WorldWideScience

Sample records for cancer risk factors

  1. Endometrial Cancer Risk Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cancer? Next Topic What causes endometrial cancer? Endometrial cancer risk factors A risk factor is anything that affects your ... to obesity, which is a well-known endometrial cancer risk factor. Many scientists think this is the main way ...

  2. Pancreatic Cancer Risk Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... factors can affect a person’s chance of getting cancer of the pancreas. Most of these are risk factors for exocrine ... Chronic pancreatitis, a long-term inflammation of the pancreas, is linked with an increased risk of pancreatic cancer (especially in smokers), but most people with pancreatitis ...

  3. Breast cancer risk factors

    OpenAIRE

    Marzena Kamińska; Tomasz Ciszewski; Karolina Łopacka-Szatan; Paweł Miotła; Elżbieta Starosławska

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most frequently diagnosed neoplastic disease in women around menopause often leading to a significant reduction of these women's ability to function normally in everyday life. The increased breast cancer incidence observed in epidemiological studies in a group of women actively participating in social and professional life implicates the necessity of conducting multidirectional studies in order to identify risk factors associated with the occurrence of this type of neopla...

  4. Breast cancer risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamińska, Marzena; Ciszewski, Tomasz; Łopacka-Szatan, Karolina; Miotła, Paweł; Starosławska, Elżbieta

    2015-09-01

    Breast cancer is the most frequently diagnosed neoplastic disease in women around menopause often leading to a significant reduction of these women's ability to function normally in everyday life. The increased breast cancer incidence observed in epidemiological studies in a group of women actively participating in social and professional life implicates the necessity of conducting multidirectional studies in order to identify risk factors associated with the occurrence of this type of neoplasm. Taking the possibility of influencing the neoplastic transformation process in individuals as a criterion, all the risk factors initiating the process can be divided into two groups. The first group would include inherent factors such as age, sex, race, genetic makeup promoting familial occurrence of the neoplastic disease or the occurrence of benign proliferative lesions of the mammary gland. They all constitute independent parameters and do not undergo simple modification in the course of an individual's life. The second group would include extrinsic factors conditioned by lifestyle, diet or long-term medical intervention such as using oral hormonal contraceptives or hormonal replacement therapy and their influence on the neoplastic process may be modified to a certain degree. Identification of modifiable factors may contribute to development of prevention strategies decreasing breast cancer incidence. PMID:26528110

  5. Breast cancer risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marzena Kamińska

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer is the most frequently diagnosed neoplastic disease in women around menopause often leading to a significant reduction of these women’s ability to function normally in everyday life. The increased breast cancer incidence observed in epidemiological studies in a group of women actively participating in social and professional life implicates the necessity of conducting multidirectional studies in order to identify risk factors associated with the occurrence of this type of neoplasm. Taking the possibility of influencing the neoplastic transformation process in individuals as a criterion, all the risk factors initiating the process can be divided into two groups. The first group would include inherent factors such as age, sex, race, genetic makeup promoting familial occurrence of the neoplastic disease or the occurrence of benign proliferative lesions of the mammary gland. They all constitute independent parameters and do not undergo simple modification in the course of an individual’s life. The second group would include extrinsic factors conditioned by lifestyle, diet or long-term medical intervention such as using oral hormonal contraceptives or hormonal replacement therapy and their influence on the neoplastic process may be modified to a certain degree. Identification of modifiable factors may contribute to development of prevention strategies decreasing breast cancer incidence.

  6. Salivary Gland Cancer: Risk Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Factors Request Permissions Print to PDF Salivary Gland Cancer: Risk Factors Approved by the Cancer.Net Editorial Board , 08/ ... anything that increases a person’s chance of developing cancer. Although risk factors often influence the development of cancer, most do ...

  7. Skin Cancer: Biology, Risk Factors & Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... turn Javascript on. Feature: Skin Cancer Skin Cancer: Biology, Risk Factors & Treatment Past Issues / Summer 2013 Table ... Articles Skin Cancer Can Strike Anyone / Skin Cancer: Biology, Risk Factors & Treatment / Timely Healthcare Checkup Catches Melanoma ...

  8. Risk factors for colorectal cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihajlović-Božić Vesna

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Colorectal cancer is one of the most common cancers in human population. It causes significant morbidity and mortality in our country. The incidence of colorectal cancer increases in the fifth decade of life. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between colorectal cancer and potential risk factors. A case-control study of colorectal cancer was carried out between 1998 and 1999 in Clinical Center of Serbia, Center for Digestive Surgery. A total of 100 cases of newly diagnosed patients with colorectal cancer confirmed by histopathology and an equal number of controls, individually matched by gender and age (+/-5 years, were chosen from patients from the same hospital with no history of cancer at all. McNemar test and conditional logistic regression were used in the analysis. According to logistic regression analysis the following risk factors were independently related with the occurrence of colorectal cancer: cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption, and diet rich in red meat and fat promote the carcinogenic process; food rich in vegetables, fruits, grains, vitamin C, physical activity, and oral contraceptive use inhibit the same process. A family history of cancer and long standing inflammatory bowel diseases also have significant role. There is convincing evidence that nutrition affects colorectal carcinogenesis in a complex fashion.

  9. Gastric cancer: prevention, risk factors and treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Zali, Hakimeh; Rezaei-Tavirani, Mostafa; Azodi, Mona

    2011-01-01

    Cancer starts with a change in one single cell. This change may be initiated by external agents and genetic factors. Cancer is a leading cause of death worldwide and accounts for 7.6 million deaths (around 13% of all deaths) in 2008. Lung, stomach, liver, colon and breast cancer cause the most cancer deaths each year. In this review, different aspects of gastric cancer; including clinical, pathological characteristic of gastric cancer, etiology, incidence, risk factors, prevention and treatme...

  10. HUMAN PROSTATE CANCER RISK FACTORS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prostate cancer has the highest prevalence of any non-skin cancer in the human body, with similar likelihood of neoplastic foci found within the prostates of men around the world regardless of diet, occupation, lifestyle, or other factors. Essentially all men with circulating an...

  11. What Are the Risk Factors for Bladder Cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cancer Next Topic What causes bladder cancer? Bladder cancer risk factors A risk factor is anything that changes your ... make a person more likely to develop bladder cancer. Risk factors you can change Smoking Smoking is the most ...

  12. Awareness of risk factors for cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lagerlund, Magdalena; Hvidberg, Line; Hajdarevic, Senada;

    2015-01-01

    Background: Sweden and Denmark are neighbouring countries with similarities in culture, healthcare, and economics, yet notable differences in cancer statistics. A crucial component of primary prevention is high awareness of risk factors in the general public. We aimed to determine and compare...... awareness of risk factors for cancer between a Danish and a Swedish population sample, and to examine whether there are differences in awareness across age groups. Methods: Data derive from Module 2 of the International Cancer Benchmarking Partnership. Telephone interviews were conducted with 3000 adults in...... Denmark and 3070 in Sweden using the Awareness and Beliefs about Cancer measure. Data reported here relate to awareness of 13 prompted risk factors for cancer. Prevalence ratios with 95 % confidence intervals were calculated to examine associations between country, age, and awareness of risk factors...

  13. Lung cancer risk factors among women

    OpenAIRE

    Papadopoulos, Alexandra

    2012-01-01

    The incidence of female lung cancer in developed countries has been increasing since 1950 and particularly in France where the cigarettes consumption has also increased. Since 1980, a growing number of epidemiological surveys have pinpointed the risk of female lung cancer related to smoking. Consecutively, a debate on gender differences in lung cancer risk has appeared, but still in progress nowadays. The reproductive factors could explain these differences. In order to have recent and reliab...

  14. Breast cancer epidemiology and risk factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breast cancer is the most common malignancy among women in the Western society. Over the past decades it has become apparent that breast cancer incidence rates are increasing steadily, whereas the mortality rates for breast cancer have remained relatively constant. Information through the media on this rising number of cases has increased breast health awareness but has also introduced anxiety in the female population. This combination of factors has made the need for prevention of breast cancer an urgent matter. Breast cancer does not seem to be a single disease entity. A specific etiologic factor may therefore have more influence on one form may therefore have more influence on one form of breast cancer than another. So far though, as shown in their summary of current knowledge on established and dubious risk factors, no risk factors have been identified that can explain a major part of the incidence. Efforts to identify other ways for primary prevention have also been discouraging, even though breast cancer is one of the most investigated tumours world-wide. Thus, at this point i time, the most important strategy to reduce breast cancer mortality is early detection through individual counselling and organised breast screening programs. The recent isolation of breast cancer susceptibility genes may introduce new ways to reduce the risk of breast cancer in a small subset of women

  15. BREAST CANCER: IS OBESITY A RISK FACTOR?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anjali

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Most epidemiological studies established obesity as an important risk factor for breast cancer. It is one of the few risk factors that women can modify. Now-a-days breast cancer is considered to be a life-style disease. The relation of obesity to breast cancer is complex one. Obesity is found to be associated with increased risk of cancer in post-menopausal women, but relation is reverse in pre-menopausal women. In these patients, obesity increases risk due to enhanced oestrogenic activity in obese females. Apart from it, other factors like Insulin-like Growth Factor (IGF-1, Leptin has also been involved. Due to big breasts in obese females there is delay in seeking medical attention, delay in diagnosis, poor response to surgery, chemotherapy, radiotherapy and associated complication during treatment. We study the effect of obesity (Weight, BMI, WHR as a risk factor in occurrence of breast cancer in local population of Southern part of Rajasthan in India. We found no significant association between obesity and increased risk of breast cancer in local population of this region where women are multiparous, physically active and usually do not use exogenous hormones.

  16. What Are the Risk Factors for Ovarian Cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cancer? What are the risk factors for ovarian cancer? A risk factor is anything that changes your chance of getting ... is a risk factor for a number of cancers. But risk factors don't tell us everything. Having a risk ...

  17. Risk factors for male breast cancer.

    OpenAIRE

    D'Avanzo, B.; La Vecchia, C

    1995-01-01

    Risk factors for male breast cancer were investigated in a case-control study of 21 cases and 82 controls admitted to hospital for acute, non-neoplastic, non-hormone-related diseases in the Greater Milan area between 1988 and 1994. More educated men tended to be at higher risk of breast cancer, with a multivariate odds ratio (OR) of 2.6 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.7-9.4]. The OR was 3.2 (95% CI 1.1-9.6) for those in the higher social class. Men with no offspring were at higher risk than f...

  18. Risk factors of thyroid cancer in Babol, Northern Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Moazezi, Zoleika; Mahmoudi, Mahmoud; Yahyahpour, Yousef; Alaleh, AliReza

    2011-01-01

    Background : Thyroid cancer is the most common endocrine malignancy. Several risk factors were found to play a role in thyroid cancer. The purpose of the study was to determine the risk factors for thyroid cancer, in Babol, north of Iran.

  19. What Are the Risk Factors for Thymus Cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cancer? What are the risk factors for thymus cancer? A risk factor is anything that affects your chance of getting ... Back to top » Guide Topics What Is Thymus Cancer? Causes, Risk Factors, and Prevention Early Detection, Diagnosis, and Staging Treating ...

  20. What Are the Risk Factors for Gallbladder Cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cancer? What are the risk factors for gallbladder cancer? A risk factor is anything that affects your chance of getting ... Back to top » Guide Topics What Is Gallbladder Cancer? Causes, Risk Factors, and Prevention Early Detection, Diagnosis, and Staging Treating ...

  1. Lung cancer incidence and risk factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The possibility of developing lung cancer (lc) as a consequence of inhaling hot particles from the Chernobyl accident is discussed. The risk from various factors is reviewed in order to assess the rate of contribution for any of them to carcinogenic process. The conclusions are based on data reported by National Centre of Oncology, Sofia (BG). A total of 2873 new cases have been recorded in 1990. The data for the period 1970-1990 show a crude increase for males and tend to stabilization for females. The similar pattern is obtained in other countries and geographic areas with steady rise of lc cases with about 0.5% per year. The contribution of particular risk factor and its interaction with other factors is assessed on the basis of large number of epidemiologic and experimental studies. The risk of cigarette smoking, as the principal cause for lc, is discussed in various aspects - age, duration, possible dropping the habit. The assessment of another risk factor - exposure to relatively high doses of natural radon daughter products - is more complicated. As an occupational hazard in uranium mines radon and its progeny reveals an increase in excess lc incidence. Regarding radon and its daughters as an environmental risk factor in dwellings, no clear positive relationship between exposure and lc incidence has been observed. In this case the assessment for population living in areas with higher concentration of radon products have to rely on data from uranium mines. Non radiation factors as asbestos, ethers, chromates, metallic iron, nickel, beryllium and arsenic, are also considered. The combined effect of all these factors, as well as of pathological cell processes, viruses, malfunctions of immune system, is mentioned as well. The possibility of interpreting the findings from epidemiological studies within the framework of theoretical multistage models of carcinogenic process is pointed out. (author)

  2. NIH study confirms risk factors for male breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pooled data from studies of about 2,400 men with breast cancer and 52,000 men without breast cancer confirmed that risk factors for male breast cancer include obesity, a rare genetic condition called Klinefelter syndrome, and gynecomastia.

  3. What Are the Risk Factors for Breast Cancer in Men?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... well as that of many other diseases and cancers. Testicular conditions Some studies have suggested that certain conditions, ... Breast Cancer In Men? Causes, Risk Factors, and Prevention Early Detection, Diagnosis, and Staging Treating Breast Cancer ...

  4. Risk Factors and Biomarkers of Ischemic Stroke in Cancer Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Kwangsoo; Lee, Ji-Hun

    2014-01-01

    Background and Purpose Stroke is common among cancer patients. However, risk factors and biomarkers of stroke in cancer patients are not well established. This study aimed to investigate risk factors and biomarkers as well as etiology of ischemic stroke in cancer patients. Methods A retrospective review was conducted in cancer patients with ischemic stroke who were admitted to a general hospital in Busan, Korea, between January 2003 and December 2012. The risk factors and biomarkers for strok...

  5. What Are the Risk Factors for Bile Duct Cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... What are the risk factors for bile duct cancer? A risk factor is anything that affects your chance of getting ... to top » Guide Topics What Is Bile Duct Cancer? Causes, Risk Factors, and Prevention Early Detection, Diagnosis, and Staging Treating ...

  6. What Are the Risk Factors for Kidney Cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... an oncocytoma , which is almost always benign (not cancer). Other risk factors Family history of kidney cancer People with a ... Back to top » Guide Topics What Is Kidney Cancer? Causes, Risk Factors, and Prevention Early Detection, Diagnosis, and Staging Treating ...

  7. Cervical cancer risk factors among HIV-infected Nigerian women

    OpenAIRE

    Ononogbu, Uzoma; Almujtaba, Maryam; Modibbo, Fatima; Lawal, Ishak; Offiong, Richard; Olaniyan, Olayinka; Dakum, Patrick; Spiegelman, Donna; Blattner, William; Adebamowo, Clement

    2013-01-01

    Background: Cervical cancer is the third most common cancer among women worldwide, and in Nigeria it is the second most common female cancer. Cervical cancer is an AIDS-defining cancer; however, HIV only marginally increases the risk of cervical pre-cancer and cancer. In this study, we examine the risk factors for cervical pre-cancer and cancer among HIV-positive women screened for cervical cancer at two medical institutions in Abuja, Nigeria. Methods: A total of 2,501 HIV-positive women part...

  8. Sociodemographic and reproductive risk factors in cervical cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Tajinder Kaur; Shaveta Garg; Sunita Mor

    2016-01-01

    Background: Cervical cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths in women. In India, cervical cancer is the most common cancer in women followed by breast cancer. A numbers of risk factors reproductive as well as sociodemographic have been widely studied for cervical cancer. The countries where universal screening is restricted because of various reasons economical, lack of resources etcetera, a modified screening procedure which is targeted on the high risk population can help solve the pro...

  9. CORRELATION OF RISK FACTORS WITH HPE GRADING IN BREAST CANCER

    OpenAIRE

    Rudramurthy; Pradeep Kumar; Avanthi; Ira

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To correlate risk factors for breast cancer with Histopathological grading. MATERIAL AND METHOD: A four year retrospective study was carried out from 2009-2012. 46 cases which were reported as breast cancer in due course were reviewed with histopathological (Scarff-Bloom-Richardson) grade of the tumor and familial, hormonal and acquired risk factors. The correlation of risk factors and the histopathological grade is done by using‘t’ test. RESULTS: Among 46 cases of breast cancer, a...

  10. Colorectal Cancer Epidemiology: Incidence, Mortality, Survival, and Risk Factors

    OpenAIRE

    Haggar, Fatima A.; Boushey, Robin P.

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the incidence, mortality, and survival rates for colorectal cancer are reviewed, with attention paid to regional variations and changes over time. A concise overview of known risk factors associated with colorectal cancer is provided, including familial and hereditary factors, as well as environmental lifestyle-related risk factors such as physical inactivity, obesity, smoking, and alcohol consumption.

  11. Risk factors for cancer mortality in the general population

    OpenAIRE

    Taghizadeh, Niloofar

    2015-01-01

    Cancer is a complex disease with many possible causes and is currently a major public health problem in the world. Cancer can occur in individuals of all ages; however the risk of cancer increases with age. It has been estimated that 90-95% of all types of cancer can be attributed to environmental and lifestyle risk factors, and hereditary cancers account for approximately 5-10% of all cancer cases. This thesis describes several potential risk factors for mortality due to most common types of...

  12. Occupational risk factors for female breast cancer: a review.

    OpenAIRE

    Goldberg, M S; Labrèche, F

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Although progress has been made in identifying personal risk factors and in improving treatment for female breast cancer, incidence rates continue to increase. With women now occupying a sizable fraction of the workforce, it is worth inquiring whether there are occupational risk factors for breast cancer. This is a review of occupational studies on female breast cancer. METHODS: Suitable reports and published articles with associations of female breast cancer and occupation were i...

  13. Quality of Life Factor as Breast Cancer Risks

    OpenAIRE

    Gledo, Ibrahim; Pranjic, Nurka; Parsko, Subhija

    2012-01-01

    Background: Numerous studies have observed risk factors for breast cancer. We investigated the association between quality life factors as breast cancer risks in a case-control study in industrial Zenica- Doboj Canton in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Methods: The case-control study was included 200 women, 100 without (control subjects) and 100 women with diagnosed breast cancer. We used questionnaires about breast cancer risks“ as study tool. Logistic regression was used to compute odds ratios (ORs...

  14. What Are the Risk Factors for Testicular Cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Do we know what causes testicular cancer? Can testicular cancer be prevented? Previous Topic What are the key statistics about ... 2016 Back to top » Guide Topics What Is Testicular Cancer? Causes, Risk Factors, and Prevention Early Detection, Diagnosis, and Staging Treating Testicular Cancer ...

  15. Colorectal (Colon) Cancer: What Are the Risk Factors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Glossary Stay Informed Cancer Home What Are the Risk Factors for Colorectal Cancer? Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend ... who are 50 years old or older. Other risk factors include having— Inflammatory bowel disease such as Crohn’s ...

  16. Low-risk factor profile, estrogen levels, and breast cancer risk among postmenopausal women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rod, Naja Hulvej; Hansen, Ase Marie; Nielsen, Jens;

    2008-01-01

    Obesity, alcohol consumption, physical inactivity and postmenopausal hormone use are known modifiable risk factors for breast cancer. We aim to measure incidence rates of breast cancer for women with favorable levels on all 4 risk factors (BMI......Obesity, alcohol consumption, physical inactivity and postmenopausal hormone use are known modifiable risk factors for breast cancer. We aim to measure incidence rates of breast cancer for women with favorable levels on all 4 risk factors (BMI...

  17. Bladder cancer, a review of the environmental risk factors

    OpenAIRE

    Letašiová Silvia; Medveďová Alžbeta; Šovčíková Andrea; Dušinská Mária; Volkovová Katarína; Mosoiu Claudia; Bartonová Alena

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Many epidemiological studies and reviews have been performed to identify the causes of bladder cancer. The aim of this review is to investigate the links between various environmental risk factors and cancer of the bladder. Methods A systematic literature search was performed using PubMed, Science Direct, Scopus, Scholar Google and Russian Google databases to identify reviews and epidemiological studies on bladder cancer risk factors associated with the environment publish...

  18. Meta analysis of risk factors for colorectal cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kun Chen; Jiong-Liang Qiu; Yang Zhang; Yu-Wan Zhao

    2003-01-01

    AIM: To study the risk factors for colorectal cancer in China.METHODS: A meta-analysis of the risk factors of colorectal cancer was conducted for 14 case-control studies, and reviewed 14 reports within 13 years which included 5034cases and 5205 controls. Dersimonian and Laird random effective models were used to process the results.RESULTS: Meta analysis of the 14 studies demonstrated that proper physical activites and dietary fibers were protective factors (pooled OR<0.8), while fecal mucohemorrhage,chronic diarrhea and polyposis were highly associated with colorectal cancer (all pooled OR>4). The stratified results showed that different OR values of some factors were due to geographic factors or different resourses.CONCLUSION: Risks of colorectal cancer are significantly associated with the histories of intestinal diseases or relative symptoms, high lipid diet, emotional trauma and family history of cancers. The suitable physical activities and dietary fibers are protective factors.

  19. Risk Factors for Renal Cell Cancer in a Japanese Population

    OpenAIRE

    Washio, Masakazu; Mori, Mitsuru

    2009-01-01

    The incidence of renal cell cancer has been increasing worldwide. Although the incidence of renal cell cancer in Japan is lower than the rates in the other industrialized countries, there is no doubt that it is increasing. In this paper, we would like to introduce the result of our studies, which evaluate the risk factors for renal cell cancer in Japan. Hypertension, diabetes mellitus, kidney diseases, fondness for fatty food and black tea showed an increased risk of renal cell carcinoma whil...

  20. Prospective Evaluation of Risk Factors for Male Breast Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Brinton, Louise A.; Richesson, Douglas A.; Gierach, Gretchen L.; Lacey, James V.; Park, Yikyung; Hollenbeck, Albert R.; Schatzkin, Arthur

    2008-01-01

    Most risk factors for male breast cancer have been derived from retrospective studies that may reflect selective recall. In the prospective National Institutes of Health–AARP Diet and Health Study, we studied 324 920 men, among whom 121 developed breast cancer. Men who reported a first-degree relative with breast cancer had an increased risk of breast cancer (relative risk [RR] = 1.92, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.19 to 3.09). Among the medical conditions examined, a new finding emerged r...

  1. What Are the Risk Factors for Anal Cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... have few or no known risk factors. Human papilloma virus (HPV) infection Most squamous cell anal cancers ... to be linked to infection by the human papilloma virus (HPV), the same virus that causes cervical ...

  2. Risk factors and novel biomarkers in breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Fourkala, E.-O.

    2011-01-01

    Efforts continue to identify and validate novel risk factors / biomarkers for breast cancer and improve current risk prediction models in the general population due to ongoing issues with sensitivity and specificity. The overall goal of this PhD study is to add to this effort. Specific aims are to (1) examine which is the best source of getting notified for breast cancer diagnosis in the general population since accurate data is crucial for risk assessment studies (2) investigate the assoc...

  3. Dietary Factors and the Risk of Thyroid Cancer: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Wook Jin; Kim, Jeongseon

    2014-01-01

    In the past few decades, the incidence of thyroid cancer has rapidly increased worldwide. Thyroid cancer incidence is relatively high in regions where the population's daily iodine intake is insufficient. While low dietary iodine has been considered as a risk factor for thyroid cancer development, previous studies found controversial results across different food types. Among different ethnic groups, dietary factors are influenced by various dietary patterns, eating habits, life-styles, nutri...

  4. REPRODUCTIVE FACTORS AND COLORECTAL CANCER RISK. Case - control study.

    OpenAIRE

    Adriana Ruseva; Radka Lazarova; Ilko Kosturkov; Vesselina Ianachkova; Stella Yordanova; Zhivka Boneva; Diana Nikolovska

    2015-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is one of the most common cancers worldwide. The role of the female sex hormones in the etiology of the disease is very intriguing. Reproductive factors are surrogate measure of lifetime exposition to the sex hormones. Purpose: Our aim is to investigate the association between the reproductive factors and colorectal carcinoma risk. Materials and methods: We include 234 Bulgarian women in our study – 117 cases with colorectal cancer and the same number of healthy contr...

  5. Risk Factors for Invasive Epithelial Ovarian Cancer by Histologic Subtype

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quirk JT

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available It is unclear whether the different histologic subtypes of epithelial ovarian carcinoma have different risk factors. We investigated the relationships between selected epidemiologic variables (i.e., parity, family history of ovarian cancer, oral contraceptive use, a history of tubal ligation and noncontraceptive estrogen use and the major histologic subtypes of epithelial ovarian cancer in a hospital-based case-control study of adult women at Roswell Park Cancer Institute in Buffalo, NY, USA. Multivariate unconditional logistic regression models were used for statistical analysis. We observed a pattern of increased risk associated with family history and a pattern of risk reduction associated with parity, noncontraceptive estrogen use and tubal ligation across all histologic subtype groups. However, we did not observe a consistent pattern of risk associated with oral contraceptive use. These results provide some additional support for the hypothesis that the effects of various ovarian cancer risk factors may differ according to the histologic subtype.

  6. Cervical cancer awareness and risk factors among female university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buga, G A

    1998-07-01

    Population cervical screening programmes are necessary for meaningfully reducing cervical cancer morbidity and mortality. Because of the high incidence of cervical cancer in South Africa, the need for a national screening programme has become evident. The success of such a programme will depend on, among others, the level of cervical cancer awareness among the target population, and their willingness to utilise cytological services and to comply with treatment and follow up protocols. We conducted a survey among female university students, as an elite group of women, to determine their level of cervical cancer awareness and the prevalence of the major risk factors for cervical cancer among them, their rate of utilisation of existing Pap smear services, and their attitudes to Pap smears in general. The majority of respondents were young, single (93.0%) and sexually active (86.9%,) having initiated sexual activity at a mean age of 17.27 +/- 2.18 years. There was a high prevalence of the major risk factors for cervical cancer among the respondents, and these included initiation of coitus before 18 years (53.3%), multiple sexual partners (73.6%), male partner with other partners (37.7%), and previous history of sexually transmitted diseases (42.2%) and vulval warts (4.7%). Their overall knowledge of cervical cancer was poor, although the majority of respondents were able to identify the major risk factors from a given list. This level of awareness of cervical cancer risk factors, however, did not translate into appreciation of personal risk of cervical cancer, safer sex practices or utilisation of Pap smear services. In conclusion, this elite group of women is at a high risk of cervical cancer and would benefit from cervical screening programmes. This would have to be coupled with measures to increase the level of awareness and knowledge of cervical cancer and its prevention. PMID:9803633

  7. Effect of Psychosocial Factors on Cancer Risk and Survival

    OpenAIRE

    ,

    2014-01-01

    Psychosocial factors such as personality traits and depression may alter immune and endocrine function, with possible effects on cancer incidence and survival. Although these factors have been extensively studied as risk and prognostic factors for cancer, the associations remain unclear. The author used data from prospective cohort studies in population-based and clinical databases to investigate these relations. The findings do not support the hypotheses that personality traits and depressio...

  8. Lifestyle risk factors for oral cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petti, Stefano

    2009-01-01

    The "style of life is the unique way in which individuals try to realize their fictional final goal and meet or avoid the three main tasks of life: work, community, love" (Alfred Adler, founder of the Individual Psychology). Lifestyle refers to the way individuals live their lives and how they handle problems and interpersonal relations. The lifestyle behaviours associated to oral cancer with convincing evidence are tobacco use, betel quid chewing, alcohol drinking, low fruit and vegetable consumption (the detrimental lifestyle is high fat and/or sugar intake, resulting in low fruit and/or vegetable intake). Worldwide, 25% of oral cancers are attributable to tobacco usage (smoking and/or chewing), 7-19% to alcohol drinking, 10-15% to micronutrient deficiency, more than 50% to betel quid chewing in areas of high chewing prevalence. Carcinogenicity is dose-dependent and magnified by multiple exposures. Conversely, low and single exposures do not significantly increase oral cancer risk. These behaviours have common characteristics: (i) they are widespread: one billion men, 250 million women smoke cigarettes, 600-1200 million people chew betel quid, two billion consume alcohol, unbalanced diet is common amongst developed and developing countries; (ii) they were already used by animals and human forerunners millions of years ago because they were essential to overcome conditions such as cold, hunger, famine; their use was seasonal and limited by low availability, in contrast with the pattern of consumption of the modern era, characterized by routine, heavy usage, for recreational activities and with multiple exposures; (iii) their consumption in small doses is not recognized as detrimental by the human body and activates the dopaminergic reward system of the brain, thus giving instant pleasure, "liking" (overconsumption) and "wanting" (craving). For these reasons, effective Public Health measures aimed at preventing oral cancer and other lifestyle-related conditions

  9. Risk factors associated with oesophageal cancer in Bulawayo, Zimbabwe.

    OpenAIRE

    Vizcaino, A. P.; Parkin, D M; Skinner, M. E.

    1995-01-01

    This report presents information on risk factors for oesophageal cancer in Bulawayo, Zimbabwe. The data analysed were from the Cancer Registry of Bulawayo for the years 1963-77, when all registered patients were interviewed using a standard questionnaire. The age-standardised incidence rates in the urban population of Bulawayo in the first 10 year period were 58.6 per 100,000 in men and 8.1 in women. The distribution of risk factors was assessed in 881 oesophageal cancer cases (826 male, 55 f...

  10. Factors that modify risks of radiation-induced cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The collective influence of biologic and physical factors that modify risks of radiation-induced cancer introduces uncertainties sufficient to deny precision of estimates of human cancer risk that can be calculated for low-dose radiation in exposed populations. The important biologic characteristics include the tissue sites and cell types, baseline cancer incidence, minimum latent period, time-to-tumor recognition, and the influence of individual host (age and sex) and competing etiologic influences. Physical factors include radiation dose, dose rate, and radiation quality. Statistical factors include time-response projection models, risk coefficients, and dose-response relationships. Other modifying factors include other carcinogens, and other biological sources (hormonal status, immune status, hereditary factors)

  11. Environmental risk factors for chronic pancreatitis and pancreatic cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitsche, Claudia; Simon, Peter; Weiss, F Ulrich; Fluhr, Gabriele; Weber, Eckhard; Gärtner, Simone; Behn, Claas O; Kraft, Matthias; Ringel, Jörg; Aghdassi, Ali; Mayerle, Julia; Lerch, Markus M

    2011-01-01

    Chronic pancreatitis has long been thought to be mainly associated with immoderate alcohol consumption. The observation that only ∼10% of heavy drinkers develop chronic pancreatitis not only suggests that other environmental factors, such as tobacco smoke, are potent additional risk factors, but also that the genetic component of pancreatitis is more common than previously presumed. Either disease-causing or protective traits have been indentified for mutations in different trypsinogen genes, the gene for the trypsin inhibitor SPINK1, chymotrypsinogen C, and the cystic fibrosis transmembane conductance regulator (CFTR). Other factors that have been proposed to contribute to pancreatitis are obesity, diets high in animal protein and fat, as well as antioxidant deficiencies. For the development of pancreatic cancer, preexisting chronic pancreatitis, more prominently hereditary pancreatitis, is a risk factor. The data on environmental risk factors for pancreatic cancer are, with the notable exception of tobacco smoke, either sparse, unconfirmed or controversial. Obesity appears to increase the risk of pancreatic cancer in the West but not in Japan. Diets high in processed or red meat, diets low in fruits and vegetables, phytochemicals such as lycopene and flavonols, have been proposed and refuted as risk or protective factors in different trials. The best established and single most important risk factor for cancer as well as pancreatitis and the one to clearly avoid is tobacco smoke. PMID:21734390

  12. Gastric Cancer: Descriptive Epidemiology, Risk Factors, Screening, and Prevention

    OpenAIRE

    Karimi, Parisa; Islami, Farhad; Anandasabapathy, Sharmila; Neal D Freedman; Kamangar, Farin

    2014-01-01

    Less than a century ago, gastric cancer (GC) was the most common cancer in the United States and perhaps throughout the world. Despite its worldwide decline in incidence over the past century, GC remains a major killer across the globe. This article reviews the epidemiology, screening, and prevention of gastric cancer. We first discuss the descriptive epidemiology of GC, including its incidence, survival, and mortality, including trends over time. Next, we characterize the risk factors for ga...

  13. Risk Factors for Premenopausal Breast Cancer in Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Iqbal, Javaid; Ferdousy, Tahmina; Dipi, Rahela; Salim, Reza; Wei WU; Narod, Steven A.; Kotsopoulos, Joanne; Mostafa, Mohammad G.; Ginsburg, Ophira

    2015-01-01

    Background. The incidence of premenopausal breast cancer is rising throughout South Asia. Our objective was to determine the role of risk factors associated with Westernization for premenopausal breast cancer in Bangladesh. Methods. We conducted a matched case-control study between January 1, 2007, and December 31, 2010, at four hospitals in Bangladesh. Cases were premenopausal women diagnosed with invasive breast cancer. Controls were premenopausal women with no personal history of breast ca...

  14. Risk Factors of Lymph Edema in Breast Cancer Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Shahpar, Haghighat; Atieh, Akbari; Maryam, Ansari; Fatemeh, Homaei Shandiz; Massoome, Najafi; Mandana, Ebrahimi; Masud, Yunesian; Hamid Reza, Mirzaei; Mohammad Esmaeil, Akbari

    2013-01-01

    Background. Lymphedema secondary to breast cancer treatment is a common and serious problem for disease survivors. The objective of the current study was to identify the risk factors of secondary lymphedema after breast carcinoma treatment. Materials & Methods. The breast cancer patients who were followed up in three centers in Tehran and Mashhad in 2010 were recruited in the study. The circumference measurement was used for defining lymphedema. Results. Among 410 breast cancer patients, 123 ...

  15. Cancer-related fatigue: Mechanisms, risk factors, and treatments

    OpenAIRE

    Bower, Julienne E.

    2014-01-01

    Fatigue is one of the most common and distressing side effects of cancer and its treatment, and may persist for years after treatment completion in otherwise healthy survivors. Cancer-related fatigue causes disruption in all aspects of quality of life and may be a risk factor for reduced survival. The prevalence and course of fatigue in cancer patients has been well characterized, and there is growing understanding of underlying biological mechanisms. Inflammation has emerged as a key biologi...

  16. Risk factors for ovarian cancer: a case-control study.

    OpenAIRE

    Booth, M.; Beral, V; SMITH, P.

    1989-01-01

    A hospital-based case-control study of ovarian cancer was conducted in London and Oxford between October 1978 and February 1983. Menstrual characteristics, reproductive and contraceptive history and history of exposure to various environmental factors were compared between 235 women with histologically diagnosed epithelial ovarian cancer and 451 controls. High gravidity, hysterectomy, female sterilisation and oral contraceptive use were associated with a reduced risk of ovarian cancer. Infert...

  17. Factors Influencing Cancer Risk Perception in High Risk Populations: A Systematic Review

    OpenAIRE

    Tilburt Jon C; James Katherine M; Sinicrope Pamela S; Eton David T; Costello Brian A; Carey Jantey; Lane Melanie A; Ehlers Shawna L; Erwin Patricia J; Nowakowski Katherine E; Murad Mohammad H

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Patients at higher than average risk of heritable cancer may process risk information differently than the general population. However, little is known about clinical, demographic, or psychosocial predictors that may impact risk perception in these groups. The objective of this study was to characterize factors associated with perceived risk of developing cancer in groups at high risk for cancer based on genetics or family history. Methods We searched Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid Em...

  18. Epidemiologic characteristics and risk factors for renal cell cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loren Lipworth

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Loren Lipworth1,2, Robert E Tarone1,2, Lars Lund2,3, Joseph K McLaughlin1,21International Epidemiology Institute, Rockville, MD, USA; 2Department of Medicine (JKM, RET and Preventive Medicine (LL, Vanderbilt University Medical Center and Vanderbilt-Ingram Cancer Center, Nashville, TN, USA; 3Department of Urology, Viborg Hospital, Viborg, DenmarkAbstract: Incidence rates of renal cell cancer, which accounts for 85% of kidney cancers, have been rising in the United States and in most European countries for several decades. Family history is associated with a two- to four-fold increase in risk, but the major forms of inherited predisposition together account for less than 4% of renal cell cancers. Cigarette smoking, obesity, and hypertension are the most consistently established risk factors. Analgesics have not been convincingly linked with renal cell cancer risk. A reduced risk of renal cell cancer among statin users has been hypothesized but has not been adequately studied. A possible protective effect of fruit and vegetable consumption is the only moderately consistently reported dietary finding, and, with the exception of a positive association with parity, evidence for a role of hormonal or reproductive factors in the etiology of renal cell cancer in humans is limited. A recent hypothesis that moderate levels of alcohol consumption may be protective for renal cell cancer is not strongly supported by epidemiologic results, which are inconsistent with respect to the categories of alcohol consumption and the amount of alcohol intake reportedly associated with decreased risk. For occupational factors, the weight of the evidence does not provide consistent support for the hypotheses that renal cell cancer may be caused by asbestos, gasoline, or trichloroethylene exposure. The established determinants of renal cell cancer, cigarette smoking, obesity, and hypertension, account for less than half of these cancers. Novel epidemiologic approaches

  19. Diabetes, obesity and cancer: risk and anti-risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lev Mikhaylovich Bershteyn

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Observable diabetes and obesity epidemics may result in alteration of cancer morbidity and mortality. This increasingly recognized problem is reviewed here from the perspective of interplay between factors that differently modify association of diabetes mellitus with malignant neoplasms. Heterogeneity and familial aspects of diabetes and obesity, genomic traits, anti-diabetic medications and weight-reducing treatment are important examples of such factors. Addressing them might promote development of efficient preventive measures.

  20. Diabetes, obesity and cancer: risk and anti-risk factors

    OpenAIRE

    Lev Mikhaylovich Bershteyn

    2012-01-01

    Observable diabetes and obesity epidemics may result in alteration of cancer morbidity and mortality. This increasingly recognized problem is reviewed here from the perspective of interplay between factors that differently modify association of diabetes mellitus with malignant neoplasms. Heterogeneity and familial aspects of diabetes and obesity, genomic traits, anti-diabetic medications and weight-reducing treatment are important examples of such factors. Addressing them might promote develo...

  1. Bladder cancer, a review of the environmental risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Letašiová Silvia

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many epidemiological studies and reviews have been performed to identify the causes of bladder cancer. The aim of this review is to investigate the links between various environmental risk factors and cancer of the bladder. Methods A systematic literature search was performed using PubMed, Science Direct, Scopus, Scholar Google and Russian Google databases to identify reviews and epidemiological studies on bladder cancer risk factors associated with the environment published between 1998 and 2010. Only literature discussing human studies was considered. Results Smoking, mainly cigarette smoking, is a well known risk factor for various diseases, including bladder cancer. Another factor strongly associated with bladder cancer is exposure to arsenic in drinking water at concentrations higher than 300 µg/l. The most notable risk factor for development of bladder cancer is occupational exposure to aromatic amines (2-naphthylamine, 4-aminobiphenyl and benzidine and 4,4'-methylenebis(2-chloroaniline, which can be found in the products of the chemical, dye and rubber industries as well as in hair dyes, paints, fungicides, cigarette smoke, plastics, metals and motor vehicle exhaust. There are also data suggesting an effect from of other types of smoking besides cigarettes (cigar, pipe, Egyptian waterpipe, smokeless tobacco and environmental tobacco smoking, and other sources of arsenic exposure such as air, food, occupational hazards, and tobacco. Other studies show that hairdressers and barbers with occupational exposure to hair dyes experience enhanced risk of bladder cancer. For example, a study related to personal use of hair dyes demonstrates an elevated bladder cancer risk for people who used permanent hair dyes at least once a month, for one year or longer. Conclusion Smoking, in particular from cigarettes, exposure to arsenic in drinking water, and occupational exposure to aromatic amines and 4,4'-methylenebis(2-chloroaniline

  2. Bladder cancer, a review of the environmental risk factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Many epidemiological studies and reviews have been performed to identify the causes of bladder cancer. The aim of this review is to investigate the links between various environmental risk factors and cancer of the bladder. Methods A systematic literature search was performed using PubMed, Science Direct, Scopus, Scholar Google and Russian Google databases to identify reviews and epidemiological studies on bladder cancer risk factors associated with the environment published between 1998 and 2010. Only literature discussing human studies was considered. Results Smoking, mainly cigarette smoking, is a well known risk factor for various diseases, including bladder cancer. Another factor strongly associated with bladder cancer is exposure to arsenic in drinking water at concentrations higher than 300 µg/l. The most notable risk factor for development of bladder cancer is occupational exposure to aromatic amines (2-naphthylamine, 4-aminobiphenyl and benzidine) and 4,4'-methylenebis(2-chloroaniline), which can be found in the products of the chemical, dye and rubber industries as well as in hair dyes, paints, fungicides, cigarette smoke, plastics, metals and motor vehicle exhaust. There are also data suggesting an effect from of other types of smoking besides cigarettes (cigar, pipe, Egyptian waterpipe, smokeless tobacco and environmental tobacco smoking), and other sources of arsenic exposure such as air, food, occupational hazards, and tobacco. Other studies show that hairdressers and barbers with occupational exposure to hair dyes experience enhanced risk of bladder cancer. For example, a study related to personal use of hair dyes demonstrates an elevated bladder cancer risk for people who used permanent hair dyes at least once a month, for one year or longer. Conclusion Smoking, in particular from cigarettes, exposure to arsenic in drinking water, and occupational exposure to aromatic amines and 4,4'-methylenebis(2-chloroaniline) are well known risk

  3. Risk factors for small bowel cancer in Crohn's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lashner, B A

    1992-08-01

    Suspected risk factors for adenocarcinoma of the small bowel in Crohn's disease include surgically excluded small bowel loops, chronic fistulous disease, and male sex. Review of all seven University of Chicago cases failed to confirm any suspected risk factor. A case-control study was performed to identify possible alternatives. Each case was matched to four randomly selected controls from an inflammatory bowel disease registry matched for year of birth, sex, and confirmed small bowel Crohn's disease. Three factors were significantly associated with the development of cancer: (1) Four cancers developed in the jejunum, and jejunal Crohn's disease was associated with the development of cancer [odds ratio (OR) 8.0, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.6-39.3]. (2) There was an association between the development of cancer and occupations known to be associated with an increased colorectal cancer risk (OR 20.3, CI 2.7-150.5). Three cases (a chemist with exposure to halogenated aromatic compounds and aliphatic amines, a pipefitter with exposure to asbestos, and a machinist with exposures to cutting oils, solvents, and abrasives) and one of 28 controls (a fireman with multiple hazardous exposures) had an occupational risk factor. (3) Among medications taken for at least six months, only 6-mercaptopurine use was associated with cancer (OR 10.8, CI 1.1-108.7). In conclusion, proximal small bowel disease, 6-mercaptopurine use, and hazardous occupations are associated with cancer of the small bowel in patients with Crohn's disease and can be added to the list of suspected risk factors. PMID:1499440

  4. Kimchi and soybean pastes are risk factors of gastric cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong-Mei Nan; Heon Kim; Jin-Woo Park; Young-Jin Song; Hyo-Yung Yun; Joo-Seung Park; Taisun Hyun; Sei-Jin Youn; Yong-Dae Kim; Jong-Won Kang

    2005-01-01

    AIM: This case-control study investigated the effects of kimchi, soybean paste, fresh vegetables, nonfermented alliums, nonfermented seafood, nonfermented soybean foods, and the genetic polymorphisms of some metabolic enzymes on the risk of gastric cancer in Koreans.METHODS: We studied 421 gastric cancer patients and 632 age- and sex-matched controls. Subjects completed a structured questionnaire regarding their food intake pattern. Polymorphisms of cytochrome P450 1A1 (CYP1A1),cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1), glutathione S-transferase mu 1 (GSTM1), glutathione S-transferase theta 1 (GSTT1) and aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2) were investigated. RESULTS: A decreased risk of gastric cancer was noted among people with high consumption of nonfermented alliums and nonfermented seafood. On the other hand, consumption of kimchi, and soybean pastes was associated with increased risk of gastric cancer. Individuals with the CYP1A1 Ile/Val or Val/Val genotype showed a significantly increased risk for gastric cancer. Increased intake of kimchi or soybean pastes was a significant risk factor for the CYP1A1 Ile/Ile, the CYP2E1 c1/c1, the GSTM1 non-null,the GSTT1 non-null, or the ALDH2 *1/*1 genotype. In addition, eating soybean pastes was associated with the increased risk of gastric cancer in individuals with the GSTM1 null type. Nonfermented alliums were significant in individuals with the CYP1A1 Ile/Ile, the CYP2E1 c1/c2or c2/c2, the GSTT1 null, the GSTT1 non-null, or the ALDH2 * 1/*2 or *2/*2 genotype, nonfermented seafood was those with the CYP1A1 Ile/Ile, the CYP2E1 c1/c1, the ALDH2 * 1/*1 genotype or any type of GSTM1 or GSTT1. In homogeneity tests, the odds ratios of eating kimchi for gastric cancer according to the GSTM1 or GSTT1 genotypewere not homogeneous.CONCLUSION: Kimchi, soybean pastes, and the CYP1A1 Ile/Val or Val/Val are risk factors, and nonfermented seafood and alliums are protective factors against gastric cancer in Koreans. Salt or some chemicals contained

  5. Risk Factors for Kidney Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Washio, Masakazu; Sakauchi, Fumio; SONODA, Tomoko; Ikeda, Toshiko; Mori, Mitsuru

    2003-01-01

    The incidence of kidney cancer and resulting mortality has been increasing in recent years. Its incidence is highest in Western and Northern Europe and North America, moderate in Japan, and low elsewhere in Asia. Although the incidence of kidney cancer in Japan is lower than in the other developed countries, there is no doubt that there has been an increasing occurrence of this disease recently in Japan, which may be partly due to the adoption of a Western life style.Obesity/overweight is ass...

  6. REPRODUCTIVE FACTORS AND COLORECTAL CANCER RISK. Case - control study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Ruseva

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Colorectal cancer is one of the most common cancers worldwide. The role of the female sex hormones in the etiology of the disease is very intriguing. Reproductive factors are surrogate measure of lifetime exposition to the sex hormones. Purpose: Our aim is to investigate the association between the reproductive factors and colorectal carcinoma risk. Materials and methods: We include 234 Bulgarian women in our study – 117 cases with colorectal cancer and the same number of healthy controls. Cases are divided into three groups according to the localization of the tumor. We conduct case-control study, using questionnaires about reproductive factors. We use the following statistical methods – descriptive, variational analysis, binary logistic regression. Results: We observed that only the age at menopause is associated with colorectal cancer risk, and this factor has strongest protective effect in the proximal colon (95% CI - 0,051-0,781, OR – 0,200, p – 0,021. Conclusion: Analyzing our data we observed that among Bulgarian women the only reproductive factor that show association with the risk of colorectal cancer is the age at menopause.

  7. Risk factors for breast cancer in nulliparous women

    OpenAIRE

    Fioretti, F; Tavani, A; C. Bosetti; Vecchia, C La; De Negri, E.; F. Barbone; Talamini, R.; Franceschi, S

    1999-01-01

    The relation between hormonal and lifestyle factors and breast cancer risk in nulliparae was investigated using data from two case-control studies conducted in Italy between 1983 and 1994. The study included 1041 nulliparae with histologically confirmed incident breast cancer and 1002 nulliparous controls admitted to hospital for a wide range of acute, non-neoplastic, nonhormone-related diseases. In premenopausal nulliparae, there was an inverse relation with age at menarche [odds ratios (OR)...

  8. Risk factors of thrombosis in cancer: the role of microparticles

    OpenAIRE

    Tesselaar, Margaretha Elizabeth Theresia

    2008-01-01

    This thesis elaborates the occurrence of venous thrombosis in cancer patients. Cancer is known to be associated with venous thrombosis with a spectrum of clinical manifestations varying from deep vein thrombosis of the leg and pulmonary embolism, recurrent thrombophlebitits saltans et migrans (also called Trousseau’s syndrome) to disseminated intravascular coagulation and arterial embolism. The causes of venous thrombosis can be divided in environmental risk factors such as bed rest, surgery,...

  9. Substantial contribution of extrinsic risk factors to cancer development | Office of Cancer Genomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recent research has highlighted a strong correlation between tissue-specific cancer risk and the lifetime number of tissue-specific stem-cell divisions. Whether such correlation implies a high unavoidable intrinsic cancer risk has become a key public health debate with the dissemination of the 'bad luck' hypothesis. Here we provide evidence that intrinsic risk factors contribute only modestly (less than ~10-30% of lifetime risk) to cancer development.

  10. Factors Influencing Cancer Risk Perception in High Risk Populations: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tilburt Jon C

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patients at higher than average risk of heritable cancer may process risk information differently than the general population. However, little is known about clinical, demographic, or psychosocial predictors that may impact risk perception in these groups. The objective of this study was to characterize factors associated with perceived risk of developing cancer in groups at high risk for cancer based on genetics or family history. Methods We searched Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid Embase, Ovid PsycInfo, and Scopus from inception through April 2009 for English-language, original investigations in humans using core concepts of "risk" and "cancer." We abstracted key information and then further restricted articles dealing with perceived risk of developing cancer due to inherited risk. Results Of 1028 titles identified, 53 articles met our criteria. Most (92% used an observational design and focused on women (70% with a family history of or contemplating genetic testing for breast cancer. Of the 53 studies, 36 focused on patients who had not had genetic testing for cancer risk, 17 included studies of patients who had undergone genetic testing for cancer risk. Family history of cancer, previous prophylactic tests and treatments, and younger age were associated with cancer risk perception. In addition, beliefs about the preventability and severity of cancer, personality factors such as "monitoring" personality, the ability to process numerical information, as well as distress/worry also were associated with cancer risk perception. Few studies addressed non-breast cancer or risk perception in specific demographic groups (e.g. elderly or minority groups and few employed theory-driven analytic strategies to decipher interrelationships of factors. Conclusions Several factors influence cancer risk perception in patients at elevated risk for cancer. The science of characterizing and improving risk perception in cancer for high risk groups, although

  11. Risk factors for sporadic colorectal cancer in southern Chinese

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yi-Sheng Wei; Jia-Chun Lu; Lei Wang; Ping Lan; Hong-Jun Zhao; Zhi-Zhong Pan; Jun Huang; Jian-Ping Wang

    2009-01-01

    AIM:To investigate the role of smoking, alcohol drinking, family history of cancer, and body mass index (BMI) in sporadic colorectal cancer in southern Chinese.METHODS:A hospital-based case-control study was conducted from July 2002 to December 2008. There were 706 cases and 723 controls with their sex and age (within 5 years) matched. An unconditional logistic regression model was used to analyze the association between smoking, alcohol drinking, family history of cancer, BMI and sporadic colorectal cancer. RESULTS:No positive association was observed between smoking status and sporadic colorectal cancer risk. Compared with the non alcohol drinkers, the current and former alcohol drinkers had an increased risk of developing sporadic colorectal cancer (CRC) (adjusted OR = 8.61 and 95% CI = 6.15-12.05; adjusted OR = 2.30, 95% CI = 1.27-4.17). Moreover, the increased risk of developing sporadic CRC was increased risk of developing sporadic CRC was significant in those with a positive family history of cancer (adjusted OR = 1.62, 95% CI = 1.12-3.34) and in those with their BMI ≥ 24.0 kg/m2 (adjusted OR = 1.39, 95% CI = 1.10-1.75). Stratification analysis showed that the risk of developing both colon and rectal cancers was increased in current alcohol drinkers (adjusted OR = 7.60 and 95% CI = 5.13-11.25; adjusted OR = 7.52 and 95% CI = 5.13-11.01) and in those with their BMI ≥ 24.0 kg/m2 (adjusted OR = 1.38 and 95% CI = 1.04-1.83; adjusted OR = 1.35 and 95% CI = 1.02-1.79). The risk of developing colon cancer, but not rectal cancer, was found in former alcohol drinkers and in those with a positive family history of cancer (adjusted OR = 2.51 and 95% CI = 1.24-5.07; adjusted OR = 1.82 and 95% CI = 1.17-2.82).CONCLUSION:Alcohol drinking, high BMI (≥ 24.0 kg/m2) and positive family history of cancer are the independent risk factors for colorectal cancer in southern Chinese.

  12. Metabolic and Lifestyle related risk factors for pancreatic cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Johansen, Dorthe

    2010-01-01

    Background and aims: In spite of the fact that pancreatic cancer is a relatively infrequent disease, it ranks 8th in the worldwide ranking of cancer death due to the poor prognosis. The mortality rate is almost as high as the incidence with a M/I ratio of 98%, indicating an extremely dismal clinical course. This makes it imperative to try to develop new therapeutic strategies and to try to identify risk factors in order to intensify preventive efforts. The most important risk fact...

  13. Hormonal risk factors and invasive epithelial ovarian cancer risk by parity

    OpenAIRE

    Bodelon, C; Wentzensen, N; Schonfeld, S. J.; Visvanathan, K; Hartge, P; Park, Y; Pfeiffer, R. M.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Recent studies have suggested that several ovarian cancer risk factors differ by parity status, but these findings have not been confirmed. We evaluated whether known risk factors of ovarian cancer differ between nulliparous and parous women using data from two large prospective cohorts. Methods: Data from the National Institutes of Health-AARP Diet and Health Study and the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial were combined for this analysis. Cox regressio...

  14. Diet and other risk factors for cancer of the pancreas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, E B; Gordis, L; Diener, M D; Seltser, R; Boitnott, J K; Bynum, T E; Hutcheon, D F

    1985-01-15

    The findings of a case - control study of cancer of the pancreas, which was conducted in the Baltimore metropolitan area, are reported. Two hundred one patients with pancreatic cancer were matched on age (+/- 5 years), race, and sex to hospital and non-hospital controls, the latter selected by random-digit-dialing (RDD). All subjects were interviewed regarding diet, beverage consumption, occupational and environmental exposures, and medical and surgical history. Significantly decreased risks were associated with consumption of raw fruits and vegetables and diet soda, and significantly increased risks were associated with consumption of white bread when cases were compared with hospital and RDD controls. A significantly reduced risk was associated with consumption of wine when cases were compared to RDD controls. Risk ratios for consumption of coffee were not significantly different from one, although there appeared to be a dose - response relationship in women. A moderate but statistically nonsignificant increase in relative odds was found for cigarette smoking, and cessation of smoking was associated with a marked reduction in risk. No significant associations were found with particular occupational exposures. Tonsillectomy was associated with a significantly reduced risk, a finding that has been observed for other cancers as well. The current evidence indicates that pancreatic cancer is likely to result from a complex interaction of factors and suggests that the study of its etiology requires a multidisciplinary approach involving both laboratory and epidemiologic components. PMID:3965101

  15. Northeast Regional Cancer Institute's Cancer Surveillance and Risk Factor Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lesko, Samuel M.

    2007-07-31

    OBJECTIVES The Northeast Regional Cancer Institute is conducting a program of ongoing epidemiologic research to address cancer disparities in northeast Pennsylvania. Of particular concern are disparities in the incidence of, stage at diagnosis, and mortality from colorectal cancer. In northeast Pennsylvania, age-adjusted incidence and mortality rates for colorectal cancer are higher, and a significantly smaller proportion of new colorectal cancer cases are diagnosed with local stage disease than is observed in comparable national data. Further, estimates of the prevalence of colorectal cancer screening in northeast Pennsylvania are lower than the US average. The Northeast Regional Cancer Institute’s research program supports surveillance of common cancers, investigations of cancer risk factors and screening behaviors, and the development of resources to further cancer research in this community. This project has the following specific objectives: I. To conduct cancer surveillance in northeast Pennsylvania. a. To monitor incidence and mortality for all common cancers, and colorectal cancer, in particular, and b. To document changes in the stage at diagnosis of colorectal cancer in this high-risk, underserved community. II. To conduct a population-based study of cancer risk factors and screening behavior in a six county region of northeast Pennsylvania. a. To monitor and document changes in colorectal cancer screening rates, and b. To document the prevalence of cancer risk factors (especially factors that increase the risk of colorectal cancer) and to identify those risk factors that are unusually common in this community. APPROACH Cancer surveillance was conducted using data from the Northeast Regional Cancer Institute’s population-based Regional Cancer Registry, the Pennsylvania Cancer Registry, and NCI’s SEER program. For common cancers, incidence and mortality were examined by county within the region and compared to data for similar populations in the US

  16. Breast cancer risk assessment using genetic variants and risk factors in a Singapore Chinese population

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Charmaine Pei Ling; Irwanto, Astrid; Salim, Agus; Yuan, Jian-Min; Liu, Jianjun; Koh, Woon Puay; Hartman, Mikael

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Genetic variants for breast cancer risk identified in genome-wide association studies (GWAS) in Western populations require further testing in Asian populations. A risk assessment model incorporating both validated genetic variants and established risk factors may improve its performance in risk prediction of Asian women. Methods A nested case-control study of female breast cancer (411 cases and 1,212 controls) within the Singapore Chinese Health Study was conducted to investigat...

  17. Childhood CT scans and cancer risk: impact of predisposing factors for cancer on the risk estimates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journy, N; Roué, T; Cardis, E; Le Pointe, H Ducou; Brisse, H; Chateil, J-F; Laurier, D; Bernier, M-O

    2016-03-01

    To investigate the role of cancer predisposing factors (PFs) on the associations between paediatric computed tomography (CT) scan exposures and subsequent risk of central nervous system (CNS) tumours and leukaemia. A cohort of children who underwent a CT scan in 2000-2010 in 23 French radiology departments was linked with the national childhood cancers registry and national vital status registry; information on PFs was retrieved through hospital discharge databases. In children without PF, hazard ratios of 1.07 (95% CI 0.99-1.10) for CNS tumours (15 cases) and 1.16 (95% CI 0.77-1.27) for leukaemia (12 cases) were estimated for each 10 mGy increment in CT x-rays organ doses. These estimates were similar to those obtained in the whole cohort. In children with PFs, no positive dose-risk association was observed, possibly related to earlier non-cancer mortality in this group. Our results suggest a modifying effect of PFs on CT-related cancer risks, but need to be confirmed by longer follow-up and other studies. PMID:26878249

  18. Strategies for the modification of risk factors in gynecological cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedet, J L; Cabero-Roura, L

    2002-01-01

    Strategies to modify risk for female or gynecological cancers will vary with our knowledge of the epidemiology, etiology, and specific molecular mechanisms for each individual cancer. In general, cancer preventive strategies have been divided into primary and secondary prevention with primary prevention directed toward the causative factors for a disease. Secondary prevention is classically used in cervical cancer cytology screening programs and is essentially an attempt to identify individuals in a population with preclinical phases of the disease where intervention will impact mortality the most. A vast literature has evolved regarding the epidemiology of most of the common cancers in women. While the specific molecular mechanisms are not completely understood at this time knowledge of contributing factors for many of these tumors is well known. The association of cigarette smoking with lung cancer has been well established and the increasing rates of lung cancer, particularly in women, are directly linked to the increasing number of female smokers in the population. Indeed in many western countries lung cancer deaths have overtaken breast cancer as the most common cause of death from malignant disease in women. Excessive sun exposure without adequate skin protection is another lifestyle activity that is related to the high incidence of skin cancer in certain areas. Epidemiologically, cervical cancer has been studied extensively with the current data indicating a causal role of exposure to human papillomavirus (HPV), particularly at an early age in this disease. Hereditary breast and ovarian cancer syndromes are well understood and as more information on human genomics becomes available a clear understanding of the underlying molecular mechanisms of these diseases will be possible and hopefully will result in effective strategies for their control. Unfortunately, in spite of the vast knowledge that is available regarding risk factors for many of these

  19. Interaction between radiation and other breast cancer risk factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A follow-up study was conducted of 1764 women institutionalized for pulmonary tuberculosis between 1930 and 1954. Among 1047 women exposed to fluoroscopic chest X-rays during air collapse therapy of the lung, an excess of breast cancer was observed and previously reported (41 cases observed versus 23.3 expected). Among 717 comparison patients who received other treatments, no excess breast cancer risk was apparent (15 cases observed versus 14.1 expected). To determine whether breast cancer risk factors modify the carcinogenic effect of radiation, analyses were performed evaluating the interaction of radiation with indicators of breast cancer risk. The greatest radiation risk was found when radiation exposure occurred just before and during menarche. Similarly, exposures during first pregnancy appeared substantially more hazardous than exposures occurring before or after first pregnancy, suggesting that the condition of the breast at the time of pregnancy modifies the effect of radiation in such a way as to enhance the risk. Age at menopause did not appear to influence the risk of radiation exposure. Other than radiation, benign breast disease was the most significant breast cancer risk indicator. Benign breast disease was not seen to modify the effect of radiation exposure; however, excessive radiation exposure might have increased the incidence of benign breast disease, complicating the interaction analysis. Because of the uncertainty due to small-number sampling variation, these study results will require confirmation by a larger series. They do, however, suggest that stages when breast tissue undergoes high mitotic activity, e.g. menarche and pregnancy, are times of special vulnerability to the harmful effects of ionizing radiation

  20. Risk Factors, Preventive Practices, and Health Care Among Breast Cancer Survivors, United States, 2010

    OpenAIRE

    Homan, Sherri G.; Kayani, Noaman; Yun, Shumei

    2016-01-01

    Introduction We compared behavioral risk factors and preventive measures among female breast cancer survivors, female survivors of other types of cancers, and women without a history of cancer. Survivorship health care indicators for the 2 groups of cancer survivors were compared. Methods Using data from the 2010 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, we calculated the proportion of women with risk factors and their engagement in preventive practices, stratified by cancer status (cancer ...

  1. Breast Cancer Risk From Modifiable and Nonmodifiable Risk Factors Among White Women in the United States

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maas, Paige; Barrdahl, Myrto; Joshi, Amit D;

    2016-01-01

    Importance: An improved model for risk stratification can be useful for guiding public health strategies of breast cancer prevention. Objective: To evaluate combined risk stratification utility of common low penetrant single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and epidemiologic risk factors. Design...... information on individual level data on epidemiologic risk factors and 24 genotyped SNPs from prospective cohort studies, published estimate of odds ratios for 68 additional SNPs, population incidence rate from the National Cancer Institute-Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program cancer registry......, Setting, and Participants: Using a total of 17 171 cases and 19 862 controls sampled from the Breast and Prostate Cancer Cohort Consortium (BPC3) and 5879 women participating in the 2010 National Health Interview Survey, a model for predicting absolute risk of breast cancer was developed combining...

  2. Risk Factors for Pancreatic Cancer in China: A Multicenter Case-Control Study

    OpenAIRE

    Zhaoxu Zheng

    2016-01-01

    Background: Despite having one of the highest mortality rates of all cancers, the risk factors of pancreatic cancer remain unclear. We assessed risk factors of pancreatic cancer in China. Methods: A case-control study design was conducted using data from four hospital-based cancer registries (Henan Provincial Cancer Hospital, Beijing Cancer Hospital, Hebei Provincial Cancer Hospital, and Cancer Hospital of Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences). Controls were equally matched and selected fro...

  3. Anthropometric and hormonal risk factors for male breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brinton, Louise A; Cook, Michael B; McCormack, Valerie;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The etiology of male breast cancer is poorly understood, partly because of its relative rarity. Although genetic factors are involved, less is known regarding the role of anthropometric and hormonally related risk factors. METHODS: In the Male Breast Cancer Pooling Project, a consortium...... of 11 case-control and 10 cohort investigations involving 2405 case patients (n = 1190 from case-control and n = 1215 from cohort studies) and 52013 control subjects, individual participant data were harmonized and pooled. Unconditional logistic regression generated study design-specific (case......-control/cohort) odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs), with exposure estimates combined using fixed effects meta-analysis. All statistical tests were two-sided. RESULTS: Risk was statistically significantly associated with weight (highest/lowest tertile: OR = 1.36; 95% CI = 1.18 to 1.57), height (OR = 1...

  4. Diabetes mellitus, other medical conditions and familial history of cancer as risk factors for pancreatic cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Silverman, D.T. (Debra T.); Schiffman, M; Everhart, J; Goldstein, A.; Lillemoe, K D; Swanson, G.M.; Schwartz, A. G.; Brown, L.M.; Greenberg, R S; Schoenberg, J. B.; Pottern, L M; Hoover, R. N.; Fraumeni, J. F.

    1999-01-01

    In a population-based case-control study of pancreatic cancer conducted in three areas of the USA, 484 cases and 2099 controls were interviewed to evaluate the aetiologic role of several medical conditions/interventions, including diabetes mellitus, cholecystectomy, ulcer/gastrectomy and allergic states. We also evaluated risk associated with family history of cancer. Our findings support previous studies indicating that diabetes is a risk factor for pancreatic cancer, as well as a possible c...

  5. Risk factors for subsequent endocrine-related cancer in childhood cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijnen, M; van den Heuvel-Eibrink, M M; Medici, M; Peeters, R P; van der Lely, A J; Neggers, S J C M M

    2016-06-01

    Long-term adverse health conditions, including secondary malignant neoplasms, are common in childhood cancer survivors. Although mortality attributable to secondary malignancies declined over the past decades, the risk for developing a solid secondary malignant neoplasm did not. Endocrine-related malignancies are among the most common secondary malignant neoplasms observed in childhood cancer survivors. In this systematic review, we describe risk factors for secondary malignant neoplasms of the breast and thyroid, since these are the most common secondary endocrine-related malignancies in childhood cancer survivors. Radiotherapy is the most important risk factor for secondary breast and thyroid cancer in childhood cancer survivors. Breast cancer risk is especially increased in survivors of Hodgkin lymphoma who received moderate- to high-dosed mantle field irradiation. Recent studies also demonstrated an increased risk after lower-dose irradiation in other radiation fields for other childhood cancer subtypes. Premature ovarian insufficiency may protect against radiation-induced breast cancer. Although evidence is weak, estrogen-progestin replacement therapy does not seem to be associated with an increased breast cancer risk in premature ovarian-insufficient childhood cancer survivors. Radiotherapy involving the thyroid gland increases the risk for secondary differentiated thyroid carcinoma, as well as benign thyroid nodules. Currently available studies on secondary malignant neoplasms in childhood cancer survivors are limited by short follow-up durations and assessed before treatment regimens. In addition, studies on risk-modifying effects of environmental and lifestyle factors are lacking. Risk-modifying effects of premature ovarian insufficiency and estrogen-progestin replacement therapy on radiation-induced breast cancer require further study. PMID:27229933

  6. Obesity as a Major Risk Factor for Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni De Pergola

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The number of cancer cases caused by being obese is estimated to be 20% with the increased risk of malignancies being influenced by diet, weight change, and body fat distribution together with physical activity. Reports from the International Agency for Research into Cancer and the World Cancer Research Fund (WCRF have shown that the strongest evidence exists for an association of obesity with the following cancer types: endometrial, esophageal adenocarcinoma, colorectal, postmenopausal breast, prostate, and renal, whereas the less common malignancies are leukemia, non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma, multiple myeloma, malignant melanoma, and thyroid tumours. To be able to develop novel methods in prevention and treatment, we first must understand the underlying processes which link cancer to obesity. Four main systems have been identified as potential producers of cancer in obesity: insulin, insulin-like growth factor-I, sex steroids, and adipokines. Various novel candidate mechanisms have been proposed: chronic inflammation, oxidative stress, crosstalk between tumour cells and surrounding adipocytes, migrating adipose stromal cells, obesity-induced hypoxia, shared genetic susceptibility, and the functional defeat of immune function. Herein, we review the major pathogenic links between obesity and susceptibility to cancer.

  7. Understanding your colon cancer risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colon cancer risk factors are things that increase the chance that you could get cancer. Some risk factors ... risk factors never get cancer. Other people get colon cancer but do not have any known risk factors. ...

  8. Prevalence and risk factors for cervical cancer and pre-cancerous lesions in Rwanda

    OpenAIRE

    Makuza, Jean Damascène; Nsanzimana, Sabin; Muhimpundu, Marie Aimee; Pace, Lydia Eleanor; Ntaganira, Joseph; Riedel, David James

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Cervical cancer prevalence in Rwanda has not been well-described. Visual inspection with acetic acid or Lugol solution has been shown to be effective for cervical cancer screening in low resource settings. The aim of the study is to understand the prevalence and risk factors for cervical cancer and pre- cancerous lesions among Rwandan women between 30 and 50 old undergoing screening. Methods This cross-sectional analytical study was done in 3 districts of Rwanda from October 2010...

  9. The Influence of Hormonal Factors on the Risk of Developing Cervical Cancer and Pre-Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roura, Esther; Travier, Noémie; Waterboer, Tim; de Sanjosé, Silvia; Bosch, F Xavier; Pawlita, Michael; Pala, Valeria; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Margall, Núria; Dillner, Joakim; Gram, Inger T; Tjønneland, Anne; Munk, Christian; Palli, Domenico; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Overvad, Kim; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Mesrine, Sylvie; Fournier, Agnès; Fortner, Renée T; Ose, Jennifer; Steffen, Annika; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Lagiou, Pagona; Orfanos, Philippos; Masala, Giovanna; Tumino, Rosario; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Polidoro, Silvia; Mattiello, Amalia; Lund, Eiliv; Peeters, Petra H; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H B As; Quirós, J Ramón; Sánchez, María-José; Navarro, Carmen; Barricarte, Aurelio; Larrañaga, Nerea; Ekström, Johanna; Lindquist, David; Idahl, Annika; Travis, Ruth C; Merritt, Melissa A; Gunter, Marc J; Rinaldi, Sabina; Tommasino, Massimo; Franceschi, Silvia; Riboli, Elio; Castellsagué, Xavier

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In addition to HPV, high parity and hormonal contraceptives have been associated with cervical cancer (CC). However, most of the evidence comes from retrospective case-control studies. The aim of this study is to prospectively evaluate associations between hormonal factors and risk of...... developing cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 3 (CIN3)/carcinoma in situ (CIS) and invasive cervical cancer (ICC). METHODS AND FINDINGS: We followed a cohort of 308,036 women recruited in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) Study. At enrollment, participants.......7). CONCLUSIONS: Even though HPV is the necessary cause of CC, our results suggest that several hormonal factors are risk factors for cervical carcinogenesis. Adherence to current cervical cancer screening guidelines should minimize the increased risk of CC associated with these hormonal risk factors....

  10. Dietary factors and breast-cancer risk in Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewertz, M; Gill, C

    1990-11-15

    The influence of dietary factors, in particular the intake of fat and beta-carotene, on breast-cancer risk was evaluated in a case-control study including 1,486 breast cancer cases diagnosed over a 1 year period in Denmark. The control group was an age-stratified random sample of 1,336 women from the general population. Data on usual diet prior to the breast cancer diagnosis were collected by self-administered questionnaires of the semi-quantitative food frequency type. A highly significant trend (p less than 0.001) of increasing risk was observed with increasing fat intake, the RR for the highest quartile being 1.45 (95% Cl 1.17-1.80) compared with the lowest. However, information was not available to allow adjustment for the possible confounding effect of energy intake. The risk of breast cancer was not associated with consumption of vegetables rich in beta-carotene, multi-vitamin tablets or other dietary supplements, coffee, tea, sugar or artificial sweeteners. PMID:2228305

  11. Risk factors for postoperative seromas in Chinese breast cancer patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIN Yan-ping; YIN Wen-jin; YAN Ting-ting; ZHOU Li-heng; DI Geng-hong; WU Jiong; SHEN Zhen-zhou; SHAO Zhi-min; LU Jin-song

    2011-01-01

    S:Background Seroma formation is one of the most common complications after breast cancer surgery. Various risk factors have been evaluated for their associations with the development of seromas in Western populations. However,similar data are not available in Chinese series. Therefore, we sought to investigate the potential risk factors for Chinese breast cancer patients.Methods A prospective study of female breast cancer patients undergoing surgery was carried out in Cancer Hospital of Fudan Unversity, Shanghai, China. Univariate analyses were performed by chi-square test or Student's t test or Mann-Whitney test and multivariate analyses by stepwise Logistic regression. The logistic model included age (years),total serum protein concentration (g/L), drainage volume on postoperative day 3 (POD 3; ml) and time to daily drainage volume not more than 30 ml (TTV30; days).Results A total of 158 patients with breast cancer were studied. The mean age at diagnosis was (52.14±10.77) years (range 25-92). During the follow-up period, 24 (15.2%) patients developed seromas. Calculated as continuous variables in the stepwise Logistic regression, age (OR=1.090, 95% CI 1.028-1.155, P=0.004), total serum protein concentration (OR=0.886, 95% Cl 0.791-0.992, P=0.036), drainage volume on POD3 (OR=1.013, 95% CI 1.002-1.023, P=0.017) and TTV30 (OR=1.273, 95% CI 1.039-1.561, P=0.020) were independent risk factors for seroma formation. Additionally,significant difference in daily drainage volume was substantiated in the analysis by seroma formation (P=0.034) rather than by type of surgery (P=0.713).Conclusions Although the pathogenesis of seroma remains controversial, such risk factors as age, nutritional status,drainage volume on POD3 and TTV30 should be considered for prediction and prevention of seroma formation in Chinese breast cancer patients.

  12. Gynecologic cancer treatment: risk factors for therapeutically induced neoplasia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Therapeutic intervention in a course of illness, while producing the desired result, also may have some adverse long-term effects on the patient. Second malignancies are one of the known complications of therapy. The treatments of gynecologic cancers by surgery, irradiation and chemotherapy have been associated with subsequent neoplasms. The use of normal skin from the thigh to fabricate an artificial vagina has resulted in more squamous cell carcinomas than expected. Alkylating agents used in the treatment of ovarian cancer and other diseases have been shown to lead to an increased risk of leukemia. The incidence of lymphoma and uterine, urinary bladder and colon carcinomas has been associated with prior irradiation for gynecologic disease. The literature regarding the therapeutically induced risk factors in gynecologic therapy is reviewed and areas of our knowledge that require more investigation are identified

  13. Paan without tobacco: an independent risk factor for oral cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merchant, A; Husain, S S; Hosain, M; Fikree, F F; Pitiphat, W; Siddiqui, A R; Hayder, S J; Haider, S M; Ikram, M; Chuang, S K; Saeed, S A

    2000-04-01

    Oral cancer is the second most common cancer in women and the third most common in men in Pakistan. Tobacco is smoked and chewed extensively in Pakistan. Paan is a quid of piper betel leaf that contains areca nut, lime, condiment, sweeteners, and sometimes tobacco, which is also used extensively. We did this study to clarify the independent association of paan and oral cancer. Between July 1996 and March 1998, we recruited biopsy-proven, primary cases of oral squamous-cell carcinoma, from 3 tertiary teaching centers in Karachi, Pakistan, and controls pair-matched for age, gender, hospital and time of occurrence, excluding persons with a past or present history of any malignancy. There were 79 cases and 149 controls. Approximately 68% of the cases were men, 49 years old on average, the youngest being 22 years old and the eldest 80. People with oral submucous fibrosis were 19.1 times more likely to develop oral cancer than those without it, after adjusting for other risk factors. People using paan without tobacco were 9.9 times, those using paan with tobacco 8.4 times, more likely to develop oral cancer as compared with non-users, after adjustment for other covariates. This study identifies an independent effect of paan without tobacco in the causation of oral cancer. Its findings may be of significance in South Asian communities where paan is used, and among health-care providers who treat persons from South Asia. PMID:10728606

  14. Risk factors for cancer mortality in the general population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taghizadeh, Niloofar

    2015-01-01

    Cancer is a complex disease with many possible causes and is currently a major public health problem in the world. Cancer can occur in individuals of all ages; however the risk of cancer increases with age. It has been estimated that 90-95% of all types of cancer can be attributed to environmental a

  15. Gynecologic cancer treatment: risk factors for therapeutically induced neoplasia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Therapeutic intervention in a course of illness, while producing the desired result, also may have some adverse long-term effects on the patient. Second malignancies are one of the known complications of therapy. The treatments of gynecologic cancers by surgery, irradiation and chemotherapy have been associated with subsequent neoplasms. Care must be exercised in associating previous therapy and a subsequent malignancy. Naturally occurring second cancers must be separated from those which are iatrogenic. Associations in the literature have been made involving malignancies as a sequelae of prior gynecologic therapy. The use of normal skin from the thigh to fabricate an artificial vagina has resulted in more squamous cell carcinomas than expected. Alkylating agents used in the treatment of ovarian cancer and other diseases have been shown to lead to an increased risk of leukemia. Irradiation therapy, however, has not yet been shown to be related to leukemia in cervical cancer patients. The incidence of lymphoma and uterine, urinary bladder and colon carcinomas has been associated with prior irradiation for gynecologic disease. The literature regarding the therapeutically induced risk factors in gynecologic therapy is reviewed and areas of our knowledge that require more investigation are identified

  16. The associations between a polygenic score, reproductive and menstrual risk factors and breast cancer risk

    OpenAIRE

    Andersen, Shaneda Warren; Trentham-Dietz, Amy; Gangnon, Ronald E.; Hampton, John M.; Figueroa, Jonine D; Skinner, Halcyon G.; Engelman, Corinne D; Klein, Barbara E.; Titus, Linda J.; Newcomb, Polly A.

    2013-01-01

    We evaluated whether 13 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) identified in genome-wide association studies interact with one another and with reproductive and menstrual risk factors in association with breast cancer risk. DNA samples and information on parity, breastfeeding, age at menarche, age at first birth, and age at menopause were collected through structured interviews from 1484 breast cancer cases and 1307 controls who participated in a population-based case-control study conducted ...

  17. Anastomotic leakage after anterior resection for rectal cancer: risk factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertelsen, C A; Andreasen, A H; Jørgensen, Torben;

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The study aimed to identify risk factors for clinical anastomotic leakage (AL) after anterior resection for rectal cancer in a consecutive national cohort. METHOD: All patients with an initial first diagnosis of colorectal adenocarcinoma were prospectively registered in a national...... database. The register included 1495 patients who had had a curative anterior resection between May 2001 and December 2004. The association of a number of patient- and procedure-related factors with clinical AL after anterior resection was analysed in a cohort design. RESULTS: Anastomotic leakages occurred...... in 163 (11%) patients. In a multivariate analysis, the risk of AL was significantly increased in patients with tumours located below 10 cm from the anal verge if no faecal diversion was undertaken (OR 5.37 5 cm (tumour level from anal verge), 95% CI 2.10-13.7, OR 3.57 7 cm, CI 1.81-7.07 and OR 1...

  18. The Lymphedema and Gynecologic Cancer (LEG) Study: Incidence, Risk Factors, and | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): The proposed study, "Lymphedema and Gynecologic cancer (LEG): Incidence, Risk Factors and Impact", will innovatively utilize the cooperative group setting of the GOG (Gynecologic Oncology Group) to prospectively study 1300 women newly diagnosed with cervical, endometrial, or vulvar cancer to determine the incidence and impact of lower extremity lymphedema following surgical treatment of these diseases. |

  19. Gynecobstetric risk factors for cervical cancer in primary health care

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A descriptive and cross-sectional study of 50 women with some kind of alteration in their Pap smear results in the last triennium, and who belong to the health area of 'Jose Marti Perez' University Polyclinic from Santiago de Cuba, was carried out during the first semester of 2008 in order to determine the gynecobstetric risk factors in the cervical cancer course. Multiparity and the intergenesic period over a year, as well as the beginning of sexual intercourse in adolescence, the use of hormonal contraceptives, and history of sexually transmitted infections were predominant among them. (author)

  20. Diabetes and cancer II: role of diabetes medications and influence of shared risk factors

    OpenAIRE

    Onitilo, Adedayo A.; Engel, Jessica M.; Glurich, Ingrid; Stankowski, Rachel V.; Williams, Gail M.; Doi, Suhail A.

    2012-01-01

    An association between type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) and cancer has long been postulated, but the biological mechanism responsible for this association has not been defined. In part one of this review, we discussed the epidemiological evidence for increased risk of cancer, decreased cancer survival, and decreased rates of cancer screening in diabetic patients. Here we review the risk factors shared by cancer and DM and how DM medications play a role in altering cancer risk. Hyperinsulinemia s...

  1. CYP17 genetic polymorphism, breast cancer, and breast cancer risk factors

    OpenAIRE

    Ambrosone, Christine B; Moysich, Kirsten B.; Furberg, Helena; Freudenheim, Jo L.; Bowman, Elise D.; Ahmed, Sabrina; Graham, Saxon; Vena, John E; Shields, Peter G.

    2003-01-01

    Background Findings from previous studies regarding the association between the CYP17 genotype and breast cancer are inconsistent. We investigated the role of the MspAI genetic polymorphism in the 5' region of CYP17 on risk of breast cancer and as a modifier of reproductive risk factors. Methods Questionnaire and genotyping data were obtained from a population-based, case–control study of premenopausal (n = 182) and postmenopausal (n = 214) European-American Caucasian women in western New Yor...

  2. Menstrual Factors, Reproductive Factors 
and Lung Cancer Risk: A Meta-analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Yue(Walter Burke Institute for Theoretical Physics, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA, 91125, U.S.A.); Yin, Zhihua; Shen, Li; Wan, Yan; Zhou, Baosen

    2012-01-01

    Background and objective Epidemiological studies have suggested that menstrual and reproductive factors may influence lung cancer risk, but the results are controversial. We therefore carried out a meta-analysis aiming to examine the associations of lung cancer in women with menstrual and reproductive factors. 
Methods Relevant studies were searched from PubMed database, CNKI, WANFANG DATA and VIP INFORMATION up to January 2012, with no language restrictions. References listed from selected p...

  3. Tobacco : A Risk Factor In Causation Of Rural Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Ghosh S; Shukla H.S; Mohapatra S.C; Gupta J.N.P

    1995-01-01

    Research Question: What is the degree of risk involved with tobacco chewing in relation to oral cancer? Objective: To study the degree of risk involved with tobacco chewing in relation to oral cancer. Study Design: Case- control study for a period of 1 year. Setting: Hospital based. Participants: Oral cancer patients and controls from the attendants of the patients. Sample size: 52 patients attending Surgical OPD in Sir Sunder Lal Hospital, Institute of Medical Sciences, BHU, Varanasi along w...

  4. Postoperative radiation for cervical cancer with pathologic risk factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To examine the efficacy of postoperative radiation therapy for early-stage cervical cancer with pathologic risk factors. Methods and Materials: We reviewed the charts of 83 patients who received postoperative radiation therapy at our facility from March 1980 to November 1993 for early stage cervix cancer with positive surgical margins, positive pelvic or periaortic lymph nodes, lymphovascular space invasion, deep invasion, or for disease discovered incidentally at simple hysterectomy. Twenty-eight patients received low dose rate (LDR) intracavitary radiation with or without external beam pelvic irradiation and 55 patients received external beam pelvic irradiation with high dose rate (HDR) intracavitary implants. Of these 83 patients, 66 were evaluable--20 LDR and 46 HDR patients. All patients received 45-50 Gy external beam irradiation and 20 Gy LDR equivalent intracavitary irradiation prescribed to 0.5 cm below the mucosa. Ninety percent of the LDR group and 92% of the HDR group completed treatment within < 56 days. Treatment-related toxicities were scored according to the GOG toxicity scale. Mean and median follow-up times were 101 months and 111 months (3-172 months) for the LDR group and 42 and 40 months (3-98 months) for the HDR group. Results: The 5-year disease-free survival was 89% for the LDR group and 72% for the HDR group. Local control was observed in 90% (18 out of 20) of the LDR patients and 89% (41 out of 46) of the HDR patients for an overall local control rate of 89.5%. Two of 20 LDR patients (10%) experienced recurrence (two pelvic with distant metastasis). Nine of 46 HDR patients (22%) had recurrence of disease (three pelvic, four distant metastasis, and two pelvic with distant metastasis). In the HDR group, 6 out of 16 (38%) with positive lymph nodes died of disease whereas, 27 out of 30 (90%) of the patients with negative lymph nodes remain free of disease. Three of 20 (15%) LDR patients and 4 out of 46 (9%) HDR patients experienced

  5. Percent Mammographic Density and Dense Area as Risk Factors for Breast Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Rauh, C.; Hack, C. C.; Häberle, L.; Hein, A.; Engel, A.; Schrauder, M. G.; Fasching, P. A.; Jud, S. M.; Ekici, A.B.; Loehberg, C. R.; Meier-Meitinger, M.; Ozan, S.; Schulz-Wendtland, R.; Uder, M.; A. Hartmann

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Mammographic characteristics are known to be correlated to breast cancer risk. Percent mammographic density (PMD), as assessed by computer-assisted methods, is an established risk factor for breast cancer. Along with this assessment the absolute dense area (DA) of the breast is reported as well. Aim of this study was to assess the predictive value of DA concerning breast cancer risk in addition to other risk factors and in addition to PMD. Methods: We conducted a case control study w...

  6. RISK FACTORS FOR PANCREATIC CANCER: UNDERLYING MECHANISMS AND POTENTIAL TARGETS

    OpenAIRE

    EdwinCharlesThrower

    2014-01-01

    Purpose of the review:Pancreatic cancer is extremely aggressive, forming highly chemo-resistant tumors, and has one of the worst prognoses. The evolution of this cancer is multi-factorial. Repeated acute pancreatic injury and inflammation are important contributing factors in the development of pancreatic cancer. This article attempts to understand the common pathways linking pancreatitis to pancreatic cancer.Recent Findings:Intracellular activation of both pancreatic enzymes and the transcri...

  7. Risk factors for pancreatic cancer: underlying mechanisms and potential targets

    OpenAIRE

    KOLODECIK, THOMAS; Shugrue, Christine; Ashat, Munish; Thrower, Edwin C.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose of the review: Pancreatic cancer is extremely aggressive, forming highly chemo-resistant tumors, and has one of the worst prognoses. The evolution of this cancer is multi-factorial. Repeated acute pancreatic injury and inflammation are important contributing factors in the development of pancreatic cancer. This article attempts to understand the common pathways linking pancreatitis to pancreatic cancer. Recent findings: Intracellular activation of both pancreatic enzymes and the tr...

  8. Risk factors for pancreatic cancer: underlying mechanisms and potential targets

    OpenAIRE

    KOLODECIK, THOMAS; Shugrue, Christine; Ashat, Munish; Thrower, Edwin C.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose of the review: Pancreatic cancer is extremely aggressive, forming highly chemo-resistant tumors, and has one of the worst prognoses. The evolution of this cancer is multi-factorial. Repeated acute pancreatic injury and inflammation are important contributing factors in the development of pancreatic cancer. This article attempts to understand the common pathways linking pancreatitis to pancreatic cancer. Recent findings: Intracellular activation of both pancreatic enzymes and the trans...

  9. Relevance of risk factors of breast cancer in women: An Eastern Indian scenario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranen Kanti Aich

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: Risk factors for breast cancer do not differ significantly between developed and developing countries. Hence appropriate time has come for developing countries to incorporate breast cancer risk factors in health education and to consider pharmacological interventions in high risk women.

  10. Factors affecting recognition of cancer risks of nuclear workers.

    OpenAIRE

    Kneale, G. W.; Stewart, A. M.

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVES--To discover whether direct estimates of the risks of cancer for nuclear workers agree with indirect estimates based on survivors of the atomic bomb; whether relations between age at exposure and risk of cancer are the same for workers and survivors, and whether dosimetry standards are sufficiently uniform to allow pooling of data from different nuclear industrial sites. METHOD--Data from five nuclear sites in the United States were included in a cohort analysis that as well as con...

  11. What Are the Risk Factors for Stomach Cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... People with PJS have an increased risk of cancers of the breast, colon, pancreas , stomach, and several other organs. This syndrome is caused by mutations in the gene STK1 . A family history of stomach cancer People with first-degree relatives (parents, siblings, or ...

  12. Fried foods: a risk factor for laryngeal cancer?

    OpenAIRE

    Bosetti, C; Talamini, R.; Levi, F; E. Negri; Franceschi, S.; Airoldi, L.; La Vecchia, C.

    2002-01-01

    The role of fried foods on laryngeal cancer risk was investigated in a case–control study from Italy and Switzerland on 527 cases and 1297 hospital controls. A significant increased risk was found for high consumption of fried meat, fish, eggs and potatoes, with odds ratios of 1.6, 3.1, 1.9 and 1.9, respectively. British Journal of Cancer (2002) 87, 1230–1233. doi:10.1038/sj.bjc.6600639 www.bjcancer.com © 2002 Cancer Research UK

  13. Is diabetes mellitus a risk factor for pancreatic cancer?

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    The relationship between diabetes mellitus and the risk of pancreatic cancer has been a matter of study for a long period of time. The importance of this topic is due to two main causes: the possible use of recent onset diabetes as a marker of the disease and, in particular, as a specific marker of pancreatic cancer, and the selection of a population at risk for pancreatic cancer. Thus, we decided to make an in-depth study of this topic; thus, we carried out an extensive literature search in ...

  14. A Case-Control Study of Risk Factors for Prostate Cancer in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Mahmoudi

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Prostate cancer is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in Iran, yet there are few studies examining risk factors specific to the Iranian context. We conducted a case-control study to explore risk factors for prostate cancer in Mazandaran, Iran from 2005 to 2008. The cases were 137 men with clinicopathologically confirmed prostate cancer. Controls were 137 neighborhood and age match men without prostate cancer by PSA and digit examination. Analysis comprised an exploratory stage to identify potential risk factors, defined as variables associated with case status at the P < 0.20 level in conditional logistic regression. A second stage included all potential risk factors in multiple conditional logistic regression analysis, retaining those associated with prostate cancer at the P < 0.05 level. Potential risk factors for prostate cancer in exploratory analysis included family history of prostate cancer, history of other cancer, prostatitis, alcohol consumption, pipe or hookah smoking, walking to work, duration of occupational physical activity, intensity of occupational physical activity, body mass index, and older age. Multivariate analysis found intensity of occupational physical activity, prostatitis, and older age as independent predictors of increased risk for prostate cancer in this Iranian population. Our study confirms several recognized risk factors for prostate cancer, contributes evidence to the discussions of other hypothesized risk factors, and points to potentially new factors. Findings, along with confirmatory studies, can help guide efforts for early detection, treatment, and prevention for this common malignancy that is set to increase in Iran in future decades.

  15. A Cohort Study on Risk Factors of Lung Cancer in Yunnan Tin Miners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong JIANG

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective Smoking is a major cause of lung cancer. Studies of lung cancer among miners have shown that occupational exposure also played an important role. The aim of this study is to investigate radon, cigarette use and other risk factors of lung cancer in Yunnan tin miners and to provide a scientific basis for the prevention and control of occupational lung cancer. Methods A prospective cohort study was conducted among Yunnan tin miners, the associations between potential risk factors for lung cancer were analyzed by multivariate Cox regression model. Effects of age at first radon exposure and radon exposure rate on lung cancer risk were analyzed. The relationship between cumulative working level month and lung cancer was analyzed according to smoking status. The joint effect of tobacco use and cumulative radon exposure was analyzed based on additive and multiplicative models. Results Increased risk of lung cancer was associated with age at enrollment, tobacco use, prior bronchitis, and cumulative arsenic and radon exposure, while higher education level was associated with decreased lung cancer risk. An inverse effect of radon exposure rate was observed. There was no significant association between lung cancer risk and first radon exposure age. There was a significant additive interaction between tobacco use and radon exposure on lung cancer risk. Conclusion Several risk factors may contribute to the high incidence of lung cancer in Yunnan tin miners. Further studies are warranted to evaluate joint effect of different risk factors.

  16. Menstrual Factors,Reproductive Factors and Lung Cancer Risk:A Meta-analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yue ZHANG; Zhihua YIN; Li SHEN; Yan WAN; Baosen ZHOU

    2012-01-01

    Background and objective Epidemiological studies have suggested that menstrual and reproductive factors may influence lung cancer risk,but the results are controversial.We therefore carried out a meta-analysis aiming to examine the associations of lung cancer in women with menstrual and reproductive factors.Methods Relevant studies were searched from PubMed database,CNKI,WANFANG DATA and VIP INFORMATION up to January 2012,with no language restrictions.References listed from selected papers were also reviewed.We included studies that reported the estimates of relative risks(RRs)with 95% confidence intervals(CIs)for the association between menstrual and reproductive factors and lung cancer risk.The pooled RRs were calculated after the heterogeneity test with the software Stata 11,and publication bias and sensitivity were evaluated at the same time.Results Twenty-five articles,representing 24 independent studies,were included in this meta-analysis.Older age at menarche in North America women(RR=0.83;95%CI:0.73-0.94)was associated with a significant decreased risk of lung cancer.Longer length of menstrual cycle was also associated with decreased lung cancer risk(RR=0.72;95%CI:0.57-0.90).Other exposures were not significantly associated.Conclusions Our analysis provides evidence of the hypothesis that female sex hormones influence the risk of lung cancer in women,yet additional studies are warranted to extend this finding and to clarify the underlying mechanisms.

  17. Analysis of various risk factors affecting potentially malignant disorders and oral cancer patients of Central India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vidya Kadashetti

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: Chewing tobacco/betel quid is a strong risk factor in the development of PMD and oral cancer. Also age, gender, SES, education, and occupation influence the development of PMD and oral cancer.

  18. Skin Cancer: Biology, Risk Factors & Treatment | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Skin Cancer Skin Cancer: Biology, Risk Factors & Treatment Past Issues / Summer ... that make up tissues. Tissues make up the skin and other organs of the body. Normal cells ...

  19. Awareness of Risk Factors for Breast, Lung and Cervical Cancer in a UK Student Population

    OpenAIRE

    Sherman, SM; Lane, EL

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study is to identify levels of risk awareness for breast, lung and cervical cancer, in a UK student population. A sample of male (N=62) and female (N=58) university students, mean age 21.62 years completed a questionnaire identifying which risk factors they knew for each cancer. Analysis of variance was used to compare differences in risk awareness across gender and cancer types. Risk factor awareness was highest for lung cancer (0.78), mid-range for breast cancer (0.61)...

  20. Air pollution: a potentially modifiable risk factor for lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fajersztajn, Laís; Veras, Mariana; Barrozo, Ligia Vizeu; Saldiva, Paulo

    2013-09-01

    Economic growth and increased urbanization pose a new risk for cancer development: the exposure of high numbers of people to ambient air pollution. Epidemiological evidence that links air pollution to mortality from lung cancer is robust. An ability to produce high-quality scientific research that addresses these risks and the ability of local health authorities to understand and respond to these risks are basic requirements to solve the conflict between economic development and the preservation of human health. However, this is currently far from being achieved. Thus, this Science and Society article addresses the possibilities of expanding scientific networking to increase awareness of the risk of lung cancer that is promoted by air pollution. PMID:23924644

  1. Potential opportunities to reduce cervical cancer by addressing risk factors other than HPV

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar, Ramaiah Vinay; Bhasker, Suman

    2013-01-01

    Cervical cancer is the most common cancer in developing world and 80% of global burden is reported from these nations. Human papillomavirus along with poverty, illiteracy/lower education level and standards, multi-parity, tobacco, malnutrition and poor genital hygiene may act synergistically to cause cervical cancer. Risk factor of cervical cancer may in itself be the reason for non-viability of cervical cancer vaccine program in this part of the world. Interventions to address these risk fac...

  2. Risk Factors and Prognosis of Lung Cancer Combined with Pulmonary Embolism

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Jun; Zhou, Weihua; Xu, Lin; Yang, Min; Lijuan MENG; Weifei FAN; Pu, Xiaolin; Yang, Yuanhua

    2011-01-01

    Background and objective Malignant tumors often combined with venous thrombosis and pulmonary embolism, especially in lung cancer. It has been proven that, the mechanisms and risk factors for lung cancer patients contracting pulmonary embolism are unclear. The aim of this study is to summarize the clinical data on 54 patients with lung cancer and concomitant pulmonary embolism, and to analyze the risk factors and prognosis of lung cancer with pulmonary thromboembolism (PTE). Methods From Apri...

  3. An investigation of breast cancer risk factors in Cyprus: a case control study

    OpenAIRE

    Hadjisavvas Andreas; Loizidou Maria A; Middleton Nicos; Michael Thalia; Papachristoforou Rena; Kakouri Eleni; Daniel Maria; Papadopoulos Panayiotis; Malas Simon; Marcou Yiola; Kyriacou Kyriacos

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Breast cancer is the most common form of malignancy affecting women worldwide. It is also the leading cancer in females in Cyprus, with approximately 400 new cases diagnosed annually. It is well recognized that genetic variation as well as environmental factors modulate breast cancer risk. The main aim of this study was to assess the strength of associations between recognized risk factors and breast cancer among Cypriot women. This is the first epidemiological investigati...

  4. Prospective study of falls and risk factors for falls in adults with advanced cancer.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Stone, Carol A

    2012-06-10

    Retrospective studies of inpatients with cancer suggest that a cancer diagnosis confers a high risk of falls. In adults with advanced cancer, we aimed to prospectively document the incidence of falls, identify the risk factors, and determine if falls in this population occur predominantly in older patients.

  5. Subsite-Specific Dietary Risk Factors for Colorectal Cancer: A Review of Cohort Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Anette Hjartåker; Bjarte Aagnes; Trude Eid Robsahm; Hilde Langseth; Freddie Bray; Inger Kristin Larsen

    2013-01-01

    Objective. A shift in the total incidence from left- to right-sided colon cancer has been reported and raises the question as to whether lifestyle risk factors are responsible for the changing subsite distribution of colon cancer. The present study provides a review of the subsite-specific risk estimates for the dietary components presently regarded as convincing or probable risk factors for colorectal cancer: red meat, processed meat, fiber, garlic, milk, calcium, and alcohol. Methods. Studi...

  6. Is Type 2 Diabetes a Risk Factor for Pancreatic Cancer?

    OpenAIRE

    Raffaele Pezzilli; Antonio Maria Morselli-Labate; Riccardo Casadei

    2009-01-01

    The relationship between diabetes mellitus and the risk of pancreatic cancer has been a matter of study for a long time. Taking into consideration diabetes mellitus irrespective of type, there is a lack of agreement regarding the data; in fact, some epidemiological studies have excluded this possibility whereas others have found a relationship between the presence of diabetes and the development of pancreatic cancer. On the other hand, a recent study has reported that metformin may have a pro...

  7. Venous thromboembolism in ovarian cancer: incidence, risk factors and impact on survival.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Abu Saadeh, Feras

    2013-09-01

    Ovarian cancer has a higher incidence of venous thromboembolism (VTE) than other cancers. Clear cell cancers carry the highest risk at 11-27%. The aim of this study was to identify the predisposing factors for VTE in a population of ovarian cancer patients and to determine the influence of VTE on overall survival.

  8. Reproductive factors, age at maximum height, and risk of three histologic types of breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Beaber, Elisabeth F.; Holt, Victoria L.; Malone, Kathleen E.; Porter, Peggy L.; Daling, Janet R.; Li, Christopher I.

    2008-01-01

    Numerous studies have evaluated the association between factors related to maturation and reproduction and breast cancer risk, but few have assessed how these factors are related to different histologic types of breast cancer among postmenopausal women. We used polytomous logistic regression to assess the effect of age at maximum height and reproductive factors on risk of invasive breast cancer by histologic type in three case groups (524 ductal, 324 lobular, 196 ductal-lobular) and 469 contr...

  9. Risk factors for breast cancer with applications to selection for the prevalence screen.

    OpenAIRE

    Alexander, F. E.; Roberts, M. M.; Huggins, A

    1987-01-01

    There have been many studies of individual risk factors for breast cancer; most of the factors concerned may be broadly grouped into demographic and dietary, reproductive history, endocrine related, family history of breast cancer, and previous history of breast disease. Some of these studies have examined the combined effect of these factors. The present case-control study does this in the context of a randomised controlled trial of breast cancer screening. The relative risks that we have ob...

  10. Testis cancer. Ichthyosis constitutes a significant risk factor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lykkesfeldt, G; Bennett, P; Lykkesfeldt, A E;

    1991-01-01

    dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS) and estrone sulfate levels tended to be slightly higher than normal. However, no conspicuous aberrations in any of the parameters examined were observed, and why men with ichthyosis are at high risk for testicular cancer remains an unresolved issue.......Testis cancer and ichthyosis are both relatively rare diseases. Hence the finding of six individuals with both these conditions in a small population with testicular cancer is highly conspicuous and indicates some kind of connection among such persons. Despite the identical clinical appearances of...... ichthyosis (ADI). The STS activity in patients with testicular cancer who do not have ichthyosis (N = 30) was also within the normal range. The patients with testicular cancer with no skin disease had elevated serum levels of 4-androstenedione (4-AD), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), and luteinizing...

  11. Factors Associated with Colorectal Cancer Risk Perception: The Role of Polyps and Family History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, Jennifer Rider; Bertone-Johnson, Elizabeth R.; Costanza, Mary E.; Stoddard, Anne M.

    2006-01-01

    It is unclear how objective risk factors influence the factors associated with colorectal cancer (CRC) risk perception. The goals of this study were to investigate factors associated with perceived risk of CRC and to explore how these relationships were modified by personal history of polyps or family history of CRC. The study involved a mailed…

  12. Cervical cancer risk factors and feasibility of visual inspection with acetic acid screening in Sudan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibrahim, Ahmed; Rasch, Vibeke; Pukkala, Eero;

    2011-01-01

    To assess the risk factors of cervical cancer and the feasibility and acceptability of a visual inspection with acetic acid (VIA) screening method in a primary health center in Khartoum, Sudan.......To assess the risk factors of cervical cancer and the feasibility and acceptability of a visual inspection with acetic acid (VIA) screening method in a primary health center in Khartoum, Sudan....

  13. Risk factors for lung cancer in Iowa women: implications for prevention.

    OpenAIRE

    Neuberger, John S.; Mahnken, Jonathan D.; Mayo, Matthew S; Field, R. William

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Multiple risk factors possibly associated with lung cancer were examined as part of a large-scale residential radon case-control study conducted in Iowa between 1994 and 1997. We were particularly interested in stratifying risk factors by smoking status. Relatively little risk factor information is available for Midwestern rural women. METHODS: Four hundred thirteen female lung cancer cases and 614 controls aged 40-84, who were residents of their current home for at least 20 years...

  14. Associations of breast cancer risk factors with tumor subtypes: a pooled analysis from the Breast Cancer Association Consortium studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Xiaohong R; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Goode, Ellen L;

    2011-01-01

    Previous studies have suggested that breast cancer risk factors are associated with estrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR) expression status of the tumors.......Previous studies have suggested that breast cancer risk factors are associated with estrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR) expression status of the tumors....

  15. Associations of Breast Cancer Risk Factors With Tumor Subtypes : A Pooled Analysis From the Breast Cancer Association Consortium Studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang, Xiaohong R.; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Goode, Ellen L.; Couch, Fergus J.; Nevanlinna, Heli; Milne, Roger L.; Gaudet, Mia; Schmidt, Marjanka K.; Broeks, Annegien; Cox, Angela; Fasching, Peter A.; Hein, Rebecca; Spurdle, Amanda B.; Blows, Fiona; Driver, Kristy; Flesch-Janys, Dieter; Heinz, Judith; Sinn, Peter; Vrieling, Alina; Heikkinen, Tuomas; Aittomaeki, Kristiina; Heikkilae, Paeivi; Blomqvist, Carl; Lissowska, Jolanta; Peplonska, Beata; Chanock, Stephen; Figueroa, Jonine; Brinton, Louise; Hall, Per; Czene, Kamila; Humphreys, Keith; Darabi, Hatef; Liu, Jianjun; Van 't Veer, Laura J.; Van Leeuwen, Flora E.; Andrulis, Irene L.; Glendon, Gord; Knight, Julia A.; Mulligan, Anna Marie; O'Malley, Frances P.; Weerasooriya, Nayana; John, Esther M.; Beckmann, Matthias W.; Hartmann, Arndt; Weihbrecht, Sebastian B.; Wachter, David L.; Jud, Sebastian M. S.; Loehberg, Christian R.; Baglietto, Laura; English, Dallas R.; Giles, Graham G.; McLean, Catriona A.; Severi, Gianluca; Lambrechts, Diether; Vandorpe, Thijs; Weltens, Caroline; Paridaens, Robert; Smeets, Ann; Neven, Patrick; Wildiers, Hans; Wang, Xianshu; Olson, Janet E.; Cafourek, Victoria; Fredericksen, Zachary; Kosel, Matthew; Vachon, Celine; Cramp, Helen E.; Connley, Daniel; Cross, Simon S.; Balasubramanian, Sabapathy P.; Reed, Malcolm W. R.; Doerk, Thilo; Bremer, Michael; Meyer, Andreas; Karstens, Johann H.; Ay, Aysun; Park-Simon, Tjoung-Won; Hillemanns, Peter; Arias Perez, Jose Ignacio; Menendez Rodriguez, Primitiva; Zamora, Pilar; Bentez, Javier; Ko, Yon-Dschun; Fischer, Hans-Peter; Hamann, Ute; Pesch, Beate; Bruening, Thomas; Justenhoven, Christina; Brauch, Hiltrud; Eccles, Diana M.; Tapper, William J.; Gerty, Sue M.; Sawyer, Elinor J.; Tomlinson, Ian P.; Jones, Angela; Kerin, Michael; Miller, Nicola; McInerney, Niall; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Ziogas, Argyrios; Shen, Chen-Yang; Hsiung, Chia-Ni; Wu, Pei-Ei; Yang, Show-Lin; Yu, Jyh-Cherng; Chen, Shou-Tung; Hsu, Giu-Cheng; Haiman, Christopher A.; Henderson, Brian E.; Le Marchand, Loic; Kolonel, Laurence N.; Lindblom, Annika; Margolin, Sara; Jakubowska, Anna; Lubinski, Jan; Huzarski, Tomasz; Byrski, Tomasz; Gorski, Bohdan; Gronwald, Jacek; Hooning, Maartje J.; Hollestelle, Antoinette; van den Ouweland, Ans M. W.; Jager, Agnes; Kriege, Mieke; Tilanus-Linthorst, Madeleine M. A.; Collee, Margriet; Wang-Gohrke, Shan; Pylkaes, Katri; Jukkola-Vuorinen, Arja; Mononen, Kari; Grip, Mervi; Hirvikoski, Pasi; Winqvist, Robert; Mannermaa, Arto; Kosma, Veli-Matti; Kauppinen, Jaana; Kataja, Vesa; Auvinen, Paeivi; Soini, Ylermi; Sironen, Reijo; Bojesen, Stig E.; Orsted, David Dynnes; Kaur-Knudsen, Diljit; Flyger, Henrik; Nordestgaard, Borge G.; Holland, Helene; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Manoukian, Siranoush; Barile, Monica; Radice, Paolo; Hankinson, Susan E.; Hunter, David J.; Tamimi, Rulla; Sangrajrang, Suleeporn; Brennan, Paul; Mckay, James; Odefrey, Fabrice; Gaborieau, Valerie; Devilee, Peter; Huijts, P. E. A.; Tollenaar, R. A. E. M.; Seynaeve, C.; Dite, Gillian S.; Apicella, Carmel; Hopper, John L.; Hammet, Fleur; Tsimiklis, Helen; Smith, Letitia D.; Southey, Melissa C.; Humphreys, Manjeet K.; Easton, Douglas; Pharoah, Paul; Sherman, Mark E.; Garcia-Closas, Montserrat

    2011-01-01

    Background Previous studies have suggested that breast cancer risk factors are associated with estrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR) expression status of the tumors. Methods We pooled tumor marker and epidemiological risk factor data from 35 568 invasive breast cancer case patients f

  16. RISK FACTORS FOR PANCREATIC CANCER: UNDERLYING MECHANISMS AND POTENTIAL TARGETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EdwinCharlesThrower

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose of the review:Pancreatic cancer is extremely aggressive, forming highly chemo-resistant tumors, and has one of the worst prognoses. The evolution of this cancer is multi-factorial. Repeated acute pancreatic injury and inflammation are important contributing factors in the development of pancreatic cancer. This article attempts to understand the common pathways linking pancreatitis to pancreatic cancer.Recent Findings:Intracellular activation of both pancreatic enzymes and the transcription factor NF-kB are important mechanisms that induce acute pancreatitis. Recurrent pancreatic injury due to genetic susceptibility, environmental factors such as smoking, alcohol intake, and conditions such as obesity lead to increases in oxidative stress, impaired autophagy and constitutive activation of inflammatory pathways. These processes can stimulate pancreatic stellate cells, thereby increasing fibrosis and encouraging chronic disease development. Activation of oncogneic Kras mutations through inflammation, coupled with altered levels of tumor suppressor proteins (p53 and p16 can ultimately lead to development of pancreatic cancer. Summary:Although our understanding of pancreatitis and pancreatic cancer has tremendously increased over many years, much remains to be elucidated in terms of common pathways linking these conditions.

  17. Population attributable risk of breast cancer in white women associated with immediately modifiable risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glaser Sally L

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Estrogen/progestin replacement therapy (EPRT, alcohol consumption, physical activity, and breast-feeding duration differ from other factors associated with breast cancer in being immediately modifiable by the individual, thereby representing attractive targets for future breast cancer prevention efforts. To justify such efforts, it is vital to quantify the potential population-level impacts on breast cancer considering population variations in behavior prevalence, risk estimate, and baseline incidence. Methods For each of these four factors, we calculated population attributable risk percents (PARs using population-based survey (2001 and cancer registry data (1998–2002 for 41 subpopulations of white, non-Hispanic California women aged 40–79 years, and ranges of relative risk (RR estimates from the literature. Results Using a single RR estimate, subpopulation PARs ranged from 2.5% to 5.6% for hormone use, from 0.0% to 6.1% for recent consumption of >= 2 alcoholic drinks daily, and 4.6% to 11.0% for physical inactivity. Using a range of RR estimates, PARs were 2–11% for EPRT use, 1–20% for alcohol consumption and 2–15% for physical inactivity. Subpopulation data were unavailable for breastfeeding, but PARs using published RR estimates ranged from 2% to 11% for lifetime breastfeeding >= 31 months. Thus, of 13,019 breast cancers diagnosed annually in California, as many as 1,432 attributable to EPRT use, 2,604 attributable to alcohol consumption, 1,953 attributable to physical inactivity, and 1,432 attributable to never breastfeeding might be avoidable. Conclusion The relatively feasible lifestyle changes of discontinuing EPRT use, reducing alcohol consumption, increasing physical activity, and lengthening breastfeeding duration could lower population breast cancer incidence substantially.

  18. A Panel of Cancer Testis Antigens and Clinical Risk Factors to Predict Metastasis in Colorectal Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramyar Molania

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Colorectal cancer (CRC is the third common carcinoma with a high rate of mortality worldwide and several studies have investigated some molecular and clinicopathological markers for diagnosis and prognosis of its malignant phenotypes. The aim of this study is to evaluate expression frequency of PAGE4, SCP-1, and SPANXA/D cancer testis antigen (CTA genes as well as some clinical risk markers to predict liver metastasis of colorectal cancer patients. The expression frequency of PAGE4, SCP-1, and SPANXA/D cancer/testis antigen (CTA genes was obtained using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR assay in 90 colorectal tumor samples including both negative and positive liver metastasis tumors. Statistical analysis was performed to assess the association of three studied genes and clinical risk factors with CRC liver metastasis. The frequency of PAGE4 and SCP-1 genes expression was significantly higher in the primary tumours with liver metastasis when statistically compared with primary tumors with no liver metastasis (P<0.05. Among all clinical risk factors studied, the lymph node metastasis and the depth of invasion were statistically correlated with liver metastasis of CRC patients. In addition, using multiple logistic regression, we constructed a model based on PAGE4 and lymph node metastasis to predict liver metastasis of CRC.

  19. A case–control study of reproductive factors, female hormone use, and risk of pancreatic cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Yuqing; Coogan, Patricia F.; Palmer, Julie R; Strom, Brian L.; Rosenberg, Lynn

    2009-01-01

    Findings from several previous studies that have assessed the relation of reproductive factors and female hormone use to the risk of pancreatic cancer are inconclusive. The authors examined the association between reproductive factors and the use of oral contraceptives and postmenopausal hormone therapy to the risk of pancreatic cancer among 284 patients with pancreatic cancer and 1,096 controls using data from the hospital-based Case–Control Surveillance Study. Older age at first pregnancy a...

  20. Combined and interactive effects of environmental and GWAS-identified risk factors in ovarian cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pearce, Celeste Leigh; Rossing, Mary Anne; Lee, Alice W;

    2013-01-01

    There are several well-established environmental risk factors for ovarian cancer, and recent genome-wide association studies have also identified six variants that influence disease risk. However, the interplay between such risk factors and susceptibility loci has not been studied....

  1. Clinical pathological evaluation and risk factors of oral cancer cases of east coast of peninsular Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Farini, M. S.; Azlina, A.; Rushdan, I.; Manoharan, M; Zain, R. B.; Samsudin, A. R.

    2005-01-01

    Introduction: Oral cancer is one of the common cancers m Malaysia. Tile population of east coast of Peninsular Malaysia has a different hfestyle and Malay is the predominant race. Oral cancer research in this area started since the Malaysian National Oral Cancer group was established. The am: of this study is to evaluate the clinical pathological findings and to investigate the role of tobacco smoking, alcohol consurnption and betel quid chewing as tile risk factors among oral cancer cases m ...

  2. Bilateral breast cancer: an evaluation of risk factors and outcome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    bilateral breast cancer patients who present with synchronous disease are at greater risk for distant metastatis than women with unilateral breast cancers and patients with metachronous tumors. There was no difference in overall survival or local control when comparing metachronous and synchronous bilateral patients to those with unilateral disease or to each other

  3. BMI, Diet and Female Reproductive Factors as Risks for Thyroid Cancer: A Systematic Review

    OpenAIRE

    Emily Peterson; De, Prithwish; Robert Nuttall

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Thyroid cancer incidence rates have been increasing worldwide but the reason behind this is unclear. Both the increasing use of diagnostic technologies allowing the detection of thyroid cancer and a true increase in thyroid cancer incidence have been proposed. This review assesses the role of body mass index (BMI), diet, and reproductive factors on the thyroid cancer trend. METHODS: Epidemiologic studies of the selected risk factors up to June 2010 were reviewed and critically ass...

  4. Risk factors predictive of atrial fibrillation after lung cancer surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwata, Takekazu; Nagato, Kaoru; Nakajima, Takahiro; Suzuki, Hidemi; Yoshida, Shigetoshi; Yoshino, Ichiro

    2016-08-01

    Postoperative atrial fibrillation (POAF), the most frequent arrhythmia after pulmonary resection, is a cause of both morbidity and mortality. Being able to predict the risk of POAF before surgery would help us evaluate the surgical risk and plan prophylaxis. We investigated the reported preoperative risk factors associated with the incidence of POAF and found that the recommended predictive factors were quite variable. Therefore, we evaluated the previously reported preoperative risk factors for POAF using our institutional data. We discuss our findings in this short review. Male gender, resected lung volume, brain natriuretic peptide (BNP), and left ventricular early transmitral velocity/mitral annular early diastolic velocity (E/e') calculated by echocardiography were suggested as independent predictors for POAF, but the predictive values of each individual parameter were not high. The lack of definitive predictors for POAF warrants further investigations by gathering the reported knowledge, to establish an effective preoperative examination strategy. PMID:26471506

  5. Risk Factors of Gastric Cancer in Wuwei City an Endemic Region of Gastric Cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Denghai Mi; Chengyu Su; Haozeng Luo; Jilin Yi; Tianzhong Jing; Qing Xu; Wangsheng Yang; Guoquan Yang; Shuzhen Wang; Gonghan Liu

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Studies have shown that risk factors of gastric cancer include living habits, eating moldy pickled food, dystrophy, lack of nutrients, and genetics, etc. This study explores the prevalence of these factors in Wuwei, a city in northwest China with a high incidence of gastric cancer.METHODS Family histories of the residents in Wuwei City were investigated with a case-control method. Segregation ratio and heredity degree of gastric cancer were calculated using theLi-Mantel-Cart and Falconer's regression methods. Chronic gastritis patients were followed-up by home visits, gastroscopy, and pathology. Carcinogenic fungi and volatilile N-nitroso compounds were noted in the residents' meals. Helicobactor pylori (Hp) was assessed in their gastric mucosa and the total content of serum vitamin C in 293 healthy adults was determined.RESULTS In Wuwei City, the segregation ratio of gastric cancer was 0.077. The heredity degree of first-degree relatives was 22.91%. The incidence rate of cancer per year in people in an atrophic gastritis group was 1.09%. Eight kinds of nitrosamines and 14 kinds of carcinogenic fungi were detected in the residents' food. Total average vitamin C in the serum of the 293 healthy adults in the summer was 5.74±2.79 mg/L. The positive rate of Hp in gastric mucosa of the residents was 67%.CONCLUSION The majorextrinsic factors include infection of Hp, atrophic gastritis (especially atrophic hyperplasia), and genetic susceptibility.

  6. Radiation, Atherosclerotic Risk Factors, and Stroke Risk in Survivors of Pediatric Cancer: A Report From the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To test the hypotheses that (1) the increased risk of stroke conferred by childhood cranial radiation therapy (CRT) persists into adulthood; and (2) atherosclerotic risk factors further increase the stroke risk in cancer survivors. Methods and Materials: The Childhood Cancer Survivor Study is a multi-institutional retrospective cohort study of 14,358 5-year survivors of childhood cancer and 4023 randomly selected sibling controls with longitudinal follow-up. Age-adjusted incidence rates of self-reported late-occurring (≥5 years after diagnosis) first stroke were calculated. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards models were used to identify independent stroke predictors. Results: During a mean follow-up of 23.3 years, 292 survivors reported a late-occurring stroke. The age-adjusted stroke rate per 100,000 person-years was 77 (95% confidence interval [CI] 62-96), compared with 9.3 (95% CI 4-23) for siblings. Treatment with CRT increased stroke risk in a dose-dependent manner: hazard ratio 5.9 (95% CI 3.5-9.9) for 30-49 Gy CRT and 11.0 (7.4-17.0) for 50+ Gy CRT. The cumulative stroke incidence in survivors treated with 50+ Gy CRT was 1.1% (95% CI 0.4-1.8%) at 10 years after diagnosis and 12% (95% CI 8.9-15.0%) at 30 years. Hypertension increased stroke hazard by 4-fold (95% CI 2.8-5.5) and in black survivors by 16-fold (95% CI 6.9-36.6). Conclusion: Young adult pediatric cancer survivors have an increased stroke risk that is associated with CRT in a dose-dependent manner. Atherosclerotic risk factors enhanced this risk and should be treated aggressively

  7. Medial tumor localization in breast cancer. An unappreciated risk factor?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braeeutigam, Elisabeth; Feichtinger, Johann; Spiegl, Kurt; Hammer, Josef [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Barmherzige Schwestern Hospital, Linz (Austria); Track, Christine [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Barmherzige Schwestern Hospital, Linz (Austria); Comprehensive Breast Health Center, Barmherzige Schwestern Hospital, Linz (Austria); Seewald, Dietmar H. [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, General Hospital Voecklabruck (Austria)

    2009-10-15

    Purpose: to demonstrate the unfavorable results in survival rates in patients with medial breast cancer compared to patients with laterally located tumors of the mammary gland. Patients and Methods: Between 1984 and 1995, 1,089 patients presenting with a total of 1,100 pT1-2 invasive carcinomas of the breast were treated at the authors' institution. 707 presented with tumors in the lateral quadrants, 294 with tumors in the medial quadrants, and 99 with tumors in the central quadrant. Treatment protocols involved breast-conserving surgery and whole-breast radiotherapy in all women, followed by a tumor bed boost dose according to risk factors for local recurrence. All axillary node-positive patients underwent systemic therapy (six cycles of classic CMF and/or 2-5 years of tamoxifen 20 mg/day). Rates of actuarial survival and local control were calculated by the Kaplan-Meier method and differences in survival curves were compared by use of the log-rank test. Results: the mean follow-up of survivors was 97 months (range 36-192 months). Comparing patients with medial and lateral tumors, the actuarial survival data were significantly better for patients with lateral tumors. At 10 years, overall survival for patients with medial tumors was 71%, for patients with lateral tumors 81.8% (p < 0.025), disease-specific survival for patients with medial tumors 79.9%, for patients with lateral tumors 89.1% (p < 0.025). There was no significant difference in local tumor control according to tumor location. Conclusion: medial tumor location is associated with a lower survival rate, but not with inferior local tumor control. Failure to identify nodal metastases confined to the internal mammary chain may lead to undertreatment with systemic/local agents and compromised survival. (orig.)

  8. Medial tumor localization in breast cancer. An unappreciated risk factor?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: to demonstrate the unfavorable results in survival rates in patients with medial breast cancer compared to patients with laterally located tumors of the mammary gland. Patients and Methods: Between 1984 and 1995, 1,089 patients presenting with a total of 1,100 pT1-2 invasive carcinomas of the breast were treated at the authors' institution. 707 presented with tumors in the lateral quadrants, 294 with tumors in the medial quadrants, and 99 with tumors in the central quadrant. Treatment protocols involved breast-conserving surgery and whole-breast radiotherapy in all women, followed by a tumor bed boost dose according to risk factors for local recurrence. All axillary node-positive patients underwent systemic therapy (six cycles of classic CMF and/or 2-5 years of tamoxifen 20 mg/day). Rates of actuarial survival and local control were calculated by the Kaplan-Meier method and differences in survival curves were compared by use of the log-rank test. Results: the mean follow-up of survivors was 97 months (range 36-192 months). Comparing patients with medial and lateral tumors, the actuarial survival data were significantly better for patients with lateral tumors. At 10 years, overall survival for patients with medial tumors was 71%, for patients with lateral tumors 81.8% (p < 0.025), disease-specific survival for patients with medial tumors 79.9%, for patients with lateral tumors 89.1% (p < 0.025). There was no significant difference in local tumor control according to tumor location. Conclusion: medial tumor location is associated with a lower survival rate, but not with inferior local tumor control. Failure to identify nodal metastases confined to the internal mammary chain may lead to undertreatment with systemic/local agents and compromised survival. (orig.)

  9. An impact of overweight and obesity on the risk factors for breast cancer in postmenopausal women

    OpenAIRE

    E A Troshina; P. O. Rumyantsev; M V Altashina; A A Plokhaya

    2012-01-01

    Breast cancer is the leading cause of death in the female population of Russia. Postmenopausal breast cancer is associated with obesity. The article presents data on the significant effect of fat tissue on the risk factors for breast cancer in postmenopausal women.

  10. Urinary bladder cancer risk factors in men: a Spanish case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baena, Antonio Varo; Allam, Mohamed Farouk; Del Castillo, Amparo Serrano; Díaz-Molina, Carmen; Requena Tapia, Maria José; Abdel-Rahman, Amira Gamal; Navajas, Rafael Fernández-Crehuet

    2006-12-01

    The rising incidence of urinary bladder cancer is alarming and potential relationships with different risk factors have been postulated. The purpose of this study was to examine the possible relationship between different environmental risk factors and urinary bladder cancer. All men with urinary bladder cancer who were admitted to the Department of Urology of Reina Sofia University Hospital of Cordoba, Spain over 1 year were included in our study. Men were administered an interview questionnaire, which included data on history of known urinary bladder cancer risk factors. Comparisons between men with urinary bladder cancer (cases) and those with nonmalignant urological disease (controls) were made. The study included 74 cases and 89 controls. The variables associated with malignant lesions on univariate analysis were age, smoking and drinking alcohol. Meanwhile, fish, poultry and beef consumption were proved to be protective factors. The risk factors identified by the logistic regression analysis were age, smoking and fluid intake. The independent protective factors on the multivariate analysis were fish and poultry consumptions. Smoking was found to be the principal independent risk factors for urinary bladder cancer. Our results call for further investigation of urinary bladder cancer risk factors; future studies should preferably be performed on large prospective cohorts, to increase their validity. PMID:17106329

  11. Risk factors for metachronous colorectal cancer following a primary colorectal cancer: A prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayasekara, Harindra; Reece, Jeanette C; Buchanan, Daniel D; Rosty, Christophe; Dashti, S Ghazaleh; Ait Ouakrim, Driss; Winship, Ingrid M; Macrae, Finlay A; Boussioutas, Alex; Giles, Graham G; Ahnen, Dennis J; Lowery, Jan; Casey, Graham; Haile, Robert W; Gallinger, Steven; Le Marchand, Loic; Newcomb, Polly A; Lindor, Noralane M; Hopper, John L; Parry, Susan; Jenkins, Mark A; Win, Aung Ko

    2016-09-01

    Individuals diagnosed with colorectal cancer (CRC) are at risk of developing a metachronous CRC. We examined the associations between personal, tumour-related and lifestyle risk factors, and risk of metachronous CRC. A total of 7,863 participants with incident colon or rectal cancer who were recruited in the USA, Canada and Australia to the Colon Cancer Family Registry during 1997-2012, except those identified as high-risk, for example, Lynch syndrome, were followed up approximately every 5 years. We estimated the risk of metachronous CRC, defined as the first new primary CRC following an interval of at least one year after the initial CRC diagnosis. Observation time started at the age at diagnosis of the initial CRC and ended at the age at diagnosis of the metachronous CRC, last contact or death whichever occurred earliest, or were censored at the age at diagnosis of any metachronous colorectal adenoma. Cox regression was used to derive hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). During a mean follow-up of 6.6 years, 142 (1.81%) metachronous CRCs were diagnosed (mean age at diagnosis 59.8; incidence 2.7/1,000 person-years). An increased risk of metachronous CRC was associated with the presence of a synchronous CRC (HR = 2.73; 95% CI: 1.30-5.72) and the location of cancer in the proximal colon at initial diagnosis (compared with distal colon or rectum, HR = 4.16; 95% CI: 2.80-6.18). The presence of a synchronous CRC and the location of the initial CRC might be useful for deciding the intensity of surveillance colonoscopy for individuals diagnosed with CRC. PMID:27098183

  12. Cultural and dietary risk factors of oral cancer and precancer - A brief overview

    OpenAIRE

    Zain, R. B.

    2001-01-01

    This is an update on cultural and dietary risk factors for oral precancer and cancer. It is an overview on ethnic differences (where possible) and socio-cultural risk factors (tobacco/areca nut/betel quid, alcohol use and dietary factors) in relation to oral precancer and cancer. While studies were from Western countries, India and China, this update also attempts to include and highlight some studies conducted in the Asia-Pacific region.

  13. Predicting Prostate Cancer Mortality Among Men With Intermediate to High-Risk Disease and Multiple Unfavorable Risk Factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To determine whether the number of unfavorable risk factors could be used to predict the risk of prostate cancer-specific mortality (PCSM) among men with intermediate- to high-risk prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: We studied 1,063 men who underwent radical prostatectomy (n = 559), external beam radiotherapy (n = 288), or radiotherapy plus androgen suppression therapy (n = 116) for prostate cancer between 1965 and 2002. Fine and Gray's regression analysis was used to determine whether an increasing number of unfavorable risk factors (prostate-specific antigen level >10 ng/mL, Gleason score of ≥7, clinical Stage T2b or greater, or pretreatment prostate-specific antigen velocity >2.0 ng/mL/y) was associated with the interval to PCSM and all-cause mortality. Results: Median follow-up was 5.6 years. Compared with those with one risk factor, the adjusted hazard ratio for PCSM was 2.3 (95% confidence interval 1.1-4.8; p = 0.03) for two risk factors, 5.4 (95% confidence interval 2.7-10.7; p < 0.0001) for three risk factors, and 13.6 (95% confidence interval 6.3-29.2; p < 0.0001) for all four risk factors. The 5-year cumulative incidence of PCSM was 2.4% for one factor, 2.4% for two factors, 7.0% for three factors, and 14.7% for all four factors. Prostate cancer deaths as a proportion of all deaths was 19% for one factor, 33% for two factors, 53% for three factors, and 80% for four factors. Conclusion: The number of unfavorable risk factors was significantly associated with PCSM. Prostate cancer was the major cause of death in men with at least three risk factors. Therefore, these men should be considered for clinical trials designed to assess whether survival is prolonged with the addition of novel agents to current standards of practice

  14. Cancer, a disease of aging (part 2) - risk factors for older adult cancer mortality in Switzerland 1991-2008

    OpenAIRE

    Schmidlin, Kurt; Spoerri, Adrian; Egger, Matthias; Zwahlen, Marcel; Stuck, Andreas; Clough-Gorr, Kerri M; Swiss National Cohort

    2012-01-01

    Cancer is disease of aging that disproportionately affects older adults and often results in considerable public health consequences. This study evaluated gender-age-specific cancer mortality risk factors in older adults in Switzerland with attention to the most common types of cancer.

  15. Risk Factors for Pancreatic Cancer in China: A Multicenter Case-Control Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaoxu Zheng

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Despite having one of the highest mortality rates of all cancers, the risk factors of pancreatic cancer remain unclear. We assessed risk factors of pancreatic cancer in China. Methods: A case-control study design was conducted using data from four hospital-based cancer registries (Henan Provincial Cancer Hospital, Beijing Cancer Hospital, Hebei Provincial Cancer Hospital, and Cancer Hospital of Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences. Controls were equally matched and selected from family members of non-pancreatic cancer patients in the same hospitals. Face-to-face interviews were conducted by trained staff using questionnaires. Conditional logistic regression models were used to assess odd ratios (ORs and 95% confident intervals (CIs. Results: Among 646 recruited participants, 323 were pancreatic cancer patients and 323 were controls. Multivariate logistic analysis suggested that pancreatic cancer family history (adjusted OR 1.23; 95% CI, 1.11–3.70, obesity (adjusted OR 1.77; 95% CI, 1.22–2.57, diabetes (adjusted OR 2.96; 95% CI, 1.48–5.92 and smoking (adjusted OR 1.78; 95% CI, 1.02–3.10 were risk factors for pancreatic cancer, but that drinking tea (adjusted OR 0.49; 95% CI, 0.25–0.84 was associated with reduced risk of pancreatic cancer. Conclusions: Cigarette smoking, family history, obesity, and diabetes are risk factors of pancreatic cancer, which is important information for designing early intervention and preventive strategies for pancreatic cancer and may be beneficial to pancreatic cancer control in China.

  16. Reproductive and hormonal factors, and ovarian cancer risk for BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Antoniou, Antonis C; Rookus, Matti; Andrieu, Nadine;

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Several reproductive and hormonal factors are known to be associated with ovarian cancer risk in the general population, including parity and oral contraceptive (OC) use. However, their effect on ovarian cancer risk for BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers has only been investigated in a...... small number of studies. METHODS: We used data on 2,281 BRCA1 carriers and 1,038 BRCA2 carriers from the International BRCA1/2 Carrier Cohort Study to evaluate the effect of reproductive and hormonal factors on ovarian cancer risk for mutation carriers. Data were analyzed within a weighted Cox...... proportional hazards framework. RESULTS: There were no significant differences in the risk of ovarian cancer between parous and nulliparous carriers. For parous BRCA1 mutation carriers, the risk of ovarian cancer was reduced with each additional full-term pregnancy (P trend = 0.002). BRCA1 carriers who had...

  17. Hormonal Risk Factors for Ovarian Cancer in Premenopausal and Postmenopausal Women

    OpenAIRE

    Moorman, Patricia G.; Calingaert, Brian; Palmieri, Rachel T; Iversen, Edwin S.; Bentley, Rex C.; Halabi, Susan; Berchuck, Andrew; Joellen M Schildkraut

    2008-01-01

    Ovarian cancer is most frequently diagnosed in postmenopausal women; however, the strongest risk predictors, pregnancy and oral contraceptive use, occur in most women in their twenties and thirties. Relatively few studies have examined how reproductive risk factors vary between pre- and postmenopausal ovarian cancer. The authors used data from a population-based, case-control study of ovarian cancer (896 cases, 967 controls) conducted in North Carolina from 1999 to 2006. Odds ratios and 95% c...

  18. Hormonal and Reproductive Risk Factors for Epithelial Ovarian Cancer by Tumor Aggressiveness

    OpenAIRE

    Poole, Elizabeth M.; Merritt, M. A.; Jordan, S.J.; Yang, H P; Hankinson, Susan Elizabeth; Park, Y; Rosner, Bernard Alfred; Webb, P M; Cramer, Daniel William; Wentzensen, N; Terry, Kathryn Lynne; Tworoger, Shelley Slate

    2013-01-01

    Background Approximately half of epithelial ovarian cancers are fatal within three years; however about 35% of women survive at least ten years. In the Nurses’ Health Study, New England Case-Control Study, Australian Ovarian Cancer Study, and NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study, we investigated potential differences in the associations with ovarian cancer risk factors by tumor aggressiveness, defined based on time from diagnosis until death. Methods We calculated relative risks (RR) an...

  19. Inflammatory Bowel Disease and Skin Cancer: An Assessment of Patient Risk Factors, Knowledge, and Skin Practices

    OpenAIRE

    Kimmel, Jessica N.; Taft, Tiffany H.; Laurie Keefer

    2016-01-01

    Objective. Patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) are at increased risk from skin cancer. Aims include assessing IBD patients' risk factors and knowledge of skin cancer and current skin protection practices to identify gaps in patient education regarding skin cancer prevention in IBD. Methods. IBD patients ≥ 18 years were recruited to complete an online survey. Results. 164 patients (mean age 43.5 years, 63% female) with IBD (67% Crohn's disease, 31% ulcerative colitis, and 2% indeter...

  20. Comparison of lifestyle risk factors by family history for gastric, breast, lung and colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xin-En; Hirose, Kaoru; Wakai, Kenji; Matsuo, Keitaro; Ito, Hidemi; Xiang, Jin; Takezaki, Toshiro; Tajima, Kazuo

    2004-01-01

    To assess the theoretical impact of lifestyle of a cancer family history in first-degree relatives (CFH) and clarify interactions between CFH and lifestyle factors, hospital-based comparison and case-reference studies were conducted in Nagoya, Japan. Totals of 1988 gastric, 2455 breast, 1398 lung and 1352 colorectal cancer patients, as well as 50,706 non-cancer outpatients collected from 1988 to 1998, were checked for lifestyle factors, which included dietary and physical exercise habits, as well as smoking/drinking status. General lifestyle factors with non-cancer outpatients did not differ by the CFH status. Case-reference analyses showed that frequent intake of fruits, raw vegetables, carrots, pumpkin, cabbage and lettuce, as well as frequent physical exercise, were associated with decreased risk for all four sites of cancer, while habitual smoking increasing the risk of gastric, and more particularly, lung cancer. Interestingly, the study revealed the magnitude of odds ratios for the above lifestyle factors obtained from CFH positives to be similar to those from CFH negatives for these four sites of cancer. There were no significant interactions between CFH and any particular lifestyle factor. In conclusion, our results suggest no appreciable influence of CFH on lifestyle related risk factors for gastric, breast, lung, and colorectal cancer. Habitual smoking increased, while frequent physical exercise and raw vegetables intake decreased cancer risk, regardless of the CFH status. PMID:15546249

  1. What Are the Risk Factors for Eye Cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... known risk factor for primary lymphoma of the eye is having a weakened immune system. Examples include people with AIDS and people who take anti-rejection drugs after organ or tissue transplants. Last Medical Review: 12/09/2014 Last Revised: ...

  2. Risk factors for the onset of prostatic cancer: age, location, and behavioral correlates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leitzmann MF

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Michael F Leitzmann1, Sabine Rohrmann21Department of Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine, Regensburg University Medical Center, Regensburg, Germany; 2Institute of Social and Preventive Medicine, University of Zurich, Zurich, SwitzerlandAbstract: At present, only three risk factors for prostate cancer have been firmly established; these are all nonmodifiable: age, race, and a positive family history of prostate cancer. However, numerous modifiable factors have also been implicated in the development of prostate cancer. In the current review, we summarize the epidemiologic data for age, location, and selected behavioral factors in relation to the onset of prostate cancer. Although the available data are not entirely consistent, possible preventative behavioral factors include increased physical activity, intakes of tomatoes, cruciferous vegetables, and soy. Factors that may enhance prostate cancer risk include frequent consumption of dairy products and, possibly, meat. By comparison, alcohol probably exerts no important influence on prostate cancer development. Similarly, dietary supplements are unlikely to protect against the onset of prostate cancer in healthy men. Several factors, such as smoking and obesity, show a weak association with prostate cancer incidence but a positive relation with prostate cancer mortality. Other factors, such as fish intake, also appear to be unassociated with incident prostate cancer but show an inverse relation with fatal prostate cancer. Such heterogeneity in the relationship between behavioral factors and nonadvanced, advanced, or fatal prostate cancers helps shed light on the carcinogenetic process because it discerns the impact of exposure on early and late stages of prostate cancer development. Inconsistent associations between behavioral factors and prostate cancer risk seen in previous studies may in part be due to uncontrolled detection bias because of current widespread use of prostate-specific antigen

  3. Analysis of primary risk factors for oral cancer from select US states with increasing rates

    OpenAIRE

    O'Malley Susan; Sharma Kanika; Reddout Nicole; Pettit Nathan; Bunnell Anthony; Chino Michelle; Kingsley Karl

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Objectives To examine the primary risk factor for oral cancer in the US, smoking and tobacco use, among the specific US states that experienced short-term increases in oral cancer incidence and mortality. Methods Population-based data on oral cancer morbidity and mortality in the US were obtained from the National Cancer Institute's (NCI) Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database for analysis of recent trends. Data were also obtained from the Centers for Disease Con...

  4. Hormone-related factors and breast cancer : studies of risk and prognosis

    OpenAIRE

    Rosenberg, Lena

    2006-01-01

    The main purpose of this thesis was to explore the influences of risk factors for breast cancer on breast cancer characteristics and survival. We evaluated the associations between number and timing of births and breast cancerspecific survival using data from the Swedish Cancer Register, the Swedish Cause of Death Register, and the MultiGeneration Register. We identified more than 27,000 women born in Sweden and diagnosed with breast cancer in 1958-1997. We found a successiv...

  5. Knowledge of risk factors, beliefs and practices of female healthcare professionals towards breast cancer, Morocco

    OpenAIRE

    Samia Ghanem; Meriem Glaoui; Siham Elkhoyaali; Mohamed Mesmoudi; Saber Boutayeb; Hassan Errihani

    2011-01-01

    Background Breast cancer is the most common cancer affecting women in Morocco. Screening for early detection has led to reduction in mortality from the disease. It is known that female healthcare professionals have greater influence on women's positive perception of breast cancer and motivation to practice screening methods for early detection of the disease. This study aims to investigate knowledge of breast cancer risk factors, beliefs about treatment and practice of screening methods among...

  6. Depression as a risk factor for overall and hormone-related cancer: The Korean cancer prevention study

    OpenAIRE

    Chang, Hyoung Yoon; Keyes, Katherine M.; Mok, Yejin; Jung, Keum Ji; Shin, Yee-Jin; Jee, Sun Ha

    2014-01-01

    Depression has been hypothesized to be a risk factor of cancer, especially hormone related cancers. However, few studies have been conducted with large enough sample size and sufficient follow up period to rigorously estimate these associations. We aim to examine the relationship between depression and risk of registry documented overall and hormone related cancers. In this 19 year prospective cohort study of general population, 601,775 Koreans aged 30 64 years had a biennial medical evaluati...

  7. Socioeconomic status, negative affect, and modifiable cancer risk factors in African-American smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendzor, Darla E; Cofta-Woerpel, Ludmila M; Mazas, Carlos A; Li, Yisheng; Vidrine, Jennifer Irvin; Reitzel, Lorraine R; Costello, Tracy J; Businelle, Michael S; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S; Cinciripini, Paul M; Wetter, David W

    2008-10-01

    The purpose of the present study was to describe the prevalence, patterns, and predictors of cooccurring modifiable cancer risk factors among African-Americans seeking smoking cessation treatment and to evaluate previously hypothesized models of the relationship between socioeconomic status (SES) and health behavior. Overweight/obesity, at-risk alcohol consumption, and insufficient physical activity were measured in 399 African-American smokers. Analyses indicated that 92.8% of participants had at least one cancer risk factor in addition to smoking. Univariate ordinal logistic regression analyses revealed that female gender, unemployment, lower positive affect, and greater negative affect were associated with having a greater number of cancer risk factors. Multivariate analyses yielded similar findings. A structural equation modeling approach indicated that stress/negative affect may function as one pathway linking SES and modifiable cancer risk factors among African-American smokers and that gender has a direct effect on modifiable cancer risk factors. Thus, risk patterns identified within each gender group may guide the development of multiple risk factor interventions for African-American smokers. Stress and negative affect may be an important treatment target within behavioral interventions for African-American smokers of low SES. PMID:18842995

  8. Family History of Diabetes and Pancreatic Cancer as Risk Factors for Pancreatic Cancer: The PACIFIC Study

    OpenAIRE

    Austin, Melissa A.; Kuo, Elena; Van Den Eeden, Stephen K; Mandelson, Margaret T.; Brentnall, Teresa A.; Kamineni, Aruna; Potter, John D.

    2013-01-01

    Genetic association studies have identified more than a dozen genes associated with risk of pancreatic cancer. Given this genetic heterogeneity, family history can be useful for identifying individuals at high-risk for this disease. The goal of this analysis was to evaluate associations of family history of diabetes and family history of pancreatic cancer with risk of pancreatic cancer. PACIFIC is a case-control study based in two large health plans. Cases were diagnosed wit...

  9. Mammographic texture resemblance generalizes as an independent risk factor for breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Nielsen, Mads; Vachon, Celine M.; Scott, Christopher G.; Chernoff, Konstantin; Karemore, Gopal; Karssemeijer, Nico; Lillholm, Martin; Karsdal, Morten

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Breast density has been established as a major risk factor for breast cancer. We have previously demonstrated that mammographic texture resemblance (MTR), recognizing the local texture patterns of the mammogram, is also a risk factor for breast cancer, independent of percent breast density. We examine if these findings generalize to another population. Methods Texture patterns were recorded in digitalized pre-diagnosis (3.7 years) film mammograms of a nested case–control study wi...

  10. Ovarian Cancer Risk Factors in African-American and White Women

    OpenAIRE

    Moorman, Patricia G.; Palmieri, Rachel T.; Akushevich, Lucy; Berchuck, Andrew; Schildkraut, Joellen M.

    2009-01-01

    Ovarian cancer is the most lethal gynecologic malignancy in both African-American and white women. Although prevalences of many ovarian cancer risk factors differ markedly between African Americans and whites, there has been little research on how the relative contributions of risk factors may vary between racial/ethnic groups. Using data from a North Carolina case-control study (1999–2008), the authors conducted unconditional logistic regression analyses to calculate odds ratios and 95% conf...

  11. Incidence and risk factors for infection in oral cancer patients undergoing different treatments protocols

    OpenAIRE

    Panghal Manju; Kaushal Vivek; Kadayan Sangeeta; Yadav Jaya

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Over the past decade, advances in cancer treatments have been counterbalanced by a rising number of immunosuppressed patients with a multitude of new risk factors for infection. Hence, the aim of this study was to determine risk factors, infectious pathogens in blood and oral cavity of oral cancer patients undergoing different treatment procedures. Methods The present prospective cohort analysis was conducted on the patients undergoing treatment in the radiotherapy unit of...

  12. Perception of selected risk factors for cancer and heart attack among visitors of a public hospital

    OpenAIRE

    Sandeep Sachdeva; Binod K Behera; Babita Rani; Ruchi Sachdeva; Bharti; Mukesh Nagar; Ajay K Tyagi; Vijay Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Background: To assess perception of selected risk factors for cancer and heart attack among visitors of a public hospital. Materials and Methods: Randomly 1651 ambulatory adults were contacted using predesigned, pretested, semi-structure interview schedule comprising selective 12 risk factors for cancer (increasing age, tobacco, obesity, alcohol, diet-rich in fat/oil, diet-poor in fruits and vegetables (F and V), physical in-activity, environmental pollution, multiple sexual partners, insecti...

  13. Media, Health Communication, and the Cancer Risk Factors of Smoking and Obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Criss, Shaniece

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Smoking is the leading cause of preventable death in the United States, and obesity is the second cause. Both are risk factors for various types of cancer. Specifically, smoking is linked to lung, esophageal, bladder, kidney, and stomach cancers; and obesity is linked to postmenopausal breast, colorectal, endometrial, pancreatic, and gallbladder cancers. Multiple factors affect health behavior, and this dissertation investigated the role of media and health communication as mod...

  14. BMI, diet and female reproductive factors as risks for thyroid cancer: a systematic review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily Peterson

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Thyroid cancer incidence rates have been increasing worldwide but the reason behind this is unclear. Both the increasing use of diagnostic technologies allowing the detection of thyroid cancer and a true increase in thyroid cancer incidence have been proposed. This review assesses the role of body mass index (BMI, diet, and reproductive factors on the thyroid cancer trend. METHODS: Epidemiologic studies of the selected risk factors up to June 2010 were reviewed and critically assessed. RESULTS: Among the thirty-seven studies reviewed and despite variation in the risk estimates, most papers supported a small but positive association for BMI (risk estimate range: 1.1-2.3 in males and 1.0-7.4 in females.. Among specific dietary components, there was no consistent association of thyroid cancer risk with iodine intake through fortification (risk estimate range: 0.49-1.6 or fish consumption (risk estimate range 0.6-2.2, nor with diets high in cruciferous vegetables (risk estimate range 0.6-1.9. A small number of studies showed a consistent protective effect of diets high in non-cruciferous vegetable (risk estimate range: 0.71-0.92. Among reproductive factors (pregnancy, parity, number of live births, use of prescription hormones, menstrual cycle regularity, and menopausal status, none were consistently associated with higher thyroid cancer risk. CONCLUSIONS: BMI had the strongest link to thyroid cancer risk among those examined. Detailed examinations of population-level risk factors can help identify and support prevention efforts to reduce the burden of thyroid cancer.

  15. CYP1B1 expression, a potential risk factor for breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goth-Goldstein, Regine; Erdmann, Christine A.; Russell, Marion

    2001-05-31

    CYP1B1 expression in non-tumor breast tissue from breast cancer patients and cancer-free individuals was determined to test the hypothesis that high CYP1B1 expression is a risk factor for breast cancer. Large interindividual variations in CYP1B1 expression were found with CYP1B1 levels notably higher in breast cancer patients than cancer-free individuals. The results indicate that CYP1B1 might play a role in breast cancer either through increased PAH activation or through metabolism of endogenous estrogen to a carcinogenic derivative.

  16. Race/Ethnicity and Multiple Cancer Risk Factors among Individuals Seeking Smoking Cessation Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendzor, Darla E.; Costello, Tracy J.; Li, Yisheng; Vidrine, Jennifer Irvin; Mazas, Carlos A.; Reitzel, Lorraine R.; Cinciripini, Paul M.; Cofta-Woerpel, Ludmila M.; Businelle, Michael S.; Wetter, David W.

    2016-01-01

    Smoking in combination with other behavioral risk factors is known to have a negative influence on health, and individuals who smoke typically engage in multiple risk behaviors. However, little is known about the clustering of risk behaviors among smokers of varying race/ethnicity. The purpose of this study was to examine patterns of cancer risk behaviors and to identify predictors of multiple risk behaviors in a racially/ethnically diverse sample of individuals seeking smoking cessation treatment. Overweight/obesity, at-risk alcohol consumption, and insufficient physical activity were measured in 424 smokers (African American, n = 144; Latino, n = 141; Caucasian, n = 139). Results indicated that 90% of participants reported behavioral cancer risk factors in addition to smoking. Approximately 70% of participants were overweight or obese, 48% engaged in at-risk drinking, and 27% were insufficiently physically active. Univariate analyses indicated that race/ethnicity, p culturally sensitive interventions that target multiple risk behaviors. PMID:18990734

  17. LUNG CANCER IN NEVER SMOKERS: CLINICAL EPIDEMIOLOGY AND ENVIRONMENTAL RISK FACTORS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samet, Jonathan M.; Avila-Tang, Erika; Boffetta, Paolo; Hannan, Lindsay M.; Olivo-Marston, Susan; Thun, Michael J.; Rudin, Charles M.

    2011-01-01

    More than 161,000 lung cancer deaths are projected to occur in the U.S. in 2008. Of these, an estimated 10–15% will be caused by factors other than active smoking, corresponding to 16,000–24,000 deaths annually. Thus lung cancer in never smokers would rank among the most common causes of cancer mortality in the U.S. if considered to be a separate category. Slightly more than half of the lung cancers caused by factors other than active smoking occur in never smokers. As summarized in the accompanying article, lung cancers that occur in never smokers differ from those that occur in smokers in their molecular profile and response to targeted therapy. These recent laboratory and clinical observations highlight the importance of defining the genetic and environmental factors responsible for the development of lung cancer in never-smokers. This article summarizes available data on the clinical epidemiology of lung cancer in never smokers, and the several environmental risk factors that population-based research has implicated in the etiology of these cancers. Primary factors closely tied to lung cancer in never smokers include exposure to known and suspected carcinogens including radon, second-hand tobacco smoke, and other indoor air pollutants. Several other exposures have been implicated. However, a large fraction of lung cancers occurring in never-smokers cannot be definitively associated with established environmental risk factors, highlighting the need for additional epidemiologic research in this area. PMID:19755391

  18. Risk factors influencing recurrence following resection of pancreatic head cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    De-Qing Mu; Shu-You Peng; Guo-Feng Wang

    2004-01-01

    AIM: Whether operative procedure is a risk factor influencing recurrence following resection of carcinoma in the head ofpancreas or not remains controversies. In this text we compared the recurrence rate of two operative procedure: the Whipple procedure and extended radical operation, and inquired into the factors influencing recurrence after radical resection.METHODS: From January 1995 to December 1998, 35 cases of carcinoma of pancreas underwent the Whipple operadure, 21 patients received the Extended radical operation. All patients were followed up for more than 3 years. Prognostic factors included operative procedure, size of tumor, lymph node, interstitial invasion. RESULTS: Deaths duo to recurrence within 3 years after operation were studied. The death rate was 51.4% in the Whipple procedure and 42.9% in the Extended radical operative procedure. There was a significant difference between the two groups. Recurrence occurred in 75% patients with tumor large than 4 cm, in 87.5% patients with lymph node involvement, and in 50% patients with the presence of interstitial invasion. CONCLUSION: Tumor exceeding 4 cm, lymph node involvement, and presence of interstitial invasion are high risk factors of recurrence after Whipple's procedure and extended radical operation.

  19. Identification of new genetic risk factors for prostate cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Michelle Guy; Helen I.Field; Melissa C.Southey; Gianluca Severi; Jenny L.Donovan; Freddie C.Hamdy; David P.Dearnaley; Kenneth R.Muir; Charmaine Smith; Melisa Bagnato; Audrey T.Ardern-Jones; Zsofia Kote-Jarai; Amanda L.Hall; Lynne T.O'Brien; Beatrice N.Gehr-Swain; Rosemary A.Wilkinson; Angela Cox; Sarah Lewis; Paul M.Brown; Sameer G.Jhavar; Malgorzata Tymrakiewicz; Artitaya Lophatananon; Graham G.Giles; Sarah L.Bryant; The UK Genetic Prostate Cancer Study Collaborators; British Association of Urological Surgeons' Sectio; Alan Horwich; Robert A.Huddart; Vincent S.Khoo; Christopher C.Parker; Christopher J.Woodhouse; Alan Thompson; Tim Christmas; Ali Amin Al Olama; Chris Ogden; Cyril Fisher; Charles Jameson; Colin S.Cooper; Dallas R.English; John L.Hopper; David E.Neal; Douglas E Easton; Rosalind A.Eeles; Sarah K.Jugurnauth; Shani Mulholland; Daniel A.Leongamomlert; Stephen M.Edwards; Jonathan Morrison

    2009-01-01

    There is evidence that a substantial part of genetic predisposition to prostate cancer (PCa) may be due to lower penetrance genes which are found by genome-wide association studies.We have recently conducted such a study and seven new regions of the genome linked to PCa risk have been identified.Three of these loci contain candidate susceptibility genes:MSMB,LMTK2 and KLK2/3.The MSMB and KLK2/3 genes may he useful for PCa screening,and the LMTK2 gene might provide a potential therapeutic target.Together with results from other groups,there are now 23 germline genetic variants which have been reported.These results have the potential to be developed into a genetic test.However,we consider that marketing of tests to the public is premature,as PCa risk can not be evaluated fully at this stage and the appropriate screening protocols need to be developed.Follow-up validation studies,as well as studies to explore the psychological implications of genetic profile testing,will be vital prior to roll out into healthcare.

  20. Mammographic Texture Resemblance generalizes as an independent risk factor of breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chernoff, Konstantin; Christopher, S G; Karemore, Gopal Raghunath;

    PURPOSE Breast density has been established as a risk factor of breast cancer in numerous studies. Mammographic Texture Resemblance (MTR) has shown to be a density independent risk factor, but only on a single study. We examine if the statistics of the texture recorded in one study generalize as an...... independent risk factor in an unrelated cohort. METHOD AND MATERIALS The statistics of texture were recorded in digitalized film-mammograms of one 4-year prospective study (S1, Dutch screening program) of 245 breast cancers and 250 matched controls. From an independent cohort study (S2, Mayo Mammography...... Health Study cohort) 226 incident breast cancer cases diagnosed through 2008 and 442 matched controls (on age) were used for scoring screening digitized mammograms that were ascertained years prior to diagnosis 1993-2006. Mammographic percent density (PD), using Cumulus, and other major risk factors were...

  1. Mammographic texture resemblance generalizes as an independent risk factor for breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mads; Vachon, Celine M.; Scott, Christopher G.;

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION:Breast density has been established as a major risk factor for breast cancer. We have previously demonstrated that mammographic texture resemblance (MTR), recognizing the local texture patterns of the mammogram, is also a risk factor for breast cancer, independent of percent breast...... continuously for association with breast cancer using odds ratios (OR) and adjusting for known risk factors including age, body mass index (BMI), and hormone usage.RESULTS:The mean ages of S1 and S2 were 58.0+/-5.7years and 55.2+/-10.5years, respectively. The MTR scores on S1 showed significant capability to......: mammograms on average 8.5years prior to diagnosis, risk factor information and percent mammographic density (PD) estimated using Cumulus were available. MTR scores estimated from S1, S2 and S1+S2 (the latter two as cross-validations) were evaluated in S2. MTR scores were analyzed as both quartiles and...

  2. Risk Factors and Control Strategies for the Rapidly Rising Rate of Breast Cancer in Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Sue K.; Kim, Yeonju; Kang, Daehee; Jung, En-Joo; Yoo, Keun-Young

    2011-01-01

    Due to the aging population and tremendous changes in life style over the past decades, cancer has been the leading cause of death in Korea. The incidence rate of breast cancer is the second highest in Korea, and it has shown an annual increase of 6.8% for the past 6 years. The major risk factors of breast cancer in Korean women are as follows: Early menarche, late menopause, late full-term pregnancy (FTP), and low numbers of FTP. Height and body mass index increased the risk of breast cancer...

  3. An investigation of breast cancer risk factors in Cyprus: a case control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadjisavvas Andreas

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Breast cancer is the most common form of malignancy affecting women worldwide. It is also the leading cancer in females in Cyprus, with approximately 400 new cases diagnosed annually. It is well recognized that genetic variation as well as environmental factors modulate breast cancer risk. The main aim of this study was to assess the strength of associations between recognized risk factors and breast cancer among Cypriot women. This is the first epidemiological investigation on risk factors of breast cancer among the Cypriot female population. Methods We carried out a case-control study, involving 1,109 breast cancer patients and a group of 1,177 controls who were recruited while participating in the National screening programme for breast cancer. Information on demographic characteristics and potential risk factors were collected from both groups during a standardized interview. Logistic regression analysis was used to assess the strength of the association between each risk factor and breast cancer risk, before and after adjusting for the possible confounding effect of other factors. Results In multivariable models, family history of breast cancer (OR 1.64, 95% CI 1.23, 2.19 was the strongest predictor of breast cancer risk in the Cypriot population. Late menarche (OR 0.64, 95% CI 0.45, 0.92 among women reaching menarche after the age of 15 vs. before the age of 12 and breastfeeding (OR 0.74, 95% CI 0.59, 0.92 exhibited a strong protective effect. In the case of breastfeeding, the observed effect appeared stronger than the effect of pregnancy alone. Surprisingly, we also observed an inverse association between hormone replacement therapy (HRT although this may be a product of the retrospective nature of this study. Conclusion Overall the findings of our study corroborate with the results of previous investigations on descriptive epidemiology of risk factors for breast cancer. This investigation provides important background

  4. A case control study on the lung cancer risk factors in north of Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimzadeh, Laleh; Koohdani, Fariba; Siassi, Fereydoon; Mahmoudi, Mahmoud; Moslemi, Dariush; Shokrzadeh, Mohammad; Safari, Farid

    2011-01-01

    In this case control study, the risk factors of lung cancer was assessed in the north of Iran. Two groups were matched for gender and age (+/- 5 years). Data were collected from 40 cases and 40 controls attending to hospitals. A public information questionnaire was used for data collection. Incidence odds ratios (OR) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals calculated using logistic regression analyses. Results showed that in adjusted odd ratio positive family history of cancer (OR = 0/19, 95% CI: 0/04-0/8) was associated with a reduction, and consumption of baked bread in traditional oven (OR = 22/6, 95% CI: 1/9-270), was associated with increase in lung cancer risk. Based on the results, smoking was not correlated with lung cancer. In conclusion, the data offers consumption of traditional oven-baked bread may enhance the risk of lung cancer but positive family history of cancer may reduce it. PMID:21699022

  5. Role of genetic & environment risk factors in the aetiology of colorectal cancer in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurul Hanis Ramzi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Colorectal cancer (CRC is second only to breast cancer as the leading cause of cancer-related deaths in Malaysia. In the Asia-Pacific area, it is the highest emerging gastrointestinal cancer. The aim of this study was to identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs and environmental factors associated with CRC risk in Malaysia from a panel of cancer associated SNPs. Methods: In this case-control study, 160 Malaysian subjects were recruited, including both with CRC and controls. A total of 768 SNPs were genotyped and analyzed to distinguish risk and protective alleles. Genotyping was carried out using Illumina′s BeadArray platform. Information on blood group, occupation, medical history, family history of cancer, intake of red meat and vegetables, exposure to radiation, smoking and drinking habits, etc was collected. Odds ratio (OR, 95% confidence interval (CI were calculated. Results: A panel of 23 SNPs significantly associated with colorectal cancer risk was identified ( p0 <0.01. Of these, 12 SNPs increased the risk of CRC and 11 reduced the risk. Among the environmental risk factors investigated, high intake of red meat (more than 50% daily proportion was found to be significantly associated with increased risk of CRC (OR=6.52, 95% CI :1.93 - 2.04, P=0.003. Two SNPs including rs2069521 and rs10046 in genes of cytochrome P450 (CYP superfamily were found significantly associated with CRC risk. For gene-environment analysis, the A allele of rs2069521 showed a significant association with CRC risk when stratified by red meat intake. Interpretation & conclusions: In this preliminary study, a panel of SNPs found to be significantly associated with CRC in Malaysian population, was identified. Also, red meat consumption and lack of physical exercise were risk factors for CRC, while consumption of fruits and vegetables served as protective factor.

  6. Role of genetic & environment risk factors in the aetiology of colorectal cancer in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramzi, Nurul Hanis; Chahil, Jagdish Kaur; Lye, Say Hean; Munretnam, Khamsigan; Sahadevappa, Kavitha Itagi; Velapasamy, Sharmila; Hashim, Nikman Adli Nor; Cheah, Soon Keat; Lim, Gerard Chin Chye; Hussein, Heselynn; Haron, Mohd Roslan; Alex, Livy; Ler, Lian Wee

    2014-01-01

    Background & objectives: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is second only to breast cancer as the leading cause of cancer-related deaths in Malaysia. In the Asia–Pacific area, it is the highest emerging gastrointestinal cancer. The aim of this study was to identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and environmental factors associated with CRC risk in Malaysia from a panel of cancer associated SNPs. Methods: In this case-control study, 160 Malaysian subjects were recruited, including both with CRC and controls. A total of 768 SNPs were genotyped and analyzed to distinguish risk and protective alleles. Genotyping was carried out using Illumina's BeadArray platform. Information on blood group, occupation, medical history, family history of cancer, intake of red meat and vegetables, exposure to radiation, smoking and drinking habits, etc was collected. Odds ratio (OR), 95% confidence interval (CI) were calculated. Results: A panel of 23 SNPs significantly associated with colorectal cancer risk was identified (P<0.01). Of these, 12 SNPs increased the risk of CRC and 11 reduced the risk. Among the environmental risk factors investigated, high intake of red meat (more than 50% daily proportion) was found to be significantly associated with increased risk of CRC (OR=6.52, 95% CI :1.93 - 2.04, P=0.003). Two SNPs including rs2069521 and rs10046 in genes of cytochrome P450 (CYP) superfamily were found significantly associated with CRC risk. For gene-environment analysis, the A allele of rs2069521 showed a significant association with CRC risk when stratified by red meat intake. Interpretation & conclusions: In this preliminary study, a panel of SNPs found to be significantly associated with CRC in Malaysian population, was identified. Also, red meat consumption and lack of physical exercise were risk factors for CRC, while consumption of fruits and vegetables served as protective factor. PMID:25109722

  7. Knowledge of risk factors, beliefs and practices of female healthcare professionals towards breast cancer, Morocco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samia Ghanem

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available le doctors were the only professional group that had satisfactory knowledge of risk factors while the nurses had an unsatisfactory knowledge with a mean score of 43%. A half of participants believed that that herbal therapy can cure breast cancer. 75% practice breast self-examination once a month and only 15% have ever had a mammogram. Age, profession and beliefs were not significantly associated with rate of BSE in this study; however this rate is influenced by knowledge of breast cancer risk factors. CONCLUSION: Results from this study suggest the need for continuing medical education programs aimed at improving knowledge of breast cancer among the nurses.

  8. Reproductive Factors but Not Hormonal Factors Associated with Thyroid Cancer Risk: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yijuan Cao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Many studies have investigated the association between hormonal and reproductive factors and thyroid cancer risk but provided contradictory and inconclusive findings. This review was aimed at precisely estimating this association by pooling all available epidemiological studies. 25 independent studies were retrieved after a comprehensive literature search in databases of PubMed and Embase. Overall, common hormonal factors including oral contraceptive and hormone replacement therapy did not alter the risk of thyroid cancer. Older age at menopause was associated with weakly increased risk of thyroid cancer in overall analysis (RR = 1.24, 95% CI 1.00–1.53, P=0.049; however, longer duration of breast feeding was related to moderately reduced risk of thyroid cancer, suggested by pooled analysis in all cohort studies (RR = 0.7, 95% CI 0.51–0.95, P=0.021. The pooled RR in hospital-based case-control studies implicated that parous women were more susceptible to thyroid cancer than nulliparous women (RR = 2.30, 95% CI 1.31–4.04, P=0.004. The present meta-analysis suggests that older age at menopause and parity are risk factors for thyroid cancer, while longer duration of breast feeding plays a protective role against this cancer. Nevertheless, more relevant epidemiological studies are warranted to investigate roles of hormonal and reproductive factors in thyroid carcinogenesis.

  9. Socioeconomic factors associated with risk of upper aerodigestive tract cancer in Europe.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Conway, D I

    2010-02-01

    In the European Union, there are 180,000 new cases of upper aerodigestive tract (UADT) cancer cases per year--more than half of whom will die of the disease. Socioeconomic inequalities in UADT cancer incidence are recognised across Europe. We aimed to assess the components of socioeconomic risk both independently and through their influence on the known behavioural risk factors of smoking, alcohol consumption and diet.

  10. Patient age, tumor appearance and tumor size are risk factors for early recurrence of cervical cancer

    OpenAIRE

    WANG, Juan; WANG, Tao; YANG, YUN-YI; CHAI, YAN-LAN; Shi, Fan; Liu, Zi

    2014-01-01

    The recurrence and metastasis of cervical cancer contribute to a poor prognosis. The aim of this study was to investigate the risk factors for cervical cancer progression. A total of 284 patients with recurrent cervical cancer were retrospectively recruited to evaluate the association of disease recurrence with clinicopathological data. The univariate analysis demonstrated that patient age, tumor appearance and tumor size were significantly associated with early recurrence and metastasis of t...

  11. Incidence and risk factor analysis for sarcopenia in patients with cancer

    OpenAIRE

    ZHANG, GUOXING; LI, XIUJIANG; SUI, CHANGPING; Hui ZHAO; ZHAO, JIHONG; Hou, Yue; DU, YUJUN

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate the incidence of and possible risk factors associated with sarcopenia among cancer patients. Patients with cancer were examined through the use of lumbar magnetic resonance imaging, and clinical data was collected between September and December, 2012, at Jilin Province Tumor Hospital (Changchun, China). The data was subsequently compared between patients with and without sarcopenia. Of the 113 treated cancer patients, 96 patients [39 males...

  12. Personality-Related Risk and Resilience Factors in Coping with Daily Stress among Adult Cancer Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Diehl, Manfred; Hay, Elizabeth L.

    2013-01-01

    We employed a diary design to study personality-related risk and resilience factors in adult cancer patients coping with daily stress. We focused on individuals’ self-concept incoherence (SCI) as a personality-related risk factor and on psychological well-being (PWB) at baseline and daily beliefs of control as resilience factors. Reactivity to daily stress was assessed in terms of negative daily mood. Multilevel modeling analyses yielded significant main effects of daily stress, PWB at baseli...

  13. Endometrioid and clear cell ovarian cancers: a comparative analysis of risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagle, Christina M; Olsen, Catherine M; Webb, Penelope M; Jordan, Susan J; Whiteman, David C; Green, Adèle C

    2008-11-01

    Endometrioid and clear cell subtypes of ovarian cancer are both known to be closely associated with endometriosis and endometrial pathology, and so have often been combined in studies of causation. We have examined these ovarian cancers separately for potentially distinct risk factors in our population-based, Australia-wide case control study of 142 women with incident invasive endometrioid, 90 with clear cell ovarian cancers and 1508 population controls. Multivariate logistic regression was used to calculated odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Increasing parity, and hormonal contraceptive use for > or = 5 years, strongly decreased the risks of both subtypes. Breast feeding and tubal ligation were also inversely associated, but significantly so only for the endometrioid subtype. As expected endometriosis increased the risk of both subtypes (OR 2.2, 95% CI 1.2-3.9 for endometrioid and OR 3.0, 95% CI 1.5-5.9 for clear cell). Obesity was associated only with clear cell cancers, where we observed a two-fold increased risk (OR 2.2, 95% CI 1.2-4.1). Also a significant trend of decreasing risk with increasing intensity of smoking (p trend 0.02) and education beyond high school was associated with decreased development of clear cell cancers only. Endometrioid and clear cell ovarian cancers have some shared as well as some distinct risk factors, and therefore should be considered separately in studies of ovarian cancer. PMID:18707869

  14. Combined effect of ionizing radiation and other risk factors on the incidence of breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study was made on combined effect of ionizing radiation (the number of roentgenoscopies and integral absorbed dose) and other risk factors (age, observation period etc) on the incidence of breast cancer (BC). It is shown that the relative BC risk, related with radiation, is affected by woman age during exposure

  15. Global epidemiology, risk factors and prevention of oral cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Newell Johnson

    2008-01-01

    @@ The Globacan [2002] database from the International Agency for Research on Cancer, shows 400,318 cases of oral and pharyngeal [excluding nasopharynx] cancer in the world annually, and 221,917 deaths.

  16. Breast cancer after radiotherapy: Risk factors and suggestion for breast delineation as an organ at risk in the prepubertal girl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patients who survive a cancer occurring during childhood or young adulthood, treated with radiation, are at a very high risk of chronic sequelae and secondary tumours. To reduce this radioinduced morbidity and mortality, efforts are put on reducing the burden of the treatments and a long-term monitoring of these patients is progressively organized. We present a general review of the literature about the risk factors for developing a secondary breast cancer, which is the most frequent secondary tumour in this population. We suggest that contouring the prepubescent breast as an organ at risk may help predict the risk and reduce the dose to the breasts using modern radiotherapy techniques. (authors)

  17. Prevalence of cancer risk factors among women radiologists and radiology assistants in Lithuania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of the work was to study potential cancer risk factors among radiologists and non-radiologists in Lithuania. Cancer risk factors were investigated among female medical staff at the departments of ionizing (243, 33.33%) and non-ionizing environment (486, 66.67%). The questionnaire covered the diet, lifestyle, reproductive factors as well as the demographic and physical characteristics. Univariate analysis was done separately for physicians and nurses. Each of risk factors was evaluated in stratified analysis for unequal ORs using Mantel-Haenszel estimate control for age and occupation. Evaluation of features of risk factors among radiologists vs. non-radiologists has shown that smoking was most the prevalent risk factor among radiologists and radiology assistants. Despite the relatively low prevalence, the questionnaire data showed the higher frequency of smoking among radiologists (OR = 2.78, 95% CI 1.12-6.87) and radiology assistants (OR = 2.25, 95% 1.38-3.66) compared to non-radiologists. The prevalence of non-users and occasional users was 74% to 66%, respectively. Alcohol use by smoking among radiologists was influenced insignificantly. The cohort of radiologists in Lithuania offer an opportunity for obtaining direct observational evidence on health effects associated with chronic low-dose radiation exposure. The data on possible cancer risk factors can be helpful for validation of the risks in future. (author)

  18. Impact of risk factors on different interval cancer subtypes in a population-based breast cancer screening programme.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordi Blanch

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Interval cancers are primary breast cancers diagnosed in women after a negative screening test and before the next screening invitation. Our aim was to evaluate risk factors for interval cancer and their subtypes and to compare the risk factors identified with those associated with incident screen-detected cancers. METHODS: We analyzed data from 645,764 women participating in the Spanish breast cancer screening program from 2000-2006 and followed-up until 2009. A total of 5,309 screen-detected and 1,653 interval cancers were diagnosed. Among the latter, 1,012 could be classified on the basis of findings in screening and diagnostic mammograms, consisting of 489 true interval cancers (48.2%, 235 false-negatives (23.2%, 172 minimal-signs (17.2% and 114 occult tumors (11.3%. Information on the screening protocol and women's characteristics were obtained from the screening program registry. Cause-specific Cox regression models were used to estimate the hazard ratios (HR of risks factors for interval cancer and incident screen-detected cancer. A multinomial regression model, using screen-detected tumors as a reference group, was used to assess the effect of breast density and other factors on the occurrence of interval cancer subtypes. RESULTS: A previous false-positive was the main risk factor for interval cancer (HR = 2.71, 95%CI: 2.28-3.23; this risk was higher for false-negatives (HR = 8.79, 95%CI: 6.24-12.40 than for true interval cancer (HR = 2.26, 95%CI: 1.59-3.21. A family history of breast cancer was associated with true intervals (HR = 2.11, 95%CI: 1.60-2.78, previous benign biopsy with a false-negatives (HR = 1.83, 95%CI: 1.23-2.71. High breast density was mainly associated with occult tumors (RRR = 4.92, 95%CI: 2.58-9.38, followed by true intervals (RRR = 1.67, 95%CI: 1.18-2.36 and false-negatives (RRR = 1.58, 95%CI: 1.00-2.49. CONCLUSION: The role of women's characteristics differs among

  19. Risk factors for male breast cancer in Canada, 1994-1998.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, K C; Pan, S; Mao, Y

    2002-06-01

    Relatively little attention has been paid to the aetiology of male breast cancer and the current understanding of female breast cancer, primarily related to reproductive events, cannot be readily transferred to understanding the cancer in males. However, since male breast cancer occurs in the absence of factors related to childbearing and menstruation, its aetiology may provide special insights into the causes of breast cancer in women. We examined lifestyle risk factors for male breast cancer as part of a Canadian, multi-site, population-based, case-control study. Eighty-one newly diagnosed, histologically confirmed cases and 1905 male controls aged 42-74 were analysed using unconditional logistic regression. Increased risks were found for men with a mother or sister with breast cancer (adjusted odds ratio (OR) 3.65, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.62-8.19). Higher physical activity levels (moderate, and strenuous recreational plus occupational) were associated with a decreased risk of male breast cancer (highest quartile, adjusted OR 0.48, 95% CI 0.26-0.91). Similarly, higher risks were associated with higher weight 2 years before interview (2.19, 95% CI 1.08-4.43), maximum weight (OR 2.66) and higher body mass index (OR 1.60). Higher vegetable consumption and coffee consumption were associated with decreased risk, whereas higher beta-carotene, vitamin E and calcium supplementation were associated with statistically significant increased risk. The small number of cases and multiple comparisons preclude strong conclusions, but our study is consistent with studies suggesting obesity and family history increase risk, and physical activity decreases risk of breast cancer. PMID:12131659

  20. Environmental risk factors of cancer and their primary prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobrowolski, J W; Smyk, B

    1993-01-01

    The evaluation of the influence of different environmental carcinogenic factors requires interdisciplinary cooperation. Related studies include epidemiological surveys and air, water and soil, chemical, toxicological, and microbiological analyses, supplemented by experimental verification of suspected ecological pathogens and cofactors. A balance of carcinogens and protective agents in the external environment and in the human body is recommended for an ecologically oriented prevention. Toxicological control of the food chain using modern technology (Proton-induced X-ray emission (PIXE), nuclear activation analysis, and induced coupled plasma) should be integrated with microanalyses at the cellular level (by X-ray scanning electron microscopy, nuclear magnetic response, PIXE, and spontaneous and delayed chemiluminescence for balance of free-radicals and their scavengers). A pilot cross-disciplinary study conducted in the area of a "cluster" of human neoplasms and cattle leukemia, in comparison with control villages in Poland, showed an excess in Pb, Hg, Ni, Rb, K, Mn, Cr, and Zn, accompanied by a nutritional deficiency in Mg, Ca, Fe, Co, and Se in the food chain of the "cluster." The living and breeding houses in this area were significantly more contaminated with the toxicogenic molds Aspergillus flavus and Penicillium meleagrinum and by nitrate and nitrite in the drinking water. Our experiments showed that selenium deficiency stimulated the growth of fungi and some bacteria and increased the immunosuppressive and teratogenic effects of aflatoxin B1. New methods of protection of the indoor environment against microbiological contamination and laser-related biotechnology for nutritional prevention of selenium deficiency and associated risk of neoplasms have been introduced. Primary prevention requires a large scale application of highly sensitive methods for early detection of risk factors in the environment, food, water, and at the personal level, as well as

  1. THE FREQUENCY OF RISK FACTORS ON TRENDS OF PANCREATIC CANCER IN KOSOVO

    OpenAIRE

    Ramadani, Naser; Dedushi, Kreshnike; Muçaj, Sefedin; Kabashi, Serbeze; Jerliu, Naim; Hoxhaj, Astrit

    2016-01-01

    The aim: The aim of this paper is to analyze different factors that influence the trends of pancreatic cancer mortality and morbidity of patients treated at the UCCK of Kosovo. Within this study, we have evaluated pancreatic cancer risk factors, durability and lethality regarding Kosovan patients who have been diagnosed and treated within Kosovo. The study in question is that of retrospective research traversing the period of 2011-2015. Materials and methodology: This retrospective research s...

  2. Risk Factors, Preventive Practices, and Health Care Among Breast Cancer Survivors, United States, 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sherri G. Homan, RN, FNP, PhD

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction We compared behavioral risk factors and preventive measures among female breast cancer survivors, female survivors of other types of cancers, and women without a history of cancer. Survivorship health care indicators for the 2 groups of cancer survivors were compared. Methods Using data from the 2010 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, we calculated the proportion of women with risk factors and their engagement in preventive practices, stratified by cancer status (cancer survivors or women with no history of cancer, and compared the proportions after adjusting for sociodemographic characteristics. Results A significantly higher proportion of breast cancer survivors had mammography in the previous year (79.5%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 76.0%–83.0% than did other cancer survivors (68.1%; 95% CI, 65.6%–70.7% or women with no history of cancer (66.4%; 95% CI, 65.5%–67.3%. Breast cancer survivors were also more likely to have had a Papanicolaou (Pap test within the previous 3 years than women with no history of cancer (89.4%; 95% CI, 85.9%–93.0 vs 85.1%; 95% CI, 84.4%–85.8% and a colonoscopy within the previous 10 years (75.4%; 95% CI, 71.7%–79.0% than women with no history of cancer (60.0%; 95% CI, 59.0%–61.0%. Current smoking was significantly lower among survivors of breast cancer (10.3%; 95% CI, 7.4%–13.2% than other cancer survivors (20.8%; 95% CI, 18.4%–23.3% and women with no history of cancer (18.3%; 95% CI, 17.5%–19.1%. After adjusting for sociodemographic characteristics, we found that breast cancer survivors were significantly more likely to have had mammography, a Pap test, and colonoscopy, and less likely to be current smokers. Conclusion Breast cancer survivors are more likely to engage in cancer screening and less likely to be current smokers than female survivors of other types of cancer or women with no history of cancer.

  3. Risk factors for anastomotic dehiscence in colon cancer surgery-a population-based registry study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gessler, Bodil; Bock, David; Pommergaard, Hans-Christian;

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: The aim of this was to assess potential risk factors for anastomotic dehiscence in colon cancer surgery in a national cohort. METHODS: All patients, who had undergone a resection of a large bowel segment with an anastomosis between 2008 and 2011, were identified in the Swedish Colon Cancer...... Registry. Patient factors, socioeconomic factors, surgical factors, and medication and hospital data were combined to evaluate risk factors for anastomotic dehiscence. RESULTS: The prevalence of anastomotic dehiscence was 4.3 % (497/11 565). Male sex, ASA classification III-IV, prescribed medications......, bleeding more than 300 mL, and uncommon colorectal resections were associated with a higher risk of anastomotic dehiscence. Hospital stay was increased with 14.5 days, and 30-day mortality as well as long-term mortality was higher in the anastomotic dehiscence group. CONCLUSIONS: There are several factors...

  4. Common mitochondrial polymorphisms as risk factor for endometrial cancer

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    Endometrial carcinoma is the most commonly diagnosed gynaecological cancer in developed countries. Although the molecular genetics of this disease has been in the focus of many research laboratories for the last 20 years, relevant prognostic and diagnostic markers are still missing. At the same time mitochondrial DNA mutations have been reported in many types of cancer during the last two decades. It is therefore very likely that the mitochondrial genotype is one of the cancer susceptibility ...

  5. Evidence of gene-environment interactions between common breast cancer susceptibility loci and established environmental risk factors

    OpenAIRE

    Nickels, Stefan; Truong, Thérèse; Hein, Rebecca; Stevens, Kristen; Buck, Katharina; Behrens, Sabine; Eilber, Ursula; Schmidt, Martina; Häberle, Lothar; Vrieling, Alina; Gaudet, Mia; Figueroa, Jonine; Schoof, Nils; Spurdle, Amanda B.; Rudolph, Anja

    2013-01-01

    Various common genetic susceptibility loci have been identified for breast cancer; however, it is unclear how they combine with lifestyle/environmental risk factors to influence risk. We undertook an international collaborative study to assess gene-environment interaction for risk of breast cancer. Data from 24 studies of the Breast Cancer Association Consortium were pooled. Using up to 34,793 invasive breast cancers and 41,099 controls, we examined whether the relative risks associated with ...

  6. A case control study of risk factors associated with female breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To find the association of various risk factors with breast cancer. Study Design: It was a case-control study. Place and Duration of Study: The study was carried out in NORI Hospital Islamabad and Combined Military Hospital Rawalpindi between August, 2013 and February, 2014. Material and Methods: Two hundred breast cancer patients and 200 control subjects were inducted. A short approved and planned questionnaire was used to collect data regarding basic demographic, menstrual and reproductive characteristics of participating females. Cases and controls were then interviewed after taking written consent. Results: Breast cancer patients and control subjects did not differ regarding age (p = 0.15), early menarche (OR for menarche at <13 years vs. ?13=1.3, 95% CI = 0.84 - 2.02), and history of breast cancer in 1st degree relatives did not increase breast cancer risk (OR = 1.0, 95% CI = 0.57 - 1.74). Nulliparous women had significantly higher risk than parous women (OR = 2.43, 95% CI = 1.22 - 4.84) and women with late menopause compared to women with early onset of menopause were also at higher risk for breast cancer (OR for menopause at ? 50 vs. < 50 = 5.16, 95% CI = 2.59 - 10.29). Conclusion: Nulliparity and menopausal age of more than 50 years was associated with increased breast cancer risk. Breast feeding and age less than 25 years at first live birth was not protective against breast cancer. (author)

  7. Risk factors of breast cancer in Dezful city of Iran: a case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behzad Jafarinia

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Breast cancer is one of the most prevalent cancers among women and features increasing trends of incidence rates. Worldwide, yearly about 1.67 million of new cases and 522,000 of deaths from breast cancer are registered. The aim of this study was to determine the risk factors of breast cancer in women and to identify high risk groups. Methods: In a case-control study, 170 women with breast cancer who were registered in cancer registration system from 2011 to 2015 at Dezful City, Iran, were compared with 170 healthy women with confirmation of mammography. After age matching of groups, the needed information about risk factors and demographic information including information, educational level, marital status, family history of breast cancer, age at menarche, parity, oral contraceptive use, age at first pregnancy, menopausal status, and age at menopause, breastfeeding, stress, abortion, alcohol use and smoking, hormone therapy and physical activity was collected by a questionnaire. The analysis of collected data was performed by using odds ratio and logistic regression model and SPSS software, version 16 (SPSS, Inc., Chicago, IL, USA. The statistical significance was set at a two-sided p-value of %5. Results: The results of this study showed that, women with the family history [OR: 6.78 (95% CI: 2.15-21.41] and women with the stress history [OR: 4.86 (95% CI: 2.46-9.59] had higher risk of breast canser, while women with the history of having physical activity at least once a week [OR: 0.29 (95% CI: 0.13-0.65] and women with the history breast feeding for 3 to 4 years [OR: 0.36 (95% CI: 0.16-0.81] had lower risk of breast cancer. Conclusion: It is recommended that the mentioned risk factors and protective factors be considered in first and second level (screening of preventive programs.

  8. A multi-institute case-control study on the risk factors of developing pancreatic cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizuno, S; Watanabe, S; Nakamura, K; Omata, M; Oguchi, H; Ohashi, K; Ohyanagi, H; Fujiki, T; Motojima, K

    1992-08-01

    A multi-institute, hospital-based, case-control study on pancreatic cancer was carried out to examine its association with preceding diseases, cigarette smoking, alcohol drinking and dietary factors. Analyses were based on 124 newly diagnosed exocrine pancreatic cancer cases and sex-, age- and institute-matched hospital controls in seven hospitals in Japan. Cigarette smoking showed a positive association with the risk of developing pancreatic cancer. Especially among smokers, a risk enhancing effect of involuntary/passive smoking prior to twenty years of age was observed (P tea or alcohol consumption. Among dietary factors, favoring food of a salty taste and drinking green tea five cups per day or more were positively associated with the risk. Drinking milk and eating fish everyday were inversely associated with the risk. PMID:1434027

  9. Risk factors for skin cancer development in patients after organ transplantation 

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beata Imko-Walczuk

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Cancer has become the second most common cause of death in patients after organ transplantation. Among all cancers arising de novo after transplantation skin cancers are the most common, accounting for 95�0of all skin neoplasms.Due to the significantly higher morbidity, aggressive, rapid progression of cancer and unfavorable prognosis, the population requires a specific oncological approach. Therefore, special attention should be paid to factors predisposing to the development of cancer, including skin cancer, in patients after organ transplantation. Some of these factors are well understood, while the role of others is still ambiguous. Among the etiological factors mentioned are those that are associated with the recipient. These include genetic factors such as male sex, fair skin and inability to be tanned, and compatibility of the HLA system, and non genetic factors such as patient age, chronic skin ulcers and scars, the type of transplanted organ, immunosuppression, and particularly the type and cumulative doses of drugs. In addition, the pathogenesis of cancer is influenced by environmental factors such as exposure to sunlight and therefore latitude, ionizing radiation, chemical carcinogens and viral infections.Knowledge of etiological factors and mechanisms of etiopathogenesis allow for indication and observation of patients with increased risk of cancer as well as faster healing in these patients. 

  10. Understanding your colon cancer risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... what steps you can take to prevent colon cancer . Risk Factors We do not know what causes colon cancer, ... Society. Colorectal cancer: detailed guide. What are the risk factors for colorectal cancer? Available at: www.cancer.org/cancer/colonandrectumcancer/detailedguide/ ...

  11. Prevalence of oral cancer and pre-cancerous lesions and the association with numerous risk factors in North India: A hospital based study

    OpenAIRE

    Gupta, Shalini; Singh, Rajender; O.P. Gupta; Tripathi, Anurag

    2014-01-01

    Background: Oral cancer is one of the most common life-threatening diseases all over the world. Developing countries face several challenges to identify and remove potential risk factors. Chewing tobacco/pan masala is considered to be the most potent risk factor for oral precancerous lesions and oral cancer. Objectives: To investigate the relative occurrence of different oral pre-cancerous lesions and oral cancer in North India and to identify the associated risk factors. Materials and Method...

  12. Breast cancer risk factors and outcome: a global perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bhoo Pathy, N.

    2011-01-01

    The burden of breast cancer had been increasing in Asia. However, little is known regarding the presentation, management and outcome of breast cancer among multi-ethnic Asian women. Asian ethnicities, lifestyles, health beliefs, and even life expectancies are substantially different from those of we

  13. Nested case-control study on the risk factors of colorectal cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kun Chen; Jian Cai; Xi-Yong Liu; Xi-Yuan Ma; Kai-Yan Yao; Shu Zheng

    2003-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the risk factors of colon cancer andrectal cancer.METHODS: A nested case-control study was conducted ina cohort of 64 693 subjects who participated in a colorectalcancer screening program from 1989 to 1998 in Jiashancounty, Zhejiang, China. 196 cases of colorectal cancer weredetected from 1990 to 1998 as the case group and 980non-colorectal cancer subjects, matched with factors of age,gender, resident location, were randomly selected from the64 693 cohort as controls. By using univariate analysis andmutivariate conditional logistic regression analysis, the oddsratio (OR) and its 95 % confidence interval (95 %CI) werecalculated between colorectal cancer and personal habits,dietary factors, as well as intestinal related symptoms.RESULTS: The mutivariate analysis results showed that aftermatched with age, sex and resident location, mucous bloodstool history and mixed sources of drinking water were closelyassociated with colon cancer and rectal cancer, OR values forthe mucous blood stool history were 3.508 (95 %CI: 1.370-8.985) and 2.139 (95 %CI: 1.040-4.402) respectively; for themixed drinking water sources, 2.387 (95 %CI: 1.243-4.587)and 1.951 (95 %CI: 1.086-3.506) respectively. All reachedthe significant level with a P-value less than 0.05.CONCLUSION: The study suggested that mucous bloodstool history and mixed sources of drinking water were therisk factors of colon cancer and rectal cancer. There was noany significant association between dietary habits and theincidence of colorectal cancer.

  14. Dairy cattle serum and milk factors contributing to the risk of colon and breast cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    zur Hausen, Harald; de Villiers, Ethel-Michele

    2015-08-15

    The analysis of published epidemiological data on colon and breast cancer reveals a remarkable concordance for most regions of the world. A low incidence for both cancers has been recorded in Mongolia and Bolivia. Discrepant data, however, have been reported for India, Japan and Korea. In India, the incidence of breast cancer is significantly higher than for colon cancer, in Japan and Korea colon cancer exceeds by far the rate of breast cancer. Here, studies are summarized pointing to a species-specific risk for colon cancer after consumption of beef originating from dairy cattle. Uptake of dairy products of Bos taurus-derived milk cattle, particularly consumed at early age, is suggested to represent one of the main risk factors for the development of breast cancer. A recent demonstration of reduced breast cancer rates in individuals with lactose intolerance (Ji et al., Br J Cancer 2014; 112:149-52) seems to be in line with this interpretation. Species-specific risk factors for these cancers are compatible with the transmission of different infectious factors transferred via meat or dairy products. Countries with discordant rates of colon and breast cancer reveal a similar discordance between meat and milk product consumption of dairy cattle. The recent isolation of a larger number of novel presumably viral DNAs from serum, meat and dairy products of healthy dairy cows, at least part of them infectious for human cells, deserves further investigation. Systemic infections early in life, resulting in latency and prevention of subsequent infections with the same agent by neutralizing antibodies, would require reconsideration of ongoing prospective studies conducted in the adult population. PMID:25648405

  15. A Commentary on “Risk Factors for Renal Cell Cancer in a Japanese Population”

    OpenAIRE

    Cidon, Esther Uña

    2009-01-01

    The well-written and researched article reported in Clinical Medicine: Oncology by Dr. Washio and Dr. Mori entitled “Risk factors for renal cell cancer in a Japanese population”1 makes evident the differences in incidence and mortality rates from renal cell carcinoma (RCC) between different populations and highlights the relevance of carrying out epidemiological studies, investigating additional risk factors which may explain the differences.

  16. Multiple primary cancers in Denmark 1943-80; influence of possible underreporting and suggested risk factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The risk of developing a second primary cancer was studied among 171,749 men and 208,192 women who were reported to the Danish Cancer Registry between 1943 and 1980. Only those who survived at least two months were included in the analysis, and more than 1.7 million person-years of observation were accrued. Altogether, 15,084 second primary cancers developed, of which 13,231 were in organs other than the initial or adjacent site [relative risk (RR) = 1.01]. Adjustment for possible underreporting of multiple primary cancers increased the RR to 1.24, which stresses the need for detailed knowledge of registration procedures interpreting results from cancer registries. The unadjusted RR for all sites increased with time, from 0.94 during the first decade of follow-up (excluding the first year) to 1.13 among 30-year survivors, whereas the adjusted RR increased from 1.08 to 1.41. Elevated risks were observed for sites thought to have a common etiology. For example, cancers of smoking-related sites were increased in both directions following cancers of the oral cavity, respiratory tract, and urinary organs. For cancers suspected to have a hormone- or dietary fat-related association, significant reciprocal relationships were seen among cancers of the endometrium, ovary, and colon. Cancer treatment probably is an important factor in second cancer development, even when judged indirectly in the present study. For example, radiotherapy may have been responsible for an elevated risk of subsequent cancers of the thyroid, breast, colon, rectum, bladder, and connective tissue in long-term survivors. Chemotherapy may have increased the risk of subsequent leukemias

  17. Nongenetic causes of childhood cancers: evidence from international variation, time trends, and risk factor studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ionizing radiation and a variety of genetic conditions are thought to explain 5-10% of childhood cancers. Infection with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) in parts of Africa and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) increase the risk of Burkitt's lymphoma and Kaposi's sarcoma, respectively. Other risk factors have not been conclusively identified. A review of the data on international variation in incidence, recent changes in incidence, and risk factors suggests that many childhood cancers are likely to have nongenetic causes. The pattern of international variation and associations with surrogates of infection suggest an infectious etiology for acute lymphoblastic leukemia, although no agent has been identified. The biologic plausibility is strong that maternal consumption of food containing DNA topoisomerase II inhibitors may increase the risk of acute myeloid leukemia, although the data are limited now. For brain tumors, cured meats, polyomaviruses, and farm exposures may have etiologic roles. Changes in the incidence and characteristics of children with hepatoblastoma as well as risk factor studies suggest a role for an exposure of very low birth weight babies. High birth weight, tea or coffee consumption, and certain paternal occupations have shown some consistency in their association with Wilms' tumor. For most of the other cancers, very few epidemiologic studies have been conducted, so it is not surprising that nongenetic risk factors have not been detected. The most important difference between the cancers for which there are good etiologic clues and those for which there are not may be the number of relevant studies

  18. Radiation exposure and familial aggregation of cancers as risk factors for colorectal cancer after radioiodine treatment for thyroid carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: In thyroid cancer patients, radioiodine treatment has been shown to be associated with an increased risk of colon carcinoma. The aim of this study in thyroid cancer patients was to evaluate the role of familial factors in the risk of colorectal cancer and their potential interaction with radioiodine exposure. Methods and Materials: We performed a case-control study on 15 colorectal cancer patients and 76 matched control subjects, nested in a cohort of 3708 thyroid cancer patients treated between 1933 and 1998. For each patient, the radiation dose delivered to the colon by radioiodine was estimated by use of standard tables. In those who received external radiation therapy, the average radiation doses delivered to the colon and rectum were estimated by use of DOSEg software. A complete familial history was obtained by face-to-face interviews, and a familial index was defined to evaluate the degree of familial aggregation. Results: The risk of colorectal cancer increased with familial aggregation of colorectal cancer (p = 0.02). After adjustment for the radiation dose delivered to the colon and rectum, the risk of colorectal cancer was 2.8-fold higher (95% CI, 1.0-8.0) for patients with at least one relative affected by colorectal cancer than for patients without such a family history (p = 0.05). The radiation dose delivered to the colon and rectum by 131I and external radiation therapy was associated with an increase of risk near the significance threshold (p = 0.1). No significant interaction was found between radiation dose and having an affected relative (p = 0.9). Conclusions: The role of familial background in the risk of colorectal cancer following a differentiated thyroid carcinoma appears to increase with the radiation dose delivered to the colon and rectum. However, the study population was small and no interaction was found between these two factors

  19. Postmenopausal breast cancer in Iran; risk factors and their population attributable fractions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghiasvand Reza

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Causes of the rapidly increasing incidence of breast cancer in Middle East and Asian countries are incompletely understood. We evaluated risk factors for postmenopausal breast cancer and estimated their attributable fraction in Iran. Methods We performed a hospital-based case–control study, including 493 women, diagnosed with breast cancer at 50 years or later between 2005–2008, and 493 controls. We used logistic regression models to estimate multivariable odds ratios (OR and 95% confidence intervals (CI, and population attributable fractions (PAF for significant risk factors. Results The risk of breast cancer decreased with increasing parity. Compared with nulliparous women, the adjusted OR (95% CI was 0.53 (0.25-1.15 for parity 1–3, 0.47 (0.29-0.93 for parity 4–6 and 0.23 (0.11-0.50 for parity ≥7. The estimated PAF for parity (25 was approximately 25%. The family history was significantly associated with increased breast cancer risk, but not increasing height, early age at menarche, late age at first birth or short breastfeeding. Conclusions Decreasing parity and increasing obesity are determinants of increasing breast cancer incidence among Iranian women. These trends predict a continuing upward trend of postmenopausal breast cancer.

  20. Reproductive factors, hormone use and gastric cancer risk: The Singapore Chinese Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhensheng; Butler, Lesley M; Wu, Anna H; Koh, Woon-Puay; Jin, Aizhen; Wang, Renwei; Yuan, Jian-Min

    2016-06-15

    Gastric cancer incidence varies greatly worldwide, but is consistently twice as high in men than in women. The hormone-related factors hypothesized to be associated with lower risk of gastric cancer in women have not been fully explored in populations with a high background risk of gastric cancer. The Singapore Chinese Health Study (SCHS) is a prospective cohort study in which 34,022 of the participants enrolled between 1993 and 1998 were women between 45 and 74 years of age. Information on reproductive histories, hormone replacement therapy (HRT) and oral contraceptive (OC) use was collected through in-person interviews at baseline. As of December 31, 2013, 269 incident gastric cancer cases were identified. Multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated to evaluate gastric cancer risk associations. Older age at natural menopause (≥55 versus cycling (fourth versus first quartile: HR = 0.67, 95% CI: 0.46-0.96) were associated with a decreased risk of gastric cancer. Ever use of OCs and HRT was also associated with reduced risk of gastric cancer; the multivariable-adjusted HRs (95% CIs) were 0.40 (0.17-0.90) for use of HRT >3 years and 0.67 (0.47-0.94) for ever use of OCs, compared with never use. Reproductive factors associated with a longer window of fertility and the use of exogenous hormones were shown to reduce gastric cancer development in a cohort of Chinese women with a high background risk of gastric cancer. PMID:26829904

  1. Local bladder cancer clusters in southeastern Michigan accounting for risk factors, covariates and residential mobility.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geoffrey M Jacquez

    Full Text Available In case control studies disease risk not explained by the significant risk factors is the unexplained risk. Considering unexplained risk for specific populations, places and times can reveal the signature of unidentified risk factors and risk factors not fully accounted for in the case-control study. This potentially can lead to new hypotheses regarding disease causation.Global, local and focused Q-statistics are applied to data from a population-based case-control study of 11 southeast Michigan counties. Analyses were conducted using both year- and age-based measures of time. The analyses were adjusted for arsenic exposure, education, smoking, family history of bladder cancer, occupational exposure to bladder cancer carcinogens, age, gender, and race.Significant global clustering of cases was not found. Such a finding would indicate large-scale clustering of cases relative to controls through time. However, highly significant local clusters were found in Ingham County near Lansing, in Oakland County, and in the City of Jackson, Michigan. The Jackson City cluster was observed in working-ages and is thus consistent with occupational causes. The Ingham County cluster persists over time, suggesting a broad-based geographically defined exposure. Focused clusters were found for 20 industrial sites engaged in manufacturing activities associated with known or suspected bladder cancer carcinogens. Set-based tests that adjusted for multiple testing were not significant, although local clusters persisted through time and temporal trends in probability of local tests were observed.Q analyses provide a powerful tool for unpacking unexplained disease risk from case-control studies. This is particularly useful when the effect of risk factors varies spatially, through time, or through both space and time. For bladder cancer in Michigan, the next step is to investigate causal hypotheses that may explain the excess bladder cancer risk localized to areas of

  2. What Are the Risk Factors for Bone Cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cases are caused by a mutation of the p53 tumor suppressor gene, but some are caused by mutations in the gene CHEK2 . Another syndrome that includes bone cancer is the Rothmund-Thomson syndrome . Children with this ...

  3. What Are the Risk Factors for Penile Cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... man more likely to develop penile cancer. Human papilloma virus (HPV) infection Human papilloma virus (HPV) is a group of more than 150 related viruses. They are called papilloma viruses because some of them cause growths called ...

  4. What Are the Risk Factors for Vulvar Cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... vulvar cancer average about 20 years younger. Human papilloma virus Human papilloma virus (HPV) is a group of more than 150 types of viruses. They are called papilloma viruses because some of them cause a type ...

  5. Relationship of detection rate of PET cancer screening examinees and risk factors. Analysis of background of examinees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Positron emission tomography (PET) cancer screening is performed widely in Japan as opportunistic screening, but no study has focused on the correlation with various cancer risk factors and the seeking bias of examinees and cancer detection rate. Analyzing our large series of PET cancer screening data, correlations with cancer detection rates according to general cancer risk factors and PET detection survey were reviewed, and the selection bias of the medical examinees was determined. 19189 examinees who underwent PET cancer screening were enrolled. Using logistic-regression analysis, we analyzed correlations between smoking history/drinking history/cancer family history and detection rates of thyroid cancer/breast cancer/colorectal cancer/lung cancer, which are the main malignancies detected in PET cancer screening. In addition, we evaluated seeking bias of examinees, analyzing correlations between the presence of cancer risk factors and prior screening checkups at other institutions to our PET cancer screening using a matched case-control study. Cancer detection rates by FDG-PET were 1.17% (224/19189), being much higher than those of standard cancer mass screenings. In males, statistically significant correlations were seen between lung cancer and smoking, and between prostate cancer and a family history of prostate cancer, but not between the detection rates of three other types of cancer (thyroid cancer/lung cancer/colorectal cancer) and other cancer risk factors. In females, detection rates of four types of cancer (thyroid cancer/lung cancer/colorectal cancer/breast cancer) were significantly higher in the examinees without cancer risks, and subgroup analysis according to types of cancer did not indicate significant correlations either. The matched case-control study evaluating seeking bias indicated that a significant proportion of the examinees with cancer risks had undergone prior cancer screening at other institutions. Our study indicated that there was

  6. [The Dutch Cancer Society Cancer Risk Test].

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elias, S.; Grooters, H.G.; Bausch-Goldbohm, R.A.; Brandt, P.A. van den; Kampman, E.; Leeuwen, F.E. van; Peeters, P.H.M.; Vries, E. de; Wigger, S.; Kiemeney, L.A.L.M.

    2012-01-01

    The Dutch Cancer Society developed the 'KWF Kanker Risico Test' (Cancer Risk Test) to improve the information available to the Dutch population regarding cancer risk factors. This Internet test, based under licence on the American 'Your Disease Risk' test, informs users about risk factors for 12 com

  7. Gestational diabetes as a risk factor for pancreatic cancer: a prospective cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calderon R

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diabetes is known to be associated with cancer of the pancreas, though there is some debate as to whether it is a cause or a consequence of the disease. We investigated the incidence of pancreatic cancer in a cohort of 37926 Israeli women followed for 28–40 years for whom information on diabetes had been collected at the time they gave birth, in 1964–1976, in Jerusalem. There were 54 cases of pancreatic cancer ascertained from the Israel Cancer Registry during follow-up. Methods We used Cox proportional hazards models to adjust for age at baseline and explore effects of other risk factors, including ethnic groups, preeclampsia, birth order and birth weight of offspring. Results We observed no cases of pancreatic cancer in the women with insulin dependent diabetes; however, there were five cases in the women with gestational diabetes. The interval between the record of diabetes in pregnancy and the diagnosis of pancreatic cancer ranged from 14–35 years. Women with a history of gestational diabetes showed a relative risk of pancreatic cancer of 7.1 (95% confidence interval, 2.8–18.0. Conclusion We conclude that gestational diabetes is strongly related to the risk of cancer of the pancreas in women in this population, and that gestational diabetes can precede cancer diagnosis by many years.

  8. Female Hormonal Factors and the Risk of Endometrial Cancer in Lynch Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dashti, Seyedeh Ghazaleh; Chau, Rowena; Ouakrim, Driss Ait; Buchanan, Daniel D.; Clendenning, Mark; Young, Joanne P.; Winship, Ingrid M.; Arnold, Julie; Ahnen, Dennis J.; Haile, Robert W.; Casey, Graham; Gallinger, Steven; Thibodeau, Stephen N.; Lindor, Noralane M.; Le Marchand, Loïc; Newcomb, Polly A.; Potter, John D.; Baron, John A.; Hopper, John L.; Jenkins, Mark A.; Win, Aung Ko

    2015-01-01

    Importance Apart from hysterectomy, there is no consensus recommendation for reducing endometrial cancer risk for women with a mismatch repair (MMR) gene mutation (Lynch syndrome). Objective To investigate the association between hormonal factors and endometrial cancer risk in Lynch syndrome. Design, Setting, and Participants A retrospective cohort study including 1,128 women with a MMR gene mutation identified from the Colon Cancer Family Registry was conducted. Data were analyzed using a weighted cohort approach. Participants were recruited between 1997 and 2012, from centers across the United States, Australia, Canada, and New Zealand. Exposures Age at menarche, first and last live birth, and menopause, number of live births, hormonal contraceptive use, and postmenopausal hormone use. Main Outcome and Measures Self-reported diagnosis of endometrial cancer. Results Endometrial cancer was diagnosed in 133 women (incidence per 100 person-years, 0.29; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.24 to 0.34). A lower risk of endometrial cancer was associated with later age at menarche (hazard ratio [HR] per year, 0.85 [95%CI, 0.73 to 0.99]; P=.04), parity (parous vs nulliparous: HR, 0.21 [95%CI, 0.10 to 0.42]; P<.001), and hormonal contraceptive use (≥1 year vs <1 year: HR, 0.39 [95%CI, 0.23 to 0.64]; P<.001). There was no statistically significant association between endometrial cancer and age at first and last live birth, age at menopause, and postmenopausal hormone use. Conclusions and Relevance For women with a MMR gene mutation, some endogenous and exogenous hormonal factors were associated with a lower risk of endometrial cancer. These directions and strengths of associations were similar to those for the general population. If replicated, these findings suggest that women with a MMR gene mutation may be counseled like the general population in regard to hormonal influences on endometrial cancer risk. PMID:26151267

  9. Risk factors for colorectal cancer in subjects with family history of the disease.

    OpenAIRE

    Fernandez, E.; La Vecchia, C.; D'Avanzo, B; De Negri, E.; Franceschi, S

    1997-01-01

    The relationship between lifestyle factors, past medical conditions, daily meal frequency, diet and the risk of 'familial' colorectal cancer has been analysed using data from a case-control study conducted in northern Italy. A total of 1584 colorectal cancer patients and 2879 control subjects were admitted to a network of hospitals in the Greater Milan area and the Pordenone province. The subjects included for analysis were the 112 cases and the 108 control subjects who reported a family hist...

  10. Lobular breast cancer: incidence and genetic and non-genetic risk factors.

    OpenAIRE

    Dossus, Laure; Benusiglio, Patrick ,

    2014-01-01

    While most invasive breast cancers consist of carcinomas of the ductal type, about 10% are invasive lobular carcinomas. Invasive lobular and ductal carcinomas differ with respect to risk factors. Invasive lobular carcinoma is more strongly associated with exposure to female hormones, and therefore its incidence is more subject to variation. This is illustrated by US figures during the 1987 to 2004 period: after 12 years of increases, breast cancer incidence declined steadily from 1999 to 2004...

  11. Breast Cancer Risk Factors in a Defined Population: Weighted Logistic Regression Approach for Rare Events

    OpenAIRE

    Zare, Najf; Haem, Elham; Lankarani, Kamran B; Heydari, Seyyed Taghi; Barooti, Esmat

    2013-01-01

    Purpose This study aimed to determine out risk factors for female breast cancer in a low socioeconomic population in Iran. Methods Between 2007 and 2009, a total of 25,592 women who were ensured by the Imam Khomeini Relief Foundation participated in this screening program. The characteristics of patients diagnosed with breast cancer (n=111) were compared with those of control cases (n=25,481). In this study, we used relogit analysis (rare event logistic regression) with a weighting method usi...

  12. Foods as risk factors for colorectal cancer: a case-control study in Burgundy (France).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boutron-Ruault, M C; Senesse, P; Faivre, J; Chatelain, N; Belghiti, C; Méance, S

    1999-07-01

    Although the high meat-low vegetable diet is considered the reference high-risk diet for colorectal cancer, particularly in USA communities, other at-risk dietary patterns, such as high intakes of processed meat and refined carbohydrates are emerging. Little is known about risk factors for colorectal cancer in France, a country at high risk of rectal cancer and moderately high risk of colon cancer. We compared diet of colorectal cancer cases (n = 171) and general population controls (n = 309) in Burgundy (France). Categories of intake were established by sex and based on the distributions of food intakes in controls. Odds ratios for the fourth vs first quartile of intake (OR4) were 2.0 (1.1-3.6) for refined cereal products (rice, pasta and pastry), 2.4 (1.3-4.5) for delicatessen, 2.3 (1.2-4.2) for patés, 1.7 (1.1-2.8) for offal and 2.1 (1.1-4.0) for butter, lard and cream. There was no association with consumption of fresh meat (OR4 = 1.2), fish (OR4 = 1.5), egg (OR4 = 1.1) or dairy products (OR4 = 1.0). A protective effect of vegetables was only observed for left colon cancer (OR3 = 0.3; 0.1-0.6). In men, the most significant risk factors were refined cereal products, seasoning animal fats, chocolate and coffee, whereas risk factors were delicatessen, fat meat, pasta, rice, and chocolate in women. The strong association with refined cereal products is consistent with the hypothesis of a role of hyperinsulinism in colorectal carcinogenesis. The association with processed but not fresh meat suggests the importance of exogenous carcinogenesis in that area. PMID:10443952

  13. What Are the Risk Factors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Links Stay Informed Cancer Home What Are the Risk Factors for Lung Cancer? Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend ... from your cell phone Research has found several risk factors that may increase your chances of getting lung ...

  14. Reproductive factors with respect to breast cancer risk and breast cancer survival

    OpenAIRE

    Hajiebrahimi, Mohammadhossein

    2014-01-01

    Aims: The primary aim of this thesis was to examine the potential relationship between indirect markers of exposure to hormones during pregnancy and the risk of and survival from breast cancer, with special emphasis on young patients. Our specific objectives were as follows: to determine whether the association between placental weight and offspring size, on the one hand, and maternal mortality from breast cancer, on the other, are influenced by tumor characteristics; to ...

  15. Reproductive Factors and Kidney Cancer Risk in 2 US Cohort Studies, 1993–2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karami, Sara; Daugherty, Sarah E.; Schonfeld, Sara J.; Park, Yikyung; Hollenbeck, Albert R.; Grubb, Robert L.; Hofmann, Jonathan N.; Chow, Wong-Ho; Purdue, Mark P.

    2013-01-01

    Clinical and experimental findings suggest that female hormonal and reproductive factors could influence kidney cancer development. To evaluate this association, we conducted analyses in 2 large prospective cohorts (the National Institutes of Health–AARP Diet and Health Study (NIH-AARP), 1995–2006, and the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial (PLCO), 1993–2010). Cohort-specific and aggregated hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals relating reproductive factors and kidney cancer risk were computed by Cox regression. The analysis included 792 incident kidney cancer cases among 283,952 postmenopausal women. Women who had undergone a hysterectomy were at a significantly elevated kidney cancer risk in both NIH-AARP (hazard ratio = 1.28, 95% confidence interval: 1.09, 1.50) and PLCO (hazard ratio = 1.41, 95% confidence interval: 1.06, 1.88). Similar results were observed for both cohorts after analyses were restricted to women who had undergone a hysterectomy with or without an oophorectomy. For the NIH-AARP cohort, an inverse association was observed with increasing age at menarche (P for trend = 0.02) and increasing years of oral contraceptive use (P for trend = 0.02). No clear evidence of an association with parity or other reproductive factors was found. Our results suggest that hysterectomy is associated with increased risk of kidney cancer. The observed associations with age at menarche and oral contraceptive use warrant further investigation. PMID:23624999

  16. Risk factors for pancreatic cancer and early diagnosis of pancreatic cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the strategy for improving the poor prognosis of the pancreatic (P) cancer by its early imaging diagnosis followed by resection, based on recent findings on its high risk group. Epidemiological studies have revealed that patients with diabetes, chronic pancreatitis, intraductal papillary-mucious tumor, P cyst, familial history of P cancer, and hereditary P cancer syndrome are involved in the high risk group of P cancer. Imaging diagnosis with CT and/or endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) followed by histological confirmation for resection can be a useful approach to improve the prognosis in those high risk, asymptomatic individuals with abnormal levels of P enzyme and tumor marker, and with US findings of P ductal dilation and cyst. The guideline 2006 for P cancer by Japan Pancreas Society shows the algorithm leading to the final diagnosis for the positive high risk group: firstly, CT and/or MRCP (MR cholangiopancreatography (CP)); or, in case of uncertainty, EUS and/or ERCP (E retrograde CP) and/or PET; and finally, cytological, histological diagnosis. The newer approach proposed recently for the group is: multi detector row (MD)-CT and EUS; then cytodiagnosis guided by ERCP and/or with fine needle aspiration by EUS, also a promising early diagnosis. As well, molecular biological approaches are supposedly useful for the future diagnosis. (R.T.)

  17. Breast cancer epidemiology according to recognized breast cancer risk factors in the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal and Ovarian (PLCO Cancer Screening Trial Cohort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leitzmann Michael F

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Multidisciplinary attempts to understand the etiology of breast cancer are expanding to increasingly include new potential markers of disease risk. Those efforts may have maximal scientific and practical influence if new findings are placed in context of the well-understood lifestyle and reproductive risk factors or existing risk prediction models for breast cancer. We therefore evaluated known risk factors for breast cancer in a cancer screening trial that does not have breast cancer as a study endpoint but is large enough to provide numerous analytic opportunities for breast cancer. Methods We evaluated risk factors for breast cancer (N = 2085 among 70,575 women who were randomized in the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial. Using Poisson regression, we calculated adjusted relative risks [RRs, with 95% confidence intervals (CIs] for lifestyle and reproductive factors during an average of 5 years of follow-up from date of randomization. Results As expected, increasing age, nulliparity, positive family history of breast cancer, and use of menopausal hormone therapy were positively associated with breast cancer. Later age at menarche (16 years or older vs. 2 35 or more vs. 18.5–24.9: RR = 1.21, 95% CI, 1.02–1.43] was statistically significantly associated with breast cancer. Conclusion The ongoing PLCO trial offers continued opportunities for new breast cancer investigations, but these analyses suggest that the associations between breast cancer and age at menarche, age at menopause, and obesity might be changing as the underlying demographics of these factors change. Clinical Trials Registration http://www.clinicaltrials.gov, NCT00002540.

  18. Bone metastases in breast cancer and its risk factor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breast cancer is considered to often involve bone metastasis. Early detection and treatment of bone metastasis are essential in improving the prognosis of this disease. In 47 patients with bone metastasis confirmed with bone scintigraphy, we examined the appearance time of bone metastasis; bone metastasis was frequently observed with the progress of stage, but no association with the appearance time was found. Age was not associated with the incidence of bone metastasis but was found to be closely related to its appearance time. That is to say, patients with breast cancer below 40 years of age showed relatively early bone metastasis. Bone scintigraphy is required every 6 months at least for 3 years after the operation. In patients over 40 years of age, on the other hand, bone scintigraphy is required only once a year but has to be continued for 5 years or more, because they often show relatively late bone metastasis. (author)

  19. Multivariate Analysis of Reproductive Risk Factors for Ovarian Cancer in Alexandria, Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: Ovarian cancer is the eighth leading cancer in women, as it accounts for 4% of all malignant tumors in females. The incidence of ovarian cancer is up to 10 times higher in western countries than in rural Asian and Africa ones. Different reproductive characteristics, life styles and specific medical conditions are responsible for different pattern and incidence of ovarian cancer worldwide. Material and Methods: A case control study was conducted during the time period from 2000 to 2003 including 172 cases of epithelial ovarian cancer, recently diagnosed and confirmed by histopathology. The patients were accessed at the hospitals currently covered by Alexandria Cancer Registry. In addition, 441 control subjects, comparable by age and address, were randomly selected from patients admitted to the same hospitals for non gynecological, non endocrinal acute diseases. Both cases and controls were subjected to a specific predesigned questionnaire to cover menstrual, reproductive and lifestyle indicators. Univariate and multivariate analysis were conducted and 5% level of significance was adopted. Results: Significantly increased risks were reported with increased number of abortions and increased number of ovarian cycles (OR=1.8, 95% CI (1.7-2.8), and 2.8, 95% CI 2.8 (1.5-5.2), respectively. Similarly, high risks were also reported for increased number of pregnancies, OR= 1.6, 95% CI 1.1-2.4) for I to three pregnancies and 4.2,95% CI 1.2-15.9) for more than four pregnancies On the other hand, decreased risks were reported for those with increased parity compared to nulliparous. Conclusion: Although ovarian cancer is less frequent in our community, yet the significant positive and negative associations between risk factors and ovarian cancer were similar to the results of other studies, apart from the primary prevention program that should be outlined according to prevalence of significant risk factors in the studied local community

  20. A Case Control Study on Risk Factors for Stomach Cancer in Urban Shanghai

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PingpingBao; LifengGao; DakeLiu; MenghuaTao; FanJin

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To examine the possible risk factors for stomach cancer among men and women in Shanghai, China. METHODS In urban Shanghai, in-person interviews were completed for 311 cases newly diagnosed with stomach cancer of ages 30-74. Data were collected from April 1999 to October 1999 and compared to 1579 population-based controls (controls in three cancer studies used together). Information on demographic variables, smoking, diet consumption and others was collected from all subjects. Unconditional logistic regression was used to adjust the possible factors. RESULTS Stomach cancer risk in men rose with smoking, eating hot and fried foods, chronic gastritis and a family history of gastric cancer among men; the risk among women was associated with the consumption of preserved,pickled and fried foods,heavy drinking, chronic gastritis, a history of ulcer disease and a family history of gastric cancer. A doseresponse relationship was found (trends test, P<0.01) among men smokers. In contrast, the consumption of fresh vegetables and fruits, beans (especially soybeans) and soy products, plant oil, and eggs and egg products, was inversely associated with stomach cancer risk. After adjustment of the potential confounding variables, these associations remained significant. CONCLUSIONS The present findings provide further evidence that smoking, eating salted foods (especially salted vegetables), oil-fried foods(including fried cereal, eggs, and peanuts), chronic gastritis, a family history of gastric cancer and so on increase the risk of stomach carcinoma in Shanghai. Fresh vegetables and fruits, beans and soybean products (even after adjusted for use of fresh vegetables and fruits), plant oil, and so on may have protective effects.

  1. FGFR2 intronic SNPs and breast cancer risk; associations with tumor characteristics and interactions with exogenous exposures and other known breast cancer risk factors

    OpenAIRE

    Marian, Catalin; Ochs-Balcom, Heather M; Nie, Jing; Kallakury, Bhaskar V.; Ambrosone, Christine B; Trevisan, Maurizio; Edge, Stephen; Shields, Peter G.; Freudenheim, Jo L.

    2010-01-01

    Recent genome-wide association studies have revealed several new candidate genes for breast cancer, including FGFR2. The associations were also replicated in several other independent studies. The next important step is to study whether these common variants interact with known breast cancer risk factors, exogenous exposures, and tumor characteristics. In a population-based case-control study of 1170 breast cancer cases and 2115 controls, we examined genetic associations of four intronic FGFR...

  2. Colon cancer in rapidly developing countries: review of the lifestyle, dietary, consanguinity and hereditary risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulbari Bener

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Colon cancer rates are rising dramatically in once low incidence nations. These nations are undergoing rapid economic development and are known as “nations in transition” (NIT. This review identifies some of the most common etiological risk factors of colon cancer in these nations and evaluates the existing epidemiological evidence. The main risk factors which were found to be prevalent in NIT include: lifestyle factors such as physical inactivity, obesity and abdominal adiposity, alcohol consumption and cigarette smoking; dietary factors such as fatty food and red meat consumption. Protective factors included white meat and fiber consumption. Several studies found to have significantly higher rates of colon cancer among the young population (<40 years old. There appears to be a quantitative and qualitative increase in risk to relatives of patients diagnosed at a young age compared with those diagnosed later in life, at least part of which is likely to be the result of a hereditary susceptibility. Close relatives of patients with colon cancer are at an increased risk of developing a colon cancer. Close relatives of early onset cases warrant more intensive endoscopic screening and at an earlier age than relatives of patients diagnosed at older ages. Furthermore, these suggest the existence of genetic predispositions in these nations which need to be investigated further and have implications for screening programs. In conclusion, public health awareness campaigns promoting prevention of modifiable risk factors and screening initiatives with guidelines suited to the age-specific incidence rates of NIT are needed very urgently.

  3. Bereavement outcomes: a quantitative survey identifying risk factors in family carers bereaved through cancer.

    OpenAIRE

    Roulston, Audrey; Campbell, Anne; Cairnduff, Victoria; Fitzpatrick, Deirdre; Donnelly, Conan; Gavin, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Background: Enabling patients to die in their preferred place is important but achieving preferred place of death may increase the informal carer’s risk into bereavement. Aim: to determine risk factors of family carers bereaved through cancer in Northern Ireland. Design: These results form part of a larger QUALYCARE-NI study which used postal questionnaires to capture quantitative data on carer’s bereavement scores using the Texas Revised Inventory of Grief. Setting/participants: Participants...

  4. Socioeconomic Status, Negative Affect, and Modifiable Cancer Risk Factors in African American Smokers

    OpenAIRE

    Kendzor, Darla E.; Cofta-Woerpel, Ludmila M.; Mazas, Carlos A.; Li, Yisheng; Vidrine, Jennifer Irvin; Reitzel, Lorraine R.; Costello, Tracy J.; Businelle, Michael S.; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S.; Cinciripini, Paul M.; Wetter, David W.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to describe the prevalence, patterns, and predictors of co-occurring modifiable cancer risk factors among African Americans seeking smoking cessation treatment, and to evaluate previously hypothesized models of the relationship between socioeconomic status and health behavior. Overweight/obesity, at-risk alcohol consumption, and insufficient physical activity were measured in 399 African American smokers. Analyses indicated that 92.8% of participants had a...

  5. Risk factors for breast cancer in a population with high incidence rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report examines generally recognized breast cancer risk factors and years of residence in Marin County, California, an area with high breast cancer incidence and mortality rates. Eligible women who were residents of Marin County diagnosed with breast cancer in 1997–99 and women without breast cancer obtained through random digit dialing, frequency-matched by cases' age at diagnosis and ethnicity, participated in either full in-person or abbreviated telephone interviews. In multivariate analyses, 285 cases were statistically significantly more likely than 286 controls to report being premenopausal, never to have used birth control pills, a lower highest lifetime body mass index, four or more mammograms in 1990–94, beginning drinking after the age of 21, on average drinking two or more drinks per day, the highest quartile of pack-years of cigarette smoking and having been raised in an organized religion. Cases and controls did not significantly differ with regard to having a first-degree relative with breast cancer, a history of benign breast biopsy, previous radiation treatment, age at menarche, parity, use of hormone replacement therapy, age of first living in Marin County, or total years lived in Marin County. Results for several factors differed for women aged under 50 years or 50 years and over. Despite similar distributions of several known breast cancer risk factors, case-control differences in alcohol consumption suggest that risk in this high-risk population might be modifiable. Intensive study of this or other areas of similarly high incidence might reveal other important risk factors proximate to diagnosis

  6. Glutathione S-transferases as risk factors in prostate cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Autrup, Judith; Thomassen, L.H.; Olsen, J.H.;

    1999-01-01

    Glutathione S-transferases are enzymes involved in the metabolism of carcinogens and in the defence against reactive oxygen species. Genetic polymorphisms have been detected in glutathione S-transferases M1, T1 and P1, and some of these polymorphisms have been associated with an increased risk of...

  7. Ovarian Cancer Risk Factors in a Defined Population Using Rare Event Logistic Regression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elham Haem

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study evaluated the role of family history of cancer and gynecologic factors in relation to the etiology of ovarian cancer in a low socioeconomic population in Iran. Methods: From 2007-2009 we conducted a screening program on women with insurance coverage provided by the Imam Khomeini Relief Foundation. A total of 26788 women participated in this study of whom 76 cases had ovarian cancer and 26712 were considered as controls. We used rare event logistic (ReLogit regression analysis with a prior correction method that used the Zelig package in R to obtain odds ratio estimates and confidence intervals. Results: Ovarian cancer was more frequent among postmenopausal than premenopausal (odds ratio: 2.30; confidence interval: 1.17-4.49 women. We observed increased risk for this disease in women with histories of hormone replacement therapy compared to those with no history (odds ratio: 2.36; confidence interval: 1.13-4.91. A greater increase in ovarian cancer was observed in women with family histories of breast (odds ratio: 2.88; confidence interval: 1.44-5.77, ovarian (odds ratio: 11.27; confidence interval: 5.63-22.54 and all cancer sites (odds ratio: 2.95; confidence interval: 1.71-5.08. However, the use of oral contraceptive pills was significantly associated with lower risk for ovarian cancer (odds ratio: 0.47; confidence interval: 0.28-0.79. There was no association between ovarian cancer and age, marital status, occupation, education level, age at menarche, age at first pregnancy and number of pregnancies. Conclusion: Ovarian cancer was considered a rare event. Thus we deemed it necessary to explore the associated risk factors using ReLogit with a prior correction method. The risk factors for ovarian cancer were menopause, history of hormone replacement therapy and family history of cancer of the breast, ovaries and other sites. Oral use of contraceptive pills showed a protective effect on risk for ovarian cancer.

  8. Risk Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Depression has been found to be a risk factor for development of heart disease. Depression occurs in up to 20% of people with ... and has been found to be a risk factor also for subsequent heart attack, the ... Fortunately, depression in patients with heart disease responds well to ...

  9. Perception of selected risk factors for cancer and heart attack among visitors of a public hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandeep Sachdeva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: To assess perception of selected risk factors for cancer and heart attack among visitors of a public hospital. Materials and Methods: Randomly 1651 ambulatory adults were contacted using predesigned, pretested, semi-structure interview schedule comprising selective 12 risk factors for cancer (increasing age, tobacco, obesity, alcohol, diet-rich in fat/oil, diet-poor in fruits and vegetables (F and V, physical in-activity, environmental pollution, multiple sexual partners, insecticides/pesticides/chemicals, micro-organism, family history and 11 for heart attack (increasing age, tobacco, obesity, alcohol, diet-rich in fat/oil, diet-poor in F and V, physical in-activity, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, mental stress, family history. Correct response was awarded one mark and incorrect/do not know response as zero. Results: The study participants comprised of 56.2% attendants and 43.8% patients with mean age of 36.78 (±13.05 years; 71.2% were male, 65% resided in rural area and 32.3% subjects were smoker. A statistically (P = 0.001 higher odds for smoking was found among less educated (odds ratio [OR]: 1.30, rural (OR: 1.60, male (OR: 2.85, patients (OR: 1.41 of more than 30 years of age (OR: 1.67. Nearly, 64.5% and 82.0% subject responded that tobacco causes the heart attack and cancer while obesity was considered as a risk factor by 68.4% (heart attack and 28.1% (cancer. Nearly, 70.7% and 32.0% reported diet rich in fat/oil and poor in F and V could lead to heart attack but only 23.5% and 25.8% mentioned respectively for cancer. Mean risk factors identified for heart attack were 6.64 ± 2.29 (range: 0-11 while for cancer it was 5.01 ± 2.33 (range: 0-12. Nearly, 670 (40.58% and 620 (37.55% subjects mentioned spontaneously at least one type/anatomical site-specific cancer of male and female respectively; 73.4% believed that cancer does not spread by social activity and 54.2% opined that cancer is treatable if detected early. Conclusion

  10. Menstrual and reproductive factors and risk of breast cancer in Asian-Americans.

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, A. H.; Ziegler, R. G.; Pike, M. C.; Nomura, A M; West, D. W.; Kolonel, L N; Horn-Ross, P. L.; Rosenthal, J. F.; Hoover, R. N.

    1996-01-01

    We conducted a population-based case-control study of breast cancer among Chinese-, Japanese- and Filipino-American women in Los Angeles County Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA), San Francisco-Oakland MSA and Oahu, Hawaii. One objective of the study was to quantify breast cancer risks in relation to menstrual and reproductive histories in migrant and US-born Asian-Americans and to establish whether the gradient of risk in Asian-Americans can be explained by these factors. Using a common stu...

  11. Teenagers losing a parent to cancer : experiences, modifiable risk-factors and long-term outcome

    OpenAIRE

    Bylund Grenklo, Tove

    2013-01-01

    Background: We investigated the experiences of cancer-bereaved teenagers. The goal was to identify potentially modifiable risk-factors for long-term psychological consequences and thus be able to guide health-care providers in ways to support bereaved-to-be teenagers. Subjects and Methods: A study-specific questionnaire was made based on semi-structured interviews with cancer-bereaved youths and tested for face-to-face validity. Through population-based registers, we identified cancer-bere...

  12. Incidence and risk factors of postoperative residual curarization in patients with breast cancer: prospective cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Zi-jing HE; Li, Mi; CHEN Jing; Jin-chong DUAN; Wang, Dong-Xin

    2016-01-01

    Objective  To determine the incidence and risk factors of postoperative residual curarization (PORC) in patients with breast cancer after total intravenous anesthesia (TIVA) with vecuronium. Methods  Two hundred and fifty-seven female patients with breast cancer undergoing breast-cancer surgery were enrolled into the present study. Anesthesia was induced with target-controlled infusion of propofol (Cp 3-4μg/ml) and remifentanil (2-3 ng/ml). A bolus of vecuronium 0.1mg/ kg was administered int...

  13. Risk factors for cancer cervix among rural women of a hilly state: A case-control study

    OpenAIRE

    Anita Thakur; Bhupender Gupta; Anmol Gupta; Raman Chauhan

    2015-01-01

    In Himachal Pradesh, cancer cervix is a major public health problem since it ranks as the number one female cancer. A case-control study of 226 newly diagnosed, histopathologically confirmed cases of cancer cervix and equal number of matched controls was conducted at Regional Cancer Center, Himachal Pradesh during the period from July 2008 to October 2009 with the objective to study the common factors associated with cancer cervix. Univariate analysis identified 10 risk factors associated sig...

  14. Adaptation of a Counseling Intervention to Address Multiple Cancer Risk Factors among Overweight/Obese Latino Smokers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Yessenia; Fernández, Maria E.; Strong, Larkin L.; Stewart, Diana W.; Krasny, Sarah; Hernandez Robles, Eden; Heredia, Natalia; Spears, Claire A.; Correa-Fernández, Virmarie; Eakin, Elizabeth; Resnicow, Ken; Basen-Engquist, Karen; Wetter, David W.

    2015-01-01

    More than 60% of cancer-related deaths in the United States are attributable to tobacco use, poor nutrition, and physical inactivity, and these risk factors tend to cluster together. Thus, strategies for cancer risk reduction would benefit from addressing multiple health risk behaviors. We adapted an evidence-based intervention grounded in social…

  15. Risk factors for depression in breast cancer survivors: An update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wayne A. Bardwell

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available La depresión es el trastorno más común en los pacientes con cáncer. Es fundamental entender los factores de riesgo para la depresión o síntomas depresivos elevados para las intervenciones tempranas y diseños de tratamientos. En 2006 publicamos un estudio sobre los factores de riesgo para síntomas depresivos elevados en supervivientes de cáncer de mama. La muestra era suficientemente grande como para permitir determinar la importancia relativa de 26 diferentes posibles factores de riesgo en un único análisis de la regresión logística jerárquico bivariado (N = 2595. Se encontró que las variables relacionadas con cáncer no eran factores de riesgo significativos para síntomas depresivos elevados en dicha muestra. Más bien se explicaba mejor por eventos vitales estresantes, menor optimismo, ambivalencia sobre expresiones emocionales negativas, insomnio y pobre funcionamiento social. Aunque nuestro estudio era potente y examinaba un gran conjunto de posibles factores de riesgo, sólo se alcanzó explicar un 32,4% de la varianza en los niveles de síntomas depresivos. Por ello, hay una amplia posibilidad de identificar otros factores de riesgo. En este trabajo, se examinan estudios posteriores para ver qué otros posibles factores de riesgo se han identificado en la literatura y cómo confirman, refutan o añaden información a nuestros hallazgos del año 2006.

  16. Risk factors for lower-limb lymphedema after surgery for cervical cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lower-limb lymphedema (LLL) is a prevalent complication that is encountered after treatment for gynecological malignancies. The aim of this study was to evaluate the risk factors for postoperative LLL in patients with cervical cancer. We conducted a retrospective chart review for patients who had undergone surgery, including systematic lymphadenectomy, for cervical cancer. Patients who died of cancer, were evaluated for short periods of time (<2 years), had missing medical records, or were suffering from deep venous thrombosis were excluded. We utilized the International Society of Lymphology staging of lymphedema severity as the diagnostic criteria for LLL, and patients with stage II or III lymphedema, as objectively determined by physicians, were included in the group of patients with LLL. Multivariate analysis was performed to confirm independent risk factors. A total of 155 patients with cervical cancer were evaluated. Thirty-one patients (20.0%) contracted LLL with a median follow-up of 6.1 years. Suprafemoral node dissection (odds ratio, 9.5; 95% confidence interval, 1.2-73.3; P=0.031) and adjuvant radiotherapy (3.7; 1.2-10.9; P=0.019) were identified as independent risk factors. Given that the effectiveness of the above two therapeutic options for cervical cancer is currently controversial, the clinical benefits of these therapies should be reevaluated specifically to conserve the quality of life for patients with this disease. (author)

  17. The proportion of postmenopausal breast cancer cases in the Netherlands attributable to lifestyle-related risk factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gemert, van W.A.; Lanting, C.I.; Goldbohm, R.A.; Brandt, van den P.A.; Grooters, H.G.; Kampman, E.; Kiemeney, L.A.L.M.; Leeuwen, van F.E.; Monninkhof, E.M.; Vries, de E.; Peeters, P.H.; Elias, S.G.

    2015-01-01

    We aimed to estimate the proportion of Dutch postmenopausal breast cancer cases in 2010 that is attributable to lifestyle-related risk factors. We calculated population attributable fractions (PAFs) of potentially modifiable risk factors for postmenopausal breast cancer in Dutch women aged >50

  18. Identification of Comprehensive Geriatric Assessment Based Risk Factors for Malnutrition in Elderly Asian Cancer Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, Whee Sze; Rajasekaran, Tanujaa; Nee Koo, Khai; Chan, Li Li; Poon, Donald; Roy Chowdhury, Anupama; Krishna, Lalit; Kanesvaran, Ravindran

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Elderly cancer patients are at increased risk for malnutrition. We aim to identify comprehensive geriatric assessment (CGA) based clinical factors associated with increased nutritional risk and develop a clinical scoring system to identify nutritional risk in elderly cancer patients. Patients and Methods CGA data was collected from 249 Asian patients aged 70 years or older. Nutritional risk was assessed based on the Nutrition Screening Initiative (NSI) checklist. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were applied to assess the association between patient clinical factors together with domains within the CGA and moderate to high nutritional risk. Goodness of fit was assessed using Hosmer-Lemeshow test. Discrimination ability was assessed based on the area under the receiver operating characteristics curve (AUC). Internal validation was performed using simulated datasets via bootstrapping. Results Among the 249 patients, 184 (74%) had moderate to high nutritional risk. Multivariate logistic regression analysis identified stage 3–4 disease (Odds Ratio [OR] 2.54; 95% CI, 1.14–5.69), ECOG performance status of 2–4 (OR 3.04; 95% CI, 1.57–5.88), presence of depression (OR 5.99; 95% CI, 1.99–18.02) and haemoglobin levels <12 g/dL (OR 3.00; 95% CI 1.54–5.84) as significant independent factors associated with moderate to high nutritional risk. The model achieved good calibration (Hosmer-Lemeshow test’s p = 0.17) and discrimination (AUC = 0.80). It retained good calibration and discrimination (bias-corrected AUC = 0.79) under internal validation. Conclusion Having advanced stage of cancer, poor performance status, depression and anaemia were found to be predictors of moderate to high nutritional risk. Early identification of patients with these risk factors will allow for nutritional interventions that may improve treatment tolerance, quality of life and survival outcomes. PMID:27231951

  19. Collagen content as a risk factor in breast cancer? A pilot clinical study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pifferi, Antonio; Quarto, Giovanna; Abbate, Francesca; Balestreri, Nicola; Menna, Simona; Cassano, Enrico; Cubeddu, Rinaldo; Taroni, Paola

    2015-07-01

    A retrospective pilot clinical study on time domain multi-wavelength (635 to 1060 nm) optical mammography was exploited to assess collagen as a breast-cancer risk factor on a total of 109 subjects (53 healthy and 56 with malignant lesions). An increased cancer occurrence is observed on the 15% subset of patients with higher age-matched collagen content. Further, a similar clustering based on the percentage breast density leads to a different set of patients, possibly indicating collagen as a new independent breast cancer risk factor. If confirmed statistically and on larger numbers, these results could have huge impact on personalized diagnostics, health care systems, as well as on basic research.

  20. MAPK genes interact with diet and lifestyle factors to alter risk of breast cancer: The Breast Cancer Health Disparities Study

    OpenAIRE

    Martha L Slattery; Lundgreen, Abbie; John, Esther M.; Torres-Mejia, Gabriela; Hines, Lisa; Giuliano, Anna R.; Baumgartner, Kathy B.; Stern, Mariana C.; Wolff, Roger K.

    2015-01-01

    Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) are integration points for multiple biochemical signals. We evaluated 13 MAPK genes with breast cancer risk and determined if diet and lifestyle factors mediated risk. Data from three population-based case-control studies conducted in Southwestern United States, California, and Mexico included 4183 controls and 3592 cases. Percent Indigenous American (IA) ancestry was determined from 104 Ancestry Informative Markers. The adaptive rank truncated product...

  1. Prevalence and risk factors for development of lymphedema following breast cancer treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BACKGROUND: Early detection and multimodality therapy has resulted in an overall improvement of survival among breast cancer patients. Despite a significant shift in the treatment approach from radical mastectomy to breast conservation a significant number of patients develop lymphedema. This study was conducted to evaluate the prevalence and risk factors for development of lymphedema. SETTINGS AND DESIGN: Retrospective analysis for prevalence of lymphedema in a tertiary care regional cancer centre. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Three hundred treated breast cancer patients with a minimum follow up of one year were evaluated for the prevalence and risk factors for lymphedema. Lymphedema was assessed using a serial circumferential measurement method. More than 3 cm difference in circumference is considered as clinical significant lymphedema. Univariate and multivariate analysis were performed for evaluating the risk factors by using the Chi square test and Cox logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: The prevalence of clinically significant lymphedema was 33.5 % and 17.2 % had severe lymphedema. The prevalence of lymphedema was 13.4 % in patients treated with surgery only where as the prevalence was 42.4% in patients treated with surgery and radiotherapy. Stage of the disease, body surface area> 1.5 m2, presence of co-morbid conditions, post operative radiotherapy and anthracycline based chemotherapy were significant risk factors in univariate analysis where as axillary irradiation and presence of co-morbid conditions have emerged as independent risk factors in multivariate analysis (P < 0.001). CONCLUSION: Post treatment lymphedema continues to be a significant problem following breast cancer therapy. Presence of co-morbid conditions and axillary radiation significantly increases the risk of lymphedema. A combination of axillary dissection and axillary radiation should be avoided whenever feasible to avoid lymphedema. (author)

  2. High risk factors of brain metastases in 295 patients with advanced breast cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Min; L(U) Hui-min; LIU Zhen-zhen; LIU Hui; ZHANG Meng-wei; SUN Xi-bin; CUI Shu-de

    2013-01-01

    Background The incidence of brain metastases in patients with breast cancer is approximately 10%-16%,and survival after diagnosis of brain metastases is usually short.This study was designed to evaluate the risk factors associated with brain metastases in advanced breast cancer patients,with a view to help predict patient groups with high risk of brain metastases.Methods In total,295 patients with advanced breast cancer were evaluated.All patients were pathologically confirmed and metastatic lesions were confirmed pathologically or by imaging.All patients were examined at least once every 6 months with head CT or MRI.Patients showing symptoms underwent immediate inspection,and brain metastatic lesions were confirmed by head CT and/or MRI.Results At a median follow-up of 12 months from the occurrence of metastases,brain metastases had occurred in 49 patients (16.6%).In our univariate analysis,variables significantly related to increased risk of brain metastases were hormone receptor-negative tumors,epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-positive tumors,and multiple distant metastases.Patients with dominant tumor sites in soft tissue,or defined as Luminal A subtype,tended to have a lower risk of brain metastases than patients with visceral metastases,Luminal B subtype,triple-negative subtype or HER2-enriched subtype tumors.Conclusions Our results strongly suggest that factors such as Luminal B,triple-negative,and HER2-enriched subtypes are high risk factors for brain metastases.These data,therefore,provide pivotal clinical evidence towards a comprehensive understanding of the risk factors of brain metastases in advanced breast cancer patients.

  3. Gastric cancer in Africa: what do we know about incidence and risk factors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asombang, Akwi W; Kelly, Paul

    2012-02-01

    Gastric cancer is a major contributor to mortality worldwide, yet its incidence varies widely around the world in a way which our current understanding of aetiology cannot fully explain. Incidence data from Africa are weak, reflecting poor diagnostic resources, but there are firm data on intestinal metaplasia and gastric atrophy which are important steps in the carcinogenesis pathway. The available registry data suggest that incidence is unlikely to be dramatically different from Europe or North America. Helicobacter pylori infection is an important permissive factor in the development of cancer, but H. pylori seroprevalence is high all over Africa and cannot clearly be correlated with cancer. However, there is evidence that specific bacterial virulence genes, particularly vacA and iceA allele1, do contribute to cancer risk. Intestinal metaplasia and gastric atrophy have been the focus of twelve studies and are common in Africa. Epstein-Barr virus, which causes 10% of cancer worldwide, is the focus of only one African study. Work in other continents demonstrates that other risk factors apply only to one or other of the two major histological types, intestinal and diffuse. Diet, smoking, alcohol and salt intake predispose to the intestinal type of cancer, but genetic factors predispose to the diffuse type. There is a pressing need for information on the histological types occurring in Africa, and their associated risk factors. Most urgently, information on dietary predisposition to cancer is required to inform public health policy with respect to the demographic transition (urbanisation and lifestyle changes) which is occurring all over the continent. PMID:22136952

  4. Risk factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article deals with the development of risk management in the gas sector business: why a risk factor legal mention must precede any published financial information? Do gas companies have to face new risks? Is there specific risks bound to gas activities? Why companies want to master their risks? Is it mandatory or just a new habit? Do they expect a real benefit in return? These are the risk management questions that are analyzed in this article which is based on the public communication of 15 gas companies randomly selected over the world. The information comes from their annual reports or from documents available on their web sites. The intention of this document is not to be exhaustive or to make statistics but only to shade light on the risk factors of the gas sector. (J.S.)

  5. Risk factors for breast cancer-related upper extremity lymphedema: a meta-analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To systematically evaluate the risk factors for upper extremity lymphedema after breast cancer treatment and the strength of their associations. Methods: PubMed, Ovid, EMbase, and the Cochrane Library were searched to identify clinical trials published up to December 2012. The quality of included studies was assessed by the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale;data analysis was performed by Stata 10.0 and RevMan 5.2; the strength of associations between risk factors and breast cancer-related upper extremity lymphedema was described as odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). Results: Twenty-two studies involving 10106 patients were included in the meta-analysis. The risk factors for upper extremity lymphedema after breast cancer treatment mainly included axillary lymph node dissection (OR=2.72, 95% CI=1.06-6.99, P=0.038), hypertension (OR=1.84, 95% CI=1.38-2.44, P=0.000), body mass index (OR=1.68, 95% CI=1.22-2.32, P=0.001), and radiotherapy (OR=1.65, 95% CI=1.20-2.25, P=0.002), while no significant associations were found for such factors as chemotherapy, age, number of positive lymph nodes, and number of dissected lymph nodes. Conclusions: The incidence of upper extremity lymphedema is high among patients with breast cancer after treatment, and axillary lymph node dissection, hypertension,body mass index, and radiotherapy are the main risk factors for lymphedema after breast cancer treatment. (authors)

  6. Reproductive Factors but Not Hormonal Factors Associated with Thyroid Cancer Risk: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Yijuan Cao; Zengyan Wang; Juan Gu; Fangfang Hu; Yujuan Qi; Qianqian Yin; Qingqing Sun; Guotao Li; Bin Quan

    2015-01-01

    Many studies have investigated the association between hormonal and reproductive factors and thyroid cancer risk but provided contradictory and inconclusive findings. This review was aimed at precisely estimating this association by pooling all available epidemiological studies. 25 independent studies were retrieved after a comprehensive literature search in databases of PubMed and Embase. Overall, common hormonal factors including oral contraceptive and hormone replacement therapy did not al...

  7. Effect of androgen deprivation therapy on cardiovascular risk factors in prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahnaz Roayaei

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Androgen deprivation is the basis of treatment for advanced stages of prostate cancer. Cardiovascular disease may be a risk factor for mortality in prostate cancer. Therefore, we decided to evaluate the effect of androgen deprivation therapy (ADT on the cardiovascular risk factors in patients with prostate cancer. Materials and Methods: In a cross-sectional study on 2011, 35 patients suffering from metastatic prostate cancer as candidates for ADT were enrolled. Serum levels of fasting blood sugar (FBS, triglyceride (TG and total cholesterol (TC were measured at the beginning and after the 5 th month of ADT. Results: The mean level of TG increased significantly from 130.82 ± 41.57 mg/dl to 150.05 ± 48.29 mg/dl (P < 0.012. Furthermore, serum level of TC increased from 197.62 ± 40.71 mg/dl to 212.54 ± 38.25 mg/dl, which is statistically significant (P < 0.001. A non-significant increase in the serum level of FBS from 96.74 ± 14.04 mg/dl to 99.17 ± 15.23 mg/dl was also seen (P = 0.27. Conclusion: ADT in prostate cancer may lead to an increase in TG and TC levels. In patients with a high risk of cardiovascular disease patient′s lipid profile should be considered during ADT.

  8. A study on relationship to risk factors according to menopausal status in breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Han Sik [Wonkwang Health Science College, Iksan (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-06-01

    It is important to identify modifiable risk factors for breast cancer, because the breast cancer is one of the major cause of mortality among women. Some reported that obesity is a risk factor for breast cancer, but the results are not constant. Many risk factors are related to the duration of estrogenic stimulation of the breast. In general, early menarche and late menopause are positive risk factors. Human breast cancer has different characteristics according to the status of menopause (premenopause and postmenopause). In premenopausal women, about 60% of circulating estrogen is from the ovaries in the form of estradiol, and the remaining 40% is estrogen formed primarily in the adipose(fat) tissue via aromatization of androstenedion from the adrenal glands. After menopause this adipose cell production of estrone is the maon source of estrogens and the level of estrone is maintained approximately at premenopausal levels. This study was undertaken to determine the role of body size and body mass index by status of menopause in development of breast cancer using retrospective case/control study. From Mach 1991 to February 1997 at the Wonkwang University Hospital, the breast cancer cases(n=3D72) and controls(n=3D86) were selected. By statistical analysis method, regression analysis, paired T-test and multiple logistic regression were done to estimate the influenced factors same as height, weight, BMI, age at menarche and age at menopause. The following results were obtained: 1. In premenopausal women, age at menarche was showed comparatively high correlation coefficients and BMI was described prominently highly in postmenopause. 2. At the results of multiple regression analysis, age at menarch, BMI and weight were showed as significant variables. In this method, critical facor(R{sup 2}) was 0.054. 3. Paired samples T-test was undertaken to test mean difference between two groups of cases and controls. The result of test performance showed a significant difference. 4

  9. A study on relationship to risk factors according to menopausal status in breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is important to identify modifiable risk factors for breast cancer, because the breast cancer is one of the major cause of mortality among women. Some reported that obesity is a risk factor for breast cancer, but the results are not constant. Many risk factors are related to the duration of estrogenic stimulation of the breast. In general, early menarche and late menopause are positive risk factors. Human breast cancer has different characteristics according to the status of menopause (premenopause and postmenopause). In premenopausal women, about 60% of circulating estrogen is from the ovaries in the form of estradiol, and the remaining 40% is estrogen formed primarily in the adipose(fat) tissue via aromatization of androstenedion from the adrenal glands. After menopause this adipose cell production of estrone is the maon source of estrogens and the level of estrone is maintained approximately at premenopausal levels. This study was undertaken to determine the role of body size and body mass index by status of menopause in development of breast cancer using retrospective case/control study. From Mach 1991 to February 1997 at the Wonkwang University Hospital, the breast cancer cases(n=3D72) and controls(n=3D86) were selected. By statistical analysis method, regression analysis, paired T-test and multiple logistic regression were done to estimate the influenced factors same as height, weight, BMI, age at menarche and age at menopause. The following results were obtained: 1. In premenopausal women, age at menarche was showed comparatively high correlation coefficients and BMI was described prominently highly in postmenopause. 2. At the results of multiple regression analysis, age at menarch, BMI and weight were showed as significant variables. In this method, critical facor(R2) was 0.054. 3. Paired samples T-test was undertaken to test mean difference between two groups of cases and controls. The result of test performance showed a significant difference. 4. In

  10. Breast cancer in Denmark. Incidence, risk factors, and characteristics of survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewertz, M

    1993-01-01

    In Denmark, incidence of female breast cancer remained constant from 1943 to around 1960, whereafter a steady increase has occurred, the level today being about 50% higher than in 1960. No equivalent rise has been observed for breast cancer mortality. Influence of hormonal and dietary factors on breast cancer risk and survival was evaluated in a combined population-based case-control and follow-up study, including 2,445 women, aged less than 70 years, diagnosed with breast cancer in Denmark between 1 March 1983 and 31 August 1984, identified from the files of the nation-wide clinical trial of the Danish Breast Cancer Co-operative Group (DBCG) and the Danish Cancer Registry. The control group was an age-stratified random sample of the general female population, selected from the Central Population Register. Data on risk factors were collected by self-administered questionnaires. Clinical and pathological tumour characteristics derived from DBCG. The case-control analysis confirmed an overall increased risk of breast cancer associated with urban residence, high social status, nulliparity, early age at menarche, late age at natural menopause, hormonal replacement therapy, high dietary fat intake, and high alcohol consumption in a subgroup. It failed to detect an association with age at first childbirth, oral contraceptives, smoking, intake of vegetables, tea, coffee, and sweeteners. Survival was determined by tumour size, skin invasion, number of positive lymph nodes, and grade. There was no relation between survival and reproductive or hormonal factors, dietary variables, alcohol consumption, or smoking. However, a complex relationship may exist between survival and body mass index. PMID:8260176

  11. Case-Control Study of Dietary Pattern and Other Risk Factors for Gastric Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Naghizadeh Baghi

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: The rates of gastric cancer reported from Ardabil Province of Iran, are among thehighest in the world. The aim of this study was to investigate the risk factors for gastric cancer inArdabil Province.Methods: This case-control study was conducted on 128 adults with mean age of 56.5 ± 12.8 yrold in Ardebil City, Iran in 2010 – 2011. Forty-two people with gastric cancer and 86 healthypeople were recruited. Participants were interviewed using a structured questionnaire. Fastingblood samples were taken for measurement of IgG and IgA indices against Helicobacter pylori infection.Data were analyzed using the Chi-square and Independent sample t-test.Results: Diet and H. pylori infection indices had the significant relationship with gastric cancer(P<0.05. Among dietary patterns, drinking hot tea, low intake of fresh vegetables and fruits, andunsaturated fat were the most significant risk factors (P<0.05. In gastric cancer patients, the levelsof serum IgG and IgA as indicator of H. pylori infection were significantly (P<0.05 higherthan the healthy subjects (IgG 37.7 ± 29.3 vs. 16.9 ± 11.1 U/ml and IgA 50.5 ± 44.7 vs. 22.9 ±15.8 U/ml. No significant relationship was observed between tobacco smoking and alcohol consumptionwith gastric cancer.Conclusion: Dietary pattern especially drinking hot tea and low consumption of unsaturated fat,fresh vegetables, and fruits, as well as H. pylori infection were the most important risk factors ingastric cancer patients.

  12. Colon cancer controls versus population controls in case-control studies of occupational risk factors

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    Sabroe Svend

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since updated population registers do not exist in many countries it is often difficult to sample valid population controls from the study base to a case-control study. Use of patient controls is an alternative option if the exposure experience under study for these patients are interchangeable with the experience for population controls. Patient controls may even be preferable from population controls under certain conditions. In this study we examine if colon cancer patients can serve as surrogates for proper population controls in case-control studies of occupational risk factors. Methods The study was conducted from 1995 to 1997. Incident colon cancer controls (N = 428 aged 35–69 years with a histological verified diagnosis and population controls (N = 583 were selected. Altogether 254 (59% of the colon cancer controls and 320 (55% of the population controls were interviewed about occupational, medical and life style conditions. Results No statistical significant difference for educational level, medical history or smoking status was seen between the two control groups. There was evidence of a higher alcohol intake, less frequent work as a farmer and less exposure to pesticides among colon cancer controls. Conclusions Use of colon cancer controls may provide valid exposure estimates in studies of many occupational risk factors for cancer, but not for studies on exposure related to farming.

  13. The influence of smoking and other risk factors on the outcome after radiochemotherapy for anal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smoking is an important risk factor for the development of cancer. Smoking during radiochemotherapy therapy may have a negative influence on prognosis. We evaluated the effect of smoking during radiochemotherapy on the outcome for patients with anal cancer. Sixty-eight patients (34 smokers, 34 non-smokers) treated by radiochemotherapy for anal cancer were analysed. The effect of smoking during radiochemotherapy and other risk factors (gender, T- and N category, tumor site, dose, therapy protocol) on disease-specific survival (DSS), local control (LC) and colostomy free survival (CFS) was evaluated. There was a significant difference in age and male:female ratio between the two groups. With a median follow up of 22 months (max. 119) DSS, LC, and CFS were 88%, 84% and 84%. A significant difference in local control between smokers (S) and non-smokers (NS) was found (S 74% vs. NS 94%, p = .03). For DSS and CFS a difference in terms of outcome between smokers and non-smokers was seen (DSS: S 82% vs. NS 96%, p = .19, CFS: S 75% vs. 91%, p = .15), which did not reach statistical significance. In multivariate analyses only gender had a significant association with LC and T category with CFS. The other risk factors did not reach statistical significance. Even though our evaluation reached statistical significance only in univariate analysis, we suggest, that the role of smoking during radiochemotherapy for anal cancer should not be ignored. The potential negative effect on prognosis should be explained to patients before therapy

  14. Night work, total occupational burden and cancer/cardiovascular risk factors in physicians

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    Nedić Olesja

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Lifestyle-related risk factors: smoking, obesity, sedentariness and excess alcohol intake are among the most important known causes of cancer and cardiovascular disease. The aim of this study is to examine the relationship between these lifestyle-related risk factors for cancer/cardiovascular disease and working conditions among surgeons/anesthesiologists and other physicians. Material and Methods. The study was carried out among physicians aged 35 to 60, without diagnosed coronary heart disease or other structural heart disease, who were employed at the Novi Sad University Hospital. The participation rate was high (> 90%. The physicians completed the Occupational Stress Index. Low lifestyle-related cancer/cardiovascular risk was defined as: not a current smoker, body mass index < 28, regular recreational physical activity and not consuming alcohol every day. Analysis of covariance was performed. Results. Of 191 physicians included in this study only 23 (12.0% had a low lifestyle- related cancer/cardiovascular risk. Surgeons/anesthesiologists faced a heavier total work stressor burden than physicians in other profiles (87.7±8.8 versus 74.1±10.5, p=0.000. Among the 56 surgeons/anesthesiologists, lower nightshift work scores were associated with low lifestyle-related cancer/cardiovascular risk (F=4.19, p=0.046. A lower overall work stressor burden was associated with low risk among the other 135 physicians (F=4.06, p=0.046. Conclusion. Specific workplace intervention strategies are urgently needed. Among the surgeons/anesthesiologists these should include reduction in the frequency of night call and improvement of the overall conditions of nightshift work. Among other physicians, the total occupational burden needs to be diminished.

  15. Examining breast cancer growth and lifestyle risk factors: early life, childhood, and adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruder, Elizabeth H; Dorgan, Joanne F; Kranz, Sibylle; Kris-Etherton, Penny M; Hartman, Terryl J

    2008-08-01

    The perinatal period, childhood, and adolescence are important intervals for breast cancer risk development. Endogenous estrogen exposure is thought to be highest in utero, and exposure to estrogens throughout life plays an important role in increasing breast cancer risk. Some evidence suggests that breast tissue is not fully differentiated until after the first full-term pregnancy; thus, breast tissue might be more susceptible to carcinogenic influences during early life and adolescence. Birth characteristics of the daughter, including gestational age, birth weight, and birth length are associated with maternal hormone levels during the index pregnancy, and birth size has been related to daughter's timing of puberty and adult breast cancer incidence. Furthermore, early life and adolescence are critical times for maturation of the hypothalamic pituitary ovarian axis, which regulates production of ovarian hormones including estrogen and progesterone. Childhood height, growth, diet, and body mass index (BMI) have also been associated with breast cancer risk later in life. Of the examined characteristics, we conclude that the available evidence is suggestive of a positive relationship of breast cancer risk with birth weight, birth length, and adolescent height, and an inverse relationship with gestational age and childhood BMI, although several inconsistencies exist in the literature. The best evidence for a relationship of adolescent diet and adult breast cancer risk is indirect, and the relationship of diet, weight status, and weight gain in childhood deserves further attention. The interaction of birth characteristics with established risk factors over the life course, such as age at menarche, in addition to gene-environment interactions, require more research. Further study is also needed to clarify the biologic mechanisms influencing the observed associations. PMID:18757260

  16. A case-control study of risk factors for epithelial ovarian cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghaem Maghami Noori F

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Ovarian cancer is second prevalent cancer among gynecologic malignancies and the most common type of ovarian cancer is epithelial form (85-90 percent. To detect the risk factors for the epithelial ovarian cancer, a case-control study was conducted in Valieasr hospital in 1988. In this study, 118 cases with epithelial ovarian cancer (according histological records and 240 controls without any gynecological cancer in gynecologic clinic had been interviewed. For data analysis, T-test, Chi2 test and logistic regression have been used at a =0.05 as level of significance. The mean age in cases was 50±13 and in controls was 49.9±12 years, without significant different. The mean number of pregnancies and parity in cases was less than controls, significantly (P<0.03. The mean months of breast feeding in cases was less than controls (54.9±71.2 versus 82.4±62.7 (P<0.001. The cases had a lower mean age of menarch than controls (P=0.03. 58 percent of cases and 21.3 percent of controls hadn't used any contraception methods (P=0.00001. The mean years of contraception was significantly less in cases versus controls (P<0.001. The odds ratio for epithelial ovarian cancer was 0.24 (95 percent CI: 0.13-0.48 in OCP users, 0.47 (95 percent CI: 0.005-0.43 in TL method, and was 0.41 (95 percent CI: 0.22-0.76 in other contraception methods, relative to women who hadn't used any contraception methods. This study reveals that epithelial ovarian cancer risk increases significantly with earlier menarch, decreasing number of pregnancy, deliveries duration of breast feeding and use of contraception methods. Use of contraception pill and tubal ligation method decreases risk of epithelial ovarian cancer.

  17. Knowledge of breast cancer and its risk and protective factors among women in Riyadh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We conducted this study to assess the knowledge of breast cancer and sources of information about breast cancer among women in Riyadh. We also analyzed whether associations existed between demographic variables. Knowledge of breast cancer and, and the practice of breast self examination and use of mammography screening. Women interested in participating in this community based descriptive study provided data by completing a pre-tested structured questionnaire. Of 864 participating women, 84% were Saudi 45% were married and 67.8% had a university level education*0% were between the ages of 20 to 50 years. Knowledge of breast self examination (BSE) was high 82% (95% CI, 79.2%-84.4%) knew about BSE, 61% (95% CI confidence intervals [CI], 79.2%-84.4%) knew about BSE , while 61% [95%CI, 57.9%-64.5%] knew about mammography but only 41.2% [95% CI, 37.9%-44.5%] had performed BSE and 18.2% (95% CI, 15.5%-20.8%)had had mammography screening Knowledge of breast cancer, risk factors and protective factors for breast cancer was moderate. There was a statistically significant association between demographic characteristics (marital status, educational status and family history of breast cancer) and knowledge and practice of BSE and mammography. Though it has limitations, this study revealed an imbalance between the knowledge and practice of BSE among women. It also showed that there is only that there is only moderate knowledge of risks and protective factors for breast cancer and that knowledge and practice of BSE and mammography vary according to marital and educational status. Hence, frequent community based awareness programs are needed so that all women can know and practice BSE, which in turn helps to prevent breast cancer. (author)

  18. Risk Factors of Permanent Stomas in Patients with Rectal Cancer after Low Anterior Resection with Temporary Stomas

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Chul Min; Huh, Jung Wook; Park, Yoon Ah; Cho, Yong Beom; Kim, Hee Cheol; Yun, Seong Hyeon; Lee, Woo Yong; Chun, Ho-Kyung

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this study was to identify risk factors influencing permanent stomas after low anterior resection with temporary stomas for rectal cancer. Materials and Methods A total of 2528 consecutive rectal cancer patients who had undergone low anterior resection were retrospectively reviewed. Risk factors for permanent stomas were evaluated among these patients. Results Among 2528 cases of rectal cancer, a total of 231 patients had a temporary diverting stoma. Among these cases, 217 ...

  19. A study on risk factors of breast cancer among patients attending the tertiary care hospital, in Udupi district

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramchandra Kamath

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cancer has become one of the ten leading causes of death in India. Breast cancer is the most common diagnosed malignancy in India, it ranks second to cervical cancer. An increasing trend in incidence is reported from various registries of national cancer registry project and now India is a country with largest estimated number of breast cancer deaths worldwide. Aim: To study the factors associated with breast cancer. Objectives: To study the association between breast cancer and selected exposure variables and to identify risk factors for breast cancer. Materials and Methods: A hospital based Case control study was conducted at Shirdi Sai Baba Cancer Hospital and Research Center, Manipal, Udupi District. Results: Total 188 participants were included in the study, 94 cases and 94 controls. All the study participants were between 25 to 69 years of age group. The cases and controls were matched by ± 2 years age range. Non vegetarian diet was one of the important risk factors (OR 2.80, CI 1.15-6.81. More than 7 to 12 years of education (OR 4.84 CI 1.51-15.46 had 4.84 times risk of breast cancer as compared with illiterate women. Conclusion: The study suggests that non vegetarian diet is the important risk factor for Breast Cancer and the risk of Breast Cancer is more in educated women as compared with the illiterate women. Limitation: This is a Hospital based study so generalisability of the findings could be limited.

  20. Hormonal risk factors for ovarian cancer in the Albanian case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pajenga, Edlira; Rexha, Tefta; Çeliku, Silva; Bejtja, Gazmend; Pisha, Mimoza

    2013-05-01

    The role of reproductive factors in the aetiology of ovarian cancer had been evaluated in hospital-based case-control study conducted in Albania, providing a total dataset of 283 cases and 1019 controls. Logistic regression models were used to obtain relative risk (OR) estimates. The present results showed that parity had protective effects which increased until the forth birth and the trend in risk was significant (p risk compared to those who had different number of births (OR=12.5, 95%, CI: 2.4-63.8). Evaluation of early age at menarche and late age at menopause, showed statistically significant increased risk. Furthermore, increased risk was observed between pre-menopausal women and never-married nulliparity women, respectively (OR=1.44 95%, CI: 0.88-2.36; OR=8.98, 95%, CI: 1.44 - 56.14), but ovarian cancer risk was reduced for hysterectomized women. These findings suggest that Albanian women have risk factors similar to women in western countries. PMID:23725504

  1. Risk factors of breast cancer in patients diagnosed at the Julio Trigo hospital

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A retrospective descriptive study was carried out with the objective of identifying some risk factors of breast cancer in patients diagnosed in the hospital Julio Trigo Lopez from 2007 to 2008. Of a universe of 54 patients, it was selected a sample of 31 patients (57,4%) who were those that gave their consent to be interviewed at the time that lasted the investigation (6 months). The 90,3% of the cases corresponded to infiltrating ductal carcinoma type. The age group more affected was 60-69 years and the white race; 41,9% presented personal antecedents of breast nodule, whereas the familiar antecedent of breast cancer was not significant. The 61,3% presented menarche after 12 years old, and the greater percent appeared to the childbirth before 24 years old. The 40,7% did not only offer maternal lactation; 87,1% had one or more children and 58,6% presented the menopause after the 50 years old. There was not risk exposure at the workplaces. The conjunction of several risk factors can favor the appearance of breast cancer, but the absence of demonstrable risk factors does not exclude the possibility of suffering the disease

  2. Analysis of risk factors of surgical site infections in breast cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Yang-xu; XU Ling; YE Jing-ming; WANG Dong-min; ZHAO Jian-xin; ZHANG Lan-bo; DUAN Xue-ning; LIU Yin-hua

    2010-01-01

    Background Adjuvant chemotherapy has become an important component of standard therapy for breast cancer. However, until now, there have been few reports on the surgical site infections (SSI) after breast cancer surgery, specially after adjuvent chemotherapy. To study the risk factors of SSI of breast cancer, we analyzed patients diagnosed with breast cancer and treated with surgery. Methods Fifty-five patients diagnosed with breast cancer and received breast conserving or modified radical operations in our hospital during January 2008 to March 2008 were selected. Factors (patients' age, body mass index (BMI), diabetes mellitus, no or administered adjuvant chemotherapy, with or without onset of myelosuppression and the degree, surgical approaches, duration of operation, postoperative drainage duration and total drainage volume) associated with SSI were retrospectively reviewed and statistically analyzed by single factor analysis. Results Five patients suffered SSI (5/55, 9.1%); nineteen receiving adjuvant chemotherapy experienced Grade III+ myelosuppression, among which 4 had SSI; only 1 out of the remaining 36 patients without adjuvant chemotherapy had SSI. The difference between the two groups was significant (P=0.043). The incidence of SSI in patients with postoperative drainage tube indwelling longer than 10 days was 5/21, whereas no SSI occurred in that less than 10 days (R=0.009). in our study, there was no significient difference in other associated factors. Conclusions Concurrent Grade III+ myelosuppression after adjuvant chemotherapy is an important risk factor of SSI in breast cancer and needs further study. No SSI was detected with indwelling time of post operative drainage less than 10 days.

  3. THE FREQUENCY OF RISK FACTORS ON TRENDS OF PANCREATIC CANCER IN KOSOVO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramadani, Naser; Dedushi, Kreshnike; Muçaj, Sefedin; Kabashi, Serbeze; Jerliu, Naim; Hoxhaj, Astrit

    2016-01-01

    The aim: The aim of this paper is to analyze different factors that influence the trends of pancreatic cancer mortality and morbidity of patients treated at the UCCK of Kosovo. Within this study, we have evaluated pancreatic cancer risk factors, durability and lethality regarding Kosovan patients who have been diagnosed and treated within Kosovo. The study in question is that of retrospective research traversing the period of 2011-2015. Materials and methodology: This retrospective research study includes 362 patients recently diagnosed with pancreatic cancer, 2011-2015 at the University Clinical Center of Kosovo in Pristina. The main important factors included in this study are: age, sex and risk factors that altogether have considerable influence in incidence of pancreatic cancer. The imaging diagnostics are performed with the use of 2D ECHO Phillips, MSCT Sensation 64 and 6 and 1.5T MRI Symphony Siemens that are situated in the Radiologic Clinic of UCCK. The statistic data were obtained from NIPH of Kosovo and Agency of Statistics of Kosovo. Results: Out of the total number of the 362 patients diagnosed with pancreatic cancer, the mortality in all age groups was higher at male patients–61.6 % of cases (n=223) with the highest number found at 51–60 years age group. The 38.4 % (n= 139) were female patients with the highest incidence frequency at F 61–70 years age group. The F/M ratio is 1:1.6. The “plane” nicotine users were found at 34 % (n=123) while the joined, nicotine/alcohol addiction was detected at 26 % (n= 94). The 18.5% (n=67) have had established diagnose of the diabetes mellitus tip II and 9.6 % (n=35) have undergone the medical treatment of the gastroduodenal peptic ulcerations. The total number of deaths is 310 (85.6%) and there are only 52 patients (14.4%) still alive. The mortality rate of the pancreatic cancer in Kosovo was 17.2 in 100.000 residents while the morbidity rate was 2.8 in 100.000 residents. Discussion and conclusion: This

  4. A comparative study of pre- and post-menopausal breast cancer: Risk factors, presentation, characteristics and management

    OpenAIRE

    Surakasula, Aruna; Nagarjunapu, Govardhana Chary; Raghavaiah, K. V.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Breast cancer is the most common female cancer worldwide and is the second most commonly diagnosed cancer in Indian women. This study evaluates the differences between pre- and post-menopausal breast cancer women regarding risk factors, nature of disease presentation, tumor characteristics, and management. Methods: This is a prospective observational study, conducted in the Oncology Department of St. Ann's Cancer Hospital, for a period of 6 months from January to August 2012. Data ...

  5. Risk factors for the gastric cardia cancer: a case-control study in Fujian Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lin Cai; Zong-Li Zheng; Zuo-Feng Zhang

    2003-01-01

    AIM: The incidence of gastric cardia cancer has greatlyincreased in the past 2-3 decades, however, the risk factorsfor the disease are still not clearly understood. Theinvestigations among Chinese population on the risk factorsof gastric cardia cancer were also scarcely reported. Wetherefore conducted a case-control study in Fujian province,China, to investigate the potential risk and protective factorsof this disease.METHODS: 191 cardia and 190 non-cardia gastric cancercases, and a total of 222 control cases were included in thisstudy. Standard questionnaires were used in collectingepidemiological factors and the data were then analyzed bythe unconditional logistic regression model.RESULTS: As the factors such as age, gender, smoking,alcohol consumption, and family history of gastric cancerwere controlled, a multivariable analysis was conducted,which revealed that there was a significant correlationbetween the dietary habits such as irregular meal, over andfast eating, and the gastric cardia cancer with the odds ratios(ORs) of 4.2 (95 % confidence interval: 2.3-7.7), 4.7 (2.1-10.8), and 2.7 (1.3-5.3) respectively. Other correlations werealso observed between the gastric cardia cancer and theconsumption of salty fish or pickled vegetable, smoking,and the family cancer history with the ORs of 5.5 (1.4-19.5),1.8 (1.0-3.0), 2.1 (1.3-3.5), and 3.8 (2.3-6.2) respectively.In contrast, the negative correlations were found existingbetween the intake of fresh vegetables and fruits, the useof refrigerator, and the gastric cardia cancer, with the ORsof 0.4 (0.2-0.9), 0.2 (0.1-0.5), and 0.2 (0.1-0.4),respectively. However, dietary habits were associated lesswith non-cardia gastric cancer compared with its cardiacounterpart.CONCLUSION: Dietary habits might be one of the riskfactors for the cardia carcinogenesis among Chinesepopulation.

  6. Risk factors for cervical cancer and adherence to papanicolaou among nursing workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Albertina Rocha Diógenes

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to verify the presence of risk factors for cervical cancer and identify adherence to Pap smears in nursing auxiliary and technicians to 20 primary health care, in Fortaleza, Brazil. A descriptive study was conducted from October 2008 to January 2009, involving 77 women. Data were collected using a structured interview, available on tables and treated with absolute and relative frequency. It was Shown that 71.43% of the Women were using oral contraceptives, 19.48% smoked or had smoked, 61.04% had first intercourse between 15 and 20 years of age, 77.92% did not make systematic use of condoms, 22.07% knew the importance of the examination and 84.40% would do so every year. Most joined the regular gynecological exam, but some had risk factors for cervical cancer. It is emphasized the need for an educational intervention directed at these women.

  7. Risk factors predictive of occult cancer detection in patients with unprovoked venous thromboembolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ihaddadene, Ryma; Corsi, Daniel J.; Lazo-Langner, Alejandro; Shivakumar, Sudeep; Zarychanski, Ryan; Tagalakis, Vicky; Solymoss, Susan; Routhier, Nathalie; Douketis, James; Le Gal, Gregoire

    2016-01-01

    Risk factors predictive of occult cancer detection in patients with a first unprovoked symptomatic venous thromboembolism (VTE) are unknown. Cox proportional hazard models and multivariate analyses were performed to assess the effect of specific risk factors on occult cancer detection within 1 year of a diagnosis of unprovoked VTE in patients randomized in the Screening for Occult Malignancy in Patients with Idiopathic Venous Thromboembolism (SOME) trial. A total of 33 (3.9%; 95% CI, 2.8%-5.4%) out of the 854 included patients received a new diagnosis of cancer at 1-year follow-up. Age ≥ 60 years (hazard ratio [HR], 3.11; 95% CI, 1.41-6.89; P = .005), previous provoked VTE (HR, 3.20; 95% CI, 1.19-8.62; P = .022), and current smoker status (HR, 2.80; 95% CI, 1.24-6.33; P = .014) were associated with occult cancer detection. Age, prior provoked VTE, and smoking status may be important predictors of occult cancer detection in patients with first unprovoked VTE. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT00773448. PMID:26817957

  8. Risk Factors Associated With Secondary Sarcomas in Childhood Cancer Survivors: A Report From the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henderson, Tara O., E-mail: thenderson@peds.bsd.uchicago.edu [University of Chicago, Chicago, IL (United States); Rajaraman, Preetha [National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, MD (United States); Stovall, Marilyn [M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, University of Texas, Houston, TX (United States); Constine, Louis S. [University of Rochester, Rochester, NY (United States); Olive, Aliza [Drexel University, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Smith, Susan A. [M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, University of Texas, Houston, TX (United States); Mertens, Ann [Emory University, Atlanta, GA (United States); Meadows, Anna [Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Neglia, Joseph P. [University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States); Hammond, Sue [Nationwide Children' s Hospital, Columbus, OH (United States); Whitton, John [Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, WA (United States); Inskip, Peter D. [National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, MD (United States); Robison, Leslie L. [St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Memphis, TN (United States); Diller, Lisa [Dana-Farber Cancer Institute/Children' s Hospital Cancer Center, Boston, MA (United States)

    2012-09-01

    Purpose: Childhood cancer survivors have an increased risk of secondary sarcomas. To better identify those at risk, the relationship between therapeutic dose of chemotherapy and radiation and secondary sarcoma should be quantified. Methods and Materials: We conducted a nested case-control study of secondary sarcomas (105 cases, 422 matched controls) in a cohort of 14,372 childhood cancer survivors. Radiation dose at the second malignant neoplasm (SMN) site and use of chemotherapy were estimated from detailed review of medical records. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals were estimated by conditional logistic regression. Excess odds ratio (EOR) was modeled as a function of radiation dose, chemotherapy, and host factors. Results: Sarcomas occurred a median of 11.8 years (range, 5.3-31.3 years) from original diagnosis. Any exposure to radiation was associated with increased risk of secondary sarcoma (OR = 4.1, 95% CI = 1.8-9.5). A dose-response relation was observed, with elevated risks at doses between 10 and 29.9 Gy (OR = 15.6, 95% CI = 4.5-53.9), 30-49.9 Gy (OR = 16.0, 95% CI 3.8-67.8) and >50 Gy (OR = 114.1, 95% CI 13.5-964.8). Anthracycline exposure was associated with sarcoma risk (OR = 3.5, 95% CI = 1.6-7.7) adjusting for radiation dose, other chemotherapy, and primary cancer. Adjusting for treatment, survivors with a first diagnosis of Hodgkin lymphoma (OR = 10.7, 95% CI = 3.1-37.4) or primary sarcoma (OR = 8.4, 95% CI = 3.2-22.3) were more likely to develop a sarcoma. Conclusions: Of the risk factors evaluated, radiation exposure was the most important for secondary sarcoma development in childhood cancer survivors; anthracycline chemotherapy exposure was also associated with increased risk.

  9. Risk Factors Associated With Secondary Sarcomas in Childhood Cancer Survivors: A Report From the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Childhood cancer survivors have an increased risk of secondary sarcomas. To better identify those at risk, the relationship between therapeutic dose of chemotherapy and radiation and secondary sarcoma should be quantified. Methods and Materials: We conducted a nested case-control study of secondary sarcomas (105 cases, 422 matched controls) in a cohort of 14,372 childhood cancer survivors. Radiation dose at the second malignant neoplasm (SMN) site and use of chemotherapy were estimated from detailed review of medical records. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals were estimated by conditional logistic regression. Excess odds ratio (EOR) was modeled as a function of radiation dose, chemotherapy, and host factors. Results: Sarcomas occurred a median of 11.8 years (range, 5.3–31.3 years) from original diagnosis. Any exposure to radiation was associated with increased risk of secondary sarcoma (OR = 4.1, 95% CI = 1.8–9.5). A dose–response relation was observed, with elevated risks at doses between 10 and 29.9 Gy (OR = 15.6, 95% CI = 4.5–53.9), 30–49.9 Gy (OR = 16.0, 95% CI 3.8–67.8) and >50 Gy (OR = 114.1, 95% CI 13.5–964.8). Anthracycline exposure was associated with sarcoma risk (OR = 3.5, 95% CI = 1.6–7.7) adjusting for radiation dose, other chemotherapy, and primary cancer. Adjusting for treatment, survivors with a first diagnosis of Hodgkin lymphoma (OR = 10.7, 95% CI = 3.1–37.4) or primary sarcoma (OR = 8.4, 95% CI = 3.2–22.3) were more likely to develop a sarcoma. Conclusions: Of the risk factors evaluated, radiation exposure was the most important for secondary sarcoma development in childhood cancer survivors; anthracycline chemotherapy exposure was also associated with increased risk.

  10. Prevalence and risk factors for development of lymphedema following breast cancer treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Deo S; Ray S; Rath G; Shukla N; Kar M; Asthana S; Raina V

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND : Early detection and multimodality therapy has resulted in an overall improvement of survival among breast cancer patients. Despite a significant shift in the treatment approach from radical mastectomy to breast conservation a significant number of patients develop lymphedema. This study was conducted to evaluate the prevalence and risk factors for development of lymphedema. SETTINGS AND DESIGN : Retrospective analysis for prevalence of lymphedema in a tertiary care regional cance...

  11. Insufficient Knowledge of Breast Cancer Risk Factors Among Malaysian Female University Students

    OpenAIRE

    Samah, Asnarulkhadi Abu; Ahmadian, Maryam; Latiffah A Latiff

    2015-01-01

    Background: Despite continuous argument about the efficacy of breast self-examination; it still could be a life-saving technique through inspiring and empowering women to take better control over their body/breast and health. This study investigated Malaysian female university students’ knowledge about breast cancer risk factors, signs, and symptoms and assessed breast self-examination frequency among students. Method: A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 2013 in nine public and private ...

  12. Isolated Isoflavones do not affect the circulating insulin-like growth factor system in men at increased colorectal cancer risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vrieling, A.; Rookus, M.A.; Kampman, E.; Bonfrer, J.M.G.; Korse, C.M.; Doorn, van J.; Lampe, J.W.; Cats, A.; Witteman, B.J.M.; Leeuwen, van F.E.; van't Veer, L.J.; Voskuil, D.W.

    2007-01-01

    Epidemiological studies show that increased insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I concentrations are related to increased colorectal cancer risk. A reduced colorectal cancer risk has been associated with isoflavones, which might affect the IGF-system because of their weak estrogenic activity. We conduc

  13. Isolated isoflavones do not affect the circulating insulin-like growth factor system in men at increased colorectal cancer risk.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vrieling, A.; Rookus, M.A.; Kampman, E.; Bonfrer, J.M.G.; Korse, C.M.; Doorn, J. van; Lampe, J.W.; Cats, A.; Witteman, B.J.M.; Leeuwen, F.E. van; Veer, L.J. van 't; Voskuil, D.W.

    2007-01-01

    Epidemiological studies show that increased insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I concentrations are related to increased colorectal cancer risk. A reduced colorectal cancer risk has been associated with isoflavones, which might affect the IGF-system because of their weak estrogenic activity. We conduc

  14. PROFILE OF RISK FACTORS FOR ORAL CANCERS IN TERTIARY REFERRAL ENT HOSPITAL 2014-2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veeraswamy

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Oral cancers constitute major portion of head and neck malignancies. Head and neck cancers constitute 30% to 40% of the total malignancies in the world. Increase in tobacco habits, both in the form of smoking and chewing lead to the recent increase in development of the oral malignancies. 1 AIMS AND OBJECTIVES The aim of this study was 1. To know the risk factors associated with oral cancers in rural, urban-slums and urban-developing districts of coastal Andhra Pradesh, 2. To create awareness among the people of our country regarding the risk factors of oral cancers and necessary modifications of lifestyle to be taken. MATERIALS AND METHODS This study was conducted in Government ENT Hospital, Visakhapatnam. It is comprised of all confirmed cases of oral cancers reported in the hospital during the period of 1 year from December 2014 - December 2015. Study variables included demographic factors, socioeconomic factors and enquiries about the risk factors such as tobacco usage either in the form of smoking or chewing. OBSERVATIONS It was observed that out of the 50 cases in the study, females (66% were reported to be more affected than males (34%. Most of the subjects belonged to lower middle and lower socio-economic group (94%, while very few belonged to upper-middle group (6%. Majority of the patients were in the age group of 41-50 and 51-60 years constituting about 60%, while very few were aged below 40 years and above 70 years. It was noted that 35 patients consumed tobacco in smoking form, out of which 13 patients smoked normally, whereas 22 smoked in reverse manner. All the reverse smokers were observed to be females; 11 patients consumed tobacco in chewing form. Most common site for oral cancer in this study population was hard palate. CONCLUSION This study should create awareness in the public to avoid irritant chewing habits and smoking in normal manner, reverse smoking in particular. Media including both Electronic and Print

  15. Knowledge assessment of women living in the Wielkopolska region concerning risk factors for cervical cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorota Gawdzik

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Cervical cancer (CC is a malignant tumor which for many years has been a serious epidemiological problem in Poland. This issue is important because CC is the second most common type of malignant tumor, after breast cancer, and the second most common cause of death among women. The aim of this study was to assess the knowledge and awareness of women living in the Wielkopolska region (Gniezno district of risk factors for cervical cancer. Material and methods: The study used the diagnostic poll method, based on a previously developed survey questionnaire. The study was carried out between March and April 2013. The study group consisted of 100 women, involving schoolgirls from the secondary school in Gniezno (Group I, workers (doctors, nurses and midwives of two outpatient clinics in the Gniezno district (Group II and patients of the same clinics (Group III. Results : According to the respondents, the main cause of CC is human papillomavirus (Group II – 36% and genetic predisposition (Group III – 35%. It is alarming that 26% of women did not know the risk factors for CC. Conclusions : It is necessary to improve health education, especially concerning the main factors affecting the development of CC, in order to reduce the morbidity and mortality rates related to this cancer.

  16. Prevalence of risk factors for breast cancer in German airline cabin crew: a cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Winter, Mareen; Blettner, Maria; Zeeb, Hajo

    2014-01-01

    Background Many epidemiological studies point to an increased risk of breast cancer among female airline cabin crew. Possible causes include occupational factors (e.g. cosmic radiation exposure, chronodisruption), as well as lifestyle and reproductive factors. Aims To investigate the frequency of various risk factors in German flight attendants which are recognised to be associated with breast cancer. Methods 2708 current and former female cabin crew were randomly selected by a flight attenda...

  17. Reproductive factors and risk of hormone receptor positive and negative breast cancer: a cohort study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The association of reproductive factors with hormone receptor (HR)-negative breast tumors remains uncertain. Within the EPIC cohort, Cox proportional hazards models were used to describe the relationships of reproductive factors (menarcheal age, time between menarche and first pregnancy, parity, number of children, age at first and last pregnancies, time since last full-term childbirth, breastfeeding, age at menopause, ever having an abortion and use of oral contraceptives [OC]) with risk of ER-PR- (n = 998) and ER+PR+ (n = 3,567) breast tumors. A later first full-term childbirth was associated with increased risk of ER+PR+ tumors but not with risk of ER-PR- tumors (≥35 vs. ≤19 years HR: 1.47 [95% CI 1.15-1.88] ptrend < 0.001 for ER+PR+ tumors; ≥35 vs. ≤19 years HR: 0.93 [95% CI 0.53-1.65] ptrend = 0.96 for ER-PR- tumors; Phet = 0.03). The risk associations of menarcheal age, and time period between menarche and first full-term childbirth with ER-PR-tumors were in the similar direction with risk of ER+PR+ tumors (phet = 0.50), although weaker in magnitude and statistically only borderline significant. Other parity related factors such as ever a full-term birth, number of births, age- and time since last birth were associated only with ER+PR+ malignancies, however no statistical heterogeneity between breast cancer subtypes was observed. Breastfeeding and OC use were generally not associated with breast cancer subtype risk. Our study provides possible evidence that age at menarche, and time between menarche and first full-term childbirth may be associated with the etiology of both HR-negative and HR-positive malignancies, although the associations with HR-negative breast cancer were only borderline significant

  18. Experience of parental cancer in childhood is a risk factor for psychological distress during genetic cancer susceptibility testing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Oostrom, I.; Meijers-Heijboer, H.; Duivenvoorden, H. J.; Brocker-Vriends, A. H. J. T.; van Asperen, C. J.; Sijmons, R. H.; Seynaeve, C.; Van Gool, A. R.; Klijn, J. G. M.; Tibben, A.

    2006-01-01

    Background: This study explores the effect of age at the time of parental cancer diagnosis or death on psychological distress and cancer risk perception in individuals undergoing genetic testing for a specific cancer susceptibility. Patients and methods: Cancer-related distress, worry and risk perce

  19. Hormonal risk factors for ovarian cancer in the Albanian case-control study

    OpenAIRE

    Pajenga, Edlira; Rexha, Tefta; Çeliku, Silva; Bejtja, Gazmend; Pisha, Mimoza

    2013-01-01

    The role of reproductive factors in the aetiology of ovarian cancer had been evaluated in hospital-based case-control study conducted in Albania, providing a total dataset of 283 cases and 1019 controls. Logistic regression models were used to obtain relative risk (OR) estimates. The present results showed that parity had protective effects which increased until the forth birth and the trend in risk was significant (p < 0.01). In each stratum and overall, nulliparous women appeared to be at h...

  20. Association Between Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Gene Polymorphisms with Breast Cancer Risk in an Iranian Population

    OpenAIRE

    Rezaei, Maryam; Hashemi, Mohammad; Sanaei, Sara; Mashhadi, Mohammad Ali; Taheri, Mohsen

    2016-01-01

    Breast cancer (BC) is one of the most causes of death in women worldwide. It affects Iranian female population approximately a decade earlier than those in other parts of the world. Previous studies have shown that vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) gene variants were associated with BC risk. The current study aimed to evaluate the impact of VEGF rs3025039 (+936C>T), rs2010963 (+405C>G), rs833061 (-460T>C), rs699947 (-2578C>A), and rs35569394 (18-bp I/D) polymorphisms on BC risk in an ...

  1. Risk Factor Assessment Branch (RFAB)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Risk Factor Assessment Branch (RFAB) focuses on the development, evaluation, and dissemination of high-quality risk factor metrics, methods, tools, technologies, and resources for use across the cancer research continuum, and the assessment of cancer-related risk factors in the population.

  2. Risk Factors and Dose-Effect Relationship for Mandibular Osteoradionecrosis in Oral and Oropharyngeal Cancer Patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To analyze risk factors and the dose-effect relationship for osteoradionecrosis (ORN) of the mandible after radiotherapy of oral and oropharyngeal cancers. Materials and Methods: One-hundred ninety-eight patients with oral (45%) and oropharyngeal cancer (55%) who had received external radiotherapy between 1990 and 2000 were retrospectively reviewed. All patients had a dental evaluation before radiotherapy. The median radiation dose was 60 Gy (range, 16-75 Gy), and the median biologically effective dose for late effects (BEDlate) in bone was 114 Gy2 (range, 30-167 Gy2). Results: The frequency of ORN was 13 patients (6.6%). Among patients with mandibular surgery, eight had ORN at the surgical site. Among patients without mandibular surgery, five patients had ORN on the molar area of the mandible. The median time to ORN was 22 months (range, 1-69 months). Univariate analysis revealed that mandibular surgery and Co-60 were significant risk factors for ORN (p = 0.01 and 0.04, respectively). In multivariate analysis, mandibular surgery was the most important factor (p = 0.001). High radiation doses over BED 102.6 Gy2 (conventional dose of 54 Gy at 1.8 Gy/fraction) were also a significant factor for ORN (p = 0.008) and showed a positive dose-effect relationship in logistic regression (p = 0.04) for patients who had undergone mandibular surgery. Conclusions: Mandibular surgery was the most significant risk factor for ORN of mandible in oral and oropharyngeal cancers patients. A BED of 102.6 Gy2 or higher to the mandible also significantly increases the risk of ORN.

  3. Risk factors for cancer recurrence or death within 6 months after liver resection in patients with colorectal cancer liver metastasis

    OpenAIRE

    Jung, Sung Won; Kim, Dong-Sik; Yu, Young Dong; Han, Jae hyun; Suh, Sung-Ock

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this study was to find risk factors for early recurrence (ER) and early death (ED) after liver resection for colorectal cancer liver metastasis (CRCLM). Methods Between May 1990 and December 2011, 279 patients underwent liver resection for CRCLM at Korea University Medical Center. They were assigned to group ER (recurrence within 6 months after liver resection) or group NER (non-ER; no recurrence within 6 months after liver resection) and group ED (death within 6 months aft...

  4. Prospective studies of hormonal and life-style related factors and risk of cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Wirén, Sara

    2014-01-01

    Background: Androgens are important in prostate cancer development but how circulating levels of androgens affect risk of prostate cancer of different aggressiveness is not clear. Being childless has been associated with a lower risk of prostate cancer, but it is not clear if this association is causal or a result of residual confounding. Fathering of dizygotic twins, a marker of high fertility, has not been studied in relation to risk of prostate cancer. Another marker of life-long hormonal ...

  5. Could hormonal influences and lifestyle factors affect the risk of developing breast cancer?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women throughout the world and the third most common cause of cancer deaths in adults, according to recent figures. Many authorities, both medical and non-medical, have written about the risks and causes of breast cancer, and research has been conducted into many diverse theories. This paper is a review of some of these ideas and possible risks of breast cancer

  6. Prevalence and Risk Factors for Patient Delay Among Women With Breast Cancer in Rural India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangane, Nitin; Anshu; Manvatkar, Shiva; Ng, Nawi; Hurtig, Anna-Karin; San Sebastián, Miguel

    2016-01-01

    Delay in seeking health care by women with breast cancer increases mortality risk. This study was conducted in rural India to identify risk factors associated with patient delay. A total of 212 women with primary breast cancer diagnosed between 2010 and 2012 were interviewed. Sociodemographic characteristics, time interval between seeking medical attention and appearance of symptoms, and reasons for delay were inquired. Patient delay was defined as more than 3 months between date of first symptoms and medical consultation. Logistic regression was applied to assess associations between potential risk factors and patient delay. Almost half the women with breast cancer experienced patient delay. Age more than 60 years (odds ratio = 4.9, 95% confidence interval = 1.3-18.0) was significantly associated with patient delay. Only 6.6% of patients had heard about breast self-examination. Significantly higher number of patients with delay presented with advanced clinical stage (P = .000). Health education programs should be introduced with specific strategies to shorten patient delay. PMID:26658324

  7. Breast Cancer After Treatment of Hodgkin's Lymphoma: Risk Factors That Really Matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To evaluate the risk of breast cancer (BC) and the contributing risk factors in women after supradiaphragmatic irradiation (SDI) for Hodgkin's lymphoma (HL). Subjects and Methods: Medical records of 248 women 60 years of age or less who received SDI for stage I/II HL between 1964 and 2001 at Massachusetts General Hospital were retrospectively reviewed. Results: The median age at SDI was 26 years (range, 5.7-59.3). The median follow-up was 15.2 years (range, 0.1-41.3). In 36 patients, BC developed (bilaterally in 11 patients) at a median interval of 18.4 years (range, 4.3-33.8) after SDI. Based on data from the National Cancer Institute Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results program, the standardized morbidity ratio (SMR) for the first BC after SDI was 9.78 (95% confidence interval [CI], 4.64-18.11, p < 0.0001). The SMR of patients who received radiation before age of 30 years was 19.05 (95% CI, 12.33-28.13) compared with 4.64 (95% CI, 2.31-8.30) for patients aged 30 years or more at the time of treatment (p < 0.00003). Risk for BC was significantly higher 15 years or more after SDI compared with the risk during the first 15 years (p = 0.0026). None of HL characteristics or treatment details was associated with higher risk of BC after adjusting for age and calendar time. Conclusions: Age at irradiation and time since therapy appear to be the only significant risk factors for development of BC after treatment of HL. The risk is significantly higher 15 years or more after radiation and for women treated before age 30 years. Long-term surveillance strategies are indicated for women at risk

  8. Longitudinal association of hemostatic factors with risk for cancers of the breast, colorectum, and lung among postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabat, Geoffrey C; Salazar, Christian R; Zaslavsky, Oleg; Lane, Dorothy S; Rohan, Thomas E

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this study was to examine whether hemostatic factors associated with coagulation and inflammation pathways are associated with cancer risk in postmenopausal women. We used data from the Women's Health Initiative study to examine the association of plasma fibrinogen levels, factor VII antigen activity, and factor VII concentration measured at baseline and during follow-up with the risk for cancers of the breast, colorectum, and lung. Among 5287 women who were followed up for a median of 11.4 years, 275 cases of breast cancer, 102 cases of colorectal cancer, and 90 cases of lung cancer were identified. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals for the association of hemostatic factors with each cancer. Hemostatic factors were not associated with breast cancer in either baseline or longitudinal analyses. Baseline hemostatic factors showed weak associations with colorectal cancer; however, no association was seen in longitudinal analyses. Fibrinogen was positively associated with lung cancer in both baseline and longitudinal analyses; the association was seen only in never and former smokers, not in current smokers. We found no evidence of an association between hemostatic factors and breast or colorectal cancer in postmenopausal women. The positive association of fibrinogen levels with lung cancer requires confirmation in larger studies. PMID:26317383

  9. Radiation Therapy, Cardiac Risk Factors, and Cardiac Toxicity in Early-Stage Breast Cancer Patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: The benefits of adjuvant radiation therapy (RT) for breast cancer may be counterbalanced by the risk of cardiac toxicity. We studied the cardiac effects of RT and the impact of pre-existing cardiac risk factors (CRFs) in a population-based sample of older patients with breast cancer. Methods and Materials: In the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End-Results (SEER)-Medicare database of women ≥65 years diagnosed with Stages I to III breast cancer from January 1, 1992 to December 31, 2000, we used multivariable logistic regression to model the associations of demographic and clinical variables with postmastectomy and postlumpectomy RT. Using Cox proportional hazards regression, we then modeled the association between treatment and myocardial infarction (MI) and ischemia in the 10 or more years after diagnosis, taking the predictors of treatment into account. Results: Among 48,353 women with breast cancer; 19,897 (42%) were treated with lumpectomy and 26,534 (55%) with mastectomy; the remainder had unknown surgery type (3%). Receipt of RT was associated with later year of diagnosis, younger age, fewer comorbidities, nonrural residence, and chemotherapy. Postlumpectomy RT was also associated with white ethnicity and no prior history of heart disease (HD). The RT did not increase the risk of MI. Presence of MI was associated with age, African American ethnicity, advanced stage, nonrural residence, more than one comorbid condition, a hormone receptor-negative tumor, CRFs and HD. Among patients who received RT, tumor laterality was not associated with MI outcome. The effect of RT on the heart was not influenced by HD or CRFs. Conclusion: It appears unlikely that RT would increase the risk of MI in elderly women with breast cancer, regardless of type of surgery, tumor laterality, or history of CRFs or HD, for at least 10 years

  10. P53 gene mutations and risk factors in Egyptian laryngeal cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laryngeal cancer (LC) is one of the most fatal cancers in the world; it represents the sixth most common cancer in the world and the second most common respiratory cancer, with approximately 500,000 new cases worldwide, annually. The mechanisms of tumorigenesis in LC remain unknown, although smoking and alcohol consumption are considered to be major risk factors. Numerous genetic alterations have been described in laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma, but the molecular mechanisms contributing to initiation and progression of laryngeal are still poorly understood. Mutations within P53 have been strongly implicated as frequent events in several cancers. In the present study, exons 5-8 of P53 for mutations in DNA from tumor biopsies (n 50), beside 20 samples of normal tissues adjacent to the malignant area, blood samples (n = 25) from the LC patients, and blood samples from a healthy, matched control group (n = 20), were screened using polymerase chain reaction, single-strand conformation polymorphism (PCR-SSCP) analysis and direct sequencing was done . Significant positive correlations were found between the occurrence of LC and age and smoking. In tumor-derived samples, mutations were found in three of the exons under investigation, representing 18 % of the samples. The mutations were unique to the tumor biopsies, indicating a somatic origin for mutations. The data confirm that the exons 6-8 of P53 is a mutational hotspot for laryngeal cancers in Egypt; ten mutations were found within this region.

  11. Awareness of breast cancer risk factors and practice of breast self examination among high school students in Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Çetinkaya Aynur; Özmen Dilek; Karayurt Özgül

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Young breast cancer patients have a lower rate of survival than old breast cancer patients due to being diagnosed at advanced stages. Breast self-examination makes women more "breast aware", which in turn may lead to an earlier diagnosis of breast cancer. The purpose of this study was to investigate knowledge and practice of breast self-examination and to determine knowledge of risk factors for breast cancer among high school students. Methods This is a descriptive and cro...

  12. Risk factors for recurrence after conservative treatment in early breast cancer; Preliminary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate our experience in the breast-conserving treatment for early breast cancer with special regard to recurrence pattern and related risk factors. Two hundred and sixteen patients with AJC stage I and II beast cancer who received breast conserving treatment between January 1991 and December 1994 were evaluated. Age distribution ranged from 23-80 year old with a median age of 44. One hundred and seventeen patients had T1 lesions and 99 patients had T2 lesions. Axillary lymph nodes were involved in 73 patients. All patients received a breast conserving surgery (wide excision to quadrantectomy) and axillary node dissection followed by radiotherapy. Ninety six patients received chemotherapy before or after radiotherapy. During the follow-up period (3-60 months, median 30 months), local recurrence were noted in six patients (true; 3, elsewhere; 1, skin; 2). Sixteen patients developed distant metastases as the first sign of recurrence at 8-38 months (median 20 months) after surgery. Among them, three patients simultaneously developed local recurrence with distant metastases. Contralateral breast cancer developed in one patient and non-mammary cancers developed in three patients. The actuarial 5 year survival rate was 88.4% (stage I: 96.7%, stage IIa: 95.2%, stage IIb 69.9%). Age, T stage, number of involved axillary lymph nodes, and AJC stage were risk factors for distant metastases in univariate analysis. In the multivariate analysis, the number of involved axillary lymph nodes was the most significant risk factor for metastases. Local recurrence was not common in the early years after radiotherapy. Distant metastases occurred at a steady rate during the first three years and was more common in the patients with larger tumors, higher number of involved axillary nodes, and younger age. (author)

  13. Muscle invasive bladder cancer in Upper Egypt: the shift in risk factors and tumor characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Egypt, where bilharziasis is endemic, bladder cancer is the commonest cancer in males and the 2nd in females; squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is the commonest type found, with a peculiar mode of presentation. The aim of this study is to identify and rank the risk factors of muscle invasive bladder cancer (MIBC) in Upper Egypt and describe its specific criteria of presentation and histopathology. This is an analytical, hospital based, case controlled study conducted in south Egypt cancer institute through comparing MIBC cases (n = 130) with age, sex and residence matched controls (n = 260) for the presence of risk factors of MIBC. Data was collected by personal interview using a well designed questionnaire. Patients' records were reviewed for histopathology and Radiologic findings. The risk factors of MIBC were positive family history [Adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 7.7], exposure to pesticides [AOR = 6.2], bladder stones [AOR = 5], consanguinity [AOR = 3.9], recurrent cystitis [AOR = 3.1], bilharziasis [odds ratio (OR) = 5.8] and smoking [OR = 5.3]. SCC represented 67.6% of cases with burning micturition being the presenting symptom in 73.8%. MIBC in Upper Egypt is usually of the SCC type (although its percentage is decreasing), occurs at a younger age and presents with burning micturition rather than hematuria. Unlike the common belief, positive family history, parents' consanguinity, exposure to pesticides and chronic cystitis seem to play now more important roles than bilharziasis and smoking in the development of this disease in this area

  14. The Relative Contribution of Genetic and Environmental Factors to Cancer Risk and Cancer Mortality in Norway

    OpenAIRE

    Leuven, Edwin; Plug, Erik; Rønning, Marte

    2014-01-01

    Using Norwegian cancer registry data we study twin and non-twin siblings to decompose variation in cancer at most common sites and cancer mortality into a genetic, shared environment and individual (unshared environmental) component. Regardless the source of sibling variation, our findings indicate that genes dominate over shared environment in explaining relatively more of the variation in cancer at most common cancer sites (but lung and skin cancer) and cancer mortality. The vast majority o...

  15. Prostate cancer risk factors: a UK population based case-control study centered on chronic diseases, medications, sunlight and diet

    OpenAIRE

    Robinson, Fredie

    2012-01-01

    Background: Prostate cancer risk has been associated with several environmental factors but there is little information to indicate the effects of timing and of lifetime exposures that may add to the risk. This thesis aims to investigate the association of six main areas that may contribute to prostate cancer risk (1) body shape & fat distribution, (2) chronic diseases/conditions (diabetes mellitus, hypertension, ischaemic heart diseases and hypercholesterolemia), (3) statin medications (4) p...

  16. Cervical cancer risk factors and feasibility of visual inspection with acetic acid screening in Sudan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim A

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Ahmed Ibrahim1, Vibeke Rasch2, Eero Pukkala3, Arja R Aro11Unit for Health Promotion Research, University of Southern Denmark, Esbjerg, Denmark; 2Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Odense University Hospital, Odense, Denmark; 3Institute for Statistical and Epidemiological Cancer Research, Finnish Cancer Registry, Helsinki, FinlandObjectives: To assess the risk factors of cervical cancer and the feasibility and acceptability of a visual inspection with acetic acid (VIA screening method in a primary health center in Khartoum, Sudan.Methods: A cross-sectional prospective pilot study of 100 asymptomatic women living in Khartoum State in Sudan was carried out from December 2008 to January 2009. The study was performed at the screening center in Khartoum. Six nurses and two physicians were trained by a gynecologic oncologist. The patients underwent a complete gynecological examination and filled in a questionnaire on risk factors and feasibility and acceptability. They were screened for cervical cancer by application of 3%–5% VIA. Women with a positive test were referred for colposcopy and treatment.Results: Sixteen percent of screened women were tested positive. Statistically significant associations were observed between being positive with VIA test and the following variables: uterine cervix laceration (odds ratio [OR] 18.6; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 4.64–74.8, assisted vaginal delivery (OR 13.2; 95% CI: 2.95–54.9, parity (OR 5.78; 95% CI: 1.41–23.7, female genital mutilation (OR 4.78; 95% CI: 1.13–20.1, and episiotomy (OR 5.25; 95% CI: 1.15–23.8. All these associations remained statistically significant after adjusting for age, educational level, employment, and potential confounding factors such as smoking, number of sexual partners, and use of contraceptive method. Furthermore, the VIA screening method was found to be feasible and acceptable to participants.Conclusion: This pilot study showed that women who have uterine

  17. Individual, Provider, and System Risk Factors for Breast and Cervical Cancer Screening Among Underserved Black, Latina, and Arab Women

    OpenAIRE

    Roman, LeeAnne; Meghea, Cristian; Ford, Sabrina; Penner, Louis; Hamade, Hiam; Estes, Tamika; Williams, Karen Patricia

    2014-01-01

    Background: Socioeconomic and racial/ethnic disparities in breast and cervical cancer screening persist. An exploratory study was conducted to better understand co-occurring risk factors in underserved groups that could inform interventions to improve screening adherence. The objective of this study was to examine associations between breast and cervical cancer screening adherence and co-occurring risk factors in three racial/ethnic groups of underserved women.

  18. Alcoholic beverages, obesity, physical activity and other nutritional factors, and cancer risk: a review of the evidence.

    OpenAIRE

    Latino-Martel, Paule; Cottet, Vanessa; Druesne Pecollo, Nathalie; Pierre, Fabrice; Touillaud, Marina; Touvier, Mathilde; Vasson, Marie-Paule; Deschasaux, Mélanie; Le Merdy, Julie; Barrandon, Emilie; Ancellin, Raphaëlle

    2016-01-01

    Purpose : Prevention is a priority in the fight against cancers, especially nutritional prevention. To update the levels of evidence of relationships between 10 nutritional factors and cancer risk, the scientific literature published from 2006 to 2014 was reviewed by an expert group.[br/] Methods : Data from 133 meta-analyses, pooled analyses or intervention trials were examined. Nearly 150 relationships between nutritional factors and cancer at various sites were evaluated.[br/] Result...

  19. Risk factors for lymphoedema in women with breast cancer: A large prospective cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilbreath, S L; Refshauge, K M; Beith, J M; Ward, L C; Ung, O A; Dylke, E S; French, J R; Yee, J; Koelmeyer, L; Gaitatzis, K

    2016-08-01

    A prospective study was conducted to identify women at increased risk for lymphoedema (LE) based on axillary surgery. Assessment occurred prior to surgery, within 4 weeks, and at 6, 12 and 18 months following surgery. Following post-surgery assessment, women were asked to complete weekly diaries regarding events that occurred in the previous week. Risk factors were grouped into demographic, lifestyle, breast cancer treatment-related, arm swelling-related, and post-surgical activities. Bioimpedance spectroscopy thresholds were used to determine presence of LE. At 18-months, 241 women with 5 nodes removed, independent risk factors included presence of arm swelling at 12-months (Odds Ratio (OR): 13.5, 95% CI 4.8, 38.1; P 5 nodes removed and who maintained weekly diaries, only blood drawn from the 'at-risk' arm was identified as a potential risk (OR 2.0; 0.8, 5.2). For women with ≥5 nodes removed, arm swelling in the first year poses a very strong risk for presence of LE at 18-months. PMID:27183497

  20. Endocrine disrupting chemicals as potential risk factor for estrogen-dependent cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutkowska, Aleksandra Z; Szybiak, Aleksandra; Serkies, Krystyna; Rachoń, Dominik

    2016-08-01

    Civilization, industrialization, and urbanization create an environment where humans are continuously exposed to endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs). Some of breast cancers and endometrial cancer, which are the most common female malignant neoplasms, are estrogen-dependent tumors. Prolonged exposure to estrogens or substances with estrogenic properties may be a risk factor for their development. This paper aimed to discuss the potential adverse effect of EDCs on human health, including the role of EDCs in hormone-dependent carcinogenesis. A review of literature regarding the sources of environmental exposure to EDCs and molecular mechanisms of their action was performed. We analyzed the possible mechanisms of how these substances alter the function of the endocrine system, resulting in adverse health effects. Hundreds of substances with endocrine disrupting potential have been identified in our environment. There is accumulating evidence linking exposure to EDCs with the development of mammary and endometrial cancer. By interacting with steroid receptors, EDCs can impact the cellular processes potentially leading to carcinogenesis. There are also data showing the effect of EDCs on immune dysfunction. During lifespan, people are usually exposed to a mixture of various EDCs, which complicates the assessment of individual substances or compounds implicated in cancer development. As the prevalence of hormone-dependent tumors among women continues to increase, their successful prevention is of human benefit. Institutions representing medicine, science, industry, and governments should develop joint strategies to decrease exposure to EDC, and thus to reduce the risk of hormonedependent tumors in women. PMID:27509913

  1. Combinations of FUT2 gene polymorphisms and environmental factors are associated with oral cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Kuo-Jung; Ho, Chuan-Chen; Lin, Chiao-Wen; Chen, Mu-Kuan; Su, Shih-Chi; Yu, Yung-Luen; Yang, Shun-Fa

    2016-05-01

    In humans, fucosyltransferase-2 (FUT2) plays an important role in α1,2- linkage of fucose and participates in complex cellular processes such as fertilization, embryogenesis, and immune responses. However, little information is available concerning the FUT2 expression in tumorigenesis. The aim of this work was to investigate the combined effect of FUT2 gene polymorphisms and exposure to environmental carcinogens on the susceptibility and clinic pathological characteristics of oral cancer. Four SNPs of the FUT2 gene (rs281377, rs1047781, rs601338, and rs602662) from 1200 non-cancer controls and 700 oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) patients were analyzed by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The samples were further analyzed to clarify the associations between these gene polymorphisms and the risk of OSCC, and the impact of these SNPs on the susceptibility and clinic pathological characteristics of OSCC. After adjusting for other covariant, we observed that betel quid chewing among 1255 smokers who carrying at least one C genotype (TC and CC) at rs281377 and least one T genotype (TA and TT) at rs1047781 were exhibited synergistic effects of environmental factors (betel quid and cigarette use) on the susceptibility of oral cancer. Taken together, our results support gene-environment interactions of FUT2 polymorphisms with smoking and betel quid chewing habits possibly altering oral cancer susceptibility. Furthermore, to our knowledge, this is the first study of association between FUT2 gene variants and OSCC risk. PMID:26646561

  2. Risk factors for breast cancer and expression of insulin-like growth factor-2 (IGF-2 in women with breast cancer in Wuhan City, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Qiu

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to explore the risk factors for breast cancer and establish the expression rate of IGF-2 in female patients. METHODS: A case control study with 500 people in case group and 500 people in control group. A self-administered questionnaire was used to investigate risk factors for breast cancer. All cases were interviewed during a household survey. Immune-histochemical method was used to inspect the expression of IGF-2 in different tissues (benign breast lesions, breast cancer and tumor-adjacent tissue. RESULTS: Multivariate adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were calculated using unconditional logistic regression. High body mass index (OR = 1.012,95%CI = 1.008-1.016, working attributes (OR = 1.004, 95%CI = 1.002 = 1.006, long menstrual period (OR = 1.007, 95%CI = 1.005-1.009, high parity OR = 1.003, 95%CI = 1.001-1.005 , frequent artificial abortion (OR = 1.004, 95%CI = 1.001-1.005, family history of cancer (OR = 1.003, 95%CI = 1.000-1.005, period of night shift (OR = 1.003, 95%CI = 1.001-1.006, live in high risk environment (OR = 1.005, 95%CI = 1.002-1.008, and family problems (OR = 1.010, 95%CI = 1.005-1.014 were associated with increased risk for breast cancer. In this study, good sleeping status, positive coping strategies, subjective support, and utility degree of social support were associated with reduced risk for breast cancer (OR = 0.998, 0.997, 0.985, 0.998 respectively; 95%CI = 0.996-1.000, 0.994-1.000, 0.980-0.989, 0.996-1.000, respectively. In benign breast lesions, breast cancer and tumor-adjacent tissue, IGF-2 was mainly expressed in the cytoplasm, but its expression rate was different (p<0.05. CONCLUSIONS: The incidence of breast cancer is a common result of multiple factors. IGF-2 is involved in the development of breast cancer, and its expression varies in different tissues (benign breast lesions

  3. Anthracycline-related cardiotoxicity: risk factors and therapeutic options in childhood cancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NADIA PUMA

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Anthracyclines play an important role in chemotherapeutic regimens for a wide spectrum of childhood tumors, but they can cause cytotoxic damage to cardiac cells, especially in combination with radiotherapy. Furthermore, cardiotoxicity increases with the cumulative dose and may lead to congestive heart failure and cardiomyopathy. Other factors, including age, pre-existing cardiac disease, length of follow-up, gender, route of administration, concomitant exposure to some chemotherapeutic drugs, trisomy 21 and black race, play a role in increasing the risk of cardiac dysfunction. The prevention of anthracycline-induced cardiotoxicity is mandatory as children are expected to survive for decades after being cured of their cancer. The purpose of this work is to point out the major risk factors of cardiotoxicity in children and to summarize some strategies to limit or prevent this complication and to treat the development of acute heart failure.

  4. Preliminary analysis of risk factors for late rectal toxicity after helical tomotherapy for prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study is to examine risk factors for late rectal toxicity for localized prostate cancer patients treated with helical tomotherapy (HT). The patient cohort of this retrospective study was composed of 241 patients treated with HT and followed up regularly. Toxicity levels were scored according to the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group grading scale. The clinical and dosimetric potential factors increasing the risk of late rectal toxicity, such as age, diabetes, anticoagulants, prior abdominal surgery, prescribed dose, maximum dose of the rectum, and the percentage of the rectum covered by 70 Gy (V70), 60 Gy (V60), 40 Gy (V40) and 20 Gy (V20) were compared between ≤ Grade 1 and ≥ Grade 2 toxicity groups using the Student's t-test. Multivariable logistic regression analysis of the factors that appeared to be associated with the risk of late rectal toxicity (as determined by the Student's t-test) was performed. The median follow-up time was 35 months. Late Grade 2-3 rectal toxicity was observed in 18 patients (7.4%). Age, the maximum dose of the rectum, V70 and V60 of the ≥ Grade 2 toxicity group were significantly higher than in those of the ≤ Grade 1 toxicity group (P=0.00093, 0.048, 0.0030 and 0.0021, respectively). No factor was significant in the multivariable analysis. The result of this study indicates that the risk of late rectal toxicity correlates with the rectal volume exposed to high doses of HT for localized prostate cancer. Further follow-up and data accumulation may establish dose-volume modeling to predict rectal complications after HT. (author)

  5. Public awareness of risk factors for cancer among the Japanese general population: A population-based survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sasazuki Shizuka

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The present study aimed to provide information on awareness of the attributable fraction of cancer causes among the Japanese general population. Methods A nationwide representative sample of 2,000 Japanese aged 20 or older was asked about their perception and level of concern about various environmental and genetic risk factors in relation to cancer prevention, as a part of an Omnibus Survey. Interviews were conducted with 1,355 subjects (609 men and 746 women. Results Among 12 risk factor candidates, the attributable fraction of cancer-causing viral and bacterial infection was considered highest (51%, followed by that of tobacco smoking (43%, stress (39%, and endocrine-disrupting chemicals (37%. On the other hand, the attributable fractions of cancer by charred fish and meat (21% and alcohol drinking (22% were considered low compared with other risk factor candidates. For most risk factors, attributable fraction responses were higher in women than in men. As a whole, the subjects tended to respond with higher values than those estimated by epidemiologic evidence in the West. The attributable fraction of cancer speculated to be genetically determined was 32%, while 36% of cancer was considered preventable by improving lifestyle. Conclusion Our results suggest that awareness of the attributable fraction of cancer causes in the Japanese general population tends to be dominated by cancer-causing infection, occupational exposure, air pollution and food additives rather than major lifestyle factors such as diet.

  6. Incidence of pneumonia and risk factors among patients with head and neck cancer undergoing radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study investigated the incidence and patient- and treatment-related risk factors related to pneumonia acquired during radiotherapy (PNRT) in head and neck cancer (HNC) patients. Using the universal insurance claims data, 15,894 total HNC patients between 1998 and 2007 were included in this analysis. PNRT was defined as the occurrence of pneumonia within 90 days of the commencement of radiotherapy. Information also included some demographic characteristics, treatment-related factors, and comorbidities. Appropriate statistical tests were performed to assess the difference between patients with and those without PNRT. A logistic regression was used to estimate the odds ratio (OR) of PNRT among the variables examined. In total, 772 patients (4.86%) were identified with PNRT as the case group, whereas 15,122 subjects of the same cancer without PNRT formed the control group. Of patients with PNRT, 632 (81.9%) were hospitalized with a mean length of stay of 25.9 days. Results from the multiple logistic regression showed that an older age and certain comorbidities were associated with an increased risk of PNRT. Patients with cancer of the tongue, buccal mucosa, oropharynx, and hypopharynx/larynx were at particularly higher risk (OR = 1.28, 1.28, 1.67, and 1.74, respectively). Compared to radiotherapy alone, concurrent chemoradiotherapy had no effect on the PNRT. Patients in the PNRT group had higher overall medical costs and length of stay. The incidence of PNRT in HNC patients receiving radiotherapy was approximately 5%. Notably, an older age, certain comorbidities, and certain specific tumor sites were associated with an increased risk

  7. Local recurrences after breast-conserving treatments in breast cancer: risk factors and effect on survival

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To determine the risk factors for local and distant failure in node-negative breast cancer treated with breast-conservative surgery and radiotherapy and to determine the relationship between these two events. We retrospectively selected 908 patients who received conservative surgery and radiotherapy but no chemotherapy between 1980 and 1995, for a mode-negative breast cancer. Patients were divided in two groups according to the status of the margins of resection. All pathology specimens were reviewed. In case of negative margins, the risk factors for local recurrences picked up by the Cox model were histologic multi-focus (P=0.0076), peritumoral vessel invasion (P=0.021) and age ≥40 years (P=0.024), and in case of involved margins, negative oestrogen receptors (P=0.0012), histologic multi-focus (P=0.0028), and absence of hormonal therapy (P=0.017). The 10-year local recurrence rate was 18 % in case of negative margins and 29 % in case of involved margins, although in the latter case patients received high-dose adjuvant radiotherapy. Accordingly, the 10-year distant failure rates were 16 % and 27 %, respectively. Many arguments suggest that local and distant failures are closely related. Patients with histologic multi-focus or positive margins are at high risk of local failure and then of distant failure, and require a more aggressive initial treatment. (author)

  8. Urban-Rural Disparity of Breast Cancer and Socioeconomic Risk Factors in China

    OpenAIRE

    Fei, Xufeng; Wu, Jiaping; Kong, Zhe; Christakos, George

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer is one of the most commonly diagnosed cancers worldwide. The primary aim of this work is the study of breast cancer disparity among Chinese women in urban vs. rural regions and its associations with socioeconomic factors. Data on breast cancer incidence were obtained from the Chinese cancer registry annual report (2005–2009). The ten socioeconomic factors considered in this study were obtained from the national population 2000 census and the Chinese city/county statistical yearb...

  9. Analysis of primary risk factors for oral cancer from select US states with increasing rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O'Malley Susan

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objectives To examine the primary risk factor for oral cancer in the US, smoking and tobacco use, among the specific US states that experienced short-term increases in oral cancer incidence and mortality. Methods Population-based data on oral cancer morbidity and mortality in the US were obtained from the National Cancer Institute's (NCI Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER database for analysis of recent trends. Data were also obtained from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS to measure current and former trends of tobacco usage. To comprehensive measures of previous state tobacco use and tobacco-related policies, the Initial Outcomes Index (IOI, 1992-1993 and the Strength of Tobacco Control index (SoTC, 1999-2000 were also used for evaluation and comparison. Results Analysis of the NCI-SEER data confirmed a previous report of geographic increases in oral cancer and demonstrated these were state-specific, were not regional, and were unrelated to previously observed increases among females and minorities. Analysis of the CDC-BRFSS data revealed these states had relatively higher percentages of smokers currently, as well as historically. In addition, analysis of the IOI and SoTC indexes suggest that many factors, including cigarette pricing, taxes and home or workplace bans, may have had significant influence on smoking prevalence in these areas. Trend analysis of these data uncovered a recent and significant reversal in smoking rates that suggest oral cancer incidence and mortality may also begin to decline in the near future. Conclusion Due to the rising costs of health care in the US and the limited resources available for health prevention efforts, it is essential to organize and direct more effective efforts by public health officials and epidemiologists, as well as funding from local, state and federal governments, to reduce and eliminate identified

  10. Analysis of various risk factors affecting potentially malignant disorders and oral cancer patients of Central India

    OpenAIRE

    Vidya Kadashetti; Minal Chaudhary; Swati Patil; Madhuri Gawande; K M Shivakumar; Snehal Patil; R C Pramod

    2015-01-01

    Context: The use of tobacco/betel quid can alone lead to death. India is the fourth largest consumer of tobacco/betel quid in the world and the third-largest producer of tobacco/betel quid after China and Brazil. Aims: A case-control study was carried out to assess the prevalence and various risk factors among potentially malignant disorders (PMD) and oral cancer patients of central India. Settings and Design: A total of 100 clinically and histopathologically diagnosed PMD and oral can...

  11. Modification to knowledge on breast cancer in the workers with risk factors for this disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An educative intervention of 30 workers with risk factors for breast cancer was carried out in 'Ramon Lopez Penna' University Polyclinic in Santiago de Cuba, from September 2008 to March 2009, in order to increase some knowledge on the topic. Two subgroups with 15 participants each were created to develop the different activities of the educative project, which will be assessed before the instructive action and 6 months after its onset. A Mc Nemar text was used to validate the information and a significant modification to knowledge on the topic was obtained. (author)

  12. Preoperative risk factors for anastomotic leakage after resection for colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pommergaard, Hans-Christian; Gessler, B; Burcharth, Jakob;

    2014-01-01

    was used for bias assessment within studies, and the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) approach was used for quality assessment of evidence on outcome levels. RESULTS: This review included 23 studies evaluating 110,272 patients undergoing colorectal resection...... for cancer. The meta-analyses found that a low rectal anastomosis [OR = 3.26 (95% CI: 2.31-4.62)], male gender [OR = 1.48 (95% CI: 1.37-1.60)] and preoperative radiotherapy [OR = 1.65 (95% CI: 1.06-2.56)] may be risk factors for anastomotic leakage. Primarily as a result of observational design, the...

  13. Risk factors for neoplasms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A broad survey is given of risk factors for neoplasms. The main carcinogenic substances (including also ionizing radiation and air pollution) are listed, and are correlated with the risk factors for various cancers most frequently explained and discussed in the literature. The study is intended to serve as a basis for a general assessment of the incidence of neoplasms in children, and of cancer mortality in the entire population of Bavaria in the years 1983-1989, or 1979-1988, respectively, with the principal idea of drawing up an environment-related health survey. The study therefore takes into account not only ionizing radiation as a main risk factor, but also other risk factors detectable within the ecologic context, as e.g. industrial installations and their effects, refuse incineration plants or waste dumps, or the social status. (orig./MG)

  14. Breast cancer risk factor knowledge among nurses in teaching hospitals of Karachi, Pakistan: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatcher Juanita

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Breast cancer is the most common cancer among women in both the developed and the developing world. The incidence of breast cancer in Karachi, Pakistan is 69.1 per 100,000 with breast cancer presentation in stages III and IV being common (≥ 50%. The most pragmatic solution to early detection lies in breast cancer education of women. Nurses constitute a special group having characteristics most suited for disseminating breast cancer information to the women. We assessed the level of knowledge of breast cancer risk factors among registered female nurses in teaching hospitals of Karachi. We also identified whether selected factors among nurses were associated with their knowledge of breast cancer risk factors, so that relevant measures to improve knowledge of nurses could be implemented. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted in seven teaching hospitals of Karachi using stratified random sampling with proportional allocation. A total of 609 registered female nurses were interviewed using a structured questionnaire adapted from the Stager's Comprehensive Breast Cancer Knowledge Test. Knowledge of breast cancer risk factors was categorized into good, fair and poor categories. Ordinal regression was used to identify factors associated with risk knowledge among nurses. Results Thirty five percent of nurses had good knowledge of risk factors. Graduates from private nursing schools (aOR = 4.23, 95% CI: 2.93, 6.10, nurses who had cared for breast cancer patients (aOR = 1.41, 95% CI: 1.00, 1.99, those having received a breast examination themselves (aOR = 1.56, 95% CI: 1.08, 2.26 or those who ever examined a patient's breast (aOR = 1.87, 95% CI: 1.34, 2.61 were more likely to have good knowledge. Conclusion A relatively small proportion of the nursing population had good level of knowledge of the breast cancer risk factors. This knowledge is associated with nursing school status, professional breast cancer exposure and self

  15. Radium-contaminated water: a risk factor for cancer of the upper digestive tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirunwatthanakul, Phatcha; Sriplung, Hutcha; Geater, Alan

    2006-01-01

    There is a high incidence of oral, pharynx and esophagus cancer among males in Na Mom district in Songkhla Province in Thailand, an area where radium concentration in shallow well water is found to be higher than other areas in this province. A population-based case control study was conducted from June to November 2004 to determine the association of oral exposure to radium-contaminated water and cancer of the upper digestive tract in the district.Thirty-two confirmed cases and 128 sex and five-year birth cohort matched neighborhood controls were selected by multistage sampling from six villages in four sub-districts. All subjects were verified to have been permanent residents in the district for more than 10 years. Thirty cases were dead at the time of the study, thus their relatives were interviewed to determine their amount of water drinking, tobacco smoking, alcohol drinking, betel chewing and exposure to other potential risk factors in the past. The other two cases and all controls were directly interviewed. The concentration of radium in shallow well water at the subject's houses was estimated using a contour map of Ra-226 in the water at the location of their residence. The results showed a strong and dose-dependent associationb etween consumption of radium-contaminated shallow well water and cancer of the upper digestive tract. In multivariate analysis controlled for important risk factors of the cancer, the odds ratios for exposure to oral radium consumption 50-100 mBq/day and >100 mBq/day compared with <50 mBq/day were 2.83 (95% CI: 0.50-16.19) and 29.76 (95% CI: 4.39-201.6) respectively. The risk also increased with consumption of fresh water fish which might have been contaminated by dissolved radium in the water. This study offers the first evidence of the association between radium and cancer of the upper digestive tract to the world literature. Further studies with other methods such as area-wide correlation of radium-uranium concentration and the

  16. Coverage of Skin Cancer Risk Factors and UV Behaviors in Popular U.S. Magazines from 2000 to 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McWhirter, Jennifer E; Hoffman-Goetz, Laurie

    2016-06-01

    Mass media is an influential source of skin cancer and tanning information for the public, but we know little about its content or emphasis. The objective of this research was to describe the volume and nature of skin cancer and tanning messages in 20 popular U.S. men's and women's magazines (2000-2012). We used a directed content analysis to determine frequency information about risk factors and ultraviolet (UV) behaviors in 608 articles and 930 images. Chi-square and Fisher's exact tests determined coverage differences based on content type (text vs. image) and target audience (women vs. men). UV exposure was the most common risk factor mentioned (37.7 %) and sunscreen use the most common behavior encouraged (60.0 %); information about other risk factors and protective behaviors was uncommon. Both articles (25.2 %) and images (36.9 %) promoted the tanned look as attractive. In most cases, images infrequently contained helpful information on skin cancer risk factors and prevention, except for high-SPF sunscreens. Women's magazines published more articles on skin cancer and tanning than men's magazines (456 vs. 159, χ(2) = 143.43, P < .01), and the nature of the messages differed between them. Magazine skin cancer and tanning content may contribute to inaccurate public understanding of risks and prevention. These findings are relevant to cancer educators, who may wish to counter potentially harmful messages and enhance positive ones through cancer education efforts. PMID:25761763

  17. Risk Factors of Cholangiocarcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Tyson, Gia L.; El-Serag, Hashem B.

    2011-01-01

    Cholangiocarcinoma is the second most common primary hepatic malignancy after hepatocellular cancer. It accounts for approximately 10–25% of all hepatobiliary malignancies. There are considerable geographic and demographic variations in the incidence of cholangiocarcinoma. There are several established risk factors for CC including parasitic infections, primary sclerosing cholangitis, biliary-duct cysts, hepatolithiasis, and toxins. Other less-established, potential risk factors include infla...

  18. Alcohol and Cancer Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Overview Cancer Prevention Overview–for health professionals Research Alcohol and Cancer Risk On This Page What is ... in the risk of colorectal cancer. Research on alcohol consumption and other cancers: Numerous studies have examined ...

  19. Genetic variation in insulin-like growth factor 2 may play a role in ovarian cancer risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pearce, Celeste Leigh; Doherty, Jennifer A; Van Den Berg, David J;

    2011-01-01

    The insulin-like growth factor (IGF) signaling axis plays an important role in cancer biology. We hypothesized that genetic variation in this pathway may influence risk of ovarian cancer. A three-center study of non-Hispanic whites including 1880 control women, 1135 women with invasive epithelial...... ovarian cancer and 321 women with borderline epithelial ovarian tumors was carried out to test the association between tag single-nucleotide polymorphisms (tSNPs) (n=58) in this pathway and risk of ovarian cancer. We found no association between variation in IGF1, IGFBP1 or IGFBP3 and risk of invasive...... disease, whereas five tSNPs in IGF2 were associated with risk of invasive epithelial ovarian cancer at P<0.05 and followed-up one of the associated SNPs. We conducted genotyping in 3216 additional non-Hispanic white cases and 5382 additional controls and were able to independently replicate our initial...

  20. Diabetes Status and Being Up-to-Date on Colorectal Cancer Screening, 2012 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System

    OpenAIRE

    Porter, Nancy R.; Eberth, Jan M.; Samson, Marsha E.; Garcia-Dominic, Oralia; Lengerich, Eugene J.; Schootman, Mario

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Although screening rates for colorectal cancer are increasing, 22 million Americans are not up-to-date with recommendations. People with diabetes are an important and rapidly growing group at increased risk for colorectal cancer. Screening status and predictors of being up-to-date on screening are largely unknown in this population. Methods This study used logistic regression modeling and data from the 2012 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System to examine the association bet...

  1. Is High Breast Density a Risk Factor for Breast Cancer ? Significant Points Emerging from the DMIST Study Methodological Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Colin, Catherine; Prince, Violaine

    2009-01-01

    High breast density (HBD) tends to be seen as a significant and independent risk factor for breast cancer. This article describes a methodological and quantitative study of the variables selected by the large DMIST study, i.e., age, hormonal status and breast density, in correlation with cancer occurrence frequency. The statistical analysis of cancer rates in every patient subgroup of a study involving more than 42,000 women in screening, shows that HBD, when isolated from other variables, do...

  2. Insulin-like growth factor-1 enhances mortality risk in women with breast cancer through epithelial-mesenchymal transition initiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ala-Eddin Al Moustafa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The metastatic disease which leads to cancer patients′ mortality results from a multi-step process of tumor progression caused by gene alteration and cooperation. Accordingly, it was recently demonstrated that alteration level of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1 and IGF binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3 are associated with the risk of cancer related death in several human malignancies including breast cancer. On the other hand, epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT is described as a crucial event in cancer progression and metastasis. Herein, we discuss the association between IGF-1, IGF-1/IGFBP-3 ratio, EMT, and breast cancer mortality.

  3. Risk Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... lung cancer and secondhand tobacco smoke , outdoor air pollution, and asbestos . Drinking water that contains a large amount of arsenic has been linked to skin , bladder, and lung cancers. Studies have been done ...

  4. RISK FACTORS FOR DEVELOPMENT OF LYMPHEDEMA FOLLOWING BREAST CANCER TREATMENT : A RETROSPECTIVE STUDY

    OpenAIRE

    Mr. Madhusudan; Ashwin Hebbar; Sunil; Mohammed

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The aim and objective of this study is to identify the factors associated with secondary lymphedema after breast cancer treatment. BACKGROUND : Lymphedema of the arm is a complication of breast cancer treatment that affects 2 - 40% of breast cancer survivors. The pathophysiology of lymphedema following breast cancer treatment is poorly understood, probably suggesting a multifactor nature. As the breast cancer survival rate increases, lymphedema wil...

  5. Reproductive factors related to the risk of colorectal cancer by subsite: a case-control analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Yoo, K-Y; Tajima, K.; M. Inoue; Takezaki, T.; Hirose, K.; Hamajima, N; Park, S.K.; Kang, D. H.; Kato, T; Hirai, T

    1999-01-01

    The authors hypothesized that reproductive factors of colorectal cancer, which are probably mediated by endogenous hormones, would differ according to colonic subsite. Information on reproductive factors was obtained from 372 female colorectal cancer cases (113 proximal colon, 126 distal colon, 133 rectum) and 31 061 cancer-free controls at the Aichi Cancer Center Hospital, Japan, between 1988 and 1995. Multiple logistic analysis showed that late age at interview, family history of colorectal...

  6. Risk factors for developing hyponatremia in thyroid cancer patients undergoing radioactive iodine therapy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung Eun Lee

    Full Text Available Due to the alarming increase in the incidence of thyroid cancer worldwide, more patients are receiving postoperative radioactive iodine (RAI therapy and these patients are given a low-iodine diet along with levothyroxine withdrawal to induce a hypothyroid state to maximize the uptake of RAI by thyroid tissues. Recently, the reported cases of patients suffering from life-threatening severe hyponatremia following postoperative RAI therapy have increased. This study aimed to systematically assess risk factors for developing hyponatremia following RAI therapy in post-thyroidectomy patients.We reviewed the medical records of all thyroid cancer patients who underwent thyroidectomy and postoperative RAI therapy from July 2009 to February 2012. Demographic and biochemical parameters including serum sodium and thyroid function tests were assessed along with medication history.A total of 2229 patients (47.0±11.0 years, female 76.3% were enrolled in the analysis. Three hundred seven patients (13.8% of all patients developed hyponatremia; 44 patients (2.0% developed moderate to severe hyponatremia (serum Na+≤130 mEq/L and another 263 (11.8% patients showed mild hyponatremia (130 mEq/Lrisk factors for the development of hyponatremia.Our data suggest that age greater than 60 years, female sex, use of thiazide, and hyponatremia at the initiation of RAI therapy are important

  7. Pre-operative hypoalbuminemia is a major risk factor for postoperative complications following rectal cancer surgery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To determine the relationship between pre operative hypoalbuminemia and the development of complications following rectal cancer surgery, as well as postoperative bowel function and hospital stay. METHODS: The medical records of 244 patients undergoing elective oncological resection for rectal adenocarcinoma at Siriraj Hospital during 2003 and 2006 were reviewed. The patients had pre-operative serum albumin assessment. Albumin less than 35 g/L was recognized as hypoalbuminemia. Postoperative outcomes, including mortality, complications, time to first bowel movement, time to first defecation, time to resumption of normal diet and length of hospital stay, were analyzed. RESULTS: The patients were 139 males (57%) and 105 females (43%) with mean age of 62 years. Fifty-six patients (23%) had hypoalbuminemia. Hypoalbuminemic patients had a significantly larger tumor size and lower body mass index compared with non-hypoalbuminemic patients (5.5 vs 4.3 cm; P<0.001 and 21.9 vs 23.2kg/m2; P=0.02,respectively=.Thirty day postoperative mortality was 1.2%. Overall complication rate was 25%. Hypoalbuminemic patients had a significantly higher rate of postoperative complications (37.5% vs 21.3%;P=0.014).In univariate analysis, hypoalbuminemia and ASA status were two risk factors for postoperative complications. In multivariate analysis, hypoalbuminemia was the only significant risk factor (odds ratio 2.22,95% CI 1.17-4.23; P<0.015=.Hospitalization in hypoalbuminemic patients was significantly longer than that in non-hypoalbuminemic patients (13 vs 10 d, P=0.034), but the parameters of postoperative bowel function were not significantly different between the two groups. CONCLUSION: Pre-operative hypoalbuminemia is an independent risk factor for postoperative complications following rectal cancer surgery.

  8. Dietary practices in households as risk factors for stomach cancer: a familial study in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jedrychowski, W; Boeing, H; Popiela, T; Wahrendorf, J; Tobiasz-Adamczyk, B; Kulig, J

    1992-06-01

    In the framework of a nationwide case-control study of risk factors for stomach cancer, a household survey was conducted on those food habits at the family level which were considered relevant for stomach cancer. The practices of 741 case and 741 control households were compared and relative risks calculated by the unconditional maximum likelihood method. For each household, the person responsible for cooking completed the survey. Respondents to the household survey were 35% of the cases and 40% of the controls of the case-control study and otherwise other household members. Case households relied more frequently on their own gardens as a major source of vegetables and fruit, and they cooked their vegetables more often than control households. The vegetable and fruit consumption during the summer period per family member was significantly less in case households compared to control households. The difference in per capita vegetable and fruit consumption between case and control households persisted, but was considerably less pronounced when the consumption of the index person (case or control) was subtracted from the household consumption. The consumption of mainly wholemeal bread showed a relative risk (RR) of 0.18 (95% CI 0.07-0.44) compared with mainly white bread consumption, whereas frequent frying and stewing of meat was associated with an increased risk compared to boiling of meat (RR = 2.06, 95% CI 1.48-2.87). No association with risk was found for long-term refrigerator use or other storage modalities.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1467778

  9. Microscopic residual disease is a risk factor in the primary treatment of breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objectives: In the primary treatment of breast cancer, postoperative radiotherapy is performed in high-risk patients after mastectomy and in patients who received breast conserving surgery. In a retrospective analysis, our mono-institutional results of postoperative irradiation have been evaluated. Patients and Methods: Between 1992 and 1996, 500 patients have been irradiated after surgery for primary breast cancer. Of these, 489 patients had no initial metastases. 89 patients with loco-regional disease had a mastectomy, 400 patients were irradiated after breast conserving surgery. Radiotherapy at the chest wall was performed with 50 Gy and 2 Gy fractions. After microscopically incomplete resection, an electron boost of 10 Gy was given. The ipsilateral lymph nodes were irradiated with 50 Gy when there was extensive lymph node involvement or invasion of tumor in the axillary fat tissue. Results: The 5-year local control rate after mastectomy was 97.4% and 91.2% after breast conserving surgery. The only statistically significant risk factor for local failure was microscopically incomplete resection. The corresponding 5-year local control rates for microscopically incomplete and complete resections were 76.4% and 92.7% (p = 0.01). The risk of local relapse was increased with both marginal invasive and marginal DCIS-tissue, 86.6% of local relapses were in the same quadrant. Conclusions: High-risk patients after mastectomy and patients with breast conserving surgery achieve a high local control rate with postoperative irradiation. After microscopically incomplete resection, there is an increased risk for local relapse. (orig.)

  10. Diabetes, insulin and cancer risk

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    There is a consensus that both type 1 and type 2 diabetes are associated with a spectrum of cancers but the underlying mechanisms are largely unknown. On the other hand, there are ongoing debates about the risk association of insulin use with cancer. We have briefly reviewed recent related research on exploration of risk factors for cancer and pharmacoepidemiological investigations into drug use in diabetes on the risk of cancer, as well as the current understanding of metabolic pathways impl...

  11. The Prevalence of Cardiac Risk Factors in Men with Localized Prostate Cancer Undergoing Androgen Deprivation Therapy in British Columbia, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margot K. Davis

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. While androgen deprivation therapy (ADT reduces the risk of prostate cancer-specific mortality in high-risk localized prostate cancer, it adversely affects cardiovascular (CV risk factor profiles in treated men. Methods. We retrospectively reviewed the charts of 100 consecutive men with intermediate- or high-risk localized prostate cancer referred to the British Columbia Cancer Agency for ADT. Data on CV risk factors and disease were collected and Framingham risk scores were calculated. Results. The median age of the study cohort was 73 years. Established cardiovascular disease was present in 25% of patients. Among patients without established CV disease, calculated Framingham risk was high in 65%, intermediate in 33%, and low in 1%. Baseline hypertension was present in 58% of patients, dyslipidemia in 51%, and diabetes or impaired glucose tolerance in 24%. Hypertension was more prevalent in the study cohort than in an age- and sex-matched population sample (OR 1.74, P=0.006; diabetes had a similar prevalence (OR 0.93, P=0.8. Conclusions. Patients receiving ADT have a high prevalence of cardiovascular disease and risk factors and are more likely to be hypertensive than population controls. Low rates of CV risk screening suggest opportunities for improved primary and secondary prevention of CV disease in this population.

  12. Risk factors of gastric cancer specific for tumor location and histology in Cali, Colombia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Francia Campos; Gabriel Carrasquilla; Chihaya Koriyama; Mauricio Serra; Edwin Carrascal; Tetsuhiko Itoh; Mitsuharu Nomoto; Suminori Akiba

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To examine histology- and tumor-location specific risk factors of gastric cancer (GC).METHODS: This was a case-control study. The study subjects were 216 GC patients newly diagnosed during the period 2000-2002 and 431 controls selected from non-cancer patients matching in age, gender, and hospital. We obtained information on lifestyles, dietary habits, and others by a questionnaire.RESULTS: The subjects who were not eldest among his/her siblings were at a slightly elevated GC risk (OR 1.3; 95% CI 0.8-2.0). Salting meals before tasting was related to an increased GC risk (OR 3.5; 95% CI 1.6-7.3). Frequent consumptions of fruits (OR 0.3; 95% CI 0.1-1.0) and vegetables (OR 0.3; 95% CI 0.1-1.0) were related to decreased GC risks. On the other hand, frying foods (OR 1.9; 95% CI 1.0-3.6) and cooking with coal (OR 1.8; 95% CI 1.3-2.6) were related to increased GC risks.Neither Lauren's histological classification (intestinal and diffuse types) nor tumor location significantly affected those associations except birth order. The subjects who were not eldest among his/her siblings had an increased risk of GCs in the distal and middle thirds, and their ORs were 1.7 (95% CI 1.0-2.8) and 1.9 (95% CI 0.8-4.3),respectively. The corresponding OR in the upper third stomach was 0.3 (95% CI 0.1-0.9). The differences of those three ORs were statistically significant (P = 0.010).CONCLUSION: The present study shows that birth order, salt intake, consumption of fruits and vegetables,the type of cooking, and cigarette smoking are related to GC risk. In histology and tumor-location specific analyses, non-eldest person among their siblings is related to an increased GC risk in the distal and middle thirds of the stomach, and is related to a decreased GC risk in the cardia.

  13. Risk factors for brain metastasis in small-cell lung cancer after surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To evaluate clinical risk factors that can predict brain metastasis after complete resection of small cell lung cancer (SCLC) and to assess the role of prophylactic cranial irradiation (PCI) in such kind of patients. Methods: Eighty-eight patients with completely resected stage I - III SCLC from Jan. 2000 to Dec. 2009 in our hospital were retrospectively analyzed. Kaplan-Meier was used to compare the differences in the incidence of metastasis free survival in different groups. Logistic model was used to assess the independent risk factors for brain metastasis. Results: The follow-up rate is 100%, and 37 patients were followed up for more than three years. None of the 3 patients who received PCI developed brain metastasis, while for patients without receiving PCI, 24% developed brain metastases. The incidence of brain metastasis for stage I, II and III SCLC after surgery were 4%, 26% and 29% (χ2 =7.57, P =0.023), respectively. The median survival time and the 3-year survival rate were 18 months and 25% for patients who developed brain metastasis, and 48 months and 59% for those without brain metastasis (χ2 =10.63, P =0.001). Both univariate and multivariate analyses showed that pre-treatment disease stage was independent risk factor for brain metastasis (χ2 =7.57, 8.52; P =0.023, 0.004). Age, sex, tumor location, pathological type, induction chemotherapy, and postoperative chemotherapy/radiotherapy were not significantly correlated with the incidence of brain metastasis (χ2 =0.03, 0.00, 0.00, 2.58, 0.01, 1.23, 0.84; P =0.869, 0.998, 0.992, 0.109, 0.936, 0.266, 0.361, respectively). Conclusions: Pre-treatment disease stage was independent risk factor for brain metastasis in SCLC. PCI may be important for stage II -III SCLC but not for stage I disease. (authors)

  14. Do the number of risk factors influence the outcome of patients with endometrial cancer?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Although 8 years have passed since the FIGO mandated surgical staging of corpus cancer, limited data have been published to assess the impact of irradiation (RT) on patients so treated. Despite the fact that retrospective reviews have documented pelvic failure rates ranging from 15-20% in patients with high risk uterine-confined disease who have received no or 'inadequate' RT, the role of RT has been questioned. Kadar et al (Ob. Gyn. 80: 655-659, 1992) suggest that the number of tumor related factors is the most important predictor of death and that RT did not affect the site of recurrence. We sought to corroborate these findings by constructing a large data base of women with corpus cancers managed with initial surgery followed by adjuvant irradiation. Methods and Materials: Between 1983 and 1993, 394 patients received adjuvant postoperative RT from one of three academic radiation practices. RT consisted of vaginal(V) brachytherapy alone in 28 pts, pelvic(P) RT in 169 pts, P +V in 167 pts, pelvic +paraaortic (P+P)RT in 13 pts and whole abdominal (WA) RT in 17 pts. Lymph nodes(LN) were evaluated in 213 (54%). The median number of pelvic and paraaortic LN in the pathology specimen were 6 and 4, respectively. Median followup until death was 63 months. Results: 5 year disease-free survival (DFS) rate and pelvic control rates were 77% and 91%, respectively. Risk factors (defined by Kadar) refer to cervical stroma involvement, myometrial invasion >(1(3)), grade 3, and capillary space invasion (CSI) for patients with PSI/II excluding unfavorable histologies. Multivariate analysis revealed that age, histology, and pathologic stage were independent prognostic indicators for disease free survival. The number of factors was not significantly associated with inferior outcomes as suggested by Kadar et al, who reported 5-year survival rates of 66% and 17% for patients with 2 and 3 or 4 risk factors, respectively. Conclusion: The excellent pelvic control and disease

  15. Risk factors for bone loss with prostate cancer in Korean men not receiving androgen deprivation therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun-Ouck Kim

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Preexisting bone loss in men with prostate cancer is an important issue due to the accelerated bone loss during androgen deprivation therapy (ADT. In addition, a high prostate-specific antigen (PSA level has been reported to be related to bone metabolism. This study assessed the factors associated with osteoporosis in Korean men with non-metastatic prostate cancer before undergoing ADT. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study enrolled patients admitted for a prostate biopsy because of a high PSA or palpable nodule on a digital rectal examination. We divided the patients (n = 172 according to the results of the biopsy: group I, non-metastatic prostate cancer (n = 42 and group II, benign prostatic hypertrophy (BPH; n = 130. The lumbar bone mineral density (BMD was evaluated using quantitative computed tomography. The demographic, health status, lifestyle, body mass index (BMI, serum testosterone concentration, and disease variables in prostate cancer (Gleason score, clinical stage, and PSA were analyzed prospectively to determine their effect on the BMD. RESULTS: The estimated mean T-score was higher in group I than in group II (-1.96 ± 3.35 vs. -2.66 ± 3.20, but without statistic significance (p = 0.235. The significant factors correlated with BMD in group I were a high serum PSA (ß = -0.346, p = 0.010 and low BMI (ß = 0.345, p = 0.014 in the multiple linear regression model. Also old age (r = -0.481, p = 0.001, a high serum PSA (r = -0.571, p < 0.001, low BMI (r = 0.598, p < 0.001, and a high Gleason’s score (r = -0.319, p = 0.040 were the factors related to BMD in the correlation. The significant factors correlated with BMD in group II were old age (ß = -0.324, p = 0.001 and BMI (ß = 0.143, p = 0.014 in the multiple linear regression model. CONCLUSIONS: The risk factors for osteoporosis in men with prostate cancer include a low BMI, and elevated serum PSA. Monitoring BMD from the outset of ADT is a logical first step in the clinical

  16. Colon Cancer Risk Factors in Jiashan County of Zhe-jiang Province, the Highest Incidence Area in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XianghuiWang; ZhaoyiHe; KaiyanYao; KangChen; QilongLi

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To investigate the risk factors of colon cancer in Jiashan county, the highest incidence area in China and to provide a scientific basis for monitoring and prevention. METHODS With a population-based case-control study, 109 colon cancer patients with 1:7 matched controls were interviewed with uniform questionnaires. Conditional logistic regression was used for univariate and multivariate analysis of colon cancer. RESULTS High monthly pork consumption (OR=1.608), and high monthly animal fat consumption (OR=1.391) over a ten-year period, psychological depression (OR=9.887), negative emotion (OR=1.723), lower digestivetract diseases (OR=4.163), and history of colorectal cancer in first-degree relatives (OR=3.421) were the main risk factors of colon cancer. During that time, high monthly vegetable consumption was a protective factor for colon cancer (OR=0.422).CONCLUSIONS Colon cancer in Jiashan county was related to dietary factors. The research results support the colon cancer etiological hypothesis of "fat-bile acid" and "deficiency of dietary fibre". Psychological depression, in heritance and lower digestive tract diseases were also correlated with colon cancer.

  17. The Role of Insulin and Insulin-like Growth Factors in the Increased Risk of Cancer in Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derek LeRoith

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D are at increased risk of developing cancer. This evidence arises from numerous epidemiologic studies that relate a positive association between T2D and cancer. In-vitro and several in-vivo experiments have attempted to discern the potential mechanistic factors involved in this relationship. Candidates include hyperinsulinemia, insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1, and insulin-like growth factor-2 (IGF-2 signaling. These studies demonstrated that increased insulin, IGF-1, and IGF-2 signaling through the insulin receptor and IGF-1 receptor can induce cancer development and progression.

  18. African-Caribbean cancer consortium for the study of viral, genetic and environmental cancer risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Odedina Folakemi

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This is a short summary of a meeting of the "African-Caribbean Cancer Consortium", jointly organized by the University of Pittsburgh, Department of Epidemiology and the University of Pittsburgh Cancer Institute, held in Montego Bay, Jamaica as a satellite meeting at the Caribbean Health Research Council, 52nd Annual Council and Scientific meeting on May 4, 2007.

  19. Biomarker and Phenotypic Risk Factors for Breast Cancer Lymphedema | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

     DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Lymphedema (LE) following treatment for breast cancer is the most common form of secondary LE in the industrialized world. It occurs in 20% to 87% of patients following treatment for breast cancer and results in significant disability. At the |

  20. Risk Factors of Submucosal or Lymphovascular Invasion in Early Gastric Cancer <2 cm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Yu Yi; Kim, Su Jin; Choi, Cheol Woong; Kang, Dae Hwan; Kim, Hyung Wook; Park, Su Bum; Nam, Hyeong Seok

    2016-05-01

    Although prediction of submucosal (SM) or lymphovascular (LV) invasion is important before endoscopic resection of early gastric cancer (EGC), it can only be confirmed following endoscopic resection. After endoscopic resection, patients with SM or LV invasion may require additional surgery due to high risk of lymph node metastasis.We conducted a retrospective study to identify risk factors for SM or LV invasion before endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) of EGC. Between January 2009 and May 2014, we reviewed the data of patients with EGC who met the absolute indications for ESD before procedure: well and/or moderately differentiated adenocarcinomas, tumors ≤ 2 cm in length and absence of ulcer or ulcer-scar.During study period, a total of 308 lesions in 297 patients were included. SM or LV invasion was detected in 34 lesions (34/308, 11.0%). Multivariate analysis revealed that a moderately differentiated adenocarcinoma (odds ratio [OR] 4.157, P = 0.000) and location of the stomach (the upper and middle third; OR 3.100, P = 0.008) were significant risk factors for SM or LV invasion.Careful consideration of endoscopic treatment decision might be necessary for the patients with a moderately differentiated adenocarcinoma and EGC located on the upper and middle third of the stomach. PMID:27258528

  1. A prospective investigation of predictive and modifiable risk factors for breast cancer in unaffected BRCA1 and BRCA2 gene carriers

    OpenAIRE

    O'Sullivan, Jacintha

    2013-01-01

    Background Breast cancer is the most common female cancer worldwide. The lifetime risk of a woman being diagnosed with breast cancer is approximately 12.5%. For women who carry the deleterious mutation in either of the BRCA genes, BRCA1 or BRCA2, the risk of developing breast or ovarian cancer is significantly increased. In recent years there has been increased penetrance of BRCA1 and BRCA2 associated breast cancer, prompting investigation into the role of modifiable risk factors in this ...

  2. Identification and Screening of Individuals at Increased Risk for Pancreatic Cancer with Emphasis on Known Environmental and Genetic Factors and Hereditary Syndromes

    OpenAIRE

    David Chu; Wendy Kohlmann; Adler, Douglas G

    2010-01-01

    Despite recent diagnostic and therapeutic advances, pancreatic cancer still carries a poor prognosis. Screening high-risk individuals is a relatively new concept with regards to pancreatic cancer but is an area of intense study. Significant effort has been invested in identifying risk factors for pancreatic cancer. Risk factors for pancreatic cancer can be classified into three broad categories: demographic, environmental (host), and hereditary (genetic) predisposition. This manuscript will r...

  3. Incidence and risk factors of postoperative residual curarization in patients with breast cancer: prospective cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zi-jing HE

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective  To determine the incidence and risk factors of postoperative residual curarization (PORC in patients with breast cancer after total intravenous anesthesia (TIVA with vecuronium. Methods  Two hundred and fifty-seven female patients with breast cancer undergoing breast-cancer surgery were enrolled into the present study. Anesthesia was induced with target-controlled infusion of propofol (Cp 3-4μg/ml and remifentanil (2-3 ng/ml. A bolus of vecuronium 0.1mg/ kg was administered intravenously over 5-10s as soon as the patient lost consciousness, and laryngeal mask was placed 3min later. Mechanical ventilation and TIVA were performed for maintaining anesthesia and keeping bispectral index (BIS between 40 to 60 during the operation. According to the duration of operation, 0.02mg/kg of vecuronium was administrated intermittently. Extubation of the laryngeal tube was performed according to clinical criteria. Train-of-four ratios (TOFr were immediately measured with Veryark-TOF (Guangzhou Weilifangzhou Technology Ltd, China in the recovery room. The patients were divided into two groups (Group N and Group R according to the value of TOFr at the time of extubation. N denoted the non-residual neuromuscular blockade group (TOF≥0.7, and R denoted the residual neuromuscular blockade group (TOF0.05. In group R, age and hemoglobin level were lower (P0.05. More patients in Group R received neoadjuvant chemotherapy and multiple boluses of vecuronium administration, and the duration between last dose of vecuronium to extubation was also prolonged compared with Group N (P<0.05. Multivariate logistic regression analysis identified that age, neoadjuvant chemotherapy and multiple boluses of vecuronium administration were not associated with increased risk of PORC. Duration from last dose of vecuronium to extubation was associated with increased risk of PORC (OR=0.970, 95%CI 0.956-0.984, P<0.001. Conclusions PORC is commonly used in patients with

  4. Risk factors and survival analysis of the esophageal cancer in the population of Jammu, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Sehgal

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To identify the risk factors of esophageal cancer and study their effect on the survival rates patients of Jammu region, India. Materials and Methods: Detailed information was collected on socio-demographic, dietary and clinico-pathological parameters for 200 case control pairs. Discrete (categorical data of 2 independent groups (control and cases were summarized in frequency (% and compared by using Chi-square (χ2 test. The mean age of two independent groups was compared by independent Student′s t-test. To find out potential risk factor (s, the variable (s found significant in univariate analysis were further subjected to multivariate logistic regression analysis. The association of potential risk factors with patients survival (3-year overall survival was done by Kaplan-Meier survival curve analysis using Log-rank test. A 2-tailed (a = 2 P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: Out of the 63 response parameters, seven were found highly significant on multivariate analysis. The mean (± SD age was 56.74 ± 10.76 years, the proportions of males were higher than females, mostly illiterate and lower income group. Among dietary characteristics, snuff was highest (OR = 3.86, 95% CI = 2.46-6.08 followed by salt tea (OR = 2.53, 95% CI = 1.49-4.29, smoking (OR = 1.97, 95% CI = 1.18-3.30, sundried food (OR = 1.77, 95% CI = 1.10-2.85 and red chilly (OR = 1.76, 95% CI = 1.07-2.89. Probability of survival lowered significantly (P < 0.05 or P < 0.01 or P < 0.001 in those consuming tobacco in the form of snuff (Log-rank c 2 = 24.62, P = 0.000 and smoking (Log-rank c 2 = 5.20, P = 0.023 as compared to those who did not take these. Conclusions: The analysis finally established snuff (smokeless tobacco as the most powerful risk factor of esophageal cancer in Jammu region, followed by the salt tea, smoking and the sundried food.

  5. Awareness of breast cancer risk factors and practice of breast self examination among high school students in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Çetinkaya Aynur

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Young breast cancer patients have a lower rate of survival than old breast cancer patients due to being diagnosed at advanced stages. Breast self-examination makes women more "breast aware", which in turn may lead to an earlier diagnosis of breast cancer. The purpose of this study was to investigate knowledge and practice of breast self-examination and to determine knowledge of risk factors for breast cancer among high school students. Methods This is a descriptive and cross-sectional study. It was conducted in a high school in Manisa, Turkey. The study sample included 718 female high school students. A socio-demographic characteristics data form, knowledge of breast self examination and risk factors for breast cancer form and breast self examination practice form were used to collect data. Results The female high school students had insufficient knowledge about breast self-examination and a low percentage of students reported that they had performed breast self examination monthly. The most common reason for not doing breast self- examination was "not knowing how to perform breast self-examination" (98.5%. Most of the students had little knowledge of the risk factors for breast cancer. The most widely known risk factor by the students was personal history of breast cancer (68.7%. There was a significant relation between breast self-examination practice and age, school grade, knowledge about breast cancer and knowledge about breast self- examination. Conclusion There is a need to increase knowledge of adolescent females about the risks of breast cancer and benefits of early detection. In fact, health care professionals can develop effective breast health care programs and help young women to acquire good health habits.

  6. A prospective study of gynecological cancer risk in relation to adiposity factors: cumulative incidence and association with plasma adipokine levels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meei-Maan Wu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Associations of obesity and obesity-related metabolic factors (adiposity factors with uterine corpus cancer (UCC and ovarian cancer (OVC risk have been described. Still, a cause-effect relationship and the underlying mediators remain unclear, particularly for low-incidence populations. We aimed to prospectively determine whether adiposity factors could predict the development of UCC and OVC in Taiwanese women. To explore the biological mediators linking adiposity factors to cancer risk, we examined the association of two adipokines, leptin and adiponectin, with the gynecological cancers. METHODS: Totally, 11,258 women, aged 30-65, were recruited into the Community-Based Cancer Screening Program (CBCSP study during 1991-1993, and were followed for UCC and OVC cases until December 31, 2011. Cox proportional hazard models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs. Adiposity factors and risk covariates were assessed at recruitment. Newly-developed cancer cases were determined from data in the government's National Cancer Registry and Death Certification System. For adipokienes study, a nested case-control study was conducted within the cohort. Baseline plasma samples of 40 incident gynecological cancer cases and 240 age-menopause-matched controls were assayed for adipokines levels. FINDINGS: There were 38 and 30 incident cases of UCC and OVC, respectively, diagnosed during a median 19.9 years of follow-up. Multivariate analysis showed that alcohol intake (HR = 16.00, 95%  = 4.83-53.00, high triglyceride levels (HR = 2.58, 95% = 1.28-5.17, and years of endogenous estrogen exposure per 5-year increment (HR = 1.91, 95%  = 1.08-3.38 were associated with increased UCC risk. High body mass index (BMI ≥ 27 kg/m(2, HR = 2.90, 95%  = 1.30-6.46 was associated with increased OVC risk. Analysis further showed an independent effect of adipokines on UCC and OVC risk after adjustment of the risk covariates. CONCLUSION: We provided evidence

  7. Pelvic Insufficiency Fracture After Pelvic Radiotherapy for Cervical Cancer: Analysis of Risk Factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To investigate the incidence, clinical characteristics, and risk factors of pelvic insufficiency fracture (PIF) after pelvic radiotherapy (RT) in cervical cancer. Methods and Materials: Medical records and imaging studies, including bone scintigraphy, CT, and MRI of 557 patients with cervical cancer who received whole-pelvic RT between January 1998 and August 2005 were reviewed. Results: Eighty-three patients were diagnosed as having PIF after pelvic RT. The 5-year cumulative incidence of PIF was 19.7%. The most commonly involved site was the sacroiliac joint. Pelvic pain developed in 48 patients (57.8%) at diagnosis. Eleven patients (13.3%) needed admission or narcotics because of severe pain, and others had good relief of symptoms with conservative management. In univariate analysis, age ≥55 years (p < 0.001), anteroposterior/posteroanterior parallel opposing technique (p = 0.001), curative treatment (p < 0.001), and radiation dose ≥50.4 Gy (p = 0.005) were the predisposing factors for development of PIF. Concurrent chemotherapy (p = 0.78) was not significant. Multivariate analysis showed that age ≥55 years (p < 0.001), body weight <55 kg (p = 0.02), curative treatment (p = 0.03), and radiation dose ≥50.4 Gy (p = 0.04) were significant predisposing factors for development of PIF. Conclusion: The development of PIF is not rare after pelvic RT. The use of multibeam arrangements to reduce the volume and dose of irradiated pelvic bone can be helpful to minimize the risk of fracture, especially in elderly women with low body weight

  8. What Are the Risk Factors for Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... what causes gastrointestinal stromal tumors? What are the risk factors for gastrointestinal stromal tumors? A risk factor is ... disease like cancer. Different cancers have different risk factors. Some risk factors, like smoking, can be changed. Others, like ...

  9. The influence of radiation and non-radiation factors for lung cancer risk in workers of atomic plant Mayak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    All possible risk factors must be taken into account for the evaluation of radiation risk of human cancer because of the polyetiology of most types of tumors. Evaluation of such a 'confounding' factor as the smoking, that is a strong carcino agent, is very important for the hygienic reglementation of irradiation based on lung cancer risk. These circumstances are omitted usually in the epidemiologic investigations of occupational cohorts to be compared, because an exact estimation smoking factor is very difficult in a large cohort. On the other hand industry hygienists are of the opinion that the persons, working under bad conditions, s more than those in the general population. Only prospective (cohort) investigations are known for 239Pu incorporation and cancer, where the age are taken into account besides the level of irradiation effect. The use of the 'case-control' method broadens the investigation possibility and can give new results. (author)

  10. Invited Commentary: “Risk Factors for Renal Cell Cancer in a Japanese Population” Published in Clinical Medicine: Oncology

    OpenAIRE

    Esther Uña Cidon

    2009-01-01

    The well-written and researched article reported in Clinical Medicine: Oncology by Dr. Washio and Dr. Mori entitled “Risk factors for renal cell cancer in a Japanese population”1 makes evident the differences in incidence and mortality rates from renal cell carcinoma (RCC) between different populations and highlights the relevance of carrying out epidemiological studies, investigating additional risk factors which may explain the differences.

  11. Invited Commentary: “Risk Factors for Renal Cell Cancer in a Japanese Population” Published in Clinical Medicine: Oncology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther Uña Cidon

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The well-written and researched article reported in Clinical Medicine: Oncology by Dr. Washio and Dr. Mori entitled “Risk factors for renal cell cancer in a Japanese population”1 makes evident the differences in incidence and mortality rates from renal cell carcinoma (RCC between different populations and highlights the relevance of carrying out epidemiological studies, investigating additional risk factors which may explain the differences.

  12. Lifestyle and cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiderpass, Elisabete

    2010-11-01

    The main behavioural and environmental risk factors for cancer mortality in the world are related to diet and physical inactivity, use of addictive substances, sexual and reproductive health, exposure to air pollution and use of contaminated needles. The population attributable fraction for all cancer sites worldwide considering the joint effect of these factors is about 35% (34 % for low-and middle-income countries and 37% for high-income countries). Seventy-one percent(71%) of lung cancer deaths are caused by tobacco use (lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death globally). The combined effects of tobacco use, low fruit and vegetable intake, urban air pollution, and indoor smoke from household use of solid fuels cause 76% of lung cancer deaths. Exposure to these behavioural and environmental factors is preventable; modifications in lifestyle could have a large impact in reducing the cancer burden worldwide (WHO, 2009). The evidence of association between lifestyle factors and cancer, as well as the main international recommendations for prevention are briefly reviewed and commented upon here. PMID:21139406

  13. What Are the Risk Factors for Nasal Cavity and Paranasal Sinus Cancers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... increase the risk of nasal cavity cancer. Human papilloma virus infection The human papilloma virus ( HPV ) is a group of over 100 related viruses. They are called papilloma viruses because some of them cause a type ...

  14. Risk factors for breast cancer for women in Punjab, Pakistan:Results from a case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghausia Masood Gilani

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the last three decades an increase in the incidence of breast cancer has been observed in the previously low-risk Asian countries. This study is designed to determine the risk factors of breast cancer for Pakistani women as little information exists in this regard. A case-control study of 564 female breast cancer cases diagnosed at the two cancer hospitals at Lahore (INMOL and SKMCH during the time period Jan 1, 1998 to Dec 31, 1998 was carried out. Four hundred and forty eight women aged 24-80 years out of 564 cases were complete with respect to defined criteria and were eligible for the study. Population-based controls were selected to match for age of cases in the ratio 1:2. The data were analyzed considering ‘all women’ and then separate analyses were done for ‘premenopausal’ and ‘postmenopausal women’. Women with family history of breast cancer, history of consanguineous marriage, smoking and high BMI (≥28 are at increased risk of breast cancer for all three groups. Early menarche (45 years was a strong determinant of breast cancer. Higher number of full-term pregnancies (>3 was protective for ‘all women’ and ‘premenopausal women’ but in case of ‘postmenopausal women’ the poor with higher number of pregnancies were significantly protected. Late age at first FTP (>25 years is a significant risk factor for postmenopausal women.

  15. Clinical features, outcome and risk factors in cervical cancer patients after surgery for chronic radiation enteropathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radical hysterectomy and radiotherapy have long been mainstays of cervical cancer treatment. Early stage cervical cancer (FIGO stage IB1–IIA) is traditionally treated using radical surgery combined with radiotherapy, while locally advanced cervical cancer is treated using radiotherapy alone or chemoradiotherapy. In this retrospective study, we describe and analyse the presenting clinical features and outcomes in our cohort and evaluate possible risk factors for postoperative morbidity in women who underwent surgery for chronic radiation enteropathy (CRE). One hundred sixty-six eligible cervical cancer patients who underwent surgery for CRE were retrospectively identified between September 2003 and July 2014 in a prospectively maintained database. Among them, 46 patients received radical radiotherapy (RRT) and 120 received radical surgery plus radiotherapy (RS + RT). Clinical features, postoperative morbidity and mortality, and risk factors for postoperative morbidity were analysed. RS + RT group patients were more likely to present with RTOG/EORTC grade III late morbidity (76.1 % vs 92.5 %; p = 0.004), while RRT group patients tended to show RTOG/EORTC grade IV late morbidity (23.9 % vs 7.5 %; p = 0.004). One hundred forty patients (84.3 %) were treated with aggressive resection (anastomosis 57.8 % and stoma 26.5 %). Overall and major morbidity, mortality and incidence of reoperation in the RRT and RS + RT groups did not differ significantly (63 % vs 64.2 % [p = 1.000], 21.7 % vs 11.7 % [p = 0.137], 6.5 % vs 0.8 % [p = 0.065] and 6.5 % vs 3.3 % [p = 0.360], respectively). However, incidence of permanent stoma and mortality during follow-up was higher in the RRT group than in the RS + RT group (44.2 % vs 12.6 % [p = 0.000] and 16.3 % vs 3.4 % [p = 0.004], respectively). In multivariate analysis, preoperative anaemia was significantly associated with overall morbidity (p = 0.015), while severe intra-abdominal adhesion (p = 0.017), ASA grades III–V (P = 0

  16. Influence of selected lifestyle factors on breast and ovarian cancer risk in BRCA1 mutation carriers from Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gronwald, Jacek; Byrski, Tomasz; Huzarski, Tomasz; Cybulski, Cezary; Sun, Ping; Tulman, Anna; Narod, Steven A; Lubinski, Jan

    2006-01-01

    It has been estimated that the lifetime risk of breast cancer among women who inherit a BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation is as high as 80%, and the risk estimates for ovarian cancer range from 15 to 40%. Several environmental and lifestyle factors are believed to contribute to the development of breast cancer in the general population and it is of interest to establish if these factors operate among mutation carriers as well. To evaluate the effects of age of menarche, parity, breast-feeding, oophorectomy and oral contraceptive use, as well as smoking and coffee consumption, on the risks of breast and ovarian cancer, we conducted a matched case-control study of Polish women with BRCA1 mutations. There were 348 breast cancer patients, 150 ovarian cancer patients and similar numbers of age-matched controls. BRCA1 carriers with late age of menarche, lower parity and long-term breast-feeding were less likely to develop breast cancer. Oral contraceptives protected against ovarian cancer. PMID:16261399

  17. Hypoxia-inducible factor 1 alpha in high-risk breast cancer: an independent prognostic parameter?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hypoxia-inducible factor 1 alpha (hif-1α) furnishes tumor cells with the means of adapting to stress parameters like tumor hypoxia and promotes critical steps in tumor progression and aggressiveness. We investigated the role of hif-1α expression in patients with node-positive breast cancer. Tumor samples from 77 patients were available for immunohistochemistry. The impact of hif-1α immunoreactivity on survival endpoints was determined by univariate and multivariate analyses, and correlations to clinicopathological characteristics were determined by cross-tabulations. hif-1α was expressed in 56% (n = 43/77) of the patients. Its expression correlated with progesterone receptor negativity (P = 0.002). The Kaplan–Meier curves revealed significantly shorter distant metastasis-free survival (DMFS) (P = 0.04, log-rank) and disease-free survival (DFS) (P = 0.04, log-rank) in patients with increased hif-1α expression. The difference in overall survival (OS) did not attain statistical significance (5-year OS, 66% without hif-1α expression and 55% with hif-1α expression; P = 0.21). The multivariate analysis failed to reveal an independent prognostic value for hif-1α expression in the whole patient group. The only significant parameter for all endpoints was the T stage (T3/T4 versus T1/T2: DMFS, relative risk = 3.16, P = 0.01; DFS, relative risk = 2.57, P = 0.03; OS, relative risk = 3.03, P = 0.03). Restricting the univariate and multivariate analyses to T1/T2 tumors, hif-1α expression was a significant parameter for DFS and DMFS. hif-1α is expressed in the majority of patients with node-positive breast cancer. It can serve as a prognostic marker for an unfavorable outcome in those with T1/T2 tumors and positive axillary lymph nodes

  18. A study of indoor radon levels in Indian dwellings, influencing factors and lung cancer risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Passive integrating solid state nuclear track detectors (SSNTDs) were used to study the Radon-222 (Rn) concentrations in Indian dwellings. The study was made in 300 dwellings in the cities of Lucknow and Kanpur in northern India. The influence of some factors e.g. age of the house, number of floors and ventilation conditions, etc. on indoor Rn concentrations were studied. The equilibrium factor in 65 dwellings were also investigated. Average Rn concentrations in living rooms were found to be 34±8 Bq.m-3 and 40±10 Bq.m-3 respectively, with equilibrium factors of 0.35 and 0.38. Assuming an occupancy factor of 0.8, the annual average effective dose equivalents in living rooms of the two places are estimated as 0.8 and 1.0 mSv respectively. The average life-time risks of lung cancer for radon exposure of the Lucknow and Kanpur populations at home would be about 0.26% and 0.34% respectively and the mean relative loss of life expectancies were 0.06% and 0.074% respectively

  19. Do adipokines underlie the association between known risk factors and breast cancer among a cohort of U.S. women?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaudet, Mia M.; Falk, Roni T.; Gierach, Gretchen L.; Lacey, James V.; Graubard, Barry I.; Dorgan, Joanne F.; Brinton, Louise A.

    2010-01-01

    Obesity is a well-established risk factor for postmenopausal breast cancer, but mechanisms underlying the association are unclear. Adipocyte-derived, cytokine-like adipokines have been suggested as contributory factors. To evaluate their association with breast cancer risk factors and breast cancer risk, we conducted a nested case-control study of 234 postmenopausal breast cancer cases and 234 controls in a cohort of U.S. women with prospectively-collected serum samples obtained in the mid 1970’s and followed for up to 25 years. Adiponectin, absolute plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (aPAI-1), and resistin were measured by a multiplex immunoassay. Sex hormones were available for 67 cases and 67 controls. Among controls, we found that lower levels of adiponectin and higher levels of aPAI-1 were correlated with increasing levels of estradiol (Spearman r=−0.26, p-value=0.033; r=0.42, p=0.0003), decreasing levels of sex hormone binding globulin (r=0.38, p=0.0013; r=−0.32, p=0.0076), and increasing body mass index (BMI) (r=−0.31, p=0.05). The lack of association with risk may be due to measurement error of the laboratory assays. In conclusion, lower levels of adiponectin and higher levels of aPAI-1 measured in prospectively-collected serum from postmenopausal women were associated with increasing BMI but not breast cancer risk. PMID:20579950

  20. REPRODUCTIVE FACTOR AND THE RISK OF BREAST CANCER AMONG WOMEN ATTENDING TERTIARY CARE HOSPITAL: A CASE CONTROL STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kannan

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer is predominantly a disease of women and has a major impact on the health of women. In India, the number of deaths due to breast cancer in the country has increased to 50, 821 in 2010 from 48, 170 in 2007. The present study was undertaken to identify risk factors for breast cancer in rural setting at Sushruta Cancer Institute, Karimnagar, Andhra Pradesh. METHODOLOGY: A hospital based case control study was conducted during the period of November 2010 to October 2012, with the sample of 300, out of 100 newly diagnosed breast cancer cases and 200 healthy controls. Cases and controls were matched with the age interval of 5 years. Information about the exposure were obtained in precisely manner both for cases and controls by using semi structured, pre tested questionnaire with the interview method along with clinical examination. RESULTS: Out of total 100 cases and 200 controls, about 29% of cases and controls were in the age group of 50-54 years and about 80% of study subjects were resident of rural area, 81.6% of the study population were Hindus. Occupation wise 60% were engaged with daily wages and about 76.7% were illiterates. It was observed that 80% of the study population belonged to Socio economic class IV & V. The risk of developing breast cancer was statistically significant for the factors like marital status, parity, age at menarche and breastfeeding. CONCLUSION: The present study was an attempt to identify risk factors and to quantify the strength of their association so as to help eliminate gaps in knowledge and barriers regarding risk factors for breast cancer and to know which risk factors are important, feasible to tackle and preventable which would have a great potential as a primary prevention measure.

  1. New concepts on risk factors of HPV and novel screening strategies for cervical cancer precursors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syrjänen, K

    2008-01-01

    During the past several years, this author has been engaged in coordinating two major multicentre trials testing optional screening tools for cervical cancer (CC) in low-resource settings both in East Europe and in Latin America. These international trials include the NIS (New Independent States of the former Soviet Union) cohort (n = 3,187 women) and the LAMS (Latin American Screening) study (n = 12,114 women). In both studies, a sizeable cohort of women (887 and 1,011, respectively) have been prospectively followed-up to assess the natural history of high-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) infections and the role of implicated risk factors as potential predictors of disease outcome (acquisition, persistence and clearance). In this communication some of the key observations recently reported from the NIS and LAMS studies will be discussed, with special emphasis on i) risk factors that are still controversial (i.e., oral contraception; OC, and smoking) or not previously studied (drug addiction), on ii) reproductive factors as potential cofactors of HPV infections in cervical carcinogenesis (i.e., age at menarche, menopause), and finally on iii) the performance of different screening strategies among young and older women. Although closely related to these topics, a detailed discussion on the dynamics of HPV infections (acquisition, persistence, clearance) and their predictive factors falls outside the scope of this communication, because they have been extensively discussed in a series of original reports and in a recent review of the author in this journal. The NIS cohort failed to establish OC as a risk factor of CC. In all future studies, the strong confounding effects from the lifestyle behavioural factors must be taken into account, while interpreting the data on OCs as potential risk factors of CC. Similarly, it now seems that the increased risk (if any) of CC among smokers seems to be attributed to the increased acquisition of HR-HPV infections, of which the

  2. Insulin-like Growth Factor-I Concentration and Risk of Prostate Cancer : Results from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Price, Alison J.; Allen, Naomi E.; Appleby, Paul N.; Crowe, Francesca L.; Travis, Ruth C.; Tipper, Sarah J.; Overvad, Kim; Gronbaek, Henning; Tjonneland, Anne; Johnsen, Nina Fons; Rinaldi, Sabina; Kaaks, Rudolf; Lukanova, Annie; Boeing, Heiner; Aleksandrova, Krasimira; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Andarakis, George; Palli, Domenico; Krogh, Vittorio; Tumino, Rosario; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. Bas; Argueelles, Marcial V.; Sanchez, Maria-Jose; Chirlaque, Maria-Dolores; Barricarte, Aurelio; Larranaga, Nerea; Gonzalez, Carlos A.; Stattin, Par; Johansson, Mattias; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nick; Gunter, Marc; Riboli, Elio; Key, Timothy

    2012-01-01

    Background: High circulating insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) concentrations have been associated with increased risk for prostate cancer in several prospective epidemiological studies. In this study, we investigate the association between circulating IGF-I concentration and risk of prostate can

  3. Urban-rural disparity of breast cancer and socioeconomic risk factors in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xufeng Fei

    Full Text Available Breast cancer is one of the most commonly diagnosed cancers worldwide. The primary aim of this work is the study of breast cancer disparity among Chinese women in urban vs. rural regions and its associations with socioeconomic factors. Data on breast cancer incidence were obtained from the Chinese cancer registry annual report (2005-2009. The ten socioeconomic factors considered in this study were obtained from the national population 2000 census and the Chinese city/county statistical yearbooks. Student's T test was used to assess disparities of female breast cancer and socioeconomic factors in urban vs. rural regions. Pearson correlation and ordinary least squares (OLS models were employed to analyze the relationships between socioeconomic factors and cancer incidence. It was found that the breast cancer incidence was significantly higher in urban than in rural regions. Moreover, in urban regions, breast cancer incidence remained relatively stable, whereas in rural regions it displayed an annual percentage change (APC of 8.55. Among the various socioeconomic factors considered, breast cancer incidence exhibited higher positive correlations with population density, percentage of non-agriculture population, and second industry output. On the other hand, the incidence was negatively correlated with the percentage of population employed in primary industry. Overall, it was observed that higher socioeconomic status would lead to a higher breast cancer incidence in China. When studying breast cancer etiology, special attention should be paid to environmental pollutants, especially endocrine disruptors produced during industrial activities. Lastly, the present work's findings strongly recommend giving high priority to the development of a systematic nationwide breast cancer screening program for women in China; with sufficient participation, mammography screening can considerably reduce mortality among women.

  4. Invasive breast cancer in Argentine women: association between risk and prognostic factors with antigens of a peptidic and carbohydrate nature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Croce MV

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Sandra O Demichelis, Marina T Isla-Larrain, Luciano Cermignani, Cecilio G Alberdi, Amada Segal-Eiras, María Virginia CroceCentre of Basic and Applied Immunological Research, Faculty of Medical Sciences, National University of La Plata, La Plata, ArgentinaObjective: In breast cancer, several tumor markers have been identified. The marker most extensively associated with breast cancer is MUC1. The objective of the study was to analyze prognostic and risk factors in relation to tumor markers in order to clarify breast cancer biology. A total of 349 primary tumor samples and lymph nodes from breast cancer patients were studied. Risk and prognostic factors were considered. An immunohistochemical approach was applied and an extensive statistical analysis was performed, including frequency analysis and analysis of variance. Correlation among variables was performed with principal component analysis.Results: All the antigens showed an increased expression according to tumor size increment; moreover, sialyl Lewis x expression showed a significant increase in relation to disease stage, whereas Tn and TF presented a positive tendency. Vascular invasion was related to sialyl Lewis x expression and number of metastatic lymph nodes. Taking into account risk factors, when a patient had at least one child, Lewis antigens diminished their expression. In relation to breastfeeding, sialyl Lewis x expression diminished, although its apical expression increased.Conclusion: Associations between MUC1 and carbohydrate antigens and risk and prognostic factors show the complexity of the cellular biological behavior that these antigens modulate in breast cancer.Keywords: breast cancer, Argentine women, risk factors, prognostic factors, antigenic expression

  5. LUNG CANCER IN NEVER SMOKERS: CLINICAL EPIDEMIOLOGY AND ENVIRONMENTAL RISK FACTORS

    OpenAIRE

    Samet, Jonathan M; Avila-Tang, Erika; Boffetta, Paolo; Hannan, Lindsay M.; Olivo-Marston, Susan; Michael J Thun; Rudin, Charles M

    2009-01-01

    More than 161,000 lung cancer deaths are projected to occur in the U.S. in 2008. Of these, an estimated 10–15% will be caused by factors other than active smoking, corresponding to 16,000–24,000 deaths annually. Thus lung cancer in never smokers would rank among the most common causes of cancer mortality in the U.S. if considered to be a separate category. Slightly more than half of the lung cancers caused by factors other than active smoking occur in never smokers. As summarized in the accom...

  6. Public awareness of risk factors for cancer among the Japanese general population: A population-based survey

    OpenAIRE

    Sasazuki Shizuka; Otani Tetsuya; Iwasaki Motoki; Inoue Manami; Tsugane Shoichiro

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background The present study aimed to provide information on awareness of the attributable fraction of cancer causes among the Japanese general population. Methods A nationwide representative sample of 2,000 Japanese aged 20 or older was asked about their perception and level of concern about various environmental and genetic risk factors in relation to cancer prevention, as a part of an Omnibus Survey. Interviews were conducted with 1,355 subjects (609 men and 746 women). Results Am...

  7. Risk factors for self-reported arm lymphedema among female breast cancer survivors: a prospective cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Togawa, Kayo; Ma, Huiyan; Sullivan-Halley, Jane; Neuhouser, Marian L.; Imayama, Ikuyo; Baumgartner, Kathy B.; Smith, Ashley Wilder; Alfano, Catherine M.; McTiernan, Anne; Ballard-Barbash, Rachel; Bernstein, Leslie

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Lymphedema is a potentially debilitating condition that occurs among breast cancer survivors. This study examines the incidence of self-reported lymphedema, timing of lymphedema onset, and associations between sociodemographic, clinical and lifestyle factors and lymphedema risk across racial-ethnic groups using data from a multicenter, multiethnic prospective cohort study of breast cancer survivors, the Health, Eating, Activity and Lifestyle Study. Methods A total of 666 women di...

  8. A hospital based case control study of female breast cancer risk factors in a Sub-Saharan African country

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mamour Gueye

    2016-07-01

    Conclusions: In this study, reproductive factors as early menarche or menopausal status were not associative to the risk of breast cancer and the early age at diagnosis and the positive history of breast cancer suggest a genetic pattern of this disease in Senegalese woman. But this fact is difficult to confirm for financial reasons. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2016; 5(7.000: 2328-2332

  9. Female Breast Cancer: Epidemiological And Clinical Study Of Some Risk Factors Among Egyptian Females- Multi Clinics Study

    OpenAIRE

    E. A. El-Moselhy; M. A. S. Ahmed*; A. M. Abdel-Fattah

    2005-01-01

    This study was conducted on 390 female breast cancer patients and an equal number of females as controls. The patients were attending some University and Teaching Hospitals in Cairo and Assuit. Ninety of them were newly operated. A retrospective, case-control, clinic based study was chosen to carry out this research. The aim of the study was to describe the sociodemographic, characteristics and clinical features of female breast cancer and to determine its risk factors among Egyptian women. A...

  10. Factors modifying the risk of lung cancer associated to radon in the french cohort of uranium miners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radon is classified lung carcinogen for man, but questions stay about the effects for low doses irradiation.The results of the analysis radon-lung cancer and the factors modifying on this relationship in the French cohort of miners followed until to 1999 is reported. This analysis confirms that the risk lung cancer is different according the period of exposure. A best precision in the measurement of exposure after 1956 could explain this difference. (N.C.)

  11. Risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, Catherine J; Connors, K C; Sheehan, Timothy J; Vaughan, James S

    2005-06-01

    Minimize surprises on your financial statement by adopting a model for integrated risk management that: Examines interrelationships among operations, investments, and financing. Incorporates concepts of the capital asset pricing model to manage unexpected volatility PMID:17240669

  12. Knowledge, attitude and practice for breast cancer risk factors and screening modalities in staff nurses of Ayub teaching hospital Abbottabad

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: Breast cancer is the commonest cancer modality in female worldwide. Avoiding the risk factors can reduce its incidence and adhering to screening and early detection can reduce its mortality. A sufficient knowledge regarding the risk factors and screening modalities is therefore essential. We assessed the knowledge level about these parameters in our staff nurses. Methods: A self-administered questionnaire survey was performed. Knowledge regarding the risk factors and screening modalities were categorised into good, fair, poor and very poor categories. Results: Knowledge regarding most of the factors was found to be fair. A few things were termed as good knowledge like role of breast-feeding in protecting against breast cancer. Practice regarding the screening modalities was not satisfactory. Only a few nurses had good knowledge of the risk factors and screening modalities. Practice of the Screening modalities was also poor. Conclusion: There is a need to improve the nursing curriculum, training at the workplace and motivate them for screening practices. They should be encouraged to talk to their patients and their female attendants about prevention and early detection of breast cancer. (author)

  13. Awareness of risk factors among persons at risk for lung cancer, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and sleep apnea: A Canadian population-based study

    OpenAIRE

    Walker, Shannon L; Saltman, David L.; Rosemary Colucci; Lesli Martin

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess awareness among persons at risk for lung cancer, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and sleep apnea regarding symptoms and risk factors of the disease, and their attitudes regarding the disease and toward those who are affected.METHODS: A quantitative hybrid telephone and Internet survey of a representative population of Canadian adults at risk for at least one of the three diseases was conducted. To measure the awareness and attitudes of First Nations, Inuit an...

  14. Risk Factors of Developing Long-Lasting Breast Pain After Breast Cancer Radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Postoperative radiotherapy decreases breast cancer mortality. However, studies have revealed a long-lasting breast pain among some women after radiotherapy. The purpose of this study was to identify risk factors that contribute to breast pain after breast cancer radiotherapy. Methods and Materials: We identified 1,027 recurrence-free women in two cohorts of Swedish women treated for breast cancer. The women had breast-conserving surgery and postoperative radiotherapy, the breast was treated to 48 Gy in 2.4-Gy fractions or to 50 Gy in 2.0-Gy fractions. Young women received a boost of up to 16 Gy. Women with more than three lymph node metastases had locoregional radiotherapy. Systemic treatments were given according to health-care guidelines. Three to 17 years after radiotherapy, we collected data using a study-specific questionnaire. We investigated the relation between breast pain and potential risk modifiers: age at treatment, time since treatment, chemotherapy, photon energy, fractionation size, boost, loco-regional radiotherapy, axillary surgery, overweight, and smoking. Results: Eight hundred seventy-seven women (85%) returned the questionnaires. Among women up to 39 years of age at treatment, 23.1% had breast pain, compared with 8.7% among women older than 60 years (RR 2.66; 95% CI 1.33–5.36). Higher age at treatment (RR 0.96; 95% CI 0.94–0.98, annual decrease) and longer time since treatment (RR 0.93; 95% CI 0.88–0.98, annual decrease) were related to a lower occurrence of breast pain. Chemotherapy increased the occurrence of breast pain (RR 1.72; 95% CI 1.19–2.47). In the multivariable model only age and time since treatment were statistically significantly related to the occurrence of breast pain. We found no statistically significant relation between breast pain and the other potential risk modifiers. Conclusions: Younger women having undergone breast-conserving surgery with postoperative radiotherapy report a higher occurrence of long

  15. Risk Factors of Developing Long-Lasting Breast Pain After Breast Cancer Radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lundstedt, Dan, E-mail: dan.lundstedt@vgregion.se [Division of Clinical Cancer Epidemiology, Department of Oncology, Institute of Clinical Sciences, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg (Sweden); Department of Oncology, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg (Sweden); Gustafsson, Magnus [Division of Clinical Cancer Epidemiology, Department of Oncology, Institute of Clinical Sciences, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg (Sweden); Department of Therapeutic Radiation Physics, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg (Sweden); Steineck, Gunnar [Division of Clinical Cancer Epidemiology, Department of Oncology, Institute of Clinical Sciences, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg (Sweden); Division of Clinical Cancer Epidemiology, Department of Oncology-Pathology, the Karolinska Institute, Stockholm (Sweden); Malmstroem, Per [Skane Department of Oncology, Skane University Hospital, Lund (Sweden); Alsadius, David [Division of Clinical Cancer Epidemiology, Department of Oncology, Institute of Clinical Sciences, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg (Sweden); Department of Oncology, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg (Sweden); Sundberg, Agnetha [Department of Therapeutic Radiation Physics, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg (Sweden); Wilderaeng, Ulrica [Division of Clinical Cancer Epidemiology, Department of Oncology, Institute of Clinical Sciences, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg (Sweden); Holmberg, Erik [Oncologic Centre, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg (Sweden); Johansson, Karl-Axel [Department of Therapeutic Radiation Physics, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg (Sweden); Karlsson, Per [Department of Oncology, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg (Sweden)

    2012-05-01

    Purpose: Postoperative radiotherapy decreases breast cancer mortality. However, studies have revealed a long-lasting breast pain among some women after radiotherapy. The purpose of this study was to identify risk factors that contribute to breast pain after breast cancer radiotherapy. Methods and Materials: We identified 1,027 recurrence-free women in two cohorts of Swedish women treated for breast cancer. The women had breast-conserving surgery and postoperative radiotherapy, the breast was treated to 48 Gy in 2.4-Gy fractions or to 50 Gy in 2.0-Gy fractions. Young women received a boost of up to 16 Gy. Women with more than three lymph node metastases had locoregional radiotherapy. Systemic treatments were given according to health-care guidelines. Three to 17 years after radiotherapy, we collected data using a study-specific questionnaire. We investigated the relation between breast pain and potential risk modifiers: age at treatment, time since treatment, chemotherapy, photon energy, fractionation size, boost, loco-regional radiotherapy, axillary surgery, overweight, and smoking. Results: Eight hundred seventy-seven women (85%) returned the questionnaires. Among women up to 39 years of age at treatment, 23.1% had breast pain, compared with 8.7% among women older than 60 years (RR 2.66; 95% CI 1.33-5.36). Higher age at treatment (RR 0.96; 95% CI 0.94-0.98, annual decrease) and longer time since treatment (RR 0.93; 95% CI 0.88-0.98, annual decrease) were related to a lower occurrence of breast pain. Chemotherapy increased the occurrence of breast pain (RR 1.72; 95% CI 1.19-2.47). In the multivariable model only age and time since treatment were statistically significantly related to the occurrence of breast pain. We found no statistically significant relation between breast pain and the other potential risk modifiers. Conclusions: Younger women having undergone breast-conserving surgery with postoperative radiotherapy report a higher occurrence of long

  16. TP53 genetic polymorphisms, interactions with lifestyle factors and lung cancer risk: a case control study in a Chinese population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A pathway-based genotyping analysis suggested rs2078486 was a novel TP53 SNP, but very few studies replicate this association. TP53 rs1042522 is the most commonly studied SNP, but very few studies examined its potential interaction with environmental factors in relation to lung cancer risk. This study aims to examine associations between two TP53 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) (rs2078486, rs1042522), their potential interaction with environmental factors and risk of lung cancer. A case–control study was conducted in Taiyuan, China. Unconditional logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs). Multiplicative and additive interactions between TP53 SNPs and lifestyle factors were evaluated. Variant TP53 rs2078486 SNP was significantly associated with elevated lung cancer risk among smokers (OR: 1.70, 95% CI: 1.08 - 2.67) and individuals with high indoor air pollution exposure (OR: 1.51, 95% CI: 1.00-2.30). Significant or borderline significant multiplicative and additive interactions were found between TP53 rs2078486 polymorphism with smoking and indoor air pollution exposure. The variant genotype of TP53 SNP rs1042522 significantly increased lung cancer risk in the total population (OR: 1.57, 95% CI: 1.11-2.21), but there was no evidence of heterogeneity among individuals with different lifestyle factors. This study confirmed that TP53 rs2078486 SNP is potentially a novel TP53 SNP that may affect lung cancer risk. Our study also suggested potential synergetic effects of TP53 rs2078486 SNP with smoking and indoor air pollution exposure on lung cancer risk

  17. Risk Factors for Prostate Cancer Patients Among Gezira State-Central of Sudan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatima A Hamad

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to assess the risk factors for prostate cancer among Sudanese patients treated in National Cancer Institute (NCI, Gezira University, Wadmedani, Sudan. The study was performed on 268 prostate cancer patients, age ranging between 45-98 years. Similar number of 268 persons (age and sex matched was used as control group .The study period was from May-2006 to December-2009. Data was collected from patients using a questionnaire which was filled in order to obtain information regarding: age, residence, tribe, education levels, occupation, marital status, stage of disease, family history and habits .The body mass index (BMI was determined by anthropometrics measurements ( weight& height. Prostate cancer is the commonest cancer among male patients treated in the NCI. The mean age of patients was 72.2±9.25. Most of patients (73.9% were over 66-years. Family history is positive in 18(6.7% of the patients. Rural inhabitants were 79.8% of all cases. The disease is equally distributed among different tribes. The illiteracy among cases is 39.1%. The commonest occupation was farming (60.1%. Majority (90.7% of the patients were married. Most cases (85.4% presented with stage ІІІ and ІV. 73% of the patients had one or more of unhealthy habits (smoking, snuff and alcohol. the BMI was high in 6.9% of the patients. Risk factors for prostate cancer in the study area, which may appear to have a high significant effect, were: the age, education level, occupation, unhealthy habits and the BMI. ABSTRAK: Tujuan kajian ini dijalankan ialah untuk menilai faktor-faktor risiko untuk kanser prostat di kalangan pesakit-pesakit yang dirawat di Institut Kanser Kebangsaan (NCI, Universiti Gezira, Wadmedani, Sudan. Kajian dijalankan pada 268 pesakit kanser prostat, berumur di antara 45-98 tahun. Jumlah bilangan pesakit yang sama iaitu seramai 268 orang (sama umur dan jantina telah digunakan sebagai kumpulan kawalan.Tempoh kajian ialah pada Mei 2006

  18. Colorectal cancer risk factors among the population of South-East Siberia: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhivotovskiy, Alexey S; Kutikhin, Anton G; Azanov, Artur Z; Yuzhalin, Arseniy E; Magarill, Yuri A; Brusina, Elena B

    2012-01-01

    Colorectal cancer remains one of the most widespread malignancies in the world. However, there is a lack of comprehensive studies considering colorectal cancer risk factors among Russian populations, particularly in Siberia. The aim of this investigation was to determine the impact of various lifestyle, dietary, family, and socioeconomical factors on colorectal cancer risk in South-East Siberia. We recruited 185 Russian colorectal cancer cases and 210 gender-, age-, and ethnicity-matched asymptomatic controls with no history of any malignant tumor, using a specially designed questionnaire to obtain relevant information. After the statistical analysis, we defined several significant factors affecting colorectal cancer risk. Among these were smoking (OR=2.13, 95%CI=1.4- 3.24, P=0.0004), being overweight (BMI between 25-30, OR=2.45, 95%CI=1.49-4.03, P=0.0004), alcohol drinking (OR=8.73, 95%CI=5.49-13.87, Pbeer drinking (OR=9.24, 95%CI=5.14-16.61, Pelaboration of programs of colorectal cancer prevention in Russia, particularly in Siberia. PMID:23244132

  19. Effects of lycopene on the insulin-like growth factor (IGF) system in premenopausal breast cancer survivors and women at high familial breast cancer risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voskuil, Dorien W.; Vrieling, Alina; Korse, Catharina M.; Beijnen, Jos H.; Bonfrer, Johannes M. G.; van Doorn, Jaap; Kaas, Reinie; Oldenburg, Hester S. A.; Russell, Nicola S.; Rutgers, Emiel J. T.; Verhoef, Senno; van Leeuwen, Flora E.; van't Veer, Laura J.; Rookus, Matti A.

    2008-01-01

    Insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) is an important growth factor associated with increased risk of premenopausal breast cancer. We conducted a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, crossover trial to evaluate whether tomato-derived lycopene supplementation (30 mg/day for 2 mo) decreases se

  20. Reproductive factors and risk of estrogen receptor positive, triple-negative, and HER2-neu overexpressing breast cancer among women 20–44 years of age

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Christopher I.; Beaber, Elisabeth F.; Tang, Mei-Tzu Chen; Porter, Peggy L.; Daling, Janet R.; Malone, Kathleen E.

    2012-01-01

    Aspects of reproductive history are among the most well-established breast cancer risk factors. However, relatively little is known about how they influence risk of different molecular subtypes of breast cancer, particularly among younger women. Using data from a population-based case–control study of women 20–44 years of age, we assessed the relationships between various reproductive factors and risk of estrogen receptor positive (ER+), triple-negative, and HER2-overexpressing breast cancers...

  1. A Cross-sectional Investigation on Risk Factors of Lung Cancer for Residents over 40 Years Old in Chengdu, Sichuan Province, China

    OpenAIRE

    Bojiang CHEN; Li, Weimin; Jia, Yong; Guo, Na; Dan LIU; Xian TANG; Wang, Qiong; Xiao, Li

    2010-01-01

    Background and objective In the previous studies, we have designed the Self-evaluation Scoring Questionnaire for High-risk Individuals of Lung Cancer. In order to make a better understanding of the status of risk factors of lung cancer for residents in Chengdu, we carried out the investigation from June 2009 to December 2009. Methods With the stratified random sampling method, eligible residents were included and their risk factors of lung cancer were collected with the Self-evaluation Scorin...

  2. Female Breast Cancer: Epidemiological And Clinical Study Of Some Risk Factors Among Egyptian Females- Multi Clinics Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. A. El-Moselhy; M. A. S. Ahmed*; A. M. Abdel-Fattah

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted on 390 female breast cancer patients and an equal number of females as controls. The patients were attending some University and Teaching Hospitals in Cairo and Assuit. Ninety of them were newly operated. A retrospective, case-control, clinic based study was chosen to carry out this research. The aim of the study was to describe the sociodemographic, characteristics and clinical features of female breast cancer and to determine its risk factors among Egyptian women. All the patients and the controls had undergone physical examinations. Laboratory investigations were done for the newly operated patients and their controls. The most important characteristics of breast cancer patients were breast mass as the main presenting symptom (92.1% and treated by modified radical mastectomy (77.2%. Low means level of serum vitamin D and high levels of serum cholesterol and triglyceride were found more among the patients. Age at first full term pregnancy 30 years, age at menopause 45 years, pregnancy termination and/or abortion and never married were important gynaecological and reproductive risk factors (OR=4.44, 3.14, 2.84 and 2.67, respectively. Also, exposure to radiation and/or environmental factors, history of benign breast disease and alcohol use were important associated risk factors (OR=5.05, 4.63 and 4.10, respectively. Moreover, the sister as the nearest female relative with breast cancer, total number of female relatives with breast cancer 2 and relative(s age at diagnosis <50 years were important family history risk factors (OR=9.19, 8.84 and 7.91, respectively. Lastly, high consumption of canned foods, fat rich foods and low consumption of fresh fruits and vegetables were important dietary risk factors (OR=3.39, 1.76 and 1.51, respectively.

  3. Breast cancer and personal environmental risk factors in Marin County - Pilot study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erdmann, C.A.; Farren, G.; Baltzell, K.; Chew, T.; Clarkson, C.; Fleshman, R.; Leary, C.; Mizroch, M.; Orenstein, F.; Russell, M.L.; Souders-Mason, V.; Wrensch, M.

    2003-02-01

    The purpose of the Personal Environmental Risk Factor Study (PERFS) pilot project was to develop methodologies and a questionnaire for a future population-based case-control study to investigate the role of selected environmental exposures in breast cancer development. Identification of etiologically relevant exposures during a period of potential vulnerability proximate to disease onset offers the possibility of clinical disease prevention even when disease initiation may have already occurred many years earlier. Certain personal environmental agents or combinations of agents may influence disease promotion. Therefore, this pilot study focused on exposures that occurred during the ten-year period prior to diagnosis for cases and the last ten years for controls, rather than more historic exposures. For this pilot study, they used a community-based research approach. In the collaborative efforts, community members participated with academic researchers in all phases of the research, including research question identification, study design, development of research tools, development of the human subjects protocol, and report writing. Community member inclusion was based upon the concept that community participation could improve the relevance of scientific studies and ultimate success of the research by encouraging an ongoing dialogue between community members and academic representatives. Early activities of this project focused on the collection of input from the community regarding the possible role of environmental factors in the incidence of breast cancer in Marin County. The intent was to inform the scientists of community concerns, enhance the research team's understanding of the community being studied, and provide interested community members with a better understanding of the strengths and weaknesses of traditional research methods through active participation in the research process.

  4. Genetic Risk Factors

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of Ashkenazi Jewish descent, causes a greatly increased risk of breast cancer. Zora and her relatives who carry the gene also have an increased risk of ovarian cancer. Interviewer: When there was a ...

  5. ACC interleukin-10 gene promoter haplotype as a breast cancer risk factor predictor among Jordanian females

    OpenAIRE

    Atoum, Manar

    2016-01-01

    Manar Fayiz Atoum Department of Medical Laboratory Sciences, Faculty of Allied Health Sciences, The Hashemite University, Zarqa, Jordan Introduction: Interleukin-10 (IL-10) is a multifactorial cytokine with a complex biological role in breast cancer. The aims of this study were to investigate any association between IL-10 gene promoter polymorphisms, 1082A>/G, -819T>C, and -592A>C, or haplotypes and breast cancer risk among Jordanian women and to evaluate any associatio...

  6. Dietary factors and lung cancer risk in Japanese: with special reference to fish consumption and adenocarcinomas

    OpenAIRE

    Takezaki, T; Hirose, K.; M. Inoue; Hamajima, N; Y. Yatabe; Mitsudomi, T.; Sugiura, T; Kuroishi, T; Tajima, K

    2001-01-01

    To investigate risk modification for lung cancer with diet in Japanese, we conducted a hospital-based case–control study and evaluated variation in influence with the histological type. We recruited 367 male and 240 female cases with adenocarcinomas, and 381 male and 57 female cases with squamous cell and small cell carcinomas. Controls comprised 2964 male and 1189 female cancer-free outpatients matched for sex and age with the cases. Odds ratios (ORs) and their 95% confidence intervals (CIs)...

  7. Reproductive Factors, Exogenous Hormones, and Pancreatic Cancer Risk in the CTS

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Eunjung; Horn-Ross, Pamela L.; Rull, Rudolph P.; Neuhausen, Susan L; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Ursin, Giske; Henderson, Katherine D.; Bernstein, Leslie

    2013-01-01

    Female steroid hormones are hypothesized to play a protective role in pancreatic cancer risk. However, results from epidemiologic studies that examined hormone-related exposures have been inconsistent. The California Teachers Study is a cohort study of female public school professionals that was established in 1995–1996. Of the 118,164 eligible study participants, 323 women were diagnosed with incident invasive pancreatic cancer through December 31, 2009. Multivariable Cox proportional hazard...

  8. Cancer-related lymphedema risk factors, diagnosis, treatment, and impact: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paskett, Electra D; Dean, Julie A; Oliveri, Jill M; Harrop, J Phil

    2012-10-20

    PURPOSE Cancer-related lymphedema (LE) is an incurable condition associated with lymph-involved cancer treatments and is an increasing health, quality of life (QOL), and cost burden on a growing cancer survivor population. This review examines the evidence for causes, risk, prevention, diagnosis, treatment, and impact of this largely unexamined survivorship concern. METHODS PubMed and Medline were searched for cancer-related LE literature published since 1990 in English. The resulting references (N = 726) were evaluated for strength of design, methods, sample size, and recent publication and sorted into categories (ie, causes/prevention, diagnosis, treatment, and QOL). Sixty studies were included. Results Exercise and physical activity and sentinel lymph node biopsy reduce risk, and overweight and obesity increase risk. Evidence that physiotherapy reduces risk and that lymph node status and number of malignant nodes increase risk is less strong. Perometry and bioimpedence emerged as attractive diagnostic technologies, replacing the use of water displacement in clinical practice. Swelling can also be assessed by measuring arm circumference and relying on self-report. Symptoms can be managed, not cured, with complex physical therapy, low-level laser therapy, pharmacotherapy, and surgery. Sequelae of LE negatively affect physical and mental QOL and range in severity. However, the majority of reviewed studies involved patients with breast cancer; therefore, results may not be applicable to all cancers. CONCLUSION Research into causes, prevention, and effect on QOL of LE and information on LE in cancers other than breast is needed. Consensus on definitions and measurement, increased patient and provider awareness of signs and symptoms, and proper and prompt treatment/access, including psychosocial support, are needed to better understand, prevent, and treat LE. PMID:23008299

  9. Risk factors for epithelial ovarian cancer in the female population of Belgrade, Serbia: A case-control study

    OpenAIRE

    Gazibara Tatjana; Filipović Aleksandra; Kesić Vesna; Kisić-Tepavčević Darija; Pekmezović Tatjana

    2013-01-01

    Background/Aim. Ovarian cancer (OC) comprises 3% of all cancers, but it is the fifth most common cause of cancer death in women. The aim of this case-control study was to determine the risk factors for OC in the female population of Belgrade, Serbia. Methods. A total of 80 consecutive patients were enrolled in the study between 2006 and 2008 in two national referral centers for OC in Serbia. The control subjects were recruited during the regular gynecological check-ups in the Public Hea...

  10. Population attributable risks of oral cavity cancer to behavioral and medical risk factors in France: results of a large population-based case–control study, the ICARE study

    OpenAIRE

    Radoï, Loredana; Menvielle, Gwenn; Cyr, Diane; Lapôtre-Ledoux, Bénédicte; Stücker, Isabelle; Luce, Danièle

    2015-01-01

    Background Population attributable risks (PARs) are useful tool to estimate the burden of risk factors in cancer incidence. Few studies estimated the PARs of oral cavity cancer to tobacco smoking alone, alcohol drinking alone and their joint consumption but none performed analysis stratified by subsite, gender or age. Among the suspected risk factors of oral cavity cancer, only PAR to a family history of head and neck cancer was reported in two studies. The purpose of this study was to estima...

  11. Risk factors associated with positive surgical margins following radical prostatectomy for clinically localized prostate cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Røder, Martin Andreas; Thomsen, Frederik Birkebæk; Christensen, Ib Jarle;

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of preoperative and surgical parameters, including nerve-sparing technique, on the risk of positive surgical margins (PSM) following radical prostatectomy for clinically localized prostate cancer. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A prospective...... positive biopsies for cancer (PPB), surgeon and surgical technique. RESULTS: The overall rate of PSM was 31.4%. The risk of PSM depended (p value for Wald χ(2)) on PSA (p < 0.0001), PPB (p = 0.003), nerve-sparing surgery (p = 0.03) and the surgeon (p < 0.0001). For every doubling of PSA, the risk of PSM...... consecutive single-institution Danish cohort of 1148 patients undergoing RP between 1995 and 2011 was investigated. To analyse the impact of covariates on risk of PSM, a multivariate logistic regression model was used, including cT category, biopsy Gleason score, prostate-specific antigen (PSA), percentage...

  12. Risk factors for endometrial cancer among women with a BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation: a case control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segev, Yakir; Rosen, Barry; Lubinski, Jan; Gronwald, Jacek; Lynch, Henry T; Moller, Pal; Kim-Sing, Charmaine; Ghadirian, Parviz; Karlan, Beth; Eng, Charis; Gilchrist, Dawna; Neuhausen, Susan L; Eisen, Andrea; Friedman, Eitan; Euhus, David; Ping, Sun; Narod, Steven A

    2015-09-01

    BRCA mutation carriers may use tamoxifen for breast cancer prevention or treatment. Hormone replacement therapy is often prescribed after surgical menopause and oral contraceptives are recommended for ovarian cancer prevention. The objective of this study was to assess the impact of these medications and other risk factors on endometrial cancer risk in BRCA carriers. Women with a BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation were identified from a registry of mutation carriers. Cases were 83 women who had a diagnosis of endometrial cancer. Controls were 1027 matched women who did not develop endometrial cancer and who had an intact uterus. All women completed a baseline questionnaire, which included questions about ages at menarche and menopause, oral contraceptive use, hormone replacement therapy use, hysterectomy, oophorectomy, breast cancer history and tamoxifen use. We estimated the odds ratio associated with each risk factor in a multivariate analysis. No differences were found between cases and controls in terms of age at menarche, BMI, smoking, or oral contraceptive use. In a multivariate analysis, for women taking estrogen-only hormone replacement therapy, the odds ratio was 0.23 (95% CI 0.03-1.78, p = 0.16), and for women taking progesterone-only hormone replacement therapy the odds ratio was 6.91 (95% CI 0.99-98.1, p = 0.05). The adjusted odds ratio for endometrial cancer associated with a history of tamoxifen use was 3.50 (95% CI 1.51-8.10, p = 0.003). The observed increased risk of endometrial cancer associated with progesterone-only therapy merits further study. PMID:25838159

  13. Risk factors for development of radiation pneumonitis following radiation therapy with or without chemotherapy for lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To determine the risk factors contributing to development of radiation pneumonitis (RP) in patients with lung cancer who undergo radiation therapy to the thorax. Methods and Materials: Development and severity of RP were retrospectively analyzed for 89 patients with lung cancer who underwent radiation therapy with or without chemotherapy at the National Shikoku Cancer Center Hospital between 1991 and 1995. The severity of RP was determined using a modified grading scale based on that of the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group and the European Organization for the Research and Treatment of Cancer. Results: Fifty-two (58%) patients developed RP: 34 patients with Grade 1, 5 with Grade 2, 8 with Grade 3, and 5 with Grade 5 RP. Severe RP tended to develop earlier than less severe RP, but not to a significant extent (p = 0.151). On logistic regression analysis including both patient condition and treatment factors, development of Grade 1 or more severe RP was most frequently observed for Stage I-II disease (p = 0.011). The use of chemotherapy, large daily radiation dose, and once-daily fractionation (vs. twice-daily fractionation) were possibly related to the development of RP (p = 0.057, p = 0.069, and p = 0.092, respectively). For the group of 48 patients who underwent chemo radiation therapy, the use of large daily radiation dose was a significant risk factor for RP (p = 0.014). In addition, the use of once-daily fractionation was a marginally significant risk factor (p = 0.052). Among chemotherapy drugs administered, cisplatin was a favorable factor (p = 0.011), while adriamycin was a risk factor (p = 0.061). Conclusions: In radiation therapy for lung cancer, administration of a large daily dose should be avoided in order to prevent RP, particularly when radiation therapy is combined with chemotherapy

  14. ACC interleukin-10 gene promoter haplotype as a breast cancer risk factor predictor among Jordanian females

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atoum MF

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Manar Fayiz Atoum Department of Medical Laboratory Sciences, Faculty of Allied Health Sciences, The Hashemite University, Zarqa, Jordan Introduction: Interleukin-10 (IL-10 is a multifactorial cytokine with a complex biological role in breast cancer. The aims of this study were to investigate any association between IL-10 gene promoter polymorphisms, 1082A>/G, -819T>C, and -592A>C, or haplotypes and breast cancer risk among Jordanian women and to evaluate any association between the most common haplotype with clinicopathological features of breast cancer.Patients and methods: A total of 202 breast cancer patients and 210 age-matched healthy control subjects were genotyped for -1082A/G, -819T/C, and -592A/C single nucleotide polymorphisms in the promoter region of the IL-10 gene by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism. Study patients and control subjects were recruited from Prince Hamzah Hospital, Amman, Jordan (2012–2013. Ethical approval and signed consent forms were signed by all participants. DNA was extracted, and polymerase chain reaction fragments were amplified and restriction digested by MnII, MaeIII, and RsaI.Results: This study showed no statistically significant difference between -1082A/G, -819T/C, and -592A/C IL-10 genotypes or alleles among breast cancer patients or controls. Four different haplotypes ATA, ACC, GTA, and ACA within the IL-10 promoter gene were determined among both breast cancer and control groups. The most frequent haplotype was ACC among breast cancer patients and controls (41.6% and 40.7%, respectively. No statistical differences in these haplotypes among breast cancer patients or controls were determined. Analysis of the most common ACC haplotype showed statistical difference in positive estrogen receptor (P=0.022, positive progesterone receptor (P=0.004, cancer grade (P=0.0001, and cancer stage (P=0.009 among the ACC haplotype compared to non-ACC haplotype.Conclusion: To our

  15. Sugar, meat, and fat intake, and non-dietary risk factors for colon cancer incidence in Iowa women (United States).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bostick, R M; Potter, J D; Kushi, L H; Sellers, T A; Steinmetz, K A; McKenzie, D R; Gapstur, S M; Folsom, A R

    1994-01-01

    To investigate the relation of dietary intakes of sucrose, meat, and fat, and anthropometric, lifestyle, hormonal, and reproductive factors to colon cancer incidence, data were analyzed from a prospective cohort study of 35,215 Iowa (United States) women, aged 55-69 years and without a history of cancer, who completed mailed dietary and other questionnaires in 1986. Through 1990, 212 incident cases of colon cancer were documented. Proportional hazards regression was used to adjust for age and other risk factors. Risk factors found to be associated significantly with colon cancer included: (i) sucrose-containing foods and beverages other than ice cream/milk; relative risks (RR) across the quintiles = 1.00, 1.73, 1.56, 1.54, and 2.00 (95% confidence intervals [CI] for quintiles two and five exclude 1.0); (ii) sucrose; RR across the quintiles = 1.00, 1.70, 1.81, 1.82, and 1.45 (CI for quintiles two through four exclude 1.0); (iii) height; RR = 1.23 for highest to lowest quintile (P for trend = 0.02); (iv) body mass index; RR = 1.41 for highest to lowest quintile (P for trend = 0.03); and (v) number of livebirths, RR = 1.59 for having had one to two livebirths and 1.80 for having had three or more livebirths compared with having had none (P for trend = 0.04). These data support hypotheses that sucrose intake or being tall or obese increases colon cancer risk; run contrary to the hypothesis that increased parity decreases risk; support previous findings of no association with demographic factors other than age, cigarette smoking, or use of oral contraceptives or estrogen replacement therapy; and raise questions regarding previous associations with meat, fat, protein, and physical activity. PMID:8123778

  16. Gender, anthropometric factors and risk of colorectal cancer with particular reference to tumour location and TNM stage: a cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brändstedt Jenny

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It remains unclear whether the increased risk of colorectal cancer (CRC associated with obesity differs by gender, distribution of fat, tumour location and clinical (TNM stage. The primary aim of this study was to examine these associations in 584 incident colorectal cancer cases from a Swedish prospective population-based cohort including 28098 men and women. Methods Seven anthropometric factors; height, weight, bodyfat percentage, hip circumference, waist circumference, BMI and waist-hip ratio (WHR were categorized into quartiles of baseline anthropometric measurements. Relative risks of CRC, total risk as well as risk of different TNM stages, and risk of tumours located to the colon or rectum, were calculated for all cases, women and men, respectively, using multivariate Cox regression models. Results Obesity, as defined by all anthropometric variables, was significantly associated with an overall increased risk of CRC in both women and men. While none of the anthropometric measures was significantly associated with risk of tumour (T-stage 1 and 2 tumours, all anthropometric variables were significantly associated with an increased risk of T-stage 3 and 4, in particular in men. In men, increasing quartiles of weight, hip, waist, BMI and WHR were significantly associated with an increased risk of lymph node positive (N1 and N2 disease, and risk of both non-metastatic (M0 and metastatic (M1 disease. In women, there were no or weak associations between obesity and risk of node-positive disease, but statistically significant associations between increased weight, bodyfat percentage, hip, BMI and M0 disease. Interestingly, there was an increased risk of colon but not rectal cancer in men, and rectal but not colon cancer in women, by increased measures of weight, hip-, waist circumference and bodyfat percentage. Conclusions This study is the first to show a relationship between obesity, measured as several different

  17. Body size, modifying factors, and postmenopausal breast cancer risk in a multiethnic population: the San Francisco Bay Area Breast Cancer Study

    OpenAIRE

    John, Esther M.; Phipps, Amanda I.; Sangaramoorthy, Meera

    2013-01-01

    Data on body size and postmenopausal breast cancer in Hispanic and African American women are inconsistent, possibly due to the influence of modifying factors. We examined associations between adiposity and risk of breast cancer defined by hormone receptor status in a population-based case-control study conducted from 1995–2004 in the San Francisco Bay Area. Multivariate adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were calculated using unconditional logistic regression. Associations wit...

  18. Cardiometabolic and Skeletal Risk Factors in Black Men with Prostate Cancer Starting Androgen Deprivation Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gunnarsson, Orvar, E-mail: orvar.gunnarsson@uphs.upenn.edu [Department of Medicine, Division of Hematology and Oncology, Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania, 3400 Spruce Street, 16 Penn Tower, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Basaria, Shehzad [Department of Medicine, Section of Men’s Health, Aging and Metabolism, Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Gignac, Gretchen A. [Department of Medicine, Section of Hematology and Oncology, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, MA 02118 (United States)

    2015-04-22

    Background: Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) for prostate cancer (PCa) is associated with multiple metabolic complications, previously predominantly evaluated in the white population. Methods: A chart-based retrospective review was conducted on black patients with PCa, considered for ADT, from September 2007 to July 2010. Baseline data were collected on body mass index (BMI), vitamin-D status, bone mineral density (BMD), dyslipidemia and diabetes. Overweight and obesity were classified as BMI ≥ 25 and BMI ≥ 30, respectively. Vitamin-D sufficiency was defined as levels ≥30 ng/mL, insufficiency as <30 ng/mL and deficiency as ≤20 ng/mL. Osteopenia was defined as T scores between −1 to −2.5 and osteoporosis when T scores ≤−2.5. Results: Of the initial cohort of 130 black men, 111 (85.4%) patients underwent ADT. At baseline, average BMI was 28.1 ± 5.9 with 43.3% of men being overweight and 30.8% obese. More than one-third of the patients had pre-existing dyslipidemia while 28.8% were diabetics. 50% were vitamin-D deficient while 41% had low bone mass. Conclusions: Black men with PCa presenting for consideration of ADT have a high prevalence of existing metabolic risk factors. Close monitoring of this patient population is needed during ADT to prevent and treat metabolic complications.

  19. Cardiometabolic and Skeletal Risk Factors in Black Men with Prostate Cancer Starting Androgen Deprivation Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orvar Gunnarsson

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT for prostate cancer (PCa is associated with multiple metabolic complications, previously predominantly evaluated in the white population. Methods: A chart-based retrospective review was conducted on black patients with PCa, considered for ADT, from September 2007 to July 2010. Baseline data were collected on body mass index (BMI, vitamin-D status, bone mineral density (BMD, dyslipidemia and diabetes. Overweight and obesity were classified as BMI ≥ 25 and BMI ≥ 30, respectively. Vitamin-D sufficiency was defined as levels ≥30 ng/mL, insufficiency as <30 ng/mL and deficiency as ≤20 ng/mL. Osteopenia was defined as T scores between −1 to −2.5 and osteoporosis when T scores ≤−2.5. Results: Of the initial cohort of 130 black men, 111 (85.4% patients underwent ADT. At baseline, average BMI was 28.1 ± 5.9 with 43.3% of men being overweight and 30.8% obese. More than one-third of the patients had pre-existing dyslipidemia while 28.8% were diabetics. 50% were vitamin-D deficient while 41% had low bone mass. Conclusions: Black men with PCa presenting for consideration of ADT have a high prevalence of existing metabolic risk factors. Close monitoring of this patient population is needed during ADT to prevent and treat metabolic complications.

  20. Cardiometabolic and Skeletal Risk Factors in Black Men with Prostate Cancer Starting Androgen Deprivation Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) for prostate cancer (PCa) is associated with multiple metabolic complications, previously predominantly evaluated in the white population. Methods: A chart-based retrospective review was conducted on black patients with PCa, considered for ADT, from September 2007 to July 2010. Baseline data were collected on body mass index (BMI), vitamin-D status, bone mineral density (BMD), dyslipidemia and diabetes. Overweight and obesity were classified as BMI ≥ 25 and BMI ≥ 30, respectively. Vitamin-D sufficiency was defined as levels ≥30 ng/mL, insufficiency as <30 ng/mL and deficiency as ≤20 ng/mL. Osteopenia was defined as T scores between −1 to −2.5 and osteoporosis when T scores ≤−2.5. Results: Of the initial cohort of 130 black men, 111 (85.4%) patients underwent ADT. At baseline, average BMI was 28.1 ± 5.9 with 43.3% of men being overweight and 30.8% obese. More than one-third of the patients had pre-existing dyslipidemia while 28.8% were diabetics. 50% were vitamin-D deficient while 41% had low bone mass. Conclusions: Black men with PCa presenting for consideration of ADT have a high prevalence of existing metabolic risk factors. Close monitoring of this patient population is needed during ADT to prevent and treat metabolic complications

  1. Correlation of breast cancer risk factors with HER-2/neu protein overexpression according to menopausal and estrogen receptor status

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    Anogiannaki Nektaria

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several researchers have claimed that classification of tumours on the basis of HER-2/neu overexpression or amplification may define a subset of breast cancer in which the net effect of a risk factor could be rather more obvious and its impact on breast cancer development more clear. We decided to investigate, in a group of patients from a geographical area with a low incidence of breast cancer, whether HER-2/neu positive tumours are correlated with established or suspected risk factors for breast cancer and thus to identify distinct subgroups of high risk women. Methods This study analysed data from patients who attended the Breast Unit at the University Hospital of Heraklion, Crete, Greece between 1996 and 2002. 384 women with primary invasive breast cancer were compared with 566 screened women who were referred to the Unit and had not developed breast neoplasm by the time the data were analysed. Risk factor data were obtained from each subject by personal interviews using a structured questionnaire. The detection and scoring of the HER-2/neu protein, estrogen and progesterone receptor expression were performed using immunochemistry. Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were determined by chi-square test and logistic regression analysis. Case-case odds ratios were calculated in order to measure the risk heterogeneity between HER-2/neu+ and HER-2/neu-tumours. Separate analyses were performed for premenopausal and postmenopausal women and according to estrogen receptor status. Results In multivariate analysis without HER-2/neu stratification, an increased breast cancer risk was associated with only four of the factors examined: use of oral contraceptives (OR = 4.40, 95%C.I: 1.46–13.28, use of HRT (OR = 7.34, 95%C.I: 2.03–26.53, an age at first full pregnancy more than 23 years (OR = 1.91, 95%C.I: 1.29–2.83 and body mass index more than 29 kg/m2 (OR = 3.13, 95%C.I: 2.02–4.84. Additionally, a history of abortion or

  2. Night shift work and prolactin as a breast cancer risk factor

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    Agnieszka Bukowska

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Prolactin - a hormone secreted in a circadian rhythm acts as a regulator of growth and development of the mammary glands. It has been observed that working at night increases breast cancer risk in women. Night shift work, probably carcinogenic to humans (Group 2A IARC, can disrupt a circadian rhythm, and thus potentially alter the rhythm of prolactin secretion. The aim of our work was to review epidemiological evidence on the association between prolactin and the risk of breast cancer and the influence of work at night on prolactin secretion. Search was done in the Medline database by keywords (shift work, work at night, risk of breast cancer and prolactin. The increased proliferation of breast cells activated by prolactin can promote the development of cancer. The results of the largest epidemiological prospective studies suggest the association between prolactin levels and the risk of breast cancer in women. So far, only seven studies have investigated the association between work at night and prolactin secretion. In three studies lower concentrations of prolactin have been observed in night shift workers. No relationship between the night shift work duration and prolactin level in women have been reported. Night shift work can modify the profile of prolactin secretion in night workers, probably decreasing the secretion of this hormone at night. It is therefore unlikely that prolactin plays an important role in the development of breast cancer in women working at night. This conclusion is based on the results of a few epidemiological studies. Med Pr 2013;64(2:245–257

  3. PCOS and cancer risk.

    OpenAIRE

    Tadeusz Issat; Artur J Jakimiuk

    2010-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) affects approximately 5 to 10% of women of reproductive age. It is the most common reason of anovulation in infertile women. PCOS is accompanied by such conditions as oligo- or anovulation, hipertestosteronism, lower cell sensitivity to insulin, type II diabetes, hyperlipidemia and obesity. Each of the above-mentioned conditions is an approved risk factor proved to predispose towards cancer. However, PCOS is also a disease entity which differs in its clinical ...

  4. Câncer de estômago: fatores de risco Stomach cancer: risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Valéria de Britto

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Há cinqüenta anos o câncer de estômago vem perdendo a importância em termos de morbi-mortalidade em países considerados de primeiro mundo. Isso não ocorre no Brasil. Os principais fatores de risco evidenciados a partir de estudos epidemiológicos em várias populações do mundo e associados a essa neoplasia são alguns padrões de dieta. Com a descoberta do papel carcinogênico das nitrosaminas e do potencial anti-oxidante da vitamina C, algumas das associações entre câncer gástrico e padrões de dieta passaram a ser parcialmente entendidas. Com a descrição da Helicobacter pylori em 1983 e as evidências da relação dessa bactéria com certos processos patológicos do estômago, alguns precursores do câncer gástrico, novos elementos foram agregados ao processo fisiopatológico dessa entidade. O conhecimento hoje adquirido sobre a fisiopatologia do câncer gástrico, mesmo que parcial, fornece perspectivas estimulantes para prevenção e diagnóstico precoce.For the last fifty years, stomach cancer has become less important in terms of morbidity and mortality in developed countries, but the same pattern has not occurred in Brazil. The main risk factors for this neoplasm are certain diet patterns that became evident through epidemiological studies in various population groups. After the carcinogenic effects of nitrosamines and the anti-oxidant activity of vitamin C were discovered, some of the associations between stomach cancer and diet were partially understood. After the description of Helicobacter pylori in 1983 and the evidence of the relationship between this bacteria and certain stomach diseases, new elements were added to the knowledge about the development of this neoplasm. Current knowledge, albeit incomplete, provides interesting prospects for the prevention and early diagnosis of stomach cancer.

  5. Risk factors of brain metastases in completely resected pathological stage IIIA-N2 non-small cell lung cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ding Xiao

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Brain metastases (BM is one of the most common failures of locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer (LA-NSCLC after combined-modality therapy. The outcome of trials on prophylactic cranial irradiation (PCI has prompted us to identify the highest-risk subset most likely to benefit from PCI. Focusing on patients with completely resected pathological stage IIIA-N2 (pIIIA-N2 NSCLC, we aimed to assess risk factors of BM and to define the highest-risk subset. Methods Between 2003 and 2005, the records of 217 consecutive patients with pIIIA-N2 NSCLC in our institution were reviewed. The cumulative incidence of BM was estimated using the Kaplan–Meier method, and differences between the groups were analyzed using log-rank test. Multivariate Cox regression analysis was applied to assess risk factors of BM. Results Fifty-three (24.4 % patients developed BM at some point during their clinical course. On multivariate analysis, non-squamous cell cancer (relative risk [RR]: 4.13, 95 % CI: 1.86–9.19; P = 0.001 and the ratio of metastatic to examined nodes or lymph node ratio (LNR ≥ 30 % (RR: 3.33, 95 % CI: 1.79–6.18; P = 0.000 were found to be associated with an increased risk of BM. In patients with non-squamous cell cancer and LNR ≥ 30 %, the 5-year actuarial risk of BM was 57.3 %. Conclusions In NSCLC, patients with completely resected pIIIA-N2 non-squamous cell cancer and LNR ≥ 30 % are at the highest risk for BM, and are most likely to benefit from PCI. Further studies are warranted to investigate the effect of PCI on this subset of patients.

  6. Risk factors of brain metastases in completely resected pathological stage IIIA-N2 non-small cell lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brain metastases (BM) is one of the most common failures of locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer (LA-NSCLC) after combined-modality therapy. The outcome of trials on prophylactic cranial irradiation (PCI) has prompted us to identify the highest-risk subset most likely to benefit from PCI. Focusing on patients with completely resected pathological stage IIIA-N2 (pIIIA-N2) NSCLC, we aimed to assess risk factors of BM and to define the highest-risk subset. Between 2003 and 2005, the records of 217 consecutive patients with pIIIA-N2 NSCLC in our institution were reviewed. The cumulative incidence of BM was estimated using the Kaplan–Meier method, and differences between the groups were analyzed using log-rank test. Multivariate Cox regression analysis was applied to assess risk factors of BM. Fifty-three (24.4 %) patients developed BM at some point during their clinical course. On multivariate analysis, non-squamous cell cancer (relative risk [RR]: 4.13, 95 % CI: 1.86–9.19; P = 0.001) and the ratio of metastatic to examined nodes or lymph node ratio (LNR) ≥ 30 % (RR: 3.33, 95 % CI: 1.79–6.18; P = 0.000) were found to be associated with an increased risk of BM. In patients with non-squamous cell cancer and LNR ≥ 30 %, the 5-year actuarial risk of BM was 57.3 %. In NSCLC, patients with completely resected pIIIA-N2 non-squamous cell cancer and LNR ≥ 30 % are at the highest risk for BM, and are most likely to benefit from PCI. Further studies are warranted to investigate the effect of PCI on this subset of patients

  7. Breast density and parenchymal texture measures as potential risk factors for estrogen-receptor positive breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Brad M.; Chen, Jinbo; Conant, Emily F.; Kontos, Despina

    2014-03-01

    Accurate assessment of a woman's risk to develop specific subtypes of breast cancer is critical for appropriate utilization of chemopreventative measures, such as with tamoxifen in preventing estrogen-receptor positive breast cancer. In this context, we investigate quantitative measures of breast density and parenchymal texture, measures of glandular tissue content and tissue structure, as risk factors for estrogen-receptor positive (ER+) breast cancer. Mediolateral oblique (MLO) view digital mammograms of the contralateral breast from 106 women with unilateral invasive breast cancer were retrospectively analyzed. Breast density and parenchymal texture were analyzed via fully-automated software. Logistic regression with feature selection and was performed to predict ER+ versus ER- cancer status. A combined model considering all imaging measures extracted was compared to baseline models consisting of density-alone and texture-alone features. Area under the curve (AUC) of the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) and Delong's test were used to compare the models' discriminatory capacity for receptor status. The density-alone model had a discriminatory capacity of 0.62 AUC (p=0.05). The texture-alone model had a higher discriminatory capacity of 0.70 AUC (p=0.001), which was not significantly different compared to the density-alone model (p=0.37). In contrast the combined density-texture logistic regression model had a discriminatory capacity of 0.82 AUC (prisk for estrogen-receptor positive breast cancer and could be useful in triaging women into appropriate risk-reduction strategies.

  8. Analysis of risk factors for the interval time, number and pattern of hepatic metastases from gastric cancer after radical gastrectomy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing-Yu Deng; Han Liang; Dan Sun; Hong-Jie Zhan; Ru-Peng Zhang

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To analyze the risk factors for interval time,number and pattern of hepatic metastases from gastric cancer after radical gastrectomy, and provide evidence for predicting and preventing hepatic metastasis from gastric cancer after radical gastrectomy. METHODS: A retrospective study of 87 patients with hepatic metastasis who underwent radical gastrectomy for gastric cancer from 1996 to 2001. The data was analyzed to evaluate significant risk factors for interval time, number and pattern of hepatic metastases originating from gastric cancer after radical gastrectomy.RESULTS: The size of gastric cancer and lymph node metastases were independently correlated with the interval time of hepatic metastases; the depth of invasion was independently correlated with the number of hepatic metastases; while the depth of invasion and Lauren classification were independently correlated with the pattern of hepatic metastases.CONCLUSION: We evaluated the interval time of hepatic metastases with the size of gastric cancer and lymph node metastases. The depth of invasion could be used to evaluate the number of hepatic metastases, while the depth of invasion and the Lauren classification could be used to evaluate the pattern of hepatic metastases in patients who underwent radical gastrectomy.

  9. Diabetes as a risk factor to cancer: functional role of fermented papaya preparation as phytonutraceutical adjunct in the treatment of diabetes and cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aruoma, Okezie I; Somanah, Jhoti; Bourdon, Emmanuel; Rondeau, Philippe; Bahorun, Theeshan

    2014-10-01

    Oncologists and diabetologists quote scientific data from epidemiological and in vitro studies to show that high levels of insulin and glucose, in combination with oxidative stress and chronic inflammation, can heighten the risk of developing cancer amongst patients with diabetes. Although the cancers that have been consistently associated with type 2 diabetes include pancreatic, colorectal, breast and liver cancer, the preponderance of the disease risk factors such as obesity, inflammation, hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinaemia (as a result of insulin resistance and oxidative β-cell damage) and the indirect influence of anti-diabetic medications are increasingly being defined. Fermented papaya preparation (FPP) has defined antioxidant and immune-modulating potentials. The ability of FPP influence signaling cascades associated with cell growth and survival presents a rational for chemopreventive adjunct that can be used in combination with traditional redox based therapies that target oxidative stress in the cancer micro environment. It is further suggested that the demonstrated efficacy FPP to control blood glucose, excessive inflammation and modulate free radical-induced oxidative damage which are triggers of liver, bladder, breast and prostate cancers in type 2 diabetics, may favorably mitigate the side effects of ensuing diabetes and cancer therapy. What remains paramount is early cancer detection and early determination of propensity risks for diabetes. The education of patients, proper dietary management and compliance with therapeutic regime directed at cancer and diabetes encapsulate challenges of global magnitude. PMID:24769427

  10. Risk Factors and Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Resources Risk Factors & Prevention Back to Patient Resources Risk Factors & Prevention Even people who look healthy and ... Blood Pressure , high cholesterol, diabetes, and thyroid disease. Risk Factors For Arrhythmias and Heart Disease The following ...

  11. Risk Factors for Scleroderma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... You are here: Home For Patients Risk Factors Risk Factors for Scleroderma The cause of scleroderma is ... what biological factors contribute to scleroderma pathogenesis. Genetic Risk Scleroderma does not tend to run in families ...

  12. [Risk perception of the general public of cell phone towers and cancer: trend and associated factors, 2005-2010].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peretti-Watel, Patrick; Vergélys, Chantal

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess risk perception related to living near a cell phone tower based on data from two national telephone surveys conducted in France in 2005 and 2010. In 2005, 48.5% of French people aged 16-75 years considered that living near a cell phone tower increases the risk of cancer, compared to 68.9% in 2010. In addition, the number of ?don't know' responses decreased. The increase in risk perception was far greater than the increase in perceptions related to other potential environmental factors of cancer (nuclear power plant, air pollution, chemically-treated food). In 2005, the perceived risk of cancer due to exposure to cell phone tower radiation was correlated to gender, level of income, size of town and sensitivity to other environmental causes of cancer. However, these correlations were weaker in 2010. This risk perception may reflect non-specific fears and a lack of trust in the authorities, but is also rooted in a local context. PMID:23043695

  13. Diabetes Status and Being Up-to-Date on Colorectal Cancer Screening, 2012 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Nancy R.; Samson, Marsha E.; Garcia-Dominic, Oralia; Lengerich, Eugene J.; Schootman, Mario

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Although screening rates for colorectal cancer are increasing, 22 million Americans are not up-to-date with recommendations. People with diabetes are an important and rapidly growing group at increased risk for colorectal cancer. Screening status and predictors of being up-to-date on screening are largely unknown in this population. Methods This study used logistic regression modeling and data from the 2012 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System to examine the association between diabetes and colorectal cancer screening predictors with being up-to-date on colorectal cancer screening according to criteria of the US Preventive Services Task Force for adults aged 50 or older. State prevalence rates of up-to-date colorectal cancer screening were also calculated and mapped. Results The prevalence of being up-to-date with colorectal cancer screening for all respondents aged 50 or older was 65.6%; for respondents with diabetes, the rate was 69.2%. Respondents with diabetes were 22% more likely to be up-to-date on colorectal cancer screening than those without diabetes. Among those with diabetes, having a routine checkup within the previous year significantly increased the odds of being up-to-date on colorectal cancer screening (odds ratio, 1.90). Other factors such as age, income, education, race/ethnicity, insurance status, and history of cancer were also associated with up-to-date status. Conclusion Regardless of diabetes status, people who had a routine checkup within the past year were more likely to be up-to-date than people who had not. Among people with diabetes, the duration between routine checkups may be of greater importance than the frequency of diabetes-related doctor visits. Continued efforts should be made to ensure that routine care visits occur regularly to address the preventive health needs of patients with and patients without diabetes. PMID:26851338

  14. MNS16A tandem repeats minisatellite of human telomerase gene: a risk factor for colorectal cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Hofer, Philipp; Baierl, Andreas; Feik, Elisabeth; Führlinger, Gerhard; Leeb, Gernot; Mach, Karl; Holzmann, Klaus; Micksche, Michael; Gsur, Andrea

    2011-01-01

    Telomerase reactivation and expression of human telomerase gene [human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT)] are hallmarks of unlimited proliferation potential of cancer cells. A polymorphic tandem repeats minisatellite of hTERT gene, termed MNS16A was reported to influence hTERT expression. To assess the role of MNS16A as potential biomarker for colorectal cancer (CRC), we investigated for the first time the association of MNS16A genotypes with risk of colorectal polyps and CRC. In the o...

  15. Identifying and controlling a multiresistant pseudomonas aeruginosa outbreak in a latin-american cancer centre and its associated risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Alberto Cortes

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an important and frightening microorganism for patients suffering from cancer. Multiresistant P. aeruginosa (MRPA may appear as a consequence of exposure to multiple antibiotics or from a breakdown in infection control practices. This article reports an MRPA outbreak in a cancer treatment centre and the consequent case control study. Mechanical ventilation was identified as being the main risk factor for developing MRPA colonisation or infection; molecular analysis confirmed the outbreak. A multifaceted strategy was adopted, involving reinforcing hand-washing practices, contact isolation, antibiotic restriction and suction devices for mechanically-ventilated patients. MRPA was controlled and the outbreak ended. Such strategy may be effective in controlling MRPS in low-resource environments amongst high risk cancer patients.

  16. Race or Resource? BMI, Race, and Other Social Factors as Risk Factors for Interlimb Differences among Overweight Breast Cancer Survivors with Lymphedema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorraine T. Dean

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. High BMI is a risk factor for upper body breast cancer-related lymphedema (BCRL onset. Black cancer survivors are more likely to have high BMI than White cancer survivors. While observational analyses suggest up to 2.2 times increased risk of BCRL onset for Black breast cancer survivors, no studies have explored race or other social factors that may affect BCRL severity, operationalized by interlimb volume difference (ILD. Materials and Methods. ILD was measured by perometry for 296 overweight (25 > BMI 6 months from treatment in the WISER Survivor trial. Multivariable linear regression examined associations between social and physical factors and ILD. Results. Neither Black race (−0.26, p=0.89 nor BMI (0.22, p=0.10 was associated with ILD. Attending college (−4.89, p=0.03 was the strongest factor associated with ILD, followed by having more lymph nodes removed (4.75, p=0.01, >25% BCRL care adherence (4.10, p=0.01, and years since treatment (0.55, p<0.001. Discussion. Neither race nor BMI was associated with ILD among overweight cancer survivors. Education, a proxy for resource level, was the strongest factor associated with greater ILD. Tailoring physical activity and weight loss interventions designed to address BCRL severity by resource rather than race should be considered.

  17. Race or Resource? BMI, Race, and Other Social Factors as Risk Factors for Interlimb Differences among Overweight Breast Cancer Survivors with Lymphedema

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Anagha; Kim, Taehoon; Herling, Matthew; Brown, Justin C.; Zhang, Zi; Evangelisti, Margaret; Hackley, Renata; Kim, Jiyoung; Cheville, Andrea; Troxel, Andrea B.; Schwartz, J. Sanford; Schmitz, Kathryn H.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. High BMI is a risk factor for upper body breast cancer-related lymphedema (BCRL) onset. Black cancer survivors are more likely to have high BMI than White cancer survivors. While observational analyses suggest up to 2.2 times increased risk of BCRL onset for Black breast cancer survivors, no studies have explored race or other social factors that may affect BCRL severity, operationalized by interlimb volume difference (ILD). Materials and Methods. ILD was measured by perometry for 296 overweight (25 > BMI 6 months from treatment) in the WISER Survivor trial. Multivariable linear regression examined associations between social and physical factors and ILD. Results. Neither Black race (−0.26, p = 0.89) nor BMI (0.22, p = 0.10) was associated with ILD. Attending college (−4.89, p = 0.03) was the strongest factor associated with ILD, followed by having more lymph nodes removed (4.75, p = 0.01), >25% BCRL care adherence (4.10, p = 0.01), and years since treatment (0.55, p < 0.001). Discussion. Neither race nor BMI was associated with ILD among overweight cancer survivors. Education, a proxy for resource level, was the strongest factor associated with greater ILD. Tailoring physical activity and weight loss interventions designed to address BCRL severity by resource rather than race should be considered. PMID:27433356

  18. What Are the Risk Factors for Gastrointestinal Carcinoid Tumors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... carcinoid tumors? A risk factor is anything that affects your chance of getting a disease such as cancer. For example, exposure to strong sunlight is a risk factor for skin cancer, while smoking is a risk factor for cancer of the lung and several other cancers. But risk factors don’ ...

  19. The short appendix vermiformis as a risk factor for colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cakmak, Yusuf Ozgur; Ergelen, Rabia; Ekinci, Gazanfer; Kaspar, Elif Cigdem

    2014-04-01

    The human appendix vermiformis is regarded as an evolutionarily vestigial organ, although it has presumptive immune system functions and appears to support beneficial bacterial gut flora, both of which could influence cancer progression. A review of the comparative anatomy of the mammalian appendix reveals a significantly longer appendix in herbivores than in carnivorous animals. The lengthier appendix vermiformis in herbivores has been associated with the presence of cellulose-digesting bacteria that colonize the structure. In light of recent studies that have reported the digestion of small amounts of cellulose in humans and the preventive effects of a vegetarian diet on colon cancer, we conducted a retrospective study of abdominal CT scans of 60 colon cancer patients and 60 healthy people to investigate a possible relationship between colon cancer and appendix vermiformis length. The mean length of the appendix in cancer patients [65.178 mm ± 13.46 (SD)] was shorter than that in the healthy control group [101.99 mm ± 16.58 (SD)] and the difference was statistically significant (P cancer patient group and the control group did not differ significantly (P = 0.534). The results of the present study indicate that the appendix is not merely a vestigial structure or regressed lymphoid tissue, but rather an organ that could be critical in the development of colon cancer, whether as a result of congenital or acquired appendicular factors. PMID:24497155

  20. Reproductive risk factors in relation to molecular subtypes of breast cancer: Results from the nurses' health studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sisti, Julia S; Collins, Laura C; Beck, Andrew H; Tamimi, Rulla M; Rosner, Bernard A; Eliassen, A Heather

    2016-05-15

    Several intrinsic breast cancer subtypes, possibly representing unique etiologic processes, have been identified by gene expression profiles. Evidence suggests that associations with reproductive risk factors may vary by breast cancer subtype. In the Nurses' Health Studies, we prospectively examined associations of reproductive factors with breast cancer subtypes defined using immunohistochemical staining of tissue microarrays. Multivariate-adjusted Cox proportional hazard models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Over follow-up, we identified 2,063 luminal A, 1,008 luminal B, 209 HER2-enriched, 378 basal-like and 110 unclassified tumors. Many factors appeared associated with luminal A tumors, including ages at menarche (p(heterogeneity) = 0.65) and menopause (p(heterogeneity) = 0.05), and current HT use (p(heterogeneity) = 0.33). Increasing parity was not associated with any subtype (p(heterogeneity) = 0.76), though age at first birth was associated with luminal A tumors only (per 1-year increase HR = 1.03 95%CI (1.02-1.05), p(heterogeneity)  = 0.04). Though heterogeneity was not observed, duration of lactation was inversely associated with risk of basal-like tumors only (7+ months vs. never HR = 0.65 95%CI (0.49-0.87), ptrend = 0.02), p(heterogeneity) = 0.27). Years between menarche and first birth was strongly positively associated with luminal A and non-luminal subtypes (e.g. 22-year interval vs. nulliparous HR = 1.80, 95%CI (1.08-3.00) for basal-like tumors; p(heterogeneity) = 0.003), and evidence of effect modification by breastfeeding was observed. In summary, many reproductive risk factors for breast cancer appeared most strongly associated with the luminal A subtype. Our results support previous reports that lactation is protective against basal-like tumors, representing a potential modifiable risk factor for this aggressive subtype. PMID:26684063

  1. Smoking, green tea consumption, genetic polymorphisms in the insulin-like growth factors and lung cancer risk.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I-Hsin Lin

    Full Text Available Insulin-like growth factors (IGFs are mediators of growth hormones; they have an influence on cell proliferation and differentiation. In addition, IGF-binding protein (IGFBP-3 could suppress the mitogenic action of IGFs. Interestingly, tea polyphenols could substantially reduce IGF1 and increase IGFBP3. In this study, we evaluated the effects of smoking, green tea consumption, as well as IGF1, IGF2, and IGFBP3 polymorphisms, on lung cancer risk. Questionnaires were administered to obtain the subjects' characteristics, including smoking habits and green tea consumption from 170 primary lung cancer cases and 340 healthy controls. Genotypes for IGF1, IGF2, and IGFBP3 were identified by polymerase chain reaction. Lung cancer cases had a higher proportion of smoking, green tea consumption of less than one cup per day, exposure to cooking fumes, and family history of lung cancer than controls. After adjusting the confounding effect, an elevated risk was observed in smokers who never drank green tea, as compared to smokers who drank green tea more than one cup per day (odds ratio (OR = 13.16, 95% confidence interval (CI = 2.96-58.51. Interaction between smoking and green tea consumption on lung cancer risk was also observed. Among green tea drinkers who drank more than one cup per day, IGF1 (CA(19/(CA(19 and (CA(19/X genotypes carriers had a significantly reduced risk of lung cancer (OR = 0.06, 95% CI = 0.01-0.44 compared with IGF1 X/X carriers. Smoking-induced pulmonary carcinogenesis could be modulated by green tea consumption and their growth factor environment.

  2. Diabetes as a risk factor to cancer: Functional role of fermented papaya preparation as phytonutraceutical adjunct in the treatment of diabetes and cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Cancer incidence and mortality is linked to hyperglycemia and some anti-diabetes drugs. • FPP is a safe nutraceutical adjunct for augmenting therapeutic regimens in diabetes and cancer management. • FPP through its hypoglycemic and antioxidant sensing may impact and mitigate the side effects of anticancer drugs. • FPP can diminish the intensity of side effects associated with acute radiation therapy. • FPP can maintain the integrity of erythrocyte during cancer chemotherapy augmenting compliance of treatment. - Abstract: Oncologists and diabetologists quote scientific data from epidemiological and in vitro studies to show that high levels of insulin and glucose, in combination with oxidative stress and chronic inflammation, can heighten the risk of developing cancer amongst patients with diabetes. Although the cancers that have been consistently associated with type 2 diabetes include pancreatic, colorectal, breast and liver cancer, the preponderance of the disease risk factors such as obesity, inflammation, hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinaemia (as a result of insulin resistance and oxidative β-cell damage) and the indirect influence of anti-diabetic medications are increasingly being defined. Fermented papaya preparation (FPP) has defined antioxidant and immune-modulating potentials. The ability of FPP influence signaling cascades associated with cell growth and survival presents a rational for chemopreventive adjunct that can be used in combination with traditional redox based therapies that target oxidative stress in the cancer micro environment. It is further suggested that the demonstrated efficacy FPP to control blood glucose, excessive inflammation and modulate free radical-induced oxidative damage which are triggers of liver, bladder, breast and prostate cancers in type 2 diabetics, may favorably mitigate the side effects of ensuing diabetes and cancer therapy. What remains paramount is early cancer detection and early determination of

  3. Diabetes as a risk factor to cancer: Functional role of fermented papaya preparation as phytonutraceutical adjunct in the treatment of diabetes and cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aruoma, Okezie I., E-mail: oaruoma@auhs.edu [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, School of Pharmacy, American University of Health Sciences, Signal Hill, CA (United States); Somanah, Jhoti [ANDI Center for Biomedical and Biomaterials Research, University of Mauritius, MSIRI Building, Réduit (Mauritius); Bourdon, Emmanuel; Rondeau, Philippe [Groupe d’Etude sur l’Inflammation Chronique et l’Obésité (GEICO), Université de La Réunion, Plateforme CYROI, Saint Denis (France); Bahorun, Theeshan, E-mail: tbahorun@uom.ac.mu [ANDI Center for Biomedical and Biomaterials Research, University of Mauritius, MSIRI Building, Réduit (Mauritius)

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • Cancer incidence and mortality is linked to hyperglycemia and some anti-diabetes drugs. • FPP is a safe nutraceutical adjunct for augmenting therapeutic regimens in diabetes and cancer management. • FPP through its hypoglycemic and antioxidant sensing may impact and mitigate the side effects of anticancer drugs. • FPP can diminish the intensity of side effects associated with acute radiation therapy. • FPP can maintain the integrity of erythrocyte during cancer chemotherapy augmenting compliance of treatment. - Abstract: Oncologists and diabetologists quote scientific data from epidemiological and in vitro studies to show that high levels of insulin and glucose, in combination with oxidative stress and chronic inflammation, can heighten the risk of developing cancer amongst patients with diabetes. Although the cancers that have been consistently associated with type 2 diabetes include pancreatic, colorectal, breast and liver cancer, the preponderance of the disease risk factors such as obesity, inflammation, hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinaemia (as a result of insulin resistance and oxidative β-cell damage) and the indirect influence of anti-diabetic medications are increasingly being defined. Fermented papaya preparation (FPP) has defined antioxidant and immune-modulating potentials. The ability of FPP influence signaling cascades associated with cell growth and survival presents a rational for chemopreventive adjunct that can be used in combination with traditional redox based therapies that target oxidative stress in the cancer micro environment. It is further suggested that the demonstrated efficacy FPP to control blood glucose, excessive inflammation and modulate free radical-induced oxidative damage which are triggers of liver, bladder, breast and prostate cancers in type 2 diabetics, may favorably mitigate the side effects of ensuing diabetes and cancer therapy. What remains paramount is early cancer detection and early determination of

  4. Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, soluble TNF receptors and endometrial cancer risk : the EPIC study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dossus, Laure; Becker, Susen; Rinaldi, Sabina; Lukanova, Annekatrin; Tjonneland, Anne; Olsen, Anja; Overvad, Kim; Chabbert-Buffet, Nathalie; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Clavel-Chapelon, Francoise; Teucher, Birgit; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Pischon, Tobias; Boeing, Heiner; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Benetou, Vasiliki; Valanou, Elisavet; Palli, Domenico; Sieri, Sabina; Tumino, Rosario; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Galasso, Rocco; Redondo, Maria-Luisa; Bonet Bonet, Catalina; Molina-Montes, Esther; Altzibar, Jone M.; Chirlaque, Maria-Dolores; Ardanaz, Eva; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. Bas; van Duijnhoven, Franzel J. B.; Peeters, Petra H. M.; Onland-Moret, N. Charlotte; Lundin, Eva; Idahl, Annika; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nicholas; Allen, Naomi; Romieu, Isabelle; Fedirko, Veronika; Hainaut, Pierre; Romaguera, Dora; Norat, Teresa; Riboli, Elio; Kaaks, Rudolf

    2011-01-01

    Chronic inflammation has been hypothesized to play a role in endometrial cancer development. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), one of the major pro-inflammatory cytokines, has also been implicated in endometrial physiology. We conducted a case-control study nested within the European prospect

  5. A prospective investigation of predictive and modifiable risk factors for breast cancer in unaffected BRCA1 and BRCA2 gene carriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breast cancer is the most common female cancer worldwide. The lifetime risk of a woman being diagnosed with breast cancer is approximately 12.5%. For women who carry the deleterious mutation in either of the BRCA genes, BRCA1 or BRCA2, the risk of developing breast or ovarian cancer is significantly increased. In recent years there has been increased penetrance of BRCA1 and BRCA2 associated breast cancer, prompting investigation into the role of modifiable risk factors in this group. Previous investigations into this topic have relied on participants recalling lifetime weight changes and subjective methods of recording physical activity. The influence of obesity-related biomarkers, which may explain the link between obesity, physical activity and breast cancer risk, has not been investigated prospectively in this group. This paper describes the design of a prospective cohort study investigating the role of predictive and modifiable risk factors for breast cancer in unaffected BRCA1 and BRCA2 gene mutation carriers. Participants will be recruited from breast cancer family risk clinics and genetics clinics. Lifestyle risk factors that will be investigated will include body composition, metabolic syndrome and its components, physical activity and dietary intake. PBMC telomere length will be measured as a potential predictor of breast cancer occurrence. Measurements will be completed on entry to the study and repeated at two years and five years. Participants will also be followed annually by questionnaire to track changes in risk factor status and to record cancer occurrence. Data will be analysed using multiple regression models. The study has an accrual target of 352 participants. The results from this study will provide valuable information regarding the role of modifiable lifestyle risk factors for breast cancer in women with a deleterious mutation in the BRCA gene. Additionally, the study will attempt to identify potential blood biomarkers which may be predictive

  6. Interleukin-1 Gene Polymorphisms in Chronic Gastritis Patients Infected with Helicobacter pylori as Risk Factors of Gastric Cancer Development

    OpenAIRE

    Hnatyszyn, Andrzej; Wielgus, Karolina; Kaczmarek-Rys, Marta; Skrzypczak-Zielinska, Marzena; Szalata, Marlena; Mikolajczyk-Stecyna, Joanna; Stanczyk, Jerzy; Dziuba, Ireneusz; Mikstacki, Adam; Slomski, Ryszard

    2013-01-01

    Epidemiological investigations indicated association of the Helicobacter pylori infections with the occurrence of inflammatory conditions of the gastric mucosa and development of chronic gastritis and intestinal type of gastric cancer. IL1A and IL1B genes have been proposed as key factors in determining risk of gastritis and malignant transformation. The aim of this paper was to evaluate association of interleukin-1 gene polymorphisms with chronic gastritis, atrophy, intestinal metaplasia, dy...

  7. Reproductive factors and risk of mortality in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition; a cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Merritt, Melissa A; Riboli, Elio; Murphy, Neil; Kadi, Mai; Tjønneland, Anne; Olsen, Anja; Overvad, Kim; Dossus, Laure; Dartois, Laureen; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Fortner, Renée T.; Katzke, Verena A; Boeing, Heiner; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Lagiou, Pagona

    2015-01-01

    Background: Reproductive events are associated with important physiologic changes, yet little is known about how reproductive factors influence long-term health in women. Our objective was to assess the relation of reproductive characteristics with all-cause and cause-specific mortality risk. Methods: The analysis was performed within the European Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition prospective cohort study, which enrolled >500,000 women and men from 1992 to 2000, who were residing in a g...

  8. Risk factors for breast cancer by oestrogen receptor status: a population-based case-control study.

    OpenAIRE

    Cooper, J A; Rohan, T E; Cant, E. L.; Horsfall, D. J.; Tilley, W D

    1989-01-01

    Data from a population-based case-control study conducted in Adelaide, South Australia, and involving 451 case-control pairs, were analysed to determine whether the associations of menstrual, reproductive, dietary and other factors with risk of breast cancer differed by oestrogen receptor (ER) status. Data on ER status were available for 380 cases. The proportion of tumours which were ER+ increased with age, and there was a higher proportion of ER+ tumours in post-menopausal than in premenopa...

  9. The anthropometric factors in the risk of differentiated cancer of the thyroid in French Polynesia: study of witness-cases in population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A weight, a size and a high body mass index were associated to an increased risk by cancer of the thyroid in this study, confirming the importance of the anthropometric factors in the risk of this cancer in the populations of the Pacific Islands. (N.C.)

  10. No effect of red clover-derived isoflavone intervention on the insulin-like growth factor system in women at increased risk of colorectal cancer.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vrieling, A.; Rookus, M.A.; Kampman, E.; Bonfrer, J.M.G.; Bosma, A.; Cats, A.; Doorn, J. van; Korse, C.M.; Witteman, B.J.M.; Leeuwen, F.E. van; Veer, L.J. van 't; Voskuil, D.W.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Increased insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I and IGF-II concentrations are related to increased colorectal cancer risk. Isoflavones have been associated with reduced colorectal cancer risk, and may affect the IGF system because of their weak estrogenic activity. The aim of the study was

  11. Factores de riesgo asociados al cáncer de la glándula tiroides en mujeres: Risk Factors Associated With Thyroid Cancer Gland in Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Eduardo Bosso

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Contexto: El cáncer como factor de estudio en el escenario mundial, la transición epidemiológica y la incidencia de la enfermedad en países emergentes. Objetivo: hacer un levantamiento bibliográfico sobre los factores de riesgo asociados al cáncer de tiroides en mujeres. Material e Métodos: Fue realizada una búsqueda en el primer semestre del 2011 en la base de datos virtual Embase utilizando tres escritores en ingles thyroid cáncer, risk factors y women. La búsqueda fue reducida para artículos publicados en los años 2010 y 2011 y estudios controlados. Fueron seleccionados trece artículos y fueron incluidos diez. Resultados: Fue posible agrupar los factores de riesgo presentados en los estudios incluidos en tres grupos: factor ambiental (n = 4, fármaco o tratamiento utilizado (n = 3 y, por fin, características de los individuos y sus hábitos cotidianos (n = 3. Conclusión: Mujeres, bajo IMC, edad de inicio del cáncer, obesidad, tiroiditis de Hashimoto y hábito de alimentarse con un consumo excesivo de vegetales crucíferos, son factores de riesgo asociados al cáncer de la glándula tiroidesBackground: The cancer study as a factor in the global scenario, the epidemiological transition and the incidence of disease in developing countries. Objective: To review the literature on risk factors associated with thyroid cancer in women. Methods: We performed a search in the first half of 2011 in virtual database EMBASE using three key-words in English: thyroid cancer, risk factors and women. The search was refined to articles published in the years 2010 and 2011 and controlled studies. We selected thirteen articles and ten were included. Results: Is possible cluster the risk factors presented in included studies into three groups: environmental factors (n=4, drug use or treatment (n = 3 and, finally, characteristics of individuals and their daily habits (n = 3. Conclusion: Women, low BMI, age at onset of cancer, obesity, Hashimoto

  12. Environmental cancer risks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Peter M.

    In a long-awaited report (‘Assessment of Technologies for Determining Cancer Risks From the Environment’), the U.S. Office of Technology Assessment (OTA) has evaluated the role of environmental factors in cancer diseases. Environment is interpreted broadly as encompassing anything that interacts with humans, including the natural environment, food, radiation, the workplace, etc. Geologic factors range from geographic location to radiation and specific minerals. The report, however, is based on an inadequate data base in most instances, and its major recommendations are related to the establishment of a national cancer registry to record cancer statistics, as is done for many other diseases. Presently, hard statistics are lacking in the establishment of some association between the cause-effect relationship of most environmental factors and most carcinogens. Of particular interest, but unfortunately based on unreliable data, are the effects of mineral substances such as ‘asbestos.’ USGS mineralogist Malcolm Ross will review asbestos and its effects on human health in the forthcoming Mineralogical Society of America's Short Course on the Amphiboles (Reviews in Mineralogy, 9, in press, 1981).

  13. Insulin-like growth factors and risk of kidney cancer in men

    OpenAIRE

    Major, J M; Pollak, M N; Snyder, K; Virtamo, J; Albanes, D

    2010-01-01

    Background: Insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) has been shown to increase kidney growth, glomerular filtration rate, and renal function. Methods: In the prospective Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention (ATBC) study of 29 133 Finnish male smokers aged 50–69 years, serum concentrations of IGF were measured in samples collected in 1985–1988. A total of 100 men with kidney cancer diagnosed ⩾5 years after blood collection through 1997 were compared with a subcohort of 400 men; logis...

  14. Interaction between ADH1C Arg272Gln and alcohol intake in relation to breast cancer risk suggests that ethanol is the causal factor in alcohol related breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benzon Larsen, Signe; Vogel, Ulla Birgitte; Christensen, Jane;

    2010-01-01

    Alcohol is a risk factor for breast cancer. We wanted to determine if ADH polymorphisms which modify the rate of ethanol oxidation to acetaldehyde, were associated with breast cancer risk. We matched 809 postmenopausal breast cancer cases with 809 controls, nested within the prospective Diet...

  15. Inclusion of clinical risk factors into NTCP modelling of late rectal toxicity after high dose radiotherapy for prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background and purpose: To fit an NTCP model including clinical risk factors to late rectal toxicities after radiotherapy for prostate cancer. Methods and materials: Data of 669 patients were considered. The probability of late toxicity within 36 months (bleeding and incontinence) was fitted with the original and a modified Logit-EUD model, including clinical factors by fitting a subset specific TD50s: the ratio of TD50s with and without including the clinical variable was the dose-modifying factor (Dmod). Results: Abdominal surgery (surg) was a risk factor for G2-G3 bleeding, reflecting in a TD50 = 82.7 Gy and 88.4 Gy for patients with and without surg (Dmod = 0.94; 0.90 for G3 bleeding); acute toxicity was also an important risk factor for G2-G3 bleeding (Dmod = 0.93). Concerning incontinence, surg and previous diseases of the colon were the clinical co-factors. Dmod(surg) and Dmod(colon) were 0.50 and 0.42, respectively for chronic incontinence and 0.73 and 0.64, respectively for mean incontinence score ≥1. Best-fit n values were 0.03-0.05 and 1 for bleeding and incontinence, respectively. The inclusion of clinical factors always improved the predictive value of the models. Conclusions: The inclusion of predisposing clinical factors improves NTCP estimation; the assessment of other clinical and genetic factors will be useful to reduce parameter uncertainties.

  16. Risk factors for breast cancer: a systematic review of studies with female samples among the general population in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinho Valéria Fernandes de Souza

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available A systematic review of studies was conducted to determine the characteristics of epidemiological research on risk factors for breast cancer in female samples from the general population in Brazil. Of the 23 articles identified, only 14 were selected for review. Most of the studies were from Southeast Brazil. Three were cross-sectional, conducted in specific populations, and 11 used case-control designs. The sample sizes varied from 40 to 164,269 women. Twenty-nine risk factors were researched, and among these, 11 were investigated in four or more studies. Nulliparity was the most frequent factor, found in 12 of the studies. Prevalence of the factors varied widely among the samples, and since the samples were heterogeneous and the studies presented several methodological limitations, a summary mean was not calculated.

  17. Adjuvant chemotherapy is not associated with improved survival for all high-risk factors in stage II colon cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhoeff, S R; van Erning, F N; Lemmens, V E P P; de Wilt, J H W; Pruijt, J F M

    2016-07-01

    Adjuvant chemotherapy can be considered in high-risk stage II colon cancer comprising pT4, poor/undifferentiated grade, vascular invasion, emergency surgery and/or colon cancer who underwent resection and were diagnosed in the Netherlands between 2008 and 2012 were included. After stratification by risk factor(s) (vascular invasion could not be included), Cox regression was used to discriminate the independent association of adjuvant chemotherapy with the probability of death. Relative survival was used to estimate disease-specific survival. A total of 4,940 of 10,935 patients with stage II colon cancer were identified as high risk, of whom 790 (16%) patients received adjuvant chemotherapy. Patients with a pT4 received adjuvant chemotherapy more often (37%). Probability of death in pT4 patients receiving chemotherapy was lower compared to non-recipients (3-year overall survival 91% vs. 73%, HR 0.43, 95% CI 0.28-0.66). The relative excess risk (RER) of dying was also lower for pT4 patients receiving chemotherapy compared to non-recipients (3-year relative survival 94% vs. 85%, RER 0.36, 95% CI 0.17-0.74). For patients with only poor/undifferentiated grade, emergency surgery or colon cancer, adjuvant chemotherapy was associated with higher survival in pT4 only. To prevent unnecessary chemotherapy-induced toxicity, further refinement of patient subgroups within stage II colon cancer who could benefit from adjuvant chemotherapy seems indicated. PMID:26914273

  18. Risk perception and cancer worries in families at increased risk of familial breast/ovarian cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Mellon, Suzanne; Gold, Robin; Janisse, James; Cichon, Michelle; Tainsky, Michael A; Simon, Michael S.; Korczak, Jeannette

    2008-01-01

    While families at increased risk for familial breast/ovarian cancer continue to overestimate their cancer risk with increased cancer worries about the future, few studies have examined factors that affect inherited cancer risk perception and cancer worries in both survivors and unaffected female relatives. The purpose of this study was to examine variables that may affect cancer worries and risk perceptions from a family-based perspective in a racially diverse, community-based, random sample ...

  19. Occupational risk factors for testicular cancer: a registry-based case-control study in Rhineland Palatinate – Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousif, Lamyaa; Hammer, Gaël P.; Emrich, Katharina; Blettner, Maria; Zeeb, Hajo

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: Testicular cancer affects mainly men below the age of 50. An association with occupation and social status has been suggested but risk factors are not well understood. A registry-based case-control study focusing on occupation was performed in Germany. Methods: All 348 testicular cancer cases with available gainful occupational information registered between 2000 and 2005; as well as 564 suitable controls (from a pool of other cancers) were drawn from the Cancer Registry of Rhineland-Palatinate. Unconditional logistic regression was used to compute odds ratios (OR) and associated 95% confidence intervals (CI). Results: Slightly elevated OR were observed for technicians and related professionals (OR 1.62, 95% CI 1.00–2.63) and for clerical support workers (OR 1.71, 95% CI 1.14–2.56). This increase was highest in the age group 20–50 for technicians (OR 2.02, 95% CI 1.23–3.33) and clerks (OR 2.00, 95% CI 1.30–3.09), respectively. An association with testicular cancer was observed for no other occupation. Conclusion: An increased risk of testicular cancer was observed for technicians and related professionals and clerical support workers. This could be related to socioeconomic status or sedentary life style, two factors that were identified in previous studies. While the feasibility of a purely registry-based study was shown, missing occupational data and the choice of cancer controls represent challenges to the validity of this approach. PMID:24265602

  20. Stomach Cancer Risk Questionnaire

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Jewish Hospital and Washington University School of Medicine Stomach cancer is fairly rare in the US, but ... the early stages. To estimate your risk of stomach cancer and learn about ways to lower that ...

  1. Risk Factors for Esophageal Fistula Associated With Chemoradiotherapy for Locally Advanced Unresectable Esophageal Cancer: A Supplementary Analysis of JCOG0303.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsushima, Takahiro; Mizusawa, Junki; Sudo, Kazuki; Honma, Yoshitaka; Kato, Ken; Igaki, Hiroyasu; Tsubosa, Yasuhiro; Shinoda, Masayuki; Nakamura, Kenichi; Fukuda, Haruhiko; Kitagawa, Yuko

    2016-05-01

    Esophageal fistula is a critical adverse event in patients treated with chemoradiotherapy (CRT) for locally advanced esophageal cancer. However, risk factors associated with esophageal fistula formation in patients receiving CRT have not yet been elucidated.We retrospectively analyzed data obtained from 140 patients who were enrolled in a phase II/III trial comparing low-dose cisplatin with standard-dose cisplatin administered in combination with 5-flurouracil and concomitant radiotherapy. Inclusion criteria were performance status (PS) 0 to 2 and histologically proven thoracic esophageal cancer clinically diagnosed as T4 and/or unresectable lymph node metastasis for which definitive CRT was applicable. Risk factors for esophageal fistula were examined with univariate analysis using Fisher exact test and multivariate analysis using logistic regression models.Esophageal fistula was observed in 31 patients (22%). Of these, 6 patients developed fistula during CRT. Median time interval between the date of CRT initiation and that of fistula diagnosis was 100 days (inter quartile range, 45-171). Esophageal stenosis was the only significant risk factor for esophageal fistula formation both in univariate (P = 0.026) and in multivariate analyses (odds ratio, 2.59; 95% confidence interval, 1.13-5.92, P = 0.025). Other clinicopathological factors, namely treatment arm, age, sex, PS, primary tumor location, T stage, lymph node invasion to adjacent organs, blood cell count, albumin level, and body mass index, were not risk factors fistula formation.Esophageal stenosis was a significant risk factor for esophageal fistula formation in patients treated with CRT for unresectable locally advanced thoracic esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. PMID:27196482

  2. Risk factors identified for certain lymphoma subtypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    In a large international collaborative analysis of risk factors for non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL), scientists were able to quantify risk associated with medical history, lifestyle factors, family history of blood or lymph-borne cancers, and occupation for 11

  3. Evidence of Gene–Environment Interactions between Common Breast Cancer Susceptibility Loci and Established Environmental Risk Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickels, Stefan; Truong, Thérèse; Hein, Rebecca; Stevens, Kristen; Buck, Katharina; Behrens, Sabine; Eilber, Ursula; Schmidt, Martina; Häberle, Lothar; Vrieling, Alina; Gaudet, Mia; Figueroa, Jonine; Schoof, Nils; Spurdle, Amanda B.; Rudolph, Anja; Fasching, Peter A.; Hopper, John L.; Makalic, Enes; Schmidt, Daniel F.; Southey, Melissa C.; Beckmann, Matthias W.; Ekici, Arif B.; Fletcher, Olivia; Gibson, Lorna; dos Santos Silva, Isabel; Peto, Julian; Humphreys, Manjeet K.; Wang, Jean; Cordina-Duverger, Emilie; Menegaux, Florence; Nordestgaard, Børge G.; Bojesen, Stig E.; Lanng, Charlotte; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Ziogas, Argyrios; Bernstein, Leslie; Clarke, Christina A.; Brenner, Hermann; Müller, Heiko; Arndt, Volker; Stegmaier, Christa; Brauch, Hiltrud; Brüning, Thomas; Harth, Volker; The GENICA Network; Mannermaa, Arto; Kataja, Vesa; Kosma, Veli-Matti; Hartikainen, Jaana M.; kConFab; Group, AOCS Management; Lambrechts, Diether; Smeets, Dominiek; Neven, Patrick; Paridaens, Robert; Flesch-Janys, Dieter; Obi, Nadia; Wang-Gohrke, Shan; Couch, Fergus J.; Olson, Janet E.; Vachon, Celine M.; Giles, Graham G.; Severi, Gianluca; Baglietto, Laura; Offit, Kenneth; John, Esther M.; Miron, Alexander; Andrulis, Irene L.; Knight, Julia A.; Glendon, Gord; Mulligan, Anna Marie; Chanock, Stephen J.; Lissowska, Jolanta; Liu, Jianjun; Cox, Angela; Cramp, Helen; Connley, Dan; Balasubramanian, Sabapathy; Dunning, Alison M.; Shah, Mitul; Trentham-Dietz, Amy; Newcomb, Polly; Titus, Linda; Egan, Kathleen; Cahoon, Elizabeth K.; Rajaraman, Preetha; Sigurdson, Alice J.; Doody, Michele M.; Guénel, Pascal; Pharoah, Paul D. P.; Schmidt, Marjanka K.; Hall, Per; Easton, Doug F.; Garcia-Closas, Montserrat; Milne, Roger L.; Chang-Claude, Jenny

    2013-01-01

    Various common genetic susceptibility loci have been identified for breast cancer; however, it is unclear how they combine with lifestyle/environmental risk factors to influence risk. We undertook an international collaborative study to assess gene-environment interaction for risk of breast cancer. Data from 24 studies of the Breast Cancer Association Consortium were pooled. Using up to 34,793 invasive breast cancers and 41,099 controls, we examined whether the relative risks associated with 23 single nucleotide polymorphisms were modified by 10 established environmental risk factors (age at menarche, parity, breastfeeding, body mass index, height, oral contraceptive use, menopausal hormone therapy use, alcohol consumption, cigarette smoking, physical activity) in women of European ancestry. We used logistic regression models stratified by study and adjusted for age and performed likelihood ratio tests to assess gene–environment interactions. All statistical tests were two-sided. We replicated previously reported potential interactions between LSP1-rs3817198 and parity (Pinteraction = 2.4×10−6) and between CASP8-rs17468277 and alcohol consumption (Pinteraction = 3.1×10−4). Overall, the per-allele odds ratio (95% confidence interval) for LSP1-rs3817198 was 1.08 (1.01–1.16) in nulliparous women and ranged from 1.03 (0.96–1.10) in parous women with one birth to 1.26 (1.16–1.37) in women with at least four births. For CASP8-rs17468277, the per-allele OR was 0.91 (0.85–0.98) in those with an alcohol intake of <20 g/day and 1.45 (1.14–1.85) in those who drank ≥20 g/day. Additionally, interaction was found between 1p11.2-rs11249433 and ever being parous (Pinteraction = 5.3×10−5), with a per-allele OR of 1.14 (1.11–1.17) in parous women and 0.98 (0.92–1.05) in nulliparous women. These data provide first strong evidence that the risk of breast cancer associated with some common genetic variants may vary with environmental risk factors

  4. Evidence of gene-environment interactions between common breast cancer susceptibility loci and established environmental risk factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Nickels

    Full Text Available Various common genetic susceptibility loci have been identified for breast cancer; however, it is unclear how they combine with lifestyle/environmental risk factors to influence risk. We undertook an international collaborative study to assess gene-environment interaction for risk of breast cancer. Data from 24 studies of the Breast Cancer Association Consortium were pooled. Using up to 34,793 invasive breast cancers and 41,099 controls, we examined whether the relative risks associated with 23 single nucleotide polymorphisms were modified by 10 established environmental risk factors (age at menarche, parity, breastfeeding, body mass index, height, oral contraceptive use, menopausal hormone therapy use, alcohol consumption, cigarette smoking, physical activity in women of European ancestry. We used logistic regression models stratified by study and adjusted for age and performed likelihood ratio tests to assess gene-environment interactions. All statistical tests were two-sided. We replicated previously reported potential interactions between LSP1-rs3817198 and parity (Pinteraction = 2.4 × 10(-6 and between CASP8-rs17468277 and alcohol consumption (Pinteraction = 3.1 × 10(-4. Overall, the per-allele odds ratio (95% confidence interval for LSP1-rs3817198 was 1.08 (1.01-1.16 in nulliparous women and ranged from 1.03 (0.96-1.10 in parous women with one birth to 1.26 (1.16-1.37 in women with at least four births. For CASP8-rs17468277, the per-allele OR was 0.91 (0.85-0.98 in those with an alcohol intake of <20 g/day and 1.45 (1.14-1.85 in those who drank ≥ 20 g/day. Additionally, interaction was found between 1p11.2-rs11249433 and ever being parous (Pinteraction = 5.3 × 10(-5, with a per-allele OR of 1.14 (1.11-1.17 in parous women and 0.98 (0.92-1.05 in nulliparous women. These data provide first strong evidence that the risk of breast cancer associated with some common genetic variants may vary with environmental risk factors.

  5. PCOS and cancer risk.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadeusz Issat

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS affects approximately 5 to 10% of women of reproductive age. It is the most common reason of anovulation in infertile women. PCOS is accompanied by such conditions as oligo- or anovulation, hipertestosteronism, lower cell sensitivity to insulin, type II diabetes, hyperlipidemia and obesity. Each of the above-mentioned conditions is an approved risk factor proved to predispose towards cancer. However, PCOS is also a disease entity which differs in its clinical manifestation. For example not all patients suffer from obesity or hipertestosteronism related symptoms. From the analysis of literature it is possible to draw conclusions, that there is a possible correlation between PCOS and endometrial cancer, which emerges from clinical trials or research focused on molecular changes in endometrium patients with PCOS. On the other hand, correlation between PCOS and breast or ovary cancer is not so strong, in spite of single papers which are showing the link. The main problem in researching the correlation between PCOS and any cancer risk, is there is a very small group of women or the trial is imperfect (e.g. no control group. There is no meta-analysis focused on this correlation in literature. The change of criteria of PCOS in the past is also a big problem, because there was a number of definitions of PCOS, which results in inconsistent PCOS diagnoses over time. In this paper we would like to provide a description of studies that aimed at showing correlation between PCOS and cancer risk and underlying theoretical assumptions.

  6. Factors contributing to risk for cancer among HIV-infected individuals, and evidence that earlier combination antiretroviral therapy will alter this risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borges, Alvaro Humberto Diniz; Dubrow, Robert; Silverberg, Michael J

    2014-01-01

    contribute. By reducing HIV replication, improving immune function, and limiting chronic inflammation, cART initiation at higher CD4 cell counts may, therefore, reduce NADM risk. However, cART only partly normalizes enhanced inflammation and coagulation seen during HIV infection and conflicting laboratory......PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To critically appraise recent published literature about factors associated with cancer risk likely to be influenced by combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) in HIV-infected individuals, and the potential of earlier cART initiation to reduce this risk. RECENT FINDINGS......: Factors leading to increased risk of non-AIDS-defining malignancies (NADMs) in particular remain poorly understood. Immunodeficiency appears to be key, whereas evidence is emerging that a direct pro-oncogenic effect of HIV, activated inflammatory and coagulation pathways, and cART toxicity may also...

  7. Risk factors for emergency presentation with lung and colorectal cancers: a systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Mitchell, Elizabeth D; Pickwell-Smith, Benjamin; Macleod, Una

    2015-01-01

    Objective To identify patient and practitioner factors that influence cancer diagnosis via emergency presentation (EP). Design Systematic review. Data sources MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, EBM Reviews, Science and Social Sciences Citation Indexes, Conference Proceedings Citation Index-Science and Conference Proceedings Citation Index-Social Science and Humanities. Searches were undertaken from 1996 to 2014. No language restrictions were applied. Study selection Studies of any design assessing fact...

  8. Behavioural and metabolic risk factors for mortality from colon and rectum cancer: analysis of data from the Asia-Pacific Cohort Studies Collaboration.

    OpenAIRE

    Morrison, D S; Parr, C.L.; Lam, T. H.; Ueshima, H; Kim, H. C.; Jee, S.H.; Murakami, Y.; Giles, G; Fang, X.; Barzi, F; Batty, G D; Huxley, R. R.; Woodward, M.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Colorectal cancer has several modifiable behavioural risk factors but their relationship to the risk of colon and rectum cancer separately and between countries with high and low incidence is not clear. METHODS: Data from participants in the Asia Pacific Cohort Studies Collaboration (APCSC) were used to estimate mortality from colon (International Classification of Diseases, revision 9 (ICD-9) 153, ICD-10 C18) and rectum (ICD-9 154, ICD-10 C19-20) cancers. Data on age, body mass i...

  9. Risk factors associated with fatal pulmonary hemorrhage in locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer treated with chemoradiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study was to identify the risk factors associated with fatal pulmonary hemorrhage (PH) in patients with locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), treated with chemoradiotherapy. The medical records of 583 patients with locally advanced NSCLC, who were treated with chemoradiotherapy between July 1992 and December 2009 were reviewed. Fatal PH was defined as PH leading to death within 24 h of its onset. Tumor cavitation size was defined by the cavitation diameter/tumor diameter ratio and was classified as minimum (< 0.25), minor (≥ 0.25, but < 0.5), and major (≥ 0.5). Of the 583 patients, 2.1% suffered a fatal PH. The numbers of patients with minimum, minor, and major cavitations were 13, 11, and 14, respectively. Among the 38 patients with tumor cavitation, all 3 patients who developed fatal PH had major cavitations. On multivariate analysis, the presence of baseline major cavitation (odds ratio, 17.878), and a squamous cell histology (odds ratio, 5.491) proved to be independent significant risk factors for fatal PH. Interestingly, all patients with fatal PH and baseline major cavitation were found to have tumors with squamous cell histology, and the occurrence of fatal PH in patients having both risk factors was 33.3%. Patients at high risk of fatal PH could be identified using a combination of independent risk factors

  10. Obesity and colorectal cancer risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obesity is a chronic and multifactor disease characterized by presence of excess body fat harmful for health. Several studies have been conducted to assess the possible risk character of different factors for colorectal cancer including the following modifying factors: a diet rich in saturated fats, a diet low in vegetables, physical inactivity, alcohol consumption and obesity. A case-control study was conducted to include 276 adult patients (93 cases and 184 controls) consecutively seen from May, 2008 to May, 2009 in the Institute of Gastroenterology determining a possible association between obesity as risk factor and colorectal cancer. Variables measures included: sex, age, skin color, body mass index, hip-waist circumference and endoscopic location of cancer. We conclude that the colorectal cancer with predominance in female sex and in white people in both groups. Obesity according to a great relation hip-waist had an strong relation with colorectal cancer, which had predominance towards distal colon in both sexes

  11. Study on the risk factors of lymphatic metastasis and the indications of less invasive operations in early gastric cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bo Jian Jiang; Rong Xun Sun; Hao Lin; You Fu Gao

    2000-01-01

    The principle of surgical treatment for gastric cancer is the radical resectioning although the suitable resecting range for different cases of gastric cancer is still being argued upon[1-9]. However, the diagnostic accuracy of early gastric cancer (EGC) without lymphatic metastasis has obviously improved with an improvement in the diagnostic technique and due to the accumulation of knowledge on the biological profiles of EG C[10-17]. The D2 lymph node excision was used as a regular operation to treat the EGC previously. But the concept for the EGC without lymphatic metastasis has gradually changed and the less invasive resections has been applied in some cases[18-20]. This study aimed at investigating the risk factors of lymphatic metastasis in EGC in order to find out the proofs for the suitable indications for less invasive operations such as endoscopic mucosal resectioning (EMR), laparoscopic and laparotomic resectioning.

  12. Diabetes, insulin and cancer risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xi-Lin Yang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a consensus that both type 1 and type 2 diabetes are associated with a spectrum of cancers but the underlying mechanisms are largely unknown. On the other hand, there are ongoing debates about the risk association of insulin use with cancer. We have briefly reviewed recent related research on exploration of risk factors for cancer and pharmacoepidemiological investigations into drug use in diabetes on the risk of cancer, as well as the current understanding of metabolic pathways implicated in intermediary metabolism and cellular growth. Based on the novel findings from the Hong Kong Diabetes Registry and consistent experimental evidence, we argue that use of insulin to control hyperglycemia is unlikely to contribute to increased cancer risk and that dysregulations in the AMP-activated protein kinase pathway due to reduced insulin action and insulin resistance, the insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1-cholesterol synthesis pathway and renin-angiotensin system, presumably due to reduced insulin secretion and hyperglycemia, may play causal roles in the increased risk of cancer in diabetes. Further exploration into the possible causal relationships between abnormalities of these pathways and the risk of cancer in diabetes is warranted.

  13. Occupational risk factors for bladder cancer: results from a case-control study in Montreal, Quebec, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siemiatycki, J; Dewar, R; Nadon, L; Gérin, M

    1994-12-15

    A population-based case-control study of the associations between various cancers and occupational exposures was carried out in Montreal, Quebec, Canada. Between 1979 and 1986, 484 persons with pathologically confirmed cases of bladder cancer and 1,879 controls with cancers at other sites were interviewed, as was a series of 533 population controls. The job histories of these subjects were evaluated by a team of chemist/hygienists for evidence of exposure to a list of 294 workplace chemicals, and information on relevant non-occupational confounders was obtained. On the basis of results of preliminary analyses and literature review, 19 occupations, 11 industries, and 23 substances were selected for in-depth multivariate analysis. Logistic regression analyses were carried out to estimate the odds ratio between each of these occupational circumstances and bladder cancer. There was weak evidence that the following substances may be risk factors for bladder cancer: natural gas combustion products, aromatic amines, cadmium compounds, photographic products, acrylic fibers, polyethylene, titanium dioxide, and chlorine. Among the substances evaluated which showed no evidence of an association were benzo(a)pyrene, leather dust, and formaldehyde. Several occupations and industries were associated with bladder cancer, including motor vehicle drivers and textile dyers. PMID:7998589

  14. N-Acetyltransferase 1 (NAT1) Genotype: A Risk Factor for Urinary Bladder Cancer in a Lebanese Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yassine, Ibrahim A.; Kobeissi, Loulou; Jabbour, Michel E.; Dhaini, Hassan R.

    2012-01-01

    In Lebanon, bladder cancer is the second most incident cancer among men. This study investigates a possible association between N-acetyltransferase 1 (NAT1) genotype, a drug-metabolizing enzyme coding gene, and bladder cancer in Lebanese men. A case-control study (54 cases and 105 hospital-based controls) was conducted in two major hospitals in Beirut. Cases were randomly selected from patients diagnosed in the period of 2002–2008. Controls were conveniently identified and selected from the same settings. Data was collected using interview questionnaire and blood analysis. NAT1 genotypes were determined by PCR-RFLP. Statistical analysis revolved around univariate, bivariate, and multivariate logistic regression models, along with checks for effect modification. Results showed NAT1∗14A allele, smoking, occupational exposure to combustion fumes, and prostate-related symptoms, to be risk factors for bladder cancer. The odds of carrying at least one NAT1∗14A allele are 7 times higher in cases compared to controls (OR = 7.86, 95% CI: 1.53–40.39). A gene-environment interaction was identified for NAT1∗14A allele with occupational exposure to combustion fumes. Among carriers of NAT1∗14A allele, the odds of bladder cancer dropped to 2.03 from 3.72. Our study suggests NAT1∗14A allele as a possible biomarker for bladder cancer. Further research is recommended to confirm this association. PMID:22956951

  15. N-Acetyltransferase 1 (NAT1 Genotype: A Risk Factor for Urinary Bladder Cancer in a Lebanese Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim A. Yassine

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In Lebanon, bladder cancer is the second most incident cancer among men. This study investigates a possible association between N-acetyltransferase 1 (NAT1 genotype, a drug-metabolizing enzyme coding gene, and bladder cancer in Lebanese men. A case-control study (54 cases and 105 hospital-based controls was conducted in two major hospitals in Beirut. Cases were randomly selected from patients diagnosed in the period of 2002–2008. Controls were conveniently identified and selected from the same settings. Data was collected using interview questionnaire and blood analysis. NAT1 genotypes were determined by PCR-RFLP. Statistical analysis revolved around univariate, bivariate, and multivariate logistic regression models, along with checks for effect modification. Results showed NAT1∗14A allele, smoking, occupational exposure to combustion fumes, and prostate-related symptoms, to be risk factors for bladder cancer. The odds of carrying at least one NAT1∗14A allele are 7 times higher in cases compared to controls (OR=7.86, 95% CI: 1.53–40.39. A gene-environment interaction was identified for NAT1∗14A allele with occupational exposure to combustion fumes. Among carriers of NAT1∗14A allele, the odds of bladder cancer dropped to 2.03 from 3.72. Our study suggests NAT1∗14A allele as a possible biomarker for bladder cancer. Further research is recommended to confirm this association.

  16. IQ in late adolescence/early adulthood, risk factors in middle age, and later cancer mortality in men: the Vietnam Experience Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Batty, G David; Mortensen, Laust Hvas; Gale, Catharine R;

    2009-01-01

    (i) examine the relation, if any, of pre-morbid IQ scores at 20 years of age with the risk of later cancer mortality; and (ii) explore the role, if any, of potential mediating factors (e.g. smoking, obesity), assessed in middle age, in explaining the IQ-cancer relation.......(i) examine the relation, if any, of pre-morbid IQ scores at 20 years of age with the risk of later cancer mortality; and (ii) explore the role, if any, of potential mediating factors (e.g. smoking, obesity), assessed in middle age, in explaining the IQ-cancer relation....

  17. Occupational and Environmental Risk Factors of Adult Primary Brain Cancers: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Guzman

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of brain neoplasm has been progressively increasing in recent years in the industrialized countries. One of the reasons for this increased incidence could be better access to health care and improved diagnosis in the industrialized countries. It also appears that Caucasians have a higher incidence than blacks or Hispanics or Asians. A number of risk factors have been identified and described including the genetic, ethnic and age-based factors. Certain occupational and environmental factors are also believed to influence the risk of primary adult brain tumors. Potential occupational and environmental factors include exposure to diagnostic and therapeutic radiations, electromagnetic radiation from cellular phones and other wireless devices, infectious agents, air pollution and residence near landfills and highvoltage power lines and jobs as firefighters, farmers, physician, chemists and jobs in industries such as petrochemical, power generation, synthetic rubber manufacturing, agricultural chemicals manufacturing. The purpose of this systematic review is to examine occupational and environmental risk factors of brain neoplasm. A range of occupational and environmental exposures are evaluated for significance of their relationship with adult primary brain tumors. On the basis of this review we suggest a concurrent evaluation of multiple risk factors both within and beyond occupational and environmental domains. The concurrent approach needs to consider better exposure assessment techniques, lifetime occupational exposures, genotypic and phenotypic characteristics and lifestyle and dietary habits. This approach needs to be interdisciplinary with contributions from neurologists, oncologists, epidemiologists and molecular biologists. Conclusive evidence that has eluded multitude of studies with single focus and single exposure needs to multifaceted and multidisciplinary.

  18. Does Diet Affect Breast Cancer Risk?

    OpenAIRE

    Holmes, Michelle D; Willett, Walter C.

    2004-01-01

    The role of specific dietary factors in breast cancer causation is not completely resolved. Results from prospective studies do not support the concept that fat intake in middle life has a major relation to breast cancer risk. However, weight gain in middle life contributes substantially to breast cancer risk. Alcohol is the best established dietary risk factor, probably by increasing endogenous estrogen levels. Hypotheses relating diet during youth to risk decades later will be difficult to ...

  19. A Study on Risk Factors of Breast Cancer Among Patients Attending the Tertiary Care Hospital, in Udupi District

    OpenAIRE

    Ramchandra Kamath; Mahajan, Kamaleshwar S; Lena Ashok; Sanal, T S

    2013-01-01

    Background: Cancer has become one of the ten leading causes of death in India. Breast cancer is the most common diagnosed malignancy in India, it ranks second to cervical cancer. An increasing trend in incidence is reported from various registries of national cancer registry project and now India is a country with largest estimated number of breast cancer deaths worldwide. Aim: To study the factors associated with breast cancer. Objectives: To study the association between breast cancer and s...

  20. Occupation as a risk factor for renal cell cancer: a nationwide, prospective epidemiological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariusdottir, Elin; Ingimarsson, Johann P; Jonsson, Eirikur; Einarsson, Gudmundur V; Aspelund, Thor; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Gudbjartsson, Tomas

    2016-06-01

    Objective Using centralized registries in Iceland, the aim of this study was to prospectively investigate multiple risk factors for renal cell carcinoma (RCC), including occupational history. Materials and methods From the Reykjavik study database, 18,840 men and women born in the period 1907-1935 were linked with a population-based registry containing all RCCs diagnosed in Iceland from 1971 to 2005 (n = 910). From this cross-reference, altogether 225 cases were identified. A prospective analysis of the risk factors for RCC was performed using Cox regression analysis, from the time of entry into the Reykjavik study to the diagnosis of RCC, death or end of follow-up, with a median follow-up time of 25 years. The hazard ratio (HR) was then calculated for multiple risk factors including occupational history. Results Male gender [HR 1.65, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.14-2.38], body mass index (BMI) over 25 kg/m² (HR 1.41, 95% CI 1.06-1.88) and age (HR 1.04, 95% CI 1.03-1.07) increased the risk of RCC, as did severe hypertension (>160/100 mmHg) (HR 1.46, 95% CI 1.05-2.03) and history of kidney disease (HR 1.55, 95% CI 1.11-2.16); however, smoking and type 2 diabetes were not significantly associated with the disease. The risk of RCC was significantly increased in painters (HR 2.97, 95% CI 1.31-6.74), aircraft mechanics (HR 4.51, 95% CI 1.11-18.28) and shipbuilders (HR 2.03, 95% CI 1.06-3.84). Conclusions Together with male gender, advanced age, hypertension, BMI over 25 kg/m² and history of kidney disease, the risk of RCC was significantly increased in painters, aircraft mechanics and shipbuilders, suggesting a link to occupational exposure. PMID:26999634

  1. Endometriosis as a risk factor for ovarian or endometrial cancer — results of a hospital-based case–control study

    OpenAIRE

    Burghaus, Stefanie; Häberle, Lothar; Schrauder, Michael G.; Heusinger, Katharina; Thiel, Falk C; Hein, Alexander; Wachter, David; Strehl, Johanna; Hartmann, Arndt; Ekici, Arif B; Renner, Stefan P.; Beckmann, Matthias W; Fasching, Peter A.

    2015-01-01

    Background No screening programs are available for ovarian or endometrial cancer. One reason for this is the low incidence of the conditions, resulting in low positive predictive values for tests, which are not very specific. One way of addressing this problem might be to use risk factors to define subpopulations with a higher incidence. The aim of this study was to investigate the extent to which a medical history of endometriosis can serve as a risk factor for ovarian or endometrial cancer....

  2. CanPrevent: a telephone-delivered intervention to reduce multiple behavioural risk factors for colorectal cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hawkes Anna L

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This pilot study aimed to test the acceptability and short-term effectiveness of a telephone-delivered multiple health behaviour change intervention for relatives of colorectal cancer survivors. Methods A community-based sample of 22 first-degree relatives of colorectal cancer survivors were recruited via a media release. Data were collected at baseline and at six weeks (post-intervention. Outcome measures included health behaviours (physical activity, television viewing, diet, alcohol, body mass index, waist circumference and smoking, health-related quality of life (Short Form-36 and perceived colorectal cancer risk. Intervention satisfaction levels were also measured. The intervention included six telephone health coaching sessions, a participant handbook and a pedometer. It focused on behavioural risk factors for colorectal cancer [physical activity, diet (red and processed meat consumption, fruit and vegetable intake, alcohol, weight management and smoking], and colorectal cancer risk. Results From baseline to six weeks, improvements were observed for minutes moderate-vigorous physical activity (150.7 minutes, processed meat intake (−1.2 serves/week, vegetable intake (1 serve/day, alcohol intake (−0.4 standard drinks/day, body mass index (−1.4 kg/m2, and waist circumference (−5.1 cm. Improvements were also observed for physical (3.3 and mental (4.4 health-related quality of life. Further, compared with baseline, participants were more likely to meet Australian recommendations post-intervention for: moderate-vigorous physical activity (27.3 vs 59.1%; fruit intake (68.2 vs 81.8%; vegetable intake (4.6 vs 18.2%; alcohol consumption (59.1 vs 72.7%; body mass index (31.8 vs 45.5% and waist circumference (18.2 vs 27.3%. At six weeks participants were more likely to believe a diagnosis of CRC was related to family history, and there was a decrease in their perceived risk of developing CRC in their lifetime following

  3. Focal adhesion kinase: predictor of tumour response and risk factor for recurrence after neoadjuvant chemoradiation in rectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez Del Pulgar, Teresa; Cebrián, Arancha; Fernández-Aceñero, Maria Jesús; Borrero-Palacios, Aurea; Del Puerto-Nevado, Laura; Martínez-Useros, Javier; Marín-Arango, Juan Pablo; Caramés, Cristina; Vega-Bravo, Ricardo; Rodríguez-Remírez, María; Cruz-Ramos, Marlid; Manzarbeitia, Félix; García-Foncillas, Jesús

    2016-09-01

    Rectal cancer represents about 30% of colorectal cancers, being around 50% locally advanced at presentation. Chemoradiation (CRT) followed by total mesorectal excision is the standard of care for these locally advanced stages. However, it is not free of adverse effects and toxicity and the complete pathologic response rate is between 10% and 30%. This makes it extremely important to define factors that can predict response to this therapy. Focal adhesion kinase (FAK) expression has been correlated with worse prognosis in several tumours and its possible involvement in cancer radio- and chemosensitivity has been suggested; however, its role in rectal cancer has not been analysed yet. To analyse the association of FAK expression with tumour response to CRT in locally advanced rectal cancer. This study includes 73 patients with locally advanced rectal cancer receiving standard neoadjuvant CRT followed by total mesorectal excision. Focal adhesion kinase protein levels were immunohistochemically analysed in the pre-treatment biopsies of these patients and correlated with tumour response to CRT and patients survival. Low FAK expression was significantly correlated with local and distant recurrence (P = 0.013). Low FAK expression was found to be a predictive marker of tumour response to neoadjuvant therapy (P = 0.007) and patients whose tumours did not express FAK showed a strong association with lower disease-free survival (P = 0.01). Focal adhesion kinase expression predicts neoadjuvant CRT response in rectal cancer patients and it is a clinically relevant risk factor for local and distant recurrence. PMID:27171907

  4. Assessment of breast cancer risk factors in asymptomatic hospital staff women aged 32-59: a descriptive report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: Iranian breast cancer patients are relatively younger than their Western counterparts. The objective of the present study was to investigate risk factors for breast cancer in Iranian women and compare it with other data driven from other studies. Methods: A study was conducted in April 2008 in Tehran, Iran. Demographical data and risk factor related information, including data from their mammograms were collected using a questionnaire. Results: In all, 109 participants were interviewed. The mean age of participants was 40.48 +- 0.56 years. 1.8% of women were unmarried, while 78% were married and 20.2% were divorced/widowed. The mean age for menarche was 13.34 +-1.47 years and 46.89+-4.98 for the menopause, respectively. The mean parity time was 2.36+-1.13 and breast feeding in women was 23.27+-14.16 months. About 5.5% of the participants used oral contraceptive as a method for contraception. 8.3% of women experienced menopause, at the mean age of 46.89+-4.98. 33.3% of Mendip's women, used Hormone Replace Therapy (HRT).Moreover, 8.3% of women had a positive history of breast cancer in their family. Of those women on whom mammography was done, 10.1% had breast mass in radiological findings, mostly in favour of fibrocystic change. In 20.2% of participants, further investigation was advised. Conclusion: The findings of the present study were in accordance with other studies done in Iran and in some aspects in tune with other studies about breast cancer in other countries. However, more multi centric larger scale studies should be conducted in Iran to determine a pattern for breast cancer in Iranian women. (author)

  5. Height and Breast Cancer Risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Ben; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Delahanty, Ryan J;

    2015-01-01

    comparisons, including three loci at 1q21.2, DNAJC27, and CCDC91 at genome-wide significance level P < 5×10(-8). CONCLUSIONS: Our study provides strong evidence that adult height is a risk factor for breast cancer in women and certain genetic factors and biological pathways affecting adult height have an...

  6. ORAL CONTRACEPTIVES AS A RISK FACTOR FOR DEVELOPING BREAST CANCER IN BREAST CANCER (BRCA) GENE CARRIER FEMALE IN- THE 30-60 YEARS AGE GROUP: A META-ANALYSIS

    OpenAIRE

    Ghimire S, Shrestha N, BK Baral

    2015-01-01

    The literature linking breast cancer with oral contraceptives and BRCA mutation as possible risk factors is equivocal. Hence, to account for these conflicting results in the existing literature and to observe the net effect, this meta-analysis aims to investigate whether oral contraceptives are a risk factor for developing breast cancer in breast cancer (BRCA) gene carrier female in the 30-60 years age group. Method: Systematic review of the literature, both published and unpublished, and met...

  7. Heart disease - risk factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000106.htm Heart disease - risk factors To use the sharing features on ... a certain health condition. Some risk factors for heart disease you cannot change, but some you can. Changing ...

  8. The Influence of Hormonal Factors on the Risk of Developing Cervical Cancer and Pre-Cancer: Results from the EPIC Cohort.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther Roura

    Full Text Available In addition to HPV, high parity and hormonal contraceptives have been associated with cervical cancer (CC. However, most of the evidence comes from retrospective case-control studies. The aim of this study is to prospectively evaluate associations between hormonal factors and risk of developing cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 3 (CIN3/carcinoma in situ (CIS and invasive cervical cancer (ICC.We followed a cohort of 308,036 women recruited in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC Study. At enrollment, participants completed a questionnaire and provided serum. After a 9-year median follow-up, 261 ICC and 804 CIN3/CIS cases were reported. In a nested case-control study, the sera from 609 cases and 1,218 matched controls were tested for L1 antibodies against HPV types 11,16,18,31,33,35,45,52,58, and antibodies against Chlamydia trachomatis and Human herpesvirus 2. Multivariate analyses were performed to estimate hazard ratios (HR, odds ratios (OR and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI. The cohort analysis showed that number of full-term pregnancies was positively associated with CIN3/CIS risk (p-trend = 0.03. Duration of oral contraceptives use was associated with a significantly increased risk of both CIN3/CIS and ICC (HR = 1.6 and HR = 1.8 respectively for ≥ 15 years versus never use. Ever use of menopausal hormone therapy was associated with a reduced risk of ICC (HR = 0.5, 95%CI: 0.4-0.8. A non-significant reduced risk of ICC with ever use of intrauterine devices (IUD was found in the nested case-control analysis (OR = 0.6. Analyses restricted to all cases and HPV seropositive controls yielded similar results, revealing a significant inverse association with IUD for combined CIN3/CIS and ICC (OR = 0.7.Even though HPV is the necessary cause of CC, our results suggest that several hormonal factors are risk factors for cervical carcinogenesis. Adherence to current cervical cancer screening

  9. The Influence of Hormonal Factors on the Risk of Developing Cervical Cancer and Pre-Cancer: Results from the EPIC Cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roura, Esther; Travier, Noémie; Waterboer, Tim; de Sanjosé, Silvia; Bosch, F. Xavier; Pawlita, Michael; Pala, Valeria; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Margall, Núria; Dillner, Joakim; Gram, Inger T.; Tjønneland, Anne; Munk, Christian; Palli, Domenico; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Overvad, Kim; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Mesrine, Sylvie; Fournier, Agnès; Fortner, Renée T.; Ose, Jennifer; Steffen, Annika; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Lagiou, Pagona; Orfanos, Philippos; Masala, Giovanna; Tumino, Rosario; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Polidoro, Silvia; Mattiello, Amalia; Lund, Eiliv; Peeters, Petra H.; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. B(as).; Quirós, J. Ramón; Sánchez, María-José; Navarro, Carmen; Barricarte, Aurelio; Larrañaga, Nerea; Ekström, Johanna; Lindquist, David; Idahl, Annika; Travis, Ruth C.; Merritt, Melissa A.; Gunter, Marc J.; Rinaldi, Sabina; Tommasino, Massimo; Franceschi, Silvia; Riboli, Elio; Castellsagué, Xavier

    2016-01-01

    Background In addition to HPV, high parity and hormonal contraceptives have been associated with cervical cancer (CC). However, most of the evidence comes from retrospective case-control studies. The aim of this study is to prospectively evaluate associations between hormonal factors and risk of developing cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 3 (CIN3)/carcinoma in situ (CIS) and invasive cervical cancer (ICC). Methods and Findings We followed a cohort of 308,036 women recruited in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) Study. At enrollment, participants completed a questionnaire and provided serum. After a 9-year median follow-up, 261 ICC and 804 CIN3/CIS cases were reported. In a nested case-control study, the sera from 609 cases and 1,218 matched controls were tested for L1 antibodies against HPV types 11,16,18,31,33,35,45,52,58, and antibodies against Chlamydia trachomatis and Human herpesvirus 2. Multivariate analyses were performed to estimate hazard ratios (HR), odds ratios (OR) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI). The cohort analysis showed that number of full-term pregnancies was positively associated with CIN3/CIS risk (p-trend = 0.03). Duration of oral contraceptives use was associated with a significantly increased risk of both CIN3/CIS and ICC (HR = 1.6 and HR = 1.8 respectively for ≥15 years versus never use). Ever use of menopausal hormone therapy was associated with a reduced risk of ICC (HR = 0.5, 95%CI: 0.4–0.8). A non-significant reduced risk of ICC with ever use of intrauterine devices (IUD) was found in the nested case-control analysis (OR = 0.6). Analyses restricted to all cases and HPV seropositive controls yielded similar results, revealing a significant inverse association with IUD for combined CIN3/CIS and ICC (OR = 0.7). Conclusions Even though HPV is the necessary cause of CC, our results suggest that several hormonal factors are risk factors for cervical carcinogenesis. Adherence to

  10. Rib fracture after stereotactic radiotherapy for primary lung cancer: prevalence, degree of clinical symptoms, and risk factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) is a highly dose-dense radiotherapy, adverse events of neighboring normal tissues are a major concern. This study thus aimed to clarify the frequency and degree of clinical symptoms in patients with rib fractures after SBRT for primary lung cancer and to reveal risk factors for rib fracture. Appropriate α/β ratios for discriminating between fracture and non-fracture groups were also investigated. Between November 2001 and April 2009, 177 patients who had undergone SBRT were evaluated for clinical symptoms and underwent follow-up thin-section computed tomography (CT). The time of rib fracture appearance was also assessed. Cox proportional hazard modeling was performed to identify risk factors for rib fracture, using independent variables of age, sex, maximum tumor diameter, radiotherapeutic method and tumor-chest wall distance. Dosimetric details were analyzed for 26 patients with and 22 randomly-sampled patients without rib fracture. Biologically effective dose (BED) was calculated with a range of α/β ratios (1–10 Gy). Receiver operating characteristics analysis was used to define the most appropriate α/β ratio. Rib fracture was found on follow-up thin-section CT in 41 patients. The frequency of chest wall pain in patients with rib fracture was 34.1% (14/41), and was classified as Grade 1 or 2. Significant risk factors for rib fracture were smaller tumor-chest wall distance and female sex. Area under the curve was maximal for BED at an α/β ratio of 8 Gy. Rib fracture is frequently seen on CT after SBRT for lung cancer. Small tumor-chest wall distance and female sex are risk factors for rib fracture. However, clinical symptoms are infrequent and generally mild. When using BED analysis, an α/β ratio of 8 Gy appears most effective for discriminating between fracture and non-fracture patients

  11. TNF-α expression, risk factors, and inflammatory exposures in ovarian cancer: evidence for an inflammatory pathway of ovarian carcinogenesis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Mamta; Babic, Ana; Beck, Andrew H; Terry, Kathryn

    2016-08-01

    Inflammatory cytokines, like tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6), are elevated in ovarian cancer. Differences in cytokine expression by histologic subytpe or ovarian cancer risk factors can provide useful insight into ovarian cancer risk and etiology. We used ribonucleic acid in situ hybridization to assess TNF-α and IL-6 expression on tissue microarray slides from 78 epithelial ovarian carcinomas (51 serous, 12 endometrioid, 7 clear cell, 2 mucinous, 6 other) from a population-based case-control study. Cytokine expression was scored semiquantitatively, and odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using polytomous logistic regression. TNF-α was expressed in 46% of the tumors, whereas sparse IL-6 expression was seen in only 18% of the tumors. For both markers, expression was most common in high-grade serous carcinomas followed by endometrioid carcinomas. Parity was associated with a reduced risk of TNF-α-positive (OR, 0.3; 95% CI, 0.1-0.7 for 3 or more children versus none) but not TNF-α-negative tumors (P heterogeneity=.02). In contrast, current smoking was associated with a nearly 3-fold increase in risk of TNF-α-negative (OR, 2.8; 95% CI, 1.2-6.6) but not TNF-α-positive tumors (P heterogeneity = .06). Our data suggest that TNF-α expression in ovarian carcinoma varies by histologic subtype and provides some support for the role of inflammation in ovarian carcinogenesis. The novel associations detected in our study need to be validated in a larger cohort of patients in future studies. PMID:27068525

  12. Hypertension as risk factor for radiation induced side-effects in breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    130 breast cancer patients were retrospectively evaluated for side-effects to estimate the influence of arterial hypertension. All were treated with mastecomy and irradiation (telecobalt). 79 patients had normal blood pressure, 51 showed arterial hypertension. Hypertension proved to be the strongest endogeneous factor for the development of side-effects. In contrast to the patients with normal blood pressure those with hypertension showed significant more arm lymphedema (p < 0.005) and teleangiectasia (p < 0.0001). Other endogeneous factors, like cardiovascular diseases or obesity, taken together led only to a higher rate of subcutaneous fibrosis (p < 0.002). Patients with arterial hypertension should receive axillary radiation only for strict indications and perhaps with a reduced dosage. (orig./MG)

  13. Risk factors for voice quality after radiotherapy for early glottic cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background and purpose: In the majority of patients irradiated for early glottic cancer an abnormal voice was reported. The purpose of the study was to determine the factors influencing voice quality after radiotherapy for T1 glottic cancer. Methods: The voices of 75 male patients irradiated for T1 glottic carcinoma were assessed subjectively and objectively by acoustic analyses and aerodynamic measurements. The laryngeal function and morphology were evaluated by videolaryngostroboscopy. The data on smoking habits, the associated diseases influencing voice quality, the extent of the tumor, the type of biopsy, and the irradiation technique were collected from the medical records. The data on the factors influencing voice quality were compared for patients with a normal/near-normal voice and those with a hoarse voice. Results: Voice quality was at least slightly abnormal in 94.7% and 81.3% of patients, when assessed perceptively and objectively, respectively. Smoking after the completed treatment, more severe morphologic alterations of the vocal folds, dryness of the throat, incomplete closure of the vocal folds and functional voice disorders expressed as supraglottic activity adversely influenced the voice quality. A good correlation between the perceptive voice assessment and the acoustic analyses was established. Conclusions: After the successful irradiation for T1 glottic carcinoma, the great majority of the patients have at least a slightly hoarse voice. A better voice outcome could be achieved if radiotherapy was followed by the patient's cessation of smoking and the appropriate voice therapy.

  14. Women's knowledge about cervical cancer risk factors, screening, and reasons for non-participation in cervical cancer screening programme in Estonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anttila Ahti

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The attendance rate in Estonian cervical cancer screening programme is too low therefore the programme is hardly effective. A cross-sectional population based survey was performed to identify awareness of cervical cancer risk factors, reasons why women do not want to participate in cervical screening programme and wishes for better organisation of the programme. Method An anonymous questionnaire with a covering letter and a prepaid envelope was sent together with the screening invitation to 2942 randomly selected women. Results are based on the analysis of 1054 (36% returned questionnaires. Results Main reasons for non-participation in the national screening programme were a recent visit to a gynaecologist (42.3%, fear to give a Pap-smear (14.3%, long appointment queues (12.9% and unsuitable reception hours (11.8%. Fear to give a Pap-smear was higher among women aged 30 and 35 than 50 and 55 (RR 1.46; 95% CI: 0.82-2.59 and women with one or no deliveries (RR 1.56, 95% CI: 0.94-2.58. In general, awareness of cervical cancer risk factors is poor and it does not depend on socio-demographic factors. Awareness of screening was higher among Estonians than Russians (RR 1.64, 95% CI: 1.46-1.86. Most women prefer to receive information about screening from personally mailed invitation letters (74.8%. Conclusions Women need more information about cervical cancer risk factors and the screening programme. They prefer personally addressed information sharing. Minority groups should be addressed in their own language. A better collaboration with service providers and discouraging smears outside the programme are also required.

  15. Case-control analysis of breast cancer in a screened population: implications for the assessment of environmental exposure risk factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The appropriateness of using epidemiologic data from screened populations is investigated. Particular emphasis is given to design advantages and disadvantages of case-control studies using such data, statistical issues that arise in their analysis, and implications for testing hypotheses concerning environmental exposures. Concepts and techniques are illustrated with a recently completed study of breast cancer among screenees. Adjustment of odds ratios for number of screenings, symptomticity and year of first screening was necessary to avoid bias. When case subgroups are compared by classical methods, it should be done directly, rather than indirectly to controls, otherwise spurious trends may appear that are the result of the choice of baseline exposure group rather than risk differences. The multiple logistic model was used to adjust for many factors simultaneously and to model interaction between study factors. It is shown how careful interpretation of logistic regression parameters enables one to design a unified test to compare case subgroups simultaneously to one another and to controls and to test for initiation and promotion of cancer by environmental risk factors

  16. Post-traumatic stress symptoms and post-traumatic growth in 223 childhood cancer survivors: predictive risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta eTremolada

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available With modern therapies and supportive care, survival rates of childhood cancer have increased considerably. However, there are long-term psychological sequelae of these treatments that may not manifest until pediatric survivors are into adulthood. The prevalence of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD in young adult survivors of childhood cancer ranges from 6.2% to 22%; associated risk factors are young age at the assessment, female gender, low education level and some disease-related factors. The aim of this study was to investigate, in adolescent and young adult (AYA survivors of childhood cancer, the incidence and severity of post-traumatic stress symptoms (PTSS, and to identify the risk factors and the associated post-traumatic growth (PTG index.Participants were 223 AYA cancer survivors recruited during follow-up visits in the Oncohematology Clinic of the Department of Child and Woman’s Health, University of Padua. Data were collected from self-report questionnaires on PTSS incidence, PTG mean score, perceived social support, and medical and socio-demographic factors. Ex-patients’ mean age at the assessment was 19.33 years (SD = 3.01, 15-25, 123 males and 100 females, with a mean of years off-therapy of 9.64 (SD=4.17. Most (52.5% had survived an hematological disorder and 47.5% a solid tumor when they were aged, on average, 8.02 years (SD=4.40.The main results indicated a moderate presence of clinical (≥9 symptoms: 9.4% and sub-clinical PTSS (6-8 symptoms: 11.2%, with the avoidance criterion most often encountered. Re-experience symptoms and PTG mean score were significantly associated (r=0.24 p=0.0001. A hierarchical regression model (R2 = 0.08; F = 1.46; p = 0.05 identified female gender (β = 0.16; p = 0.05 and less perceived social support (β = -0.43; p = 0.05 as risk factors to developing PTSS. Another hierarchical regression model assessed the possible predictors of the PTG total score (R2 = 0.36; F = 9.1; p = 0.0001, with

  17. Radiation Therapy Risk Factors for Development of Lymphedema in Patients Treated With Regional Lymph Node Irradiation for Breast Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandra, Ravi A. [Harvard Radiation Oncology Program, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Miller, Cynthia L. [Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Skolny, Melissa N. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Warren, Laura E.G. [Harvard Radiation Oncology Program, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Horick, Nora [Department of Biostatistics, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Jammallo, Lauren S.; Sadek, Betro T.; Shenouda, Mina N. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); O' Toole, Jean [Department of Physical and Occupational Therapy, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Specht, Michelle C. [Division of Surgical Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Taghian, Alphonse G., E-mail: ataghian@partners.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States)

    2015-03-15

    Purpose: We previously evaluated the risk of breast cancer-related lymphedema (LE) with the addition of regional lymph node irradiation (RLNR) and found an increased risk when RLNR is used. Here we analyze the association of technical radiation therapy (RT) factors in RLNR patients with the risk of LE development. Methods and Materials: From 2005 to 2012, we prospectively screened 1476 women for LE who underwent surgery for breast cancer. Among 1507 breasts treated, 172 received RLNR and had complete technical data for analysis. RLNR was delivered as supraclavicular (SC) irradiation (69% [118 of 172 patients]) or SC plus posterior axillary boost (PAB) (31% [54 of 172]). Bilateral arm volume measurements were performed pre- and postoperatively. Patients' RT plans were analyzed for SC field lateral border (relative to the humeral head), total dose to SC, RT fraction size, beam energy, and type of tangent (normal vs wide). Cox proportional hazards models were used to analyze associated risk factors for LE. Results: Median postoperative follow-up was 29.3 months (range: 4.9-74.1 months). The 2-year cumulative incidence of LE was 22% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 15%-32%) for SC and 20% (95% CI: 11%-37%) for SC plus PAB (SC+PAB). None of the analyzed variables was significantly associated with LE risk (extent of humeral head: P=.74 for <1/3 vs >2/3, P=.41 for 1/3 to 2/3 vs >2/3; P=.40 for fraction size of 1.8 Gy vs 2.0 Gy; P=.57 for beam energy 6 MV vs 10 MV; P=.74 for tangent type wide vs regular; P=.66 for SC vs SC+PAB). Only pretreatment body mass index (hazard ratio [HR]: 1.09; 95% CI: 1.04-1.15, P=.0007) and the use of axillary lymph node dissection (HR: 7.08, 95% CI: 0.98-51.40, P=.05) were associated with risk of subsequent LE development. Conclusions: Of the RT parameters tested, none was associated with an increased risk of LE development. This study underscores the need for future work investigating alternative RLNR risk factors for LE.

  18. Radiation Therapy Risk Factors for Development of Lymphedema in Patients Treated With Regional Lymph Node Irradiation for Breast Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: We previously evaluated the risk of breast cancer-related lymphedema (LE) with the addition of regional lymph node irradiation (RLNR) and found an increased risk when RLNR is used. Here we analyze the association of technical radiation therapy (RT) factors in RLNR patients with the risk of LE development. Methods and Materials: From 2005 to 2012, we prospectively screened 1476 women for LE who underwent surgery for breast cancer. Among 1507 breasts treated, 172 received RLNR and had complete technical data for analysis. RLNR was delivered as supraclavicular (SC) irradiation (69% [118 of 172 patients]) or SC plus posterior axillary boost (PAB) (31% [54 of 172]). Bilateral arm volume measurements were performed pre- and postoperatively. Patients' RT plans were analyzed for SC field lateral border (relative to the humeral head), total dose to SC, RT fraction size, beam energy, and type of tangent (normal vs wide). Cox proportional hazards models were used to analyze associated risk factors for LE. Results: Median postoperative follow-up was 29.3 months (range: 4.9-74.1 months). The 2-year cumulative incidence of LE was 22% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 15%-32%) for SC and 20% (95% CI: 11%-37%) for SC plus PAB (SC+PAB). None of the analyzed variables was significantly associated with LE risk (extent of humeral head: P=.74 for <1/3 vs >2/3, P=.41 for 1/3 to 2/3 vs >2/3; P=.40 for fraction size of 1.8 Gy vs 2.0 Gy; P=.57 for beam energy 6 MV vs 10 MV; P=.74 for tangent type wide vs regular; P=.66 for SC vs SC+PAB). Only pretreatment body mass index (hazard ratio [HR]: 1.09; 95% CI: 1.04-1.15, P=.0007) and the use of axillary lymph node dissection (HR: 7.08, 95% CI: 0.98-51.40, P=.05) were associated with risk of subsequent LE development. Conclusions: Of the RT parameters tested, none was associated with an increased risk of LE development. This study underscores the need for future work investigating alternative RLNR risk factors for LE

  19. Intact and total insulin-like growth factor-binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) levels in relation to breast cancer risk factors: a cross-sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diorio, Caroline; Brisson, Jacques; Bérubé, Sylvie; Pollak, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Introduction Levels of insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I and its main binding protein (IGFBP-3) have been associated with breast cancer risk among premenopausal women. However, associations of IGFBP-3 levels with breast cancer risk have been inconsistent, possibly due to the different predominant forms of circulating IGFBP-3 (intact versus fragmented) that were measured in these studies. Here, we examine the association of breast cancer risk factors with intact and total IGFBP-3 levels. Methods This cross-sectional study includes 737 premenopausal women recruited at screening mammography. Plasma intact and total IGFBP-3 and IGF-I levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay methods. Percent and absolute breast density were estimated using a computer-assisted method. The associations were evaluated using generalized linear models and Pearson (r) or Spearman (rs) partial correlation coefficients. Results Means ± standard deviations of intact and total IGFBP-3 levels (ng/mL) were 1,044 ± 234 and 4,806 ± 910, respectively. Intact and total IGFBP-3 levels were correlated with age and smoking. Levels of intact IGFBP-3 were negatively correlated with waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) (r = -0.128; P = 0.0005), parity (rs = -0.078; P = 0.04), and alcohol intake (r = -0.137; P = 0.0002) and positively correlated with energy intake (r = 0.075; P = 0.04). In contrast, total IGFBP-3 levels were positively correlated with WHR (r = 0.115; P = 0.002), parity (rs = 0.089; P = 0.02), body mass index (BMI) (r = 0.115; P = 0.002), physical activity (r = 0.118; P = 0.002), and IGF-I levels (r = 0.588; P total (intact and fragmented) IGFBP-3 levels. These findings suggest that different molecular forms of IGFBP-3 may bear different relations to premenopausal breast cancer risk. PMID:18471292

  20. Genetic Risk Factors

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... option for high-risk women is to take tamoxifen, a drug long used to treat cancer. Dr. ... Zora Brown's case, for example, if we had tamoxifen out -- would that have helped? She sure would ...