2. Patient-Reported Barriers to Colorectal Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Resa M.; Devers, Kelly J.; Kuzel, Anton J.; Woolf, Steven H.

    2010-01-01

    Background Barriers experienced by patients influence the uptake of colorectal cancer (CRC) screening. Prior research has quantified how often patients encounter these challenges but has generally not revealed their complex perspective and experience with barriers. Methods A two-part, mixed-methods study was conducted of primary care patients recruited from Virginia Ambulatory Care Outcome Research Network practices. First, in June–July 2005 a survey was mailed to 660 patients aged 50–75 years posing an open-ended question about “the most important barrier” to CRC screening. Second, beginning in October 2005 seven gender- and largely race-specific focus groups involving 40 patients aged 45–75 years were conducted. Beginning in October 2005, survey verbatim responses were coded and quantitatively analyzed and focus group transcripts were qualitatively analyzed. Results Responses to the open-ended survey question, answered by 74% of respondents, identified fear and the bowel preparation as the most important barriers to screening. Only 1.6% of responses cited the absence of physician advice. Focus group participants cited similar issues and other previously reported barriers, but their remarks exposed the intricacies of complex barriers, such as fear, lack of information, time, the role of physicians, and access to care. Participants also cited barriers that have little documentation in the literature, such as low self-worth, “para-sexual” sensitivities, fatalism, negative past experiences with testing, and skepticism about the financial motivation behind screening recommendations. Conclusions Mixed-methods analysis helps to disaggregate the complex nuances that influence patient behavior. In this study, patients explained the web of influences on knowledge, motivation, and ability to undergo CRC screening, which clinicians and policymakers should consider in designing interventions to increase the level of screening. PMID:20409499

  3. Targeting women with free cervical cancer screening: challenges ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: the study was conducted to determine the challenges and suggest solutions to conducting free cervical cancer screening among Nigerian women. Methods: awareness was created among women groups and mass media in Osun State for women to undergo free cervical cancer screening programme.

  4. Cancer Screening in Women with Intellectual Disabilities: An Irish perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reidy, Mary; Denieffe, Suzanne; Foran, Sinéad

    2014-01-01

    In the Republic of Ireland, more than 8000 women with intellectual disabilities (IDs), aged 20 years and over, are registered for service provision. Their health needs challenge preventative health services including breast and cervical cancer screening programmes. This review explores the literature about cancer screening participation rates and…

  5. Communicating the balance sheet in breast cancer screening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giordano, Livia; Cogo, Carla; Patnick, Julietta

    2012-01-01

    Despite the difficulties, there is a moral responsibility to provide the public with the best estimates of benefits and harms of breast cancer screening.......Despite the difficulties, there is a moral responsibility to provide the public with the best estimates of benefits and harms of breast cancer screening....

  6. Prostate cancer screening in Ghana - a clinical benefit? | Arthur ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In Ghana and most African countries, prostate cancer is the most common cancer in males after hepatocellular carcinoma. Whereas in the advanced countries, screening for prostate specific antigen (PSA) has led to early detection and management of the disease, screening has been very low in Ghana, thus leading to low ...

  7. Knowledge of breast cancer screening methods and the practice of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mammography still remains the best method for breast cancer screening. Objective: To assess the knowledge of female nursing students in a tertiary health institution on the screening methods for breast cancer as well as their practice of breast self-examination. Design: A descriptive cross-sectional study. Setting: School of ...

  8. Uptake of cervical cancer screening: awareness, willingness and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Cervical cancer remains the commonest genital tract cancer and yet it is preventable through cytologic screening with Pap smear. Awareness and willingness among target population is an imperative for uptake of screening services. Aim: To contribute to the existing knowledge base, and in particular, bridge ...

  9. Anal cancer and intraepithelial neoplasia screening: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leeds, Ira L; Fang, Sandy H

    2016-01-01

    This review focuses on the early diagnosis of anal cancer and its precursor lesions through routine screening. A number of risk-stratification strategies as well as screening techniques have been suggested, and currently little consensus exists among national societies. Much of the current clinical rationale for the prevention of anal cancer derives from the similar tumor biology of cervical cancer and the successful use of routine screening to identify cervical cancer and its precursors early in the disease process. It is thought that such a strategy of identifying early anal intraepithelial neoplasia will reduce the incidence of invasive anal cancer. The low prevalence of anal cancer in the general population prevents the use of routine screening. However, routine screening of selected populations has been shown to be a more promising strategy. Potential screening modalities include digital anorectal exam, anal Papanicolaou testing, human papilloma virus co-testing, and high-resolution anoscopy. Additional research associating high-grade dysplasia treatment with anal cancer prevention as well as direct comparisons of screening regimens is necessary to develop further anal cancer screening recommendations. PMID:26843912

  10. Breast cancer screening in a resource poor country: Ultrasound ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Breast cancer is the commonest female cancer in Nigeria. Despite its increased awareness, affordability of available screening tools is a bane. Mammography, the goal standard for screening is costly and not widely available in terms of infrastructure, technical/personnel capabilities. Ultrasound is accessible ...

  11. Breast Cancer Screening (PDQ®)—Patient Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breast cancer screening is performed using mammogram, clinical breast exam (CBE), and MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) tests. Learn about these and other tests that have been studied to detect or screen for breast cancer in this expert-reviewed and evidence-based summary.

  12. Screening and prevention of ovarian cancer | Chesang | East African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To present a review of screening methods for ovarian cancer and preventive strategies. Data source: Relevant literature was identified through a search of the MEDLINE, EMBASE and CINAHL databases. Study Selection: Recent Studies assessing methods used in prevention of and screening for ovarian cancer ...

  13. Screening for gastric cancer in Asia: current evidence and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Wai K; Wu, Ming-shiang; Kakugawa, Yasuo; Kim, Jae J; Yeoh, Khay-guan; Goh, Khean Lee; Wu, Kai-chun; Wu, Deng-chyang; Sollano, Jose; Kachintorn, Udom; Gotoda, Takuji; Lin, Jaw-town; You, Wei-cheng; Ng, Enders K W; Sung, Joseph J Y

    2008-03-01

    Gastric cancer is the second most common cause of death from cancer in Asia. Although surgery is the standard treatment for this disease, early detection and treatment is the only way to reduce mortality. This Review summarises the epidemiology of gastric cancer, and the evidence for, and current practices of, screening in Asia. Few Asian countries have implemented a national screening programme for gastric cancer; most have adopted opportunistic screening of high-risk individuals only. Although screening by endoscopy seems to be the most accurate method for detection of gastric cancer, the availability of endoscopic instruments and expertise for mass screening remains questionable--even in developed countries such as Japan. Therefore, barium studies or serum-pepsinogen testing are sometimes used as the initial screening tool in some countries, and patients with abnormal results are screened by endoscopy. Despite the strong link between infection with Helicobacter pylori and gastric cancer, more data are needed to define the role of its eradication in the prevention of gastric cancer in Asia. At present, there is a paucity of quality data from Asia to lend support for screening for gastric cancer.

  14. Lung Cancer Screening CT-Based Prediction of Cardiovascular Events

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mets, Onno M.; Vliegenthart, Rozemarijn; Gondrie, Martijn J.; Viergever, Max A.; Oudkerk, Matthijs; de Koning, Harry J.; Mali, Willem P. Th M.; Prokop, Mathias; van Klaveren, Rob J.; van der Graaf, Yolanda; Buckens, Constantinus F. M.; Zanen, Pieter; Lammers, Jan-Willem J.; Groen, Harry J. M.; Isgum, Ivana; de Jong, Pim A.

    OBJECTIVES The aim of this study was to derivate and validate a prediction model for cardiovascular events based on quantification of coronary and aortic calcium volume in lung cancer screening chest computed tomography (CT). BACKGROUND CT-based lung cancer screening in heavy smokers is a very

  15. Stomach (Gastric) Cancer Screening (PDQ®)—Health Professional Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    For stomach (gastric) cancer, there is no standard or routine screening test for the general U.S. population. Review the evidence on the benefits and harms of screening for gastric cancer using barium-meal photofluorography, gastric endoscopy, or serum pepsinogen in this expert-reviewed summary.

  16. A Study on Knowledge and Screening for Cervical Cancer among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    objective of knowing the knowledge of women about cervical cancer, its screening, role of doctor, source of information, and reasons for not undergoing screening if the women had not undergone testing for cervical cancer. Subjects and Methods: This was a questionnaire based cross‑sectional study conducted among the ...

  17. Knowledge, Attitude And Practice Of Screening For Cervical Cancer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This low participation in screening for cervical cancer was attributed to several reasons including ignorance of the existence of such a test, lack of awareness of centers where such services are obtainable, ignorance of the importance of screening and the risk factors to the development of cervical cancer. Conclusion: There ...

  18. The need for supplemental breast cancer screening modalities: a perspective of population-based breast cancer screening programs in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uematsu, Takayoshi

    2017-01-01

    This article discusses possible supplemental breast cancer screening modalities for younger women with dense breasts from a perspective of population-based breast cancer screening program in Japan. Supplemental breast cancer screening modalities have been proposed to increase the sensitivity and detection rates of early stage breast cancer in women with dense breasts; however, there are no global guidelines that recommend the use of supplemental breast cancer screening modalities in such women. Also, no criterion standard exists for breast density assessment. Based on the current situation of breast imaging in Japan, the possible supplemental breast cancer screening modalities are ultrasonography, digital breast tomosynthesis, and breast magnetic resonance imaging. An appropriate population-based breast cancer screening program based on the balance between cost and benefit should be a high priority. Further research based on evidence-based medicine is encouraged. It is very important that the ethnicity, workforce, workflow, and resources for breast cancer screening in each country should be considered when considering supplemental breast cancer screening modalities for women with dense breasts.

  19. Functional analysis screening for problem behavior maintained by automatic reinforcement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Querim, Angie C; Iwata, Brian A; Roscoe, Eileen M; Schlichenmeyer, Kevin J; Ortega, Javier Virués; Hurl, Kylee E

    2013-01-01

    A common finding in previous research is that problem behavior maintained by automatic reinforcement continues to occur in the alone condition of a functional analysis (FA), whereas behavior maintained by social reinforcement typically is extinguished. Thus, the alone condition may represent an efficient screening procedure when maintenance by automatic reinforcement is suspected. We conducted a series of 5-min alone (or no-interaction) probes for 30 cases of problem behavior and compared initial predictions of maintenance or extinction to outcomes obtained in subsequent FAs. Results indicated that data from the screening procedure accurately predicted that problem behavior was maintained by automatic reinforcement in 21 of 22 cases and by social reinforcement in 7 of 8 cases. Thus, results of the screening accurately predicted the function of problem behavior (social vs. automatic reinforcement) in 28 of 30 cases. © Society for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior.

  20. PRESSING MORTALITY RATE THROUGH SCREENING oral cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. K. Widnyani Wulan Laksmi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Based on World Health Organization (WHO data, oral cancer is one of malignancy with the highest mortality. In USA, there are more than 30.000 new cases every year. We can find many risk factors of oral cancer in our daily living. Moreover, it’s easy to find the main risk factors in our society, they are smoking, alcohol consumption, tobacco consumtion, viral infection, and bad oral hygiene. For the early stadium, Five-years survival rate is about 82% and 61% for all stadium. But, more than 50% of oral cancer has been distributed (metastatic regionally and also into the other organ far away from the oral itself when it’s detected. It will decrease 5-years survival rate to be less than 50%. So that, it’s really important to detect the oral cancer at the earlier stadium. Screening is the way to find the earlier stadium. Screening is done by some methods, start from the anamnesis, physical examination, toluidine blue staining, endoscopy, cytology, telomerase examination, and also PET-scan if it’s possible (because of the financial reasons. /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;}

  1. Integrating cervical cancer screening and preventive therapy into ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Integrating cervical cancer screening and preventive therapy into reproductive health networks: Notes for the field. ... Data were collected through routine management information systems, which include information on client demographics, service use, first time screening status, HIV status, and screening results. Results: ...

  2. Acceptability of Cervical Cancer Screening in Rural Mozambique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Audet, Carolyn M.; Matos, Carla Silva; Blevins, Meridith; Cardoso, Aventina; Moon, Troy D.; Sidat, Mohsin

    2012-01-01

    In Zambezia province, Mozambique, cervical cancer (CC) screening was introduced to rural communities in 2010. Our study sought to determine whether women would accept screening via pelvic examination and visual inspection with acetic acid (VIA) at two clinical sites near the onset of a new CC screening program. A cross-sectional descriptive study…

  3. Evaluation of The Netherlands breast cancer screening programme.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verbeek, A.L.M.; Broeders, M.J.M.

    2003-01-01

    The Netherlands breast cancer screening programme for women aged 50-75 years was gradually implemented during 1989-1997. Short-term indicators for this mammography screening are 80% attendance (800 000 examinations yearly), and for the subsequent screening examinations 7.4 referrals for clinical

  4. Identifying Unbiased Items for Screening Preschoolers for Disruptive Behavior Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studts, Christina R; Polaha, Jodi; van Zyl, Michiel A

    2017-05-01

    Efficient identification and referral to behavioral services are crucial in addressing early-onset disruptive behavior problems. Existing screening instruments for preschoolers are not ideal for pediatric primary care settings serving diverse populations. Eighteen candidate items for a new brief screening instrument were examined to identify those exhibiting measurement bias (i.e., differential item functioning, DIF) by child characteristics. Parents/guardians of preschool-aged children ( N = 900) from four primary care settings completed two full-length behavioral rating scales. Items measuring disruptive behavior problems were tested for DIF by child race, sex, and socioeconomic status using two approaches: item response theory-based likelihood ratio tests and ordinal logistic regression. Of 18 items, eight were identified with statistically significant DIF by at least one method. The bias observed in 8 of 18 items made them undesirable for screening diverse populations of children. These items were excluded from the new brief screening tool.

  5. Colorectal cancer screening with virtual colonoscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Yaorong; Vining, David J.; Ahn, David K.; Stelts, David R.

    1999-05-01

    Early detection and removal of colorectal polyps have been proven to reduce mortality from colorectal carcinoma (CRC), the second leading cause of cancer deaths in the United States. Unfortunately, traditional techniques for CRC examination (i.e., barium enema, sigmoidoscopy, and colonoscopy) are unsuitable for mass screening because of either low accuracy or poor public acceptance, costs, and risks. Virtual colonoscopy (VC) is a minimally invasive alternative that is based on tomographic scanning of the colon. After a patient's bowel is optimally cleansed and distended with gas, a fast tomographic scan, typically helical computed tomography (CT), of the abdomen is performed during a single breath-hold acquisition. Two-dimensional (2D) slices and three-dimensional (3D) rendered views of the colon lumen generated from the tomographic data are then examined for colorectal polyps. Recent clinical studies conducted at several institutions including ours have shown great potential for this technology to be an effective CRC screening tool. In this paper, we describe new methods to improve bowel preparation, colon lumen visualization, colon segmentation, and polyp detection. Our initial results show that VC with the new bowel preparation and imaging protocol is capable of achieving accuracy comparable to conventional colonoscopy and our new algorithms for image analysis contribute to increased accuracy and efficiency in VC examinations.

  6.   Personal invitations for population-based breast cancer screening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saalasti-Koskinen, Ulla; Mäkelä, Marjukka; Saarenmaa, Irma

    2010-01-01

    . The objective of this study was to evaluate the information breast cancer screening units send to women invited for screening in Finland. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A questionnaire was sent to all breast cancer screening units in Finland in 2005 and 2008, and the information (eg, invitations, results letters...... optimizing participation. The high participation rate (approximately 88%) in Finland may be due partly to the prescriptive nature of the invitation letters. National templates for information letters would be useful....

  7. Lung Cancer Screening and clinical implications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.C. van 't Westeinde (Susan)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractLung cancer is the most frequently diagnosed major cancer worldwide and the leading cause of death from cancer. Lung cancer is divided into two subgroups: small-cell lung cancer (SCLC) and non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC), accounting for 10-20% and 75% of lung cancer cases,

  8. Thinking Style as a Predictor of Men's Participation in Cancer Screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuiness, Clare E; Turnbull, Deborah; Wilson, Carlene; Duncan, Amy; Flight, Ingrid H; Zajac, Ian

    2017-03-01

    Men's participation in cancer screening may be influenced by their thinking style. Men's need for cognition (NFC) and faith in intuition were measured to explore whether they varied by demographic variables or predicted screening behavior. Australian males ( n = 585, aged 50-74 years) completed surveys about past screening and were subsequently offered mailed fecal occult blood tests (FOBTs). Demographic predictors included age, socioeconomic status, educational attainment, and language spoken at home. The screening behaviors were self-reported prostate cancer screening (prostate-specific antigen testing and digital rectal examinations [DREs]), and colorectal cancer screening (self-reported FOBT participation and recorded uptake of the FOBT offer). Analysis comprised principal component analysis and structural equation modelling. NFC was positively related to demographic variables education, socioeconomic status, and speaking English at home. Faith in intuition was negatively related to educational attainment. NFC predicted variance in self-reported DRE participation ( r = .11, p = .016). No other relationships with thinking style were statistically significant. The relationship of NFC to DRE participation may reflect the way certain attributes of this screening method are processed, or alternatively, it may reflect willingness to report participation. The relationship of thinking style to a range of healthy behaviors should be further explored.

  9. Health Behaviors of Childhood Cancer Survivors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer S. Ford

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available There has been a dramatic increase in the number of childhood cancer survivors living to an old age due to improved cancer treatments. However, these survivors are at risk of numerous late effects as a result of their cancer therapy. Engaging in protective health behaviors and limiting health damaging behaviors are vitally important for these survivors given their increased risks. We reviewed the literature on childhood cancer survivors’ health behaviors by searching for published data and conference proceedings. We examine the prevalence of a variety of health behaviors among childhood cancer survivors, identify significant risk factors, and describe health behavior interventions for survivors.

  10. Gastric cancer screening compliance is influenced by the weight status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jin Joo; Park, Hyun Ah

    2013-07-01

    Obesity is associated with decreased compliance with cancer screening, but with an increased risk for cancer development. However, the relationship between weight status and compliance with stomach cancer screening has not been not studied as yet. We examined men and women aged between 40 and 80 years from the 4th Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey from 2007 to 2009. BMI was classified into ≤18.4 kg/m (underweight), 18.5-22.9 kg/m (normal), 23-24.9 kg/m (overweight), 25.0-29.9 kg/m (moderate obesity), and ≥30.0 kg/m (severe obesity). Screening compliance was defined as undergoing stomach cancer screening every 2 years with either gastroscopy or upper gastrointestinal series. The overall screening rates of stomach cancer were 43.2 (0.9)% for men and 43.4 (0.8)% for women. After adjustment for covariates, the screening rates were higher in overweight men (adjusted odds ratio, 1.19; 95% confidence interval, 0.98-1.44), with a marginal significance, and significantly lower in women with severe obesity (adjusted odds ratio, 0.55; 95% confidence interval, 0.40-0.76). The difference was mainly driven by the lower acceptance of gastroscopy rather than upper gastrointestinal series. In conclusion, obesity is associated with lower compliance with stomach cancer screening in Korean women. Therefore, new strategies need to be developed to improve the cancer screening compliance in obese women.

  11. CT screening for lung cancer brings forward early disease. The Randomised Danish Lung Cancer Screening Trial (DLCST)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saghir, Zaigham; Dirksen, Asger; Ashraf, Haseem

    2012-01-01

    were randomised to five annual low-dose CT screenings or no screening. Two experienced chest radiologists read all CT scans and registered the location, size and morphology of nodules. Nodules between 5 and 15 mm without benign characteristics were rescanned after 3 months. Growing nodules (>25% volume......BackgroundThe effects of low-dose CT screening on disease stage shift, mortality and overdiagnosis are unclear. Lung cancer findings and mortality rates are reported at the end of screening in the Danish Lung Cancer Screening Trial.Methods4104 men and women, healthy heavy smokers/former smokers...

  12. A simple way to measure the burden of interval cancers in breast cancer screening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Sune Bangsbøll; Törnberg, Sven; Lynge, Elsebeth

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The sensitivity of a mammography program is normally evaluated by comparing the interval cancer rate to the expected breast cancer incidence without screening, i.e. the proportional interval cancer rate (PICR). The expected breast cancer incidence in absence of screening is, however......, difficult to estimate when a program has been running for some time. As an alternative to the PICR we propose the interval cancer ratio ICR=intervalcancersintervalcancers+screendetectedcancers. We validated this simple measure by comparing it with the traditionally used PICR. METHOD: We undertook...... a systematic review and included studies: 1) covering a service screening program, 2) women aged 50-69 years, 3) observed data, 4) interval cancers, women screened, or interval cancer rate, screen detected cases, or screen detection rate, and 5) estimated breast cancer incidence rate of background population...

  13. Potential capacity of endoscopic screening for gastric cancer in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamashima, Chisato; Goto, Rei

    2017-01-01

    In 2016, the Japanese government decided to introduce endoscopic screening for gastric cancer as a national program. To provide endoscopic screening nationwide, we estimated the proportion of increase in the number of endoscopic examinations with the introduction of endoscopic screening, based on a national survey. The total number of endoscopic examinations has increased, particularly in clinics. Based on the national survey, the total number of participants in gastric cancer screening was 3 784 967. If 30% of the participants are switched from radiographic screening to endoscopic screening, approximately 1 million additional endoscopic examinations are needed. In Japan, the participation rates in gastric cancer screening and the number of hospitals and clinics offering upper gastrointestinal endoscopy vary among the 47 prefectures. If the participation rates are high and the numbers of hospitals and clinics are small, the proportion of increase becomes larger. Based on the same assumption, 50% of big cities can provide endoscopic screening with a 5% increase in the total number of endoscopic examinations. However, 16.7% of the medical districts are available for endoscopic screening within a 5% increase in the total number of endoscopic examinations. Despite the Japanese government's decision to introduce endoscopic screening for gastric cancer nationwide, its immediate introduction remains difficult because of insufficient medical resources in rural areas. This implies that endoscopic screening will be initially introduced to big cities. To promote endoscopic screening for gastric cancer nationwide, the disparity of medical resources must first be resolved. © 2016 The Authors. Cancer Science published by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd on behalf of Japanese Cancer Association.

  14. Metoder til screening for kolorektal cancer kan forbedres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Louise; Jørgensen, Lars Nannestad; Madsen, Mogens Rørbæk

    2014-01-01

    Screening programmes for colorectal cancer (CRC) are being implemented in various countries worldwide including Denmark. The majority of programmes rely on faecal occult blood testing with subsequent colonoscopy. This approach is challenged by limited compliance, which reduces the efficiency...... of the screening programme. Current research into improve-ments of screening of CRC includes biological markers identified in blood. Combining blood-based biological markers with clinical and demographical parameters have shown promising results, which may improve the present approach to screening....

  15. [Population-based breast cancer screening is not worthwhile. Screening has little effect on mortality].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonneux, Luc G A; Autier, Philippe

    2011-01-01

    Comparison of breast cancer mortality between pairs of similar countries (Sweden and Norway, Northern Ireland and the Irish Republic, the Netherlands and Belgium or Flanders), each of which had implemented its population-wide breast cancer screening programme at a different point in time, demonstrated little effect of screening on mortality. In the Netherlands, a well-organised population-wide screening programme was started in the early nineties, ten years before such a programme was introduced in Flanders. We used the 1989-1992 period as a baseline and compared breast cancer mortality in the Netherlands with that in Flanders during the 2005-2008 period. The added value of organised screening was low: 11% in the target age group of 55-79 years, or 180 prevented breast-cancer deaths annually. A total of 5000 screening mammograms were needed to prevent one death from breast cancer. Breast cancer screening is not a public health priority. Impartial and transparent information on the disadvantages and benefits of breast cancer screening is urgently needed.

  16. Validation of the Korean Version of the Breast Cancer Screening Beliefs Questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwok, Cannas; Lee, Mi-Joung; Lee, Chun Fan

    Korean immigrant women have been consistently reported as having low participation in breast cancer screening practices. A valid and reliable instrument to explore factors that affect their cancer screening behaviors is essential. The aim of this study was to report the psychometric properties of the Korean version of the Breast Cancer Screening Beliefs Questionnaire (BCSBQ). A convenience sample of 249 Korean Australian women was recruited through a number of Korean community organizations in Sydney. Exploratory factor analysis supports a similar fit for the original 3-factor structure of our data set. A significant association was found between the attitudes of these women toward general health checkups and the frequency of their performance of the breast awareness practices and having mammograms. Furthermore, it was found that knowledge and perceptions about the breast cancer scales were significantly associated with education level and that barriers to mammographic screening were much less evident among women who engaged in the 3 screening practices. The results indicated that the Korean version of the BCSBQ had satisfactory validity and internal consistency. The Cronbach's α of the 3 subscales ranged between .80 and .88. The Korean version of the BCSBQ was confirmed to be a culturally appropriate, valid, and reliable instrument for assessing the beliefs, knowledge, and attitudes to breast cancer and breast cancer screening practices among women of Korean background living in Australia. The Korean version of the BCBSQ can provide nurses with insights into the development of culturally sensitive breast health education programs.

  17. Gender Roles and Acculturation: Relationships With Cancer Screening Among Vietnamese American Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Anh B.; Clark, Trenette T.; Belgrave, Faye Z.

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the influence of demographic variables and the interplay between gender roles and acculturation on breast and cervical cancer screening outcomes among Vietnamese American women. Convenience sampling was used to recruit 100 Vietnamese women from the Richmond, VA, metropolitan area. Women were recruited to participate in a larger cancer screening intervention. All participants completed measures on demographic variables, gender roles, acculturation, and cancer screening variables. Findings indicated that traditional masculine gender roles were associated with increased self-efficacy for breast and cervical cancer screening. Higher levels of acculturation were associated with higher probability of having had a Papanicolaou test. In addition, acculturation moderated the relationship between traditional female gender roles and cancer screening variables. For highly acculturated women, higher levels of feminine gender roles predicted higher probability of having had a previous clinical breast exam and higher levels of self-efficacy for cervical cancer screening, while the opposite was true for lower acculturated women. The findings of this study indicate the important roles that sociodemographic variables, gender roles, and acculturation play in affecting health attitudes and behaviors among Vietnamese women. These findings also help to identify a potentially high-risk subgroup and existing gaps that need to be targeted by preventive interventions. PMID:24491129

  18. Computed tomographic characteristics of interval and post screen carcinomas in lung cancer screening

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scholten, Ernst T. [University Medical Centre, Department of Radiology, Utrecht (Netherlands); Kennemer Gasthuis, Department of Radiology, Haarlem (Netherlands); Horeweg, Nanda [Erasmus University Medical Centre, Department of Public Health, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Erasmus University Medical Centre, Department of Pulmonary Medicine, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Koning, Harry J. de [Erasmus University Medical Centre, Department of Public Health, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Vliegenthart, Rozemarijn [University of Groningen, University Medical Centre Groningen, Department of Radiology, Groningen (Netherlands); University of Groningen, University Medical Centre Groningen, Center for Medical Imaging-North East Netherlands, Groningen (Netherlands); Oudkerk, Matthijs [University of Groningen, University Medical Centre Groningen, Center for Medical Imaging-North East Netherlands, Groningen (Netherlands); Mali, Willem P.T.M.; Jong, Pim A. de [University Medical Centre, Department of Radiology, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2015-01-15

    To analyse computed tomography (CT) findings of interval and post-screen carcinomas in lung cancer screening. Consecutive interval and post-screen carcinomas from the Dutch-Belgium lung cancer screening trial were included. The prior screening and the diagnostic chest CT were reviewed by two experienced radiologists in consensus with knowledge of the tumour location on the diagnostic CT. Sixty-one participants (53 men) were diagnosed with an interval or post-screen carcinoma. Twenty-two (36 %) were in retrospect visible on the prior screening CT. Detection error occurred in 20 cancers and interpretation error in two cancers. Errors involved intrabronchial tumour (n = 5), bulla with wall thickening (n = 5), lymphadenopathy (n = 3), pleural effusion (n = 1) and intraparenchymal solid nodules (n = 8). These were missed because of a broad pleural attachment (n = 4), extensive reticulation surrounding a nodule (n = 1) and extensive scarring (n = 1). No definite explanation other than human error was found in two cases. None of the interval or post-screen carcinomas involved a subsolid nodule. Interval or post-screen carcinomas that were visible in retrospect were mostly due to detection errors of solid nodules, bulla wall thickening or endobronchial lesions. Interval or post-screen carcinomas without explanation other than human errors are rare. (orig.)

  19. Audit of Cervical Cancer Screening and Colposcopy Attendance in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJRH Managing Editor

    factors such as human papillomavirus (HPV), no form of cancer better documents the remarkable benefits of early diagnosis and curative therapy on mortality rate than cervical cancer5. Contrary to women in industrialized countries who have relatively easy access to cervical cancer screening services, women in developing ...

  20. Knowledge, attitude and practice of cervical cancer screening ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Cervical cancer is the most common genital cancer and one of the leading causes of death among female population. Fortunately, this cancer is preventable by screening for premalignant lesions but this is rarely provided and hardly utilised. We assessed the knowledge, attitude and utilisation of cervical ...

  1. Barriers to colorectal cancer screening in Asia: A systematic review ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is among the top five cancers afflicting both men and women globally. Once predominantly a Western disease, it has begun to rise in Asian countries as well. This systematic review aims to compile and analyze the various barriers towards colorectal cancer screening in Asia, and to ...

  2. Women's Attitude Towards Cervical Cancer Screening in North ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cancer of the cervix is the leading cancer in women in sub Saharan Africa. The aim of this study is to document the views of respondents on how to increase the uptake of cervical cancer screening. This was a cross sectional study of women attending the outpatient clinics of obstetrics and gynaecology in two tertiary ...

  3. Breast cancer mortality in mammographic screening in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Njor, Sisse Helle; Nyström, Lennarth; Moss, Sue

    2012-01-01

    To estimate the impact of service mammography screening on breast cancer mortality using European incidence-based mortality (IBM) studies (or refined mortality studies). IBM studies include only breast cancer deaths occurring in women with breast cancer diagnosed after their first invitation...

  4. Cervical cancer screening and practice in low resource countries ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Key words: Cervical cancer screening; human papillomavirus, low resource countries; Nigeria; premalignant disease. Introduction. Cervical cancer is the .... It requires transportation from clinic back to the laboratory and multiple patient visits. .... The statistics relating to cervical cancer in Nigeria is worrisome, and if significant ...

  5. Better Check Your Bowels: Screening for Colon and Rectal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and older don’t get screened for colorectal cancer. The most common reason, says Klabunde, is that “people don’t realize ... is something they need to do.” Other common reasons include costs and inconvenience, such as taking time off from work. Colorectal cancer is cancer of the colon or rectum, both ...

  6. ESR/ERS white paper on lung cancer screening.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kauczor, H.U.; Bonomo, L.; Gaga, M.; Nackaerts, K.; Peled, N.; Prokop, M.; Remy-Jardin, M.; Stackelberg, O. von; Sculier, J.P.

    2015-01-01

    Lung cancer is the most frequently fatal cancer, with poor survival once the disease is advanced. Annual low dose computed tomography has shown a survival benefit in screening individuals at high risk for lung cancer. Based on the available evidence, the European Society of Radiology and the

  7. The association between general practitioners’ attitudes towards breast cancer screening and women’s screening participation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jensen Line

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Breast cancer screening in Denmark is organised by the health services in the five regions. Although general practitioners (GPs are not directly involved in the screening process, they are often the first point of contact to the health care system and thus play an important advisory role. No previous studies, in a health care setting like the Danish system, have investigated the association between GPs’ attitudes towards breast cancer screening and women’s participation in the screening programme. Methods Data on women’s screening participation was obtained from the regional screening authorities. Data on GPs’ attitudes towards breast cancer screening was taken from a previous survey among GPs in the Central Denmark Region. This study included women aged 50-69 years who were registered with a singlehanded GP who had participated in the survey. Results The survey involved 67 singlehanded GPs with a total of 13,288 women on their lists. Five GPs (7% had a negative attitude towards breast cancer screening. Among registered women, 81% participated in the first screening round. Multivariate analyses revealed that women registered with a GP with a negative attitude towards breast cancer screening were 17% (95% CI: 2-34% more likely to be non-participants compared with women registered with a GP with a positive attitude towards breast cancer screening. Conclusion The GPs' attitudes may influence the participation rate even in a system where GPs are not directly involved in the screening process. However, further studies are needed to investigate this association.

  8. Development of lung cancer CT screening operating support system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishigaki, Rikuta; Hanai, Kozou; Suzuki, Masahiro; Kawata, Yoshiki; Niki, Noboru; Eguchi, Kenji; Kakinuma, Ryutaro; Moriyama, Noriyuki

    2009-02-01

    In Japan, lung cancer death ranks first among men and third among women. Lung cancer death is increasing yearly, thus early detection and treatment are needed. For this reason, CT screening for lung cancer has been introduced. The CT screening services are roughly divided into three sections: office, radiology and diagnosis sections. These operations have been performed through paper-based or a combination of paper-based and an existing electronic health recording system. This paper describes an operating support system for lung cancer CT screening in order to make the screening services efficient. This operating support system is developed on the basis of 1) analysis of operating processes, 2) digitalization of operating information, and 3) visualization of operating information. The utilization of the system is evaluated through an actual application and users' survey questionnaire obtained from CT screening centers.

  9. Early Adoption of a Multitarget Stool DNA Test for Colorectal Cancer Screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finney Rutten, Lila J; Jacobson, Robert M; Wilson, Patrick M; Jacobson, Debra J; Fan, Chun; Kisiel, John B; Sweetser, Seth; Tulledge-Scheitel, Sidna M; St Sauver, Jennifer L

    2017-05-01

    To characterize early adoption of a novel multitarget stool DNA (MT-sDNA) screening test for colorectal cancer (CRC) screening and to test the hypothesis that adoption differs by demographic characteristics and prior CRC screening behavior and proceeds predictably over time. We used the Rochester Epidemiology Project research infrastructure to assess the use of the MT-sDNA screening test in adults aged 50 to 75 years living in Olmsted County, Minnesota, in 2014 and identified 27,147 individuals eligible or due for screening colonoscopy from November 1, 2014, through November 30, 2015. We used electronic Current Procedure Terminology and Health Care Common Procedure codes to evaluate early adoption of the MT-sDNA screening test in this population and to test whether early adoption varies by age, sex, race, and prior CRC screening behavior. Overall, 2193 (8.1%) and 974 (3.6%) individuals were screened by colonoscopy and MT-sDNA, respectively. Age, sex, race, and prior CRC screening behavior were significantly and independently associated with MT-sDNA screening use compared with colonoscopy use after adjustment for all other variables (Pscreening increased over time and were highest in those aged 50 to 54 years, women, whites, and those who had a history of screening. The use of the MT-sDNA screening test varied predictably by insurance coverage. The rates of colonoscopy decreased over time, whereas overall CRC screening rates remained steady. The results of the present study are generally consistent with predictions derived from prior research and the diffusion of innovation framework, pointing to increasing use of the new screening test over time and early adoption by younger patients, women, whites, and those with prior CRC screening. Copyright © 2017 Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Cervical cancer screening among women aged 18-30 years - United States, 2000-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-04

    Screening women for cervical cancer can save lives. However, among young women, cervical cancer is relatively rare, and too-frequent screening can lead to high costs and adverse events associated with overtreatment. Before 2012, cervical cancer screening guidelines of the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG), American Cancer Society (ACS), and U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) differed on age to start and how often to get screened for cervical cancer. In 2012, however, all three organizations recommended that 1) screening by Papanicolau (Pap) test should not be used for women aged <21 years, regardless of initiation of sexual activity, and 2) a screening interval of 3 years should be maintained for women aged 21-30 years. ACS and ACOG explicitly recommend against yearly screening. To assess trends in Pap testing before the new guidelines were introduced, CDC analyzed 2000-2010 data from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) for women aged 18-30 years. CDC found that, among women aged 18-21 years, the percentage reporting never having been screened increased from 26.3% in 2000 to 47.5% in 2010, and the proportion reporting having had a Pap test in the past 12 months decreased from 65.0% to 41.5%. Among those aged 22-30 years, the proportion reporting having had a Pap test within the preceding 12 months decreased from 78.1% to 67.0%. These findings showed that Pap testing practices for young women have been moving toward the latest guidelines. However, the data also showed a concerning trend: among women aged 22-30 years, who should be screened every 3 years, the proportion who reported never having had a Pap test increased from 6.6% to 9.0%. More effort is needed to promote acceptance of the latest evidence-based recommendations so that all women receive the maximal benefits of cervical cancer screening.

  11. Comparing mass screening techniques for gastric cancer in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tashiro, Atsushi; Sano, Masatoshi; Kinameri, Koichi; Fujita, Kazutaka; Takeuchi, Yutaka

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To discuss the efficacy of endoscopic mass screening for gastric cancer. METHODS: The data used in this study were the results of mass screening programs for gastric cancer in Niigata City from 2002 to 2004. The number of participants was 35 089 in 2002, 34 557 in 2003 and 36 600 in 2004. The finding ratio referred to the final diagnosis of gastric cancer after a double check of endoscopic files and histological findings. The costs of identifying one case of gastric cancer were calculated based on the total expense for each screening program and additional close examinations. RESULTS: From the analysis of individual screening program with endoscopy, individual screening program with X-ray (ISX) and mass screening program with photofluorography (MSP) in reference to the finding ratio of gastric cancer, endoscopic examination was the best for detecting early gastric cancer, the finding ratio was 0.87% in 2004, approximately 2.7 and 4.6 times higher than those of the ISX and MSP groups. In addition, this novel method was the cheapest means regarding the cost of identifying one case of gastric cancer, which was estimated to be 1 608 000 Japanese yen in 2004. CONCLUSION: Endoscopic mass screening is a promising method and can be effectively applied if a sufficient number of skilled endoscopists become available to staff the system and if city offices support it. PMID:16937471

  12. Breast cancer screening programme: experience from Eastern province, Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Mulhim, F A; Syed, A; Bagatadah, W A; Al Muhanna, A F

    2015-04-02

    Programmes for early diagnosis of breast cancer are lacking in most countries in the Eastern Mediterranean Region. This paper reviews a nongovernmental screening programme launched in October 2009 in the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia, in which 14 health centres were covered by 2 mobile mammography machines. Annual screening was offered to all women aged 40 years and above. Up to February 2014 a total of 8061 women were screened, an uptake rate of 15.0%. The recall rate was 7.9%. The number of cancers detected was 47, a cancer detection rate of 5.83 per 1000 women screened; 70.2% of the cancers detected had either no mass or the lesions were smaller than 2 cm. The mean age of women with cancer was 50.4 (SD 7.6) years. The screening parameters of our study correlated well with international standards. Despite the controversies regarding universal breast cancer screening, a national breast cancer screening programme for Saudi Arabia is needed.

  13. Prostate Cancer Screening, Detection and Treatment Practices ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PSA) were used at similar rates for screening in all locations. Screening is primarily focused in men over age 50 and those with symptoms. Routine screening was the primary reason for screening use in SA, while symptoms were the primary ...

  14. Prostate Cancer Screening, Detection and Treatment Practices ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Routine screening was the primary reason for screening use in SA, while symptoms were the primary reason for screening use in EW. Financial and cultural barriers to screening were more commonly reported in EW than SA. Similar detection approaches were used in all regions, with free PSA and PSA velocity being more ...

  15. Expressions of Machismo in Colorectal Cancer Screening Among New Mexico Hispanic Subpopulations

    OpenAIRE

    Getrich, Christina M.; Sussman, Andrew L.; Helitzer, Deborah L.; Hoffman, Richard M.; Warner, Teddy D.; Sánchez, Victoria; Solares, Angélica; Rhyne, Robert L.

    2011-01-01

    Although national colorectal cancer (CRC) incidence rates have steadily decreased, the rate for New Mexico Hispanics has been increasing and screening rates are low. We conducted an exploratory qualitative study to determine barriers to CRC screening for New Mexico Hispanics. We found that machismo served as a dynamic influence on men’s health seeking behaviors; however, it was conceptualized differently by two distinct Hispanic subpopulations and therefore appeared to play a different role i...

  16. Influencing Cancer Screening Participation Rates—Providing a Combined Cancer Screening Program (a ‘One Stop’ Shop Could Be a Potential Answer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Bobridge

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionParticipation in established cancer screening programs remains variable. Therefore, a renewed focus on how to increase screening uptake, including addressing structural barriers such as time, travel, and cost is needed. One approach could be the provision of combined cancer screening, where multiple screening tests are provided at the same time and location (essentially a ‘One Stop’ screening shop. This cohort study explored both cancer screening behavior and the acceptability of a combined screening approach.MethodsParticipants of the North Western Adelaide Health Study (NWAHS, South Australia were invited to participate in a questionnaire about cancer screening behaviors and the acceptability of a proposed ‘One Stop’ cancer screening shop. Data were collected from 10th August 2015 to 18th January 2016, weighted for selection probability, age, and sex and analyzed using descriptive and multivariable logistic regression analysis.Results1,562 people, 52% female (mean age 54.1 years ± 15.2 participated. Reported screening participation was low, the highest being for Pap Smear (34.4%. Common reasons for screening participation were preventing sickness (56.1%, CI 53.2–59.0%, maintaining health (51%, CI 48–53.9%, and free program provision (30.9%, CI 28.2–33.6%. Females were less likely to state that screening is not beneficial [OR 0.37 (CI 0.21–0.66, p < 0.001] and to cite sickness prevention [OR 2.10 (CI 1.46–3.00, p < 0.001] and free program [OR 1.75 (CI 1.22–2.51, p < 0.003] as reasons for screening participation. Of those who did not participate, 34.6% (CI 30.3–39.1% stated that there was nothing that discouraged them from participation, with 55- to 64-year olds [OR 0.24 (CI 0.07–0.74, p < 0.04] being less likely to cite this reason. 21% (CI 17.2–24.8% thought they did not need screening, while a smaller proportion stated not having time (6.9%, CI 4.9–9.7% and the costs associated

  17. The cumulative risk of false-positive screening results across screening centres in the Norwegian Breast Cancer Screening Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roman, M., E-mail: Marta.Roman@kreftregisteret.no [Cancer Registry of Norway, Oslo (Norway); Department of Women and Children’s Health, Oslo University Hospital, Oslo (Norway); Skaane, P., E-mail: PERSK@ous-hf.no [Department of Radiology, Oslo University Hospital Ullevaal, University of Oslo, Oslo (Norway); Hofvind, S., E-mail: Solveig.Hofvind@kreftregisteret.no [Cancer Registry of Norway, Oslo (Norway); Oslo and Akershus University College of Applied Sciences, Faculty of Health Science, Oslo (Norway)

    2014-09-15

    Highlights: • We found variation in early performance measures across screening centres. • Radiologists’ performance may play a key role in the variability. • Potential to improve the effectiveness of breast cancer screening programs. • Continuous surveillance of screening centres and radiologists is essential. - Abstract: Background: Recall for assessment in mammographic screening entails an inevitable number of false-positive screening results. This study aimed to investigate the variation in the cumulative risk of a false positive screening result and the positive predictive value across the screening centres in the Norwegian Breast Cancer Screening Program. Methods: We studied 618,636 women aged 50–69 years who underwent 2,090,575 screening exams (1996–2010. Recall rate, positive predictive value, rate of screen-detected cancer, and the cumulative risk of a false positive screening result, without and with invasive procedures across the screening centres were calculated. Generalized linear models were used to estimate the probability of a false positive screening result and to compute the cumulative false-positive risk for up to ten biennial screening examinations. Results: The cumulative risk of a false-positive screening exam varied from 10.7% (95% CI: 9.4–12.0%) to 41.5% (95% CI: 34.1–48.9%) across screening centres, with a highest to lowest ratio of 3.9 (95% CI: 3.7–4.0). The highest to lowest ratio for the cumulative risk of undergoing an invasive procedure with a benign outcome was 4.3 (95% CI: 4.0–4.6). The positive predictive value of recall varied between 12.0% (95% CI: 11.0–12.9%) and 19.9% (95% CI: 18.3–21.5%), with a highest to lowest ratio of 1.7 (95% CI: 1.5–1.9). Conclusions: A substantial variation in the performance measures across the screening centres in the Norwegian Breast Cancer Screening Program was identified, despite of similar administration, procedures, and quality assurance requirements. Differences in the

  18. Screening and early detection efforts in lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanodra, Neeti M; Silvestri, Gerard A; Tanner, Nichole T

    2015-05-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related death in the United States. Since publication of results from the National Lung Screening Trial, several professional organizations, including the US Preventive Services Task Force, have published guidelines recommending low-dose computed tomography for screening in asymptomatic, high-risk individuals. The benefits of screening include detection of cancer at an early stage when a definitive cure is possible, but the risks include overdiagnosis, false-positive results, psychological distress, and radiation exposure. The current review covers the scope of low-dose computed tomography screening, potential risks, costs, and future directions in the efforts for early detection of lung cancer. © 2015 American Cancer Society.

  19. Transvaginal ultrasonography in ovarian cancer screening: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Nagell Jr JR

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available John R van Nagell Jr, John T HoffDepartment of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Kentucky Chandler Medical Center/Markey Cancer Center, Lexington, KY, USAAbstract: Transvaginal ultrasonography (TVS is an integral part of all major ovarian cancer screening trials. TVS is accurate in detecting abnormalities in ovarian volume and morphology, but is less reliable in differentiating benign from malignant ovarian tumors. When used as the only screening test, TVS is sensitive, but has a low positive predictive value. Therefore, serum biomarkers and tumor morphology indexing are used together with TVS to identify ovarian tumors at high risk for malignancy. This allows preoperative triage of high-risk cases to major cancer centers for therapy while decreasing unnecessary surgery for benign disease. Ovarian cancer screening has been associated with a decrease in stage at detection in most trials, thereby allowing treatment to be initiated when the disease is most curable.Keywords: ovarian cancer, ultrasound, screening, serum Ca-125

  20. [Gastric cancer screening in Japan, now and tomorrow].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajima, Shigemi

    2012-10-01

    The screening rate of gastric cancer in the population surveyed by Japanese government was 34.3% in 2010. The rates differed by medical insurance holders: 60-70% in the big-company insurances; 32% in the national government-assisted small-company insurances; 10% in the local government-assisted non-company individual insurances and the dependents of any insurance holders. The only method of gastric cancer mass screening that Japanese government approves now is sodium bicarbonate-barium X-ray examination. The rate diagnosed as gastric cancer in the system was 0.088% in 2009. A new strategy using serum tests for pepsinogens and Helicobacter pylori-antibody has been proposed. Test and eradication may be the best method for screening high-risk subjects and primary prevention of gastric cancer, and the subsequent cancer screening.

  1. Demographic, social cognitive and social ecological predictors of intention and participation in screening for colorectal cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duncan Amy

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous research points to differences between predictors of intention to screen for colorectal cancer (CRC and screening behavior, and suggests social ecological factors may influence screening behavior. The aim of this study was to compare the social cognitive and social ecological predictors of intention to screen with predictors of participation. Methods People aged 50 to 74 years recruited from the electoral roll completed a baseline survey (n = 376 and were subsequently invited to complete an immunochemical faecal occult blood test (iFOBT. Results Multivariate analyses revealed five predictors of intention to screen and two predictors of participation. Perceived barriers to CRC screening and perceived benefits of CRC screening were the only predictor of both outcomes. There was little support for social ecological factors, but measurement problems may have impacted this finding. Conclusions This study has confirmed that the predictors of intention to screen for CRC and screening behaviour, although overlapping, are not the same. Research should focus predominantly on those factors shown to predict participation. Perceptions about the barriers to screening and benefits of screening are key predictors of participation, and provide a focus for intervention programs.

  2. Older adults' attitudes about continuing cancer screening later in life: a pilot study interviewing residents of two continuing care communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter Louise C

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Individualized decision making has been recommended for cancer screening decisions in older adults. Because older adults' preferences are central to individualized decisions, we assessed older adults' perspectives about continuing cancer screening later in life. Methods Face to face interviews with 116 residents age 70 or over from two long-term care retirement communities. Interview content included questions about whether participants had discussed cancer screening with their physicians since turning age 70, their attitudes about information important for individualized decisions, and their attitudes about continuing cancer screening later in life. Results Forty-nine percent of participants reported that they had an opportunity to discuss cancer screening with their physician since turning age 70; 89% would have preferred to have had these discussions. Sixty-two percent believed their own life expectancy was not important for decision making, and 48% preferred not to discuss life expectancy. Attitudes about continuing cancer screening were favorable. Most participants reported that they would continue screening throughout their lives and 43% would consider getting screened even if their doctors recommended against it. Only 13% thought that they would not live long enough to benefit from cancer screening tests. Factors important to consider stopping include: age, deteriorating or poor health, concerns about the effectiveness of the tests, and doctors recommendations. Conclusion This select group of older adults held positive attitudes about continuing cancer screening later in life, and many may have had unrealistic expectations. Individualized decision making could help clarify how life expectancy affects the potential survival benefits of cancer screening. Future research is needed to determine whether educating older adults about the importance of longevity in screening decisions would be acceptable, affect older adults

  3. Social ties and colorectal cancer screening among Blacks and Whites in North Carolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinney, Anita Yeomans; Bloor, Lindsey E; Martin, Christopher; Sandler, Robert S

    2005-01-01

    Few studies have examined the relationship between social networks and colorectal cancer screening in diverse populations. Prior research suggests that the type of social support as well as the amount or frequency of support available from one's social network may be associated with health outcomes. Therefore, the current study examined relationships between both structural (i.e., quantitative aspects of the social network, such as number of ties and frequency of contact with ties) and functional (i.e., functions provided by social network ties, such as offering emotional or instrumental support) aspects of social ties and utilization of colorectal cancer screening tests. Analyses included 697 randomly selected Blacks and Whites ages 51 to 80 years enrolled as controls in the North Carolina Colon Cancer Study. Social tie and screening information was obtained from face-to-face interviews. Forty-seven percent of participants (40% Blacks and 51% Whites) reported use of one of the options for colorectal cancer screening according to the guidelines at that time. Compared with those with the fewest social connections, those who were most socially connected were more likely to report recent use of colorectal cancer screening [odds ratio (OR), 3.2; 95% confidence interval (95% CI), 1.7-6.2]. This association was stronger among Blacks (OR, 3.8; 95% CI, 1.3-10.7) than Whites (OR, 2.9; 95% CI, 1.2-6.9; P for interaction = 0.006). There were also positive associations between being a church group (OR, 1.9; 95% CI, 1.4-2.7) and other group member (OR, 1.6; 95% CI, 1.1-2.2) and screening. Neither emotional (e.g., offering reassurance that one is cared for) nor instrumental (e.g., giving material assistance) support was associated with screening behavior. These data suggest that structural rather than functional aspects of social ties may be important in influencing colorectal cancer screening behavior.

  4. Study examines cancer overdiagnosis in National Lung Screening Trial | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Screening for lung cancer has the potential to reduce mortality, but in addition to detecting aggressive tumors, screening will also detect indolent tumors that otherwise may not cause clinical symptoms. These overdiagnosis cases represent an important potential harm of screening because they incur additional cost, anxiety, and morbidity associated with cancer treatment... |

  5. Risk stratification in cervical cancer screening by complete screening history: Applying bioinformatics to a general screening population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baltzer, Nicholas; Sundström, Karin; Nygård, Jan F; Dillner, Joakim; Komorowski, Jan

    2017-07-01

    Women screened for cervical cancer in Sweden are currently treated under a one-size-fits-all programme, which has been successful in reducing the incidence of cervical cancer but does not use all of the participants' available medical information. This study aimed to use women's complete cervical screening histories to identify diagnostic patterns that may indicate an increased risk of developing cervical cancer. A nationwide case-control study was performed where cervical cancer screening data from 125,476 women with a maximum follow-up of 10 years were evaluated for patterns of SNOMED diagnoses. The cancer development risk was estimated for a number of different screening history patterns and expressed as Odds Ratios (OR), with a history of 4 benign cervical tests as reference, using logistic regression. The overall performance of the model was moderate (64% accuracy, 71% area under curve) with 61-62% of the study population showing no specific patterns associated with risk. However, predictions for high-risk groups as defined by screening history patterns were highly discriminatory with ORs ranging from 8 to 36. The model for computing risk performed consistently across different screening history lengths, and several patterns predicted cancer outcomes. The results show the presence of risk-increasing and risk-decreasing factors in the screening history. Thus it is feasible to identify subgroups based on their complete screening histories. Several high-risk subgroups identified might benefit from an increased screening density. Some low-risk subgroups identified could likely have a moderately reduced screening density without additional risk. © 2017 UICC.

  6. Addressing multilevel barriers to cervical cancer screening in Korean American women: A randomized trial of a community-based intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Carolyn Y; Ma, Grace X; Handorf, Elizabeth A; Feng, Ziding; Tan, Yin; Rhee, Joanne; Miller, Suzanne M; Kim, Charles; Koh, Han Seung

    2017-05-15

    Korean American women have among the lowest rates of cervical cancer screening in the United States. The authors evaluated a multicomponent intervention combining community education with navigation services to reduce access barriers and increase screening rates in this underserved population. It was hypothesized that cervical cancer screening rates would be higher among women who received the intervention program compared with those in the control program. Korean American women (N = 705) were recruited from 22 churches. In this matched-pair, group-randomized design, 347 women received the intervention, which consisted of a culturally relevant cancer education program combined with provision of navigation services. The control group (N = 358) received general health education, including information about cervical cancer risk and screening and where to obtain low-cost or no-cost screening. Screening behavior was assessed 12 months after the program. Screening behavior data were obtained from 588 women 12 months after the program. In both site-level and participant-level analyses, the intervention program contributed to significantly higher screening rates compared with the control program (odds ratio [OR], 25.9; 95% confidence interval [CI], 10.1-66.1; P cancer education with navigation services yielded significant increases in cervical cancer screening rates among underscreened Korean American women. Community-accessible programs that incorporate cancer education with the delivery of key navigation services can be highly effective in increasing cervical cancer screening rates in this underserved population. Cancer 2017;123:1018-26. © 2016 American Cancer Society. © 2016 American Cancer Society.

  7. Implementation of lung cancer CT screening in the Nordic countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jesper Holst; Sørensen, Jens Benn; Saghir, Zaigham

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: We review the current knowledge of CT screening for lung cancer and present an expert-based, joint protocol for the proper implementation of screening in the Nordic countries. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Experts representing all the Nordic countries performed literature review...... and concensus for a joint protocol for lung cancer screening. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: Areas of concern and caution are presented and discussed. We suggest to perform CT screening pilot studies in the Nordic countries in order to gain experience and develop specific and safe protocols for the implementation...

  8. Risk-based Breast Cancer Screening: Implications of Breast Density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Christoph I; Chen, Linda E; Elmore, Joann G

    2017-07-01

    The approach to breast cancer screening has changed over time from a general approach to a more personalized, risk-based approach. Women with dense breasts, one of the most prevalent risk factors, are now being informed that they are at increased risk of developing breast cancer and should consider supplemental screening beyond mammography. This article reviews the current evidence regarding the impact of breast density relative to other known risk factors, the evidence regarding supplemental screening for women with dense breasts, supplemental screening options, and recommendations for physicians having shared decision-making discussions with women who have dense breasts. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Breast cancer screening in Korean woman with dense breast tissue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Hee Jung [Dept. of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Ko, Eun Sook [Dept. of Radiology, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Samsung Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Yi, Ann [Dept. of Radiology, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-11-15

    Asian women, including Korean, have a relatively higher incidence of dense breast tissue, compared with western women. Dense breast tissue has a lower sensitivity for the detection of breast cancer and a higher relative risk for breast cancer, compared with fatty breast tissue. Thus, there were limitations in the mammographic screening for women with dense breast tissue, and many studies for the supplemental screening methods. This review included appropriate screening methods for Korean women with dense breasts. We also reviewed the application and limitation of supplemental screening methods, including breast ultrasound, digital breast tomosynthesis, and breast magnetic resonance imaging; and furthermore investigated the guidelines, as well as the study results.

  10. Screening and Early Detection of Gastric Cancer: East Versus West.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suh, Yun-Suhk; Yang, Han-Kwang

    2015-10-01

    Low ratio of mortality over incidence of gastric cancer in Asian countries including Korea and Japan could be explained by early detection after screening, different treatment strategy, or genetic disparity between the East and West. Early detection after screening program for gastric cancer and subsequent surgical treatment including appropriate lymph node dissection has been developed successfully in high risk areas such as East Asian countries. Even in countries with a low prevalence of gastric cancer, a specific screening program is recommended for any high-risk population. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Breast and cervical cancer screening among South Asian immigrants in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menon, Usha; Szalacha, Laura A; Prabhughate, Abhijit

    2012-01-01

    South Asian (SA) immigrants (from Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, the Maldives, Nepal, Pakistan, and Sri Lanka) constitute the fastest growing of all Asian American immigrants to the United States, with a growth rate of 106% from 1990 to 2001. Data are lacking on health behaviors of this population subgroup, including cancer-related information. : The purpose of this study was to assess rates and correlates of breast and cervical cancer screening in a community sample of SAs. Participants were recruited from among attendees of 3 community-based agency programs. Data were collected in English, Hindi, and Gujarati from a convenience sample of 198 participants. Two-thirds of the sample (n = 127, 65.5%) had ever had a mammogram, whereas only a third (n = 65, 32.8%) had ever had a Papanicolaou smear or vaginal examination. Several predisposing factors (eg, country of birth, years in the United States, acculturation, age, and acknowledged barriers to screening) were significant predictors of breast and cervical screening, whereas the only enabling factor was past screening behavior. Additional study is warranted on cultural aspects of cancer screening behaviors. These data are formative on facilitators and barriers to mammogram and Papanicolaou test completion among these understudied minority women. Nurses who practice in primary care may begin to target health education based on sociodemographics of SA women and emphasize discussion of barriers to screening.

  12. Dynamic infrared imaging for skin cancer screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godoy, Sebastián E.; Ramirez, David A.; Myers, Stephen A.; von Winckel, Greg; Krishna, Sanchita; Berwick, Marianne; Padilla, R. Steven; Sen, Pradeep; Krishna, Sanjay

    2015-05-01

    Dynamic thermal imaging (DTI) with infrared cameras is a non-invasive technique with the ability to detect the most common types of skin cancer. We discuss and propose a standardized analysis method for DTI of actual patient data, which achieves high levels of sensitivity and specificity by judiciously selecting pixels with the same initial temperature. This process compensates the intrinsic limitations of the cooling unit and is the key enabling tool in the DTI data analysis. We have extensively tested the methodology on human subjects using thermal infrared image sequences from a pilot study conducted jointly with the University of New Mexico Dermatology Clinic in Albuquerque, New Mexico (ClinicalTrials ID number NCT02154451). All individuals were adult subjects who were scheduled for biopsy or adult volunteers with clinically diagnosed benign condition. The sample size was 102 subjects for the present study. Statistically significant results were obtained that allowed us to distinguish between benign and malignant skin conditions. The sensitivity and specificity was 95% (with a 95% confidence interval of [87.8% 100.0%]) and 83% (with a 95% confidence interval of [73.4% 92.5%]), respectively, and with an area under the curve of 95%. Our results lead us to conclude that the DTI approach in conjunction with the judicious selection of pixels has the potential to provide a fast, accurate, non-contact, and non-invasive way to screen for common types of skin cancer. As such, it has the potential to significantly reduce the number of biopsies performed on suspicious lesions.

  13. Breast Cancer Characteristics Associated With Digital Versus Film-Screen Mammography for Screen-Detected and Interval Cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Louise M; Miglioretti, Diana L; Kerlikowske, Karla; Wernli, Karen J; Sprague, Brian L; Lehman, Constance D

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether pathologic findings of screen-detected and interval cancers differ for digital versus film mammography. Breast Cancer Surveillance Consortium data from 2003-2011 on 3,021,515 screening mammograms (40.3% digital, 59.7% film) of women 40-89 years old were reviewed. Cancers were considered screen detected if diagnosed within 12 months of an examination with positive findings and interval if diagnosed within 12 months of an examination with negative findings. Tumor characteristics for screen-detected and interval cancers were compared for digital versus film mammography by use of logistic regression models to estimate the odds ratio and 95% CI with adjustment for age, race and ethnicity, hormone therapy use, screening interval, examination year, and registry. Generalized estimating equations were used to account for correlation within facilities. Among 15,729 breast cancers, 85.3% were screen detected and 14.7% were interval. Digital and film mammography had similar rates of screen-detected (4.47 vs 4.42 per 1000 examinations) and interval (0.73 vs 0.79 per 1000 examinations) cancers for digital versus film. In adjusted analyses, interval cancers diagnosed after digital examinations with negative findings were less likely to be American Joint Committee on Cancer stage IIB or higher (odds ratio, 0.69; 95% CI, 0.52-0.93), have positive nodal status (odds ratio, 0.78; 95% CI, 0.64-0.95), or be estrogen receptor negative (odds ratio, 0.71; 95% CI, 0.56-0.91) than were interval cancers diagnosed after a film examination with negative findings. Screen-detected cancers diagnosed after digital and film mammography had similar rates of unfavorable tumor characteristics. Interval-detected cancers diagnosed after a digital examination were less likely to have unfavorable tumor features than those diagnosed after film mammography, but the absolute differences were small.

  14. Alternative approaches to cervical cancer screening for developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Thomas C; Kuhn, Louise

    2012-04-01

    Cervical cancer remains the most common cancer among women living in developing countries, largely because of the failure either to initiate or sustain effective cervical-cancer screening programmes. This potentially preventable and curable cancer continues to cause high mortality among relatively young women residing in low-resource countries. Cytology as a screening test, linked with a robust healthcare infrastructure, has significantly affected cervical cancer prevention in countries that have had sufficient resources to establish and sustain well-conducted programmes. The failure to establish such programmes has stimulated a large body of research into alternative screening tests and approaches to cervical-cancer prevention. Two of the most recent research methods have been visual inspection with acetic acid and molecular testing for high-risk types of human papillomavirus deoxyribonucleic acid. Visual inspection with acetic acid has shown a great deal of promise in cross-sectional studies; however, in randomised-controlled trials, it has been shown to be significantly less effective in reducing cervical cancer or its precursors. The development of point-of-care human papillomavirus or other highly sensitive tests for the prevention of cervical cancer is imperative. It has also been clearly shown that linking testing or screening to treatment (so-called 'screen and treat') without the intervention of colposcopy or the need for sophisticated laboratories may potentially prevent cervical cancer in large numbers of women. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Compulsive buying behavior: Re‐evaluating its dimensions and screening

    OpenAIRE

    Maccarrone‐Eaglen, Agata; Schofield, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Despite the significant research in the consumer behavior literature on compulsive buying behavior (CBB), there is still no general agreement about the dimensionality or diagnostic screening of the disorder. Previous studies have identified two principal dimensions: compulsivity and impulsivity, although more recent strands of theory characterize CBB with reference to loss of self‐control and behavioral addiction. This study challenges the impulsive–compulsive paradigm by validating a new mod...

  16. Cervical cancer screening in a sexually transmitted disease clinic: screening adoption experiences from a midwestern clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyerson, Beth E; Sayegh, M Aaron; Davis, Alissa; Arno, Janet N; Zimet, Gregory D; LeMonte, Ann M; Williams, James A; Barclay, Lynn; Van Der Pol, Barbara

    2015-04-01

    We examined whether a sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinic could reach women who had not received a Papanicolau (Pap) test in the past 3 years. We also explored staff attitudes and implementation of cervical cancer screening. Women (n = 123) aged 30 to 50 years were offered cervical cancer screening in an Indiana STD clinic. We measured effectiveness by the patients' self-reported last Pap test. We explored adoption of screening through focus groups with 34 staff members by documenting their attitudes about cervical cancer screening and screening strategy adaptation. We also documented recruitment and screening implementation. Almost half (47.9%) of participants reported a last Pap test 3 or more years previously; 30% had reported a last Pap more than 5 years ago, and 11.4% had a high-risk test outcome that required referral to colposcopy. Staff supported screening because of mission alignment and perceived patient benefit. Screening adaptations included eligibility, results provision, and follow-up. Cervical cancer screening was possible and potentially beneficial in STD clinics. Future effectiveness-implementation studies should expand to include all female patients, and should examine the degree to which adaptation of selected adoption frameworks is feasible.

  17. Beyond Screen Time: Assessing Recreational Sedentary Behavior among Adolescent Girls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine W. Bauer

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Most studies of sedentary behavior have focused on television use or screen time. This study aims to examine adolescent girls' participation in a variety of recreational sedentary behaviors (e.g., talking on the phone and hanging around, and their association with physical activity (PA, dietary behaviors, and body mass index. Data were from a sample of 283 adolescent girls. Recreational sedentary behavior, PA, and dietary behaviors were self-reported, and girls' height and weight were measured. Over 95% of girls engaged in at least one recreational sedentary behavior during the recall period. Watching television and hanging around were the most common behaviors. Watching television, using the Internet, and hanging around were associated with less PA; watching television, hanging around, and talking on the phone were associated with less healthful dietary behaviors. No associations were found with body mass index. Interventions may benefit from capitalizing on and intervening upon girls' common recreational sedentary behaviors.

  18. Expressions of machismo in colorectal cancer screening among New Mexico Hispanic subpopulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Getrich, Christina M; Sussman, Andrew L; Helitzer, Deborah L; Hoffman, Richard M; Warner, Teddy D; Sánchez, Victoria; Solares, Angélica; Rhyne, Robert L

    2012-04-01

    Although national colorectal cancer (CRC) incidence rates have steadily decreased, the rate for New Mexico Hispanics has been increasing, and screening rates are low. We conducted an exploratory qualitative study to determine barriers to CRC screening for New Mexico Hispanics. We found that machismo served as a dynamic influence on men's health-seeking behaviors; however, it was conceptualized differently by two distinct Hispanic subpopulations, and therefore appeared to play a different role in shaping their screening attitudes and behaviors. Machismo emerged as more of an influence for Mexican men, who expressed concern over colonoscopies being potentially transformative and/or stigmatizing, but was not as salient for Hispanos, who viewed the colonoscopy as "strictly medical," and were more concerned with discomfort and pain. Findings from the study highlight the importance of identifying varying characteristics among subpopulations to better understand screening barriers and provide optimal CRC screening counseling in primary care settings.

  19. Intention, Subjective Norms, and Cancer Screening in the Context of Relational Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasick, Rena J.; Barker, Judith C.; Otero-Sabogal, Regina; Burke, Nancy J.; Joseph, Galen; Guerra, Claudia

    2009-01-01

    Research targeting disparities in breast cancer detection has mainly utilized theories that do not account for social context and culture. Most mammography promotion studies have used a conceptual framework centered in the cognitive constructs of intention (commonly regarded as the most important determinant of screening behavior), self-efficacy,…

  20. Challenges Implementing Lung Cancer Screening in Federally Qualified Health Centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeliadt, Steven B; Hoffman, Richard M; Birkby, Genevieve; Eberth, Jan M; Brenner, Alison T; Reuland, Daniel S; Flocke, Susan A

    2018-02-08

    The purpose of this study is to identify issues faced by Federally Qualified Health Centers (FQHCs) in implementing lung cancer screening in low-resource settings. Medical directors of 258 FQHCs serving communities with tobacco use prevalence above the median of all 1,202 FQHCs nationally were sampled to participate in a web-based survey. Data were collected between August and October 2016. Data analysis was completed in June 2017. There were 112 (43%) FQHC medical directors or surrogates who responded to the 2016 survey. Overall, 41% of respondents were aware of a lung cancer screening program within 30 miles of their system's largest clinic. Although 43% reported that some providers in their system offer screening, it was typically at a very low volume (less than ten/month). Although FQHCs are required to collect tobacco use data, only 13% indicated that these data can identify patients eligible for screening. Many FQHCs reported important patient financial barriers for screening, including lack of insurance (72%), preauthorization requirements (58%), and out-of-pocket cost burdens for follow-up procedures (73%). Only 51% indicated having adequate access to specialty providers to manage abnormal findings, and few reported that leadership had either committed resources to lung cancer screening (12%) or prioritized lung cancer screening (12%). FQHCs and other safety-net clinics, which predominantly serve low-socioeconomic populations with high proportions of smokers eligible for lung cancer screening, face significant economic and resource challenges to implementing lung cancer screening. Although these vulnerable patients are at increased risk for lung cancer, reducing patient financial burdens and appropriately managing abnormal findings are critical to ensure that offering screening does not inadvertently lead to harm and increase disparities. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. [Screening for breast cancer: worries about its effectiveness].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Autier, Philippe

    2013-12-01

    Breast cancer screening in France is done though two parallel systems: individualized screening and a national programme of organized screening. The latter is free of charge and manages a double-reading of mammography films. Since 2004, a steadily greater proportion of French women 50 to 74 years of age participate to the national programme. Justification of screening in France is based on Swedish randomised trials that documented the ability of mammography screening to reduce the risk to die from breast cancer. However, since 3 years, a growing number of studies indicate that screening seems not to have much influence on the incidence of advanced breast cancer and on mortality from breast cancer Moreover, numerous breast cancers are detected that would have never clinically surfaced and would have never been life threatening (overdiagnosis). In view of current doubts, it is better to inform women on health benefits, limitations and possible side effects of mammography screening. For women willing to be screened, it is recommended to invite them to participate to the national programme.

  2. Use of claims data to estimate annual cervical cancer screening percentages in Portland metropolitan area, Oregon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, Nasreen; Laing, Robert S; Hariri, Susan; Young, Collette M; Schafer, Sean

    2016-04-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine should reduce cervical dysplasia before cervical cancer. However, dysplasia diagnosis is screening-dependent. Accurate screening estimates are needed. To estimate the percentage of women in a geographic population that has had cervical cancer screening. We analyzed claims data for (Papanicolau) Pap tests from 2008-2012 to estimate the percentage of insured women aged 18-39 years screened. We estimated screening in uninsured women by dividing the percentage of insured Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance Survey respondents reporting previous-year testing by the percentage of uninsured respondents reporting previous-year testing, and multiplying this ratio by claims-based estimates of insured women with previous-year screening. We calculated a simple weighted average of the two estimates to estimate overall screening percentage. We estimated credible intervals using Monte-Carlo simulations. During 2008-2012, an annual average of 29.6% of women aged 18-39 years were screened. Screening increased from 2008 to 2009 in all age groups. During 2009-2012, the screening percentages decreased for all groups, but declined most in women aged 18-20 years, from 21.5% to 5.4%. Within age groups, compared to 2009, credible intervals did not overlap during 2011 (except age group 21-29 years) and 2012, and credible intervals in the 18-20 year group did not overlap with older groups in any year. This introduces a novel method to estimate population-level cervical cancer screening. Overall, percentage of women screened in Portland, Oregon fell following changes in screening recommendations released in 2009 and later modified in 2012. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Impact of Job Status on Accessibility of Cancer Screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seung Ju; Han, Kyu-Tae; Park, Eun-Cheol

    2016-04-01

    Cancer is a leading cause of death worldwide with approximately 75,000 cancer deaths in Korea alone in 2013. Cancer screening is an important method of prevention; however, only 63.4% of Koreans sought cancer screening in 2012 even though it was widely offered at no cost. We focused on part time workers because they often experience job instability and relative discrimination. Therefore, we investigated the correlation between job status and cancer screening. Data from the 2013 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) were used for selection of individuals who participated in the national cancer screening program. A total of 1,326 wage earners were selected for our study. The association between cancer screening and part time job status was examined using logistic regression models. Of the 1,326 individuals selected for the study, 869 (64.5%) had participated in the cancer screening program; among these, 421 (48.4%) were part time workers and 448 (51.6%) were full time workers. Lower prevalence of cancer screening was observed for part time workers compared to full time workers (odds ratio, 0.72; confidence interval, 0.53 to 1.00; p=0.0495). Factors including age, marital status, private insurance, chronic disease, smoking, and residential area emerged as showed significant association with participation in screening programs. We found that part time workers had difficulty participating in prevention programs. Change in the workplace environment as well as development of positive social programs targeted to part time workers is necessary in order to encourage participation of part time workers in prevention programs.

  4. Beyond Mammography: New Frontiers in Breast Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drukteinis, Jennifer S.; Mooney, Blaise P.; Flowers, Chris I.; Gatenby, Robert A

    2014-01-01

    Breast cancer screening remains a subject of intense and, at times, passionate debate. Mammography has long been the mainstay of breast cancer detection and is the only screening test proven to reduce mortality. Although it remains the gold standard of breast cancer screening, there is increasing awareness of subpopulations of women for whom mammography has reduced sensitivity. Mammography has also undergone increased scrutiny for false positives and excessive biopsies, which increase radiation dose, cost and patient anxiety. In response to these challenges, new technologies for breast cancer screening have been developed, including; low dose mammography; contrast enhanced mammography, tomosynthesis, automated whole breast ultrasound, molecular imaging and MRI. Here we examine some of the current controversies and promising new technologies that may improve detection of breast cancer both in the general population and in high-risk groups, such as women with dense breasts. We propose that optimal breast cancer screening will ultimately require a personalized approach based on metrics of cancer risk with selective application of specific screening technologies best suited to the individual’s age, risk, and breast density. PMID:23561631

  5. The utility of Google Trends data to examine interest in cancer screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schootman, M; Toor, A; Cavazos-Rehg, P; Jeffe, D B; McQueen, A; Eberth, J; Davidson, N O

    2015-06-08

    We examined the utility of January 2004 to April 2014 Google Trends data from information searches for cancer screenings and preparations as a complement to population screening data, which are traditionally estimated through costly population-level surveys. State-level data across the USA. Persons who searched for terms related to cancer screening using Google, and persons who participated in the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS). (1) State-level Google Trends data, providing relative search volume (RSV) data scaled to the highest search proportion per week (RSV100) for search terms over time since 2004 and across different geographical locations. (2) RSV of new screening tests, free/low-cost screening for breast and colorectal cancer, and new preparations for colonoscopy (Prepopik). (3) State-level breast, cervical, colorectal and prostate cancer screening rates. Correlations between Google Trends and BRFSS data ranged from 0.55 for ever having had a colonoscopy to 0.14 for having a Pap smear within the past 3 years. Free/low-cost mammography and colonoscopy showed higher RSV during their respective cancer awareness months. RSV for Miralax remained stable, while interest in Prepopik increased over time. RSV for lung cancer screening, virtual colonoscopy and three-dimensional mammography was low. Google Trends data provides enormous scientific possibilities, but are not a suitable substitute for, but may complement, traditional data collection and analysis about cancer screening and related interests. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  6. Understanding Hmong women's beliefs, feelings, norms, and external conditions about breast and cervical cancer screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lor, Maichou; Khang, Pa Yiar; Xiong, Pa; Moua, Kao Feng; Lauver, Diane

    2013-01-01

    To describe the beliefs, feelings, norms, and external conditions regarding breast and cervical cancer screening in a sample of Hmong women. In a descriptive design, female Hmong researchers recruited 16 Hmong women (ages 24-73) at a community center. Guided by the Theory of Care Seeking Behavior (TCSB), researchers asked participants semi-structured questions about their beliefs, feelings, norms, and external conditions in a group setting. Researchers documented responses in writing and audio recordings. Guided by theory, we used directed content analysis to categorize responses. Participants' beliefs' about screening included uncertainty about causes of breast and cervical cancer, uncertainty about Western forms of treatments, and terminal illness as outcomes of such cancer. Many felt embarrassed about breast and cervical cancer screening. Their cultural norms about undressing for an exam and listening to authority figures were different from Western norms. External conditions that influenced participants' for screenings included difficulties in communicating with interpreters and clinicians. Consistent with the TCSB, Hmong women's beliefs, affect, cultural norms and external conditions helped to understand their use of breast and cervical screening. Findings could guide nursing and public health interventions to improve culturally sensitive, cancer screening for Hmong women. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Eliciting population preferences for mass colorectal cancer screening organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayaradou, Maximilien; Berchi, Célia; Dejardin, Olivier; Launoy, Guy

    2010-01-01

    The implementation of mass colorectal cancer (CRC) screening is a public health priority. Population participation is fundamental for the success of CRC screening as for any cancer screening program. The preferences of the population may influence their likelihood of participation. The authors sought to elicit population preferences for CRC screening test characteristics to improve the design of CRC screening campaigns. A discrete choice experiment was used. Questionnaires were compiled with a set of pairs of hypothetical CRC screening scenarios. The survey was conducted by mail from June 2006 to October 2006 on a representative sample of 2000 inhabitants, aged 50 to 74 years from the northwest of France, who were randomly selected from electoral lists. Questionnaires were sent to 2000 individuals, each of whom made 3 or 4 discrete choices between hypothetical tests that differed in 7 attributes: how screening is offered, process, sensitivity, rate of unnecessary colonoscopy, expected mortality reduction, method of screening test result transmission, and cost. Complete responses were received from 656 individuals (32.8%). The attributes that influenced population preferences included expected mortality reduction, sensitivity, cost, and process. Participants from high social classes were particularly influenced by sensitivity. The results demonstrate that the discrete choice experiment provides information on patient preferences for CRC screening: improving screening program effectiveness, for instance, by improving test sensitivity (the most valued attribute) would increase satisfaction among the general population with regard to CRC screening programs. Additional studies are required to study how patient preferences actually affect adherence to regular screening programs.

  8. Improving Breast Cancer Outcomes among Women in China: Practices, Knowledge, and Attitudes Related to Breast Cancer Screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsu-Yin Wu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Breast cancer is a major public health issue and the most commonly diagnosed cancer for women worldwide. Despite lower incidence rates than those living in Western countries, breast cancer incidence among Chinese women has increased dramatically in the past 20 years. Nevertheless, there is a paucity of studies reporting the attitudes toward and practices of breast cancer screening among Chinese women. Methods. This cross-sectional study examined the practices, knowledge, and attitudes toward breast cancer screening (BCS on a convenience sample of 400 Chinese women. Results. Among study participants, 75% of the women never had a mammogram and the top three barriers reported were low priority, feeling OK, and lack of awareness/knowledge toward breast cancer screening. The results from the logistic regression model showed increased self-efficacy; having performed monthly self-exams, and having had clinical breast exams in the past two years were significant correlates while demographic variables were not correlated with screening behaviors. Conclusion. The findings provide a foundation to better understand beliefs and practices of Chinese women toward BCS and highlight the critical need for general public, health professionals, and the health care system to work collaboratively toward improving the quality of breast cancer care in this population.

  9. Breast cancer characteristics associated with digital versus screen-film mammography for screen-detected and interval cancers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miglioretti, Diana L.; Kerlikowske, Karla; Wernli, Karen J.; Sprague, Brian L.; Lehman, Constance M.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To determine if pathologic findings of screen-detected and interval cancers differ for digital versus film mammography. Materials and Methods This study was institutional review board approved and HIPAA compliant. Using 2003–2011 Breast Cancer Surveillance Consortium data, we included 3,021,515 screening mammograms (40.3% digital and 59.7% film) for women ages 40 to 89 years. Cancers were considered screen-detected if diagnosed within 12 months of a positive examination and interval if diagnosed within 12 months of a negative examination. Tumor characteristics for screen-detected and interval cancers were compared for digital versus film mammography using logistic regression models to estimate the odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (95%CI), adjusting for age, race/ethnicity, hormone therapy use, screening interval, examination year, and registry while accounting for correlation within facilities using generalized estimating equations. Results Among 15,729 breast cancers, 85.3% were screen-detected and 14.7% were interval. Digital and film mammography had similar rates of screen-detected (4.47 vs. 4.42 per 1000 examinations) and interval cancers (0.73 vs. 0.79 per 1000 examinations) for digital versus film, respectively. In adjusted analyses, interval cancers following a negative digital examination were less likely to be AJCC stage IIB or higher (OR=0.69, 95%CI:0.52–0.93), have positive nodal status (OR=0.78, 95%CI:0.64–0.95), or be estrogen receptor-negative (OR=0.71, 95%CI:0.56–0.91) compared with interval cancers following a negative film examination. Conclusions Screen-detected cancers following digital and film mammography had similar rates of unfavorable tumor characteristics. Interval-detected cancers after a digital examination were less likely to have unfavorable tumor features than those diagnosed after film, but absolute differences were small. PMID:26295657

  10. Digital compared to screen-film mammography: breast cancer prognostic features in an organized screening program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prummel, Maegan V; Done, Susan J; Muradali, Derek; Majpruz, Vicky; Brown, Patrick; Jiang, Hedy; Shumak, Rene S; Yaffe, Martin J; Holloway, Claire M B; Chiarelli, Anna M

    2014-09-01

    Our previous study found cancer detection rates were equivalent for direct radiography compared to screen-film mammography, while rates for computed radiography were significantly lower. This study compares prognostic features of invasive breast cancers by type of mammography. Approved by the University of Toronto Research Ethics Board, this study identified invasive breast cancers diagnosed among concurrent cohorts of women aged 50-74 screened by direct radiography, computed radiography, or screen-film mammography from January 1, 2008 to December 31, 2009. During the study period, 816,232 mammograms were performed on 668,418 women, and 3,323 invasive breast cancers were diagnosed. Of 2,642 eligible women contacted, 2,041 participated (77.3 %). The final sample size for analysis included 1,405 screen-detected and 418 interval cancers (diagnosed within 24 months of a negative screening mammogram). Polytomous logistic regression was performed to evaluate the association between tumour characteristics and type of mammography, and between tumour characteristics and detection method. Odds ratios (OR) and 95 % confidence intervals (CI) were recorded. Cancers detected by computed radiography compared to screen-film mammography were significantly more likely to be lymph node positive (OR 1.94, 95 %CI 1.01-3.73) and have higher stage (II:I, OR 2.14, 95 %CI 1.11-4.13 and III/IV:I, OR 2.97, 95 %CI 1.02-8.59). Compared to screen-film mammography, significantly more cancers detected by direct radiography (OR 1.64, 95 %CI 1.12-2.38) were lymph node positive. Interval cancers had worse prognostic features compared to screen-detected cancers, irrespective of mammography type. Screening with computed radiography may lead to the detection of cancers with a less favourable stage distribution compared to screen-film mammography that may reflect a delayed diagnosis. Screening programs should re-evaluate their use of computed radiography for breast screening.

  11. Cancer Screening Practice among Iranian Middle-aged Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behnaz Enjezab

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background & aim: Breast, cervical, and colorectal cancers are the leading causes of mortality among women, the incidence rate of which has an upward trend with advancing age. Although cost-effective, easy, and available screening programs can help control these types of cancer in their early stages, it seems that cancer screening programs have not been implemented effectively. In this study, we investigated the rate of cancer screening practice in middle-aged women and explained the influential factors. Methods: This cross-sectional study with a sequential mixed method approach was conducted on 483 middle-age women selected through cluster random sampling in Yazd, Iran. Data were obtained by a research made questionnaire and analyzed with descriptive statistics and performing Pearson product-moment correlation, Student’s t-test, and One-way ANOVA tests, using SPSS version 16. In the second phase of the study, qualitative, semi-structured interviews were performed and data were analyzed through content analysis. Results: The majority of the subjects had never been screened for cancer through mammogram (87.7%, Pap test (64.2%, or fecal occult blood test (FOBT (89.8%. Educational level, employment status, perceived adequacy of income, perceived health status, and the number of children were significantly associated with breast and colon cancer screening practice. Qualitative data showed that lack of knowledge, the cost of screening exams, lack of financial independence, negligence of spouse, fear of cancer, embarrassment, and belief in destiny were the main reasons for non-adherence to cancer screening tests. In addition, knowledge and observing cancer in acquaintances and relatives were the main motivators of cancer screening. Conclusion: Middle-aged housewives, as well as women with low educational level and income were the most vulnerable groups, who did not adhere to cancer screening. Planning and management of cancer preventive programs and

  12. Life expectancy of screen-detected invasive breast cancer patients compared with women invited to the Nijmegen Screening Program

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.D.M. Otten; M.J.M. Broeders (Mireille); G.J. den Heeten (Gerard); R. Holland (Roland); J. Fracheboud (Jacques); H.J. de Koning (Harry); A.L.M. Verbeek (Andre)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractBACKGROUND: Screening can lead to earlier detection of breast cancer and thus to an improvement in survival. The authors studied the life expectancy of women with screen-detected invasive breast cancer (patients) compared with women invited to the breast cancer screening program in

  13. Life expectancy of screen-detected invasive breast cancer patients compared with women invited to the Nijmegen screening program

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Otten, Johannes D. M.; Broeders, Mireille J. M.; den Heeten, Gerard J.; Holland, Roland; Fracheboud, Jacques; de Koning, Harry J.; Verbeek, André L. M.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND:: Screening can lead to earlier detection of breast cancer and thus to an improvement in survival. The authors studied the life expectancy of women with screen-detected invasive breast cancer (patients) compared with women invited to the breast cancer screening program in Nijmegen, the

  14. Lynch Syndrome: Female Genital Tract Cancer Diagnosis and Screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Anne M; Longacre, Teri A

    2016-06-01

    Lynch syndrome is responsible for approximately 5% of endometrial cancers and 1% of ovarian cancers. The molecular basis for Lynch syndrome is a heritable functional deficiency in the DNA mismatch repair system, typically due to a germline mutation. This review discusses the rationales and relative merits of current Lynch syndrome screening tests for endometrial and ovarian cancers and provides pathologists with an informed algorithmic approach to Lynch syndrome testing in gynecologic cancers. Pitfalls in test interpretation and strategies to resolve discordant test results are presented. The potential role for next-generation sequencing panels in future screening efforts is discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Gastric Cancer Screening Uptake Trends in Korea: Results for the National Cancer Screening Program From 2002 to 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sangeun; Jun, Jae Kwan; Suh, Mina; Park, Boyoung; Noh, Dai Keun; Jung, Kyu-Won; Choi, Kui Son

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Although the effectiveness of mass screening for gastric cancer remains controversial, several countries with a high prevalence of gastric cancer have implemented nationwide gastric cancer screening programs. This study was conducted to assess trends in the use of either upper gastrointestinal series (UGIS) or endoscopy to screen for gastric cancer, as well as to assess factors strongly associated with changes therein, over a 10-year period. Data were obtained from the National Cancer Screening Program (NCSP) database from 2002 to 2011 in Korea. The NCSP provides biennial gastric cancer screening with either UGIS or endoscopy for men and women aged ≥40 years. Using the NCSP database, overall screening rates for gastric cancer and percentages of endoscopy use among participants were analyzed from 2002 to 2011. To estimate changes in participation rates and endoscopy use over time, we assessed the average annual percentage change (APC) by comparing the rates from 2002 and 2011 as relative rates. Participation rates for gastric cancer screening increased 4.33% annually from 2002 to 2011. In terms of screening method, a substantial increase in endoscopy use was noted among the gastric cancer screening participants over the 10-year period. The percentage of participants who had undergone endoscopy test increased from 31.15% in 2002 to 72.55% in 2011, whereas the percentage of participants who underwent UGIS decreased tremendously. Increased endoscopy test use was greatest among participants aged 40 to 49 (APC = 4.83%) and Medical Aid Program recipients (APC = 5.73%). Overall, men, participants of ages 40 to 49 years, and National Health Insurance beneficiaries of higher socioeconomic status were more likely to undergo screening via endoscopy. This study of nationwide empirical data from 2002 to 2011 showed that endoscopy is increasingly being used for gastric cancer screening in Korea, compared with UGIS. Nevertheless, further study of the impact of

  16. Breast cancer screening implementation and reassurance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østerø, J; Siersma, Volkert Dirk; Brodersen, John

    2013-01-01

    with the previous survey. CONCLUSION: An implementation of a screening mammography programme provides reassurance for those women invited to the screening. This reassurance is in contrast to the unbalanced proportion between the intended benefits and the unintended harms of the screening programme.......BACKGROUND: Women not offered screening mammography reported higher levels of negative psychosocial aspects than women offered screening. This was demonstrated in a questionnaire survey where 1000 women were included: 500 women living in areas where the public authorities had never offered...... screening mammography and 500 women living in areas where women had been invited to screening mammography for >10 years. After this baseline survey, nationwide screening mammography was implemented. The aim of this follow-up study was to resurvey the 1000 women and to investigate if the identified...

  17. Trends in surgery for screen-detected and interval breast cancers in a national screening programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nederend, J; Duijm, L E M; Louwman, M W J; Roumen, R M H; Jansen, F H; Voogd, A C

    2014-07-01

    This population-based study aimed to evaluate trends in surgical approach for screen-detected cancer versus interval breast cancer, and to determine the factors associated with positive resection margins. Screening mammograms of women aged 50-75 years, who underwent biennial screening in a Dutch breast-screening region between 1997 and 2011, were included. Patient and tumour characteristics were compared between women who underwent mastectomy or breast-conserving surgery (BCS) for screen-detected or interval cancer, and women with a negative or positive resection margin after BCS. Some 417,013 consecutive screening mammograms were included. A total of 2224 screen-detected and 825 interval cancers were diagnosed. The BCS rate remained stable (mean 6.1 per 1000 screened women; P = 0.099), whereas mastectomy rates increased significantly during the study from 0.9 (1997-1998) to 1.9 (2009-2010) per 1000 screened women (P breasts, preoperative magnetic resonance imaging, microcalcifications, architectural distortion, tumour size over 20 mm, axillary lymph node metastasis and treating hospital were independent risk factors for mastectomy. Interval cancer, image-guided tumour localization, microcalcifications, breast parenchyma asymmetry, tumour size greater than 20 mm, lobular tumour histology, low tumour grade, extensive invasive component and treating hospital were independent risk factors for positive resection margins. Mastectomy rates doubled during a 14-year period of screening mammography and the proportion of positive resection margins decreased, with variation among hospitals. The latter observation stresses the importance of quality control programmes for hospitals treating women with breast cancer. © 2014 BJS Society Ltd. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Screening and surveillance approaches in familial pancreatic cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canto, Marcia Irene

    2008-07-01

    Screening and surveillance for pancreatic cancer and its precursors is a relatively new indication for endoscopic ultrasound. It provides an alternative approach to the ineffective treatment of mostly incurable symptomatic pancreatic cancer. It is currently reserved for individuals with an increased risk for pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma, such as those who have inherited genetic syndromes (eg, patients who have Peutz-Jeghers syndrome or hereditary pancreatitis, germline mutation carriers of p16 and BRCA2) and at-risk relatives of patients who have familial pancreatic cancer. This article discusses the rationale for performing screening and surveillance, the types of patients who are eligible for screening, the diagnostic modalities and technique for screening, the diagnostic yield of screening, and the ongoing research.

  19. Influence of Family History of Cancer on Engagement in Protective Health Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amuta, Ann O.; Barry, Adam E.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Approximately 1580 people die from cancer each day. Family history is highlighted as an especially important indicator of cancer risk. Purpose: To determine whether having a family member with cancer influences preventive behaviors (e.g., smoking, physical activity, and screenings). Methods: We conducted a secondary data analysis…

  20. A qualitative analysis of smokers perceptions about lung cancer screening

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lindsay Gressard; Amy S DeGroff; Thomas B Richards; Stephanie Melillo; Julia Kish-Doto; Christina L Heminger; Elizabeth A Rohan; Kristine Gabuten Allen

    2017-01-01

    .... In light of these updated recommendations, there is a need to understand smokers’ knowledge of and experiences with lung cancer screening in order to inform the design of patient education and tobacco cessation programs...

  1. Colorectal Cancer Screening (PDQ®)—Patient Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    There are five types of tests that are used to screen for colorectal cancer: fecal occult blood test, sigmoidoscopy, colonoscopy, virtual colonoscopy, and DNA stool test. Learn more about these and other tests in this expert-reviewed summary.

  2. Enhancing citizen engagement in cancer screening through deliberative democracy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rychetnik, Lucie; Carter, Stacy M; Abelson, Julia; Thornton, Hazel; Barratt, Alexandra; Entwistle, Vikki A; Mackenzie, Geraldine; Salkeld, Glenn; Glasziou, Paul

    2013-03-20

    Cancer screening is widely practiced and participation is promoted by various social, technical, and commercial drivers, but there are growing concerns about the emerging harms, risks, and costs of cancer screening. Deliberative democracy methods engage citizens in dialogue on substantial and complex problems: especially when evidence and values are important and people need time to understand and consider the relevant issues. Information derived from such deliberations can provide important guidance to cancer screening policies: citizens' values are made explicit, revealing what really matters to people and why. Policy makers can see what informed, rather than uninformed, citizens would decide on the provision of services and information on cancer screening. Caveats can be elicited to guide changes to existing policies and practices. Policies that take account of citizens' opinions through a deliberative democracy process can be considered more legitimate, justifiable, and feasible than those that don't.

  3. Metoder til screening for kolorektal cancer kan forbedres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Louise; Jørgensen, Lars Nannestad; Madsen, Mogens Rørbæk

    2014-01-01

    Screening programmes for colorectal cancer (CRC) are being implemented in various countries worldwide including Denmark. The majority of programmes rely on faecal occult blood testing with subsequent colonoscopy. This approach is challenged by limited compliance, which reduces the efficiency...

  4. Discovery – Lung Cancer Screening Saves Lives: The NLST

    Science.gov (United States)

    NCI funded the National Lung Screening Trial, an eight-year study that used new technology to detect small, aggressive tumors early enough to surgically remove them. This approach reduced lung cancer deaths among participants by 20 percent.

  5. Low adherence to cervical cancer screening after subtotal hysterectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lea Laird; Møller, Lars Mikael Alling; Gimbel, Helga Margrethe

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: A reason for not recommending subtotal hysterectomy is the risk of cervical pathology. We aimed to evaluate cervical cancer screening and to describe cervical pathology after subtotal and total hysterectomy for benign indications. METHODS: Data regarding adherence to screening.......7% were not screened. We found a minimum of one abnormal test in 28 (10.8%) after subtotal hysterectomy and one after total hysterectomy. No cervical cancers were found. CONCLUSIONS: Adherence to cervical cancer screening after subtotal hysterectomy in a Danish population is suboptimal and some patients...... have unnecessary tests performed after total hysterectomy. Clarification of the use of cervical/vaginal smears after hysterectomy is needed to identify women at risk of cervical dysplasia or cancer. FUNDING: Research Foundation of Region Zealand, University of Southern Denmark, Nykøbing Falster...

  6. Blood Test Can Screen for Rare Sinus Cancer, Study Finds

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_167694.html Blood Test Can Screen for Rare Sinus Cancer, Study Finds ... Aug. 9, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- A new DNA blood test can catch a rare but deadly form of ...

  7. Cultural Beliefs and Attitudes About Breast Cancer and Screening Practices Among Arabic Women in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwok, Cannas; Endrawes, Gihane; Lee, Chun Fan

    2016-01-01

    Arabic women have been consistently reported as having remarkably low participation rates in breast cancer screening measures in their home countries and after migration to Western countries. Little is known about the screening behaviors of Arabic women in Australia. This study aimed to report breast cancer screening practices among Arabic women in Australia and to examine the relationship between (1) demographic factors and (2) the Arabic version of the Breast Cancer Screening Beliefs Questionnaire (BCSBQ) score and women's breast screening behaviors. A descriptive cross-sectional method was used. Both English and Arabic versions of the BCSBQ were administered to the 251 Arabic Australian women 18 years or older who participated in the study. The majority of participants (62.9%-92%) had heard of breast awareness, clinical breast examination, and mammography. However, only 7.6% practiced breast awareness monthly, 21.4% had undergone clinical breast examination annually, and 40.3% had biannual mammography. Length of stay in Australia, being retired, and being unemployed were positively associated with the recommended performance of breast awareness and mammography. In terms of BCSBQ scores, women who engaged in the 3 screening practices had significantly higher scores on the attitudes to health check-ups and barriers to mammography subscales. Attitudes toward health check-ups and perceived barriers to mammography were important determinants of breast cancer screening practices among Arabic Australian women. To fully understand barriers discouraging Arabic Australian women from participating in breast cancer screening practices, efforts should be focused on specific subgroup (ie, working group) of Arabic Australian women.

  8. Reasons why patients fail screening in Indian breast cancer trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Mahajan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: An increased number of screen failure patients in a clinical trial increases time and cost required for the recruitment. Assessment of reasons for screen failure can help reduce screen failure rates and improve recruitment. Materials and Methods: We collected retrospective data of human epidermal growth factor receptor (HER2 positive Indian breast cancer patients, who failed screening for phase 3 clinical trials and ascertained their reasons for screen failure from screening logs. Statistical comparison was done to ascertain if there are any differences between private and public sites. Results: Of 727 patients screened at 14 sites, 408 (56.1% failed screening. The data on the specific reasons for screen failures was not available at one of the public sites (38 screen failures out of 83 screened patients. Hence, after excluding that site, further analysis is based on 644 patients, of which 370 failed screening. Of these, 296 (80% screen failure patients did not meet selection criteria. The majority -266 were HER2 negative. Among logistical issues, 39 patients had inadequate breast tissue sample. Sixteen patients withdrew their consent at private sites as compared to six at public sites. The difference between private and public sites for the above three reasons was statistically significant. Conclusion: Use of prescreening logs to reduce the number of patients not meeting selection criteria and protocol logistics, and patient counseling to reduce consent withdrawals could be used to reduce screen failure rate.

  9. The Effect of Personal Characteristics, Perceived Threat, Efficacy and Breast Cancer Anxiety on Breast Cancer Screening Activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick De Pelsmacker

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In order to activate women to participate in breast cancer screening programs, a good understanding is needed of the personal characteristics that influence how women can be activated to search for more information, consult friends and doctors, and participate in breast cancer screening programs. In the current study, we investigate the effect of six personal characteristics that have in previous research been identified as important triggers of health behavior on breast cancer screening activation: Health awareness, Need for Cognition, Affect Intensity, Breast cancer knowledge, Topic involvement, and the Perceived breast cancer risk. We test the effect of these factors on four activation variables: intention of future information seeking, forwarding the message to a friend, talking to a doctor, and actual breast cancer screening attendance. Additionally, we try to unravel the process by means of which the antecedents (the six personal characteristics lead to activation. To that end, we test the mediating role of perceived breast cancer threat, perceived efficacy of screening, and the evoked breast cancer anxiety as mediators in this process. The data were collected by means of a cross-sectional survey in a sample of 700 Flemish (Belgium women who were invited to the free-of-charge breast cancer population screening. Screening attendance of this sample was provided by the government agency in charge of the organisation of the screening. Health awareness, affects intensity, topic involvement, and perceived risk have the strongest influence on activation. Breast cancer anxiety and perceived breast cancer threat have a substantial mediation effect on these effects. Efficacy perceptions are less important in the activation process. Increased health awareness and a higher level of perceived risk lead to less participation in the free of charge population based breast screening program. Implications for theory and practice are offered. The limitation

  10. The Effect of Personal Characteristics, Perceived Threat, Efficacy and Breast Cancer Anxiety on Breast Cancer Screening Activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Pelsmacker, Patrick; Lewi, Martine; Cauberghe, Veroline

    2017-09-27

    In order to activate women to participate in breast cancer screening programs, a good understanding is needed of the personal characteristics that influence how women can be activated to search for more information, consult friends and doctors, and participate in breast cancer screening programs. In the current study, we investigate the effect of six personal characteristics that have in previous research been identified as important triggers of health behavior on breast cancer screening activation: Health awareness, Need for Cognition, Affect Intensity, Breast cancer knowledge, Topic involvement, and the Perceived breast cancer risk. We test the effect of these factors on four activation variables: intention of future information seeking, forwarding the message to a friend, talking to a doctor, and actual breast cancer screening attendance. Additionally, we try to unravel the process by means of which the antecedents (the six personal characteristics) lead to activation. To that end, we test the mediating role of perceived breast cancer threat, perceived efficacy of screening, and the evoked breast cancer anxiety as mediators in this process. The data were collected by means of a cross-sectional survey in a sample of 700 Flemish (Belgium) women who were invited to the free-of-charge breast cancer population screening. Screening attendance of this sample was provided by the government agency in charge of the organisation of the screening. Health awareness, affects intensity, topic involvement, and perceived risk have the strongest influence on activation. Breast cancer anxiety and perceived breast cancer threat have a substantial mediation effect on these effects. Efficacy perceptions are less important in the activation process. Increased health awareness and a higher level of perceived risk lead to less participation in the free of charge population based breast screening program. Implications for theory and practice are offered. The limitation of the study is

  11. Cancer screening among the overweight and obese in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Rebecca S; Padwal, Raj S; Chuck, Anderson W; Klarenbach, Scott W

    2008-08-01

    Despite increased cancer incidence and mortality among overweight and obese men and women, U.S. studies have reported the reduced use of cancer screening among these subjects. We sought to analyze the relationship between overweight/obesity and cancer screening practices using population-based Canadian data. Responses from adults surveyed in the Canadian Community Health Survey 2003 who provided complete information regarding variables of interest were analyzed. Cancer screening modalities included Pap smear testing, mammography, and fecal occult blood testing, and were based on contemporary recommendations of the Canadian Task Force for Preventive Health. The association between overweight/obesity and cancer screening was explored using logistic regression after adjusting for demographic and socioeconomic factors, health habits, healthcare access, and obesity-related comorbidity. The analysis was conducted in 2007. Compared to normal-weight controls, overweight and obese women were significantly less likely to have undergone cervical cancer screening. In the fully adjusted model, increasing obesity was associated with decreasing odds of Pap smear testing, with overweight, Class-I, -II, and -III obesity having 95% ORs of 0.87 (0.81, 0.94); 0.79 (0.72, 0.88); 0.62 (0.54, 0.71); and 0.61 (0.53, 0.72), respectively. The prevalence of biennial breast and colorectal cancer screenings was largely unaffected by weight in the adjusted analyses. Overweight and obesity are associated with markedly lower utilization of cervical cancer screening, despite increased disease risks. This association is independent of sociodemographic factors, comorbidity, and healthcare access. This is consistent with findings in U.S. populations, and suggests that patient and provider factors serve as greater barriers to screening than do healthcare system factors.

  12. A new focus for the International Cancer Screening Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    The ICSN is thinking about how to take advantage of the nearly three decades of work in cancer screening program research and implementation and reach out more actively to low- and middle-income countries considering screening. For that purpose, ICSN is migrating from its historical place under NCI Division of Cancer Control and Population Sciences to assume its new role within the Center for Global Health.

  13. Cost-effectiveness of the Norwegian breast cancer screening program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Luijt, P A; Heijnsdijk, E A M; de Koning, H J

    2017-02-15

    The Norwegian Breast Cancer Screening Programme (NBCSP) has a nation-wide coverage since 2005. All women aged 50-69 years are invited biennially for mammography screening. We evaluated breast cancer mortality reduction and performed a cost-effectiveness analysis, using our microsimulation model, calibrated to most recent data. The microsimulation model allows for the comparison of mortality and costs between a (hypothetical) situation without screening and a situation with screening. Breast cancer incidence in Norway had a steep increase in the early 1990s. We calibrated the model to simulate this increase and included recent costs for screening, diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer and travel and productivity loss. We estimate a 16% breast cancer mortality reduction for a cohort of women, invited to screening, followed over their complete lifetime. Cost-effectiveness is estimated at NOK 112,162 per QALY gained, when taking only direct medical costs into account (the cost of the buses, examinations, and invitations). We used a 3.5% annual discount rate. Cost-effectiveness estimates are substantially below the threshold of NOK 1,926,366 as recommended by the WHO guidelines. For the Norwegian population, which has been gradually exposed to screening, breast cancer mortality reduction for women exposed to screening is increasing and is estimated to rise to ∼30% in 2020 for women aged 55-80 years. The NBCSP is a highly cost-effective measure to reduce breast cancer specific mortality. We estimate a breast cancer specific mortality reduction of 16-30%, at the cost of 112,162 NOK per QALY gained. © 2016 UICC.

  14. Overdiagnosis in cancer screening: the need for a standardized denominator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ripping, Theodora M; Verbeek, André Lm; Broeders, Mireille Jm

    2016-06-01

    It is widely accepted that overdiagnosis is a major harm of screening, but its extent is still topic of controversy. This is partly the result of incomparable overdiagnosis estimates in scientific literature, as a variety of denominators are used to calculate the percentage of overdiagnosis in cancer screening. We propose to use the following denominator to calculate the percentage of overdiagnosis: 'all cancers detected during the screening period, both interval and screen-detected, in participants of a screening programme'. This denominator is more appropriate than existing denominators because it presents overdiagnosis as a real percentage, is unaffected by attendance percentages, is applicable to all observational study designs, and can be easily recalculated to absolute numbers. This denominator can be widely applied and increases comparability between overdiagnosis estimates, which is needed to correctly present the balance between the benefits and harms of screening. © The Author(s) 2015.

  15. Effects of Prostate Cancer Screening and Treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.M. Wever (Elisabeth)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractProstate cancer is the second most frequently diagnosed cancer of men worldwide. The number of new cases worldwide was estimated at 899,000 and accounted for 13.6% of all cancers in men in 2008. With an estimated 258,000 deaths in 2008, prostate cancer is the sixth leading cause of death

  16. Using a Health Message with a Testimonial to Motivate Colon Cancer Screening: Associations with Perceived Identification and Vividness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillard, Amanda J.; Main, Jackie L.

    2013-01-01

    Research suggests that testimonials, or first-person narratives, influence health behavior and health-related decision making, but few studies have examined conceptual factors that may be responsible for these effects. In the current study, older adults who were due for colorectal cancer screening read a message about screening that included a…

  17. Barriers to uptake of breast cancer screening in Kenya | Wachira ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Subjects: Community members (18 years and older) who did not attend the screening events. Outcome Measure: The outcome measure was having heard about the breast cancer screening events. Both structured and open-ended questions were used for data collection. Item frequency, correlations, and content analyses ...

  18. European Randomized Lung Cancer Screening Trials : Post NLST

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Field, John K.; van Klaveren, Rob; Pedersen, Jesper H.; Pastorino, Ugo; Paci, Eugino; Becker, Nikolauss; Infante, Maurizo; Oudkerk, Matthijs; de Koning, Harry J.

    2013-01-01

    Overview of the European randomized lung cancer CT screening trials (EUCT) is presented with regard to the implementation of CT screening in Europe; post NLST. All seven principal investigators completed a questionnaire on the epidemiological, radiological, and nodule management aspects of their

  19. Knowledge, attitude and practice of cervical cancer screening (pap ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To determine the knowledge and practice of cervical cancer screening among practicing female nurses with a view to sensitizing them as a first step towards increasing screening uptake in the community. Method: A self administered questionnaire survey of all the female nurses working in Nnamdi Azikiwe ...

  20. Knowledge, attitude and practice of cervical cancer screening (Pap ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    “ABSTRACT. Objective: To determine the knowledge and practice of cervical cancer screening among practicing female nurses with a view to sensitizing them as a first step towards increasing screening uptake in the community. Method: A self administered questionnaire survey of all the female nurses working in Nnamdi ...

  1. Attitudes of women about breast cancer and cervical cancern screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ilknur Aydin Avci

    2015-06-01

    Conclusion: This research revealed that the women had moderate knowlege about breast and cervical cancer screening and artcipation in screening is low. Beside, the women who had BSE and mammography had more PAP smear. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2015; 14(3.000: 235-239

  2. Knowledge, attitude and practice of cervical cancer screening

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    'i§?i"ABsTRAcT. Objective: To determine the knowledge and practice of cervical cancer screening among practicing female nurses with a view to sensitizing them as a first step towards increasing screening uptake in the community. Method: A self administered questionnaire survey of all the female nurses working in ...

  3. Compliance after 17 years of breast cancer screening

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scaf-Klomp, W.; van Sonderen, F.L.P.; van den Heuvel, W.J.A.

    1997-01-01

    The motives and reasons for regular attendance, irregular attendance and drop-out were studied in women who were enrolled in a biennial breast cancer screening programme in 1975 and who were invited to each subsequent screening round until 1992. Three compliance groups were compared: 'attended all

  4. Original article Prostate Cancer Screening, Detection and Treatment ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    80. 80. 80. 28. Fear. 0. 60. 30. 50. Detection. What is the most common reason for prostate cancer detection? Routine screening. 20. 20. 20. 72. Urinary symptoms. 60. 80. 70. 28. *Uganda, Sudan, Tanzania; **Senegal, Ghana, Nigeria. Table 1: Screening and Detection: Percent of Centers Responding in the Affirmative ...

  5. Barriers to utilization of cervical cancer screening services among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Barriers to utilization of cervical cancer screening services among non-medical female personnel in tertiary hospitals in south west Nigeria. ... Utilization rate is low at 15%; indecision, 32 .4% feeling of good health, 28.2% and fear of positive results, 18.1 % are the main reasons for not screening. Low level of education and ...

  6. Screening patients with a family history of colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Robert H; Lobb, Rebecca; Bauer, Mark R; Kemp, James Alan; Palmer, Richard C; Kleinman, Ken P; Miroshnik, Irina; Emmons, Karen M

    2007-04-01

    To compare screening practices and beliefs in patients with and without a clinically important family history. We mailed a brief questionnaire asking about family history and a second, longer survey asking about knowledge of and beliefs about colorectal cancer to all respondents with a family history and a random sample of respondents without a family history of colorectal cancer. We reviewed electronic medical records for screening examinations and recording of family history. One thousand eight hundred seventy of 6,807 randomly selected patients ages 35-55 years who had been continuously enrolled in a large multispecialty group practice for at least 5 years. Recognition of increased risk, screening practices, and beliefs-all according to strength of family history and patient's age. Nineteen percent of respondents reported a family history of colorectal cancer. In 11%, this history was strong enough to warrant screening before age 50 years. However, only 39% (95% CI 36, 42) of respondents under the age of 50 years said they had been asked about family history and only 45% of those with a strong family history of colorectal cancer had been screened appropriately. Forty-six percent of patients with a strong family history did not know that they should be screened at a younger age than average risk people. Medical records mentioned family history of colorectal cancer in 59% of patients reporting a family history. More efforts are needed to translate information about family history of colorectal cancer into the care of patients.

  7. A qualitative analysis of smokers' perceptions about lung cancer screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gressard, Lindsay; DeGroff, Amy S; Richards, Thomas B; Melillo, Stephanie; Kish-Doto, Julia; Heminger, Christina L; Rohan, Elizabeth A; Allen, Kristine Gabuten

    2017-06-21

    In 2013, the US Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) began recommending lung cancer screening for high risk smokers aged 55-80 years using low-dose computed tomography (CT) scan. In light of these updated recommendations, there is a need to understand smokers' knowledge of and experiences with lung cancer screening in order to inform the design of patient education and tobacco cessation programs. The purpose of this study is to describe results of a qualitative study examining smokers' perceptions around lung cancer screening tests. In 2009, prior to the release of the updated USPSTF recommendations, we conducted 12 120-min, gender-specific focus groups with 105 current smokers in Charlotte, North Carolina and Cincinnati, Ohio. Focus group facilitators asked participants about their experience with three lung cancer screening tests, including CT scan, chest x-ray, and sputum cytology. Focus group transcripts were transcribed and qualitatively analyzed using constant comparative methods. Participants were 41-67 years-old, with a mean smoking history of 38.9 pack-years. Overall, 34.3% would meet the USPSTF's current eligibility criteria for screening. Most participants were unaware of all three lung cancer screening tests. The few participants who had been screened recalled limited information about the test. Nevertheless, many participants expressed a strong desire to pursue lung cancer screening. Using the social ecological model for health promotion, we identified potential barriers to lung cancer screening at the 1) health care system level (cost of procedure, confusion around results), 2) cultural level (fatalistic beliefs, distrust of medical system), and 3) individual level (lack of knowledge, denial of risk, concerns about the procedure). Although this study was conducted prior to the updated USPSTF recommendations, these findings provide a baseline for future studies examining smokers' perceptions of lung cancer screening. We recommend clear and patient

  8. A qualitative analysis of smokers’ perceptions about lung cancer screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindsay Gressard

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In 2013, the US Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF began recommending lung cancer screening for high risk smokers aged 55–80 years using low-dose computed tomography (CT scan. In light of these updated recommendations, there is a need to understand smokers’ knowledge of and experiences with lung cancer screening in order to inform the design of patient education and tobacco cessation programs. The purpose of this study is to describe results of a qualitative study examining smokers’ perceptions around lung cancer screening tests. Methods In 2009, prior to the release of the updated USPSTF recommendations, we conducted 12 120-min, gender-specific focus groups with 105 current smokers in Charlotte, North Carolina and Cincinnati, Ohio. Focus group facilitators asked participants about their experience with three lung cancer screening tests, including CT scan, chest x-ray, and sputum cytology. Focus group transcripts were transcribed and qualitatively analyzed using constant comparative methods. Results Participants were 41–67 years-old, with a mean smoking history of 38.9 pack-years. Overall, 34.3% would meet the USPSTF’s current eligibility criteria for screening. Most participants were unaware of all three lung cancer screening tests. The few participants who had been screened recalled limited information about the test. Nevertheless, many participants expressed a strong desire to pursue lung cancer screening. Using the social ecological model for health promotion, we identified potential barriers to lung cancer screening at the 1 health care system level (cost of procedure, confusion around results, 2 cultural level (fatalistic beliefs, distrust of medical system, and 3 individual level (lack of knowledge, denial of risk, concerns about the procedure. Although this study was conducted prior to the updated USPSTF recommendations, these findings provide a baseline for future studies examining smokers

  9. Interval cancers in a population-based screening program for colorectal cancer in catalonia, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, M; Domènech, X; Vidal, C; Torné, E; Milà, N; Binefa, G; Benito, L; Moreno, V

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To analyze interval cancers among participants in a screening program for colorectal cancer (CRC) during four screening rounds. Methods. The study population consisted of participants of a fecal occult blood test-based screening program from February 2000 to September 2010, with a 30-month follow-up (n = 30,480). We used hospital administration data to identify CRC. An interval cancer was defined as an invasive cancer diagnosed within 30 months of a negative screening result and before the next recommended examination. Gender, age, stage, and site distribution of interval cancers were compared with those in the screen-detected group. Results. Within the study period, 97 tumors were screen-detected and 74 tumors were diagnosed after a negative screening. In addition, 17 CRC (18.3%) were found after an inconclusive result and 2 cases were diagnosed within the surveillance interval (2.1%). There was an increase of interval cancers over the four rounds (from 32.4% to 46.0%). When compared with screen-detected cancers, interval cancers were found predominantly in the rectum (OR: 3.66; 95% CI: 1.51-8.88) and at more advanced stages (P = 0.025). Conclusion. There are large numbers of cancer that are not detected through fecal occult blood test-based screening. The low sensitivity should be emphasized to ensure that individuals with symptoms are not falsely reassured.

  10. History, development and future of cancer screening in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olver, Ian N; Roder, David

    2017-07-26

    The aim of screening an asymptomatic population for cancer is to achieve better health outcomes, particularly a population survival benefit. Australia has three population screening programs: the National Cervical Screening Program (NCSP), BreastScreen Australia and the National Bowel Cancer Screening Program (NBCSP). We reviewed the history and development of the three programs. NCSP: Women have a Pap smear every 2 years from age 18-20, or 2 years after first becoming sexually active, until age 69. Since introduction of the NCSP, the cervical cancer incidence has halved, with an approximate 60% decrease in mortality. The screening participation rate approximates 57%, but is lower for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander women, women in remote areas, and women with lower socio-economic status. The National HPV (human papillomavirus) Vaccination Program, introduced in 2007, is expected to reduce the incidence of cervical cancer by a further 70% and has already reduced the incidence of high-grade lesions in girls. In 2017, testing for HPV every 5 years starting at age 25 will replace the Pap smear as the principal screening test. BreastScreen Australia: This program targets women aged 50-74. Over 20 years, mortality from breast cancer has decreased by 32% in response to screening and treatment advances. The participation rate is 56%. The major adverse impact of breast screening is overdiagnosis, estimated in Australia to be as low as 8% of detected cancers, but with estimates of up to 30% from some research. Women should be made aware of both the potential benefits and harms from screening. Genetic testing for BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations in high-risk women leads to earlier screening. The NBCSP uses immunochemical faecal occult blood test (iFOBT) kits on stool samples to detect bleeding from the bowel. When rollout is complete in 2020, test kits will be sent every 2 years to people aged 50-74. People who test positive are followed up with a colonoscopy. The

  11. History, development and future of cancer screening in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian N Olver

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The aim of screening an asymptomatic population for cancer is to achieve better health outcomes, particularly a population survival benefit. Australia has three population screening programs: the National Cervical Screening Program (NCSP, BreastScreen Australia and the National Bowel Cancer Screening Program (NBCSP. Methods: We reviewed the history and development of the three programs. NCSP: Women have a Pap smear every 2 years from age 18–20, or 2 years after first becoming sexually active, until age 69. Since introduction of the NCSP, the cervical cancer incidence has halved, with an approximate 60% decrease in mortality. The screening participation rate approximates 57%, but is lower for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander women, women in remote areas, and women with lower socio-economic status. The National HPV (human papillomavirus Vaccination Program, introduced in 2007, is expected to reduce the incidence of cervical cancer by a further 70% and has already reduced the incidence of high-grade lesions in girls. In 2017, testing for HPV every 5 years starting at age 25 will replace the Pap smear as the principal screening test. BreastScreen Australia: This program targets women aged 50–74. Over 20 years, mortality from breast cancer has decreased by 32% in response to screening and treatment advances. The participation rate is 56%. The major adverse impact of breast screening is overdiagnosis, estimated in Australia to be as low as 8% of detected cancers, but with estimates of up to 30% from some research. Women should be made aware of both the potential benefits and harms from screening. Genetic testing for BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations in high-risk women leads to earlier screening. NBCSP: The NBCSP uses immunochemical faecal occult blood test (iFOBT kits on stool samples to detect bleeding from the bowel. When rollout is complete in 2020, test kits will be sent every 2 years to people aged 50–74. People who test positive

  12. Behavioral Counseling to Prevent Skin Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Understanding Task Force Recommendations Behavioral Counseling to Prevent Skin Cancer The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (Task Force) has issued a final recommendation statement on Behavioral Counseling ...

  13. Consequences of screening in lung cancer: development and dimensionality of a questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodersen, John; Thorsen, Hanne; Kreiner, Svend

    2010-08-01

    The objective of this study was to extend the Consequences of Screening (COS) Questionnaire for use in a lung cancer screening by testing for comprehension, content coverage, dimensionality, and reliability. In interviews, the suitability, content coverage, and relevance of the COS were tested on participants in a lung cancer screening program. The results were thematically analyzed to identify the key consequences of abnormal and false-positive screening results. Item Response Theory and Classical Test Theory were used to analyze data. Dimensionality, objectivity, and reliability were established by item analysis, examining the fit between item responses and Rasch models. Eight themes specifically relevant for participants in lung cancer screening results were identified: "self-blame,"focus on symptoms,"stigmatization,"introvert,"harm of smoking,"impulsivity,"empathy," and "regretful of still smoking." Altogether, 26 new items for part I and 16 new items for part II were generated. These themes were confirmed to fit a partial-credit Rasch model measuring different constructs including several of the new items. In conclusion, the reliability and the dimensionality of a condition-specific measure with high content validity for persons having abnormal or false-positive lung cancer screening results have been demonstrated. This new questionnaire called Consequences of Screening in Lung Cancer (COS-LC) covers in two parts the psychosocial experience in lung cancer screening. Part I: "anxiety,"behavior,"dejection,"sleep,"self-blame,"focus on airway symptoms,"stigmatization,"introvert," and "harm of smoking." Part II: "calm/relax,"social network,"existential values,"impulsivity,"empathy," and "regretful of still smoking."

  14. Colorectal cancer screening among Latinos from U.S. cities along the Texas-Mexico border.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Maria E; Wippold, Rosario; Torres-Vigil, Isabel; Byrd, Theresa; Freeberg, Diamond; Bains, Yadvindera; Guajardo, Jessica; Coughlin, Steven S; Vernon, Sally W

    2008-03-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) screening rates are comparatively low for U.S. Hispanics. To learn more about the factors influencing CRC screening among Hispanics living along the U.S.-Mexico border, 12 focus groups were conducted with Hispanic men and women aged 50 years and older in three Texas counties; Cameron County (Brownsville), Webb County (Laredo), and El Paso County, (El Paso). The focus group guide contained questions about health care behavior, knowledge about CRC, experiences with cancer, and factors that influence CRC screening. A total of 92 individuals participated with the majority aged 50-69 (75%). Twenty percent were born in the United States and 51% had lived in the United States for more than 20 years. Participants had low levels of education, income, and insurance coverage. The analysis revealed several overarching and contextual themes relating to knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, and emotions about cancer and CRC screening. A prevalent theme that emerged from all groups was frustration and a lack of confidence in the U.S. healthcare system. Few participants had been advised by their providers to obtain CRC screening. Lack of patient knowledge about colorectal cancer and screening appeared to be a critical factor influencing screening. Themes about death and pain due to cancer were prevalent as were cultural factors such as machismo and embarrassment. System level barriers such as cost, medical insurance and transportation also impacted screening. These findings suggest that strategies are needed to educate Hispanic residents of border communities about CRC and to motivate them to undergo CRC screening.

  15. Population impact of lung cancer screening in the United States: Projections from a microsimulation model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Criss, Steven D; Sheehan, Deirdre F; Palazzo, Lauren; Kong, Chung Yin

    2018-02-01

    than those of single birth cohort studies. Single cohort studies neglect the changing dynamics of smoking behavior across generations, whereas this study reflects the trend of decreasing smoking prevalence since the 1960s. Maximum benefit could be derived from lung cancer screening through 2021; in later years, mortality reduction due to screening will decline. If a comprehensive screening program is not implemented in the near future, the opportunity to achieve these benefits will have passed.

  16. [Classification and characteristics of interval cancers in the Principality of Asturias's Breast Cancer Screening Program].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prieto García, M A; Delgado Sevillano, R; Baldó Sierra, C; González Díaz, E; López Secades, A; Llavona Amor, J A; Vidal Marín, B

    2013-09-01

    To review and classify the interval cancers found in the Principality of Asturias's Breast Cancer Screening Program (PDPCM). A secondary objective was to determine the histological characteristics, size, and stage of the interval cancers at the time of diagnosis. We included the interval cancers in the PDPCM in the period 2003-2007. Interval cancers were classified according to the breast cancer screening program protocol, with double reading without consensus, without blinding, with arbitration. Mammograms were interpreted by 10 radiologists in the PDPCM. A total of 33.7% of the interval cancers could not be classified; of the interval cancers that could be classified, 40.67% were labeled true interval cancers, 31.4% were labeled false negatives on screening, 23.7% had minimal signs, and 4.23% were considered occult. A total of 70% of the interval cancers were diagnosed in the year of the period between screening examinations and 71.7% were diagnosed after subsequent screening. A total of 76.9% were invasive ductal carcinomas, 61.1% were stage II when detected, and 78.7% were larger than 10mm when detected. The rate of interval cancers and the rate of false negatives in the PDPCM are higher than those recommended in the European guidelines. Interval cancers are diagnosed later than the tumors detected at screening. Studying interval cancers provides significant training for the radiologists in the PDPCM. Copyright © 2011 SERAM. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  17. [Factors associated with prostate cancer screening: a population-based study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amorim, Vivian Mae Schmidt Lima; Barros, Marilisa Berti de Azevedo; César, Chester Luiz Galvão; Goldbaum, Moisés; Carandina, Luana; Alves, Maria Cecília Goi Porto

    2011-02-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the prevalence of prostate cancer screening among men aged 50 years or older based on socioeconomic, demographic, and health-related behavioral variables and the presence of morbidity. A population-based cross-sectional study was performed. The following factors were associated with failure to undergo screening: age under 70 years; less than eight years of schooling; per capita household income less than one-half the minimum wage; not having diabetes; lack of visual impairment; and lack of visit to the dentist in the previous year. The Brazilian public healthcare system accounted for 41% of the reported prostate cancer screening tests. According to the present study, despite controversy over the effectiveness of digital rectal examination and prostate-specific antigen for detecting prostate cancer, a significant portion of the male population has been undergoing these tests, the access to which displays significant socioeconomic inequalities.

  18. Uncertain Futures: Individual Risk and Social Context in Decision-Making in Cancer Screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Simon J Craddock

    2010-04-01

    A core logic of cancer control and prevention, like much in public health, turns on the notion of decision-making under conditions of uncertainty. Population-level data are increasingly used to develop risk profiles, or estimates, that clinicians and the consumer public may use to guide individual decisions about cancer screening. Individual risk perception forms a piece of a larger social economy of decision-making and choice that makes population screening possible. Individual decision-making depends on accessing and interpreting available clinical information, filtered through the lens of personal values and both cognitive and affective behavioral processes. That process is also mediated by changing social roles and interpersonal relationships. This paper begins to elucidate the influence of this "social context" within the complexity of cancer screening. Reflecting on current work in risk and health, I consider how ethnographic narrative methods can enrich this model.

  19. [The effectiveness of population-based breast cancer screening programme].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szynglarewicz, Bartłomiej; Matkowski, Rafał; Kasprzak, Piotr; Kotowska, Jolanta; Forgacz, Józef; Pudełko, Marek; Kornafel, Jan

    2009-02-01

    Well-organised mammography screening programme can significantly reduce the breast cancer mortality However, changes in mortality rates take a long time thus some early indicators are usually used to monitor the effectiveness of the programme. If these operational objectives are accomplished then the programme can replicate the mortality reduction achieved in randomised trials. To evaluate the quality of breast cancer screening programme in the region of Lower Silesia during the first year of its operating. Centrally organised breast cancer screening has been introduced since the beginning of the year 2007. This population-based programme is designed for women aged 50-69. Females undergoing treatment or being followed-up due to breast cancer are not invited. Screen-film two-view mammography without clinical examination is used as a screening test which is to be performed every two years. The second level diagnostic tools are breast clinical examination and additional imaging (mammography and ultrasound). Following further assessment women are referred to the examination at the routine round length of the programme, at the less interval (short-term recall) or biopsy procedures. Quality assessment was done via early indicators according to the European guidelines. The attendance rate was 41% (79,143 women screened within 192,613 eligible population for one year). Technical repeat rate, further assessment rate, and short-term recall rate were: 0.26%, 6.85%, and 0.91%, respectively. Pathologically confirmed breast cancer was revealed in 364 women giving the detection rate 4.59 for 1000. Cancer detection rate to expected incidence ratio was 3.35. Mammography service performed during the first year of breast cancer screening programme in the region of Lower Silesia conforms to quality assessment parameters recommended by the European guidelines at the acceptable level. The main problem at the start of this programme is too low coverage. Invitation process must be

  20. Family Support and Colorectal Cancer Screening among Urban African Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brittain, Kelly; Taylor, Jacquelyn Y; Loveland-Cherry, Carol; Northouse, Laurel; Caldwell, Cleopatra H

    2012-07-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third leading cause of cancer death among African Americans. Less than 50% of African Americans have had CRC screening. This study examined the relationships between family support and influence, cultural identity, CRC beliefs, and a screening informed decision among 129 urban African Americans. Family support (p < .01) significantly predicted CRC beliefs and CRC beliefs significantly predicted informed decision (p < .01). Based on study results, practitioners should routinely assess family support and CRC beliefs with African Americans patients. This may improve patient-provider shared decision-making satisfaction and CRC screening adherence among African American patients.

  1. Breast transillumination a viable option for breast cancer screening ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Mammography is an established screening tool for breast cancer in high-income countries but may not be feasible for most resource poor nations. Alternative modalities are needed to mitigate the impact of the increasing incidence and mortality due to breast cancer. This may require the development of new ...

  2. Prostate Cancer Detected by Screening in a Semi Urban Community ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-01-26

    Jan 26, 2016 ... Prostate cancer (PCa) incidence has been reported ... Screen detected prostate cancer in Southeast Nigeria: Correlations and asociations ... exercise for PCa. This was preceded by enlightenment talks on PCa on the local community radio station (Lion. FM). Information leaflets and posters were circulated.

  3. Barriers to colorectal cancer screening in Asia: A systematic review

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Munawarrah, PO Box, 30001, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, 3School of Pharmacy, Monash University Malaysia, 4School of. Pharmaceutical ... negative perceptions towards screening, aversion to test results, financial constraints, time constraints, lack of physicians' ... cancer (CRC) lies among the top 5 most common cancers ...

  4. Colorectal Cancer Screening: A Circle of Health for Alaskans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) recommends colorectal cancer screening for men and women aged 50-75 using high-sensitivity fecal occult blood testing (FOBT), sigmoidoscopy, or ... of colon cancer, but several other things may cause blood to ...

  5. Is extensive screening for cancer in idiopathic venous thromboembolism warranted?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Doormaal, F. F.; Terpstra, W.; van der Griend, R.; Prins, M. H.; Nijziel, M. R.; van de Ree, M. A.; Büller, H. R.; Dutilh, J. C.; ten Cate-Hoek, A.; van den Heiligenberg, S. M.; van der Meer, J.; Otten, J. M.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Patients with a first episode of idiopathic venous thromboembolism (IVTE) have an estimated 10% incidence of cancer within 12 months after diagnosis. However, the utility of screening for cancer in this population is controversial. Methods: In this prospective concurrently controlled

  6. Risk scoring for selective screening of cervical cancer | Bukar ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Context: Cervical cancer is the leading cause of cancer related mortality in developing countries. The lack of routine cytological screening in developing countries is largely responsible for this high mortality. Objectives: To develop a risk score that would easily identify women at greater risk of having cervical intraepithelial ...

  7. Knowledge of Cervical Cancer and its Screening Amongst Female ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Cervical cancer is an important women's reproductive health problem, especially in developing countries. Efforts towards its prevention worldwide have focused on screening women at risk of disease using Pap smears and treating pre-cancerous lesions. A good knowledge and understanding of the level of ...

  8. Knowledge and attitude towards cervical cancer screening among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Cervical cancer is a largely preventable disease. In western countries, the incidence of and mortality associated with cervical cancer has reduced substantially following the introduction of effective cervical screening programmes. This is in contrast to what is obtained in Africa including Nigeria where cervical ...

  9. Cervical cancer knowledge and screening practices among women ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Cervical cancer remains a major public health challenge in developing countries including Nigeria and contributes signi cantly as a major cause of death among women of reproductive age. This study was conducted to assess knowledge and cervical cancer screening practices among women of reproductive ...

  10. Cervical Cancer Awareness and Screening Uptake among Rural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    femi oloka

    cancer by the respondents 50 (83.3%). (Table III). More than half 37(61.7%)} knew that all women are at risk of cancer of the cervix. Majority (81.7%) knew that regular screening and not having multiple sexual partners were among methods of prevention of. Table I: Socio-demographic characteristics of Respondents.

  11. A Study on Knowledge and Screening for Cervical Cancer among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Very few studies have explored the role of doctor and source of information for awareness of women about cervical cancer in India. Aim: Hence, this study was conducted with the objective of knowing the knowledge of women about cervical cancer, its screening, role of doctor, source of information, and reasons for not ...

  12. knowledge, attitude and practice of cervical cancer screening

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: knowledge of cervical cancer screening services among female nurses in Nnewi is high while uptake rate is abysmally poor. There is need to ... malignancyl" of the female genital tract in the developing countries "5 and second ... to 35 years with access to treatment can lead to drastic reduction in cervical cancer ...

  13. Breast-Cancer Tumor Size, Overdiagnosis, and Mammography Screening Effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch, H Gilbert; Prorok, Philip C; O'Malley, A James; Kramer, Barnett S

    2016-10-13

    The goal of screening mammography is to detect small malignant tumors before they grow large enough to cause symptoms. Effective screening should therefore lead to the detection of a greater number of small tumors, followed by fewer large tumors over time. We used data from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) program, 1975 through 2012, to calculate the tumor-size distribution and size-specific incidence of breast cancer among women 40 years of age or older. We then calculated the size-specific cancer case fatality rate for two time periods: a baseline period before the implementation of widespread screening mammography (1975 through 1979) and a period encompassing the most recent years for which 10 years of follow-up data were available (2000 through 2002). After the advent of screening mammography, the proportion of detected breast tumors that were small (invasive tumors measuring <2 cm or in situ carcinomas) increased from 36% to 68%; the proportion of detected tumors that were large (invasive tumors measuring ≥2 cm) decreased from 64% to 32%. However, this trend was less the result of a substantial decrease in the incidence of large tumors (with 30 fewer cases of cancer observed per 100,000 women in the period after the advent of screening than in the period before screening) and more the result of a substantial increase in the detection of small tumors (with 162 more cases of cancer observed per 100,000 women). Assuming that the underlying disease burden was stable, only 30 of the 162 additional small tumors per 100,000 women that were diagnosed were expected to progress to become large, which implied that the remaining 132 cases of cancer per 100,000 women were overdiagnosed (i.e., cases of cancer were detected on screening that never would have led to clinical symptoms). The potential of screening to lower breast cancer mortality is reflected in the declining incidence of larger tumors. However, with respect to only these large tumors

  14. Medical Mistrust and Colorectal Cancer Screening Among African Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Leslie B; Richmond, Jennifer; Corbie-Smith, Giselle; Powell, Wizdom

    2017-10-01

    Despite well-documented benefits of colorectal cancer (CRC) screening, African Americans are less likely to be screened and have higher CRC incidence and mortality than Whites. Emerging evidence suggests medical mistrust may influence CRC screening disparities among African Americans. The goal of this systematic review was to summarize evidence investigating associations between medical mistrust and CRC screening among African Americans, and variations in these associations by gender, CRC screening type, and level of mistrust. MEDLINE, CINAHL, Web of Science, PsycINFO, Google Scholar, Cochrane Database, and EMBASE were searched for English-language articles published from January 2000 to November 2016. 27 articles were included for this review (15 quantitative, 11 qualitative and 1 mixed methods study). The majority of quantitative studies linked higher mistrust scores with lower rates of CRC screening among African Americans. Most studies examined mistrust at the physician level, but few quantitative studies analyzed mistrust at an organizational level (i.e. healthcare systems, insurance, etc.). Quantitative differences in mistrust and CRC screening by gender were mixed, but qualitative studies highlighted fear of experimentation and intrusiveness of screening methods as unique themes among African American men. Limitations include heterogeneity in mistrust and CRC measures, and possible publication bias. Future studies should address methodological challenges found in this review, such as limited use of validated and reliable mistrust measures, examination of CRC screening outcomes beyond beliefs and intent, and a more thorough analysis of gender roles in the cancer screening process.

  15. A survey and evaluation of population-based screening for gastric cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Yuan, Yuan

    2013-01-01

    Screening and early diagnosis of gastric cancer play important roles in reducing the mortality of gastric cancer. A vast amount of study data on gastric cancer screening and early diagnosis has been accumulated in and out of China in the past decades. The practice of gastric cancer screening has also been efficiently carried out in different countries and regions. However, no widely accepted principle of population screening for gastric cancer has been developed yet. Screening for gastric can...

  16. Colorectal cancer screening: Systematic review of screen-related morbidity and mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeer, N C A; Snijders, H S; Holman, F A; Liefers, G J; Bastiaannet, E; van de Velde, C J H; Peeters, K C M J

    2017-03-01

    Implementation of mass colorectal cancer screening, using faecal occult blood test or colonoscopy, is recommended by the European Union in order to increase cancer-specific survival by diagnosing disease in an earlier stage. Post-colonoscopy complications have been addressed by previous systematic reviews, but morbidity of colorectal cancer screening on multiple levels has never been evaluated before. To evaluate potential harm as a result of mass colorectal cancer screening in terms of complications after colonoscopy, morbidity and mortality following surgery, psychological distress and inappropriate use of the screening test. A systematic review of all literature on morbidity and mortality attributed to colorectal cancer screening, using faecal occult blood test or colonoscopy, from each databases' inception to August 2016 was performed. A meta-analysis was conducted to examine the pooled incidence of major complications of colonoscopy (major bleedings and perforations). Sixty studies were included. Five out of seven included prospective studies on psychological morbidity reported an association between participation in a colorectal screening program and psychological distress. Serious morbidity from colonoscopy in asymptomatic patients included major bleedings (0.8/1000 procedures, 95% CI 0.18-1.63) and perforations (0.07/1000 procedures, 95% CI 0.006-0.17). Participation in a colorectal cancer screening program is associated with psychological distress and can cause serious adverse events. Nevertheless, the short duration of psychological impact as well as the low colonoscopy complication rate seems reassuring. Because of limited literature on harms other than perforation and bleeding, future research on this topic is greatly needed to contribute to future screening recommendations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Developments in Screening Tests and Strategies for Colorectal Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin L. Sovich

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Worldwide, colorectal cancer (CRC is the third most common cancer in men and second most common in women. It is the fourth most common cause of cancer mortality. In the United States, CRC is the third most common cause of cancer and second most common cause of cancer mortality. Incidence and mortality rates have steadily fallen, primarily due to widespread screening. Methods. We conducted keyword searches on PubMed in four categories of CRC screening: stool, endoscopic, radiologic, and serum, as well as news searches in Medscape and Google News. Results. Colonoscopy is the gold standard for CRC screening and the most common method in the United States. Technological improvements continue to be made, including the promising “third-eye retroscope.” Fecal occult blood remains widely used, particularly outside the United States. The first at-home screen, a fecal DNA screen, has also recently been approved. Radiological methods are effective but seldom used due to cost and other factors. Serum tests are largely experimental, although at least one is moving closer to market. Conclusions. Colonoscopy is likely to remain the most popular screening modality for the immediate future, although its shortcomings will continue to spur innovation in a variety of modalities.

  18. Appalachian women's perspectives on breast and cervical cancer screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenberg, Nancy E; Kruger, Tina M; Bardach, Shoshana; Howell, Britteny M

    2013-01-01

    Although breast and cervical cancer screening rates have been increasing over the three past decades, many Appalachian women in the USA do not receive screening, leading to disproportionate mortality rates. The aims of this study were to: (1) better understand barriers to and facilitators of breast and cervical cancer screening among Appalachian women; and (2) identify strategies to increase cancer screening. Eight focus groups and 19 key informant interviews were conducted with 79 participants. Tape-recorded session were transcribed and content analyzed. Findings consistent with screening determinants research include: inadequate personal and community resources, attitudinal and knowledge barriers, and competing demands. Less commonly described factors include family cancer history, personal health habits, and the multiple influences of healthcare providers. Interpreting findings in terms of consumer information processing theory, healthcare providers and supports play a key role in educating and influencing the screening uptake among Appalachian Kentucky women. These findings have the potential to inform innovative and culturally consonant intervention approaches capable of increasing screening and decreasing mortality rates.

  19. The benefits and harms of screening for cancer with a focus on breast screening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodersen, John; Juhl Jørgensen, Karsten; Gøtzsche, Peter C.

    2010-01-01

    . The effects of routine clinical breast examination are unknown, but considering the results of the breast self-examination trials, it is likely that it is harmful. The effects of screening for breast cancer with thermography, ultrasound or magnetic resonance imaging are unknown. It is not clear whether......The balance between benefits and harms is delicate for cancer screening programs. By attending screening with mammography some women will avoid dying from breast cancer or receive less aggressive treatment. But many more women will be overdiagnosed, receive needless treatment, have a false...... and will be treated unnecessarily. Furthermore, more than 200 women will experience substantial psychosocial distress for months because of false-positive findings. Regular breast self-examination does not reduce breast cancer mortality, but doubles the number of biopsies, and it therefore cannot be recommended...

  20. Predictors of Colorectal Screening in Rural Colorado: Testing to Prevent Colon Cancer in the High Plains Research Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Walter F.; McGloin, Joe; Zittleman, Linda; West, David R.; Westfall, John M.

    2007-01-01

    Context: Colorectal cancer is the second leading cause of cancer death in the United States, yet screening rates are well below target levels. Rural communities may face common and unique barriers to health care, particularly preventive health care. Purpose: To establish baseline attitudinal, knowledge, belief, and behavior measures on colorectal…

  1. Register-based studies of cancer screening effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Von Euler-Chelpin, My; Lynge, Elsebeth; Rebolj, Matejka

    2011-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: There are two organised cancer screening programmes in Denmark, against cervical and breast cancers. The aim with this study was to give an overview of the available register-based research regarding these two programmes, to demonstrate the usefulness of data from the national...... registers. RESEARCH TOPICS: The register-based studies on cancer screening in Denmark could be grouped into research concerning effectiveness, in terms of mortality and incidence reduction, short-term indicators, e.g. in relation to recommended quality assurance indicators, and side effects, e.g. as false......-positive results and overdiagnosis. CONCLUSION: The results indicate that registers have proven to be a valuable tool in evaluating the effects of ongoing screening activities. As they cannot be systematically used to test new screening technologies, register-based studies should not be seen as an alternative...

  2. Celebrity appeal: reaching women to promote colorectal cancer screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Crystale Purvis; Gelb, Cynthia A; Lobb, Kathleen

    2015-03-01

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Screen for Life: National Colorectal Cancer Action Campaign works with the Entertainment Industry Foundation's National Colorectal Cancer Research Alliance to develop public service announcements (PSAs) featuring celebrities. Selection of Screen for Life celebrity spokespersons is based on a variety of factors, including their general appeal and personal connection to colorectal cancer. Screen for Life PSAs featuring celebrities have been disseminated exclusively through donated media placements and have been formatted for television, radio, print, and out-of-home displays such as dioramas in airports, other transit stations, and shopping malls. A 2012 national survey with women aged 50-75 years (n=772) investigated reported exposure to Screen for Life PSAs featuring actor Terrence Howard. In total, 8.3% of women recalled exposure to the PSAs. Celebrity spokespersons can attract the attention of both target audiences and media gatekeepers who decide which PSAs will receive donated placements.

  3. Celebrity Appeal: Reaching Women to Promote Colorectal Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Crystale Purvis; Gelb, Cynthia A.; Lobb, Kathleen

    2015-01-01

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s Screen for Life: National Colorectal Cancer Action Campaign works with the Entertainment Industry Foundation’s National Colorectal Cancer Research Alliance to develop public service announcements (PSAs) featuring celebrities. Selection of Screen for Life celebrity spokespersons is based on a variety of factors, including their general appeal and personal connection to colorectal cancer. Screen for Life PSAs featuring celebrities have been disseminated exclusively through donated media placements and have been formatted for television, radio, print, and out-of-home displays such as dioramas in airports, other transit stations, and shopping malls. A 2012 national survey with women aged 50–75 years (n = 772) investigated reported exposure to Screen for Life PSAs featuring actor Terrence Howard. In total, 8.3% of women recalled exposure to the PSAs. Celebrity spokespersons can attract the attention of both target audiences and media gatekeepers who decide which PSAs will receive donated placements. PMID:25521047

  4. Validity of data in the Danish Colorectal Cancer Screening Database

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Mette Kielsholm; Njor, Sisse Helle; Linnemann, Dorte

    2017-01-01

    Background: In Denmark, a nationwide screening program for colorectal cancer was implemented in March 2014. Along with this, a clinical database for program monitoring and research purposes was established. Objective: The aim of this study was to estimate the agreement and validity of diagnosis...... and procedure codes in the Danish Colorectal Cancer Screening Database (DCCSD). Methods: All individuals with a positive immunochemical fecal occult blood test (iFOBT) result who were invited to screening in the first 3 months since program initiation were identified. From these, a sample of 150 individuals...... of codes varied from moderate to high. Thus, the DCCSD may be a valuable data source for future research on colorectal cancer screening....

  5. Perceptions of breast and cervical cancer risk and screening among Dominicans and Puerto Ricans in Rhode Island.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, Roberta E; Risica, Patricia Markham

    2004-01-01

    This study explored perceptions of cancer, risk, and screening among Dominicans and Puerto Ricans in Rhode Island. Qualitative interviews were conducted with a community-based sample of 147 adults. Perceived risks for breast cancer were predominantly associated with carelessness about health care, trauma to the breast, and breastfeeding. Cervical cancer risks were mostly attributed to carelessness about health care and sexual behaviors. A strong sense of fatalism and embarrassment coexisted with positive beliefs about check-ups and screening. Participants cited confianza (trust, confidence) in their doctor, and their doctor's provision of information and explanations, as important factors in decreasing embarrassment and increasing their likelihood of getting screened. While familiarity with mammography and Pap testing was great among participants, many did not practice sustained, regular screening, and held misconceptions about tests and screening guidelines. Respondents' perceptions of having sufficient information often did not correspond to their having the accurate information necessary to promote informed screening decisions.

  6. Hereditary Colorectal Cancer : Genetics and Screening

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brosens, Lodewijk A A; Offerhaus, G. Johan A; Giardiello, Francis M.

    2015-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common cancer and the third leading cause of cancer death in men and women in the United States. About 30% of patients with CRC report a family history of CRC. However, only 5% of CRCs arise in the setting of a well-established mendelian inherited disorder.

  7. Prostate cancer screening: tests and algorithms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.J. Roobol-Bouts (Monique)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractAlthough the concept of early detection of cancer sounds intuitively logical it is not automatically so in the case of prostate cancer despite the fact that the data on incidence and mortality show that it is an important health problem. The fact that prostate cancer is in general a

  8. Gynecologic screening in hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijcken, FEM; Mourits, MJE; Kleibeuker, JH; Hollema, H; van der Zee, AGJ

    2003-01-01

    Objective. In hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC), women with a mismatch repair (MMR) gene mutation have a cumulative lifetime risk of 25-50% for endometrial cancer and 8-12% for ovarian cancer. Therefore, female members of HNPCC families are offered an annual gynecologic and

  9. Overdetection, overtreatment and costs in prostate-specific antigen screening for prostate cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.A.M. Heijnsdijk (Eveline); A. der Kinderen (Arno); E.M. Wever (Elisabeth); G. Draisma (Gerrit); M.J. Roobol-Bouts (Monique); H.J. de Koning (Harry)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractBackground:Prostate cancer screening with prostate-specific antigen (PSA) has shown to reduce prostate cancer mortality in the European Randomised study of Screening for Prostate Cancer (ERSPC) trial. Overdetection and overtreatment are substantial unfavourable side effects with

  10. Cervical cancer screening policies and coverage in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anttila, Ahti; von Karsa, Lawrence; Aasmaa, Auni

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the study was to compare current policy, organisation and coverage of cervical cancer screening programmes in the European Union (EU) member states with European and other international recommendations. According to the questionnaire-based survey, there are large variations in cervical...... with education, training and communication among women, medical professionals and authorities are required, accordingly. The study indicates that, despite substantial efforts, the recommendations of the Council of the EU on organised population-based screening for cervical cancer are not yet fulfilled. Decision......-makers and health service providers should consider stronger measures or incentives in order to improve cervical cancer control in Europe....

  11. A qualitative exploration of Malaysian cancer patients’ perceptions of cancer screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farooqui Maryam

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite the existence of different screening methods, the response to cancer screening is poor among Malaysians. The current study aims to examine cancer patients’ perceptions of cancer screening and early diagnosis. Methods A qualitative methodology was used to collect in-depth information from cancer patients. After obtaining institutional ethical approval, patients with different types and stages of cancer from the three major ethnic groups (Malay, Chinese and Indian were approached. Twenty semi-structured interviews were conducted. All interviews were audiotaped, transcribed verbatim, and translated into English for thematic content analysis. Results Thematic content analysis yielded four major themes: awareness of cancer screening, perceived benefits of cancer screening, perceived barriers to cancer screening, and cues to action. The majority of respondents had never heard of cancer screening before their diagnosis. Some participants reported hearing about mammogram and Pap smear tests but did not undergo screening due to a lack of belief in personal susceptibility. Those who had negative results from screening prior to diagnosis perceived such tests as untrustworthy. Lack of knowledge and financial constraints were reported as barriers to cancer screening. Finally, numerous suggestions were given to improve screening behaviour among healthy individuals, including the role of mass media in disseminating the message ‘prevention is better than cure’. Conclusions Patients’ narratives revealed some significant issues that were in line with the Health Belief Model which could explain negative health behaviour. The description of the personal experiences of people with cancer could provide many cues to action for those who have never encountered this potentially deadly disease, if incorporated into health promotion activities.

  12. Diagnostic aids in the screening of oral cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Fedele, S

    2009-01-01

    The World Health Organization has clearly indentified prevention and early detection as major objectives in the control of the oral cancer burden worldwide. At the present time, screening of oral cancer and its pre-invasive intra-epithelial stages, as well as its early detection, is still largely based on visual examination of the mouth. There is strong available evidence to suggest that visual inspection of the oral mucosa is effective in reducing mortality from oral cancer in individuals ex...

  13. Screening and Biosensor-Based Approaches for Lung Cancer Detection

    OpenAIRE

    Lulu Wang

    2017-01-01

    Early diagnosis of lung cancer helps to reduce the cancer death rate significantly. Over the years, investigators worldwide have extensively investigated many screening modalities for lung cancer detection, including computerized tomography, chest X-ray, positron emission tomography, sputum cytology, magnetic resonance imaging and biopsy. However, these techniques are not suitable for patients with other pathologies. Developing a rapid and sensitive technique for early diagnosis of lung cance...

  14. Colorectal Cancer Screening: What Is the Population's Opinion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Teixeira

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Colorectal cancer (CRC is the first cause of death by cancer in Portugal and mortality has been increasing in the last 30 years. Materials and Methods: During a raising awareness campaign performed by our Gastroenterology Department, in Setúbal, Portugal, an anonymous written questionnaire was developed and presented in order to evaluate the population's knowledge and attitude regarding CRC screening. Results: The following results were reported: 140 persons; mean age 54.6 years; 61.4% women; 22.1% had a family history of colorectal cancer. The main risk factors mentioned by the respondents were family history of CRC, previous history of intestinal polyps, and intestinal infection. Screening was considered useful by all respondents. About 60% of the respondents had been counselled, at least, on one screening technique, mainly by their general practitioner: colonoscopy in 31, fecal occult blood test in 44, and flexible sigmoidoscopy in 9. Most of the respondents had had the appropriate screening test, according to their age and family history. Fourteen of the respondents had not undergone the recommended screening. Their answers showed that this was due to fear of pain/discovering a disease as well as embarrassment. Conclusion: Although the majority of the respondents were aware of the importance of CRC screening, results show that there are still several misconceptions about risk factors, fear, and reluctance concerning the screening techniques. Awareness actions are useful to clarify possible questions and inform the population in order to increase compliance with screening.

  15. Artificial intelligence for breast cancer screening: Opportunity or hype?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houssami, Nehmat; Lee, Christoph I; Buist, Diana S M; Tao, Dacheng

    2017-12-01

    Interpretation of mammography for breast cancer (BC) screening can confer a mortality benefit through early BC detection, can miss a cancer that is present or fast growing, or can result in false-positives. Efforts to improve screening outcomes have mostly focused on intensifying imaging practices (double instead of single-reading, more frequent screens, or supplemental imaging) that may add substantial resource expenditures and harms associated with population screening. Less attention has been given to making mammography screening practice 'smarter' or more efficient. Artificial intelligence (AI) is capable of advanced learning using large complex datasets and has the potential to perform tasks such as image interpretation. With both highly-specific capabilities, and also possible un-intended (and poorly understood) consequences, this viewpoint considers the promise and current reality of AI in BC detection. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Korean Americans' Beliefs about Colorectal Cancer Screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shin-Young Lee, PhD, RN

    2013-06-01

    Conclusion: Results show the critical need for in-depth understanding of unique health and cultural beliefs about CRC screening in KAs. These beliefs could be useful for future intervention strategies to change health and cultural beliefs in order to increase CRC screening participation in KAs.

  17. Prostate-specific antigen screening and mortality from prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcella, Stephen W; Rhoads, George G; Carson, Jeffrey L; Merlino, Frances; Wilcox, Homer

    2008-03-01

    There is no available evidence from randomized trials that early detection of prostate cancer improves health outcomes, but the prostate-specific antigen (PSA) test is commonly used to screen men for prostate cancer. The objective of the study is to see if screening with PSA decreases mortality from prostate cancer. This is a case-control study using one-to-one matching on race, age, and time of availability of exposure to PSA screening. Decedents, 380, from New Jersey Vital Statistics 1997 to 2000 inclusive, 55-79 years of age at diagnosis were matched to living controls without metastatic prostate cancer. Medical records were obtained from all providers, and we abstracted information about PSA tests from 1989 to the time of diagnosis in each index case. Measurements consist of a comparison of screening (yes, no) between cases and controls. Measure of association was the odds ratio. Eligible cases were diagnosed each year from 1989 to 1999 with the median year being 1993. PSA screening was evident in 23.2-29.2% of cases and 21.8-26.1% of controls depending on the screening criteria. The unadjusted, matched odds ratio for dying of prostate cancer if ever screened was 1.09 (95% CI 0.76 to 1.60) for the most restrictive criteria and 1.19 (95% CI, 0.85 to 1.66) for the least restrictive. Adjustment for comorbidity and education level made no significant differences in these values. There were no significant interactions by age or race. PSA screening using an ever/never tabulation for tests from 1989 until 2000 did not protect New Jersey men from prostate cancer mortality.

  18. Women's perspectives on illness when being screened for cervical cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hounsgaard, Lise; Augustussen, Mikaela; Møller, Helle

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In Greenland, the incidence of cervical cancer caused by human papillomavirus (HPV) is 25 per 100,000 women; 2.5 times the Danish rate. In Greenland, the disease is most frequent among women aged 30-40. Systematic screening can identify women with cervical cell changes, which...... if untreated may cause cervical cancer. In 2007, less than 40% of eligible women in Greenland participated in screening. OBJECTIVE: To examine Greenlandic women's perception of disease, their understanding of the connection between HPV and cervical cancer, and the knowledge that they deem necessary to decide...... whether to participate in cervical cancer screening. STUDY DESIGN: The methods used to perform this research were 2 focus-group interviews with 5 Danish-speaking women and 2 individual interviews with Greenlandic-speaking women. The analysis involved a phenomenological-hermeneutic approach with 3 levels...

  19. A Literature Review of Cervical Cancer Screening in Transgender Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatos, Kayla C

    2018-02-01

    Most female-to-male (FTM) transgender men retain their cervixes and need comprehensive sexual health care, including cervical cancer screening. According to the literature, FTM individuals obtain cervical cancer screening less frequently and are less likely to be up to date on their Pap tests compared with cisgender women. Misinformation related to human papillomavirus and cervical cancer risk was noted for health care providers and FTM individuals. Absence of transgender-specific guidelines or trained health care providers presents barriers to cervical cancer screening for FTM individuals, and further research is indicated to develop comprehensive guidelines unique to the needs and experiences of this population. © 2018 AWHONN, the Association of Women’s Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses.

  20. Lesions predictive for prostate cancer in a screened population: first and second screening round findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Postma, Renske; Roobol, Monique; Schröder, Fritz H; van der Kwast, Theodorus H

    2004-11-01

    We evaluated the incidence of prostate cancer, high-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN) and lesions suspicious for prostate cancer (LSPC) in sextant biopsies in two subsequent screening rounds at a 4-year interval and their predictive value for subsequent prostate cancer detection. In the Rotterdam section of the European Randomized Study of Screening for Prostate Cancer (ERSPC), 4,117 men underwent sextant biopsy in the 1st screening round. The 2nd round was performed at a 4-year interval and biopsies were taken in 1,840 men. The incidences of prostate cancer, LSPC and PIN in the 1st, respectively 2nd round were 24.6, resp. 19.9% (P = 0.001), 2.7, resp. 2.8% and 0.8, resp. 2.5% (P < 0.0001). Prostate cancer incidence after repeat biopsy for LSPC in the 1st, respectively 2nd round was 36.7 and 17.0%, and after repeat biopsy for PIN 13.3% in both rounds, respectively. Men with a benign biopsy in the 1st round had a significantly lower prostate cancer incidence in the 2nd round compared to men who did not undergo biopsy in the 1st round (10.7 vs. 22.7%, P < 0.0001). The decrease of prostate cancer detection in the 2nd round was associated with an increase in the incidence of PIN. Strikingly, LSPC diagnosed during the 1st round, but not during the 2nd round were predictive for prostate cancer, while isolated PIN was never predictive for prostate cancer. PIN should not be an indication for repeat biopsy in a screening population. Importantly a 1st round benign biopsy outcome proved to be a negative predictor of subsequent prostate cancer detection. 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc.