WorldWideScience

Sample records for cancer risk estimates

  1. Estimating the Risks of Breast Cancer Radiotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taylor, Carolyn; Correa, Candace; Duane, Frances K

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Radiotherapy reduces the absolute risk of breast cancer mortality by a few percentage points in suitable women but can cause a second cancer or heart disease decades later. We estimated the absolute long-term risks of modern breast cancer radiotherapy. Methods First, a systematic literature...... review was performed of lung and heart doses in breast cancer regimens published during 2010 to 2015. Second, individual patient data meta-analyses of 40,781 women randomly assigned to breast cancer radiotherapy versus no radiotherapy in 75 trials yielded rate ratios (RRs) for second primary cancers...... and cause-specific mortality and excess RRs (ERRs) per Gy for incident lung cancer and cardiac mortality. Smoking status was unavailable. Third, the lung or heart ERRs per Gy in the trials and the 2010 to 2015 doses were combined and applied to current smoker and nonsmoker lung cancer and cardiac mortality...

  2. A New Model for the Estimation of Breast Cancer Risk

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Giger, Maryellen Lissak

    2001-01-01

    ... for use in estimating risk of breast cancer. The specific aims include 1. Creating a database of mammograms, along with tabulated clinical information of women at low risk and high risk for breast cancer; 2...

  3. Graphs to estimate an individualized risk of breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benichou, J; Gail, M H; Mulvihill, J J

    1996-01-01

    Clinicians who counsel women about their risk for developing breast cancer need a rapid method to estimate individualized risk (absolute risk), as well as the confidence limits around that point. The Breast Cancer Detection Demonstration Project (BCDDP) model (sometimes called the Gail model) assumes no genetic model and simultaneously incorporates five risk factors, but involves cumbersome calculations and interpolations. This report provides graphs to estimate the absolute risk of breast cancer from the BCDDP model. The BCDDP recruited 280,000 women from 1973 to 1980 who were monitored for 5 years. From this cohort, 2,852 white women developed breast cancer and 3,146 controls were selected, all with complete risk-factor information. The BCDDP model, previously developed from these data, was used to prepare graphs that relate a specific summary relative-risk estimate to the absolute risk of developing breast cancer over intervals of 10, 20, and 30 years. Once a summary relative risk is calculated, the appropriate graph is chosen that shows the 10-, 20-, or 30-year absolute risk of developing breast cancer. A separate graph gives the 95% confidence limits around the point estimate of absolute risk. Once a clinician rules out a single gene trait that predisposes to breast cancer and elicits information on age and four risk factors, the tables and figures permit an estimation of a women's absolute risk of developing breast cancer in the next three decades. These results are intended to be applied to women who undergo regular screening. They should be used only in a formal counseling program to maximize a woman's understanding of the estimates and the proper use of them.

  4. Estimating cancer risks to adults undergoing body CT examinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huda, W.; He, W.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to estimate cancer risks from the amount of radiation used to perform body computed tomography (CT) examination. The ImPACT CT Patient Dosimetry Calculator was used to compute values of organ doses for adult body CT examinations. The radiation used to perform each examination was quantified by the dose-length product (DLP). Patient organ doses were converted into corresponding age and sex dependent cancer risks using data from BEIR VII. Results are presented for cancer risks per unit DLP and unit effective dose for 11 sensitive organs, as well as estimates of the contribution from 'other organs'. For patients who differ from a standard sized adult, correction factors based on the patient weight and antero-posterior dimension are provided to adjust organ doses and the corresponding risks. At constant incident radiation intensity, for CT examinations that include the chest, risks for females are markedly higher than those for males, whereas for examinations that include the pelvis, risks in males were slightly higher than those in females. In abdominal CT scans, risks for males and female patients are very similar. For abdominal CT scans, increasing the patient age from 20 to 80 resulted in a reduction in patient risks of nearly a factor of 5. The average cancer risk for chest/abdomen/pelvis CT examinations was ∼26 % higher than the cancer risk caused by 'sensitive organs'. Doses and radiation risks in 80 kg adults were ∼10 % lower than those in 70 kg patients. Cancer risks in body CT can be estimated from the examination DLP by accounting for sex, age, as well as patient physical characteristics. (authors)

  5. Radiation-Induced Second Cancer Risk Estimates From Radionuclide Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bednarz, Bryan; Besemer, Abigail

    2017-09-01

    The use of radionuclide therapy in the clinical setting is expected to increase significantly over the next decade. There is an important need to understand the radiation-induced second cancer risk associated with these procedures. In this study the radiation-induced cancer risk in five radionuclide therapy patients was investigated. These patients underwent serial SPECT imaging scans following injection as part of a clinical trial testing the efficacy of a 131Iodine-labeled radiopharmaceutical. Using these datasets the committed absorbed doses to multiple sensitive structures were calculated using RAPID, which is a novel Monte Carlo-based 3D dosimetry platform developed for personalized dosimetry. The excess relative risk (ERR) for radiation-induced cancer in these structures was then derived from these dose estimates following the recommendations set forth in the BEIR VII report. The radiation-induced leukemia ERR was highest among all sites considered reaching a maximum value of approximately 4.5. The radiation-induced cancer risk in the kidneys, liver and spleen ranged between 0.3 and 1.3. The lifetime attributable risks (LARs) were also calculated, which ranged from 30 to 1700 cancers per 100,000 persons and were highest for leukemia and the liver for both males and females followed by radiation-induced spleen and kidney cancer. The risks associated with radionuclide therapy are similar to the risk associated with external beam radiation therapy.

  6. Estimation of cancer risks from radiotherapy of benign diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trott, K.R.; Kamprad, F.

    2006-01-01

    Background: The effective-dose method which was proposed by the ICRP (International Commission of Radiation Protection) for the estimation of risk to the general population from occupational or environmental, low-dose radiation exposure is not adequate for estimating the risk of cancer induction by radiotherapy of malignant or nonmalignant diseases. Methods:The risk of cancer induction by radiotherapy of benign diseases should be based on epidemiologic data directly derived from follow-up studies of patients who had been given radiotherapy for nonmalignant diseases in the past. Results: Risk factors were derived from epidemiologic studies of patients treated with irradiation for nonmalignant diseases to be used for selecting treatment options and optimizing treatment procedures. Conclusion: In most cases, cancer risks estimated by the effective-dose method may overestimate the true risks by one order of magnitude, yet in other cases even may underestimate it. The proposed method using organ-specific risk factors may be more suitable for treatment planning. (orig.)

  7. Estimation of radiation cancer risk in CT-KUB

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karim, M. K. A.; Hashim, S.; Bakar, K. A.; Bradley, D. A.; Ang, W. C.; Bahrudin, N. A.; Mhareb, M. H. A.

    2017-08-01

    The increased demand for computed tomography (CT) in radiological scanning examinations raises the question of a potential health impact from the associated radiation exposures. Focusing on CT kidney-ureter-bladder (CT-KUB) procedures, this work was aimed at determining organ equivalent dose using a commercial CT dose calculator and providing an estimate of cancer risks. The study, which included 64 patients (32 males and 32 females, mean age 55.5 years and age range 30-80 years), involved use of a calibrated CT scanner (Siemens-Somatom Emotion 16-slice). The CT exposures parameter including tube potential, pitch factor, tube current, volume CT dose index (CTDIvol) and dose-length product (DLP) were recorded and analyzed using CT-EXPO (Version 2.3.1, Germany). Patient organ doses, including for stomach, liver, colon, bladder, red bone marrow, prostate and ovaries were calculated and converted into cancer risks using age- and sex-specific data published in the Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiation (BEIR) VII report. With a median value scan range of 36.1 cm, the CTDIvol, DLP, and effective dose were found to be 10.7 mGy, 390.3 mGy cm and 6.2 mSv, respectively. The mean cancer risks for males and females were estimated to be respectively 25 and 46 out of 100,000 procedures with effective doses between 4.2 mSv and 10.1 mSv. Given the increased cancer risks from current CT-KUB procedures compared to conventional examinations, we propose that the low dose protocols for unenhanced CT procedures be taken into consideration before establishing imaging protocols for CT-KUB.

  8. Uncertainties in fatal cancer risk estimates used in radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kai, Michiaki

    1999-01-01

    Although ICRP and NCRP had not described the details of uncertainties in cancer risk estimates in radiation protection, NCRP, in 1997, firstly reported the results of uncertainty analysis (NCRP No.126) and which is summarized in this paper. The NCRP report pointed out that there are following five factors which uncertainty possessing: uncertainty in epidemiological studies, in dose assessment, in transforming the estimates to risk assessment, in risk prediction and in extrapolation to the low dose/dose rate. These individual factors were analyzed statistically to obtain the relationship between the probability of cancer death in the US population and life time risk coefficient (% per Sv), which showed that, for the latter, the mean value was 3.99 x 10 -2 /Sv, median, 3.38 x 10 -2 /Sv, GSD (geometrical standard deviation), 1.83 x 10 -2 /Sv and 95% confidential limit, 1.2-8.84 x 10 -2 /Sv. The mean value was smaller than that of ICRP recommendation (5 x 10 -2 /Sv), indicating that the value has the uncertainty factor of 2.5-3. Moreover, the most important factor was shown to be the uncertainty in DDREF (dose/dose rate reduction factor). (K.H.)

  9. Cancer risk estimation from the A-bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pierce, D.A.; Vaeth, M.

    1989-10-01

    Generalizations regarding radiogenic cancer risks from the A-bomb survivor data of the Radiation Effects Research Foundation involve a large number of well-identified uncertainties and approximations. These include extrapolation to low doses and dose rates, projections in time, sampling variation, the quality of the data, extrapolation to other populations, and the use of simplifying conventions. This paper discusses some of these issues, with emphasis on the first three. Results are given regarding the maximum 'linear-quadratic' curvature consistent with these data, taking into account uncertainties in individual exposure estimates. Discussion is given regarding use of relative risk models and projection of lifetime risks, emphasizing results for those who were old enough at exposure to have been followed up for a major part of their lives by now, and stressing the speculative aspects of conclusions about those exposed as children. Combining these results, and brief discussion of other uncertainties itemized above, comment is made on the evolution of risk estimates over the past 15 years. (author)

  10. Accounting for individualized competing mortality risks in estimating postmenopausal breast cancer risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schonberg, Mara A.; Li, Vicky W.; Eliassen, A. Heather; Davis, Roger B.; LaCroix, Andrea Z.; McCarthy, Ellen P.; Rosner, Bernard A.; Chlebowski, Rowan T.; Hankinson, Susan E.; Marcantonio, Edward R.; Ngo, Long H.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Accurate risk assessment is necessary for decision-making around breast cancer prevention. We aimed to develop a breast cancer prediction model for postmenopausal women that would take into account their individualized competing risk of non-breast cancer death. Methods We included 73,066 women who completed the 2004 Nurses’ Health Study (NHS) questionnaire (all ≥57 years) and followed participants until May 2014. We considered 17 breast cancer risk factors (health behaviors, demographics, family history, reproductive factors), 7 risk factors for non-breast cancer death (comorbidities, functional dependency), and mammography use. We used competing risk regression to identify factors independently associated with breast cancer. We validated the final model by examining calibration (expected-to-observed ratio of breast cancer incidence, E/O) and discrimination (c-statistic) using 74,887 subjects from the Women’s Health Initiative Extension Study (WHI-ES; all were ≥55 years and followed for 5 years). Results Within 5 years, 1.8% of NHS participants were diagnosed with breast cancer (vs. 2.0% in WHI-ES, p=0.02) and 6.6% experienced non-breast cancer death (vs. 5.2% in WHI-ES, prisk factors, 5 comorbidities, functional dependency, and mammography use. The model’s c-statistic was 0.61 (95% CI [0.60–0.63]) in NHS and 0.57 (0.55–0.58) in WHI-ES. On average our model under predicted breast cancer in WHI-ES (E/O 0.92 [0.88–0.97]). Conclusions We developed a novel prediction model that factors in postmenopausal women’s individualized competing risks of non-breast cancer death when estimating breast cancer risk. PMID:27770283

  11. Estimated risks and optimistic self-perception of breast cancer risk in Korean women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, ChaeWeon; Lee, Suk Jeong

    2013-11-01

    To determine women's perceived personal and comparative risks of breast cancer, and to examine the relationships with risk factors. Despite the increasing incidence of breast cancer in younger women and the availability of screening, women's health behaviors have not advanced accordingly. A cross-sectional survey design utilized a convenience sample of 222 women in their 30s and 40s recruited from community settings in Seoul. Self-administered questionnaire data were analyzed by descriptive statistics, the chi-squared test, and ANOVA. Risk perception levels differed significantly by breast cancer risk factors. Half of the women were optimistic about their breast cancer risk, while perceived personal risk did not reflect women's own risk factors and comparative risk differed only by the practice of clinical breast exam. Women's knowledge and awareness of their breast cancer risk factors need to be improved for appropriate risk perception and health behaviors, and accurate risk estimation could be utilized to educate them in clinical settings. © 2013.

  12. Estimation of second primary cancers risk based on the treatment planning system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin Chufeng; Sun Guangyao; Liu Hui; Zheng Huaqing; Cheng Mengyun; Li Gui; Wu Yican; FDS Team

    2011-01-01

    Estimates of second primary cancers risk after radiotherapy has become increasingly important for comparative treatment planning. A new method based on the treatment planning system to estimate the risk of second primary cancers was introduced in this paper. Using the Advanced/Accurate Radiotherapy Treatment System(ARTS), a treatment planning system developed by the FDS team,the risk of second primary cancer was estimated over two treatment plans for a patient with pancreatic cancer. Based on the second primary cancer risk, the two plans were compared. It was found that,kidney and gall-bladder had higher risk to develop second primary cancer. A better plan was chosen by the analysis of second primary cancer risk. The results showed that this risk estimation method we developed could be used to evaluate treatment plans. (authors)

  13. Data Sources for the Model-based Small Area Estimates of Cancer Risk Factors and Screening Behaviors - Small Area Estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    The model-based estimates of important cancer risk factors and screening behaviors are obtained by combining the responses to the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) and the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS).

  14. Adequacy of relative and absolute risk models for lifetime risk estimate of radiation-induced cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McBride, M.; Coldman, A.J.

    1988-03-01

    This report examines the applicability of the relative (multiplicative) and absolute (additive) models in predicting lifetime risk of radiation-induced cancer. A review of the epidemiologic literature, and a discussion of the mathematical models of carcinogenesis and their relationship to these models of lifetime risk, are included. Based on the available data, the relative risk model for the estimation of lifetime risk is preferred for non-sex-specific epithelial tumours. However, because of lack of knowledge concerning other determinants of radiation risk and of background incidence rates, considerable uncertainty in modelling lifetime risk still exists. Therefore, it is essential that follow-up of exposed cohorts be continued so that population-based estimates of lifetime risk are available

  15. Estimating cancer risk from outdoor concentrations of hazardous air pollutants in 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woodruff, T.J.; Caldwell, J.; Cogliano, V.J.; Axelrad, D.A.

    2000-03-01

    A public health concern regarding hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) is their potential to cause cancer. It has been difficult to assess potential cancer risks from HAPs, due primarily to lack of ambient concentration data for the general population. The Environmental Protection Agency's Cumulative Exposure Project modeled 1990 outdoor concentrations of HAPs across the United States, which were combined with inhalation unit risk estimates to estimate the potential increase in excess cancer risk for individual carcinogenic HAPs. These were summed3d to provide an estimate of cancer risk from multiple HAPs. The analysis estimates a median excess cancer risk of 18 lifetime cancer cases per 100,000 people for all HAP concentrations. About 75% of estimated cancer risk was attributable to exposure to polycyclic organic matter, 1,3-butadiene, formaldehyde, benzene, and chromium. Consideration of some specific uncertainties, including underestimation of ambient concentrations, combining upper 95% confidence bound potency estimates, and changes to potency estimates, found that cancer risk may be underestimated by 15% or overestimated by 40--50%. Other unanalyzed uncertainties could make these under- or overestimates larger. This analysis used 1990 estimates of concentrations and can be used to track progress toward reducing cancer risk to the general population.

  16. Development of cancer risk estimates from epidemiologic studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webster, E.W.

    1983-01-01

    Radiation risk estimates may be made for an increase in mortality from, or for an increase in incidence of, particular types of disease. For both endpoints, two numerical systems of risk expression are used: the absolute risk system (usually the excess deaths or cases per million persons per year per rad), and the relative risk system (usually excess deaths or cases per year per rad expressed as a percentage of those normally expected). Risks may be calculated for specific age groups or for a general population. An alternative in both risk systems is the estimation of cumulative of lifetime risk rather than annual risk (e.g. in excess deaths per million per rad over a specified long period including the remainder of lifespan). The derivation of both absolute and relative risks is illustrated by examples. The effects on risk estimates of latent period, follow-up time, age at exposure and age standardization within dose groups are illustrated. The dependence of the projected cumulative (lifetime) risk on the adoption of a constant absolute risk or constant relative risk is noted. The use of life-table data in the adjustment of cumulative risk for normal mortality following single or annual doses is briefly discussed

  17. Estimation of baseline lifetime risk of developed cancer related to radiation exposure in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Xiaoliang; Niu Haowei; Sun Quanfu; Ma Weidong

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To introduce the general international method for estimation of lifetime risk of developed cancer, and to estimate the lifetime risk baseline values of several kinds of cancers related to radiation exposures in China. Methods: The risk estimation was based on the data from Chinese Cancer Registry Annual Report (2010) and China Population and Employment Statistics Yearbook (2009), and made according to the method previously published by National Cancer Institute (NCI) in USA. Results: The lifetime risk of all cancer in China in 2007 was estimated to be 27.77%, that of lung cancer 5.96%, that of breast cancer for female 3.34%, that of all leukemia 0.14%, that of thyroid cancer 0.37%. The lifetime risks of all cancer were estimated to be 32.74% for males and 24.73% for females, and that was 36.47% for urban residents and 26.79% for rural people. Conclusions: The lifetime risk of all cancer for males in 2007 was about 1.25 times as much as that for females. The value of all cancer for urban residents was about 1.35 times as much as that for rural residents. The lifetime risk of developed cancers in 2007 in China is lower than that in the developed countries,such as Japan. (authors)

  18. Estimating lung cancer risks of indoor radon: applications for prevention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klotz, J.B.

    1986-01-01

    The epidemiologic evidence for a serious lung cancer hazard from radon exposure is very strong, and cumulative exposures accrued in residences may frequently overlap those accrued in underground miners. However, many uncertainties exist in extrapolating from mining to indoor risks because of differences in the populations, in radon exposure variables, and in other exposures. Risks are also considered for indoor radon exposures outside the home. There is already suggestive evidence of an association of lung cancer with radon levels in community settings, and several large-scale investigations are in progress. Some important questions regarding quantifying risk may not be approached, however; some further research needs are outlined including development of techniques for preventing or postponing lung cancer in individuals previously exposed to high radon levels. 31 references, 2 tables

  19. Probabilistic methodology for estimating radiation-induced cancer risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunning, D.E. Jr.; Leggett, R.W.; Williams, L.R.

    1981-01-01

    The RICRAC computer code was developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory to provide a versatile and convenient methodology for radiation risk assessment. The code allows as input essentially any dose pattern commonly encountered in risk assessments for either acute or chronic exposures, and it includes consideration of the age structure of the exposed population. Results produced by the analysis include the probability of one or more radiation-induced cancer deaths in a specified population, expected numbers of deaths, and expected years of life lost as a result of premature fatalities. These calculatons include consideration of competing risks of death from all other causes. The program also generates a probability frequency distribution of the expected number of cancers in any specified cohort resulting from a given radiation dose. The methods may be applied to any specified population and dose scenario

  20. Estimating cancer risks induced by CT screening for Korea population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Hye Jeong; Yang, Won Seok

    2016-01-01

    Computed Tomography(CT) has been used to diagnose early stages of cancer and other diseases. Since the number of CT screening has been increasing, there is now a debate about the possible benefits and risks of CT screening on asymptomatic individuals. CT screening has definite benefits, however the radiation risk of screening an asymptomatic individual is a serious problem that cannot be overlooked. Despite its potential risks, CT screening for asymptomatic individual has been gradually increased in Korea and it is attributed to increase collective effective dose. Therefore, we reported the risk level of each organ which is included in scan field for CT screening and analyzed and then evaluated the risk level of Korean population comparison to others, Hong Kong, U.S. and U.K. populations. LARs are lower with older ages for all populations of both sexes. We recommend CT screening after the age of 40 because from that age, LAR decreases and the danger of top 5 cancer increases.

  1. Cancer risks in BRCA2 families: estimates for sites other than breast and ovary

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Asperen, C. J.; Brohet, R. M.; Meijers-Heijboer, E. J.; Hoogerbrugge, N.; Verhoef, S.; Vasen, H. F. A.; Ausems, M. G. E. M.; Menko, F. H.; Gomez Garcia, E. B.; Klijn, J. G. M.; Hogervorst, F. B. L.; van Houwelingen, J. C.; van't Veer, L. J.; Rookus, M. A.; van Leeuwen, F. E.

    2005-01-01

    In BRCA2 mutation carriers, increased risks have been reported for several cancer sites besides breast and ovary. As most of the families included in earlier reports were selected on the basis of multiple breast/ovarian cancer cases, it is possible that risk estimates may differ in mutation carriers

  2. Discrepancies between estimated and perceived risk of cancer among individuals with hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Domanska, K; Nilbert, Mef; Soller, M

    2007-01-01

    to individual characteristics. A perceived risk of colorectal cancer above 60% was reported by 22/45 individuals, and only one out of five mutation carriers reported a perceived risk > 80%. Female mutation carriers, individuals below age 50, and individuals who received their oncogenetic counseling within 1......Communicating cancer risk and recommending adequate control programs is central for genetic counseling. Individuals affected by hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC) are at about 80% life-time risk of colorectal cancer and for female carriers 40-60% risk of endometrial cancer and 10...... year prior to the study reported higher, albeit not significantly, perceived risks of colorectal cancer. Higher perceived risks were also reported by individuals who had lost a parent to HNPCC-related cancer at early age, whereas individuals with a personal history of cancer did not report a higher...

  3. Discrepancies between estimated and perceived risk of cancer among individuals with hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Domanska, K; Nilbert, Mef; Soller, M

    2007-01-01

    Communicating cancer risk and recommending adequate control programs is central for genetic counseling. Individuals affected by hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC) are at about 80% life-time risk of colorectal cancer and for female carriers 40-60% risk of endometrial cancer and 10...... to individual characteristics. A perceived risk of colorectal cancer above 60% was reported by 22/45 individuals, and only one out of five mutation carriers reported a perceived risk > 80%. Female mutation carriers, individuals below age 50, and individuals who received their oncogenetic counseling within 1...... year prior to the study reported higher, albeit not significantly, perceived risks of colorectal cancer. Higher perceived risks were also reported by individuals who had lost a parent to HNPCC-related cancer at early age, whereas individuals with a personal history of cancer did not report a higher...

  4. Patients with Testicular Cancer Undergoing CT Surveillance Demonstrate a Pitfall of Radiation-induced Cancer Risk Estimates: The Timing Paradox

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenberg, Jonathan D.; Lee, Richard J.; Gilmore, Michael E.; Turan, Ekin A.; Singh, Sarabjeet; Kalra, Mannudeep K.; Liu, Bob; Kong, Chung Yin; Gazelle, G. Scott

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To demonstrate a limitation of lifetime radiation-induced cancer risk metrics in the setting of testicular cancer surveillance—in particular, their failure to capture the delayed timing of radiation-induced cancers over the course of a patient’s lifetime. Materials and Methods: Institutional review board approval was obtained for the use of computed tomographic (CT) dosimetry data in this study. Informed consent was waived. This study was HIPAA compliant. A Markov model was developed to project outcomes in patients with testicular cancer who were undergoing CT surveillance in the decade after orchiectomy. To quantify effects of early versus delayed risks, life expectancy losses and lifetime mortality risks due to testicular cancer were compared with life expectancy losses and lifetime mortality risks due to radiation-induced cancers from CT. Projections of life expectancy loss, unlike lifetime risk estimates, account for the timing of risks over the course of a lifetime, which enabled evaluation of the described limitation of lifetime risk estimates. Markov chain Monte Carlo methods were used to estimate the uncertainty of the results. Results: As an example of evidence yielded, 33-year-old men with stage I seminoma who were undergoing CT surveillance were projected to incur a slightly higher lifetime mortality risk from testicular cancer (598 per 100 000; 95% uncertainty interval [UI]: 302, 894) than from radiation-induced cancers (505 per 100 000; 95% UI: 280, 730). However, life expectancy loss attributable to testicular cancer (83 days; 95% UI: 42, 124) was more than three times greater than life expectancy loss attributable to radiation-induced cancers (24 days; 95% UI: 13, 35). Trends were consistent across modeled scenarios. Conclusion: Lifetime radiation risk estimates, when used for decision making, may overemphasize radiation-induced cancer risks relative to short-term health risks. © RSNA, 2012 Supplemental material: http

  5. Psychological impact of providing women with personalised 10-year breast cancer risk estimates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, David P; Southworth, Jake; Howell, Anthony; Harvie, Michelle; Stavrinos, Paula; Watterson, Donna; Sampson, Sarah; Evans, D Gareth; Donnelly, Louise S

    2018-05-08

    The Predicting Risk of Cancer at Screening (PROCAS) study estimated 10-year breast cancer risk for 53,596 women attending NHS Breast Screening Programme. The present study, nested within the PROCAS study, aimed to assess the psychological impact of receiving breast cancer risk estimates, based on: (a) the Tyrer-Cuzick (T-C) algorithm including breast density or (b) T-C including breast density plus single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), versus (c) comparison women awaiting results. A sample of 2138 women from the PROCAS study was stratified by testing groups: T-C only, T-C(+SNPs) and comparison women; and by 10-year risk estimates received: 'moderate' (5-7.99%), 'average' (2-4.99%) or 'below average' (<1.99%) risk. Postal questionnaires were returned by 765 (36%) women. Overall state anxiety and cancer worry were low, and similar for women in T-C only and T-C(+SNPs) groups. Women in both T-C only and T-C(+SNPs) groups showed lower-state anxiety but slightly higher cancer worry than comparison women awaiting results. Risk information had no consistent effects on intentions to change behaviour. Most women were satisfied with information provided. There was considerable variation in understanding. No major harms of providing women with 10-year breast cancer risk estimates were detected. Research to establish the feasibility of risk-stratified breast screening is warranted.

  6. Methodology for the Model-based Small Area Estimates of Cancer Risk Factors and Screening Behaviors - Small Area Estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    This model-based approach uses data from both the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) and the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) to produce estimates of the prevalence rates of cancer risk factors and screening behaviors at the state, health service area, and county levels.

  7. Counselees’ expressed level of understanding of the risk estimate and surveillance recommendation are not associated with breast cancer surveillance adherence.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Albada, A.; Dulmen, S. van; Dijkstra, H.; Wieffer, I.; Witkamp, A.; Ausems, M.G.E.M.

    2016-01-01

    We studied counselees’ expressed understanding of the risk estimate and surveillance recommendation in the final consultation for breast cancer genetic counseling in relation with their risk perception, worry and cancer surveillance adherence 1 year post-counseling. Consecutive counselees were

  8. Development and prospective validation of a model estimating risk of readmission in cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Carl R; Hefner, Jennifer; McAlearney, Ann S; Graham, Lisa; Johnson, Kristen; Moffatt-Bruce, Susan; Huerta, Timothy; Pawlik, Timothy M; White, Susan

    2018-02-26

    Hospital readmissions among cancer patients are common. While several models estimating readmission risk exist, models specific for cancer patients are lacking. A logistic regression model estimating risk of unplanned 30-day readmission was developed using inpatient admission data from a 2-year period (n = 18 782) at a tertiary cancer hospital. Readmission risk estimates derived from the model were then calculated prospectively over a 10-month period (n = 8616 admissions) and compared with actual incidence of readmission. There were 2478 (13.2%) unplanned readmissions. Model factors associated with readmission included: emergency department visit within 30 days, >1 admission within 60 days, non-surgical admission, solid malignancy, gastrointestinal cancer, emergency admission, length of stay >5 days, abnormal sodium, hemoglobin, or white blood cell count. The c-statistic for the model was 0.70. During the 10-month prospective evaluation, estimates of readmission from the model were associated with higher actual readmission incidence from 20.7% for the highest risk category to 9.6% for the lowest. An unplanned readmission risk model developed specifically for cancer patients performs well when validated prospectively. The specificity of the model for cancer patients, EMR incorporation, and prospective validation justify use of the model in future studies designed to reduce and prevent readmissions. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. REVIEW OF DRAFT REVISED BLUE BOOK ON ESTIMATING CANCER RISKS FROM EXPOSURE TO IONIZING RADIATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    In 1994, EPA published a report, referred to as the “Blue Book,” which lays out EPA’s current methodology for quantitatively estimating radiogenic cancer risks. A follow-on report made minor adjustments to the previous estimates and presented a partial analysis of the uncertainti...

  10. Estimation of lifetime cumulative incidence and mortality risk of gastric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taniyama, Yukari; Katanoda, Kota; Charvat, Hadrien; Hori, Megumi; Ohno, Yuko; Sasazuki, Shizuka; Tsugane, Shoichiro

    2017-11-01

    To estimate cumulative incidence and mortality risk for gastric cancer by risk category. Risk was classified into four types according to the presence/absence of Helicobacter pylori infection and chronic atrophic gastritis: in order of lowest to highest risk, Group A: H. pylori(-) and atrophic gastritis(-); Group B: H. pylori(+) and atrophic gastritis(-); Group C:H. pylori(+) and atrophic gastritis(+); and, Group D: H. pylori(-) and atrophic gastritis(+). We used vital statistics for the crude all-cause and crude gastric cancer mortality rates in 2011 and data from population-based cancer registries (the Monitoring of Cancer Incidence in Japan) for gastric cancer incidence in 2011. For relative risk and prevalence, we used the results of a meta-analysis integrating previous studies and data from the Japan Public Health Center-based Prospective Study for the Next Generation, respectively (baseline survey 2011-16). We calculated the crude incidence and mortality rates and estimated the cumulative risk using a life-table method. The estimated lifetime cumulative incidence risk was 11.4% for men and 5.7% for women. The estimated risk for Groups A, B, C and D was 2.4%, 10.8%, 26.7% and 35.5% for men, and 1.2%, 5.5%, 13.5% and 18.0% for women, respectively. Similarly, the estimated lifetime cumulative mortality risk was 3.9% for men and 1.8% for women. The estimated risk of mortality for Groups A, B, C and D was 0.8%, 3.6%, 9.0% and 12.0% for men, and 0.4%, 1.7%, 4.2% and 5.7% for women, respectively. Our results may be useful for designing individually tailored prevention programs. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press.

  11. Estimated risk of radiation-induced cancer from paediatric chest CT: two-year cohort study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niemann, Tilo [Cantonal Hospital Baden, Department of Radiology, Baden (Switzerland); University Lille Nord de France, Department of Thoracic Imaging, Hospital Calmette, Lille (France); Colas, Lucie; Santangelo, Teresa; Faivre, Jean Baptiste; Remy, Jacques; Remy-Jardin, Martine [University Lille Nord de France, Department of Thoracic Imaging, Hospital Calmette, Lille (France); Roser, Hans W.; Bremerich, Jens [University of Basel Hospital, Clinic of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Medical Physics, Basel (Switzerland)

    2015-03-01

    The increasing absolute number of paediatric CT scans raises concern about the safety and efficacy and the effects of consecutive diagnostic ionising radiation. To demonstrate a method to evaluate the lifetime attributable risk of cancer incidence/mortality due to a single low-dose helical chest CT in a two-year patient cohort. A two-year cohort of 522 paediatric helical chest CT scans acquired using a dedicated low-dose protocol were analysed retrospectively. Patient-specific estimations of radiation doses were modelled using three different mathematical phantoms. Per-organ attributable cancer risk was then estimated using epidemiological models. Additional comparison was provided for naturally occurring risks. Total lifetime attributable risk of cancer incidence remains low for all age and sex categories, being highest in female neonates (0.34%). Summation of all cancer sites analysed raised the relative lifetime attributable risk of organ cancer incidence up to 3.6% in female neonates and 2.1% in male neonates. Using dedicated scan protocols, total lifetime attributable risk of cancer incidence and mortality for chest CT is estimated low for paediatric chest CT, being highest for female neonates. (orig.)

  12. Model-based Small Area Estimates of Cancer Risk Factors and Screening Behaviors - Small Area Estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    These model-based estimates use two surveys, the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) and the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS). The two surveys are combined using novel statistical methodology.

  13. Estimates of radiation doses and cancer risk from food intake in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moon, Eun Kyeong; Lee, Won Jin; Ha, Wi Ho; Seo, Song Won; Jin, Young Woo; Jeong, Kyu Hwan; Yoon, Hae Jung; Kim, Hyoung Soo; Hwang, Myung Sil; Choi, Hoon

    2016-01-01

    After the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident, a widespread public concern for radiation exposure through the contamination of domestic or imported food has continued worldwide. Because the internal exposure from contaminated food is an important consideration for human health effect, some studies for estimating radiation doses and cancer risk from the Fukushima nuclear accident have been conducted in several countries (1). The aims of the study is to estimate internal radiation dose and lifetime risks of cancer from food ingestion in Korean population. Our findings suggest no discernible increase n radiation doses or excess fatal cancer risk from food ingestion at this stage in Korea, and provide scientific evidence of the risk communication with general public associated with low-dose radiation exposure.

  14. Estimates of radiation doses and cancer risk from food intake in Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moon, Eun Kyeong; Lee, Won Jin [Korea University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Ha, Wi Ho; Seo, Song Won; Jin, Young Woo [Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Jeong, Kyu Hwan [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Hae Jung; Kim, Hyoung Soo; Hwang, Myung Sil [Ministry of Food and Drug Safety, Cheongju (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Hoon [Wonkwang University, Iksan (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-04-15

    After the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident, a widespread public concern for radiation exposure through the contamination of domestic or imported food has continued worldwide. Because the internal exposure from contaminated food is an important consideration for human health effect, some studies for estimating radiation doses and cancer risk from the Fukushima nuclear accident have been conducted in several countries (1). The aims of the study is to estimate internal radiation dose and lifetime risks of cancer from food ingestion in Korean population. Our findings suggest no discernible increase n radiation doses or excess fatal cancer risk from food ingestion at this stage in Korea, and provide scientific evidence of the risk communication with general public associated with low-dose radiation exposure.

  15. Estimation of enhanced cancer risk with 18FDG PET/CT investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaushik, Aruna; Mishra, Anil K.; Sharma, Rajnish; Mondal, Anupam; Dwarakanath, B.S.

    2014-01-01

    18 F-Fluorodeoxyglucose ( 18 FDG) Positron Emission Tomography/Computed Tomography (PET/CT) investigation involves internal administration of 18 FDG and use of CT X-rays for the purpose of obtaining functional and anatomical information of a patient. However, the radiation exposure from undergoing PET/CT investigation may enhance the risk of cancer incidence as per the Linear-No-Threshold (LNT) model. The objective of the present study was to quantify the risk of cancer incidence associated with radiation exposure from 18 FDG PET/CT investigations. The organ doses from internally administered 18 FDG were estimated using OLINDA/EXM Code by performing dynamic PET scans in different regions of the body in a total of forty-nine patients. Organ doses from the CT component were calculated using the software CT-Expo. The associated cancer risk was calculated in terms of life time risk of cancer incidence resulting from a specified dose of ionizing radiation and was expressed in terms of Lifetime Attributable Risk (LAR). LAR values and the organ doses estimated for males and females were used to estimate the lifetime risk of cancer incidence from whole body 18 FDG PET/CT scan. Since from 18 FDG whole body PET/CT investigations, various tissues of the body receive substantially different doses, the site specific risk of cancer incidence was estimated and summed to obtain the total risk. This was compared with the baseline lifetime risk of cancer incidence in Indian population. LAR of cancer incidence was observed to be relatively higher in females as compared to males. The risk estimates ranged from 0.36% to 0.49% for a 20 year old male and 0.58% to 0.79% for a 20 year old female and were observed to be higher in younger ages and decreased with age. 18 FDG whole body PET/CT investigation was observed to be associated with non-negligible radiation risk as compared to the risks associated with other diagnostic modalities. (author)

  16. Comparing cancer screening estimates: Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System and National Health Interview Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauer, Ann Goding; Liu, Benmei; Siegel, Rebecca L; Jemal, Ahmedin; Fedewa, Stacey A

    2018-01-01

    Cancer screening prevalence from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS), designed to provide state-level estimates, and the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS), designed to provide national estimates, are used to measure progress in cancer control. A detailed description of the extent to which recent cancer screening estimates vary by key demographic characteristics has not been previously described. We examined national prevalence estimates for recommended breast, cervical, and colorectal cancer screening using data from the 2012 and 2014 BRFSS and the 2010 and 2013 NHIS. Treating the NHIS estimates as the reference, direct differences (DD) were calculated by subtracting NHIS estimates from BRFSS estimates. Relative differences were computed by dividing the DD by the NHIS estimates. Two-sample t-tests (2-tails), were performed to test for statistically significant differences. BRFSS screening estimates were higher than those from NHIS for breast (78.4% versus 72.5%; DD=5.9%, pNHIS, each survey has a unique and important role in providing information to track cancer screening utilization among various populations. Awareness of these differences and their potential causes is important when comparing the surveys and determining the best application for each data source. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Estimating radiation-induced cancer risk using MVK two-stage model for carcinogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kai, M.; Kusama, T.; Aoki, Y.

    1993-01-01

    Based on the carcinogenesis model as proposed by Moolgavkar et al., time-dependent relative risk models were derived for projecting the time variation in excess relative risk. If it is assumed that each process is described by time-independent linear dose-response relationship, the time variation in excess relative risk is influenced by the parameter related with the promotion process. The risk model based carcinogenesis theory would play a marked role in estimating radiation-induced cancer risk in constructing a projection model or transfer model

  18. Estimation of lung cancer risk from environmental exposure to airborne plutonium from the Rocky Flats Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutherland, J.V.

    1983-01-01

    A three-phase study was undertaken to (1) determine the nature of disagreement among scientists concerning risk of environmental release of plutonium, (2) develop an analytic procedure for determining risk based on clearly stated principles defensible by reference to the literature, and (3) develop estimates of radiation dose to the lung from exposure to plutonium in ambient air for the purpose of evaluating risk to an individual with a specified age and smoking history. Eleven epidemiologists, biostatisticians and radiation scientists participated in Phase I of the study. It was shown that no clearly stated analytical principles for risk estimation were in common use, resulting in widely divergent risk estimates. Five of these disagreeing scientists in Phase I (including all cancer epidemiologists in the Denver metropolitan area) were chosen for Phase II of the study. A single analytic procedure was developed which was unanimously agreed upon. This procedure was dependent on the estimate of dose to the lung from ambient air levels of Rocky Flats plutonium. In Phase III of the study, a panel of four radiation scientists developed a procedure for estimation of dose to the lung from chronic exposure to plutonium ambient air levels. Results from all phases of the study were used to develop a method for estimation of relative risk of lung cancer for an individual, given plutonium dose to the lung, age, smoking history and other radiation exposure

  19. Comparison of additive (absolute) risk projection models and multiplicative (relative) risk projection models in estimating radiation-induced lifetime cancer risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kai, Michiaki; Kusama, Tomoko

    1990-01-01

    Lifetime cancer risk estimates depend on risk projection models. While the increasing lengths of follow-up observation periods of atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki bring about changes in cancer risk estimates, the validity of the two risk projection models, the additive risk projection model (AR) and multiplicative risk projection model (MR), comes into question. This paper compares the lifetime risk or loss of life-expectancy between the two projection models on the basis of BEIR-III report or recently published RERF report. With Japanese cancer statistics the estimates of MR were greater than those of AR, but a reversal of these results was seen when the cancer hazard function for India was used. When we investigated the validity of the two projection models using epidemiological human data and animal data, the results suggested that MR was superior to AR with respect to temporal change, but there was little evidence to support its validity. (author)

  20. Cancer risk estimation for mixtures of coal tars and benzo(a)pyrene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaylor, D.W.; Culp, S.J.; Goldstein, L.S.; Beland, F.A.

    2000-01-01

    Two-year chronic bioassays were conducted by using B6C3F1 female mice fed several concentrations of two different mixtures of coal tars from manufactured gas waste sites or benzo(a)pyrene (BaP). The purpose of the study was to obtain estimates of cancer potency of coal tar mixtures, by using conventional regulatory methods, for use in manufactured gas waste site remediation. A secondary purpose was to investigate the validity of using the concentration of a single potent carcinogen, in this case benzo(a)pyrene, to estimate the relative risk for a coal tar mixture. The study has shown that BaP dominates the cancer risk when its concentration is greater than 6,300 ppm in the coal tar mixture. In this case the most sensitive tissue site is the forestomach. Using low-dose linear extrapolation, the lifetime cancer risk for humans is estimated to be: Risk -4 (ppm coal tar in total diet) + 240 x 10 -4 (ppm BaP in total diet), based on forestomach tumors. If the BaP concentration in the coal tar mixture is less than 6,300 ppm, the more likely case, then lung tumors provide the largest estimated upper limit of risk, Risk -4 (ppm coal tar in total diet), with no contribution of BaP to lung tumors. The upper limit of the cancer potency (slope factor) for lifetime oral exposure to benzo(a)pyrene is 1.2 x 10 -3 per microg per kg body weight per day from this Good Laboratory Practice (GLP) study compared with the current value of 7.3 x 10 -3 per microg per kg body weight per day listed in the US EPA Integrated Risk Information System

  1. Radiation dose and cancer risk estimates in helical CT for pulmonary tuberculosis infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adeleye Bamise

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The preference for computed tomography (CT for the clinical assessment of pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB infections has increased the concern about the potential risk of cancer in exposed patients. In this study, we investigated the correlation between cancer risk and radiation doses from different CT scanners, assuming an equivalent scan protocol. Radiation doses from three 16-slice units were estimated using the CT-Expo dosimetry software version 2.4 and standard CT scan protocol for patients with suspected PTB infections. The lifetime risk of cancer for each scanner was determined using the methodology outlined in the BEIR VII report. Organ doses were significantly different (P < 0.05 between the scanners. The calculated effective dose for scanner H2 is 34% and 37% higher than scanners H3 and H1 respectively. A high and statistically significant correlation was observed between estimated lifetime cancer risk for both male (r2 = 0.943, P < 0.05 and female patients (r2 = 0.989, P < 0.05. The risk variation between the scanners was slightly higher than 2% for all ages but was much smaller for specific ages for male and female patients (0.2% and 0.7%, respectively. These variations provide an indication that the use of a scanner optimizing protocol is imperative.

  2. Radiation dose and cancer risk estimates in helical CT for pulmonary tuberculosis infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adeleye, Bamise; Chetty, Naven

    2017-12-01

    The preference for computed tomography (CT) for the clinical assessment of pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) infections has increased the concern about the potential risk of cancer in exposed patients. In this study, we investigated the correlation between cancer risk and radiation doses from different CT scanners, assuming an equivalent scan protocol. Radiation doses from three 16-slice units were estimated using the CT-Expo dosimetry software version 2.4 and standard CT scan protocol for patients with suspected PTB infections. The lifetime risk of cancer for each scanner was determined using the methodology outlined in the BEIR VII report. Organ doses were significantly different (P < 0.05) between the scanners. The calculated effective dose for scanner H2 is 34% and 37% higher than scanners H3 and H1 respectively. A high and statistically significant correlation was observed between estimated lifetime cancer risk for both male (r2 = 0.943, P < 0.05) and female patients (r2 = 0.989, P < 0.05). The risk variation between the scanners was slightly higher than 2% for all ages but was much smaller for specific ages for male and female patients (0.2% and 0.7%, respectively). These variations provide an indication that the use of a scanner optimizing protocol is imperative.

  3. [Estimation of the excess of lung cancer mortality risk associated to environmental tobacco smoke exposure of hospitality workers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, M José; Nebot, Manel; Juárez, Olga; Ariza, Carles; Salles, Joan; Serrahima, Eulàlia

    2006-01-14

    To estimate the excess lung cancer mortality risk associated with environmental tobacco (ETS) smoke exposure among hospitality workers. The estimation was done using objective measures in several hospitality settings in Barcelona. Vapour phase nicotine was measured in several hospitality settings. These measurements were used to estimate the excess lung cancer mortality risk associated with ETS exposure for a 40 year working life, using the formula developed by Repace and Lowrey. Excess lung cancer mortality risk associated with ETS exposure was higher than 145 deaths per 100,000 workers in all places studied, except for cafeterias in hospitals, where excess lung cancer mortality risk was 22 per 100,000. In discoteques, for comparison, excess lung cancer mortality risk is 1,733 deaths per 100,000 workers. Hospitality workers are exposed to ETS levels related to a very high excess lung cancer mortality risk. These data confirm that ETS control measures are needed to protect hospital workers.

  4. Some statistical considerations related to the estimation of cancer risk following exposure to ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Land, C.E.; Pierce, D.A.

    1983-01-01

    Statistical theory and methodology provide the logical structure for scientific inference about the cancer risk associated with exposure to ionizing radiation. Although much is known about radiation carcinogenesis, the risk associated with low-level exposures is difficult to assess because it is too small to measure directly. Estimation must therefore depend upon mathematical models which relate observed risks at high exposure levels to risks at lower exposure levels. Extrapolated risk estimates obtained using such models are heavily dependent upon assumptions about the shape of the dose-response relationship, the temporal distribution of risk following exposure, and variation of risk according to variables such as age at exposure, sex, and underlying population cancer rates. Expanded statistical models, which make explicit certain assumed relationships between different data sets, can be used to strengthen inferences by incorporating relevant information from diverse sources. They also allow the uncertainties inherent in information from related data sets to be expressed in estimates which partially depend upon that information. To the extent that informed opinion is based upon a valid assessment of scientific data, the larger context of decision theory, which includes statistical theory, provides a logical framework for the incorporation into public policy decisions of the informational content of expert opinion

  5. Estimates of cancer deaths attributable to behavioural risk factors in Italy, 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battisti, Francesca; Carreras, Giulia; Grassi, Tommaso; Chellini, Elisabetta; Gorini, Giuseppe

    2017-01-01

    "Non-communicable diseases cause more than 80% of deaths in europe and, among these, 20% are caused by cancer. Modifiable lifestyle factors considered in the italian national programme "Guadagnare salute" (Gaining health), such as tobacco smoking, unhealthy diet, physical inactivity, overweight, and excessive alcohol use, are amongst the major causes of cancer deaths. The aims of this study was to estimate the number of deaths attributable to lifestyle factors for italy and for italian regions in 2013 and to describe its variation in relation to the regional prevalence of risk factors exposure. For Italy and for each italian region, deaths attributable to lifestyle factors were estimated using the methodology of the Global Burden of disease (GBd) study. italian mortality data of 2013 and risks attributable to these lifestyle factors for each cancer site for italy from the GBd study were used. Prevalence of exposure to lifestyles in Italy and in each Italian Region was collected for the period 2008-2013. In 2013, at least 66,605 cancer deaths in italy were attributable to lifestyle factors, accounting for 37.9% of all cancer deaths: 34.1% of cancer deaths in men and 9.0% in women were attributable to smoking; in men and women, respectively, 3.3% and 2.8% were attributable to excessive alcohol consumption; 5.3 % and 6.7% to overweight; 10.1% and 7.1% to dietary risk factors; 1.9% and 4.2% to physical inactivity. A moderate variability of percentage of deaths attributable to modifi able lifestyle factors by region was also detected due to different prevalence values of exposure to lifestyles occurred in last decades. At least 45,000 cancer deaths in men and 21,000 in women occurred in 2013 were attributable to modifi able risk factors, whose prevalence varied by region and which could be averted through the implementation of primary prevention interventions."

  6. Introduction to dosimetry and risk estimation of second cancer induction following radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrison, R.M.

    2013-01-01

    This brief review of dosimetry in second cancer dosimetry introduces work carried out by Working Group 9 (Radiation Protection Dosimetry in Medicine) of the European Radiation Dosimetry Group (EURADOS). The work described in the following papers in this edition was presented at a Workshop on Dosimetry for Second Cancer Risk Estimation given at the EURADOS Annual meeting in Vienna on February 8th 2012. The work concentrates on the measurement of out-of-field doses in water tanks and BOMAB-like phantoms using a variety of dosimeters to measure photon and neutron doses. These include optically stimulated luminescence (OSL), radiophotoluminescence (RPL) and thermoluminescence (TLD) dosimeters for photon dosimetry (together with ion chambers for reference measurements traceable to primary standards) and track etch and bubble detectors for neutron measurements. A discussion of the various phantoms available for these measurements is presented together with a brief introduction to a model for the relationship between organ doses and the risk of induction of second cancers. The estimation of second cancer risks is not trivial and involves processes which are currently incompletely understood. However, progress in this field requires a robust foundation and methodology for the measurement or calculation of organ doses following radiotherapy, so that risks can be placed in perspective, algorithms for out-of-field doses can be compared with measured data, and future epidemiological studies may have a reliable foundation of organ dosimetry for retrospective dosimetry studies. -- Highlights: ► Brief review of second cancer induction following radiotherapy. ► Out-of-field doses for estimating risks to remote organs. ► Introduction to dosimetry techniques and dosimeters used. ► Out-of-field dose measurements in phantoms

  7. Cancer risk estimates from radiation therapy for heterotopic ossification prophylaxis after total hip arthroplasty

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazonakis, Michalis; Berris, Theoharris; Damilakis, John [Department of Medical Physics, Faculty of Medicine, University of Crete, P.O. Box 2208, 71003 Iraklion, Crete (Greece); Lyraraki, Efrossyni [Department of Radiotherapy and Oncology, University Hospital of Iraklion, 71110 Iraklion, Crete (Greece)

    2013-10-15

    Purpose: Heterotopic ossification (HO) is a frequent complication following total hip arthroplasty. This study was conducted to calculate the radiation dose to organs-at-risk and estimate the probability of cancer induction from radiotherapy for HO prophylaxis.Methods: Hip irradiation for HO with a 6 MV photon beam was simulated with the aid of a Monte Carlo model. A realistic humanoid phantom representing an average adult patient was implemented in Monte Carlo environment for dosimetric calculations. The average out-of-field radiation dose to stomach, liver, lung, prostate, bladder, thyroid, breast, uterus, and ovary was calculated. The organ-equivalent-dose to colon, that was partly included within the treatment field, was also determined. Organ dose calculations were carried out using three different field sizes. The dependence of organ doses upon the block insertion into primary beam for shielding colon and prosthesis was investigated. The lifetime attributable risk for cancer development was estimated using organ, age, and gender-specific risk coefficients.Results: For a typical target dose of 7 Gy, organ doses varied from 1.0 to 741.1 mGy by the field dimensions and organ location relative to the field edge. Blocked field irradiations resulted in a dose range of 1.4–146.3 mGy. The most probable detriment from open field treatment of male patients was colon cancer with a high risk of 564.3 × 10{sup −5} to 837.4 × 10{sup −5} depending upon the organ dose magnitude and the patient's age. The corresponding colon cancer risk for female patients was (372.2–541.0) × 10{sup −5}. The probability of bladder cancer development was more than 113.7 × 10{sup −5} and 110.3 × 10{sup −5} for males and females, respectively. The cancer risk range to other individual organs was reduced to (0.003–68.5) × 10{sup −5}.Conclusions: The risk for cancer induction from radiation therapy for HO prophylaxis after total hip arthroplasty varies considerably by

  8. Cancer risk estimates from radiation therapy for heterotopic ossification prophylaxis after total hip arthroplasty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazonakis, Michalis; Berris, Theoharris; Damilakis, John; Lyraraki, Efrossyni

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Heterotopic ossification (HO) is a frequent complication following total hip arthroplasty. This study was conducted to calculate the radiation dose to organs-at-risk and estimate the probability of cancer induction from radiotherapy for HO prophylaxis.Methods: Hip irradiation for HO with a 6 MV photon beam was simulated with the aid of a Monte Carlo model. A realistic humanoid phantom representing an average adult patient was implemented in Monte Carlo environment for dosimetric calculations. The average out-of-field radiation dose to stomach, liver, lung, prostate, bladder, thyroid, breast, uterus, and ovary was calculated. The organ-equivalent-dose to colon, that was partly included within the treatment field, was also determined. Organ dose calculations were carried out using three different field sizes. The dependence of organ doses upon the block insertion into primary beam for shielding colon and prosthesis was investigated. The lifetime attributable risk for cancer development was estimated using organ, age, and gender-specific risk coefficients.Results: For a typical target dose of 7 Gy, organ doses varied from 1.0 to 741.1 mGy by the field dimensions and organ location relative to the field edge. Blocked field irradiations resulted in a dose range of 1.4–146.3 mGy. The most probable detriment from open field treatment of male patients was colon cancer with a high risk of 564.3 × 10 −5 to 837.4 × 10 −5 depending upon the organ dose magnitude and the patient's age. The corresponding colon cancer risk for female patients was (372.2–541.0) × 10 −5 . The probability of bladder cancer development was more than 113.7 × 10 −5 and 110.3 × 10 −5 for males and females, respectively. The cancer risk range to other individual organs was reduced to (0.003–68.5) × 10 −5 .Conclusions: The risk for cancer induction from radiation therapy for HO prophylaxis after total hip arthroplasty varies considerably by the treatment parameters, organ

  9. Radiation risk estimation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schull, W.J.; Texas Univ., Houston, TX

    1992-01-01

    Estimation of the risk of cancer following exposure to ionizing radiation remains largely empirical, and models used to adduce risk incorporate few, if any, of the advances in molecular biology of a past decade or so. These facts compromise the estimation risk where the epidemiological data are weakest, namely, at low doses and dose rates. Without a better understanding of the molecular and cellular events ionizing radiation initiates or promotes, it seems unlikely that this situation will improve. Nor will the situation improve without further attention to the identification and quantitative estimation of the effects of those host and environmental factors that enhance or attenuate risk. (author)

  10. Screening effects on thyroid cancer risk estimates for populations affected by the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacob, P.; Kaiser, J. C.; Vavilov, S.E.; Bogdanova, T.; Tronko, N. D.

    2004-01-01

    Simulation calculations are performed in order to explore the ecological bias in studies as they are performed with settlement specific data in the aftemath of the Chernobyl accident. Based on methods, that were developed by Lubin for exploring the ecologic bias due to smoking in indoor radon studies of lung cancer, the influence of the introduction of ultrasound devices and enhanced medical surveillance on the detection and reporting of thyroid cancer cases was investigated. Calculations were performed by simulating thyroid doses of one million children in a total of 744 settlements and assuming a linear dependence of the risk on dose and various scenarios of the screening. The dose distributions simulate the distributions similar to those used in previous ecologic studies of the thyroid cancer risk in Ukraine after the Chernobyl accident. The ecologic bias was defined as the ratio of risk coefficients derived from an ecological study to the corresponding risk factor in the underlying risl model. the ecologic bias was estimated for each of the screening scenarios. Analytical equations were derived that allow the exact numerical compuation of the bias which is determined by covariance terms between the increased detection and reporting on one side and thyroid dose values (individual and averaged for the settlements) on the other side. Nested in th epopulation data, a cohort study was simulated with 10 000 individuals and an average thyroid dose of 0.3 Gy. the present study underlines the different scopes of the ecologic and cohort study designs perfomed in the aftermed of the Chernobyl accident. Whereas the ecologic studies give an estimate of the excess thyroid cancer risks per unit dose under the conditions of a health care system as it is typical for the affected countries after the Chernobyl accident, the cohort study gives risk estimates within a well screened cohort. Due to the strong screening effects, excess absoulte risks in the ecological study cohort are

  11. Theoretical epidemiology applied to health physics: estimation of the risk of radiation-induced breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutherland, J.V.

    1983-01-01

    Indirect estimation of low-dose radiation hazards is possible using the multihit model of carcinogenesis. This model is based on cancer incidence data collected over many decades on tens of millions of people. Available data on human radiation effects can be introduced into the modeling process without the requirement that these data precisely define the model to be used. This reduction in the information demanded from the limited data on human radiation effects allows a more rational approach to estimation of low-dose radiation hazards and helps to focus attention on research directed towards understanding the process of carcinogenesis, rather than on repeating human or animal experiments that cannot provide sufficient data to resolve the low-dose estimation problem. Assessment of the risk of radiation-induced breast cancer provides an excellent example of the utility of multihit modeling procedures

  12. Age- and Tumor Subtype-Specific Breast Cancer Risk Estimates for CHEK2*1100delC Carriers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Marjanka K; Hogervorst, Frans; van Hien, Richard R

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: CHEK2*1100delC is a well-established breast cancer risk variant that is most prevalent in European populations; however, there are limited data on risk of breast cancer by age and tumor subtype, which limits its usefulness in breast cancer risk prediction. We aimed to generate tumor...... subtype- and age-specific risk estimates by using data from the Breast Cancer Association Consortium, including 44,777 patients with breast cancer and 42,997 controls from 33 studies genotyped for CHEK2*1100delC. PATIENTS AND METHODS: CHEK2*1100delC genotyping was mostly done by a custom Taqman assay....... Breast cancer odds ratios (ORs) for CHEK2*1100delC carriers versus noncarriers were estimated by using logistic regression and adjusted for study (categorical) and age. Main analyses included patients with invasive breast cancer from population- and hospital-based studies. RESULTS: Proportions...

  13. Challenges in risk estimation using routinely collected clinical data: The example of estimating cervical cancer risks from electronic health-records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landy, Rebecca; Cheung, Li C; Schiffman, Mark; Gage, Julia C; Hyun, Noorie; Wentzensen, Nicolas; Kinney, Walter K; Castle, Philip E; Fetterman, Barbara; Poitras, Nancy E; Lorey, Thomas; Sasieni, Peter D; Katki, Hormuzd A

    2018-06-01

    Electronic health-records (EHR) are increasingly used by epidemiologists studying disease following surveillance testing to provide evidence for screening intervals and referral guidelines. Although cost-effective, undiagnosed prevalent disease and interval censoring (in which asymptomatic disease is only observed at the time of testing) raise substantial analytic issues when estimating risk that cannot be addressed using Kaplan-Meier methods. Based on our experience analysing EHR from cervical cancer screening, we previously proposed the logistic-Weibull model to address these issues. Here we demonstrate how the choice of statistical method can impact risk estimates. We use observed data on 41,067 women in the cervical cancer screening program at Kaiser Permanente Northern California, 2003-2013, as well as simulations to evaluate the ability of different methods (Kaplan-Meier, Turnbull, Weibull and logistic-Weibull) to accurately estimate risk within a screening program. Cumulative risk estimates from the statistical methods varied considerably, with the largest differences occurring for prevalent disease risk when baseline disease ascertainment was random but incomplete. Kaplan-Meier underestimated risk at earlier times and overestimated risk at later times in the presence of interval censoring or undiagnosed prevalent disease. Turnbull performed well, though was inefficient and not smooth. The logistic-Weibull model performed well, except when event times didn't follow a Weibull distribution. We have demonstrated that methods for right-censored data, such as Kaplan-Meier, result in biased estimates of disease risks when applied to interval-censored data, such as screening programs using EHR data. The logistic-Weibull model is attractive, but the model fit must be checked against Turnbull non-parametric risk estimates. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Development and validation of risk prediction equations to estimate survival in patients with colorectal cancer: cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Hippisley-Cox, Julia; Coupland, Carol

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To develop and externally validate risk prediction equations to estimate absolute and conditional survival in patients with colorectal cancer. \\ud \\ud Design: Cohort study.\\ud \\ud Setting: General practices in England providing data for the QResearch database linked to the national cancer registry.\\ud \\ud Participants: 44 145 patients aged 15-99 with colorectal cancer from 947 practices to derive the equations. The equations were validated in 15 214 patients with colorectal cancer ...

  15. Estimated risk for secondary cancer in the contra-lateral breast following radiation therapy of breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johansen, Safora; Danielsen, Turi; Olsen, Dag Rune

    2008-01-01

    Purpose. To facilitate a discussion about the impact of dose heterogeneity on the risk for secondary contralateral breast (CB) cancer predicted with linear and non linear models associated with primary breast irradiation. Methods and materials. Dose volume statistics of the CB calculated for eight patients using a collapsed cone algorithm were used to predict the excess relative risk (ERR) for cancer induction in CB. Both linear and non-linear models were employed. A sensitivity analysis demonstrating the impact of different parameter values on calculated ERR for the eight patients was also included in this study. Results. A proportionality assumption was established to make the calculations with a linear and non-linear model comparable. ERR of secondary cancer predicted by the linear model varied considerably between the patients, while the predicted ERR for the same patients using the non-linear model showed very small variation. The predicted ERRs by the two models were indistinguishable for small doses, i.e. below ∼3 Gy. The sensitivity analysis showed that the quadratic component of the radiation-induction pre-malignant cell term is negligible for lower dose level. The ERR is highly sensitive to the value of agr1 and agr2. Conclusions. Optimization of breast cancer radiation therapy, where also the risk for radiation induced secondary malignancies in the contralateral breast is taken into account, requires robust and valid risk assessment. The linear dose-risk model does not account for the complexity in the mechanisms underlying the development of secondary malignancies following exposure to radiation; this is particularly important when estimating risk associated with highly heterogeneous dose distributions as is the case in the contralateral breast of women receiving breast cancer irradiation

  16. Bomb survivor selection and consequences for estimates of population cancer risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Little, M.P.; Charles, M.W.

    1990-01-01

    Health records of the Japanese bomb survivor population [with the 1965 (T65D) and 1986 (DS86) dosimetry systems] have been analyzed and some evidence found for the selection effect hypothesized by Stewart and Kneale. This is found to be significant in only the first of the periods examined (1950-1958), and the effect diminishes in magnitude thereafter. There are indications that the effect might be an artifact of the T65D dosimetry, in which it is observed more strongly than in the DS86 data. There is no evidence to suggest that selection on this basis might confer correspondingly reduced susceptibility to radiation-induced cancer. If, however, one makes this assumption, as suggested by Stewart and Kneale, then current estimates of population cancer risks might need to be inflated by between 5% and 35% (for excess cancer deaths, Gy-1) or between 8% and 40% (for years of life lost, Gy-1) to account for this. It is likely that these figures, even assuming them not to be simply an artifact of the T65D dosimetry, overestimate the degree of adjustment required to the risk estimates

  17. Breast Cancer Risk Estimation Using Parenchymal Texture Analysis in Digital Breast Tomosynthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikejimba, Lynda C.; Kontos, Despina; Maidment, Andrew D. A.

    2010-01-01

    Mammographic parenchymal texture has been shown to correlate with genetic markers of developing breast cancer. Digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) is a novel x-ray imaging technique in which tomographic images of the breast are reconstructed from multiple source projections acquired at different angles of the x-ray tube. Compared to digital mammography (DM), DBT eliminates breast tissue overlap, offering superior parenchymal tissue visualization. We hypothesize that texture analysis in DBT could potentially provide a better assessment of parenchymal texture and ultimately result in more accurate assessment of breast cancer risk. As a first step towards validating this hypothesis, we investigated the association between DBT parenchymal texture and breast percent density (PD), a known breast cancer risk factor, and compared it to DM. Bilateral DBT and DM images from 71 women participating in a breast cancer screening trial were analyzed. Filtered-backprojection was used to reconstruct DBT tomographic planes in 1 mm increments with 0.22 mm in-plane resolution. Corresponding DM images were acquired at 0.1 mm pixel resolution. Retroareolar regions of interest (ROIs) equivalent to 2.5 cm 3 were segmented from the DBT images and corresponding 2.5 cm 2 ROIs were segmented from the DM images. Breast PD was mammographically estimated using the Cumulus scale. Overall, DBT texture features demonstrated a stronger correlation than DM to PD. The Pearson correlation coefficients for DBT were r = 0.40 (p 2 = 0.39) compared to DM (R 2 = 0.33). We attribute these observations to the superior parenchymal tissue visualization in DBT. Our study is the first to perform DBT texture analysis in a screening population of women, showing that DBT could potentially provide better breast cancer risk assessment in the future.

  18. Patient-specific radiation dose and cancer risk estimation in CT: Part II. Application to patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Xiang; Samei, Ehsan; Segars, W. Paul; Sturgeon, Gregory M.; Colsher, James G.; Toncheva, Greta; Yoshizumi, Terry T.; Frush, Donald P. [Medical Physics Graduate Program, Carl E. Ravin Advanced Imaging Laboratories, Department of Radiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27705 (United States); Carl E. Ravin Advanced Imaging Laboratories, Department of Radiology, Medical Physics Graduate Program, Department of Physics, and Department of Biomedical Engineering, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27705 (United States); Carl E. Ravin Advanced Imaging Laboratories, Department of Radiology, Medical Physics Graduate Program, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27705 (United States); Carl E. Ravin Advanced Imaging Laboratories, Department of Radiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27705 and Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599 (United States); Department of Radiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27705 (United States); Duke Radiation Dosimetry Laboratory, Department of Radiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27705 (United States); Duke Radiation Dosimetry Laboratory, Department of Radiology, Medical Physics Graduate Program, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27705 (United States); Division of Pediatric Radiology, Department of Radiology, Medical Physics Graduate Program, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710 (United States)

    2011-01-15

    Purpose: Current methods for estimating and reporting radiation dose from CT examinations are largely patient-generic; the body size and hence dose variation from patient to patient is not reflected. Furthermore, the current protocol designs rely on dose as a surrogate for the risk of cancer incidence, neglecting the strong dependence of risk on age and gender. The purpose of this study was to develop a method for estimating patient-specific radiation dose and cancer risk from CT examinations. Methods: The study included two patients (a 5-week-old female patient and a 12-year-old male patient), who underwent 64-slice CT examinations (LightSpeed VCT, GE Healthcare) of the chest, abdomen, and pelvis at our institution in 2006. For each patient, a nonuniform rational B-spine (NURBS) based full-body computer model was created based on the patient's clinical CT data. Large organs and structures inside the image volume were individually segmented and modeled. Other organs were created by transforming an existing adult male or female full-body computer model (developed from visible human data) to match the framework defined by the segmented organs, referencing the organ volume and anthropometry data in ICRP Publication 89. A Monte Carlo program previously developed and validated for dose simulation on the LightSpeed VCT scanner was used to estimate patient-specific organ dose, from which effective dose and risks of cancer incidence were derived. Patient-specific organ dose and effective dose were compared with patient-generic CT dose quantities in current clinical use: the volume-weighted CT dose index (CTDI{sub vol}) and the effective dose derived from the dose-length product (DLP). Results: The effective dose for the CT examination of the newborn patient (5.7 mSv) was higher but comparable to that for the CT examination of the teenager patient (4.9 mSv) due to the size-based clinical CT protocols at our institution, which employ lower scan techniques for smaller

  19. Sensitivity Analysis of Median Lifetime on Radiation Risks Estimates for Cancer and Circulatory Disease amongst Never-Smokers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chappell, Lori J.; Cucinotta, Francis A.

    2011-01-01

    Radiation risks are estimated in a competing risk formalism where age or time after exposure estimates of increased risks for cancer and circulatory diseases are folded with a probability to survive to a given age. The survival function, also called the life-table, changes with calendar year, gender, smoking status and other demographic variables. An outstanding problem in risk estimation is the method of risk transfer between exposed populations and a second population where risks are to be estimated. Approaches used to transfer risks are based on: 1) Multiplicative risk transfer models -proportional to background disease rates. 2) Additive risk transfer model -risks independent of background rates. In addition, a Mixture model is often considered where the multiplicative and additive transfer assumptions are given weighted contributions. We studied the influence of the survival probability on the risk of exposure induced cancer and circulatory disease morbidity and mortality in the Multiplicative transfer model and the Mixture model. Risks for never-smokers (NS) compared to the average U.S. population are estimated to be reduced between 30% and 60% dependent on model assumptions. Lung cancer is the major contributor to the reduction for NS, with additional contributions from circulatory diseases and cancers of the stomach, liver, bladder, oral cavity, esophagus, colon, a portion of the solid cancer remainder, and leukemia. Greater improvements in risk estimates for NS s are possible, and would be dependent on improved understanding of risk transfer models, and elucidating the role of space radiation on the various stages of disease formation (e.g. initiation, promotion, and progression).

  20. Estimating the risks of cancer mortality and genetic defects resulting from exposures to low levels of ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buhl, T.E.; Hansen, W.R.

    1984-05-01

    Estimators for calculating the risk of cancer and genetic disorders induced by exposure to ionizing radiation have been recommended by the US National Academy of Sciences Committee on the Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiations, the UN Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation, and the International Committee on Radiological Protection. These groups have also considered the risks of somatic effects other than cancer. The US National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements has discussed risk estimate procedures for radiation-induced health effects. The recommendations of these national and international advisory committees are summarized and compared in this report. Based on this review, two procedures for risk estimation are presented for use in radiological assessments performed by the US Department of Energy under the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA). In the first procedure, age- and sex-averaged risk estimators calculated with US average demographic statistics would be used with estimates of radiation dose to calculate the projected risk of cancer and genetic disorders that would result from the operation being reviewed under NEPA. If more site-specific risk estimators are needed, and the demographic information is available, a second procedure is described that would involve direct calculation of the risk estimators using recommended risk-rate factors. The computer program REPCAL has been written to perform this calculation and is described in this report. 25 references, 16 tables

  1. Estimating the risks of cancer mortality and genetic defects resulting from exposures to low levels of ionizing radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buhl, T.E.; Hansen, W.R.

    1984-05-01

    Estimators for calculating the risk of cancer and genetic disorders induced by exposure to ionizing radiation have been recommended by the US National Academy of Sciences Committee on the Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiations, the UN Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation, and the International Committee on Radiological Protection. These groups have also considered the risks of somatic effects other than cancer. The US National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements has discussed risk estimate procedures for radiation-induced health effects. The recommendations of these national and international advisory committees are summarized and compared in this report. Based on this review, two procedures for risk estimation are presented for use in radiological assessments performed by the US Department of Energy under the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA). In the first procedure, age- and sex-averaged risk estimators calculated with US average demographic statistics would be used with estimates of radiation dose to calculate the projected risk of cancer and genetic disorders that would result from the operation being reviewed under NEPA. If more site-specific risk estimators are needed, and the demographic information is available, a second procedure is described that would involve direct calculation of the risk estimators using recommended risk-rate factors. The computer program REPCAL has been written to perform this calculation and is described in this report. 25 references, 16 tables.

  2. A framework for estimating radiation-related cancer risks in Japan from the 2011 Fukushima nuclear accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, L; Zhang, W; Shore, R E; Auvinen, A; Laurier, D; Wakeford, R; Jacob, P; Gent, N; Anspaugh, L R; Schüz, J; Kesminiene, A; van Deventer, E; Tritscher, A; del Rosarion Pérez, M

    2014-11-01

    We present here a methodology for health risk assessment adopted by the World Health Organization that provides a framework for estimating risks from the Fukushima nuclear accident after the March 11, 2011 Japanese major earthquake and tsunami. Substantial attention has been given to the possible health risks associated with human exposure to radiation from damaged reactors at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power station. Cumulative doses were estimated and applied for each post-accident year of life, based on a reference level of exposure during the first year after the earthquake. A lifetime cumulative dose of twice the first year dose was estimated for the primary radionuclide contaminants ((134)Cs and (137)Cs) and are based on Chernobyl data, relative abundances of cesium isotopes, and cleanup efforts. Risks for particularly radiosensitive cancer sites (leukemia, thyroid and breast cancer), as well as the combined risk for all solid cancers were considered. The male and female cumulative risks of cancer incidence attributed to radiation doses from the accident, for those exposed at various ages, were estimated in terms of the lifetime attributable risk (LAR). Calculations of LAR were based on recent Japanese population statistics for cancer incidence and current radiation risk models from the Life Span Study of Japanese A-bomb survivors. Cancer risks over an initial period of 15 years after first exposure were also considered. LAR results were also given as a percentage of the lifetime baseline risk (i.e., the cancer risk in the absence of radiation exposure from the accident). The LAR results were based on either a reference first year dose (10 mGy) or a reference lifetime dose (20 mGy) so that risk assessment may be applied for relocated and non-relocated members of the public, as well as for adult male emergency workers. The results show that the major contribution to LAR from the reference lifetime dose comes from the first year dose. For a dose of 10 mGy in

  3. Assessing Breast Cancer Risk Estimates Based on the Gail Model and Its Predictors in Qatari Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bener, Abdulbari; Çatan, Funda; El Ayoubi, Hanadi R; Acar, Ahmet; Ibrahim, Wanis H

    2017-07-01

    The Gail model is the most widely used breast cancer risk assessment tool. An accurate assessment of individual's breast cancer risk is very important for prevention of the disease and for the health care providers to make decision on taking chemoprevention for high-risk women in clinical practice in Qatar. To assess the breast cancer risk among Arab women population in Qatar using the Gail model and provide a global comparison of risk assessment. In this cross-sectional study of 1488 women (aged 35 years and older), we used the Gail Risk Assessment Tool to assess the risk of developing breast cancer. Sociodemographic features such as age, lifestyle habits, body mass index, breast-feeding duration, consanguinity among parents, and family history of breast cancer were considered as possible risks. The mean age of the study population was 47.8 ± 10.8 years. Qatari women and Arab women constituted 64.7% and 35.3% of the study population, respectively. The mean 5-year and lifetime breast cancer risks were 1.12 ± 0.52 and 10.57 ± 3.1, respectively. Consanguineous marriage among parents was seen in 30.6% of participants. We found a relationship between the 5-year and lifetime risks of breast cancer and variables such as age, age at menarche, gravidity, parity, body mass index, family history of cancer, menopause age, occupation, and level of education. The linear regression analysis identified the predictors for breast cancer in women such as age, age at menarche, age of first birth, family history and age of menopausal were considered the strong predictors and significant contributing risk factors for breast cancer after adjusting for ethnicity, parity and other variables. The current study is the first to evaluate the performance of the Gail model for Arab women population in the Gulf Cooperation Council. Gail model is an appropriate breast cancer risk assessment tool for female population in Qatar.

  4. An estimate of the radiation-induced cancer risk from the whole-body stray radiation exposure in neutron radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geraci, J.P.; Jackson, K.L.; Mariano, M.S.

    1982-01-01

    1980 BEIR III risk factors have been used to estimate the secondary cancer risks from the whole-body stray radiation exposures occurring in neutron radiotherapy. Risks were calculated using linear, linear-quadratic and quadratic dose-response models for the gamma component of the stray radiation. The linear dose-response model was used to calculate risk for the neutron component of the stray radiation. These estimates take into consideration for the first time the age and sex distribution of patients undergoing neutron therapy. Changes in risk as a function of the RBE (10-100) assigned to the stray neutron radiation component have also been assessed. Excess risks in neutron-treated patients have been compared with excess risks for photon-treated patients and with the expected incidence of cancer in a normal population having the same age and sex distribution. Results indicate that it will be necessary to tolerate a higher incidence of secondary cancers in patients undergoing fast neutron therapy than is the case with conventional photon therapy. For neutron RBEs of less than 50 the increased risk is only a fraction of the normal expected incidence of cancer in this population. Comparison of the radiation-induced risk with reported normal tissue complication rates in the treatment volume indicates that the excess cancer risk is substantially lower than the risk from other late normal tissue effects. (author)

  5. Estimate of lifetime excess lung cancer risk due to indoor exposure to natural radon-222 daughters in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Si-Young Chang; Jeong-Ho Lee; Chung-Woo Ha

    1993-01-01

    Lifetime excess lung cancer risk due to indoor 222 Rn daughters exposure in Korea was quantitatively estimated by a modified relative risk projection model proposed by the U.S. National Academy of Science and the recent Korean life table data. The lifetime excess risk of lung cancer death attributable to annual constant exposure to Korean indoor radon daughters was estimated to be about 230/10 6 per WLM, which seemed to be nearly in the median of the range of 150-450/10 6 per WLM reported by the UNSCEAR in 1988. (1 fig., 2 tabs.)

  6. Lung cancer among coal miners, ore miners and quarrymen : smoking-adjusted risk estimates from the synergy pooled analysis of case-control studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taeger, Dirk; Pesch, Beate; Kendzia, Benjamin; Behrens, Thomas; Jöckel, Karl-Heinz; Dahmann, Dirk; Siemiatycki, Jack; Kromhout, Hans; Vermeulen, Roel; Peters, Susan; Olsson, Ann; Brüske, Irene; Wichmann, Heinz-Erich; Stücker, Isabelle; Guida, Florence; Tardón, Adonina; Merletti, Franco; Mirabelli, Dario; Richiardi, Lorenzo; Pohlabeln, Hermann; Ahrens, Wolfgang; Landi, Maria Teresa; Caporaso, Neil; Pesatori, Angela Cecilia; Mukeriya, Anush; Szeszenia-Dabrowska, Neonila; Lissowska, Jolanta; Gustavsson, Per; Field, John; Marcus, Michael W; Fabianova, Eleonora; 't Mannetje, Andrea; Pearce, Neil; Rudnai, Peter; Bencko, Vladimir; Janout, Vladimir; Dumitru, Rodica Stanescu; Foretova, Lenka; Forastiere, Francesco; John McLaughlin, John McLaughlin; Paul Demers, Paul Demers; Bas Bueno-de-Mesquita, Bas Bueno-de-Mesquita; Joachim Schüz, Joachim Schüz; Kurt Straif, Kurt Straif; Brüning, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Working in mines and quarries has been associated with an elevated lung cancer risk but with inconsistent results for coal miners. This study aimed to estimate the smoking-adjusted lung cancer risk among coal miners and compare the risk pattern with lung cancer risks among ore miners and

  7. Second cancer incidence risk estimates using BEIR VII models for standard and complex external beam radiotherapy for early breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donovan, E. M.; James, H.; Bonora, M.; Yarnold, J. R.; Evans, P. M. [Joint Department of Physics, Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust and Institute of Cancer Research, Sutton SM2 5PT (United Kingdom); Physics Department, Ipswich Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, Ipswich IP4 5PD (United Kingdom); Department of Academic Radiotherapy, Institute of Cancer Research and Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust, Sutton SM2 5PT, United Kingdom and School of Radiotherapy, University of Milan, Milan 20122 (Italy); Department of Academic Radiotherapy, Institute of Cancer Research and Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust, Sutton SM2 5PT (United Kingdom); Centre for Vision Speech and Signal Processing, University of Surrey, Guildford GU2 7XH (United Kingdom)

    2012-10-15

    contralateral breast doses and LAR were comparable to WBRT, despite their added complexity. The smaller irradiated volume of the ABPI plan contributed to a halving of LAR for contralateral breast compared with the other plan types. Daily image guided radiotherapy (IGRT) for a left breast protocol using kilovoltage CBCT contributed <10% to LAR for the majority of organs, and did not exceed 22% of total organ dose. Conclusions: Phantom measurements and calculations of LAR from the BEIR VII models predict that complex breast radiotherapy techniques do not increase the theoretical risk of second cancer incidence for organs distant from the treated breast, or the contralateral breast where appropriate plan constraints are applied. Complex SIB treatments are predicted to increase the risk of second cancer incidence in the lungs compared to standard whole breast radiotherapy; this is outweighed by the threefold reduction in 5 yr local recurrence risk for patients of high risk of recurrence, and young age, from the use of radiotherapy. APBI may have a favorable impact on risk of second cancer in the contralateral breast and lung for older patients at low risk of recurrence. Intensive use of IGRTincreased the estimated values of LAR but these are dominated by the effect of the dose from the radiotherapy, and any increase in LAR from IGRT is much lower than the models' uncertainties.

  8. Second cancer incidence risk estimates using BEIR VII models for standard and complex external beam radiotherapy for early breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donovan, E. M.; James, H.; Bonora, M.; Yarnold, J. R.; Evans, P. M.

    2012-01-01

    contralateral breast doses and LAR were comparable to WBRT, despite their added complexity. The smaller irradiated volume of the ABPI plan contributed to a halving of LAR for contralateral breast compared with the other plan types. Daily image guided radiotherapy (IGRT) for a left breast protocol using kilovoltage CBCT contributed <10% to LAR for the majority of organs, and did not exceed 22% of total organ dose. Conclusions: Phantom measurements and calculations of LAR from the BEIR VII models predict that complex breast radiotherapy techniques do not increase the theoretical risk of second cancer incidence for organs distant from the treated breast, or the contralateral breast where appropriate plan constraints are applied. Complex SIB treatments are predicted to increase the risk of second cancer incidence in the lungs compared to standard whole breast radiotherapy; this is outweighed by the threefold reduction in 5 yr local recurrence risk for patients of high risk of recurrence, and young age, from the use of radiotherapy. APBI may have a favorable impact on risk of second cancer in the contralateral breast and lung for older patients at low risk of recurrence. Intensive use of IGRTincreased the estimated values of LAR but these are dominated by the effect of the dose from the radiotherapy, and any increase in LAR from IGRT is much lower than the models’ uncertainties.

  9. Recent estimates of the risk of childhood cancer following irradiation of the fetus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilman, E.A.; Kneale, G.W.; Knox, E.G.; Stewart, A.M.

    1989-01-01

    For children born during the period 1939-1979 the authors estimate that 7% of childhood cancers were caused by prenatal X-ray (Knox et al., 1987). The decline in relative risk from the high values of the 1940s to the lower values seen in the late 1960s is probably due to improvements in X-ray techniques and equipment, together with a decline in the number of films used per examination, which resulted in a reduction in dose per examination from a mean of 9 mGy to 3 mGy in 1960. The reason for apparent increase in relative risk in recent years is not clear. The finding that the dose response from terrestrial gamma radiation was three times as great as for prenatal X-ray may be due to exposures from TGR being received throughout pregnancy, including the more sensitive first trimester,. It is also likely that the outdoor TGR measurements used in the analysis are correlated with, and act as an indicator of, level of exposure due to other sources of natural radiation (e.g. indoor gamma and radon). The discrepancy between the findings from the atomic bomb survivors irradiated in utero and those of case/control studies of childhood cancer is discussed. (author)

  10. Attributable causes of cancer in Japan in 2005--systematic assessment to estimate current burden of cancer attributable to known preventable risk factors in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, M; Sawada, N; Matsuda, T; Iwasaki, M; Sasazuki, S; Shimazu, T; Shibuya, K; Tsugane, S

    2012-05-01

    To contribute to evidence-based policy decision making for national cancer control, we conducted a systematic assessment to estimate the current burden of cancer attributable to known preventable risk factors in Japan in 2005. We first estimated the population attributable fractions (PAFs) of each cancer attributable to known risk factors from relative risks derived primarily from Japanese pooled analyses and large-scale cohort studies and the prevalence of exposure in the period around 1990. Using nationwide vital statistics records and incidence estimates, we then estimated the attributable cancer incidence and mortality in 2005. In 2005, ≈ 55% of cancer among men was attributable to preventable risk factors in Japan. The corresponding figure was lower among women, but preventable risk factors still accounted for nearly 30% of cancer. In men, tobacco smoking had the highest PAF (30% for incidence and 35% for mortality, respectively) followed by infectious agents (23% and 23%). In women, in contrast, infectious agents had the highest PAF (18% and 19% for incidence and mortality, respectively) followed by tobacco smoking (6% and 8%). In Japan, tobacco smoking and infections are major causes of cancer. Further control of these factors will contribute to substantial reductions in cancer incidence and mortality in Japan.

  11. Radiobiological risk estimates of adverse events and secondary cancer for proton and photon radiation therapy of pediatric medulloblastoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brodin, N. Patrik (Radiation Medicine Research Center, Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Rigshospitalet, Univ. of Copenhagen (Denmark); Niels Bohr Inst., Faculty of Sciences, Univ. of Copenhagen (Denmark)), e-mail: brodin.patrik@gmail.com; Munck af Rosenschoeld, Per; Aznar, Marianne C.; Vogelius, Ivan R. (Radiation Medicine Research Center, Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Rigshospitalet, Univ. of Copenhagen (Denmark)); Kiil-Berthelsen, Anne (Radiation Medicine Research Center, Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Rigshospitalet, Univ. of Copenhagen (Denmark); Dept. of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine, Centre of Diagnostic Investigations, Rigshospitalet, Univ. of Copenhagen (Denmark)); Nilsson, Per; Bjoerk-Eriksson, Thomas (Dept. of Oncology, Skaane Univ. Hospital and Lund Univ., Lund (Sweden)); Lannering, Birgitta (Dept. of Paediatric Oncology, The Queen Silvia Children' s Hospital, Gothenburg (Sweden))

    2011-08-15

    Introduction. The aim of this model study was to estimate and compare the risk of radiation-induced adverse late effects in pediatric patients with medulloblastoma (MB) treated with either three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D CRT), inversely-optimized arc therapy (RapidArc (RA)) or spot-scanned intensity-modulated proton therapy (IMPT). The aim was also to find dose-volume toxicity parameters relevant to children undergoing RT to be used in the inverse planning of RA and IMPT, and to use in the risk estimations. Material and methods. Treatment plans were created for all three techniques on 10 pediatric patients that have been treated with craniospinal irradiation (CSI) at our institution in 2007-2009. Plans were generated for two prescription CSI doses, 23.4 Gy and 36 Gy. Risk estimates were based on childhood cancer survivor data when available and secondary cancer (SC) risks were estimated as a function of age at exposure and attained age according to the organ-equivalent dose (OED) concept. Results. Estimates of SC risk was higher for the RA plans and differentiable from the estimates for 3D CRT at attained ages above 40 years. The risk of developing heart failure, hearing loss, hypothyroidism and xerostomia was highest for the 3D CRT plans. The risks of all adverse effects were estimated as lowest for the IMPT plans, even when including secondary neutron (SN) irradiation with high values of the neutron radiation weighting factors (WR{sub neutron}). Conclusions. When comparing RA and 3D CRT treatment for pediatric MB it is a matter of comparing higher SC risk against higher risks of non-cancer adverse events. Considering time until onset of the different complications is necessary to fully assess patient benefit in such a comparison. The IMPT plans, including SN dose contribution, compared favorably to the photon techniques in terms of all radiobiological risk estimates

  12. Radiobiological risk estimates of adverse events and secondary cancer for proton and photon radiation therapy of pediatric medulloblastoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brodin, N. Patrik; Munck af Rosenschoeld, Per; Aznar, Marianne C.; Vogelius, Ivan R.; Kiil-Berthelsen, Anne; Nilsson, Per; Bjoerk-Eriksson, Thomas; Lannering, Birgitta

    2011-01-01

    Introduction. The aim of this model study was to estimate and compare the risk of radiation-induced adverse late effects in pediatric patients with medulloblastoma (MB) treated with either three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D CRT), inversely-optimized arc therapy (RapidArc (RA)) or spot-scanned intensity-modulated proton therapy (IMPT). The aim was also to find dose-volume toxicity parameters relevant to children undergoing RT to be used in the inverse planning of RA and IMPT, and to use in the risk estimations. Material and methods. Treatment plans were created for all three techniques on 10 pediatric patients that have been treated with craniospinal irradiation (CSI) at our institution in 2007-2009. Plans were generated for two prescription CSI doses, 23.4 Gy and 36 Gy. Risk estimates were based on childhood cancer survivor data when available and secondary cancer (SC) risks were estimated as a function of age at exposure and attained age according to the organ-equivalent dose (OED) concept. Results. Estimates of SC risk was higher for the RA plans and differentiable from the estimates for 3D CRT at attained ages above 40 years. The risk of developing heart failure, hearing loss, hypothyroidism and xerostomia was highest for the 3D CRT plans. The risks of all adverse effects were estimated as lowest for the IMPT plans, even when including secondary neutron (SN) irradiation with high values of the neutron radiation weighting factors (WR neutron ). Conclusions. When comparing RA and 3D CRT treatment for pediatric MB it is a matter of comparing higher SC risk against higher risks of non-cancer adverse events. Considering time until onset of the different complications is necessary to fully assess patient benefit in such a comparison. The IMPT plans, including SN dose contribution, compared favorably to the photon techniques in terms of all radiobiological risk estimates

  13. An assessment of ecological and case-control methods for estimating lung cancer risk due to indoor radon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stidley, C.A.; Samet, J.M.

    1992-01-01

    Studies of underground miners indicate that indoor radon is an important cause of lung cancer. This finding has raised concern that exposure to radon also causes lung cancer in the general population. Epidemiological studies, including both case-control and ecological approaches, have directly addressed the risks of indoor residential radon; many more case-control studies are in progress. Ecological studies that associate lung-cancer rates with typical indoor radon levels in various geographic areas have not consistently shown positive associations. The results of purportedly negative ecological studies have been used as a basis for questioning the hazards of indoor radon exposure. Because of potentially serious methodologic flaws for testing hypotheses, we examined the ecological method as a tool for assessing lung-cancer risk from indoor radon exposure. We developed a simulation approach that utilizes the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) radon survey data to assign exposures to individuals within counties. Using the computer-generated data, we compared risk estimates obtained by ecological regression methods with those obtained from other regression methods and with the open-quotes trueclose quotes risks used to generate the data. For many of these simulations, the ecological models, while fitting the summary data well, gave risk estimates that differed considerably from the true risks. For some models, the risk estimates were negatively correlated with exposure, although the assumed relationship was positive. Attempts to improve the ecological models by adding smoking variables, including interaction terms, did not always improve the estimates of risk, which are easily affected by model misspecification. Because exposure situations used in the simulations are realistic, our results show that ecological methods may not accurately estimate the lung-cancer risk associated with indoor radon exposure

  14. Development and Validation of a Prediction Model to Estimate Individual Risk of Pancreatic Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Ami; Woo, Sang Myung; Joo, Jungnam; Yang, Hye-Ryung; Lee, Woo Jin; Park, Sang-Jae; Nam, Byung-Ho

    2016-01-01

    There is no reliable screening tool to identify people with high risk of developing pancreatic cancer even though pancreatic cancer represents the fifth-leading cause of cancer-related death in Korea. The goal of this study was to develop an individualized risk prediction model that can be used to screen for asymptomatic pancreatic cancer in Korean men and women. Gender-specific risk prediction models for pancreatic cancer were developed using the Cox proportional hazards model based on an 8-year follow-up of a cohort study of 1,289,933 men and 557,701 women in Korea who had biennial examinations in 1996-1997. The performance of the models was evaluated with respect to their discrimination and calibration ability based on the C-statistic and Hosmer-Lemeshow type χ2 statistic. A total of 1,634 (0.13%) men and 561 (0.10%) women were newly diagnosed with pancreatic cancer. Age, height, BMI, fasting glucose, urine glucose, smoking, and age at smoking initiation were included in the risk prediction model for men. Height, BMI, fasting glucose, urine glucose, smoking, and drinking habit were included in the risk prediction model for women. Smoking was the most significant risk factor for developing pancreatic cancer in both men and women. The risk prediction model exhibited good discrimination and calibration ability, and in external validation it had excellent prediction ability. Gender-specific risk prediction models for pancreatic cancer were developed and validated for the first time. The prediction models will be a useful tool for detecting high-risk individuals who may benefit from increased surveillance for pancreatic cancer.

  15. Utility of Recent Studies to Assess the National Research Council 2001 Estimates of Cancer Risk from Ingested Arsenic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibb, Herman; Haver, Cary; Gaylor, David; Ramasamy, Santhini; Lee, Janice S.; Lobdell, Danelle; Wade, Timothy; Chen, Chao; White, Paul; Sams, Reeder

    2011-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this review is to evaluate the impact of recent epidemiologic literature on the National Research Council (NRC) assessment of the lung and bladder cancer risks from ingesting low concentrations (ecologic nature of the Taiwanese studies on which the NRC estimates are based present certain limitations, the data from these studies have particular strengths in that they describe lung and bladder cancer risks resulting from lifetime exposure in a large population and remain the best data on which to conduct quantitative risk assessment. Continued follow-up of a population in northeastern Taiwan, however, offers the best opportunity to improve the cancer risk assessment for arsenic in drinking water. Future studies of arsenic < 100 μg/L in drinking water and lung and bladder cancer should consider adequacy of the sample size, the synergistic relationship of arsenic and smoking, duration of arsenic exposure, age when exposure began and ended, and histologic subtype. PMID:21030336

  16. Estimating cancer risk in relation to tritium exposure from routine operation of a nuclear-generating station in Pickering, Ontario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanigaratne, S; Holowaty, E; Jiang, H; Norwood, T A; Pietrusiak, M A; Brown, P

    2013-09-01

    Evidence suggests that current levels of tritium emissions from CANDU reactors in Canada are not related to adverse health effects. However, these studies lack tritium-specific dose data and have small numbers of cases. The purpose of our study was to determine whether tritium emitted from a nuclear-generating station during routine operation is associated with risk of cancer in Pickering, Ontario. A retrospective cohort was formed through linkage of Pickering and north Oshawa residents (1985) to incident cancer cases (1985-2005). We examined all sites combined, leukemia, lung, thyroid and childhood cancers (6-19 years) for males and females as well as female breast cancer. Tritium estimates were based on an atmospheric dispersion model, incorporating characteristics of annual tritium emissions and meteorology. Tritium concentration estimates were assigned to each cohort member based on exact location of residence. Person-years analysis was used to determine whether observed cancer cases were higher than expected. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to determine whether tritium was associated with radiation-sensitive cancers in Pickering. Person-years analysis showed female childhood cancer cases to be significantly higher than expected (standardized incidence ratio [SIR] = 1.99, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.08-3.38). The issue of multiple comparisons is the most likely explanation for this finding. Cox models revealed that female lung cancer was significantly higher in Pickering versus north Oshawa (HR = 2.34, 95% CI: 1.23-4.46) and that tritium was not associated with increased risk. The improved methodology used in this study adds to our understanding of cancer risks associated with low-dose tritium exposure. Tritium estimates were not associated with increased risk of radiationsensitive cancers in Pickering.

  17. Methods to Develop Inhalation Cancer Risk Estimates for Chromium and Nickel Compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document summarizes the approaches and rationale for the technical and scientific considerations used to derive inhalation cancer risks for emissions of chromium and nickel compounds from electric utility steam generating units.

  18. The impact of using weight estimated from mammographic images vs. self-reported weight on breast cancer risk calculation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Kalyani P.; Harkness, Elaine F.; Gadde, Soujanye; Lim, Yit Y.; Maxwell, Anthony J.; Moschidis, Emmanouil; Foden, Philip; Cuzick, Jack; Brentnall, Adam; Evans, D. Gareth; Howell, Anthony; Astley, Susan M.

    2017-03-01

    Personalised breast screening requires assessment of individual risk of breast cancer, of which one contributory factor is weight. Self-reported weight has been used for this purpose, but may be unreliable. We explore the use of volume of fat in the breast, measured from digital mammograms. Volumetric breast density measurements were used to determine the volume of fat in the breasts of 40,431 women taking part in the Predicting Risk Of Cancer At Screening (PROCAS) study. Tyrer-Cuzick risk using self-reported weight was calculated for each woman. Weight was also estimated from the relationship between self-reported weight and breast fat volume in the cohort, and used to re-calculate Tyrer-Cuzick risk. Women were assigned to risk categories according to 10 year risk (below average =8%) and the original and re-calculated Tyrer-Cuzick risks were compared. Of the 716 women diagnosed with breast cancer during the study, 15 (2.1%) moved into a lower risk category, and 37 (5.2%) moved into a higher category when using weight estimated from breast fat volume. Of the 39,715 women without a cancer diagnosis, 1009 (2.5%) moved into a lower risk category, and 1721 (4.3%) into a higher risk category. The majority of changes were between below average and average risk categories (38.5% of those with a cancer diagnosis, and 34.6% of those without). No individual moved more than one risk group. Automated breast fat measures may provide a suitable alternative to self-reported weight for risk assessment in personalized screening.

  19. Risks of cancer - All sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1990-01-01

    This chapter describes the BEIR Committee's radiation risk models and the total risks of cancer following whole body exposure. This report focuses on the data from A-bomb survivors since this cohort contains persons of all ages at exposure. Because of large statistical uncertainties, it was not possible for the committee to provide risk estimates for cancers at all specific sites of interest. Estimates were made for risk of leukemia, breast cancer, thyroid cancer, and cancers of the respiratory and digestive systems. To obtain an estimate of the total risk of mortality from all cancers, the committee also modeled cancers other than those listed above as a group

  20. Estimation of breast doses and breast cancer risk associated with repeated fluoroscopic chest examinations of women with tuberculosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boice, J.D. Jr.; Rosenstein, M.; Trout, E.D.

    1978-01-01

    A methodology is presented to estimate cumulative breast dose and breast cancer risk for women exposed to repeated fluoroscopic chest examinations during air collapse therapy for pulmonary tuberculosis. Medical record abstraction, physician interview, patient contact, machine exposure measurements, and absorbed dose computations were combined to estimate average breast doses for 1047 Massachusetts women who were treated between 1930 and 1954. The methodology presented considers breast size and composition, patient orientation, x-ray field size and location, beam quality, type of examination, machine exposure rate, and exposure time during fluoroscopic examinations. The best estimate for the risk of radiation-induced cancer for the women living longer than 10 years after initial fluoroscopic exposure is 6.2 excess breast cancers per million woman-year-rad with 90% confidence limits of 2.8 and 10.7 cancers/10 6 WY-rad. When breast cancer risk is considered as a function of absorbed dose in the breast, instead of as a function of the number of fluoroscopic examinations, a linear dose--response relationship over the range of estimated doses is consistent with the data. However, because of the uncertainty due to small-sample variability and because of the wide range of assumptions regarding certain fluoroscopy conditions, other dose--response relationships are compatible with the data

  1. Computed tomography for pulmonary embolism - Assessment of a 1-year cohort and estimated cancer risk associated with diagnostic irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niemann, T.; Zbinden, I.; Bremerich, J.; Bongartz, G.; Roser, H. W.; Remy-Jardin, M.

    2013-01-01

    Background: The principal concern of any radiation exposure in computed tomography (CT) is the induction of stochastic risks of developing a radiation-induced cancer. The results given in this manuscript will allow to (re-)calculate yield of chest CT. Purpose: To demonstrate a method to evaluate the lifetime attributable risk (LAR) of cancer incidence/mortality due to a single diagnostic investigation in a 1-year cohort of consecutive chest CT for suspected pulmonary embolism (PE). Material and Methods: A 1-year cohort of consecutive chest CT for suspected PE using a standard scan protocol was analyzed retrospectively (691 patients, 352 men, 339 women). Normalized patient-specific estimations of the radiation doses received by individual organs were correlated with age- and sex-specific mean predicted cancer incidence and age- and sex-specific predicted cancer mortality based on the BEIR VII results. Additional correlation was provided for natural occurring risks. Results: LAR of cancer incidence/mortality following one chest CT was calculated for cancer of the stomach, colon, liver, lung, breast, uterus, ovaries, bladder, thyroid, and for leukemia. LAR remains very low for all age and sex categories, being highest for cancer of the lungs and breasts in 20-year-old women (0.61% and 0.4%, respectively). Summation of all cancer sites analyzed raised the cumulative relative LAR up to 2.76% in 20-year-old women. Conclusion: Using the method presented in this work, LAR of cancer incidence and cancer mortality for a single chest CT for PE seems very low for all age groups and both sexes, but being highest for young patients. Hence the risk for radiation-induced organ cancers must be outweighed with the potential benefit or a treatment and the potential risks of a missed and therefore untreated PE

  2. Using Clinical Factors and Mammographic Breast Density to Estimate Breast Cancer Risk: Development and Validation of a New Predictive Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tice, Jeffrey A.; Cummings, Steven R.; Smith-Bindman, Rebecca; Ichikawa, Laura; Barlow, William E.; Kerlikowske, Karla

    2009-01-01

    Background Current models for assessing breast cancer risk are complex and do not include breast density, a strong risk factor for breast cancer that is routinely reported with mammography. Objective To develop and validate an easy-to-use breast cancer risk prediction model that includes breast density. Design Empirical model based on Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results incidence, and relative hazards from a prospective cohort. Setting Screening mammography sites participating in the Breast Cancer Surveillance Consortium. Patients 1 095 484 women undergoing mammography who had no previous diagnosis of breast cancer. Measurements Self-reported age, race or ethnicity, family history of breast cancer, and history of breast biopsy. Community radiologists rated breast density by using 4 Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System categories. Results During 5.3 years of follow-up, invasive breast cancer was diagnosed in 14 766 women. The breast density model was well calibrated overall (expected–observed ratio, 1.03 [95% CI, 0.99 to 1.06]) and in racial and ethnic subgroups. It had modest discriminatory accuracy (concordance index, 0.66 [CI, 0.65 to 0.67]). Women with low-density mammograms had 5-year risks less than 1.67% unless they had a family history of breast cancer and were older than age 65 years. Limitation The model has only modest ability to discriminate between women who will develop breast cancer and those who will not. Conclusion A breast cancer prediction model that incorporates routinely reported measures of breast density can estimate 5-year risk for invasive breast cancer. Its accuracy needs to be further evaluated in independent populations before it can be recommended for clinical use. PMID:18316752

  3. Computed tomography for pulmonary embolism - Assessment of a 1-year cohort and estimated cancer risk associated with diagnostic irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niemann, T. [Dept. of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Univ. Hospital, Basel (Switzerland); Dept. of Thoracic Imaging, Univ. Lille Nord de France, Hospital Calmette, Lille (France)], e-mail: tilo.niemann@usb.ch; Zbinden, I.; Bremerich, J.; Bongartz, G. [Dept. of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Univ. Hospital, Basel (Switzerland); Roser, H. W. [Dept. of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Univ. Hospital, Radiological Physics, Basel (Switzerland); Remy-Jardin, M. [Dept. of Thoracic Imaging, Univ. Lille Nord de France, Hospital Calmette, Lille (France)

    2013-09-15

    Background: The principal concern of any radiation exposure in computed tomography (CT) is the induction of stochastic risks of developing a radiation-induced cancer. The results given in this manuscript will allow to (re-)calculate yield of chest CT. Purpose: To demonstrate a method to evaluate the lifetime attributable risk (LAR) of cancer incidence/mortality due to a single diagnostic investigation in a 1-year cohort of consecutive chest CT for suspected pulmonary embolism (PE). Material and Methods: A 1-year cohort of consecutive chest CT for suspected PE using a standard scan protocol was analyzed retrospectively (691 patients, 352 men, 339 women). Normalized patient-specific estimations of the radiation doses received by individual organs were correlated with age- and sex-specific mean predicted cancer incidence and age- and sex-specific predicted cancer mortality based on the BEIR VII results. Additional correlation was provided for natural occurring risks. Results: LAR of cancer incidence/mortality following one chest CT was calculated for cancer of the stomach, colon, liver, lung, breast, uterus, ovaries, bladder, thyroid, and for leukemia. LAR remains very low for all age and sex categories, being highest for cancer of the lungs and breasts in 20-year-old women (0.61% and 0.4%, respectively). Summation of all cancer sites analyzed raised the cumulative relative LAR up to 2.76% in 20-year-old women. Conclusion: Using the method presented in this work, LAR of cancer incidence and cancer mortality for a single chest CT for PE seems very low for all age groups and both sexes, but being highest for young patients. Hence the risk for radiation-induced organ cancers must be outweighed with the potential benefit or a treatment and the potential risks of a missed and therefore untreated PE.

  4. Estimation of organ doses and risk of cancer associated with CT examination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, Nagla Nooraldaim

    2017-11-01

    The purpose of this study to estimate the organ closes and risk of cancer associated with CT examinations in Khartoum state, where the study conducted in three hospitals; Alzytouna , royal scan and Royal Care. From April to November 2017, and the data collected from 120 patients, 40 patents from each hospital undergoing CT brain and abdomen examinations. The data were entered to CT - Expo version 2.4 software for calculation the effective dose and organ dose and by Xray risk web site for calculate the risk factor associated with CT examinations. Results have shown the values of effective dose that found 9.73 mSv for all patients and for female and male 9.9 mSv respectively. The effective dose from Brain examinations in three hospitals Alzytouna Royal scan and Royal Care was 16.9 mSv, 3.7 mSv, 3.8 mSv respectively, and from abdomen examinations was 4.2 mSv, 7.6 mSv, 22.2 mSv respectively. Comparing te effective dose from the hospitals, for Ct. Brain in Alzytouna hospital was higher than other hospitals; and for CT Abdomen in Royal Care hospital was higher than other hospitals, but still under the risk levels according to the ICRP report. For organ doses results, the most organs exposed from CT. brain was brain, salivary gland, thyroid gland, Bone marrow, Bone surface, Extra thoracic tissue, Eye lens and oral mucosa received ( 70,2, 66.4,15.04, 10.9, 24.9, 14.8,89.5,65.07) mSv respectively. The most organs exposed from CT. Abdomen were liver, stomach, low, Large intestine, Bladder, Bone surface, upper , Large intestine, spleen, kidney, small intestine and prostate received (16.53, 12.8, 33.43, 41.01,20.5, 38.4, 14.7, 28.9, 37.5,30.5 ) mSv respectively. This study found that te ability of cancer induced i the female was higher from the male; dut to body component of the female. (Author)

  5. MCNPX dosimetry and radiation-induced cancer risk estimation from 18F-FDG pediatric PET at Brazilian population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendes, Bruno M.; Fonseca, Telma C.F.; Campos, Tarcisio P.R.

    2017-01-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) using 18 F-FDG has increased significantly in pediatric patients. PET with 18 F-FDG has often been applied in oncology. Cancer induction is one of the main stochastic risk from exposure to ionizing radiation of 18 F-FDG. Radiation-induced cancer risk estimation due to medical exposures is an important tool for risk/benefit assessing. The objective was to perform dosimetry and estimate the risk of cancer induction due to pediatric use of 18 F-FDG. MCNPX Computational dosimetry was performed to estimate organ absorbed doses resulting from 18 F-FDG pediatric use. Two voxelized phantoms, kindly provided by the GSF - Helmholtz Zentrum, were used: 'Child' - 7 years child and 'Baby' 8-week-old infant. ICRP-128 publication provided the radiopharmaceutical biodistribution of F-18. Tables containing organ absorbed dose and effective dose per unit of injected activity for the two phantoms were obtained. The injected activities were estimated according to data provided in the literature. Images of the absorbed dose distribution were generated from both models. The BEIR VII methodology was used to calculate the risk of cancer induction. The risk of cancer induction (per imaging procedure) for the seven-year-old child was (0.09% ♂ and 0.15% ♀) and for the eight-week old baby was (0.11% ♂ and 0.21% ♀). The 18 F-FDG absorbed dose distribution in the children and infants showed some divergences in comparison to adult data. Probably, the biokinetic data used to children and infants is the main reason for this disconnection. (author)

  6. MCNPX dosimetry and radiation-induced cancer risk estimation from {sup 18}F-FDG pediatric PET at Brazilian population

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendes, Bruno M.; Fonseca, Telma C.F. [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Campos, Tarcisio P.R., E-mail: bmm@cdtn.br, E-mail: tcff@cdtn.br, E-mail: tprcampos@yahoo.com.br [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (PCTN/UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciências e Técnicas Nucleares

    2017-07-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) using {sup 18}F-FDG has increased significantly in pediatric patients. PET with {sup 18}F-FDG has often been applied in oncology. Cancer induction is one of the main stochastic risk from exposure to ionizing radiation of {sup 18}F-FDG. Radiation-induced cancer risk estimation due to medical exposures is an important tool for risk/benefit assessing. The objective was to perform dosimetry and estimate the risk of cancer induction due to pediatric use of {sup 18}F-FDG. MCNPX Computational dosimetry was performed to estimate organ absorbed doses resulting from {sup 18}F-FDG pediatric use. Two voxelized phantoms, kindly provided by the GSF - Helmholtz Zentrum, were used: 'Child' - 7 years child and 'Baby' 8-week-old infant. ICRP-128 publication provided the radiopharmaceutical biodistribution of F-18. Tables containing organ absorbed dose and effective dose per unit of injected activity for the two phantoms were obtained. The injected activities were estimated according to data provided in the literature. Images of the absorbed dose distribution were generated from both models. The BEIR VII methodology was used to calculate the risk of cancer induction. The risk of cancer induction (per imaging procedure) for the seven-year-old child was (0.09% ♂ and 0.15% ♀) and for the eight-week old baby was (0.11% ♂ and 0.21% ♀). The {sup 18}F-FDG absorbed dose distribution in the children and infants showed some divergences in comparison to adult data. Probably, the biokinetic data used to children and infants is the main reason for this disconnection. (author)

  7. Joint Estimation of Cardiac Toxicity and Recurrence Risks After Comprehensive Nodal Photon Versus Proton Therapy for Breast Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stick, Line B., E-mail: line.bjerregaard.stick@regionh.dk [Department of Clinical Oncology, Rigshospitalet, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen (Denmark); Niels Bohr Institute, Faculty of Science, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen (Denmark); Yu, Jen [Maryland Proton Treatment Center, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); Maraldo, Maja V. [Department of Clinical Oncology, Rigshospitalet, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen (Denmark); Aznar, Marianne C. [Department of Clinical Oncology, Rigshospitalet, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen (Denmark); Nuffield Department of Population Health, University of Oxford, Oxford (United Kingdom); Pedersen, Anders N. [Department of Clinical Oncology, Rigshospitalet, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen (Denmark); Bentzen, Søren M. [Department of Clinical Oncology, Rigshospitalet, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen (Denmark); Maryland Proton Treatment Center, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); Greenebaum Comprehensive Cancer Center and Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); Vogelius, Ivan R. [Department of Clinical Oncology, Rigshospitalet, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen (Denmark)

    2017-03-15

    Purpose: The study aims to perform joint estimation of the risk of recurrence caused by inadequate radiation dose coverage of lymph node targets and the risk of cardiac toxicity caused by radiation exposure to the heart. Delivered photon plans are compared with realistic proton plans, thereby providing evidence-based estimates of the heterogeneity of treatment effects in consecutive cases for the 2 radiation treatment modalities. Methods and Materials: Forty-one patients referred for postlumpectomy comprehensive nodal photon irradiation for left-sided breast cancer were included. Comparative proton plans were optimized by a spot scanning technique with single-field optimization from 2 en face beams. Cardiotoxicity risk was estimated with the model of Darby et al, and risk of recurrence following a compromise of lymph node coverage was estimated by a linear dose-response model fitted to the recurrence data from the recently published EORTC (European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer) 22922/10925 and NCIC-CTG (National Cancer Institute of Canada Clinical Trials Group) MA.20 randomized controlled trials. Results: Excess absolute risk of cardiac morbidity was small with photon therapy at an attained age of 80 years, with median values of 1.0% (range, 0.2%-2.9%) and 0.5% (range, 0.03%-1.0%) with and without cardiac risk factors, respectively, but even lower with proton therapy (0.13% [range, 0.02%-0.5%] and 0.06% [range, 0.004%-0.3%], respectively). The median estimated excess absolute risk of breast cancer recurrence after 10 years was 0.10% (range, 0.0%-0.9%) with photons and 0.02% (range, 0.0%-0.07%) with protons. The association between age of the patient and benefit from proton therapy was weak, almost non-existing (Spearman rank correlations of −0.15 and −0.30 with and without cardiac risk factors, respectively). Conclusions: Modern photon therapy yields limited risk of cardiac toxicity in most patients, but proton therapy can reduce the

  8. [Gastric cancer risk estimate in patients with chronic gastritis associated with Helicobacter pylori infection in a clinical setting].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arismendi-Morillo, G; Hernández, I; Mengual, E; Abreu, N; Molero, N; Fuenmayor, A; Romero, G; Lizarzábal, M

    2013-01-01

    Severity of chronic gastritis associated with Helicobacter pylori infection (CGAHpI) could play a role in evaluating the potential risk to develop gastric cancer. Our aim was to estimate the risk for gastric cancer in a clinical setting, according to histopathologic criteria, by applying the gastric cancer risk index (GCRI) METHODS: Histopathologic study of the gastric biopsies (corpus-antrum) from consecutive adult patients that underwent gastroesophageal duodenoscopy was carried out, and the GCRI was applied in patients presenting with CGAHpI. One hundred eleven patients (77% female) with a mean age of 38.6±13.1 years were included. Active Helicobacter pylori infection (aHpi) was diagnosed in 77 cases (69.40%). In 45% of the cases with aHpi, pangastritis (23%) or corpus-predominant gastritis (22%) was diagnosed. Nine cases were diagnosed with intestinal metaplasia (8%), 7 of which (77.70%) were in the aHpi group. Twenty one percent of the patients with aHpi had a GCRI of 2 (18.10%) or 3 (2.50%) points (high risk index), while 79.10% accumulated a GCRI of 0 or 1 points (low risk index). Of the patients with no aHpi, none of them had 3 points (p=0.001). Of the 18 patients that accumulated 2 or 3 points, 6 (33.30%) presented with intestinal metaplasia (all with pangastritis and corpus-predominant gastritis), of which 4 cases (66.60%) had aHpi. The estimated gastric cancer risk in patients with CGAHpI in the clinical setting studied was relatively low and 5% of the patients had a histopathologic phenotype associated with an elevated risk for developing gastric cancer. Copyright © 2012 Asociación Mexicana de Gastroenterología. Published by Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  9. Use of risk projection models to estimate mortality and incidence from radiation-induced breast cancer in screening programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramos, M; Ferrer, S; Villaescusa, J I; Verdu, G; Salas, M D; Cuevas, M D

    2005-01-01

    The authors report on a method to calculate radiological risks, applicable to breast screening programs and other controlled medical exposures to ionizing radiation. In particular, it has been applied to make a risk assessment in the Valencian Breast Cancer Early Detection Program (VBCEDP) in Spain. This method is based on a parametric approach, through Markov processes, of hazard functions for radio-induced breast cancer incidence and mortality, with mean glandular breast dose, attained age and age-at-exposure as covariates. Excess relative risk functions of breast cancer mortality have been obtained from two different case-control studies exposed to ionizing radiation, with different follow-up time: the Canadian Fluoroscopy Cohort Study (1950-1987) and the Life Span Study (1950-1985 and 1950-1990), whereas relative risk functions for incidence have been obtained from the Life Span Study (1958-1993), the Massachusetts tuberculosis cohorts (1926-1985 and 1970-1985), the New York post-partum mastitis patients (1930-1981) and the Swedish benign breast disease cohort (1958-1987). Relative risks from these cohorts have been transported to the target population undergoing screening in the Valencian Community, a region in Spain with about four and a half million inhabitants. The SCREENRISK software has been developed to estimate radiological detriments in breast screening. Some hypotheses corresponding to different screening conditions have been considered in order to estimate the total risk associated with a woman who takes part in all screening rounds. In the case of the VBCEDP, the total radio-induced risk probability for fatal breast cancer is in a range between [5 x 10 -6 , 6 x 10 -4 ] versus the natural rate of dying from breast cancer in the Valencian Community which is 9.2 x 10 -3 . The results show that these indicators could be included in quality control tests and could be adequate for making comparisons between several screening programs

  10. Estimated cancer risk of dioxins to humans using a bioassay and physiologically based pharmacokinetic model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maruyama, Wakae; Aoki, Yasunobu

    2006-01-01

    The health risk of dioxins and dioxin-like compounds to humans was analyzed quantitatively using experimental data and mathematical models. To quantify the toxicity of a mixture of three dioxin congeners, we calculated the new relative potencies (REPs) for 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), 1,2,3,7,8-pentachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (PeCDD), and 2,3,4,7,8- pentachlorodibenzofuran (PeCDF), focusing on their tumor promotion activity. We applied a liver foci formation assay to female SD rats after repeated oral administration of dioxins. The REP of dioxin for a rat was determined using dioxin concentration and the number of the foci in rat liver. A physiologically based pharmacokinetic model (PBPK model) was used for interspecies extrapolation targeting on dioxin concentration in liver. Toxic dose for human was determined by back-estimation with a human PBPK model, assuming that the same concentration in the target tissue may cause the same level of effect in rats and humans, and the REP for human was determined by the toxic dose obtained. The calculated REPs for TCDD, PeCDD, and PeCDF were 1.0, 0.34, and 0.05 for rats, respectively, and the REPs for humans were almost the same as those for rats. These values were different from the toxic equivalency factors (TEFs) presented previously (Van den Berg, M., Birnbaum, L., Bosveld, A.T.C., Brunstrom, B., Cook, P., Feeley, M., Giesy, J.P., Hanberg, A., Hasegawa, R., Kennedy, S.W., Kubiak, T., Larsen, J.C., Rolaf van Leeuwen, F.X., Liem, A.K.D., Nolt, C., Peterson, R.E., Poellinger. L., Safe, S., Schrenk, D., Tillitt, D, Tysklind, M., Younes, M., Waern, F., Zacharewski, T., 1998. Toxic equivalency factors (TEFs) for PCBs, PCDDs, PCDFs for humans and wildlife. Environ. Health Perspect. 106, 775-792). The relative risk of excess liver cancer for Japanese people in general was 1.7-6.5 x 10 -7 by TCDD only, and 2.9-11 x 10 -7 by the three dioxins at the present level of contamination

  11. Obesity and Cancer Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Common Cancer Types Recurrent Cancer Common Cancer Types Bladder Cancer Breast Cancer Colorectal Cancer Kidney (Renal Cell) Cancer ... hormone therapy and for tumors that express hormone receptors . Obesity is also a risk factor for breast ...

  12. Estimated dietary dioxin exposure and breast cancer risk among women from the French E3N prospective cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danjou, Aurélie M N; Fervers, Béatrice; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Philip, Thierry; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Dossus, Laure

    2015-03-17

    Dioxins are environmental and persistent pollutants mostly emitted from combustion facilities (e.g. waste incinerators, metal and cement industries). Known to be endocrine disrupting chemicals, dioxins are suspected to increase breast cancer (BC) risk. Although diet is considered the primary source of dioxin exposure, no previous study has been published on dietary dioxin exposure in relation to BC risk. We aimed to assess dietary dioxin exposure among women from the E3N cohort and estimate BC risk associated with this exposure. The study included 63,830 women from the E3N cohort who completed a diet history questionnaire (DHQ) in 1993 and were followed until 2008. Dietary dioxin exposure was estimated by combining consumption data from the E3N DHQ and food dioxin contamination data from a French national monitoring program. Hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated by Cox models adjusted for BC risk factors. Mean dietary dioxin exposure was estimated at 1.3 ± 0.4 pg/kg body weight (BW)/day. A 0.4 pg/kg BW/d increase in dioxin intake was not associated with overall BC risk (HR = 1.00; 95% CI: 0.96, 1.05). A significant decrease in risk of estrogen receptor negative (ER-)/progesterone receptor negative (PR-) tumors was observed among post-menopausal women in the upper quartile of estimated dioxin intake (HR for Q4 vs. Q1: 0.65; 95% CI: 0.45, 0.96; P for trend across quartiles = 0.0463). Overall, no association between estimated dietary dioxin exposure and BC risk was found among E3N women. Further studies should include both dietary and environmental exposures to determine whether low-dose dioxin exposure is associated with BC risk.

  13. A-BOMB SURVIVOR SITE-SPECIFIC RADIOGENIC CANCER RISKS ESTIMATES

    Science.gov (United States)

    A draft manuscript is being prepared that describes ways to improve estimates of risk from radiation that have been derived from A-bomb survivors. The work has been published in the journal Radiation Research volume 169, pages 87-98.

  14. A statistical regression model for the estimation of acrylamide concentrations in French fries for excess lifetime cancer risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ming-Jen; Hsu, Hui-Tsung; Lin, Cheng-Li; Ju, Wei-Yuan

    2012-10-01

    Human exposure to acrylamide (AA) through consumption of French fries and other foods has been recognized as a potential health concern. Here, we used a statistical non-linear regression model, based on the two most influential factors, cooking temperature and time, to estimate AA concentrations in French fries. The R(2) of the predictive model is 0.83, suggesting the developed model was significant and valid. Based on French fry intake survey data conducted in this study and eight frying temperature-time schemes which can produce tasty and visually appealing French fries, the Monte Carlo simulation results showed that if AA concentration is higher than 168 ppb, the estimated cancer risk for adolescents aged 13-18 years in Taichung City would be already higher than the target excess lifetime cancer risk (ELCR), and that by taking into account this limited life span only. In order to reduce the cancer risk associated with AA intake, the AA levels in French fries might have to be reduced even further if the epidemiological observations are valid. Our mathematical model can serve as basis for further investigations on ELCR including different life stages and behavior and population groups. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Space Radiation Cancer, Circulatory Disease and CNS Risks for Near Earth Asteroid and Mars Missions: Uncertainty Estimates for Never-Smokers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucinotta, Francis A.; Chappell, Lori J.; Wang, Minli; Kim, Myung-Hee

    2011-01-01

    The uncertainties in estimating the health risks from galactic cosmic rays (GCR) and solar particle events (SPE) are a major limitation to the length of space missions and the evaluation of potential risk mitigation approaches. NASA limits astronaut exposures to a 3% risk of exposure induced cancer death (REID), and protects against uncertainties in risks projections using an assessment of 95% confidence intervals after propagating the error from all model factors (environment and organ exposure, risk coefficients, dose-rate modifiers, and quality factors). Because there are potentially significant late mortality risks from diseases of the circulatory system and central nervous system (CNS) which are less well defined than cancer risks, the cancer REID limit is not necessarily conservative. In this report, we discuss estimates of lifetime risks from space radiation and new estimates of model uncertainties are described. The key updates to the NASA risk projection model are: 1) Revised values for low LET risk coefficients for tissue specific cancer incidence, with incidence rates transported to an average U.S. population to estimate the probability of Risk of Exposure Induced Cancer (REIC) and REID. 2) An analysis of smoking attributable cancer risks for never-smokers that shows significantly reduced lung cancer risk as well as overall cancer risks from radiation compared to risk estimated for the average U.S. population. 3) Derivation of track structure based quality functions depends on particle fluence, charge number, Z and kinetic energy, E. 4) The assignment of a smaller maximum in quality function for leukemia than for solid cancers. 5) The use of the ICRP tissue weights is shown to over-estimate cancer risks from SPEs by a factor of 2 or more. Summing cancer risks for each tissue is recommended as a more accurate approach to estimate SPE cancer risks. 6) Additional considerations on circulatory and CNS disease risks. Our analysis shows that an individual s

  16. The Studies of Decision Tree in Estimation of Breast Cancer Risk by Using Polymorphism Nucleotide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frida Seyedmir

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction:   Decision tree is the data mining tools to collect, accurate prediction and sift information from massive amounts of data that are used widely in the field of computational biology and bioinformatics. In bioinformatics can be predict on diseases, including breast cancer. The use of genomic data including single nucleotide polymorphisms is a very important factor in predicting the risk of diseases. The number of seven important SNP among hundreds of thousands genetic markers were identified as factors associated with breast cancer. The objective of this study is to evaluate the training data on decision tree predictor error of the risk of breast cancer by using single nucleotide polymorphism genotype. Methods: The risk of breast cancer were calculated associated with the use of SNP formula:xj = fo * In human,  The decision tree can be used To predict the probability of disease using single nucleotide polymorphisms .Seven SNP with different odds ratio associated with breast cancer considered and coding and design of decision tree model, C4.5, by  Csharp2013 programming language were done. In the decision tree created with the coding, the four important associated SNP was considered. The decision tree error in two case of coding and using WEKA were assessment and percentage of decision tree accuracy in prediction of breast cancer were calculated. The number of trained samples was obtained with systematic sampling. With coding, two scenarios as well as software WEKA, three scenarios with different sets of data and the number of different learning and testing, were evaluated. Results: In both scenarios of coding, by increasing the training percentage from 66/66 to 86/42, the error reduced from 55/56 to 9/09. Also by running of WEKA on three scenarios with different sets of data, the number of different education, and different tests by increasing records number from 81 to 2187, the error rate decreased from 48/15 to 13

  17. Commissioning the neutron production of a Linac: Development of a simple tool for second cancer risk estimation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romero-Expósito, M.; Sánchez-Nieto, B.; Terrón, J. A.; Lopes, M. C.; Ferreira, B. C.; Grishchuk, D.; Sandín, C.; Moral-Sánchez, S.; Melchor, M.; Domingo, C.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Knowing the contribution of neutron to collateral effects in treatments is both a complex and a mandatory task. This work aims to present an operative procedure for neutron estimates in any facility using a neutron digital detector. Methods: The authors’ previous work established a linear relationship between the total second cancer risk due to neutrons (TR n ) and the number of MU of the treatment. Given that the digital detector also presents linearity with MU, its response can be used to determine the TR n per unit MU, denoted as m, normally associated to a generic Linac model and radiotherapy facility. Thus, from the number of MU of each patient treatment, the associated risk can be estimated. The feasibility of the procedure was tested by applying it in eight facilities; patients were evaluated as well. Results: From the reading of the detector under selected irradiation conditions, m values were obtained for different machines, ranging from 0.25 × 10 −4 % per MU for an Elekta Axesse at 10 MV to 6.5 × 10 −4 % per MU for a Varian Clinac at 18 MV. Using these values, TR n of patients was estimated in each facility and compared to that from the individual evaluation. Differences were within the range of uncertainty of the authors’ methodology of equivalent dose and risk estimations. Conclusions: The procedure presented here allows an easy estimation of the second cancer risk due to neutrons for any patient, given the number of MU of the treatment. It will enable the consideration of this information when selecting the optimal treatment for a patient by its implementation in the treatment planning system

  18. Commissioning the neutron production of a Linac: Development of a simple tool for second cancer risk estimation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romero-Expósito, M., E-mail: mariateresa.romero@uab.cat [Departamento de Fisiología Médica y Biofísica, Universidad de Sevilla, Sevilla 41009, Spain and Departament de Física, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Bellaterra 08193 (Spain); Sánchez-Nieto, B. [Instituto de Física, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Santiago 4880 (Chile); Terrón, J. A. [Servicio de Radiofísica, Hospital Universitario Virgen Macarena, Sevilla 41009 (Spain); Lopes, M. C. [Serviço de Física Médica, Instituto Português de Oncologia, Coimbra 3000-075 (Portugal); Ferreira, B. C. [i3N, Department of Physics, University of Aveiro, Aveiro 3810-193 (Portugal); Grishchuk, D. [Radiotherapy Service, Russian Research Center for Radiology and Surgical Technology, Saint Petersburg 197758 (Russian Federation); Sandín, C. [Elekta, Ltd., Crawley RH10 9RR (United Kingdom); Moral-Sánchez, S. [Servicio de Radiofísica, Instituto Onkologikoa, San Sebastián 20014 (Spain); Melchor, M. [Servicio de Radiofísica, Hospital Universitario de la Ribera, Alzira 46600, Valencia (Spain); Domingo, C. [Departament de Física, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Bellaterra 08193 (Spain); and others

    2015-01-15

    Purpose: Knowing the contribution of neutron to collateral effects in treatments is both a complex and a mandatory task. This work aims to present an operative procedure for neutron estimates in any facility using a neutron digital detector. Methods: The authors’ previous work established a linear relationship between the total second cancer risk due to neutrons (TR{sup n}) and the number of MU of the treatment. Given that the digital detector also presents linearity with MU, its response can be used to determine the TR{sup n} per unit MU, denoted as m, normally associated to a generic Linac model and radiotherapy facility. Thus, from the number of MU of each patient treatment, the associated risk can be estimated. The feasibility of the procedure was tested by applying it in eight facilities; patients were evaluated as well. Results: From the reading of the detector under selected irradiation conditions, m values were obtained for different machines, ranging from 0.25 × 10{sup −4}% per MU for an Elekta Axesse at 10 MV to 6.5 × 10{sup −4}% per MU for a Varian Clinac at 18 MV. Using these values, TR{sup n} of patients was estimated in each facility and compared to that from the individual evaluation. Differences were within the range of uncertainty of the authors’ methodology of equivalent dose and risk estimations. Conclusions: The procedure presented here allows an easy estimation of the second cancer risk due to neutrons for any patient, given the number of MU of the treatment. It will enable the consideration of this information when selecting the optimal treatment for a patient by its implementation in the treatment planning system.

  19. Leukaemia and thyroid cancer in emergency workers of the Chernobyl accident:. Estimation of radiation risks (1986-1995)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, V.K.; Tsyb, A.F.; Gorsky, A.I.; Maksyutov, M.A.; Rastopchin, E.M.; Konogorov, A.P.; Korelo, A.M.; Biryukov, A.P.; Matyash, V.A.

    1997-01-01

    This work focuses on the direct epidemiological assessment of the risks of radiation-induced leukaemia and thyroid cancer in emergency workers (EW) after the Chernobyl accident. The Russian National Medical Dosimetric Registry (RNMDR) contains data for 168 000 EW as of January 1, 1996. The analysis relates to 48 leukaemias and 47 thyroid cancers, diagnosed and verified. Radiation risks are estimated by comparing the EW data with national data for a male population of the same age distribution. For leukaemia, an excess relative risk per Gy (ERR/Gy) of 4.30 (95% CI: 0.83, 7.75) is obtained, while the excess absolute risk per 10 4 person-years (PY) Gy (EAR/10 4 PY Gy) is found to be 1.31 (95% CI: 0.23, 2.39); for thyroid cancer an ERR/Gy of 5.31 (95% CI: 0.04, 10.58) is obtained, and an EAR/10 4 PY Gy of 1.15 (95% CI: 0.08, 2.22). (orig.). With 9 figs., 10 tabs

  20. Breast cancer risks and risk prediction models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, Christoph; Fischer, Christine

    2015-02-01

    BRCA1/2 mutation carriers have a considerably increased risk to develop breast and ovarian cancer. The personalized clinical management of carriers and other at-risk individuals depends on precise knowledge of the cancer risks. In this report, we give an overview of the present literature on empirical cancer risks, and we describe risk prediction models that are currently used for individual risk assessment in clinical practice. Cancer risks show large variability between studies. Breast cancer risks are at 40-87% for BRCA1 mutation carriers and 18-88% for BRCA2 mutation carriers. For ovarian cancer, the risk estimates are in the range of 22-65% for BRCA1 and 10-35% for BRCA2. The contralateral breast cancer risk is high (10-year risk after first cancer 27% for BRCA1 and 19% for BRCA2). Risk prediction models have been proposed to provide more individualized risk prediction, using additional knowledge on family history, mode of inheritance of major genes, and other genetic and non-genetic risk factors. User-friendly software tools have been developed that serve as basis for decision-making in family counseling units. In conclusion, further assessment of cancer risks and model validation is needed, ideally based on prospective cohort studies. To obtain such data, clinical management of carriers and other at-risk individuals should always be accompanied by standardized scientific documentation.

  1. Preliminary study on the rate of broncho-pulmonary cancer in a Romanian department (Bihor) for the estimation of radon risk exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaida, T.; Maghiar, F.; Cosma, C.; Ristoiu, D.; Ramboiu, S.; Pacurar, V.; Poffijn, A.

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is a retrospective estimation on the rate of lung cancer at the population in the Bihor district (Romania) in two years (1993 -1994) and the potential bronchopulmonary cancer risk from indoor radon. In this time were found 473 cases with primary bronchopulmonary cancer: 400 men (84.5%) and 73 women (15.4%). Most cases ( 64.4%) were from rural environment while the other 35.5% were from urban environment. Preliminary study on the potential lung cancer risk from indoor radon encompassed 40 cases and 66 non-cancer controls in the period March-July 1995. (author)

  2. Organ-specific radiation-induced cancer risk estimates due to radiotherapy for benign pigmented villonodular synovitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazonakis, Michalis; Tzedakis, Antonis; Lyraraki, Efrossyni; Damilakis, John

    2016-09-01

    Pigmented villonodular synovitis (PVNS) is a benign disease affecting synovial membranes of young and middle-aged adults. The aggressive treatment of this disorder often involves external-beam irradiation. This study was motivated by the lack of data relating to the radiation exposure of healthy tissues and radiotherapy-induced cancer risk. Monte Carlo methodology was employed to simulate a patient’s irradiation for PVNS in the knee and hip joints with a 6 MV photon beam. The average radiation dose received by twenty-two out-of-field critical organs of the human body was calculated. These calculations were combined with the appropriate organ-, age- and gender-specific risk coefficients of the BEIR-VII model to estimate the lifetime probability of cancer development. The risk for carcinogenesis to colon, which was partly included in the treatment fields used for hip irradiation, was determined with a non-linear mechanistic model and differential dose-volume histograms obtained by CT-based 3D radiotherapy planning. Risk assessments were compared with the nominal lifetime intrinsic risk (LIR) values. Knee irradiation to 36 Gy resulted in out-of-field organ doses of 0.2-24.6 mGy. The corresponding range from hip radiotherapy was 1.2-455.1 mGy whereas the organ equivalent dose for the colon was up to 654.9 mGy. The organ-specific cancer risks from knee irradiation for PVNS were found to be inconsequential since they were at least 161.5 times lower than the LIRs irrespective of the patient’s age and gender. The bladder and colon cancer risk from radiotherapy in the hip joint was up to 3.2 and 6.6 times smaller than the LIR, respectively. These cancer risks may slightly elevate the nominal incidence rates and they should not be ignored during the patient’s treatment planning and follow-up. The probabilities for developing any other solid tumor were more than 20 times lower than the LIRs and, therefore, they may be considered as small.

  3. Carcinogenesis model analysis for breast cancer incidence among atomic bomb survivors and the implications for cancer risk estimate for radiological protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kai, Michiaki; Kusama, Tomoko

    2000-01-01

    Breast cancer incidence is the highest risk due to radiation among atomic bomb survivors. The excess relative risk of the early-onset breast cancer seems to be remarkably high for the youngest age-at-exposure groups. The cancer risk estimate of breast cancer is a current issue in radiological protection. We used a two-stage stochastic model for carcinogenesis to analyze the breast cancer incidence among atomic bomb survivors (Kai, et al. Radiat. Res. 1997). Our purpose is to examine the dependence of radiation risk on age at exposure using the two-stage model and how to transfer it to other populations for radiological protection. We fitted the model assuming that radiation acts as an initiator and that the rate of radiation-induced mutation and background initiation mutation leading to baseline cancer are additive. We took two age-dependence, not attained age but age at exposure, of the spontaneous process into account. First, age-dependence of spontaneous initiation was expressed by a linear model. We also modeled the age-dependence of spontaneous net growth rate of initiated cells by a linear function. As far as radiation-induced initiation is concerned, we took a stepwise function other than a liner function into account. The analysis did not show that the radiation mutation for the youngest age-at-exposure groups below age 10 was higher than for the older groups. Furthermore, the incidence of female breast cancer in Japan is increasing and the birth cohort effect can be observed in atomic bomb survivors. Our model assumed that an acute exposure to atomic radiation can only initiate cancers and do not influence other stages of carcinogenesis, whereas spontaneous initiation and promotion are age-dependent to consider birth cohort effects. When these cohort effects are properly accounted for, the shape of the age-specific incidence curve in Japan is remarkably similar to the age-specific incidence in western populations (shown in figure). Recently Little and

  4. The need to estimate risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pochin, E.E.

    1980-01-01

    In an increasing number of situations, it is becoming possible to obtain and compare numerical estimates of the biological risks involved in different alternative sources of action. In some cases these risks are similar in kind, as for example when the risk of including fatal cancer of the breast or stomach by x-ray screening of a population at risk, is compared with the risk of such cancers proving fatal if not detected by a screening programme. In other cases in which it is important to attempt a comparison, the risks are dissimilar in type, as when the safety of occupations involving exposure to radiation or chemical carcinogens is compared with that of occupations in which the major risks are from lung disease or from accidental injury and death. Similar problems of assessing the relative severity of unlike effects occur in any attempt to compare the total biological harm associated with a given output of electricity derived from different primary fuel sources, with its contributions both of occupation and of public harm. In none of these instances is the numerical frequency of harmful effects alone an adequate measure of total biological detriment, nor is such detriment the only factor which should influence decisions. Estimations of risk appear important however, since otherwise public health decisions are likely to be made on more arbitrary grounds, and public opinion will continue to be affected predominantly by the type rather than also by the size of risk. (author)

  5. Human cancer risk estimation for 1,3-butadiene: An assessment of personal exposure and different microenvironments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huy, Lai Nguyen; Lee, Shun Cheng; Zhang, Zhuozhi

    2018-03-01

    This study estimated the lifetime cancer risk (LCR) attributable to 1,3-butadiene (BD) personal exposure and to other microenvironments, including residential home, outdoor, in-office, in-vehicle, and dining. Detailed life expectancy by country (WHO), inhalation rate and body weight by gender reported by USEPA were used for the calculation, focusing on adult population (25≤Agepersonal exposure exceeded the USEPA benchmark of 1×10 -6 in many cities. For outdoor BD exposure, LCR estimations in 45 out of 175 cities/sites (sharing 26%) exceeded the USEPA benchmark. Out of the top 20 cities having high LCR estimations, developing countries contributed 19 cities, including 14, 3, 1, 1 cities in China, India, Chile, and Pakistan. One city in the United States was in the list due to the nearby industrial facilities. The LCR calculations for BD levels found in residential home, in-vehicle and dining microenvironments also exceeded 1×10 -6 in some cities, while LCR caused by in-office BD levels had the smallest risk. Four cities/regions were used for investigating source distributions to total LCR results because of their sufficient BD data. Home exposure contributed significantly to total LCR value (ranging 56% to 86%), followed by in-vehicle (4% to 38%) and dining (4 to 7%). Outdoor microenvironment shared highly in Tianjin with 6%, whereas in-office contributed from 2-3% for all cities. High LCR estimations found in developing countries highlighted the greater cancer risk caused by BD in other cities without available measurement data. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Radiation risk estimation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, P.B.

    1981-11-01

    This report outlines the major publications between 1976 and 1981 that have contributed to the evolution of the way in which radiation risks (cancer and hereditary birth defects) are assessed. The publications include the latest findings of the UNSCEAR, BEIR and ICRP committees, epidemiological studies at low doses and new assessments of the doses received by the Japanese A-bomb survivors. This report is not a detailed critique of those publications, but it highlights the impact of their findings on risk assessment

  7. Estimates of radiation doses in tissue and organs and risk of excess cancer in the single-course radiotherapy patients treated for ankylosing spondylitis in England and Wales

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabrikant, J.I.; Lyman, J.T.

    1982-02-01

    The estimates of absorbed doses of x rays and excess risk of cancer in bone marrow and heavily irradiated sites are extremely crude and are based on very limited data and on a number of assumptions. Some of these assumptions may later prove to be incorrect, but it is probable that they are correct to within a factor of 2. The excess cancer risk estimates calculated compare well with the most reliable epidemiological surveys thus far studied. This is particularly important for cancers of heavily irradiated sites with long latent periods. The mean followup period for the patients was 16.2 y, and an increase in cancers of heavily irradiated sites may appear in these patients in the 1970s in tissues and organs with long latent periods for the induction of cancer. The accuracy of these estimates is severely limited by the inadequacy of information on doses absorbed by the tissues at risk in the irradiated patients. The information on absorbed dose is essential for an accurate assessment of dose-cancer incidence analysis. Furthermore, in this valuable series of irradiated patients, the information on radiation dosimetry on the radiotherapy charts is central to any reliable determination of somatic risks of radiation with regard to carcinogenesis in man. The work necessary to obtain these data is under way; only when they are available can more precise estimates of risk of cancer induction by radiation in man be obtained

  8. Quantifying IT estimation risks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kulk, G.P.; Peters, R.J.; Verhoef, C.

    2009-01-01

    A statistical method is proposed for quantifying the impact of factors that influence the quality of the estimation of costs for IT-enabled business projects. We call these factors risk drivers as they influence the risk of the misestimation of project costs. The method can effortlessly be

  9. Estimation of breast dose and cancer risk in chest and abdomen CT procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eltahir, Suha Abubaker Ali

    2013-05-01

    The use of CT in medical diagnosis delivers radiation doses to patents that are higher than those from other radiological procedures. Lack of optimized protocols be an additional source of increased dose in developing countries. The aims of this study are first, to measure patient doses during CT chest and abdomen procedures, second, to estimate the radiation dose to the breast, and third to quantify the radiation risks during the procedures. Patient doses from two common CT examinations were obtained from four hospitals in Khartoum.The patient doses were estimated using measurement of CT dose indexes (CTDI), exposure-related parameters, and the IMPACT spreadsheet based on NRPB conversion factors. A large variation of mean organ doses among hospitals was observed for similar CT examinations. These variations largely originated from different CT scanning protocols used in different hospitals and scanner type. The largest range was found for CT of the chest, for which the dose varied from 2.3 to 47 (average 24.7) mSv and for abdomen CT, it was 1.6 to 18.8 (average 10.2) mSv. Radiation dose to the breast ranged from 1.6 to 32.9 mSv for the chest and 1.1 to 13.2 mSv for the abdomen. The radiation risk per procedure was high. The obtained values were mostly higher than the values of organ doses reported from the other studies. It was concluded that current clinical chest and abdomen protocols result in variable radiation doses to the breast. The magnitude of exposure may have implications for imaging strategies.(Author)

  10. Radiation in space: risk estimates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fry, R.J.M.

    2002-01-01

    The complexity of radiation environments in space makes estimation of risks more difficult than for the protection of terrestrial population. In deep space the duration of the mission, position of the solar cycle, number and size of solar particle events (SPE) and the spacecraft shielding are the major determinants of risk. In low-earth orbit missions there are the added factors of altitude and orbital inclination. Different radiation qualities such as protons and heavy ions and secondary radiations inside the spacecraft such as neutrons of various energies, have to be considered. Radiation dose rates in space are low except for short periods during very large SPEs. Risk estimation for space activities is based on the human experience of exposure to gamma rays and to a lesser extent X rays. The doses of protons, heavy ions and neutrons are adjusted to take into account the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of the different radiation types and thus derive equivalent doses. RBE values and factors to adjust for the effect of dose rate have to be obtained from experimental data. The influence of age and gender on the cancer risk is estimated from the data from atomic bomb survivors. Because of the large number of variables the uncertainties in the probability of the effects are large. Information needed to improve the risk estimates includes: (1) risk of cancer induction by protons, heavy ions and neutrons; (2) influence of dose rate and protraction, particularly on potential tissue effects such as reduced fertility and cataracts; and (3) possible effects of heavy ions on the central nervous system. Risk cannot be eliminated and thus there must be a consensus on what level of risk is acceptable. (author)

  11. Risk estimation and evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferguson, R A.D.

    1982-10-01

    Risk assessment involves subjectivity, which makes objective decision making difficult in the nuclear power debate. The author reviews the process and uncertainties of estimating risks as well as the potential for misinterpretation and misuse. Risk data from a variety of aspects cannot be summed because the significance of different risks is not comparable. A method for including political, social, moral, psychological, and economic factors, environmental impacts, catastrophes, and benefits in the evaluation process could involve a broad base of lay and technical consultants, who would explain and argue their evaluation positions. 15 references. (DCK)

  12. Prostate Cancer Risk Prediction Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Developing statistical models that estimate the probability of developing prostate cancer over a defined period of time will help clinicians identify individuals at higher risk of specific cancers, allowing for earlier or more frequent screening and counseling of behavioral changes to decrease risk.

  13. Colorectal Cancer Risk Prediction Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Developing statistical models that estimate the probability of developing colorectal cancer over a defined period of time will help clinicians identify individuals at higher risk of specific cancers, allowing for earlier or more frequent screening and counseling of behavioral changes to decrease risk.

  14. Esophageal Cancer Risk Prediction Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Developing statistical models that estimate the probability of developing esophageal cancer over a defined period of time will help clinicians identify individuals at higher risk of specific cancers, allowing for earlier or more frequent screening and counseling of behavioral changes to decrease risk.

  15. Bladder Cancer Risk Prediction Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Developing statistical models that estimate the probability of developing bladder cancer over a defined period of time will help clinicians identify individuals at higher risk of specific cancers, allowing for earlier or more frequent screening and counseling of behavioral changes to decrease risk.

  16. Lung Cancer Risk Prediction Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Developing statistical models that estimate the probability of developing lung cancer over a defined period of time will help clinicians identify individuals at higher risk of specific cancers, allowing for earlier or more frequent screening and counseling of behavioral changes to decrease risk.

  17. Breast Cancer Risk Prediction Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Developing statistical models that estimate the probability of developing breast cancer over a defined period of time will help clinicians identify individuals at higher risk of specific cancers, allowing for earlier or more frequent screening and counseling of behavioral changes to decrease risk.

  18. Pancreatic Cancer Risk Prediction Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Developing statistical models that estimate the probability of developing pancreatic cancer over a defined period of time will help clinicians identify individuals at higher risk of specific cancers, allowing for earlier or more frequent screening and counseling of behavioral changes to decrease risk.

  19. Ovarian Cancer Risk Prediction Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Developing statistical models that estimate the probability of developing ovarian cancer over a defined period of time will help clinicians identify individuals at higher risk of specific cancers, allowing for earlier or more frequent screening and counseling of behavioral changes to decrease risk.

  20. Liver Cancer Risk Prediction Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Developing statistical models that estimate the probability of developing liver cancer over a defined period of time will help clinicians identify individuals at higher risk of specific cancers, allowing for earlier or more frequent screening and counseling of behavioral changes to decrease risk.

  1. Testicular Cancer Risk Prediction Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Developing statistical models that estimate the probability of testicular cervical cancer over a defined period of time will help clinicians identify individuals at higher risk of specific cancers, allowing for earlier or more frequent screening and counseling of behavioral changes to decrease risk.

  2. Cervical Cancer Risk Prediction Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Developing statistical models that estimate the probability of developing cervical cancer over a defined period of time will help clinicians identify individuals at higher risk of specific cancers, allowing for earlier or more frequent screening and counseling of behavioral changes to decrease risk.

  3. Magnetic Resonance Imaging Provides Added Value to the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial Risk Calculator for Patients With Estimated Risk of High-grade Prostate Cancer Less Than or Equal to 10.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eric H; Weaver, John K; Shetty, Anup S; Vetter, Joel M; Andriole, Gerald L; Strope, Seth A

    2017-04-01

    To determine the added value of prostate magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial risk calculator. Between January 2012 and December 2015, 339 patients underwent prostate MRI prior to biopsy at our institution. MRI was considered positive if there was at least 1 Prostate Imaging Reporting and Data System 4 or 5 MRI suspicious region. Logistic regression was used to develop 2 models: biopsy outcome as a function of the (1) Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial risk calculator alone and (2) combined with MRI findings. When including all patients, the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial with and without MRI models performed similarly (area under the curve [AUC] = 0.74 and 0.78, P = .06). When restricting the cohort to patients with estimated risk of high-grade (Gleason ≥7) prostate cancer ≤10%, the model with MRI outperformed the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial alone model (AUC = 0.69 and 0.60, P = .01). Within this cohort of patients, there was no significant difference in discrimination between models for those with previous negative biopsy (AUC = 0.61 vs 0.63, P = .76), whereas there was a significant improvement in discrimination with the MRI model for biopsy-naïve patients (AUC = 0.72 vs 0.60, P = .01). The use of prostate MRI in addition to the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial risk calculator provides a significant improvement in clinical risk discrimination for patients with estimated risk of high-grade (Gleason ≥7) prostate cancer ≤10%. Prebiopsy prostate MRI should be strongly considered for these patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Estimating Risk Parameters

    OpenAIRE

    Aswath Damodaran

    1999-01-01

    Over the last three decades, the capital asset pricing model has occupied a central and often controversial place in most corporate finance analysts’ tool chests. The model requires three inputs to compute expected returns – a riskfree rate, a beta for an asset and an expected risk premium for the market portfolio (over and above the riskfree rate). Betas are estimated, by most practitioners, by regressing returns on an asset against a stock index, with the slope of the regression being the b...

  5. ADVISORY ON UPDATED METHODOLOGY FOR ESTIMATING CANCER RISKS FROM EXPOSURE TO IONIZING RADIATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    The National Academy of Sciences (NAS) published the Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiation (BEIR) committee's report (BEIR VII) on risks from ionizing radiation exposures in 2006. The Committee analyzed the most recent epidemiology from the important exposed cohorts and factor...

  6. Model linear absolute and relative risk estimates for cancer induced by ionizing radiation in Mexican cohort of occupationally exposed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez, R.J.T.; Trovar, M.V.M; González, J.F.

    2015-01-01

    From the rate of natural mortality m s cancer (t) for every 100 thousand habitants, modeled by a fourth-degree polynomial function of the age data of the Mexican population (2008), and assuming: a) a relationship 1: 5 of cancer induced radiation respect to presented spontaneously, b) a size of initial cohort No = 100 k SOPs, c) a speed of H E = (2 ± 1) mSv / received by the SOPs from 18 to 65 years, d) a latency of 8 years for cancer induction after irradiation, e) a time tracking cohort to 75 years, f) and taking the coefficients absolute and relative risk BEIRs induction of cancer models II and VII (excluding leukemia); It determined: BEIR II for a total of 125 and 400 deaths from cancer for absolute and relative linear models respectively. For BEIR VII has a number of fatal cases of 345 and 927 deaths respectively for absolute and relative linear model cancer. [es

  7. Dose-response relationships and risk estimates for the induction of cancer due to low doses of low-LET radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elaguppillai, V.

    1981-01-01

    Risk estimates for radiation-induced cancer at low doses can be obtained only by extrapolation from the known effects at high doses and high dose rates, using a suitable dose-response model. The applicability of three different models, linear, sublinear and supralinear, are discussed in this paper. Several experimental studies tend to favour a sublinear dose-response model (linear-quadratic model) for low-LET radiation. However, human epidemiological studies do not exclude any of the dose-response relationships. The risk estimates based on linear and linear quadratic dose-response models are compared and it is concluded that, for low-LET radiation, the linear dose-response model would probably over-estimate the actual risk of cancer by a factor of two or more. (author)

  8. A predictive tool to estimate the risk of axillary metastases in breast cancer patients with negative axillary ultrasound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meretoja, T J; Heikkilä, P S; Mansfield, A S

    2014-01-01

    of this study was to evaluate the risk factors for axillary metastases in breast cancer patients with negative preoperative axillary ultrasound. METHODS: A total of 1,395 consecutive patients with invasive breast cancer and SNB formed the original patient series. A univariate analysis was conducted to assess...... risk factors for axillary metastases. Binary logistic regression analysis was conducted to form a predictive model based on the risk factors. The predictive model was first validated internally in a patient series of 566 further patients and then externally in a patient series of 2,463 patients from......BACKGROUND: Sentinel node biopsy (SNB) is the "gold standard" in axillary staging in clinically node-negative breast cancer patients. However, axillary treatment is undergoing a paradigm shift and studies are being conducted on whether SNB may be omitted in low-risk patients. The purpose...

  9. Age-at-exposure effects on risk estimates for non-cancer mortality in the Japanese atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Wei; Muirhead, Colin R; Hunter, Nezahat

    2005-01-01

    Statistically significant increases in non-cancer disease mortality with radiation dose have been observed among survivors of the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. The increasing trends arise particularly for diseases of the circulatory, digestive, and respiratory systems. Rates for survivors exposed to a dose of 1 Sv are elevated by about 10%, a smaller relative increase than that for cancer. The aetiology of this increased risk is not yet understood. Neither animal nor human studies have found clear evidence for excess non-cancer mortality at the lower range of doses received by A-bomb survivors. In this paper, we examine the age and time patterns of excess risks in the A-bomb survivors. The results suggest that the excess relative risk of non-cancer disease mortality might be highest for exposure at ages 30-49 years, and that those exposed at ages 0-29 years might have a very low excess relative risk compared with those exposed at older ages. The differences in excess relative risk for different age-at-exposure groups imply that the dose response relationships for non-cancer disease mortality need to be modelled with adjustment for age-at-exposure

  10. Cancer risk in systemic lupus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bernatsky, Sasha; Ramsey-Goldman, Rosalind; Labrecque, Jeremy

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To update estimates of cancer risk in SLE relative to the general population. METHODS: A multisite international SLE cohort was linked with regional tumor registries. Standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) were calculated as the ratio of observed to expected cancers. RESULTS: Across 30 c...

  11. Cancer risks after radiation exposures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voelz, G.L.

    1980-01-01

    A general overview of the effects of ionizing radiation on cancer induction is presented. The relationship between the degree of risk and absorbed dose is examined. Mortality from radiation-induced cancer in the US is estimated and percentages attributable to various sources are given

  12. Estimating and explaining the effect of education and income on head and neck cancer risk: INHANCE consortium pooled analysis of 31 case-control studies from 27 countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conway, David I; Brenner, Darren R; McMahon, Alex D; Macpherson, Lorna M D; Agudo, Antonio; Ahrens, Wolfgang; Bosetti, Cristina; Brenner, Hermann; Castellsague, Xavier; Chen, Chu; Curado, Maria Paula; Curioni, Otávio A; Dal Maso, Luigino; Daudt, Alexander W; de Gois Filho, José F; D'Souza, Gypsyamber; Edefonti, Valeria; Fabianova, Eleonora; Fernandez, Leticia; Franceschi, Silvia; Gillison, Maura; Hayes, Richard B; Healy, Claire M; Herrero, Rolando; Holcatova, Ivana; Jayaprakash, Vijayvel; Kelsey, Karl; Kjaerheim, Kristina; Koifman, Sergio; La Vecchia, Carlo; Lagiou, Pagona; Lazarus, Philip; Levi, Fabio; Lissowska, Jolanta; Luce, Daniele; Macfarlane, Tatiana V; Mates, Dana; Matos, Elena; McClean, Michael; Menezes, Ana M; Menvielle, Gwenn; Merletti, Franco; Morgenstern, Hal; Moysich, Kirsten; Müller, Heiko; Muscat, Joshua; Olshan, Andrew F; Purdue, Mark P; Ramroth, Heribert; Richiardi, Lorenzo; Rudnai, Peter; Schantz, Stimson; Schwartz, Stephen M; Shangina, Oxana; Simonato, Lorenzo; Smith, Elaine; Stucker, Isabelle; Sturgis, Erich M; Szeszenia-Dabrowska, Neonila; Talamini, Renato; Thomson, Peter; Vaughan, Thomas L; Wei, Qingyi; Winn, Deborah M; Wunsch-Filho, Victor; Yu, Guo-Pei; Zhang, Zuo-Feng; Zheng, Tongzhang; Znaor, Ariana; Boffetta, Paolo; Chuang, Shu-Chun; Ghodrat, Marianoosh; Amy Lee, Yuan-Chin; Hashibe, Mia; Brennan, Paul

    2015-03-01

    Low socioeconomic status has been reported to be associated with head and neck cancer risk. However, previous studies have been too small to examine the associations by cancer subsite, age, sex, global region and calendar time and to explain the association in terms of behavioral risk factors. Individual participant data of 23,964 cases with head and neck cancer and 31,954 controls from 31 studies in 27 countries pooled with random effects models. Overall, low education was associated with an increased risk of head and neck cancer (OR = 2.50; 95% CI = 2.02 - 3.09). Overall one-third of the increased risk was not explained by differences in the distribution of cigarette smoking and alcohol behaviors; and it remained elevated among never users of tobacco and nondrinkers (OR = 1.61; 95% CI = 1.13 - 2.31). More of the estimated education effect was not explained by cigarette smoking and alcohol behaviors: in women than in men, in older than younger groups, in the oropharynx than in other sites, in South/Central America than in Europe/North America and was strongest in countries with greater income inequality. Similar findings were observed for the estimated effect of low versus high household income. The lowest levels of income and educational attainment were associated with more than 2-fold increased risk of head and neck cancer, which is not entirely explained by differences in the distributions of behavioral risk factors for these cancers and which varies across cancer sites, sexes, countries and country income inequality levels. © 2014 UICC.

  13. Competing Risk Approach (CRA) for Estimation of Disability Adjusted Life Years (DALY's) for Female Breast Cancer in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunnavil, Radhika; Thirthahalli, Chethana; Nooyi, Shalini Chandrashekar; Shivaraj, N S; Murthy, Nandagudi Srinivasa

    2015-10-01

    Competing Risk Approach (CRA) has been used to compute burden of disease in terms of Disability Adjusted Life Years (DALYs) based on a life table for an initially disease-free cohort over time. To compute Years of Life Lost (YLL) due to premature mortality, Years of life lost due to Disability (YLD), DALYs and loss in expectation of life (LEL) using competing risk approach for female breast cancer patients for the year 2008 in India. The published data on breast cancer by age & sex, incidence & mortality for the year 2006-2008 relating to six population based cancer registries (PBCR) under Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR), general mortality rates of 2007 in India, published in national health profile 2010; based on Sample Registration System (SRS) were utilized for computations. Three life tables were constructed by applying attrition of factors: (i) risk of death from all causes ('a'; where a is the general death rate); (ii) risk of incidence and that of death from causes other than breast cancer ('b-a+c'; where 'b' is the incidence of breast cancer and 'c' is the mortality of breast cancer); and (iii) risk of death from all other causes after excluding cancer mortality ('a-c'). Taking the differences in Total Person Years Lived (TPYL), YLD and YLL were derived along with LEL. CRA revealed that the DALYs were 40209 per 100,000 females in the life time of 0-70+ years with a LEL of 0.11 years per person. Percentage of YLL to DALYs was 28.20% in the cohort. The method of calculation of DALYs based on the CRA is simple and this will help to identify the burden of diseases using minimal information in terms of YLL, YLD, DALYs and LEL.

  14. Thinking through cancer risk: characterizing smokers' process of risk determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hay, Jennifer; Shuk, Elyse; Cruz, Gustavo; Ostroff, Jamie

    2005-10-01

    The perception of cancer risk motivates cancer risk reduction behaviors. However, common measurement strategies for cancer risk perceptions, which involve numerical likelihood estimates, do not adequately capture individuals' thoughts and feelings about cancer risk. To guide the development of novel measurement strategies, the authors used semistructured interviews to examine the thought processes used by smokers (N = 15) as they considered their cancer risk. They used grounded theory to guide systematic data coding and develop a heuristic model describing smokers' risk perception process that includes a cognitive, primarily rational process whereby salient personal risk factors for cancer are considered and combined, and an affective/attitudinal process, which shifts risk perceptions either up or down. The model provides a tentative explanation concerning how people hold cancer risk perceptions that diverge from rational assessment of their risks and will be useful in guiding the development of non-numerical measurements strategies for cancer risk perceptions.

  15. Estimation of outdoor and indoor effective dose and excess lifetime cancer risk from Gamma dose rates in Gonabad, Iran

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jafaria, R.; Zarghania, H.; Mohammadia, A., E-mail: rvzreza@gmail.com [Paramedical faculty, Birjand University of Medical Sciences, Birjand (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2017-07-01

    Background gamma irradiation in the indoor and outdoor environments is a major concern in the world. The study area was Gonabad city. Three stations and buildings for background radiation measurement of outdoor and indoor were randomly selected and the Geiger-Muller detector (X5C plus) was used. All dose rates on display of survey meter were recorded and mean of all data in each station and buildings was computed and taken as measured dose rate of that particular station. The average dose rates of background radiation were 84.2 nSv/h for outdoor and 108.6 nSv/h for indoor, maximum and minimum dose rates were 88.9 nSv/h and 77.7 nSv/h for outdoor measurements and 125.4 nSv/h and 94.1 nSv/h for indoor measurements, respectively. Results show that the annual effective dose is 0.64 mSv, which compare to global level of the annual effective dose 0.48 mSv is high. Estimated excess lifetime cancer risk was 2.24×10{sup -3} , indicated that it is large compared to the world average value of 0.25×10{sup -3}. (author)

  16. Area and volumetric density estimation in processed full-field digital mammograms for risk assessment of breast cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Cheddad

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Mammographic density, the white radiolucent part of a mammogram, is a marker of breast cancer risk and mammographic sensitivity. There are several means of measuring mammographic density, among which are area-based and volumetric-based approaches. Current volumetric methods use only unprocessed, raw mammograms, which is a problematic restriction since such raw mammograms are normally not stored. We describe fully automated methods for measuring both area and volumetric mammographic density from processed images. METHODS: The data set used in this study comprises raw and processed images of the same view from 1462 women. We developed two algorithms for processed images, an automated area-based approach (CASAM-Area and a volumetric-based approach (CASAM-Vol. The latter method was based on training a random forest prediction model with image statistical features as predictors, against a volumetric measure, Volpara, for corresponding raw images. We contrast the three methods, CASAM-Area, CASAM-Vol and Volpara directly and in terms of association with breast cancer risk and a known genetic variant for mammographic density and breast cancer, rs10995190 in the gene ZNF365. Associations with breast cancer risk were evaluated using images from 47 breast cancer cases and 1011 control subjects. The genetic association analysis was based on 1011 control subjects. RESULTS: All three measures of mammographic density were associated with breast cancer risk and rs10995190 (p0.10 for risk, p>0.03 for rs10995190. CONCLUSIONS: Our results show that it is possible to obtain reliable automated measures of volumetric and area mammographic density from processed digital images. Area and volumetric measures of density on processed digital images performed similar in terms of risk and genetic association.

  17. Joint Estimation of Cardiac Toxicity and Recurrence Risks After Comprehensive Nodal Photon Versus Proton Therapy for Breast Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stick, Line B; Yu, Jen; Maraldo, Maja V

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE: The study aims to perform joint estimation of the risk of recurrence caused by inadequate radiation dose coverage of lymph node targets and the risk of cardiac toxicity caused by radiation exposure to the heart. Delivered photon plans are compared with realistic proton plans, thereby pro...

  18. Risk Estimation for Lung Cancer in Libya: Analysis Based on Standardized Morbidity Ratio, Poisson-Gamma Model, BYM Model and Mixture Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhdiri, Maryam Ahmed; Samat, Nor Azah; Mohamed, Zulkifley

    2017-03-01

    Cancer is the most rapidly spreading disease in the world, especially in developing countries, including Libya. Cancer represents a significant burden on patients, families, and their societies. This disease can be controlled if detected early. Therefore, disease mapping has recently become an important method in the fields of public health research and disease epidemiology. The correct choice of statistical model is a very important step to producing a good map of a disease. Libya was selected to perform this work and to examine its geographical variation in the incidence of lung cancer. The objective of this paper is to estimate the relative risk for lung cancer. Four statistical models to estimate the relative risk for lung cancer and population censuses of the study area for the time period 2006 to 2011 were used in this work. They are initially known as Standardized Morbidity Ratio, which is the most popular statistic, which used in the field of disease mapping, Poisson-gamma model, which is one of the earliest applications of Bayesian methodology, Besag, York and Mollie (BYM) model and Mixture model. As an initial step, this study begins by providing a review of all proposed models, which we then apply to lung cancer data in Libya. Maps, tables and graph, goodness-of-fit (GOF) were used to compare and present the preliminary results. This GOF is common in statistical modelling to compare fitted models. The main general results presented in this study show that the Poisson-gamma model, BYM model, and Mixture model can overcome the problem of the first model (SMR) when there is no observed lung cancer case in certain districts. Results show that the Mixture model is most robust and provides better relative risk estimates across a range of models. Creative Commons Attribution License

  19. Colorectal Cancer Risk Assessment Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 11/12/2014 Risk Calculator About the Tool Colorectal Cancer Risk Factors Download SAS and Gauss Code Page ... Rectal Cancer: Prevention, Genetics, Causes Tests to Detect Colorectal Cancer and Polyps Cancer Risk Prediction Resources Update November ...

  20. Risk estimates for exposure to alpha emitters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-07-01

    The primary scope of this report is to evaluate the risk of lung cancer from occupational exposure to short-lived daughters of radon and thoron. The Subcommittee on Risk Estimates considers that inhalation of radon and thoron daughters is the major radiation hazard from alpha radiation in uranium mining. The secondary scope of this report is the consideration of the applicability of the risk estimates derived from miners to the general public. The risk to members of the public from radium-226 in drinking water is also considered. Some research requirments are suggested

  1. Risks of Skin Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... factors increase or decrease the risk of skin cancer. Skin cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) ... following PDQ summaries for more information about skin cancer: Skin Cancer Prevention Skin Cancer Treatment Melanoma Treatment Genetics ...

  2. Estimating the risk of lung cancer from inhalation of radon daughters indoors: review and evaluation. Final report, October 1986-April 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borak, T.B.; Johnson, J.A.

    1988-06-01

    A review of the dosimetric models and epidemiological studies with regard to the relation between indoor radon exposure and lung cancer indicates that the Working Level is an appropriate unit for indoor radon exposure; that the uncertainty in applying risk estimates derived from uranium miner data may be reduced by determining nose vs. mouth breathing ratios, residential aerosol characteristics, and lung cancer risk vs. age at exposure; that there is persuasive evidence of an association between radon exposure indoors and lung cancer; and that epidemiological studies in progress may provide a basis for revision or validation of current models but only is experimental designs are employed that will permit pooling of data to obtain greater statistical power

  3. Radiation induced cancer risk estimation for contralateral breast in 3D conformal treatments of post mastectomy cancer patients: based on OED

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hemalatha, A.; Athiyaman, M.; Kumar, H.S.; Chougule, Arun

    2016-01-01

    A global comparison of breast cancer in India with other countries like US/China in 2012 gave a data that collectively the above countries including India account for almost one third of global breast cancer burden. According to this report for every two women newly diagnosed with breast cancer in India, one lady is dying of it. The curative radiotherapy for breast cancer treatment associated with scattered and leakage radiation exposure to critical organs like contralateral breast, lung etc. Radiation is one of the well known carcinogen of breast due its high radiosensititvity. The study done by Stovall et al concluded that the contralateral breast cancer risk is elevated for breast cancer patients of age less than 40 years if dose to health breast is greater than 1 Gy. So its necessary to evaluate dose to Contralateral Breast (ClB) for breast cancer patients for more than 1 Gy. The aim of this study is to compare the risks of secondary breast cancer from conventional wedge field and forward IMRT technique using the concept of OED-Organ Equivalent Dose/for chest wall irradiation of post mastectomy breast cancer patients

  4. Survey on basic data of risk estimation of lung cancer among non-uranium miners in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu Yinghua; Sun Quanfu; Du Weixia; Lei Suwen; Lei Shujie; Li Xiaoying; Zhang Shouzhi; Qian Yekan; Su Xu

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the basic data of risk estimation of lung cancer among non-uranium miners in China. Methods: 2836 workers from 24 mines in 9 provinces/regions were face-to-face interviewed to collect information including age at exposure,exposure duration, cigarette smoking among others. Results: Age of the investigated non-uranium miners ranged from 17 to 72 (36.9 ± 8.0) years. The miners received low and poor education, 3% of them were illiterate, 58% with primary and middle school education, only 7% with junior college and higher education. Seventy-five percent of the uranium miners are migrant rural workers. Ethnic minority miners accoungted for 16% of all the investigated miners. Among the migrant rural workers age at initial exposure was estimated to be 29.6 ± 8.0 years. By the time of the investigation, 46.7% of the miners had worked in the mine for five years and longer, working years in the mine was 6.7 ± 6.8 years with a median of 4.1 years. 3.4% of the non-uranium miners began the initial radon exposure in mines before their 18 years of old. 17.5% of the investigated miners reported working more than 8 h every working day. Among the males, 58.0% were current smokers with a median of 16 cigarettes per day. Age to begin the cigarette smoking was 20 years on average. Current smoking rate was age-dependent, the rate as high as 69.2% for the males aged 15-19 years. Current smoking rate was significantly statistically lower in coal mines than that in other mines, 49.0% vs 62.5%. Compared with other miners, more frequent mechanical ventilations were reported by coal miners, Conclusions: In China non-uranium mines, 75% were migrant rural workers, by the time of the investigation about half of them had worked in the mines for at least five years. Non-uranium miners began their mining at 30 years on average, with a very small percentage of 3%, exposed to the mining radon before their 18 years. Current cigarette smoking rate in non-uranium male miners

  5. Estimation, assessment and management of risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reinoehl-Kompa, S.

    2005-01-01

    After the introductory lectures the closed conference divided into sessions on the estimation, assessment and management of risks. This review article summarises some of the central issues which were addressed in the discussions held during the closed conference and which may be of significance for the future work of the ''Radiation Risk'' Committee within the Radiation Protection Commission. Fundamental difficulties still persist in the implementation of risk quantities within the concepts of radiation protection (lectures by Breckow and Kiefer). Some of these difficulties have to do with the definition of dose quantities, in particular with the one most central to radiation protection, the effective dose. In the field of sparsely ionizing radiation attention was focused on two main topics, namely the risk of acquiring thyroid cancer in association with the Chernobyl desaster and analyses of new mortality data on the survivors of the nuclear bomb attacks on Hiroshima and Nagasaki. In the area of lung cancer risk from radon exposure, attention was focused on indoor exposure and the cohort study on bismuth miners. The body of knowledge that has accumulated on the risk of acquiring cancer through UV radiation takes a special position within the wider field of risks associated with nonionizing radiation, since much has already been achieved towards identifying the action mechanisms involved here. Since skin cancer shows the highest increments in incidence of all types of cancer, estimating the risk of acquiring skin cancer through UV radiation will be an important issue in future. One of the tasks of risk management is to translate the results of risk assessment into action. One task of particular importance in this regard is ''risk communication'', the problems surrounding which were illuminated from different perspectives in various contributions

  6. Estimate of the shielding effect on secondary cancer risk due to cone-beam CT in image-guided radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sung, Jiwon; Baek, Taeseong; Yoon, Myonggeun [Korea University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Dongwook; Kim, Donghyun [Kyung Hee University Hospital at Gangdong, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-09-15

    This study evaluated the effect of a simple shielding method using a thin lead sheet on the imaging dose caused by cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) in image-guided radiation therapy (IGRT). Reduction of secondary doses from CBCT was measured using a radio-photoluminescence glass dosimeter (RPLGD) placed inside an anthropomorphic phantom. The entire body, except for the region scanned by using CBCT, was shielded by wrapping it with a 2-mm lead sheet. Changes in secondary cancer risk due to shielding were calculated using BEIR VII models. Doses to out-of-field organs for head-and-neck, chest, and pelvis scans were decreased 15 ∼ 100%, 23 ∼ 90%, and 23 ∼ 98%, respectively, and the average reductions in lifetime secondary cancer risk due to the 2-mm lead shielding were 1.6, 11.5, and 12.7 persons per 100,000, respectively. These findings suggest that a simple, thin-lead-sheet-based shielding method can effectively decrease secondary doses to out-of-field regions for CBCT, which reduces the lifetime cancer risk on average by 9 per 100,000 patients.

  7. Risk estimates for bone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlenker, R.A.

    1982-01-01

    Bone sarcoma data for 226 228 Ra and 224 Ra are analyzed within the dosage ranges where the observed risk is zero. The uncertainty in the risk may be effectively illustrated by using pairs of functions based on a statistically-based measure of confidence. For radiation protection, the appropriate measure of risk is cumulative incidence in the presence of competing risks, as this takes into account the reduction of radiation effects brought about by natural mortality

  8. Radiobiological risk estimates of adverse events and secondary cancer for proton and photon radiation therapy of pediatric medulloblastoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodin, N Patrik; Munck af Rosenschöld, Per Martin; Aznar, Marianne C

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this model study was to estimate and compare the risk of radiation-induced adverse late effects in pediatric patients with medulloblastoma (MB) treated with either three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D CRT), inversely-optimized arc therapy (RapidArc(®) (RA)) or spot...

  9. Variance computations for functional of absolute risk estimates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeiffer, R M; Petracci, E

    2011-07-01

    We present a simple influence function based approach to compute the variances of estimates of absolute risk and functions of absolute risk. We apply this approach to criteria that assess the impact of changes in the risk factor distribution on absolute risk for an individual and at the population level. As an illustration we use an absolute risk prediction model for breast cancer that includes modifiable risk factors in addition to standard breast cancer risk factors. Influence function based variance estimates for absolute risk and the criteria are compared to bootstrap variance estimates.

  10. Incidence of bone cancer in beagles after inhalation of 90SrCl2 or 238PuO2: Implications for estimation of risk to humans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mewhinney, J.A.; Griffith, W.C.; Hahn, F.F.; Snipes, M.B.; Boecker, B.B.; McClellan, R.O.

    1986-01-01

    Among the life-span studies conducted with beagle dogs, bone cancer has been in two studies the predominant effect at death. These studies involved dogs that inhaled 90 SrCl 2 , which is very soluble in body fluids; and dogs that inhaled 238 PuO 2 , which is initially insoluble but eventually becomes fragmented and more soluble. Both radionuclides were deposited in the skeleton after dissolution in the lung and absorption into the bloodstream. All dogs in the 90 Sr study are dead, and all living dogs in the 238 Pu study are at least 7 years postexposure. Results from these two studies were compared to determine the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of chronic beta and alpha radiation delivered from these two radionuclides. These data also were used to estimate the risk of bone cancer in man by using comparisons with data from the 90 Sr-, 239 Pu-, and 226 Ra-injected dogs at the University of Utah and data on humans who ingested 226 Ra or were injected with 224 Ra. Such comparisons provided a link between studies in laboratory animals and the available human data. In this way risks of bone cancer in humans from inhaled plutonium or strontium were estimated, even though currently no human cases of bone cancer are known to have resulted from the inhalation of either of these radionuclides. 15 refs., 7 figs., 7 tabs

  11. Biochemical Control With Radiotherapy Improves Overall Survival in Intermediate and High-Risk Prostate Cancer Patients Who Have an Estimated 10-Year Overall Survival of >90%

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herbert, Christopher; Liu, Mitchell; Tyldesley, Scott; Morris, W. James; Joffres, Michel; Khaira, Mandip; Kwan, Winkle; Moiseenko, Vitali; Pickles, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To identify subgroups of patients with carcinoma of the prostate treated with radical radiotherapy that have improved overall survival when disease is biochemically controlled. Methods and Materials: A cohort of 1,060 prostate cancer patients treated with radical radiotherapy was divided into nine subgroups based on National Comprehensive Cancer Network risk category and estimated 10-year overall survival (eOS 10y) derived from the age adjusted Charlson Comorbidity Index. Patients with and without biochemical control were compared with respect to overall survival. Actuarial estimates of overall survival were calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Univariate and multivariate Cox proportional hazards models were used for analysis of overall survival. Results: Median follow-up was 125 months (range, 51–176 months). Only the subgroups with high or intermediate risk disease and an eOS 10y of >90% had a statistically significantly improved overall survival when prostate cancer was biochemically controlled. In all other groups, biochemical control made no significant difference to overall survival. In the subgroup with high-risk disease and eOS 10y >90%, actuarial overall survival was 86.3% (95% confidence interval [CI] 78.5%–94.1%) and 62.1% (95% CI 52.9%–71.3%) for patients with biochemical control and biochemical relapse respectively (p = 0.002). In the intermediate risk group with eOS >90%, actuarial overall survival was 95.3% (95% CI 89.0%–100%) and 79.8% (95% CI 68.0%–91.6%) for biochemically controlled and biochemically relapsed patients (p = 0.033). On multivariate analysis, National Comprehensive Cancer Network risk group (p = 0.005), biochemical control (p = 0.033) and eOS 10y (p 90%.

  12. Metabolic Syndrome and Breast Cancer Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wani, Burhan; Aziz, Shiekh Aejaz; Ganaie, Mohammad Ashraf; Mir, Mohammad Hussain

    2017-01-01

    The study was meant to estimate the prevalence of metabolic syndrome in patients with breast cancer and to establish its role as an independent risk factor on occurrence of breast cancer. Fifty women aged between 40 and 80 years with breast cancer and fifty controls of similar age were assessed for metabolic syndrome prevalence and breast cancer risk factors, including age at menarche, reproductive status, live births, breastfeeding, and family history of breast cancer, age at diagnosis of breast cancer, body mass index, and metabolic syndrome parameters. Metabolic syndrome prevalence was found in 40.0% of breast cancer patients, and 18.0% of those in control group ( P = 0.02). An independent and positive association was seen between metabolic syndrome and breast cancer risk (odds ratio = 3.037; 95% confidence interval 1.214-7.597). Metabolic syndrome is more prevalent in breast cancer patients and is an independent risk factor for breast cancer.

  13. Ecological risk estimation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartell, S.M.; Gardner, R.H.; O'Neill, R.V.

    1992-01-01

    Ecological risk assessment, the process that evaluates the likelihood that adverse ecological effects may occur or are occurring as a result of exposure to one or more stressors, is being developed by the US EPA as a tool for decision making. This book presents one approach to risk assessment-that of applying laboratory toxicity data within an ecosystem model to predict the potential ecological consequences of toxic chemicals. Both Standard Water Column Model (SWACOM), using zooplankton and fish, and Monte Carlo simulations are discussed in detail, along with quantitative explanations for many responses. Simplifying assumptions are explicitly presented. The final chapter discusses strengths, weaknesses, and future directions of the approach. The book is appropriate for anyone who does or uses ecological risk assessment methodologies

  14. Breast Cancer Risk Estimation and Personal Insurance: A Qualitative Study Presenting Perspectives from Canadian Patients and Decision Makers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gratien Dalpé

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Genetic stratification approaches in personalized medicine may considerably improve our ability to predict breast cancer risk for women at higher risk of developing breast cancer. Notwithstanding these advantages, concerns have been raised about the use of the genetic information derived in these processes, outside of the research and medical health care settings, by third parties such as insurers. Indeed, insurance applicants are asked to consent to insurers accessing their medical information (implicitly including genetic to verify or determine their insurability level, or eligibility to certain insurance products. This use of genetic information may result in the differential treatment of individuals based on their genetic information, which could lead to higher premium, exclusionary clauses or even the denial of coverage. This phenomenon has been commonly referred to as “Genetic Discrimination” (GD. In the Canadian context, where federal Bill S-201, An Act to prohibit and prevent genetic discrimination, has recently been enacted but may be subject to constitutional challenges, information about potential risks to insurability may raise issues in the clinical context. We conducted a survey with women in Quebec who have never been diagnosed with breast cancer to document their perspectives. We complemented the research with data from 14 semi-structured interviews with decision-makers in Quebec to discuss institutional issues raised by the use of genetic information by insurers. Our results provide findings on five main issues: (1 the reluctance to undergo genetic screening test due to insurability concerns, (2 insurers' interest in genetic information, (3 the duty to disclose genetic information to insurers, (4 the disclosure of potential impacts on insurability before genetic testing, and (5 the status of genetic information compared to other health data. Overall, both groups of participants (the women surveyed and the decision

  15. Use of BEIR V and UNSCEAR 1988 in radiation risk assessment: Lifetime total cancer mortality risk estimates at low doses and low dose rates for low-LET radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-12-01

    In November 1986, the Department of Defense (DoD) asked the Committee on Interagency Radiation Research and Policy Coordination (CIRRPC) to develop a coordinated Federal position on risk assessment for low levels of ionizing radiation. Since Federal risk assessment activities are based primarily on the scientific data and analyses in authoritative review documents prepared by groups like the National Academy of Sciences' Committee on the Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiation (BEIR), the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP) and the United Nations' Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR), DoD proposed that the CIRRPC Science Panel undertake the task of providing coordinated interagency positions on the use of information in the reports of such groups. The practice has been for individual Federal agencies to interpret and decide independently how to use the information provided in such reports. As a result of its deliberations, the Subpanel recommends two nominal risk estimates for lifetime total cancer mortality following whole-body exposure to low levels of low-LET ionizing radiation, one for the general population and one for the working-age population (see Section II). The recommended risk estimates reflect the general agreement of information in BEIR V and UNSCEAR 1988 for total cancer mortality. The Subpanel's risk estimates and associated statements are intended to meet the needs of the Federal agencies for: (a) values that are current; (b) values that are relevant to the low-dose and low dose-rate ionizing radiation exposures principally encountered in carrying out Federal responsibilities; (c) a statement of the change in the estimates of lifetime total cancer mortality relative to estimates in previous authoritative review documents; and (d) a practical statement on the scientific uncertainty associated with applying the lifetime total cancer mortality values at very low doses

  16. Cancer risk as a radiation detriment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Servomaa, A.; Komppa, T.; Servomaa, K.

    1992-11-01

    Potential radiation detriment means a risk of cancer or other somatic disease, genetic damage of fetal injury. Quantative information about the relation between a radiation dose and cancer risk is needed to enable decision-making in radiation protection. However, assessment of cancer risk by means of the radiation dose is controversial, as epidemiological and biological information about factors affecting the origin of cancers show that risk assessment is imprecise when the radiation dose is used as the only factor. Focusing on radiation risk estimates for breast cancer, lung cancer and leukemia, the report is based on the models given in the Beir V report, on sources of radiation exposure and the uncertainty of risk estimates. Risk estimates are assessed using the relative risk model and the cancer mortality rates in Finland. Cancer incidence and mortality rates for men and women are shown in graphs as a function of age and time. Relative risks are shown as a function of time after exposure and lifetime risks as a function of age at exposure. Uncertainty factors affecting the radiation risk are examined from the point of view of epidemiology and molecular biology. (orig.)

  17. Cancer risks and prevention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vessey, M.P.; Gray, M.

    1985-01-01

    A series of essays in honour of Sir Richard Doll is presented. Chapters cover the preventability of cancer, geography, smoking, diet, occupation, radiation, infections and immune impairment, exogenous and endogenous hormones, other drugs, prevention through legislation and by education and cancer risks and prevention in the Third World. The chapter on radiation has been indexed separately. (UK)

  18. Estimated radiation pneumonitis risk after photon versus proton therapy alone or combined with chemotherapy for lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vogelius, Ivan R.; Westerly, David C; Aznar, Marianne Camille

    2011-01-01

    Background. Traditionally, radiation therapy plans are optimized without consideration of chemotherapy. Here, we model the risk of radiation pneumonitis (RP) in the presence of a possible interaction between chemotherapy and radiation dose distribution. Material and methods. Three alternative......-radiation combinations could be an interesting indication for selecting patients for proton therapy. It is likely that the IMRT plans would perform better if the CERD was accounted for during optimization, but more clinical data is required to facilitate evidence-based plan optimization in the multi-modality setting....... treatment plans are compared in 18 non-small cell lung cancer patients previously treated with helical tomotherapy; the tomotherapy plan, an intensity modulated proton therapy plan (IMPT) and a three dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT) plan. All plans are optimized without consideration...

  19. Contralateral breast cancer risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unnithan, Jaya; Macklis, Roger M.

    2001-01-01

    The use of breast-conserving treatment approaches for breast cancer has now become a standard option for early stage disease. Numerous randomized studies have shown medical equivalence when mastectomy is compared to lumpectomy followed by radiotherapy for the local management of this common problem. With an increased emphasis on patient involvement in the therapeutic decision making process, it is important to identify and quantify any unforeseen risks of the conservation approach. One concern that has been raised is the question of radiation- related contralateral breast cancer after breast radiotherapy. Although most studies do not show statistically significant evidence that patients treated with breast radiotherapy are at increased risk of developing contralateral breast cancer when compared to control groups treated with mastectomy alone, there are clear data showing the amount of scattered radiation absorbed by the contralateral breast during a routine course of breast radiotherapy is considerable (several Gy) and is therefore within the range where one might be concerned about radiogenic contralateral tumors. While radiation related risks of contralateral breast cancer appear to be small enough to be statistically insignificant for the majority of patients, there may exist a smaller subset which, for genetic or environmental reasons, is at special risk for scatter related second tumors. If such a group could be predicted, it would seem appropriate to offer either special counselling or special prevention procedures aimed at mitigating this second tumor risk. The use of genetic testing, detailed analysis of breast cancer family history, and the identification of patients who acquired their first breast cancer at a very early age may all be candidate screening procedures useful in identifying such at- risk groups. Since some risk mitigation strategies are convenient and easy to utilize, it makes sense to follow the classic 'ALARA' (as low as reasonably

  20. Simulation-extrapolation method to address errors in atomic bomb survivor dosimetry on solid cancer and leukaemia mortality risk estimates, 1950-2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allodji, Rodrigue S.; Schwartz, Boris; Diallo, Ibrahima; Vathaire, Florent de [Gustave Roussy B2M, Radiation Epidemiology Group/CESP - Unit 1018 INSERM, Villejuif Cedex (France); Univ. Paris-Sud, Villejuif (France); Agbovon, Cesaire [Pierre and Vacances - Center Parcs Group, L' artois - Espace Pont de Flandre, Paris Cedex 19 (France); Laurier, Dominique [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire (IRSN), DRPH, SRBE, Laboratoire d' epidemiologie, BP17, Fontenay-aux-Roses Cedex (France)

    2015-08-15

    Analyses of the Life Span Study (LSS) of Japanese atomic bombing survivors have routinely incorporated corrections for additive classical measurement errors using regression calibration. Recently, several studies reported that the efficiency of the simulation-extrapolation method (SIMEX) is slightly more accurate than the simple regression calibration method (RCAL). In the present paper, the SIMEX and RCAL methods have been used to address errors in atomic bomb survivor dosimetry on solid cancer and leukaemia mortality risk estimates. For instance, it is shown that using the SIMEX method, the ERR/Gy is increased by an amount of about 29 % for all solid cancer deaths using a linear model compared to the RCAL method, and the corrected EAR 10{sup -4} person-years at 1 Gy (the linear terms) is decreased by about 8 %, while the corrected quadratic term (EAR 10{sup -4} person-years/Gy{sup 2}) is increased by about 65 % for leukaemia deaths based on a linear-quadratic model. The results with SIMEX method are slightly higher than published values. The observed differences were probably due to the fact that with the RCAL method the dosimetric data were partially corrected, while all doses were considered with the SIMEX method. Therefore, one should be careful when comparing the estimated risks and it may be useful to use several correction techniques in order to obtain a range of corrected estimates, rather than to rely on a single technique. This work will enable to improve the risk estimates derived from LSS data, and help to make more reliable the development of radiation protection standards. (orig.)

  1. Concentrations of indoor radon and thoron in cave-dwellings with discussions on risk estimation of lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Quanfu; Hou Changsong; Zhang Shouzhi; Nie Xiaoqian; Shang Bing

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To explore a residential area with elevated indoor radon exposure for conducting epidemiological studies on indoor radon and lung cancer. Methods: Two hundred and two cave-dwellings (CD) including loess CD, brick CD, stone CD, and ordinary house in twenty villages were selected from Yan'an and Lvliang in the Chinese loess plateau. Indoor levels of thoron and its progeny as well as radon were measured with passive radon-thoron discriminative detectors and thoron progeny deposition rate devices. The exposure period covered from August 2001 through August 2002. Results: Loess CD was one of the most common type of dwelling caves in both areas. The indoor radon concentrations in loess CD ranged from 17 to 179 Bq/m 3 ; thoron varied sub-stantially depending upon the distance from the device to the wall, ranged from 10 to 760 Bq/m 3 . Geometric means of indoor radon, thoron and thoron's progeny (EEC Tn ) of loess caves in Yan'an area were estimated to be 71, 185 and 2.2 Bq/m 3 , respectively, and the corresponding figures were 73, 145 and 116 Bq/m 3 in Lvliang area. Possible contamination of thoron on radon measurement in a previous case-control study on lung caner was discussed. The study revealed that the indoor air pollution in Yan'an area was slight compared with that in Lvliang area. Migration was very low. Eighty-six percent of the investigated persons have had no migration in Yan'an area, and 90 percent of the cave-dwellings where the subjects once resided were available to our measurements. Two million people have been living in cave-dwellings over several generations. Conclusion: The investigated cave-dwelling area in Yan'an is suitable for conducting epidemiological study on residential thoron and radon exposure and lung cancer.(authors)

  2. New risk estimates at low doses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fry, R.J.M.

    1992-01-01

    The age of molecular radiation epidemiology may be at hand. The techniques are available to establish with the degree of precision required to determine whether agent-specific mutations can be identified consistently. A concerted effort to examine radiation-induced changes in as many relevant genes as possible appears to be justified. Cancers in those exposed to low doses of ionizing radiation should be chosen for the investigation. Parallel studies of radiation-induced cancers in experimental animals would not only complement the human studies, but perhaps reveal approaches to extrapolation of risk estimates across species. A caveat should be added to this optimistic view of what molecular studies might contribute to the knotty problem of risk estimates at low doses. The suggestions are made by one with no expertise in the field of molecular biology

  3. Towards gene-and gender-based risk estimates in Lynch syndrome; Age-specific incidences for 13 extra-colorectal cancer types

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Therkildsen, Christina; Ladelund, Steen; Smith-Hansen, Lars

    2017-01-01

    Background:In Lynch syndrome, inherited mismatch repair (MMR) defects predispose to colorectal cancer and to a wide spectrum of extra-colorectal tumours. Utilising a cohort study design, we aimed to determine the risk of extra-colorectal cancer and to identify yet unrecognised tumour types...... were identified for 13 cancer types with differences related to gender, age and disease-predisposing gene. The different cancer types showed variable peak age incidence rates (IRs) with the highest IRs for ovarian cancer at age 30-49 years, for endometrial cancer, breast cancer, renal cell cancer...... and brain tumours at age 50-69 years, and for urothelial cancer, small bowel cancer, gastric cancer, pancreatic cancer and skin tumours after age 70.Conclusions:The broad spectrum of tumour types that develop at an increased incidence defines Lynch syndrome as a multi-tumour syndrome. The variable...

  4. Risk of second primary cancer following differentiated thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berthe, Emmanuelle; Berthet, Pascaline; Bardet, Stephane; Henry-Amar, Michel; Michels, Jean-Jacques; Rame, Jean-Pierre; Babin, Emmanuel; Icard, Philippe; Samama, Guy; Galateau-Salle, Francoise; Mahoudeau, Jacques

    2004-01-01

    Concerns remain over the risk of cancer following differentiated thyroid carcinoma and its causes. Iodine-131 ( 131 I) and external irradiation are known to have potential carcinogenic effects. Thyroid carcinoma is a polygenic disease which may be associated with other malignancies. We investigated the incidence of second cancer and its aetiology in a cohort of 875 patients (146 men, 729 women) with differentiated thyroid carcinoma originating from Basse-Normandie, France. Cancer incidence was compared with that of the general population of the Departement du Calvados matched for age, gender and period. The cumulative proportion of second cancer was estimated using the life-table method. Factors that correlated with the risk of second cancer were studied using the Cox model. After a median follow-up of 8 years, 58 second cancers had been observed. Compared with general population incidence rates, there was an overall increased risk of second cancer in women [standardised incidence ratio (SIR)=1.52; P 0.20). Increased risk related to cancers of the genitourinary tract (SIR=3.31; P 131 I was related to the risk. These data confirm that women with differentiated thyroid carcinoma are at risk of developing a second cancer of the genitourinary tract and kidney. Only age and medical history of primary cancer before thyroid carcinoma are risk factors for second cancer. Common environmental or genetic factors as well as long-term carcinogenic effects of primary cancer therapy should be considered. (orig.)

  5. Estimation of the excess lifetime cancer risk from radon exposure in some buildings of Kufa Technical Institute, Iraq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Abid Abojassim

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available A number of international health organizations consider the exposure to residential radon as the second main cause of lung cancer after cigarette smoking. It was found that there is no database on radon concentrations for the Kufa Technical Institute buildings in the literature. This therefore triggers a special need for radon measurement in some Kufa Technical Institute buildings. This study aims to investigate the indoor radon levels inside the Kufa Technical Institute buildings for the first time using different radon measurement methods such as active (RAD-7 and passive (LR-115 Type II methods. Seventy eight of Solid-State Nuclear Track Detectors (SSNTDs LR-115 Type II were distributed at four buildings within the study area. The LR-115 Type II detectors were exposed in the study area for three months period. In parallel to the latter, seventy two active measurements were conducted using RAD-7 in the same buildings for correlation investigation purposes between the two kinds of measurements (i.e. passive and active.The results demonstrate that the radon concentrations were generally low, ranging from 38.4 to 77.2 Bq/m3, with a mean value of 50 Bq/m3. The mean of the equilibrium equivalent radon concentration and annual effective dose were assessed to be 19.9 Bq/m3 and 1.2 mS/y, respectively; the excess lifetime lung cancer risk was approximately 11.6 per million personal. A high correlation was found between the methods of measurements (i.e. LR-115 Type II and RAD-7, R2 = 0.99 which is significant at P < 0.001. The results of this work revealed that the Radon concentration was below the action level set by the United States Environmental Protection Agency of 148 Bq/m3. This therefore indicates that no radiological health hazard exists. However, the relatively high concentrations in some classrooms can be addressed by the natural ventilation or the classrooms being supplied with suction fans.

  6. Risk estimation using probability machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Logistic regression has been the de facto, and often the only, model used in the description and analysis of relationships between a binary outcome and observed features. It is widely used to obtain the conditional probabilities of the outcome given predictors, as well as predictor effect size estimates using conditional odds ratios. Results We show how statistical learning machines for binary outcomes, provably consistent for the nonparametric regression problem, can be used to provide both consistent conditional probability estimation and conditional effect size estimates. Effect size estimates from learning machines leverage our understanding of counterfactual arguments central to the interpretation of such estimates. We show that, if the data generating model is logistic, we can recover accurate probability predictions and effect size estimates with nearly the same efficiency as a correct logistic model, both for main effects and interactions. We also propose a method using learning machines to scan for possible interaction effects quickly and efficiently. Simulations using random forest probability machines are presented. Conclusions The models we propose make no assumptions about the data structure, and capture the patterns in the data by just specifying the predictors involved and not any particular model structure. So they do not run the same risks of model mis-specification and the resultant estimation biases as a logistic model. This methodology, which we call a “risk machine”, will share properties from the statistical machine that it is derived from. PMID:24581306

  7. Cancer risk from inorganics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swierenga, S.H.; Gilman, J.P.; McLean, J.R.

    1987-01-01

    Inorganic metals and minerals for which there is evidence of carcinogenicity are identified. The risk of cancer from contact with them in the work place, the general environment, and under conditions of clinical (medical) exposure is discussed. The evidence indicates that minerals and metals most often influence cancer development through their action as cocarcinogens. The relationship between the physical form of mineral fibers, smoking and carcinogenic risk is emphasized. Metals are categorized as established (As, Be, Cr, Ni), suspected (Cd, Pb) and possible carcinogens, based on the existing in vitro, animal experimental and human epidemiological data. Cancer risk and possible modes of action of elements in each class are discussed. Views on mechanisms that may be responsible for the carcinogenicity of metals are updated and analysed. Some specific examples of cancer risks associated with the clinical use of potentially carcinogenic metals and from radioactive pharmaceuticals used in therapy and diagnosis are presented. Questions are raised as to the effectiveness of conventional dosimetry in accurately measuring risk from radiopharmaceuticals. 302 references

  8. Reproductive History and Breast Cancer Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Common Cancer Types Recurrent Cancer Common Cancer Types Bladder Cancer Breast Cancer Colorectal Cancer Kidney (Renal Cell) Cancer ... 4 ). This risk reduction is limited to hormone receptor –positive breast cancer; age at first full-term ...

  9. Genetic toxicology and cancer risk assessment

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Choy, Wai Nang

    2001-01-01

    ... their risks to humans are obvious goals for the protection of public health. When exposure is unavoidable, an accurate estimation of human risk as a result of exposure is essential for making regulatory decisions. Quantitative cancer risk assessment is an intricate process that utilizes knowledge from many different scien...

  10. Risk estimation of distant metastasis in node-negative, estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer patients using an RT-PCR based prognostic expression signature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tutt, Andrew; Shu, Henry; Springall, Robert; Cane, Paul; McCallie, Blair; Kam-Morgan, Lauren; Anderson, Steve; Buerger, Horst; Gray, Joe; Bennington, James; Esserman, Laura; Wang, Alice; Hastie, Trevor; Broder, Samuel; Sninsky, John; Brandt, Burkhard; Waldman, Fred; Rowland, Charles; Gillett, Cheryl; Lau, Kit; Chew, Karen; Dai, Hongyue; Kwok, Shirley; Ryder, Kenneth

    2008-01-01

    Given the large number of genes purported to be prognostic for breast cancer, it would be optimal if the genes identified are not confounded by the continuously changing systemic therapies. The aim of this study was to discover and validate a breast cancer prognostic expression signature for distant metastasis in untreated, early stage, lymph node-negative (N-) estrogen receptor-positive (ER+) patients with extensive follow-up times. 197 genes previously associated with metastasis and ER status were profiled from 142 untreated breast cancer subjects. A 'metastasis score' (MS) representing fourteen differentially expressed genes was developed and evaluated for its association with distant-metastasis-free survival (DMFS). Categorical risk classification was established from the continuous MS and further evaluated on an independent set of 279 untreated subjects. A third set of 45 subjects was tested to determine the prognostic performance of the MS in tamoxifen-treated women. A 14-gene signature was found to be significantly associated (p < 0.05) with distant metastasis in a training set and subsequently in an independent validation set. In the validation set, the hazard ratios (HR) of the high risk compared to low risk groups were 4.02 (95% CI 1.91–8.44) for the endpoint of DMFS and 1.97 (95% CI 1.28 to 3.04) for overall survival after adjustment for age, tumor size and grade. The low and high MS risk groups had 10-year estimates (95% CI) of 96% (90–99%) and 72% (64–78%) respectively, for DMFS and 91% (84–95%) and 68% (61–75%), respectively for overall survival. Performance characteristics of the signature in the two sets were similar. Ki-67 labeling index (LI) was predictive for recurrent disease in the training set, but lost significance after adjustment for the expression signature. In a study of tamoxifen-treated patients, the HR for DMFS in high compared to low risk groups was 3.61 (95% CI 0.86–15.14). The 14-gene signature is significantly

  11. Instrumental variable estimation of the causal effect of plasma 25-hydroxy-vitamin D on colorectal cancer risk: a mendelian randomization analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evropi Theodoratou

    Full Text Available Vitamin D deficiency has been associated with several common diseases, including cancer and is being investigated as a possible risk factor for these conditions. We reported the striking prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in Scotland. Previous epidemiological studies have reported an association between low dietary vitamin D and colorectal cancer (CRC. Using a case-control study design, we tested the association between plasma 25-hydroxy-vitamin D (25-OHD and CRC (2,001 cases, 2,237 controls. To determine whether plasma 25-OHD levels are causally linked to CRC risk, we applied the control function instrumental variable (IV method of the mendelian randomization (MR approach using four single nucleotide polymorphisms (rs2282679, rs12785878, rs10741657, rs6013897 previously shown to be associated with plasma 25-OHD. Low plasma 25-OHD levels were associated with CRC risk in the crude model (odds ratio (OR: 0.76, 95% Confidence Interval (CI: 0.71, 0.81, p: 1.4×10(-14 and after adjusting for age, sex and other confounding factors. Using an allele score that combined all four SNPs as the IV, the estimated causal effect was OR 1.16 (95% CI 0.60, 2.23, whilst it was 0.94 (95% CI 0.46, 1.91 and 0.93 (0.53, 1.63 when using an upstream (rs12785878, rs10741657 and a downstream allele score (rs2282679, rs6013897, respectively. 25-OHD levels were inversely associated with CRC risk, in agreement with recent meta-analyses. The fact that this finding was not replicated when the MR approach was employed might be due to weak instruments, giving low power to demonstrate an effect (<0.35. The prevalence and degree of vitamin D deficiency amongst individuals living in northerly latitudes is of considerable importance because of its relationship to disease. To elucidate the effect of vitamin D on CRC cancer risk, additional large studies of vitamin D and CRC risk are required and/or the application of alternative methods that are less sensitive to weak instrument

  12. Risk Estimation as a Decision-Making Tool for Genetic Analysis of the Breast Cancer Susceptibility Genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny Chang-Claude

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available For genetic counselling of a woman on familial breast cancer, an accurate evaluation of the probability that she carries a germ-line mutation is needed to assist in making decisions about genetic-testing.

  13. Thyroid Cancer Risk Assessment Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    The R package thyroid implements a risk prediction model developed by NCI researchers to calculate the absolute risk of developing a second primary thyroid cancer (SPTC) in individuals who were diagnosed with a cancer during their childhood.

  14. Risks of Breast Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is small. Different factors increase or decrease the risk of breast cancer. Anything that increases your chance ... magnetic resonance imaging) in women with a high risk of breast cancer MRI is a procedure that ...

  15. Risks of Lung Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in women. Different factors increase or decrease the risk of lung cancer. Anything that increases your chance ... been studied to see if they decrease the risk of dying from lung cancer. The following screening ...

  16. Risks of Endometrial Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health history and certain medicines can affect the risk of developing endometrial cancer. Anything that increases your ... have abnormal vaginal bleeding, check with your doctor. Risks of Endometrial Cancer Screening Key Points Screening tests ...

  17. Risks of Esophageal Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... alcohol use, and Barrett esophagus can affect the risk of developing esophageal cancer. Anything that increases the ... tissue gives off less light than normal tissue. Risks of Esophageal Cancer Screening Key Points Screening tests ...

  18. Risks of Cervical Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... women. Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is the major risk factor for cervical cancer. Although most women with ... clinical trials is available from the NCI website . Risks of Cervical Cancer Screening Key Points Screening tests ...

  19. Dose evaluation and risk estimation for secondary cancer in contralateral breast and a study of correlation between thorax shape and dose to organs at risk following tangentially breast irradiation during deep inspiration breath-hold and free breathing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johansen, Safora; Vikstroem, Johan; Blihovde Hjelstuen, Mari Helene; Mjaaland, Ingvil; Dybvik, Kjell Ivar; Olsen, Dag Rune

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the impact of using breathing adapted radiotherapy on contralateral breast (CB) dose, to relate the thorax shape with the dose to the organs at risk (OARs) and to predict the risk for induced malignancies in CB using linear and non-linear models, following tangential irradiation of breast. Material and methods. Sixteen patients with stage I-II breast cancer treatment planned with tangential fields using deep inspiration breath hold (DIBH) and free breathing (FB) techniques were included in this analysis. The dose results mainly based on DVH analysis were compared. Four parameters were defined to describe thoracic shape. Excess relative risk (ERR) for cancer induction in CB, employing linear and non-linear models was calculated. Results. Average CB volumes exposed to a dose of 1 Gy is 1.3 times higher in DIBH plans than in FB plans. No significant difference in average V3Gy and V5Gy for DIBH and FB plans is observed. The average mean CB dose for DIBH and FB plans is 0.33 and 0.28 Gy, respectively. No correlation between thorax shape parameters and mean OARs dose is observed. The estimated average mean ERR with linear model is lower in FB plans (0.12) than for the DIBH plans (0.14). The estimated ERR with non-linear model is 0.14 for DIBH plans and 0.15 for FB plans. Conclusion. No significant difference in CB dose between DIBH and FB plans is observed. The four thorax shape parameters defined in this study can not be related to the dose at OARs using DIBH and FB radiation techniques. The ERR estimates for secondary CB cancer are nearly the same for FB and DIBH planning when using a linear and non-linear risk prediction models

  20. Comments on mutagenesis risk estimation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russell, W.L.

    1976-01-01

    Several hypotheses and concepts have tended to oversimplify the problem of mutagenesis and can be misleading when used for genetic risk estimation. These include: the hypothesis that radiation-induced mutation frequency depends primarily on the DNA content per haploid genome, the extension of this concept to chemical mutagenesis, the view that, since DNA is DNA, mutational effects can be expected to be qualitatively similar in all organisms, the REC unit, and the view that mutation rates from chronic irradiation can be theoretically and accurately predicted from acute irradiation data. Therefore, direct determination of frequencies of transmitted mutations in mammals continues to be important for risk estimation, and the specific-locus method in mice is shown to be not as expensive as is commonly supposed for many of the chemical testing requirements

  1. Absorbed Doses and Risk Estimates of {sup 211}At-MX35 F(ab'){sub 2} in Intraperitoneal Therapy of Ovarian Cancer Patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cederkrantz, Elin [Department of Radiation Physics, Institute for Clinical Sciences, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg (Sweden); Andersson, Håkan [Department of Oncology, Institute for Clinical Sciences, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg (Sweden); Bernhardt, Peter; Bäck, Tom [Department of Radiation Physics, Institute for Clinical Sciences, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg (Sweden); Hultborn, Ragnar [Department of Oncology, Institute for Clinical Sciences, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg (Sweden); Jacobsson, Lars [Department of Radiation Physics, Institute for Clinical Sciences, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg (Sweden); Jensen, Holger [PET and Cyclotron Unit, Department of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine, Copenhagen University Hospital, Copenhagen (Denmark); Lindegren, Sture [Department of Radiation Physics, Institute for Clinical Sciences, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg (Sweden); Ljungberg, Michael [Department of Medical Radiation Physics, Clinical Sciences, Lund University, Lund (Sweden); Magnander, Tobias; Palm, Stig [Department of Radiation Physics, Institute for Clinical Sciences, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg (Sweden); Albertsson, Per, E-mail: per.albertsson@oncology.gu.se [Department of Oncology, Institute for Clinical Sciences, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg (Sweden)

    2015-11-01

    Purpose: Ovarian cancer is often diagnosed at an advanced stage with dissemination in the peritoneal cavity. Most patients achieve clinical remission after surgery and chemotherapy, but approximately 70% eventually experience recurrence, usually in the peritoneal cavity. To prevent recurrence, intraperitoneal (i.p.) targeted α therapy has been proposed as an adjuvant treatment for minimal residual disease after successful primary treatment. In the present study, we calculated absorbed and relative biological effect (RBE)-weighted (equivalent) doses in relevant normal tissues and estimated the effective dose associated with i.p. administration of {sup 211}At-MX35 F(ab'){sub 2}. Methods and Materials: Patients in clinical remission after salvage chemotherapy for peritoneal recurrence of ovarian cancer underwent i.p. infusion of {sup 211}At-MX35 F(ab'){sub 2}. Potassium perchlorate was given to block unwanted accumulation of {sup 211}At in thyroid and other NIS-containing tissues. Mean absorbed doses to normal tissues were calculated from clinical data, including blood and i.p. fluid samples, urine, γ-camera images, and single-photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography images. Extrapolation of preclinical biodistribution data combined with clinical blood activity data allowed us to estimate absorbed doses in additional tissues. The equivalent dose was calculated using an RBE of 5 and the effective dose using the recommended weight factor of 20. All doses were normalized to the initial activity concentration of the infused therapy solution. Results: The urinary bladder, thyroid, and kidneys (1.9, 1.8, and 1.7 mGy per MBq/L) received the 3 highest estimated absorbed doses. When the tissue-weighting factors were applied, the largest contributors to the effective dose were the lungs, stomach, and urinary bladder. Using 100 MBq/L, organ equivalent doses were less than 10% of the estimated tolerance dose. Conclusion: Intraperitoneal {sup 211}At

  2. Quantifying Cancer Risk from Radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keil, Alexander P; Richardson, David B

    2017-12-06

    Complex statistical models fitted to data from studies of atomic bomb survivors are used to estimate the human health effects of ionizing radiation exposures. We describe and illustrate an approach to estimate population risks from ionizing radiation exposure that relaxes many assumptions about radiation-related mortality. The approach draws on developments in methods for causal inference. The results offer a different way to quantify radiation's effects and show that conventional estimates of the population burden of excess cancer at high radiation doses are driven strongly by projecting outside the range of current data. Summary results obtained using the proposed approach are similar in magnitude to those obtained using conventional methods, although estimates of radiation-related excess cancers differ for many age, sex, and dose groups. At low doses relevant to typical exposures, the strength of evidence in data is surprisingly weak. Statements regarding human health effects at low doses rely strongly on the use of modeling assumptions. © 2017 Society for Risk Analysis.

  3. Increased stomach cancer risk following radiotherapy for testicular cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauptmann, M; Fossa, S D; Stovall, M

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Abdominal radiotherapy for testicular cancer (TC) increases risk for second stomach cancer, although data on the radiation dose-response relationship are sparse. METHODS: In a cohort of 22,269 5-year TC survivors diagnosed during 1959-1987, doses to stomach subsites were estimated...... for 92 patients who developed stomach cancer and 180 matched controls. Chemotherapy details were recorded. Odds ratios (ORs) were estimated using logistic regression. RESULTS: Cumulative incidence of second primary stomach cancer was 1.45% at 30 years after TC diagnosis. The TC survivors who received...... radiotherapy (87 (95%) cases, 151 (84%) controls) had a 5.9-fold (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.7-20.7) increased risk of stomach cancer. Risk increased with increasing stomach dose (P-trend

  4. Review of radon and lung cancer risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samet, J.M.; Hornung, R.W.

    1990-01-01

    Radon, a long-established cause of lung cancer in uranium and other underground miners, has recently emerged as a potentially important cause of lung cancer in the general population. The evidence for widespread exposure of the population to radon and the well-documented excess of lung cancer among underground miners exposed to radon decay products have raised concern that exposure to radon progeny might also be a cause of lung cancer in the general population. To date, epidemiological data on the lung cancer risk associated with environmental exposure to radon have been limited. Consequently, the lung cancer hazard posed by radon exposure in indoor air has been addressed primarily through risk estimation procedures. The quantitative risks of lung cancer have been estimated using exposure-response relations derived from the epidemiological investigations of uranium and other underground miners. We review five of the more informative studies of miners and recent risk projection models for excess lung cancer associated with radon. The principal models differ substantially in their underlying assumptions and consequently in the resulting risk projections. The resulting diversity illustrates the substantial uncertainty that remains concerning the most appropriate model of the temporal pattern of radon-related lung cancer. Animal experiments, further follow-up of the miner cohorts, and well-designed epidemiological studies of indoor exposure should reduce this uncertainty. 18 references

  5. Out-of-field radiation organ dose measurements and associated secondary cancer risk estimation in patients treated with breast cancer in Lebanon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duhaini, Ibrahim; Ayoubi, Saad; Korek, Mahmoud

    2017-01-01

    According to the National Cancer Registry in Lebanon for the years 2003 till 2007, more than 40 % of registered cancers in females have breast cancer. According to the latest report published by the NCR, breast cancer remained the most relatively frequent cancer throughout the years (42-43%). The annual incidence rate for breast cancer has been increasing from 72/100,000 in 2005, to 87/100,000 in 2007. According to the World Health Organization 2003 Report, breast cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths worldwide in women under the age of 55 and more than one million women are diagnosed with breast cancer each year. Breast cancer patients have different options of treatment depending on the age, type of cancer and other factors. These options include: Surgery, Chemotherapy, Hormonal Therapy, Radiation Therapy and other non-traditional therapies. In radiation therapy, our concern, the tumor in the Breast will be exposed to high-energy X-rays that destroy cancerous cells. It is often used as post-surgery therapy in an effort to kill any remaining undetectable cancer cells that may have invaded areas nearby the original site of the tumor

  6. PCOS and cancer risk.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadeusz Issat

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS affects approximately 5 to 10% of women of reproductive age. It is the most common reason of anovulation in infertile women. PCOS is accompanied by such conditions as oligo- or anovulation, hipertestosteronism, lower cell sensitivity to insulin, type II diabetes, hyperlipidemia and obesity. Each of the above-mentioned conditions is an approved risk factor proved to predispose towards cancer. However, PCOS is also a disease entity which differs in its clinical manifestation. For example not all patients suffer from obesity or hipertestosteronism related symptoms. From the analysis of literature it is possible to draw conclusions, that there is a possible correlation between PCOS and endometrial cancer, which emerges from clinical trials or research focused on molecular changes in endometrium patients with PCOS. On the other hand, correlation between PCOS and breast or ovary cancer is not so strong, in spite of single papers which are showing the link. The main problem in researching the correlation between PCOS and any cancer risk, is there is a very small group of women or the trial is imperfect (e.g. no control group. There is no meta-analysis focused on this correlation in literature. The change of criteria of PCOS in the past is also a big problem, because there was a number of definitions of PCOS, which results in inconsistent PCOS diagnoses over time. In this paper we would like to provide a description of studies that aimed at showing correlation between PCOS and cancer risk and underlying theoretical assumptions.

  7. Estimation of health risks from radiation exposures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Randolph, M.L.

    1983-08-01

    An informal presentation is given of the cancer and genetic risks from exposures to ionizing radiations. The risks from plausible radiation exposures are shown to be comparable to other commonly encountered risks.

  8. Estimation of health risks from radiation exposures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Randolph, M.L.

    1983-08-01

    An informal presentation is given of the cancer and genetic risks from exposures to ionizing radiations. The risks from plausible radiation exposures are shown to be comparable to other commonly encountered risks

  9. PCOS and cancer risk.

    OpenAIRE

    Tadeusz Issat; Artur J Jakimiuk

    2010-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) affects approximately 5 to 10% of women of reproductive age. It is the most common reason of anovulation in infertile women. PCOS is accompanied by such conditions as oligo- or anovulation, hipertestosteronism, lower cell sensitivity to insulin, type II diabetes, hyperlipidemia and obesity. Each of the above-mentioned conditions is an approved risk factor proved to predispose towards cancer. However, PCOS is also a disease entity which differs in its clinical ...

  10. Risk factors for cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyman, G.H.

    1992-01-01

    It is no longer reasonable to divide cancers into those that are genetic in origin and those that are environmental in origin. With rare exception, carcinogenesis involves environmental factors that directly or indirectly exert a change in the cell's genome. Virtually all causes of cancer are multifactorial, sometimes involving an inherited predisposition to the carcinogenic effects of environmental factors, which include chemicals, ionizing radiation, and oncogenic virus. Carcinogenesis is a multistep process including induction, promotion, and progression. Initiation requires an irreversible change in the cellular genome, whereas promotion is commonly associated with prolonged and reversible exposure. Tumor progression results in genotypic and phenotypic changes associated with tumor growth, invasion, and metastasis. Most information on human cancer risk is based on epidemiologic studies involving both exposed and unexposed individuals. The quality of such studies depends on their ability to assess the strength of any association of exposure and disease and careful attention to any potential bias. Few cancers are inherited in a Mendelian fashion. Several preneoplastic conditions, however, are clearly inherited and several malignancies demonstrate weak familial patterns. Environmental factors may exert their effect on DNA in a random fashion, but certain consistent changes, including specific translocations of genetic information, are often found. Currently, there is great interest in the close proximity of certain oncogenes governing growth control to the consistent chromosomal changes observed. Such changes may represent a final common pathway of action for environmental carcinogens. Sufficient laboratory and epidemiologic evidence exists to establish a causal association of several chemical agents with cancer

  11. Diabetes, insulin and cancer risk

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Xi-Lin; Chan, Juliana CN

    2012-01-01

    There is a consensus that both type 1 and type 2 diabetes are associated with a spectrum of cancers but the underlying mechanisms are largely unknown. On the other hand, there are ongoing debates about the risk association of insulin use with cancer. We have briefly reviewed recent related research on exploration of risk factors for cancer and pharmacoepidemiological investigations into drug use in diabetes on the risk of cancer, as well as the current understanding of metabolic pathways impl...

  12. The BRCA1 c. 5096G > A p.Arg1699Gln (R1699Q) intermediate risk variant : Breast and ovarian cancer risk estimation and recommendations for clinical management from the ENIGMA consortium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moghadasi, Setareh; Meeks, Huong D.; Vreeswijk, Maaike P. G.; Janssen, Linda A. M.; Borg, Ake; Ehrencrona, Hans; Paulsson-Karlsson, Ylva; Wappenschmidt, Barbara; Engel, Christoph; Gehrig, Andrea; Arnold, Norbert; Hansen, Thomas Van Overeem; Thomassen, Mads; Jensen, Uffe Birk; Kruse, Torben A.; Ejlertsen, Bent; Gerdes, Anne-Marie; Pedersen, Inge Sokilde; Caputo, Sandrine M.; Couch, Fergus; Hallberg, Emily J.; van den Ouweland, Ans M. W.; Collee, Margriet J.; Teugels, Erik; Adank, Muriel A.; van der Luijt, Rob B.; Mensenkamp, Arjen R.; Oosterwijk, Jan C.; Blok, Marinus J.; Janin, Nicolas; Claes, Kathleen B. M.; Tucker, Kathy; Viassolo, Valeria; Toland, Amanda Ewart; Eccles, Diana E.; Devilee, Peter; Van Asperen, Christie J.; Spurdle, Amanda B.; Goldgar, David E.; Garcia, Encarna Gomez

    2018-01-01

    Background: We previously showed that the BRCA1 variant c. 5096G> A p.Arg1699Gln (R1699Q) was associated with an intermediate risk of breast cancer (BC) and ovarian cancer (OC). This study aimed to assess these cancer risks for R1699Q carriers in a larger cohort, including follow-up of previously

  13. Risk determination and prevention of breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, Anthony; Anderson, Annie S; Clarke, Robert B; Duffy, Stephen W; Evans, D Gareth; Garcia-Closas, Montserat; Gescher, Andy J; Key, Timothy J; Saxton, John M; Harvie, Michelle N

    2014-09-28

    Breast cancer is an increasing public health problem. Substantial advances have been made in the treatment of breast cancer, but the introduction of methods to predict women at elevated risk and prevent the disease has been less successful. Here, we summarize recent data on newer approaches to risk prediction, available approaches to prevention, how new approaches may be made, and the difficult problem of using what we already know to prevent breast cancer in populations. During 2012, the Breast Cancer Campaign facilitated a series of workshops, each covering a specialty area of breast cancer to identify gaps in our knowledge. The risk-and-prevention panel involved in this exercise was asked to expand and update its report and review recent relevant peer-reviewed literature. The enlarged position paper presented here highlights the key gaps in risk-and-prevention research that were identified, together with recommendations for action. The panel estimated from the relevant literature that potentially 50% of breast cancer could be prevented in the subgroup of women at high and moderate risk of breast cancer by using current chemoprevention (tamoxifen, raloxifene, exemestane, and anastrozole) and that, in all women, lifestyle measures, including weight control, exercise, and moderating alcohol intake, could reduce breast cancer risk by about 30%. Risk may be estimated by standard models potentially with the addition of, for example, mammographic density and appropriate single-nucleotide polymorphisms. This review expands on four areas: (a) the prediction of breast cancer risk, (b) the evidence for the effectiveness of preventive therapy and lifestyle approaches to prevention, (c) how understanding the biology of the breast may lead to new targets for prevention, and (d) a summary of published guidelines for preventive approaches and measures required for their implementation. We hope that efforts to fill these and other gaps will lead to considerable advances in our

  14. ABO blood group and risk of cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vasan, Senthil K; Hwang, Jinseub; Rostgaard, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    groups and site-specific cancer risk in a large cohort of healthy blood donors from Sweden and Denmark. RESULTS: A total of 1.6 million donors were followed over 27 million person-years (20 million in Sweden and 7 million in Denmark). We observed 119,584 cancer cases. Blood groups A, AB and B were......INTRODUCTION: The associations between ABO blood group and cancer risk have been studied repeatedly, but results have been variable. Consistent associations have only been reported for pancreatic and gastric cancers. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We estimated associations between different ABO blood...... associated either with increased or decreased risk of cancer at 13 anatomical sites (p≤0.05), compared to blood group O. Consistent with assessment using a false discovery rate approach, significant associations with ABO blood group were observed for cancer of the pancreas, breast, and upper gastrointestinal...

  15. A comparative assessment of PM2.5 exposures in light-rail, subway, freeway, and surface street environments in Los Angeles and estimated lung cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kam, Winnie; Delfino, Ralph J; Schauer, James J; Sioutas, C

    2013-01-01

    According to the U.S. Census Bureau, 570000+ commuters in Los Angeles travel for over 60 minutes to work. Studies have shown that a substantial portion of particulate matter (PM) exposure can occur during this commute. This study represents the integration of the results from five commute environments in Los Angeles. Personal PM exposures are discussed for the: (1) METRO gold line, a ground-level light-rail route, (2) METRO red line, a subway line, (3) the 110, a high volume freeway with low heavy-duty vehicle (HDV) fraction, (4) the 710, a major corridor for HDVs from the Port of Los Angeles, and (5) Wilshire/Sunset Boulevards, major surface streets. Chemical analysis including total and water-soluble metals and trace elements, elemental and organic carbon (EC/OC), and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) was performed. The focus of this study is to compare the composition and estimated lung cancer risk of PM2.5 (dp subway), most likely from abrasion processes between the rail and brakes; elements associated with tire and brake wear and oil additives (Ca, Ti, Sn, Sb, and Pb) were elevated on roadways. Elemental concentrations on the gold line (light-rail) were the lowest. For water-solubility, metals observed on the red line (subway) were the least soluble. PAHs are primarily derived from vehicular emissions. Overall, the 710 exhibited high levels of PAHs (3.0 ng m−3), most likely due to its high volume of HDVs, while the red and gold lines exhibited low PAH concentrations (0.6 and 0.8 ng m−3 for red and gold lines, respectively). Lastly, lung cancer risk due to inhalation of PAHs was calculated based on a commuter lifetime (45 years for 2 hours per workday). Results showed that lung cancer risk for the 710 is 3.8 and 4.5 times higher than the light-rail (gold line) and subway (red line), respectively. With low levels of both metal and PAH pollutants, our results indicate that commuting on the light-rail (gold line) may have potential health benefits when

  16. Residual risk over-estimated

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1982-01-01

    The way nuclear power plants are built practically excludes accidents with serious consequences. This is attended to by careful selection of material, control of fabrication and regular retesting as well as by several safety systems working independently. But the remaining risk, a 'hypothetic' uncontrollable incident with catastrophic effects is the main subject of the discussion on the peaceful utilization of nuclear power. The this year's 'Annual Meeting on Nuclear Engineering' in Mannheim and the meeting 'Reactor Safety Research' in Cologne showed, that risk studies so far were too pessimistic. 'Best estimate' calculations suggest that core melt-down accidents only occur if almost all safety systems fail, that accidents take place much more slowly, and that the release of radioactive fission products is by several magnitudes lower than it was assumed until now. (orig.) [de

  17. Cancer risks for MLH1 and MSH2 mutation carriers

    OpenAIRE

    Dowty, James G.; Win, Aung K.; Buchanan, Daniel D.; Lindor, Noralane M.; Macrae, Finlay A.; Clendenning, Mark; Antill, Yoland C.; Thibodeau, Stephen N.; Casey, Graham; Gallinger, Steve; Le Marchand, Loic; Newcomb, Polly A.; Haile, Robert W.; Young, Graeme P.; James, Paul A.

    2013-01-01

    We studied 17,576 members of 166 MLH1 and 224 MSH2 mutation-carrying families from the Colon Cancer Family Registry. Average cumulative risks of colorectal cancer (CRC), endometrial cancer (EC) and other cancers for carriers were estimated using modified segregation analysis conditioned on ascertainment criteria. Heterogeneity in risks was investigated using a polygenic risk modifier. Average CRC cumulative risks to age 70 years (95% confidence intervals) for MLH1 and MSH2 mutation carriers, ...

  18. Bricklayers and lung cancer risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cremers, Jan

    2014-01-01

    The article ‘Lung cancer risk among bricklayers in a pooled analysis of case–control studies’ in the International Journal of Cancer publishes findings of an epidemiological study (in the frame of a SYNERGY-project) dedicated to the lung cancer risk among bricklayers. The authors conclude that a

  19. HIV Infection and Cancer Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... same age ( 1 ). The general term for these cancers is "HIV-associated cancers." Three of these cancers are known as " acquired ... also have an increased cumulative risk of developing HIV-associated cancers. What can people infected with HIV do to ...

  20. Breast Cancer Risk in American Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Breast & Gynecologic Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Breast Cancer Risk in American Women On This Page What ... risk of developing the disease. Personal history of breast cancer : Women who have had breast cancer are more ...

  1. Environmental cancer risks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Peter M.

    In a long-awaited report (‘Assessment of Technologies for Determining Cancer Risks From the Environment’), the U.S. Office of Technology Assessment (OTA) has evaluated the role of environmental factors in cancer diseases. Environment is interpreted broadly as encompassing anything that interacts with humans, including the natural environment, food, radiation, the workplace, etc. Geologic factors range from geographic location to radiation and specific minerals. The report, however, is based on an inadequate data base in most instances, and its major recommendations are related to the establishment of a national cancer registry to record cancer statistics, as is done for many other diseases. Presently, hard statistics are lacking in the establishment of some association between the cause-effect relationship of most environmental factors and most carcinogens. Of particular interest, but unfortunately based on unreliable data, are the effects of mineral substances such as ‘asbestos.’ USGS mineralogist Malcolm Ross will review asbestos and its effects on human health in the forthcoming Mineralogical Society of America's Short Course on the Amphiboles (Reviews in Mineralogy, 9, in press, 1981).

  2. Increased pancreatic cancer risk following radiotherapy for testicular cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauptmann, Michael; Børge Johannesen, Tom; Gilbert, Ethel S; Stovall, Marilyn; van Leeuwen, Flora E; Rajaraman, Preetha; Smith, Susan A; Weathers, Rita E; Aleman, Berthe M P; Andersson, Michael; Curtis, Rochelle E; Dores, Graça M; Fraumeni, Joseph F; Hall, Per; Holowaty, Eric J; Joensuu, Heikki; Kaijser, Magnus; Kleinerman, Ruth A; Langmark, Frøydis; Lynch, Charles F; Pukkala, Eero; Storm, Hans H; Vaalavirta, Leila; van den Belt-Dusebout, Alexandra W; Morton, Lindsay M; Fossa, Sophie D; Travis, Lois B

    2016-09-27

    Pancreatic cancer risk is elevated among testicular cancer (TC) survivors. However, the roles of specific treatments are unclear. Among 23 982 5-year TC survivors diagnosed during 1947-1991, doses from radiotherapy to the pancreas were estimated for 80 pancreatic cancer patients and 145 matched controls. Chemotherapy details were recorded. Logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs). Cumulative incidence of second primary pancreatic cancer was 1.1% at 30 years after TC diagnosis. Radiotherapy (72 (90%) cases and 115 (80%) controls) was associated with a 2.9-fold (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.0-7.8) increased risk. The OR increased linearly by 0.12 per Gy to the pancreas (P-trendcancer risk, and persists for over 20 years. These excesses, although small, should be considered when radiotherapy with exposure to the pancreas is considered for newly diagnosed patients. Additional data are needed on the role of chemotherapy.

  3. Personalisation of breast cancer follow-up: a time-dependent prognostic nomogram for the estimation of annual risk of locoregional recurrence in early breast cancer patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Witteveen, Annemieke; Vliegen, Ingrid; Sonke, Gabe S.; Klaase, Joost M.; IJzerman, Maarten Joost; Siesling, Sabine

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to develop and validate a time-dependent logistic regression model for prediction of locoregional recurrence (LRR) of breast cancer and a web-based nomogram for clinical decision support. Women first diagnosed with early breast cancer between 2003 and 2006 in all

  4. Estimation of risks to humans following intake of plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dolphin, G.W.

    1979-01-01

    The lung cancer in humans induced by plutonium intake usually starts in bronchial epithelium. The main types of lung cancer are epidermoid or squamous cell carcinoma, small cell anaplastic carcinoma, carcinoid types and bronchio-loalveolar cell carcinoma. The data on cancer in the patients given intravascular injections of Thorotrast are the only source of data from which risk estimates can be made for liver cancer. In the beagles injected with plutonium citrate, the only type of liver tumors observed in cholangiosarcoma, and if this were the case for humans, then the appropriate risk estimate is 3 times lower in human patients. Bone sarcoma and the cancer of the epithelial surfaces close to bones have been reported extensively in workers and patients exposed to radium-226 and radium-224. In the case of plutonium, it is assumed for the purpose of risk estimates that the cancer of the epithelial surfaces near bones does not occur. Plutonium passes through guts following ingestion or following the clearance of particles initially deposited in respiratory tracts. In the case of all long-lived radionuclides, lower large intestines are the region which receive the greatest dose from the activity passing through guts. It is assumed that plutonium accumulates in bone marrows through the action of macrophages engulfing the plutonium resorbed from bone surfaces. The main uncertainty in estimating the annual limit of intake probably lies in the metabolic and dosimetric models, and to a lesser extent, in the estimate of risk. (Yamashita, S.)

  5. Does Metformin Reduce Cancer Risks? Methodologic Considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golozar, Asieh; Liu, Shuiqing; Lin, Joeseph A; Peairs, Kimberly; Yeh, Hsin-Chieh

    2016-01-01

    The substantial burden of cancer and diabetes and the association between the two conditions has been a motivation for researchers to look for targeted strategies that can simultaneously affect both diseases and reduce their overlapping burden. In the absence of randomized clinical trials, researchers have taken advantage of the availability and richness of administrative databases and electronic medical records to investigate the effects of drugs on cancer risk among diabetic individuals. The majority of these studies suggest that metformin could potentially reduce cancer risk. However, the validity of this purported reduction in cancer risk is limited by several methodological flaws either in the study design or in the analysis. Whether metformin use decreases cancer risk relies heavily on the availability of valid data sources with complete information on confounders, accurate assessment of drug use, appropriate study design, and robust analytical techniques. The majority of the observational studies assessing the association between metformin and cancer risk suffer from methodological shortcomings and efforts to address these issues have been incomplete. Future investigations on the association between metformin and cancer risk should clearly address the methodological issues due to confounding by indication, prevalent user bias, and time-related biases. Although the proposed strategies do not guarantee a bias-free estimate for the association between metformin and cancer, they will reduce synthesis of and reporting of erroneous results.

  6. A review of radiation risk estimates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-06-01

    Three authoritative reports (UNSCEAR-1988, BEIR-V-1990, and ICRP-1990 Recommendations) on risk estimates have been reviewed and compared to previous risk estimates published by the same organizations. The ICRP now uses the term 'probability' in place of the term 'risk'. For fatal cancers, the new ICRP probability estimates are 5.0 x 10 -2 Sv -1 for a population of all ages and 4.0 x 10 -2 Sv -1 for a population of working age. For serious hereditary effects summarized over all generations, the ICRP probability coefficients are 1.0 x 10 -2 Sv -1 for a population of all ages and 0.6 x 10 -2 Sv -1 for a population of working age. For prenatal irradiation, at 8 - 15 weeks after conception, there may be a decrease of 30 I.Q. points per Sv and a risk of cancer which may lie in the range of 2 to 10 x 10 -2 Sv -1 . Based mainly on the new probability estimates the ICRP recommends a limit on effective dose of 20 mSv per year, averaged over 5 years (100 mSv in 5 years) with the further provision that the effective dose should not exceed 50 mSv in any single year. For public exposure the ICRP recommends an annual limit on effective dose of 1 mSv. However, in special circumstances, a higher value of effective dose could be allowed in a single year provided that the average over 5 five years does not exceed 1 mSv per year. Once pregnancy has been declared, the conceptus should be protected by applying a supplementary equivalent dose limit to the surface of the woman's abdomen of 2 mSv for the remainder of the pregnancy and by limiting intakes of radionuclides to about 1/20 of the annual limit on intake. A brief survey of epidemiological studies of workers and the risks from radon and thoron progeny is also included. (110 refs, 29 tabs., 10 figs.)

  7. Increased Risk for Other Cancers in Addition to Breast Cancer for CHEK2*1100delC Heterozygotes Estimated From the Copenhagen General Population Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Näslund-Koch, Charlotte; Nordestgaard, Børge G; Bojesen, Stig E

    2016-01-01

    % CI, 1.01 to 1.85) for men (sex difference: P = .63). For CHEK2*1100delC heterozygotes compared with noncarriers, the age- and sex-adjusted hazard ratios were 5.76 (95% CI, 2.12 to 15.6) for stomach cancer, 3.61 (95% CI, 1.33 to 9.79) for kidney cancer, 3.45 (95% CI, 1.09 to 10.9) for sarcoma, and 1...

  8. Psychological methods of subjective risk estimates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimolong, B.

    1980-01-01

    Reactions to situations involving risks can be divided into the following parts/ perception of danger, subjective estimates of the risk and risk taking with respect to action. Several investigations have compared subjective estimates of the risk with an objective measure of that risk. In general there was a mis-match between subjective and objective measures of risk, especially, objective risk involved in routine activities is most commonly underestimated. This implies, for accident prevention, that attempts must be made to induce accurate subjective risk estimates by technical and behavioural measures. (orig.) [de

  9. Data Sources for the Model-based Small Area Estimates of Cancer-Related Knowledge - Small Area Estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    The model-based estimates of important cancer risk factors and screening behaviors are obtained by combining the responses to the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) and the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS).

  10. Korean risk assessment model for breast cancer risk prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Boyoung; Ma, Seung Hyun; Shin, Aesun; Chang, Myung-Chul; Choi, Ji-Yeob; Kim, Sungwan; Han, Wonshik; Noh, Dong-Young; Ahn, Sei-Hyun; Kang, Daehee; Yoo, Keun-Young; Park, Sue K

    2013-01-01

    We evaluated the performance of the Gail model for a Korean population and developed a Korean breast cancer risk assessment tool (KoBCRAT) based upon equations developed for the Gail model for predicting breast cancer risk. Using 3,789 sets of cases and controls, risk factors for breast cancer among Koreans were identified. Individual probabilities were projected using Gail's equations and Korean hazard data. We compared the 5-year and lifetime risk produced using the modified Gail model which applied Korean incidence and mortality data and the parameter estimators from the original Gail model with those produced using the KoBCRAT. We validated the KoBCRAT based on the expected/observed breast cancer incidence and area under the curve (AUC) using two Korean cohorts: the Korean Multicenter Cancer Cohort (KMCC) and National Cancer Center (NCC) cohort. The major risk factors under the age of 50 were family history, age at menarche, age at first full-term pregnancy, menopausal status, breastfeeding duration, oral contraceptive usage, and exercise, while those at and over the age of 50 were family history, age at menarche, age at menopause, pregnancy experience, body mass index, oral contraceptive usage, and exercise. The modified Gail model produced lower 5-year risk for the cases than for the controls (p = 0.017), while the KoBCRAT produced higher 5-year and lifetime risk for the cases than for the controls (pKorean women, especially urban women.

  11. Risk estimates for the health effects of alpha radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, D.C.; McNeill, K.G.

    1981-09-01

    This report provides risk estimates for various health effects of alpha radiation. Human and animal data have been used to characterize the shapes of dose-response relations and the effects of various modifying factors, but quantitative risk estimates are based solely on human data: for lung cancer, on miners in the Colorado plateau, Czechoslovakia, Sweden, Ontario and Newfoundland; for bone and head cancers, on radium dial painters and radium-injected patients. Slopes of dose-response relations for lung cancer show a tendency to decrease with increasing dose. Linear extrapolation is unlikely to underestimate the excess risk at low doses by more than a factor of l.5. Under the linear cell-killing model, our best estimate

  12. Cancer risks: Strategies for elimination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bannasch, P.

    1987-01-01

    This book deals with the possibilities for identifying and eliminating cancer risk factors. The current state of knowledge on the detection, assessment and elimination of chemical, physical (radiation), and biological (viruses) risk factors are comprehensively presented in 15 contributions. Chemical risk factors resulting from smoking and environmental contamination are given special attention. The coverage of cancer risks by radiation includes some of the consequences of the Chernobyl disaster. Finally, the discussion of the possible risks that certain viruses hold for cancer in man is intended to further the development of vaccinations against these viral infections. The information is directed not only at specialists, but also at a wider interested audience. Its primary aim is to convey established findings that are already being used for cancer prevention. Furthermore, the book aims to promote more intense research in the field of primary cancer prevention. Contents: General aspects; chemical carcinogens: Risk assessment; chemical carcinogens: Primary prevention; physical carcinogens - Oncogenic viruses and subject index

  13. Skin Cancer: Biology, Risk Factors & Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... turn Javascript on. Feature: Skin Cancer Skin Cancer: Biology, Risk Factors & Treatment Past Issues / Summer 2013 Table ... Articles Skin Cancer Can Strike Anyone / Skin Cancer: Biology, Risk Factors & Treatment / Timely Healthcare Checkup Catches Melanoma ...

  14. Rosacea and risk of cancer in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egeberg, Alexander; Fowler, Joseph F; Gislason, Gunnar H

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Rosacea is a common facial skin disorder with an estimated prevalence of 5-10% among Caucasians. OBJECTIVE: We compared cancer incidence in patients previously diagnosed with rosacea with that in the general population. METHODS: Nationwide cohort study of the Danish population using...... cancers: breast, ovarian, endometrial, cervical, kidney, malignant melanoma, non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC), pancreatic, hepatic, thyroid, esophageal, and lung cancer. Baseline prevalence of cancers were assessed, incidence rates per 1000 person-years were calculated, and hazard ratios (HRs) adjusted...... for age, sex, socio-economic status, and healthcare consumption were estimated by Cox regression models. RESULTS: The study comprised a total of 49,475 patients with rosacea and 4,312,213 subjects from the general population. There was no increased risk of malignant melanoma, ovarian, endometrial...

  15. Cancer risk among insulin users

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    But, Anna; De Bruin, Marie L.; Bazelier, Marloes T.

    2017-01-01

    Aims/hypothesis: The aim of this work was to investigate the relationship between use of certain insulins and risk for cancer, when addressing the limitations and biases involved in previous studies. Methods: National Health Registries from Denmark (1996–2010), Finland (1996–2011), Norway (2005......–2010) and Sweden (2007–2012) and the UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink database (1987–2013) were used to conduct a cohort study on new insulin users (N = 327,112). By using a common data model and semi-aggregate approach, we pooled individual-level records from five cohorts and applied Poisson regression...... models. For each of ten cancer sites studied, we estimated the rate ratios (RRs) by duration (≤0.5, 0.5–1, 1–2, 2–3, 3–4, 4–5, 5–6 and >6 years) of cumulative exposure to insulin glargine or insulin detemir relative to that of human insulin. Results: A total of 21,390 cancer cases occurred during a mean...

  16. Statin use and risk of endometrial cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sperling, Cecilie D.; Verdoodt, Freija; Friis, Soren

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Laboratory and epidemiological evidence have suggested that statin use may protect against the development of certain cancers, including endometrial cancer. In a nationwide registry-based case-control study, we examined the association between statin use and risk of endometrial cancer....... MATERIAL AND METHODS: Cases were female residents of Denmark with a primary diagnosis of endometrial cancer during 2000-2009. For each case, we selected 15 female population controls matched on date of birth (±one month) using risk-set sampling. Ever use of statin was defined as two or more prescriptions...... on separate dates. Conditional logistic regressions were used to estimate age-matched (by design) and multivariable-adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for endometrial cancer associated with statin use. The multivariable-adjusted models included parity, hormone replacement therapy...

  17. Methods for risk estimation in nuclear energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gauvenet, A [CEA, 75 - Paris (France)

    1979-01-01

    The author presents methods for estimating the different risks related to nuclear energy: immediate or delayed risks, individual or collective risks, risks of accidents and long-term risks. These methods have attained a highly valid level of elaboration and their application to other industrial or human problems is currently under way, especially in English-speaking countries.

  18. Absorbed Doses and Risk Estimates of (211)At-MX35 F(ab')2 in Intraperitoneal Therapy of Ovarian Cancer Patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cederkrantz, Elin; Andersson, Håkan; Bernhardt, Peter

    2015-01-01

    dose associated with i.p. administration of (211)At-MX35 F(ab')2. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Patients in clinical remission after salvage chemotherapy for peritoneal recurrence of ovarian cancer underwent i.p. infusion of (211)At-MX35 F(ab')2. Potassium perchlorate was given to block unwanted accumulation...... 100 MBq/L, organ equivalent doses were less than 10% of the estimated tolerance dose. CONCLUSION: Intraperitoneal (211)At-MX35 F(ab')2 treatment is potentially a well-tolerated therapy for locally confined microscopic ovarian cancer. Absorbed doses to normal organs are low, but because the effective...

  19. Risk of cancer formation by radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuji, Hiroshi

    2011-01-01

    Described are the difference between exposures to radiation for medical purpose and to environmental radiation at low dose, estimation of carcinogenic risk by medical radiation, and notice for referring the risk at clinical practice. ICRP employs linear non-threshold (LNT) model for risk of cancer formation even at <200 mSv for safety, with a recognition that it is scientifically obscure. The model essentially stands on data of A-bomb survivors (the Gold Standard), where the relationship between 5-10% excess relative risk (ERR) of cancer formation and dose 0.05-2.5 Sv is linear. Analyses of the secondary carcinogenesis after radiotherapy have begun to be reported since around 2005: e.g., the secondary thyroid cancer risk in pediatric patients treated with radiotherapy has a peak at 20 Gy, suggesting the actual risk depends both on the linearity of carcinogenic increase and on the exponential probability of cell death increase. On this concept, the risk of cancer formation is not always linear to dose. At the practical radiotherapy, its secondary carcinogenic risk should be estimated not only on the dose but also on other factors such as the individual organ, patient's age and attainable age/time after the treatment. In treated teen-ager patients, ERRs of mortality/Gy are 2.28 for cancers of the skin of non-malignant melanoma, 1.32 of bladder and 1.21 of thyroid and in patients of fifties, 1.15 of bladder and lung. The EER tends to become lower as the treated age is older. Pediatric cancer patients to be treated with radiotherapy should be informed about the secondary cancer that the low dose risk given by ICRP is not always appropriate, a certain cancer risk has a peak dose, and ERR of cancer mortality is not a cancer risk of an organ. Many factors like anticancers and immuno-modifiers, modify the outcome of radiotherapy and should be carefully speculated for evaluating the outcome. (T.T.)

  20. Skin color parameters and Fitzpatrick phototypes in estimating the risk of skin cancer: A case-control study in the Polish population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sitek, Aneta; Rosset, Iwona; Żądzińska, Elżbieta; Kasielska-Trojan, Anna; Neskoromna-Jędrzejczak, Aneta; Antoszewski, Bogusław

    2016-04-01

    Light skin pigmentation is a known risk factor for skin cancer. Skin color parameters and Fitzpatrick phototypes were evaluated in terms of their usefulness in predicting the risk of skin cancer. A case-control study involved 133 individuals with skin cancer (100 with basal cell carcinoma, 21 with squamous cell carcinoma, 12 with melanoma) and 156 healthy individuals. All of them had skin phototype determined and spectrophotometric skin color measurements were done on the inner surfaces of their arms and on the buttock. Using those data, prediction models were built and subjected to 17-fold stratified cross-validation. A model, based on skin phototypes, was characterized by area under the receiver operating characteristic curve = 0.576 and exhibited a lower predictive power than the models, which were mostly based on spectrophotometric variables describing pigmentation levels. The best predictors of skin cancer were R coordinate of RGB color space (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve 0.687) and melanin index (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve 0.683) for skin on the buttock. A small number of patients were studied. Models were not externally validated. Skin color parameters are more accurate predictors of skin cancer occurrence than skin phototypes. Spectrophotometry is a quick, easy, and affordable method offering relatively good predictive power. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Infective Endocarditis and Cancer Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Li-Min; Wu, Jung-Nan; Lin, Cheng-Li; Day, Jen-Der; Liang, Ji-An; Liou, Li-Ren; Kao, Chia-Hung

    2016-01-01

    Abstract This study investigated the possible relationship between endocarditis and overall and individual cancer risk among study participants in Taiwan. We used data from the National Health Insurance program of Taiwan to conduct a population-based, observational, and retrospective cohort study. The case group consisted of 14,534 patients who were diagnosed with endocarditis between January 1, 2000 and December 31, 2010. For the control group, 4 patients without endocarditis were frequency matched to each endocarditis patient according to age, sex, and index year. Competing risks regression analysis was conducted to determine the effect of endocarditis on cancer risk. A large difference was noted in Charlson comorbidity index between endocarditis and nonendocarditis patients. In patients with endocarditis, the risk for developing overall cancer was significant and 119% higher than in patients without endocarditis (adjusted subhazard ratio = 2.19, 95% confidence interval = 1.98–2.42). Regarding individual cancers, in addition to head and neck, uterus, female breast and hematological malignancies, the risks of developing colorectal cancer, and some digestive tract cancers were significantly higher. Additional analyses determined that the association of cancer with endocarditis is stronger within the 1st 5 years after endocarditis diagnosis. This population-based cohort study found that patients with endocarditis are at a higher risk for colorectal cancer and other cancers in Taiwan. The risk was even higher within the 1st 5 years after endocarditis diagnosis. It suggested that endocarditis is an early marker of colorectal cancer and other cancers. The underlying mechanisms must still be explored and may account for a shared risk factor of infection in both endocarditis and malignancy. PMID:27015220

  2. Pubertal development and prostate cancer risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonilla, Carolina; Lewis, Sarah J; Martin, Richard M

    2016-01-01

    , 0.91-1.00) and prostate cancer-specific mortality (hazard ratio amongst cases, per tertile: 0.94; 95 % CI, 0.90-0.98), but not with disease grade. CONCLUSIONS: Older age at sexual maturation is causally linked to a reduced risk of later prostate cancer, especially aggressive disease.......BACKGROUND: Epidemiological studies have observed a positive association between an earlier age at sexual development and prostate cancer, but markers of sexual maturation in boys are imprecise and observational estimates are likely to suffer from a degree of uncontrolled confounding. To obtain...... to a difference of one Tanner stage between pubertal boys of the same age) was associated with a 77 % (95 % CI, 43-91 %) reduced odds of high Gleason prostate cancer. In PRACTICAL, the puberty genetic score was associated with prostate cancer stage (OR of advanced vs. localized cancer, per tertile: 0.95; 95 % CI...

  3. Coffee consumption and risk of fatal cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snowdon, D A; Phillips, R L

    1984-01-01

    In 1960, the coffee consumption habits and other lifestyle characteristics of 23,912 white Seventh-day Adventists were assessed by questionnaire. Between 1960 and 1980, deaths due to cancer were identified. There were positive associations between coffee consumption and fatal colon and bladder cancer. The group consuming two or more cups of coffee per day had an estimated relative risk (RR) of 1.7 for fatal colon cancer and 2.0 for fatal bladder cancer, compared to the group that consumed less than one cup per day (RR = 1.0). These positive associations were apparently not confounded by age, sex, cigarette smoking, or meat consumption habits. In this study, there were no significant or suggestive associations between coffee consumption and fatal pancreatic, breast, and ovarian cancer, or a combined group of all other cancer sites. PMID:6742274

  4. Report on a workshop to examine methods to arrive at risk estimates for radiation-induced cancer in the human based on laboratory data. Jointly sponsored by the Office of Health and Energy Research, Department of Energy, and Columbia University.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-09-01

    This summary is a record of discussions and the general consensus reached by the participants. The views expressed are those of the attending scientists and do not necessarily represent the policy or opinion of the Department of Energy. An urgent need is recognized for better estimates of the risk of cancer from low levels of radiation. This need arises because of the ongoing nuclear energy option, the hazard of naturally occurring radon, and the possibility of an increasing number of lawsuits by individuals exposed to radiation in the past. The most recent estimates of risk evaluated by UN-SCEAR and BEIR V rely heavily on epidemiological studies of the A-bomb survivors which have recognized limitations and cannot provide direct risk information for chronic low-dose-rate exposure such as that experienced in occupational and medical settings. It was the consensus view that an effort to obtain information relative to risk estimates for radiation-induced cancer in humans, based on laboratory data, would be both important and timely: important, because of the opportunity to extend existing epidemiological data and overcome existing limitations; and timely, because of advances in cellular and molecular biology. In the short term, such an effort could supplement epidemiological data by providing information on the variation of cancer risk estimates with radiation dose rate and radiation quality and by providing guidance on the extrapolation of data measured at high doses to low dose regions where direct measurements are not feasible. In the long term, it may be possible to use new information about the genome from cellular and molecular studies to refine epidemiological data, i.e., to integrate classical epidemiological approaches with cell and animal biology as well as molecular genetics. Laboratory-based studies may be able to supplement epidemiological studies by: (1) identifying the molecular lesions involved in radiation-induced cancer and resolving dose, dose

  5. Myastenia and risk of cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Emil Arnspang; Pottegård, Anton; Hallas, Jesper

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: To evaluate the association between having non-thymoma myasthenia and the risk of extra-thymic cancer in a population-based setting. METHODS: A nationwide case-control study was conducted in Denmark based on medical registries. The study included all cases with a first time...... diagnosis of cancer during 2000-2009. Each case was matched by birth year and gender with eight population controls using risk set sampling. Subjects with myasthenia were identified through a validated register-based algorithm. Conditional logistic regression was used to compute crude and adjusted odds...... risk of overall cancer (OR 1.1; 95% CI 0.9-1.4). Adjusted ORs for major cancer sites were also close to unity, whereas an elevated risk of lymphomas was observed (OR 2.0; 95% CI 0.8-5.5). Early-onset myasthenia was associated with a slightly increased OR for overall cancer (1.5; 95% CI 1...

  6. Awareness of endometrial cancer risk and compliance with screening in hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ketabi, Zohreh; Mosgaard, Berit J; Gerdes, Anne-Marie

    2012-01-01

    Women with hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC) have a 40-60% lifetime risk for endometrial cancer. Guidelines in Denmark recommend gynecologic screening for female members of families with HNPCC. We estimated the knowledge of endometrial cancer risk and identified possible predictors...

  7. Neoplastic potential of gastric irradiation. IV. Risk estimates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griem, M.L.; Justman, J.; Weiss, L.

    1984-01-01

    No significant tumor increase was found in the initial analysis of patients irradiated for peptic ulcer and followed through 1962. A preliminary study was undertaken 22 years later to estimate the risk of cancer due to gastric irradiation for peptic ulcer disease. A population of 2,049 irradiated patients and 763 medically managed patients has been identified. A relative risk of 3.7 was found for stomach cancer and an initial risk estimate of 5.5 x 10(-6) excess stomach cancers per person rad was calculated. A more complete follow-up is in progress to further elucidate this observation and decrease the ascertainment bias; however, preliminary data are in agreement with the Japanese atomic bomb reports

  8. Study of dosimetry errors in the framework of a concerted international study about the risk of cancer in nuclear industry workers. Study of the errors made on dose estimations of 100 to 3000 keV photons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thierry Chef, I.

    2000-01-01

    Ionizing radiations are uncontested factors of cancer risk and the radioprotection standards are defined on the basis of epidemiological studies of persons exposed to high doses of radiations (atomic bombs and therapeutic medical exposures). An epidemiological study of cancer risk has been carried out on nuclear industry workers from 17 countries in order to check these standards and to directly evaluate the risk linked with long duration exposures to low doses. The techniques used to measure the workers' doses have changed with time and these evolutions have been different in the different countries considered. The study of dosimetry errors aims at estimating the compatibility of the doses with respect to the periods of time and to the countries, and at quantifying the errors that could have disturbed the dose measurements during the first years and their consideration in the risk estimation. A compilation of the information available about dosimetry in the participating countries has been performed and the main sources of errors have been identified. Experiments have been carried out to test the response of the dosimeters used and to evaluate the conditions of exposure inside the companies. The biases and uncertainties have been estimated per company and per period of time and the most important correspond to the oldest measurements performed. This study contributes also to improve the knowledge of the working conditions and of the preciseness of dose estimations. (J.S.)

  9. Kidney Cancer Risk Questionnaire

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... NCI Cancer Information A to Z Treatment Roles Cancer Types Bladder Brain/Spine Breast Cervical Colorectal Esophageal Gallbladder Head/Neck Kidney Leukemia Liver Lung Lymphoma Multiple Myeloma Ovarian Pancreatic ...

  10. Estimating population health risk from low-level environmental radon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisher, D.R.

    1980-01-01

    Although incidence of respiratory cancer is directly related to inhalation of radon and radon daughters, the magnitude of the actual risk is uncertain for members of the general population exposed for long periods to low-level concentrations. Currently, any such estimate of the risk must rely on data obtained through previous studies of underground-miner populations. Several methods of risk analysis have resulted from these studies. Since the breathing atmospheres, smoking patterns, and physiology are different between miners and the general public, overestimates of lung cancer risk to the latter may have resulted. Strong evidence exists to support the theory of synergistic action between alpha radiation and other agents, and therefore a modified relative risk model was developed to predict lung cancer risks to the general public. The model considers latent period, observation period, age dependency, and inherent risks from smoking or geographical location. A test of the model showed excellent agreement with results of the study of Czechoslovakian uranium miners, for which the necessary time factors were available. The risk model was also used to predict lung cancer incidence among residents of homes on reclaimed Florida phosphate lands, and results of this analysis indicate that over the space of many years, the increased incidence of lung cancer due to elevated radon levels may be indisgtinguishable from those due to other causes

  11. Estimating the risk of bladder and kidney cancer from exposure to low-levels of arsenic in drinking water, Nova Scotia, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saint-Jacques, Nathalie; Brown, Patrick; Nauta, Laura; Boxall, James; Parker, Louise; Dummer, Trevor J B

    2018-01-01

    Arsenic in drinking water impacts health. Highest levels of arsenic have been historically observed in Taiwan and Bangladesh but the contaminant has been affecting the health of people globally. Strong associations have been confirmed between exposure to high-levels of arsenic in drinking water and a wide range of diseases, including cancer. However, at lower levels of exposure, especially near the current World Health Organization regulatory limit (10μg/L), this association is inconsistent as the effects are mostly extrapolated from high exposure studies. This ecological study used Bayesian inference to model the relative risk of bladder and kidney cancer at these lower concentrations-0-2μg/L; 2-5μg/L and; ≥5μg/L of arsenic-in 864 bladder and 525 kidney cancers diagnosed in the study area, Nova Scotia, Canada between 1998 and 2010. The model included proxy measures of lifestyle (e.g. smoking) and accounted for spatial dependencies. Overall, bladder cancer risk was 16% (2-5μg/L) and 18% (≥5μg/L) greater than that of the referent group (water arsenic-levels within the current the World Health Organization maximum acceptable concentration. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Understanding your colon cancer risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for women and 2 drinks per day for men DO NOT smoke You can also have genetic testing done to assess your risk for colon cancer. If you have a strong family history of the disease, talk with your ...

  13. Hair Dyes and Cancer Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... http://www.fda.gov/aboutfda/centersoffices/officeoffoods/cfsan/default.htm . Selected References Huncharek M, Kupelnick B. Personal use of hair dyes and the risk of bladder cancer: results of a meta-analysis. ...

  14. Current estimates of radiation risks and implications for dose limits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clarke, R.H.

    1989-01-01

    The publication of the 1988 report of UNSCEAR represents a major step forward in that there is an international consensus on the estimation of risk from exposure to ionising radiation. The estimates of fatal cancers in the UNSCEAR report are up to 4 times the values in the 1977 review. This paper will describe the reasons for the increase, the remaining uncertainties and the implications for dose limits in occupational and public exposure. (author)

  15. Increased risk for depression after breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suppli, Nis P; Johansen, Christoffer; Christensen, Jane

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE: To investigate the risk for first depression, assessed as incident hospital contacts for depression and incident use of antidepressants, among women with breast cancer. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Danish national registries were used to identify 1,997,669 women with no diagnosis of cancer...... or a major psychiatric disorder. This cohort was followed from 1998 to 2011 for a diagnosis of breast cancer and for the two outcomes, hospital contact for depression and redeemed prescriptions for antidepressants. Rate ratios for incident hospital contacts for depression and incident use of antidepressants...... were estimated with Poisson regression models. Multivariable Cox regression was used to evaluate factors associated with the two outcomes among patients with breast cancer. RESULTS: We identified 44,494 women with breast cancer. In the first year after diagnosis, the rate ratio for a hospital contact...

  16. FDG PET/CT diagnostic criteria may need adjustment based on MRI to estimate the presurgical risk of extrapelvic infiltration in patients with uterine endometrial cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sudo, Satoko; Sakuragi, Noriaki [Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Gynecology, Sapporo (Japan); Hattori, Naoya; Manabe, Osamu; Hirata, Kenji; Tamaki, Nagara [Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Kitaku, Sapporo (Japan); Kato, Fumi; Mimura, Rie; Magota, Keiichi; Sugimori, Hiroyuki [Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Sapporo (Japan)

    2015-04-01

    The staging of endometrial cancer requires surgery which carries the risk of morbidity. FDG PET/CT combined with anatomical imaging may reduce the number of unnecessary lymphadenectomies by demonstrating the risk of extrapelvic infiltration. The purpose of this study was to optimize FDG PET/CT diagnostic criteria for risk assessment in endometrial cancer after first-line risk triage with MRI. The study population comprised 37 patients who underwent curative surgery for the treatment of endometrial cancer. First, the risk of extrapelvic infiltration was triaged using MRI. Second, multiple glucose metabolic profiles of the primary lesion were assessed with FDG PET/CT, and these were correlated with the histopathological risk of extrapelvic infiltration including lymphovascular space invasion (LVSI) and high-grade malignancy (grades 2 and 3). The results of histological correlation were used to adjust FDG PET/CT diagnostic criteria. Presurgical assessment using MRI was positive for deep (>50 %) myometrial invasion in 17 patients. The optimal FDG PET/CT diagnostic criteria vary depending on the results of MRI. Specifically, SUVmax (≥16.0) was used to indicate LVSI risk with an overall diagnostic accuracy of 88.2 % in patients with MRI findings showing myometrial invasion. High-grade malignancy did not correlate with any of metabolic profiles in this patient group. In the remaining patients without myometrial invasion, lesion glycolysis (LG) or metabolic volume were better indicators of LVSI than SUVmax with the same diagnostic accuracy of 80.0 %. In addition, LG (≥26.9) predicted high-grade malignancy with an accuracy of 72.2 %. Using the optimized cut-off criteria for LVSI, glucose metabolic profiling of primary lesions correctly predicted lymph node metastasis with an accuracy of 73.0 %, which was comparable with the accuracy of visual assessment for lymph node metastasis using MRI and FDG PET/CT. FDG PET/CT diagnostic criteria may need adjustment based on the

  17. Estimation of the exposure and a risk-benefit analysis for a CT system designed for a lung cancer mass screening unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishizawa, K.; Matsumoto, T.; Sakashita, K.; Tateno, Y.; Miyamoto, T.; Iwai, K.; Shimura, A.; Takagi, H.

    1996-01-01

    Organ or tissue doses from examination by a computed tomography system called LSCT were determined by in-phantom measurement. LSCT has been developed for lung cancer screening, with spiral scanning capability. Dose measurements were performed under the actual screening conditions of the chest CT examination. The effective dose recommended by ICRP 60 was evaluated using the organ or tissue doses. Risk-benefit analysis in the LSCT screening was also performed. The resultant effective dose per LSCT examination was 3.6 mSv and surface dose was 7.6 mGy. It was half to a third lower than the doses by traditional CT systems. The risk-benefit analysis of LSCT showed that the benefit will exceed the risk for Japanese over forty years for men and over forty-five for women. (Author)

  18. Constitution of a group of Czech and French uranium miners in order to estimate lung cancer risk linked to low chronic exposure to radon decay products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tirmarche, M.; Tomasek, L.

    1996-01-01

    West Bohemian and French uranium miners are characterized by a long duration of exposure to radon and its decay products, in comparison to most of the other groups of miners, studied in the recent international joint analysis by the National Cancer Institute (NCI) in USA. This analysis has confirmed the linearly increasing risk of lung cancer by cumulative radon exposure, describing the different factors that may influence this dose-response relationship. One of the main factors presently discussed is the influence of the exposure-rate effect: in other words, has the same cumulated exposure spread over 10 years the same risk of lung cancer as if it is cumulated in 2 years? The implication of an inverse exposure-rate effect for low chronic exposures as well as some methodological approaches will be discussed and tested by using the data of the Czech and French cohorts. These two cohorts present annual exposures varying by a factor of 5 to 10, French exposure rates being close or even less than 0.1 Working Level during the last 20 years. The project is integrated in a larger European project on uranium miners, co-ordinated by IPSN. (author)

  19. Risks of Liver (Hepatocellular) Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cancer. Having hepatitis or cirrhosis can increase the risk of developing liver cancer. Anything that increases the ... clinical trials is available from the NCI website . Risks of Liver (Hepatocellular) Cancer Screening Key Points Screening ...

  20. Work stress and risk of cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heikkilä, Katriina; Nyberg, Solja T; Theorell, Töres

    2013-01-01

    To investigate whether work related stress, measured and defined as job strain, is associated with the overall risk of cancer and the risk of colorectal, lung, breast, or prostate cancers.......To investigate whether work related stress, measured and defined as job strain, is associated with the overall risk of cancer and the risk of colorectal, lung, breast, or prostate cancers....

  1. One-year study of polycyclic aromatic compounds at an urban site in Grenoble (France): Seasonal variations, gas/particle partitioning and cancer risk estimation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomaz, Sophie [Institut National de l' Environnement industriel et des RISques (INERIS), Parc Technologique Alata BP2, 60550 Verneuil en Halatte (France); CNRS, EPOC, UMR 5805, F-33405 Talence Cedex (France); Université de Bordeaux, EPOC, UMR 5805, F-33405, Talence Cedex (France); Shahpoury, Pourya [Max Planck Institute for Chemistry, Multiphase Chemistry Department, Mainz (Germany); Jaffrezo, Jean-Luc [Laboratoire de Glaciologie et Géophysiques de l' Environnement (LGGE), Université de Grenoble-Alpes/CNRS, Grenoble (France); Lammel, Gerhard [Max Planck Institute for Chemistry, Multiphase Chemistry Department, Mainz (Germany); Masaryk University, Research Centre for Toxic Compounds in the Environment, Brno (Czech Republic); Perraudin, Emilie; Villenave, Eric [CNRS, EPOC, UMR 5805, F-33405 Talence Cedex (France); Université de Bordeaux, EPOC, UMR 5805, F-33405, Talence Cedex (France); Albinet, Alexandre, E-mail: alexandre.albinet@gmail.com [Institut National de l' Environnement industriel et des RISques (INERIS), Parc Technologique Alata BP2, 60550 Verneuil en Halatte (France)

    2016-09-15

    21 PAHs, 27 oxy-PAHs and 32 nitro-PAHs were measured every third day over a year in both gaseous (G) and particulate PM{sub 10} (P) phases in ambient air of Grenoble (France). Mean total concentrations (G + P) of PAHs and oxy-PAHs were in the same range and about 10 ng m{sup −3}. Nitro-PAHs were 50 to 100 times less concentrated averaging 100 pg m{sup −3}. Polycyclic aromatic compound (PAC) concentrations were 5 to 7 times higher in “cold” period (October to March) than in “warm” period (April to September). Seasonal variations may be explained by higher primary emissions from residential heating, especially biomass burning in “cold” season. Meteorological conditions and influence of the geomorphology around Grenoble, with the formation of thermal inversion layers leading to the stagnation of pollutants, were additional key parameters. Maximum individual PAC concentrations were observed during two PM{sub 10} pollution events in December and February–March. Chemical processes and secondary formation of oxy- and nitro-PAH were probably enhanced by the accumulation of the pollutants during these events. PAC gas/particle partitioning depended on compound molecular weight and vapour pressure. Gas/particle partitioning of oxy- and nitro-PAHs were evaluated using a multi-phase poly-parameter linear free energy relationship model. The PAC cancer risk was assessed using toxic equivalency factors available in the literature (19 PAHs, 10 nitro-PAHs and 1 oxy-PAH). Overall, particle-bound PACs contributed about 76% of the cancer risk. While PAHs accounted for most of the total PAC cancer risk, oxy- and nitro-PAHs could account for up to 24%. The risk quantification across substance classes is limited by toxicological data availability. - Highlights: • The most comprehensive study about PAH, nitro- and oxy-PAH in ambient air. • 80 species studied in gaseous and particle phases over a year at French urban site. • Concentration seasonality governed by

  2. Risk Prediction Models for Other Cancers or Multiple Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Developing statistical models that estimate the probability of developing other multiple cancers over a defined period of time will help clinicians identify individuals at higher risk of specific cancers, allowing for earlier or more frequent screening and counseling of behavioral changes to decrease risk.

  3. Obesity and colorectal cancer risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hano Garcia, Olga Marina; Wood Rodriguez, Lisette; Villa Jimenez, Oscar Manuel

    2011-01-01

    Obesity is a chronic and multifactor disease characterized by presence of excess body fat harmful for health. Several studies have been conducted to assess the possible risk character of different factors for colorectal cancer including the following modifying factors: a diet rich in saturated fats, a diet low in vegetables, physical inactivity, alcohol consumption and obesity. A case-control study was conducted to include 276 adult patients (93 cases and 184 controls) consecutively seen from May, 2008 to May, 2009 in the Institute of Gastroenterology determining a possible association between obesity as risk factor and colorectal cancer. Variables measures included: sex, age, skin color, body mass index, hip-waist circumference and endoscopic location of cancer. We conclude that the colorectal cancer with predominance in female sex and in white people in both groups. Obesity according to a great relation hip-waist had an strong relation with colorectal cancer, which had predominance towards distal colon in both sexes

  4. Estimating Rn-induced lung cancer in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lubin, J.H.; Boice, J.D. Jr.

    1989-01-01

    The proportion of lung cancer deaths attributable to Rn among residents of single-family homes in the U.S. (approximately 70% of the housing stock) is estimated using the log-normal distribution of Rn concentrations proposed by Nero et al. (1986) and the risk model developed by the National Academy of Sciences' BEIR IV Committee. The risk model, together with the exposure distribution, predicts that approximately 14% of lung cancer deaths among such residents (about 13,300 deaths per year, or 10% of all U.S. lung cancer deaths) may be due to indoor Rn exposure. The 95% confidence interval is 7%-25%, or approximately 6600 to 24,000 lung cancer deaths. These estimated attributable risks due to Rn are similar for males and females and for smokers and nonsmokers, but higher baseline risks of lung cancer result in much larger absolute numbers of Rn-attributable cancers among males (approximately 9000) and among smokers (approximately 11,000). Because of the apparent skewness of the exposure distribution, most of the contribution to the attributable risks arises from exposure rates below 148 Bq m-3 (4 pCi L-1), i.e., below the EPA action level. As a result, if all exposure rates that exceed 148 Bq m-3 (approximately 8% of homes) were eliminated, the models predict that the total annual lung cancer burden in the U.S. would drop by 4-5%, or by about 3800 lung cancer deaths, in contrast to a maximum reduction of 14% if all indoor Rn exposure above the 1st percentile were eliminated

  5. Height and Breast Cancer Risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Ben; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Delahanty, Ryan J

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Epidemiological studies have linked adult height with breast cancer risk in women. However, the magnitude of the association, particularly by subtypes of breast cancer, has not been established. Furthermore, the mechanisms of the association remain unclear. METHODS: We performed a meta......-analysis to investigate associations between height and breast cancer risk using data from 159 prospective cohorts totaling 5216302 women, including 113178 events. In a consortium with individual-level data from 46325 case patients and 42482 control patients, we conducted a Mendelian randomization analysis using...... a genetic score that comprised 168 height-associated variants as an instrument. This association was further evaluated in a second consortium using summary statistics data from 16003 case patients and 41335 control patients. RESULTS: The pooled relative risk of breast cancer was 1.17 (95% confidence...

  6. Cannabis smoking and lung cancer risk: Pooled analysis in the International Lung Cancer Consortium

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, L.R.; Morgenstern, H.; Greenland, S.; Chang, S.C.; Lazarus, P.; Teare, M.D.; Woll, P.J.; Orlow, I.; Cox, B.; Brhane, Y.; Liu, G.; Hung, R.J.

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the association between cannabis smoking and lung cancer risk, data on 2,159 lung cancer cases and 2,985 controls were pooled from 6 case-control studies in the US, Canada, UK, and New Zealand within the International Lung Cancer Consortium. Study-specific associations between cannabis smoking and lung cancer were estimated using unconditional logistic regression adjusting for sociodemographic factors, tobacco smoking status and pack-years; odds-ratio estimates were pooled usin...

  7. Canadian Cancer Risk Management Model: evaluation of cancer control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, William K; Wolfson, Michael C; Flanagan, William M; Shin, Janey; Goffin, John; Miller, Anthony B; Asakawa, Keiko; Earle, Craig; Mittmann, Nicole; Fairclough, Lee; Oderkirk, Jillian; Finès, Philippe; Gribble, Stephen; Hoch, Jeffrey; Hicks, Chantal; Omariba, D Walter R; Ng, Edward

    2013-04-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a decision support tool to assess the potential benefits and costs of new healthcare interventions. The Canadian Partnership Against Cancer (CPAC) commissioned the development of a Cancer Risk Management Model (CRMM)--a computer microsimulation model that simulates individual lives one at a time, from birth to death, taking account of Canadian demographic and labor force characteristics, risk factor exposures, and health histories. Information from all the simulated lives is combined to produce aggregate measures of health outcomes for the population or for particular subpopulations. The CRMM can project the population health and economic impacts of cancer control programs in Canada and the impacts of major risk factors, cancer prevention, and screening programs and new cancer treatments on population health and costs to the healthcare system. It estimates both the direct costs of medical care, as well as lost earnings and impacts on tax revenues. The lung and colorectal modules are available through the CPAC Web site (www.cancerview.ca/cancerrriskmanagement) to registered users where structured scenarios can be explored for their projected impacts. Advanced users will be able to specify new scenarios or change existing modules by varying input parameters or by accessing open source code. Model development is now being extended to cervical and breast cancers.

  8. Lung cancer risk of airborne particles for Italian population

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buonanno, G., E-mail: buonanno@unicas.it [Department of Civil and Mechanical Engineering, University of Cassino and Southern Lazio, Via Di Biasio 43, 03043 Cassino, FR (Italy); International Laboratory for Air Quality and Health, Queensland University of Technology, 2 George Street 2, 4001 Brisbane, Qld. (Australia); Giovinco, G., E-mail: giovinco@unicas.it [Department of Civil and Mechanical Engineering, University of Cassino and Southern Lazio, Via Di Biasio 43, 03043 Cassino, FR (Italy); Morawska, L., E-mail: morawska@qut.edu.au [International Laboratory for Air Quality and Health, Queensland University of Technology, 2 George Street 2, 4001 Brisbane, Qld. (Australia); Stabile, L., E-mail: stabile@unicas.it [Department of Civil and Mechanical Engineering, University of Cassino and Southern Lazio, Via Di Biasio 43, 03043 Cassino, FR (Italy)

    2015-10-15

    Airborne particles, including both ultrafine and supermicrometric particles, contain various carcinogens. Exposure and risk-assessment studies regularly use particle mass concentration as dosimetry parameter, therefore neglecting the potential impact of ultrafine particles due to their negligible mass compared to supermicrometric particles. The main purpose of this study was the characterization of lung cancer risk due to exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and some heavy metals associated with particle inhalation by Italian non-smoking people. A risk-assessment scheme, modified from an existing risk model, was applied to estimate the cancer risk contribution from both ultrafine and supermicrometric particles. Exposure assessment was carried out on the basis of particle number distributions measured in 25 smoke-free microenvironments in Italy. The predicted lung cancer risk was then compared to the cancer incidence rate in Italy to assess the number of lung cancer cases attributed to airborne particle inhalation, which represents one of the main causes of lung cancer, apart from smoking. Ultrafine particles are associated with a much higher risk than supermicrometric particles, and the modified risk-assessment scheme provided a more accurate estimate than the conventional scheme. Great attention has to be paid to indoor microenvironments and, in particular, to cooking and eating times, which represent the major contributors to lung cancer incidence in the Italian population. The modified risk assessment scheme can serve as a tool for assessing environmental quality, as well as setting up exposure standards for particulate matter. - Highlights: • Lung cancer risk for non-smoking Italian population due to particle inhalation. • The average lung cancer risk for Italian population is equal to 1.90×10{sup −2}. • Ultrafine particle is the aerosol metric mostly contributing to lung cancer risk. • B(a)P is the main (particle-bounded) compound

  9. Lung cancer risk of airborne particles for Italian population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buonanno, G.; Giovinco, G.; Morawska, L.; Stabile, L.

    2015-01-01

    Airborne particles, including both ultrafine and supermicrometric particles, contain various carcinogens. Exposure and risk-assessment studies regularly use particle mass concentration as dosimetry parameter, therefore neglecting the potential impact of ultrafine particles due to their negligible mass compared to supermicrometric particles. The main purpose of this study was the characterization of lung cancer risk due to exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and some heavy metals associated with particle inhalation by Italian non-smoking people. A risk-assessment scheme, modified from an existing risk model, was applied to estimate the cancer risk contribution from both ultrafine and supermicrometric particles. Exposure assessment was carried out on the basis of particle number distributions measured in 25 smoke-free microenvironments in Italy. The predicted lung cancer risk was then compared to the cancer incidence rate in Italy to assess the number of lung cancer cases attributed to airborne particle inhalation, which represents one of the main causes of lung cancer, apart from smoking. Ultrafine particles are associated with a much higher risk than supermicrometric particles, and the modified risk-assessment scheme provided a more accurate estimate than the conventional scheme. Great attention has to be paid to indoor microenvironments and, in particular, to cooking and eating times, which represent the major contributors to lung cancer incidence in the Italian population. The modified risk assessment scheme can serve as a tool for assessing environmental quality, as well as setting up exposure standards for particulate matter. - Highlights: • Lung cancer risk for non-smoking Italian population due to particle inhalation. • The average lung cancer risk for Italian population is equal to 1.90×10 −2 . • Ultrafine particle is the aerosol metric mostly contributing to lung cancer risk. • B(a)P is the main (particle-bounded) compound contributing

  10. Childhood height, adult height, and the risk of prostate cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, Lise Geisler; Aarestrup, Julie; Gamborg, Michael

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: We previously showed that childhood height is positively associated with prostate cancer risk. It is, however, unknown whether childhood height exerts its effects independently of or through adult height. We investigated whether and to what extent childhood height has a direct effect...... on the risk of prostate cancer apart from adult height. METHODS: We included 5,871 men with height measured at ages 7 and 13 years in the Copenhagen School Health Records Register who also had adult (50-65 years) height measured in the Danish Diet, Cancer and Health study. Prostate cancer status was obtained...... through linkage to the Danish Cancer Registry. Direct and total effects of childhood height on prostate cancer risk were estimated from Cox regressions. RESULTS: From 1996 to 2012, 429 prostate cancers occurred. Child and adult heights were positively and significantly associated with prostate cancer risk...

  11. Radiotherapy for stage I seminoma of the testis: Organ equivalent dose to partially in-field structures and second cancer risk estimates on the basis of a mechanistic, bell-shaped, and plateau model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazonakis, Michalis, E-mail: mazonak@med.uoc.gr; Damilakis, John [Department of Medical Physics, Faculty of Medicine, University of Crete, P.O. Box 2208, Iraklion, Crete 71003 (Greece); Varveris, Charalambos; Lyraraki, Efrossyni [Department of Radiotherapy and Oncology, University Hospital of Iraklion, Iraklion, Crete 71110 (Greece)

    2015-11-15

    Purpose: The aim of the current study was to (a) calculate the organ equivalent dose (OED) and (b) estimate the associated second cancer risk to partially in-field critical structures from adjuvant radiotherapy for stage I seminoma of the testis on the basis of three different nonlinear risk models. Methods: Three-dimensional plans were created for twelve patients who underwent a treatment planning computed tomography of the abdomen. The plans for irradiation of seminoma consisted of para-aortic anteroposterior and posteroanterior fields giving 20 Gy to the target site with 6 MV photons. The OED of stomach, colon, liver, pancreas, and kidneys, that were partially included in the treatment volume, was calculated using differential dose–volume histograms. The mechanistic, bell-shaped, and plateau models were employed for these calculations provided that organ-specific parameters were available for the subsequent assessment of the excess absolute risk (EAR) for second cancer development. The estimated organ-specific lifetime risks were compared with the respective nominal intrinsic probabilities for cancer induction. Results: The mean OED, which was calculated from the patients’ treatment plans, varied from 0.54 to 6.61 Gy by the partially in-field organ of interest and the model used for dosimetric calculations. The difference between the OED of liver derived from the mechanistic model with those from the bell-shaped and plateau models was less than 1.8%. An even smaller deviation of 1.0% was observed for colon. For the rest organs of interest, the differences between the OED values obtained by the examined models varied from 8.6% to 50.0%. The EAR for stomach, colon, liver, pancreas, and kidney cancer induction at an age of 70 yr because of treatment of a typical 39-yr-old individual was up to 4.24, 11.39, 0.91, 3.04, and 0.14 per 10 000 persons-yr, respectively. Patient’s irradiation was found to elevate the lifetime intrinsic risks by 8.3%–63.0% depending

  12. Alcohol and Cancer Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or more than 14 drinks per week for men. What is the evidence that alcohol drinking is a cause of cancer? Based on extensive reviews of research studies , there is a strong scientific consensus of an association between alcohol drinking ...

  13. Familial Risk and Heritability of Cancer Among Twins in Nordic Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mucci, Lorelei A.; Hjelmborg, Jacob B.; Harris, Jennifer R.

    2016-01-01

    Importance: Estimates of familial cancer risk from population-based studies are essential components of cancer risk prediction. Objective: To estimate familial risk and heritability of cancer types in a large twin cohort. Design, Setting, and Participants: Prospective study of 80 309 monozygotic ...

  14. Making sense of cancer risk calculators on the web.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Andrea Gurmankin; Sonnad, Seema S; Kurichi, Jibby E; Sherman, Melani; Armstrong, Katrina

    2008-03-01

    Cancer risk calculators on the internet have the potential to provide users with valuable information about their individual cancer risk. However, the lack of oversight of these sites raises concerns about low quality and inconsistent information. These concerns led us to evaluate internet cancer risk calculators. After a systematic search to find all cancer risk calculators on the internet, we reviewed the content of each site for information that users should seek to evaluate the quality of a website. We then examined the consistency of the breast cancer risk calculators by having 27 women complete 10 of the breast cancer risk calculators for themselves. We also completed the breast cancer risk calculators for a hypothetical high- and low-risk woman, and compared the output to Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results estimates for the average same-age and same-race woman. Nineteen sites were found, 13 of which calculate breast cancer risk. Most sites do not provide the information users need to evaluate the legitimacy of a website. The breast cancer calculator sites vary in the risk factors they assess to calculate breast cancer risk, how they operationalize each risk factor and in the risk estimate they provide for the same individual. Internet cancer risk calculators have the potential to provide a public health benefit by educating individuals about their risks and potentially encouraging preventive health behaviors. However, our evaluation of internet calculators revealed several problems that call into question the accuracy of the information that they provide. This may lead the users of these sites to make inappropriate medical decisions on the basis of misinformation.

  15. Lifetime growth and risk of testicular cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richiardi, Lorenzo; Vizzini, Loredana; Pastore, Guido; Segnan, Nereo; Gillio-Tos, Anna; Fiano, Valentina; Grasso, Chiara; Ciuffreda, Libero; Lista, Patrizia; Pearce, Neil; Merletti, Franco

    2014-08-01

    Adult height is associated with testicular cancer risk. We studied to what extent this association is explained by parental height, childhood height and age at puberty. We conducted a case-control study on germ-cell testicular cancer patients diagnosed in 1997-2008 and resident in the Province of Turin. Information was collected using mailed questionnaires in 2008-2011. Specifically, we asked for adult height (in cm), height at age 9 and 13 (compared to peers) and age at puberty (compared to peers). We also asked for paternal and maternal height (in cm) as indicators of genetic components of adult height. The analysis included 255 cases and 459 controls. Odds ratios (ORs) of testicular cancer were estimated for the different anthropometric variables. Adult height was associated with testicular cancer risk [OR: 1.16, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.03-1.31 per 5-cm increase]. The risk of testicular cancer was only slightly increased for being taller vs. shorter than peers at age 9 (OR: 1.55, 95% CI: 0.91-2.64) or age 13 (OR: 1.26, 95% CI: 0.78-2.01), and parental height was not associated with testicular cancer risk. The OR for adult height was 1.32 (95% CI: 1.12-1.56) after adjustment for parental height. Among participants with small average parental height (testicular cancer for tall (>180 cm) vs. short (testicular cancer is likely to be explained by environmental factors affecting growth in early life, childhood and adolescence. © 2013 UICC.

  16. Risk Probability Estimating Based on Clustering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Yong; Jensen, Christian D.; Gray, Elizabeth

    2003-01-01

    of prior experiences, recommendations from a trusted entity or the reputation of the other entity. In this paper we propose a dynamic mechanism for estimating the risk probability of a certain interaction in a given environment using hybrid neural networks. We argue that traditional risk assessment models...... from the insurance industry do not directly apply to ubiquitous computing environments. Instead, we propose a dynamic mechanism for risk assessment, which is based on pattern matching, classification and prediction procedures. This mechanism uses an estimator of risk probability, which is based...

  17. Exploring the uncertainties in cancer risk assessment using the integrated probabilistic risk assessment (IPRA) approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slob, Wout; Bakker, Martine I; Biesebeek, Jan Dirk Te; Bokkers, Bas G H

    2014-08-01

    Current methods for cancer risk assessment result in single values, without any quantitative information on the uncertainties in these values. Therefore, single risk values could easily be overinterpreted. In this study, we discuss a full probabilistic cancer risk assessment approach in which all the generally recognized uncertainties in both exposure and hazard assessment are quantitatively characterized and probabilistically evaluated, resulting in a confidence interval for the final risk estimate. The methodology is applied to three example chemicals (aflatoxin, N-nitrosodimethylamine, and methyleugenol). These examples illustrate that the uncertainty in a cancer risk estimate may be huge, making single value estimates of cancer risk meaningless. Further, a risk based on linear extrapolation tends to be lower than the upper 95% confidence limit of a probabilistic risk estimate, and in that sense it is not conservative. Our conceptual analysis showed that there are two possible basic approaches for cancer risk assessment, depending on the interpretation of the dose-incidence data measured in animals. However, it remains unclear which of the two interpretations is the more adequate one, adding an additional uncertainty to the already huge confidence intervals for cancer risk estimates. © 2014 Society for Risk Analysis.

  18. Tetrachloroethylene exposure and bladder cancer risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vlaanderen, Jelle; Straif, Kurt; Ruder, Avima

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In 2012, the International Agency for Research on Cancer classified tetrachloroethylene, used in the production of chemicals and the primary solvent used in dry cleaning, as "probably carcinogenic to humans" based on limited evidence of an increased risk of bladder cancer in dry...... cleaners. OBJECTIVES: We assessed the epidemiological evidence for the association between tetrachloroethylene exposure and bladder cancer from published studies estimating occupational exposure to tetrachloroethylene or in workers in the dry-cleaning industry. METHODS: Random-effects meta-analyses were...... carried out separately for occupational exposure to tetrachloroethylene and employment as a dry cleaner. We qualitatively summarized exposure-response data because of the limited number of studies available. RESULTS: The meta-relative risk (mRR) among tetrachloroethylene-exposed workers was 1.08 (95% CI...

  19. Relative Risks for Lethal Prostate Cancer Based on Complete Family History of Prostate Cancer Death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albright, Frederick S; Stephenson, Robert A; Agarwal, Neeraj; Cannon-Albright, Lisa A

    2017-01-01

    There are few published familial relative risks (RR) for lethal prostate cancer. This study estimates RRs for lethal prostate cancer based on comprehensive family history data, with the goal of improving identification of those men at highest risk of dying from prostate cancer. We used a population-based genealogical resource linked to a statewide electronic SEER cancer registry and death certificates to estimate relative risks (RR) for death from prostate cancer based upon family history. Over 600,000 male probands were analyzed, representing a variety of family history constellations of lethal prostate cancer. RR estimates were based on the ratio of the observed to the expected number of lethal prostate cancer cases using internal rates. RRs for lethal prostate cancer based on the number of affected first-degree relatives (FDR) ranged from 2.49 (95% CI: 2.27, 2.73) for exactly 1 FDR to 5.30 (2.13, 10.93) for ≥3 affected FDRs. In an absence of affected FDRs, increased risk was also significant for increasing numbers of affected second-degree or third degree relatives. Equivalent risks were observed for similar maternal and paternal family history. This study provides population-based estimates of lethal prostate cancer risk based on lethal prostate cancer family history. Many family history constellations associated with two to greater than five times increased risk for lethal prostate cancer were identified. These lethal prostate cancer risk estimates hold potential for use in identification, screening, early diagnosis, and treatment of men at high risk for death from prostate cancer. Prostate77:41-48, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Radiation, cancer risk, and the new dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mole, R.H.

    1987-01-01

    This letter discusses revision of risk estimates in the light of the new dosimetry (DS86) and concludes that direct observation is more to be relied on than the extrapolation from A-bomb survivors' experience. X-ray treatment for ankylosing spondylitis, cervical cancer data, and figures observed from 50,000 workers occupationally exposed to radiation are used as examples. (U.K.)

  1. Familial Risk and Heritability of Colorectal Cancer in the Nordic Twin Study of Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graff, Rebecca E; Möller, Sören; Passarelli, Michael N

    2017-01-01

    included 39,990 monozygotic and 61,443 same-sex dizygotic twins from the Nordic Twin Study of Cancer. We compared each cancer's risk in twins of affected co-twins relative to the cohort risk (familial risk ratio; FRR). We then estimated the proportion of variation in risk that could be attributed......BACKGROUND & AIMS: We analyzed data from twins to determine how much the familial risk of colorectal cancer can be attributed to genetic factors vs environment. We also examined whether heritability is distinct for colon vs rectal cancer, given evidence of distinct etiologies. METHODS: Our data set...... to genetic factors (heritability). RESULTS: From earliest registration in 1943 through 2010, 1861 individuals were diagnosed with colon cancer and 1268 with rectal cancer. Monozygotic twins of affected co-twins had an FRR for colorectal cancer of 3.1 (95% CI, 2.4-3.8) relative to the cohort risk. Dizygotic...

  2. Lung cancer risks in the vicinity of uranium tailings sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogers, V.C.; Sandquist, G.M.

    1982-04-01

    Lung cancer mortality data have been assembled for many counties of interest to the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Program (UMTRAP). The counties generally either contain UMTRAP tailings sites or are adjacent to them. The lung cancer rates of nearly all counties are less than the US average rate. In addition, some of the many factors associated with lung cancer are identified as are cancer risk estimators for radon daughters. 17 refs., 19 figs., 1 tab

  3. Uranium mill tailings and risk estimation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marks, S.

    1984-04-01

    Work done in estimating projected health effects for persons exposed to mill tailings at vicinity properties is described. The effect of the reassessment of exposures at Hiroshima and Nagasaki on the risk estimates for gamma radiation is discussed. A presentation of current results in the epidemiological study of Hanford workers is included. 2 references

  4. Periodontal Disease, Tooth Loss, and Cancer Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaud, Dominique S; Fu, Zhuxuan; Shi, Jian; Chung, Mei

    2017-01-01

    Periodontal disease, which includes gingivitis and periodontitis, is highly prevalent in adults and disease severity increases with age. The relationship between periodontal disease and oral cancer has been examined for several decades, but there is increasing interest in the link between periodontal disease and overall cancer risk, with systemic inflammation serving as the main focus for biological plausibility. Numerous case-control studies have addressed the role of oral health in head and neck cancer, and several cohort studies have examined associations with other types of cancers over the past decade. For this review, we included studies that were identified from either 11 published reviews on this topic or an updated literature search on PubMed (between 2011 and July 2016). A total of 50 studies from 46 publications were included in this review. Meta-analyses were conducted on cohort and case-control studies separately when at least 4 studies could be included to determine summary estimates of the risk of cancer in relation to 1) periodontal disease or 2) tooth number (a surrogate marker of periodontal disease) with adjustment for smoking. Existing data provide support for a positive association between periodontal disease and risk of oral, lung, and pancreatic cancers; however, additional prospective studies are needed to better inform on the strength of these associations and to determine whether other cancers are associated with periodontal disease. Future studies should include sufficiently large sample sizes, improved measurements for periodontal disease, and thorough adjustment for smoking and other risk factors. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Nonparametric estimation of benchmark doses in environmental risk assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piegorsch, Walter W.; Xiong, Hui; Bhattacharya, Rabi N.; Lin, Lizhen

    2013-01-01

    Summary An important statistical objective in environmental risk analysis is estimation of minimum exposure levels, called benchmark doses (BMDs), that induce a pre-specified benchmark response in a dose-response experiment. In such settings, representations of the risk are traditionally based on a parametric dose-response model. It is a well-known concern, however, that if the chosen parametric form is misspecified, inaccurate and possibly unsafe low-dose inferences can result. We apply a nonparametric approach for calculating benchmark doses, based on an isotonic regression method for dose-response estimation with quantal-response data (Bhattacharya and Kong, 2007). We determine the large-sample properties of the estimator, develop bootstrap-based confidence limits on the BMDs, and explore the confidence limits’ small-sample properties via a short simulation study. An example from cancer risk assessment illustrates the calculations. PMID:23914133

  6. High body mass index and cancer risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benn, Marianne; Tybjærg-Hansen, Anne; Smith, George Davey

    2016-01-01

    of follow-up (range 0-37), 8002 developed non-skin cancer, 3347 non-melanoma skin cancer, 1396 lung cancer, 637 other smoking related cancers, 1203 colon cancer, 159 kidney cancer, 1402 breast cancer, 1062 prostate cancer, and 2804 other cancers. Participants were genotyped for five genetic variants...... with a BMI ≥ 30 versus 18.5-24.9 kg/m(2). Corresponding risk of breast cancer was 20 % (0-44 %) higher in postmenopausal women. BMI was not associated with risk of colon, kidney, other smoking related cancers, prostate cancer, or other cancers. In genetic analyses, carrying 7-10 versus 0-4 BMI increasing......High body mass index (BMI) has been associated with increased risk of some cancer. Whether these reflect causal associations is unknown. We examined this issue. Using a Mendelian randomisation approach, we studied 108,812 individuals from the general population. During a median of 4.7 years...

  7. On ionising radiation and breast cancer risk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mattson, Anders

    1999-05-01

    A cohort of 3,090 women with clinical diagnosis of benign breast disease (BBD) was studied. Of these, 1,216 were treated with radiation therapy during 1925-54 (median age 40 years). The mean dose to the breasts was 5.8 Gy (range 0-50 Gy). Among other organs the lung received the highest scattered dose (0.75 Gy; range 0.004-8.98 Gy) and the rectum the lowest (0.008 Gy; range 0-0.06 Gy). A pooled analysis of eight breast cancer incidence cohorts was done, including: tumour registry data on breast cancer incidence among women in the Life Span Study cohort of atomic bomb survivors; women in Massachusetts who received repeated chest fluoroscopic during lung collapse treatment for tuberculosis; women who received x-ray therapy for acute post-partum mastitis; women who were irradiated in infancy for enlarged thymus glands ; two Swedish cohorts of women who received radiation treatments during infancy for skin hemangioma; and the BBD cohort. Together the cohorts included almost 78,000 women (-35,000 were exposed), around 1.8 million woman-years and 1500 cases. The breast cancer incidence rate as a function of breast dose was analysed using linear-quadratic Poisson regression models. Cell-killing effects and other modifying effects were incorporated through additional log-linear terms. Additive (EAR) and multiplicative (ERR) models were compared in estimating the age-at-exposure patterns and time related excess. The carcinogenic risks associated with radiation in mammographic mass screening is evaluated. Assessment was made in terms of breast cancer mortality and years of life. Effects were related to rates not influenced by a mammographic mass screening program and based on a hypothetical cohort of 100,000 40-year old women with no history of breast cancer being followed to 100 years of age. Two radiation risk assumptions were compared. The dose-response relationship is linear with little support in data for an upward curvature at low to medium doses. The competing effect

  8. On ionising radiation and breast cancer risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mattson, Anders

    1999-01-01

    A cohort of 3,090 women with clinical diagnosis of benign breast disease (BBD) was studied. Of these, 1,216 were treated with radiation therapy during 1925-54 (median age 40 years). The mean dose to the breasts was 5.8 Gy (range 0-50 Gy). Among other organs the lung received the highest scattered dose (0.75 Gy; range 0.004-8.98 Gy) and the rectum the lowest (0.008 Gy; range 0-0.06 Gy). A pooled analysis of eight breast cancer incidence cohorts was done, including: tumour registry data on breast cancer incidence among women in the Life Span Study cohort of atomic bomb survivors; women in Massachusetts who received repeated chest fluoroscopic during lung collapse treatment for tuberculosis; women who received x-ray therapy for acute post-partum mastitis; women who were irradiated in infancy for enlarged thymus glands ; two Swedish cohorts of women who received radiation treatments during infancy for skin hemangioma; and the BBD) cohort. Together the cohorts included almost 78,000 women (-35,000 were exposed), around 1.8 million woman-years and 1500 cases. The breast cancer incidence rate as a function of breast dose was analysed using linear-quadratic Poisson regression models. Cell-killing effects and other modifying effects were incorporated through additional log-linear terms. Additive (EAR) and multiplicative (ERR) models were compared in estimating the age-at-exposure patterns and time related excess. The carcinogenic risks associated with radiation in mammographic mass screening is evaluated. Assessment was made in terms of breast cancer mortality and years of life. Effects were related to rates not influenced by a mammographic mass screening program and based on a hypothetical cohort of 100,000 40-year old women with no history of breast cancer being followed to 100 years of age. Two radiation risk assumptions were compared. The dose-response relationship is linear with little support in data for an upward curvature at low to medium doses. The competing effect

  9. Estimation of risks from medical irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Persson, B.R.R.

    1983-01-01

    This paper discuss various concepts of quantifying risks from medical irradiation. The expected individual risk from specific medical examination can be derived by estimation the dose-equivalent in different organs and tissues and apply the risk factors recommended for these tissues. A more practical way is to estimate or measure the energy imparted which has been found to correlate quite well with the total risk derived by summing up the risks for the involved tissues. The effective dose-equivalent concept can be used to derive the collective effective dose-equivalent in a population in order to compare the contribution from medical exposure with the contribution from other sources of irradiation in the society. In many countries it is thus shown that medical exposures gives the largest man-made contribution to the population dose

  10. Long working hours and cancer risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heikkila, Katriina; Nyberg, Solja T.; Madsen, Ida E. H.

    2016-01-01

    in 116 462 men and women who were free of cancer at baseline. Incident cancers were ascertained from national cancer, hospitalisation and death registers; weekly working hours were self-reported. Results: During median follow-up of 10.8 years, 4371 participants developed cancer (n colorectal cancer: 393......Background: Working longer than the maximum recommended hours is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease, but the relationship of excess working hours with incident cancer is unclear. Methods: This multi-cohort study examined the association between working hours and cancer risk......; n lung cancer: 247; n breast cancer: 833; and n prostate cancer: 534). We found no clear evidence for an association between working hours and the overall cancer risk. Working hours were also unrelated the risk of incident colorectal, lung or prostate cancers. Working greater than or equal to55 h...

  11. METHODOLOGICAL PROBLEMS OF PRACTICAL RADIOGENIC RISK ESTIMATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Т. Gubin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Mathematical ratios were established according to the description of the calculation procedure for the values of the nominal risk coefficient given in the ICRP Recommendations 2007. It is shown that the lifetime radiogenic risk is a linear functional from the distribution of the dose in time with a multiplier descending with age. As a consequence, application of the nominal risk coefficient in the risk calculations is justified in the case when prolonged exposure is practically evenly distributed in time, and gives a significant deviation at a single exposure. When using the additive model of radiogenic risk proposed in the UNSCEAR Report 2006 for solid cancers, this factor is almost linearly decreasing with the age, which is convenient for its practical application.

  12. Colon Cancer Risk Assessment - Gauss Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    An executable file (in GAUSS) that projects absolute colon cancer risk (with confidence intervals) according to NCI’s Colorectal Cancer Risk Assessment Tool (CCRAT) algorithm. GAUSS is not needed to run the program.

  13. Risk of prostate cancer among cancer survivors in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kok, D.E.G.; Schans, van de S.A.; Liu, L.; Kampman, E.; Coebergh, J.W.; Kiemeney, L.A.; Soerjomataram, I.; Aben, K.K.

    2013-01-01

    In parallel with increasing numbers of cancer patients and improving cancer survival, the occurrence of second primary cancers becomes a relevant issue. The aim of our study was to evaluate risk of prostate cancer as second primary cancer in a population-based setting. Methods Data from the

  14. Cardiovascular risk estimation in older persons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cooney, Marie Therese; Selmer, Randi; Lindman, Anja

    2016-01-01

    .73 to 0.75). Calibration was also reasonable, Hosmer-Lemeshow goodness of fit test: 17.16 (men), 22.70 (women). Compared with the original SCORE function extrapolated to the ≥65 years age group discrimination improved, p = 0.05 (men), p women). Simple risk charts were constructed. On simulated...... risk estimation systems, that risk factors function similarly in all age groups. We aimed to derive and validate a risk estimation function, SCORE O.P., solely from data from individuals aged 65 years and older. METHODS AND RESULTS: 20,704 men and 20,121 women, aged 65 and over and without pre...... model and were included in the SCORE O.P. model were: age, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, systolic blood pressure, smoking status and diabetes. SCORE O.P. showed good discrimination; area under receiver operator characteristic curve (AUROC) 0.74 (95% confidence interval: 0...

  15. Occupational lung cancer risk among men in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Preller, L.; Balder, H.F.; Tielemans, E.; Brandt, P.A. van den; Goldbohm, R.A.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: To assess male lung cancer risks for industrial sectors in the Netherlands and to estimate the proportion of lung cancer attributed to working in specific industrial sectors. Methods: Associations were studied among men aged 55-69 years (n = 58 279) from the prospective Netherlands

  16. Population-based absolute risk estimation with survey data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovalchik, Stephanie A.; Pfeiffer, Ruth M.

    2013-01-01

    Absolute risk is the probability that a cause-specific event occurs in a given time interval in the presence of competing events. We present methods to estimate population-based absolute risk from a complex survey cohort that can accommodate multiple exposure-specific competing risks. The hazard function for each event type consists of an individualized relative risk multiplied by a baseline hazard function, which is modeled nonparametrically or parametrically with a piecewise exponential model. An influence method is used to derive a Taylor-linearized variance estimate for the absolute risk estimates. We introduce novel measures of the cause-specific influences that can guide modeling choices for the competing event components of the model. To illustrate our methodology, we build and validate cause-specific absolute risk models for cardiovascular and cancer deaths using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Our applications demonstrate the usefulness of survey-based risk prediction models for predicting health outcomes and quantifying the potential impact of disease prevention programs at the population level. PMID:23686614

  17. Estimating environmental and occupational contribution to cancer in Sudan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdallah, Y. M. Y.; Beden, S. J.; Khalifa, A. A.

    2012-12-01

    This study was performed in Radiation and Isotopes Center of Khartoum (RICK) and National Cancer Institute (NCI) University of Gazeria. It focused on cancer patients who were treated by radiation therapy in the period between 2008 and 2009. The study investigator the risk and causative factors and geographical distribution over the sudan states and the relationship of incidence with some patient's customs and dietary habits. This study summarizes recent scientific evidence of environmental and occupational links to nearly 30 types of cancer. the discussion of each cancer type is introduced by highlights of trends in incidence. The study considers additional indication that involuntary exposures are linked to cancers, such as patterns observed in different geographic areas and among different population patterns of cancer in children. The purpose of this study is to review scientific evidence, particular y epidemiologic evidence. regarding the contribution of environmental and occupational exposures to the overall cancer incidence in the Sudan. The study discussed that the widespread exposures from air and water pollution, the work environment, exposure resulting form personal habits such as smoking and drinking and the diet are major contributors to cancer in human. In the past three decades, there have been several efforts to estimate the proportion of caner due to these involuntary exposure, starting with an ambitious effort by different scientists. This study provided and alternative interpretation of the evidence of cancer incidence to particular factors. We conclude the study by recommending the significance of giving environmental and occupational links to cancer serious consideration by individuals and institutions concerned with cancer prevention, particularly those involved in research and education. (Author)

  18. Parity and risk of lung cancer in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulus, Jessica K; Asomaning, Kofi; Kraft, Peter; Johnson, Bruce E; Lin, Xihong; Christiani, David C

    2010-03-01

    Patterns of lung cancer incidence suggest that gender-associated factors may influence lung cancer risk. Given the association of parity with risk of some women's cancers, the authors hypothesized that childbearing history may also be associated with lung cancer. Women enrolled in the Lung Cancer Susceptibility Study at Massachusetts General Hospital (Boston, Massachusetts) between 1992 and 2004 (1,004 cases, 848 controls) were available for analysis of the association between parity and lung cancer risk. Multivariate logistic regression was used to estimate adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals. After results were controlled for age and smoking history, women with at least 1 child had 0.71 times the odds of lung cancer as women without children (odds ratio = 0.71, 95% confidence interval: 0.52, 0.97). A significant linear trend was found: Lung cancer risk decreased with increasing numbers of children (P < 0.001). This inverse association was stronger in never smokers (P = 0.12) and was limited to women over age 50 years at diagnosis (P = 0.17). Age at first birth was not associated with risk. The authors observed a protective association between childbearing and lung cancer, adding to existing evidence that reproductive factors may moderate lung cancer risk in women.

  19. Radiation induced cancer risk, detriment and radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinclair, W.K.

    1992-01-01

    Recommendations on radiation protection limits for workers and for the public depend mainly on the total health detriment estimated to be the result of low dose ionizing radiation exposure. This detriment includes the probability of a fatal cancer, an allowance for the morbidity due to non-fatal cancer and the probability of severe hereditary effects in succeeding generations. In a population of all ages, special effects on the fetus particularly the risk of mental retardation at defined gestational ages, should also be included. Among these components of detriment after low doses, the risk of fatal cancer is the largest and most important. The estimates of fatal cancer risk used by ICRP in the 1990 recommendations were derived almost exclusively from the study of the Japanese survivors of the atomic bombs of 1945. How good are these estimates? Uncertainties associated with them, apart from those due to limitations in epidemiological observation and dosimetry, are principally those due to projection forward in time and extrapolation from high dose and dose rate to low dose and dose rate, each of which could after the estimate by a factor of 2 or so. Recent estimates of risk of cancer derived directly from low dose studies are specific only within very broad ranges of risk. Nevertheless, such studies are important as confirmation or otherwise of the estimates derived from the atomic bomb survivors. Recent U.S. British and Russian studies are examined in this light. (author)

  20. Risk factors for skin cancer among Finnish airline cabin crew.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kojo, Katja; Helminen, Mika; Pukkala, Eero; Auvinen, Anssi

    2013-07-01

    Increased incidence of skin cancers among airline cabin crew has been reported in several studies. We evaluated whether the difference in risk factor prevalence between Finnish airline cabin crew and the general population could explain the increased incidence of skin cancers among cabin crew, and the possible contribution of estimated occupational cosmic radiation exposure. A self-administered questionnaire survey on occupational, host, and ultraviolet radiation exposure factors was conducted among female cabin crew members and females presenting the general population. The impact of occupational cosmic radiation dose was estimated in a separate nested case-control analysis among the participating cabin crew (with 9 melanoma and 35 basal cell carcinoma cases). No considerable difference in the prevalence of risk factors of skin cancer was found between the cabin crew (N = 702) and the general population subjects (N = 1007) participating the study. The mean risk score based on all the conventional skin cancer risk factors was 1.43 for cabin crew and 1.44 for general population (P = 0.24). Among the cabin crew, the estimated cumulative cosmic radiation dose was not related to the increased skin cancer risk [adjusted odds ratio (OR) = 0.75, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.57-1.00]. The highest plausible risk of skin cancer for estimated cosmic radiation dose was estimated as 9% per 10 mSv. The skin cancer cases had higher host characteristics scores than the non-cases among cabin crew (adjusted OR = 1.43, 95% CI: 1.01-2.04). Our results indicate no difference between the female cabin crew and the general female population in the prevalence of factors generally associated with incidence of skin cancer. Exposure to cosmic radiation did not explain the excess of skin cancer among the studied cabin crew in this study.

  1. [The concept of risk and its estimation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zocchetti, C; Della Foglia, M; Colombi, A

    1996-01-01

    The concept of risk, in relation to human health, is a topic of primary interest for occupational health professionals. A new legislation recently established in Italy (626/94) according to European Community directives in the field of Preventive Medicine, called attention to this topic, and in particular to risk assessment and evaluation. Motivated by this context and by the impression that the concept of risk is frequently misunderstood, the present paper has two aims: the identification of the different meanings of the term "risk" in the new Italian legislation and the critical discussion of some commonly used definitions; and the proposal of a general definition, with the specification of a mathematical expression for quantitative risk estimation. The term risk (and risk estimation, assessment, or evaluation) has mainly referred to three different contexts: hazard identification, exposure assessment, and adverse health effects occurrence. Unfortunately, there are contexts in the legislation in which it is difficult to identify the true meaning of the term. This might cause equivocal interpretations and erroneous applications of the law because hazard evaluation, exposure assessment, and adverse health effects identification are completely different topics that require integrated but distinct approaches to risk management. As far as a quantitative definition of risk is of concern, we suggest an algorithm which connects the three basic risk elements (hazard, exposure, adverse health effects) by means of their probabilities of occurrence: the probability of being exposed (to a definite dose) given that a specific hazard is present (Pr(e[symbol: see text]p)), and the probability of occurrence of an adverse health effect as a consequence of that exposure (Pr(d[symbol: see text]e)). Using these quantitative components, risk can be defined as a sequence of measurable events that starts with hazard identification and terminates with disease occurrence; therefore, the

  2. Leukemia risk following radiotherapy for breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curtis, R.E.; Boice, J.D. Jr.; Stovall, M.; Flannery, J.T.; Moloney, W.C.

    1989-01-01

    To evaluate further the relationship between high-dose radiotherapy and leukemia incidence, a nested case-control study was conducted in a cohort of 22,753 women who were 18-month survivors of invasive breast cancer diagnosed from 1935 to 1972. Women treated for breast cancer after 1973 were excluded to minimize the possible confounding influence of treatment with chemotherapeutic agents. The cases had histologically confirmed leukemia reported to the Connecticut Tumor Registry (CTR) between 1935 and 1984. A total of 48 cases of leukemia following breast cancer were included in the study. Two controls were individually matched to each leukemia case on the basis of age, calendar year when diagnosed with breast cancer, and survival time. Leukemia diagnoses were verified by one hematologist. Radiation dose to active bone marrow was estimated by medical physicists on the basis of the original radiotherapy records of study subjects. Local radiation doses to each of the 16 bone marrow components for each patient were reconstructed; the dose averaged over the entire body was 530 rad (5.3 Gy). Based on this dosage and assuming a linear relationship between dose and affect, a relative risk (RR) in excess of 10 would have been expected. However, there was little evidence that radiotherapy increased the overall risk of leukemia (RR = 1.16; 90% confidence interval [CI], 0.6 to 2.1). The risk of chronic lymphocytic leukemia, one of the few malignancies without evidence for an association with ionizing radiation, was not significantly increased (RR = 1.8; n = 10); nor was the risk for all other forms of leukemia (RR = 1.0; n = 38). There was no indication that risk varied over categories of radiation dose

  3. BPH and prostate cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miah, Saiful; Catto, James

    2014-04-01

    With the exclusion of non-melanomatous skin malignancy, prostate cancer (PCa) is the second most prevalent cancer in men globally. It has been reported that the majority of men will develop benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) by the time they reach their 60s. Together, these prostatic diseases have a significant morbidity and mortality affecting over a billion men throughout the world. The risk of developing prostate cancer of men suffering BPH is one that has resulted in a healthy debate amongst the urological community. Here, we try to address this conundrum with clinical and basic science evidence. Data from an online search and contemporary data presented at international urological congresses was reviewed. BPH and PCa can be linked together at a molecular and cellular level on genetic, hormonal, and inflammatory platforms suggesting that these prostatic diseases have common pathophysiological driving factors. Epidemiological studies are weighted towards the presence of BPH having a greater risk for a man to develop PCa in his lifetime; however, a conclusion of causality cannot be confidently stated. The future workload healthcare practitioners will face regarding BPH, and PCa will substantially increase. Further basic science and large epidemiological studies using a global cohort of men are required prior to the urological community confidently counseling their patients with BPH with regards to their PCa risk.

  4. BPH and prostate cancer risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saiful Miah

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: With the exclusion of non-melanomatous skin malignancy, prostate cancer (PCa is the second most prevalent cancer in men globally. It has been reported that the majority of men will develop benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH by the time they reach their 60s. Together, these prostatic diseases have a significant morbidity and mortality affecting over a billion men throughout the world. The risk of developing prostate cancer of men suffering BPH is one that has resulted in a healthy debate amongst the urological community. Here, we try to address this conundrum with clinical and basic science evidence. Materials and Methods: Data from an online search and contemporary data presented at international urological congresses was reviewed. Results: BPH and PCa can be linked together at a molecular and cellular level on genetic, hormonal, and inflammatory platforms suggesting that these prostatic diseases have common pathophysiological driving factors. Epidemiological studies are weighted towards the presence of BPH having a greater risk for a man to develop PCa in his lifetime; however, a conclusion of causality cannot be confidently stated. Conclusion: The future workload healthcare practitioners will face regarding BPH, and PCa will substantially increase. Further basic science and large epidemiological studies using a global cohort of men are required prior to the urological community confidently counseling their patients with BPH with regards to their PCa risk.

  5. MicroRNA Related Polymorphisms and Breast Cancer Risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khan, Sofia; Greco, Dario; Michailidou, Kyriaki

    2014-01-01

    Genetic variations, such as single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in microRNAs (miRNA) or in the miRNA binding sites may affect the miRNA dependent gene expression regulation, which has been implicated in various cancers, including breast cancer, and may alter individual susceptibility to cancer....... We investigated associations between miRNA related SNPs and breast cancer risk. First we evaluated 2,196 SNPs in a case-control study combining nine genome wide association studies (GWAS). Second, we further investigated 42 SNPs with suggestive evidence for association using 41,785 cases and 41......,880 controls from 41 studies included in the Breast Cancer Association Consortium (BCAC). Combining the GWAS and BCAC data within a meta-analysis, we estimated main effects on breast cancer risk as well as risks for estrogen receptor (ER) and age defined subgroups. Five miRNA binding site SNPs associated...

  6. Risk Estimates and Risk Factors Related to Psychiatric Inpatient Suicide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Trine; Erlangsen, Annette; Nordentoft, Merete

    2017-01-01

    trends, and socio-demographic and clinical risk factors of suicide in psychiatric inpatients. Psychiatric inpatients have a very high risk of suicide relative to the background population, but it remains challenging for clinicians to identify those patients that are most likely to die from suicide during......People with mental illness have an increased risk of suicide. The aim of this paper is to provide an overview of suicide risk estimates among psychiatric inpatients based on the body of evidence found in scientific peer-reviewed literature; primarily focusing on the relative risks, rates, time...... admission. Most studies are based on low power, thus compromising quality and generalisability. The few studies with sufficient statistical power mainly identified non-modifiable risk predictors such as male gender, diagnosis, or recent deliberate self-harm. Also, the predictive value of these predictors...

  7. Risk Estimates and Risk Factors Related to Psychiatric Inpatient Suicide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Trine; Erlangsen, Annette; Nordentoft, Merete

    2017-01-01

    People with mental illness have an increased risk of suicide. The aim of this paper is to provide an overview of suicide risk estimates among psychiatric inpatients based on the body of evidence found in scientific peer-reviewed literature; primarily focusing on the relative risks, rates, time...... trends, and socio-demographic and clinical risk factors of suicide in psychiatric inpatients. Psychiatric inpatients have a very high risk of suicide relative to the background population, but it remains challenging for clinicians to identify those patients that are most likely to die from suicide during...... is low. It would be of great benefit if future studies would be based on large samples while focusing on modifiable predictors over the course of an admission, such as hopelessness, depressive symptoms, and family/social situations. This would improve our chances of developing better risk assessment...

  8. Risk of Salivary Gland Cancer After Childhood Cancer: A Report From the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boukheris, Houda [Radiation Epidemiology Branch, Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland (United States); Stovall, Marilyn [Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Gilbert, Ethel S. [Radiation Epidemiology Branch, Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland (United States); Stratton, Kayla L. [Division of Public Health Sciences, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, Washington (United States); Smith, Susan A.; Weathers, Rita [Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Hammond, Sue [Department of Pathology, Ohio State University School of Medicine, Columbus, Ohio (United States); Mertens, Ann C. [Department of Pediatrics, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia (United States); Donaldson, Sarah S. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University Medical Center, Stanford, California (United States); Armstrong, Gregory T.; Robison, Leslie L. [Department of Epidemiology and Cancer Control, St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee (United States); Neglia, Joseph P. [Department of Pediatrics, University of Minnesota Medical School, Minneapolis, Minnesota (United States); Inskip, Peter D., E-mail: inskippe@mail.nih.gov [Radiation Epidemiology Branch, Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland (United States)

    2013-03-01

    Purpose: To evaluate effects of radiation therapy, chemotherapy, cigarette smoking, and alcohol consumption on the risk of second primary salivary gland cancer (SGC) in the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study (CCSS). Methods and Materials: Standardized incidence ratios (SIR) and excess absolute risks (EAR) of SGC in the CCSS were calculated using incidence rates from Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results population-based cancer registries. Radiation dose to the salivary glands was estimated based on medical records. Poisson regression was used to assess risks with respect to radiation dose, chemotherapy, smoking, and alcohol consumption. Results: During the time period of the study, 23 cases of SGC were diagnosed among 14,135 childhood cancer survivors. The mean age at diagnosis of the first primary cancer was 8.3 years, and the mean age at SGC diagnosis was 24.8 years. The incidence of SGC was 39-fold higher in the cohort than in the general population (SIR = 39.4; 95% CI = 25.4-57.8). The EAR was 9.8 per 100,000 person-years. Risk increased linearly with radiation dose (excess relative risk = 0.36/Gy; 95% CI = 0.06-2.5) and remained elevated after 20 years. There was no significant trend of increasing risk with increasing dose of chemotherapeutic agents, pack-years of cigarette smoking, or alcohol intake. Conclusion: Although the cumulative incidence of SGC was low, childhood cancer survivors treated with radiation experienced significantly increased risk for at least 2 decades after exposure, and risk was positively associated with radiation dose. Results underscore the importance of long-term follow up of childhood cancer survivors for the development of new malignancies.

  9. Risk of Salivary Gland Cancer After Childhood Cancer: A Report From the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boukheris, Houda; Stovall, Marilyn; Gilbert, Ethel S.; Stratton, Kayla L.; Smith, Susan A.; Weathers, Rita; Hammond, Sue; Mertens, Ann C.; Donaldson, Sarah S.; Armstrong, Gregory T.; Robison, Leslie L.; Neglia, Joseph P.; Inskip, Peter D.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate effects of radiation therapy, chemotherapy, cigarette smoking, and alcohol consumption on the risk of second primary salivary gland cancer (SGC) in the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study (CCSS). Methods and Materials: Standardized incidence ratios (SIR) and excess absolute risks (EAR) of SGC in the CCSS were calculated using incidence rates from Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results population-based cancer registries. Radiation dose to the salivary glands was estimated based on medical records. Poisson regression was used to assess risks with respect to radiation dose, chemotherapy, smoking, and alcohol consumption. Results: During the time period of the study, 23 cases of SGC were diagnosed among 14,135 childhood cancer survivors. The mean age at diagnosis of the first primary cancer was 8.3 years, and the mean age at SGC diagnosis was 24.8 years. The incidence of SGC was 39-fold higher in the cohort than in the general population (SIR = 39.4; 95% CI = 25.4-57.8). The EAR was 9.8 per 100,000 person-years. Risk increased linearly with radiation dose (excess relative risk = 0.36/Gy; 95% CI = 0.06-2.5) and remained elevated after 20 years. There was no significant trend of increasing risk with increasing dose of chemotherapeutic agents, pack-years of cigarette smoking, or alcohol intake. Conclusion: Although the cumulative incidence of SGC was low, childhood cancer survivors treated with radiation experienced significantly increased risk for at least 2 decades after exposure, and risk was positively associated with radiation dose. Results underscore the importance of long-term follow up of childhood cancer survivors for the development of new malignancies

  10. Risk of thyroid cancer among Chernobyl liquidators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evrard, Anne-Sophie; Kesminiene, Ausrele; Tenet, Vanessa; Cardis, Elisabeth; Ivanov, Viktor K.; Chekin, Sergei; Malakhova, Irina V.; Polyakov, Semion; Kurtinaitis, Juozas; Stengrevics, Aivars; Tekkel, Mare; Drozdovitch, Vladimir; Gavrilin, Yuri; Golovanov, Ivan; Krjuchkov, Viktor P.; Tukov, Aleksandr R.; Maceika, Evaldas; Mirkhaidarov, Anatoly K.

    2008-01-01

    Full text: While the increased risk of thyroid cancer is well demonstrated in people exposed to radioactive iodines in childhood and adolescence in the most contaminated areas around the Chernobyl power plant, following the accident which took place on 26 April 1986, the effect of exposure on adults remains unclear. A collaborative case-control study of thyroid cancer was set-up, nested within cohorts of Belarus, Russian and Baltic countries liquidators of the Chernobyl accident, to evaluate the radiation-induced risk of this disease among liquidators, and to assess the roles of screening and of radiation exposures in the observed increased thyroid cancer incidence among liquidators. The study population consisted of the cohorts of approximately 66,000 Belarus, 65,000 Russian and 15,000 Baltic countries liquidators who took part in the clean-up activities on the reactor site and in the 30-km zone around the Chernobyl nuclear power plant between 26 April 1986 and 31 December 1987. The liquidators were mainly exposed to external radiation, although substantial dose to the thyroid from iodine isotopes may have been received by liquidators who worked in May-June 1986 and by those who resided in the most contaminated territories of Belarus. Information was collected on study subjects by use of a standardized questionnaire that was administrated during a face-to-face interview with the study subject and/or a proxy (a relative or a colleague). The interview included questions on demographic factors, time, place and conditions of work as a liquidator and on potential risk and confounding factors for thyroid cancer. A method of analytical dose reconstruction, entitled RADRUE (Realistic Analytical Dose Reconstruction with Uncertainty Estimation) was developed within the study and applied to estimate individual doses to the thyroid from external radiation and related uncertainties for each subject. Approaches to derive individual thyroid dose estimates from inhaled and

  11. Risks of Colorectal Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Genetics of Colorectal Cancer Colorectal Cancer Screening Research Colorectal Cancer Screening (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is screening? Go ... These are called diagnostic tests . General Information About Colorectal Cancer Key Points Colorectal cancer is a disease in ...

  12. Obesity, physical activity and cancer risks: Results from the Cancer, Lifestyle and Evaluation of Risk Study (CLEAR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunez, Carlos; Bauman, Adrian; Egger, Sam; Sitas, Freddy; Nair-Shalliker, Visalini

    2017-04-01

    Physical activity (PA) has been associated with lower risk of cardiovascular diseases, but the evidence linking PA with lower cancer risk is inconclusive. We examined the independent and interactive effects of PA and obesity using body mass index (BMI) as a proxy for obesity, on the risk of developing prostate (PC), postmenopausal breast (BC), colorectal (CRC), ovarian (OC) and uterine (UC) cancers. We estimated odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI), adjusting for cancer specific confounders, in 6831 self-reported cancer cases and 1992 self-reported cancer-free controls from the Cancer Lifestyle and Evaluation of Risk Study, using unconditional logistic regression. For women, BMI was positively associated with UC risk; specifically, obese women (BMI≥30kg/m 2 ) had nearly twice the risk of developing UC compared to women with healthy-BMI-range (risk of developing any cancer type, CRC and PC. In particular, obese men had 37% (OR=1.37;CI:1.11-1.70), 113% (OR=2.13;CI:1.55-2.91) and 51% (OR=1.51;CI:1.17-1.94) higher risks of developing any cancer, CRC and PC respectively, when compared to men with healthy-BMI-range (BMIrisks of CRC, UC and BC. In particular, the highest level of PA (versus nil activity) was associated with reduced risks of CRC (OR=0.60;CI:0.44-0.84) and UC (OR=0.47;CI:0.27-0.80). Reduced risks of BC were associated with low (OR=0.66;CI:0.51-0.86) and moderate (OR=0.72;CI:0.57-0.91) levels of PA. There was no association between PA levels and cancer risks for men. We found no evidence of an interaction between BMI and PA in the CLEAR study. These findings suggest that PA and obesity are independent cancer risk factors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Northeast Regional Cancer Institute's Cancer Surveillance and Risk Factor Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lesko, Samuel M.

    2007-07-31

    OBJECTIVES The Northeast Regional Cancer Institute is conducting a program of ongoing epidemiologic research to address cancer disparities in northeast Pennsylvania. Of particular concern are disparities in the incidence of, stage at diagnosis, and mortality from colorectal cancer. In northeast Pennsylvania, age-adjusted incidence and mortality rates for colorectal cancer are higher, and a significantly smaller proportion of new colorectal cancer cases are diagnosed with local stage disease than is observed in comparable national data. Further, estimates of the prevalence of colorectal cancer screening in northeast Pennsylvania are lower than the US average. The Northeast Regional Cancer Institute’s research program supports surveillance of common cancers, investigations of cancer risk factors and screening behaviors, and the development of resources to further cancer research in this community. This project has the following specific objectives: I. To conduct cancer surveillance in northeast Pennsylvania. a. To monitor incidence and mortality for all common cancers, and colorectal cancer, in particular, and b. To document changes in the stage at diagnosis of colorectal cancer in this high-risk, underserved community. II. To conduct a population-based study of cancer risk factors and screening behavior in a six county region of northeast Pennsylvania. a. To monitor and document changes in colorectal cancer screening rates, and b. To document the prevalence of cancer risk factors (especially factors that increase the risk of colorectal cancer) and to identify those risk factors that are unusually common in this community. APPROACH Cancer surveillance was conducted using data from the Northeast Regional Cancer Institute’s population-based Regional Cancer Registry, the Pennsylvania Cancer Registry, and NCI’s SEER program. For common cancers, incidence and mortality were examined by county within the region and compared to data for similar populations in the US

  14. Bayesian parameter estimation in probabilistic risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siu, Nathan O.; Kelly, Dana L.

    1998-01-01

    Bayesian statistical methods are widely used in probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) because of their ability to provide useful estimates of model parameters when data are sparse and because the subjective probability framework, from which these methods are derived, is a natural framework to address the decision problems motivating PRA. This paper presents a tutorial on Bayesian parameter estimation especially relevant to PRA. It summarizes the philosophy behind these methods, approaches for constructing likelihood functions and prior distributions, some simple but realistic examples, and a variety of cautions and lessons regarding practical applications. References are also provided for more in-depth coverage of various topics

  15. Pet Ownership and Cancer Risk in the Women's Health Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, David O; Lander, Eric M; Wertheim, Betsy C; Manson, JoAnn E; Volpe, Stella L; Chlebowski, Rowan T; Stefanick, Marcia L; Lessin, Lawrence S; Kuller, Lewis H; Thomson, Cynthia A

    2016-09-01

    Pet ownership and cancer are both highly prevalent in the United States. Evidence suggests that associations may exist between this potentially modifiable factor and cancer prevention, though studies are sparse. The present report examined whether pet ownership (dog, cat, or bird) is associated with lower risk for total cancer and site-specific obesity-related cancers. This was a prospective analysis of 123,560 participants (20,981 dog owners; 19,288 cat owners; 1,338 bird owners; and 81,953 non-pet owners) enrolled in the Women's Health Initiative observational study and clinical trials. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate HR and 95% confidence intervals for the association between pet ownership and cancer, adjusted for potential confounders. There were no significant relationships between ownership of a dog, cat, or bird and incidence of cancer overall. When site-specific cancers were examined, no associations were observed after adjustment for multiple comparisons. Pet ownership had no association with overall cancer incidence. This is the first large epidemiologic study to date to explore relationships between pet ownership and cancer risk, as well as associated risks for individual cancer types. This study requires replication in other sizable, diverse cohorts. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 25(9); 1311-6. ©2016 AACR. ©2016 American Association for Cancer Research.

  16. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and cancer risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kornum, Jette Brommann; Sværke, Claus; Thomsen, Reimar Wernich

    2012-01-01

    Little is known about the risk of cancer in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), including which cancer sites are most affected. We examined the short- and long-term risk of lung and extrapulmonary cancer in a nationwide cohort of COPD patients....

  17. Risk of second primary cancers after testicular cancer in East and West Germany: A focus on contralateral testicular cancers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusner, Carsten; Streller, Brigitte; Stegmaier, Christa; Trocchi, Pietro; Kuss, Oliver; McGlynn, Katherine A; Trabert, Britton; Stang, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Testicular cancer survival rates improved dramatically after cisplatin-based therapy was introduced in the 1970s. However, chemotherapy and radiation therapy are potentially carcinogenic. The purpose of this study was to estimate the risk of developing second primary cancers including the risk associated with primary histologic type (seminoma and non-seminoma) among testicular cancer survivors in Germany. We identified 16 990 and 1401 cases of testicular cancer in population-based cancer registries of East Germany (1961–1989 and 1996–2008) and Saarland (a federal state in West Germany; 1970–2008), respectively. We estimated the risk of a second primary cancer using standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs). To determine trends, we plotted model-based estimated annual SIRs. In East Germany, a total of 301 second primary cancers of any location were observed between 1961 and 1989 (SIR: 1.9; 95% CI: 1.7–2.1), and 159 cancers (any location) were observed between 1996 and 2008 (SIR: 1.7; 95% CI: 1.4–2.0). The SIRs for contralateral testicular cancer were increased in the registries with a range from 6.0 in Saarland to 13.9 in East Germany. The SIR for seminoma, in particular, was higher in East Germany compared to the other registries. We observed constant trends in the model-based SIRs for contralateral testicular cancers. The majority of reported SIRs of other cancer sites including histology-specific risks showed low precisions of estimated effects, likely due to small sample sizes. Testicular cancer patients are at increased risk especially for cancers of the contralateral testis and should receive intensive follow-ups. PMID:24407180

  18. Maternal lung cancer and testicular cancer risk in the offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaijser, Magnus; Akre, Olof; Cnattingius, Sven; Ekbom, Anders

    2003-07-01

    It has been hypothesized that smoking during pregnancy could increase the offspring's risk for testicular cancer. This hypothesis is indirectly supported by both ecological studies and studies of cancer aggregations within families. However, results from analytical epidemiological studies are not consistent, possibly due to methodological difficulties. To further study the association between smoking during pregnancy and testicular cancer, we did a population-based cohort study on cancer risk among offspring of women diagnosed with lung cancer. Through the use of the Swedish Cancer Register and the Swedish Second-Generation Register, we identified 8,430 women who developed lung cancer between 1958 and 1997 and delivered sons between 1941 and 1979. Cancer cases among the male offspring were then identified through the Swedish Cancer Register. Standardized incidence ratios were computed, using 95% confidence intervals. We identified 12,592 male offspring of mothers with a subsequent diagnosis of lung cancer, and there were 40 cases of testicular cancer (standardized incidence ratio, 1.90; 95% confidence interval, 1.35-2.58). The association was independent of maternal lung cancer subtype, and the risk of testicular cancer increased stepwise with decreasing time interval between birth and maternal lung cancer diagnosis. Our results support the hypothesis that exposure to cigarette smoking in utero increases the risk of testicular cancer.

  19. Metabolic Risk Profile and Cancer in Korean Men and Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Seulki; Yoon, Seok-Jun; Kim, Dongwoo; Kim, A-Rim; Kim, Eun-Jung; Seo, Hye-Young

    2016-05-01

    Metabolic syndrome is a cluster of risk factors for type 2 diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease. Associations between metabolic syndrome and several types of cancer have recently been documented. We analyzed the sample cohort data from the Korean National Health Insurance Service from 2002, with a follow-up period extending to 2013. The cohort data included 99 565 individuals who participated in the health examination program and whose data were therefore present in the cohort database. The metabolic risk profile of each participant was assessed based on obesity, high serum glucose and total cholesterol levels, and high blood pressure. The occurrence of cancer was identified using Korean National Health Insurance claims data. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using Cox proportional hazards models, adjusting for age group, smoking status, alcohol intake, and regular exercise. A total of 5937 cases of cancer occurred during a mean follow-up period of 10.4 years. In men with a high-risk metabolic profile, the risk of colon cancer was elevated (HR, 1.40; 95% CI, 1.14 to 1.71). In women, a high-risk metabolic profile was associated with a significantly increased risk of gallbladder and biliary tract cancer (HR, 2.05; 95% CI, 1.24 to 3.42). Non-significantly increased risks were observed in men for pharynx, larynx, rectum, and kidney cancer, and in women for colon, liver, breast, and ovarian cancer. The findings of this study support the previously suggested association between metabolic syndrome and the risk of several cancers. A high-risk metabolic profile may be an important risk factor for colon cancer in Korean men and gallbladder and biliary tract cancer in Korean women.

  20. Occupational risk for oral cancer in nordic countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarvainen, Laura; Suojanen, Juho; Kyyronen, Pentti

    2017-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate occupational risk for cancer of the tongue, oral cavity or pharynx after adjustment for alcohol and tobacco use. Materials and Methods: The data covered 14.9 million people and 28,623 cases of cancer of the tongue, oral cavity and pharynx in the Nordic countries 1961-2005. Alcohol...... consumption by occupation was estimated based on mortality from liver cirrhosis and incidence of liver cancer. Smoking by occupation was estimated based on the incidence of lung cancer. Results: Only few occupations had relative risks of over 1.5 for cancer of the tongue, oral cavity and pharynx...... chemical exposures, increased consumption of alcohol and tobacco products, or infection with human papilloma virus....

  1. Radiation-induced cancers of the colon and rectum: assessing the risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandler, R.S.; Sandler, D.P.

    1983-01-01

    Individuals who have received pelvic irradiation are reported to be at increased risk to develop subsequent malignancies in the large bowel. In order to plan appropriate follow-up for these patients, it is necessary to understand the magnitude of their risk. In this paper we review the literature on colorectal cancer after irradiation and estimate the excess risk based upon available data. Women who are irradiated for gynecologic cancer may have a relative risk for subsequent colorectal cancer of 2.0-3.6 based on best estimates. This risk is calculated independent of any risk imposed by underlying disease. These women are appropriate targets for careful surveillance for colorectal cancer

  2. Canadian population risk of radon induced lung cancer variation range assessment based on various radon risk models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Jing

    2017-01-01

    To address public concerns regarding radon risk and variations in risk estimates based on various risk models available in the literature, lifetime lung cancer risks were calculated with five well-known risk models using more recent Canadian vital statistics (5-year averages from 2008 to 2012). Variations in population risk estimation among various models were assessed. The results showed that the Canadian population risk of radon induced lung cancer can vary from 5.0 to 17% for men and 5.1 to 18% for women based on different radon risk models. Averaged over the estimates from various risk models with better radon dosimetry, 13% of lung cancer deaths among Canadian males and 14% of lung cancer deaths among Canadian females were attributable to long-term indoor radon exposure. (authors)

  3. Using mortality data to estimate radiation effects on breast cancer incidence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoel, D.G.; Dinse, G.E.

    1990-01-01

    In this paper we combine Japanese data on radiation exposure and cancer mortality with U.S. data on cancer incidence and lethality to estimate the effects of ionizing radiation on cancer incidence. The analysis is based on the mathematical relationship between the mortality rate and the incidence and lethality rates, as well as on statistical models that relate Japanese incidence rates to U.S. incidence rates and radiation risk factors. Our approach assumes that the risk of death from causes other than the cancer does not depend on whether or not the cancer is present, and among individuals with the cancer, the risk of death attributable to the cancer is the same in Japan and the U.S. and is not affected by radiation exposure. In particular, we focus on the incidence of breast cancer in Japanese women and how this incidence is affected by radiation risk factors. The analysis uses Japanese exposure and mortality data from the Radiation Effects Research Foundation study of atomic bomb survivors and U.S. incidence and lethality data from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Registry. Even without Japanese incidence data, we obtain reasonable estimates of the incidence of breast cancer in unexposed Japanese women and identify the radiation risk factors that affect this incidence. Our analysis demonstrates that the age at exposure is an important risk factor, but that the incidence of breast cancer is not affected by the city of residence (Nagasaki versus Hiroshima) or the time since exposure

  4. Risk Profiling May Improve Lung Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    A new modeling study suggests that individualized, risk-based selection of ever-smokers for lung cancer screening may prevent more lung cancer deaths and improve the effectiveness and efficiency of screening compared with current screening recommendations

  5. MARKET RISK ESTIMATION IN (T+-TRANSACTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radik B. Begov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Market risk analysis and estimation are presentedin T+ transactionsas they are used within the Moscow Exchange. There is a need to do so as a result of the cut-off of a new REPO product with Central Counterpartner (CCP. Here repurchase agreement goes through the National Clearing Center (NCC, the last being a bank and a clearing structure within the Moscow Exchange group.NCC actsas an intermediary (so called “Central Counterpartner” between trading participants.REPOs with CCP raisecontractor claims and commitments to the CCP which takes the risk of default on commitments from unfair contract side. The REPO with CCP cut-off made ready a technological platform to implement T+2 trades at the Moscow Exchange. As a result of it there appeared the possibility to enter security purchase/sell contracts partially collateralized. All these transactions (the REPO with CCP, T+ made it a must determining security market risks. The paper is aimed at presenting VaR-like risk estimates. The methods used are from the computer fi nance. Unusual TS rate of return indicator is proposed and applied to find optimal portfolios under the Markowitz approach and their VaRs (losses forecasts given the real “big” share price data and various horizons. Portfolio extreme rate and loss forecasting is our goal. To this end the forecasts are computed for three horizons (2, 5 and 10 days and for three significance levels.There were developed R-, Excel- and Bloomberg-basedsoftware tools as needed. The whole range of proposed computing steps and the tables with charts may be considered as candidates to be included in the future market risk standards.Paper results permit capital market participants to choose the correct (as to the required risk level common stocks.

  6. Stressful life events and cancer risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergelt, C; Prescott, E; Grønbaek, M

    2006-01-01

    In a prospective cohort study in Denmark of 8736 randomly selected people, no evidence was found among 1011 subjects who developed cancer that self-reported stressful major life events had increased their risk for cancer.......In a prospective cohort study in Denmark of 8736 randomly selected people, no evidence was found among 1011 subjects who developed cancer that self-reported stressful major life events had increased their risk for cancer....

  7. Estimation of unit risk for coke oven emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moolgavkar, S.H.; Luebeck, E.G.; Anderson, E.L.

    1998-01-01

    In 1984, based on epidemiological data on cohorts of coke oven workers, USEPA estimated a unit risk for lung cancer associated with continuous exposure from birth to 1 microg/m 3 of coke oven emissions, of 6.2 x 10 -4 . This risk assessment was based on information on the cohorts available through 1966. Follow-up of these cohorts has now been extended to 1982 and, moreover, individual job histories, which were not available in 1984, have been constructed. In this study, lung cancer mortality in these cohorts of coke oven workers with extended follow-up was analyzed using standard techniques of survival analysis and a new approach based on the two stage clonal expansion model of carcinogenesis. The latter approach allows the explicit consideration of detailed patterns of exposure of each individual in the cohort. The analyses used the extended follow-up data through 1982 and the detailed job histories now available. Based on these analyses, the best estimate of unit risk is 1.5 x 10 -4 with 95% confidence interval = 1.2 x 10 -4 --1.8 x 10 -4

  8. Methods to estimate the genetic risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ehling, U.H.

    1989-01-01

    The estimation of the radiation-induced genetic risk to human populations is based on the extrapolation of results from animal experiments. Radiation-induced mutations are stochastic events. The probability of the event depends on the dose; the degree of the damage dose not. There are two main approaches in making genetic risk estimates. One of these, termed the direct method, expresses risk in terms of expected frequencies of genetic changes induced per unit dose. The other, referred to as the doubling dose method or the indirect method, expresses risk in relation to the observed incidence of genetic disorders now present in man. The advantage of the indirect method is that not only can Mendelian mutations be quantified, but also other types of genetic disorders. The disadvantages of the method are the uncertainties in determining the current incidence of genetic disorders in human and, in addition, the estimasion of the genetic component of congenital anomalies, anomalies expressed later and constitutional and degenerative diseases. Using the direct method we estimated that 20-50 dominant radiation-induced mutations would be expected in 19 000 offspring born to parents exposed in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, but only a small proportion of these mutants would have been detected with the techniques used for the population study. These methods were used to predict the genetic damage from the fallout of the reactor accident at Chernobyl in the vicinity of Southern Germany. The lack of knowledge for the interaction of chemicals with ionizing radiation and the discrepancy between the high safety standards for radiation protection and the low level of knowledge for the toxicological evaluation of chemical mutagens will be emphasized. (author)

  9. Evaluating shielding effectiveness for reducing space radiation cancer risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cucinotta, Francis A.; Kim, Myung-Hee Y.; Ren, Lei

    2006-01-01

    We discuss calculations of probability distribution functions (PDF) representing uncertainties in projecting fatal cancer risk from galactic cosmic rays (GCR) and solar particle events (SPE). The PDFs are used in significance tests for evaluating the effectiveness of potential radiation shielding approaches. Uncertainties in risk coefficients determined from epidemiology data, dose and dose-rate reduction factors, quality factors, and physics models of radiation environments are considered in models of cancer risk PDFs. Competing mortality risks and functional correlations in radiation quality factor uncertainties are included in the calculations. We show that the cancer risk uncertainty, defined as the ratio of the upper value of 95% confidence interval (CI) to the point estimate is about 4-fold for lunar and Mars mission risk projections. For short-stay lunar missions ( 180d) or Mars missions, GCR risks may exceed radiation risk limits that are based on acceptable levels of risk. For example, the upper 95% CI exceeding 10% fatal risk for males and females on a Mars mission. For reducing GCR cancer risks, shielding materials are marginally effective because of the penetrating nature of GCR and secondary radiation produced in tissue by relativistic particles. At the present time, polyethylene or carbon composite shielding cannot be shown to significantly reduce risk compared to aluminum shielding based on a significance test that accounts for radiobiology uncertainties in GCR risk projection

  10. Lung cancer in never smokers: disease characteristics and risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallis, Athanasios G; Syrigos, Konstantinos N

    2013-12-01

    It is estimated that approximately 25% of all lung cancer cases are observed in never-smokers and its incidence is expected to increase due to smoking prevention programs. Risk factors for the development of lung cancer described include second-hand smoking, radon exposure, occupational exposure to carcinogens and to cooking oil fumes and indoor coal burning. Other factors reported are infections (HPV and Mycobacterium tuberculosis), hormonal and diatery factors and diabetes mellitus. Having an affected relative also increases the risk for lung cancer while recent studies have identified several single nucleotide polymorphisms associated with increased risk for lung cancer development in never smokers. Distinct clinical, pathology and molecular characteristics are observed in lung cancer in never smokers; more frequently is observed in females and adenocarcinoma is the predominant histology while it has a different pattern of molecular alterations. The purpose of this review is to summarize our current knowledge of this disease. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Risk perception after genetic counseling in patients with increased risk of cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rantala Johanna

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Counselees are more aware of genetics and seek information, reassurance, screening and genetic testing. Risk counseling is a key component of genetic counseling process helping patients to achieve a realistic view for their own personal risk and therefore adapt to the medical, psychological and familial implications of disease and to encourage the patient to make informed choices 12. The aim of this study was to conceptualize risk perception and anxiety about cancer in individuals attending to genetic counseling. Methods The questionnaire study measured risk perception and anxiety about cancer at three time points: before and one week after initial genetic counseling and one year after completed genetic investigations. Eligibility criteria were designed to include only index patients without a previous genetic consultation in the family. A total of 215 individuals were included. Data was collected during three years period. Results Before genetic counseling all of the unaffected participants subjectively estimated their risk as higher than their objective risk. Participants with a similar risk as the population overestimated their risk most. All risk groups estimated the risk for children's/siblings to be lower than their own. The benefits of preventive surveillance program were well understood among unaffected participants. The difference in subjective risk perception before and directly after genetic counseling was statistically significantly lower in all risk groups. Difference in risk perception for children as well as for population was also statistically significant. Experienced anxiety about developing cancer in the unaffected subjects was lower after genetic counseling compared to baseline in all groups. Anxiety about cancer had clear correlation to perceived risk of cancer before and one year after genetic investigations. The affected participants overestimated their children's risk as well as risk for anyone in

  12. Childhood body mass index and risk of adult pancreatic cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nogueira, Leticia; Stolzenberg-Solomon, Rachael; Gamborg, Michael

    2017-01-01

    incident pancreatic cancer cases from 1968-2012. Hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated using Cox proportional hazard regressions. Results: During 8,207,015 person-years of follow-up, 1,268 pancreatic cancer cases were diagnosed. Childhood BMI z-scores at ages 7-13 years were......Background: Excess weight in adulthood is one of the few modifiable risk factors for pancreatic cancer, and height has associations as well. This leads to question whether body weight and height in childhood are associated with adult pancreatic cancer. Objective: To examine if childhood body mass...... from 7-13 years is positively and linearly associated with adult pancreatic cancer; the higher the BMI, the higher the risk. Excess childhood BMI may be indicative of processes initiated early in life that lead to this cancer. Prevention of childhood adiposity may decrease the burden of pancreatic...

  13. Prostate cancer risk prediction based on complete prostate cancer family history

    OpenAIRE

    Albright, Frederick; Stephenson, Robert A; Agarwal, Neeraj; Teerlink, Craig C; Lowrance, William T; Farnham, James M; Albright, Lisa A Cannon

    2014-01-01

    Background Prostate cancer (PC) relative risks (RRs) are typically estimated based on status of close relatives or presence of any affected relatives. This study provides RR estimates using extensive and specific PC family history. Methods A retrospective population-based study was undertaken to estimate RRs for PC based on complete family history of PC. A total of 635,443 males, all with ancestral genealogy data, were analyzed. RRs for PC were determined based upon PC rates estimated from ma...

  14. Estimating radiation risk induced by CT screening for Korean population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Won Seok; Yang, Hye Jeong; Min, Byung In

    2017-02-01

    The purposes of this study are to estimate the radiation risks induced by chest/abdomen computed tomography (CT) screening for healthcare and to determine the cancer risk level of the Korean population compared to other populations. We used an ImPACT CT Patient Dosimetry Calculator to compute the organ effective dose induced by CT screening (chest, low-dose chest, abdomen/pelvis, and chest/abdomen/pelvis CT). A risk model was applied using principles based on the BEIR VII Report in order to estimate the lifetime attributable risk (LAR) using the Korean Life Table 2010. In addition, several countries including Hong Kong, the United States (U.S.), and the United Kingdom, were selected for comparison. Herein, each population exposed radiation dose of 100 mSv was classified according to country, gender and age. For each CT screening the total organ effective dose calculated by ImPACT was 6.2, 1.5, 5.2 and 11.4 mSv, respectively. In the case of Korean female LAR, it was similar to Hong Kong female but lower than those of U.S. and U.K. females, except for those in their twenties. The LAR of Korean males was the highest for all types of CT screening. However, the difference of the risk level was negligible because of the quite low value.

  15. Polyunsaturated fatty acids and prostate cancer risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khankari, Nikhil K; Murff, Harvey J; Zeng, Chenjie

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Prostate cancer is a common cancer worldwide with no established modifiable lifestyle factors to guide prevention. The associations between polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and prostate cancer risk have been inconsistent. Using Mendelian randomisation, we evaluated associations...... and prostate cancer risk. However, risk reductions were observed for short-chain PUFAs, linoleic (ORLA=0.95, 95%CI=0.92, 0.98) and α-linolenic acids (ORALA=0.96, 95%CI=0.93, 0.98), among men ...-chain PUFAs (i.e., arachidonic, eicosapentaenoic, and docosapentaenoic acids), increased risks were observed among men

  16. Lung cancer in never smokers Epidemiology and risk prediction models

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, William J.; Meza, Rafael; Jeon, Jihyoun; Moolgavkar, Suresh

    2012-01-01

    In this chapter we review the epidemiology of lung cancer incidence and mortality among never smokers/ nonsmokers and describe the never smoker lung cancer risk models used by CISNET modelers. Our review focuses on those influences likely to have measurable population impact on never smoker risk, such as secondhand smoke, even though the individual-level impact may be small. Occupational exposures may also contribute importantly to the population attributable risk of lung cancer. We examine the following risk factors in this chapter: age, environmental tobacco smoke, cooking fumes, ionizing radiation including radon gas, inherited genetic susceptibility, selected occupational exposures, preexisting lung disease, and oncogenic viruses. We also compare the prevalence of never smokers between the three CISNET smoking scenarios and present the corresponding lung cancer mortality estimates among never smokers as predicted by a typical CISNET model. PMID:22882894

  17. Increased risk of antidepressant use in childhood cancer survivors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Lasse Wegener; Winther, J.F.; Cederkvist, L

    2015-01-01

    to the National Prescription Drug Database, which worldwide is the oldest nationwide registry of prescription medication. Hazard ratios (HRs) for antidepressant use were estimated in a Cox proportional hazards model stratified on sex, with population comparisons as referents. RESULTS: Overall, childhood cancer......AIM: Childhood cancer survivors are at risk of both somatic and mental late effects, but large population-based studies of depression are lacking. METHODS: Risk of antidepressant use was evaluated in a population-based cohort of 5452 Danish children treated for cancer in 1975-2009 by linkage....... Increased HRs of 30-50% were seen for survivors of cancers of all main groups (haematological malignancies, central nervous system (CNS) and solid tumors); the highest risk was among children treated with haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HR, 1.9; 95% CI, 1.2-3.1). Our data suggested that the risk...

  18. Estimating internal exposure risks by the relative risk and the National Institute of Health risk models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehta, S.K.; Sarangapani, R.

    1995-01-01

    This paper presents tabulations of risk (R) and person-years of life lost (PYLL) for acute exposures of individual organs at ages 20 and 40 yrs for the Indian and Japanese populations to illustrate the effect of age at exposure in the two models. Results are also presented for the organ wise nominal probability coefficients (NPC) and PYLL for individual organs for the age distributed Indian population by the two models. The results presented show that for all organs the estimates of PYLL and NPC for the Indian population are lower than those for the Japanese population by both models except for oesophagus, breast and ovary by the relative risk (RR) model, where the opposite trend is observed. The results also show that the Indian all-cancer values of NPC averaged over the two models is 2.9 x 10 -2 Sv -1 , significantly lower than the world average value of 5x10 -2 Sv -1 estimated by the ICRP. (author). 9 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs

  19. Gene panel testing for inherited cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Michael J; Forman, Andrea D; Pilarski, Robert; Wiesner, Georgia; Giri, Veda N

    2014-09-01

    Next-generation sequencing technologies have ushered in the capability to assess multiple genes in parallel for genetic alterations that may contribute to inherited risk for cancers in families. Thus, gene panel testing is now an option in the setting of genetic counseling and testing for cancer risk. This article describes the many gene panel testing options clinically available to assess inherited cancer susceptibility, the potential advantages and challenges associated with various types of panels, clinical scenarios in which gene panels may be particularly useful in cancer risk assessment, and testing and counseling considerations. Given the potential issues for patients and their families, gene panel testing for inherited cancer risk is recommended to be offered in conjunction or consultation with an experienced cancer genetic specialist, such as a certified genetic counselor or geneticist, as an integral part of the testing process. Copyright © 2014 by the National Comprehensive Cancer Network.

  20. Occupational exposures and risk of pancreatic cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santibanez, Miguel; Vioque, Jesus; Alguacil, Juan; Hera, Manuela Garcia de la; Moreno-Osset, Eduardo; Carrato, Alfredo; Porta, Miquel; Kauppinen, Timo

    2010-01-01

    The objective was to analyze the relationship between occupation (and specific occupational exposures) and risk of exocrine pancreatic cancer (EPC). We conducted a multicenter hospital-based case-control study in Eastern Spain. We included 161 incident cases of EPC (59.6% men, 94 with histological confirmation, of whom 80% had ductal adenocarcinoma). Cases were frequency-matched with 455 controls by sex, age and province of residence. Information was elicited using structured questionnaires. Occupations were coded according to the Spanish version of the International Standard Classification of Occupations 1988. Occupational exposure to a selection of carcinogenic substances was assessed with the Finnish Job-Exposure Matrix (FINJEM). Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated by multiple logistic regression, adjusting for sex, age, province, education, alcohol and smoking. A higher risk of EPC was associated with having worked as 'Miners, shotfirers, stone cutters and carvers', 'Machinery mechanics and fitters', 'Building trades workers' and 'Motor vehicle drivers' in men, 'Office Clerks' in women, and 'Waiters' in both sexes. Cases with ductal adenocarcinomas were more likely to have been exposed to chlorinated hydrocarbon solvents (OR = 4.1, 95% CI: 1.1-15.2, p-trend = 0.04). We also observed significant associations with exposure to 'synthetic polymer dust exposure' and 'ionizing radiation'. Suggestive increases in risk were observed for 'pesticides', 'diesel and gasoline engine exhaust', and 'hydrocarbon solvents'. Results support the hypothesis that occupational exposure to chlorinated hydrocarbon solvents is associated with exocrine pancreatic cancer.

  1. Increased cancer risk in patients with periodontitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dizdar, Omer; Hayran, Mutlu; Guven, Deniz Can; Yılmaz, Tolga Birtan; Taheri, Sahand; Akman, Abdullah C; Bilgin, Emre; Hüseyin, Beril; Berker, Ezel

    2017-12-01

    Previous studies have noted a possible association between periodontal diseases and the risk of various cancers. We assessed cancer risk in a cohort of patients with moderate to severe periodontitis. Patients diagnosed with moderate to severe periodontitis by a periodontist between 2001 and 2010 were identified from the hospital registry. Patients younger than 35 years of age or with a prior cancer diagnosis were excluded. The age- and gender-standardized incidence rates (SIR) were calculated by dividing the number of observed cases by the number of expected cases from Turkish National Cancer Registry 2013 data. A total of 280 patients were included (median age 49.6, 54% female). Median follow-up was 12 years. Twenty-five new cancer cases were observed. Patients with periodontitis had 77% increased risk of cancer (SIR 1.77, 95% CI 1.17-2.58, p = .004). Women with periodontitis had significantly higher risk of breast cancer (SIR 2.40, 95% CI 0.88-5.33) and men with periodontitis had significantly higher risk of prostate cancer (SIR 3.75, 95% CI 0.95-10.21) and hematological cancers (SIR 6.97, 95% CI 1.77-18.98). Although showing a causal association necessitates further investigation, our results support the idea that periodontitis might be associated with increased cancer risk, particularly with hematological, breast and prostate cancers.

  2. Estimating potential for savings for low risk endometrial cancer using the Endometrial Cancer Alternative Payment Model (ECAP): A companion paper to the Society of Gynecologic Oncology Report on the Endometrial Cancer Alternative Payment Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Jason D; Havrilesky, Laura J; Cohn, David E; Huang, Yongmei; Rathbun, Jill; Rice, Laurel W; Brown, Carol L; Alvarez, Ronald D; Ko, Emily M

    2018-05-01

    To design an endometrial cancer (EC) alternative payment (ECAP) model focused on surgical management of EC, as well as identify drivers of cost in order to develop opportunities for cost-savings while maintaining quality of care. National practice patterns and reimbursements were compared between private payers (MarketScan data, years 2009-13) and public payers (Medicare, year 2014) of EC patients who underwent hysterectomy. An episode of care for EC included the hysterectomy, stratified by surgical approach (laparotomy versus robotic versus laparoscopy), and in- and outpatient reimbursements from 30days preoperatively to 60days postoperatively. Reimbursements were categorized into cost centers. A decision model informed modifiable components influencing overall reimbursements for EC surgical care. Variations in length of stay (LOS), emergency department (ED visits), and readmissions were analyzed to create an optimal care model. A total of MarketScan (n=29,558) and Medicare (n=377) patients were included. Mean total reimbursement for an episode of care was $19,183 (SD $10,844) for Medicare and $30,839 (SD $19,911) for MarketScan. Mean reimbursements were greatest for abdominal cases in Medicare ($25,553; SD $11,870) and MarketScan ($35,357; SD $21,670), followed by robotic and laparoscopic. Among MarketScan patients, 7.6% of women were readmitted within 60days after surgery and 11.7% had an evaluation in the ED. The median reimbursement per patient for readmission was $14,474 (IQR $8584 to $26,149), and for ED visit was $6327 (IQR $1369 to $29,153). In an optimized care model, increasing the rate of minimally invasive surgery by 5% while reducing LOS by 10% and ED visits/readmissions by 10%, lowered the average case reimbursement by $903 (2.9%) for MarketScan and $1243 (5.9%) for Medicare. An ECAP model demonstrates that reimbursements vary by public versus commercial payers in the U.S. for the surgical management of endometrial cancer patients, and that

  3. Reconstruction of dose loads on population in the initial period of the Chernobyl accident and estimation of thyroid cancer risk in Belarus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krivoruchko, K.; Naumov, A.

    1997-01-01

    The Chernobyl accident caused significant long-term consequences to the environment, public health, and economic status of Belarus. The contamination from short-lived radionuclides, in particular iodine 131, was so high that the subsequent exposure of millions of people has been termed 'iodine shock'. During the first days of the accident, the majority of the dose of radiation received by the residents of Belarus was to the thyroid gland. This will affect the health of the population for a long time to come. The resulting epidemic of childhood thyroid cancer is the first indisputable health after-effect of the Chernobyl accident. Thyroid cancer morbidity among children increased more than 10 fold in the post-Chernobyl period. Maps of cesium 137, which has a half life of 37 years, have been published, but it is evident, that the distribution of thyroid cancer morbidity differs from the known distribution of cesium 137 in soil. Territorial distribution of thyroid cancer morbidity is often compared to distribution of cesium 137 in the soil. This practice is inaccurate but often utilized since no maps of iodine 131 contamination exist, due to its short half life of 8.04 days. Reconstruction of the spatial distribution of short-lived isotopes in the first days after the accident, could clarify the impact of radiation on human health and allow for a spatial and temporal prognosis of the development of the cancer epidemic, particularly, thyroid cancer. Due to the unfortunate fact that the measuring equipment was inadequate to properly monitor the scale of radiation exposure during the early period of the accident, detailed direct information on the deposition of the short-lived radionuclides and the doses to the population has been irretrievably lost. Now the only way to reconstruct the dynamics of the radioecological situation of the initial period of the Chernobyl accident is to make a retrospective assessment of radiation exposures related to the short

  4. Immediately modifiable risk factors attributable to colorectal cancer in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naing, Cho; Lai, Pei Kuan; Mak, Joon Wah

    2017-08-04

    This study aimed to estimate potential reductions in case incidence of colorectal cancer attributable to the modifiable risk factors such as alcohol consumption, overweight and physical inactivity amongst the Malaysian population. Gender specific population-attributable fractions (PAFs) for colorectal cancer in Malaysia were estimated for the three selected risk factors (physical inactivity, overweight, and alcohol consumptions). Exposure prevalence were sourced from a large-scale national representative survey. Risk estimates of the relationship between the exposure of interest and colorectal cancer were obtained from published meta-analyses. The overall PAF was then estimated, using the 2013 national cancer incidence data from the Malaysian Cancer Registry. Overall, the mean incidence rate for colorectal cancer in Malaysia from 2008 to 2013 was 21.3 per 100,000 population, with the mean age of 61.6 years (±12.7) and the majority were men (56.6%). Amongst 369 colorectal cancer cases in 2013, 40 cases (20 men, 20 women), 10 cases (9 men, 1 woman) or 20 cases (16 men,4 women) would be prevented, if they had done physical exercises, could reduce their body weight to normal level or avoided alcohol consumption, assuming that these factors are causally related to colorectal cancer. It was estimated that 66 (17.8%;66/369) colorectal cancer cases (42 men, 24 women) who had all these three risk factors for the last 10 years would have been prevented, if they could control these three risk factors through effective preventive measures. Findings suggest that approximately 18% of colorectal cancer cases in Malaysia would be prevented through appropriate preventive measures such as doing regular physical exercises, reducing their body weight to normal level and avoiding alcohol consumption, if these factors are causally related to colorectal cancer. Scaling-up nationwide public health campaigns tailored to increase physical activity, controlling body weight within normal

  5. Genetic cancer risk assessment in practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruber, S.

    2004-01-01

    The advent of genetic testing has made a dramatic impact on the management of individuals with inherited susceptibility to cancer and their relatives. Genetic counsel ing, with or without testing, is warranted when clues to familial cancer are recognized. Today, genetic testing for classic cancer genetic syndromes is now the standard of care, and has been complemented by genetic testing for other situations commonly encountered in clinical practice. Genetic testing for colorectal cancer, breast cancer, kidney cancer, thyroid cancer, melanoma, and pancreatic cancer raise important issues about the parameters for testing. Genetic cancer risk assessment can lead to measurable reductions in morbidity and mortality through strategies that rely on surveillance, chemo prevention, and risk-reducing surgery

  6. Insights from Epidemiology into Dichloromethane and Cancer Risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheryl Siegel Scott

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Dichloromethane (methylene chloride is a widely used chlorinated solvent. We review the available epidemiology studies (five cohort studies, 13 case-control studies, including seven of hematopoietic cancers, focusing on specific cancer sites. There was little indication of an increased risk of lung cancer in the cohort studies (standardized mortality ratios ranging from 0.46 to 1.21. These cohorts are relatively small, and variable effects (e.g., point estimates ranging from 0.5 to 2.0 were seen for the rarer forms of cancers such as brain cancer and specific hematopoietic cancers. Three large population-based case-control studies of incident non-Hodgkin lymphoma in Europe and the United States observed odds ratios between 1.5 and 2.2 with dichloromethane exposure (ever exposed or highest category of exposure, with higher risk seen in specific subsets of disease. More limited indications of associations with brain cancer, breast cancer, and liver and biliary cancer were also seen in this collection of studies. Existing cohort studies, given their size and uneven exposure information, are unlikely to resolve questions of cancer risks and dichloromethane exposure. More promising approaches are population-based case-control studies of incident disease, and the combination of data from such studies, with robust exposure assessments that include detailed occupational information and exposure assignment based on industry-wide surveys or direct exposure measurements.

  7. Cancer Risk Map for the Surface of Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Myung-Hee Y.; Cucinotta, Francis A.

    2011-01-01

    We discuss calculations of the median and 95th percentile cancer risks on the surface of Mars for different solar conditions. The NASA Space Radiation Cancer Risk 2010 model is used to estimate gender and age specific cancer incidence and mortality risks for astronauts exploring Mars. Organ specific fluence spectra and doses for large solar particle events (SPE) and galactic cosmic rays (GCR) at various levels of solar activity are simulated using the HZETRN/QMSFRG computer code, and the 2010 version of the Badhwar and O Neill GCR model. The NASA JSC propensity model of SPE fluence and occurrence is used to consider upper bounds on SPE fluence for increasing mission lengths. In the transport of particles through the Mars atmosphere, a vertical distribution of Mars atmospheric thickness is calculated from the temperature and pressure data of Mars Global Surveyor, and the directional cosine distribution is implemented to describe the spherically distributed atmospheric distance along the slant path at each elevation on Mars. The resultant directional shielding by Mars atmosphere at each elevation is coupled with vehicle and body shielding for organ dose estimates. Astronaut cancer risks are mapped on the global topography of Mars, which was measured by the Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter. Variation of cancer risk on the surface of Mars is due to a 16-km elevation range, and the large difference is obtained between the Tharsis Montes (Ascraeus, Pavonis, and Arsia) and the Hellas impact basin. Cancer incidence risks are found to be about 2-fold higher than mortality risks with a disproportionate increase in skin and thyroid cancers for all astronauts and breast cancer risk for female astronauts. The number of safe days on Mars to be below radiation limits at the 95th percent confidence level is reported for several Mission design scenarios.

  8. Comparative study of control selection in a national population-based case-control study: Estimating risk of smoking on cancer deaths in Chinese men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Jingmei; Liu, Boqi; Nasca, Philip C; Han, Wei; Zou, Xiaonong; Zeng, Xianjia; Tian, Xiaobing; Wu, Yanping; Zhao, Ping; Li, Junyao

    2009-10-28

    To assess the validation of a novel control selection design by comparing the consistency between the new design and a routine design in a large case-control study that was incorporated into a nationwide mortality survey in China. A nationwide mortality study was conducted during 1989-1991. Surviving spouses or other relatives of all adults who died during 1986-1988 provided detailed information about their own as well as the deceased person's smoking history. In this study, 130,079 males who died of various smoking-related cancers at age 35 or over were taken as cases, while 103,248 male surviving spouses (same age range with cases) of women who died during the same period and 49,331 males who died from causes other than those related to smoking were used as control group 1 and control group 2, respectively. Consistency in the results when comparing cases with each of the control groups was assessed. Consistency in the results was observed in the analyses using different control groups although cancer deaths varied with region and age. Equivalence could be ascertained using a 15% criterion in most cancer deaths which had high death rates in urban areas, but they were uncertain for most cancers in rural areas irrespective of whether the hypothesis testing showed significant differences or not. Sex-matched living spouse control design as an alternative control selection for a case-control study is valid and feasible, and the basic principles of the equivalence study are also supported by epidemiological survey data.

  9. Stochastic risk estimation from medical x-ray diagnostic examinations, 2. Risk estimates of individuals from x-ray diagnosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hashizume, T; Maruyama, T; Noda, Y; Iwai, K; Tateno, Y [National Inst. of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan); Nishizawa, K

    1981-01-01

    The risks of genetic, leukemia and malignant diseases from medical X-ray diagnostic examinations were estimated using the frequency of radiographic and fluoroscopic exposures per diagnostic examination, child expectancy, leukemia and malignancy significant factors, and using a weighting factor determined on the basis of data concerning the cancer mortality among atomic bomb survivors in Nagasaki and of a recommendation of International Commission of Radiological Protection. The organ or tissue doses with respect to the stochastic risks were determined with ionization chambers and thermoluminescent dosimeters placed at the positions of the organs or tissues in a RANDO woman phantom which was exposed to diagnostic X-rays according to technical factors of typical radiographic and fluoroscopic examinations obtained from a nationwide survey. The resultant risks by age-group and type of radiographic and fluoroscopic examination are tabulated in terms of risk level of 10/sup -6/. In general, the total risk defined as the sum of genetic, leukemia and malignant risks was a high value for the X-ray diagnosis of digestive organs involving barium meal and barium enema. For example, the total risk for young age-group was 100 to 200 x 10/sup -6/ for the X-ray diagnosis of digestive organs. The total risk from the chest radiography was lower value as compared with the risk from the X-ray diagnosis of other organs or tissues. On the contrary, the risk from the chest tomography was comparable to the risk from the diagnosis of digestive organs. The total risk decreased with increasing of age for every X-ray diagnostic examination.

  10. Radiation dose and second cancer risk in patients treated for cancer of the cervix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boice, J.D. Jr.; Engholm, G.; Kleinerman, R.A.

    1988-01-01

    The risk of cancer associated with a broad range of organ doses was estimated in an international study of women with cervical cancer. Among 150,000 patients reported to one of 19 population-based cancer registries or treated in any of 20 oncology clinics, 4188 women with second cancers and 6880 matched controls were selected for detailed study. Radiation doses for selected organs were reconstructed for each patient on the basis of her original radiotherapy records. Very high doses, on the order of several hundred gray, were found to increase the risk of cancers of the bladder [relative risk (RR) = 4.0], rectum (RR = 1.8), vagina (RR = 2.7), and possibly bone (RR = 1.3), uterine corpus (RR = 1.3), cecum (RR = 1.5), and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (RR = 2.5). For all female genital cancers taken together, a sharp dose-response gradient was observed, reaching fivefold for doses more than 150 Gy. Several gray increased the risk of stomach cancer (RR = 2.1) and leukemia (RR = 2.0). Although cancer of the pancreas was elevated, there was no evidence of a dose-dependent risk. Cancer of the kidney was significantly increased among 15-year survivors. A nonsignificant twofold risk of radiogenic thyroid cancer was observed following an average dose of only 0.11 Gy. Breast cancer was not increased overall, despite an average dose of 0.31 Gy and 953 cases available for evaluation (RR = 0.9); there was, however, a weak suggestion of a dose response among women whose ovaries had been surgically removed. Doses greater than 6 Gy to the ovaries reduced breast cancer risk by 44%. A significant deficit of ovarian cancer was observed within 5 years of radiotherapy; in contrast, a dose response was suggested among 10-year survivors

  11. Estimation of cancer incidence and mortality attributable to alcohol drinking in china

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Huijuan

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cancer constitutes a serious burden of disease worldwide and has become the second leading cause of death in China. Alcohol consumption is causally associated with the increased risk of certain cancers. Due to the current lack of data and the imperative need to guide policymakers on issues of cancer prevention and control, we aim to estimate the role of alcohol on the cancer burden in China in 2005. Methods We calculated the proportion of cancers attributable to alcohol use to estimate the burden of alcohol-related cancer. The population attributable fraction was calculated based on the assumption of no alcohol drinking. Data on alcohol drinking prevalence were from two large-scale national surveys of representative samples of the Chinese population. Data on relative risk were obtained from meta-analyses and large-scale studies. Results We found that a total of 78,881 cancer deaths were attributable to alcohol drinking in China in 2005, representing 4.40% of all cancers (6.69% in men, 0.42% in women. The corresponding figure for cancer incidence was 93,596 cases (3.63% of all cancer cases. Liver cancer was the main alcohol-related cancer, contributing more than 60% of alcohol-related cancers. Conclusions Particular attention needs to be paid to the harm of alcohol as well as its potential benefits when making public health recommendations on alcohol drinking.

  12. Association between allergies and risk of pancreatic cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotterchio, Michelle; Lowcock, Elizabeth; Hudson, Thomas J; Greenwood, Celia; Gallinger, Steven

    2014-03-01

    Less than 10% of pancreatic cancer cases survive 5 years, yet its etiology is not well understood. Studies suggest allergies are associated with reduced pancreatic cancer risk. Our study collected additional information on allergies (including skin prick test results and differentiation of allergic/nonallergic asthma), and is the first to assess possible confounding by allergy medications. A population-based case-control study was designed to comprehensively assess the association between allergy and pancreatic cancer risk. Pancreas cancer cases were diagnosed during 2011 to 2012, and identified through the Ontario Cancer Registry (345 cases). Population-based controls were identified using random digit dialing and age/sex frequency matched to cases (1,285 controls). Questionnaires collected lifetime allergy history (type of allergy, age at onset, skin prick testing results), allergy medications, and established pancreas cancer risk factors. Logistic regression was used to estimate odd ratios and test potential confounders, including allergy medications. Hay fever was associated with a significant reduction in pancreatic cancer risk [AOR = 0.68; 95% confidence intervals (CI), 0.52-0.89], and reduction was greatest for those whose skin prick test was positive for hay fever allergens. No particular patterns were observed as regards age at onset and duration of allergy. Positive dust/mold allergy skin prick test and animal allergies were associated with a statistically significant reduced pancreatic cancer risk; AOR = 0.49; 95% CI, 0.31-0.78 and AOR = 0.68; 95% CI, 0.46-0.99, respectively. Asthma was not associated with pancreatic cancer risk. These findings support the growing body of evidence that suggests certain allergies are associated with reduced pancreatic cancer risk. ©2014 AACR.

  13. Periodontal disease with treatment reduces subsequent cancer risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Ing-Ming; Sun, Li-Min; Lin, Cheng-Li; Lee, Chun-Feng; Kao, Chia-Hung

    2014-10-01

    The aim of our study was to evaluate the relationship between routine treatment of periodontal disease (PD) and the subsequent risks for cancers in Taiwan. Study participants were selected from the Taiwan National Health Insurance (NHI) system database. The PD with a routine treatment cohort contained 38 902 patients. For each treatment cohort participant, two age- and sex-matched comparison (control) cohort participants were randomly selected. Cox's proportional hazards regression analysis was used to estimate the effects of PD with treatment on the subsequent risk of cancer. The overall risk of developing cancer was significantly lower in the treatment cohort than in the patients without treatment (adjusted Hazard ratio = 0.72, 95% confidence interval = 0.68-0.76). The risks of developing most gastrointestinal tract, lung, gynecological and brain malignancies were significantly lower in the treatment cohort than in the comparison cohort. In contrast, the risks of prostate and thyroid cancers were significantly higher in the treatment cohort than in the comparison cohort. Our findings suggest that PD with treatment is associated with a significantly reduced overall risk of cancer and reduced risks of certain types of cancers. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Association of Physicians. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. SU-D-16A-01: A Novel Method to Estimate Normal Tissue Dose for Radiotherapy Patients to Support Epidemiologic Studies of Second Cancer Risk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, C [University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Jung, J; Pelletier, C [East Carolina University, Greenville, NC (United States); Kim, J [University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Lee, C [National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, MD (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Patient cohort of second cancer study often involves radiotherapy patients with no radiological images available: We developed methods to construct a realistic surrogate anatomy by using computational human phantoms. We tested this phantom images both in a commercial treatment planning system (Eclipse) and a custom Monte Carlo (MC) transport code. Methods: We used a reference adult male phantom defined by International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). The hybrid phantom which was originally developed in Non-Uniform Rational B-Spline (NURBS) and polygon mesh format was converted into more common medical imaging format. Electron density was calculated from the material composition of the organs and tissues and then converted into DICOM format. The DICOM images were imported into the Eclipse system for treatment planning, and then the resulting DICOM-RT files were imported into the MC code for MC-based dose calculation. Normal tissue doses were calculation in Eclipse and MC code for an illustrative prostate treatment case and compared to each other. Results: DICOM images were generated from the adult male reference phantom. Densities and volumes of selected organs between the original phantom and ones represented within Eclipse showed good agreements, less than 0.6%. Mean dose from Eclipse and MC code match less than 7%, whereas maximum and minimum doses were different up to 45%. Conclusion: The methods established in this study will be useful for the reconstruction of organ dose to support epidemiological studies of second cancer in cancer survivors treated by radiotherapy. We also work on implementing body size-dependent computational phantoms to better represent patient's anatomy when the height and weight of patients are available.

  15. Predicted cancer risks induced by computed tomography examinations during childhood, by a quantitative risk assessment approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journy, Neige; Ancelet, Sophie; Rehel, Jean-Luc; Mezzarobba, Myriam; Aubert, Bernard; Laurier, Dominique; Bernier, Marie-Odile

    2014-03-01

    The potential adverse effects associated with exposure to ionizing radiation from computed tomography (CT) in pediatrics must be characterized in relation to their expected clinical benefits. Additional epidemiological data are, however, still awaited for providing a lifelong overview of potential cancer risks. This paper gives predictions of potential lifetime risks of cancer incidence that would be induced by CT examinations during childhood in French routine practices in pediatrics. Organ doses were estimated from standard radiological protocols in 15 hospitals. Excess risks of leukemia, brain/central nervous system, breast and thyroid cancers were predicted from dose-response models estimated in the Japanese atomic bomb survivors' dataset and studies of medical exposures. Uncertainty in predictions was quantified using Monte Carlo simulations. This approach predicts that 100,000 skull/brain scans in 5-year-old children would result in eight (90 % uncertainty interval (UI) 1-55) brain/CNS cancers and four (90 % UI 1-14) cases of leukemia and that 100,000 chest scans would lead to 31 (90 % UI 9-101) thyroid cancers, 55 (90 % UI 20-158) breast cancers, and one (90 % UI risks without exposure). Compared to background risks, radiation-induced risks would be low for individuals throughout life, but relative risks would be highest in the first decades of life. Heterogeneity in the radiological protocols across the hospitals implies that 5-10 % of CT examinations would be related to risks 1.4-3.6 times higher than those for the median doses. Overall excess relative risks in exposed populations would be 1-10 % depending on the site of cancer and the duration of follow-up. The results emphasize the potential risks of cancer specifically from standard CT examinations in pediatrics and underline the necessity of optimization of radiological protocols.

  16. Estimating the risk of Amazonian forest dieback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rammig, Anja; Jupp, Tim; Thonicke, Kirsten; Tietjen, Britta; Heinke, Jens; Ostberg, Sebastian; Lucht, Wolfgang; Cramer, Wolfgang; Cox, Peter

    2010-08-01

    *Climate change will very likely affect most forests in Amazonia during the course of the 21st century, but the direction and intensity of the change are uncertain, in part because of differences in rainfall projections. In order to constrain this uncertainty, we estimate the probability for biomass change in Amazonia on the basis of rainfall projections that are weighted by climate model performance for current conditions. *We estimate the risk of forest dieback by using weighted rainfall projections from 24 general circulation models (GCMs) to create probability density functions (PDFs) for future forest biomass changes simulated by a dynamic vegetation model (LPJmL). *Our probabilistic assessment of biomass change suggests a likely shift towards increasing biomass compared with nonweighted results. Biomass estimates range between a gain of 6.2 and a loss of 2.7 kg carbon m(-2) for the Amazon region, depending on the strength of CO(2) fertilization. *The uncertainty associated with the long-term effect of CO(2) is much larger than that associated with precipitation change. This underlines the importance of reducing uncertainties in the direct effects of CO(2) on tropical ecosystems.

  17. Predicting risk of cancer during HIV infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borges, Álvaro H; Silverberg, Michael J; Wentworth, Deborah

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the relationship between inflammatory [interleukin-6 (IL-6) and C-reactive protein (CRP)] and coagulation (D-dimer) biomarkers and cancer risk during HIV infection.......To investigate the relationship between inflammatory [interleukin-6 (IL-6) and C-reactive protein (CRP)] and coagulation (D-dimer) biomarkers and cancer risk during HIV infection....

  18. Hormonal contraception and risk of cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cibula, D.; Gompel, A.; Mueck, A.O.

    2011-01-01

    Fear from increased cancer risk is one of the most significant reasons for low acceptance of reliable contraceptive methods and low compliance.......Fear from increased cancer risk is one of the most significant reasons for low acceptance of reliable contraceptive methods and low compliance....

  19. Hormonal contraception and risk of cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cibula, D; Gompel, A; Mueck, A O

    2010-01-01

    Fear from increased cancer risk is one of the most significant reasons for low acceptance of reliable contraceptive methods and low compliance.......Fear from increased cancer risk is one of the most significant reasons for low acceptance of reliable contraceptive methods and low compliance....

  20. Statin use and risk for ovarian cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baandrup, L; Dehlendorff, C; Friis, Søren

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Limited data suggest that statin use reduces the risk for ovarian cancer. METHODS: Using Danish nationwide registries, we identified 4103 cases of epithelial ovarian cancer during 2000-2011 and age-matched them to 58,706 risk-set sampled controls. Conditional logistic regression....... The inverse association between statin use and mucinous tumours merits further investigation....

  1. Dietary patterns and the risk of colorectal cancer and adenomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randi, Giorgia; Edefonti, Valeria; Ferraroni, Monica; La Vecchia, Carlo; Decarli, Adriano

    2010-07-01

    The association of colorectal cancer risk with select foods has been evaluated by dietary pattern analysis. This review of the literature was conducted to thoroughly examine the available evidence for the association between dietary patterns and colorectal cancers and adenomas. A total of 32 articles based on worldwide epidemiological studies were identified. Pattern identification was achieved by exploratory data analyses (principal component, factor, and cluster analyses) in most articles, and only a few used a priori-defined scores. Dietary patterns named as healthy, prudent, fruit and vegetables, fat-reduced/diet foods, vegetable/fish/poultry, fruit/whole grain/dairy, and healthy eating index-2005, recommended food and Mediterranean diet scores were all associated with reduced risk of colorectal cancer and the risk estimates varied from 0.45 to 0.90. In contrast, diets named Western, pork-processed meat-potatoes, meat-eaters, meat and potatoes, traditional patterns, and dietary risk and life summary scores were associated with increased risk of colorectal cancer with risk estimates varying from 1.18 to 11.7. Dietary patterns for adenomas were consistent with those identified for colorectal cancer.

  2. Estimated risks of radon-induced lung cancer by two-mutation model for different exposures in mines and in homes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boehm, K.; Nikodemova, D.; Salat, D.; Drabova, D.

    2005-01-01

    In this work, the two-mutation model has been applied and compared with BEIR VI models for a prediction of the radon risk in various environments. The obtained results can be summarised into several points. The values of risk from the radon exposure predicted by the two-mutation model are comparable with the results obtained by BEIR VI for the short-time as well as for the long-time exposures. In the range of low exposures is this agreement of the results closer to the risk values assessed by the exposure-age-concentration model. In the range of higher exposures the results are closer to the values based on the age- duration model. The two-mutation model predicts the increase of dRR/dC with the increase of the radon concentration in the range of low concentrations. According to our results the inverse effect occurs only when the radon concentrations reach the value of 1500 Bq/m 3 . The two-mutation model can be taken as an universal model for the risk calculation in different environments, and for various smoking status. This model makes possible to analyse the influence of the fractionalisation of the exposure on the resulting RR. (authors)

  3. Risk of metachronous colon cancer following surgery for rectal cancer in mismatch repair gene mutation carriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Win, Aung Ko; Parry, Susan; Parry, Bryan; Kalady, Matthew F; Macrae, Finlay A; Ahnen, Dennis J; Young, Graeme P; Lipton, Lara; Winship, Ingrid; Boussioutas, Alex; Young, Joanne P; Buchanan, Daniel D; Arnold, Julie; Le Marchand, Loïc; Newcomb, Polly A; Haile, Robert W; Lindor, Noralane M; Gallinger, Steven; Hopper, John L; Jenkins, Mark A

    2013-06-01

    Despite regular surveillance colonoscopy, the metachronous colorectal cancer risk for mismatch repair (MMR) gene mutation carriers after segmental resection for colon cancer is high and total or subtotal colectomy is the preferred option. However, if the index cancer is in the rectum, management decisions are complicated by considerations of impaired bowel function. We aimed to estimate the risk of metachronous colon cancer for MMR gene mutation carriers who underwent a proctectomy for index rectal cancer. This retrospective cohort study comprised 79 carriers of germline mutation in a MMR gene (18 MLH1, 55 MSH2, 4 MSH6, and 2 PMS2) from the Colon Cancer Family Registry who had had a proctectomy for index rectal cancer. Cumulative risks of metachronous colon cancer were calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method. During median 9 years (range 1-32 years) of observation since the first diagnosis of rectal cancer, 21 carriers (27 %) were diagnosed with metachronous colon cancer (incidence 24.25, 95 % confidence interval [CI] 15.81-37.19 per 1,000 person-years). Cumulative risk of metachronous colon cancer was 19 % (95 % CI 9-31 %) at 10 years, 47 (95 % CI 31-68 %) at 20 years, and 69 % (95 % CI 45-89 %) at 30 years after surgical resection. The frequency of surveillance colonoscopy was 1 colonoscopy per 1.16 years (95 % CI 1.01-1.31 years). The AJCC stages of the metachronous cancers, where available, were 72 % stage I, 22 % stage II, and 6 % stage III. Given the high metachronous colon cancer risk for MMR gene mutation carriers diagnosed with an index rectal cancer, proctocolectomy may need to be considered.

  4. Coffee and cancer risk: a summary overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alicandro, Gianfranco; Tavani, Alessandra; La Vecchia, Carlo

    2017-09-01

    We reviewed available evidence on coffee drinking and the risk of all cancers and selected cancers updated to May 2016. Coffee consumption is not associated with overall cancer risk. A meta-analysis reported a pooled relative risk (RR) for an increment of 1 cup of coffee/day of 1.00 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.99-1.01] for all cancers. Coffee drinking is associated with a reduced risk of liver cancer. A meta-analysis of cohort studies found an RR for an increment of consumption of 1 cup/day of 0.85 (95% CI: 0.81-0.90) for liver cancer and a favorable effect on liver enzymes and cirrhosis. Another meta-analysis showed an inverse relation for endometrial cancer risk, with an RR of 0.92 (95% CI: 0.88-0.96) for an increment of 1 cup/day. A possible decreased risk was found in some studies for oral/pharyngeal cancer and for advanced prostate cancer. Although data are mixed, overall, there seems to be some favorable effect of coffee drinking on colorectal cancer in case-control studies, in the absence of a consistent relation in cohort studies. For bladder cancer, the results are not consistent; however, any possible direct association is not dose and duration related, and might depend on a residual confounding effect of smoking. A few studies suggest an increased risk of childhood leukemia after maternal coffee drinking during pregnancy, but data are limited and inconsistent. Although the results of studies are mixed, the overall evidence suggests no association of coffee intake with cancers of the stomach, pancreas, lung, breast, ovary, and prostate overall. Data are limited, with RR close to unity for other neoplasms, including those of the esophagus, small intestine, gallbladder and biliary tract, skin, kidney, brain, thyroid, as well as for soft tissue sarcoma and lymphohematopoietic cancer.

  5. Common filaggrin gene mutations and risk of cervical cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bager, Peter; Wohlfahrt, Jan; Sørensen, Erik

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: As carriers of filaggrin gene (FLG) mutations may have a compromised cervical mucosal barrier against human papillomavirus infection, our primary objective was to study their risk of cervical cancer. METHODS: We genotyped 586 cervical cancer patients for the two most common FLG...... mutations, R501X and 2282del4, using blood from the Copenhagen Hospital Biobank, Denmark. Controls (n = 8050) were genotyped in previous population-based studies. Information on cervical cancer, mortality and emigration were obtained from national registers. Odds ratios (OR) were estimated by logistic...... and stratification by cancer stage. RESULTS: The primary results showed that FLG mutations were not associated with the risk of cervical cancer (6.3% of cases and 7.7% of controls were carriers; OR adjusted 0.81, 95% CI 0.57-1.14; OR adjusted+ weighted 0.96, 95% CI 0.58-1.57). Among cases, FLG mutations increased...

  6. Update on breast cancer risk prediction and prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sestak, Ivana; Cuzick, Jack

    2015-02-01

    Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women worldwide. This review will focus on current prevention strategies for women at high risk. The identification of women who are at high risk of developing breast cancer is key to breast cancer prevention. Recent findings have shown that the inclusion of breast density and a panel of low-penetrance genetic polymorphisms can improve risk estimation compared with previous models. Preventive therapy with aromatase inhibitors has produced large reductions in breast cancer incidence in postmenopausal women. Tamoxifen confers long-term protection and is the only proven preventive treatment for premenopausal women. Several other agents, including metformin, bisphosphonates, aspirin and statins, have been found to be effective in nonrandomized settings. There are many options for the prevention of oestrogen-positive breast cancer, in postmenopausal women who can be given a selective oestrogen receptor modulator or an aromatase inhibitor. It still remains unclear how to prevent oestrogen-negative breast cancer, which occurs more often in premenopausal women. Identification of women at high risk of the disease is crucial, and the inclusion of breast density and a panel of genetic polymorphisms, which individually have low penetrance, can improve risk assessment.

  7. Combination antiretroviral therapy and cancer risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borges, Álvaro H

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To review the newest research about the effects of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) on cancer risk. RECENT FINDINGS: HIV+ persons are at increased risk of cancer. As this risk is higher for malignancies driven by viral and bacterial coinfections, classifying malignanci......ART initiation in reducing cancer risk, understand the relationship between long-term cART exposure and cancer incidence and assess whether adjuvant anti-inflammatory therapies can reduce cancer risk during treated HIV infection.......PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To review the newest research about the effects of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) on cancer risk. RECENT FINDINGS: HIV+ persons are at increased risk of cancer. As this risk is higher for malignancies driven by viral and bacterial coinfections, classifying malignancies...... into infection-related and infection-unrelated has been an emerging trend. Cohorts have detected major reductions in the incidence of Kaposi sarcoma and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) following cART initiation among immunosuppressed HIV+ persons. However, recent randomized data indicate that cART reduces risk...

  8. Risk of cancer after blood transfusion from donors with subclinical cancer: a retrospective cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edgren, Gustaf; Hjalgrim, Henrik; Reilly, Marie

    2007-01-01

    transmission from blood donors to recipients through blood transfusion. METHODS: We did a register-based retrospective cohort study of cancer incidence among patients who received blood from donors deemed to have a subclinical cancer at the time of donation. These precancerous donors were diagnosed......, and essentially complete, population and health-care registers. The risk of cancer in exposed recipients relative to that in recipients who received blood from non-cancerous donors was estimated with multivariate Poisson regression, adjusting for potential confounding factors. FINDINGS: Of the 354 094 transfusion...... recipients eligible for this analysis, 12,012 (3%) were exposed to blood products from precancerous donors. There was no excess risk of cancer overall (adjusted relative risk 1.00, 95% CI 0.94-1.07) or in crude anatomical subsites among recipients of blood from precancerous donors compared with recipients...

  9. Hepatitis C virus infection and risk of cancer: a population-based cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Omland, Lars Haukali Hvass; Farkas, Dora Körmendiné; Jepsen, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is associated with an increased risk of primary liver cancer; however, 5- and 10-year risk estimates are needed. The association of HCV with non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) is uncertain and the association with other cancers is unknown.......Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is associated with an increased risk of primary liver cancer; however, 5- and 10-year risk estimates are needed. The association of HCV with non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) is uncertain and the association with other cancers is unknown....

  10. Indoor radon exposure in Norway and lung cancer risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanner, T.; Dybing, E.

    1990-01-01

    The risk for lung cancer due to indoor radon in Norway was estimated. The risk factor recommended by the World Health Organization was used. Corrections were made for time not spent at home and type of activity. On the basis of measurements by the Norwegian National Institute for Radiation Hygiene in 7,500 homes, Strand et al estimated that the average concentration of radon daughters in the bedroom of Norwegian dwellings was 26.5 Bq/m 3 (EER). The level of exposure during time spent outside the home was assumed to be 10% of that at home. It was calculated that indoor radon exposure may cause 75-225 lung cancer deaths per year. This corresponds to about 5-15% of all lung cancer deaths in Norway. The risk for lung cancer death per 1,000 deaths at an indoor radon decay product level of 100 Bq/m 3 was calculated on the basis of various reports in the paper. The results show that the present risk estimate is lower than most of the other estimates

  11. Familial risks of breast and prostate cancers: does the definition of the at risk period matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Andreas; Bermejo, Justo Lorenzo; Sundquist, Jan; Hemminki, Kari

    2010-03-01

    'Being at familial risk' may have different connotations in studies on familial risk of cancer. The register-based definition of a family history considers individuals with an affected relative at familial risk independently of the family member's diagnostic time. Alternatively, the individuals are classified to be at familial risk only after the diagnosis date of their relative, relevant to clinical counselling and screening situations. The aim of this study was to compare familial breast and prostate cancer risks according to the two definitions. The nationwide Swedish Family-Cancer Database with information on cancers from 1958 to 2006 was used to calculate the hazard ratio of breast and prostate cancers according to family history using Cox regression. Family history was defined considering the number and type of affected relatives and the relative's diagnostic age, respectively. Individuals were considered at familial risk from their entry to the study or, alternatively, from the diagnostic time of the relative. Hazard ratios were equal whether individuals were considered at risk independent of the relative's diagnostic date or only after the relative's diagnostic date. These results indicate that studies on familial breast or prostate cancer risk which do not take the relative's diagnosis date into account are applicable to screening and clinical counselling situations. The estimates according to the register-based definition are based on larger numbers of patients, which may be crucial for analysis of small groups such as families of multiple cases. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Estimating twin concordance for bivariate competing risks twin data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheike, Thomas; Holst, Klaus K.; Hjelmborg, Jacob B.

    2014-01-01

    For twin time-to-event data, we consider different concordance probabilities, such as the casewise concordance that are routinely computed as a measure of the lifetime dependence/correlation for specific diseases. The concordance probability here is the probability that both twins have experience...... events with the competing risk death. We thus aim to quantify the degree of dependence through the casewise concordance function and show a significant genetic component...... the event of interest. Under the assumption that both twins are censored at the same time, we show how to estimate this probability in the presence of right censoring, and as a consequence, we can then estimate the casewise twin concordance. In addition, we can model the magnitude of within pair dependence...... over time, and covariates may be further influential on the marginal risk and dependence structure. We establish the estimators large sample properties and suggest various tests, for example, for inferring familial influence. The method is demonstrated and motivated by specific twin data on cancer...

  13. Breast and Ovarian Cancer Risk and Risk Reduction in Jewish BRCA1/2 Mutation Carriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkelman, Brian S.; Rubinstein, Wendy S.; Friedman, Sue; Friebel, Tara M.; Dubitsky, Shera; Schonberger, Niecee Singer; Shoretz, Rochelle; Singer, Christian F.; Blum, Joanne L.; Tung, Nadine; Olopade, Olufunmilayo I.; Weitzel, Jeffrey N.; Lynch, Henry T.; Snyder, Carrie; Garber, Judy E.; Schildkraut, Joellen; Daly, Mary B.; Isaacs, Claudine; Pichert, Gabrielle; Neuhausen, Susan L.; Couch, Fergus J.; van't Veer, Laura; Eeles, Rosalind; Bancroft, Elizabeth; Evans, D. Gareth; Ganz, Patricia A.; Tomlinson, Gail E.; Narod, Steven A.; Matloff, Ellen; Domchek, Susan; Rebbeck, Timothy R.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Mutations in BRCA1/2 dramatically increase the risk of both breast and ovarian cancers. Three mutations in these genes (185delAG, 5382insC, and 6174delT) occur at high frequency in Ashkenazi Jews. We evaluated how these common Jewish mutations (CJMs) affect cancer risks and risk reduction. Methods Our cohort comprised 4,649 women with disease-associated BRCA1/2 mutations from 22 centers in the Prevention and Observation of Surgical End Points Consortium. Of these women, 969 were self-identified Jewish women. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate breast and ovarian cancer risks, as well as risk reduction from risk-reducing salpingo-oophorectomy (RRSO), by CJM and self-identified Jewish status. Results Ninety-one percent of Jewish BRCA1/2-positive women carried a CJM. Jewish women were significantly more likely to undergo RRSO than non-Jewish women (54% v 41%, respectively; odds ratio, 1.87; 95% CI, 1.44 to 2.42). Relative risks of cancer varied by CJM, with the relative risk of breast cancer being significantly lower in 6174delT mutation carriers than in non-CJM BRCA2 carriers (hazard ratio, 0.35; 95% CI, 0.18 to 0.69). No significant difference was seen in cancer risk reduction after RRSO among subgroups. Conclusion Consistent with previous results, risks for breast and ovarian cancer varied by CJM in BRCA1/2 carriers. In particular, 6174delT carriers had a lower risk of breast cancer. This finding requires additional confirmation in larger prospective and population-based cohort studies before being integrated into clinical care. PMID:22430266

  14. Space Radiation Heart Disease Risk Estimates for Lunar and Mars Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucinotta, Francis A.; Chappell, Lori; Kim, Myung-Hee

    2010-01-01

    The NASA Space Radiation Program performs research on the risks of late effects from space radiation for cancer, neurological disorders, cataracts, and heart disease. For mortality risks, an aggregate over all risks should be considered as well as projection of the life loss per radiation induced death. We report on a triple detriment life-table approach to combine cancer and heart disease risks. Epidemiology results show extensive heterogeneity between populations for distinct components of the overall heart disease risks including hypertension, ischaemic heart disease, stroke, and cerebrovascular diseases. We report on an update to our previous heart disease estimates for Heart disease (ICD9 390-429) and Stroke (ICD9 430-438), and other sub-groups using recent meta-analysis results for various exposed radiation cohorts to low LET radiation. Results for multiplicative and additive risk transfer models are considered using baseline rates for US males and female. Uncertainty analysis indicated heart mortality risks as low as zero, assuming a threshold dose for deterministic effects, and projections approaching one-third of the overall cancer risk. Medan life-loss per death estimates were significantly less than that of solid cancer and leukemias. Critical research questions to improve risks estimates for heart disease are distinctions in mechanisms at high doses (>2 Gy) and low to moderate doses (<2 Gy), and data and basic understanding of radiation doserate and quality effects, and individual sensitivity.

  15. Inorganic arsenic in Chinese food and its cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Gang; Sun, Guo-Xin; Williams, Paul N; Nunes, Luis; Zhu, Yong-Guan

    2011-10-01

    Even moderate arsenic exposure may lead to health problems, and thus quantifying inorganic arsenic (iAs) exposure from food for different population groups in China is essential. By analyzing the data from the China National Nutrition and Health Survey (CNNHS) and collecting reported values of iAs in major food groups, we developed a framework of calculating average iAs daily intake for different regions of China. Based on this framework, cancer risks from iAs in food was deterministically and probabilistically quantified. The article presents estimates for health risk due to the ingestion of food products contaminated with arsenic. Both per individual and for total population estimates were obtained. For the total population, daily iAs intake is around 42 μg day(-1), and rice is the largest contributor of total iAs intake accounting for about 60%. Incremental lifetime cancer risk from food iAs intake is 106 per 100,000 for adult individuals and the median population cancer risk is 177 per 100,000 varying between regions. Population in the Southern region has a higher cancer risk than that in the Northern region and the total population. Sensitive analysis indicated that cancer slope factor, ingestion rates of rice, aquatic products and iAs concentration in rice were the most relevant variables in the model, as indicated by their higher contribution to variance of the incremental lifetime cancer risk. We conclude that rice may be the largest contributor of iAs through food route for the Chinese people. The population from the South has greater cancer risk than that from the North and the whole population. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. ICRP risk estimates - an alternative view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morgan, K.Z.

    1987-01-01

    This criticism of the worth of the ICRP Main Commission spans 60 years, reviewed by a member of the Commission. Beginning in 1960 two serious radiation exposure problems (occupational exposure in uranium mines and population exposure from testing of nuclear weapons) came to their attention. One might have expected ICRP to be the first to try to reduce these exposures but it was conspicuous by its silence. In 1958 ICRP set limits of exposure for radiation workers and member of the public. Nineteen years later (1977) when it was realized that the risk of radiation induced cancer was ten to thirty times what it was perceived to be in 1958, ICRP might have been expected to recommend a major reduction in permissible exposure levels, but to the dismay of some it increased them. It was also a great disappointment when in 1977, levels of MPC of radionuclides in air, water and food were increased for a large fraction of the more dangerous radionuclides. The reactor accident at Chernobyl calls for a number of new ICRP recommendations. When can we expect them? (author)

  17. Helicobacter pylori Diversity and Gastric Cancer Risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy L. Cover

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Gastric cancer is a leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide. Helicobacter pylori infection is the strongest known risk factor for this malignancy. An important goal is to identify H. pylori-infected persons at high risk for gastric cancer, so that these individuals can be targeted for therapeutic intervention. H. pylori exhibits a high level of intraspecies genetic diversity, and over the past two decades, many studies have endeavored to identify strain-specific features of H. pylori that are linked to development of gastric cancer. One of the most prominent differences among H. pylori strains is the presence or absence of a 40-kb chromosomal region known as the cag pathogenicity island (PAI. Current evidence suggests that the risk of gastric cancer is very low among persons harboring H. pylori strains that lack the cag PAI. Among persons harboring strains that contain the cag PAI, the risk of gastric cancer is shaped by a complex interplay among multiple strain-specific bacterial factors as well as host factors. This review discusses the strain-specific properties of H. pylori that correlate with increased gastric cancer risk, focusing in particular on secreted proteins and surface-exposed proteins, and describes evidence from cell culture and animal models linking these factors to gastric cancer pathogenesis. Strain-specific features of H. pylori that may account for geographic variation in gastric cancer incidence are also discussed.

  18. Light at Night and Breast Cancer Risk Among California Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurley, Susan; Goldberg, Debbie; Nelson, David; Hertz, Andrew; Horn-Ross, Pamela L.; Bernstein, Leslie; Reynolds, Peggy

    2014-01-01

    Background There is convincing evidence that circadian disruption mediated by exposure to light at night promotes mammary carcinogenesis in rodents. The role that light at night plays in human breast cancer etiology remains unknown. We evaluated the relationship between estimates of indoor and outdoor light at night and the risk of breast cancer among members of the California Teachers Study. Methods Indoor light-at-night estimates were based on questionnaire data regarding sleep habits and use of night time lighting while sleeping. Estimates of outdoor light at night were derived from imagery data obtained from the U.S. Defense Meteorological Satellite Program assigned to geocoded addresses of study participants. Analyses were conducted among 106,731 California Teachers Study members who lived in California, had no prior history of breast cancer, and provided information on lighting while sleeping. 5,095 cases of invasive breast cancer diagnosed 1995–2010 were identified via linkage to the California Cancer Registry. We used age-stratified Cox proportional hazard models to calculate hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs), adjusting for breast cancer risk factors and neighborhood urbanization and socioeconomic class. Results An increased risk was found for women living in areas with the highest quintile of outdoor light at night exposure estimates (HR=1.12 [95% CI=1.00 – 1.26], test for trend, P=0.06). While more pronounced among premenopausal women (HR=1.34 [95% CI=1.07 – 1.69], test for trend, P=0.04), the associations did not differ statistically by menopausal status (test for interaction, P=0.34). Conclusions Women living in areas with high levels of ambient light at night may be at an increased risk of breast cancer. Future studies that integrate quantitative measurements of indoor and outdoor light at night are warranted. PMID:25061924

  19. Simplifying cardiovascular risk estimation using resting heart rate.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cooney, Marie Therese

    2010-09-01

    Elevated resting heart rate (RHR) is a known, independent cardiovascular (CV) risk factor, but is not included in risk estimation systems, including Systematic COronary Risk Evaluation (SCORE). We aimed to derive risk estimation systems including RHR as an extra variable and assess the value of this addition.

  20. Awareness of risk factors for cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lagerlund, Magdalena; Hvidberg, Line; Hajdarevic, Senada

    2015-01-01

    Background: Sweden and Denmark are neighbouring countries with similarities in culture, healthcare, and economics, yet notable differences in cancer statistics. A crucial component of primary prevention is high awareness of risk factors in the general public. We aimed to determine and compare...... awareness of risk factors for cancer between a Danish and a Swedish population sample, and to examine whether there are differences in awareness across age groups. Methods: Data derive from Module 2 of the International Cancer Benchmarking Partnership. Telephone interviews were conducted with 3000 adults...... in Denmark and 3070 in Sweden using the Awareness and Beliefs about Cancer measure. Data reported here relate to awareness of 13 prompted risk factors for cancer. Prevalence ratios with 95 % confidence intervals were calculated to examine associations between country, age, and awareness of risk factors...

  1. Risk of second primary lung cancer in women after radiotherapy for breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grantzau, Trine; Thomsen, Mette Skovhus; Væth, Michael; Overgaard, Jens

    2014-01-01

    Background: Several epidemiological studies have reported increased risks of second lung cancers after breast cancer irradiation. In this study we assessed the effects of the delivered radiation dose to the lung and the risk of second primary lung cancer. Methods: We conducted a nested case–control study of second lung cancer in a population based cohort of 23,627 early breast cancer patients treated with post-operative radiotherapy from 1982 to 2007. The cohort included 151 cases diagnosed with second primary lung cancer and 443 controls. Individual dose-reconstructions were performed and the delivered dose to the center of the second lung tumor and the comparable location for the controls were estimated, based on the patient specific radiotherapy charts. Results: The median age at breast cancer diagnosis was 54 years (range 34–74). The median time from breast cancer treatment to second lung cancer diagnosis was 12 years (range 1–26 years). 91% of the cases were categorized as ever smokers vs. 40% among the controls. For patients diagnosed with a second primary lung cancer five or more years after breast cancer treatment the rate of lung cancer increased linearly with 8.5% per Gray (95% confidence interval = 3.1–23.3%; p < 0.001). This rate was enhanced for ever smokers with an excess rate of 17.3% per Gray (95% CI = 4.5–54%; p < 0.005). Conclusions: Second lung cancer after radiotherapy for early breast cancer is associated with the delivered dose to the lung. Although the absolute risk is relative low, the growing number of long-time survivors after breast cancer treatment highlights the need for advances in normal tissue sparing radiation techniques

  2. Measurement of natural radionuclides in Malaysian bottled mineral water and consequent health risk estimation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Priharti, W.; Samat, S. B.; Yasir, M. S. [School of Applied Physics, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 UKM Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2015-09-25

    The radionuclides of {sup 226}Ra, {sup 232}Th and {sup 40}K were measured in ten mineral water samples, of which from the radioactivity obtained, the ingestion doses for infants, children and adults were calculated and the cancer risk for the adult was estimated. Results showed that the calculated ingestion doses for the three age categories are much lower than the average worldwide ingestion exposure of 0.29 mSv/y and the estimated cancer risk is much lower than the cancer risk of 8.40 × 10{sup −3} (estimated from the total natural radiation dose of 2.40 mSv/y). The present study concludes that the bottled mineral water produced in Malaysia is safe for daily human consumption.

  3. Measurement of natural radionuclides in Malaysian bottled mineral water and consequent health risk estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priharti, W.; Samat, S. B.; Yasir, M. S.

    2015-09-01

    The radionuclides of 226Ra, 232Th and 40K were measured in ten mineral water samples, of which from the radioactivity obtained, the ingestion doses for infants, children and adults were calculated and the cancer risk for the adult was estimated. Results showed that the calculated ingestion doses for the three age categories are much lower than the average worldwide ingestion exposure of 0.29 mSv/y and the estimated cancer risk is much lower than the cancer risk of 8.40 × 10-3 (estimated from the total natural radiation dose of 2.40 mSv/y). The present study concludes that the bottled mineral water produced in Malaysia is safe for daily human consumption.

  4. The associations between a polygenic score, reproductive and menstrual risk factors and breast cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren Andersen, Shaneda; Trentham-Dietz, Amy; Gangnon, Ronald E; Hampton, John M; Figueroa, Jonine D; Skinner, Halcyon G; Engelman, Corinne D; Klein, Barbara E; Titus, Linda J; Newcomb, Polly A

    2013-07-01

    We evaluated whether 13 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) identified in genome-wide association studies interact with one another and with reproductive and menstrual risk factors in association with breast cancer risk. DNA samples and information on parity, breastfeeding, age at menarche, age at first birth, and age at menopause were collected through structured interviews from 1,484 breast cancer cases and 1,307 controls who participated in a population-based case-control study conducted in three US states. A polygenic score was created as the sum of risk allele copies multiplied by the corresponding log odds estimate. Logistic regression was used to test the associations between SNPs, the score, reproductive and menstrual factors, and breast cancer risk. Nonlinearity of the score was assessed by the inclusion of a quadratic term for polygenic score. Interactions between the aforementioned variables were tested by including a cross-product term in models. We confirmed associations between rs13387042 (2q35), rs4973768 (SLC4A7), rs10941679 (5p12), rs2981582 (FGFR2), rs3817198 (LSP1), rs3803662 (TOX3), and rs6504950 (STXBP4) with breast cancer. Women in the score's highest quintile had 2.2-fold increased risk when compared to women in the lowest quintile (95 % confidence interval: 1.67-2.88). The quadratic polygenic score term was not significant in the model (p = 0.85), suggesting that the established breast cancer loci are not associated with increased risk more than the sum of risk alleles. Modifications of menstrual and reproductive risk factors associations with breast cancer risk by polygenic score were not observed. Our results suggest that the interactions between breast cancer susceptibility loci and reproductive factors are not strong contributors to breast cancer risk.

  5. Immunosuppression and risk of cervical cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dugué, Pierre-Antoine; Rebolj, Matejka; Garred, Peter

    2013-01-01

    -stage renal disease seem to be at an increased risk of cervical cancer. A higher risk of cervical precancerous lesions was found in patients with some autoimmune diseases; particularly if treated with immunosuppressants. Among behavioral factors weakening the immune system, smoking appeared to strongly...... increase the risk of cervical cancer, while poor diet only moderately increased the risk. It is difficult to determine whether sexually transmitted infections other than human papillomavirus infection are independent risk factors. Identifying those groups of women likely to fail in clearing persistent...

  6. Impact of risk factors on cardiovascular risk: a perspective on risk estimation in a Swiss population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrubasik, Sigrun A; Chrubasik, Cosima A; Piper, Jörg; Schulte-Moenting, Juergen; Erne, Paul

    2015-01-01

    In models and scores for estimating cardiovascular risk (CVR), the relative weightings given to blood pressure measurements (BPMs), and biometric and laboratory variables are such that even large differences in blood pressure lead to rather low differences in the resulting total risk when compared with other concurrent risk factors. We evaluated this phenomenon based on the PROCAM score, using BPMs made by volunteer subjects at home (HBPMs) and automated ambulatory BPMs (ABPMs) carried out in the same subjects. A total of 153 volunteers provided the data needed to estimate their CVR by means of the PROCAM formula. Differences (deltaCVR) between the risk estimated by entering the ABPM and that estimated with the HBPM were compared with the differences (deltaBPM) between the ABPM and the corresponding HBPM. In addition to the median values (= second quartile), the first and third quartiles of blood pressure profiles were also considered. PROCAM risk values were converted to European Society of Cardiology (ESC) risk values and all participants were assigned to the risk groups low, medium and high. Based on the PROCAM score, 132 participants had a low risk for suffering myocardial infarction, 16 a medium risk and 5 a high risk. The calculated ESC scores classified 125 participants into the low-risk group, 26 into the medium- and 2 into the high-risk group for death from a cardiovascular event. Mean ABPM tended to be higher than mean HBPM. Use of mean systolic ABPM or HBPM in the PROCAM formula had no major impact on the risk level. Our observations are in agreement with the rather low weighting of blood pressure as risk determinant in the PROCAM score. BPMs assessed with different methods had relatively little impact on estimation of cardiovascular risk in the given context of other important determinants. The risk calculations in our unselected population reflect the given classification of Switzerland as a so-called cardiovascular "low risk country".

  7. Vitamin D, Sunlight and Prostate Cancer Risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishna Vanaja Donkena

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Prostate cancer is the second common cancer in men worldwide. The prevention of prostate cancer remains a challenge to researchers and clinicians. Here, we review the relationship of vitamin D and sunlight to prostate cancer risk. Ultraviolet radiation of the sunlight is the main stimulator for vitamin D production in humans. Vitamin D's antiprostate cancer activities may be involved in the actions through the pathways mediated by vitamin D metabolites, vitamin D metabolizing enzymes, vitamin D receptor (VDR, and VDR-regulated genes. Although laboratory studies including the use of animal models have shown that vitamin D has antiprostate cancer properties, whether it can effectively prevent the development and/or progression of prostate cancer in humans remains to be inconclusive and an intensively studied subject. This review will provide up-to-date information regarding the recent outcomes of laboratory and epidemiology studies on the effects of vitamin D on prostate cancer prevention.

  8. Use of disulfiram and risk of cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Askgaard, G.; Friis, S.; Hallas, J.

    2014-01-01

    ever-users (>= one prescription) of disulfiram. Cases were all Danish individuals with a histologically verified first-time diagnosis of malignant melanoma, breast, or prostate cancer during 2000-2009. For each case, we selected four cancer-free controls matched for age, sex, and year of first......Experimental studies have indicated that disulfiram (Antabuse) has antineoplastic effects against melanoma, breast, and prostate cancer. To explore this hypothesis, we examined the association between disulfiram use and these cancers in a nationwide register-based case-control study nested within...... disulfiram prescription using risk set sampling. Similarly, for secondary analyses, we selected case-control populations for selected tobacco-related and alcohol-related cancer types, that is, cancers of the buccal cavity, liver, lung, and colorectal cancer. Disulfiram use 1 year before cancer diagnosis...

  9. Risk factors & screening modalities for oral cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chau, Steven

    2008-01-01

    Dentists are at the forefront for screening oral cancer. In addition to the well known carcinogenic potential of tobacco and alcohol, betel nut chewing and human papilloma virus are important risk factors in the development of oral cancer. To aid in screening and decreasing morbidity and mortality from oral cancer, a variety of techniques have been developed. These techniques show promise but they require additional investigations to determine their usefulness in oral cancer detection. Dentists need to be well educated and vigilant when dealing with all patients they encounter. Early detection, diagnosis and treatment are critical for the effective management of oral cancers.

  10. Cigarette smoking and risk of ovarian cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faber, Mette T; Kjær, Susanne K; Dehlendorff, Christian

    2013-01-01

    The majority of previous studies have observed an increased risk of mucinous ovarian tumors associated with cigarette smoking, but the association with other histological types is unclear. In a large pooled analysis, we examined the risk of epithelial ovarian cancer associated with multiple...... measures of cigarette smoking with a focus on characterizing risks according to tumor behavior and histology....

  11. Breast cancer epidemiology and risk factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broeders, M. J. M.; Verbeek, A. L. M.

    1997-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common malignancy among women in the Western society. Over the past decades it has become apparent that breast cancer incidence rates are increasing steadily, whereas the mortality rates for breast cancer have remained relatively constant. Information through the media on this rising number of cases has increased breast health awareness but has also introduced anxiety in the female population. This combination of factors has made the need for prevention of breast cancer an urgent matter. Breast cancer does not seem to be a single disease entity. A specific etiologic factor may therefore have more influence on one form may therefore have more influence on one form of breast cancer than another. So far though, as shown in their summary of current knowledge on established and dubious risk factors, no risk factors have been identified that can explain a major part of the incidence. Efforts to identify other ways for primary prevention have also been discouraging, even though breast cancer is one of the most investigated tumours world-wide. Thus, at this point i time, the most important strategy to reduce breast cancer mortality is early detection through individual counselling and organised breast screening programs. The recent isolation of breast cancer susceptibility genes may introduce new ways to reduce the risk of breast cancer in a small subset of women

  12. Occupational Risk for Oral Cancer in Nordic Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarvainen, Laura; Suojanen, Juho; Kyyronen, Pentti; Lindqvist, Christian; Martinsen, Jan Ivar; Kjaerheim, Kristina; Lynge, Elsebeth; Sparen, Par; Tryggvadottir, Laufey; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Pukkala, Eero

    2017-06-01

    To evaluate occupational risk for cancer of the tongue, oral cavity or pharynx after adjustment for alcohol and tobacco use. The data covered 14.9 million people and 28,623 cases of cancer of the tongue, oral cavity and pharynx in the Nordic countries 1961-2005. Alcohol consumption by occupation was estimated based on mortality from liver cirrhosis and incidence of liver cancer. Smoking by occupation was estimated based on the incidence of lung cancer. Only few occupations had relative risks of over 1.5 for cancer of the tongue, oral cavity and pharynx. These occupations included dentists, artistic workers, hairdressers, journalists, cooks and stewards, seamen and waiters. Several occupational categories, including dentists, had an increased relative risk of tongue cancer. This new finding remains to be explained but could be related to occupational chemical exposures, increased consumption of alcohol and tobacco products, or infection with human papilloma virus. Copyright© 2017, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  13. Estimating the concordance probability in a survival analysis with a discrete number of risk groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heller, Glenn; Mo, Qianxing

    2016-04-01

    A clinical risk classification system is an important component of a treatment decision algorithm. A measure used to assess the strength of a risk classification system is discrimination, and when the outcome is survival time, the most commonly applied global measure of discrimination is the concordance probability. The concordance probability represents the pairwise probability of lower patient risk given longer survival time. The c-index and the concordance probability estimate have been used to estimate the concordance probability when patient-specific risk scores are continuous. In the current paper, the concordance probability estimate and an inverse probability censoring weighted c-index are modified to account for discrete risk scores. Simulations are generated to assess the finite sample properties of the concordance probability estimate and the weighted c-index. An application of these measures of discriminatory power to a metastatic prostate cancer risk classification system is examined.

  14. Review of the current status of radiation risk estimates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charles, M.W.; Little, M.P.

    1988-10-01

    This report reviews the current status of radiation risk estimation for low linear energy transfer radiation. Recent statements by various national and international organisations regarding risk estimates are critically discussed. The recently published revised population risk estimates from the study of Japanese bomb survivors are also reviewed and used with some unpublished data from Japan to calculate risk figures for a general work force. (author)

  15. An application of extreme value theory in estimating liquidity risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Benito Muela

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The last global financial crisis (2007–2008 has highlighted the weaknesses of value at risk (VaR as a measure of market risk, as this metric by itself does not take liquidity risk into account. To address this problem, the academic literature has proposed incorporating liquidity risk into estimations of market risk by adding the VaR of the spread to the risk price. The parametric model is the standard approach used to estimate liquidity risk. As this approach does not generate reliable VaR estimates, we propose estimating liquidity risk using more sophisticated models based on extreme value theory (EVT. We find that the approach based on conditional extreme value theory outperforms the standard approach in terms of accurate VaR estimates and the market risk capital requirements of the Basel Capital Accord.

  16. Use of thiazolidinediones and risk of bladder cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bazelier, Marloes T; de Vries, Frank; Vestergaard, Peter

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Pioglitazone, a drug for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus has been associated with bladder cancer in observational studies. Diabetes mellitus itself has also been linked with bladder cancer. The objective was to estimate the risk of bladder cancer for diabetic patients using...... thialozidinediones (TZDs) compared with patients in other treatment stages of the disease. METHODS: We performed a population-based cohort study (1996-2007) in the Danish National Health Registers. Oral antidiabetic drug users (n=179,056) were matched 1:3 by sex and year of birth to non-users. Hazard ratios (HRs......) of bladder cancer were estimated using Cox proportional hazards models. Time-dependent adjustments were made for age, comorbidity, and drug use. Four different treatment stages were defined: current use of either a biguanide or a sulfonylureum (stage 1), current use of a biguanide and a sulfonylureum...

  17. Subjective versus objective risk in genetic counseling for hereditary breast and/or ovarian cancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sperduti Isabella

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite the fact that genetic counseling in oncology provides information regarding objective risks, it can be found a contrast between the subjective and objective risk. The aims of this study were to evaluate the accuracy of the perceived risk compared to the objective risk estimated by the BRCApro computer model and to evaluate any associations between medical, demographic and psychological variables and the accuracy of risk perception. Methods 130 subjects were given medical-demographic file, Cancer and Genetic Risk Perception, Hospital Anxiety-Depression Scale. It was also computed an objective evaluation of the risk by the BRCApro model. Results The subjective risk was significantly higher than objective risk. The risk of tumour was overestimated by 56%, and the genetic risk by 67%. The subjects with less cancer affected relatives significantly overestimated their risk of being mutation carriers and made a more innacurate estimation than high risk subjects. Conclusion The description of this sample shows: general overestimation of the risk, inaccurate perception compared to BRCApro calculation and a more accurate estimation in those subjects with more cancer affected relatives (high risk subjects. No correlation was found between the levels of perception of risk and anxiety and depression. Based on our findings, it is worth pursuing improved communication strategies about the actual cancer and genetic risk, especially for subjects at "intermediate and slightly increased risk" of developing an hereditary breast and/or ovarian cancer or of being mutation carrier.

  18. Early life risk factors for testicular cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Piltoft, Johanne Spanggaard; Larsen, Signe Benzon; Dalton, Susanne Oksbjerg

    2017-01-01

    of this study is to utilize data from the Copenhagen School Health Records Register (CSHRR) to evaluate cryptorchidism, birth weight and birth order as risk factors for testicular cancer. METHODS: The study population consisted of 408 cases of testicular cancer identified by a government issued identification...... in crude analyses [hazard ratio (HR) = 3.60, 95% CI 2.79-4.65]. Birth weight was inversely associated with testicular cancer and no clear association with birth order was observed. The positive association between cryptorchidism and testicular cancer was only slightly attenuated controlling for birth......PURPOSE: One established risk factors for testicular cancer is cryptorchidism. However, it remains unclear whether cryptorchidism is a risk factor in itself or whether the two conditions share common causes in early life (estrogen hypothesis), such as birth weight and birth order. The objective...

  19. Use of mobile phones and cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayanda, Olushola S; Baba, Alafara A; Ayanda, Omolola T

    2012-01-01

    Mobile phones work by transmitting and receiving radio frequency microwave radiation. The radio frequency (RF) emitted by mobile phones is stronger than FM radio signal which are known to cause cancer. Though research and evidence available on the risk of cancer by mobile phones does not provide a clear and direct support that mobile phones cause cancers. Evidence does not also support an association between exposure to radio frequency and microwave radiation from mobile phones and direct effects on health. It is however clear that lack of available evidence of cancer as regards the use of mobile phone should not be interpreted as proof of absence of cancer risk, so that excessive use of mobile phones should be taken very seriously and with caution to prevent cancer.

  20. Mitochondrial dysfunction and risk of cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, M; Melbye, M; Diaz, L J

    2015-01-01

    matrilineal relatives to a cohort member with a genetically confirmed maternally inherited mDNA mutation. Information on cancer was obtained by linkage to the Danish Cancer Register. Standardised incidence ratios (SIRs) were used to assess the relative risk of cancer. RESULTS: During 7334 person......-years of follow-up, 19 subjects developed a primary cancer. The corresponding SIR for any primary cancer was 1.06 (95% confidence interval 0.68-1.63). Subgroup analyses according to mutational subtype yielded similar results, for example, a SIR of 0.94 (95% CI 0.53 to 1.67) for the m.3243A>G maternally inherited...... mDNA mutation, cases=13. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with mitochondrial dysfunction do not appear to be at increased risk of cancer compared with the general population....

  1. Backtesting Portfolio Value-at-Risk with Estimated Portfolio Weights

    OpenAIRE

    Pei Pei

    2010-01-01

    This paper theoretically and empirically analyzes backtesting portfolio VaR with estimation risk in an intrinsically multivariate framework. For the first time in the literature, it takes into account the estimation of portfolio weights in forecasting portfolio VaR and its impact on backtesting. It shows that the estimation risk from estimating the portfolio weights as well as that from estimating the multivariate dynamic model of asset returns make the existing methods in a univariate framew...

  2. HIV tropism and decreased risk of breast cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy A Hessol

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available During the first two decades of the U.S. AIDS epidemic, and unlike some malignancies, breast cancer risk was significantly lower for women with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection compared to the general population. This deficit in HIV-associated breast cancer could not be attributed to differences in survival, immune deficiency, childbearing or other breast cancer risk factors. HIV infects mononuclear immune cells by binding to the CD4 molecule and to CCR5 or CXCR4 chemokine coreceptors. Neoplastic breast cells commonly express CXCR4 but not CCR5. In vitro, binding HIV envelope protein to CXCR4 has been shown to induce apoptosis of neoplastic breast cells. Based on these observations, we hypothesized that breast cancer risk would be lower among women with CXCR4-tropic HIV infection.We conducted a breast cancer nested case-control study among women who participated in the WIHS and HERS HIV cohort studies with longitudinally collected risk factor data and plasma. Cases were HIV-infected women (mean age 46 years who had stored plasma collected within 24 months of breast cancer diagnosis and an HIV viral load≥500 copies/mL. Three HIV-infected control women, without breast cancer, were matched to each case based on age and plasma collection date. CXCR4-tropism was determined by a phenotypic tropism assay. Odds ratios (OR and 95% confidence intervals (CI for breast cancer were estimated by exact conditional logistic regression. Two (9% of 23 breast cancer cases had CXCR4-tropic HIV, compared to 19 (28% of 69 matched controls. Breast cancer risk was significantly and independently reduced with CXCR4 tropism (adjusted odds ratio, 0.10, 95% CI 0.002-0.84 and with menopause (adjusted odds ratio, 0.08, 95% CI 0.001-0.83. Adjustment for CD4+ cell count, HIV viral load, and use of antiretroviral therapy did not attenuate the association between infection with CXCR4-tropic HIV and breast cancer.Low breast cancer risk with HIV is specifically linked

  3. Population attributable risk of tobacco and alcohol for upper aerodigestive tract cancer.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Anantharaman, Devasena

    2011-08-01

    Tobacco and alcohol are major risk factors for upper aerodigestive tract (UADT) cancer and significant variation is observed in UADT cancer rates across Europe. We have estimated the proportion of UADT cancer burden explained by tobacco and alcohol and how this varies with the incidence rates across Europe, cancer sub-site, gender and age. This should help estimate the minimum residual burden of other risk factors to UADT cancer, including human papillomavirus. We analysed 1981 UADT cancer cases and 1993 controls from the ARCAGE multicentre study. We estimated the population attributable risk (PAR) of tobacco alone, alcohol alone and their joint effect. Tobacco and alcohol together explained 73% of UADT cancer burden of which nearly 29% was explained by smoking alone, less than 1% due to alcohol on its own and 44% by the joint effect of tobacco and alcohol. Tobacco and alcohol together explained a larger proportion of hypopharyngeal\\/laryngeal cancer (PAR=85%) than oropharyngeal (PAR=74%), esophageal (PAR=67%) and oral cancer (PAR=61%). Tobacco and alcohol together explain only about half of the total UADT cancer burden among women. Geographically, tobacco and alcohol explained a larger proportion of UADT cancer in central (PAR=84%) than southern (PAR=72%) and western Europe (PAR=67%). While the majority of the UADT cancers in Europe are due to tobacco or the joint effect of tobacco and alcohol, our results support a significant role for other risk factors in particular, for oral and oropharyngeal cancers and also for UADT cancers in southern and western Europe.

  4. Financial impact estimate for radioinduced cancer treatment following RDD scenarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Gabriel F.Q. da; Andrade, Edson R. de; Rebello, Wilson F.; Araujo, Olga M.O., E-mail: profgabriel.fisica@gmail.com, E-mail: fisica.dna@gmail.com, E-mail: olgafisica2013@hotmail.com, E-mail: rebello@ime.eb.br [Instituto Militar de Engenharia (IME), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Secao de Engenharia Nuclear

    2015-07-01

    This study aims to propose a methodology to estimate the possible financial impact of cancer development and treatment over general public as consequence of a radiological event. Asymmetric threats involving radioactive materials and its consequences are being studied by some groups worldwide but without using the concept of methodology of convergence. This concept is based on combining single platforms into a package in order to effectively support the decision-making process during an emergency. A Radiological Dispersive Device (RDD) can be built of small amounts of explosive and radioactive material which are packed together. A fictional scenario was modeled using cesium-137. The venue is the Athletes Park, located in the city of Rio de Janeiro which will host large events such as Olympics .The RDD explosion was modeled using the HotSpot Health Physics Codes 3.0, which provided radioactive isodoses over the affected location with thresholds in agreement with those recommended by Brazilian National Nuclear Energy Commission (CNEN). Also included in the results, Hotspot simulated the contaminated area and, the total effective dose for individuals. Estimative about excess relative risk (ERR) were performed by using Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiation V (BEIR V) report and TECDOC-870 (IAEA - Methods for Estimating the Probability of Cancer from Occupation Radiation Exposure). Leukemia was considered as morbidity for this study due to its short period of latency. The Total Body Irradiation was considered as a treatment and the financial impact was roughly estimated about coasts excluding logistical issues which should be calculated for each specific demand in further studies. (author)

  5. Financial impact estimate for radioinduced cancer treatment following RDD scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Gabriel F.Q. da; Andrade, Edson R. de; Rebello, Wilson F.; Araujo, Olga M.O.

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to propose a methodology to estimate the possible financial impact of cancer development and treatment over general public as consequence of a radiological event. Asymmetric threats involving radioactive materials and its consequences are being studied by some groups worldwide but without using the concept of methodology of convergence. This concept is based on combining single platforms into a package in order to effectively support the decision-making process during an emergency. A Radiological Dispersive Device (RDD) can be built of small amounts of explosive and radioactive material which are packed together. A fictional scenario was modeled using cesium-137. The venue is the Athletes Park, located in the city of Rio de Janeiro which will host large events such as Olympics .The RDD explosion was modeled using the HotSpot Health Physics Codes 3.0, which provided radioactive isodoses over the affected location with thresholds in agreement with those recommended by Brazilian National Nuclear Energy Commission (CNEN). Also included in the results, Hotspot simulated the contaminated area and, the total effective dose for individuals. Estimative about excess relative risk (ERR) were performed by using Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiation V (BEIR V) report and TECDOC-870 (IAEA - Methods for Estimating the Probability of Cancer from Occupation Radiation Exposure). Leukemia was considered as morbidity for this study due to its short period of latency. The Total Body Irradiation was considered as a treatment and the financial impact was roughly estimated about coasts excluding logistical issues which should be calculated for each specific demand in further studies. (author)

  6. Sugars, sucrose and colorectal cancer risk: the Fukuoka colorectal cancer study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhenjie; Uchida, Kazuhiro; Ohnaka, Keizo; Morita, Makiko; Toyomura, Kengo; Kono, Suminori; Ueki, Takashi; Tanaka, Masao; Kakeji, Yoshihiro; Maehara, Yoshihiko; Okamura, Takeshi; Ikejiri, Koji; Futami, Kitaroh; Maekawa, Takafumi; Yasunami, Yohichi; Takenaka, Kenji; Ichimiya, Hitoshi; Terasaka, Reiji

    2014-05-01

    A diet high in sugars may promote colorectal carcinogenesis, but it remains uncertain whether high intake of sugars or sucrose confers increased risk of colorectal cancer. The authors investigated the associations of sugars and sucrose intake with colorectal cancer risk in a community-based case-control study in Japan. The study subjects comprised 816 incident cases of colorectal cancer and 815 community controls. Consumption frequencies and portion sizes of 148 food and beverage items were ascertained by a computer-assisted interview. The authors used the consumption of 29 food items to estimate sugars and sucrose intake. The odds ratios of colorectal cancer risk according to intake categories were obtained using a logistic regression model with adjustment for potential confounding variables. Overall, intakes of sugars and sucrose were not related to colorectal cancer risk either in men or women. The association between sugars intake and colorectal cancer risk differed by smoking status and alcohol use in men, but not in women. In men, sugars intake tended to be associated with colorectal cancer risk inversely among never-smokers and positively among male ever-smokers (interaction p=0.01). Sugars intake was associated with an increased risk among men with no alcohol consumption, but was unrelated to the risk among male alcohol drinkers (interaction p=0.02). Body mass index did not modify the association with sugars intake in either men or women. Sugars intake was associated with increased risk of colorectal cancer among smokers and non-alcohol drinkers in men selectively.

  7. Estimates of health risk from exposure to radioactive pollutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sullivan, R.E.; Nelson, N.S.; Ellett, W.H.; Dunning, D.E. Jr.; Leggett, R.W.; Yalcintas, M.G.; Eckerman, K.F.

    1981-11-01

    A dosimetric and health effects analysis has been performed for the Office of Radiation Programs of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to assess potential hazards from radioactive pollutants. Contemporary dosimetric methods were used to obtain estimates of dose rates to reference organs from internal exposures due to either inhalation of contaminated air or ingestion of contaminated food, or from external exposures due to either immersion in contaminated air or proximity to contaminated ground surfaces. These dose rates were then used to estimate the number of premature cancer deaths arising from such exposures and the corresponding number of years of life lost in a cohort of 100,000 persons, all simultaneously liveborn and all going through life with the same risks of dying from competing causes. The risk of dying from a competing cause for a given year was taken to be the probability of dying from all causes as given in a recent actuarial life table for the total US popula six times larger than the first reservoir.onunding. Analytical work cthe Department of Energy

  8. Selected medical conditions and risk of pancreatic cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Sara H

    2012-01-01

    We review the current evidence for associations of several medical conditions with risk of pancreatic cancer, including allergies, pancreatitis, gall bladder disease, cholecystectomy, ulcers, gastrectomy, appendectomy, and tonsillectomy. There are consistent findings of reduced risk associated with presence of self-reported allergies, particularly hay fever but not asthma; data on other allergies are limited and inconclusive. Several studies provide evidence that patients with pancreatic cancer are more likely than comparison groups to report pancreatitis. Those studies that investigated the time between onset of pancreatitis and diagnosis of pancreatic cancer found that risk estimates declined with longer periods of time; however, increased risks were noted for long-term pancreatitis, indicating that this condition is both a risk factor and a sign of early disease. Increased risk was reported in association with cholelithiasis, but the few studies that considered time before diagnosis of cancer did not find increased risk for cholelithiasis diagnosed in the more distant past. There is weak evidence that cholecystectomy 2 or more years before cancer diagnosis is related to risk, but this is based on only a few studies. There is no consistent association between ulcers and risk, while gastrectomy may increase risk. Overall, study of these conditions, particularly those that are rare, presents methodologic challenges. Time between diagnoses is likely to be important but is not considered in most studies. Lack of adequate control in several studies for risk factors such as smoking and heavy alcohol use also makes it difficult to draw firm conclusions about these results. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Genetic testing and your cancer risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... patientinstructions/000842.htm Genetic testing and your cancer risk To use the sharing features on this page, ... urac.org). URAC's accreditation program is an independent audit to verify that A.D.A.M. follows ...

  10. Cancer risk among atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schull, W.J.

    1992-01-01

    Continued mortality surveillance and incidence studies have revealed the risk of cancer among the survivors of the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki to increase with increasing dose. Among the sites where the frequency of cancer can be clearly shown to be dose-related are the following: female breast, colon, esophagus, lung, ovary, stomach, thyroid, urinary bladder and leukemia. Although the evidence is less compelling, cancers of the liver, salivary glands, and skin as well as multiple myeloma appear increased too. This increase generally manifests itself when the survivors reach those ages where the natural incidence of cancer begins to rise. Risk is, however, related to the age of the individual at the time of the bombing; the highest risks are associated with individuals who were exposed in the first two decades of life. Current evidence suggests these higher risks decline with increasing time since exposure

  11. Application of Fuzzy Logic in Oral Cancer Risk Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scrobotă, Ioana; Băciuț, Grigore; Filip, Adriana Gabriela; Todor, Bianca; Blaga, Florin; Băciuț, Mihaela Felicia

    2017-05-01

    The mapping of the malignization mechanism is still incomplete, but oxidative stress is strongly correlated to carcinogenesis. In our research, using fuzzy logic, we aimed to estimate the oxidative stress related-cancerization risk of the oral potentially malignant disorders. Serum from 16 patients diagnosed (clinical and histopathological) with oral potentially malignant disorders (Dept. of Cranio-Maxillofacial Surgery and Radiology, "Iuliu Hațieganu" University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Cluj Napoca, Romania) was processed fluorometric for malondialdehyde and proton donors assays (Dept. of Physiology,"Iuliu Hațieganu" University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Cluj-Napoca, Romania). The values were used as inputs, they were associated linguistic terms using MIN-MAX method and 25 IF-THEN inference rules were generated to estimate the output value, the cancerization risk appreciated on a scale from 1 to 10 - IF malondialdehyde is very high and donors protons are very low THEN the cancer risk is reaching the maximum value (Dept. of Industrial Engineering, Faculty of Managerial and Technological Engineering, University of Oradea, Oradea, Romania) (2012-2014). We estimated the cancerization risk of the oral potentially malignant disorders by implementing the multi-criteria decision support system based on serum malondialdehyde and proton donors' values. The risk was estimated as a concrete numerical value on a scale from 1 to 10 depending on the input numerical/linguistic value. The multi-criteria decision support system proposed by us, integrated into a more complex computerized decision support system, could be used as an important aid in oral cancer screening and establish future medical decision in oral potentially malignant disorders.

  12. Frozen shoulder and risk of cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Alma B; Horváth-Puhó, Erzsébet; Ehrenstein, Vera

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Frozen shoulder might be a complication or a presenting symptom of cancer. We examined the risk of a cancer diagnosis after an incident diagnosis of frozen shoulder. METHODS: We used prospectively collected data from Danish registries to identify patients with frozen shoulder during 1...

  13. Factors that modify risks of radiation-induced cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabrikant, J.I.

    1988-11-01

    The collective influence of biologic and physical factors that modify risks of radiation-induced cancer introduces uncertainties sufficient to deny precision of estimates of human cancer risk that can be calculated for low-dose radiation in exposed populations. The important biologic characteristics include the tissue sites and cell types, baseline cancer incidence, minimum latent period, time-to-tumor recognition, and the influence of individual host (age and sex) and competing etiologic influences. Physical factors include radiation dose, dose rate, and radiation quality. Statistical factors include time-response projection models, risk coefficients, and dose-response relationships. Other modifying factors include other carcinogens, and other biological sources (hormonal status, immune status, hereditary factors)

  14. Radiation risk estimation based on measurement error models

    CERN Document Server

    Masiuk, Sergii; Shklyar, Sergiy; Chepurny, Mykola; Likhtarov, Illya

    2017-01-01

    This monograph discusses statistics and risk estimates applied to radiation damage under the presence of measurement errors. The first part covers nonlinear measurement error models, with a particular emphasis on efficiency of regression parameter estimators. In the second part, risk estimation in models with measurement errors is considered. Efficiency of the methods presented is verified using data from radio-epidemiological studies.

  15. Inflammatory Genetic Markers of Prostate Cancer Risk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tindall, Elizabeth A.; Hayes, Vanessa M. [Cancer Genetics Group, Children’s Cancer Institute Australia for Medical Research, Lowy Cancer Research Centre, University of New South Wales, PO Box 81, Randwick, NSW 2031 (Australia); University of New South Wales, Kensington Campus, Sydney, NSW 2052 (Australia); Petersen, Desiree C., E-mail: dpetersen@ccia.unsw.edu.au [Cancer Genetics Group, Children’s Cancer Institute Australia for Medical Research, Lowy Cancer Research Centre, University of New South Wales, PO Box 81, Randwick, NSW 2031 (Australia)

    2010-06-08

    Prostate cancer is the most common cancer in Western society males, with incidence rates predicted to rise with global aging. Etiology of prostate cancer is however poorly understood, while current diagnostic tools can be invasive (digital rectal exam or biopsy) and/or lack specificity for the disease (prostate-specific antigen (PSA) testing). Substantial histological, epidemiological and molecular genetic evidence indicates that inflammation is important in prostate cancer pathogenesis. In this review, we summarize the current status of inflammatory genetic markers influencing susceptibility to prostate cancer. The focus will be on inflammatory cytokines regulating T-helper cell and chemokine homeostasis, together with the Toll-like receptors as key players in the host innate immune system. Although association studies indicating a genetic basis for prostate cancer are presently limited mainly due to lack of replication, larger and more ethnically and clinically defined study populations may help elucidate the true contribution of inflammatory gene variants to prostate cancer risk.

  16. Inflammatory Genetic Markers of Prostate Cancer Risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tindall, Elizabeth A.; Hayes, Vanessa M.; Petersen, Desiree C.

    2010-01-01

    Prostate cancer is the most common cancer in Western society males, with incidence rates predicted to rise with global aging. Etiology of prostate cancer is however poorly understood, while current diagnostic tools can be invasive (digital rectal exam or biopsy) and/or lack specificity for the disease (prostate-specific antigen (PSA) testing). Substantial histological, epidemiological and molecular genetic evidence indicates that inflammation is important in prostate cancer pathogenesis. In this review, we summarize the current status of inflammatory genetic markers influencing susceptibility to prostate cancer. The focus will be on inflammatory cytokines regulating T-helper cell and chemokine homeostasis, together with the Toll-like receptors as key players in the host innate immune system. Although association studies indicating a genetic basis for prostate cancer are presently limited mainly due to lack of replication, larger and more ethnically and clinically defined study populations may help elucidate the true contribution of inflammatory gene variants to prostate cancer risk

  17. Benign breast disease and risk of thyroid cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Juhua; Hendryx, Michael; Nassir, Rami; Cheng, Ting-Yuan David; Lane, Dorothy; Margolis, Karen L

    2017-09-01

    It has been suggested that breast and thyroid diseases may be linked. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between benign breast disease and subsequent risk of thyroid cancer. Postmenopausal women (n = 133,875) aged 50-79 years were followed up for a mean of 14 years. Benign breast disease was defined by history of biopsy. Incident thyroid cancer cases were confirmed by medical record review. Multivariable Cox proportional hazard modeling was used to estimate hazard ratios. There were 370 incident thyroid cancer cases during the follow-up period. Compared to women without BBD, women with BBD had a significant increased risk of thyroid cancer after adjusting for potential confounders (HR 1.38 95% CI 1.10-1.73), especially for women with more than two biopsies (HR 1.59 95% CI 1.10-2.26). There were no significant differences in thyroid tumor size, stage or histologic types between women with and without BBD. Our large prospective study observed that postmenopausal women with BBD had an increased risk for thyroid cancer compared with women without BBD. A more detailed investigation of thyroid cancer risk according to different subtypes of benign breast disease is needed to better understand the association observed between thyroid and benign breast diseases.

  18. Industrial risk factors for colorectal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lashner, B.A.; Epstein, S.S.

    1990-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is the second most common malignancy in the United States, and its incidence rates have sharply increased recently, especially in males. Industrial exposures, both occupational and environmental, are important colorectal cancer risk factors that are generally unrecognized by clinicians. Migration studies have documented that colorectal cancer is strongly associated with environmental risk factors. The causal role of occupational exposures is evidenced by a substantial literature associating specific work practices with increased colorectal cancer risks. Industrially related environmental exposures, including polluted drinking water and ionizing radiation, have also been associated with excess risks. Currently, there is a tendency to attribute colorectal cancer, largely or exclusively, to dietary and other lifestyle factors, thus neglecting these industrially related effects. Concerted efforts are needed to recognize the causal role of industrial risk factors and to encourage government and industry to reduce carcinogenic exposures. Furthermore, cost-effective screening programs for high-risk population groups are critically needed to further reduce deaths from colorectal cancer. 143 references

  19. Solid cancer risks from radiation exposure for the Australian population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wise, K.N.

    2003-01-01

    Estimates are made of the risks to the Australian population as a function of age and gender for mortality or morbidity for all solid cancers after exposure to radiation. Excess relative risk (ERR) and excess absolute risk (EAR) models are used. The model coefficients are re-evaluated for radiation doses expressed as effective dose using data from the Japanese Life Span Study. Life-table methods are used throughout and the risk measures studied are: the risk of exposure related death, RERD and the risk of exposure related cancer, RERC. Australian life-table data and the age-specific cancer incidence and mortality rates of Australian males and females are taken from recent published tables. No dose and dose-rate effectiveness factor is applied. Sources of uncertainty used to calculate the confidence regions for the estimated risks include the statistical uncertainties of the model parameters and of the extrapolation of the risks beyond the period supported by the epidemiological data. Summary values of the risks are reported as averages of those calculated from the ERR and the EAR models. For males, the mortality risks per sievert range from 14% for 0-9 year age group, 7% at 30-39 years and 4% at 50-59 years. Corresponding values for females are 20%, 10% and 6%. Incidence risks are higher: for males the estimates are 32% for the 0-9 year group, 12% at 30-39 and 5% at 50-59. Corresponding values for females are 56%, 20% and 8%. The 90% confidence regions are about ± 50% of these values. Estimates are given for the risks from CT whole-body scanning or virtual colonoscopy which could be used for cancer screening. If used at 3 year intervals and the effective dose per procedure is 10 mSv, then the RERD for males beginning screening at 40, 50 and 60 years is 0.4%, 0.3% and 0.1%, respectively and for females, 0.6%, 0.4% and 0.2%, respectively. RERD estimates for a 5 year interval between screens are about one-third smaller. Copyright (2003) Australasian College of

  20. Nutrients and Risk of Colon Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Les Mery

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Dietary fats are thought to be important in the etiology of colon cancer. However, the evidence linking them is inconclusive. Studies on dietary protein, cholesterol and carbohydrate and the risk of colon cancer are also inconsistent. This study examined the association between dietary intake of protein, fats, cholesterol and carbohydrates, and the risk of colon cancer. Mailed questionnaires were completed by 1731 individuals with histologically confirmed cases of colon cancer and 3097 population controls between 1994 and 1997 in seven Canadian provinces. Measurements included socio-economic status, lifestyle habits and diet. A 69-item food frequency questionnaire was used to provide data on eating habits from two years before the study. Odds ratios (OR and 95% confidence intervals (CI were computed using unconditional logistic regression. The nutrients were categorized by quartiles based on the distributions among the controls. Intake of polyunsaturated fat, trans-fat and cholesterol were significantly associated with the risk of colon cancer; the ORs for the highest quartiles were 1.36 (95% CI, 1.02–1.80, 1.37 (95% CI, 1.10–1.71 and 1.42 (95% CI, 1.10–1.84, respectively. The association was stronger with proximal colon cancer (PCC. An increased risk was also observed with increasing intake of sucrose for both proximal and distal colon cancers; the ORs for the highest quartiles were 1.67 (95% CI, 1.22–2.29 for PCC and 1.58 (95% CI, 1.18–2.10 for distal colon cancer (DCC. An elevated risk of PCC was also found with increased lactose intake. Our findings provide evidence that a diet low in fat and sucrose could reduce the risk of various colon cancers.

  1. Nutrients and Risk of Colon Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Jinfu, E-mail: Jinfu.hu@phac-aspc.gc.ca [Evidence and Risk Assessment Division, Centre for Chronic Disease Prevention and Control, Public Health Agency of Canada, 785 Carling Avenue, AL: 6807B, Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0K9 (Canada); La Vecchia, Carlo [Istituto di Ricerche Farmacologiche “Mario Negri,” Via La Masa, 19-20156 Milan (Italy); Istituto di Statistica Medica e Biometria, Università degli Studi di Milano, Via Venezian, 1, 20133 Milan (Italy); Negri, Eva [Istituto di Ricerche Farmacologiche “Mario Negri,” Via La Masa, 19-20156 Milan (Italy); Mery, Les [Evidence and Risk Assessment Division, Centre for Chronic Disease Prevention and Control, Public Health Agency of Canada, 785 Carling Avenue, AL: 6807B, Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0K9 (Canada)

    2010-02-10

    Dietary fats are thought to be important in the etiology of colon cancer. However, the evidence linking them is inconclusive. Studies on dietary protein, cholesterol and carbohydrate and the risk of colon cancer are also inconsistent. This study examined the association between dietary intake of protein, fats, cholesterol and carbohydrates, and the risk of colon cancer. Mailed questionnaires were completed by 1731 individuals with histologically confirmed cases of colon cancer and 3097 population controls between 1994 and 1997 in seven Canadian provinces. Measurements included socio-economic status, lifestyle habits and diet. A 69-item food frequency questionnaire was used to provide data on eating habits from two years before the study. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were computed using unconditional logistic regression. The nutrients were categorized by quartiles based on the distributions among the controls. Intake of polyunsaturated fat, trans-fat and cholesterol were significantly associated with the risk of colon cancer; the ORs for the highest quartiles were 1.36 (95% CI, 1.02–1.80), 1.37 (95% CI, 1.10–1.71) and 1.42 (95% CI, 1.10–1.84), respectively. The association was stronger with proximal colon cancer (PCC). An increased risk was also observed with increasing intake of sucrose for both proximal and distal colon cancers; the ORs for the highest quartiles were 1.67 (95% CI, 1.22–2.29) for PCC and 1.58 (95% CI, 1.18–2.10) for distal colon cancer (DCC). An elevated risk of PCC was also found with increased lactose intake. Our findings provide evidence that a diet low in fat and sucrose could reduce the risk of various colon cancers.

  2. Nutrients and Risk of Colon Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, Jinfu; La Vecchia, Carlo; Negri, Eva; Mery, Les

    2010-01-01

    Dietary fats are thought to be important in the etiology of colon cancer. However, the evidence linking them is inconclusive. Studies on dietary protein, cholesterol and carbohydrate and the risk of colon cancer are also inconsistent. This study examined the association between dietary intake of protein, fats, cholesterol and carbohydrates, and the risk of colon cancer. Mailed questionnaires were completed by 1731 individuals with histologically confirmed cases of colon cancer and 3097 population controls between 1994 and 1997 in seven Canadian provinces. Measurements included socio-economic status, lifestyle habits and diet. A 69-item food frequency questionnaire was used to provide data on eating habits from two years before the study. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were computed using unconditional logistic regression. The nutrients were categorized by quartiles based on the distributions among the controls. Intake of polyunsaturated fat, trans-fat and cholesterol were significantly associated with the risk of colon cancer; the ORs for the highest quartiles were 1.36 (95% CI, 1.02–1.80), 1.37 (95% CI, 1.10–1.71) and 1.42 (95% CI, 1.10–1.84), respectively. The association was stronger with proximal colon cancer (PCC). An increased risk was also observed with increasing intake of sucrose for both proximal and distal colon cancers; the ORs for the highest quartiles were 1.67 (95% CI, 1.22–2.29) for PCC and 1.58 (95% CI, 1.18–2.10) for distal colon cancer (DCC). An elevated risk of PCC was also found with increased lactose intake. Our findings provide evidence that a diet low in fat and sucrose could reduce the risk of various colon cancers

  3. Cancer risk from low doses of ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auvinen, A.

    1997-06-01

    The aim of the study was to estimate cancer risk from small doses of ionizing radiation from various sources, including both external and internal exposure. The types of radiation included alpha, gamma, and neutron radiation. A nationwide follow-up study covering the years up to 1992 revealed no significant association between fallout from the Chernobyl accident and incidence of childhood leukemia. An excess of eight cases or more per year could be excluded. However, some indication of an increase was evident in the most heavily affected areas. Furthermore, the risk estimates were in accordance with those reported from Hiroshima and Nagasaki, although the confidence intervals were wide. (282 refs.)

  4. Cancer risk from low doses of ionizing radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Auvinen, A

    1997-06-01

    The aim of the study was to estimate cancer risk from small doses of ionizing radiation from various sources, including both external and internal exposure. The types of radiation included alpha, gamma, and neutron radiation. A nationwide follow-up study covering the years up to 1992 revealed no significant association between fallout from the Chernobyl accident and incidence of childhood leukemia. An excess of eight cases or more per year could be excluded. However, some indication of an increase was evident in the most heavily affected areas. Furthermore, the risk estimates were in accordance with those reported from Hiroshima and Nagasaki, although the confidence intervals were wide. (282 refs.).

  5. Risk-benefit analysis of 18FDG PET cancer screening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murano, Takeshi; Daisaki, Hiromitsu; Terauchi, Takashi; Iinuma, Takeshi; Tateno, Yukio; Tateishi, Ukihide; Kato, Kazuaki; Inoue, Tomio

    2008-01-01

    The benefits of 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose ( 18 FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) cancer screening are expected to include a large population of examinees and are intended for a healthy group. Therefore, we attempted to determine the benefit/risk ratio, estimated risk of radiation exposure, and benefit of cancer detection. We used software that embodied the method of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) to calculate the average duration of life of radiation exposure. We calculated the lifesaving person years of benefit to be obtained by 18 FDG PET cancer screening detection. We also calculated the benefit/risk ratio using life-shortening and lifesaving person years. According to age, the benefit/risk ratio was more than 1 at 35-39 years old for males and 30-34 years old for females. 18 FDG PET cancer screening also is effective for examinees older than this. A risk-benefit analysis of 18 FDG-PET/computed tomography (CT) cancer screening will be necessary in the future. (author)

  6. Physical activity and lung cancer risk in men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Vikki; Parent, Marie-Elise; Pintos, Javier; Abrahamowicz, Michal; Danieli, Coraline; Richardson, Lesley; Bourbonnais, Robert; Gauvin, Lise; Siemiatycki, Jack; Koushik, Anita

    2017-04-01

    Although evidence has accumulated that recreational physical activities (PA) may reduce lung cancer risk, there is little evidence concerning the possible role of a potentially more important source of PA, namely occupational PA. We investigated both recreational and lifetime occupational PA in relation to lung cancer risk in a population-based case-control study in Montreal, Canada (N CASES  = 727; N CONTROLS  = 1,351). Unconditional logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (OR), separately for men and women, adjusting for smoking, exposure to occupational carcinogens, and sociodemographic and lifestyle factors. In both sexes, increasing recreational PA was associated with a lower lung cancer risk (OR MEN  = 0.66, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.47-0.92; OR WOMEN  = 0.55, 95% CI 0.34-0.88, comparing the highest versus lowest tertiles). For occupational PA, no association was observed among women, while increasing occupational PA was associated with increased risk among men (OR MEN  = 1.96, 95% CI 1.27-3.01). ORs were not modified by occupational lung carcinogen exposure, body mass index, and smoking level; results were similar across lung cancer histological types. Our results support the previous findings for recreational PA and lung cancer risk. Unexpectedly, our findings suggest a positive association for occupational PA; this requires replication and more detailed investigation.

  7. HUMAN PROSTATE CANCER RISK FACTORS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prostate cancer has the highest prevalence of any non-skin cancer in the human body, with similar likelihood of neoplastic foci found within the prostates of men around the world regardless of diet, occupation, lifestyle, or other factors. Essentially all men with circulating an...

  8. Cardiac risks in multimodal breast cancer treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Budach, W. [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Univ. of Duesseldorf (Germany)

    2007-12-15

    Almost all breast cancer patients receive one or more adjuvant treatments consisting of tamoxifen, aromatase inhibitors, LHRH-antogonists, chemotherapy, trastuzumab, and radiotherapy. These treatments have been shown to considerably improve overall survival. As a result, long term survival for 15 and more years is achieved in more than two thirds of newly diagnosed breast cancer patients. Therefore, more interest in short and long term risks of adjuvant treatments has been arisen. The focus of this article is the long term cardiac risks of adjuvant radiotherapy in breast cancer patients and possible interactions with chemotherapy and trastuzumab. (orig.)

  9. Prognostic markers for colorectal cancer: estimating ploidy and stroma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danielsen, H E; Hveem, T S; Domingo, E; Pradhan, M; Kleppe, A; Syvertsen, R A; Kostolomov, I; Nesheim, J A; Askautrud, H A; Nesbakken, A; Lothe, R A; Svindland, A; Shepherd, N; Novelli, M; Johnstone, E; Tomlinson, I; Kerr, R; Kerr, D J

    2018-03-01

    We report here the prognostic value of ploidy and digital tumour-stromal morphometric analyses using material from 2624 patients with early stage colorectal cancer (CRC). DNA content (ploidy) and stroma-tumour fraction were estimated using automated digital imaging systems and DNA was extracted from sections of formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue for analysis of microsatellite instability. Samples were available from 1092 patients recruited to the QUASAR 2 trial and two large observational series (Gloucester, n = 954; Oslo University Hospital, n = 578). Resultant biomarkers were analysed for prognostic impact using 5-year cancer-specific survival (CSS) as the clinical end point. Ploidy and stroma-tumour fraction were significantly prognostic in a multivariate model adjusted for age, adjuvant treatment, and pathological T-stage in stage II patients, and the combination of ploidy and stroma-tumour fraction was found to stratify these patients into three clinically useful groups; 5-year CSS 90% versus 83% versus 73% [hazard ratio (HR) = 1.77 (95% confidence interval (95% CI): 1.13-2.77) and HR = 2.95 (95% CI: 1.73-5.03), P < 0.001]. A novel biomarker, combining estimates of ploidy and stroma-tumour fraction, sampled from FFPE tissue, identifies stage II CRC patients with low, intermediate or high risk of CRC disease specific death, and can reliably stratify clinically relevant patient sub-populations with differential risks of tumour recurrence and may support choice of adjuvant therapy for these individuals.

  10. Mediterranean dietary pattern and risk of breast cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth Couto

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A Mediterranean diet has a recognized beneficial effect on health and longevity, with a protective influence on several cancers. However, its association with breast cancer risk remains unclear. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to investigate whether adherence to a Mediterranean dietary pattern influences breast cancer risk. DESIGN: The Swedish Women's Lifestyle and Health cohort study includes 49,258 women aged 30 to 49 years at recruitment in 1991-1992. Consumption of foods and beverages was measured at enrollment using a food frequency questionnaire. A Mediterranean diet score was constructed based on the consumption of alcohol, vegetables, fruits, legumes, cereals, fish, the ratio of unsaturated to saturated fat, and dairy and meat products. Relative risks (RR for breast cancer and specific tumor characteristics (invasiveness, histological type, estrogen/progesterone receptor status, malignancy grade and stage associated with this score were estimated using Cox regression controlling for potential confounders. RESULTS: 1,278 incident breast cancers were diagnosed. Adherence to a Mediterranean dietary pattern was not statistically significantly associated with reduced risk of breast cancer overall, or with specific breast tumor characteristics. A RR (95% confidence interval for breast cancer associated with a two-point increment in the Mediterranean diet score was 1.08 (1.00-1.15 in all women, and 1.10 (1.01-1.21 and 1.02 (0.91-1.15 in premenopausal and postmenopausal women, respectively. When alcohol was excluded from the Mediterranean diet score, results became not statistically significant. CONCLUSIONS: Adherence to a Mediterranean dietary pattern did not decrease breast cancer risk in this cohort of relatively young women.

  11. PALB2, CHEK2 and ATM rare variants and cancer risk: Data from COGS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.C. Southey (Melissa); D. Goldgar (David); R. Winqvist (Robert); K. Pykäs (Katri); F.J. Couch (Fergus); M. Tischkowitz (Marc); W.D. Foulkes (William); J. Dennis (Joe); K. Michailidou (Kyriaki); E.J. van Rensburg (Elizabeth); T. Heikkinen (Tuomas); H. Nevanlinna (Heli); J.L. Hopper (John); T. Dörk (Thilo); K.B.M. Claes (Kathleen B.M.); J.S. Reis-Filho (Jorge); Teo, Z.L. (Zhi Ling); P. Radice (Paolo); Catucci, I. (Irene); P. Peterlongo (Paolo); H. Tsimiklis (Helen); F. Odefrey (Fabrice); J.G. Dowty (James); M.K. Schmidt (Marjanka); A. Broeks (Annegien); F.B.L. Hogervorst (Frans); S. Verhoef; T.A. Carpenter (Adrian); C. Clarke (Christine); R.J. Scott (Rodney); P.A. Fasching (Peter); L. Haeberle (Lothar); A.B. Ekici (Arif); M.W. Beckmann (Matthias); J. Peto (Julian); I. dos Santos Silva (Isabel); O. Fletcher (Olivia); Johnson, N. (Nichola); M.K. Bolla (Manjeet K.); Sawyer, E.J. (Elinor J.); I.P. Tomlinson (Ian); M. Kerin (Michael); N. Miller (Nicola); Marme, F. (Federik); B. Burwinkel (Barbara); R. Yang (Rongxi); P. Guénel (Pascal); T. Truong (Thérèse); F. Menegaux (Florence); Sanchez, M. (Marie); S.E. Bojesen (Stig); S.F. Nielsen (Sune); H. Flyger (Henrik); J. Benítez (Javier); M.P. Zamora (Pilar); J.I.A. Perez (Jose Ignacio Arias); P. Menéndez (Primitiva); H. Anton-Culver (Hoda); S.L. Neuhausen (Susan); A. Ziogas (Argyrios); C.A. Clarke (Christina); H. Brenner (Hermann); Arndt, V. (Volker); C. Stegmaier (Christa); H. Brauch (Hiltrud); T. Brüning (Thomas); Y.-D. Ko (Yon-Dschun); Muranen, T.A. (Taru A.); K. Aittomäki (Kristiina); C. Blomqvist (Carl); N.V. Bogdanova (Natalia); Antonenkova, N.N. (Natalia N.); A. Lindblom (Annika); S. Margolin (Sara); A. Mannermaa (Arto); V. Kataja (Vesa); V-M. Kosma (Veli-Matti); J.M. Hartikainen (J.); A.B. Spurdle (Amanda); E. Wauters (Erwin); D. Smeets (Dominiek); B. Beuselinck (B.); O.A.M. Floris; J. Chang-Claude (Jenny); Rudolph, A. (Anja); P. Seibold (Petra); D. Flesch-Janys (Dieter); J.E. Olson (Janet); C. Vachon (Celine); V.S. Pankratz (Shane); C.A. McLean (Catriona Ann); C.A. Haiman (Christopher A.); B.E. Henderson (Brian); F.R. Schumacher (Fredrick R); L. Le Marchand (Loic); V. Kristensen (Vessela); Alnæs, G.G. (Grethe Grenaker); W. Zheng (Wei); D. Hunter (David); S. Lindstrom (Stephen); Hankinson, S.E. (Susan E.); P. Kraft (Peter); I.L. Andrulis (Irene); J.A. Knight (Julia); Glendon, G. (Gord); A.-M. Mulligan (Anna-Marie); A. Jukkola-Vuorinen (Arja); Grip, M. (Mervi); S. Kauppila (Saila); P. Devilee (Peter); R.A.E.M. Tollenaar (Rob); C.M. Seynaeve (Caroline); A. Hollestelle (Antoinette); M. García-Closas (Montserrat); J.D. Figueroa (Jonine); S.J. Chanock (Stephen); J. Lissowska (Jolanta); K. Czene (Kamila); H. Darabi (Hatef); M. Eriksson (Mats); D. Eccles (Diana); M. Rafiq (Meena); W. Tapper (William); S.M. Gerty (Sue); M.J. Hooning (Maartje); J.W.M. Martens (John); J.M. Collée (Margriet); M.M.A. Tilanus-Linthorst (Madeleine); P. Hall (Per); J. Li (Jingmei); J.S. Brand (Judith S.); K. Humphreys (Keith); A. Cox (Angela); M.W.R. Reed (Malcolm); C. Luccarini (Craig); Baynes, C. (Caroline); A.M. Dunning (Alison); U. Hamann (Ute); D. Torres (Diana); H.U. Ulmer (Hans); T. Rud̈iger (Thomas); A. Jakubowska (Anna); J. Lubinski (Jan); K. Jaworska (Katarzyna); Durda, K. (Katarzyna); S. Slager (Susan); A.E. Toland (Amanda); C.B. Ambrosone (Christine); Yannoukakos, D. (Drakoulis); A.J. Swerdlow (Anthony ); A. Ashworth (Alan); N. Orr (Nick); M. Jones (Michael); A. González-Neira (Anna); G. Pita (Guillermo); M.R. Alonso (Rosario); N. Álvarez (Nuria); D. Herrero (Daniel); D.C. Tessier (Daniel C.); D. Vincent (Daniel); F. Bacot (Francois); J. Simard (Jacques); M. Dumont (Martine); Soucy, P. (Penny); R. Eeles (Rosalind); K.R. Muir (K.); F. Wiklund (Fredrik); H. Grönberg (Henrik); Schleutker, J. (Johanna); B.G. Nordestgaard (Børge); M. Weischer (Maren); S.P.L. Travis (Simon); D. Neal (David); J. Donovan (Jenny); F. Hamdy (Freddie); K.T. Khaw; Stanford, J.L. (Janet L.); W.J. Blot (William); S.N. Thibodeau (Stephen); D.J. Schaid (D.); Kelley, J.L. (Joseph L.); Maier, C. (Christiane); A. Kibel (Adam); C. Cybulski (Cezary); L.A. Cannon-Albright (Lisa); K. Butterbach (Katja); Park, J. (Jong); R. Kaneva (Radka); Batra, J. (Jyotsna); P.J. Teixeira; Z. Kote-Jarai; A.A. Al Olama (Ali Amin); S. Benlloch (Sara); S.P. Renner (S.); A. Hartmann (Arndt); Hein, A. (Alexander); Ruebner, M. (Matthias); Lambrechts, D. (Diether); E. Van Nieuwenhuysen (Els); I. Vergote (Ignace); Lambretchs, S. (Sandrina); J.A. Doherty (Jennifer A.); M.A. Rossing (Mary Anne); Nickels, S. (Stefan); U. Eilber (Ursula); S. Wang-Gohrke (Shan); K. Odunsi (Kunle); Sucheston-Campbell, L.E. (Lara E.); G. Friel (Grace); G. Lurie (Galina); Killeen, J.L. (Jeffrey L.); L.R. Wilkens (Lynne R.); M.T. Goodman (Marc); I.B. Runnebaum (Ingo); P. Hillemanns (Peter); L.M. Pelttari (Liisa); R. Butzow (Ralf); F. Modugno (Francesmary); R. Edwards (Robert); R.B. Ness (Roberta); K.B. Moysich (Kirsten); Bois, A. (Andreas du); P.U. Heitz; P. Harter (Philipp); Kommoss, S. (Stefan); Karlan, B.Y. (Beth Y.); C.S. Walsh (Christine); K.J. Lester (Kathryn); A. Jensen (Allan); M. Kjaer (Michael); E. Høgdall (Estrid); B. Peissel (Bernard); B. Bonnani (Bernardo); L. Bernard (Loris); E.L. Goode (Ellen); B.L. Fridley (Brooke); R.A. Vierkant (Robert); J.M. Cunningham (Julie); M.C. Larson (Melissa); Fogarty, Z.C. (Zachary C.); Kalli, K.R. (Kimberly R.); D. Liang (Dong); K.H. Lu (Karen); M.A.T. Hildebrandt (Michelle A.T.); X. Wu (Xifeng); D.A. Levine (Douglas); Dao, F. (Fanny); M. Bisogna (Maria); A. Berchuck (Andrew); E. Iversen (Erik); J.R. Marks (Jeffrey); Akushevich, L. (Lucy); D.W. Cramer (Daniel); J.M. Schildkraut (Joellen); K.L. Terry (Kathryn); E.M. Poole (Elizabeth); M.J. Stampfer (Meir J.); Tworoger, S.S. (Shelley S.); E.V. Bandera (Elisa); I. Orlow (Irene); S.H. Olson (Sara); L. Bjorge (Line); H.B. Salvesen (Helga); A.M. van Altena (Anne); K.K.H. Aben (Katja); L.A.L.M. Kiemeney (Bart); L.F. Massuger (Leon); T. Pejovic (Tanja); Y. Bean (Yukie); A. Brooks-Wilson (Angela); L.E. Kelemen (Linda); L.S. Cook (Linda S.); N.D. Le (Nhu D.); B. Górski (Bohdan); J. Gronwald (Jacek); J. Menkiszak (Janusz); C.K. Høgdall (Claus); L. Lundvall (Lene); L. Nedergaard (Lotte); S.A. Engelholm (Svend Aage); E. Dicks (Ed); J.P. Tyrer (Jonathan); I. Campbell (Ian); I. McNeish (Iain); J. Paul (James); N. Siddiqui (Nadeem); R. Glasspool (Rosalind); A.S. Whittemore (Alice); J.H. Rothstein (Joseph H.); W.P. McGuire; W. Sieh (Weiva); H. Cai (Hui); X.-O. Shu (Xiao-Ou); Teten, R.T. (Rachel T.); Sutphen, R. (Rebecca); J. McLaughlin (John); S.A. Narod (Steven A.); C. Phelan (Catherine); A.N.A. Monteiro (Alvaro N.); Fenstermacher, D. (David); Lin, H.-Y. (Hui-Yi); Permuth, J.B. (Jennifer B.); T.A. Sellers (Thomas A.); Chen, Y.A. (Y Ann); Tsai, Y.-Y. (Ya-Yu); Chen, Z. (Zhihua); A. Gentry-Maharaj (Aleksandra); S.A. Gayther (Simon); S.J. Ramus (Susan); U. Menon (Usha); A.H. Wu (Anna); C.L. Pearce (Celeste); D. Van Den Berg (David); M.C. Pike (Malcolm C.); A. Dansonka-Mieszkowska (Agnieszka); J. Plisiecka-Halasa (Joanna); J. Moes-Sosnowska (Joanna); J. Kupryjanczyk (Jolanta); P.D.P. Pharoah (Paul); H. Song (Honglin); I.M. Winship (Ingrid); G. Chenevix-Trench (Georgia); Giles, G.G. (Graham G.); S.V. Tavtigian (Sean); D.F. Easton (Douglas F.); R.L. Milne (Roger)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractBackground The rarity of mutations in PALB2, CHEK2 and ATM make it difficult to estimate precisely associated cancer risks. Population-based family studies have provided evidence that at least some of these mutations are associated with breast cancer risk as high as those associated with

  12. PALB2, CHEK2 and ATM rare variants and cancer risk: data from COGS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Southey, M.C.; Goldgar, D.E.; Winqvist, R.; Pylkas, K.; Couch, F.; Tischkowitz, M.; Foulkes, W.D.; Dennis, J.; Michailidou, K.; Rensburg, E.J. van; Heikkinen, T.; Nevanlinna, H.; Hopper, J.L.; Dork, T.; Claes, K.B.; Reis-Filho, J.; Teo, Z.L.; Radice, P.; Catucci, I.; Peterlongo, P.; Tsimiklis, H.; Odefrey, F.A.; Dowty, J.G.; Schmidt, M.K.; Broeks, A.; Hogervorst, F.B.; Verhoef, S.; Carpenter, J.; Clarke, C.; Scott, R.J.; Fasching, P.A.; Haeberle, L.; Ekici, A.B.; Beckmann, M.W.; Peto, J.; Dos-Santos-Silva, I.; Fletcher, O.; Johnson, N.; Bolla, M.K.; Sawyer, E.J.; Tomlinson, I.; Kerin, M.J.; Miller, N.; Marme, F.; Burwinkel, B.; Yang, R.; Guenel, P.; Truong, T.; Menegaux, F.; Sanchez, M.; Bojesen, S.; Nielsen, S.F.; Flyger, H.; Benitez, J.; Zamora, M.P.; Perez, J.I.; Menendez, P.; Anton-Culver, H.; Neuhausen, S.; Ziogas, A.; Clarke, C.A.; Brenner, H.; Arndt, V.; Stegmaier, C.; Brauch, H.; Bruning, T.; Ko, Y.D.; Muranen, T.A.; Aittomaki, K.; Blomqvist, C.; Bogdanova, N.V.; Antonenkova, N.N.; Lindblom, A.; Margolin, S.; Mannermaa, A.; Kataja, V.; Kosma, V.M.; Hartikainen, J.M.; Spurdle, A.B.; Wauters, E.; Smeets, D.; Beuselinck, B.; Floris, G.; Chang-Claude, J.; Rudolph, A.; Seibold, P.; Flesch-Janys, D.; Olson, J.E.; Vachon, C.; Pankratz, V.S.; McLean, C.; Haiman, C.A.; Henderson, B.E.; Schumacher, F.; Marchand, L. Le; Kristensen, V.; Alnaes, G.G.; Zheng, W.; Hunter, D.J.; Altena, A.M. van; Aben, K.K.H.; Kiemeney, L.A.L.M.; Massuger, L.F.A.G.; et al.,

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The rarity of mutations in PALB2, CHEK2 and ATM make it difficult to estimate precisely associated cancer risks. Population-based family studies have provided evidence that at least some of these mutations are associated with breast cancer risk as high as those associated with rare BRCA2

  13. Ambient air pollution as a risk factor for lung cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    COHEN AARON J

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiologic studies over the last 40 years have observed that general ambient air pollution, chiefly due to the by- products of the incomplete combustion of fossil fuels, is associated with small relative increases in lung cancer. The evidence derives from studies of lung cancer trends, studies of occupational groups, comparisons of urban and rural populations, and case-control and cohort studies using diverse exposure metrics. Recent prospective cohort studies observed 30-50% increases in the risk of lung cancer in relation to approximately a doubling of respirable particle exposure. While these data reflect the effects of exposures in past decades, and despite some progress in reducing air pollution, large numbers of people in the US continue to be exposed to pollutant mixtures containing known or suspected carcinogens. These observations suggest that the most widely cited estimates of the proportional contribution of air pollution to lung cancer occurrence in the US, based largely on the results of animal experimentation, may be too low. It is important that better epidemiologic research be conducted to allow improved estimates of lung cancer risk from air pollution in the general population. The development and application of new epidemiologic methods, particularly the improved characterization of population-wide exposure to mixtures of air pollutants and the improved design of ecologic studies, could improve our ability to measure accurately the magnitude of excess cancer related to air pollution.

  14. Family history of prostate and colorectal cancer and risk of colorectal cancer in the Women's health initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beebe-Dimmer, Jennifer L; Yee, Cecilia; Paskett, Electra; Schwartz, Ann G; Lane, Dorothy; Palmer, Nynikka R A; Bock, Cathryn H; Nassir, Rami; Simon, Michael S

    2017-12-13

    Evidence suggests that risk of colorectal and prostate cancer is increased among those with a family history of the same disease, particularly among first-degree relatives. However, the aggregation of colorectal and prostate cancer within families has not been well investigated. Analyses were conducted among participants of the Women's Health Initiative (WHI) observational cohort, free of cancer at the baseline examination. Subjects were followed for colorectal cancer through August 31st, 2009. A Cox-proportional hazards regression modeling approach was used to estimate risk of colorectal cancer associated with a family history of prostate cancer, colorectal cancer and both cancers among first-degree relatives of all participants and stratified by race (African American vs. White). Of 75,999 eligible participants, there were 1122 colorectal cancer cases diagnosed over the study period. A family history of prostate cancer alone was not associated with an increase in colorectal cancer risk after adjustment for confounders (aHR =0.94; 95% CI =0.76, 1.15). Separate analysis examining the joint impact, a family history of both colorectal and prostate cancer was associated with an almost 50% increase in colorectal cancer risk (aHR = 1.48; 95% CI = 1.04, 2.10), but similar to those with a family history of colorectal cancer only (95% CI = 1.31; 95% CI = 1.11, 1.54). Our findings suggest risk of colorectal cancer is increased similarly among women with colorectal cancer only and among those with both colorectal and prostate cancer diagnosed among first-degree family members. Future studies are needed to determine the relative contribution of genes and shared environment to the risk of both cancers.

  15. Relative risks of radiation-associated cancer: comparison of second cancer in therapeutically irradiated populations with the Japanese atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Little, M.P.; Muirhead, C.R.; Haylock, R.G.E.; Thomas, J.M.

    1999-01-01

    In this paper the radiation-associated relative risks of second primary cancer incidence in groups treated for first primary cancer by radiotherapy are compared with radiation-associated relative risk estimates in the Japanese atomic bomb survivor cancer incidence data. For four cancer sites, namely lung cancer, bone cancer, ovarian cancer and leukaemia, the relative risks in the comparable (age at exposure, time since exposure, sex matched) subsets of the Japanese data are significantly greater than those in the majority of second cancer studies. Even when the differences between the relative risks in the Japanese atomic bomb survivors and the medical series do not approach conventional levels of statistical significance, relative risks tend to be higher in the Japanese data than in the second cancer studies. At least for leukaemia, the discrepancy between the Japanese and second cancer risks can be largely explained by cell- sterilisation effects. There are few indications of modification of radiation-associated second cancer relative risk among those treated with adjuvant chemotherapy, nor are there strong indications of modification of radiation- associated relative risk by heritable genetic factors. If anything, there is evidence that second cancer relative excess risks are lower among those patients with cancer-prone disorders than among non-susceptible patients. However, the higher underlying cancer risk in some of these medically exposed populations should also be considered, in particular for those with cancer-prone conditions, so that the absolute excess risk is sometimes higher than in the Japanese data. (orig.)

  16. Benign Proliferative Breast Lesions and Risk of Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serap Erel

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Benign breast lesions (BBL includes a wide variety of histologic entities, which have been broadly classified into non-proliferative lesions, proliferative lesions without atypia, and hyperplasia with atypia. With the increased use of mammography, more benign lesions are being detected, and in order to estimate the risk of breast cancer for specific histologic categories is of great importance to guide clinical management. Women with proliferative lesions without atypia are at slightly increased risk of subsequent breast cancer, whereas women with proliferative lesions with atypia have a higher risk. The risk is 1.5- 2-fold in women with proliferative lesions without atypia, 4-5-fold in women with proliferative lesions with atypia, and 8-10 fold in women with ductal carcinoma in situ. Age at diagnosis of BBL, menopausal status, family history of breast cancer in a first-degree relative, and time since BBL diagnosis on risk of breast cancer are important for risk evaluation. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2010; 19(3.000: 155-167

  17. Vital exhaustion and risk for cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergelt, Corinna; Christensen, Jane Hvarregaard; Prescott, Eva

    2005-01-01

    Vital exhaustion, defined as feelings of depression and fatigue, has previously been investigated mainly as a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. The authors investigated the association between depressive feelings and fatigue as covered by the concept of vital exhaustion and the risk...... for cancer....

  18. Chronic Recreational Physical Inactivity and Epithelial Ovarian Cancer Risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cannioto, Rikki; LaMonte, Michael J.; Risch, Harvey A

    2016-01-01

    physical activity and epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) is less clear. Despite extensive research, including several epidemiological studies and 2 systematic reviews, insufficient and inconsistent evidence is available to support an independent association between recreational physical activity and risk......It is estimated that 5% of women in the United States and 10% to 50% of women worldwide are physically inactive. Previous studies have demonstrated that recreational physical activity is associated with decreased risks of developing breast, colon, and endometrial cancers. The association between...... of EOC. This is largely due to use of common methodology in most studies that overlooks recreational physical inactivity as an independent risk factor for EOC. The aim of this study was to determine whether self-reported, chronic, recreational physical inactivity is an independent risk factor...

  19. Dose-stress synergism in cancer risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pop-Jordanova, N.; Pop-Jordanov, J.

    2001-01-01

    Our hypothesis is that the relatively low risk of cancer or leukaemia from depleted uranium, as predicted by the World Health Organization and the International Atomic Energy Agency, is a result of neglecting the synergism between physico-chemical agents and psychological stress agents (here shortly denoted as dose-stress synergism). We use the modified risk assessment model that comprises a psycho-somatic extension, originally developed by us for assessing the risks of energy sources. Our preliminary meta-analysis of animal and human studies on cancers confirmed the existence of stress effects, including the amplifying synergism. Consequently, the psychological stress can increase the probability of even small toxic chemical or ionizing radiation exposure to produce malignancy. Such dose-stress synergism might influence the health risks among military personnel and the residents in the highly stressful environment in the Balkans. Further investigation is needed to estimate the order of magnitude of these combined effects in particular circumstances. (Original)

  20. Chronic recreational physical inactivity and epithelial ovarian cancer risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cannioto, Rikki; LaMonte, Michael J.; Risch, Harvey A

    2016-01-01

    . We conducted a pooled analysis of nine studies from the Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium to investigate the association between chronic recreational physical inactivity and EOC risk. Methods: In accordance with the 2008 Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans, women reporting no regular......Background: Despite a large body of literature evaluating the association between recreational physical activity and epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) risk, the extant evidence is inconclusive, and little is known about the independent association between recreational physical inactivity and EOC risk......, weekly recreational physical activity were classified as inactive. Multivariable logistic regression was utilized to estimate the ORs and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the association between inactivity and EOC risk overall and by subgroups based upon histotype, menopausal status, race, and body mass...

  1. Oral Contraceptives and Cancer Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Reporting & Auditing Grant Transfer Grant Closeout Contracts & Small Business Training Cancer Training at NCI (Intramural) Resources for ... United States contains synthetic versions of the natural female hormones estrogen and progesterone . This type of birth ...

  2. Integration of second cancer risk calculations in a radiotherapy treatment planning system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartmann, M; Schneider, U

    2014-01-01

    Second cancer risk in patients, in particular in children, who were treated with radiotherapy is an important side effect. It should be minimized by selecting an appropriate treatment plan for the patient. The objectives of this study were to integrate a risk model for radiation induced cancer into a treatment planning system which allows to judge different treatment plans with regard to second cancer induction and to quantify the potential reduction in predicted risk. A model for radiation induced cancer including fractionation effects which is valid for doses in the radiotherapy range was integrated into a treatment planning system. From the three-dimensional (3D) dose distribution the 3D-risk equivalent dose (RED) was calculated on an organ specific basis. In addition to RED further risk coefficients like OED (organ equivalent dose), EAR (excess absolute risk) and LAR (lifetime attributable risk) are computed. A risk model for radiation induced cancer was successfully integrated in a treatment planning system. Several risk coefficients can be viewed and used to obtain critical situations were a plan can be optimised. Risk-volume-histograms and organ specific risks were calculated for different treatment plans and were used in combination with NTCP estimates for plan evaluation. It is concluded that the integration of second cancer risk estimates in a commercial treatment planning system is feasible. It can be used in addition to NTCP modelling for optimising treatment plans which result in the lowest possible second cancer risk for a patient.

  3. Radiogenic breast cancer risk and mammography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jayaprakash, Shobha; Nair, C.P.R.; Rao, B.S.; Sawant, S.G.

    2001-01-01

    There is a general concern that the risks from mammography screening in inducting radiogenic breast cancer may outweigh the possible benefits to be derived from it. A review of epidemiological, case-control and cohort studies of radiogenic breast cancer, age-specific incidence and dose and dose-rate relationship reveals that such a fear is unfounded. The dose to the breast tissues in a quality assured mammography screening programme falls far below the levels that were observed to produce increased relative risk. The age-specific incidence rates also indicate that the need for mammography is for the women of age at which the relative risk is minimum

  4. Statin and NSAID Use and Prostate Cancer Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coogan, Patricia F.; Kelly, Judith Parsells; Strom, Brian L.; Rosenberg, Lynn

    2010-01-01

    Purpose Some studies have reported reduced risks of advanced, but not early, prostate cancer among statin users, and one study found a reduced risk only among statin users who had also used nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). We have previously reported no association between statin use and prostate cancer in our hospital-based Case Control Surveillance Study. The purpose of the present analyses was to update the findings by cancer stage and to evaluate the joint use of statins and NSAIDs. Methods Cases were 1367 men with prostate cancer and controls were 2007 men with diagnoses unrelated to statin or NSAID use. We used multivariable logistic regression analyses to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for statin use compared with no use, and joint use of statin and NSAIDs compared with use of neither. Results The odds ratio among regular statin users was 1.1 (95% CI 0.9–1.5), and odds ratios were similar among early and late stage cancers. The odds ratio among joint statin and NSAID users was 1.1 (95% CI 0.7–1.6). Conclusion The present results do not support a protective effect of statin use, or statin and NSAID use, on the risk of advanced prostate cancer. PMID:20582910

  5. Cigarette smoking prior to first cancer and risk of second smoking-associated cancers among survivors of bladder, kidney, head and neck, and stage I lung cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiels, Meredith S; Gibson, Todd; Sampson, Joshua; Albanes, Demetrius; Andreotti, Gabriella; Beane Freeman, Laura; Berrington de Gonzalez, Amy; Caporaso, Neil; Curtis, Rochelle E; Elena, Joanne; Freedman, Neal D; Robien, Kim; Black, Amanda; Morton, Lindsay M

    2014-12-10

    Data on smoking and second cancer risk among cancer survivors are limited. We assessed associations between smoking before first cancer diagnosis and risk of second primary smoking-associated cancers among survivors of lung (stage I), bladder, kidney, and head/neck cancers. Data were pooled from 2,552 patients with stage I lung cancer, 6,386 with bladder cancer, 3,179 with kidney cancer, and 2,967 with head/neck cancer from five cohort studies. We assessed the association between prediagnostic smoking and second smoking-associated cancer risk with proportional hazards regression, and compared these estimates to those for first smoking-associated cancers in all cohort participants. Compared with never smoking, current smoking of ≥ 20 cigarettes per day was associated with increased second smoking-associated cancer risk among survivors of stage I lung (hazard ratio [HR] = 3.26; 95% CI, 0.92 to 11.6), bladder (HR = 3.67; 95% CI, 2.25 to 5.99), head/neck (HR = 4.45; 95% CI, 2.56 to 7.73), and kidney cancers (HR = 5.33; 95% CI, 2.55 to 11.1). These estimates were similar to those for first smoking-associated cancer among all cohort participants (HR = 5.41; 95% CI, 5.23 to 5.61). The 5-year cumulative incidence of second smoking-associated cancers ranged from 3% to 8% in this group of cancer survivors. Understanding risk factors for second cancers among cancer survivors is crucial. Our data indicate that cigarette smoking before first cancer diagnosis increases second cancer risk among cancer survivors, and elevated cancer risk in these survivors is likely due to increased smoking prevalence. The high 5-year cumulative risks of smoking-associated cancers among current smoking survivors of stage I lung, bladder, kidney, and head/neck cancers highlight the importance of smoking cessation in patients with cancer. © 2014 by American Society of Clinical Oncology.

  6. Menopausal hormone use and ovarian cancer risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beral, V; Gaitskell, K; Hermon, C

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Half the epidemiological studies with information about menopausal hormone therapy and ovarian cancer risk remain unpublished, and some retrospective studies could have been biased by selective participation or recall. We aimed to assess with minimal bias the effects of hormone therapy...... on ovarian cancer risk. METHODS: Individual participant datasets from 52 epidemiological studies were analysed centrally. The principal analyses involved the prospective studies (with last hormone therapy use extrapolated forwards for up to 4 years). Sensitivity analyses included the retrospective studies....... Adjusted Poisson regressions yielded relative risks (RRs) versus never-use. FINDINGS: During prospective follow-up, 12 110 postmenopausal women, 55% (6601) of whom had used hormone therapy, developed ovarian cancer. Among women last recorded as current users, risk was increased even with

  7. Improvement of the projection models for radiogenic cancer risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tong Jian

    2005-01-01

    Calculations of radiogenic cancer risk are based on the risk projection models for specific cancer sites. Improvement has been made for the parameters used in the previous models including introductions of mortality and morbidity risk coefficients, and age-/ gender-specific risk coefficients. These coefficients have been applied to calculate the radiogenic cancer risks for specific organs and radionuclides under different exposure scenarios. (authors)

  8. State-Level Estimates of Cancer-Related Absenteeism Costs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tangka, Florence K.; Trogdon, Justin G.; Nwaise, Isaac; Ekwueme, Donatus U.; Guy, Gery P.; Orenstein, Diane

    2016-01-01

    Background Cancer is one of the top five most costly diseases in the United States and leads to substantial work loss. Nevertheless, limited state-level estimates of cancer absenteeism costs have been published. Methods In analyses of data from the 2004–2008 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey, the 2004 National Nursing Home Survey, the U.S. Census Bureau for 2008, and the 2009 Current Population Survey, we used regression modeling to estimate annual state-level absenteeism costs attributable to cancer from 2004 to 2008. Results We estimated that the state-level median number of days of absenteeism per year among employed cancer patients was 6.1 days and that annual state-level cancer absenteeism costs ranged from $14.9 million to $915.9 million (median = $115.9 million) across states in 2010 dollars. Absenteeism costs are approximately 6.5% of the costs of premature cancer mortality. Conclusions The results from this study suggest that lost productivity attributable to cancer is a substantial cost to employees and employers and contributes to estimates of the overall impact of cancer in a state population. PMID:23969498

  9. Panel data nonparametric estimation of production risk and risk preferences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Czekaj, Tomasz Gerard; Henningsen, Arne

    approaches for obtaining firm-specific measures of risk attitudes. We found that Polish dairy farmers are risk averse regarding production risk and price uncertainty. According to our results, Polish dairy farmers perceive the production risk as being more significant than the risk related to output price......We apply nonparametric panel data kernel regression to investigate production risk, out-put price uncertainty, and risk attitudes of Polish dairy farms based on a firm-level unbalanced panel data set that covers the period 2004–2010. We compare different model specifications and different...

  10. Genetic susceptibility loci, pesticide exposure and prostate cancer risk.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stella Koutros

    Full Text Available Uncovering SNP (single nucleotide polymorphisms-environment interactions can generate new hypotheses about the function of poorly characterized genetic variants and environmental factors, like pesticides. We evaluated SNP-environment interactions between 30 confirmed prostate cancer susceptibility loci and 45 pesticides and prostate cancer risk in 776 cases and 1,444 controls in the Agricultural Health Study. We used unconditional logistic regression to estimate odds ratios (ORs and 95% confidence intervals (CIs. Multiplicative SNP-pesticide interactions were calculated using a likelihood ratio test. After correction for multiple tests using the False Discovery Rate method, two interactions remained noteworthy. Among men carrying two T alleles at rs2710647 in EH domain binding protein 1 (EHBP1 SNP, the risk of prostate cancer in those with high malathion use was 3.43 times those with no use (95% CI: 1.44-8.15 (P-interaction= 0.003. Among men carrying two A alleles at rs7679673 in TET2, the risk of prostate cancer associated with high aldrin use was 3.67 times those with no use (95% CI: 1.43, 9.41 (P-interaction= 0.006. In contrast, associations were null for other genotypes. Although additional studies are needed and the exact mechanisms are unknown, this study suggests known genetic susceptibility loci may modify the risk between pesticide use and prostate cancer.

  11. Cancer risk in fathers and brothers of testicular cancer patients in Denmark. A population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westergaard, T; Olsen, J H; Frisch, M; Kroman, N; Nielsen, J W; Melbye, M

    1996-05-29

    There are several reports of familial testicular cancer in the literature but few systematic attempts have been made to estimate the risk of testicular cancer in first-degree relatives of patients with this neoplasm, and the risk remains to be fully assessed in population-based studies. By means of data from the Danish Cancer Registry, we identified all testicular cancer patients (index cases) born and diagnosed during 1950-1993 in Denmark. Their fathers were identified from national registries, as were the brothers of a subcohort of these patients. Familial cancer occurrence was determined through linkage with the cancer registry and compared with the cancer incidence in the general male population in Denmark. The ratio of observed to expected cancers generated the measure used for the relative risk. Fathers of 2,113 index cases with testicular cancer experienced an almost 2-fold risk of developing testicular cancer themselves (RR = 1.96; 95% CI: 1.01-3.43). Overall, the fathers had a decreased relative cancer risk (RR = 0.84; 95% CI: 0.74-0.95) with a significantly decreased risk of cancers of the lung and digestive organs. Brothers of a subcohort of 702 index cases showed a markedly increased risk of testicular cancer (RR = 12.3; 95% CI: 3.3-3 1.5). In conclusion, we documented a significantly increased familial risk of testicular cancer which was relatively more pronounced between brothers than between fathers and sons. These findings support the possible involvement of a genetic component in the aetiology of testicular cancer, but also leave room for a hypothesized influence of in-utero exposures, such as specific maternal hormone levels, that might be shared by brothers.

  12. Cigarette use and the estimation of lung cancer attributable to radon in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lubin, J.H.; Steindorf, K.

    1995-01-01

    Residential exposure to radioactive radon and its decay products has been estimated to account for 10-12% of all lung cancer deaths in the US. It has been difficult to evaluate fully the impact of cigarette smoking, the most important cause of lung cancer, on this estimate, because factors for patterns of tobacco use have not been included in the risk models, since risk models are derived from studies of underground miners exposed to radon and detailed data on smoking are limited. Lung cancer risk estimates for exposure to radon progeny in smoker and non-smoker populations are obtained by applying the same risk model to each population group, thereby assuming the joint effects of smoking and exposure to radon progeny are multiplicative. However, in miners, joint relative risks (RR) for the two exposures are most consistent with an intermediate relationship between multiplicative and additive, so that the present approach likely results in an overestimate of risk in smokers and an underestimate of risk in nonsmokers. One approach for adjusting risk models to incorporate smoking status is based on the relative magnitude of the effects of radon progeny in smokers and nonsmokers and therefore may not be applicable to non-miner populations if the proportion of smokers and the RR for smoking differ. We show that the modification can be derived explicitly by assuming an arithmetic mixture model for the joint RR for smoking and exposure to radon progeny. In this way, smoking parameters in the population of interest (the proportion of smokers and the RR of smoking) can be used directly to adjust radon progeny risk models and obtain risk estimates that are specific for smokers and nonsmokers. With an intermediate RR relationship for smoking and radon progeny, the attributable percentage of lung cancer deaths from residential radon may be twofold greater in nonsmokers than in smokers. 20 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs

  13. Population attributable risk of breast cancer in white women associated with immediately modifiable risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glaser Sally L

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Estrogen/progestin replacement therapy (EPRT, alcohol consumption, physical activity, and breast-feeding duration differ from other factors associated with breast cancer in being immediately modifiable by the individual, thereby representing attractive targets for future breast cancer prevention efforts. To justify such efforts, it is vital to quantify the potential population-level impacts on breast cancer considering population variations in behavior prevalence, risk estimate, and baseline incidence. Methods For each of these four factors, we calculated population attributable risk percents (PARs using population-based survey (2001 and cancer registry data (1998–2002 for 41 subpopulations of white, non-Hispanic California women aged 40–79 years, and ranges of relative risk (RR estimates from the literature. Results Using a single RR estimate, subpopulation PARs ranged from 2.5% to 5.6% for hormone use, from 0.0% to 6.1% for recent consumption of >= 2 alcoholic drinks daily, and 4.6% to 11.0% for physical inactivity. Using a range of RR estimates, PARs were 2–11% for EPRT use, 1–20% for alcohol consumption and 2–15% for physical inactivity. Subpopulation data were unavailable for breastfeeding, but PARs using published RR estimates ranged from 2% to 11% for lifetime breastfeeding >= 31 months. Thus, of 13,019 breast cancers diagnosed annually in California, as many as 1,432 attributable to EPRT use, 2,604 attributable to alcohol consumption, 1,953 attributable to physical inactivity, and 1,432 attributable to never breastfeeding might be avoidable. Conclusion The relatively feasible lifestyle changes of discontinuing EPRT use, reducing alcohol consumption, increasing physical activity, and lengthening breastfeeding duration could lower population breast cancer incidence substantially.

  14. Cancer risks and neutron RBE's from Hiroshima and Nagasaki

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dobson, R.L.; Straume, T.

    1982-01-01

    The new radiation dose estimates for Hiroshima and Nagasaki are here combined with epidemiologic data from the A-bomb survivors and examined radiobiologically for compatability with other human and experimental data. The new doses show certain improvements over the original T65 doses. However, they suggest for chronic granulocytic leukemia, total malignancies, and chromosome aberrations, at neutron doses of 1 rad, RBEs in excess of 100, higher than expected from other findings. This and other indications suggest that either there are unrecognized systematic problems with the various radiobiological data, or the new doses are deficient in neutrons for Hiroshima, by a factor of about five. If in fact there were actually some 5-fold more dose from neutrons at Hiroshima than estimated by the new calculations, the RBEs would agree well with laboratory results, and other inconsistencies would largely disappear. Cancer risks are estimated for neutrons from the new doses and are compared with those estimated from radiobiologically reconciled doses (the new doses adjusted by adding approximately 5-fold more neutrons). The latter estimates appear more reasonable. For low-LET radiation, cancer risk estimates are altered very little by the new dose estimates for Nagasaki

  15. Coffee consumption and risk of colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidel, S; Hu, G; Jousilahti, P; Antikainen, R; Pukkala, E; Hakulinen, T; Tuomilehto, J

    2010-09-01

    The possible association between coffee consumption and risk of colorectal cancer has been extensively studied in the many populations. The aim of this study is to examine this relationship among Finns, who are the heaviest coffee consumers in the world. A total of 60 041 Finnish men and women who were 26-74 years of age and without history of any cancer at baseline were included in the present analyses. Their coffee consumption and other study characteristics were determined at baseline, and they were prospectively followed up for onset of colon and rectal cancer, emigration, death or until 30 June 2006. During a mean follow-up period of 18 years, 538 cases of colorectal cancer (304 cases of colon cancer and 234 cases of rectal cancer) were diagnosed. The multivariate-adjusted hazard ratio of colorectal cancer incidence for > or =10 cups of coffee per day compared with non-drinkers was 0.98 (95% CI, 0.47-2.03) for men (P for trend=0.86), 1.24 (95% CI, 0.49-3.14) for women (p for trend=0.83) and 1.03 (95% CI, 0.58-1.83) for men and women combined (P for trend=0.61). In this study, we found no association between coffee consumption and the risk of colorectal, colon and rectal cancer.

  16. MicroRNA Related Polymorphisms and Breast Cancer Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Sofia; Greco, Dario; Michailidou, Kyriaki; Milne, Roger L.; Muranen, Taru A.; Heikkinen, Tuomas; Aaltonen, Kirsimari; Dennis, Joe; Bolla, Manjeet K.; Liu, Jianjun; Hall, Per; Irwanto, Astrid; Humphreys, Keith; Li, Jingmei; Czene, Kamila; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Hein, Rebecca; Rudolph, Anja; Seibold, Petra; Flesch-Janys, Dieter; Fletcher, Olivia; Peto, Julian; dos Santos Silva, Isabel; Johnson, Nichola; Gibson, Lorna; Aitken, Zoe; Hopper, John L.; Tsimiklis, Helen; Bui, Minh; Makalic, Enes; Schmidt, Daniel F.; Southey, Melissa C.; Apicella, Carmel; Stone, Jennifer; Waisfisz, Quinten; Meijers-Heijboer, Hanne; Adank, Muriel A.; van der Luijt, Rob B.; Meindl, Alfons; Schmutzler, Rita K.; Müller-Myhsok, Bertram; Lichtner, Peter; Turnbull, Clare; Rahman, Nazneen; Chanock, Stephen J.; Hunter, David J.; Cox, Angela; Cross, Simon S.; Reed, Malcolm W. R.; Schmidt, Marjanka K.; Broeks, Annegien; Veer, Laura J. V. a. n't.; Hogervorst, Frans B.; Fasching, Peter A.; Schrauder, Michael G.; Ekici, Arif B.; Beckmann, Matthias W.; Bojesen, Stig E.; Nordestgaard, Børge G.; Nielsen, Sune F.; Flyger, Henrik; Benitez, Javier; Zamora, Pilar M.; Perez, Jose I. A.; Haiman, Christopher A.; Henderson, Brian E.; Schumacher, Fredrick; Le Marchand, Loic; Pharoah, Paul D. P.; Dunning, Alison M.; Shah, Mitul; Luben, Robert; Brown, Judith; Couch, Fergus J.; Wang, Xianshu; Vachon, Celine; Olson, Janet E.; Lambrechts, Diether; Moisse, Matthieu; Paridaens, Robert; Christiaens, Marie-Rose; Guénel, Pascal; Truong, Thérèse; Laurent-Puig, Pierre; Mulot, Claire; Marme, Frederick; Burwinkel, Barbara; Schneeweiss, Andreas; Sohn, Christof; Sawyer, Elinor J.; Tomlinson, Ian; Kerin, Michael J.; Miller, Nicola; Andrulis, Irene L.; Knight, Julia A.; Tchatchou, Sandrine; Mulligan, Anna Marie; Dörk, Thilo; Bogdanova, Natalia V.; Antonenkova, Natalia N.; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Darabi, Hatef; Eriksson, Mikael; Garcia-Closas, Montserrat; Figueroa, Jonine; Lissowska, Jolanta; Brinton, Louise; Devilee, Peter; Tollenaar, Robert A. E. M.; Seynaeve, Caroline; van Asperen, Christi J.; Kristensen, Vessela N.; Slager, Susan; Toland, Amanda E.; Ambrosone, Christine B.; Yannoukakos, Drakoulis; Lindblom, Annika; Margolin, Sara; Radice, Paolo; Peterlongo, Paolo; Barile, Monica; Mariani, Paolo; Hooning, Maartje J.; Martens, John W. M.; Collée, J. Margriet; Jager, Agnes; Jakubowska, Anna; Lubinski, Jan; Jaworska-Bieniek, Katarzyna; Durda, Katarzyna; Giles, Graham G.; McLean, Catriona; Brauch, Hiltrud; Brüning, Thomas; Ko, Yon-Dschun; Brenner, Hermann; Dieffenbach, Aida Karina; Arndt, Volker; Stegmaier, Christa; Swerdlow, Anthony; Ashworth, Alan; Orr, Nick; Jones, Michael; Simard, Jacques; Goldberg, Mark S.; Labrèche, France; Dumont, Martine; Winqvist, Robert; Pylkäs, Katri; Jukkola-Vuorinen, Arja; Grip, Mervi; Kataja, Vesa; Kosma, Veli-Matti; Hartikainen, Jaana M.; Mannermaa, Arto; Hamann, Ute; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Blomqvist, Carl; Aittomäki, Kristiina; Easton, Douglas F.; Nevanlinna, Heli

    2014-01-01

    Genetic variations, such as single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in microRNAs (miRNA) or in the miRNA binding sites may affect the miRNA dependent gene expression regulation, which has been implicated in various cancers, including breast cancer, and may alter individual susceptibility to cancer. We investigated associations between miRNA related SNPs and breast cancer risk. First we evaluated 2,196 SNPs in a case-control study combining nine genome wide association studies (GWAS). Second, we further investigated 42 SNPs with suggestive evidence for association using 41,785 cases and 41,880 controls from 41 studies included in the Breast Cancer Association Consortium (BCAC). Combining the GWAS and BCAC data within a meta-analysis, we estimated main effects on breast cancer risk as well as risks for estrogen receptor (ER) and age defined subgroups. Five miRNA binding site SNPs associated significantly with breast cancer risk: rs1045494 (odds ratio (OR) 0.92; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.88–0.96), rs1052532 (OR 0.97; 95% CI: 0.95–0.99), rs10719 (OR 0.97; 95% CI: 0.94–0.99), rs4687554 (OR 0.97; 95% CI: 0.95–0.99, and rs3134615 (OR 1.03; 95% CI: 1.01–1.05) located in the 3′ UTR of CASP8, HDDC3, DROSHA, MUSTN1, and MYCL1, respectively. DROSHA belongs to miRNA machinery genes and has a central role in initial miRNA processing. The remaining genes are involved in different molecular functions, including apoptosis and gene expression regulation. Further studies are warranted to elucidate whether the miRNA binding site SNPs are the causative variants for the observed risk effects. PMID:25390939

  17. MicroRNA related polymorphisms and breast cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Sofia; Greco, Dario; Michailidou, Kyriaki; Milne, Roger L; Muranen, Taru A; Heikkinen, Tuomas; Aaltonen, Kirsimari; Dennis, Joe; Bolla, Manjeet K; Liu, Jianjun; Hall, Per; Irwanto, Astrid; Humphreys, Keith; Li, Jingmei; Czene, Kamila; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Hein, Rebecca; Rudolph, Anja; Seibold, Petra; Flesch-Janys, Dieter; Fletcher, Olivia; Peto, Julian; dos Santos Silva, Isabel; Johnson, Nichola; Gibson, Lorna; Aitken, Zoe; Hopper, John L; Tsimiklis, Helen; Bui, Minh; Makalic, Enes; Schmidt, Daniel F; Southey, Melissa C; Apicella, Carmel; Stone, Jennifer; Waisfisz, Quinten; Meijers-Heijboer, Hanne; Adank, Muriel A; van der Luijt, Rob B; Meindl, Alfons; Schmutzler, Rita K; Müller-Myhsok, Bertram; Lichtner, Peter; Turnbull, Clare; Rahman, Nazneen; Chanock, Stephen J; Hunter, David J; Cox, Angela; Cross, Simon S; Reed, Malcolm W R; Schmidt, Marjanka K; Broeks, Annegien; Van't Veer, Laura J; Hogervorst, Frans B; Fasching, Peter A; Schrauder, Michael G; Ekici, Arif B; Beckmann, Matthias W; Bojesen, Stig E; Nordestgaard, Børge G; Nielsen, Sune F; Flyger, Henrik; Benitez, Javier; Zamora, Pilar M; Perez, Jose I A; Haiman, Christopher A; Henderson, Brian E; Schumacher, Fredrick; Le Marchand, Loic; Pharoah, Paul D P; Dunning, Alison M; Shah, Mitul; Luben, Robert; Brown, Judith; Couch, Fergus J; Wang, Xianshu; Vachon, Celine; Olson, Janet E; Lambrechts, Diether; Moisse, Matthieu; Paridaens, Robert; Christiaens, Marie-Rose; Guénel, Pascal; Truong, Thérèse; Laurent-Puig, Pierre; Mulot, Claire; Marme, Frederick; Burwinkel, Barbara; Schneeweiss, Andreas; Sohn, Christof; Sawyer, Elinor J; Tomlinson, Ian; Kerin, Michael J; Miller, Nicola; Andrulis, Irene L; Knight, Julia A; Tchatchou, Sandrine; Mulligan, Anna Marie; Dörk, Thilo; Bogdanova, Natalia V; Antonenkova, Natalia N; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Darabi, Hatef; Eriksson, Mikael; Garcia-Closas, Montserrat; Figueroa, Jonine; Lissowska, Jolanta; Brinton, Louise; Devilee, Peter; Tollenaar, Robert A E M; Seynaeve, Caroline; van Asperen, Christi J; Kristensen, Vessela N; Slager, Susan; Toland, Amanda E; Ambrosone, Christine B; Yannoukakos, Drakoulis; Lindblom, Annika; Margolin, Sara; Radice, Paolo; Peterlongo, Paolo; Barile, Monica; Mariani, Paolo; Hooning, Maartje J; Martens, John W M; Collée, J Margriet; Jager, Agnes; Jakubowska, Anna; Lubinski, Jan; Jaworska-Bieniek, Katarzyna; Durda, Katarzyna; Giles, Graham G; McLean, Catriona; Brauch, Hiltrud; Brüning, Thomas; Ko, Yon-Dschun; Brenner, Hermann; Dieffenbach, Aida Karina; Arndt, Volker; Stegmaier, Christa; Swerdlow, Anthony; Ashworth, Alan; Orr, Nick; Jones, Michael; Simard, Jacques; Goldberg, Mark S; Labrèche, France; Dumont, Martine; Winqvist, Robert; Pylkäs, Katri; Jukkola-Vuorinen, Arja; Grip, Mervi; Kataja, Vesa; Kosma, Veli-Matti; Hartikainen, Jaana M; Mannermaa, Arto; Hamann, Ute; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Blomqvist, Carl; Aittomäki, Kristiina; Easton, Douglas F; Nevanlinna, Heli

    2014-01-01

    Genetic variations, such as single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in microRNAs (miRNA) or in the miRNA binding sites may affect the miRNA dependent gene expression regulation, which has been implicated in various cancers, including breast cancer, and may alter individual susceptibility to cancer. We investigated associations between miRNA related SNPs and breast cancer risk. First we evaluated 2,196 SNPs in a case-control study combining nine genome wide association studies (GWAS). Second, we further investigated 42 SNPs with suggestive evidence for association using 41,785 cases and 41,880 controls from 41 studies included in the Breast Cancer Association Consortium (BCAC). Combining the GWAS and BCAC data within a meta-analysis, we estimated main effects on breast cancer risk as well as risks for estrogen receptor (ER) and age defined subgroups. Five miRNA binding site SNPs associated significantly with breast cancer risk: rs1045494 (odds ratio (OR) 0.92; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.88-0.96), rs1052532 (OR 0.97; 95% CI: 0.95-0.99), rs10719 (OR 0.97; 95% CI: 0.94-0.99), rs4687554 (OR 0.97; 95% CI: 0.95-0.99, and rs3134615 (OR 1.03; 95% CI: 1.01-1.05) located in the 3' UTR of CASP8, HDDC3, DROSHA, MUSTN1, and MYCL1, respectively. DROSHA belongs to miRNA machinery genes and has a central role in initial miRNA processing. The remaining genes are involved in different molecular functions, including apoptosis and gene expression regulation. Further studies are warranted to elucidate whether the miRNA binding site SNPs are the causative variants for the observed risk effects.

  18. MicroRNA related polymorphisms and breast cancer risk.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofia Khan

    Full Text Available Genetic variations, such as single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in microRNAs (miRNA or in the miRNA binding sites may affect the miRNA dependent gene expression regulation, which has been implicated in various cancers, including breast cancer, and may alter individual susceptibility to cancer. We investigated associations between miRNA related SNPs and breast cancer risk. First we evaluated 2,196 SNPs in a case-control study combining nine genome wide association studies (GWAS. Second, we further investigated 42 SNPs with suggestive evidence for association using 41,785 cases and 41,880 controls from 41 studies included in the Breast Cancer Association Consortium (BCAC. Combining the GWAS and BCAC data within a meta-analysis, we estimated main effects on breast cancer risk as well as risks for estrogen receptor (ER and age defined subgroups. Five miRNA binding site SNPs associated significantly with breast cancer risk: rs1045494 (odds ratio (OR 0.92; 95% confidence interval (CI: 0.88-0.96, rs1052532 (OR 0.97; 95% CI: 0.95-0.99, rs10719 (OR 0.97; 95% CI: 0.94-0.99, rs4687554 (OR 0.97; 95% CI: 0.95-0.99, and rs3134615 (OR 1.03; 95% CI: 1.01-1.05 located in the 3' UTR of CASP8, HDDC3, DROSHA, MUSTN1, and MYCL1, respectively. DROSHA belongs to miRNA machinery genes and has a central role in initial miRNA processing. The remaining genes are involved in different molecular functions, including apoptosis and gene expression regulation. Further studies are warranted to elucidate whether the miRNA binding site SNPs are the causative variants for the observed risk effects.

  19. Attributing death to cancer: cause-specific survival estimation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathew A

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available Cancer survival estimation is an important part of assessing the overall strength of cancer care in a region. Generally, the death of a patient is taken as the end point in estimation of overall survival. When calculating the overall survival, the cause of death is not taken into account. With increasing demand for better survival of cancer patients it is important for clinicians and researchers to know about survival statistics due to disease of interest, i.e. net survival. It is also important to choose the best method for estimating net survival. Increase in the use of computer programmes has made it possible to carry out statistical analysis without guidance from a bio-statistician. This is of prime importance in third- world countries as there are a few trained bio-statisticians to guide clinicians and researchers. The present communication describes current methods used to estimate net survival such as cause-specific survival and relative survival. The limitation of estimation of cause-specific survival particularly in India and the usefulness of relative survival are discussed. The various sources for estimating cancer survival are also discussed. As survival-estimates are to be projected on to the population at large, it becomes important to measure the variation of the estimates, and thus confidence intervals are used. Rothman′s confidence interval gives the most satisfactory result for survival estimate.

  20. Vegetarian dietary patterns and the risk of colorectal cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlich, Michael J; Singh, Pramil N; Sabaté, Joan; Fan, Jing; Sveen, Lars; Bennett, Hannelore; Knutsen, Synnove F; Beeson, W Lawrence; Jaceldo-Siegl, Karen; Butler, Terry L; Herring, R Patti; Fraser, Gary E

    2015-05-01

    Colorectal cancers are a leading cause of cancer mortality, and their primary prevention by diet is highly desirable. The relationship of vegetarian dietary patterns to colorectal cancer risk is not well established. To evaluate the association between vegetarian dietary patterns and incident colorectal cancers. The Adventist Health Study 2 (AHS-2) is a large, prospective, North American cohort trial including 96,354 Seventh-Day Adventist men and women recruited between January 1, 2002, and December 31, 2007. Follow-up varied by state and was indicated by the cancer registry linkage dates. Of these participants, an analytic sample of 77,659 remained after exclusions. Analysis was conducted using Cox proportional hazards regression, controlling for important demographic and lifestyle confounders. The analysis was conducted between June 1, 2014, and October 20, 2014. Diet was assessed at baseline by a validated quantitative food frequency questionnaire and categorized into 4 vegetarian dietary patterns (vegan, lacto-ovo vegetarian, pescovegetarian, and semivegetarian) and a nonvegetarian dietary pattern. The relationship between dietary patterns and incident cancers of the colon and rectum; colorectal cancer cases were identified primarily by state cancer registry linkages. During a mean follow-up of 7.3 years, 380 cases of colon cancer and 110 cases of rectal cancer were documented. The adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) in all vegetarians combined vs nonvegetarians were 0.78 (95% CI, 0.64-0.95) for all colorectal cancers, 0.81 (95% CI, 0.65-1.00) for colon cancer, and 0.71 (95% CI, 0.47-1.06) for rectal cancer. The adjusted HR for colorectal cancer in vegans was 0.84 (95% CI, 0.59-1.19); in lacto-ovo vegetarians, 0.82 (95% CI, 0.65-1.02); in pescovegetarians, 0.57 (95% CI, 0.40-0.82); and in semivegetarians, 0.92 (95% CI, 0.62-1.37) compared with nonvegetarians. Effect estimates were similar for men and women and for black and nonblack individuals. Vegetarian diets are

  1. Vegetarian Dietary Patterns and the Risk of Colorectal Cancers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlich, Michael J.; Singh, Pramil N.; Sabaté, Joan; Fan, Jing; Sveen, Lars; Bennett, Hannelore; Knutsen, Synnove F.; Beeson, W. Lawrence; Jaceldo-Siegl, Karen; Butler, Terry L.; Herring, R. Patti; Fraser, Gary E.

    2015-01-01

    nonvegetarians. Effect estimates were similar for men and women and for black and nonblack individuals. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE Vegetarian diets are associated with an overall lower incidence of colorectal cancers. Pescovegetarians in particular have a much lower risk compared with nonvegetarians. If such associations are causal, they may be important for primary prevention of colorectal cancers. PMID:25751512

  2. Risk of cancer among atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimizu, Yukiko; Kato, Hiroo; Schull, W.J.

    1991-01-01

    This report describes the risk of cancer and in particular cancers other than leukemia among the survivors of the atomic bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Attention focuses primarily on the risk of death from cancer among individuals in the Life Span Study sample of the Radiation Effect Research Foundation in the period 1950-1985 based on the recently revised dosimetry, termed the DS86 doses. Mortality from malignant tumors is increased among A-bomb survivors as a late effect of A-bomb radiation. Basides the well-known increase of leukemia, there also has been demonstrated increase of cancer of the lung, breast, esophagus, stomach, colon, ovary, urinary bladder, thyroid, and of multiple myeloma, but no increase has yet been observed in mortality from cancer of the rectum, gallbladder, pancreases, prostate and uterus, and of malignant lymphoma. The pattern of appearance over time of radiation-induced cancer other than leukemia differs from that of leukemia. In general, radiation-induced solid cancer begins to appear after attaining the age at which the cancer is normally prone to develop (so-called cancer age), and countinues to increase proportionally with the increase in mortality of the control group as it ages. Sensitivity to radiation, in terms of cancer induction, is higher for persons who were young at the time of the bomb (ATB) in general than for those who were older ATB. Furthermore, susceptibility to radiation-induced cancer tends to be higher in pre- than in post-natally exposed survivors (at least those exposed as adults). Other radiation effect modifiers and the shape of the dose response curve will also be discussed. (author)

  3. Estimating Preferences for Treatments in Patients With Localized Prostate Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ávila, Mónica; Becerra, Virginia; Guedea, Ferran; Suárez, José Francisco; Fernandez, Pablo; Macías, Víctor; Mariño, Alfonso

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Studies of patients' preferences for localized prostate cancer treatments have assessed radical prostatectomy and external radiation therapy, but none of them has evaluated brachytherapy. The aim of our study was to assess the preferences and willingness to pay of patients with localized prostate cancer who had been treated with radical prostatectomy, external radiation therapy, or brachytherapy, and their related urinary, sexual, and bowel side effects. Methods and Materials: This was an observational, prospective cohort study with follow-up until 5 years after treatment. A total of 704 patients with low or intermediate risk localized prostate cancer were consecutively recruited from 2003 to 2005. The estimation of preferences was conducted using time trade-off, standard gamble, and willingness-to-pay methods. Side effects were measured with the Expanded Prostate Index Composite (EPIC), a prostate cancer-specific questionnaire. Tobit models were constructed to assess the impact of treatment and side effects on patients' preferences. Propensity score was applied to adjust for treatment selection bias. Results: Of the 580 patients reporting preferences, 165 were treated with radical prostatectomy, 152 with external radiation therapy, and 263 with brachytherapy. Both time trade-off and standard gamble results indicated that the preferences of patients treated with brachytherapy were 0.06 utilities higher than those treated with radical prostatectomy (P=.01). Similarly, willingness-to-pay responses showed a difference of €57/month (P=.004) between these 2 treatments. Severe urinary incontinence presented an independent impact on the preferences elicited (P<.05), whereas no significant differences were found by bowel and sexual side effects. Conclusions: Our findings indicate that urinary incontinence is the side effect with the highest impact on preferences and that brachytherapy and external radiation therapy are more valued than radical

  4. Estimating Preferences for Treatments in Patients With Localized Prostate Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ávila, Mónica [Health Services Research Unit, IMIM (Hospital del Mar Medical Research Institute), Barcelona (Spain); CIBER en Epidemiología y Salud Pública (CIBERESP) (Spain); Universitat Pompeu Fabra, Barcelona (Spain); Becerra, Virginia [Health Services Research Unit, IMIM (Hospital del Mar Medical Research Institute), Barcelona (Spain); Guedea, Ferran [Servicio de Oncología Radioterápica, Institut Català d' Oncologia, L' Hospitalet de Llobregat (Spain); Suárez, José Francisco [Servicio de Urología, Hospital Universitari de Bellvitge, L' Hospitalet de Llobregat (Spain); Fernandez, Pablo [Servicio de Oncología Radioterápica, Instituto Oncológico de Guipúzcoa, San Sebastián (Spain); Macías, Víctor [Servicio de Oncología Radioterápica, Hospital Clínico Universitario de Salamanca, Salamanca (Spain); Servicio de Oncología Radioterápica, Institut Oncologic del Valles-Hospital General de Catalunya, Sant Cugat del Vallès (Spain); Mariño, Alfonso [Servicio de Oncología Radioterápica, Centro Oncológico de Galicia, A Coruña (Spain); and others

    2015-02-01

    Purpose: Studies of patients' preferences for localized prostate cancer treatments have assessed radical prostatectomy and external radiation therapy, but none of them has evaluated brachytherapy. The aim of our study was to assess the preferences and willingness to pay of patients with localized prostate cancer who had been treated with radical prostatectomy, external radiation therapy, or brachytherapy, and their related urinary, sexual, and bowel side effects. Methods and Materials: This was an observational, prospective cohort study with follow-up until 5 years after treatment. A total of 704 patients with low or intermediate risk localized prostate cancer were consecutively recruited from 2003 to 2005. The estimation of preferences was conducted using time trade-off, standard gamble, and willingness-to-pay methods. Side effects were measured with the Expanded Prostate Index Composite (EPIC), a prostate cancer-specific questionnaire. Tobit models were constructed to assess the impact of treatment and side effects on patients' preferences. Propensity score was applied to adjust for treatment selection bias. Results: Of the 580 patients reporting preferences, 165 were treated with radical prostatectomy, 152 with external radiation therapy, and 263 with brachytherapy. Both time trade-off and standard gamble results indicated that the preferences of patients treated with brachytherapy were 0.06 utilities higher than those treated with radical prostatectomy (P=.01). Similarly, willingness-to-pay responses showed a difference of €57/month (P=.004) between these 2 treatments. Severe urinary incontinence presented an independent impact on the preferences elicited (P<.05), whereas no significant differences were found by bowel and sexual side effects. Conclusions: Our findings indicate that urinary incontinence is the side effect with the highest impact on preferences and that brachytherapy and external radiation therapy are more valued than radical

  5. Blue Book: EPA Radiogenic Cancer Risk Models and Projections for the U.S. Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document presents EPA estimates of cancer incidence and mortality risk coefficients pertaining to low dose exposures to ionizing radiation for the U.S. population, as well as their scientific basis.

  6. Common breast cancer risk alleles and risk assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Näslund-Koch, C; Nordestgaard, B G; Bojesen, S E

    2017-01-01

    general population were followed in Danish health registries for up to 21 years after blood sampling. After genotyping 72 breast cancer risk loci, each with 0-2 alleles, the sum for each individual was calculated. We used the simple allele sum instead of the conventional polygenic risk score......, as it is likely more sensitive in detecting associations with risks of other endpoints than breast cancer. RESULTS: Breast cancer incidence in the 19,010 women was increased across allele sum quintiles (log-rank trend test; p=1*10(-12)), but not incidence of other cancers (p=0.41). Age- and study-adjusted hazard...... ratio for the 5(th) vs. 1(st) allele sum quintile was 1.82(95% confidence interval;1.53-2.18). Corresponding hazard ratios per allele were 1.04(1.03-1.05) and 1.05(1.02-1.08) for breast cancer incidence and mortality, similar across risk factors. In 50-year old women, the starting age for screening...

  7. Radiation Dose and Subsequent Risk for Stomach Cancer in Long-term Survivors of Cervical Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kleinerman, Ruth A., E-mail: kleinerr@mail.nih.gov [Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, US Department of Health and Human Services, Rockville, Maryland (United States); Smith, Susan A. [Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas M D Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Holowaty, Eric [Dalla Lana School of Public Health, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Hall, Per [Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm (Sweden); Pukkala, Eero [Finnish Cancer Registry, Institute for Statistical and Epidemiological Cancer Research, Helsinki (Finland); Vaalavirta, Leila [Department of Oncology, Helsinki University Central Hospital, Helsinki (Finland); Stovall, Marilyn; Weathers, Rita [Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas M D Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Gilbert, Ethel [Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, US Department of Health and Human Services, Rockville, Maryland (United States); Aleman, Berthe M.P. [Department of Radiotherapy, The Netherlands Cancer Institute, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Kaijser, Magnus [Clinical Epidemiology Unit, Department of Medicine, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm (Sweden); Andersson, Michael [Department of Oncology, Copenhagen University Hospital, Copenhagen (Denmark); Storm, Hans [Cancer Prevention and Documentation, Danish Cancer Society, Copenhagen (Denmark); Joensuu, Heikki [Department of Oncology, Helsinki University Central Hospital, Helsinki (Finland); Lynch, Charles F. [Department of Epidemiology, University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa (United States); and others

    2013-08-01

    Purpose: To assess the dose–response relationship for stomach cancer after radiation therapy for cervical cancer. Methods and Materials: We conducted a nested, matched case–control study of 201 cases and 378 controls among 53,547 5-year survivors of cervical cancer diagnosed from 1943 to 1995, from 5 international, population-based cancer registries. We estimated individual radiation doses to the site of the stomach cancer for all cases and to corresponding sites for the matched controls (overall mean stomach tumor dose, 2.56 Gy, range 0.03-46.1 and after parallel opposed pelvic fields, 1.63 Gy, range 0.12-6.3). Results: More than 90% of women received radiation therapy, mostly with external beam therapy in combination with brachytherapy. Stomach cancer risk was nonsignificantly increased (odds ratio 1.27-2.28) for women receiving between 0.5 and 4.9 Gy to the stomach cancer site and significantly increased at doses ≥5 Gy (odds ratio 4.20, 95% confidence interval 1.41-13.4, P{sub trend}=.047) compared with nonirradiated women. A highly significant radiation dose–response relationship was evident when analyses were restricted to the 131 cases (251 controls) whose stomach cancer was located in the middle and lower portions of the stomach (P{sub trend}=.003), whereas there was no indication of increasing risk with increasing dose for 30 cases (57 controls) whose cancer was located in the upper stomach (P{sub trend}=.23). Conclusions: Our findings show for the first time a significant linear dose–response relationship for risk of stomach cancer in long-term survivors of cervical cancer.

  8. Radiation Dose and Subsequent Risk for Stomach Cancer in Long-term Survivors of Cervical Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kleinerman, Ruth A.; Smith, Susan A.; Holowaty, Eric; Hall, Per; Pukkala, Eero; Vaalavirta, Leila; Stovall, Marilyn; Weathers, Rita; Gilbert, Ethel; Aleman, Berthe M.P.; Kaijser, Magnus; Andersson, Michael; Storm, Hans; Joensuu, Heikki; Lynch, Charles F.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the dose–response relationship for stomach cancer after radiation therapy for cervical cancer. Methods and Materials: We conducted a nested, matched case–control study of 201 cases and 378 controls among 53,547 5-year survivors of cervical cancer diagnosed from 1943 to 1995, from 5 international, population-based cancer registries. We estimated individual radiation doses to the site of the stomach cancer for all cases and to corresponding sites for the matched controls (overall mean stomach tumor dose, 2.56 Gy, range 0.03-46.1 and after parallel opposed pelvic fields, 1.63 Gy, range 0.12-6.3). Results: More than 90% of women received radiation therapy, mostly with external beam therapy in combination with brachytherapy. Stomach cancer risk was nonsignificantly increased (odds ratio 1.27-2.28) for women receiving between 0.5 and 4.9 Gy to the stomach cancer site and significantly increased at doses ≥5 Gy (odds ratio 4.20, 95% confidence interval 1.41-13.4, P trend =.047) compared with nonirradiated women. A highly significant radiation dose–response relationship was evident when analyses were restricted to the 131 cases (251 controls) whose stomach cancer was located in the middle and lower portions of the stomach (P trend =.003), whereas there was no indication of increasing risk with increasing dose for 30 cases (57 controls) whose cancer was located in the upper stomach (P trend =.23). Conclusions: Our findings show for the first time a significant linear dose–response relationship for risk of stomach cancer in long-term survivors of cervical cancer

  9. Using Breast Cancer Risk Associated Polymorphisms to Identify Women for Breast Cancer Chemoprevention.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elad Ziv

    Full Text Available Breast cancer can be prevented with selective estrogen receptor modifiers (SERMs and aromatase inhibitors (AIs. The US Preventive Services Task Force recommends that women with a 5-year breast cancer risk ≥3% consider chemoprevention for breast cancer. More than 70 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs have been associated with breast cancer. We sought to determine how to best integrate risk information from SNPs with other risk factors to risk stratify women for chemoprevention.We used the risk distribution among women ages 35-69 estimated by the Breast Cancer Surveillance Consortium (BCSC risk model. We modeled the effect of adding 70 SNPs to the BCSC model and examined how this would affect how many women are reclassified above and below the threshold for chemoprevention.We found that most of the benefit of SNP testing a population is achieved by testing a modest fraction of the population. For example, if women with a 5-year BCSC risk of >2.0% are tested (~21% of all women, ~75% of the benefit of testing all women (shifting women above or below 3% 5-year risk would be derived. If women with a 5-year risk of >1.5% are tested (~36% of all women, ~90% of the benefit of testing all women would be derived.SNP testing is effective for reclassification of women for chemoprevention, but is unlikely to reclassify women with <1.5% 5-year risk. These results can be used to implement an efficient two-step testing approach to identify high risk women who may benefit from chemoprevention.

  10. BMI, diet and female reproductive factors as risks for thyroid cancer: a systematic review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily Peterson

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Thyroid cancer incidence rates have been increasing worldwide but the reason behind this is unclear. Both the increasing use of diagnostic technologies allowing the detection of thyroid cancer and a true increase in thyroid cancer incidence have been proposed. This review assesses the role of body mass index (BMI, diet, and reproductive factors on the thyroid cancer trend. METHODS: Epidemiologic studies of the selected risk factors up to June 2010 were reviewed and critically assessed. RESULTS: Among the thirty-seven studies reviewed and despite variation in the risk estimates, most papers supported a small but positive association for BMI (risk estimate range: 1.1-2.3 in males and 1.0-7.4 in females.. Among specific dietary components, there was no consistent association of thyroid cancer risk with iodine intake through fortification (risk estimate range: 0.49-1.6 or fish consumption (risk estimate range 0.6-2.2, nor with diets high in cruciferous vegetables (risk estimate range 0.6-1.9. A small number of studies showed a consistent protective effect of diets high in non-cruciferous vegetable (risk estimate range: 0.71-0.92. Among reproductive factors (pregnancy, parity, number of live births, use of prescription hormones, menstrual cycle regularity, and menopausal status, none were consistently associated with higher thyroid cancer risk. CONCLUSIONS: BMI had the strongest link to thyroid cancer risk among those examined. Detailed examinations of population-level risk factors can help identify and support prevention efforts to reduce the burden of thyroid cancer.

  11. Cellular telephone use and cancer risk