WorldWideScience

Sample records for cancer risk disparities

  1. Cancer Disparities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basic information about cancer disparities in the U.S., factors that contribute to the disproportionate burden of cancer in some groups, and examples of disparities in incidence and mortality among certain populations.

  2. A Model for Understanding the Genetic Basis for Disparity in Prostate Cancer Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-15-1-0529 TITLE: A Model for Understanding the Genetic Basis for Disparity in Prostate Cancer Risk PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR...AND SUBTITLE A Model for Understanding the Genetic Basis for Disparity in Prostate Cancer Risk 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-15-1...STATEMENT Approved for Public Release; Distribution Unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT Prostate cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer in

  3. Cancer Disparities - Cancer Currents Blog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blog posts on cancer health disparities research—including factors that influence disparities, disparities-related research efforts, and diversity in the cancer research workforce—from NCI Cancer Currents.

  4. What Are Cancer Disparities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    This infographic shows the factors associated with cancer disparities, examples of how the cancer burden differs across certain population groups, and NCI actions to understand and reduce cancer disparities.

  5. Individual Breast Cancer risk assessment in Underserved Populations: Integrating empirical Bioethics and Health Disparities Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Emily E.; Hoskins, Kent

    2013-01-01

    Research suggests that individual breast cancer risk assessment may improve adherence to recommended screening and prevention guidelines, thereby decreasing morbidity and mortality. Further research on the use of risk assessment models in underserved minority populations is critical to informing national public health efforts to eliminate breast cancer disparities. However, implementing individual breast cancer risk assessment in underserved patient populations raises particular ethical issues that require further examination. After reviewing these issues, we will discuss how empirical bioethics research can be integrated with health disparities research to inform the translation of research findings. Our in-progress National Cancer Institute (NCI) funded study, How Do Underserved Minority Women Think About Breast Cancer?, conducted in the context of a larger study on individual breast cancer risk assessment, is presented as a model. PMID:23124498

  6. Take Action to Decrease Your Cancer Risk - Obesity and Its Role in Cancer Health Disparities

    Science.gov (United States)

    In support of this year’s National Minority Health Month theme “Prevention is Power: Taking Action for Health Equity!”, CRCHD is highlighting the role of obesity in cancer health disparities among diverse population groups in the U.S.

  7. Household-level disparities in cancer risks from vehicular air pollution in Miami

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collins, Timothy W; Grineski, Sara E; Chakraborty, Jayajit

    2015-01-01

    Environmental justice (EJ) research has relied on ecological analyses of socio-demographic data from areal units to determine if particular populations are disproportionately burdened by toxic risks. This article advances quantitative EJ research by (a) examining whether statistical associations found for geographic units translate to relationships at the household level; (b) testing alternative explanations for distributional injustices never before investigated; and (c) applying a novel statistical technique appropriate for geographically-clustered data. Our study makes these advances by using generalized estimating equations to examine distributive environmental inequities in the Miami (Florida) metropolitan area, based on primary household-level survey data and census block-level cancer risk estimates of hazardous air pollutant (HAP) exposure from on-road mobile emission sources. In addition to modeling determinants of on-road HAP cancer risk among all survey participants, two subgroup models are estimated to examine whether determinants of risk differ based on disadvantaged minority (Hispanic and non-Hispanic Black) versus non-Hispanic white racial/ethnic status. Results reveal multiple determinants of risk exposure disparities. In the model including all survey participants, renter-occupancy, Hispanic and non-Hispanic black race/ethnicity, the desire to live close to work/urban services or public transportation, and higher risk perception are associated with greater on-road HAP cancer risk; the desire to live in an amenity-rich environment is associated with less risk. Divergent subgroup model results shed light on the previously unexamined role of racial/ethnic status in shaping determinants of risk exposures. While lower socioeconomic status and higher risk perception predict significantly greater on-road HAP cancer risk among disadvantaged minorities, the desire to live near work/urban services or public transport predict significantly greater risk among

  8. Cigarette Smoking and Breast Cancer Risk in Hispanic and Non-Hispanic White Women: The Breast Cancer Health Disparities Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connor, Avonne E; Baumgartner, Kathy B; Baumgartner, Richard N; Pinkston, Christina M; Boone, Stephanie D; John, Esther M; Torres-Mejía, Gabriela; Hines, Lisa M; Giuliano, Anna R; Wolff, Roger K; Slattery, Martha L

    2016-03-01

    Few epidemiological studies have included Hispanics with the evaluation of the effects of cigarette smoking and breast cancer. We examined the relationship between cigarette smoking, ethnicity, and breast cancer risk using data from the Breast Cancer Health Disparities Study (BCHDS). The BCHDS is a consortium of three population-based case-control studies, including U.S. non-Hispanic whites (NHWs) (1,525 cases; 1,593 controls), U.S. Hispanics/Native Americans (1,265 cases; 1,495 controls), and Mexican women (990 cases; 1,049 controls). Multivariable logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Breast cancer risk was elevated among Mexican former smokers (OR 1.43, 95% CI 1.04-1.96) and among those who smoked ≥ 31 years (OR 1.95, 95% CI 1.13-3.35), compared to never smokers. In addition, Mexican former smokers with a history of alcohol consumption had increased breast cancer risk (OR 2.30, 95% CI 1.01-5.21). Among NHW premenopausal women, breast cancer risk was increased for smoking ≥ 20 cigarettes per day (OR 1.61, 95% CI 1.07-2.41). Our findings suggest the possibility of ethnic differences with the associations between cigarette smoking and breast cancer risk.

  9. Liver Cancer Disparities in New York City: A Neighborhood View of Risk and Harm Reduction Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geetanjali R. Kamath

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionLiver cancer is the fastest increasing cancer in the United States and is one of the leading causes of cancer-related death in New York City (NYC, with wide disparities among neighborhoods. The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to describe liver cancer incidence by neighborhood and examine its association with risk factors. This information can inform preventive and treatment interventions.Materials and methodsPublicly available data were collected on adult NYC residents (n = 6,407,022. Age-adjusted data on liver and intrahepatic bile duct cancer came from the New York State Cancer Registry (1 (2007–2011 average annual incidence; and the NYC Vital Statistics Bureau (2015, mortality. Data on liver cancer risk factors (2012–2015 were sourced from the New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene: (1 Community Health Survey, (2 A1C registry, and (3 NYC Health Department Hepatitis surveillance data. They included prevalence of obesity, diabetes, diabetic control, alcohol-related hospitalizations or emergency department visits, hepatitis B and C rates, hepatitis B vaccine coverage, and injecting drug use.ResultsLiver cancer incidence in NYC was strongly associated with neighborhood poverty after adjusting for race/ethnicity (β = 0.0217, p = 0.013; and with infection risk scores (β = 0.0389, 95% CI = 0.0088–0.069, p = 0.011, particularly in the poorest neighborhoods (β = 0.1207, 95% CI = 0.0147–0.2267, p = 0.026. Some neighborhoods with high hepatitis rates do not have a proportionate number of hepatitis prevention services.ConclusionHigh liver cancer incidence is strongly associated with infection risk factors in NYC. There are gaps in hepatitis prevention services like syringe exchange and vaccination that should be addressed. The role of alcohol and metabolic risk factors on liver cancer in NYC warrants further study.

  10. Examples of Cancer Health Disparities

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and the bacterium H. pylori (stomach cancer) in immigrant countries of origin contributes to these disparities. ( ACS ) ... Cancer.gov en español Multimedia Publications Site Map Digital Standards for NCI Websites POLICIES Accessibility Comment Policy ...

  11. Sexual orientation disparities in cancer-related risk behaviors of tobacco, alcohol, sexual behaviors, and diet and physical activity: pooled Youth Risk Behavior Surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosario, Margaret; Corliss, Heather L; Everett, Bethany G; Reisner, Sari L; Austin, S Bryn; Buchting, Francisco O; Birkett, Michelle

    2014-02-01

    We examined sexual orientation disparities in cancer-related risk behaviors among adolescents. We pooled data from the 2005 and 2007 Youth Risk Behavior Surveys. We classified youths with any same-sex orientation as sexual minority and the remainder as heterosexual. We compared the groups on risk behaviors and stratified by gender, age ( 14 years), and race/ethnicity. Sexual minorities (7.6% of the sample) reported more risk behaviors than heterosexuals for all 12 behaviors (mean = 5.3 vs 3.8; P sexual orientation disparities in analyses by gender, followed by age, and then race/ethnicity; they persisted in analyses by gender, age, and race/ethnicity, although findings were nuanced. Data on cancer risk, morbidity, and mortality by sexual orientation are needed to track the potential but unknown burden of cancer among sexual minorities.

  12. Mediation by peer violence victimization of sexual orientation disparities in cancer-related tobacco, alcohol, and sexual risk behaviors: pooled youth risk behavior surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosario, Margaret; Corliss, Heather L; Everett, Bethany G; Russell, Stephen T; Buchting, Francisco O; Birkett, Michelle A

    2014-06-01

    We examined the role of adolescent peer violence victimization (PVV) in sexual orientation disparities in cancer-related tobacco, alcohol, and sexual risk behaviors. We pooled data from the 2005 and 2007 Youth Risk Behavior Surveys. We classified youths with any same-sex sexual attraction, partners, or identity as sexual minority and the remainder as heterosexual. We had 4 indicators of tobacco and alcohol use and 4 of sexual risk and 2 PVV factors: victimization at school and carrying weapons. We stratified associations by gender and race/ethnicity. PVV was related to disparities in cancer-related risk behaviors of substance use and sexual risk, with odds ratios (ORs) of 1.3 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.03, 1.6) to 11.3 (95% CI = 6.2, 20.8), and to being a sexual minority, with ORs of 1.4 (95% CI = 1.1, 1.9) to 5.6 (95% CI = 3.5, 8.9). PVV mediated sexual orientation disparities in substance use and sexual risk behaviors. Findings were pronounced for adolescent girls and Asian/Pacific Islanders. Interventions are needed to reduce PVV in schools as a way to reduce sexual orientation disparities in cancer risk across the life span.

  13. Image Based Biomarker of Breast Cancer Risk: Analysis of Risk Disparity Among Minority Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-01

    cluster locations. In the undirected strategy, the PDF is uniform within the entire volume of the breast , while in...stereoscopic breast biopsy images (13, 14). Each cluster in the database is stored as a 3D binary volume, with a voxel value of ‘1’ representing...AD_________________ Award Number: W81XWH-09-1-0062 TITLE: Image Based Biomarker of Breast Cancer

  14. Breast Cancer Disparities

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 2.65 MB] Read the MMWR Science Clips Breast Cancer Black Women Have Higher Death Rates from Breast ... of Page U.S. State Info Number of Additional Breast Cancer Deaths Among Black Women, By State SOURCE: National ...

  15. Disparity in cancer care: a Canadian perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed, S.; Shahid, R.K.

    2012-01-01

    Canada is facing cancer crisis. Cancer has become the leading cause of death in Canada. Despite recent advances in cancer management and research, growing disparities in cancer care have been noticed, especially in socio-economically disadvantaged groups and under-served communities. With the rising incidence of cancer and the increasing numbers of minorities and of social disparities in general, and without appropriate interventions, cancer care disparities will become only more pronounced. ...

  16. Bioavailable insulin-like growth factor-I as mediator of racial disparity in obesity-relevant breast and colorectal cancer risk among postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Su Yon; Barrington, Wendy E; Lane, Dorothy S; Chen, Chu; Chlebowski, Rowan; Corbie-Smith, Giselle; Hou, Lifang; Zhang, Zuo-Feng; Paek, Min-So; Crandall, Carolyn J

    2017-03-01

    Bioavailable insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) interacts with obesity and exogenous estrogen (E) in a racial disparity in obesity-related cancer risk, yet their interconnected pathways are not fully characterized. We investigated whether circulating bioavailable IGF-I acted as a mediator of the racial disparity in obesity-related cancers such as breast and colorectal (CR) cancers and how obesity and E use regulate this relationship. A total of 2,425 white and 164 African American (AA) postmenopausal women from the Women's Health Initiative Observational Study were followed from October 1, 1993 through August 29, 2014. To assess bioactive IGF-I as a mediator of race-cancer relationship, we used the Baron-Kenny method and quantitative estimation of the mediation effect. Compared with white women, AA women had higher IGF-I levels; their higher risk of CR cancer, after accounting for IGF-I, was no longer significant. IGF-I was associated with breast and CR cancers even after controlling for race. Among viscerally obese (waist/hip ratio >0.85) and overall nonobese women (body mass index obesity-related breast and CR cancer risk between postmenopausal AA and white women. Body fat distribution and E use may be part of the interconnected hormonal pathways related to racial difference in IGF-I levels and obesity-related cancer risk.

  17. Understanding PSA and its derivatives in prediction of tumor volume: Addressing health disparities in prostate cancer risk stratification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinea, Felix M; Lyapichev, Kirill; Epstein, Jonathan I; Kwon, Deukwoo; Smith, Paul Taylor; Pollack, Alan; Cote, Richard J; Kryvenko, Oleksandr N

    2017-03-28

    To address health disparities in risk stratification of U.S. Hispanic/Latino men by characterizing influences of prostate weight, body mass index, and race/ethnicity on the correlation of PSA derivatives with Gleason score 6 (Grade Group 1) tumor volume in a diverse cohort. Using published PSA density and PSA mass density cutoff values, men with higher body mass indices and prostate weights were less likely to have a tumor volume PSA derivatives when predicting for tumor volume. In receiver operator characteristic analysis, area under the curve values for all PSA derivatives varied across race/ethnicity with lower optimal cutoff values for Hispanic/Latino (PSA=2.79, PSA density=0.06, PSA mass=0.37, PSA mass density=0.011) and Non-Hispanic Black (PSA=3.75, PSA density=0.07, PSA mass=0.46, PSA mass density=0.008) compared to Non-Hispanic White men (PSA=4.20, PSA density=0.11 PSA mass=0.53, PSA mass density=0.014). We retrospectively analyzed 589 patients with low-risk prostate cancer at radical prostatectomy. Pre-operative PSA, patient height, body weight, and prostate weight were used to calculate all PSA derivatives. Receiver operating characteristic curves were constructed for each PSA derivative per racial/ethnic group to establish optimal cutoff values predicting for tumor volume ≥0.5 cm3. Increasing prostate weight and body mass index negatively influence PSA derivatives for predicting tumor volume. PSA derivatives' ability to predict tumor volume varies significantly across race/ethnicity. Hispanic/Latino and Non-Hispanic Black men have lower optimal cutoff values for all PSA derivatives, which may impact risk assessment for prostate cancer.

  18. Understanding environmental health inequalities through comparative intracategorical analysis: racial/ethnic disparities in cancer risks from air toxics in El Paso County, Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Timothy W; Grineski, Sara E; Chakraborty, Jayajit; McDonald, Yolanda J

    2011-01-01

    This paper contributes to the environmental justice literature by analyzing contextually relevant and racial/ethnic group-specific variables in relation to air toxics cancer risks in a US-Mexico border metropolis at the census block group-level. Results indicate that Hispanics' ethnic status interacts with class, gender and age status to amplify disproportionate risk. In contrast, results indicate that non-Hispanic whiteness attenuates cancer risk disparities associated with class, gender and age status. Findings suggest that a system of white-Anglo privilege shapes the way in which race/ethnicity articulates with other dimensions of inequality to create unequal cancer risks from air toxics. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. The influence of health disparities on targeting cancer prevention efforts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zonderman, Alan B; Ejiogu, Ngozi; Norbeck, Jennifer; Evans, Michele K

    2014-03-01

    Despite the advances in cancer medicine and the resultant 20% decline in cancer death rates for Americans since 1991, there remain distinct cancer health disparities among African Americans, Hispanics, Native Americans, and the those living in poverty. Minorities and the poor continue to bear the disproportionate burden of cancer, especially in terms of stage at diagnosis, incidence, and mortality. Cancer health disparities are persistent reminders that state-of-the-art cancer prevention, diagnosis, and treatment are not equally effective for and accessible to all Americans. The cancer prevention model must take into account the phenotype of accelerated aging associated with health disparities as well as the important interplay of biological and sociocultural factors that lead to disparate health outcomes. The building blocks of this prevention model will include interdisciplinary prevention modalities that encourage partnerships across medical and nonmedical entities, community-based participatory research, development of ethnically and racially diverse research cohorts, and full actualization of the prevention benefits outlined in the 2010 Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act. However, the most essential facet should be a thoughtful integration of cancer prevention and screening into prevention, screening, and disease management activities for hypertension and diabetes mellitus because these chronic medical illnesses have a substantial prevalence in populations at risk for cancer disparities and cause considerable comorbidity and likely complicate effective treatment and contribute to disproportionate cancer death rates. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. Cancer risk disparities between hispanic and non-hispanic white populations: the role of exposure to indoor air pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hun, Diana E; Siegel, Jeffrey A; Morandi, Maria T; Stock, Thomas H; Corsi, Richard L

    2009-12-01

    Hispanics are the fastest growing minority group in the United States; however, minimal information is available on their cancer risks from exposures to hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) and how these risks compare to risks to non-Hispanic whites. We estimated the personal exposure and cancer risk of Hispanic and white adults who participated in the Relationships of Indoor, Outdoor, and Personal Air (RIOPA) study. We evaluated 12 of the sampled volatile organic compounds and carbonyls and identified the HAPs of most concern and their possible sources. Furthermore, we examined sociodemographic factors and building characteristics. Cumulative cancer risks (CCRs) estimated for Hispanics (median = 519 x 10(-6), 90th percentile = 3,968 x 10(-6)) and for whites (median = 443 x 10(-6), 90th percentile = 751 x 10(-6)) were much greater than the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) benchmark of 10(-6). Cumulative risks were dominated by formaldehyde and p-dichlorobenzene (p-DCB) and, to a lesser extent, by acetaldehyde, chloroform, and benzene. Exposure to all of these compounds except benzene was primarily due to indoor residential sources. Hispanics had statistically higher CCRs than did whites (p Cancer risks for pollutants emitted indoors increased in houses with lower ventilation rates. Hispanics appear to be disproportionately affected by certain HAPs from indoor and outdoor sources. Policies that aim to reduce risk from exposure to HAPs for the entire population and population subgroups should consider indoor air pollution.

  1. Gender Identity Disparities in Cancer Screening Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabaac, Ariella R; Sutter, Megan E; Wall, Catherine S J; Baker, Kellan E

    2018-03-01

    Transgender (trans) and gender-nonconforming adults have reported reduced access to health care because of discrimination and lack of knowledgeable care. This study aimed to contribute to the nascent cancer prevention literature among trans and gender-nonconforming individuals by ascertaining rates of breast, cervical, prostate, and colorectal cancer screening behaviors by gender identity. Publicly available de-identified data from the 2014-2016 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System surveys were utilized to evaluate rates of cancer screenings by gender identity, while controlling for healthcare access, sociodemographics, and survey year. Analyses were conducted in 2017. Weighted chi-square tests identified significant differences in the proportion of cancer screening behaviors by gender identity among lifetime colorectal cancer screenings, Pap tests, prostate-specific antigen tests, discussing prostate-specific antigen test advantages/disadvantages with their healthcare provider, and up-to-date colorectal cancer screenings and Pap tests (pgender identity were fully explained by covariates, trans women had reduced odds of having up-to-date colorectal cancer screenings compared to cisgender (cis) men (AOR=0.20) and cis women (AOR=0.24), whereas trans men were more likely to ever receive a sigmoidoscopy/colonoscopy as compared to cis men (AOR=2.76) and cis women (AOR=2.65). Trans women were more likely than cis men to have up-to-date prostate-specific antigen tests (AOR=3.19). Finally, trans men and gender-nonconforming individuals had reduced odds of lifetime Pap tests versus cis women (AOR=0.14 and 0.08, respectively), and gender-nonconforming individuals had lower odds of discussing prostate-specific antigen tests than cis men (AOR=0.09; all pgender identity disparities in cancer screenings persist beyond known sociodemographic and healthcare factors. It is critical that gender identity questions are included in cancer and other health-related surveillance

  2. Racial and ethnic disparities in the impact of obesity on breast cancer risk and survival: a global perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandera, Elisa V; Maskarinec, Gertraud; Romieu, Isabelle; John, Esther M

    2015-11-01

    Obesity is a global concern, affecting both developed and developing countries. Although there are large variations in obesity and breast cancer rates worldwide and across racial/ethnic groups, most studies evaluating the impact of obesity on breast cancer risk and survival have been conducted in non-Hispanic white women in the United States or Europe. Given the known racial/ethnic differences in tumor hormone receptor subtype distribution, obesity prevalence, and risk factor profiles, we reviewed published data for women of African, Hispanic, and Asian ancestry in the United States and their countries of origin. Although the data are limited, current evidence suggests a stronger adverse effect of obesity on breast cancer risk and survival in women of Asian ancestry. For African Americans and Hispanics, the strength of the associations appears to be more comparable to that of non-Hispanic whites, particularly when accounting for subtype and menopausal status. Central obesity seems to have a stronger impact in African-American women than general adiposity as measured by body mass index. International data from countries undergoing economic transition offer a unique opportunity to evaluate the impact of rapid weight gain on breast cancer. Such studies should take into account genetic ancestry, which may help elucidate differences in associations between ethnically admixed populations. Overall, additional large studies that use a variety of adiposity measures are needed, because the current evidence is based on few studies, most with limited statistical power. Future investigations of obesity biomarkers will be useful to understand possible racial/ethnic biological differences underlying the complex association between obesity and breast cancer development and progression. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  3. Racial/ethnic disparities in the risk of posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms among mothers of children diagnosed with cancer and Type-1 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greening, Leilani; Stoppelbein, Laura; Cheek, Kara

    2017-05-01

    Research findings have indicated that mothers of children diagnosed with life-threatening illnesses can be at risk for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms (PTSS), with African American mothers being especially vulnerable because of evidence suggesting higher rates of PTSD among both African Americans and women. Race/ethnicity, past trauma exposure and the interaction of these variables were evaluated as risk factors for PTSS, depression, and state and trait anxiety among African American and Caucasian mothers of chronically ill children. Mothers of children (N = 91) diagnosed with a life-threatening illness (i.e., cancer or Type-I diabetes mellitus [T1DM]) completed standardized measures and provided a salivary cortisol sample while attending medical appointments for their ill children. A MANCOVA revealed that mothers of children diagnosed with T1DM had higher cortisol levels than mothers of children with cancer. There was no racial or ethnic disparity in the risk of PTSS among the mothers. These findings suggest that mothers of children with T1DM may be vulnerable to stress reactions, as reflected by cortisol, a biological marker. Clinicians and researchers might consider illness-specific features when evaluating the risk of stress reactions among mothers of children with life-threatening illnesses. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  4. Urban?rural disparities in colorectal cancer screening: cross-sectional analysis of 1998?2005 data from the Centers for Disease Control's Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance Study

    OpenAIRE

    Cole, Allison M; Jackson, J Elizabeth; Doescher, Mark

    2012-01-01

    Despite the existence of effective screening, colorectal cancer remains the second leading cause of cancer death in the United States. Identification of disparities in colorectal cancer screening will allow for targeted interventions to achieve national goals for screening. The objective of this study was to contrast colorectal cancer screening rates in urban and rural populations in the United States. The study design comprised a cross-sectional study in the United States 1998?2005. Behavior...

  5. Energy homeostasis genes and breast cancer risk: The influence of ancestry, body size, and menopausal status, the breast cancer health disparities study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slattery, Martha L; Lundgreen, Abbie; Hines, Lisa; Wolff, Roger K; Torres-Mejia, Gabriella; Baumgartner, Kathy N; John, Esther M

    2015-12-01

    Obesity and breast cancer risk is multifaceted and genes associated with energy homeostasis may modify this relationship. We evaluated 10 genes that have been associated with obesity and energy homeostasis to determine their association with breast cancer risk in Hispanic/Native American (2111 cases, 2597 controls) and non-Hispanic white (1481 cases, 1585 controls) women. Cholecystokinin (CCK) rs747455 and proopiomelanocortin (POMC) rs6713532 and rs7565877 (for low Indigenous American (IA) ancestry); CCK rs8192472 and neuropeptide Y (NYP) rs16141 and rs14129 (intermediate IA ancestry); and leptin receptor (LEPR) rs11585329 (high IA ancestry) were strongly associated with multiple indicators of body size. There were no significant associations with breast cancer risk between genes and SNPs overall. However, LEPR was significantly associated with breast cancer risk among women with low IA ancestry (PARTP=0.024); POMC was significantly associated with breast cancer risk among women with intermediate (PARTP=0.015) and high (PARTP=0.012) IA ancestry. The overall pathway was statistically significant for pre-menopausal women with low IA ancestry (PARTP=0.05), as was cocaine and amphetamine regulated transcript protein (CARTPT) (PARTP=0.014) and ghrelin (GHRL) (PARTP=0.007). POMC was significantly associated with breast cancer risk among post-menopausal women with higher IA ancestry (PARTP=0.005). Three SNPs in LEPR (rs6704167, rs17412175, and rs7626141), and adiponectin (ADIPOQ); rs822391) showed significant 4-way interactions (GxExMenopausexAncestry) for multiple indicators of body size among pre-menopausal women. Energy homeostasis genes were associated with breast cancer risk; menopausal status, body size, and genetic ancestry influenced this relationship. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Counties eliminating racial disparities in colorectal cancer mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rust, George; Zhang, Shun; Yu, Zhongyuan; Caplan, Lee; Jain, Sanjay; Ayer, Turgay; McRoy, Luceta; Levine, Robert S

    2016-06-01

    Although colorectal cancer (CRC) mortality rates are declining, racial-ethnic disparities in CRC mortality nationally are widening. Herein, the authors attempted to identify county-level variations in this pattern, and to characterize counties with improving disparity trends. The authors examined 20-year trends in US county-level black-white disparities in CRC age-adjusted mortality rates during the study period between 1989 and 2010. Using a mixed linear model, counties were grouped into mutually exclusive patterns of black-white racial disparity trends in age-adjusted CRC mortality across 20 three-year rolling average data points. County-level characteristics from census data and from the Area Health Resources File were normalized and entered into a principal component analysis. Multinomial logistic regression models were used to test the relation between these factors (clusters of related contextual variables) and the disparity trend pattern group for each county. Counties were grouped into 4 disparity trend pattern groups: 1) persistent disparity (parallel black and white trend lines); 2) diverging (widening disparity); 3) sustained equality; and 4) converging (moving from disparate outcomes toward equality). The initial principal component analysis clustered the 82 independent variables into a smaller number of components, 6 of which explained 47% of the county-level variation in disparity trend patterns. County-level variation in social determinants, health care workforce, and health systems all were found to contribute to variations in cancer mortality disparity trend patterns from 1990 through 2010. Counties sustaining equality over time or moving from disparities to equality in cancer mortality suggest that disparities are not inevitable, and provide hope that more communities can achieve optimal and equitable cancer outcomes for all. Cancer 2016;122:1735-48. © 2016 American Cancer Society. © 2016 American Cancer Society.

  7. Cancer mortality disparities among New York City's Upper Manhattan neighborhoods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashim, Dana; Manczuk, Marta; Holcombe, Randall; Lucchini, Roberto; Boffetta, Paolo

    2017-11-01

    The East Harlem (EH), Central Harlem (CH), and Upper East Side (UES) neighborhoods of New York City are geographically contiguous to tertiary medical care, but are characterized by cancer mortality rate disparities. This ecological study aims to disentangle the effects of race and neighborhood on cancer deaths. Mortality-to-incidence ratios were determined using neighborhood-specific data from the New York State Cancer Registry and Vital Records Office (2007-2011). Ecological data on modifiable cancer risk factors from the New York City Community Health Survey (2002-2006) were stratified by sex, age group, race/ethnicity, and neighborhood and modeled against stratified mortality rates to disentangle race/ethnicity and neighborhood using logistic regression. Significant gaps in mortality rates were observed between the UES and both CH and EH across all cancers, favoring UES. Mortality-to-incidence ratios of both CH and EH were similarly elevated in the range of 0.41-0.44 compared with UES (0.26-0.30). After covariate and multivariable adjustment, black race (odds ratio=1.68; 95% confidence interval: 1.46-1.93) and EH residence (odds ratio=1.20; 95% confidence interval: 1.07-1.35) remained significant risk factors in all cancers' combined mortality. Mortality disparities remain among EH, CH, and UES neighborhoods. Both neighborhood and race are significantly associated with cancer mortality, independent of each other. Multivariable adjusted models that include Community Health Survey risk factors show that this mortality gap may be avoidable through community-based public health interventions.

  8. January Monthly Spotlight: Cervical Health and Cervical Cancer Disparities

    Science.gov (United States)

    In January, CRCHD joins the nation in raising awareness for Cervical Health and Cervical Cancer Disparities. This month we share a special focus on NCI/CRCHD research programs that are trying to reduce cervical cancer disparities in underserved communities and the people who are spreading the word about the importance of early detection.

  9. Disparities in breast cancer and african ancestry: a global perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Lisa A

    2015-01-01

    Recognition of breast cancer disparities between African-American and White American women has generated exciting research opportunities investigating the biologic and hereditary factors that contribute to the observed outcome differences, leading to international studies of breast cancer in Africa. The study of breast cancer in women with African ancestry has opened the door to unique investigations regarding breast cancer subtypes and the genetics of this disease. International research efforts can advance our understanding of race/ethnicity-associated breast cancer disparities within the USA; the pathogenesis of triple negative breast cancer; and hereditary susceptibility for breast cancer. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Reduction of Racial Disparities in Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-01

    African Americans and whites revealed increased risks among men who reported a history of gonorrhea or syphilis or who had positive serology for...cancer, of 1.49 to 2.64 for syphilis, and 1.16 to 1.50 for gonorrhea .16 The meta-analysis also found an association be- tween prostate cancer and...tients with prostatitis include Chlamydia trachoma- tis, Ureaplasma, Mycoplasma, Neisseria gonorrhea , Pseudomonas, Escherichia coli, and

  11. Use of Segregation Indices, Townsend Index, and Air Toxics Data to Assess Lifetime Cancer Risk Disparities in Metropolitan Charleston, South Carolina, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LaShanta J. Rice

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Studies have demonstrated a relationship between segregation and level of education, occupational opportunities, and risk behaviors, yet a paucity of research has elucidated the association between racial residential segregation, socioeconomic deprivation, and lifetime cancer risk. Objectives: We examined estimated lifetime cancer risk from air toxics by racial composition, segregation, and deprivation in census tracts in Metropolitan Charleston. Methods: Segregation indices were used to measure the distribution of groups of people from different races within neighborhoods. The Townsend Index was used to measure economic deprivation in the study area. Poisson multivariate regressions were applied to assess the association of lifetime cancer risk with segregation indices and Townsend Index along with several sociodemographic measures. Results: Lifetime cancer risk from all pollution sources was 28 persons/million for half of the census tracts in Metropolitan Charleston. Isolation Index and Townsend Index both showed significant correlation with lifetime cancer risk from different sources. This significance still holds after adjusting for other sociodemographic measures in a Poisson regression, and these two indices have stronger effect on lifetime cancer risk compared to the effects of sociodemographic measures. Conclusions: We found that material deprivation, measured by the Townsend Index and segregation measured by the Isolation index, introduced high impact on lifetime cancer risk by air toxics at the census tract level.

  12. Do HMO market level factors lead to racial/ethnic disparities in colorectal cancer screening? A comparison between high-risk Asian and Pacific Islander Americans and high-risk whites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponce, Ninez A; Huh, Soonim; Bastani, Roshan

    2005-11-01

    Few studies have explored health care market structure and colorectal cancer (CRC) screening test use, and little is known whether market factors contribute to racial/ethnic screening disparities. We investigated whether HMO market level factors, controlling for individual covariates, differentially impact Asian American and Pacific Islander (AAPI) subjects' access to CRC screening compared with white subjects. We used random intercept hierarchical models to predict CRC test use. Individual-level survey data was linked to market data by metropolitan statistical areas from InterStudy. Insured first-degree relatives, ages 40-80, of a random sample of colorectal cancer cases identified from the California Cancer Registry: 515 white subjects and 396 AAPI subjects residing in 36 metropolitan statistical areas (MSAs). Dependent variables were receipt of (1) annual fecal occult blood test only; (2) sigmoidoscopy in the past 5 years; (3) colonoscopy in the past 10 years; and (4) any of these tests over the recommended time interval. Market characteristics were HMO penetration, HMO competition, and proportion of staff/group/network HMOs. Market characteristics were as important as individual-level characteristics for AAPI but not for white subjects. Among AAPI subjects, a 10% increase in the percent of group/staff/network model HMO was associated with a reduction in colonoscopy use (28.9% to 20.5%) and in receipt of any of the CRC tests (53.2% to 45.4%). The prevailing organizational structure of a health care market confers a penalty on access to CRC test use among high-risk AAPI subjects but not among high-risk white subjects. Identifying the differential effect of market structure on race/ethnicity can potentially reduce the cancer burden among disadvantaged racial groups.

  13. Translating Research into Policy: Reducing Breast Cancer Disparities in Illinois

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dr. Carol Ferrans is internationally recognized for her work in disparities in health care and quality of life outcomes. She has a distinguished record of research that includes major grants funded by three institutes of the National Institutes of Health (National Cancer Institute, National Institute for Minority Health and Health Disparities, and National Institute for Nursing Research).    Dr. Ferrans’ work has been instrumental in reducing the disparity in breast cancer mortality Chicago, which at its peak was among the worst in the nation.  Efforts led by Dr. Ferrans and colleagues led directly to statewide legislation, to address the multifaceted causes of black/white disparity in deaths from breast cancer.  She was one of the founders of the Metropolitan Chicago Breast Cancer Task Force (MCBCTF), leading the team focusing on barriers to mammography screening, to identify reasons for the growing disparity in breast cancer mortality. Their findings (citing Ferrans’ research and others) and recommendations for action were translated directly into the Illinois Reducing Breast Cancer Disparities Act and two additional laws strengthening the Act.  These laws and other statewide efforts have improved access to screening and quality of mammography throughout the Illinois. In addition, Dr. Ferrans and her team identified cultural beliefs contributing to later stage diagnosis of breast cancer in African American and Latino women in Chicago, and most importantly, showed that these beliefs can be changed.  They reached more than 8,000 African American women in Chicago with a short film on DVD, which was effective in changing beliefs and promoting screening.  Her team’s published findings were cited by the American Cancer Society in their guidelines for breast cancer screening.  The Chicago black/white disparity in breast cancer deaths has decreased by 35% since the MCBCTF first released its report, according to data from the Illinois Department of Public

  14. Racial Disparities in Palliative Care for Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    1 | P a g e Award Number: W81XWH-10-1-0802 TITLE: " Racial Disparities in Palliative Care for Prostate Cancer." PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Alfred I...CONTRACT NUMBER W81XWH-10-1-0802 " Racial Disparities in Palliative Care for Prostate Cancer." 5b. GRANT NUMBER PC094372 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER...developed the tools/methods for working with SEER-Medicare. We plan to use analytic approaches and methods to explore racial disparities in the use of

  15. The Biology of Cancer Health Disparities

    Science.gov (United States)

    These examples show how biology contributes to health disparities (differences in disease incidence and outcomes among distinct racial and ethnic groups, ), and how biological factors interact with other relevant factors, such as diet and the environment.

  16. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Understanding Cancer What Is Cancer? Cancer Statistics Cancer Disparities Understanding Cancer What Is Cancer Cancer Statistics Cancer Disparities Causes & Prevention Risk Factors Genetics Cancer Prevention Overview ...

  17. Cancer statistics for African Americans, 2016: Progress and opportunities in reducing racial disparities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeSantis, Carol E; Siegel, Rebecca L; Sauer, Ann Goding; Miller, Kimberly D; Fedewa, Stacey A; Alcaraz, Kassandra I; Jemal, Ahmedin

    2016-07-01

    In this article, the American Cancer Society provides the estimated number of new cancer cases and deaths for blacks in the United States and the most recent data on cancer incidence, mortality, survival, screening, and risk factors for cancer. Incidence data are from the National Cancer Institute, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and the North American Association of Central Cancer Registries, and mortality data are from the National Center for Health Statistics. Approximately 189,910 new cases of cancer and 69,410 cancer deaths will occur among blacks in 2016. Although blacks continue to have higher cancer death rates than whites, the disparity has narrowed for all cancers combined in men and women and for lung and prostate cancers in men. In contrast, the racial gap in death rates has widened for breast cancer in women and remained level for colorectal cancer in men. The reduction in overall cancer death rates since the early 1990s translates to the avoidance of more than 300,000 deaths among blacks. In men, incidence rates from 2003 to 2012 decreased for all cancers combined (by 2.0% per year) as well as for the top 3 cancer sites (prostate, lung, and colorectal). In women, overall rates during the corresponding time period remained unchanged, reflecting increasing trends in breast cancer combined with decreasing trends in lung and colorectal cancer rates. Five-year relative survival is lower for blacks than whites for most cancers at each stage of diagnosis. The extent to which these disparities reflect unequal access to health care versus other factors remains an active area of research. Progress in reducing cancer death rates could be accelerated by ensuring equitable access to prevention, early detection, and high-quality treatment. CA Cancer J Clin 2016;66:290-308. © 2016 American Cancer Society. © 2016 American Cancer Society, Inc.

  18. Racial and ethnic disparities in U.S. cancer screening rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    The percentage of U.S. citizens screened for cancer remains below national targets, with significant disparities among racial and ethnic populations, according to the first federal study to identify cancer screening disparities among Asian and Hispanic gr

  19. Colorectal Cancer Incidence and Mortality Disparities in New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffman, R. M.; Gonzales, M.; Wiggins, C. L.; Hoffman, R. M.

    2014-01-01

    Previous analyses indicated that New Mexican Hispanics and American Indians (AI) did not experience the declining colorectal cancer (CRC) incidence and mortality rates observed among non-Hispanic whites (NHW). We evaluated more recent data to determine whether racial/ethnic differences persisted. Methods. We used New Mexico Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results data from 1995 to 2009 to calculate age-specific incidence rates and age-adjusted incidence rates overall and by tumor stage. We calculated mortality rates using National Center for Health Statistics’ data. We used join point regression to determine annual percentage change (APC) in age-adjusted incidence rates. Analyses were stratified by race/ethnicity and gender. Results. Incidence rates continued declining in NHW (APC −1.45% men, −1.06% women), while non significantly increasing for AI (1.67% men, 1.26% women) and Hispanic women (0.24%). The APC initially increased in Hispanic men through 2001 (3.33%, P = 0.06), before declining (−3.10%, P = 0,003). Incidence rates declined in NHW and Hispanics aged 75 and older. Incidence rates for distant-stage cancer remained stable for all groups. Mortality rates declined significantly in NHW and Hispanics. Conclusions. Racial/ethnic disparities in CRC persist in New Mexico. Incidence differences could be related to risk factors or access to screening; mortality differences could be due to patterns of care for screening or treatment.

  20. Developing Partnerships to Reduce Disparities in Cancer Screening

    OpenAIRE

    Breslau, Erica S.; Rochester, Phyllis W.; Saslow, Debbie; Crocoll, Caroline E.; Johnson, Lenora E.; Vinson, Cynthia A.

    2010-01-01

    Background Interventions in scientific settings to improve the well-being of women who are not regularly screened for cancer have failed. Consequently, community-based prevention and control efforts are needed. Community Context From 2003 through 2007, three federal agencies and 1 nongovernmental agency collaborated with county-level public health counterparts from 6 states to address screening disparities in cervical and breast cancer in counties with the highest prevalence. This case study ...

  1. Sociodemographic disparities in survival for adolescents and young adults with cancer differ by health insurance status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeRouen, Mindy C; Parsons, Helen M; Kent, Erin E; Pollock, Brad H; Keegan, Theresa H M

    2017-08-01

    To investigate associations of sociodemographic factors-race/ethnicity, neighborhood socioeconomic status (SES), and health insurance-with survival for adolescents and young adults (AYAs) with invasive cancer. Data on 80,855 AYAs with invasive cancer diagnosed in California 2001-2011 were obtained from the California Cancer Registry. We used multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression to estimate overall survival. Associations of public or no insurance with greater risk of death were observed for 11 of 12 AYA cancers examined. Compared to Whites, Blacks experienced greater risk of death, regardless of age or insurance, while greater risk of death among Hispanics and Asians was more apparent for younger AYAs and for those with private/military insurance. More pronounced neighborhood SES disparities in survival were observed among AYAs with private/military insurance, especially among younger AYAs. Lacking or having public insurance was consistently associated with shorter survival, while disparities according to race/ethnicity and neighborhood SES were greater among AYAs with private/military insurance. While health insurance coverage associates with survival, remaining racial/ethnic and socioeconomic disparities among AYAs with cancer suggest additional social factors also need consideration in intervention and policy development.

  2. Obesity and Cancer Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Common Cancer Types Recurrent Cancer Common Cancer Types Bladder Cancer Breast Cancer Colorectal Cancer Kidney (Renal Cell) Cancer ... hormone therapy and for tumors that express hormone receptors . Obesity is also a risk factor for breast ...

  3. Socioeconomic disparities in breast cancer survival: relation to stage at diagnosis, treatment and race

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Xue

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous studies have documented lower breast cancer survival among women with lower socioeconomic status (SES in the United States. In this study, I examined the extent to which socioeconomic disparity in breast cancer survival was explained by stage at diagnosis, treatment, race and rural/urban residence using the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER data. Methods Women diagnosed with breast cancer during 1998-2002 in the 13 SEER cancer registry areas were followed-up to the end of 2005. The association between an area-based measure of SES and cause-specific five-year survival was estimated using Cox regression models. Six models were used to assess the extent to which SES differences in survival were explained by clinical and demographical factors. The base model estimated the hazard ratio (HR by SES only and then additional adjustments were made sequentially for: 1 age and year of diagnosis; 2 stage at diagnosis; 3 first course treatment; 4 race; and 5 rural/urban residence. Results An inverse association was found between SES and risk of dying from breast cancer (p Conclusion Stage at diagnosis, first course treatment and race explained most of the socioeconomic disparity in breast cancer survival. Targeted interventions to increase breast cancer screening and treatment coverage in patients with lower SES could reduce much of socioeconomic disparity.

  4. Neighborhood disadvantage and racial disparities in colorectal cancer incidence: a population-based study in Louisiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danos, Denise M; Ferguson, Tekeda F; Simonsen, Neal R; Leonardi, Claudia; Yu, Qingzhao; Wu, Xiao-Cheng; Scribner, Richard A

    2018-05-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) continues to demonstrate racial disparities in incidence and survival in the United States. This study investigates the role of neighborhood concentrated disadvantage in racial disparities in CRC incidence in Louisiana. Louisiana Tumor Registry and U.S. Census data were used to assess the incidence of CRC diagnosed in individuals 35 years and older between 2008 and 2012. Neighborhood concentrated disadvantage index (CDI) was calculated based on the PhenX Toolkit protocol. The incidence of CRC was modeled using multilevel binomial regression with individuals nested within neighborhoods. Our study included 10,198 cases of CRC. Adjusting for age and sex, CRC risk was 28% higher for blacks than whites (risk ratio [RR] = 1.28; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.22-1.33). One SD increase in CDI was associated with 14% increase in risk for whites (RR = 1.14; 95% CI = 1.10-1.18) and 5% increase for blacks (RR = 1.05; 95% CI = 1.02-1.09). After controlling for differential effects of CDI by race, racial disparities were not observed in disadvantaged areas. CRC incidence increased with neighborhood disadvantage and racial disparities diminished with mounting disadvantage. Our results suggest additional dimensions to racial disparities in CRC outside of neighborhood disadvantage that warrants further research. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Prostate Cancer Disparities in an Incarcerated Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    diseases, Liver diseases, Cerebrovascular accident , non-Illnesses, and finally AIDS. 30% of inmates incarcerated in the WDOC die from Cancer while it is...are higher among WDOC inmates than the general U.S. population; while Cerebrovascular Accidents (CVA) are lower among WDOC inmates than the general

  6. Cancer Genomics: Diversity and Disparity Across Ethnicity and Geography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Daniel S W; Mok, Tony S K; Rebbeck, Timothy R

    2016-01-01

    Ethnic and geographic differences in cancer incidence, prognosis, and treatment outcomes can be attributed to diversity in the inherited (germline) and somatic genome. Although international large-scale sequencing efforts are beginning to unravel the genomic underpinnings of cancer traits, much remains to be known about the underlying mechanisms and determinants of genomic diversity. Carcinogenesis is a dynamic, complex phenomenon representing the interplay between genetic and environmental factors that results in divergent phenotypes across ethnicities and geography. For example, compared with whites, there is a higher incidence of prostate cancer among Africans and African Americans, and the disease is generally more aggressive and fatal. Genome-wide association studies have identified germline susceptibility loci that may account for differences between the African and non-African patients, but the lack of availability of appropriate cohorts for replication studies and the incomplete understanding of genomic architecture across populations pose major limitations. We further discuss the transformative potential of routine diagnostic evaluation for actionable somatic alterations, using lung cancer as an example, highlighting implications of population disparities, current hurdles in implementation, and the far-reaching potential of clinical genomics in enhancing cancer prevention, diagnosis, and treatment. As we enter the era of precision cancer medicine, a concerted multinational effort is key to addressing population and genomic diversity as well as overcoming barriers and geographical disparities in research and health care delivery. © 2015 by American Society of Clinical Oncology.

  7. Economic, racial and ethnic disparities in breast cancer in the US: towards a more comprehensive model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Richard T; Li, Xue; Dolecek, Therese A; Barrett, Richard E; Weaver, Kathryn E; Warnecke, Richard B

    2009-09-01

    Using cancer registry data, we focus on racial and ethnic disparities in stage of breast cancer diagnosis in Cook County, IL. The county health system is the "last resort" health-care provider for low-income persons. Socioeconomic status is measured using empirical Bayes estimates of tract-level poverty, specific to non-Hispanic whites, non-Hispanic blacks or Hispanics in one of three age groups. We use ordinal logistic regression with non-proportional odds to model stage. Blacks and Hispanics are at greater risk for regional and distant stage diagnosis, but the disparity declines with age. Women in high-poverty areas are at substantially greater risk for late-stage diagnosis. The effects of poverty do not differ by age or across racial and ethnic groups.

  8. Racial and ethnic disparities in human papillomavirus-associated cancer burden with first-generation and second-generation human papillomavirus vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, Emily A; Lee, Kyueun; Saraiya, Mona; Thompson, Trevor D; Chesson, Harrell W; Markowitz, Lauri E; Kim, Jane J

    2016-07-01

    In the United States, the burden of human papillomavirus (HPV)-associated cancers varies by racial/ethnic group. HPV vaccination may provide opportunities for primary prevention of these cancers. Herein, the authors projected changes in HPV-associated cancer burden among racial/ethnic groups under various coverage assumptions with the available first-generation and second-generation HPV vaccines to evaluate changes in racial/ethnic disparities. Cancer-specific mathematical models simulated the burden of 6 HPV-associated cancers. Model parameters, informed using national registries and epidemiological studies, reflected sex-specific, age-specific, and racial/ethnic-specific heterogeneities in HPV type distribution, cancer incidence, stage of disease at detection, and mortality. Model outcomes included the cumulative lifetime risks of developing and dying of 6 HPV-associated cancers. The level of racial/ethnic disparities was evaluated under each alternative HPV vaccine scenario using several metrics of social group disparity. HPV vaccination is expected to reduce the risks of developing and dying of HPV-associated cancers in all racial/ethnic groups as well as reduce the absolute degree of disparities. However, alternative metrics suggested that relative disparities would persist and in some scenarios worsen. For example, when assuming high uptake with the second-generation HPV vaccine, the lifetime risk of dying of an HPV-associated cancer for males decreased by approximately 60%, yet the relative disparity increased from 3.0 to 3.9. HPV vaccines are expected to reduce the overall burden of HPV-associated cancers for all racial/ethnic groups and to reduce the absolute disparity gap. However, even with the second-generation vaccine, relative disparities will likely still exist and may widen if the underlying causes of these disparities remain unaddressed. Cancer 2016;122:2057-66. © 2016 American Cancer Society. © 2016 American Cancer Society.

  9. Community strategies to address cancer disparities in Appalachian Kentucky.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenberg, Nancy E; Howell, Britteny M; Fields, Nell

    2012-01-01

    Central Appalachian residents suffer disproportionate health disparities, including an all-cancer mortality rate 17% higher than the general population. During 10 focus groups and 19 key informant interviews, 91 Appalachian residents identified cancer screening challenges and strategies. Challenges included (1) inadequate awareness of screening need, (2) insufficient access to screening, and (3) lack of privacy. Strategies included (1) witnessing/storytelling, (2) capitalizing on family history, (3) improving publicity about screening resources, (4) relying on lay health advisors, and (5) bundling preventive services. These insights shaped our community-based participatory research intervention and offered strategies to others working in Appalachia, rural locales, and other traditionally underserved communities.

  10. Disparities in staging prostate magnetic resonance imaging utilization for nonmetastatic prostate cancer patients undergoing definitive radiation therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayobami Ajayi, BA

    2016-10-01

    Conclusions: In this urban, academic center cohort, older patients across all risk groups and black or nonprivate insurance patients in the low risk group were less likely to undergo staging prostate MRI scans. Further research should investigate these differences to ensure equitable utilization across all demographic groups considering the burden of prostate cancer disparities.

  11. Assessing the Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Breast Cancer Mortality in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yedjou, Clement G; Tchounwou, Paul B; Payton, Marinelle; Miele, Lucio; Fonseca, Duber D; Lowe, Leroy; Alo, Richard A

    2017-05-05

    Breast cancer is the second leading cause of cancer related deaths among women aged 40-55 in the United States and currently affects more than one in ten women worldwide. It is also one of the most diagnosed cancers in women both in wealthy and poor countries. Fortunately, the mortality rate from breast cancer has decreased in recent years due to increased emphasis on early detection and more effective treatments in White population. Although the mortality rates have declined in some ethnic populations, the overall cancer incidence among African American and Hispanic populations has continued to grow. The goal of the present review article was to highlight similarities and differences in breast cancer morbidity and mortality rates primarily among African American women compared to White women in the United States. To reach our goal, we conducted a search of articles in journals with a primary focus on minority health, and authors who had published articles on racial/ethnic disparity related to breast cancer patients. A systematic search of original research was conducted using MEDLINE, PUBMED and Google Scholar databases. We found that racial/ethnic disparities in breast cancer may be attributed to a large number of clinical and non-clinical risk factors including lack of medical coverage, barriers to early detection and screening, more advanced stage of disease at diagnosis among minorities, and unequal access to improvements in cancer treatment. Many African American women have frequent unknown or unstaged breast cancers than White women. These risk factors may explain the differences in breast cancer treatment and survival rate between African American women and White women. New strategies and approaches are needed to promote breast cancer prevention, improve survival rate, reduce breast cancer mortality, and ultimately improve the health outcomes of racial/ethnic minorities.

  12. Racial disparities in the development of breast cancer metastases among older women: a multilevel study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schootman, Mario; Jeffe, Donna B; Gillanders, William E; Aft, Rebecca

    2009-02-15

    Distant metastases are the most common and lethal type of breast cancer relapse. The authors examined whether older African American breast cancer survivors were more likely to develop metastases compared with older white women. They also examined the extent to which 6 pathways explained racial disparities in the development of metastases. The authors used 1992-1999 Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) data with 1991-1999 Medicare data. They used Medicare's International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification codes to identify metastases of respiratory and digestive systems, brain, bone, or other unspecified sites. The 6 pathways consisted of patient characteristics, tumor characteristics, type of treatment received, access to medical care, surveillance mammography use, and area-level characteristics (poverty rate and percentage African American) and were obtained from the SEER or Medicare data. Of the 35,937 women, 10.5% developed metastases. In univariate analysis, African American women were 1.61 times (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.54-1.83) more likely to develop metastasis than white women. In multivariate analysis, tumor grade, stage at diagnosis, and census-tract percentage African American explained why African American women were more likely to develop metastases than white women (hazard ratio, 0.84; 95% CI, 0.68-1.03). Interventions to reduce late-stage breast cancer among African Americans also may reduce racial disparities in subsequent increased risk of developing metastasis. African Americans diagnosed with high-grade breast cancer could be targeted to reduce their risk of metastasis. Future studies should identify specific reasons why the racial distribution in census tracts was associated with racial disparities in the risk of breast cancer metastases. (c) 2009 American Cancer Society.

  13. Socioeconomic disparity in survival after breast cancer in ireland: observational study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul M Walsh

    Full Text Available We evaluated the relationship between breast cancer survival and deprivation using data from the Irish National Cancer Registry. Cause-specific survival was compared between five area-based socioeconomic deprivation strata using Cox regression. Patient and tumour characteristics and treatment were compared using modified Poisson regression with robust variance estimation. Based on 21356 patients diagnosed 1999-2008, age-standardized five-year survival averaged 80% in the least deprived and 75% in the most deprived stratum. Age-adjusted mortality risk was 33% higher in the most deprived group (hazard ratio 1.33, 95% CI 1.21-1.45, P<0.001. The most deprived groups were more likely to present with advanced stage, high grade or hormone receptor-negative cancer, symptomatically, or with significant comorbidity, and to be smokers or unmarried, and less likely to have breast-conserving surgery. Cox modelling suggested that the available data on patient, tumour and treatment factors could account for only about half of the survival disparity (adjusted hazard ratio 1.18, 95% CI 0.97-1.43, P = 0.093. Survival disparity did not diminish over time, compared with the period 1994-1998. Persistent survival disparities among Irish breast cancer patients suggest unequal use of or access to services and highlight the need for further research to understand and remove the behavioural or other barriers involved.

  14. Racial, socioeconomic, and demographic disparities in access to fertility preservation in young women diagnosed with cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letourneau, Joseph M; Smith, James F; Ebbel, Erin E; Craig, Amaranta; Katz, Patricia P; Cedars, Marcelle I; Rosen, Mitchell P

    2012-09-15

    This study seeks to examine the relation between sociodemographic characteristics and the utilization of fertility preservation services in reproductive age women diagnosed with cancer. A total of 1041 women diagnosed with cancer between the ages of 18 and 40 years responded to a retrospective survey on demographic information and reproductive health history. Five cancer types were included: leukemia, Hodgkin disease, non-Hodgkin lymphoma, breast cancer, and gastrointestinal cancer. Nine hundred eighteen women reported treatment with potential to affect fertility (chemotherapy, pelvic radiation, pelvic surgery, or bone marrow transplant). Student t test, linear regression, and multivariate logistic regression were used where appropriate to determine the relation between sociodemographic characteristics and the odds of using fertility preservation services. Sixty-one percent of women were counseled on the risk of cancer treatment to fertility by the oncology team. Overall, 4% of women pursued fertility preservation. In multivariate analysis, women who had not attained a bachelor's degree (odds ratio [OR], 0.7; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.5-0.9) were less likely to be counseled. Trends also suggested possible disparities in access to fertility preservation with age older than 35 years (OR, 0.1; 95% CI, 0.0-1.4) or previous children (OR, 0.3; 95% CI, 0.1-1.1) at diagnosis. Disparities in access to fertility preservation based on ethnicity and sexual orientation were also observed. Sociodemographic health disparities likely affect access to fertility preservation services. Although awareness of fertility preservation has improved in the past decade, an unmet need remains for reproductive health counseling and fertility preservation in reproductive age women diagnosed with cancer. Copyright © 2012 American Cancer Society.

  15. Identifying DNA Methylation Features that Underlie Prostate Cancer Disparities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    15.3%) NA 6 (6%) 6 (5.4%) Prostate - specific Antigen (PSA) ng/mL 76.7 (42.9) 78.2 (40.7) pTNM Stage T2 68 (67.3%) 48 (43.2%) T3 29 (28.7%) 58...Profiles Primary Aim #1: Determine if methylation profiles differ by race/ancestry Primary Aim #2: Identify ethnicity- specific markers of prostate ...by ethnicity and to identify ethnicity- specific methylation features of prostate cancer that could contribute the racial disparities that exist in

  16. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Contact Dictionary Search About Cancer Causes and Prevention Risk Factors Genetics Cancer Prevention Overview Research Cancer Screening Cancer ... Is Cancer Cancer Statistics Cancer Disparities Causes & Prevention Risk Factors Genetics Cancer Prevention Overview Screening Cancer Screening Overview ...

  17. Model-based analyses to compare health and economic outcomes of cancer control: inclusion of disparities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldie, Sue J; Daniels, Norman

    2011-09-21

    Disease simulation models of the health and economic consequences of different prevention and treatment strategies can guide policy decisions about cancer control. However, models that also consider health disparities can identify strategies that improve both population health and its equitable distribution. We devised a typology of cancer disparities that considers types of inequalities among black, white, and Hispanic populations across different cancers and characteristics important for near-term policy discussions. We illustrated the typology in the specific example of cervical cancer using an existing disease simulation model calibrated to clinical, epidemiological, and cost data for the United States. We calculated average reduction in cancer incidence overall and for black, white, and Hispanic women under five different prevention strategies (Strategies A1, A2, A3, B, and C) and estimated average costs and life expectancy per woman, and the cost-effectiveness ratio for each strategy. Strategies that may provide greater aggregate health benefit than existing options may also exacerbate disparities. Combining human papillomavirus vaccination (Strategy A2) with current cervical cancer screening patterns (Strategy A1) resulted in an average reduction of 69% in cancer incidence overall but a 71.6% reduction for white women, 68.3% for black women, and 63.9% for Hispanic women. Other strategies targeting risk-based screening to racial and ethnic minorities reduced disparities among racial subgroups and resulted in more equitable distribution of benefits among subgroups (reduction in cervical cancer incidence, white vs. Hispanic women, 69.7% vs. 70.1%). Strategies that employ targeted risk-based screening and new screening algorithms, with or without vaccination (Strategies B and C), provide excellent value. The most effective strategy (Strategy C) had a cost-effectiveness ratio of $28,200 per year of life saved when compared with the same strategy without

  18. Special Issue on Global Health Disparities Focus on Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Haeok

    2016-01-01

    Haeok Lee, PhD, RN, FAAN who is a Korean-American nurse scientist, received her doctor al degree from the Nursing Physiology Department, College of Nursing, University of California, San Francisco (UCSF), in 1993, and her post doctor al training from College of Medicine, UCSF. Dr. Lee worked at Case Western Reserve University and University of Colorado Health Sciences Center. She has worked at the UMass Boston since 2008. Dr. Lee has established a long-term commitment to minority health, especially Asian American Pacific Islanders, as a community leader, community health educator, and community researcher, and all these services have become a foundation for her community-based participatory research. Dr. Lee's research addresses current health problems framed in the context of social, political, and economic settings, and her studies have improved racial and ethnic data and developed national health policies to address health disparities in hepatitis B virus (HBV) infections and liver cancer among minorities. Dr. Lee's research, which is noteworthy for its theoretical base, is clearly filling the gap. Especially, Dr. Lee's research is beginning to have a favorable impact on national and international health policies and continuing education programs directed toward the global elimination of cervical and liver cancer-related health disparities in underserved and understudied populations.

  19. Transatlantic Roots of Prostate Cancer Disparities in Black Men: The CaPTC Program | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speaker | "Transatlantic Roots of Prostate Cancer Disparities in Black Men: The CaPTC Program" will be presented by Folakemi Odedina, PhD Professor, Pharmacotherapy & Translational Research and Director, UF Health Cancer Center Cancer Health Disparities at the University of Florida College of Pharmacy in Orlando, FL. Date: March 13, 2018; Time: 11:00am - 12:00pm; Location: NCI

  20. Advanced glycation end-products: a biological consequence of lifestyle contributing to cancer disparity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, David P

    2015-05-15

    Low income, poor diet, obesity, and a lack of exercise are interrelated lifestyle factors that can profoundly alter our biologic make up to increase cancer risk, growth, and development. We recently reported a potential mechanistic link between carbohydrate-derived metabolites and cancer, which may provide a biologic consequence of lifestyle that can directly affect tumor biology. Advanced glycation end-products (AGE) are reactive metabolites produced as a by-product of sugar metabolism. Failure to remove these highly reactive metabolites can lead to protein damage, aberrant cell signaling, increased stress responses, and decreased genetic fidelity. Critically, AGE accumulation is also directly affected by our lifestyle choices and shows a race-specific, tumor-dependent pattern of accumulation in cancer patients. This review will discuss the contribution of AGEs to the cancer phenotype, with a particular emphasis on their biologic links with the socioeconomic and environmental risk factors that drive cancer disparity. Given the potential benefits of lifestyle changes and the potential biologic role of AGEs in promoting cancer, opportunities exist for collaborations affecting basic, translational, epidemiologic, and cancer prevention initiatives. ©2015 American Association for Cancer Research.

  1. Integrating Multiple Social Statuses in Health Disparities Research: The Case of Lung Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, David R; Kontos, Emily Z; Viswanath, K; Haas, Jennifer S; Lathan, Christopher S; MacConaill, Laura E; Chen, Jarvis; Ayanian, John Z

    2012-01-01

    Objective To illustrate the complex patterns that emerge when race/ethnicity, socioeconomic status (SES), and gender are considered simultaneously in health care disparities research and to outline the needed research to understand them by using disparities in lung cancer risks, treatment, and outcomes as an example. Principal Findings SES, gender, and race/ethnicity are social categories that are robust predictors of variations in health and health services utilization. These are usually considered separately, but intersectionality theory indicates that the impact of each depends on the others. Each reflects historically and culturally contingent variations in social, economic, and political status. Distinct patterns of risk and resilience emerge at the intersections of multiple social categories and shape the experience of health, health care access, utilization, quality, and outcomes where these categories intersect. Intersectional approaches call for greater attention to understand social processes at multiple levels of society and require the collection of relevant data and utilization of appropriate analytic approaches to understand how multiple risk factors and resources combine to affect the distribution of disease and its management. Conclusions Understanding how race/ethnicity, gender, and SES are interactive, interdependent, and social identities can provide new knowledge to enhance our efforts to effectively address health disparities. PMID:22568674

  2. Addressing Cancer Disparities Among American Indians through Innovative Technologies and Patient Navigation: The Walking Forward Experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petereit, Daniel G. [Department of Oncology, John T. Vucurevich Cancer Care Institute, Rapid City, SD (United States); Department of Human Oncology, University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, Madison, WI (United States); Guadagnolo, B. Ashleigh [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Wong, Rosemary; Coleman, C. Norman, E-mail: dpetereit@regionalhealth.com [Radiation Research Program, Division of Cancer Treatment and Diagnosis, National Cancer Institute, Rockville, MD (United States)

    2011-06-22

    Purpose/Objective(s): American Indians (AIs) present with more advanced stages of cancer and, therefore, suffer from higher cancer mortality rates compared to non-AIs. Under the National Cancer Institute (NCI) Cancer Disparities Research Partnership (CDRP) Program, we have been researching methods of improving cancer treatment and outcomes since 2002, for AIs in Western South Dakota, through the Walking Forward (WF) Program. Materials/Methods: This program consists of (a) a culturally tailored patient navigation program that facilitated access to innovative clinical trials in conjunction with a comprehensive educational program encouraging screening and early detection, (b), surveys to evaluate barriers to access, (c) clinical trials focusing on reducing treatment length to facilitate enhanced participation using brachytherapy and intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) for breast and prostate cancer, as AIs live a median of 140 miles from the cancer center, and (d) a molecular study (ataxia telangiectasia mutated) to address whether there is a specific profile that increases toxicity risks. Results: We describe the design and implementation of this program, summary of previously published results, and ongoing research to influence stage at presentation. Some of the critical outcomes include the successful implementation of a community-based research program, development of trust within tribal communities, identification of barriers, analysis of nearly 400 navigated cancer patients, clinical trial accrual rate of 10%, and total enrollment of nearly 2,500 AIs on WF research studies. Conclusion: This NCI funded pilot program has achieved some initial measures of success. A research infrastructure has been created in a community setting to address new research questions and interventions. Efforts underway to promote cancer education and screening are presented, as well as applications of the lessons learned to other health disparity populations – both nationally and

  3. Addressing Cancer Disparities Among American Indians through Innovative Technologies and Patient Navigation: The Walking Forward Experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petereit, Daniel G.; Guadagnolo, B. Ashleigh; Wong, Rosemary; Coleman, C. Norman

    2011-01-01

    Purpose/Objective(s): American Indians (AIs) present with more advanced stages of cancer and, therefore, suffer from higher cancer mortality rates compared to non-AIs. Under the National Cancer Institute (NCI) Cancer Disparities Research Partnership (CDRP) Program, we have been researching methods of improving cancer treatment and outcomes since 2002, for AIs in Western South Dakota, through the Walking Forward (WF) Program. Materials/Methods: This program consists of (a) a culturally tailored patient navigation program that facilitated access to innovative clinical trials in conjunction with a comprehensive educational program encouraging screening and early detection, (b), surveys to evaluate barriers to access, (c) clinical trials focusing on reducing treatment length to facilitate enhanced participation using brachytherapy and intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) for breast and prostate cancer, as AIs live a median of 140 miles from the cancer center, and (d) a molecular study (ataxia telangiectasia mutated) to address whether there is a specific profile that increases toxicity risks. Results: We describe the design and implementation of this program, summary of previously published results, and ongoing research to influence stage at presentation. Some of the critical outcomes include the successful implementation of a community-based research program, development of trust within tribal communities, identification of barriers, analysis of nearly 400 navigated cancer patients, clinical trial accrual rate of 10%, and total enrollment of nearly 2,500 AIs on WF research studies. Conclusion: This NCI funded pilot program has achieved some initial measures of success. A research infrastructure has been created in a community setting to address new research questions and interventions. Efforts underway to promote cancer education and screening are presented, as well as applications of the lessons learned to other health disparity populations – both nationally and

  4. Reducing Cancer Health Disparities through Community Engagement: Working with Faith-Based Organizations (Project CHURCH)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorna H. McNeill, PhD, MPH, is Chair and Associate Professor in the Department of Health Disparities at the University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center. Dr. McNeill's research is on the elimination of cancer-related health disparities in minority populations. Her research has particular emphasis on understanding the influence of social contextual determinants of cancer in minorities, with a special focus of the role of physical activity as a key preventive behavior and obesity as a major cancer determinant. Her research takes place in minority and underserved communities such as public housing developments, black churches, community-based clinics and low-income neighborhoods-communities with excess cancer death rates. She has been continuously funded, receiving grants from various funding agencies (i.e., National Institutes of Health, Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, etc.), to better understand and design innovative solutions to address obesity in racial/ethnic minority communities. Dr. McNeill is PI of several community-based studies, primarily working with African American churches. One is a called Project CHURCH, an academic-faith-based partnership established to: 1) identify underlying reasons for health disparities in cancer and cancer risk factors (e.g., screening, diet) among AAs using a cohort study (N=2400), 2) engage AAs as partners in the research process, and 3) to ultimately eliminate disparities among AAs. In 2014 Dr. McNeill furthered her partnership through the Faith, Health, and Family (FHF) Collaborative. The goals of FHF are to enhance the Project CHURCH partnership to address family obesity in African Americans, strengthen the partnership by developing a larger coalition of organizations and stakeholders to address the problem, assess church and community interest in family obesity and develop an agenda to address obesity in faith settings. To date we have 50 churches as members. Dr. McNeill is also director of the Center for Community

  5. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Menu Contact Dictionary Search About Cancer Causes and Prevention Risk Factors Genetics Cancer Prevention Overview Research Cancer Screening ... What Is Cancer Cancer Statistics Cancer Disparities Causes & Prevention Risk Factors Genetics Cancer Prevention Overview Screening Cancer Screening ...

  6. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Contact Dictionary Search About Cancer Causes and Prevention Risk Factors Genetics Cancer Prevention Overview Research Cancer Screening ... Is Cancer Cancer Statistics Cancer Disparities Causes & Prevention Risk Factors Genetics Cancer Prevention Overview Screening Cancer Screening ...

  7. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Search About Cancer Causes and Prevention Risk Factors Genetics Cancer Prevention Overview Research Cancer Screening Cancer Screening ... Cancer Statistics Cancer Disparities Causes & Prevention Risk Factors Genetics Cancer Prevention Overview Screening Cancer Screening Overview Screening ...

  8. Reducing Racial Disparities in Breast Cancer Care: The Role of 'Big Data'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeder-Hayes, Katherine E; Troester, Melissa A; Meyer, Anne-Marie

    2017-10-15

    Advances in a wide array of scientific technologies have brought data of unprecedented volume and complexity into the oncology research space. These novel big data resources are applied across a variety of contexts-from health services research using data from insurance claims, cancer registries, and electronic health records, to deeper and broader genomic characterizations of disease. Several forms of big data show promise for improving our understanding of racial disparities in breast cancer, and for powering more intelligent and far-reaching interventions to close the racial gap in breast cancer survival. In this article we introduce several major types of big data used in breast cancer disparities research, highlight important findings to date, and discuss how big data may transform breast cancer disparities research in ways that lead to meaningful, lifesaving changes in breast cancer screening and treatment. We also discuss key challenges that may hinder progress in using big data for cancer disparities research and quality improvement.

  9. Exploring educational disparities in risk of preterm delivery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Gry; Strandberg-Larsen, Katrine; Mortensen, Laust

    2015-01-01

    data. METHODS: The study included data from 12 European cohorts from Denmark, England, France, Lithuania, the Netherlands, Norway, Italy, Portugal, and Spain. The cohorts included between 2434 and 99 655 pregnancies. The association between maternal education and preterm delivery (22-36 completed weeks...... characteristics. Nevertheless, there were similar educational differences in risk of preterm delivery in 8 of the 12 cohorts with slope index of inequality varying between 2.2 [95% CI 1.1, 3.3] and 4.0 [95% CI 1.4, 6.6] excess preterm deliveries per 100 singleton deliveries among the educationally most......BACKGROUND: An association between education and preterm delivery has been observed in populations across Europe, but differences in methodology limit comparability. We performed a direct cross-cohort comparison of educational disparities in preterm delivery based on individual-level birth cohort...

  10. The Influence of Socioeconomic Status on Racial/Ethnic Disparities among the ER/PR/HER2 Breast Cancer Subtypes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parise, C. A.; Caggiano, V.Caggiano

    2015-01-01

    Background. The eight ER/PR/HER2 breast cancer subtypes vary widely in demographic and clinico pathologic characteristics and survival. This study assesses the contribution of SES to the risk of mortality for blacks, Hispanics, Asian/Pacific Islanders, and American Indians when compared with white women for each ER/PR/HER2 subtype. Methods. We identified 143,184 cases of first primary female invasive breast cancer from the California Cancer Registry between 2000 and 2012. The risk of mortality was computed for each race/ethnicity within each ER/PR/HER2 subtype. Models were adjusted for tumor grade, year of diagnosis, and age. SES was added to a second set of models. Analyses were conducted separately for each stage. Results. Race/ethnicity did not contribute to the risk of mortality for any subtype in stage 1 when adjusted for SES. In stages 2, 3, and 4, race/ethnicity was associated with risk of mortality and adjustment for SES changed the risk only in some subtypes. SES reduced the risk of mortality by over 45% for American Indians with stage 2 ER+/PR+/HER2-cancer, but it decreased the risk of mortality for blacks with stage 2 triple negative cancer by less than 4%. Conclusions. Racial/ethnic disparities do not exist in all ER/PR/HER2 subtypes and, in general, SES modestly alters these disparities.

  11. Contribution of screening and survival differences to racial disparities in colorectal cancer rates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I. Lansdorp-Vogelaar (Iris); K.M. Kuntz (Karen); A.B. Knudsen (Amy); M. van Ballegooijen (Marjolein); A. Zauber (Ann); A. Jemal (Ahmedin)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Considerable disparities exist in colorectal cancer (CRC) incidence and mortality rates between blacks and whites in the United States. We estimated how much of these disparities could be explained by differences in CRC screening and stage-specific relative CRC survival.

  12. Racial and Socioeconomic Disparities Are More Pronounced in Inflammatory Breast Cancer Than Other Breast Cancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan A. Denu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Inflammatory breast cancer (IBC is a rare yet aggressive form of breast cancer. We examined differences in patient demographics and outcomes in IBC compared to locally advanced breast cancer (LABC and all other breast cancer patients from the Breast and Prostate Cancer Data Quality and Patterns of Care Study (POC-BP, containing information from cancer registries in seven states. Out of 7,624 cases of invasive carcinoma, IBC and LABC accounted for 2.2% (N=170 and 4.9% (N=375, respectively. IBC patients were more likely to have a higher number (P=0.03 and severity (P=0.01 of comorbidities than other breast cancer patients. Among IBC patients, a higher percentage of patients with metastatic disease versus nonmetastatic disease were black, on Medicaid, and from areas of higher poverty and more urban areas. Black and Hispanic IBC patients had worse overall and breast cancer-specific survival than white patients; moreover, IBC patients with Medicaid, patients from urban areas, and patients from areas of higher poverty and lower education had worse outcomes. These data highlight the effects of disparities in race and socioeconomic status on the incidence of IBC as well as IBC outcomes. Further work is needed to reveal the causes behind these disparities and methods to improve IBC outcomes.

  13. Large Population-Based Study Reveals Disparities in Myeloma Precursor Disease | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Multiple myeloma (MM) is a cancer of plasma cells, which are antibody-producing white blood cells. Patients with MM have a characteristic excess of monoclonal antibodies, so called M proteins, in their serum, urine, or both and plasma cell infiltration into their bone marrow at multiple sites. African Americans are more than twice as likely as whites to develop MM, but the reason for this higher prevalence is not entirely clear. Since MM is nearly always preceded by the premalignant condition monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS), Ola Landgren, M.D., Ph.D., a Senior Investigator in CCR’s Lymphoid Malignancies Branch, and colleagues from NCI’s Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, the Mayo Clinic, and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), wanted to determine whether there were also disparities in MGUS prevalence or in biomarkers associated with a high risk of MGUS progression to MM.

  14. Black-White Disparities in Breast Cancer Subtype: The Intersection of Socially Patterned Stress and Genetic Expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin Linnenbringer

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Hormone receptor negative (HR- breast cancer subtypes are etiologically distinct from the more common, less aggressive, and more treatable form of estrogen receptor positive (ER+ breast cancer. Numerous population-based studies have found that, in the United States, Black women are 2 to 3 times more likely to develop HR- breast cancer than White women. Much of the existing research on racial disparities in breast cancer subtype has focused on identifying predisposing genetic factors associated with African ancestry. This approach fails to acknowledge that racial stratification shapes a wide range of environmental and social exposures over the life course. Human stress genomics considers the role of individual stress perceptions on gene expression. Yet, the role of structurally rooted biopsychosocial processes that may be activated by the social patterning of stressors in an historically unequal society, whether perceived by individual black women or not, could also impact cellular physiology and gene expression patterns relevant to HR- breast cancer etiology. Using the weathering hypothesis as our conceptual framework, we develop a structural perspective for examining racial disparities in breast cancer subtypes, integrating important findings from the stress biology, breast cancer epidemiology, and health disparities literatures. After integrating key findings from these largely independent literatures, we develop a theoretically and empirically guided framework for assessing potential multilevel factors relevant to the development of HR- breast cancer disproportionately among Black women in the US. We hypothesize that a dynamic interplay among socially patterned psychosocial stressors, physiological & behavioral responses, and genomic pathways contribute to the increased risk of HR- breast cancer among Black women. This work provides a basis for exploring potential alternative pathways linking the lived experience of race to the risk of HR

  15. Black-White Disparities in Breast Cancer Subtype: The Intersection of Socially Patterned Stress and Genetic Expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linnenbringer, Erin; Gehlert, Sarah; Geronimus, Arline T

    2017-01-01

    Hormone receptor negative (HR-) breast cancer subtypes are etiologically distinct from the more common, less aggressive, and more treatable form of estrogen receptor positive (ER+) breast cancer. Numerous population-based studies have found that, in the United States, Black women are 2 to 3 times more likely to develop HR- breast cancer than White women. Much of the existing research on racial disparities in breast cancer subtype has focused on identifying predisposing genetic factors associated with African ancestry. This approach fails to acknowledge that racial stratification shapes a wide range of environmental and social exposures over the life course. Human stress genomics considers the role of individual stress perceptions on gene expression. Yet, the role of structurally rooted biopsychosocial processes that may be activated by the social patterning of stressors in an historically unequal society, whether perceived by individual black women or not, could also impact cellular physiology and gene expression patterns relevant to HR- breast cancer etiology. Using the weathering hypothesis as our conceptual framework, we develop a structural perspective for examining racial disparities in breast cancer subtypes, integrating important findings from the stress biology, breast cancer epidemiology, and health disparities literatures. After integrating key findings from these largely independent literatures, we develop a theoretically and empirically guided framework for assessing potential multilevel factors relevant to the development of HR- breast cancer disproportionately among Black women in the US. We hypothesize that a dynamic interplay among socially patterned psychosocial stressors, physiological & behavioral responses, and genomic pathways contribute to the increased risk of HR- breast cancer among Black women. This work provides a basis for exploring potential alternative pathways linking the lived experience of race to the risk of HR- breast cancer, and

  16. Sociodemographic disparities in the utilization of proton therapy for prostate cancer at an urban academic center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina D. Woodhouse, MD

    2017-04-01

    Conclusion: Sociodemographic disparities exist in PT use for prostate cancer at an urban academic institution. Further investigation of potential barriers to access is warranted to ensure equitable distribution across all demographic groups.

  17. Socioeconomic disparities in breast cancer screening in Hawaii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halliday, Timothy; Taira, Deborah A; Davis, James; Chan, Henry

    2007-10-01

    Despite evidence that breast cancer screening reduces morbidity and mortality, many women do not obtain mammograms. Our objective was to analyze the relationship between income and mammography screening for members enrolled in a large health plan in Hawaii. We analyzed claims data for women (N = 46,328) aged 50 to 70 years during 2003 and 2004. We used parametric and nonparametric regression techniques. We used probit estimation to conduct multivariate analysis. At the 5th percentile of the earnings distribution, the probability of mammography is 57.1%, and at the 95th percentile, it is 67.7%. Movement from the 5th percentile to the 35th percentile of the earnings distribution increases the probability of mammography by 0.0378 percentage points. A similar movement from the 65th percentile to the 95th percentile increases the probability by 0.0394 percentage points. Also, we observed an income gradient within narrowly defined geographic regions where physical access to medical care providers is not an issue. We observed a steep income gradient in mammography screening in Hawaii. Because of the prevalence of measurement error, this gradient is probably far greater than our estimate. We cannot plausibly attribute our findings to disparities in coverage because 100% of our sample had health insurance coverage. The gradient also does not appear to result from poorer people residing in areas that are geographically isolated from providers of medical care.

  18. Colorectal Cancer Risk Assessment Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 11/12/2014 Risk Calculator About the Tool Colorectal Cancer Risk Factors Download SAS and Gauss Code Page ... Rectal Cancer: Prevention, Genetics, Causes Tests to Detect Colorectal Cancer and Polyps Cancer Risk Prediction Resources Update November ...

  19. Racial Disparities in the Molecular Landscape of Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heath, Elisabeth I; Lynce, Filipa; Xiu, Joanne; Ellerbrock, Angela; Reddy, Sandeep K; Obeid, Elias; Liu, Stephen V; Bollig-Fischer, Aliccia; Separovic, Duska; Vanderwalde, Ari

    2018-04-01

    African Americans (AA) have the highest incidence and mortality of any racial/ethnic group in the US for most cancer types. Heterogeneity in the molecular biology of cancer, as a contributing factor to this disparity, is poorly understood. To address this gap in knowledge, we explored the molecular landscape of colorectal cancer (CRC), non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and high-grade glioma (HGG) from 271 AA and 636 Caucasian (CC) cases. DNA from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tumors was sequenced using next-generation sequencing. Additionally, we evaluated protein expression using immunohistochemistry. The Exome Aggregation Consortium Database was evaluated for known ethnicity associations. Considering only pathogenic or presumed pathogenic mutations, as determined by the American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics guidelines, and using Bonferroni and Benjamini-Hochberg corrections for multiple comparisons, we found that CRC tumors from AA patients harbored significantly more mutations of phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase, catalytic subunit alpha (PIK3CA) than those from CC patients. CRC tumors in AA patients also appeared to harbor more mutations of mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 1 (MAP2K1/MEK1), MPL proto-oncogene (MPL), thrombo-poietin receptor, and neurofibromin 1 (NF1) than those from CC patients. In contrast, CRCs from AA patients were likely to carry fewer mutations of ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM), as well as of proto-oncogene B-Raf (BRAF), including the V600E variant, than those from CC patients. Rates of immunohistochemical positivity for epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and DNA topoisomerase 2-alpha (TOP2A) tended to be higher in CRCs from AA patients than in CC patients. In NSCLC adenocarcinoma, BRAF variants appeared to be more frequent in the AA than in the CC cohort, whereas in squamous cell lung carcinoma, programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) expression tended to be lower in the AA than in CC group. Moreover

  20. Risks of Skin Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... factors increase or decrease the risk of skin cancer. Skin cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) ... following PDQ summaries for more information about skin cancer: Skin Cancer Prevention Skin Cancer Treatment Melanoma Treatment Genetics ...

  1. Racial/Ethnic, socioeconomic, and geographic disparities of cervical cancer advanced-stage diagnosis in Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, F Benjamin; Lin, Yan

    2014-01-01

    Advanced-stage diagnosis is among the primary causes of mortality among cervical cancer patients. With the wide use of Pap smear screening, cervical cancer advanced-stage diagnosis rates have decreased. However, disparities of advanced-stage diagnosis persist among different population groups. A challenging task in cervical cancer disparity reduction is to identify where underserved population groups are. Based on cervical cancer incidence data between 1995 and 2008, this study investigated advanced-stage cervical cancer disparities in Texas from three social domains: Race/ethnicity, socioeconomic status (SES), and geographic location. Effects of individual and contextual factors, including age, tumor grade, race/ethnicity, as well as contextual SES, spatial access to health care, sociocultural factors, percentage of African Americans, and insurance expenditures, on these disparities were examined using multilevel logistic regressions. Significant variations by race/ethnicity and SES were found in cervical cancer advanced-stage diagnosis. We also found a decline in racial/ethnic disparities of advanced cervical cancer diagnosis rate from 1995 to 2008. However, the progress was slower among African Americans than Hispanics. Geographic disparities could be explained by age, race/ethnicity, SES, and the percentage of African Americans in a census tract. Our findings have important implications for developing effective cervical cancer screening and control programs. We identified the location of underserved populations who need the most assistance with cervical cancer screening. Cervical cancer intervention programs should target Hispanics and African Americans, as well as individuals from communities with lower SES in geographic areas where higher advanced-stage diagnosis rates were identified in this study. Copyright © 2014 Jacobs Institute of Women's Health. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Reducing Cancer Health Disparities through Community Engagement: Working with Faith-Based Organizations (Project CHURCH) | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speaker | "Reducing Cancer Health Disparities through Community Engagement: Working with Faith-Based Organizations (Project CHURCH)" will be presented by Lorna H. McNeill, PhD, MPH, Chair of the Department of Health Disparities at the University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center in Houston, TX. Date: 2/20/2018; Time: 11:00am - 12:00pm; Location: NCI Shady Grove Campus,

  3. Differential splicing of oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes in African and Caucasian American populations: contributing factor in prostate cancer disparities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-01

    populations: contributing factor in prostate cancer disparities? PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Norman H Lee, PhD CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION: George Washington...splicing of oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes in African and Caucasian American populations: contributing factor in prostate cancer disparities? 5b...American (AA) versus Caucasian American (CA) prostate cancer (PCa). We focused our efforts on two oncogenes, phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3

  4. Reduced disparities and improved surgical outcomes for Asian Americans with colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulhern, Kayln C; Wahl, Tyler S; Goss, Lauren E; Feng, Katey; Richman, Joshua S; Morris, Melanie S; Chen, Herbert; Chu, Daniel I

    2017-10-01

    Studies suggest Asian Americans may have improved oncologic outcomes compared with other ethnicities. We hypothesized that Asian Americans with colorectal cancer would have improved surgical outcomes in mortality, postoperative complications (POCs), length of stay (LOS), and readmissions compared with other racial/ethnic groups. We queried the 2011-2014 American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program for patients who underwent surgery for colorectal cancer and stratified patients by race. Primary outcome was 30-d mortality with secondary outcomes including POCs, LOS, and 30-d readmission. Stepwise backward logistic regression analyses and incident rate ratio calculations were performed to identify risk factors for disparate outcomes. Of the 28,283 patients undergoing colorectal surgery for malignancy, racial/ethnic groups were divided into Caucasian American (84%), African American (12%), or Asian American (4%). On unadjusted analyses, compared with other racial/ethnic groups, Asian Americans were more likely to have normal weight, not smoke, and had lower American Society of Anesthesiologists score of 1 or 2 (P Asian Americans had the shortest LOS and the lowest rates of complications due to ileus, respiratory, and renal complications (P Asian American race was independently associated with less postoperative ileus (odds ratio 0.8, 95% confidence interval 0.66-0.98, P American and Caucasian American patients, respectively (P Asian Americans undergoing surgery for colorectal cancer have shorter LOS and fewer POCs when compared with other racial/ethnic groups without differences in 30-d mortality or readmissions. The mechanism(s) underlying these disparities will require further study, but may be a result of patient, provider, and healthcare system differences. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Enrollment Trends and Disparity Among Patients With Lung Cancer in National Clinical Trials, 1990 to 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Herbert H.; Stinchcombe, Thomas E.; Wong, Melisa L.; Cheng, Perry; Ganti, Apar Kishor; Sargent, Daniel J.; Zhang, Ying; Hu, Chen; Mandrekar, Sumithra J.; Redman, Mary W.; Manola, Judith B.; Schilsky, Richard L.; Cohen, Harvey J.; Bradley, Jeffrey D.; Adjei, Alex A.; Gandara, David; Ramalingam, Suresh S.; Vokes, Everett E.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Under-representation of elderly, women, and racial/ethnic minority patients with cancer in clinical trials is of national concern. The goal of this study was to characterize enrollment trends and disparities by age, sex, and race/ethnicity in lung cancer trials. Methods We analyzed data for 23,006 National Cancer Institute cooperative group lung cancer trial participants and 578,476 patients with lung cancer from the SEER registry from 1990 to 2012. The enrollment disparity difference (EDD) and enrollment disparity ratio (EDR) were calculated on the basis of the proportion of each subgroup in the trial population and the US lung cancer population. Annual percentage changes (APCs) in the subgroup proportions in each population were compared over time. Results Enrollment disparity for patients ≥ 70 years of age with non–small-cell lung cancer improved from 1990 to 2012 (test of parallelism, P = .020), with a remaining EDD of 0.22 (95% CI, 0.19 to 0.25) and EDR of 1.65 (95% CI, 1.51 to 1.82) in 2010 to 2012. No improvement was seen for elderly patients with small-cell lung cancer (SCLC), with an APC of 0.20 (P = .714) among trial participants, despite a rising proportion of elderly patients with SCLC in the US population (APC, 0.32; P = .020). Enrollment disparity for women with lung cancer improved overall, with the gap closing by 2012 (EDD, 0.03 [95% CI, 0.00 to 0.06]; EDR, 1.07 [95% CI, 1.00 to 1.16]). Enrollment disparities persisted without significant improvement for elderly women, blacks, Asians/Pacific Islanders, and Hispanics. Conclusion Under-representation in lung cancer trials improved significantly from 1990 to 2012 for elderly patients with non–small-cell lung cancer and for women, but ongoing efforts to improve the enrollment of elderly patients with SCLC and minorities are needed. Our study highlights the importance of addressing enrollment disparities by demographic and disease subgroups to better target under-represented groups of

  6. Impact of individual and neighborhood factors on disparities in prostate cancer survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeRouen, Mindy C; Schupp, Clayton W; Koo, Jocelyn; Yang, Juan; Hertz, Andrew; Shariff-Marco, Salma; Cockburn, Myles; Nelson, David O; Ingles, Sue A; John, Esther M; Gomez, Scarlett L

    2018-04-01

    We addressed the hypothesis that individual-level factors act jointly with social and built environment factors to influence overall survival for men with prostate cancer and contribute to racial/ethnic and socioeconomic (SES) survival disparities. We analyzed multi-level data, combining (1) individual-level data from the California Collaborative Prostate Cancer Study, a population-based study of non-Hispanic White (NHW), Hispanic, and African American prostate cancer cases (N = 1800) diagnosed from 1997 to 2003, with (2) data on neighborhood SES (nSES) and social and built environment factors from the California Neighborhoods Data System, and (3) data on tumor characteristics, treatment and follow-up through 2009 from the California Cancer Registry. Multivariable, stage-stratified Cox proportional hazards regression models with cluster adjustments were used to assess education and nSES main and joint effects on overall survival, before and after adjustment for social and built environment factors. African American men had worse survival than NHW men, which was attenuated by nSES. Increased risk of death was associated with residence in lower SES neighborhoods (quintile 1 (lowest nSES) vs. 5: HR = 1.56, 95% CI: 1.11-2.19) and lower education (cancer. Additional research is needed to identify the mechanisms underlying these robust associations. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Disparities in Prostate Cancer Treatment Modality and Quality of Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-01

    producing hormones) 1 0 10 11 B8f. Watchful waiting (no treatment, wait and see if your prostate cancer grows) 1 0 10 11 B8g. Cryotherapy (process...your prostate cancer grows) 7 Cryotherapy (process to freeze and destroy prostate tissue) 8 Chemotherapy (use of anti- cancer drugs) 9 Any other...and attitudes concerning prostate cancer and preventative measures. Prostate Cancer Questionnaire IRB1012# – Version 3 08/01/08 33 Now, I

  8. Disparities in Geographic Accessibility of National Cancer Institute Cancer Centers in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yanqing; Fu, Cong; Onega, Tracy; Shi, Xun; Wang, Fahui

    2017-11-11

    The National Cancer Institute (NCI) Cancer Centers form the backbone of the cancer care system in the United States since their inception in the early 1970s. Most studies on their geographic accessibility used primitive measures, and did not examine the disparities across urbanicity or demographic groups. This research uses an advanced accessibility method, termed "2-step floating catchment area (2SFCA)" and implemented in Geographic Information Systems (GIS), to capture the degree of geographic access to NCI Cancer Centers by accounting for competition intensity for the services and travel time between residents and the facilities. The results indicate that urban advantage is pronounced as the average accessibility is highest in large central metro areas, declines to large fringe metro, medium metro, small metro, micropolitan and noncore rural areas. Population under the poverty line are disproportionally concentrated in lower accessibility areas. However, on average Non-Hispanic White have the lowest geographic accessibility, followed by Hispanic, Non-Hispanic Black and Asian, and the differences are statistically significant. The "reversed racial disadvantage" in NCI Cancer Center accessibility seems counterintuitive but is consistent with an influential prior study; and it is in contrast to the common observation of co-location of concentration of minority groups and people under the poverty line.

  9. Contribution of screening and survival differences to racial disparities in colorectal cancer rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lansdorp-Vogelaar, Iris; Kuntz, Karen M.; Knudsen, Amy B.; van Ballegooijen, Marjolein; Zauber, Ann G.; Jemal, Ahmedin

    2012-01-01

    Background Considerable disparities exist in colorectal cancer (CRC) incidence and mortality rates between blacks and whites in the US. We estimated how much of these disparities could be explained by differences in CRC screening and stage-specific relative CRC survival. Methods We used the MISCAN-Colon microsimulation model to estimate CRC incidence and mortality rates in blacks aged 50 years and older from 1975 to 2007 assuming they had: 1) the same trends in screening rates as whites instead of observed screening rates (incidence and mortality); and 2) the same trends in stage-specific relative CRC survival rates as whites instead of observed (mortality only); and 3) a combination of both. The racial disparities in CRC incidence and mortality rates attributable to differences in screening and/or stage-specific relative CRC survival were then calculated by comparing rates from these scenarios to the observed black rates. Results Differences in screening account for 42% of disparity in CRC incidence and 19% of disparity in CRC mortality between blacks and whites. 36% of the disparity in CRC mortality could be attributed to differences in stage-specific relative CRC survival. Together screening and survival explained a little over 50% of the disparity in CRC mortality between blacks and whites. Conclusion Differences in screening and relative CRC survival are responsible for a considerable proportion of the observed disparities in CRC incidence and mortality rates between blacks and whites. Impact Enabling blacks to achieve equal access to care as whites could substantially reduce the racial disparities in CRC burden. PMID:22514249

  10. Cancer risks and prevention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vessey, M.P.; Gray, M.

    1985-01-01

    A series of essays in honour of Sir Richard Doll is presented. Chapters cover the preventability of cancer, geography, smoking, diet, occupation, radiation, infections and immune impairment, exogenous and endogenous hormones, other drugs, prevention through legislation and by education and cancer risks and prevention in the Third World. The chapter on radiation has been indexed separately. (UK)

  11. Contralateral breast cancer risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unnithan, Jaya; Macklis, Roger M.

    2001-01-01

    The use of breast-conserving treatment approaches for breast cancer has now become a standard option for early stage disease. Numerous randomized studies have shown medical equivalence when mastectomy is compared to lumpectomy followed by radiotherapy for the local management of this common problem. With an increased emphasis on patient involvement in the therapeutic decision making process, it is important to identify and quantify any unforeseen risks of the conservation approach. One concern that has been raised is the question of radiation- related contralateral breast cancer after breast radiotherapy. Although most studies do not show statistically significant evidence that patients treated with breast radiotherapy are at increased risk of developing contralateral breast cancer when compared to control groups treated with mastectomy alone, there are clear data showing the amount of scattered radiation absorbed by the contralateral breast during a routine course of breast radiotherapy is considerable (several Gy) and is therefore within the range where one might be concerned about radiogenic contralateral tumors. While radiation related risks of contralateral breast cancer appear to be small enough to be statistically insignificant for the majority of patients, there may exist a smaller subset which, for genetic or environmental reasons, is at special risk for scatter related second tumors. If such a group could be predicted, it would seem appropriate to offer either special counselling or special prevention procedures aimed at mitigating this second tumor risk. The use of genetic testing, detailed analysis of breast cancer family history, and the identification of patients who acquired their first breast cancer at a very early age may all be candidate screening procedures useful in identifying such at- risk groups. Since some risk mitigation strategies are convenient and easy to utilize, it makes sense to follow the classic 'ALARA' (as low as reasonably

  12. Addressing cancer disparities via community network mobilization and intersectoral partnerships: a social network analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shoba Ramanadhan

    Full Text Available Community mobilization and collaboration among diverse partners are vital components of the effort to reduce and eliminate cancer disparities in the United States. We studied the development and impact of intersectoral connections among the members of the Massachusetts Community Network for Cancer Education, Research, and Training (MassCONECT. As one of the Community Network Program sites funded by the National Cancer Institute, this infrastructure-building initiative utilized principles of Community-based Participatory Research (CBPR to unite community coalitions, researchers, policymakers, and other important stakeholders to address cancer disparities in three Massachusetts communities: Boston, Lawrence, and Worcester. We conducted a cross-sectional, sociometric network analysis four years after the network was formed. A total of 38 of 55 members participated in the study (69% response rate. Over four years of collaboration, the number of intersectoral connections reported by members (intersectoral out-degree increased, as did the extent to which such connections were reported reciprocally (intersectoral reciprocity. We assessed relationships between these markers of intersectoral collaboration and three intermediate outcomes in the effort to reduce and eliminate cancer disparities: delivery of community activities, policy engagement, and grants/publications. We found a positive and statistically significant relationship between intersectoral out-degree and community activities and policy engagement (the relationship was borderline significant for grants/publications. We found a positive and statistically significant relationship between intersectoral reciprocity and community activities and grants/publications (the relationship was borderline significant for policy engagement. The study suggests that intersectoral connections may be important drivers of diverse intermediate outcomes in the effort to reduce and eliminate cancer disparities

  13. Assessing needs and assets for building a regional network infrastructure to reduce cancer related health disparities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Kristen J; Lima, Diana S; Meade, Cathy D; Muñoz-Antonia, Teresita; Scarinci, Isabel; McGuire, Allison; Gwede, Clement K; Pledger, W Jack; Partridge, Edward; Lipscomb, Joseph; Matthews, Roland; Matta, Jaime; Flores, Idhaliz; Weiner, Roy; Turner, Timothy; Miele, Lucio; Wiese, Thomas E; Fouad, Mona; Moreno, Carlos S; Lacey, Michelle; Christie, Debra W; Price-Haywood, Eboni G; Quinn, Gwendolyn P; Coppola, Domenico; Sodeke, Stephen O; Green, B Lee; Lichtveld, Maureen Y

    2014-06-01

    Significant cancer health disparities exist in the United States and Puerto Rico. While numerous initiatives have been implemented to reduce cancer disparities, regional coordination of these efforts between institutions is often limited. To address cancer health disparities nation-wide, a series of regional transdisciplinary networks through the Geographic Management Program (GMaP) and the Minority Biospecimen/Biobanking Geographic Management Program (BMaP) were established in six regions across the country. This paper describes the development of the Region 3 GMaP/BMaP network composed of over 100 investigators from nine institutions in five Southeastern states and Puerto Rico to develop a state-of-the-art network for cancer health disparities research and training. We describe a series of partnership activities that led to the formation of the infrastructure for this network, recount the participatory processes utilized to develop and implement a needs and assets assessment and implementation plan, and describe our approach to data collection. Completion, by all nine institutions, of the needs and assets assessment resulted in several beneficial outcomes for Region 3 GMaP/BMaP. This network entails ongoing commitment from the institutions and institutional leaders, continuous participatory and engagement activities, and effective coordination and communication centered on team science goals. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Assessing Needs and Assets for Building a Regional Network Infrastructure to Reduce Cancer Related Health Disparities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Kristen J.; Lima, Diana S.; Meade, Cathy D.; Muñoz-Antonia, Teresita; Scarinci, Isabel; McGuire, Allison; Gwede, Clement K.; Pledger, W. Jack; Partridge, Edward; Lipscomb, Joseph; Matthews, Roland; Matta, Jaime; Flores, Idhaliz; Weiner, Roy; Turner, Timothy; Miele, Lucio; Wiese, Thomas E.; Fouad, Mona; Moreno, Carlos S.; Lacey, Michelle; Christie, Debra W.; Price-Haywood, Eboni G.; Quinn, Gwendolyn P.; Coppola, Domenico; Sodeke, Stephen O.; Green, B. Lee; Lichtveld, Maureen Y.

    2015-01-01

    Significant cancer health disparities exist in the United States and Puerto Rico. While numerous initiatives have been implemented to reduce cancer disparities, regional coordination of these efforts between institutions is often limited. To address cancer health disparities nationwide, a series of regional transdisciplinary networks through the Geographic Management Program (GMaP) and the Minority Biospecimen/Biobanking Geographic Management Program (BMaP) were established in six regions across the country. This paper describes the development of the Region 3 GMaP/BMaP network composed of over 100 investigators from nine institutions in five Southeastern states and Puerto Rico to develop a state-of-the-art network for cancer health disparities research and training. We describe a series of partnership activities that led to the formation of the infrastructure for this network, recount the participatory processes utilized to develop and implement a needs and assets assessment and implementation plan, and describe our approach to data collection. Completion, by all nine institutions, of the needs and assets assessment resulted in several beneficial outcomes for Region 3 GMaP/BMaP. This network entails ongoing commitment from the institutions and institutional leaders, continuous participatory and engagement activities, and effective coordination and communication centered on team science goals. PMID:24486917

  15. Advancing Social Workers' Responsiveness to Health Disparities: The Case of Breast Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altpeter, Mary; Mitchell, James F.; Pennell, Joan

    2005-01-01

    This study provides the basis for customizing culturally responsive social work health promotion programs aimed at eliminating breast cancer screening and mortality disparities between white and African American women. Survey data collected from a random sample of 853 women in rural North Carolina were used to explore the impact of psychosocial…

  16. Socioeconomic and Racial/Ethnic Disparities in Cancer Mortality, Incidence, and Survival in the United States, 1950–2014: Over Six Decades of Changing Patterns and Widening Inequalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gopal K. Singh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We analyzed socioeconomic and racial/ethnic disparities in US mortality, incidence, and survival rates from all-cancers combined and major cancers from 1950 to 2014. Census-based deprivation indices were linked to national mortality and cancer data for area-based socioeconomic patterns in mortality, incidence, and survival. The National Longitudinal Mortality Study was used to analyze individual-level socioeconomic and racial/ethnic patterns in mortality. Rates, risk-ratios, least squares, log-linear, and Cox regression were used to examine trends and differentials. Socioeconomic patterns in all-cancer, lung, and colorectal cancer mortality changed dramatically over time. Individuals in more deprived areas or lower education and income groups had higher mortality and incidence rates than their more affluent counterparts, with excess risk being particularly marked for lung, colorectal, cervical, stomach, and liver cancer. Education and income inequalities in mortality from all-cancers, lung, prostate, and cervical cancer increased during 1979–2011. Socioeconomic inequalities in cancer mortality widened as mortality in lower socioeconomic groups/areas declined more slowly. Mortality was higher among Blacks and lower among Asian/Pacific Islanders and Hispanics than Whites. Cancer patient survival was significantly lower in more deprived neighborhoods and among most ethnic-minority groups. Cancer mortality and incidence disparities may reflect inequalities in smoking, obesity, physical inactivity, diet, alcohol use, screening, and treatment.

  17. Transatlantic Roots of Prostate Cancer Disparities in Black Men: The CaPTC Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dr. Odedina is Professor in the Colleges of Pharmacy and Medicine at the University of Florida. She is also the PI and Program Director for the NCI-funded (P20 award) Florida Minority Cancer Research & Training (MiCaRT) Center as well as the PI and Founder of the NCI-EGRP supported Prostate Cancer Transatlantic Consortium (CaPTC). She leads the Research Core of the Florida Health Equity Research Institute, a Florida Board of Governors-approved institute. Dr. Odedina’s research program, primarily funded by NIH and Department of Defense, focuses on the predictors of health disparities and cost-effective, community-based behavioral interventions to improve the health of minority populations, especially Black men. She has directed over 30 research projects, including genetic-environmental determinants of prostate cancer disparity studies. Her NCI EGRP-supported consortium, CaPTC, facilitates and supports recruitment and retention of minorities in biomedical research and biobanking for Black men’s research globally. Her contribution to Health Equity in Florida dates back to 1997 and has resulted in multiple accomplishments and recognitions. As far back as 2009, her leadership in health disparities was recognized by the American Society of Health-Systems Pharmacy and the Association of Black Health-System Pharmacists with the Inaugural (1st) Leadership Award for Health Disparities. Due to her extensive experiences in prostate cancer disparity research, she was selected by the US Congressionally Directed Medical Research Programs to give the inaugural Dr. Barbara Terry-Koroma Health Disparity Legacy Lecture in 2013. Her efforts in training underrepresented minorities for over two decades was recognized through the INSIGHT Into Diversity 2016 Inspiring Women in STEM Award. Her most recent awards include the Living Legend Award for innovations with health/economic impact from the Africa Clinical Trial Summit in 2017 and the 2017 Williams Award for Innovation in Cancer

  18. Unintended Effects of Emphasizing Disparities in Cancer Communication to African-Americans

    OpenAIRE

    Nicholson, Robert A.; Kreuter, Matthew W.; Lapka, Christina; Wellborn, Rachel; Clark, Eddie M.; Sanders-Thompson, Vetta; Jacobsen, Heather M.; Casey, Chris

    2008-01-01

    Little is known about how minority groups react to public information that highlights racial disparities in cancer. This double-blind randomized study compared emotional and behavioral reactions to four versions of the same colon cancer (CRC) information presented in mock news articles to a community sample of African-American adults (n = 300). Participants read one of four articles that varied in their framing and interpretation of race-specific CRC mortality data, emphasizing impact (CRC is...

  19. Social factors matter in cancer risk and survivorship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Lorraine T; Gehlert, Sarah; Neuhouser, Marian L; Oh, April; Zanetti, Krista; Goodman, Melody; Thompson, Beti; Visvanathan, Kala; Schmitz, Kathryn H

    2018-07-01

    Greater attention to social factors, such as race/ethnicity, socioeconomic position, and others, are needed across the cancer continuum, including breast cancer, given differences in tumor biology and genetic variants have not completely explained the persistent Black/White breast cancer mortality disparity. In this commentary, we use examples in breast cancer risk assessment and survivorship to demonstrate how the failure to appropriately incorporate social factors into the design, recruitment, and analysis of research studies has resulted in missed opportunities to reduce persistent cancer disparities. The conclusion offers recommendations for how to better document and use information on social factors in cancer research and care by (1) increasing education and awareness about the importance of inclusion of social factors in clinical research; (2) improving testing and documentation of social factors by incorporating them into journal guidelines and reporting stratified results; and (3) including social factors to refine extant tools that assess cancer risk and assign cancer care. Implementing the recommended changes would enable more effective design and implementation of interventions and work toward eliminating cancer disparities by accounting for the social and environmental contexts in which cancer patients live and are treated.

  20. Illuminating cancer health disparities using ethnogenetic layering (EL) and phenotype segregation network analysis (PSNA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Fatimah L C

    2006-01-01

    Resolving cancer health disparities continues to befuddle simplistic racial models. The racial groups alluded to in biomedicine, public health, and epidemiology are often profoundly substructured. EL and PSNA are computational assisted techniques that focus on microethnic group (MEG) substructure. Geographical variations in cancer may be due to differences in MEG ancestry or similar environmental exposures to a recognized carcinogen. Examples include breast and prostate cancers in the Chesapeake Bay region and Bight of Biafra biological ancestry, hypertension and stroke in the Carolina Coast region and Central African biological ancestry, and pancreatic cancer in the Mississippi Delta region and dietary/medicinal exposure to safrol from Sassafras albidum.

  1. Commentary: Utilizing Community-Engaged Approaches to Investigate and Address Hmong Women’s Cancer Disparities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shannon M.A. Sparks

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Cancer is a growing concern for women in the Hmong community. Hmong women experience poor health outcomes for both cervical and breast cancer, largely due to low rates of screening and resultant late-stage at diagnosis. Both breast and cervical cancer screening are complicated by a multitude of social, cultural and environmental factors which influence health care decision-making and can otherwise serve to restrict access. We argue that community-engaged research, an orientation which prioritizes collaborative, equitable partnerships and community voice in identifying both problems and solutions, can be a valuable approach to helping address cancer health disparities for Hmong women. Using the Milwaukee-based “Healthy Hmong Women” project as a case example, we detail how the community-engaged approach implemented by the project partners was critical in identifying factors contributing to Hmong cancer disparities and appropriate interventions, as well as the overall acceptance and success of the project. Specifically, we discuss how this approach: (1 promoted community investment and ownership in the project; (2 facilitated the integration of local perspectives and experiences; (3 built capacity to address cancer screening disparities; (4 facilitated the creation of interventions targeting multiple ecological levels; and (5 framed the community as the foundation and driver of positive change.

  2. Cancer, culture, and health disparities: time to chart a new course?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagawa-Singer, Marjorie; Dadia, Annalyn Valdez; Yu, Mimi C; Surbone, Antonella

    2010-01-01

    Little progress has been made over the last 40 years to eliminate the racial/ethnic differences in incidence, morbidity, avoidable suffering, and mortality from cancer that result from factors beyond genetic differences. More effective strategies to promote equity in access and quality care are urgently needed because the changing demographics of the United States portend that this disparity will not only persist but significantly increase. Such suffering is avoidable. The authors posit that culture is a prime factor in the persistence of health disparities. However, this concept of culture is still poorly understood, inconsistently defined, and ineffectively used in practice and research. The role of culture in the causal pathway of disparities and the potential impact of culturally competent cancer care on improving cancer outcomes in ethnic minorities has, thus, been underestimated. In this article, the authors provide a comprehensive definition of culture and demonstrate how it can be used at each stage of the cancer care continuum to help reduce the unequal burden of cancer. The authors conclude with suggestions for clinical practice to eliminate the disconnection between evidence-based, quality, cancer care and its delivery to diverse population groups.

  3. Breast cancer risks and risk prediction models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, Christoph; Fischer, Christine

    2015-02-01

    BRCA1/2 mutation carriers have a considerably increased risk to develop breast and ovarian cancer. The personalized clinical management of carriers and other at-risk individuals depends on precise knowledge of the cancer risks. In this report, we give an overview of the present literature on empirical cancer risks, and we describe risk prediction models that are currently used for individual risk assessment in clinical practice. Cancer risks show large variability between studies. Breast cancer risks are at 40-87% for BRCA1 mutation carriers and 18-88% for BRCA2 mutation carriers. For ovarian cancer, the risk estimates are in the range of 22-65% for BRCA1 and 10-35% for BRCA2. The contralateral breast cancer risk is high (10-year risk after first cancer 27% for BRCA1 and 19% for BRCA2). Risk prediction models have been proposed to provide more individualized risk prediction, using additional knowledge on family history, mode of inheritance of major genes, and other genetic and non-genetic risk factors. User-friendly software tools have been developed that serve as basis for decision-making in family counseling units. In conclusion, further assessment of cancer risks and model validation is needed, ideally based on prospective cohort studies. To obtain such data, clinical management of carriers and other at-risk individuals should always be accompanied by standardized scientific documentation.

  4. Sex disparities in cancer incidence in Jiashan County, China, 1995-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xiyi; Cai, Shaofang; Hu, Yunqing; Ye, Ding; Li, Qilong; Chen, Kun; Jin, Mingjuan

    2017-10-01

    To describe the sex-specific incidence rates and the male-to-female incidence-rate ratios (IRRs) of different cancer types, and to explore the corresponding sex disparities in an area of Eastern China. We used data from the Cancer Registry in Jiashan County, and calculated the sex-specific age-standardized (2010 China standard population) incidence rates and the male-to-female IRRs for different cancer types during the period 1995-2014. The age-standardized incidence rates of all cancers for the whole period 1995-2014 were 151.48 per 100,000 person-years for males and 83.75 per 100,000 person-years for females, and the corresponding male-to-female IRR was 1.81 (95% confidence interval: 1.77-1.85). Specifically, males presented higher incidences in most types of cancer with the exceptions of cancers of connective and other soft tissues, gallbladder (including extrahepatic bile ducts), and thyroid gland. In addition, the age-specific incidences of the ten most common cancers in males were higher than those in females in most age groups. Our results reveal a male predominance in incidence for a majority of cancers in Jiashan County, Eastern China. Possible explanations for these sex disparities in cancer incidence may include lifestyle factors, particularly smoking. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Known risk factors do not explain disparities in gallstone prevalence between Denmark and northeast Germany

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friedrich, Nele; Völzke, Henry; Hampe, Jochen

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Gallstones are a common disease worldwide, with disparities in the prevalence of the disease in different settings. The aim of the present study was to assess if different distributions of risk factors could explain the disparities in the prevalence of gallstone disease between Denmark...... and northeast Germany. METHODS: Data of 5,559 subjects from the Danish MONICA survey and of 3,647 subjects of the German Study of Health in Pomerania were investigated. Gallstone disease was defined as a prior history of cholecystectomy or the presence of sonographically diagnosed gallstones. Logistic...... regression models were performed to assess the confounding effect of selected risk factors on regional disparities in gallstone disease. RESULTS: After adjustment for age and vocational training, German subjects (women: Odds ratio, OR, 2.46 (95% confidence interval, CI: 2.07-2.91); men: OR, 1.89 (95% CI: 1...

  6. Risks of cancer - All sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1990-01-01

    This chapter describes the BEIR Committee's radiation risk models and the total risks of cancer following whole body exposure. This report focuses on the data from A-bomb survivors since this cohort contains persons of all ages at exposure. Because of large statistical uncertainties, it was not possible for the committee to provide risk estimates for cancers at all specific sites of interest. Estimates were made for risk of leukemia, breast cancer, thyroid cancer, and cancers of the respiratory and digestive systems. To obtain an estimate of the total risk of mortality from all cancers, the committee also modeled cancers other than those listed above as a group

  7. Early Onset Malignancies - Genomic Study of Cancer Disparities

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Early Onset Malignancies Initiative studies the genomic basis of six cancers that develop at an earlier age, occur in higher rates, and are typically more aggressive in certain minority populations.

  8. Cancer risk from inorganics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swierenga, S.H.; Gilman, J.P.; McLean, J.R.

    1987-01-01

    Inorganic metals and minerals for which there is evidence of carcinogenicity are identified. The risk of cancer from contact with them in the work place, the general environment, and under conditions of clinical (medical) exposure is discussed. The evidence indicates that minerals and metals most often influence cancer development through their action as cocarcinogens. The relationship between the physical form of mineral fibers, smoking and carcinogenic risk is emphasized. Metals are categorized as established (As, Be, Cr, Ni), suspected (Cd, Pb) and possible carcinogens, based on the existing in vitro, animal experimental and human epidemiological data. Cancer risk and possible modes of action of elements in each class are discussed. Views on mechanisms that may be responsible for the carcinogenicity of metals are updated and analysed. Some specific examples of cancer risks associated with the clinical use of potentially carcinogenic metals and from radioactive pharmaceuticals used in therapy and diagnosis are presented. Questions are raised as to the effectiveness of conventional dosimetry in accurately measuring risk from radiopharmaceuticals. 302 references

  9. Identification of racial disparities in breast cancer mortality: does scale matter?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhan F Benjamin

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This paper investigates the impact of geographic scale (census tract, zip code, and county on the detection of disparities in breast cancer mortality among three ethnic groups in Texas (period 1995-2005. Racial disparities were quantified using both relative (RR and absolute (RD statistics that account for the population size and correct for unreliable rates typically observed for minority groups and smaller geographic units. Results were then correlated with socio-economic status measured by the percentage of habitants living below the poverty level. Results African-American and Hispanic women generally experience higher mortality than White non-Hispanics, and these differences are especially significant in the southeast metropolitan areas and southwest border of Texas. The proportion and location of significant racial disparities however changed depending on the type of statistic (RR versus RD and the geographic level. The largest proportion of significant results was observed for the RD statistic and census tract data. Geographic regions with significant racial disparities for African-Americans and Hispanics frequently had a poverty rate above 10.00%. Conclusions This study investigates both relative and absolute racial disparities in breast cancer mortality between White non-Hispanic and African-American/Hispanic women at the census tract, zip code and county levels. Analysis at the census tract level generally led to a larger proportion of geographical units experiencing significantly higher mortality rates for minority groups, although results varied depending on the use of the relative versus absolute statistics. Additional research is needed before general conclusions can be formulated regarding the choice of optimal geographic regions for the detection of racial disparities.

  10. Reproductive History and Breast Cancer Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Common Cancer Types Recurrent Cancer Common Cancer Types Bladder Cancer Breast Cancer Colorectal Cancer Kidney (Renal Cell) Cancer ... 4 ). This risk reduction is limited to hormone receptor –positive breast cancer; age at first full-term ...

  11. Ethnic disparities in the risk of adverse neonatal outcome after spontaneous preterm birth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaaf, Jelle M.; Mol, Ben-Willem J.; Abu-Hanna, Ameen; Ravelli, Anita C. J.

    2012-01-01

    Objective. To describe ethnic disparities in the risk of spontaneous preterm birth and related adverse neonatal outcome. Design. Nationwide prospective cohort study. Setting. The Netherlands, 19992007. Population. Nine hundred and sixty-nine thousand, four hundred and ninety-one singleton

  12. Determinants of disparities between perceived and physiological risk of falling among elderly people: cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delbaere, Kim; Close, Jacqueline C T; Brodaty, Henry; Sachdev, Perminder; Lord, Stephen R

    2010-08-18

    To gain an understanding of elderly people's fear of falling by exploring the prevalence and determinants of perceived and physiological fall risk and to understand the role of disparities in perceived and physiological risk in the cause of falls. Prospective cohort study. Community sample drawn from eastern Sydney, Australia. 500 men and women aged 70-90 years. Baseline assessment of medical, physiological, and neuropsychological measures, with physiological fall risk estimated with the physiological profile assessment, and perceived fall risk estimated with the falls efficacy scale international. Participants were followed up monthly for falls over one year. Multivariate logistic regression analyses showed that perceived and physiological fall risk were both independent predictors of future falls. Classification tree analysis was used to split the sample into four groups (vigorous, anxious, stoic, and aware) based on the disparity between physiological and perceived risk of falling. Perceived fall risk was congruent with physiological fall risk in the vigorous (144 (29%)) and aware (202 (40%)) groups. The anxious group (54 (11%)) had a low physiological risk but high perceived fall risk, which was related to depressive symptoms (P=0.029), neurotic personality traits (P=0.026), and decreased executive functioning (P=0.010). The stoic group (100 (20%)) had a high physiological risk but low perceived fall risk, which was protective for falling and mediated through a positive outlook on life (P=0.001) and maintained physical activity and community participation (P=0.048). Many elderly people underestimated or overestimated their risk of falling. Such disparities between perceived and physiological fall risk were primarily associated with psychological measures and strongly influenced the probability of falling. Measures of both physiological and perceived fall risk should be included in fall risk assessments to allow tailoring of interventions for preventing falls in

  13. Unintended effects of emphasizing disparities in cancer communication to African-Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, Robert A; Kreuter, Matthew W; Lapka, Christina; Wellborn, Rachel; Clark, Eddie M; Sanders-Thompson, Vetta; Jacobsen, Heather M; Casey, Chris

    2008-11-01

    Little is known about how minority groups react to public information that highlights racial disparities in cancer. This double-blind randomized study compared emotional and behavioral reactions to four versions of the same colon cancer (CRC) information presented in mock news articles to a community sample of African-American adults (n = 300). Participants read one of four articles that varied in their framing and interpretation of race-specific CRC mortality data, emphasizing impact (CRC is an important problem for African-Americans), two dimensions of disparity (Blacks are doing worse than Whites and Blacks are improving, but less than Whites), or progress (Blacks are improving over time). Participants exposed to disparity articles reported more negative emotional reactions to the information and were less likely to want to be screened for CRC than those in other groups (both P emotional reactions and participants were more likely to want to be screened. Moreover, negative emotional reaction seemed to mediate the influence of message type on individuals wanting to be screened for CRC. Overall, these results suggest that the way in which disparity research is reported in the medium can influence public attitudes and intentions, with reports about progress yielding a more positive effect on intention. This seems especially important among those with high levels of medical mistrust who are least likely to use the health care system and are thus the primary target of health promotion advertising.

  14. The promise of prevention: the effects of four preventable risk factors on national life expectancy and life expectancy disparities by race and county in the United States.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goodarz Danaei

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available There has been substantial research on psychosocial and health care determinants of health disparities in the United States (US but less on the role of modifiable risk factors. We estimated the effects of smoking, high blood pressure, elevated blood glucose, and adiposity on national life expectancy and on disparities in life expectancy and disease-specific mortality among eight subgroups of the US population (the "Eight Americas" defined on the basis of race and the location and socioeconomic characteristics of county of residence, in 2005.We combined data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey and the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System to estimate unbiased risk factor levels for the Eight Americas. We used data from the National Center for Health Statistics to estimate age-sex-disease-specific number of deaths in 2005. We used systematic reviews and meta-analyses of epidemiologic studies to obtain risk factor effect sizes for disease-specific mortality. We used epidemiologic methods for multiple risk factors to estimate the effects of current exposure to these risk factors on death rates, and life table methods to estimate effects on life expectancy. Asians had the lowest mean body mass index, fasting plasma glucose, and smoking; whites had the lowest systolic blood pressure (SBP. SBP was highest in blacks, especially in the rural South--5-7 mmHg higher than whites. The other three risk factors were highest in Western Native Americans, Southern low-income rural blacks, and/or low-income whites in Appalachia and the Mississippi Valley. Nationally, these four risk factors reduced life expectancy at birth in 2005 by an estimated 4.9 y in men and 4.1 y in women. Life expectancy effects were smallest in Asians (M, 4.1 y; F, 3.6 y and largest in Southern rural blacks (M, 6.7 y; F, 5.7 y. Standard deviation of life expectancies in the Eight Americas would decline by 0.50 y (18% in men and 0.45 y (21% in women if these risks

  15. Cancer Health Disparities Research: Where have we been and where should we go?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarlett Lin Gomez, PhD, MPH, is Professor in the Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics and a member of the Helen Diller Family Comprehensive Cancer Center at the University of California, San Francisco. She is also Director of the Greater Bay Area Cancer Registry, a part of the California Cancer Registry and the NCI Surveillance Epidemiology End Results (SEER) Program. Her research focuses primarily on cancer health disparities and aims to understand the multilevel drivers of those disparities. She has contributed surveillance data regarding cancer incidence and outcome patterns and trends for distinct Asian American, Native Hawaiian, and Pacific Islander and Hispanic ethnic groups, as well as cancer patterns by nativity status and neighborhood characteristics. She developed the California Neighborhoods Data System, a compilation of small-area level data on social and built environment characteristics, and has used these data in more than a dozen funded studies to evaluate the impact of social and built neighborhood environment factors on disease outcomes. Since 1996, Dr. Lin Gomez has received many honors and awards, including being named Author of the Year in 2010 by the American Journal of Public Health, the Above and Beyond Excellence Award in 2012 and the Mentoring Award in 2014, both by the Cancer Prevention Institute of California. She completed her education in epidemiology with an MPH at the University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, and her PhD at Stanford.

  16. Designing a community-based lay health advisor training curriculum to address cancer health disparities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwede, Clement K; Ashley, Atalie A; McGinnis, Kara; Montiel-Ishino, F Alejandro; Standifer, Maisha; Baldwin, Julie; Williams, Coni; Sneed, Kevin B; Wathington, Deanna; Dash-Pitts, Lolita; Green, B Lee

    2013-05-01

    Racial and ethnic minorities have disproportionately higher cancer incidence and mortality than their White counterparts. In response to this inequity in cancer prevention and care, community-based lay health advisors (LHAs) may be suited to deliver effective, culturally relevant, quality cancer education, prevention/screening, and early detection services for underserved populations. APPROACH AND STRATEGIES: Consistent with key tenets of community-based participatory research (CBPR), this project engaged community partners to develop and implement a unique LHA training curriculum to address cancer health disparities among medically underserved communities in a tricounty area. Seven phases of curriculum development went into designing a final seven-module LHA curriculum. In keeping with principles of CBPR and community engagement, academic-community partners and LHAs themselves were involved at all phases to ensure the needs of academic and community partners were mutually addressed in development and implementation of the LHA program. Community-based LHA programs for outreach, education, and promotion of cancer screening and early detection, are ideal for addressing cancer health disparities in access and quality care. When community-based LHAs are appropriately recruited, trained, and located in communities, they provide unique opportunities to link, bridge, and facilitate quality cancer education, services, and research.

  17. Cigarette smoking disparities among sexual minority cancer survivors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Kamen

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: The current study offers preliminary evidence that sexual minority status is one variable among many that must be taken into account when assessing health behaviors post-cancer diagnosis. Future research should identify mechanisms leading from sexual minority status to increased rates of smoking and develop tailored smoking cessation interventions.

  18. Disparity in liver cancer incidence and chronic liver disease mortality by nativity in Hispanics: The Multiethnic Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setiawan, Veronica Wendy; Wei, Pengxiao C; Hernandez, Brenda Y; Lu, Shelly C; Monroe, Kristine R; Le Marchand, Loic; Yuan, Jian Min

    2016-05-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and chronic liver disease (CLD) are major causes of morbidity and mortality among Hispanics. Disparities in the incidence of HCC and in CLD deaths by nativity in Hispanics have been reported. Whether individual-level risk factors could explain these disparities was assessed in a prospective study of 36,864 Hispanics (18,485 US-born and 18,379 foreign-born) in the Multiethnic Cohort. Risk factors were assessed with a baseline questionnaire and Medicare claim files. During a 19.6-year follow-up, 189 incident cases of HCC and 298 CLD deaths were identified. The HCC incidence rate was almost twice as high for US-born Hispanic men versus foreign-born Hispanic men (44.7 vs 23.1), but the rates were comparable for women (14.5 vs 13.4). The CLD mortality rate was about twice as high for US-born Hispanics versus foreign-born Hispanics (66.3 vs 35.1 for men and 42.2 vs 19.7 for women). Heavy alcohol consumption was associated with HCC and CLD in foreign-born individuals, whereas the current smoking status, hepatitis B/C viral infection, and diabetes were associated with both HCC and CLD. After adjustments for these risk factors, the hazard rate ratios for HCC and CLD death were 1.58 (95% confidence interval, 1.00-2.51) and 1.85 (95% confidence interval, 1.25-2.73), respectively, for US-born Hispanics versus foreign-born Hispanics. US-born Hispanics, particularly males, are at greater risk for HCC and death from CLD than foreign-born Hispanics. Overall known differences in risk factors do not account for these disparities. Future studies are warranted to identify factors that contribute to the elevated risk of HCC development and CLD death in US-born Hispanics. Cancer 2016;122:1444-1452. © 2016 American Cancer Society. © 2016 American Cancer Society.

  19. Thyroid Cancer Risk Assessment Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    The R package thyroid implements a risk prediction model developed by NCI researchers to calculate the absolute risk of developing a second primary thyroid cancer (SPTC) in individuals who were diagnosed with a cancer during their childhood.

  20. Risks of Breast Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is small. Different factors increase or decrease the risk of breast cancer. Anything that increases your chance ... magnetic resonance imaging) in women with a high risk of breast cancer MRI is a procedure that ...

  1. Risks of Lung Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in women. Different factors increase or decrease the risk of lung cancer. Anything that increases your chance ... been studied to see if they decrease the risk of dying from lung cancer. The following screening ...

  2. Risks of Endometrial Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health history and certain medicines can affect the risk of developing endometrial cancer. Anything that increases your ... have abnormal vaginal bleeding, check with your doctor. Risks of Endometrial Cancer Screening Key Points Screening tests ...

  3. Risks of Esophageal Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... alcohol use, and Barrett esophagus can affect the risk of developing esophageal cancer. Anything that increases the ... tissue gives off less light than normal tissue. Risks of Esophageal Cancer Screening Key Points Screening tests ...

  4. Risks of Cervical Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... women. Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is the major risk factor for cervical cancer. Although most women with ... clinical trials is available from the NCI website . Risks of Cervical Cancer Screening Key Points Screening tests ...

  5. American Society of Clinical Oncology Position Statement: Strategies for Reducing Cancer Health Disparities Among Sexual and Gender Minority Populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griggs, Jennifer; Maingi, Shail; Blinder, Victoria; Denduluri, Neelima; Khorana, Alok A; Norton, Larry; Francisco, Michael; Wollins, Dana S; Rowland, Julia H

    2017-07-01

    ASCO is committed to addressing the needs of sexual and gender minority (SGM) populations as a diverse group at risk for receiving disparate care and having suboptimal experiences, including discrimination, throughout the cancer care continuum. This position statement outlines five areas of recommendations to address the needs of both SGM populations affected by cancer and members of the oncology workforce who identify as SGM: (1) patient education and support; (2) workforce development and diversity; (3) quality improvement strategies; (4) policy solutions; and (5) research strategies. In making these recommendations, the Society calls for increased outreach and educational support for SGM patients; increased SGM cultural competency training for providers; improvement of quality-of-care metrics that include sexual orientation and gender information variables; and increased data collection to inform future work addressing the needs of SGM communities.

  6. PSPHL as a candidate gene influencing racial disparities in endometrial cancer incidence and survival

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jay eAllard

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Endometrial cancer is the most commonly diagnosed gynecologic malignancy in the United States and is characterized by a well recognized racial disparity in both incidence and survival. Specifically Caucasians are about two times more likely to develop endometrial cancer than are African Americans. However, African American women are more likely to die from this disease than are Caucasians. The basis for this disparity remains unknown. Previous studies have identified differences in the types and frequencies of gene mutations among endometrial cancers from Caucasians and African Americans suggesting. We performed a gene expression microarray study in an effort to further examine differences between African American and Caucasian women’s endometrial cancers. This expression screen identified a list of potential biomarkers differentially expressed between these two groups of cancers. Of these we identified a poorly characterized transcript with a region of homology to phospho serine phospatase (PSPH and designated phospho serine phospatase like (PSPHL as the most differentially over-expressed gene in cancers from African Americans. We clarified the nature of expressed transcripts. Northern blot analysis confirmed PSPHL messages under 1 KB. Sequence analysis of transcripts confirmed two alternate open reading frame (ORF isoforms due to alternative splicing events. Splice specific primer sets confirmed both isoforms were differentially expressed in tissues from Caucasians and African Americans. We further examined the expression in other tissues from women to include normal endometrium, normal and malignant ovary. In all cases PSPHL expression was more often present in tissues from African-Americans than Caucasians. Our data confirm the African-American based expression of the PSPHL transcript several tissue types. PSPHL represents a candidate gene that might influence the observed racial disparity in endometrial and other cancers.

  7. Socioeconomic Disparities in Breast Cancer Screening in Hawaii

    OpenAIRE

    Timothy Halliday, PhD; Deborah A. Taira, ScD; James Davis, PhD; Henry Chan

    2007-01-01

    Introduction Despite evidence that breast cancer screening reduces morbidity and mortality, many women do not obtain mammograms. Our objective was to analyze the relationship between income and mammography screening for members enrolled in a large health plan in Hawaii. Methods We analyzed claims data for women (N = 46,328) aged 50 to 70 years during 2003 and 2004. We used parametric and nonparametric regression techniques. We used probit estimation to conduct multivariate analysis. Results A...

  8. Effect of Diabetes and Obesity on Disparities in Prostate Cancer Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-14-1-0503 TITLE: Effect of Diabetes and Obesity on Disparities in Prostate Cancer Outcomes PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Bettina F...FOR: U.S. Army Medical Research and Materiel Command Fort Detrick, Maryland 21702-5012 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT : Approved for Public Release...Department of the Army position , policy or decision unless so designated by other documentation. REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE Form Approved OMB No

  9. Rural Women's Perceptions About Cancer Disparities and Contributing Factors: a Call to Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina, Yamile; Zimmermann, Kristine; Carnahan, Leslie R; Paulsey, Ellen; Bigman, Cabral A; Khare, Manorama M; Zahnd, Whitney; Jenkins, Wiley D

    2017-02-27

    Rural cancer disparities are increasingly documented in the USA. Research has identified and begun to address rural residents' cancer knowledge and behaviors, especially among women. Little, however, is known about rural female residents' awareness of cancer inequities and perceived contributing factors affecting them and their families. The purpose of this study was to address these gaps in the literature via a secondary analysis of qualitative needs assessment in Illinois' rural southernmost seven counties, a geographic region with relatively high rates of cancer incidence, morbidity, and mortality. A convenience sample of 202 rural adult female residents was recruited and participated in 26 focus groups, with 3-13 women per group. Inductive content analysis, guided by the principle of constant comparison, was used to analyze the qualitative data. Most respondents indicated their awareness of disproportionate cancer burden in their communities. Individual-level behaviors and environmental toxins were identified as contributing factors. Interestingly, however, environmental toxins were more often discussed as factors contributing to geographic differences, whereas individual-level behaviors were noted as important for overall cancer prevention and control. This study provides important insight into female rural residents' perspectives and offers novel venues for educational programs and research in the context of communication to eliminate disparities.

  10. Disparities in cervical cancer survival among Asian-American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nghiem, Van T; Davies, Kalatu R; Chan, Wenyaw; Mulla, Zuber D; Cantor, Scott B

    2016-01-01

    We compared overall survival and influencing factors between Asian-American women as a whole and by subgroup with white women with cervical cancer. Cervical cancer data were from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results registry; socioeconomic information was from the Area Health Resource File. We used standard tests to compare characteristics between groups; the Kaplan-Meier method with log-rank test to assess overall survival and compare it between groups; and Cox proportional hazards models to determine the effect of race and other covariates on overall survival (with and/or without age stratification). Being 3.3 years older than white women at diagnosis (P Asian-American women were more likely to be in a spousal relationship, had more progressive disease, and were better off socioeconomically. Women of Filipino, Japanese, and Korean origin had similar clinical characteristics compared to white women. Asian-American women had higher 36- and 60-month survival rates (P = .004 and P = .013, respectively), higher overall survival rates (P = .049), and longer overall survival durations after adjusting for age and other covariates (hazard ratio = 0.77, 95% confidence interval: 0.68-0.86). Overall survival differed across age strata between the two racial groups. With the exception of women of Japanese or Korean origin, Asian-American women grouped by geographic origin had better overall survival than white women. Although Asian-American women, except those of Japanese or Korean origin, had better overall survival than white women, their older age at cervical cancer diagnosis suggests that they have less access to screening programs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Disparities in cervical cancer survival among Asian American women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nghiem, Van T.; Davies, Kalatu R.; Chan, Wenyaw; Mulla, Zuber D.; Cantor, Scott B.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose We compared overall survival and influencing factors between Asian American women as a whole and by subgroup with white women with cervical cancer. Methods Cervical cancer data were from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results registry; socioeconomic information was from the Area Health Resource File. We used standard tests to compare characteristics between groups; the Kaplan-Meier method with log-rank test to assess overall survival and compare it between groups; and Cox proportional hazards models to determine the effect of race and other covariates on overall survival (with/without age-stratification). Results Being 3.3 years older than white women at diagnosis (pAsian American women were more likely to be in a spousal relationship, had more progressive disease, and were better off socioeconomically. Women of Filipino, Japanese, and Korean origin had similar clinical characteristics compared with white women. Asian American women had higher 36- and 60-month survival rates (p=0.004 and p=0.013, respectively), higher overall survival rates (p=0.049), and longer overall survival durations after adjusting for age and other covariates (hazard ratio=0.77, 95% confidence interval: 0.68–0.86). Overall survival differed across age strata between the two racial groups. With the exception of women of Japanese or Korean origin, Asian American women grouped by geographic origin had better overall survival than white women. Conclusions Although Asian American women, except those of Japanese or Korean origin, had better overall survival than white women, their older age at cervical cancer diagnosis suggests that they have less access to screening programs. PMID:26552330

  12. Risk disparities in the globalisation of assisted reproductive technology: the case of Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Jung-Ok

    2013-01-01

    This paper analyses the disparities in risks associated with biomedical technology focusing on the results of assisted reproductive technology (ART). ART among biomedical technologies transferred to Asia is a representative case that reveals in its clinical use and related scientific research the global politics of technology. This study notes the global politics at work in the recognition of and reaction to such risks. While many Asian countries aggressively pursue technological development, weak legislative and administrative regulations have created various problems and controversial cases. This study asserts that risks associated with technology are characterised as social facts not natural ones or mere 'side effects', since technological development and risk are closely intertwined.

  13. Impact of geographic area level on measuring socioeconomic disparities in cancer survival in New South Wales, Australia: A period analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanbury, Julia F; Baade, Peter D; Yu, Yan; Yu, Xue Qin

    2016-08-01

    Area-based socioeconomic measures are widely used in health research. In theory, the larger the area used the more individual misclassification is introduced, thus biasing the association between such area level measures and health outcomes. In this study, we examined the socioeconomic disparities in cancer survival using two geographic area-based measures to see if the size of the area matters. We used population-based cancer registry data for patients diagnosed with one of 10 major cancers in New South Wales (NSW), Australia during 2004-2008. Patients were assigned index measures of socioeconomic status (SES) based on two area-level units, census Collection District (CD) and Local Government Area (LGA) of their address at diagnosis. Five-year relative survival was estimated using the period approach for patients alive during 2004-2008, for each socioeconomic quintile at each area-level for each cancer. Poisson-regression modelling was used to adjust for socioeconomic quintile, sex, age-group at diagnosis and disease stage at diagnosis. The relative excess risk of death (RER) by socioeconomic quintile derived from this modelling was compared between area-units. We found extensive disagreement in SES classification between CD and LGA levels across all socioeconomic quintiles, particularly for more disadvantaged groups. In general, more disadvantaged patients had significantly lower survival than the least disadvantaged group for both CD and LGA classifications. The socioeconomic survival disparities detected by CD classification were larger than those detected by LGA. Adjusted RER estimates by SES were similar for most cancers when measured at both area levels. We found that classifying patient SES by the widely used Australian geographic unit LGA results in underestimation of survival disparities for several cancers compared to when SES is classified at the geographically smaller CD level. Despite this, our RER of death estimates derived from these survival

  14. PCOS and cancer risk.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadeusz Issat

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS affects approximately 5 to 10% of women of reproductive age. It is the most common reason of anovulation in infertile women. PCOS is accompanied by such conditions as oligo- or anovulation, hipertestosteronism, lower cell sensitivity to insulin, type II diabetes, hyperlipidemia and obesity. Each of the above-mentioned conditions is an approved risk factor proved to predispose towards cancer. However, PCOS is also a disease entity which differs in its clinical manifestation. For example not all patients suffer from obesity or hipertestosteronism related symptoms. From the analysis of literature it is possible to draw conclusions, that there is a possible correlation between PCOS and endometrial cancer, which emerges from clinical trials or research focused on molecular changes in endometrium patients with PCOS. On the other hand, correlation between PCOS and breast or ovary cancer is not so strong, in spite of single papers which are showing the link. The main problem in researching the correlation between PCOS and any cancer risk, is there is a very small group of women or the trial is imperfect (e.g. no control group. There is no meta-analysis focused on this correlation in literature. The change of criteria of PCOS in the past is also a big problem, because there was a number of definitions of PCOS, which results in inconsistent PCOS diagnoses over time. In this paper we would like to provide a description of studies that aimed at showing correlation between PCOS and cancer risk and underlying theoretical assumptions.

  15. PCOS and cancer risk.

    OpenAIRE

    Tadeusz Issat; Artur J Jakimiuk

    2010-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) affects approximately 5 to 10% of women of reproductive age. It is the most common reason of anovulation in infertile women. PCOS is accompanied by such conditions as oligo- or anovulation, hipertestosteronism, lower cell sensitivity to insulin, type II diabetes, hyperlipidemia and obesity. Each of the above-mentioned conditions is an approved risk factor proved to predispose towards cancer. However, PCOS is also a disease entity which differs in its clinical ...

  16. KRAS biomarker testing disparities in colorectal cancer patients in New Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alissa Greenbaum

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO guidelines recommend that all patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC receive KRAS testing to guide anti-EGFR monoclonal antibody treatment. The aim of this study was to assess for disparities in KRAS testing and mutational status. Methods: The New Mexico Tumor Registry (NMTR, a population-based cancer registry participating in the National Cancer Institute’s Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results program, was queried to identify all incident cases of CRC diagnosed among New Mexico residents from 2010 to 2013. Results: Six hundred thirty-seven patients were diagnosed with mCRC from 2010–2013. As expected, KRAS testing in Stage 4 patients presented the highest frequency (38.4%, though testing in stage 3 (8.5%, stage 2 (3.4% and stage 1 (1.2% was also observed. In those with metastatic disease, younger patients (≤ 64 years were more likely to have had testing than patients 65 years and older (p < 0.0001. Patients residing in urban areas received KRAS testing more often than patients living in rural areas (p = 0.019. No significant racial/ethnic disparities were observed (p = 0.66. No significant differences were seen by year of testing. Conclusion: Age and geographic disparities exist in the rates of KRAS testing, while sex, race/ethnicity and the year tested were not significantly associated with testing. Further study is required to assess the reasons for these disparities and continued suboptimal adherence to current ASCO KRAS testing guidelines. Keywords: Oncology, Health sciences, Clinical genetics

  17. Disparities in quality of cancer care: The role of health insurance and population demographics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parikh-Patel, Arti; Morris, Cyllene R; Kizer, Kenneth W

    2017-12-01

    Escalating costs and concerns about quality of cancer care have increased calls for quality measurement and performance accountability for providers and health plans. The purpose of the present cross-sectional study was to assess variability in the quality of cancer care by health insurance type in California.Persons with breast, ovary, endometrium, cervix, colon, lung, or gastric cancer during the period 2004 to 2014 were identified in the California Cancer Registry. Individuals were stratified into 5 health insurance categories: private insurance, Medicare, Medicaid, dual Medicare and Medicaid eligible, and uninsured. Quality of care was evaluated using Commission on Cancer quality measures. Logistic regression models were generated to assess the independent effect of health insurance type on stage at diagnosis, quality of care and survival after adjusting for age, sex, race/ethnicity, and socioeconomic status (SES).A total of 763,884 cancer cases were evaluated. Individuals with Medicaid or Medicare-Medicaid dual-eligible coverage and the uninsured had significantly lower odds of receiving recommended radiation and/or chemotherapy after diagnosis or surgery for breast, endometrial, and colon cancer, relative to those with private insurance. Dual eligible patients with gastric cancer had 21% lower odds of having the recommended number of lymph nodes removed and examined compared to privately insured patients.After adjusting for known demographic confounders, substantial and consistent disparities in quality of cancer care exist according to type of health insurance in California. Further study is needed to identify particular factors and mechanisms underlying the identified treatment disparities across sources of health insurance. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Risk factors for cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyman, G.H.

    1992-01-01

    It is no longer reasonable to divide cancers into those that are genetic in origin and those that are environmental in origin. With rare exception, carcinogenesis involves environmental factors that directly or indirectly exert a change in the cell's genome. Virtually all causes of cancer are multifactorial, sometimes involving an inherited predisposition to the carcinogenic effects of environmental factors, which include chemicals, ionizing radiation, and oncogenic virus. Carcinogenesis is a multistep process including induction, promotion, and progression. Initiation requires an irreversible change in the cellular genome, whereas promotion is commonly associated with prolonged and reversible exposure. Tumor progression results in genotypic and phenotypic changes associated with tumor growth, invasion, and metastasis. Most information on human cancer risk is based on epidemiologic studies involving both exposed and unexposed individuals. The quality of such studies depends on their ability to assess the strength of any association of exposure and disease and careful attention to any potential bias. Few cancers are inherited in a Mendelian fashion. Several preneoplastic conditions, however, are clearly inherited and several malignancies demonstrate weak familial patterns. Environmental factors may exert their effect on DNA in a random fashion, but certain consistent changes, including specific translocations of genetic information, are often found. Currently, there is great interest in the close proximity of certain oncogenes governing growth control to the consistent chromosomal changes observed. Such changes may represent a final common pathway of action for environmental carcinogens. Sufficient laboratory and epidemiologic evidence exists to establish a causal association of several chemical agents with cancer

  19. Diabetes, insulin and cancer risk

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Xi-Lin; Chan, Juliana CN

    2012-01-01

    There is a consensus that both type 1 and type 2 diabetes are associated with a spectrum of cancers but the underlying mechanisms are largely unknown. On the other hand, there are ongoing debates about the risk association of insulin use with cancer. We have briefly reviewed recent related research on exploration of risk factors for cancer and pharmacoepidemiological investigations into drug use in diabetes on the risk of cancer, as well as the current understanding of metabolic pathways impl...

  20. Disparities in Breast Cancer Survival Among Asian Women by Ethnicity and Immigrant Status: A Population-Based Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Christina A.; Shema, Sarah J.; Chang, Ellen T.; Keegan, Theresa H. M.; Glaser, Sally L.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives. We investigated heterogeneity in ethnic composition and immigrant status among US Asians as an explanation for disparities in breast cancer survival. Methods. We enhanced data from the California Cancer Registry and the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results program through linkage and imputation to examine the effect of immigrant status, neighborhood socioeconomic status, and ethnic enclave on mortality among Chinese, Japanese, Filipino, Korean, South Asian, and Vietnamese women diagnosed with breast cancer from 1988 to 2005 and followed through 2007. Results. US-born women had similar mortality rates in all Asian ethnic groups except the Vietnamese, who had lower mortality risk (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.3; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.1, 0.9). Except for Japanese women, all foreign-born women had higher mortality than did US-born Japanese, the reference group. HRs ranged from 1.4 (95% CI = 1.2, 1.7) among Koreans to 1.8 (95% CI = 1.5, 2.2) among South Asians and Vietnamese. Little of this variation was explained by differences in disease characteristics. Conclusions. Survival after breast cancer is poorer among foreign- than US-born Asians. Research on underlying factors is needed, along with increased awareness and targeted cancer control. PMID:20299648

  1. [Disparities of breast cancer burden between China and western countries and its implication].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Ying; Zhang, Minlu

    2015-12-01

    The disease burden of breast cancer in China is growing, and its proportion contributed to the global burden is increasing accordingly. The western countries have achieved reduction of mortality and slow growth of incidence, while the breast cancer incidence and mortality rates have been increasing constantly with lower survival rates in China. The remarkable characteristics of breast cancer burden in China is the disparities of the current status and time trends of incidence, mortality and survival between urban and rural area. The breast cancer disease distributions and time trends in China and the differential from the developed countries are described, which may be benefit to draw the international experience on prevention, early detection, medical care and survival management. Assessment of the existing evidence, elaboration of the prevention, control strategies in consideration of Chinese social-economic and culture situation would be beneficial to rise to the future challenge.

  2. Analysis of PSPHL as a Candidate Gene Influencing the Racial Disparity in Endometrial Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allard, Jay E. [Walter Reed Army Medical Center, Washington, DC (United States); Chandramouli, Gadisetti V. R. [Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Biology, Michigan State University College of Human Medicine, Grand Rapids, MI (United States); Stagliano, Katherine [Curtis and Elizabeth Anderson Cancer Institute at Memorial Health University Medical Center, Savannah, GA (United States); Hood, Brian L. [Women’s Health Integrated Research Center at Inova Health System, Annandale, VA (United States); Litzi, Tracy [Walter Reed Army Medical Center, Washington, DC (United States); Women’s Health Integrated Research Center at Inova Health System, Annandale, VA (United States); Shoji, Yutaka [Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Biology, Michigan State University College of Human Medicine, Grand Rapids, MI (United States); Curtis and Elizabeth Anderson Cancer Institute at Memorial Health University Medical Center, Savannah, GA (United States); Boyd, Jeff [Curtis and Elizabeth Anderson Cancer Institute at Memorial Health University Medical Center, Savannah, GA (United States); Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Berchuck, Andrew [Division of Gynecologic Oncology, Duke University, Durham, NC (United States); Conrads, Thomas P. [Curtis and Elizabeth Anderson Cancer Institute at Memorial Health University Medical Center, Savannah, GA (United States); Maxwell, G. Larry [Walter Reed Army Medical Center, Washington, DC (United States); Women’s Health Integrated Research Center at Inova Health System, Annandale, VA (United States); Risinger, John I., E-mail: john.risinger@hc.msu.edu [Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Biology, Michigan State University College of Human Medicine, Grand Rapids, MI (United States); Curtis and Elizabeth Anderson Cancer Institute at Memorial Health University Medical Center, Savannah, GA (United States)

    2012-07-04

    Endometrial cancer is the most commonly diagnosed gynecologic malignancy in the United States. A well recognized disparity by race in both incidence and survival outcome exists for this cancer. Specifically Caucasians are about two times more likely to develop endometrial cancer than are African-Americans. However, African-American women are more likely to die from this disease than are Caucasians. The basis for this disparity remains unknown. Previous studies have identified differences in the types and frequencies of gene mutations among endometrial cancers from Caucasians and African-Americans suggesting that the tumors from these two groups might have differing underlying genetic defects. We performed a gene expression microarray study in an effort to identify differentially expressed transcripts between African-American and Caucasian women’s endometrial cancers. Our gene expression screen identified a list of potential biomarkers that are differentially expressed between these two groups of cancers. Of these we identified a poorly characterized transcript with a region of homology to phospho serine phosphatase (PSPH) and designated phospho serine phosphatase like (PSPHL) as the most differentially over-expressed gene in cancers from African-Americans. We further clarified the nature of expressed transcripts. Northern blot analysis confirmed the message was limited to a transcript of under 1 kB. Sequence analysis of transcripts confirmed two alternate open reading frame (ORF) isoforms due to alternative splicing events. Splice specific primer sets confirmed both isoforms were differentially expressed in tissues from Caucasians and African-Americans. We further examined the expression in other tissues from women to include normal endometrium, normal and malignant ovary. In all cases PSPHL expression was more often present in tissues from African-Americans than Caucasians. Our data confirm the African-American based expression of the PSPHL transcript in

  3. Analysis of PSPHL as a Candidate Gene Influencing the Racial Disparity in Endometrial Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allard, Jay E.; Chandramouli, Gadisetti V. R.; Stagliano, Katherine; Hood, Brian L.; Litzi, Tracy; Shoji, Yutaka; Boyd, Jeff; Berchuck, Andrew; Conrads, Thomas P.; Maxwell, G. Larry; Risinger, John I.

    2012-01-01

    Endometrial cancer is the most commonly diagnosed gynecologic malignancy in the United States. A well recognized disparity by race in both incidence and survival outcome exists for this cancer. Specifically Caucasians are about two times more likely to develop endometrial cancer than are African-Americans. However, African-American women are more likely to die from this disease than are Caucasians. The basis for this disparity remains unknown. Previous studies have identified differences in the types and frequencies of gene mutations among endometrial cancers from Caucasians and African-Americans suggesting that the tumors from these two groups might have differing underlying genetic defects. We performed a gene expression microarray study in an effort to identify differentially expressed transcripts between African-American and Caucasian women’s endometrial cancers. Our gene expression screen identified a list of potential biomarkers that are differentially expressed between these two groups of cancers. Of these we identified a poorly characterized transcript with a region of homology to phospho serine phosphatase (PSPH) and designated phospho serine phosphatase like (PSPHL) as the most differentially over-expressed gene in cancers from African-Americans. We further clarified the nature of expressed transcripts. Northern blot analysis confirmed the message was limited to a transcript of under 1 kB. Sequence analysis of transcripts confirmed two alternate open reading frame (ORF) isoforms due to alternative splicing events. Splice specific primer sets confirmed both isoforms were differentially expressed in tissues from Caucasians and African-Americans. We further examined the expression in other tissues from women to include normal endometrium, normal and malignant ovary. In all cases PSPHL expression was more often present in tissues from African-Americans than Caucasians. Our data confirm the African-American based expression of the PSPHL transcript in

  4. Bricklayers and lung cancer risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cremers, Jan

    2014-01-01

    The article ‘Lung cancer risk among bricklayers in a pooled analysis of case–control studies’ in the International Journal of Cancer publishes findings of an epidemiological study (in the frame of a SYNERGY-project) dedicated to the lung cancer risk among bricklayers. The authors conclude that a

  5. HIV Infection and Cancer Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... same age ( 1 ). The general term for these cancers is "HIV-associated cancers." Three of these cancers are known as " acquired ... also have an increased cumulative risk of developing HIV-associated cancers. What can people infected with HIV do to ...

  6. Breast Cancer Risk in American Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Breast & Gynecologic Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Breast Cancer Risk in American Women On This Page What ... risk of developing the disease. Personal history of breast cancer : Women who have had breast cancer are more ...

  7. Environmental cancer risks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Peter M.

    In a long-awaited report (‘Assessment of Technologies for Determining Cancer Risks From the Environment’), the U.S. Office of Technology Assessment (OTA) has evaluated the role of environmental factors in cancer diseases. Environment is interpreted broadly as encompassing anything that interacts with humans, including the natural environment, food, radiation, the workplace, etc. Geologic factors range from geographic location to radiation and specific minerals. The report, however, is based on an inadequate data base in most instances, and its major recommendations are related to the establishment of a national cancer registry to record cancer statistics, as is done for many other diseases. Presently, hard statistics are lacking in the establishment of some association between the cause-effect relationship of most environmental factors and most carcinogens. Of particular interest, but unfortunately based on unreliable data, are the effects of mineral substances such as ‘asbestos.’ USGS mineralogist Malcolm Ross will review asbestos and its effects on human health in the forthcoming Mineralogical Society of America's Short Course on the Amphiboles (Reviews in Mineralogy, 9, in press, 1981).

  8. Social disparities in access to breast and cervical cancer screening by women living in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricardo-Rodrigues, I; Jiménez-García, R; Hernández-Barrera, V; Carrasco-Garrido, P; Jiménez-Trujillo, I; López de Andrés, A

    2015-07-01

    To describe uptake of breast and cervical cancer screening by women living in Spain, analyse the possible associated social and health factors, and compare uptake rates with those obtained in previous surveys. Cross-sectional study using data from the 2011 Spanish national health survey. Uptake of breast cancer screening was analysed by asking women aged 40-69 years whether they had undergone mammography in the previous two years. Uptake of cervical cancer screening was analysed by asking women aged 25-65 years whether they had undergone cervical cytology in the previous three years. Independent variables included sociodemographic characteristics, and variables related to health status and lifestyle. Seventy-two percent of women had undergone mammography in the previous two years. Having private health insurance increased the probability of breast screening uptake four-fold [odds ratio (OR) 3.96, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.71-5.79], and being an immigrant was a negative predictor for breast screening uptake. Seventy percent of women had undergone cervical cytology in the previous three years. Higher-educated women were more likely to have undergone cervical cancer screening (OR 2.59, 95% CI 1.97-3.40), and obese women and women living in rural areas were less likely to have undergone cervical cancer screening. There have been no relevant improvements in uptake rates of either breast or cervical cancer screening since 2006. Uptake of breast and cervical cancer screening could be improved in Spain, and uptake rates have stagnated over recent years. Social disparities have been detected with regard to access to these screening tests, indicating that it is necessary to continue researching and optimizing prevention programmes in order to improve uptake and reduce these disparities. Copyright © 2015 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The Impact of a Population-Based Screening Program on Income- and Immigration-Related Disparities in Colorectal Cancer Screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiran, Tara; Glazier, Richard H; Moineddin, Rahim; Gu, Sumei; Wilton, Andrew S; Paszat, Lawrence

    2017-09-01

    Background: A population-based program promoting the Fecal Occult Blood Test (FOBT) for colorectal cancer screening was introduced in 2008 in Ontario, Canada, where opportunistic screening with colonoscopy had been increasing in frequency. We evaluated the impact of the program on income and immigration-related disparities in screening. Methods: We used linked administrative data to calculate colorectal cancer screening rates for eligible Ontarians in each year between 2001/02 ( n = 2,852,619) and 2013/14 ( n = 4,139,304). We quantified disparities using an "inequality ratio" of screening rates in the most disadvantaged group relative to the most advantaged group. We performed segmented logistic regression analyses stratified by screening modality and adjusted for age, sex, rurality, comorbidity, and morbidity. Results: Between 2001/02 and 2013/14, the income and immigration inequality ratios narrowed from 0.74 to 0.80 and 0.55 to 0.69, respectively. Before the screening program, the income inequality ratio was widening by 1% per year (95% CI 1% to 1%); in the year it was introduced, it narrowed by 4% (95% CI 2% to 7%) and in the years following, it remained stable [0% decrease (95% CI 1% decrease to 0% decrease) per year]. Results were similar for immigration-related disparities. After program introduction, disparities in receiving FOBT were narrowing at a faster rate while disparities in receiving colonoscopy were widening at a slower rate. Conclusions: Introduction of a population-based screening program promoting FOBT for colorectal cancer was associated with only modest improvements in immigration and income-related disparities. Impact: Reducing immigration and income-related disparities should be a focus for future research and policy work. Disparities in Ontario seem to be driven by a higher uptake of colonoscopy among more advantaged groups. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 26(9); 1401-10. ©2017 AACR . ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  10. Identifying sexual orientation health disparities in adolescents: analysis of pooled data from the Youth Risk Behavior Survey, 2005 and 2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustanski, Brian; Van Wagenen, Aimee; Birkett, Michelle; Eyster, Sandra; Corliss, Heather L

    2014-02-01

    We studied sexual orientation disparities in health outcomes among US adolescents by pooling multiple Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) data sets from 2005 and 2007 for 14 jurisdictions. Here we describe the methodology for pooling and analyzing these data sets. Sexual orientation-related items assessed sexual orientation identity, gender of sexual contacts, sexual attractions, and harassment regarding sexual orientation. Wording of items varied across jurisdictions, so we created parallel variables and composite sexual minority variables. We used a variety of statistical approaches to address issues with the analysis of pooled data and to meet the aims of individual articles, which focused on a range of health outcomes and behaviors related to cancer, substance use, sexual health, mental health, violence, and injury.

  11. [Disparities of sex on cancer incidence and mortality in Jiashan county, Zhejiang province,1990-2014].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, X Y; Hu, Y Q; Ye, D; Li, Q L; Chen, K; Jin, M J

    2017-06-10

    Objective: This study aimed to describe the sex disparities on cancer incidence and mortality in Jiashan population. Methods: All data concerning incident and death cases of cancers were gathered from the database of Cancer Registry in Jiashan county. Data from the 2010 China census was used as the standard population. Sex-specific age-standardized incidence rates (ASIRs), mortality rates (ASMRs) per 100 000 persons for all cancers and types of each cancer were calculated for the years of 1990 to 1999, 2000 to 2009, 2010 to 2014, and 1990 to 2014. In addition, the corresponding male-to-female incidence rate ratios ( IRRs ) and mortality rate ratios ( MRRs ) were also calculated. Results: The ASIR of all cancers was 226.13/10(5) for the whole period of 1990 to 2014, with 266.04/10(5) for males and 187.22/10(5) for females, respectively. The corresponding IRR was 1.42 (95 %CI : 1.39-1.46), with significant difference noticed in the incidence rates between males and females ( P ASMR of all cancers was 155.39/10(5), with 206.55/10(5) for males and 104.98/10(5) for females, respectively. The corresponding MRR was 1.97 (95 % CI : 1.91-2.03), with significant difference between males and females ( P <0.05). Among all the cancer types, only gallbladder cancer and thyroid cancer showed female predominance in both incidence and mortality, with male predominance in all the remaining cancers. Conclusion: Finding from our study suggested that a male predominance in both incidence and mortality for a majority of cancers in Jiashan population.

  12. Quantifying the contributions of behavioral and biological risk factors to socioeconomic disparities in coronary heart disease incidence: the MORGEN study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kershaw, Kiarri N.; Droomers, Mariël; Robinson, Whitney R.; Carnethon, Mercedes R.; Daviglus, Martha L.; Verschuren, W. M. Monique

    2013-01-01

    Quantifying the impact of different modifiable behavioral and biological risk factors on socioeconomic disparities in coronary heart disease (CHD) may help inform targeted, population-specific strategies to reduce the unequal distribution of the disease. Previous studies have used analytic

  13. The Impact of Cardiovascular Risk Factors on Graft Outcome Disparities in African American Kidney Transplant Recipients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taber, David J; Hunt, Kelly J; Fominaya, Cory E; Payne, Elizabeth H; Gebregziabher, Mulugeta; Srinivas, Titte R; Baliga, Prabhakar K; Egede, Leonard E

    2016-01-01

    Although outcome inequalities for non-Hispanic Black (NHB) kidney transplant recipients are well documented, there is paucity in data assessing the impact of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors on this disparity in kidney transplantation. This was a longitudinal study of a national cohort of veteran kidney recipients transplanted between Jan 2001 and Dec 2007. Data included baseline characteristics acquired through the USRDS linked to detailed clinical follow up information acquired through the VA electronic health records. Analyses were conducted using sequential multivariable modeling (Cox regression), incorporating blocks of variables into iterative nested models; 3,139 patients were included (2,095 NHW [66.7%] and 1,044 NHBs [33.3%]). NHBs had a higher prevalence of hypertension (100% vs. 99%, ptransplant diabetes (59% vs. 53%, pAdherence to medications used to manage CVD risk was significantly lower in NHBs. In the fully adjusted models, the independent risk of graft loss in NHBs was substantially reduced (unadjusted HR 2.00 vs. adjusted HR 1.49). CVD risk factors and control reduced the influence of NHB race by 9–18%. Similar trends were noted for mortality and estimates were robust across in sensitivity analyses. These results demonstrate that NHB kidney transplant recipients have significantly higher rates of CVD risk factors and reduced CVD risk control. These issues are likely partly related to medication non-adherence and meaningfully contribute to racial disparities for graft outcomes. PMID:27402921

  14. Disparities in the survivorship experience among Latina survivors of breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olagunju, Tinuke O; Liu, Yihang; Liang, Li-Jung; Stomber, James M; Griggs, Jennifer J; Ganz, Patricia A; Thind, Amardeep; Maly, Rose C

    2018-04-06

    The authors investigated disparities in the survivorship experience among Latinas with breast cancer (BC) in comparison with non-Latinas. A cross-sectional bilingual telephone survey was conducted among 212 Latina and non-Latina women within 10 to 24 months after a diagnosis of BC (AJCC TNM staging system stage 0-III) at 2 Los Angeles County public hospitals. Data were collected using the Preparing for Life as a (New) Survivor (PLANS) scale, Perceived Efficacy in Patient-Physician Interactions Questionnaire (PEPPI), Breast Cancer Prevention Trial (BCPT) Symptom Checklist, Satisfaction with Care and Information Scale, Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems (CAHPS) tool, Charlson Comorbidity Index adapted for patient self-report, and the 12-item Short Form Health Survey. Controlling variables included age, stage as determined by the American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) TNM staging system, educational level, and study site in multivariate analyses. The mean ages of Latinas and non-Latinas were 51.5 years and 56.6 years, respectively. Compared with non-Latinas, Latinas reported less BC survivorship knowledge (27.3 vs 30.7; Psatisfaction with BC survivorship care (9.6 vs 8.8; P = .298), or their discussion with physicians (9.6 vs 8.1; P = .07). These ethnic group differences persisted in multivariate analyses, with the exception of PEPPI. Latina survivors of BC experienced disparities in BC knowledge and satisfaction with information received, but believed themselves to be prepared for survivorship and were as satisfied with providers, care received, and discussions with physicians as non-Latinas. Cancer 2018. © 2018 American Cancer Society. © 2018 American Cancer Society.

  15. Evaluating Disparities in Inpatient Surgical Cancer Care Among American Indian/Alaska Native Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simianu, Vlad V.; Morris, Arden M.; Varghese, Thomas K.; Porter, Michael P.; Henderson, Jeffrey A.; Buchwald, Dedra S.; Flum, David R.; Javid, Sara H.

    2016-01-01

    Background American Indian/Alaska Native (AI/AN) patients with cancer have the lowest survival rates of all racial and ethnic groups, possibly because they are less likely to receive “best practice” surgical care than patients of other races. Methods Prospective cohort study comparing adherence to generic and cancer-specific guidelines on processes of surgical care between AI/AN and non-Hispanic white (NHW) patients in Washington State (2010–2014). Results 156 AI/AN and 6,030 NHW patients underwent operations for 10 different cancers, and had similar mean adherence to generic surgical guidelines (91.5% vs 91.9%, p=0.57). AI/AN patients with breast cancer less frequently received preoperative diagnostic core-needle biopsy (81% versus 94%, p=0.004). AI/AN patients also less frequently received care adherent to prostate cancer-specific guidelines (74% versus 92%,p=0.001). Conclusions While AI/ANs undergoing cancer operations in Washington receive similar overall best practice surgical cancer care to NHW patients, there remain important, modifiable disparities that may contribute to their lower survival. PMID:26846176

  16. Localization and upregulation of survivin in cancer health disparities: a clinical perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khan S

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Salma Khan,1,2 Heather Ferguson Bennit,1,2 Malyn May Asuncion Valenzuela,1,2 David Turay,1,3 Carlos J Diaz Osterman,1,2 Ron B Moyron,1,2 Grace E Esebanmen,1,2 Arjun Ashok,1,2 Nathan R Wall1,2 1Department of Biochemistry, 2Center for Health Disparities and Molecular Medicine, 3Department of Anatomy, Loma Linda University School of Medicine, Loma Linda, CA, USA Abstract: Survivin is one of the most important members of the inhibitors of apoptosis protein family, as it is expressed in most human cancers but is absent in normal, differentiated tissues. Lending to its importance, survivin has proven associations with apoptosis and cell cycle control, and has more recently been shown to modulate the tumor microenvironment and immune evasion as a result of its extracellular localization. Upregulation of survivin has been found in many cancers including breast, prostate, pancreatic, and hematological malignancies, and it may prove to be associated with the advanced presentation, poorer prognosis, and lower survival rates observed in ethnically diverse populations. Keywords: survivin, cancer, exosomes, health disparity

  17. Cancer survival disparities worsening by socio-economic disadvantage over the last 3 decades in new South Wales, Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanna E. Tervonen

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Public concerns are commonly expressed about widening health gaps. This cohort study examines variations and trends in cancer survival by socio-economic disadvantage, geographical remoteness and country of birth in an Australian population over a 30-year period. Methods Data for cases diagnosed in New South Wales (NSW in 1980–2008 (n = 651,245 were extracted from the population-based NSW Cancer Registry. Competing risk regression models, using the Fine & Gray method, were used for comparative analyses to estimate sub-hazard ratios (SHR with 95% confidence intervals (CI among people diagnosed with cancer. Results Increased risk of cancer death was associated with living in the most socio-economically disadvantaged areas compared with the least disadvantaged areas (SHR 1.15, 95% CI 1.13–1.17, and in outer regional/remote areas compared with major cities (SHR 1.05, 95% CI 1.03–1.06. People born outside Australia had a similar or lower risk of cancer death than Australian-born (SHR 0.99, 95% CI 0.98–1.01 and SHR 0.91, 95% CI 0.90–0.92 for people born in other English and non-English speaking countries, respectively. An increasing comparative risk of cancer death was observed over time when comparing the most with the least socio-economically disadvantaged areas (SHR 1.07, 95% CI 1.04–1.10 for 1980–1989; SHR 1.14, 95% CI 1.12–1.17 for 1990–1999; and SHR 1.24, 95% CI 1.21–1.27 for 2000–2008; p < 0.001 for interaction between disadvantage quintile and year of diagnosis. Conclusions There is a widening gap in comparative risk of cancer death by level of socio-economic disadvantage that warrants a policy response and further examination of reasons behind these disparities.

  18. Depression and under-treatment of depression: potential risks and outcomes in black lung cancer patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traeger, Lara; Cannon, Sheila; Pirl, William F.; Park, Elyse R.

    2015-01-01

    In the U.S., black men are at higher risk than white men for lung cancer mortality whereas rates are comparable between black and white women. This paper draws from empirical work in lung cancer, mental health and health disparities to highlight that race and depression may overlap in predicting lower treatment access and utilization and poorer quality of life among patients. Racial barriers to depression identification and treatment in the general population may compound these risks. Prospective data are needed to examine whether depression plays a role in racial disparities in lung cancer outcomes. PMID:23514250

  19. Aboriginal experiences of cancer and care coordination: Lessons from the Cancer Data and Aboriginal Disparities (CanDAD) narratives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, Rachel; Micklem, Jasmine; Yerrell, Paul; Banham, David; Morey, Kim; Stajic, Janet; Eckert, Marion; Lawrence, Monica; Stewart, Harold B; Brown, Alex

    2018-04-24

    Aboriginal people with cancer experience worse outcomes than other Australians for a range of complex and interrelated reasons. A younger age at diagnosis, higher likelihood of more advanced cancer or cancer type with poorer prognosis, geographic isolation and cultural and language diversity mean that patient pathways are potentially more complex for Aboriginal people with cancer. In addition, variation in the quality and acceptability of care may influence cancer outcomes. This study sought to understand how care coordination influences Aboriginal people's experiences of cancer treatment. Interviews with 29 Aboriginal patients or cancer survivors, 11 carers and 22 service providers were carried out. Interviews were semi-structured and sought to elicit experiences of cancer and the health-care system. The manifest content of the cancer narratives was entered onto a cancer pathway mapping tool and underlying themes were identified inductively. The practice of cancer care coordination was found to address the needs of Aboriginal patients and their families/carers in 4 main areas: "navigating the health system"; "information and communication"; "things to manage at home"; and "cultural safety". The CanDAD findings indicate that, when the need for cancer care coordination is met, it facilitated continuity of care in a range of ways that may potentially improve cancer outcomes. However, the need remains unmet for many. Findings support the importance of dedicated care coordination to enable Aboriginal people to receive adequate and appropriate patient-centred care, so that the unacceptable disparity in cancer outcomes between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal people can be addressed. © 2018 The Authors. Health Expectations published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Light deficiency confers breast cancer risk by endocrine disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suba, Zsuzsanna

    2012-09-01

    North-America and northern European countries exhibit the highest incidence rate of breast cancer, whereas women in southern regions are relatively protected. Immigrants from low cancer incidence regions to high-incidence areas might exhibit similarly higher or excessive cancer risk as compared with the inhabitants of their adoptive country. Additional cancer risk may be conferred by incongruence between their biological characteristics and foreign environment. Many studies established the racial/ethnic disparities in the risk and nature of female breast cancer in United States between African-American and Caucasian women. Mammary tumors in black women are diagnosed at earlier age, and are associated with higher rate of mortality as compared with cancers of white cases. Results of studies on these ethnic/racial differences in breast cancer incidence suggest that excessive pigmentation of dark skinned women results in a relative light-deficiency. Poor light exposure may explain the deleterious metabolic and hormonal alterations; such as insulin resistance, deficiencies of estrogen, thyroxin and vitamin-D conferring excessive cancer risk. The more northern the location of an adoptive country the higher the cancer risk for dark skinned immigrants. Recognition of the deleterious systemic effects of darkness and excessive melatonin synthesis enables cancer protection treatment for people living in light-deficient environment. Recent patents provide new methods for the prevention of hormonal and metabolic abnormities.

  1. Network-Based Integration of Disparate Omic Data To Identify "Silent Players" in Cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Ruffalo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Development of high-throughput monitoring technologies enables interrogation of cancer samples at various levels of cellular activity. Capitalizing on these developments, various public efforts such as The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA generate disparate omic data for large patient cohorts. As demonstrated by recent studies, these heterogeneous data sources provide the opportunity to gain insights into the molecular changes that drive cancer pathogenesis and progression. However, these insights are limited by the vast search space and as a result low statistical power to make new discoveries. In this paper, we propose methods for integrating disparate omic data using molecular interaction networks, with a view to gaining mechanistic insights into the relationship between molecular changes at different levels of cellular activity. Namely, we hypothesize that genes that play a role in cancer development and progression may be implicated by neither frequent mutation nor differential expression, and that network-based integration of mutation and differential expression data can reveal these "silent players". For this purpose, we utilize network-propagation algorithms to simulate the information flow in the cell at a sample-specific resolution. We then use the propagated mutation and expression signals to identify genes that are not necessarily mutated or differentially expressed genes, but have an essential role in tumor development and patient outcome. We test the proposed method on breast cancer and glioblastoma multiforme data obtained from TCGA. Our results show that the proposed method can identify important proteins that are not readily revealed by molecular data, providing insights beyond what can be gleaned by analyzing different types of molecular data in isolation.

  2. Hidden Breast Cancer Disparities in Asian Women: Disaggregating Incidence Rates by Ethnicity and Migrant Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quach, Thu; Horn-Ross, Pamela L.; Pham, Jane T.; Cockburn, Myles; Chang, Ellen T.; Keegan, Theresa H. M.; Glaser, Sally L.; Clarke, Christina A.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives. We estimated trends in breast cancer incidence rates for specific Asian populations in California to determine if disparities exist by immigrant status and age. Methods. To calculate rates by ethnicity and immigrant status, we obtained data for 1998 through 2004 cancer diagnoses from the California Cancer Registry and imputed immigrant status from Social Security Numbers for the 26% of cases with missing birthplace information. Population estimates were obtained from the 1990 and 2000 US Censuses. Results. Breast cancer rates were higher among US- than among foreign-born Chinese (incidence rate ratio [IRR] = 1.84; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.72, 1.96) and Filipina women (IRR = 1.32; 95% CI = 1.20, 1.44), but similar between US- and foreign-born Japanese women. US-born Chinese and Filipina women who were younger than 55 years had higher rates than did White women of the same age. Rates increased over time in most groups, as high as 4% per year among foreign-born Korean and US-born Filipina women. From 2000–2004, the rate among US-born Filipina women exceeded that of White women. Conclusions. These findings challenge the notion that breast cancer rates are uniformly low across Asians and therefore suggest a need for increased awareness, targeted cancer control, and research to better understand underlying factors. PMID:20147696

  3. Cancer risks: Strategies for elimination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bannasch, P.

    1987-01-01

    This book deals with the possibilities for identifying and eliminating cancer risk factors. The current state of knowledge on the detection, assessment and elimination of chemical, physical (radiation), and biological (viruses) risk factors are comprehensively presented in 15 contributions. Chemical risk factors resulting from smoking and environmental contamination are given special attention. The coverage of cancer risks by radiation includes some of the consequences of the Chernobyl disaster. Finally, the discussion of the possible risks that certain viruses hold for cancer in man is intended to further the development of vaccinations against these viral infections. The information is directed not only at specialists, but also at a wider interested audience. Its primary aim is to convey established findings that are already being used for cancer prevention. Furthermore, the book aims to promote more intense research in the field of primary cancer prevention. Contents: General aspects; chemical carcinogens: Risk assessment; chemical carcinogens: Primary prevention; physical carcinogens - Oncogenic viruses and subject index

  4. Breast cancer screening disparities among immigrant women by world region of origin: a population-based study in Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vahabi, Mandana; Lofters, Aisha; Kumar, Matthew; Glazier, Richard H

    2016-07-01

    Rates of mammography screening for breast cancer are disproportionately low in certain subgroups including low-income and immigrant women. The purpose of the study was to examine differences in rates of appropriate breast cancer screening (i.e., screening mammography every 2 years) among Ontario immigrant women by world region of origin and explore the association between appropriate breast cancer screening among these women groups and individual and structural factors. A cohort of 183,332 screening-eligible immigrant women living in Ontario between 2010 and 2012 was created from linked databases and classified into eight world regions of origin. Appropriate screening rates were calculated for each region by age group and selected sociodemographic, immigration, and healthcare-related characteristics. The association between appropriate screening across the eight regions of origin and selected sociodemographic, immigration, and health-related characteristics was explored using multivariate Poisson regression. Screening varied by region of origin, with South Asian women (48.5%) having the lowest and Caribbean and Latin American women (63.7%) the highest cancer screening rates. Factors significantly associated with lower screening across the world regions of origin included living in the lowest income neighborhoods, having a refugee status, being a new immigrant, not having a regular physical examination, not being enrolled in a primary care patient enrollment model, having a male physician, and having an internationally trained physician. Multiple interventions entailing cross-sector collaboration, promotion of patient enrollment models, community engagement, comprehensive and intensive outreach to women, and knowledge translation and transfer to physicians should be considered to address screening disparities among immigrant population. Consideration should be given to design and delivery of culturally appropriate and easily accessible cancer screening programs

  5. Ethnic disparities in metabolic syndrome in malaysia: an analysis by risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Andrew K G; Dunn, Richard A; Yen, Steven T

    2011-12-01

    This study investigates ethnic disparities in metabolic syndrome in Malaysia. Data were obtained from the Malaysia Non-Communicable Disease Surveillance-1 (2005/2006). Logistic regressions of metabolic syndrome health risks on sociodemographic and health-lifestyle factors were conducted using a multiracial (Malay, Chinese, and Indian and other ethnic groups) sample of 2,366 individuals. Among both males and females, the prevalence of metabolic syndrome amongst Indians was larger compared to both Malays and Chinese because Indians are more likely to exhibit central obesity, elevated fasting blood glucose, and low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. We also found that Indians tend to engage in less physical activity and consume fewer fruits and vegetables than Malays and Chinese. Although education and family history of chronic disease are associated with metabolic syndrome status, differences in socioeconomic attributes do not explain ethnic disparities in metabolic syndrome incidence. The difference in metabolic syndrome prevalence between Chinese and Malays was not statistically significant. Whereas both groups exhibited similar obesity rates, ethnic Chinese were less likely to suffer from high fasting blood glucose. Metabolic syndrome disproportionately affects Indians in Malaysia. Additionally, fasting blood glucose rates differ dramatically amongst ethnic groups. Attempts to decrease health disparities among ethnic groups in Malaysia will require greater attention to improving the metabolic health of Malays, especially Indians, by encouraging healthful lifestyle changes.

  6. Prostate Cancer Risk Prediction Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Developing statistical models that estimate the probability of developing prostate cancer over a defined period of time will help clinicians identify individuals at higher risk of specific cancers, allowing for earlier or more frequent screening and counseling of behavioral changes to decrease risk.

  7. Colorectal Cancer Risk Prediction Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Developing statistical models that estimate the probability of developing colorectal cancer over a defined period of time will help clinicians identify individuals at higher risk of specific cancers, allowing for earlier or more frequent screening and counseling of behavioral changes to decrease risk.

  8. Esophageal Cancer Risk Prediction Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Developing statistical models that estimate the probability of developing esophageal cancer over a defined period of time will help clinicians identify individuals at higher risk of specific cancers, allowing for earlier or more frequent screening and counseling of behavioral changes to decrease risk.

  9. Bladder Cancer Risk Prediction Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Developing statistical models that estimate the probability of developing bladder cancer over a defined period of time will help clinicians identify individuals at higher risk of specific cancers, allowing for earlier or more frequent screening and counseling of behavioral changes to decrease risk.

  10. Lung Cancer Risk Prediction Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Developing statistical models that estimate the probability of developing lung cancer over a defined period of time will help clinicians identify individuals at higher risk of specific cancers, allowing for earlier or more frequent screening and counseling of behavioral changes to decrease risk.

  11. Breast Cancer Risk Prediction Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Developing statistical models that estimate the probability of developing breast cancer over a defined period of time will help clinicians identify individuals at higher risk of specific cancers, allowing for earlier or more frequent screening and counseling of behavioral changes to decrease risk.

  12. Pancreatic Cancer Risk Prediction Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Developing statistical models that estimate the probability of developing pancreatic cancer over a defined period of time will help clinicians identify individuals at higher risk of specific cancers, allowing for earlier or more frequent screening and counseling of behavioral changes to decrease risk.

  13. Ovarian Cancer Risk Prediction Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Developing statistical models that estimate the probability of developing ovarian cancer over a defined period of time will help clinicians identify individuals at higher risk of specific cancers, allowing for earlier or more frequent screening and counseling of behavioral changes to decrease risk.

  14. Liver Cancer Risk Prediction Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Developing statistical models that estimate the probability of developing liver cancer over a defined period of time will help clinicians identify individuals at higher risk of specific cancers, allowing for earlier or more frequent screening and counseling of behavioral changes to decrease risk.

  15. Testicular Cancer Risk Prediction Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Developing statistical models that estimate the probability of testicular cervical cancer over a defined period of time will help clinicians identify individuals at higher risk of specific cancers, allowing for earlier or more frequent screening and counseling of behavioral changes to decrease risk.

  16. Cervical Cancer Risk Prediction Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Developing statistical models that estimate the probability of developing cervical cancer over a defined period of time will help clinicians identify individuals at higher risk of specific cancers, allowing for earlier or more frequent screening and counseling of behavioral changes to decrease risk.

  17. Skin Cancer: Biology, Risk Factors & Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... turn Javascript on. Feature: Skin Cancer Skin Cancer: Biology, Risk Factors & Treatment Past Issues / Summer 2013 Table ... Articles Skin Cancer Can Strike Anyone / Skin Cancer: Biology, Risk Factors & Treatment / Timely Healthcare Checkup Catches Melanoma ...

  18. Waiting time disparities in breast cancer diagnosis and treatment: a population-based study in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molinié, F; Leux, C; Delafosse, P; Ayrault-Piault, S; Arveux, P; Woronoff, A S; Guizard, A V; Velten, M; Ganry, O; Bara, S; Daubisse-Marliac, L; Tretarre, B

    2013-10-01

    Waiting times are key indicators of a health's system performance, but are not routinely available in France. We studied waiting times for diagnosis and treatment according to patients' characteristics, tumours' characteristics and medical management options in a sample of 1494 breast cancers recorded in population-based registries. The median waiting time from the first imaging detection to the treatment initiation was 34 days. Older age, co-morbidity, smaller size of tumour, detection by organised screening, biopsy, increasing number of specimens removed, multidisciplinary consulting meetings and surgery as initial treatment were related to increased waiting times in multivariate models. Many of these factors were related to good practices guidelines. However, the strong influence of organised screening programme and the disparity of waiting times according to geographical areas were of concern. Better scheduling of diagnostic tests and treatment propositions should improve waiting times in the management of breast cancer in France. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Age Disparity in Palliative Radiation Therapy Among Patients With Advanced Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wong, Jonathan [University of Hawaii, John A. Burns School of Medicine, Honolulu, Hawaii (United States); Xu, Beibei [Department of Radiation Medicine and Applied Sciences, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California (United States); Moores Cancer Center, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California (United States); Yeung, Heidi N.; Roeland, Eric J. [Moores Cancer Center, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California (United States); Division of Palliative Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California (United States); Martinez, Maria Elena [Moores Cancer Center, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California (United States); Department of Family and Preventive Medicine, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California (United States); Le, Quynh-Thu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University, Stanford, California (United States); Mell, Loren K. [Department of Radiation Medicine and Applied Sciences, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California (United States); Moores Cancer Center, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California (United States); Murphy, James D., E-mail: j2murphy@ucsd.edu [Department of Radiation Medicine and Applied Sciences, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California (United States); Moores Cancer Center, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California (United States)

    2014-09-01

    Purpose/Objective: Palliative radiation therapy represents an important treatment option among patients with advanced cancer, although research shows decreased use among older patients. This study evaluated age-related patterns of palliative radiation use among an elderly Medicare population. Methods and Materials: We identified 63,221 patients with metastatic lung, breast, prostate, or colorectal cancer diagnosed between 2000 and 2007 from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER)-Medicare linked database. Receipt of palliative radiation therapy was extracted from Medicare claims. Multivariate Poisson regression analysis determined residual age-related disparity in the receipt of palliative radiation therapy after controlling for confounding covariates including age-related differences in patient and demographic covariates, length of life, and patient preferences for aggressive cancer therapy. Results: The use of radiation decreased steadily with increasing patient age. Forty-two percent of patients aged 66 to 69 received palliative radiation therapy. Rates of palliative radiation decreased to 38%, 32%, 24%, and 14% among patients aged 70 to 74, 75 to 79, 80 to 84, and over 85, respectively. Multivariate analysis found that confounding covariates attenuated these findings, although the decreased relative rate of palliative radiation therapy among the elderly remained clinically and statistically significant. On multivariate analysis, compared to patients 66 to 69 years old, those aged 70 to 74, 75 to 79, 80 to 84, and over 85 had a 7%, 15%, 25%, and 44% decreased rate of receiving palliative radiation, respectively (all P<.0001). Conclusions: Age disparity with palliative radiation therapy exists among older cancer patients. Further research should strive to identify barriers to palliative radiation among the elderly, and extra effort should be made to give older patients the opportunity to receive this quality of life-enhancing treatment at the end

  20. Northeast Regional Cancer Institute's Cancer Surveillance and Risk Factor Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lesko, Samuel M.

    2007-07-31

    OBJECTIVES The Northeast Regional Cancer Institute is conducting a program of ongoing epidemiologic research to address cancer disparities in northeast Pennsylvania. Of particular concern are disparities in the incidence of, stage at diagnosis, and mortality from colorectal cancer. In northeast Pennsylvania, age-adjusted incidence and mortality rates for colorectal cancer are higher, and a significantly smaller proportion of new colorectal cancer cases are diagnosed with local stage disease than is observed in comparable national data. Further, estimates of the prevalence of colorectal cancer screening in northeast Pennsylvania are lower than the US average. The Northeast Regional Cancer Institute’s research program supports surveillance of common cancers, investigations of cancer risk factors and screening behaviors, and the development of resources to further cancer research in this community. This project has the following specific objectives: I. To conduct cancer surveillance in northeast Pennsylvania. a. To monitor incidence and mortality for all common cancers, and colorectal cancer, in particular, and b. To document changes in the stage at diagnosis of colorectal cancer in this high-risk, underserved community. II. To conduct a population-based study of cancer risk factors and screening behavior in a six county region of northeast Pennsylvania. a. To monitor and document changes in colorectal cancer screening rates, and b. To document the prevalence of cancer risk factors (especially factors that increase the risk of colorectal cancer) and to identify those risk factors that are unusually common in this community. APPROACH Cancer surveillance was conducted using data from the Northeast Regional Cancer Institute’s population-based Regional Cancer Registry, the Pennsylvania Cancer Registry, and NCI’s SEER program. For common cancers, incidence and mortality were examined by county within the region and compared to data for similar populations in the US

  1. Communication strategies to reduce cancer disparities: Insights from African-American mother-daughter dyads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosavel, Maghboeba; Wilson Genderson, Maureen; Ports, Katie A; Carlyle, Kellie E

    2015-12-01

    Mothers and daughters share a powerful and unique bond, which has potential for the dissemination of information on a variety of women's health issues, including the primary and secondary prevention of breast and cervical cancer. This study presents formative research from a long-term project examining the potential of mother-daughter communication in promoting cancer screening among African American women. Thirty-two mother-daughter pairs (N = 64) completed orally administered surveys regarding their cancer knowledge, beliefs and attitudes, and barriers to care. This study compares the attitudes and beliefs of low-income, urban, African American mothers and their adolescent daughters regarding cervical and breast cancer screening. Both mothers and daughters had fairly high levels of knowledge about breast and cervical cancer. In addition, there was a high concordance rate between mothers' and daughters' responses, suggesting a potential sharing of health knowledge between mother and daughter. These results have implications for selecting communication strategies to reduce health disparities, and support that the mother-daughter dyad could be a viable unit to disseminate targeted screening information. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  2. Local breast cancer spatial patterning: a tool for community health resource allocation to address local disparities in breast cancer mortality.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana M Brantley-Sieders

    Full Text Available Despite available demographic data on the factors that contribute to breast cancer mortality in large population datasets, local patterns are often overlooked. Such local information could provide a valuable metric by which regional community health resources can be allocated to reduce breast cancer mortality. We used national and statewide datasets to assess geographical distribution of breast cancer mortality rates and known risk factors influencing breast cancer mortality in middle Tennessee. Each county in middle Tennessee, and each ZIP code within metropolitan Davidson County, was scored for risk factor prevalence and assigned quartile scores that were used as a metric to identify geographic areas of need. While breast cancer mortality often correlated with age and incidence, geographic areas were identified in which breast cancer mortality rates did not correlate with age and incidence, but correlated with additional risk factors, such as mammography screening and socioeconomic status. Geographical variability in specific risk factors was evident, demonstrating the utility of this approach to identify local areas of risk. This method revealed local patterns in breast cancer mortality that might otherwise be overlooked in a more broadly based analysis. Our data suggest that understanding the geographic distribution of breast cancer mortality, and the distribution of risk factors that contribute to breast cancer mortality, will not only identify communities with the greatest need of support, but will identify the types of resources that would provide the most benefit to reduce breast cancer mortality in the community.

  3. Infective Endocarditis and Cancer Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Li-Min; Wu, Jung-Nan; Lin, Cheng-Li; Day, Jen-Der; Liang, Ji-An; Liou, Li-Ren; Kao, Chia-Hung

    2016-01-01

    Abstract This study investigated the possible relationship between endocarditis and overall and individual cancer risk among study participants in Taiwan. We used data from the National Health Insurance program of Taiwan to conduct a population-based, observational, and retrospective cohort study. The case group consisted of 14,534 patients who were diagnosed with endocarditis between January 1, 2000 and December 31, 2010. For the control group, 4 patients without endocarditis were frequency matched to each endocarditis patient according to age, sex, and index year. Competing risks regression analysis was conducted to determine the effect of endocarditis on cancer risk. A large difference was noted in Charlson comorbidity index between endocarditis and nonendocarditis patients. In patients with endocarditis, the risk for developing overall cancer was significant and 119% higher than in patients without endocarditis (adjusted subhazard ratio = 2.19, 95% confidence interval = 1.98–2.42). Regarding individual cancers, in addition to head and neck, uterus, female breast and hematological malignancies, the risks of developing colorectal cancer, and some digestive tract cancers were significantly higher. Additional analyses determined that the association of cancer with endocarditis is stronger within the 1st 5 years after endocarditis diagnosis. This population-based cohort study found that patients with endocarditis are at a higher risk for colorectal cancer and other cancers in Taiwan. The risk was even higher within the 1st 5 years after endocarditis diagnosis. It suggested that endocarditis is an early marker of colorectal cancer and other cancers. The underlying mechanisms must still be explored and may account for a shared risk factor of infection in both endocarditis and malignancy. PMID:27015220

  4. Reducing Disparities in Cancer Screening and Prevention through Community-Based Participatory Research Partnerships with Local Libraries: A Comprehensive Dynamic Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapkin, Bruce D; Weiss, Elisa; Lounsbury, David; Michel, Tamara; Gordon, Alexis; Erb-Downward, Jennifer; Sabino-Laughlin, Eilleen; Carpenter, Alison; Schwartz, Carolyn E; Bulone, Linda; Kemeny, Margaret

    2017-09-01

    Reduction of cancer-related disparities requires strategies that link medically underserved communities to preventive care. In this community-based participatory research project, a public library system brought together stakeholders to plan and undertake programs to address cancer screening and risk behavior. This study was implemented over 48 months in 20 large urban neighborhoods, selected to reach diverse communities disconnected from care. In each neighborhood, Cancer Action Councils were organized to conduct a comprehensive dynamic trial, an iterative process of program planning, implementation and evaluation. This process was phased into neighborhoods in random, stepped-wedge sequence. Population-level outcomes included self-reported screening adherence and smoking cessation, based on street intercept interviews. Event-history regressions (n = 9374) demonstrated that adherence outcomes were associated with program implementation, as were mediators such as awareness of screening programs and cancer information seeking. Findings varied by ethnicity, and were strongest among respondents born outside the U.S. or least engaged in care. This intervention impacted health behavior in diverse, underserved and vulnerable neighborhoods. It has been sustained as a routine library system program for several years after conclusion of grant support. In sum, participatory research with the public library system offers a flexible, scalable approach to reduce cancer health disparities. © Society for Community Research and Action 2017.

  5. Myastenia and risk of cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Emil Arnspang; Pottegård, Anton; Hallas, Jesper

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: To evaluate the association between having non-thymoma myasthenia and the risk of extra-thymic cancer in a population-based setting. METHODS: A nationwide case-control study was conducted in Denmark based on medical registries. The study included all cases with a first time...... diagnosis of cancer during 2000-2009. Each case was matched by birth year and gender with eight population controls using risk set sampling. Subjects with myasthenia were identified through a validated register-based algorithm. Conditional logistic regression was used to compute crude and adjusted odds...... risk of overall cancer (OR 1.1; 95% CI 0.9-1.4). Adjusted ORs for major cancer sites were also close to unity, whereas an elevated risk of lymphomas was observed (OR 2.0; 95% CI 0.8-5.5). Early-onset myasthenia was associated with a slightly increased OR for overall cancer (1.5; 95% CI 1...

  6. Disparities in psychosocial cancer care: a report from the International Federation of Psycho-oncology Societies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grassi, Luigi; Fujisawa, Daisuke; Odyio, Philip; Asuzu, Chioma; Ashley, Laura; Bultz, Barry; Travado, Luzia; Fielding, Richard

    2016-10-01

    The aim of the study was to understand the characteristics of the International Federation of Psycho-oncology Societies (FPOS) and possible disparities in providing psychosocial care in countries where psycho-oncology societies exist. A survey was conducted among 29 leaders of 28 countries represented within the FPOS by using a questionnaire covering (i) characteristics of the society; (ii) characteristics of the national health care system; (iii) level of implementation of psycho-oncology; and (iv) main problems of psycho-oncology in the country. Twenty-six (90%) FPOS returned the questionnaires. One-third reported to have links with and support from their government, while almost all had links with other scientific societies. The FPOS varied in their composition of members' professions. Psychosocial care provision was covered by state-funded health services in a minority of countries. Disparities between countries arose from different causes and were problematic in some parts of the world (eg, Africa and SE Asia). Elsewhere (eg, Southern Europe and Eastern Europe), austerity policies were reportedly responsible for resource shortages with negative consequences on psychosocial cancer care. Half of FPOS rated themselves to be integrated into mainstream provision of care, although lack of funding was the most common complain. The development and implementation of psycho-oncology is fragmented and undeveloped, particularly in some parts of the world. More effort is needed at national level by strong coalitions with oncology societies, better national research initiatives, cancer plans, and patient advocacy, as well as by stronger partnership with international organizations (eg, World Health Organization and Union for International Cancer Control). Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Disparities in cancer stage at diagnosis and survival of Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal South Australians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banham, David; Roder, David; Keefe, Dorothy; Farshid, Gelareh; Eckert, Marion; Cargo, Margaret; Brown, Alex

    2017-06-01

    This study tested the utility of retrospectively staging cancer registry data for comparing stage and stage-specific survivals of Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal people. Differences by area level factors were also explored. This test dataset comprised 950 Aboriginal cases and all other cases recorded on the South Australian cancer registry with a 1977-2010 diagnosis. A sub-set of 777 Aboriginal cases diagnosed in 1990-2010 were matched with randomly selected non-Aboriginal cases by year of birth, diagnostic year, sex, and primary site of cancer. Competing risk regression summarised associations of Aboriginal status, stage, and geographic attributes with risk of cancer death. Aboriginal cases were 10 years younger at diagnosis, more likely to present in recent diagnostic years, to be resident of remote areas, and have primary cancer sites of head & neck, lung, liver and cervix. Risk of cancer death was associated in the matched analysis with more advanced stage at diagnosis. More Aboriginal than non-Aboriginal cases had distant metastases at diagnosis (31.3% vs 22.0, pAboriginal residents had higher risks of cancer death than Aboriginal residents of metropolitan areas. Non-Aboriginal cases had the lowest risk of cancer death. Retrospective staging proved to be feasible using registry data. Results indicated more advanced stages for Aboriginal than matched non-Aboriginal cases. Aboriginal people had higher risks of cancer death, which persisted after adjusting for stage, and applied irrespective of remoteness of residence, with highest risk of death occurring among Aboriginal people from remote areas. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Disparities in the Use of Radiation Therapy in Patients With Local-Regionally Advanced Breast Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez, Steve R.; Beal, Shannon H.; Chen, Steven L.; Canter, Robert J.; Khatri, Vijay P.; Chen, Allen; Bold, Richard J.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Radiation therapy (RT) is indicated for the treatment of local-regionally advanced breast cancer (BCa). Hypothesis: We hypothesized that black and Hispanic patients with local-regionally advanced BCa would receive lower rates of RT than their white counterparts. Methods: The Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results database was used to identify white, black, Hispanic, and Asian patients with invasive BCa and ≥10 metastatic lymph nodes diagnosed between 1988 and 2005. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression evaluated the relationship of race/ethnicity with use of RT. Multivariate models stratified for those undergoing mastectomy or lumpectomy. Results: Entry criteria were met by 12,653 patients. Approximately half of the patients did not receive RT. Most patients were white (72%); the remainder were Hispanic (10.4%), black (10.3%), and Asian (7.3%). On univariate analysis, Hispanics (odd ratio [OR] 0.89; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.79-1.00) and blacks (OR 0.79; 95% CI, 0.70-0.89) were less likely to receive RT than whites. On multivariate analysis, blacks (OR 0.76; 95% CI, 0.67-0.86) and Hispanics (OR 0.80; 95% CI, 0.70-0.90) were less likely than whites to receive RT. Disparities persisted for blacks (OR 0.74; 95% CI, 0.64-0.85) and Hispanics (OR 0.77; 95% CI, 0.67-0.89) who received mastectomy, but not for those who received lumpectomy. Conclusions: Many patients with local-regionally advanced BCa do not receive RT. Blacks and Hispanics were less likely than whites to receive RT. This disparity was noted predominately in patients who received mastectomy. Future efforts at improving rates of RT are warranted. Efforts at eliminating racial/ethnic disparities should focus on black and Hispanic candidates for postmastectomy RT.

  9. Genomic Basis of Prostate Cancer Health Disparity Among African-American Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-01

    prostatectomy or radiation therapy, the risk of metastasis is reduced, but erectile dysfunction, urinary incontinence , and rectal bleeding may occur...or radiation therapy, the risk of metastasis is reduced, but erectile dysfunction, urinary incontinence and rectal bleeding may occur, affecting the...ProstateCancer/index. 2. Dash A, Lee P, Zhou Q, Jean-Gilles J, Taneja S, Satagopan J, et al. Impact of socioeconomic factors on prostate cancer

  10. Environmental injustice and sexual minority health disparities: A national study of inequitable health risks from air pollution among same-sex partners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Timothy W; Grineski, Sara E; Morales, Danielle X

    2017-10-01

    Air pollution is deleterious to human health, and numerous studies have documented racial and socioeconomic inequities in air pollution exposures. Despite the marginalized status of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) populations, no national studies have examined if they experience inequitable exposures to air pollution. This cross-sectional study investigated inequities in the exposure of same-sex partner households to hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) in the US. We examined cancer and respiratory risks from HAPs across 71,207 census tracts using National Air Toxics Assessment and US Census data. We calculated population-weighted mean cancer and respiratory risks from HAPs for same-sex male, same-sex female and heterosexual partner households. We used generalized estimating equations (GEEs) to examine multivariate associations between sociodemographics and health risks from HAPs, while focusing on inequities based on the tract composition of same-sex, same-sex male and same-sex female partners. We found that mean cancer and respiratory risks from HAPs for same-sex partners are 12.3% and 23.8% greater, respectively, than for heterosexual partners. GEEs adjusting for racial/ethnic and socioeconomic status, population density, urban location, and geographic clustering show that living in census tracts with high (vs. low) proportions of same-sex partners is associated with significantly greater cancer and respiratory risks from HAPs, and that living in same-sex male partner enclaves is associated with greater risks than living in same-sex female partner enclaves. Results suggest that some health disparities experienced by LGBT populations (e.g. cancer, asthma) may be compounded by environmental exposures. Findings highlight the need to extend the conceptual framework for explaining LGBT health disparities beyond psycho-behavioral mechanisms translating social stress into illness to include environmental mechanisms. Because psycho-behavioral and environmental

  11. Kidney Cancer Risk Questionnaire

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... NCI Cancer Information A to Z Treatment Roles Cancer Types Bladder Brain/Spine Breast Cervical Colorectal Esophageal Gallbladder Head/Neck Kidney Leukemia Liver Lung Lymphoma Multiple Myeloma Ovarian Pancreatic ...

  12. Persistent disparities in obesity risk among public schoolchildren from childhood through adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Danhong; Thomsen, Michael R; Nayga, Rodolfo M; Bennett, Judy L

    2016-08-01

    Arkansas is among the poorest states and has high rates of childhood obesity. In 2003, it became the first state to systematically screen public schoolchildren for unhealthy weight status. This study aims to examine the socioeconomic disparities in Body Mass Index (BMI) growth and the risk of the onset of obesity from childhood through adolescence. This study analyzed (in 2015) the data for a large cohort of Arkansas public schoolchildren for whom BMIs were measured from school years 2003/2004 through 2009/2010. A linear growth curve model was used to assess how child-level sociodemographics and neighborhood characteristics were associated with growth in BMI z-scores. Cox regression was subsequently used to investigate how these factors were associated with the onset of obesity. Because children might be classified as obese in multiple years, sensitivity analysis was conducted using recurrent event Cox regression. Survival analysis indicated that the risk of onset of obesity rose sharply between ages of 5 and 10 and then again after age 15. The socioeconomic disparities in obesity risk persisted from kindergarten through adolescence. While better access to full service restaurants was associated with lower risk of the onset of obesity (Hazard Ratio (HR)=0.98, 95% CI=0.97-0.99), proximity to fast food restaurants was related to increased risk of the onset of obesity (HR=1.01, 95% CI=1.00-1.01). This analysis stresses the need for policies to narrow the socioeconomic gradient and identifies important time periods for preventative interventions in childhood obesity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Disparities in the treatment and outcomes of lung cancer among HIV-infected individuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suneja, Gita; Shiels, Meredith S.; Melville, Sharon K.; Williams, Melanie A.; Rengan, Ramesh; Engels, Eric A.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives HIV-infected people have elevated risk for lung cancer and higher mortality following cancer diagnosis than HIV-uninfected individuals. It is unclear whether HIV-infected individuals with lung cancer receive similar cancer treatment as HIV-uninfected individuals. Design/methods We studied adults more than 18 years of age with lung cancer reported to the Texas Cancer Registry (N = 156 930) from 1995 to 2009. HIV status was determined by linkage with the Texas enhanced HIV/AIDS Reporting System. For nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cases, we identified predictors of cancer treatment using logistic regression. We used Cox regression to evaluate effects of HIV and cancer treatment on mortality. Results Compared with HIV-uninfected lung cancer patients (N = 156 593), HIV-infected lung cancer patients (N = 337) were more frequently young, black, men, and with non-Hispanic distant stage disease. HIV-infected NSCLC patients less frequently received cancer treatment than HIV-uninfected patients [60.3 vs. 77.5%; odds ratio 0.39, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.30–0.52, after adjustment for diagnosis year, age, sex, race, stage, and histologic subtype]. HIV infection was associated with higher lung cancer-specific mortality (hazard ratio 1.34, 95% CI 1.15–1.56, adjusted for demographics and tumor characteristics). Inclusion of cancer treatment in adjusted models slightly attenuated the effect of HIV on lung cancer-specific mortality (hazard ratio 1.25; 95% CI 1.06–1.47). Also, there was a suggestion that HIV was more strongly associated with mortality among untreated than among treated patients (adjusted hazard ratio 1.32 vs. 1.16, P-interaction = 0.34). Conclusion HIV-infected NSCLC patients were less frequently treated for lung cancer than HIV-uninfected patients, which may have affected survival. PMID:23079809

  14. Socioeconomic and clinical factors are key to uncovering disparity in accrual onto therapeutic trials for breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrendt, Carolyn E; Hurria, Arti; Tumyan, Lusine; Niland, Joyce C; Mortimer, Joanne E

    2014-11-01

    To monitor and address disparity in accrual, patient participation in cancer clinical trials is routinely summarized by race/ethnicity. To investigate whether confounding obscures racial/ethnic disparity in participation, all women with breast cancer treated by medical oncologists at City of Hope Comprehensive Cancer Center from 2004 through 2009 were classified by birthplace and self-reported race/ethnicity, and followed for accrual onto therapeutic trials through 2010. Undetectable on univariate analysis, significantly reduced participation by subjects of African, Asian, Eastern European, Latin American, and Middle Eastern ancestries was revealed after accounting for age, socioeconomic factors, tumor and oncologist characteristics, and intrapractice clustering of patients. Copyright © 2014 by the National Comprehensive Cancer Network.

  15. Understanding your colon cancer risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for women and 2 drinks per day for men DO NOT smoke You can also have genetic testing done to assess your risk for colon cancer. If you have a strong family history of the disease, talk with your ...

  16. Hair Dyes and Cancer Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... http://www.fda.gov/aboutfda/centersoffices/officeoffoods/cfsan/default.htm . Selected References Huncharek M, Kupelnick B. Personal use of hair dyes and the risk of bladder cancer: results of a meta-analysis. ...

  17. Disparities in the Use of Postmastectomy Radiation Therapy for Inflammatory Breast Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loveland-Jones, Catherine [MD Anderson Cancer Center at Cooper, Camden, New Jersey (United States); Lin, Heather; Shen, Yu; Bedrosian, Isabelle; Shaitelman, Simona; Kuerer, Henry [University of Texas, MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Woodward, Wendy; Ueno, Naoto; Valero, Vicente [University of Texas, MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); MD Anderson Morgan Welch Inflammatory Breast Cancer Research Program and Clinic, Houston, Texas (United States); Babiera, Gildy, E-mail: gvbabiera@mdanderson.org [University of Texas, MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); MD Anderson Morgan Welch Inflammatory Breast Cancer Research Program and Clinic, Houston, Texas (United States)

    2016-07-15

    Purpose: Although radiation therapy improves locoregional control and survival for inflammatory breast cancer (IBC), it is underused in this population. The purpose of this study was to identify variables associated with the underuse of postmastectomy radiation therapy (PMRT) for IBC. Methods and Materials: Using the 1998 to 2011 National Cancer Data Base, we identified 8273 women who underwent mastectomy for nonmetastatic IBC. We used logistic regression modeling to determine the demographic, tumor, and treatment variables associated with the underuse of PMRT. Results: Although the use of PMRT increased over time, a total of 30.3% of our cohort did not receive PMRT. On multivariate analysis, variables associated with the underuse of PMRT for IBC included the following (all P<.05): Medicare insurance (odds ratio [OR] = 0.70), annual income <$34,999 (<$30,000: OR=0.79; $30,000-$34,999: OR=0.82), cN2 and cN0 disease (cN2: OR=0.71; cN0: OR=0.63), failure to receive chemotherapy and hormone therapy (chemotherapy: OR=0.15; hormone therapy: OR=0.35), treatment at lower-volume centers (OR=0.83), and treatment in the South and West (South: OR=0.73; West: OR=0.80). Greater distance between patient's residence and radiation facility was also associated with the underuse of PMRT (P=.0001). Conclusions: Although the use of PMRT for IBC has increased over time, it continues to be underused. Disparities related to a variety of variables impact which IBC patients receive PMRT. A concerted effort must be made to address these disparities in order to optimize the outcomes for IBC.

  18. Cancer risk in systemic lupus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bernatsky, Sasha; Ramsey-Goldman, Rosalind; Labrecque, Jeremy

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To update estimates of cancer risk in SLE relative to the general population. METHODS: A multisite international SLE cohort was linked with regional tumor registries. Standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) were calculated as the ratio of observed to expected cancers. RESULTS: Across 30 c...

  19. Cancer risks after radiation exposures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voelz, G.L.

    1980-01-01

    A general overview of the effects of ionizing radiation on cancer induction is presented. The relationship between the degree of risk and absorbed dose is examined. Mortality from radiation-induced cancer in the US is estimated and percentages attributable to various sources are given

  20. Disparities in breast cancer surgery delay: the lingering effect of race.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheppard, Vanessa B; Oppong, Bridget A; Hampton, Regina; Snead, Felicia; Horton, Sara; Hirpa, Fikru; Brathwaite, Echo J; Makambi, Kepher; Onyewu, S; Boisvert, Marc; Willey, Shawna

    2015-09-01

    Delays to surgical breast cancer treatment of 90 days or more may be associated with greater stage migration. We investigated racial disparities in time to receiving first surgical treatment in breast cancer patients. Insured black (56 %) and white (44 %) women with primary breast cancer completed telephone interviews regarding psychosocial (e.g., self-efficacy) and health care factors (e.g., communication). Clinical data were extracted from medical charts. Time to surgery was measured as the days between diagnosis and definitive surgical treatment. We also examined delays of more than 90 days. Unadjusted hazard ratios (HRs) examined univariate relationships between delay outcomes and covariates. Cox proportional hazard models were used for multivariate analyses. Mean time to surgery was higher in blacks (mean 47 days) than whites (mean 33 days; p = .001). Black women were less likely to receive therapy before 90 days compared to white women after adjustment for covariates (HR .58; 95 % confidence interval .44, .78). Health care process factors were nonsignificant in multivariate models. Women with shorter delay reported Internet use (vs. not) and underwent breast-conserving surgery (vs. mastectomy) (p interventions to address delay are needed.

  1. Individual and Neighborhood Socioeconomic Status and Health care Resources in Relation to Black-White Breast Cancer Survival Disparities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akinyemiju, T. F.

    2013-01-01

    Breast cancer survival has improved significantly in the US in the past 10-15 years. However, disparities exist in breast cancer survival between black and white women. Purpose. To investigate the effect of county health care resources and SES as well as individual SES status on breast cancer survival disparities between black and white women. Methods. Data from 1,796 breast cancer cases were obtained from the Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results and the National Longitudinal Mortality Study dataset. Cox Proportional Hazards models were constructed accounting for clustering within counties. Three sequential Cox models were fit for each outcome including demographic variables; demographic and clinical variables; and finally demographic, clinical, and county-level variables. Results. In unadjusted analysis, black women had a 53% higher likelihood of dying of breast cancer and 32% higher likelihood of dying of any cause ( P < 0.05) compared with white women. Adjusting for demographic variables explained away the effect of race on breast cancer survival (HR, 1.40; 95% CI, 0.99-1.97), but not on all-cause mortality. The racial difference in all-cause survival disappeared only after adjusting for county-level variables (HR, 1.27; CI, 0.95-1.71). Conclusions. Improving equitable access to health care for all women in the US may help eliminate survival disparities between racial and socioeconomic groups.

  2. Individual and Neighborhood Socioeconomic Status and Healthcare Resources in Relation to Black-White Breast Cancer Survival Disparities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomi F. Akinyemiju

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Breast cancer survival has improved significantly in the US in the past 10–15 years. However, disparities exist in breast cancer survival between black and white women. Purpose. To investigate the effect of county healthcare resources and SES as well as individual SES status on breast cancer survival disparities between black and white women. Methods. Data from 1,796 breast cancer cases were obtained from the Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results and the National Longitudinal Mortality Study dataset. Cox Proportional Hazards models were constructed accounting for clustering within counties. Three sequential Cox models were fit for each outcome including demographic variables; demographic and clinical variables; and finally demographic, clinical, and county-level variables. Results. In unadjusted analysis, black women had a 53% higher likelihood of dying of breast cancer and 32% higher likelihood of dying of any cause (P<0.05 compared with white women. Adjusting for demographic variables explained away the effect of race on breast cancer survival (HR, 1.40; 95% CI, 0.99–1.97, but not on all-cause mortality. The racial difference in all-cause survival disappeared only after adjusting for county-level variables (HR, 1.27; CI, 0.95–1.71. Conclusions. Improving equitable access to healthcare for all women in the US may help eliminate survival disparities between racial and socioeconomic groups.

  3. Stress mediates the relationship between sexual orientation and behavioral risk disparities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabson, Jennifer M; Farmer, Grant W; Bowen, Deborah J

    2014-04-26

    Growing evidence documents elevated behavioral risk among sexual-minorities, including gay, lesbian, and bisexual individuals; however, tests of biological or psychological indicators of stress as explanations for these disparities have not been conducted. Data were from the 2005-2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, and included 9662 participants; 9254 heterosexuals, 153 gays/lesbians and 255 bisexuals. Associations between sexual orientation and tobacco, alcohol, substance, and marijuana use, and body mass index, were tested using the chi-square test. Stress, operationalized as depressive symptoms and elevated C-reactive protein, was tested as mediating the association between sexual orientation and behavioral health risks. Multiple logistic regression was used to test for mediation effects, and the Sobel test was used to evaluate the statistical significance of the meditating effect. Gays/lesbians and bisexuals were more likely to report current smoking (p sexual orientation and current smoking (aOR 2.04, 95% CI 1.59, 2.63), lifetime history of substance use (aOR 3.30 95% CI 2.20, 4.96), and lifetime history of marijuana use (aOR 2.90, 95% CI 2.02, 4.16), among bisexuals only. C-reactive protein did not mediate the sexual orientation/behavior relationship. Higher prevalence of current smoking and lifetime history of substance use was observed among sexual minorities compared to heterosexuals. Among bisexuals, depressive symptoms accounted for only 0.9-3% of the reduction in the association between sexual orientation and marijuana use and tobacco use, respectively. More comprehensive assessments of stress are needed to inform explanations of the disparities in behavioral risk observed among sexual minorities.

  4. Risks of Liver (Hepatocellular) Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cancer. Having hepatitis or cirrhosis can increase the risk of developing liver cancer. Anything that increases the ... clinical trials is available from the NCI website . Risks of Liver (Hepatocellular) Cancer Screening Key Points Screening ...

  5. Work stress and risk of cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heikkilä, Katriina; Nyberg, Solja T; Theorell, Töres

    2013-01-01

    To investigate whether work related stress, measured and defined as job strain, is associated with the overall risk of cancer and the risk of colorectal, lung, breast, or prostate cancers.......To investigate whether work related stress, measured and defined as job strain, is associated with the overall risk of cancer and the risk of colorectal, lung, breast, or prostate cancers....

  6. Prevalence and risk factors associated with Entamoeba histolytica/dispar/moshkovskii infection among three Orang Asli ethnic groups in Malaysia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tengku Shahrul Anuar

    Full Text Available Entamoeba histolytica/Entamoeba dispar/Entamoeba moshkovskii infection is still prevalent in rural Malaysia especially among Orang Asli communities. Currently, information on prevalence of this infection among different ethnic groups of Orang Asli is unavailable in Malaysia. To contribute to a better comprehension of the epidemiology of this infection, a cross-sectional study aimed at providing the first documented data on the prevalence and risk factors associated with E. histolytica/E. dispar/E. moshkovskii infection was carried out among three Orang Asli ethnic groups (Proto-Malay, Negrito, and Senoi in selected villages in Negeri Sembilan, Perak, and Pahang states, Malaysia.Faecal samples were examined by formalin-ether sedimentation and trichrome staining techniques. Of 500 individuals, 8.7% (13/150 of Proto-Malay, 29.5% (41/139 of Negrito, and 18.5% (39/211 of Senoi were positive for E. histolytica/E. dispar/E. moshkovskii, respectively. The prevalence of this infection showed an age-dependency relationship, with higher rates observed among those aged less than 15 years in all ethnic groups studied. Multivariate analysis confirmed that not washing hands after playing with soils or gardening and presence of other family members infected with E. histolytica/E. dispar/E. moshkovskii were significant risk factors of infection among all ethnic groups. However, eating with hands, the consumption of raw vegetables, and close contact with domestic animals were identified as significant risk factors in Senoi.Essentially, the findings highlighted that E. histolytica/E. dispar/E. moshkovskii parasites are still prevalent in Malaysia. Further studies using molecular approaches to distinguish the morphologically identical species of pathogenic, E. histolytica from the non-pathogenic, E. dispar and E. moshkovskii are needed. The establishment of such data will be beneficial for the public health authorities in the planning and implementation of specific

  7. Meta-analysis of racial disparities in survival in association with socioeconomic status among men and women with colon cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Xianglin L; Meyer, Tamra E; Franzini, Luisa

    2007-06-01

    Few studies have addressed racial disparities in survival for colon cancer by adequately incorporating both treatment and socioeconomic factors, and the findings from those studies have been inconsistent. The objectives of the current study were to systematically review the existing literature and provide a more stable estimate of the measures of association between socioeconomic status and racial disparities in survival for colon cancer by undertaking a meta-analysis. For this meta-analysis, the authors searched the MEDLINE database to identify articles published in English from 1966 to August 2006 that met the following inclusion criteria: original research articles that addressed the association between race/ethnicity and survival in patients with colon or colorectal cancer after adjusting for socioeconomic status. In total, 66 full articles were reviewed, and 56 of those articles were excluded, which left 10 studies for the final analysis. The pooled hazard ratio (HR) for African Americans compared with Caucasians was 1.14 (95% confidence interval [95% CI], 1.00-1.29) for all-cause mortality and 1.13 (95% CI, 1.01-1.28) for colon cancer-specific mortality. The test for homogeneity of the HR was statistically significant across the studies for all-cause mortality (Q=31.69; Pcolon cancer-specific mortality (Q=7.45; P=.114). Racial disparities in survival for colon cancer between African Americans and Caucasians were only marginally significant after adjusting for socioeconomic factors and treatment. Attempts to modify treatment and socioeconomic factors with the objective of reducing racial disparities in health outcomes may have important clinical and public health implications. (c) 2007 American Cancer Society.

  8. Obesity and colorectal cancer risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hano Garcia, Olga Marina; Wood Rodriguez, Lisette; Villa Jimenez, Oscar Manuel

    2011-01-01

    Obesity is a chronic and multifactor disease characterized by presence of excess body fat harmful for health. Several studies have been conducted to assess the possible risk character of different factors for colorectal cancer including the following modifying factors: a diet rich in saturated fats, a diet low in vegetables, physical inactivity, alcohol consumption and obesity. A case-control study was conducted to include 276 adult patients (93 cases and 184 controls) consecutively seen from May, 2008 to May, 2009 in the Institute of Gastroenterology determining a possible association between obesity as risk factor and colorectal cancer. Variables measures included: sex, age, skin color, body mass index, hip-waist circumference and endoscopic location of cancer. We conclude that the colorectal cancer with predominance in female sex and in white people in both groups. Obesity according to a great relation hip-waist had an strong relation with colorectal cancer, which had predominance towards distal colon in both sexes

  9. Height and Breast Cancer Risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Ben; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Delahanty, Ryan J

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Epidemiological studies have linked adult height with breast cancer risk in women. However, the magnitude of the association, particularly by subtypes of breast cancer, has not been established. Furthermore, the mechanisms of the association remain unclear. METHODS: We performed a meta......-analysis to investigate associations between height and breast cancer risk using data from 159 prospective cohorts totaling 5216302 women, including 113178 events. In a consortium with individual-level data from 46325 case patients and 42482 control patients, we conducted a Mendelian randomization analysis using...... a genetic score that comprised 168 height-associated variants as an instrument. This association was further evaluated in a second consortium using summary statistics data from 16003 case patients and 41335 control patients. RESULTS: The pooled relative risk of breast cancer was 1.17 (95% confidence...

  10. Advanced glycation end-products: a biological consequence of lifestyle contributing to cancer disparity

    OpenAIRE

    Turner, David P.

    2015-01-01

    Low income, poor diet, obesity and a lack of exercise are inter-related lifestyle factors that can profoundly alter our biological make-up to increase cancer risk, growth and development. We recently reported a potential mechanistic link between carbohydrate derived metabolites and cancer which may provide a biological consequence of lifestyle that can directly impact tumor biology. Advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) are reactive metabolites produced as a by-product of sugar metabolism. F...

  11. Racial disparities in cancer care in the Veterans Affairs health care system and the role of site of care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel, Cleo A; Landrum, Mary Beth; McNeil, Barbara J; Bozeman, Samuel R; Williams, Christina D; Keating, Nancy L

    2014-09-01

    We assessed cancer care disparities within the Veterans Affairs (VA) health care system and whether between-hospital differences explained disparities. We linked VA cancer registry data with VA and Medicare administrative data and examined 20 cancer-related quality measures among Black and White veterans diagnosed with colorectal (n = 12,897), lung (n = 25,608), or prostate (n = 38,202) cancer from 2001 to 2004. We used logistic regression to assess racial disparities for each measure and hospital fixed-effects models to determine whether disparities were attributable to between- or within-hospital differences. Compared with Whites, Blacks had lower rates of early-stage colon cancer diagnosis (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 0.80; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.72, 0.90), curative surgery for stage I, II, or III rectal cancer (AOR = 0.57; 95% CI = 0.41, 0.78), 3-year survival for colon cancer (AOR = 0.75; 95% CI = 0.62, 0.89) and rectal cancer (AOR = 0.61; 95% CI = 0.42, 0.87), curative surgery for early-stage lung cancer (AOR = 0.50; 95% CI = 0.41, 0.60), 3-dimensional conformal or intensity-modulated radiation (3-D CRT/IMRT; AOR = 0.53; 95% CI = 0.47, 0.59), and potent antiemetics for highly emetogenic chemotherapy (AOR = 0.87; 95% CI = 0.78, 0.98). Adjustment for hospital fixed-effects minimally influenced racial gaps except for 3-D CRT/IMRT (AOR = 0.75; 95% CI = 0.65, 0.87) and potent antiemetics (AOR = 0.95; 95% CI = 0.82, 1.10). Disparities in VA cancer care were observed for 7 of 20 measures and were primarily attributable to within-hospital differences.

  12. Very Low Birth Weight and Perinatal Periods of Risk: Disparities in St. Louis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pamela Xaverius

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Very low birth weight (VLBW is a significant issue in St. Louis, Missouri. Our study evaluated risk factors associated with VLBW in this predominantly urban community. Methods. From 2000 to 2009, birth and fetal death certificates were evaluated (n=160, 189, and mortality rates were calculated for perinatal periods of risk. The Kitagawa method was used to explore fetoinfant mortality rates (FIMR in terms of birth weight distribution and birthweight specific mortality. Multivariable logistic regression was used to assess the magnitude of association of selected risk factors with VLBW. Results. VLBW contributes to 50% of the excess FIMR in St. Louis City and County. The highest proportion of VLBW can be attributed to black maternal race (40.6% in St. Louis City, inadequate prenatal care (19.8%, and gestational hypertension (12.0% among black women. Medicaid was found to have a protective effect for VLBW among black women (population attributable risk (PAR = −14.5. Discussion. Interventions targeting the health of women before and during conception may be most successful at reducing the disparities in VLBW in this population. Interventions geared towards smoking cessation and improvements in Medicaid and prenatal care access for black mothers and St. Louis City residents can greatly reduce VLBW rates.

  13. Alcohol and Cancer Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or more than 14 drinks per week for men. What is the evidence that alcohol drinking is a cause of cancer? Based on extensive reviews of research studies , there is a strong scientific consensus of an association between alcohol drinking ...

  14. Thinking through cancer risk: characterizing smokers' process of risk determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hay, Jennifer; Shuk, Elyse; Cruz, Gustavo; Ostroff, Jamie

    2005-10-01

    The perception of cancer risk motivates cancer risk reduction behaviors. However, common measurement strategies for cancer risk perceptions, which involve numerical likelihood estimates, do not adequately capture individuals' thoughts and feelings about cancer risk. To guide the development of novel measurement strategies, the authors used semistructured interviews to examine the thought processes used by smokers (N = 15) as they considered their cancer risk. They used grounded theory to guide systematic data coding and develop a heuristic model describing smokers' risk perception process that includes a cognitive, primarily rational process whereby salient personal risk factors for cancer are considered and combined, and an affective/attitudinal process, which shifts risk perceptions either up or down. The model provides a tentative explanation concerning how people hold cancer risk perceptions that diverge from rational assessment of their risks and will be useful in guiding the development of non-numerical measurements strategies for cancer risk perceptions.

  15. Metabolic Syndrome and Cardio-Cerebrovascular Risk Disparities Between Pilots and Aircraft Mechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Myeong-Bo; Kim, Hyun-Jin; Kim, Soo-Hyeon; Lee, Suk-Ho; Lee, Se-Ho; Park, Won-Ju

    2017-09-01

    In the Republic of Korea Air Force, the health of pilots is strictly supervised, but there is comparatively not enough interest in aircraft mechanics' health. Among mechanics, who are heavily involved in military aircraft maintenance, the occurrence of sudden cardio-cerebrovascular diseases (CCVDs) is a possible risk factor during the maintenance process, which should be performed perfectly. We performed health examinations on 2123 male aircraft pilots and 1271 aircraft mechanics over 30 yr of age and determined the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS), an important risk factor for CCVDs. The prevalence of MetS in the aircraft mechanics (21.3%) was significantly higher than in the pilots (12.6%), and the gap in prevalence tended to grow as age increased. Among aircraft mechanics in their 30s and 40s, the prevalence of MetS was lower than in the general population. However, the prevalence of MetS among aircraft mechanics in their 50s (36.0%) was similar to that in the general population (35.7%). Systematic health management is needed for aircraft mechanics for aviation safety and for the maintenance of military strength via the prevention of CCVDs.Kim M-B, Kim H-J, Kim S-H, Lee S-H, Lee S-H, Park W-J. Metabolic syndrome and cardio-cerebrovascular risk disparities between pilots and aircraft mechanics. Aerosp Med Hum Perform. 2017; 88(9):866-870.

  16. Geographic access to radiation therapy facilities and disparities of early-stage breast cancer treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Lin

    2018-05-01

    geographic proximity to treatment facilities plays an important role on the treatment for early-stage breast cancer patients, this study has important implications for developing targeted intervention to reduce disparities in breast cancer treatment in South Dakota.

  17. Short sleep duration as a contributor to racial disparities in breast cancer tumor grade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Allan

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Although African Americans (AAs are less likely to get breast cancer than European Americans (EAs, they get more aggressive forms. We previously showed that short sleep is associated with higher tumor grade. It is well documented that AAs get less sleep, on average, than EAs. We studied the contribution of short sleep to racial disparities in breast cancer aggressiveness among 809 invasive breast cancer patients who responded to a survey on their lifestyle. Multivariable regressions and mediation analyses were performed to assess the effect of sleep duration on the association of race with tumor grade. AAs reported shorter average sleep (mean [standard deviation] 6.57 [1.47] h than EAs (mean [standard deviation] 7.11 [1.16] h; P<0.0001 and were almost twice as likely to report less than 6 h of sleep per night (48.0% vs. 25.3%, P<0.0001. AA patients were more likely to have high-grade tumors (52.6% vs. 28.7% in EAs, P=0.0002. In multivariate analysis, race was associated with tumor grade (P<0.0001. On adjustment for sleep duration, the effect of race was reduced by 7.1%, but remained statistically significant (P=0.0006. However, the Sobel test did not indicate statistical significance (z=1.69, P=0.091. In other models accounting for these and additional confounders, we found similar results. Because of the conservative nature of the mediation analysis and smaller sample size, replication of our results in larger studies with more AA patients is warranted.

  18. Cancer control and the communication innovation in South Korea: implications for cancer disparities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Minsoo

    2013-01-01

    Over the last 10 years, the number of cancer survivors in South Korea has reached nearly one million with a survival rate of 49.4%. However, integrated supportive care for cancer survivors is lagging. One area in which the current cancer control policy needs updating is in the utilization of information and communication technology (ICT). The remarkable progress in the field of ICT over the past 10 years presents exciting new opportunities for health promotion. Recent communication innovations are conducive to the exchange of meta-information, giving rise to a new service area and transforming patients into active medical consumers. Consequently, such innovations encourage active participation in the mutual utilization and sharing of high-quality information. However, these benefits from new ICTs will almost certainly not be equally available to all, leading to so-called communication inequalities where cancer survivors from lower socioeconomic classes will likely have more limited access to the best means of making use of the health information. Therefore, most essentially, emphasis must be placed on helping cancer survivors and their caregivers utilize such advances in ICT to create a more efficient flow of health information, thereby reducing communication inequalities and expanding social support. Once we enhance access to health information and better manage the quality of information, as a matter of fact, we can expect an alleviation of the health inequalities faced by cancer survivors.

  19. Toxic releases and risk disparity: a spatiotemporal model of industrial ecology and social empowerment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoyagi, Hannah; Ogunseitan, Oladele A

    2015-06-02

    Information-based regulations (IBRs) are founded on the theoretical premise that public participation in accomplishing policy goals is empowered by open access to information. Since its inception in 1988, the Toxics Release Inventory (TRI) has provided the framework and regulatory impetus for the compilation and distribution of data on toxic releases associated with industrial development, following the tenets of IBR. As TRI emissions are reputed to disproportionately affect low-income communities, we investigated how demographic characteristics are related to change in TRI emissions and toxicity risks between 1989 and 2002, and we sought to identify factors that predict these changes. We used local indicators of spatial association (LISA) maps and spatial regression techniques to study risk disparity in the Los Angeles urban area. We also surveyed 203 individuals in eight communities in the same region to measure the levels of awareness of TRI, attitudes towards air pollution, and general environmental risk. We discovered, through spatial lag models, that changes in gross and toxic emissions are related to community ethnic composition, poverty level, home ownership, and base 1989 emissions (R-square=0.034-0.083). We generated a structural equation model to explain the determinants of social empowerment to act on the basis of environmental information. Hierarchical confirmatory factor analysis (HCFA) supports the theoretical model that individual empowerment is predicted by risk perception, worry, and awareness (Chi-square=63.315, p=0.022, df=42). This study provides strong evidence that spatiotemporal changes in regional-scale environmental risks are influenced by individual-scale empowerment mediated by IBRs.

  20. Toxic Releases and Risk Disparity: A Spatiotemporal Model of Industrial Ecology and Social Empowerment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannah Aoyagi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Information-based regulations (IBRs are founded on the theoretical premise that public participation in accomplishing policy goals is empowered by open access to information. Since its inception in 1988, the Toxics Release Inventory (TRI has provided the framework and regulatory impetus for the compilation and distribution of data on toxic releases associated with industrial development, following the tenets of IBR. As TRI emissions are reputed to disproportionately affect low-income communities, we investigated how demographic characteristics are related to change in TRI emissions and toxicity risks between 1989 and 2002, and we sought to identify factors that predict these changes. We used local indicators of spatial association (LISA maps and spatial regression techniques to study risk disparity in the Los Angeles urban area. We also surveyed 203 individuals in eight communities in the same region to measure the levels of awareness of TRI, attitudes towards air pollution, and general environmental risk. We discovered, through spatial lag models, that changes in gross and toxic emissions are related to community ethnic composition, poverty level, home ownership, and base 1989 emissions (R-square = 0.034–0.083. We generated a structural equation model to explain the determinants of social empowerment to act on the basis of environmental information. Hierarchical confirmatory factor analysis (HCFA supports the theoretical model that individual empowerment is predicted by risk perception, worry, and awareness (Chi-square = 63.315, p = 0.022, df = 42. This study provides strong evidence that spatiotemporal changes in regional-scale environmental risks are influenced by individual-scale empowerment mediated by IBRs.

  1. High body mass index and cancer risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benn, Marianne; Tybjærg-Hansen, Anne; Smith, George Davey

    2016-01-01

    of follow-up (range 0-37), 8002 developed non-skin cancer, 3347 non-melanoma skin cancer, 1396 lung cancer, 637 other smoking related cancers, 1203 colon cancer, 159 kidney cancer, 1402 breast cancer, 1062 prostate cancer, and 2804 other cancers. Participants were genotyped for five genetic variants...... with a BMI ≥ 30 versus 18.5-24.9 kg/m(2). Corresponding risk of breast cancer was 20 % (0-44 %) higher in postmenopausal women. BMI was not associated with risk of colon, kidney, other smoking related cancers, prostate cancer, or other cancers. In genetic analyses, carrying 7-10 versus 0-4 BMI increasing......High body mass index (BMI) has been associated with increased risk of some cancer. Whether these reflect causal associations is unknown. We examined this issue. Using a Mendelian randomisation approach, we studied 108,812 individuals from the general population. During a median of 4.7 years...

  2. Cultural Effects on Cancer Prevention Behaviors: Fatalistic Cancer Beliefs and Risk Optimism Among Asians in Singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hye Kyung; Lwin, May O

    2017-10-01

    Although culture is acknowledged as an important factor that influences health, little is known about cultural differences pertaining to cancer-related beliefs and prevention behaviors. This study examines two culturally influenced beliefs-fatalistic beliefs about cancer prevention, and optimistic beliefs about cancer risk-to identify reasons for cultural disparity in the engagement of cancer prevention behaviors. We utilized data from national surveys of European Americans in the United States (Health Information National Trends Survey 4, Cycle3; N = 1,139) and Asians in Singapore (N = 1,200) to make cultural comparisons. The odds of an Asian adhering to prevention recommendations were less than half the odds of a European American, with the exception of smoking avoidance. Compared to European Americans, Asians were more optimistic about their cancer risk both in an absolute and a comparative sense, and held stronger fatalistic beliefs about cancer prevention. Mediation analyses revealed that fatalistic beliefs and absolute risk optimism among Asians partially explain their lower engagement in prevention behaviors, whereas comparative risk optimism increases their likelihood of adhering to prevention behaviors. Our findings underscore the need for developing culturally targeted interventions in communicating cancer causes and prevention.

  3. Secondhand smoke risk in infants discharged from an NICU: potential for significant health disparities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stotts, Angela L; Evans, Patricia W; Green, Charles E; Northrup, Thomas F; Dodrill, Carrie L; Fox, Jeffery M; Tyson, Jon E; Hovell, Melbourne F

    2011-11-01

    Secondhand smoke exposure (SHSe) threatens fragile infants discharged from a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). Smoking practices were examined in families with a high respiratory risk infant (born at very low birth weight; ventilated > 12 hr) in a Houston, Texas, NICU. Socioeconomic status, race, and mental health status were hypothesized to be related to SHSe and household smoking bans. Data were collected as part of The Baby's Breath Project, a hospital-based SHSe intervention trial targeting parents with a high-risk infant in the NICU who reported a smoker in the household (N = 99). Measures of sociodemographics, smoking, home and car smoking bans, and depression were collected. Overall, 26% of all families with a high-risk infant in the NICU reported a household smoker. Almost half of the families with a smoker reported an annual income of less than $25,000. 46.2% of families reported having a total smoking ban in place in both their homes and cars. Only 27.8% families earning less than $25,000 reported having a total smoking ban in place relative to almost 60% of families earning more (p < .01). African American and Caucasian families were less likely to have a smoking ban compared with Hispanics (p < .05). Mothers who reported no smoking ban were more depressed than those who had a household smoking ban (p < .02). The most disadvantaged families were least likely to have protective health behaviors in place to reduce SHSe and, consequently, are most at-risk for tobacco exposure and subsequent tobacco-related health disparities. Innovative SHSe interventions for this vulnerable population are sorely needed.

  4. Prostate cancer incidence and tumor severity in Georgia: descriptive epidemiology, racial disparity, and geographic trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Sara E; Bauer, Sarah E; Bayakly, A Rana; Vena, John E

    2013-01-01

    Limited research has been conducted to describe the geographical clustering and distribution of prostate cancer (PrCA) incidence in Georgia (GA). This study describes and compares the temporal and geographic trends of PrCA incidence in GA with a specific focus on racial disparities. GA Comprehensive Cancer Registry PrCA incidence data were obtained for 1998-2008. Directly standardized age-adjusted PrCA incidence rates per 100,000 were analyzed by race, stage, grade, and county. County-level hotspots of PrCA incidence were analyzed with the Getis-Ord Gi* statistic in a geographic information system; a census tract-level cluster analysis was performed with a Discrete Poisson model and implemented in SaTScan(®) software. Significant (p incidence were observed in nine southwestern counties and six centrally located counties among men of both races. Six significant (p incidence rates were detected for men of both races in north and northwest central Georgia. When stratified by race, clusters among white and black men were similar, although centroids were slightly shifted. Most notably, a large (122 km radius) cluster in northwest central Georgia was detected only in whites, and two smaller clusters (0-32 km radii) were detected in Southwest Georgia only in black men. Clusters of high-grade and late-stage tumors were identified primarily in the northern portion of the state among men of both races. This study revealed a pattern of higher incidence and more advanced disease in northern and northwest central Georgia, highlighting geographic patterns that need more research and investigation of possible environmental determinants.

  5. Long working hours and cancer risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heikkila, Katriina; Nyberg, Solja T.; Madsen, Ida E. H.

    2016-01-01

    in 116 462 men and women who were free of cancer at baseline. Incident cancers were ascertained from national cancer, hospitalisation and death registers; weekly working hours were self-reported. Results: During median follow-up of 10.8 years, 4371 participants developed cancer (n colorectal cancer: 393......Background: Working longer than the maximum recommended hours is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease, but the relationship of excess working hours with incident cancer is unclear. Methods: This multi-cohort study examined the association between working hours and cancer risk......; n lung cancer: 247; n breast cancer: 833; and n prostate cancer: 534). We found no clear evidence for an association between working hours and the overall cancer risk. Working hours were also unrelated the risk of incident colorectal, lung or prostate cancers. Working greater than or equal to55 h...

  6. Disparity in Breast Cancer Late Stage at Diagnosis in Missouri: Does Rural Versus Urban Residence Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Faustine; Thompson, Emmanuel

    2016-06-01

    Despite the fact that black women have a lower incidence of breast cancer compared to white women, black women experience higher death rates than any other group. We examined the stage of breast cancer presentation by race and geographic region using population-based breast cancer incidence in all 115 counties in the state of Missouri. We used 2003-2008 breast cancer incidence data from Missouri Cancer Registry and Research Center. County of residence was categorized as urban or rural using the rural-urban continuum code. We computed the conditional proportion of stage at diagnosis by race and metropolitan status and also used Pearson's chi-squared test with Yates' continuity correction to determine statistical significance of association. Results of the study indicate that a greater proportion of black women (38.8 %) compared to white women (30.2 %) were diagnosed with more advanced breast metastasis. Our results further suggest that stage at diagnosis depended on county of residence or metropolitan status (p = .04). Women living in non-metropolitan counties were slightly more likely to have late-stage breast cancer than their metropolitan counterparts (32.0 vs 30.7 %). Overall, black women had 1.5-fold increased odds of late-stage breast cancer diagnosis compared to their white counterparts (OR = 1.50; 95 % CI, 1.39, 1.63; p diagnosis among women living in non-metropolitan or rural counties was over 11 % higher compared with their metropolitan or urban counterpart. The current study corroborates previous findings that the risk of late-stage breast cancer diagnosis was higher among women residing in non-metropolitan rural counties.

  7. Racial Disparities in Low Birthweight Risk: an Examination of Stress Predictors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clay, Shondra Loggins; Andrade, Flavia Cristina Drumond

    2016-06-01

    This paper describes racial disparities in low birthweight (LBW) risk between Black women and White women and examines the relationship between race and stressors such as socioeconomic factors, access to health care, and social and health characteristics. We analyzed data from the National Survey of Family Growth dataset collected in the USA between 2006 and 2010 (N = 1516). Multivariate logistic regression models were performed. Prevalence of LBW was 5.6 % for pregnancies among White women and 12.2 % among Black women. Black women who had a LBW baby had a lower socioeconomic status (e.g., received assistance to pay for delivery of the baby and public assistance in the prior year). Black women who had a LBW baby were more likely to have reported having good health compared with White women (67.8 vs. 45.1 %, p women were 2.6 times more likely (odds ratio (OR) = 2.33; 95 % confidence interval (CI), 1.12-6.04) to result in a LBW baby than pregnancies among White women. Pregnancies of women in the income group of 300 % or higher than the poverty level were less likely to be associated with a LBW baby than those among women in the 150-299 % income group (p women were less likely to have LBW children than those who were underweight or normal weight (p women who reported having poorer health were 3.7 times more likely to have LBW than those who reported having better health (p women were observed in LBW risk based on socioeconomic factors. We analyzed a large number of stressors, but racial differences remained even after taking these stressors into account. Future policies and research should continually address these differences to decrease LBW risk within and across racial groups.

  8. Age, gender and risk factor disparities in first-stroke Jewish and Arab patients in Israel undergoing rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, Elina; Treger, Iuly; Schwarz, Juliana

    2011-11-01

    Little is known of the risk factor disparities in first stroke among Jewish and Arab patients undergoing rehabilitation in Israel. To investigate the age, gender and risk factor disparities in first stroke among Jewish (immigrant and non-immigrant) and Arab patients undergoing rehabilitation and to compare the prevalence and odds ratio of stroke risk factors in these patients. The database of the Department of Neurological Rehabilitation C at Loewenstein Rehabilitation Center was used to investigate first ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke patients admitted for hospital rehabilitation over a 15 year period, January 1993 to December 2008. Particular attention was paid to age, gender and risk factor disparities. The 2000 patients with first stroke who were included in the study were grouped as Jewish (immigrant and non-immigrant) orArab; there were 237 Arabs, 370 non-immigrant Jews and 1393 immigrant Jews. A high percentage of Arab patients were found to have hypertension and diabetes mellitus, while a high percentage of Jewish immigrants had stenosis of the internal carotid artery. The study demonstrated some differences in the effect of risk factors between the groups. It may be important to address such differences when developing stroke preventative strategies in this population of Jewish and Arab stroke survivors in Israel.

  9. Colon Cancer Risk Assessment - Gauss Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    An executable file (in GAUSS) that projects absolute colon cancer risk (with confidence intervals) according to NCI’s Colorectal Cancer Risk Assessment Tool (CCRAT) algorithm. GAUSS is not needed to run the program.

  10. Rates and predictors of colorectal cancer screening by race among motivated men participating in a prostate cancer risk assessment program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Michael J.; Ruth, Karen; Giri, Veda N.

    2011-01-01

    Background Screening by fecal occult blood test and lower endoscopy have lowered colorectal cancer (CRC) mortality, but compliance gaps persist. Of concern are possible disparities in uptake of CRC screening between White and African American (AA) men. Our goal was to assess for disparities in uptake of CRC screening among men participating in a high-risk prostate cancer clinic. If present, such disparities could support hypotheses for further research examining racial differences in awareness and patient preferences in undergoing CRC screening. Methods Baseline data on a racially diverse cohort of men age 50–69 at increased risk of prostate cancer collected via the prostate cancer risk assessment program (PRAP) at Fox Chase Cancer Center were analyzed. Predictors of uptake of CRC screening were assessed using multivariable logistic regression. Results Compared to Whites, AA men had statistically significantly lower uptake of fecal occult blood testing (AA 49.0% vs White 60.7%, p=0.035), lower endoscopy (AA 44.1% vs White 58.5%, p=0.011), and any CRC screening (AA 66.2% vs White 76.3%, p=0.053). Predictors of uptake of lower endoscopy among AA men included older age (OR 3.61, 95% CI 1.87–6.97), family history of CRC (OR 3.47, 95% CI 1.30–9.25), and insurance status (OR 1.90, 95% CI 1.04–3.46). Conclusion Despite awareness of cancer risk and motivation to seek prostate cancer screening through a specialized prostate cancer risk assessment program, evidence supporting compliance gaps with CRC screening among men was found. Tailored messages to younger AA men with and without a family history of CRC are needed. PMID:21751189

  11. Risk of prostate cancer among cancer survivors in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kok, D.E.G.; Schans, van de S.A.; Liu, L.; Kampman, E.; Coebergh, J.W.; Kiemeney, L.A.; Soerjomataram, I.; Aben, K.K.

    2013-01-01

    In parallel with increasing numbers of cancer patients and improving cancer survival, the occurrence of second primary cancers becomes a relevant issue. The aim of our study was to evaluate risk of prostate cancer as second primary cancer in a population-based setting. Methods Data from the

  12. Geographical, temporal and racial disparities in late-stage prostate cancer incidence across Florida: A multiscale joinpoint regression analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goovaerts Pierre

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although prostate cancer-related incidence and mortality have declined recently, striking racial/ethnic differences persist in the United States. Visualizing and modelling temporal trends of prostate cancer late-stage incidence, and how they vary according to geographic locations and race, should help explaining such disparities. Joinpoint regression is increasingly used to identify the timing and extent of changes in time series of health outcomes. Yet, most analyses of temporal trends are aspatial and conducted at the national level or for a single cancer registry. Methods Time series (1981-2007 of annual proportions of prostate cancer late-stage cases were analyzed for non-Hispanic Whites and non-Hispanic Blacks in each county of Florida. Noise in the data was first filtered by binomial kriging and results were modelled using joinpoint regression. A similar analysis was also conducted at the state level and for groups of metropolitan and non-metropolitan counties. Significant racial differences were detected using tests of parallelism and coincidence of time trends. A new disparity statistic was introduced to measure spatial and temporal changes in the frequency of racial disparities. Results State-level percentage of late-stage diagnosis decreased 50% since 1981; a decline that accelerated in the 90's when Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA screening was introduced. Analysis at the metropolitan and non-metropolitan levels revealed that the frequency of late-stage diagnosis increased recently in urban areas, and this trend was significant for white males. The annual rate of decrease in late-stage diagnosis and the onset years for significant declines varied greatly among counties and racial groups. Most counties with non-significant average annual percent change (AAPC were located in the Florida Panhandle for white males, whereas they clustered in South-eastern Florida for black males. The new disparity statistic indicated

  13. Geographical, temporal and racial disparities in late-stage prostate cancer incidence across Florida: a multiscale joinpoint regression analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goovaerts, Pierre; Xiao, Hong

    2011-12-05

    Although prostate cancer-related incidence and mortality have declined recently, striking racial/ethnic differences persist in the United States. Visualizing and modelling temporal trends of prostate cancer late-stage incidence, and how they vary according to geographic locations and race, should help explaining such disparities. Joinpoint regression is increasingly used to identify the timing and extent of changes in time series of health outcomes. Yet, most analyses of temporal trends are aspatial and conducted at the national level or for a single cancer registry. Time series (1981-2007) of annual proportions of prostate cancer late-stage cases were analyzed for non-Hispanic Whites and non-Hispanic Blacks in each county of Florida. Noise in the data was first filtered by binomial kriging and results were modelled using joinpoint regression. A similar analysis was also conducted at the state level and for groups of metropolitan and non-metropolitan counties. Significant racial differences were detected using tests of parallelism and coincidence of time trends. A new disparity statistic was introduced to measure spatial and temporal changes in the frequency of racial disparities. State-level percentage of late-stage diagnosis decreased 50% since 1981; a decline that accelerated in the 90's when Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA) screening was introduced. Analysis at the metropolitan and non-metropolitan levels revealed that the frequency of late-stage diagnosis increased recently in urban areas, and this trend was significant for white males. The annual rate of decrease in late-stage diagnosis and the onset years for significant declines varied greatly among counties and racial groups. Most counties with non-significant average annual percent change (AAPC) were located in the Florida Panhandle for white males, whereas they clustered in South-eastern Florida for black males. The new disparity statistic indicated that the spatial extent of racial disparities reached a

  14. Rural Disparities in Treatment-Related Financial Hardship and Adherence to Surveillance Colonoscopy in Diverse Colorectal Cancer Survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDougall, Jean A; Banegas, Matthew P; Wiggins, Charles L; Chiu, Vi K; Rajput, Ashwani; Kinney, Anita Y

    2018-03-28

    Cancer survivors increasingly report financial hardship as a consequence of the high cost of cancer care, yet the financial experience of rural cancer survivors remains largely unstudied. The purpose of this study was to investigate potential rural disparities in the likelihood of financial hardship and nonadherence to surveillance colonoscopy. Individuals diagnosed with localized or regional colorectal cancer (CRC) between 2004-2012 were ascertained by the population-based New Mexico Tumor Registry. Participants completed a mailed questionnaire or telephone survey about their CRC survivorship experience, including treatment-related financial hardship and receipt of surveillance colonoscopy. Multivariable logistic regression was used to estimate adjusted odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). Compared to urban CRC survivors (n=168), rural CRC survivors (n=109) were slightly older, more likely to be married (65% v. 59%) and have an annual income financial hardship (OR 1.86, 95% CI 1.06-3.28) and nonadherence to surveillance colonoscopy guidelines (OR 2.28, 95% CI 1.07-4.85). In addition, financial hardship was independently associated with nonadherence to surveillance colonoscopy (OR 2.17, 95% CI 1.01-4.85). Substantial rural disparities in the likelihood of financial hardship and nonadherence to surveillance colonoscopy exist. Treatment-related financial hardship among rural CRC survivors may negatively impact adherence to guideline recommended follow-up care. Copyright ©2018, American Association for Cancer Research.

  15. Addressing Breast Cancer Health Disparities in the Mississippi Delta Through an Innovative Partnership for Education, Detection, and Screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayfield-Johnson, Susan; Fastring, Danielle; Fortune, Melody; White-Johnson, Freddie

    2016-06-01

    Projects to reduce disparities in cancer treatment and research include collaborative partnerships and multiple strategies to promote community awareness, education, and engagement. This is especially needed in underserved areas such as the Mississippi Delta where more women are diagnosed at regional and distant stages of breast cancer. The purpose for this project was to increase the relatively low screening rate for African American women in the Mississippi Delta through a partnership between the Mississippi Network for Cancer Control and Prevention at The University of Southern Mississippi, The Fannie Lou Hamer Cancer Foundation and the Mississippi State Department of Health to decrease health disparities in breast cancer through increased awareness on self-early detection methods, leveraging resources to provide mammography screenings, and adequate follow-up with services and treatment for abnormal findings. Through this collaborative effort, over 500 women in three rural Mississippi Delta counties were identified, provided community education on early self-detection, and given appointments for mammography screenings within one fiscal year.

  16. The Alaska Education and Research Towards Health (EARTH) Study: cancer risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanier, Anne P; Redwood, Diana G; Kelly, Janet J

    2012-04-01

    The Alaska Education and Research Towards Health (EARTH) Study assessed cancer risk among 3,821 Alaska Native people (AN). We present the prevalence of selected cancer risk factors and comparison with Healthy People 2010 goals. Participants completed extensive computer-assisted self-administered questionnaires on diet, physical activity, tobacco and alcohol use, cancer screening, family history of cancer, and environmental exposures. Measurement data were collected on blood pressure, height, weight, waist/hip circumference, fasting serum lipids, and glucose. Cancer risk factors are high for the Alaska EARTH study population. For all risk factors studied except for vegetable consumption, Alaska EARTH Study participants did not meet Healthy People 2010 goals. This study is unique in providing questionnaire and measurement data of cancer risk factors on a larger study sample than any previous study among AN living in Alaska. Data show that the prevalence of most cancer risk factors exceeded national recommendations. Given the disease disparities that exist for the AN population, these data provide important baseline data that can be used to target health interventions and reduce health disparities.

  17. Strengthening cancer biology research, prevention, and control while reducing cancer disparities: student perceptions of a collaborative master's degree program in cancer biology, preventions, and control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jillson, I A; Cousin, C E; Blancato, J K

    2013-09-01

    This article provides the findings of a survey of previous and current students in the UDC/GU-LCCC master's degree program. This master's degree program, Cancer Biology, Prevention, and Control is administered and taught jointly by faculty of a Minority Serving Institution, the University of the District of Columbia, and the Lombardi Comprehensive Cancer Center to incorporate the strengths of a community-based school with a research intensive medical center. The program was initiated in 2008 through agreements with both University administrations and funding from the National Cancer Institute. The master's degree program is 36 credits with a focus on coursework in biostatistics, epidemiology, tumor biology, cancer prevention, medical ethics, and cancer outreach program design. For two semesters during the second year, students work full-time with a faculty person on a laboratory or outreach project that is a requirement for graduation. Students are supported and encouraged to transition to a doctoral degree after they obtain the master's and many of them are currently in doctorate programs. Since the inception of the program, 45 students have initiated the course of study, 28 have completed the program, and 13 are currently enrolled in the program. The survey was designed to track the students in their current activities, as well as determine which courses, program enhancements, and research experiences were the least and most useful, and to discern students' perceptions of knowledge acquired on various aspects of Cancer Biology Prevention, and Control Master's Program. Thirty of the 35 individuals to whom email requests were sent responded to the survey, for a response rate of 85.7%. The results of this study will inform the strengthening of the Cancer Biology program by the Education Advisory Committee. They can also be used in the development of comparable collaborative master's degree programs designed to address the significant disparities in prevalence of

  18. Correlates and geographic patterns of knowledge that physical activity decreases cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez, A Susana; Finney Rutten, Lila J; Vanderpool, Robin C; Moser, Richard P; Hesse, Bradford W

    2013-04-01

    While many lifestyle-related cancer risk factors including tobacco use, poor diet, and sun exposure are well recognized by the general public, the role of physical activity in decreasing cancer risk is less recognized. Studies have demonstrated gender-, race/ethnicity-, and age-based disparities in cancer risk factor knowledge; however, beliefs and geographic factors that may be related to knowledge are under-examined. In this study, we analyzed data from the 2008 Health Information National Trends Survey to determine correlates of knowledge of the relationship between physical activity and reduced cancer risk in the adult US population. We generated geographic information system maps to examine the geographic distribution of this knowledge. Results revealed that there is confusion among US adults about the relationship between physical activity and cancer risk: Respondents who believed that cancer is not preventable had significantly lower odds of knowing that physical activity reduces cancer risk (p physical activity reduces cancer risk (p physical activity guidelines were also significantly more likely to know that physical activity reduces cancer risk (p physical inactivity. Correlates of cancer risk factor knowledge point to opportunities for targeted interventions.

  19. Metabolic Syndrome and Breast Cancer Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wani, Burhan; Aziz, Shiekh Aejaz; Ganaie, Mohammad Ashraf; Mir, Mohammad Hussain

    2017-01-01

    The study was meant to estimate the prevalence of metabolic syndrome in patients with breast cancer and to establish its role as an independent risk factor on occurrence of breast cancer. Fifty women aged between 40 and 80 years with breast cancer and fifty controls of similar age were assessed for metabolic syndrome prevalence and breast cancer risk factors, including age at menarche, reproductive status, live births, breastfeeding, and family history of breast cancer, age at diagnosis of breast cancer, body mass index, and metabolic syndrome parameters. Metabolic syndrome prevalence was found in 40.0% of breast cancer patients, and 18.0% of those in control group ( P = 0.02). An independent and positive association was seen between metabolic syndrome and breast cancer risk (odds ratio = 3.037; 95% confidence interval 1.214-7.597). Metabolic syndrome is more prevalent in breast cancer patients and is an independent risk factor for breast cancer.

  20. Geographic variation and sociodemographic disparity in the use of oxaliplatin-containing chemotherapy in patients with stage III colon cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panchal, Janki M; Lairson, David R; Chan, Wenyaw; Du, Xianglin L

    2013-06-01

    This study examined the geographic variation and sociodemographic disparities in the use of oxaliplatin chemotherapy, which has not been widely studied in the past. Our results suggest that chemotherapy use varies across geographic regions. Patterns of use that relate specifically to oxaliplatin-containing chemotherapy can inform providers and researchers how newer regimens are being used as standard chemotherapy in a real-world setting. According to the National Cancer Comprehensive Network (NCCN), oxaliplatin with 5-fluorouracil and leucovorin (5-FU/LV) is the recommended adjuvant chemotherapy for patients with resected stage III colon cancer. Age and race are considered strong predictors of chemotherapy receipt, whereas geographic disparity has received minimal attention. The purpose of this study was to examine geographic variation and sociodemographic disparity in the use of chemotherapy in patients with stage III colon cancer, focusing specifically on oxaliplatin. A retrospective cohort of 4106 Medicare patients was identified from the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER)/Medicare linked database. Descriptive statistics show how oxaliplatin-containing chemotherapy was used in various geographic regions among different age and racial groups. Multiple logistic regression analysis was performed to examine the relationship between receipt of oxaliplatin-containing chemotherapy and geographic region while adjusting for other sociodemographic and tumor characteristics. Only 49% of the patients with stage III disease received adjuvant chemotherapy within 3 to 6 months of colon cancer-specific surgery. Patients aged 66 to 70 years were 78% more likely to receive chemotherapy than were those aged 80 years and older (Pcancer care to all patients according to their preferences and needs. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Does exclusion of cancers registered only from death-certificate information diminish socio-demographic disparities in recorded survival?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tervonen, Hanna E; Roder, David; Morrell, Stephen; You, Hui; Currow, David C

    2017-06-01

    Death Certificate Only (DCO) cancer cases are commonly excluded from survival analyses due to unknown survival time. This study examines whether socio-demographic factors are associated with DCO diagnosis, and the potential effects of excluding DCO cases on socio-demographic cancer survival disparities in NSW, Australia. NSW Cancer Registry data for cases diagnosed in 2000-2008 were used in this study. Logistic regression was used to estimate the odds of DCO registration by socio-demographic sub-group (socio-economic disadvantage, residential remoteness, country of birth, age at diagnosis). Cox proportional hazard regression was used to estimate the probability of death from cancer by socio-demographic subgroup when DCO cases were included and excluded from analyses. DCO cases consisted of 1.5% (n=4336) of all cases (n=299,651). DCO diagnosis was associated with living in socio-economically disadvantaged areas (most disadvantaged compared with least disadvantaged quintile: odds ratio OR 1.25, 95%CI 1.12-1.40), living in inner regional (OR 1.16, 95%CI 1.08-1.25) or remote areas (OR 1.48, 95%CI 1.01-2.19), having an unknown country of birth (OR 1.63, 95%CI 1.47-1.81) and older age. Including or excluding DCO cases had no significant impact on hazard ratios for cancer death by socio-economic disadvantage quintile or remoteness category, and only a minor impact on hazard ratios by age. Socio-demographic factors were associated with DCO diagnosis in NSW. However, socio-demographic cancer survival disparities remained unchanged or varied only slightly irrespective of including/excluding DCO cases. Further research could examine the upper limits of DCO proportions that significantly alter estimated cancer survival differentials if DCOs are excluded. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Education-based disparities in knowledge of novel health risks: The case of knowledge gaps in HIV risk perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiviniemi, Marc T; Orom, Heather; Waters, Erika A; McKillip, Megan; Hay, Jennifer L

    2018-05-01

    Risk perception is a key determinant of preventive health behaviour, but when asked, some individuals indicate they do not know their health risk. Low education is associated with both lack of knowledge about health risk and with the persistence and exacerbation of gaps in knowledge about health issues. This study uses the context of an emerging infectious disease threat to explore the hypothesis that the education-don't know risk relation results from differences in knowledge about the health issue of interest. Specifically, we examine whether patterns of change over time follow theoretical predictions that disparities in risk knowledge would increase over time in less educated sectors of the population (knowledge gap hypothesis). Secondary analysis of population-representative behavioural surveillance survey. We analysed data from the 1993 to 2000 Behavior Risk Factor Surveillance System surveys, which measured education and perceived HIV/AIDS risk in a population sample collected separately in each survey year; don't know responses were coded. In each year, individuals with higher education were less likely to respond don't know. The absolute prevalence of don't know responding dropped over time; nonetheless, there was an increase over time in the magnitude of the pattern of lower education being associated with greater don't know responding. We found support for the knowledge gap hypothesis. Over time, populations with greater education gained more knowledge about their HIV risk than populations with lower education. Results highlight the need to carefully consider health communication strategies to reach and address those individuals with low education and health knowledge. Statement of contribution What is already known on this subject? A meaningful potion of the population answers 'don't know' when asked to report their risk for health problems, indicating a lack of risk perception in the domain. Previous studies have shown that level of education is

  3. BPH and prostate cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miah, Saiful; Catto, James

    2014-04-01

    With the exclusion of non-melanomatous skin malignancy, prostate cancer (PCa) is the second most prevalent cancer in men globally. It has been reported that the majority of men will develop benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) by the time they reach their 60s. Together, these prostatic diseases have a significant morbidity and mortality affecting over a billion men throughout the world. The risk of developing prostate cancer of men suffering BPH is one that has resulted in a healthy debate amongst the urological community. Here, we try to address this conundrum with clinical and basic science evidence. Data from an online search and contemporary data presented at international urological congresses was reviewed. BPH and PCa can be linked together at a molecular and cellular level on genetic, hormonal, and inflammatory platforms suggesting that these prostatic diseases have common pathophysiological driving factors. Epidemiological studies are weighted towards the presence of BPH having a greater risk for a man to develop PCa in his lifetime; however, a conclusion of causality cannot be confidently stated. The future workload healthcare practitioners will face regarding BPH, and PCa will substantially increase. Further basic science and large epidemiological studies using a global cohort of men are required prior to the urological community confidently counseling their patients with BPH with regards to their PCa risk.

  4. BPH and prostate cancer risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saiful Miah

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: With the exclusion of non-melanomatous skin malignancy, prostate cancer (PCa is the second most prevalent cancer in men globally. It has been reported that the majority of men will develop benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH by the time they reach their 60s. Together, these prostatic diseases have a significant morbidity and mortality affecting over a billion men throughout the world. The risk of developing prostate cancer of men suffering BPH is one that has resulted in a healthy debate amongst the urological community. Here, we try to address this conundrum with clinical and basic science evidence. Materials and Methods: Data from an online search and contemporary data presented at international urological congresses was reviewed. Results: BPH and PCa can be linked together at a molecular and cellular level on genetic, hormonal, and inflammatory platforms suggesting that these prostatic diseases have common pathophysiological driving factors. Epidemiological studies are weighted towards the presence of BPH having a greater risk for a man to develop PCa in his lifetime; however, a conclusion of causality cannot be confidently stated. Conclusion: The future workload healthcare practitioners will face regarding BPH, and PCa will substantially increase. Further basic science and large epidemiological studies using a global cohort of men are required prior to the urological community confidently counseling their patients with BPH with regards to their PCa risk.

  5. Cancer Data and Aboriginal Disparities (CanDAD)—developing an Advanced Cancer Data System for Aboriginal people in South Australia: a mixed methods research protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yerrell, Paul Henry; Roder, David; Cargo, Margaret; Reilly, Rachel; Banham, David; Micklem, Jasmine May; Morey, Kim; Stewart, Harold Bundamurra; Stajic, Janet; Norris, Michael; Brown, Alex

    2016-01-01

    Introduction In Australia, Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander People carry a greater burden of cancer-related mortality than non-Aboriginal Australians. The Cancer Data and Aboriginal Disparities Project aims to develop and test an integrated, comprehensive cancer monitoring and surveillance system capable of incorporating epidemiological and narrative data to address disparities and advocate for clinical system change. Methods and analysis The Advanced Cancer Data System will integrate routinely collected unit record data from the South Australian Population Cancer Registry and a range of other data sources for a retrospective cohort of indigenous people with cancers diagnosed from 1990 to 2010. A randomly drawn non-Aboriginal cohort will be matched by primary cancer site, sex, age and year at diagnosis. Cross-tabulations and regression analyses will examine the extent to which demographic attributes, cancer stage and survival vary between the cohorts. Narratives from Aboriginal people with cancer, their families, carers and service providers will be collected and analysed using patient pathway mapping and thematic analysis. Statements from the narratives will structure both a concept mapping process of rating, sorting and prioritising issues, focusing on issues of importance and feasibility, and the development of a real-time Aboriginal Cancer Measure of Experience for ongoing linkage with epidemiological data in the Advanced Cancer Data System. Aboriginal Community engagement underpins this Project. Ethics and dissemination The research has been approved by relevant local and national ethics committees. Findings will be disseminated in local and international peer-reviewed journals and conference presentations. In addition, the research will provide data for knowledge translation activities across the partner organisations and feed directly into the Statewide Cancer Control Plan. It will provide a mechanism for monitoring and evaluating the implementation of

  6. Cancer Data and Aboriginal Disparities (CanDAD)-developing an Advanced Cancer Data System for Aboriginal people in South Australia: a mixed methods research protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yerrell, Paul Henry; Roder, David; Cargo, Margaret; Reilly, Rachel; Banham, David; Micklem, Jasmine May; Morey, Kim; Stewart, Harold Bundamurra; Stajic, Janet; Norris, Michael; Brown, Alex

    2016-12-23

    In Australia, Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander People carry a greater burden of cancer-related mortality than non-Aboriginal Australians. The Cancer Data and Aboriginal Disparities Project aims to develop and test an integrated, comprehensive cancer monitoring and surveillance system capable of incorporating epidemiological and narrative data to address disparities and advocate for clinical system change. The Advanced Cancer Data System will integrate routinely collected unit record data from the South Australian Population Cancer Registry and a range of other data sources for a retrospective cohort of indigenous people with cancers diagnosed from 1990 to 2010. A randomly drawn non-Aboriginal cohort will be matched by primary cancer site, sex, age and year at diagnosis. Cross-tabulations and regression analyses will examine the extent to which demographic attributes, cancer stage and survival vary between the cohorts. Narratives from Aboriginal people with cancer, their families, carers and service providers will be collected and analysed using patient pathway mapping and thematic analysis. Statements from the narratives will structure both a concept mapping process of rating, sorting and prioritising issues, focusing on issues of importance and feasibility, and the development of a real-time Aboriginal Cancer Measure of Experience for ongoing linkage with epidemiological data in the Advanced Cancer Data System. Aboriginal Community engagement underpins this Project. The research has been approved by relevant local and national ethics committees. Findings will be disseminated in local and international peer-reviewed journals and conference presentations. In addition, the research will provide data for knowledge translation activities across the partner organisations and feed directly into the Statewide Cancer Control Plan. It will provide a mechanism for monitoring and evaluating the implementation of the recommendations in these documents. Published by the

  7. Prostate cancer disparities in Black men of African descent: a comparative literature review of prostate cancer burden among Black men in the United States, Caribbean, United Kingdom, and West Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reams R Renee

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background African American men have the highest prostate cancer morbidity and mortality rates than any other racial or ethnic group in the US. Although the overall incidence of and mortality from prostate cancer has been declining in White men since 1991, the decline in African American men lags behind White men. Of particular concern is the growing literature on the disproportionate burden of prostate cancer among other Black men of West African ancestry in the Caribbean Islands, United Kingdom and West Africa. This higher incidence of prostate cancer observed in populations of African descent may be attributed to the fact that these populations share ancestral genetic factors. To better understand the burden of prostate cancer among men of West African Ancestry, we conducted a review of the literature on prostate cancer incidence, prevalence, and mortality in the countries connected by the Transatlantic Slave Trade. Results Several published studies indicate high prostate cancer burden in Nigeria and Ghana. There was no published literature for the countries Benin, Gambia and Senegal that met our review criteria. Prostate cancer morbidity and/or mortality data from the Caribbean Islands and the United Kingdom also provided comparable or worse prostate cancer burden to that of US Blacks. Conclusion The growing literature on the disproportionate burden of prostate cancer among other Black men of West African ancestry follows the path of the Transatlantic Slave Trade. To better understand and address the global prostate cancer disparities seen in Black men of West African ancestry, future studies should explore the genetic and environmental risk factors for prostate cancer among this group.

  8. Evaluating the disparity of female breast cancer mortality among racial groups - a spatiotemporal analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacobson Holly

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The literature suggests that the distribution of female breast cancer mortality demonstrates spatial concentration. There remains a lack of studies on how the mortality burden may impact racial groups across space and over time. The present study evaluated the geographic variations in breast cancer mortality in Texas females according to three predominant racial groups (non-Hispanic White, Black, and Hispanic females over a twelve-year period. It sought to clarify whether the spatiotemporal trend might place an uneven burden on particular racial groups, and whether the excess trend has persisted into the current decade. Methods The Spatial Scan Statistic was employed to examine the geographic excess of breast cancer mortality by race in Texas counties between 1990 and 2001. The statistic was conducted with a scan window of a maximum of 90% of the study period and a spatial cluster size of 50% of the population at risk. The next scan was conducted with a purely spatial option to verify whether the excess mortality persisted further. Spatial queries were performed to locate the regions of excess mortality affecting multiple racial groups. Results The first scan identified 4 regions with breast cancer mortality excess in both non-Hispanic White and Hispanic female populations. The most likely excess mortality with a relative risk of 1.12 (p = 0.001 occurred between 1990 and 1996 for non-Hispanic Whites, including 42 Texas counties along Gulf Coast and Central Texas. For Hispanics, West Texas with a relative risk of 1.18 was the most probable region of excess mortality (p = 0.001. Results of the second scan were identical to the first. This suggested that the excess mortality might not persist to the present decade. Spatial queries found that 3 counties in Southeast and 9 counties in Central Texas had excess mortality involving multiple racial groups. Conclusion Spatiotemporal variations in breast cancer mortality affected racial

  9. Risks of Colorectal Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Genetics of Colorectal Cancer Colorectal Cancer Screening Research Colorectal Cancer Screening (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is screening? Go ... These are called diagnostic tests . General Information About Colorectal Cancer Key Points Colorectal cancer is a disease in ...

  10. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and cancer risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kornum, Jette Brommann; Sværke, Claus; Thomsen, Reimar Wernich

    2012-01-01

    Little is known about the risk of cancer in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), including which cancer sites are most affected. We examined the short- and long-term risk of lung and extrapulmonary cancer in a nationwide cohort of COPD patients....

  11. Risk of second primary cancer following differentiated thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berthe, Emmanuelle; Berthet, Pascaline; Bardet, Stephane; Henry-Amar, Michel; Michels, Jean-Jacques; Rame, Jean-Pierre; Babin, Emmanuel; Icard, Philippe; Samama, Guy; Galateau-Salle, Francoise; Mahoudeau, Jacques

    2004-01-01

    Concerns remain over the risk of cancer following differentiated thyroid carcinoma and its causes. Iodine-131 ( 131 I) and external irradiation are known to have potential carcinogenic effects. Thyroid carcinoma is a polygenic disease which may be associated with other malignancies. We investigated the incidence of second cancer and its aetiology in a cohort of 875 patients (146 men, 729 women) with differentiated thyroid carcinoma originating from Basse-Normandie, France. Cancer incidence was compared with that of the general population of the Departement du Calvados matched for age, gender and period. The cumulative proportion of second cancer was estimated using the life-table method. Factors that correlated with the risk of second cancer were studied using the Cox model. After a median follow-up of 8 years, 58 second cancers had been observed. Compared with general population incidence rates, there was an overall increased risk of second cancer in women [standardised incidence ratio (SIR)=1.52; P 0.20). Increased risk related to cancers of the genitourinary tract (SIR=3.31; P 131 I was related to the risk. These data confirm that women with differentiated thyroid carcinoma are at risk of developing a second cancer of the genitourinary tract and kidney. Only age and medical history of primary cancer before thyroid carcinoma are risk factors for second cancer. Common environmental or genetic factors as well as long-term carcinogenic effects of primary cancer therapy should be considered. (orig.)

  12. Maternal lung cancer and testicular cancer risk in the offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaijser, Magnus; Akre, Olof; Cnattingius, Sven; Ekbom, Anders

    2003-07-01

    It has been hypothesized that smoking during pregnancy could increase the offspring's risk for testicular cancer. This hypothesis is indirectly supported by both ecological studies and studies of cancer aggregations within families. However, results from analytical epidemiological studies are not consistent, possibly due to methodological difficulties. To further study the association between smoking during pregnancy and testicular cancer, we did a population-based cohort study on cancer risk among offspring of women diagnosed with lung cancer. Through the use of the Swedish Cancer Register and the Swedish Second-Generation Register, we identified 8,430 women who developed lung cancer between 1958 and 1997 and delivered sons between 1941 and 1979. Cancer cases among the male offspring were then identified through the Swedish Cancer Register. Standardized incidence ratios were computed, using 95% confidence intervals. We identified 12,592 male offspring of mothers with a subsequent diagnosis of lung cancer, and there were 40 cases of testicular cancer (standardized incidence ratio, 1.90; 95% confidence interval, 1.35-2.58). The association was independent of maternal lung cancer subtype, and the risk of testicular cancer increased stepwise with decreasing time interval between birth and maternal lung cancer diagnosis. Our results support the hypothesis that exposure to cigarette smoking in utero increases the risk of testicular cancer.

  13. Risk Profiling May Improve Lung Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    A new modeling study suggests that individualized, risk-based selection of ever-smokers for lung cancer screening may prevent more lung cancer deaths and improve the effectiveness and efficiency of screening compared with current screening recommendations

  14. A matter of disparities: risk groups for unhealthy lifestyle and poor health.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Droomers, M.; Lindert, H. van; Westert, G.

    2006-01-01

    This chapter addresses the results of the second Dutch National Survey of General Practice (DNSGP-2) with regard to differences in health and lifestyle according to age, socio-economic status, and working status in recent years. First, disparities in health and lifestyle will be presented,

  15. Exploring educational disparities in risk of preterm delivery: a comparative study of 12 European birth cohorts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poulsen, Gry; Strandberg-Larsen, Katrine; Mortensen, Laust; Barros, Henrique; Cordier, Sylvaine; Correia, Sofia; Danileviciute, Asta; van Eijsden, Manon; Fernández-Somoano, Ana; Gehring, Ulrike; Grazuleviciene, Regina; Hafkamp-de Groen, Esther; Henriksen, Tine Brink; Jensen, Morten Søndergaard; Larrañaga, Isabel; Magnus, Per; Pickett, Kate; Raat, Hein; Richiardi, Lorenzo; Rouget, Florence; Rusconi, Franca; Stoltenberg, Camilla; Uphoff, Eleonora P; Vrijkotte, Tanja G M; Wijga, Alet H; Vrijheid, Martine; Osler, Merete; Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo

    BACKGROUND: An association between education and preterm delivery has been observed in populations across Europe, but differences in methodology limit comparability. We performed a direct cross-cohort comparison of educational disparities in preterm delivery based on individual-level birth cohort

  16. Exploring educational disparities in risk of preterm delivery: a comparative study of 12 European birth cohorts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poulsen, Gry; Strandberg-Larsen, Katrine; Mortensen, Laust; Barros, Henrique; Cordier, Sylvaine; Correia, Sofia; Danileviciute, Asta; van Eijsden, Manon; Fernández-Somoano, Ana; Gehring, Ulrike; Grazuleviciene, Regina; Hafkamp-de Groen, Esther; Henriksen, Tine Brink; Jensen, Morten Søndergaard; Larrañaga, Isabel; Magnus, Per; Pickett, Kate; Raat, Hein; Richiardi, Lorenzo; Rouget, Florence; Rusconi, Franca; Stoltenberg, Camilla; Uphoff, Eleonora P.; Vrijkotte, Tanja G. M.; Wijga, Alet H.; Vrijheid, Martine; Osler, Merete; Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo

    2015-01-01

    An association between education and preterm delivery has been observed in populations across Europe, but differences in methodology limit comparability. We performed a direct cross-cohort comparison of educational disparities in preterm delivery based on individual-level birth cohort data. The

  17. Development of a community-based participatory colorectal cancer screening intervention to address disparities, Arkansas, 2008-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeary, Karen; Flowers, Eric; Ford, Gemessia; Burroughs, Desiree; Burton, Jackie; Woods, Delores; Stewart, Chara; Mehta, Paulette; Greene, Paul; Henry-Tillman, Ronda

    2011-03-01

    The death rate from colorectal cancer is high and affects poor and medically underserved populations disproportionately. In the United States, health disparities are particularly acute in the Lower Mississippi River Delta region. Because many in the region have limited access to basic health care resources, they are not screened for cancer, even though screening is one of the most effective strategies to prevent colorectal cancer. Community-based participatory research is a promising approach to prevent colorectal cancer in this population. The Empowering Communities for Life program was implemented in 2 underserved counties in the Arkansas Lower Mississippi River Delta. The program arose from a 9-year partnership between the University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences and 9 cancer councils across Arkansas. Empowering Communities for Life is a community-based participatory intervention designed to increase colorectal cancer screening in rural, underserved communities through fecal occult blood testing. Community and academic partners collaborated to develop research infrastructure, intervention materials and methods, and the assessment instrument. Project outcomes were strengthened community-academic partnerships, certification of community partners in conducting human subjects research, development of a randomized controlled design to test the intervention's efficacy, an interactive PowerPoint presentation, an informational pamphlet, the certification of 6 lay health advisors and 22 role models to provide the intervention, and an assessment tool using an audience response system. Lessons learned in working collaboratively with diverse groups include the importance of meeting face to face and listening.

  18. Stressful life events and cancer risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergelt, C; Prescott, E; Grønbaek, M

    2006-01-01

    In a prospective cohort study in Denmark of 8736 randomly selected people, no evidence was found among 1011 subjects who developed cancer that self-reported stressful major life events had increased their risk for cancer.......In a prospective cohort study in Denmark of 8736 randomly selected people, no evidence was found among 1011 subjects who developed cancer that self-reported stressful major life events had increased their risk for cancer....

  19. Cancer risk as a radiation detriment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Servomaa, A.; Komppa, T.; Servomaa, K.

    1992-11-01

    Potential radiation detriment means a risk of cancer or other somatic disease, genetic damage of fetal injury. Quantative information about the relation between a radiation dose and cancer risk is needed to enable decision-making in radiation protection. However, assessment of cancer risk by means of the radiation dose is controversial, as epidemiological and biological information about factors affecting the origin of cancers show that risk assessment is imprecise when the radiation dose is used as the only factor. Focusing on radiation risk estimates for breast cancer, lung cancer and leukemia, the report is based on the models given in the Beir V report, on sources of radiation exposure and the uncertainty of risk estimates. Risk estimates are assessed using the relative risk model and the cancer mortality rates in Finland. Cancer incidence and mortality rates for men and women are shown in graphs as a function of age and time. Relative risks are shown as a function of time after exposure and lifetime risks as a function of age at exposure. Uncertainty factors affecting the radiation risk are examined from the point of view of epidemiology and molecular biology. (orig.)

  20. Cancer risk among insulin users

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    But, Anna; De Bruin, Marie L.; Bazelier, Marloes T.

    2017-01-01

    Aims/hypothesis: The aim of this work was to investigate the relationship between use of certain insulins and risk for cancer, when addressing the limitations and biases involved in previous studies. Methods: National Health Registries from Denmark (1996–2010), Finland (1996–2011), Norway (2005......–2010) and Sweden (2007–2012) and the UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink database (1987–2013) were used to conduct a cohort study on new insulin users (N = 327,112). By using a common data model and semi-aggregate approach, we pooled individual-level records from five cohorts and applied Poisson regression...... models. For each of ten cancer sites studied, we estimated the rate ratios (RRs) by duration (≤0.5, 0.5–1, 1–2, 2–3, 3–4, 4–5, 5–6 and >6 years) of cumulative exposure to insulin glargine or insulin detemir relative to that of human insulin. Results: A total of 21,390 cancer cases occurred during a mean...

  1. Polyunsaturated fatty acids and prostate cancer risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khankari, Nikhil K; Murff, Harvey J; Zeng, Chenjie

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Prostate cancer is a common cancer worldwide with no established modifiable lifestyle factors to guide prevention. The associations between polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and prostate cancer risk have been inconsistent. Using Mendelian randomisation, we evaluated associations...... and prostate cancer risk. However, risk reductions were observed for short-chain PUFAs, linoleic (ORLA=0.95, 95%CI=0.92, 0.98) and α-linolenic acids (ORALA=0.96, 95%CI=0.93, 0.98), among men ...-chain PUFAs (i.e., arachidonic, eicosapentaenoic, and docosapentaenoic acids), increased risks were observed among men

  2. Quantifying Cancer Risk from Radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keil, Alexander P; Richardson, David B

    2017-12-06

    Complex statistical models fitted to data from studies of atomic bomb survivors are used to estimate the human health effects of ionizing radiation exposures. We describe and illustrate an approach to estimate population risks from ionizing radiation exposure that relaxes many assumptions about radiation-related mortality. The approach draws on developments in methods for causal inference. The results offer a different way to quantify radiation's effects and show that conventional estimates of the population burden of excess cancer at high radiation doses are driven strongly by projecting outside the range of current data. Summary results obtained using the proposed approach are similar in magnitude to those obtained using conventional methods, although estimates of radiation-related excess cancers differ for many age, sex, and dose groups. At low doses relevant to typical exposures, the strength of evidence in data is surprisingly weak. Statements regarding human health effects at low doses rely strongly on the use of modeling assumptions. © 2017 Society for Risk Analysis.

  3. Gene panel testing for inherited cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Michael J; Forman, Andrea D; Pilarski, Robert; Wiesner, Georgia; Giri, Veda N

    2014-09-01

    Next-generation sequencing technologies have ushered in the capability to assess multiple genes in parallel for genetic alterations that may contribute to inherited risk for cancers in families. Thus, gene panel testing is now an option in the setting of genetic counseling and testing for cancer risk. This article describes the many gene panel testing options clinically available to assess inherited cancer susceptibility, the potential advantages and challenges associated with various types of panels, clinical scenarios in which gene panels may be particularly useful in cancer risk assessment, and testing and counseling considerations. Given the potential issues for patients and their families, gene panel testing for inherited cancer risk is recommended to be offered in conjunction or consultation with an experienced cancer genetic specialist, such as a certified genetic counselor or geneticist, as an integral part of the testing process. Copyright © 2014 by the National Comprehensive Cancer Network.

  4. Gender disparities in flood risk perception and preparedness: a Serbian case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cvetković, Vladimir M.; Roder, Giulia; Tarolli, Paolo; Öcal, Adem; Ronan, Kevin; Dragićević, Slavoljub

    2017-04-01

    The catastrophic flood occurred in Serbia in 2014 was one of the most critical events registered in the Balkan area in the last decades. The procedures for evacuation have been tough to manage indicating a low level of perception and preparedness towards flood events. Also, the failure in the response phase showed a gender unbalance, where information did not reach men and women equally. Urgently, the Council for Gender Equality Government of the Republic of Serbia held an extraordinary meeting dedicated to the flood planning and emergency support in a gendered perspective. It concluded with the necessity of developing more gender-sensitive statistics, indicators of vulnerability, reconstruction and recovery to floods. For these reasons, we conducted an extensive interview to underlined the differences in risk perception and preparedness actions of both women and men regarding flood events in Serbia. 2500 face-to-face interviews have been conducted in 27 out of 150 municipalities being a good representative sample of the country with the use of a multi-stage random sample. The research findings indicated that is a gender disparity among men and women both in the perception than in the preparedness actions toward floods. Men seemed to be more confident in their abilities to cope with flooding, assessing a greater individual and household preparedness. This could be ascribable to their active involvement in the army where young men were educated to manage emergency situations. They displayed more trust in themselves rather than external agencies or organisation, and this could result in a general mistrust on institutions and planned evacuations. On the other hand, women displayed larger sensitivity and knowledge to these events, however, this did not translate into a capacity to react. It has been assumed that their work as child-carers and housekeepers made them unable to create a strong social network within the community being less informed and involved in the

  5. Increased cancer risk in patients with periodontitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dizdar, Omer; Hayran, Mutlu; Guven, Deniz Can; Yılmaz, Tolga Birtan; Taheri, Sahand; Akman, Abdullah C; Bilgin, Emre; Hüseyin, Beril; Berker, Ezel

    2017-12-01

    Previous studies have noted a possible association between periodontal diseases and the risk of various cancers. We assessed cancer risk in a cohort of patients with moderate to severe periodontitis. Patients diagnosed with moderate to severe periodontitis by a periodontist between 2001 and 2010 were identified from the hospital registry. Patients younger than 35 years of age or with a prior cancer diagnosis were excluded. The age- and gender-standardized incidence rates (SIR) were calculated by dividing the number of observed cases by the number of expected cases from Turkish National Cancer Registry 2013 data. A total of 280 patients were included (median age 49.6, 54% female). Median follow-up was 12 years. Twenty-five new cancer cases were observed. Patients with periodontitis had 77% increased risk of cancer (SIR 1.77, 95% CI 1.17-2.58, p = .004). Women with periodontitis had significantly higher risk of breast cancer (SIR 2.40, 95% CI 0.88-5.33) and men with periodontitis had significantly higher risk of prostate cancer (SIR 3.75, 95% CI 0.95-10.21) and hematological cancers (SIR 6.97, 95% CI 1.77-18.98). Although showing a causal association necessitates further investigation, our results support the idea that periodontitis might be associated with increased cancer risk, particularly with hematological, breast and prostate cancers.

  6. Genetic cancer risk assessment in practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruber, S.

    2004-01-01

    The advent of genetic testing has made a dramatic impact on the management of individuals with inherited susceptibility to cancer and their relatives. Genetic counsel ing, with or without testing, is warranted when clues to familial cancer are recognized. Today, genetic testing for classic cancer genetic syndromes is now the standard of care, and has been complemented by genetic testing for other situations commonly encountered in clinical practice. Genetic testing for colorectal cancer, breast cancer, kidney cancer, thyroid cancer, melanoma, and pancreatic cancer raise important issues about the parameters for testing. Genetic cancer risk assessment can lead to measurable reductions in morbidity and mortality through strategies that rely on surveillance, chemo prevention, and risk-reducing surgery

  7. Health Disparities

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health and Health Disparities conduct transdisciplinary research involving social, behavioral, biological, and genetic research to improve knowledge of the causes of health disparities and devise effective methods of preventing, diagnosing, and treating disease and promoting ...

  8. Educational Health Disparities in Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors: Findings from Jamaica Health and Lifestyle Survey 2007–2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trevor S. Ferguson

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available ObjectivesSocioeconomic disparities in health have emerged as an important area in public health, but studies from Afro-Caribbean populations are uncommon. In this study, we report on educational health disparities in cardiovascular disease (CVD risk factors (hypertension, diabetes mellitus, hypercholesterolemia, and obesity, among Jamaican adults.MethodsWe analyzed data from the Jamaica Health and Lifestyle Survey 2007–2008. Trained research staff administered questionnaires and obtained measurements of blood pressure, anthropometrics, glucose and cholesterol. CVD risk factors were defined by internationally accepted cut-points. Educational level was classified as primary or lower, junior secondary, full secondary, and post-secondary. Educational disparities were assessed using age-adjusted or age-specific prevalence ratios and prevalence differences obtained from Poisson regression models. Post-secondary education was used as the reference category for all comparisons. Analyses were weighted for complex survey design to yield nationally representative estimates.ResultsThe sample included 678 men and 1,553 women with mean age of 39.4 years. The effect of education on CVD risk factors differed between men and women and by age group among women. Age-adjusted prevalence of diabetes mellitus was higher among men with less education, with prevalence differences ranging from 6.9 to 7.4 percentage points (p < 0.05 for each group. Prevalence ratios for diabetes among men ranged from 3.3 to 3.5 but were not statistically significant. Age-specific prevalence of hypertension was generally higher among the less educated women, with statistically significant prevalence differences ranging from 6.0 to 45.6 percentage points and prevalence ratios ranging from 2.5 to 4.3. Similarly, estimates for obesity and hypercholesterolemia suggested that prevalence was higher among the less educated younger women (25–39 years and among more educated older

  9. Outcome disparities in African American women with triple negative breast cancer: a comparison of epidemiological and molecular factors between African American and Caucasian women with triple negative breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sturtz, Lori A; Melley, Jen; Mamula, Kim; Shriver, Craig D; Ellsworth, Rachel E

    2014-01-01

    Although diagnosed less often, breast cancer in African American women (AAW) displays different characteristics compared to breast cancer in Caucasian women (CW), including earlier onset, less favorable clinical outcome, and an aggressive tumor phenotype. These disparities may be attributed to differences in socioeconomic factors such as access to health care, lifestyle, including increased frequency of obesity in AAW, and tumor biology, especially the higher frequency of triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) in young AAW. Improved understanding of the etiology and molecular characteristics of TNBC in AAW is critical to determining whether and how TNBC contributes to survival disparities in AAW. Demographic, pathological and survival data from AAW (n = 62) and CW (n = 98) with TNBC were analyzed using chi-square analysis, Student’s t-tests, and log-rank tests. Frozen tumor specimens were available from 57 of the TNBC patients (n = 23 AAW; n = 34 CW); RNA was isolated after laser microdissection of tumor cells and was hybridized to HG U133A 2.0 microarrays. Data were analyzed using ANOVA with FDR <0.05, >2-fold difference defining significance. The frequency of TNBC compared to all BC was significantly higher in AAW (28%) compared to CW (12%), however, significant survival and pathological differences were not detected between populations. Gene expression analysis revealed the tumors were more similar than different at the molecular level, with only CRYBB2P1, a pseudogene, differentially expressed between populations. Among demographic characteristics, AAW consumed significantly lower amounts of caffeine and alcohol, were less likely to breastfeed and more likely to be obese. These data suggest that TNBC in AAW is not a unique disease compared to TNBC in CW. Rather, higher frequency of TNBC in AAW may, in part, be attributable to the effects of lifestyle choices. Because these risk factors are modifiable, they provide new opportunities for the development of risk

  10. Identifying health disparities across the tobacco continuum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagan, Pebbles; Moolchan, Eric T; Lawrence, Deirdre; Fernander, Anita; Ponder, Paris K

    2007-10-01

    Few frameworks have addressed work-force diversity, inequities and inequalities as part of a comprehensive approach to eliminating tobacco-related health disparities. This paper summarizes the literature and describes the known disparities that exist along the tobacco disease continuum for minority racial and ethnic groups, those living in poverty, those with low education and blue-collar and service workers. The paper also discusses how work-force diversity, inequities in research practice and knowledge allocation and inequalities in access to and quality of health care are fundamental to addressing disparities in health. We examined the available scientific literature and existing public health reports to identify disparities across the tobacco disease continuum by minority racial/ethnic group, poverty status, education level and occupation. Results indicate that differences in risk indicators along the tobacco disease continuum do not explain fully tobacco-related cancer consequences among some minority racial/ethnic groups, particularly among the aggregate groups, blacks/African Americans and American Indians/Alaska Natives. The lack of within-race/ethnic group data and its interactions with socio-economic factors across the life-span contribute to the inconsistency we observe in the disease causal paradigm. More comprehensive models are needed to understand the relationships among disparities, social context, diversity, inequalities and inequities. A systematic approach will also help researchers, practitioners, advocates and policy makers determine critical points for interventions, the types of studies and programs needed and integrative approaches needed to eliminate tobacco-related disparities.

  11. Non-Hispanic Black-White disparities in pain and pain management among newly admitted nursing home residents with cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mack, Deborah S; Hunnicutt, Jacob N; Jesdale, Bill M; Lapane, Kate L

    2018-01-01

    Racial disparities in pain management persist across health care settings and likely extend into nursing homes. No recent studies have evaluated racial disparities in pain management among residents with cancer in nursing homes at time of admission. Using a cross-sectional study design, we compared reported pain and pain management between non-Hispanic White and non-Hispanic Black newly admitted nursing home residents with cancer (n=342,920) using the de-identified Minimum Data Set version 3.0. Pain management strategies included the use of scheduled analgesics, pro re nata analgesics, and non-pharmacological methods. Presence of pain was based on self-report when residents were able, and staff report when unable. Robust Poisson models provided estimates of adjusted prevalence ratios (aPR) and 95% CIs for reported pain and pain management strategies. Among nursing home residents with cancer, ~60% reported pain with non-Hispanic Blacks less likely to have both self-reported pain (aPR [Black versus White]: 0.98, 95% CI: 0.97-0.99) and staff-reported pain (aPR: 0.89, 95% CI: 0.86-0.93) documentation compared with Non-Hispanic Whites. While most residents received some pharmacologic pain management, Blacks were less likely to receive any compared with Whites (Blacks: 66.6%, Whites: 71.1%; aPR: 0.98, 95% CI: 0.97-0.99), consistent with differences in receipt of non-pharmacologic treatments (Blacks: 25.8%, Whites: 34.0%; aPR: 0.98, 95 CI%: 0.96-0.99). Less pain was reported for Black compared with White nursing home residents and White residents subsequently received more frequent pain management at admission. The extent to which unequal reporting and management of pain persists in nursing homes should be further explored.

  12. Predicting risk of cancer during HIV infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borges, Álvaro H; Silverberg, Michael J; Wentworth, Deborah

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the relationship between inflammatory [interleukin-6 (IL-6) and C-reactive protein (CRP)] and coagulation (D-dimer) biomarkers and cancer risk during HIV infection.......To investigate the relationship between inflammatory [interleukin-6 (IL-6) and C-reactive protein (CRP)] and coagulation (D-dimer) biomarkers and cancer risk during HIV infection....

  13. Hormonal contraception and risk of cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cibula, D.; Gompel, A.; Mueck, A.O.

    2011-01-01

    Fear from increased cancer risk is one of the most significant reasons for low acceptance of reliable contraceptive methods and low compliance.......Fear from increased cancer risk is one of the most significant reasons for low acceptance of reliable contraceptive methods and low compliance....

  14. Hormonal contraception and risk of cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cibula, D; Gompel, A; Mueck, A O

    2010-01-01

    Fear from increased cancer risk is one of the most significant reasons for low acceptance of reliable contraceptive methods and low compliance.......Fear from increased cancer risk is one of the most significant reasons for low acceptance of reliable contraceptive methods and low compliance....

  15. Statin use and risk for ovarian cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baandrup, L; Dehlendorff, C; Friis, Søren

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Limited data suggest that statin use reduces the risk for ovarian cancer. METHODS: Using Danish nationwide registries, we identified 4103 cases of epithelial ovarian cancer during 2000-2011 and age-matched them to 58,706 risk-set sampled controls. Conditional logistic regression....... The inverse association between statin use and mucinous tumours merits further investigation....

  16. Estimating the Risks of Breast Cancer Radiotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taylor, Carolyn; Correa, Candace; Duane, Frances K

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Radiotherapy reduces the absolute risk of breast cancer mortality by a few percentage points in suitable women but can cause a second cancer or heart disease decades later. We estimated the absolute long-term risks of modern breast cancer radiotherapy. Methods First, a systematic literature...... review was performed of lung and heart doses in breast cancer regimens published during 2010 to 2015. Second, individual patient data meta-analyses of 40,781 women randomly assigned to breast cancer radiotherapy versus no radiotherapy in 75 trials yielded rate ratios (RRs) for second primary cancers...... and cause-specific mortality and excess RRs (ERRs) per Gy for incident lung cancer and cardiac mortality. Smoking status was unavailable. Third, the lung or heart ERRs per Gy in the trials and the 2010 to 2015 doses were combined and applied to current smoker and nonsmoker lung cancer and cardiac mortality...

  17. Coffee and cancer risk: a summary overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alicandro, Gianfranco; Tavani, Alessandra; La Vecchia, Carlo

    2017-09-01

    We reviewed available evidence on coffee drinking and the risk of all cancers and selected cancers updated to May 2016. Coffee consumption is not associated with overall cancer risk. A meta-analysis reported a pooled relative risk (RR) for an increment of 1 cup of coffee/day of 1.00 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.99-1.01] for all cancers. Coffee drinking is associated with a reduced risk of liver cancer. A meta-analysis of cohort studies found an RR for an increment of consumption of 1 cup/day of 0.85 (95% CI: 0.81-0.90) for liver cancer and a favorable effect on liver enzymes and cirrhosis. Another meta-analysis showed an inverse relation for endometrial cancer risk, with an RR of 0.92 (95% CI: 0.88-0.96) for an increment of 1 cup/day. A possible decreased risk was found in some studies for oral/pharyngeal cancer and for advanced prostate cancer. Although data are mixed, overall, there seems to be some favorable effect of coffee drinking on colorectal cancer in case-control studies, in the absence of a consistent relation in cohort studies. For bladder cancer, the results are not consistent; however, any possible direct association is not dose and duration related, and might depend on a residual confounding effect of smoking. A few studies suggest an increased risk of childhood leukemia after maternal coffee drinking during pregnancy, but data are limited and inconsistent. Although the results of studies are mixed, the overall evidence suggests no association of coffee intake with cancers of the stomach, pancreas, lung, breast, ovary, and prostate overall. Data are limited, with RR close to unity for other neoplasms, including those of the esophagus, small intestine, gallbladder and biliary tract, skin, kidney, brain, thyroid, as well as for soft tissue sarcoma and lymphohematopoietic cancer.

  18. Combination antiretroviral therapy and cancer risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borges, Álvaro H

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To review the newest research about the effects of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) on cancer risk. RECENT FINDINGS: HIV+ persons are at increased risk of cancer. As this risk is higher for malignancies driven by viral and bacterial coinfections, classifying malignanci......ART initiation in reducing cancer risk, understand the relationship between long-term cART exposure and cancer incidence and assess whether adjuvant anti-inflammatory therapies can reduce cancer risk during treated HIV infection.......PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To review the newest research about the effects of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) on cancer risk. RECENT FINDINGS: HIV+ persons are at increased risk of cancer. As this risk is higher for malignancies driven by viral and bacterial coinfections, classifying malignancies...... into infection-related and infection-unrelated has been an emerging trend. Cohorts have detected major reductions in the incidence of Kaposi sarcoma and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) following cART initiation among immunosuppressed HIV+ persons. However, recent randomized data indicate that cART reduces risk...

  19. Breast and cervical cancer screening disparity among Asian American women: does race/ethnicity matter [corrected]?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hee Yun; Ju, Eunsu; Vang, Pa Der; Lundquist, Melissa

    2010-10-01

    Ethnic minorities are frequently considered as one homogeneous group in research, and this trend is particularly true for Asian Americans. This article seeks to uncover the intragroup differences in cancer screening behavior among subgroups of Asian American women by disaggregating them into six subgroups. The subgroups were compared with non-Latina white women to examine differences in breast and cancer screening rates and relevant factors associated with receiving these screenings. Three-year merged data from the 2001, 2003, and 2005 California Health Interview Survey (CHIS) were used to investigate the subgroup differences. Samples for the current study were restricted to non-Latina white and Asian American women whose age was ≥ 18 years (n = 58,000) for cervical cancer screening and ≥ 40 years (n = 43,518) for breast cancer screening at the time of the interview. Results showed marked differences in cancer screening rates among Asian American subgroups and between cancer types. Cervical cancer screening rates were noticeably higher than breast cancer screening rates in all groups. The Korean group consistently showed the lowest rates of both cancer screenings. Japanese ranked the highest (79.5%) in breast cancer screening but the second lowest (79.7%) in cervical cancer screening. Enabling factors, such as having private health insurance and a usual source of care, were found to be the strongest predictors of receiving both breast and cervical cancer screening. Screenings for both types of cancer increased if a woman was married or was born in the United States. The findings of this study illustrate the heterogeneity that exists among Asian American subgroups in their cancer screening behaviors. Further development of culturally relevant and ethnic-specific cancer prevention strategies and policies that address the subgroup differences within the larger racial/ethnic population are needed. Public health outreach and cancer education should be prioritized to

  20. Disparities in Gynecological Malignancies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudeshna eChatterjee

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Health disparities and inequalities in access to care among different socioeconomic, ethnic, and racial groups have been well documented in the U.S. healthcare system. In this review, we aimed to provide an overview of barriers to care contributing to health disparities in gynecological oncology management and to describe site-specific disparities in gynecologic care for endometrial, ovarian, and cervical cancer. Methods: We performed a literature review of peer-reviewed academic and governmental publications focusing on disparities in gynecological care in the United States by searching PubMed and Google Scholar electronic databases. Results: There are multiple important underlying issues that may contribute to the disparities in gynecological oncology management in the United States, namely geographic access and hospital based-discrepancies, research-based discrepancies, influence of socioeconomic and health insurance status, and finally the influence of race and biological factors. Despite the reduction in overall cancer-related deaths since the 1990s, the 5-year survival for Black women is significantly lower than for White women for each gynecologic cancer type and each stage of diagnosis. For ovarian and endometrial cancer, black patients are less likely to receive treatment consistent with evidence-based guidelines and have worse survival outcomes even after accounting for stage and comorbidities. For cervical and endometrial cancer, the mortality rate for black women remains twice that of White women. Conclusions: Health care disparities in the incidence and outcome of gynecologic cancers are complex and involve biologic factors as well as racial, socioeconomic and geographic barriers that influence treatment and survival. These barriers must be addressed to provide optimal care to women in the U.S. with gynecologic cancer.

  1. Disparities in location of death of adolescents and young adults with cancer: A longitudinal, population study in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajeshuni, Nitya; Johnston, Emily E; Saynina, Olga; Sanders, Lee M; Chamberlain, Lisa J

    2017-11-01

    Patients with a terminal illness should have access to their chosen location of death. Cancer is the leading cause of non-accidental death among adolescents and young adults (AYAs; those aged 15-39 years). Although surveys have suggested that a majority of these patients prefer a home death, to the authors' knowledge, little is known regarding their barriers to accessing their preferred location of death. As a first step, the authors sought to determine, across a large population, 20-year trends in the location of death among AYA patients with cancer. Using the Vital Statistics Death Certificate Database of the California Office of Statewide Health Planning and Development, the authors performed a retrospective, population-based analysis of California patients with cancer aged 15 to 39 years who died between 1989 and 2011. Sociodemographic and clinical factors associated with hospital death were examined using multivariable logistic regression. Of 30,573 AYA oncology decedents, 57% died in a hospital, 33% died at home, and 10% died in other locations (eg, hospice facility or nursing facility). Between 1989 and 1994, hospital death rates decreased from 68.3% to 53.6% and at-home death rates increased from 16.8% to 35.5%. Between 1995 and 2011, these rates were stable. Those individuals who were more likely to die in a hospital were those aged deaths occurred in a hospital, with a 5-year shift to more in-home deaths that abated after 1995. In-hospital deaths were more common among younger patients, patients of minority race/ethnicities, and those with a leukemia or lymphoma diagnosis. Further study is needed to determine whether these rates and disparities are consistent with patient preferences. Cancer 2017;123:4178-4184. © 2017 American Cancer Society. © 2017 American Cancer Society.

  2. Interactions among genes, tumor biology and the environment in cancer health disparities: examining the evidence on a national and global scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Tiffany A; Martin, Damali N; Ambs, Stefan

    2011-08-01

    Cancer incidence and mortality rates show great variations across nations and between population groups. These variations are largely explained by differences in age distribution, diet and lifestyle, access to health care, cultural barriers and exposure to carcinogens and pathogens. Cancers caused by infections are significantly more common in developing than developed countries, and they overproportionally affect immigrant populations in the USA and other countries. The global pattern of cancer is not stagnant. Instead, it is dynamic because of fluctuations in the age distribution of populations, improvements in cancer prevention and early detection in affluent countries and rapid changes in diet and lifestyle in parts of the world. For example, increased smoking rates have caused tobacco-induced cancers to rise in various Asian countries, whereas reduced smoking rates have caused these cancers to plateau or even begin to decline in Western Europe and North America. Some population groups experience a disproportionally high cancer burden. In the USA and the Caribbean, cancer incidence and mortality rates are excessively high in populations of African ancestry when compared with other population groups. The causes of this disparity are multifaceted and may include tumor biological and genetic factors and their interaction with the environment. In this review, we will discuss the magnitude and causes of global cancer health disparities and will, with a focus on African-Americans and selected cancer sites, evaluate the evidence that genetic and tumor biological factors contribute to existing cancer incidence and outcome differences among population groups in the USA.

  3. Cancer treatment disparities in HIV-infected individuals in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suneja, Gita; Shiels, Meredith S; Angulo, Rory; Copeland, Glenn E; Gonsalves, Lou; Hakenewerth, Anne M; Macomber, Kathryn E; Melville, Sharon K; Engels, Eric A

    2014-08-01

    HIV-infected individuals with cancer have worse survival rates compared with their HIV-uninfected counterparts. One explanation may be differing cancer treatment; however, few studies have examined this. We used HIV and cancer registry data from Connecticut, Michigan, and Texas to study adults diagnosed with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, Hodgkin's lymphoma, or cervical, lung, anal, prostate, colorectal, or breast cancers from 1996 to 2010. We used logistic regression to examine associations between HIV status and cancer treatment, adjusted for cancer stage and demographic covariates. For a subset of local-stage cancers, we used logistic regression to assess the relationship between HIV status and standard treatment modality. We identified predictors of cancer treatment among individuals with both HIV and cancer. We evaluated 3,045 HIV-infected patients with cancer and 1,087,648 patients with cancer without HIV infection. A significantly higher proportion of HIV-infected individuals did not receive cancer treatment for diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL; adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 1.67; 95% CI, 1.41 to 1.99), lung cancer (aOR, 2.18; 95% CI, 1.80 to 2.64), Hodgkin's lymphoma (aOR, 1.77; 95% CI, 1.33 to 2.37), prostate cancer (aOR, 1.79; 95% CI, 1.31 to 2.46), and colorectal cancer (aOR, 2.27; 95% CI, 1.38 to 3.72). HIV infection was associated with a lack of standard treatment modality for local-stage DLBCL (aOR, 2.02; 95% CI, 1.50 to 2.72), non-small-cell lung cancer (aOR, 2.43; 95% CI, 1.46 to 4.03), and colon cancer (aOR, 4.77; 95% CI, 1.76 to 12.96). Among HIV-infected individuals, factors independently associated with lack of cancer treatment included low CD4 count, male sex with injection drug use as mode of HIV exposure, age 45 to 64 years, black race, and distant or unknown cancer stage. HIV-infected individuals are less likely to receive treatment for some cancers than uninfected people, which may affect survival rates. © 2014 by American Society of Clinical

  4. Risk determination and prevention of breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, Anthony; Anderson, Annie S; Clarke, Robert B; Duffy, Stephen W; Evans, D Gareth; Garcia-Closas, Montserat; Gescher, Andy J; Key, Timothy J; Saxton, John M; Harvie, Michelle N

    2014-09-28

    Breast cancer is an increasing public health problem. Substantial advances have been made in the treatment of breast cancer, but the introduction of methods to predict women at elevated risk and prevent the disease has been less successful. Here, we summarize recent data on newer approaches to risk prediction, available approaches to prevention, how new approaches may be made, and the difficult problem of using what we already know to prevent breast cancer in populations. During 2012, the Breast Cancer Campaign facilitated a series of workshops, each covering a specialty area of breast cancer to identify gaps in our knowledge. The risk-and-prevention panel involved in this exercise was asked to expand and update its report and review recent relevant peer-reviewed literature. The enlarged position paper presented here highlights the key gaps in risk-and-prevention research that were identified, together with recommendations for action. The panel estimated from the relevant literature that potentially 50% of breast cancer could be prevented in the subgroup of women at high and moderate risk of breast cancer by using current chemoprevention (tamoxifen, raloxifene, exemestane, and anastrozole) and that, in all women, lifestyle measures, including weight control, exercise, and moderating alcohol intake, could reduce breast cancer risk by about 30%. Risk may be estimated by standard models potentially with the addition of, for example, mammographic density and appropriate single-nucleotide polymorphisms. This review expands on four areas: (a) the prediction of breast cancer risk, (b) the evidence for the effectiveness of preventive therapy and lifestyle approaches to prevention, (c) how understanding the biology of the breast may lead to new targets for prevention, and (d) a summary of published guidelines for preventive approaches and measures required for their implementation. We hope that efforts to fill these and other gaps will lead to considerable advances in our

  5. ABO blood group and risk of cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vasan, Senthil K; Hwang, Jinseub; Rostgaard, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    groups and site-specific cancer risk in a large cohort of healthy blood donors from Sweden and Denmark. RESULTS: A total of 1.6 million donors were followed over 27 million person-years (20 million in Sweden and 7 million in Denmark). We observed 119,584 cancer cases. Blood groups A, AB and B were......INTRODUCTION: The associations between ABO blood group and cancer risk have been studied repeatedly, but results have been variable. Consistent associations have only been reported for pancreatic and gastric cancers. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We estimated associations between different ABO blood...... associated either with increased or decreased risk of cancer at 13 anatomical sites (p≤0.05), compared to blood group O. Consistent with assessment using a false discovery rate approach, significant associations with ABO blood group were observed for cancer of the pancreas, breast, and upper gastrointestinal...

  6. Review of radon and lung cancer risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samet, J.M.; Hornung, R.W.

    1990-01-01

    Radon, a long-established cause of lung cancer in uranium and other underground miners, has recently emerged as a potentially important cause of lung cancer in the general population. The evidence for widespread exposure of the population to radon and the well-documented excess of lung cancer among underground miners exposed to radon decay products have raised concern that exposure to radon progeny might also be a cause of lung cancer in the general population. To date, epidemiological data on the lung cancer risk associated with environmental exposure to radon have been limited. Consequently, the lung cancer hazard posed by radon exposure in indoor air has been addressed primarily through risk estimation procedures. The quantitative risks of lung cancer have been estimated using exposure-response relations derived from the epidemiological investigations of uranium and other underground miners. We review five of the more informative studies of miners and recent risk projection models for excess lung cancer associated with radon. The principal models differ substantially in their underlying assumptions and consequently in the resulting risk projections. The resulting diversity illustrates the substantial uncertainty that remains concerning the most appropriate model of the temporal pattern of radon-related lung cancer. Animal experiments, further follow-up of the miner cohorts, and well-designed epidemiological studies of indoor exposure should reduce this uncertainty. 18 references

  7. Helicobacter pylori Diversity and Gastric Cancer Risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy L. Cover

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Gastric cancer is a leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide. Helicobacter pylori infection is the strongest known risk factor for this malignancy. An important goal is to identify H. pylori-infected persons at high risk for gastric cancer, so that these individuals can be targeted for therapeutic intervention. H. pylori exhibits a high level of intraspecies genetic diversity, and over the past two decades, many studies have endeavored to identify strain-specific features of H. pylori that are linked to development of gastric cancer. One of the most prominent differences among H. pylori strains is the presence or absence of a 40-kb chromosomal region known as the cag pathogenicity island (PAI. Current evidence suggests that the risk of gastric cancer is very low among persons harboring H. pylori strains that lack the cag PAI. Among persons harboring strains that contain the cag PAI, the risk of gastric cancer is shaped by a complex interplay among multiple strain-specific bacterial factors as well as host factors. This review discusses the strain-specific properties of H. pylori that correlate with increased gastric cancer risk, focusing in particular on secreted proteins and surface-exposed proteins, and describes evidence from cell culture and animal models linking these factors to gastric cancer pathogenesis. Strain-specific features of H. pylori that may account for geographic variation in gastric cancer incidence are also discussed.

  8. Sexual Health Risk Behavior Disparities Among Male and Female Adolescents Using Identity and Behavior Indicators of Sexual Orientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul Poteat, V; Russell, Stephen T; Dewaele, Alexis

    2017-12-04

    Sexual minority adolescent sexual risk behavior studies often overlook young women, do not consider behavior- and identity-based sexual orientation indicators in combination, and focus mainly on condomless sex. We examined multiple risk behaviors in a large sample of adolescent young men and women using combined behavior- and identity-based indices. The 2015 Dane County Youth Assessment data included 4734 students in 22 high schools who had ever voluntarily engaged in sexual contact (51.7% male; 76.0% White, non-Hispanic). Items assessed having sex with unfamiliar partners, sex while using substances, using protection, and STI testing. Logistic regressions tested for disparities based on combined identity- and behavior-based sexual orientation indicators. For both young men and women, youth who reported heterosexual or questioning identities-but who had sex with same-sex partners-were at consistently greater risk than heterosexual youth with only different-sex partners. Also, for both young men and women, bisexuals with partners of both sexes more consistently reported higher risk than heterosexual youth than did bisexuals with only different-sex partners. Risk behavior for gay young men who had sex only with men mirrored those in extant literature. Risk levels differed for specific groups of sexual minority young women, thus deserving further attention. Findings underscore the need for sexual health research to consider sexual orientation in a more multidimensional manner.

  9. Disparities in Intratumoral Steroidogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-01

    cancer. The reasons for this racial disparity in prostate cancer incidence and mortality are unknown but may stem from economic , social, psychological...them are elevated in the prostate tumors of African American men. We further hypothesize that elevated cholesterol, which is an essential component of...cancer promotional effects of high cholesterol. Essentially , we anticipate the level of cholesterol reduction needed to protect the prostate will be

  10. Awareness of risk factors for cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lagerlund, Magdalena; Hvidberg, Line; Hajdarevic, Senada

    2015-01-01

    Background: Sweden and Denmark are neighbouring countries with similarities in culture, healthcare, and economics, yet notable differences in cancer statistics. A crucial component of primary prevention is high awareness of risk factors in the general public. We aimed to determine and compare...... awareness of risk factors for cancer between a Danish and a Swedish population sample, and to examine whether there are differences in awareness across age groups. Methods: Data derive from Module 2 of the International Cancer Benchmarking Partnership. Telephone interviews were conducted with 3000 adults...... in Denmark and 3070 in Sweden using the Awareness and Beliefs about Cancer measure. Data reported here relate to awareness of 13 prompted risk factors for cancer. Prevalence ratios with 95 % confidence intervals were calculated to examine associations between country, age, and awareness of risk factors...

  11. Does Metformin Reduce Cancer Risks? Methodologic Considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golozar, Asieh; Liu, Shuiqing; Lin, Joeseph A; Peairs, Kimberly; Yeh, Hsin-Chieh

    2016-01-01

    The substantial burden of cancer and diabetes and the association between the two conditions has been a motivation for researchers to look for targeted strategies that can simultaneously affect both diseases and reduce their overlapping burden. In the absence of randomized clinical trials, researchers have taken advantage of the availability and richness of administrative databases and electronic medical records to investigate the effects of drugs on cancer risk among diabetic individuals. The majority of these studies suggest that metformin could potentially reduce cancer risk. However, the validity of this purported reduction in cancer risk is limited by several methodological flaws either in the study design or in the analysis. Whether metformin use decreases cancer risk relies heavily on the availability of valid data sources with complete information on confounders, accurate assessment of drug use, appropriate study design, and robust analytical techniques. The majority of the observational studies assessing the association between metformin and cancer risk suffer from methodological shortcomings and efforts to address these issues have been incomplete. Future investigations on the association between metformin and cancer risk should clearly address the methodological issues due to confounding by indication, prevalent user bias, and time-related biases. Although the proposed strategies do not guarantee a bias-free estimate for the association between metformin and cancer, they will reduce synthesis of and reporting of erroneous results.

  12. Differential Splicing of Oncogenes and Tumor Suppressor Genes in African- and Caucasian-American Populations: Contributing Factor in Prostate Cancer Disparities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    for this collection of information is estimated to average 1 hour per response, including the time for reviewing instructions, searching existing data...Olender (PhD graduate student) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER E-Mail: nhlee@gwu. edu 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION...inhibitory effects of idelalisib. 15. SUBJECT TERMS prostate cancer, cancer health disparities, alternative splicing, African American, European

  13. Unraveling the etiology of ovarian cancer racial disparity in the deep south: Is it nature or nurture?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Jerlinda; Braswell, Katelyn V; Madeira da Silva, Luciana; Mujica, Frances; Stutsman, Sam; Finan, Michael A; Nicolson, William; Harmon, Mary Danner; Missanelli, Megan; Cohen, Alex; Singh, Ajay; Scalici, Jennifer M; Rocconi, Rodney P

    2017-05-01

    Our objective was to evaluate racial treatment and survival disparities in black women with ovarian cancer in the Deep South and to determine how environmental factors / socioeconomic status (SES) influence survival. A retrospective study of ovarian cancer patients from 2007 to 2014 was performed. Socioeconomic status (SES) was obtained though U.S. Census block data and compared using Yost scores. Comparisons were performed using standard statistical approaches. A total of 393 patients were evaluated, 325 (83%) white and 68 (17%) black. Demographic information and surgical approach were similar in each racial group. However, compared to whites, black patients had lower rates of optimal debulking [89% vs. 71%, respectively (p=0.001)] and intraperitoneal chemotherapy (19% vs. 11%, p=0.01). Black women had lower SES parameters including education, income, and poverty. As a result, more black patients had the lowest SES (SES-1) when compared to white patients (17% vs. 41%, pvs. 27months, p=0.003) and overall survival (42 vs. 88months, p<0.001). Despite controlling for clinical and environmental factors, a survival disadvantage was still observed in black patients with ovarian cancer in the Deep South. Black women had lower optimal debulking rates and more platinum resistant disease. These data suggest other factors like tumor biology may play a role in racial survival differences, however, more research is needed to determine this causation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Genetic Variations in SLCO Transporter Genes Contributing to Racial Disparity in Aggressiveness of Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    Overlap: None Title: Prostate Cancer : Transition to Androgen Independence, Project 1: Interference with the Androgen Receptor and Its Ligands...apoptotic markers in prostate cancer . This study will investigate the underlying mechanisms by which glutamate receptor antagonist down regulates...Title: Metabotropic Glutamate Receptor 1 in African American Prostate Cancer (1R21CA183892-01) Time Commitment: 0.30 Calendar Months (PI

  15. Effectiveness of a social marketing media campaign to reduce oral cancer racial disparities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Jennifer M; Tomar, Scott L; Dodd, Virginia; Logan, Henrietta L; Choi, Youjin

    2009-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to provide a systematic evaluation of a theory-driven oral cancer awareness media campaign. We surveyed a cohort of residents in an intervention city (250) and a control city (250) immediately prior to and after the media campaign. Participants (125 black/African American and 125 white) in each city completed surveys at baseline and follow-up. Oral cancer campaign awareness was assessed in both cities, along with 4 hypothetical health campaigns. Oral cancer awareness, oral cancer exam awareness, intent to receive an oral cancer exam, interest in exam, and receipt of exam were also assessed in both cities, both at baseline and follow-up. Intervention city residents showed a significant increase in recognition of the campaign, awareness of the oral cancer exam, and interest in getting an exam, while no significant changes in those topics were found for the control city. Blacks/African Americans in the intervention city were significantly more likely than whites to demonstrate increases in awareness of the campaign, oral cancer awareness, and interest in receiving an oral cancer exam. A theory-driven media campaign was successful in increasing awareness of the oral cancer exam and interest in the exam among blacks/African Americans.

  16. Immunosuppression and risk of cervical cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dugué, Pierre-Antoine; Rebolj, Matejka; Garred, Peter

    2013-01-01

    -stage renal disease seem to be at an increased risk of cervical cancer. A higher risk of cervical precancerous lesions was found in patients with some autoimmune diseases; particularly if treated with immunosuppressants. Among behavioral factors weakening the immune system, smoking appeared to strongly...... increase the risk of cervical cancer, while poor diet only moderately increased the risk. It is difficult to determine whether sexually transmitted infections other than human papillomavirus infection are independent risk factors. Identifying those groups of women likely to fail in clearing persistent...

  17. Disparities in cervical cancer screening between Asian American and Non-Hispanic white women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Judy H; Sheppard, Vanessa B; Schwartz, Marc D; Liang, Wenchi; Mandelblatt, Jeanne S

    2008-08-01

    Asian American women have higher cervical cancer mortality rates than non-Hispanic White women, yet have lower Pap screening rates than their White counterparts. This study examined whether ethnic differences in the use of Pap screening were associated with differences in cultural views, controlling for demographic and access factors. Cross-sectional survey data from the Commonwealth 2001 Health Care Quality Survey were used. Non-Hispanic White (n = 2,146) and Asian American women (including Chinese, Vietnamese, Korean, Filipino, and Japanese; n = 259) were included in this study. Eastern cultural views were measured by beliefs in the role of self-care and luck. Access factors (having health insurance, regular providers, and communication with providers) and demographics of patients and providers were measured. The outcome was receipt of a Pap test in the past 2 years. Asian American women had a lower rate of obtaining a recent Pap test (70%) than non-Hispanic White women (81%; P = 0.001). More Asians believed in the role of luck and self-care and experienced access barriers than Whites (P cultural views are more likely to be recently screened than women with more (odds ratio, 1.08; 95% confidence interval, 1.00-1.16; P Asian subgroups, Vietnamese women had lower screening rates (55%) and greater Eastern cultural views than their Asian counterparts. More research is needed to understand cultural and other barriers to Pap screening in high-risk Asian women, and attention should be paid to within-group differences.

  18. Vitamin D, Sunlight and Prostate Cancer Risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishna Vanaja Donkena

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Prostate cancer is the second common cancer in men worldwide. The prevention of prostate cancer remains a challenge to researchers and clinicians. Here, we review the relationship of vitamin D and sunlight to prostate cancer risk. Ultraviolet radiation of the sunlight is the main stimulator for vitamin D production in humans. Vitamin D's antiprostate cancer activities may be involved in the actions through the pathways mediated by vitamin D metabolites, vitamin D metabolizing enzymes, vitamin D receptor (VDR, and VDR-regulated genes. Although laboratory studies including the use of animal models have shown that vitamin D has antiprostate cancer properties, whether it can effectively prevent the development and/or progression of prostate cancer in humans remains to be inconclusive and an intensively studied subject. This review will provide up-to-date information regarding the recent outcomes of laboratory and epidemiology studies on the effects of vitamin D on prostate cancer prevention.

  19. Use of disulfiram and risk of cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Askgaard, G.; Friis, S.; Hallas, J.

    2014-01-01

    ever-users (>= one prescription) of disulfiram. Cases were all Danish individuals with a histologically verified first-time diagnosis of malignant melanoma, breast, or prostate cancer during 2000-2009. For each case, we selected four cancer-free controls matched for age, sex, and year of first......Experimental studies have indicated that disulfiram (Antabuse) has antineoplastic effects against melanoma, breast, and prostate cancer. To explore this hypothesis, we examined the association between disulfiram use and these cancers in a nationwide register-based case-control study nested within...... disulfiram prescription using risk set sampling. Similarly, for secondary analyses, we selected case-control populations for selected tobacco-related and alcohol-related cancer types, that is, cancers of the buccal cavity, liver, lung, and colorectal cancer. Disulfiram use 1 year before cancer diagnosis...

  20. Korean risk assessment model for breast cancer risk prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Boyoung; Ma, Seung Hyun; Shin, Aesun; Chang, Myung-Chul; Choi, Ji-Yeob; Kim, Sungwan; Han, Wonshik; Noh, Dong-Young; Ahn, Sei-Hyun; Kang, Daehee; Yoo, Keun-Young; Park, Sue K

    2013-01-01

    We evaluated the performance of the Gail model for a Korean population and developed a Korean breast cancer risk assessment tool (KoBCRAT) based upon equations developed for the Gail model for predicting breast cancer risk. Using 3,789 sets of cases and controls, risk factors for breast cancer among Koreans were identified. Individual probabilities were projected using Gail's equations and Korean hazard data. We compared the 5-year and lifetime risk produced using the modified Gail model which applied Korean incidence and mortality data and the parameter estimators from the original Gail model with those produced using the KoBCRAT. We validated the KoBCRAT based on the expected/observed breast cancer incidence and area under the curve (AUC) using two Korean cohorts: the Korean Multicenter Cancer Cohort (KMCC) and National Cancer Center (NCC) cohort. The major risk factors under the age of 50 were family history, age at menarche, age at first full-term pregnancy, menopausal status, breastfeeding duration, oral contraceptive usage, and exercise, while those at and over the age of 50 were family history, age at menarche, age at menopause, pregnancy experience, body mass index, oral contraceptive usage, and exercise. The modified Gail model produced lower 5-year risk for the cases than for the controls (p = 0.017), while the KoBCRAT produced higher 5-year and lifetime risk for the cases than for the controls (pKorean women, especially urban women.

  1. Risk factors & screening modalities for oral cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chau, Steven

    2008-01-01

    Dentists are at the forefront for screening oral cancer. In addition to the well known carcinogenic potential of tobacco and alcohol, betel nut chewing and human papilloma virus are important risk factors in the development of oral cancer. To aid in screening and decreasing morbidity and mortality from oral cancer, a variety of techniques have been developed. These techniques show promise but they require additional investigations to determine their usefulness in oral cancer detection. Dentists need to be well educated and vigilant when dealing with all patients they encounter. Early detection, diagnosis and treatment are critical for the effective management of oral cancers.

  2. The 22Rv1 prostate cancer cell line carries mixed genetic ancestry: Implications for prostate cancer health disparities research using pre-clinical models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods-Burnham, Leanne; Basu, Anamika; Cajigas-Du Ross, Christina K; Love, Arthur; Yates, Clayton; De Leon, Marino; Roy, Sourav; Casiano, Carlos A

    2017-12-01

    Understanding how biological factors contribute to prostate cancer (PCa) health disparities requires mechanistic functional analysis of specific genes or pathways in pre-clinical cellular and animal models of this malignancy. The 22Rv1 human prostatic carcinoma cell line was originally derived from the parental CWR22R cell line. Although 22Rv1 has been well characterized and used in numerous mechanistic studies, no racial identifier has ever been disclosed for this cell line. In accordance with the need for racial diversity in cancer biospecimens and recent guidelines by the NIH on authentication of key biological resources, we sought to determine the ancestry of 22RV1 and authenticate previously reported racial identifications for four other PCa cell lines. We used 29 established Ancestry Informative Marker (AIM) single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) to conduct DNA ancestry analysis and assign ancestral proportions to a panel of five PCa cell lines that included 22Rv1, PC3, DU145, MDA-PCa-2b, and RC-77T/E. We found that 22Rv1 carries mixed genetic ancestry. The main ancestry proportions for this cell line were 0.41 West African (AFR) and 0.42 European (EUR). In addition, we verified the previously reported racial identifications for PC3 (0.73 EUR), DU145 (0.63 EUR), MDA-PCa-2b (0.73 AFR), and RC-77T/E (0.74 AFR) cell lines. Considering the mortality disparities associated with PCa, which disproportionately affect African American men, there remains a burden on the scientific community to diversify the availability of biospecimens, including cell lines, for mechanistic studies on potential biological mediators of these disparities. This study is beneficial by identifying another PCa cell line that carries substantial AFR ancestry. This finding may also open the door to new perspectives on previously published studies using this cell line. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Genetic toxicology and cancer risk assessment

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Choy, Wai Nang

    2001-01-01

    ... their risks to humans are obvious goals for the protection of public health. When exposure is unavoidable, an accurate estimation of human risk as a result of exposure is essential for making regulatory decisions. Quantitative cancer risk assessment is an intricate process that utilizes knowledge from many different scien...

  4. Cigarette smoking and risk of ovarian cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faber, Mette T; Kjær, Susanne K; Dehlendorff, Christian

    2013-01-01

    The majority of previous studies have observed an increased risk of mucinous ovarian tumors associated with cigarette smoking, but the association with other histological types is unclear. In a large pooled analysis, we examined the risk of epithelial ovarian cancer associated with multiple...... measures of cigarette smoking with a focus on characterizing risks according to tumor behavior and histology....

  5. Breast cancer epidemiology and risk factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broeders, M. J. M.; Verbeek, A. L. M.

    1997-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common malignancy among women in the Western society. Over the past decades it has become apparent that breast cancer incidence rates are increasing steadily, whereas the mortality rates for breast cancer have remained relatively constant. Information through the media on this rising number of cases has increased breast health awareness but has also introduced anxiety in the female population. This combination of factors has made the need for prevention of breast cancer an urgent matter. Breast cancer does not seem to be a single disease entity. A specific etiologic factor may therefore have more influence on one form may therefore have more influence on one form of breast cancer than another. So far though, as shown in their summary of current knowledge on established and dubious risk factors, no risk factors have been identified that can explain a major part of the incidence. Efforts to identify other ways for primary prevention have also been discouraging, even though breast cancer is one of the most investigated tumours world-wide. Thus, at this point i time, the most important strategy to reduce breast cancer mortality is early detection through individual counselling and organised breast screening programs. The recent isolation of breast cancer susceptibility genes may introduce new ways to reduce the risk of breast cancer in a small subset of women

  6. Increased stomach cancer risk following radiotherapy for testicular cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauptmann, M; Fossa, S D; Stovall, M

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Abdominal radiotherapy for testicular cancer (TC) increases risk for second stomach cancer, although data on the radiation dose-response relationship are sparse. METHODS: In a cohort of 22,269 5-year TC survivors diagnosed during 1959-1987, doses to stomach subsites were estimated...... for 92 patients who developed stomach cancer and 180 matched controls. Chemotherapy details were recorded. Odds ratios (ORs) were estimated using logistic regression. RESULTS: Cumulative incidence of second primary stomach cancer was 1.45% at 30 years after TC diagnosis. The TC survivors who received...... radiotherapy (87 (95%) cases, 151 (84%) controls) had a 5.9-fold (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.7-20.7) increased risk of stomach cancer. Risk increased with increasing stomach dose (P-trend

  7. Is younger really safer? A qualitative study of perceived risks and benefits of age-disparate relationships among women in Cape Town, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beauclair, Roxanne; Delva, Wim

    2013-01-01

    Young women in age-asymmetric relationships may be at an elevated risk for acquisition of HIV, since relationships with older men are also correlated with other risk behaviors like less condom use. Qualitative studies have shown that women are motivated to participate in these relationships for money and emotional support. However, there is a paucity of research on women's perceived risks of these relationships, particularly in South Africa. To this end, we conducted in-depth interviews with 23 women recruited from three urban communities in Cape Town. A thematic question guide was used to direct the interviews. Thematic content analysis was used to explore women's perceived risks of age-disparate and non-age-disparate relationships, the benefits of dating older men, and risk perceptions that influence decisions around beginning or ending a relationship. A plurality of women thought that dating an older man does not bring any adverse consequences, although some thought that older men do not use condoms and may be involved in concurrent partnerships. Many women were less inclined to date same-age or younger men, because they were viewed as being disrespectful and abusive. This study points to the need for more awareness raising about the risks of age-disparate relationships. In addition to these initiatives, there is an urgent need to implement holistic approaches to relationship health, in order to curb intimate partner violence, improve gender equity and make non-age-disparate relationships more attractive.

  8. Is younger really safer? A qualitative study of perceived risks and benefits of age-disparate relationships among women in Cape Town, South Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roxanne Beauclair

    Full Text Available Young women in age-asymmetric relationships may be at an elevated risk for acquisition of HIV, since relationships with older men are also correlated with other risk behaviors like less condom use. Qualitative studies have shown that women are motivated to participate in these relationships for money and emotional support. However, there is a paucity of research on women's perceived risks of these relationships, particularly in South Africa. To this end, we conducted in-depth interviews with 23 women recruited from three urban communities in Cape Town. A thematic question guide was used to direct the interviews. Thematic content analysis was used to explore women's perceived risks of age-disparate and non-age-disparate relationships, the benefits of dating older men, and risk perceptions that influence decisions around beginning or ending a relationship. A plurality of women thought that dating an older man does not bring any adverse consequences, although some thought that older men do not use condoms and may be involved in concurrent partnerships. Many women were less inclined to date same-age or younger men, because they were viewed as being disrespectful and abusive. This study points to the need for more awareness raising about the risks of age-disparate relationships. In addition to these initiatives, there is an urgent need to implement holistic approaches to relationship health, in order to curb intimate partner violence, improve gender equity and make non-age-disparate relationships more attractive.

  9. Is Younger Really Safer? A Qualitative Study of Perceived Risks and Benefits of Age-Disparate Relationships among Women in Cape Town, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beauclair, Roxanne; Delva, Wim

    2013-01-01

    Young women in age-asymmetric relationships may be at an elevated risk for acquisition of HIV, since relationships with older men are also correlated with other risk behaviors like less condom use. Qualitative studies have shown that women are motivated to participate in these relationships for money and emotional support. However, there is a paucity of research on women’s perceived risks of these relationships, particularly in South Africa. To this end, we conducted in-depth interviews with 23 women recruited from three urban communities in Cape Town. A thematic question guide was used to direct the interviews. Thematic content analysis was used to explore women’s perceived risks of age-disparate and non-age-disparate relationships, the benefits of dating older men, and risk perceptions that influence decisions around beginning or ending a relationship. A plurality of women thought that dating an older man does not bring any adverse consequences, although some thought that older men do not use condoms and may be involved in concurrent partnerships. Many women were less inclined to date same-age or younger men, because they were viewed as being disrespectful and abusive. This study points to the need for more awareness raising about the risks of age-disparate relationships. In addition to these initiatives, there is an urgent need to implement holistic approaches to relationship health, in order to curb intimate partner violence, improve gender equity and make non-age-disparate relationships more attractive. PMID:24260585

  10. Early life risk factors for testicular cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Piltoft, Johanne Spanggaard; Larsen, Signe Benzon; Dalton, Susanne Oksbjerg

    2017-01-01

    of this study is to utilize data from the Copenhagen School Health Records Register (CSHRR) to evaluate cryptorchidism, birth weight and birth order as risk factors for testicular cancer. METHODS: The study population consisted of 408 cases of testicular cancer identified by a government issued identification...... in crude analyses [hazard ratio (HR) = 3.60, 95% CI 2.79-4.65]. Birth weight was inversely associated with testicular cancer and no clear association with birth order was observed. The positive association between cryptorchidism and testicular cancer was only slightly attenuated controlling for birth......PURPOSE: One established risk factors for testicular cancer is cryptorchidism. However, it remains unclear whether cryptorchidism is a risk factor in itself or whether the two conditions share common causes in early life (estrogen hypothesis), such as birth weight and birth order. The objective...

  11. Use of mobile phones and cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayanda, Olushola S; Baba, Alafara A; Ayanda, Omolola T

    2012-01-01

    Mobile phones work by transmitting and receiving radio frequency microwave radiation. The radio frequency (RF) emitted by mobile phones is stronger than FM radio signal which are known to cause cancer. Though research and evidence available on the risk of cancer by mobile phones does not provide a clear and direct support that mobile phones cause cancers. Evidence does not also support an association between exposure to radio frequency and microwave radiation from mobile phones and direct effects on health. It is however clear that lack of available evidence of cancer as regards the use of mobile phone should not be interpreted as proof of absence of cancer risk, so that excessive use of mobile phones should be taken very seriously and with caution to prevent cancer.

  12. Mitochondrial dysfunction and risk of cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, M; Melbye, M; Diaz, L J

    2015-01-01

    matrilineal relatives to a cohort member with a genetically confirmed maternally inherited mDNA mutation. Information on cancer was obtained by linkage to the Danish Cancer Register. Standardised incidence ratios (SIRs) were used to assess the relative risk of cancer. RESULTS: During 7334 person......-years of follow-up, 19 subjects developed a primary cancer. The corresponding SIR for any primary cancer was 1.06 (95% confidence interval 0.68-1.63). Subgroup analyses according to mutational subtype yielded similar results, for example, a SIR of 0.94 (95% CI 0.53 to 1.67) for the m.3243A>G maternally inherited...... mDNA mutation, cases=13. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with mitochondrial dysfunction do not appear to be at increased risk of cancer compared with the general population....

  13. Ethnic disparities in educational and occupational gradients of estimated cardiovascular disease risk: The Healthy Life in an Urban Setting study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perini, Wilco; Agyemang, Charles; Snijder, Marieke B; Peters, Ron J G; Kunst, Anton E

    2018-03-01

    European societies are becoming increasingly ethnically diverse. This may have important implications for socio-economic inequalities in health due to the often disadvantaged position of ethnic minority groups in both socio-economic status (SES) and disease, especially cardiovascular disease (CVD). The aim of this study was to determine whether the socio-economic gradient of estimated CVD risk differs between ethnic groups. Using the Healthy Life in an Urban Setting study, we obtained data on SES and CVD risk factors among participants from six ethnic backgrounds residing in Amsterdam. SES was measured using educational level and occupational level. CVD risk was estimated based on the occurrence of CVD risk factors using the Dutch version of the systematic coronary risk evaluation algorithm. Ethnic disparities in socio-economic gradients for estimated CVD risk were determined using the relative index of inequality (RII). Among Dutch-origin men, the RII for estimated CVD risk according to educational level was 6.15% (95% confidence interval [CI] 4.35-7.96%), indicating that those at the bottom of the educational hierarchy had a 6.15% higher estimated CVD risk relative than those at the top. Among Dutch-origin women, the RII was 4.49% (CI 2.45-6.52%). The RII was lower among ethnic minority groups, ranging from 0.83% to 3.13% among men and -0.29% to 5.12% among women, indicating weaker associations among these groups. Results were similar based on occupational level. Ethnic background needs to be considered in associations between SES and disease. The predictive value of SES varies between ethnic groups and may be quite poor for some groups.

  14. HIV Risk Among Adolescent Girls and Young Women in Age-Disparate Partnerships: Evidence From KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maughan-Brown, Brendan; George, Gavin; Beckett, Sean; Evans, Meredith; Lewis, Lara; Cawood, Cherie; Khanyile, David; Kharsany, Ayesha B M

    2018-06-01

    Evidence on the role of age-disparate partnerships in high HIV-infection rates among young women in sub-Saharan Africa remains inconclusive. This study examined the HIV-infection risk associated with age-disparate partnerships among 15- to 24-year-old women in a hyperendemic setting in South Africa. Face-to-face questionnaire, and laboratory HIV and viral load data were collected during 2014-2015 among a representative sample (15-49 years old) in KwaZulu-Natal. The association between age-disparate partnerships (age difference ≥5 years) and HIV status among 15- to 24-year-old women (N = 1459) was assessed using multiple logistic regression analyses. Data from the male sample on all on-going partnerships (N = 1229) involving 15- to 24-year-old women were used to assess whether young women's age-disparate male partners were more likely to have a viral load ≥1000 copies per milliliter, a marker of HIV-infection risk. Women reporting an age disparity in any of their 3 most recent partnerships were more likely to test HIV positive compared to women with only age-similar partners [adjusted odds ratio (aOR): 1.58, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.20 to 2.09, P < 0.01]. Among partnerships men reported with 15- to 24-year-old women, the age-disparate male partners were more likely to be HIV positive and have a viral load ≥1000 copies per milliliter (aOR: 2.05, 95% CI: 1.30 to 3.24, P < 0.01) compared with age-similar partners. Results were similar for each category of age disparity: partners 5-9 years older (aOR: 2.01, 95% CI: 1.18 to 3.43, P = 0.010) and those ≥10 years older (aOR: 2.17, 95% CI: 1.01-4.66, P = 0.048). Results indicate that age-disparate partnerships increase young women's HIV risk, although conclusive evidence was not ascertained. Interventions addressing risk from age-disparate sexual partnering, including expanding antiretroviral treatment among older partners, may help to reduce HIV incidence among young women.

  15. Genetic testing and your cancer risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... patientinstructions/000842.htm Genetic testing and your cancer risk To use the sharing features on this page, ... urac.org). URAC's accreditation program is an independent audit to verify that A.D.A.M. follows ...

  16. Cancer risk among atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schull, W.J.

    1992-01-01

    Continued mortality surveillance and incidence studies have revealed the risk of cancer among the survivors of the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki to increase with increasing dose. Among the sites where the frequency of cancer can be clearly shown to be dose-related are the following: female breast, colon, esophagus, lung, ovary, stomach, thyroid, urinary bladder and leukemia. Although the evidence is less compelling, cancers of the liver, salivary glands, and skin as well as multiple myeloma appear increased too. This increase generally manifests itself when the survivors reach those ages where the natural incidence of cancer begins to rise. Risk is, however, related to the age of the individual at the time of the bombing; the highest risks are associated with individuals who were exposed in the first two decades of life. Current evidence suggests these higher risks decline with increasing time since exposure

  17. Frozen shoulder and risk of cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Alma B; Horváth-Puhó, Erzsébet; Ehrenstein, Vera

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Frozen shoulder might be a complication or a presenting symptom of cancer. We examined the risk of a cancer diagnosis after an incident diagnosis of frozen shoulder. METHODS: We used prospectively collected data from Danish registries to identify patients with frozen shoulder during 1...

  18. Inflammatory Genetic Markers of Prostate Cancer Risk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tindall, Elizabeth A.; Hayes, Vanessa M. [Cancer Genetics Group, Children’s Cancer Institute Australia for Medical Research, Lowy Cancer Research Centre, University of New South Wales, PO Box 81, Randwick, NSW 2031 (Australia); University of New South Wales, Kensington Campus, Sydney, NSW 2052 (Australia); Petersen, Desiree C., E-mail: dpetersen@ccia.unsw.edu.au [Cancer Genetics Group, Children’s Cancer Institute Australia for Medical Research, Lowy Cancer Research Centre, University of New South Wales, PO Box 81, Randwick, NSW 2031 (Australia)

    2010-06-08

    Prostate cancer is the most common cancer in Western society males, with incidence rates predicted to rise with global aging. Etiology of prostate cancer is however poorly understood, while current diagnostic tools can be invasive (digital rectal exam or biopsy) and/or lack specificity for the disease (prostate-specific antigen (PSA) testing). Substantial histological, epidemiological and molecular genetic evidence indicates that inflammation is important in prostate cancer pathogenesis. In this review, we summarize the current status of inflammatory genetic markers influencing susceptibility to prostate cancer. The focus will be on inflammatory cytokines regulating T-helper cell and chemokine homeostasis, together with the Toll-like receptors as key players in the host innate immune system. Although association studies indicating a genetic basis for prostate cancer are presently limited mainly due to lack of replication, larger and more ethnically and clinically defined study populations may help elucidate the true contribution of inflammatory gene variants to prostate cancer risk.

  19. Inflammatory Genetic Markers of Prostate Cancer Risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tindall, Elizabeth A.; Hayes, Vanessa M.; Petersen, Desiree C.

    2010-01-01

    Prostate cancer is the most common cancer in Western society males, with incidence rates predicted to rise with global aging. Etiology of prostate cancer is however poorly understood, while current diagnostic tools can be invasive (digital rectal exam or biopsy) and/or lack specificity for the disease (prostate-specific antigen (PSA) testing). Substantial histological, epidemiological and molecular genetic evidence indicates that inflammation is important in prostate cancer pathogenesis. In this review, we summarize the current status of inflammatory genetic markers influencing susceptibility to prostate cancer. The focus will be on inflammatory cytokines regulating T-helper cell and chemokine homeostasis, together with the Toll-like receptors as key players in the host innate immune system. Although association studies indicating a genetic basis for prostate cancer are presently limited mainly due to lack of replication, larger and more ethnically and clinically defined study populations may help elucidate the true contribution of inflammatory gene variants to prostate cancer risk

  20. Disparities in Oral Cancer Awareness: a Population Survey in Tehran, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azimi, Somayyeh; Ghorbani, Zahra; Ghasemi, Erfan; Tennant, Marc; Kruger, Estie

    2018-03-10

    Oral cancer is a life-threatening disease with low survival rates, especially when diagnosed in an advanced stage. Lack of awareness about this cancer among the population is proposed as a possible reason for this diagnostic delay. The aim of this study was to evaluate oral cancer awareness, as well as the association of this with sociodemographic status in Tehran. In this cross-sectional population-based survey, 1800 self-administered questionnaires (collecting sociodemographic data, questions regarding oral cancer awareness and the source of information) were distributed through multistage stratified random sampling. Scores for questions ranged from 0 to 4, and totals were summed. The outcome of question responses was also analyzed separately. In total, 1312 questionnaires were available for analysis, from 788 females and 489 males (37.8 ± 9.02 years). Only 30% of the respondents were aware of oral cancer. The average score for awareness was 1.09 ± 1.6 with no significant differences between age groups and genders. Almost 6.5% of participants had complete awareness about oral cancer. A significant difference was found between mean scores in different levels of education and occupation (p = 0.0001). From 585 responses to the "source of information" question, "public media" was the most important source (almost 50%). Only 2% mentioned "dentists" as a source of information. This study indicated an alarming lack of oral cancer awareness and literacy in Tehran, Iran. Dentists should be obliged to practice their pivotal role in informing the public about oral cancer.

  1. Disparities in prognosis communication among parents of children with cancer: The impact of race and ethnicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilowite, Maya F; Cronin, Angel M; Kang, Tammy I; Mack, Jennifer W

    2017-10-15

    Most parents of children with cancer say they want detailed information about their child's prognosis. However, prior work has been conducted in populations of limited diversity. The authors sought to evaluate the impact of parental race/ethnicity on prognosis communication experiences among parents of children with cancer. In total, 357 parents of children with cancer and the children's physicians were surveyed at Dana-Farber Cancer Institute/Boston Children's Hospital and Children's Hospital of Philadelphia. Outcome measures were parental preferences for prognostic information, physician beliefs about parental preferences, prognosis communication processes, and communication outcomes. Associations were assessed by logistic regression with generalized estimating equations to correct for physician clustering. Two hundred eighty-one parents (79%) were white, 23 (6%) were black, 29 (8%) were Hispanic, and 24 (7%) were Asian/other. Eighty-seven percent of parents wanted as much detail as possible about their child's prognosis, with no significant differences by race/ethnicity (P = .75). However, physician beliefs about parental preferences for prognosis communication varied based on parent race/ethnicity, with physicians considering black and Hispanic parents less interested in details about prognosis than whites (P = .003). Accurate understanding of a less favorable prognosis was greater among white (49%) versus nonwhite parents (range, 20%-29%), although this difference was not statistically significant (P = .14). Most parents, regardless of racial and ethnic background, want detailed prognostic information about their child's cancer. However, physicians underestimate the information needs of black and Hispanic parents. To meet parents' information needs, physicians should ask about parents' information preferences before prognosis discussions. Cancer 2017;123:3995-4003. © 2017 American Cancer Society. © 2017 American Cancer Society.

  2. Disparity in cancer prevention and screening in aboriginal populations: recommendations for action

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed, S.; Shahid, R.K.; Episkenew, J.A.

    2015-01-01

    Historically, cancer has occurred at a lower rate in aboriginal populations; however, it is now dramatically increasing. Unless preventive measures are taken, cancer rates among aboriginal peoples are expected to soon surpass those in non-aboriginal populations. Because a large proportion of malignant disorders are preventable, primary prevention through socioeconomic interventions, environmental changes, and lifestyle modification might provide the best option for reducing the increasing bur...

  3. Industrial risk factors for colorectal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lashner, B.A.; Epstein, S.S.

    1990-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is the second most common malignancy in the United States, and its incidence rates have sharply increased recently, especially in males. Industrial exposures, both occupational and environmental, are important colorectal cancer risk factors that are generally unrecognized by clinicians. Migration studies have documented that colorectal cancer is strongly associated with environmental risk factors. The causal role of occupational exposures is evidenced by a substantial literature associating specific work practices with increased colorectal cancer risks. Industrially related environmental exposures, including polluted drinking water and ionizing radiation, have also been associated with excess risks. Currently, there is a tendency to attribute colorectal cancer, largely or exclusively, to dietary and other lifestyle factors, thus neglecting these industrially related effects. Concerted efforts are needed to recognize the causal role of industrial risk factors and to encourage government and industry to reduce carcinogenic exposures. Furthermore, cost-effective screening programs for high-risk population groups are critically needed to further reduce deaths from colorectal cancer. 143 references

  4. Nutrients and Risk of Colon Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Les Mery

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Dietary fats are thought to be important in the etiology of colon cancer. However, the evidence linking them is inconclusive. Studies on dietary protein, cholesterol and carbohydrate and the risk of colon cancer are also inconsistent. This study examined the association between dietary intake of protein, fats, cholesterol and carbohydrates, and the risk of colon cancer. Mailed questionnaires were completed by 1731 individuals with histologically confirmed cases of colon cancer and 3097 population controls between 1994 and 1997 in seven Canadian provinces. Measurements included socio-economic status, lifestyle habits and diet. A 69-item food frequency questionnaire was used to provide data on eating habits from two years before the study. Odds ratios (OR and 95% confidence intervals (CI were computed using unconditional logistic regression. The nutrients were categorized by quartiles based on the distributions among the controls. Intake of polyunsaturated fat, trans-fat and cholesterol were significantly associated with the risk of colon cancer; the ORs for the highest quartiles were 1.36 (95% CI, 1.02–1.80, 1.37 (95% CI, 1.10–1.71 and 1.42 (95% CI, 1.10–1.84, respectively. The association was stronger with proximal colon cancer (PCC. An increased risk was also observed with increasing intake of sucrose for both proximal and distal colon cancers; the ORs for the highest quartiles were 1.67 (95% CI, 1.22–2.29 for PCC and 1.58 (95% CI, 1.18–2.10 for distal colon cancer (DCC. An elevated risk of PCC was also found with increased lactose intake. Our findings provide evidence that a diet low in fat and sucrose could reduce the risk of various colon cancers.

  5. Nutrients and Risk of Colon Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Jinfu, E-mail: Jinfu.hu@phac-aspc.gc.ca [Evidence and Risk Assessment Division, Centre for Chronic Disease Prevention and Control, Public Health Agency of Canada, 785 Carling Avenue, AL: 6807B, Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0K9 (Canada); La Vecchia, Carlo [Istituto di Ricerche Farmacologiche “Mario Negri,” Via La Masa, 19-20156 Milan (Italy); Istituto di Statistica Medica e Biometria, Università degli Studi di Milano, Via Venezian, 1, 20133 Milan (Italy); Negri, Eva [Istituto di Ricerche Farmacologiche “Mario Negri,” Via La Masa, 19-20156 Milan (Italy); Mery, Les [Evidence and Risk Assessment Division, Centre for Chronic Disease Prevention and Control, Public Health Agency of Canada, 785 Carling Avenue, AL: 6807B, Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0K9 (Canada)

    2010-02-10

    Dietary fats are thought to be important in the etiology of colon cancer. However, the evidence linking them is inconclusive. Studies on dietary protein, cholesterol and carbohydrate and the risk of colon cancer are also inconsistent. This study examined the association between dietary intake of protein, fats, cholesterol and carbohydrates, and the risk of colon cancer. Mailed questionnaires were completed by 1731 individuals with histologically confirmed cases of colon cancer and 3097 population controls between 1994 and 1997 in seven Canadian provinces. Measurements included socio-economic status, lifestyle habits and diet. A 69-item food frequency questionnaire was used to provide data on eating habits from two years before the study. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were computed using unconditional logistic regression. The nutrients were categorized by quartiles based on the distributions among the controls. Intake of polyunsaturated fat, trans-fat and cholesterol were significantly associated with the risk of colon cancer; the ORs for the highest quartiles were 1.36 (95% CI, 1.02–1.80), 1.37 (95% CI, 1.10–1.71) and 1.42 (95% CI, 1.10–1.84), respectively. The association was stronger with proximal colon cancer (PCC). An increased risk was also observed with increasing intake of sucrose for both proximal and distal colon cancers; the ORs for the highest quartiles were 1.67 (95% CI, 1.22–2.29) for PCC and 1.58 (95% CI, 1.18–2.10) for distal colon cancer (DCC). An elevated risk of PCC was also found with increased lactose intake. Our findings provide evidence that a diet low in fat and sucrose could reduce the risk of various colon cancers.

  6. Nutrients and Risk of Colon Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, Jinfu; La Vecchia, Carlo; Negri, Eva; Mery, Les

    2010-01-01

    Dietary fats are thought to be important in the etiology of colon cancer. However, the evidence linking them is inconclusive. Studies on dietary protein, cholesterol and carbohydrate and the risk of colon cancer are also inconsistent. This study examined the association between dietary intake of protein, fats, cholesterol and carbohydrates, and the risk of colon cancer. Mailed questionnaires were completed by 1731 individuals with histologically confirmed cases of colon cancer and 3097 population controls between 1994 and 1997 in seven Canadian provinces. Measurements included socio-economic status, lifestyle habits and diet. A 69-item food frequency questionnaire was used to provide data on eating habits from two years before the study. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were computed using unconditional logistic regression. The nutrients were categorized by quartiles based on the distributions among the controls. Intake of polyunsaturated fat, trans-fat and cholesterol were significantly associated with the risk of colon cancer; the ORs for the highest quartiles were 1.36 (95% CI, 1.02–1.80), 1.37 (95% CI, 1.10–1.71) and 1.42 (95% CI, 1.10–1.84), respectively. The association was stronger with proximal colon cancer (PCC). An increased risk was also observed with increasing intake of sucrose for both proximal and distal colon cancers; the ORs for the highest quartiles were 1.67 (95% CI, 1.22–2.29) for PCC and 1.58 (95% CI, 1.18–2.10) for distal colon cancer (DCC). An elevated risk of PCC was also found with increased lactose intake. Our findings provide evidence that a diet low in fat and sucrose could reduce the risk of various colon cancers

  7. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Research Screening & Early Detection Cancer Treatment Research Cancer & Public Health Cancer Health Disparities Childhood Cancers Clinical Trials Global ... Cancer Diagnosis Prevention Screening & Early Detection Treatment Cancer & Public Health Cancer Health Disparities Childhood Cancer Clinical Trials Global ...

  8. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Research Screening & Early Detection Cancer Treatment Research Cancer & Public Health Cancer Health Disparities Childhood Cancers Clinical Trials ... Cancer Diagnosis Prevention Screening & Early Detection Treatment Cancer & Public Health Cancer Health Disparities Childhood Cancer Clinical Trials ...

  9. HUMAN PROSTATE CANCER RISK FACTORS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prostate cancer has the highest prevalence of any non-skin cancer in the human body, with similar likelihood of neoplastic foci found within the prostates of men around the world regardless of diet, occupation, lifestyle, or other factors. Essentially all men with circulating an...

  10. Risk of cancer formation by radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuji, Hiroshi

    2011-01-01

    Described are the difference between exposures to radiation for medical purpose and to environmental radiation at low dose, estimation of carcinogenic risk by medical radiation, and notice for referring the risk at clinical practice. ICRP employs linear non-threshold (LNT) model for risk of cancer formation even at <200 mSv for safety, with a recognition that it is scientifically obscure. The model essentially stands on data of A-bomb survivors (the Gold Standard), where the relationship between 5-10% excess relative risk (ERR) of cancer formation and dose 0.05-2.5 Sv is linear. Analyses of the secondary carcinogenesis after radiotherapy have begun to be reported since around 2005: e.g., the secondary thyroid cancer risk in pediatric patients treated with radiotherapy has a peak at 20 Gy, suggesting the actual risk depends both on the linearity of carcinogenic increase and on the exponential probability of cell death increase. On this concept, the risk of cancer formation is not always linear to dose. At the practical radiotherapy, its secondary carcinogenic risk should be estimated not only on the dose but also on other factors such as the individual organ, patient's age and attainable age/time after the treatment. In treated teen-ager patients, ERRs of mortality/Gy are 2.28 for cancers of the skin of non-malignant melanoma, 1.32 of bladder and 1.21 of thyroid and in patients of fifties, 1.15 of bladder and lung. The EER tends to become lower as the treated age is older. Pediatric cancer patients to be treated with radiotherapy should be informed about the secondary cancer that the low dose risk given by ICRP is not always appropriate, a certain cancer risk has a peak dose, and ERR of cancer mortality is not a cancer risk of an organ. Many factors like anticancers and immuno-modifiers, modify the outcome of radiotherapy and should be carefully speculated for evaluating the outcome. (T.T.)

  11. Cardiac risks in multimodal breast cancer treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Budach, W. [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Univ. of Duesseldorf (Germany)

    2007-12-15

    Almost all breast cancer patients receive one or more adjuvant treatments consisting of tamoxifen, aromatase inhibitors, LHRH-antogonists, chemotherapy, trastuzumab, and radiotherapy. These treatments have been shown to considerably improve overall survival. As a result, long term survival for 15 and more years is achieved in more than two thirds of newly diagnosed breast cancer patients. Therefore, more interest in short and long term risks of adjuvant treatments has been arisen. The focus of this article is the long term cardiac risks of adjuvant radiotherapy in breast cancer patients and possible interactions with chemotherapy and trastuzumab. (orig.)

  12. Increased pancreatic cancer risk following radiotherapy for testicular cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauptmann, Michael; Børge Johannesen, Tom; Gilbert, Ethel S; Stovall, Marilyn; van Leeuwen, Flora E; Rajaraman, Preetha; Smith, Susan A; Weathers, Rita E; Aleman, Berthe M P; Andersson, Michael; Curtis, Rochelle E; Dores, Graça M; Fraumeni, Joseph F; Hall, Per; Holowaty, Eric J; Joensuu, Heikki; Kaijser, Magnus; Kleinerman, Ruth A; Langmark, Frøydis; Lynch, Charles F; Pukkala, Eero; Storm, Hans H; Vaalavirta, Leila; van den Belt-Dusebout, Alexandra W; Morton, Lindsay M; Fossa, Sophie D; Travis, Lois B

    2016-09-27

    Pancreatic cancer risk is elevated among testicular cancer (TC) survivors. However, the roles of specific treatments are unclear. Among 23 982 5-year TC survivors diagnosed during 1947-1991, doses from radiotherapy to the pancreas were estimated for 80 pancreatic cancer patients and 145 matched controls. Chemotherapy details were recorded. Logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs). Cumulative incidence of second primary pancreatic cancer was 1.1% at 30 years after TC diagnosis. Radiotherapy (72 (90%) cases and 115 (80%) controls) was associated with a 2.9-fold (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.0-7.8) increased risk. The OR increased linearly by 0.12 per Gy to the pancreas (P-trendcancer risk, and persists for over 20 years. These excesses, although small, should be considered when radiotherapy with exposure to the pancreas is considered for newly diagnosed patients. Additional data are needed on the role of chemotherapy.

  13. Do gender-based disparities in authorship also exist in cancer palliative care? A 15-year survey of the cancer palliative care literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Preet Paul; Jatoi, Aminah

    2008-01-01

    Women physicians in the United States publish less than men and advance academically at a slower pace. Do such gender-based disparities also occur in cancer palliative care, a field in which women appear to hold a strong interest? We undertook a detailed survey of the cancer palliative care literature. We selected 5 cancer palliative care journals on the basis of their high impact factors, and we assessed authorship for the years 1990, 1995, 2000, and 2005. We determined gender and highest educational degree for all US first and last authors. A total of 794 authors are the focus of this report. In 2005, 50% of first authors were women, but only 14% were women physicians. Similarly, 39% of senior authors were women during this year, but only 8% were women physicians. Over this 15-year period, no statistically significant trends were detected to indicate an increase in the number of women authors. These findings are sobering. Future efforts might focus on strategies to improve rates of authorship and, ultimately, improve rates of academic promotion for women interested in cancer palliative care.

  14. Statin use and risk of endometrial cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sperling, Cecilie D.; Verdoodt, Freija; Friis, Soren

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Laboratory and epidemiological evidence have suggested that statin use may protect against the development of certain cancers, including endometrial cancer. In a nationwide registry-based case-control study, we examined the association between statin use and risk of endometrial cancer....... MATERIAL AND METHODS: Cases were female residents of Denmark with a primary diagnosis of endometrial cancer during 2000-2009. For each case, we selected 15 female population controls matched on date of birth (±one month) using risk-set sampling. Ever use of statin was defined as two or more prescriptions...... on separate dates. Conditional logistic regressions were used to estimate age-matched (by design) and multivariable-adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for endometrial cancer associated with statin use. The multivariable-adjusted models included parity, hormone replacement therapy...

  15. Disparities in Barriers to Follow-up Care between African American and White Breast Cancer Survivors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Nynikka R. A.; Weaver, Kathryn E.; Hauser, Sally P.; Lawrence, Julia A.; Talton, Jennifer; Case, L. Douglas; Geiger, Ann M.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Despite recommendations for breast cancer survivorship care, African American women are less likely to receive appropriate follow-up care, which is concerning due to their higher mortality rates. This study describes differences in barriers to follow-up care between African American and White breast cancer survivors. Methods We conducted a mailed survey of women treated for non-metastatic breast cancer in 2009–2011, 6–24 months post-treatment (N=203). Survivors were asked about 14 potential barriers to follow-up care. We used logistic regression to explore associations between barriers and race, adjusting for covariates. Results Our participants included 31 African American and 160 White survivors. At least one barrier to follow-up care was reported by 62%. Compared to White survivors, African Americans were more likely to identify barriers related to out-of-pocket costs (28% vs. 51.6%, p=0.01), other healthcare costs (21.3% vs. 45.2%, p=0.01), anxiety/worry (29.4% vs. 51.6%, p=0.02), and transportation (4.4% vs. 16.1%, p=0.03). After adjustment for covariates, African Americans were three times as likely to report at least one barrier to care (OR=3.3, 95%CI=1.1–10.1). Conclusions Barriers to care are common among breast cancer survivors, especially African American women. Financial barriers to care may prevent minority and underserved survivors from accessing follow-up care. Enhancing insurance coverage or addressing out-of-pocket costs may help address financial barriers to follow-up care among breast cancer survivors. Psychosocial care aimed at reducing fear of recurrence may also be important to improve access among African American breast cancer survivors. PMID:25821145

  16. Continuing Disparities in Cardiovascular Risk Factors and Complications Between Aboriginal and Anglo-Celt Australians With Type 2 Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Timothy M.E.; Hunt, Kerry; McAullay, Daniel; Chubb, Stephen A.P.; Sillars, Brett A.; Bruce, David G.; Davis, Wendy A.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine whether disparities in the nature and management of type 2 diabetes persist between Aboriginal and the majority Anglo-Celt patients in an urban Australian community. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Baseline data from the observational Fremantle Diabetes Study collected from 1993 to 1996 (phase I) and from 2008 to 2011 (phase II) were analyzed. Patients characterized as Aboriginal or Anglo-Celt by self-report and supporting data underwent comprehensive assessment, including questionnaires, examination, and biochemical testing in a single laboratory. Generalized linear modeling with age/sex adjustment was used to examine differences in changes in variables in the two groups between phases I and II. RESULTS The indigenous participants were younger at entry and at diabetes diagnosis than the Anglo-Celt participants in both phases. They were also less likely to be educated beyond primary level and were more likely to be smokers. HbA1c decreased in both groups over time (Aboriginal median 9.6% [interquartile range 7.8–10.7%] to 8.4% [6.6–10.6%] vs. Anglo-Celt median 7.1% [6.2–8.4%] to 6.7% [6.2–7.5%]), but the gap persisted (P = 0.65 for difference between phases I and II by ethnic group). Aboriginal patients were more likely to have microvascular disease in both phases. The prevalence of peripheral arterial disease (ankle-brachial index ≤0.90 or lower-extremity amputation) increased in Aboriginal but decreased in Anglo-Celt participants (15.8–29.7 vs. 30.7–21.5%; P = 0.055). CONCLUSIONS Diabetes management has improved for Aboriginal and Anglo-Celt Australian patients, but disparities in cardiovascular risk factors and complications persist. PMID:22815295

  17. Disparities in the Utilization of Laparoscopic Surgery for Colon Cancer in Rural Nebraska: A Call for Placement and Training of Rural General Surgeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruber, Kelli; Soliman, Amr S; Schmid, Kendra; Rettig, Bryan; Ryan, June; Watanabe-Galloway, Shinobu

    2015-01-01

    Advances in medical technology are changing surgical standards for colon cancer treatment. The laparoscopic colectomy is equivalent to the standard open colectomy while providing additional benefits. It is currently unknown what factors influence utilization of laparoscopic surgery in rural areas and if treatment disparities exist. The objectives of this study were to examine demographic and clinical characteristics associated with receiving laparoscopic colectomy and to examine the differences between rural and urban patients who received either procedure. This study utilized a linked data set of Nebraska Cancer Registry and hospital discharge data on colon cancer patients diagnosed and treated in the entire state of Nebraska from 2008 to 2011 (N = 1,062). Multiple logistic regression analysis was performed to identify predictors of receiving the laparoscopic treatment. Rural colon cancer patients were 40% less likely to receive laparoscopic colectomy compared to urban patients. Independent predictors of receiving laparoscopic colectomy were younger age (colon cancer and important disparities exist for rural cancer patients in accessing the specialized treatment. As cancer treatment becomes more specialized, the importance of training and placement of general surgeons in rural communities must be a priority for health care planning and professional training institutions. © 2015 National Rural Health Association.

  18. Vital exhaustion and risk for cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergelt, Corinna; Christensen, Jane Hvarregaard; Prescott, Eva

    2005-01-01

    Vital exhaustion, defined as feelings of depression and fatigue, has previously been investigated mainly as a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. The authors investigated the association between depressive feelings and fatigue as covered by the concept of vital exhaustion and the risk...... for cancer....

  19. Genetic Variations in SLCO Transporter Genes Contributing to Racial Disparity in Aggressiveness of Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    result was that the expression of SLCO2A1 did not preside in cancer cells or epithelial cells, instead, the transporter was expressed in stromal...Receptor Axis Drives Failure of Medical Therapy in Human Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (Matusik) Time Commitments: 0.30 calendar months Supporting

  20. Pubertal development and prostate cancer risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonilla, Carolina; Lewis, Sarah J; Martin, Richard M

    2016-01-01

    , 0.91-1.00) and prostate cancer-specific mortality (hazard ratio amongst cases, per tertile: 0.94; 95 % CI, 0.90-0.98), but not with disease grade. CONCLUSIONS: Older age at sexual maturation is causally linked to a reduced risk of later prostate cancer, especially aggressive disease.......BACKGROUND: Epidemiological studies have observed a positive association between an earlier age at sexual development and prostate cancer, but markers of sexual maturation in boys are imprecise and observational estimates are likely to suffer from a degree of uncontrolled confounding. To obtain...... to a difference of one Tanner stage between pubertal boys of the same age) was associated with a 77 % (95 % CI, 43-91 %) reduced odds of high Gleason prostate cancer. In PRACTICAL, the puberty genetic score was associated with prostate cancer stage (OR of advanced vs. localized cancer, per tertile: 0.95; 95 % CI...

  1. Coffee consumption and risk of fatal cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snowdon, D A; Phillips, R L

    1984-01-01

    In 1960, the coffee consumption habits and other lifestyle characteristics of 23,912 white Seventh-day Adventists were assessed by questionnaire. Between 1960 and 1980, deaths due to cancer were identified. There were positive associations between coffee consumption and fatal colon and bladder cancer. The group consuming two or more cups of coffee per day had an estimated relative risk (RR) of 1.7 for fatal colon cancer and 2.0 for fatal bladder cancer, compared to the group that consumed less than one cup per day (RR = 1.0). These positive associations were apparently not confounded by age, sex, cigarette smoking, or meat consumption habits. In this study, there were no significant or suggestive associations between coffee consumption and fatal pancreatic, breast, and ovarian cancer, or a combined group of all other cancer sites. PMID:6742274

  2. Oral Contraceptives and Cancer Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Reporting & Auditing Grant Transfer Grant Closeout Contracts & Small Business Training Cancer Training at NCI (Intramural) Resources for ... United States contains synthetic versions of the natural female hormones estrogen and progesterone . This type of birth ...

  3. Image Based Biomarker of Breast Cancer Risk: Analysis of Risk Disparity Among Minority Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-02-01

    42]  G. Thomas,  Calculus  &  Analytic  Geometry: Dorling Kindersley Pvt Ltd., 2010. 984  [43]  R. Y. Rubinstein, Kroese, D. P., Simulation and the...characterization of simulated phantom shapes using geometrical methods. The obtained results have been published in the 2012 SPIE Medical Imaging conference paper...clinic data analytics although it also can be used for generic purposes, for example, it can be used to teach a college-level Database Management System

  4. Histopathologic differences account for racial disparity in uterine cancer survival☆,☆☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smotkin, David; Nevadunsky, Nicole S.; Harris, Kimala; Einstein, Mark H.; Yu, Yiting; Goldberg, Gary L.

    2013-01-01

    Objective The incidence for uterine cancers has been reported to be higher among white women, whereas mortality is higher among black women. Reasons for the higher mortality among black women are not completely understood. The aim of our study is to examine the relationship between race/ethnicity, histopathologic subtype, and survival in uterine cancer. Methods We abstracted socio-demographic, treatment, and survival data for all women who were diagnosed with uterine cancer at Montefiore Medical Center from January 1999 through December 2009. Pathology records were reviewed. Results 984 patients were identified. Racial/ethnic distribution was 382 (39%) white, 308 (31%) black, 232 (24%) Hispanic, and 62 (6.3%) other races, mixed, or unknown. 592 (60%) patients had endometrioid histology. Blacks were much more likely than whites to have non-endometrioid histologies (p<0.001), including papillary serous, carcinosarcoma, and leiomyosarcoma. Blacks and Hispanics were at least as likely as whites to receive either chemotherapy or radiation therapy. The hazard ratio for death for black versus white patients was 1.94 (p<0.001) when all histological subtypes were included. The hazard ratio for Hispanics for death was 1.2 (p=0.32) compared to whites. However, when patients were divided into endometrioid and non-endometrioid histological subtypes, there was no significant difference in survival by race/ethnicity. Conclusion Black patients with uterine cancer are much more likely to die and are much more likely to have non-endometrioid histologies than white patients. There are no differences in survival among white, black, or Hispanic women with uterine cancer, after control for histological subtype. PMID:22940487

  5. Radiogenic breast cancer risk and mammography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jayaprakash, Shobha; Nair, C.P.R.; Rao, B.S.; Sawant, S.G.

    2001-01-01

    There is a general concern that the risks from mammography screening in inducting radiogenic breast cancer may outweigh the possible benefits to be derived from it. A review of epidemiological, case-control and cohort studies of radiogenic breast cancer, age-specific incidence and dose and dose-rate relationship reveals that such a fear is unfounded. The dose to the breast tissues in a quality assured mammography screening programme falls far below the levels that were observed to produce increased relative risk. The age-specific incidence rates also indicate that the need for mammography is for the women of age at which the relative risk is minimum

  6. Menopausal hormone use and ovarian cancer risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beral, V; Gaitskell, K; Hermon, C

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Half the epidemiological studies with information about menopausal hormone therapy and ovarian cancer risk remain unpublished, and some retrospective studies could have been biased by selective participation or recall. We aimed to assess with minimal bias the effects of hormone therapy...... on ovarian cancer risk. METHODS: Individual participant datasets from 52 epidemiological studies were analysed centrally. The principal analyses involved the prospective studies (with last hormone therapy use extrapolated forwards for up to 4 years). Sensitivity analyses included the retrospective studies....... Adjusted Poisson regressions yielded relative risks (RRs) versus never-use. FINDINGS: During prospective follow-up, 12 110 postmenopausal women, 55% (6601) of whom had used hormone therapy, developed ovarian cancer. Among women last recorded as current users, risk was increased even with

  7. Improvement of the projection models for radiogenic cancer risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tong Jian

    2005-01-01

    Calculations of radiogenic cancer risk are based on the risk projection models for specific cancer sites. Improvement has been made for the parameters used in the previous models including introductions of mortality and morbidity risk coefficients, and age-/ gender-specific risk coefficients. These coefficients have been applied to calculate the radiogenic cancer risks for specific organs and radionuclides under different exposure scenarios. (authors)

  8. A New Model for the Estimation of Breast Cancer Risk

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Giger, Maryellen Lissak

    2001-01-01

    ... for use in estimating risk of breast cancer. The specific aims include 1. Creating a database of mammograms, along with tabulated clinical information of women at low risk and high risk for breast cancer; 2...

  9. Racial and Ethnic Disparity in Symptomatic Breast Cancer Awareness despite a Recent Screen: The Role of Tumor Biology and Mammography Facility Characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortel, Mylove; Rauscher, Garth H; Murphy, Anne Marie; Hoskins, Kent; Warnecke, Richard B

    2015-10-01

    In a racially and ethnically diverse sample of recently diagnosed urban patients with breast cancer, we examined associations of patient, tumor biology, and mammography facility characteristics on the probability of symptomatic discovery of their breast cancer despite a recent prior screening mammogram. In the Breast Cancer Care in Chicago study, self-reports at interview were used to define patients as having a screen-detected breast cancer or having symptomatic awareness despite a recent screening mammogram (SADRS), in the past 1 or 2 years. Patients with symptomatic breast cancer who did not report a recent prior screen were excluded from these analyses. Characteristics associated with more aggressive disease [estrogen receptor (ER)- and progesterone receptor (PR)-negative status and higher tumor grade] were abstracted from medical records. Mammogram facility characteristics that might indicate aspects of screening quality were defined and controlled for in some analyses. SADRS was more common among non-Hispanic black and Hispanic than among non-Hispanic white patients (36% and 42% vs. 25%, respectively, P = 0.0004). SADRS was associated with ER/PR-negative and higher-grade disease. Patients screened at sites that relied on dedicated radiologists and sites that were breast imaging centers of excellence were less likely to report SADRS. Tumor and facility factors together accounted for two thirds of the disparity in SADRS (proportion mediated = 70%, P = 0.02). Facility resources and tumor aggressiveness explain much of the racial/ethnic disparity in symptomatic breast cancer among recently screened patients. A more equitable distribution of high-quality screening would ameliorate but not eliminate this disparity. ©2015 American Association for Cancer Research.

  10. Coffee consumption and risk of colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidel, S; Hu, G; Jousilahti, P; Antikainen, R; Pukkala, E; Hakulinen, T; Tuomilehto, J

    2010-09-01

    The possible association between coffee consumption and risk of colorectal cancer has been extensively studied in the many populations. The aim of this study is to examine this relationship among Finns, who are the heaviest coffee consumers in the world. A total of 60 041 Finnish men and women who were 26-74 years of age and without history of any cancer at baseline were included in the present analyses. Their coffee consumption and other study characteristics were determined at baseline, and they were prospectively followed up for onset of colon and rectal cancer, emigration, death or until 30 June 2006. During a mean follow-up period of 18 years, 538 cases of colorectal cancer (304 cases of colon cancer and 234 cases of rectal cancer) were diagnosed. The multivariate-adjusted hazard ratio of colorectal cancer incidence for > or =10 cups of coffee per day compared with non-drinkers was 0.98 (95% CI, 0.47-2.03) for men (P for trend=0.86), 1.24 (95% CI, 0.49-3.14) for women (p for trend=0.83) and 1.03 (95% CI, 0.58-1.83) for men and women combined (P for trend=0.61). In this study, we found no association between coffee consumption and the risk of colorectal, colon and rectal cancer.

  11. Trends and ethnic disparities in oral and oro-pharyngeal cancers in South Africa, 1992-2001.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayo-Yusuf, O A; Lalloo, R; Johnson, N W

    2013-05-01

    To describe trends in the epidemiology of oral and of oro-pharyngeal (OAP) cancers in South Africa for the atest period available. Data were obtained from the South African pathology-based National Cancer Registry. All new cases of OAP cancers diagnosed and confirmed histologically from 1992 to 2001 are included for the ICD-10 sites C00 to C14, excluding those involving the major salivary glands (C07-C08) and the nasopharynx (C11). OAP cancer incidence is reported by demographics (gender, age, race/ethnicity) and the anatomical sites involved. The analysis on anatomical sites was restricted to squamous cell carcinomas. Overall, males had a much higher OAP cancer incidence rate (world age-Standardised incidence rate [ASIR] = 7.01/100 000 per year) than females (ASIR = 1.99). However, among Asian/Indian South Africans, OAP cancer incidence was higher among females (ASIR = 4.60) than among males (ASIR = 3.80). OAP cancer, excluding those involving the lip, was highest among Coloureds (ASIR = 5.72) and lowest among Blacks (ASIR = 3.16). OAP cancer incidence was stable overall, but incidence rates increased significantly among Coloured South Africans over the period under review (p Variations in the incidence of OAP cancers by gender, race/ethnicity and anatomic site indicate a need for culturally-targeted reductions in major risk factors, including promoting tobacco cessation and prevention of risky alcohol use. The implications of the role of the human papillomavirus (HPV) in the prevention of squamous cell carcinomas involving the oro-pharyngeal in South Africa require further investigation.

  12. Prevalence and risk factors for allergic rhinitis in two resource-limited settings in Peru with disparate degrees of urbanization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumann, L M; Romero, K M; Robinson, C L; Hansel, N N; Gilman, R H; Hamilton, R G; Lima, J J; Wise, R A; Checkley, W

    2015-01-01

    Allergic rhinitis is a disease with a high global disease burden, but risk factors that contribute to this condition are not well understood. To assess the prevalence and risk factors of allergic rhinitis in two Peruvian populations with disparate degrees of urbanization. We conducted a population-based, cross-sectional study on 1441 children aged 13-15 years at enrollment (mean age 14.9 years, 51% boys) to investigate the prevalence of allergic disease. We used a standardized, Spanish validated questionnaire to determine the prevalence of allergic rhinitis and asked about sociodemographics and family history of allergies. Children also underwent spirometry, exhaled nitric oxide, allergy skin testing to 10 common household allergens and provided a blood sample for measurement of 25OH vitamin D and total serum IgE. Overall prevalence of allergic rhinitis was 18% (95% CI 16% to 20%). When stratified by site, the prevalence of allergic rhinitis was 23% Lima vs. 13% in Tumbes (P overweight (1.5, 1.0-2.3); exhaled nitric oxide ≥ 20 ppb (1.9, 1.3-2.7); and total serum IgE ≥ 95th percentile (2.4, 1.2-4.8). Population attributable risk of important factors for allergic rhinitis were 25% for high exhaled nitric oxide, 22% for allergic sensitization to common household aeroallergens, 22% for paternal rhinitis, 10% for being overweight and 7% for an elevated total serum IgE. Allergic rhinitis was prevalent in both settings, and important risk factors include elevated exhaled nitric oxide, allergic sensitization to common household aeroallergens, parental rhinitis, being overweight and high total serum IgE. When considering subject-specific factors, the difference in prevalence between the urban and rural settings became non-important. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Risk of cancer among atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimizu, Yukiko; Kato, Hiroo; Schull, W.J.

    1991-01-01

    This report describes the risk of cancer and in particular cancers other than leukemia among the survivors of the atomic bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Attention focuses primarily on the risk of death from cancer among individuals in the Life Span Study sample of the Radiation Effect Research Foundation in the period 1950-1985 based on the recently revised dosimetry, termed the DS86 doses. Mortality from malignant tumors is increased among A-bomb survivors as a late effect of A-bomb radiation. Basides the well-known increase of leukemia, there also has been demonstrated increase of cancer of the lung, breast, esophagus, stomach, colon, ovary, urinary bladder, thyroid, and of multiple myeloma, but no increase has yet been observed in mortality from cancer of the rectum, gallbladder, pancreases, prostate and uterus, and of malignant lymphoma. The pattern of appearance over time of radiation-induced cancer other than leukemia differs from that of leukemia. In general, radiation-induced solid cancer begins to appear after attaining the age at which the cancer is normally prone to develop (so-called cancer age), and countinues to increase proportionally with the increase in mortality of the control group as it ages. Sensitivity to radiation, in terms of cancer induction, is higher for persons who were young at the time of the bomb (ATB) in general than for those who were older ATB. Furthermore, susceptibility to radiation-induced cancer tends to be higher in pre- than in post-natally exposed survivors (at least those exposed as adults). Other radiation effect modifiers and the shape of the dose response curve will also be discussed. (author)

  14. Common breast cancer risk alleles and risk assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Näslund-Koch, C; Nordestgaard, B G; Bojesen, S E

    2017-01-01

    general population were followed in Danish health registries for up to 21 years after blood sampling. After genotyping 72 breast cancer risk loci, each with 0-2 alleles, the sum for each individual was calculated. We used the simple allele sum instead of the conventional polygenic risk score......, as it is likely more sensitive in detecting associations with risks of other endpoints than breast cancer. RESULTS: Breast cancer incidence in the 19,010 women was increased across allele sum quintiles (log-rank trend test; p=1*10(-12)), but not incidence of other cancers (p=0.41). Age- and study-adjusted hazard...... ratio for the 5(th) vs. 1(st) allele sum quintile was 1.82(95% confidence interval;1.53-2.18). Corresponding hazard ratios per allele were 1.04(1.03-1.05) and 1.05(1.02-1.08) for breast cancer incidence and mortality, similar across risk factors. In 50-year old women, the starting age for screening...

  15. Cumulative Risk Disparities in Children's Neurocognitive Functioning: A Developmental Cascade Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, Mark; Browne, Dillon T.; Plamondon, Andre; Daniel, Ella; Jenkins, Jennifer M.

    2016-01-01

    The current longitudinal study examined the role of cumulative social risk on children's theory of mind (ToM) and executive functioning (EF) across early development. Further, we also tested a cascade model of development in which children's social cognition at 18 months was hypothesized to predict ToM and EF at age 4.5 through intermediary…

  16. Factors Associated with Breast Cancer Screening in a Country with National Health Insurance: Did We Succeed in Reducing Healthcare Disparities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayek, Samah; Enav, Teena; Shohat, Tamy; Keinan-Boker, Lital

    2017-02-01

    The effectiveness of breast cancer screening programs in reducing mortality is well established in the scientific literature. The National Breast Cancer Screening Program in Israel provides biennial mammograms for women of average risk aged 50-74 and annual mammograms for women aged 40-49 at higher risk. Compliance is high, but differential. This study explores different factors associated with breast cancer screening attendance among women aged 40-74 years. Two main outcomes were studied: ever been screened and been screened in the 2 years preceding the study, using the cross-sectional Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices (KAP) Survey conducted in 2010-2012 among 2575 Israeli women aged 21+ years. The independent variables were sociodemographic characteristics, perceived health status, lifestyle habits, and healthcare fund membership. Bivariate and multivariable logistic regressions were conducted. Of the 943 participants aged 50-74, 87% had ever been screened and 74.8% had attended screening for breast cancer in the last 2 years. In multivariable models, Jewish compared to Arab women (adjusted prevalence ratio [APR] = 2.09, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.02-4.32), and unmarried compared to married women (APR = 2.9, 95% CI: 1.2-7.2), were more likely to have ever been screened. The only factor associated with breast cancer screening in the 2 years preceding the study was healthcare fund membership. In women aged 40-49 years, ethnicity was the only contributing factor associated with breast cancer screening, with higher screening rates in the 2 years preceding the study in Jewish versus Arab women (APR = 3.7, 95% CI: 1.52-9.3). Breast cancer screening attendance in Israel is high. However, significant differences are observed by membership of healthcare fund and by ethnicity, calling for better targeted outreach programs at this level.

  17. Cellular telephone use and cancer risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schüz, Joachim; Jacobsen, Rune; Olsen, Jørgen H.

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The widespread use of cellular telephones has heightened concerns about possible adverse health effects. The objective of this study was to investigate cancer risk among Danish cellular telephone users who were followed for up to 21 years. METHODS: This study is an extended follow......-up of a large nationwide cohort of 420,095 persons whose first cellular telephone subscription was between 1982 and 1995 and who were followed through 2002 for cancer incidence. Standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) were calculated by dividing the number of observed cancer cases in the cohort by the number...... expected in the Danish population. RESULTS: A total of 14,249 cancers were observed (SIR = 0.95; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.93 to 0.97) for men and women combined. Cellular telephone use was not associated with increased risk for brain tumors (SIR = 0.97), acoustic neuromas (SIR = 0.73), salivary...

  18. The disparity of health facilities in an urban area discourages proposed treatment application in inoperable lung cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hillas, Georgios; Bakakos, Petros; Trichas, Miltiadis; Vlastos, Fotis

    2010-01-01

    Patients with a newly diagnosed non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) stage IIIB are offered chemoradiotherapy, as proposed by the current guidelines. This combination treatment is facilitated by the coexistence of corresponding departments in the same establishment. The geographical disparity of these health facilities influences patients’ willingness to be treated and may influence their survival. This is an observational study that compares the survival of two groups of patients with NSCLC stage IIIB: those treated with chemoradiotherapy versus those treated only with chemotherapy. These two comparable groups were formed exclusively by patients’ and/or their families’ decisions. One hundred fifteen consecutive NSCLC stage IIIB patients were included in the study. All were hospitalized in the biggest Chest Disease Hospital in Athens and were offered sequential chemoradiotherapy. Only 54 patients opted for the proposed treatment, while 61 decided to be treated with chemotherapy only, denying continuing their treatment in another health care unit (radiotherapy). Their survival and related factors were analyzed. Mean overall survival was estimated 10 months (95% confidence interval [CI]: 7.96–12.04). Patients treated with chemoradiotherapy had almost double overall survival compared to those under chemotherapy (P = 0.001): 13.6 months (95% CI: 12.3–14.9) versus 7.5 (95% CI: 6.1–8.9). Patients aged ≤ 65 years (P < 0.001), smokers (P < 0.001), and those without a cancer history (P < 0.001) survived longer. The lack of a radiotherapy department in a hospital providing chemotherapy impedes the application of current guidelines advocating combined radiochemotherapy. When recommended radiotherapy after six chemo cycles, half of the patients are unwilling to be displaced and do not follow the recommendations. This has an impact on patient survival

  19. Canadian Cancer Risk Management Model: evaluation of cancer control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, William K; Wolfson, Michael C; Flanagan, William M; Shin, Janey; Goffin, John; Miller, Anthony B; Asakawa, Keiko; Earle, Craig; Mittmann, Nicole; Fairclough, Lee; Oderkirk, Jillian; Finès, Philippe; Gribble, Stephen; Hoch, Jeffrey; Hicks, Chantal; Omariba, D Walter R; Ng, Edward

    2013-04-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a decision support tool to assess the potential benefits and costs of new healthcare interventions. The Canadian Partnership Against Cancer (CPAC) commissioned the development of a Cancer Risk Management Model (CRMM)--a computer microsimulation model that simulates individual lives one at a time, from birth to death, taking account of Canadian demographic and labor force characteristics, risk factor exposures, and health histories. Information from all the simulated lives is combined to produce aggregate measures of health outcomes for the population or for particular subpopulations. The CRMM can project the population health and economic impacts of cancer control programs in Canada and the impacts of major risk factors, cancer prevention, and screening programs and new cancer treatments on population health and costs to the healthcare system. It estimates both the direct costs of medical care, as well as lost earnings and impacts on tax revenues. The lung and colorectal modules are available through the CPAC Web site (www.cancerview.ca/cancerrriskmanagement) to registered users where structured scenarios can be explored for their projected impacts. Advanced users will be able to specify new scenarios or change existing modules by varying input parameters or by accessing open source code. Model development is now being extended to cervical and breast cancers.

  20. Risk of treatment-related esophageal cancer among breast cancer survivors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morton, L M; Gilbert, E S; Hall, P

    2012-01-01

    Radiotherapy for breast cancer may expose the esophagus to ionizing radiation, but no study has evaluated esophageal cancer risk after breast cancer associated with radiation dose or systemic therapy use.......Radiotherapy for breast cancer may expose the esophagus to ionizing radiation, but no study has evaluated esophageal cancer risk after breast cancer associated with radiation dose or systemic therapy use....

  1. Cancer risks from ingestion of radiostrontium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raabe, O. G.

    2004-07-01

    Studies have been conducted of the lifetime effects in 403 beagles of the skeletal uptake in seven logarithmically increasing dosage groups of ingested Sr-90. The Sr-90 was fed during skeletal developmental from mid-gestation to adulthood at age 540 days resulting in lifetime protracted beta radiation exposure of the skeleton and some adjacent tissues. Statistical analysis of all types of cancer deaths in the 403 exposed beagles and in 162 unexposed controls indicated that deaths caused by five types of cancer were significantly elevated by high level exposure to Sr-90; these were (1) myeloid leukemia, (2) bone sarcoma, (3) squamous cell carcinoma of periodontal origin, (4) nasal carcinoma, and (5) oral carcinoma. Dose response analysis of these radiation-induced cancer deaths showed non-linear relationships with marked thresholds. A mean lifetime skeletal absorbed dose of 22.5 +/-5.7 Gy SD (22.5 +/-5.7 Sv SD) was associated with the lowest dosage group in which any radiation induced cancer deaths were observed. Three-dimensional models of the observed dose-rate/time/response relationships were fir with maximum likelihood regression methods to describe the risks of death associated with the different types of radiation-induced cancer. The models show that a life-time virtual threshold for cancer risk occurs because the time required to induce cancer is longer at lower radiation dose rates and may exceed the natural life span. Scaling these results to predict human cancer risks from ingestion of Sr-90 shows negligible risks for people whose lifetime cumulative skeletal dose is less than 10 Sv. (Author)

  2. Lifetime growth and risk of testicular cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richiardi, Lorenzo; Vizzini, Loredana; Pastore, Guido; Segnan, Nereo; Gillio-Tos, Anna; Fiano, Valentina; Grasso, Chiara; Ciuffreda, Libero; Lista, Patrizia; Pearce, Neil; Merletti, Franco

    2014-08-01

    Adult height is associated with testicular cancer risk. We studied to what extent this association is explained by parental height, childhood height and age at puberty. We conducted a case-control study on germ-cell testicular cancer patients diagnosed in 1997-2008 and resident in the Province of Turin. Information was collected using mailed questionnaires in 2008-2011. Specifically, we asked for adult height (in cm), height at age 9 and 13 (compared to peers) and age at puberty (compared to peers). We also asked for paternal and maternal height (in cm) as indicators of genetic components of adult height. The analysis included 255 cases and 459 controls. Odds ratios (ORs) of testicular cancer were estimated for the different anthropometric variables. Adult height was associated with testicular cancer risk [OR: 1.16, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.03-1.31 per 5-cm increase]. The risk of testicular cancer was only slightly increased for being taller vs. shorter than peers at age 9 (OR: 1.55, 95% CI: 0.91-2.64) or age 13 (OR: 1.26, 95% CI: 0.78-2.01), and parental height was not associated with testicular cancer risk. The OR for adult height was 1.32 (95% CI: 1.12-1.56) after adjustment for parental height. Among participants with small average parental height (testicular cancer for tall (>180 cm) vs. short (testicular cancer is likely to be explained by environmental factors affecting growth in early life, childhood and adolescence. © 2013 UICC.

  3. Radon and risk of cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rootwelt, K.

    1988-01-01

    The article reviews present knowledge on the possible detriment to health of radon in homes. It is concluded that inducement of lung cancer has neither been proved nor disproved. Large-scale epidemiological studies are in progress. Until the results of these studies have been reported, frightening anti-radon propaganda should be discouraged

  4. Increased risk for depression after breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suppli, Nis P; Johansen, Christoffer; Christensen, Jane

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE: To investigate the risk for first depression, assessed as incident hospital contacts for depression and incident use of antidepressants, among women with breast cancer. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Danish national registries were used to identify 1,997,669 women with no diagnosis of cancer...... or a major psychiatric disorder. This cohort was followed from 1998 to 2011 for a diagnosis of breast cancer and for the two outcomes, hospital contact for depression and redeemed prescriptions for antidepressants. Rate ratios for incident hospital contacts for depression and incident use of antidepressants...... were estimated with Poisson regression models. Multivariable Cox regression was used to evaluate factors associated with the two outcomes among patients with breast cancer. RESULTS: We identified 44,494 women with breast cancer. In the first year after diagnosis, the rate ratio for a hospital contact...

  5. Rosacea and risk of cancer in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egeberg, Alexander; Fowler, Joseph F; Gislason, Gunnar H

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Rosacea is a common facial skin disorder with an estimated prevalence of 5-10% among Caucasians. OBJECTIVE: We compared cancer incidence in patients previously diagnosed with rosacea with that in the general population. METHODS: Nationwide cohort study of the Danish population using...... cancers: breast, ovarian, endometrial, cervical, kidney, malignant melanoma, non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC), pancreatic, hepatic, thyroid, esophageal, and lung cancer. Baseline prevalence of cancers were assessed, incidence rates per 1000 person-years were calculated, and hazard ratios (HRs) adjusted...... for age, sex, socio-economic status, and healthcare consumption were estimated by Cox regression models. RESULTS: The study comprised a total of 49,475 patients with rosacea and 4,312,213 subjects from the general population. There was no increased risk of malignant melanoma, ovarian, endometrial...

  6. Molecular epidemiology of amoebiasis in Malaysia: highlighting the different risk factors of Entamoeba histolytica and Entamoeba dispar infections among Orang Asli communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anuar, Tengku Shahrul; Al-Mekhlafi, Hesham M; Abdul Ghani, Mohamed Kamel; Abu Bakar, Edariah; Azreen, Siti Nor; Salleh, Fatmah Md; Ghazali, Nuraffini; Bernadus, Mekadina; Moktar, Norhayati

    2012-12-01

    Currently, species-specific information on Entamoeba infections is unavailable in Malaysia and is restricted worldwide due to the re-description of pathogenic Entamoeba histolytica and non-pathogenic Entamoeba dispar and Entamoeba moshkovskii. Therefore, this cross-sectional study was conducted to provide the first known documented data on the true prevalence of these three species in western Malaysia using a molecular method. Another aim of this study was to determine the association of potential risk factors associated with each Entamoeba sp. A total of 500 stool samples from three Orang Asli tribes were randomly collected. The overall prevalence of E. histolytica, E. dispar and E. moshkovskii determined by microscopy was 18.6% (93/500). Molecular analysis revealed that while most Entamoeba-positive individuals were infected with E. dispar (13.4%), followed by E. histolytica (3.2%) and E. moshkovskii (1.0%), the present findings show low prevalence rates of mixed infections with E. histolytica and E. dispar (2%), E. dispar and E. moshkovskii (1.2%) and association infections of E. histolytica, E. dispar and E. moshkovskii (0.4%). Logistical regression analysis indicates that the dynamics of the transmission of the three Entamoeba spp. was different. Of six statistically significant variables observed in the univariate analysis, three were retained as significant risk factors for E. histolytica infection in the logistical regression model. These factors were (i) not washing hands after playing with soil or gardening (Odds ratio (OR)=4.7; 95% confidence level (CI)=1.38, 16.14; P=0.013), (ii) indiscriminate defecation in the river or bush (OR=5.7; 95% CI=1.46, 21.95; P=0.012) and (iii) close contact with domestic animals (OR=5.4; 95% CI=1.36, 2.51; P=0.017). However, subjects with family members who were infected with E. histolytica/E. dispar/E. moshkovskii (OR=3.8; 95 CI=2.11, 6.86; PEntamoeba spp. Copyright © 2012 Australian Society for Parasitology Inc

  7. Risk Factors for Breast Cancer and its Prognosis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Melbye, Mads

    1998-01-01

    ...: Reproductive factors and breast cancer risk Having started the process of working with these questions, we discovered a unique opportunity to differentiate the outcome variable of breast cancer...

  8. On ionising radiation and breast cancer risk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mattson, Anders

    1999-05-01

    A cohort of 3,090 women with clinical diagnosis of benign breast disease (BBD) was studied. Of these, 1,216 were treated with radiation therapy during 1925-54 (median age 40 years). The mean dose to the breasts was 5.8 Gy (range 0-50 Gy). Among other organs the lung received the highest scattered dose (0.75 Gy; range 0.004-8.98 Gy) and the rectum the lowest (0.008 Gy; range 0-0.06 Gy). A pooled analysis of eight breast cancer incidence cohorts was done, including: tumour registry data on breast cancer incidence among women in the Life Span Study cohort of atomic bomb survivors; women in Massachusetts who received repeated chest fluoroscopic during lung collapse treatment for tuberculosis; women who received x-ray therapy for acute post-partum mastitis; women who were irradiated in infancy for enlarged thymus glands ; two Swedish cohorts of women who received radiation treatments during infancy for skin hemangioma; and the BBD cohort. Together the cohorts included almost 78,000 women (-35,000 were exposed), around 1.8 million woman-years and 1500 cases. The breast cancer incidence rate as a function of breast dose was analysed using linear-quadratic Poisson regression models. Cell-killing effects and other modifying effects were incorporated through additional log-linear terms. Additive (EAR) and multiplicative (ERR) models were compared in estimating the age-at-exposure patterns and time related excess. The carcinogenic risks associated with radiation in mammographic mass screening is evaluated. Assessment was made in terms of breast cancer mortality and years of life. Effects were related to rates not influenced by a mammographic mass screening program and based on a hypothetical cohort of 100,000 40-year old women with no history of breast cancer being followed to 100 years of age. Two radiation risk assumptions were compared. The dose-response relationship is linear with little support in data for an upward curvature at low to medium doses. The competing effect

  9. On ionising radiation and breast cancer risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mattson, Anders

    1999-01-01

    A cohort of 3,090 women with clinical diagnosis of benign breast disease (BBD) was studied. Of these, 1,216 were treated with radiation therapy during 1925-54 (median age 40 years). The mean dose to the breasts was 5.8 Gy (range 0-50 Gy). Among other organs the lung received the highest scattered dose (0.75 Gy; range 0.004-8.98 Gy) and the rectum the lowest (0.008 Gy; range 0-0.06 Gy). A pooled analysis of eight breast cancer incidence cohorts was done, including: tumour registry data on breast cancer incidence among women in the Life Span Study cohort of atomic bomb survivors; women in Massachusetts who received repeated chest fluoroscopic during lung collapse treatment for tuberculosis; women who received x-ray therapy for acute post-partum mastitis; women who were irradiated in infancy for enlarged thymus glands ; two Swedish cohorts of women who received radiation treatments during infancy for skin hemangioma; and the BBD) cohort. Together the cohorts included almost 78,000 women (-35,000 were exposed), around 1.8 million woman-years and 1500 cases. The breast cancer incidence rate as a function of breast dose was analysed using linear-quadratic Poisson regression models. Cell-killing effects and other modifying effects were incorporated through additional log-linear terms. Additive (EAR) and multiplicative (ERR) models were compared in estimating the age-at-exposure patterns and time related excess. The carcinogenic risks associated with radiation in mammographic mass screening is evaluated. Assessment was made in terms of breast cancer mortality and years of life. Effects were related to rates not influenced by a mammographic mass screening program and based on a hypothetical cohort of 100,000 40-year old women with no history of breast cancer being followed to 100 years of age. Two radiation risk assumptions were compared. The dose-response relationship is linear with little support in data for an upward curvature at low to medium doses. The competing effect

  10. Testicular cancer - epidemiology, etiology and risk factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ondrusova, M.; Ondrus, D.

    2012-01-01

    Testicular cancer is a rare malignancy, that affects 1-2 % of male population. Trends of testicular cancer mortality are stable for a long period of time, even that incidence shows a rapid growth. This paper deals with national trends in testicular cancer incidence and mortality in Slovakia from 1968 to 2007 by using the join-point regression analysis to propose potential changes in health care. The authors noted a statistically significant increase in the values of incidence and improvement in mortality after 1975. Paper also deals with the etiology and risk factors of this malignancy. (author)

  11. [Fish intake and risk of prostate cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dybkowska, Ewa; Świderski, Franciszek; Waszkiewicz-Robak, Bożena

    2014-10-17

    The aim of the study was to present the current state of knowledge concerning the relationship between the consumption of fish as materials rich in long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC PUFA) omega-3, and the risk of prostate cancer. Many scientific reports confirm the health benefits from the consumption of fish and protective properties of LC PUFA omega-3 in relation to prostate cancer. However, there are reports that indicate a relationship of the high consumption of PUFA with the risk of prostate cancer. The way of processing and preservation of the fish, and other factors not included in previous studies, could have some importance in the etiology of this disease. High susceptibility of PUFA to oxidation changes and the technological fish processing (smoking, high-temperature cooking methods) contribute to the formation of many compounds, such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and heterocyclic amines - which may influence the formation of cancers - including prostate cancer. It is necessary to ensure an adequate amount of LC PUFA omega-3 in the diet through the consumption of proper quality fish and fish oils. Particular attention should be paid to the high susceptibility of PUFA to the oxidative processes, and the method of processing, preservation and storage of fish. Also pollution from the environment can significantly reduce the impact of health benefits of PUFA and fish, and even be the cause of cancers, including prostate cancer. Further research in this area should be more targeted to assess the impact of nutritional factors for the development of such tumors.

  12. A latent class analysis of cancer risk behaviors among U.S. college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Joseph; Ciecierski, Christina Czart; Malin, Emily L; Carroll, Allison J; Gidea, Marian; Craft, Lynette L; Spring, Bonnie; Hitsman, Brian

    2014-07-01

    The purpose of this study is to understand how cancer risk behaviors cluster in U.S. college students and vary by race and ethnicity. Using the fall 2010 wave of the National College Health Assessment (NCHA), we conducted a latent class analysis (LCA) to evaluate the clustering of cancer risk behaviors/conditions: tobacco use, physical inactivity, unhealthy diet, alcohol binge drinking, and overweight/obesity. The identified clusters were then examined separately by students' self-reported race and ethnicity. Among 30,093 college students surveyed, results show a high prevalence of unhealthy diet as defined by insufficient fruit and vegetable intake (>95%) and physical inactivity (>60%). The LCA identified behavioral clustering for the entire sample and distinct clustering among Black and American Indian students. Cancer risk behaviors/conditions appear to cluster among college students differentially by race. Understanding how risk behaviors cluster in young adults can lend insight to racial disparities in cancer through adulthood. Health behavior interventions focused on modifying multiple risk behaviors and tailored to students' racial group could potentially have a much larger effect on cancer prevention than those targeting any single behavior. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Disparities in Treatment of Older Adults with Suicide Risk in the Emergency Department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias, Sarah A; Boudreaux, Edwin D; Segal, Daniel L; Miller, Ivan; Camargo, Carlos A; Betz, Marian E

    2017-10-01

    We described characteristics and treatment received for older (≥60 years) vs younger (adult emergency department (ED) patients with suicide risk. Retrospective chart review. An ED with universal screening for suicide risk. Eligible charts included a random sample of adults (≥18 years) who screened positive for suicidal ideation (SI) in past 2 weeks and/or a suicide attempt (SA) within the past 6 months. Visit dates were from May 2014 to September 2016. A total of 800 charts were reviewed, with oversampling of older adults. Of the 200 older adults sampled, fewer older adults compared to younger adults (n = 600) had a chief complaint involving psychiatric behavior (53% vs 70%) or self-harm behavior (26% vs 36%). Although a higher number of older adults (93%) had documentation of current SI compared to younger adults (79%), fewer older adults (17%) reported SA in the past 2 weeks compared to younger adults (23%). Of those with a positive suicide screen who were discharged home, less than half of older adults received a mental health evaluation during their visit (42%, 95% CI 34-52) compared to 66% (95% CI 61-70) of younger adults who met the same criteria. Similarly, fewer older, than younger, adult patients with current SI/SA received referral resources (34%; 95% CI 26-43; vs 60%; 95% CI 55-65). Significantly fewer suicidal older adult patients who were discharged home received a mental health evaluation when compared to similar younger adults. These findings highlight an important area for improvement in the treatment of older adults at risk for suicide. © 2017, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2017, The American Geriatrics Society.

  14. Effectiveness of Lay Health Worker Outreach in Reducing Disparities in Colorectal Cancer Screening in Vietnamese Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Susan L.; Nguyen, Tung T.; Bui-Tong, Ngoc; McPhee, Stephen J.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We conducted a cluster randomized controlled study of a lay health worker (LHW) intervention to increase colorectal cancer (CRC) screening rates among Vietnamese Americans, who typically have lower rates than do non-Hispanic Whites. Methods. We randomized 64 LHWs to 2 arms. Each LHW recruited 10 male or female participants who had never had CRC screening (fecal occult blood test, sigmoidoscopy, or colonoscopy). Intervention LHWs led 2 educational sessions on CRC screening. Control LHWs led 2 sessions on healthy eating and physical activity. The main outcome was self-reported receipt of any CRC screening at 6 months after the intervention. We conducted the study from 2008 to 2013 in Santa Clara County, California. Results. A greater proportion of intervention participants (56%) than control participants (19%) reported receiving CRC screening (P Vietnamese Americans. Randomized controlled trials are needed to test the effectiveness of LHW outreach for other populations and other health outcomes. PMID:26270306

  15. The Promise and Potential Perils of Big Data for Advancing Symptom Management Research in Populations at Risk for Health Disparities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakken, Suzanne; Reame, Nancy

    2016-01-01

    Symptom management research is a core area of nursing science and one of the priorities for the National Institute of Nursing Research, which specifically focuses on understanding the biological and behavioral aspects of symptoms such as pain and fatigue, with the goal of developing new knowledge and new strategies for improving patient health and quality of life. The types and volume of data related to the symptom experience, symptom management strategies, and outcomes are increasingly accessible for research. Traditional data streams are now complemented by consumer-generated (i.e., quantified self) and "omic" data streams. Thus, the data available for symptom science can be considered big data. The purposes of this chapter are to (a) briefly summarize the current drivers for the use of big data in research; (b) describe the promise of big data and associated data science methods for advancing symptom management research; (c) explicate the potential perils of big data and data science from the perspective of the ethical principles of autonomy, beneficence, and justice; and (d) illustrate strategies for balancing the promise and the perils of big data through a case study of a community at high risk for health disparities. Big data and associated data science methods offer the promise of multidimensional data sources and new methods to address significant research gaps in symptom management. If nurse scientists wish to apply big data and data science methods to advance symptom management research and promote health equity, they must carefully consider both the promise and perils.

  16. Low Cardiorespiratory Fitness in African Americans: A Health Disparity Risk Factor?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swift, Damon L.; Staiano, Amanda E.; Johannsen, Neil M.; Lavie, Carl J.; Earnest, Conrad P.; Katzmarzyk, Peter T.; Blair, Steven N.; Newton, Robert L.; Church, Timothy S.

    2013-01-01

    Low cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) is a well-established risk factor for all-cause and cardiovascular disease mortality. African Americans have higher rates of cardiovascular disease compared to their Caucasian counterparts. However, the extent to which lower CRF levels contribute to the excess risk in African Americans has not been fully explored. The purpose of this review is to: 1) explore the literature evaluating the relationship between CRF and mortality specifically in African American populations; and 2) critically evaluate the studies which have compared CRF between African American and Caucasians in epidemiological studies and clinical trials. We have further discussed several potential mechanisms that may contribute to the observation of lower CRF levels in African American compared to Caucasian adults including potential racial differences in physical activity levels, muscle fiber type distribution, and hemoglobin levels. If lower CRF is generally present in African Americans compared to Caucasians, and is of a clinically meaningful difference, this may represent an important public health concern. PMID:23982718

  17. Cancer risk diversity in non-western migrants to Europe: An overview of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Melina; Razum, Oliver; Coebergh, Jan-Willem

    2010-09-01

    Cancer risk varies geographically and across ethnic groups that can be monitored in cancer control to respond to observed trends as well as ensure appropriate health care. The study of cancer risk in immigrant populations has great potential to contribute new insights into aetiology, diagnosis and treatment of cancer. Disparities in cancer risk patterns between immigrant and autochthonous populations have been reported many times, but up to now studies have been heterogeneous and may be discordant in their findings. The aim of this overview was to compile and compare studies on cancer occurrence in migrant populations from non-western countries residing in Western Europe in order to reflect current knowledge in this field and to appeal for further research and culturally sensitive prevention strategies. We included 37 studies published in the English language between 1990 and April 2010 focussing on cancer in adult migrants from non-western countries, living in the industrialised countries of the European Union. Migrants were defined based on their country of birth, ethnicity and name-based approaches. We conducted a between-country comparison of age-adjusted cancer incidence and mortality in immigrant populations with those in autochthonous populations. Across the board migrants from non-western countries showed a more favourable all-cancer morbidity and mortality compared with native populations of European host countries, but with considerable site-specific risk diversity: Migrants from non-western countries were more prone to cancers that are related to infections experienced in early life, such as liver, cervical and stomach cancer. In contrast, migrants of non-western origin were less likely to suffer from cancers related to a western lifestyle, e.g. colorectal, breast and prostate cancer. Confirming the great cancer risk diversity in non-western migrants in and between different European countries, this overview reaffirms the importance of exposures

  18. Periodontal Disease, Tooth Loss, and Cancer Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaud, Dominique S; Fu, Zhuxuan; Shi, Jian; Chung, Mei

    2017-01-01

    Periodontal disease, which includes gingivitis and periodontitis, is highly prevalent in adults and disease severity increases with age. The relationship between periodontal disease and oral cancer has been examined for several decades, but there is increasing interest in the link between periodontal disease and overall cancer risk, with systemic inflammation serving as the main focus for biological plausibility. Numerous case-control studies have addressed the role of oral health in head and neck cancer, and several cohort studies have examined associations with other types of cancers over the past decade. For this review, we included studies that were identified from either 11 published reviews on this topic or an updated literature search on PubMed (between 2011 and July 2016). A total of 50 studies from 46 publications were included in this review. Meta-analyses were conducted on cohort and case-control studies separately when at least 4 studies could be included to determine summary estimates of the risk of cancer in relation to 1) periodontal disease or 2) tooth number (a surrogate marker of periodontal disease) with adjustment for smoking. Existing data provide support for a positive association between periodontal disease and risk of oral, lung, and pancreatic cancers; however, additional prospective studies are needed to better inform on the strength of these associations and to determine whether other cancers are associated with periodontal disease. Future studies should include sufficiently large sample sizes, improved measurements for periodontal disease, and thorough adjustment for smoking and other risk factors. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Increased pancreatic cancer risk following radiotherapy for testicular cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauptmann, Michael; Børge Johannesen, Tom; Gilbert, Ethel S

    2016-01-01

    with the number of cycles of chemotherapy with alkylating or platinum agents (P=0.057), although only one case was exposed to platinum. CONCLUSIONS: A dose-response relationship exists between radiation to the pancreas and subsequent cancer risk, and persists for over 20 years. These excesses, although small...

  20. Simpson's paradox - aggregating and partitioning populations in health disparities of lung cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, P; Panneerselvam, A; Clifford, B; Dowlati, A; Ma, P C; Zeng, G; Halmos, B; Leidner, R S

    2015-12-01

    It is well known that non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is a heterogeneous group of diseases. Previous studies have demonstrated genetic variation among different ethnic groups in the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) in NSCLC. Research by our group and others has recently shown a lower frequency of EGFR mutations in African Americans with NSCLC, as compared to their White counterparts. In this study, we use our original study data of EGFR pathway genetics in African American NSCLC as an example to illustrate that univariate analyses based on aggregation versus partition of data leads to contradictory results, in order to emphasize the importance of controlling statistical confounding. We further investigate analytic approaches in logistic regression for data with separation, as is the case in our example data set, and apply appropriate methods to identify predictors of EGFR mutation. Our simulation shows that with separated or nearly separated data, penalized maximum likelihood (PML) produces estimates with smallest bias and approximately maintains the nominal value with statistical power equal to or better than that from maximum likelihood and exact conditional likelihood methods. Application of the PML method in our example data set shows that race and EGFR-FISH are independently significant predictors of EGFR mutation. © The Author(s) 2011.

  1. Disparities in risk communication: a pilot study of asthmatic children, their parents, and home environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biksey, Thomas; Zickmund, Susan; Wu, Felicia

    2011-05-01

    Parents' knowledge and control of asthma triggers in home environments can help reduce risks associated with asthmatic children's respiratory health. This pilot study used both qualitative and quantitative methods to determine parental knowledge of their children's asthma triggers in home environments, control of those triggers, and information received and trusted. Twelve parents of asthmatic children in the greater Pittsburgh area--8 white and 4 African American--participated in one-on-one interviews about home exposures to asthma triggers. All parents described the link between asthma symptoms and both environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) and pet dander exposures. House dust mites and mold were also commonly identified asthma triggers. All 8 white parents reported receiving information from physicians about controlling home environmental triggers of asthma, but the 4 African American parents reported having received no such information. However, all 12 parents reported having greater trust in information received from physicians than from other sources. White parents were significantly more aware of potential asthma triggers and performed significantly more actions to control the triggers in their homes. African American parents noted stressful experiences with primary and secondary care, less recall of information sharing about asthma triggers, and a focus on symptom management vs trigger avoidance.

  2. Colorectal (Colon) Cancer: What Are the Risk Factors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... The CDC Cancel Submit Search The CDC Colorectal (Colon) Cancer Note: Javascript is disabled or is not supported ... Risk Assessment Tool (National Cancer Institute) Learning About Colon Cancer Stay Informed Language: English Español (Spanish) File Formats ...

  3. NIH study confirms risk factors for male breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pooled data from studies of about 2,400 men with breast cancer and 52,000 men without breast cancer confirmed that risk factors for male breast cancer include obesity, a rare genetic condition called Klinefelter syndrome, and gynecomastia.

  4. Racial disparities and socioeconomic status in association with survival in a large population-based cohort of elderly patients with colon cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Xianglin L; Fang, Shenying; Vernon, Sally W; El-Serag, Hashem; Shih, Y Tina; Davila, Jessica; Rasmus, Monica L

    2007-08-01

    To the authors' knowledge, few studies have addressed racial disparities in the survival of patients with colon cancer by adequately incorporating treatment and socioeconomic factors in addition to patient and tumor characteristics. The authors studied a nationwide and population-based, retrospective cohort of 18,492 men and women who were diagnosed with stage II or III colon cancer at age >or=65 years between 1992 and 1999. This cohort was identified from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) cancer registries-Medicare linked databases and included up to 11 years of follow-up. A larger proportion (70%) of African-American patients with colon cancer fell into the poorest quartiles of socioeconomic status compared with Caucasians (21%). Patients who lived in communities with the lowest socioeconomic level had 19% higher all-cause mortality compared with patients who lived in communities with the highest socioeconomic status (hazards ratio [HR], 1.19; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 1.13-1.26; P colon cancer, African-American patients were 21% more likely to die after controlling for age, sex, comorbidity scores, tumor stage, and grade (HR, 1.21; 95% CI, 1.12-1.30). After also adjusting for definitive therapy and socioeconomic status, the HR of mortality was only marginally significantly higher in African Americans compared with Caucasians for all-cause mortality (HR, 1.10; 95% CI, 1.02-1.19) and colon cancer-specific mortality (HR, 1.16; 95% CI, 1.01-1.33). Lower socioeconomic status and lack of definitive treatment were associated strongly with decreased survival in both men and women with colon cancer. Racial disparities in survival were explained substantially by differences in socioeconomic status. (c) 2007 American Cancer Society.

  5. Disparities in Adolescent and Young Adult Survival After Testicular Cancer Vary by Histologic Subtype: A Population-Based Study in California 1988–2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mujahid, Mahasin; Srinivas, Sandy; Keegan, Theresa H.M.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Testicular cancer is the most common cancer among adolescent and young adult (AYA) men 15–39 years of age. This study aims to determine whether race/ethnicity and/or neighborhood socioeconomic status (SES) contribute independently to survival of AYAs with testicular cancer. Methods: Data on 14,249 eligible AYAs with testicular cancer diagnosed in California between 1988 and 2010 were obtained from the population-based California Cancer Registry. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression was used to examine overall and testicular cancer-specific survival and survival for the seminoma and nonseminoma histologic subtypes according to race/ethnicity, census-tract level neighborhood SES, and other patient and clinical characteristics. Results: Compared with White AYAs, Hispanic AYAs had worse overall and testicular cancer-specific survival (hazard ratio [HR], 1.21; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.07–1.37) and Black AYAs had worse overall survival (HR, 1.41; 95% CI, 1.01–1.97), independent of neighborhood SES and other demographic and clinical factors. Racial/ethnic disparities in survival were more pronounced for nonseminoma than for seminoma. AYAs residing in middle and low SES neighborhoods experienced worse survival across both histologic subtypes independent of race/ethnicity and other factors, while improvements in survival over time were more pronounced for seminoma. Longer time to treatment was also associated with worse survival, particularly for AYAs with nonseminoma. Conclusion: Among AYAs, race/ethnicity, and neighborhood SES are independently associated with survival after testicular cancer. Variation in disparities by histologic type according to demographic factors, year of diagnosis, and time to treatment may reflect differences in prognosis and extent of treatment for the two histologies. PMID:26812451

  6. Disparities in Adolescent and Young Adult Survival After Testicular Cancer Vary by Histologic Subtype: A Population-Based Study in California 1988-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeRouen, Mindy C; Mujahid, Mahasin; Srinivas, Sandy; Keegan, Theresa H M

    2016-03-01

    Testicular cancer is the most common cancer among adolescent and young adult (AYA) men 15-39 years of age. This study aims to determine whether race/ethnicity and/or neighborhood socioeconomic status (SES) contribute independently to survival of AYAs with testicular cancer. Data on 14,249 eligible AYAs with testicular cancer diagnosed in California between 1988 and 2010 were obtained from the population-based California Cancer Registry. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression was used to examine overall and testicular cancer-specific survival and survival for the seminoma and nonseminoma histologic subtypes according to race/ethnicity, census-tract level neighborhood SES, and other patient and clinical characteristics. Compared with White AYAs, Hispanic AYAs had worse overall and testicular cancer-specific survival (hazard ratio [HR], 1.21; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.07-1.37) and Black AYAs had worse overall survival (HR, 1.41; 95% CI, 1.01-1.97), independent of neighborhood SES and other demographic and clinical factors. Racial/ethnic disparities in survival were more pronounced for nonseminoma than for seminoma. AYAs residing in middle and low SES neighborhoods experienced worse survival across both histologic subtypes independent of race/ethnicity and other factors, while improvements in survival over time were more pronounced for seminoma. Longer time to treatment was also associated with worse survival, particularly for AYAs with nonseminoma. Among AYAs, race/ethnicity, and neighborhood SES are independently associated with survival after testicular cancer. Variation in disparities by histologic type according to demographic factors, year of diagnosis, and time to treatment may reflect differences in prognosis and extent of treatment for the two histologies.

  7. Tetrachloroethylene exposure and bladder cancer risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vlaanderen, Jelle; Straif, Kurt; Ruder, Avima

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In 2012, the International Agency for Research on Cancer classified tetrachloroethylene, used in the production of chemicals and the primary solvent used in dry cleaning, as "probably carcinogenic to humans" based on limited evidence of an increased risk of bladder cancer in dry...... cleaners. OBJECTIVES: We assessed the epidemiological evidence for the association between tetrachloroethylene exposure and bladder cancer from published studies estimating occupational exposure to tetrachloroethylene or in workers in the dry-cleaning industry. METHODS: Random-effects meta-analyses were...... carried out separately for occupational exposure to tetrachloroethylene and employment as a dry cleaner. We qualitatively summarized exposure-response data because of the limited number of studies available. RESULTS: The meta-relative risk (mRR) among tetrachloroethylene-exposed workers was 1.08 (95% CI...

  8. Light pollution, reproductive function and cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anisimov, Vladimir N

    2006-01-01

    At present, light pollution (exposure to light-at-night) both in the form of occupational exposure during night work and as a personal choice and life style, is experienced by numerous night-active members of our society. Disruption of the circadian rhythms induced by light pollution has been associated with cancer in humans. There are epidemiological evidences of increased breast and colon cancer risk in shift workers. An inhibition of the pineal gland function with exposure to the constant light (LL) regimen promoted carcinogenesis whereas the light deprivation inhibits the carcinogenesis. Treatment with pineal indole hormone melatonin inhibits carcinogenesis in pinealectomized rats or animals kept at the standard light/dark regimen (LD) or at the LL regimen. These observations might lead to use melatonin for cancer prevention in groups of humans at risk of light pollution.

  9. Menarche menopause breast cancer risk individual

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Collaborative Group on Hormonal Factors in Breast Cancer; Bausch-Goldbohm, R.A.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND:Menarche and menopause mark the onset and cessation, respectively, of ovarian activity associated with reproduction, and affect breast cancer risk. Our aim was to assess the strengths of their effects and determine whether they depend on characteristics of the tumours or the affected

  10. Elevated Bladder Cancer Risk in New England

    Science.gov (United States)

    A new study has found that drinking water from private wells, particularly dug wells established during the first half of the 20th century, may have contributed to the elevated risk of bladder cancer that has been observed in Maine, New Hampshire, and Vermont for over 50 years.

  11. Obesity and risk of ovarian cancer subtypes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Catherine M; Nagle, Christina M; Whiteman, David C

    2013-01-01

    Whilst previous studies have reported that higher BMI increases a woman's risk of developing ovarian cancer, associations for the different histological subtypes have not been well defined. As the prevalence of obesity has increased dramatically, and classification of ovarian histology has improv...

  12. Mentoring and Training of Cancer-Related Health Disparities Researchers Committed to Community-Based Participatory Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felder, Tisha M; Braun, Kathryn L; Brandt, Heather M; Khan, Samira; Tanjasiri, Sora; Friedman, Daniela B; Armstead, Cheryl A; Okuyemi, Kolawole S; Hébert, James R

    2015-01-01

    The National Cancer Institute's (NCI) Community Networks Program Centers (CNPCs) provide community-based participatory research (CBPR)-oriented mentoring and training to prepare early-stage/midcareer investigators and student trainees (trainees) in disparities reduction. This paper describes the academic, mentoring, training, and work-life balance experiences of CNPC-affiliated trainees. We used a collaborative and iterative process to develop a 57-item, web-based questionnaire completed by trainees from the 23 CNPCs between August 2012 and February 2013. Their CNPC mentors completed a 47-item questionnaire. Descriptive statistics were calculated. The final analytic sample included 189 of 269 individuals (70%) identified as active participants in CNPC research or training/mentoring. Mentors (n=45) were mostly non-Hispanic White (77.8%) and 48.9% were male. Mentors published a median of 6 (interquartile range [IQR], 3-12) first-authored and 15 (IQR, 6-25) senior authored manuscripts, and secured 15 (IQR, 11-29) grants from the National Institutes of Health (NIH) and other sources in the previous 5 years. Most trainees (n=144) were female (79.2%), 43.7% were underrepresented racial/ethnic minorities, and 36.8% were first-generation college graduates. Over the previous 5 years, trainees reported a median of 4 (IQR, 1-6) publications as first author and 4 (IQR, 2-8) as co-author; 27.1% reported having one or more NIH R01s. Trainees reported satisfaction with their CNPC mentor (79.1%) and confidence in demonstrating most CBPR competencies. The CNPC training program consists of a scientifically productive pool of mentors and trainees. Trainees reported rates of scholarly productivity comparable to other national training programs and provided insights into relationships with mentors, academic pressures, and professional-personal life balance.

  13. Mentoring and Training of Cancer-Related Health Disparities Researchers Committed to Community-Based Participatory Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felder, Tisha M.; Braun, Kathryn L.; Brandt, Heather M.; Khan, Samira; Tanjasiri, Sora; Friedman, Daniela B.; Armstead, Cheryl A.; Okuyemi, Kolawole S.; Hébert, James R.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objective The National Cancer Institute’s (NCI) Community Networks Program Centers (CNPCs) provide community-based participatory research (CBPR)-oriented mentoring and training to prepare early-stage/midcareer investigators and student trainees (trainees) in disparities reduction. This paper describes the academic, mentoring, training, and work–life balance experiences of CNPC-affiliated trainees. Methods We used a collaborative and iterative process to develop a 57-item, web-based questionnaire completed by trainees from the 23 CNPCs between August 2012 and February 2013. Their CNPC mentors completed a 47-item questionnaire. Descriptive statistics were calculated. Results The final analytic sample included 189 of 269 individuals (70%) identified as active participants in CNPC research or training/mentoring. Mentors (n = 45) were mostly non-Hispanic White (77.8%) and 48.9% were male. Mentors published a median of 6 (interquartile range [IQR], 3–12) first-authored and 15 (IQR, 6–25) senior authored manuscripts, and secured 15 (IQR, 11–29) grants from the National Institutes of Health (NIH) and other sources in the previous 5 years. Most trainees (n = 144) were female (79.2%), 43.7% were underrepresented racial/ethnic minorities, and 36.8% were first-generation college graduates. Over the previous 5 years, trainees reported a median of 4 (IQR, 1–6) publications as first author and 4 (IQR, 2–8) as co-author; 27.1% reported having one or more NIH R01s. Trainees reported satisfaction with their CNPC mentor (79.1%) and confidence in demonstrating most CBPR competencies. Conclusion The CNPC training program consists of a scientifically productive pool of mentors and trainees. Trainees reported rates of scholarly productivity comparable to other national training programs and provided insights into relationships with mentors, academic pressures, and professional–personal life balance. PMID:26213409

  14. Disparities in receipt of care for high-grade endometrial cancer: A National Cancer Data Base analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bregar, Amy J; Alejandro Rauh-Hain, J; Spencer, Ryan; Clemmer, Joel T; Schorge, John O; Rice, Laurel W; Del Carmen, Marcela G

    2017-04-01

    To examine patterns of care and survival for Hispanic women compared to white and African American women with high-grade endometrial cancer. We utilized the National Cancer Data Base (NCDB) to identify women diagnosed with uterine grade 3 endometrioid adenocarcinoma, carcinosarcoma, clear cell carcinoma and papillary serous carcinoma between 2003 and 2011. The effect of treatment on survival was analyzed using the Kaplan-Meier method. Factors predictive of outcome were compared using the Cox proportional hazards model. 43,950 women were eligible. African American and Hispanic women had higher rates of stage III and IV disease compared to white women (36.5% vs. 36% vs. 33.5%, p<0.001). African American women were less likely to undergo surgical treatment for their cancer (85.2% vs. 89.8% vs. 87.5%, p<0.001) and were more likely to receive chemotherapy (36.8% vs. 32.4% vs. 32%, p<0.001) compared to white and Hispanic women. Over the entire study period, after adjusting for age, time period of diagnosis, region of the country, urban or rural setting, treating facility type, socioeconomic status, education, insurance, comorbidity index, pathologic stage, histology, lymphadenectomy and adjuvant treatment, African American women had lower overall survival compared to white women (Hazard Ratio 1.21, 95% CI 1.16-1.26). Conversely, Hispanic women had improved overall survival compared to white women after controlling for the aforementioned factors (HR 0.87, 95% CI 0.80-0.93). Among women with high-grade endometrial cancer, African American women have lower all-cause survival while Hispanic women have higher all-cause survival compared to white women after controlling for treatment, sociodemographic, comorbidity and histopathologic variables. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Understanding your prostate cancer risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... proven. Experts are still looking at things like diet, obesity, smoking, and other factors to see how they may affect your risk. As with many health conditions, staying healthy ... low-fat diet with plenty of vegetables and fruits. Maintain a ...

  16. Racial disparities in cancer-related survival in patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus in the US between 1973 and 2013.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice Kim

    Full Text Available Esophageal cancer makes up approximately 1% of all diagnosed cancers in the US. There is a persistent disparity in incidence and cancer-related mortality rates among different races for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC. Most previous studies investigated racial disparities between black and white patients, occasionally examining disparities for Hispanic patients. Studies including Asians/Pacific Islanders (API as a subgroup are rare. Our objective was to determine whether there is an association between race and cancer-related survival in patients with esophageal SCC.This was a retrospective cohort study using the National Cancer Institute's Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Result (SEER database. The SEER registry is a national database that collects information on all incident cancer cases in 13 states of the United States and covers nearly 26% of the US population Patients aged 18 and over of White, Black, or Asian/Pacific Islander (API race with diagnosed esophageal SCC from 1973 to 2013 were included (n = 13,857. To examine overall survival, Kaplan-Meier curves were estimated for each race and the log-rank test was used to compare survival distributions. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate unadjusted and adjusted hazard ratios with 95% confidence intervals. The final adjusted model controlled for sex, marital status, age at diagnosis, decade of diagnosis, ethnicity, stage at diagnosis, and form of treatment. Additional analyses stratified by decade of diagnosis were conducted to explore possible changes in survival disparities over time. After adjustment for potential confounders, black patients had a statistically significantly higher hazard ratio compared to white patients (HR 1.08; 95% confidence interval (CI 1.03-1.13. However, API patients did not show a statistically significant difference in survival compared with white patients (HR 1.00; 95% CI 0.93-1.07. Patients diagnosed between 1973 and 1979 had twice

  17. Abortion, Miscarriage, and Breast Cancer Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Common Cancer Types Recurrent Cancer Common Cancer Types Bladder Cancer Breast Cancer Colorectal Cancer Kidney (Renal Cell) Cancer ... interactions of pregnancy-related mammotrophic factors, ligands, and receptors? What is the time course of pregnancy-related ...

  18. Risks of Ovarian, Fallopian Tube, and Primary Peritoneal Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... black women. Different factors increase or decrease the risk of getting ovarian, fallopian tube, and primary peritoneal ... decrease the number of deaths from ovarian cancer. Risks of Ovarian, Fallopian Tube, and Primary Peritoneal Cancer ...

  19. Cancer surgery: risks and opportunities.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Coffey, J C

    2012-02-03

    In the recent past, several papers have pointed to the possibility that tumour removal generates a permissive environment in which tumour growth is potentiated. This phenomenon has been coined "perioperative tumour growth" and whilst it represents a departure in terms of our attitude to the surgical process, this concept was first hinted at by Paget(1) himself. Despite this, the time interval immediately before and after cancer surgery (i.e. the perioperative period) remains an underutilised interval during which chemotherapeutic regimens are rarely implemented. Herein, we present a summarised review of the literature that supports the concept that tumour removal may potentiate the growth of residual neoplastic disease. We also outline current knowledge regarding underlying mechanisms and in this manner highlight potential therapeutic entry points. Finally, we emphasise the urgent need for trials of agents that could protect patients against the harmful host-tumour interactions that may occur during the perioperative period.

  20. Pancreatic cancer risk in hereditary pancreatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Ulrich Weiss

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Inflammation is part of the body’s immune response in order to remove harmful stimuli – like pathogens, irritants or damaged cells - and start the healing process. Recurrent or chronic inflammation on the other side seems a predisposing factor for carcinogenesis and has been found associated with cancer development. In chronic pancreatitis mutations of the cationic trypsinogen (PRSS1 gene have been identified as risk factors of the disease. Hereditary pancreatitis is a rare cause of chronic pancreatic inflammation with an early onset, mostly during childhood. Hereditary pancreatitis often starts with recurrent episodes of acute pancreatitis and the clinical phenotype is not very much different from other etiologies of the disease. The long-lasting inflammation however generates a tumor promoting environment and represents a major risk factor for tumor development This review will reflect our knowledge concerning the specific risk of hereditary pancreatitis patients to develop pancreatic cancer.

  1. Pregnancy-related venous thromboembolism and risk of occult cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anette Tarp; Veres, Katalin; Horváth-Puhó, Erzsébet

    2017-01-01

    The cancer risk during the first year after a pregnancy-related venous thromboembolism episode is higher than expected. An aggressive search for cancer in women with pregnancy-related venous thromboembolism is probably not warranted, due to low absolute risk.......The cancer risk during the first year after a pregnancy-related venous thromboembolism episode is higher than expected. An aggressive search for cancer in women with pregnancy-related venous thromboembolism is probably not warranted, due to low absolute risk....

  2. Cancer risks for MLH1 and MSH2 mutation carriers

    OpenAIRE

    Dowty, James G.; Win, Aung K.; Buchanan, Daniel D.; Lindor, Noralane M.; Macrae, Finlay A.; Clendenning, Mark; Antill, Yoland C.; Thibodeau, Stephen N.; Casey, Graham; Gallinger, Steve; Le Marchand, Loic; Newcomb, Polly A.; Haile, Robert W.; Young, Graeme P.; James, Paul A.

    2013-01-01

    We studied 17,576 members of 166 MLH1 and 224 MSH2 mutation-carrying families from the Colon Cancer Family Registry. Average cumulative risks of colorectal cancer (CRC), endometrial cancer (EC) and other cancers for carriers were estimated using modified segregation analysis conditioned on ascertainment criteria. Heterogeneity in risks was investigated using a polygenic risk modifier. Average CRC cumulative risks to age 70 years (95% confidence intervals) for MLH1 and MSH2 mutation carriers, ...

  3. Interaction between common breast cancer susceptibility variants, genetic ancestry, and nongenetic risk factors in Hispanic women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fejerman, Laura; Stern, Mariana C; John, Esther M; Torres-Mejía, Gabriela; Hines, Lisa M; Wolff, Roger K; Baumgartner, Kathy B; Giuliano, Anna R; Ziv, Elad; Pérez-Stable, Eliseo J; Slattery, Martha L

    2015-11-01

    Most genetic variants associated with breast cancer risk have been discovered in women of European ancestry, and only a few genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have been conducted in minority groups. This research disparity persists in post-GWAS gene-environment interaction analyses. We tested the interaction between hormonal and lifestyle risk factors for breast cancer, and ten GWAS-identified SNPs among 2,107 Hispanic women with breast cancer and 2,587 unaffected controls, to gain insight into a previously reported gene by ancestry interaction in this population. We estimated genetic ancestry with a set of 104 ancestry-informative markers selected to discriminate between Indigenous American and European ancestry. We used logistic regression models to evaluate main effects and interactions. We found that the rs13387042-2q35(G/A) SNP was associated with breast cancer risk only among postmenopausal women who never used hormone therapy [per A allele OR: 0.94 (95% confidence intervals, 0.74-1.20), 1.20 (0.94-1.53), and 1.49 (1.28-1.75) for current, former, and never hormone therapy users, respectively, Pinteraction 0.002] and premenopausal women who breastfed >12 months [OR: 1.01 (0.72-1.42), 1.19 (0.98-1.45), and 1.69 (1.26-2.26) for never, 12 months breastfeeding, respectively, Pinteraction 0.014]. The correlation between genetic ancestry, hormone replacement therapy use, and breastfeeding behavior partially explained a previously reported interaction between a breast cancer risk variant and genetic ancestry in Hispanic women. These results highlight the importance of understanding the interplay between genetic ancestry, genetics, and nongenetic risk factors and their contribution to breast cancer risk. ©2015 American Association for Cancer Research.

  4. Cancer Risk-Promoting Information: The Communication Environment of Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCloud, Rachel F; Kohler, Racquel E; Viswanath, K

    2017-09-01

    Young adulthood represents a time of myriad transitions, which leave young adults (YAs) more susceptible to the influences of cancer risk-promoting information. The tobacco, alcohol, indoor tanning, and food and beverage industries engage in aggressive marketing strategies through both traditional and social media to target this age group to consume their products, which have known links to cancer. Despite this barrage of messaging, detailed data are lacking on the communication behaviors of subgroups of this diverse age group, particularly those from low SES. This paper explores the available data on media usage among YAs and describes the cancer risk-promoting information environment, with a focus on communication inequalities and their implications for cancer research and control. Nationally representative data on media consumption patterns indicate that the majority of YAs access a diverse range of traditional and social media platforms, but these data do not fully describe differences at the intersection of age and important factors such as SES, gender, race/ethnicity, or urban/rural residence. Meanwhile, risk-promoting information is heavily marketed to YAs across media, with an increasing focus on using social media sites to normalize products and evade marketing restrictions. Gaps in the available data on YAs' media consumption behaviors, coupled with aggressive risk-promoting marketing strategies toward YAs, may impede cancer control efforts. Relationships between exposure to various cancer risk-promoting information, concurrent risk behaviors, SES disparities, and communication inequalities should be investigated to develop innovative and effective control programs and policies to promote cancer control in this important group. Copyright © 2017 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Statins and risk of breast cancer recurrence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakellakis M

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Minas Sakellakis,1 Karolina Akinosoglou,1 Anastasia Kostaki,2 Despina Spyropoulou,1 Angelos Koutras,1 1Department of Medicine, Division of Oncology, University Hospital, Patras Medical School, Patras, 2Department of Statistics, Athens University of Economics and Business, Athens, Greece Background: The primary end point of our study was to test whether the concurrent use of a statin is related to a lower risk of recurrence and increased relapse-free survival in patients with early breast cancer. Materials and methods: We reviewed 610 female patients with stage I, II, or III breast cancer who had been surgically treated and who had subsequently received at least adjuvant chemotherapy in order to prevent recurrence. Results: Among the 610 patients with breast cancer, 83 (13.6% were receiving a statin on a chronic basis for other medical purposes. Overall, statin users displayed longer mean relapse-free survival (16.6 vs 10.2 years, P=0.028. After data had been adjusted for patient and disease characteristics, statin users maintained a lower risk of recurrence. This favorable outcome in statin users was particularly evident when we included only younger patients in the analysis (20 vs 10 years, P=0.006. Conclusion: Statins may be linked to a favorable outcome in early breast cancer patients, especially in younger age-groups. Keywords: statins, breast, cancer, adjuvant, recurrence

  6. Fish intake and risk of prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Dybkowska

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to present the current state of knowledge concerning the relationship between the consumption of fish as materials rich in long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC PUFA omega-3, and the risk of prostate cancer. Many scientific reports confirm the health benefits from the consumption of fish and protective properties of LC PUFA omega-3 in relation to prostate cancer. However, there are reports that indicate a relationship of the high consumption of PUFA with the risk of prostate cancer. The way of processing and preservation of the fish, and other factors not included in previous studies, could have some importance in the etiology of this disease. High susceptibility of PUFA to oxidation changes and the technological fish processing (smoking, high-temperature cooking methods contribute to the formation of many compounds, such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and heterocyclic amines – which may influence the formation of cancers – including prostate cancer. It is necessary to ensure an adequate amount of LC PUFA omega-3 in the diet through the consumption of proper quality fish and fish oils. Particular attention should be paid to the high susceptibility of PUFA to the oxidative processes, and the method of processing, preservation and storage of fish. Also pollution from the environment can significantly reduce the impact of health benefits of PUFA and fish, and even be the cause of cancers, including prostate cancer. Further research in this area should be more targeted to assess the impact of nutritional factors for the development of such tumors.

  7. Trends in colorectal cancer incidence among younger adults-Disparities by age, sex, race, ethnicity, and subsite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosbie, Amanda B; Roche, Lisa M; Johnson, Linda M; Pawlish, Karen S; Paddock, Lisa E; Stroup, Antoinette M

    2018-06-22

    Millennials (ages 18-35) are now the largest living generation in the US, making it important to understand and characterize the rising trend of colorectal cancer incidence in this population, as well as other younger generations of Americans. Data from the New Jersey State Cancer Registry (n = 181 909) and Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results program (n = 448 714) were used to analyze invasive CRC incidence trends from 1979 to 2014. Age, sex, race, ethnicity, subsite, and stage differences between younger adults (20-49) and screening age adults (≥50) in New Jersey (NJ) were examined using chi-square; and, we compared secular trends in NJ to the United States (US). Whites, men, and the youngest adults (ages 20-39) are experiencing greater APCs in rectal cancer incidence. Rates among younger black adults, overall, were consistently higher in both NJ and the US over time. When compared to older adults, younger adults with CRC in NJ were more likely to be: diagnosed at the late stage, diagnosed with rectal cancer, male, non-white, and Hispanic. Invasive CRC incidence trends among younger adults were found to vary by age, sex, race, ethnicity, and subsite. Large, case-level, studies are needed to understand the role of genetics, human papillomavirus (HPV), and cultural and behavioral factors in the rise of CRC among younger adults. Provider and public education about CRC risk factors will also be important for preventing and reversing the increasing CRC trend in younger adults. © 2018 The Authors. Cancer Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Eating patterns and risk of colon cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slattery, M L; Boucher, K M; Caan, B J; Potter, J D; Ma, K N

    1998-07-01

    Colon cancer has been associated with several nutrients and foods. The authors used data from a population-based study conducted in Northern California, Utah, and Minnesota to examine associations between dietary eating patterns and risk of developing colon cancer. Through factor analysis, detailed dietary intake data obtained from 1,993 cases (diagnosed in 1991-1994) and 2,410 controls were grouped into factors that were evaluated for relations with lifestyle characteristics and colon cancer risk. Several dietary patterns emerged. The dietary patterns with the most variation were labeled "Western," "prudent," "high fat/sugar dairy," "substituters," and "drinkers." The "Western" dietary pattern was associated with a higher body mass index and a greater intake of total energy and dietary cholesterol. The "prudent" pattern was associated with higher levels of vigorous leisure time physical activity, smaller body size, and higher intakes of dietary fiber and folate. Persons who had high scores on the "drinker" pattern were also more likely to smoke cigarettes. The "Western" dietary pattern was associated with an increased risk of colon cancer in both men and women. The association was strongest among people diagnosed prior to age 67 years (for men, odds ratio (OR)=1.96, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.22-3.15; for women, OR=2.02, 95% CI 1.21-3.36) and among men with distal tumors (OR=2.25, 95% CI 1.47-3.46). The "prudent" diet was protective, with the strongest associations being observed among people diagnosed prior to age 67 years (men: OR=0.63, 95% CI 0.43-0.92; women: OR=0.58, 95% CI 0.38-0.87); associations with this dietary pattern were also strong among persons with proximal tumors (men: OR=0.55, 95% CI 0.38-0.80; women: OR=0.64, 95% CI 0.45-0.92). Although "substituters" (people who substituted low fat dairy products for high fat dairy products, margarine for butter, poultry for red meat, and whole grains for refined grains) were at reduced risk of colon cancer

  9. Leukemia risk following radiotherapy for breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curtis, R.E.; Boice, J.D. Jr.; Stovall, M.; Flannery, J.T.; Moloney, W.C.

    1989-01-01

    To evaluate further the relationship between high-dose radiotherapy and leukemia incidence, a nested case-control study was conducted in a cohort of 22,753 women who were 18-month survivors of invasive breast cancer diagnosed from 1935 to 1972. Women treated for breast cancer after 1973 were excluded to minimize the possible confounding influence of treatment with chemotherapeutic agents. The cases had histologically confirmed leukemia reported to the Connecticut Tumor Registry (CTR) between 1935 and 1984. A total of 48 cases of leukemia following breast cancer were included in the study. Two controls were individually matched to each leukemia case on the basis of age, calendar year when diagnosed with breast cancer, and survival time. Leukemia diagnoses were verified by one hematologist. Radiation dose to active bone marrow was estimated by medical physicists on the basis of the original radiotherapy records of study subjects. Local radiation doses to each of the 16 bone marrow components for each patient were reconstructed; the dose averaged over the entire body was 530 rad (5.3 Gy). Based on this dosage and assuming a linear relationship between dose and affect, a relative risk (RR) in excess of 10 would have been expected. However, there was little evidence that radiotherapy increased the overall risk of leukemia (RR = 1.16; 90% confidence interval [CI], 0.6 to 2.1). The risk of chronic lymphocytic leukemia, one of the few malignancies without evidence for an association with ionizing radiation, was not significantly increased (RR = 1.8; n = 10); nor was the risk for all other forms of leukemia (RR = 1.0; n = 38). There was no indication that risk varied over categories of radiation dose

  10. Disparities in Adherence to National Comprehensive Cancer Network Treatment Guidelines and Survival for Stage IB-IIA Cervical Cancer in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfaendler, Krista S; Chang, Jenny; Ziogas, Argyrios; Bristow, Robert E; Penner, Kristine R

    2018-05-01

    risk of dying from cervical cancer. Among patients with early-stage cervical cancer, National Comprehensive Cancer Network guideline-nonadherent care was independently associated with increased cervical cancer-specific mortality along with black race and Medicaid payer status. Nonadherence was more prevalent in patients with older age, lower socioeconomic status, and receipt of care in low-volume centers. Attention should be paid to increase guideline adherence.

  11. Improving medication safety and cardiovascular risk factor control to mitigate disparities in African-American kidney transplant recipients: Design and methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew J. Cole

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available There is a lack of data analyzing the influence of cardiovascular disease (CVD risk factor control on graft survival disparities in African-American kidney transplant recipients. Studies in the general population indicate that CVD risk factor control is poor in African-Americans, leading to higher rates of renal failure and major acute cardiovascular events. However, with the exception of hypertension, there is no data demonstrating similar results within transplant recipients. Recent analyses conducted by our investigator group indicate that CVD risk factors, especially diabetes, are poorly controlled in African-American recipients, which likely impacts graft loss. This study protocol describes a prospective interventional clinical trial with the goal of demonstrating improved medication safety and CVD risk factor control in adult solitary kidney transplant recipients at least one-year post-transplant with a functioning graft. This is a prospective, interventional, 6-month, pharmacist-led and technology enabled study in adult kidney transplant recipients with the goal of improving CVD risk factor outcomes by improving medication safety and patient self-efficacy. This papers describes the issues related to racial disparities in transplant, the details of this intervention and how we expect this intervention to improve CVD risk factor control in kidney transplant recipients, particularly within African-Americans.

  12. Characterizing genetic syndromes involved in cancer and radiogenic cancer risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unrau, P.; Doerffer, K.

    1998-01-01

    The COG project 2806A (1995), reviewed the On-line Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM) database of genetic syndromes to identify those syndromes, genes, and DNA sequences implicated in some way in the cancer process, and especially in radiogenic cancer risk. The current report describes a recent update of the survey in light of two years of further progress in the Human Genome project, and is intended to supply a comprehensive list of those genetic syndromes, genes, DNA sequences and map locations that define genes likely to be involved in cancer risk. Of the 8203 syndromes in OMIM in 1997 June, 814 are associated, even if marginally, with cancer. Of the 814 syndromes so linked, 672 have been mapped to a chromosome, and 476 have been mapped to a chromosome and had a DNA sequence associated with their messenger RNA (or cDNA) sequences. In addition, 35 syndromes have sequences not associated with map locations, and the remaining 107 have neither been mapped nor sequenced. We supply the list of the various genetic syndromes sorted by chromosome location and by OMIM descriptor, together with all the associated but unmapped and unsequenced syndromes. (author)

  13. Characterizing genetic syndromes involved in cancer and radiogenic cancer risk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unrau, P; Doerffer, K

    1998-01-01

    The COG project 2806A (1995), reviewed the On-line Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM) database of genetic syndromes to identify those syndromes, genes, and DNA sequences implicated in some way in the cancer process, and especially in radiogenic cancer risk. The current report describes a recent update of the survey in light of two years of further progress in the Human Genome project, and is intended to supply a comprehensive list of those genetic syndromes, genes, DNA sequences and map locations that define genes likely to be involved in cancer risk. Of the 8203 syndromes in OMIM in 1997 June, 814 are associated, even if marginally, with cancer. Of the 814 syndromes so linked, 672 have been mapped to a chromosome, and 476 have been mapped to a chromosome and had a DNA sequence associated with their messenger RNA (or cDNA) sequences. In addition, 35 syndromes have sequences not associated with map locations, and the remaining 107 have neither been mapped nor sequenced. We supply the list of the various genetic syndromes sorted by chromosome location and by OMIM descriptor, together with all the associated but unmapped and unsequenced syndromes. (author) 1 tab., 4 figs.

  14. Risk factors for breast cancer in the breast cancer risk model study of Guam and Saipan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leon Guerrero, Rachael T; Novotny, Rachel; Wilkens, Lynne R; Chong, Marie; White, Kami K; Shvetsov, Yurii B; Buyum, Arielle; Badowski, Grazyna; Blas-Laguaña, Michelle

    2017-10-01

    Chamorro Pacific Islanders in the Mariana Islands have breast cancer incidence rates similar to, but mortality rates higher than, those of U.S. women. As breast cancer risk factors of women of the Mariana Islands may be unique because of ethnic and cultural differences, we studied established and suspected risk factors for breast cancer in this unstudied population. From 2010-2013, we conducted retrospective case-control study of female breast cancer (104 cases and 185 controls) among women in the Mariana Islands. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated for each of various lifestyle-related factors from logistic regression of breast cancer, in all women and in pre- and postmenopausal women separately. Tests for interaction of risk factors with ethnicity were based on the Wald statistics for cross-product terms. Of the medical and reproductive factors considered - age at menarche, breastfeeding, number of live births, age at first live birth, hormone use, and menopause - only age at first live birth was confirmed. Age at first live birth, among parous women, was higher among cases (mean 24.9 years) than controls (mean 23.2 years); with increased breast cancer risk (OR=2.53; 95% CI, 1.04-6.19 for age≥30y compared to risk and only in Filipino women. The association with many other established risk factors, such as BMI, hormone use and physical activity, were in the expected direction but were not significant. Associations for family history of breast cancer and alcohol intake were not evident CONCLUSIONS: The results provide a basis for cancer prevention guidance for women in the Mariana Islands. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  15. Poor periodontal health: A cancer risk?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K S Rajesh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Evidence indicates that chronic infections and inflammation are associated with increased risk of cancer development. There has also been considerable evidence that proves the interrelationship between bacterial and viral infections and carcinogenesis. Periodontitis is a chronic oral infection thought to be caused by gram-negative anaerobic bacteria in the dental biofilm. Periodontal bacteria and viruses may act synergistically to cause periodontitis. Many studies have shown that periodontal pockets may act as reservoirs for human papilloma virus, cytomegalovirus, Epstein Barr virus, and suspected agents associated with oral cancer. Periodontitis, characterized by epithelial proliferation and migration, results in a chronic release of inflammatory cytokines, chemokines, growth factors, prostaglandins, and enzymes, all of which are associated with cancer development. This review article intends to shed light on the association between periodontal health and carcinogenesis.

  16. Poor periodontal health: A cancer risk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajesh, K S; Thomas, Deepak; Hegde, Shashikanth; Kumar, M S Arun

    2013-11-01

    Evidence indicates that chronic infections and inflammation are associated with increased risk of cancer development. There has also been considerable evidence that proves the interrelationship between bacterial and viral infections and carcinogenesis. Periodontitis is a chronic oral infection thought to be caused by gram-negative anaerobic bacteria in the dental biofilm. Periodontal bacteria and viruses may act synergistically to cause periodontitis. Many studies have shown that periodontal pockets may act as reservoirs for human papilloma virus, cytomegalovirus, Epstein Barr virus, and suspected agents associated with oral cancer. Periodontitis, characterized by epithelial proliferation and migration, results in a chronic release of inflammatory cytokines, chemokines, growth factors, prostaglandins, and enzymes, all of which are associated with cancer development. This review article intends to shed light on the association between periodontal health and carcinogenesis.

  17. Stroma-induced Jagged1 expression drives PC3 prostate cancer cell migration; disparate effects of RIP-generated proteolytic fragments on cell behaviour and Notch signaling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delury, Craig, E-mail: c.delury@lancaster.ac.uk [Division of Biomedical and Life Sciences, Faculty of Health and Medicine, Lancaster University, Lancaster, LA1 4YQ (United Kingdom); Hart, Claire, E-mail: claire.hart@manchester.ac.uk [Genito Urinary Cancer Research Group, Institute of Cancer Sciences, Paterson Building, The University of Manchester, Manchester Academic Health Science Centre, Wilmslow Road, Manchester, M20 4BX (United Kingdom); Brown, Mick, E-mail: michael.brown@ics.manchester.ac.uk [Genito Urinary Cancer Research Group, Institute of Cancer Sciences, Paterson Building, The University of Manchester, Manchester Academic Health Science Centre, Wilmslow Road, Manchester, M20 4BX (United Kingdom); Clarke, Noel, E-mail: noel.clarke@christie.nhs.uk [Genito Urinary Cancer Research Group, Institute of Cancer Sciences, Paterson Building, The University of Manchester, Manchester Academic Health Science Centre, Wilmslow Road, Manchester, M20 4BX (United Kingdom); Parkin, Edward, E-mail: e.parkin@lancaster.ac.uk [Division of Biomedical and Life Sciences, Faculty of Health and Medicine, Lancaster University, Lancaster, LA1 4YQ (United Kingdom)

    2016-03-25

    The Notch ligand Jagged1 is subject to regulated intramembrane proteolysis (RIP) which yields a soluble ectodomain (sJag) and a soluble Jagged1 intracellular domain (JICD). The full-length Jagged1 protein enhances prostate cancer (PCa) cell proliferation and is highly expressed in metastatic cells. However, little is known regarding the mechanisms by which Jagged1 or its RIP-generated fragments might promote PCa bone metastasis. In the current study we show that bone marrow stroma (BMS) induces Jagged1 expression in bone metastatic prostate cancer PC3 cells and that this enhanced expression is mechanistically linked to the promotion of cell migration. We also show that RIP-generated Jagged1 fragments exert disparate effects on PC3 cell behaviour and Notch signaling. In conclusion, the expression of both the full-length ligand and its RIP-generated fragments must be considered in tandem when attempting to regulate Jagged1 as a possible PCa therapy. - Highlights: • Bone marrow stroma induces Jagged1 expression in prostate cancer (PCa) PC3 cells. • This enhanced expression of full-length Jagged1 is required for PC3 cell migration. • Proteolytic fragments of Jagged1 exert disparate effects on PC3 cell behaviour. • Effects of fragments on cell behaviour do not correlate with Notch signaling. • Effects of Jagged1 and its fragments on PCa metastasis likely to be complex.

  18. Familial risks in testicular cancer as aetiological clues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemminki, Kari; Chen, Bowang

    2006-02-01

    We used the nationwide Swedish Family-Cancer Database to analyse the risk for testicular cancer in offspring through parental and sibling probands. Among 0 to 70-year-old offspring, 4,586 patients had testicular cancer. Standardized incidence ratios for familial risk were 3.8-fold when a father and 7.6-fold when a brother had testicular cancer. Testicular cancer was associated with leukaemia, distal colon and kidney cancer, melanoma, connective tissue tumours and lung cancer in families. Non-seminoma was associated with maternal lung cancer but the risk was highest for the late-onset cases, providing no support to the theory of the in utero effect of maternal smoking on the son's risk of testicular cancer. However, the theory cannot be excluded but should be taken up for study when further data are available on maternal smoking. The high familial risk may be the product of shared childhood environment and heritable causes.

  19. Cancer risk assessments and environmental regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scroggin, D.G.

    1990-01-01

    Governmental regulation of toxic substances, such as carcinogens and radiation, prompts both legal and scientific controversies. Industry, environmental activist groups, government regulators, and the general public are all concerned with the question of how environmental risk to public health is to be measured and what level of risk warrants government action under the environmental laws. Several recent events shed light on the fundamental scientific and legal problems inherent in such regulation, and these events may affect the direction of future developments. These events include implementation of generic Risk Assessment Guidelines by the US EPA, litigation challenging EPA's regulation of carcinogenic substances, new scientific understanding of the relative risks from human exposure to natural and man-made sources, and the continuing growth of toxic tort litigation in which victims of cancer seek large damages from industrial emitters of pollution

  20. Radiation, cancer risk, and the new dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mole, R.H.

    1987-01-01

    This letter discusses revision of risk estimates in the light of the new dosimetry (DS86) and concludes that direct observation is more to be relied on than the extrapolation from A-bomb survivors' experience. X-ray treatment for ankylosing spondylitis, cervical cancer data, and figures observed from 50,000 workers occupationally exposed to radiation are used as examples. (U.K.)

  1. Pancreatic cancer risk in hereditary pancreatitis

    OpenAIRE

    Weiss, Frank U.

    2014-01-01

    Inflammation is part of the body’s immune response in order to remove harmful stimuli – like pathogens, irritants or damaged cells - and start the healing process. Recurrent or chronic inflammation on the other side seems a predisposing factor for carcinogenesis and has been found associated with cancer development. In chronic pancreatitis mutations of the cationic trypsinogen (PRSS1) gene have been identified as risk factors of the disease. Hereditary pancreatitis is a rare cause of chronic...

  2. Cancer risk factors in Korean news media: a content analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kye, Su Yeon; Kwon, Jeong Hyun; Kim, Yong-Chan; Shim, Minsun; Kim, Jee Hyun; Cho, Hyunsoon; Jung, Kyu Won; Park, Keeho

    2015-01-01

    Little is known about the news coverage of cancer risk factors in Korea. This study aimed to examine how the news media encompasses a wide array of content regarding cancer risk factors and related cancer sites, and investigate whether news coverage of cancer risk factors is congruent with the actual prevalence of the disease. A content analysis was conducted on 1,138 news stories covered during a 5-year period between 2008 and 2012. The news stories were selected from nationally representative media in Korea. Information was collected about cancer risk factors and cancer sites. Of various cancer risk factors, occupational and environmental exposures appeared most frequently in the news. Breast cancer was mentioned the most in relation to cancer sites. Breast, cervical, prostate, and skin cancer were overrepresented in the media in comparison to incidence and mortality cases, whereas lung, thyroid, liver, and stomach cancer were underrepresented. To our knowledge, this research is the first investigation dealing with news coverage about cancer risk factors in Korea. The study findings show occupational and environmental exposures are emphasized more than personal lifestyle factors; further, more prevalent cancers in developed countries have greater media coverage, not reflecting the realities of the disease. The findings may help health journalists and other health storytellers to develop effective ways to communicate cancer risk factors.

  3. Risk-optimized proton therapy to minimize radiogenic second cancers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rechner, Laura A; Eley, John G; Howell, Rebecca M

    2015-01-01

    Proton therapy confers substantially lower predicted risk of second cancer compared with photon therapy. However, no previous studies have used an algorithmic approach to optimize beam angle or fluence-modulation for proton therapy to minimize those risks. The objectives of this study were...... to demonstrate the feasibility of risk-optimized proton therapy and to determine the combination of beam angles and fluence weights that minimizes the risk of second cancer in the bladder and rectum for a prostate cancer patient. We used 6 risk models to predict excess relative risk of second cancer. Treatment...

  4. Testicular cancer: A narrative review of the role of socioeconomic position from risk to survivorship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Lisa C.; Neri, Antonio J.; Tai, Eric; Glenn, Jeffrey D.

    2015-01-01

    Background Testicular cancer (TC) is one of the most curable cancers. Given survival rates of close to 100% with appropriate therapy, ensuring proper treatment is essential. We reviewed and summarized the literature on the association of socioeconomic position (SEP) along the cancer control spectrum from risk factors to survivorship. Methods We searched PubMed from 1966 to 2011 using the following terms: testicular cancer, testicular neoplasm, poverty, and socioeconomic factors, retrieving 119 papers. After excluding papers for the non-English (10) language and non-relevance (46), we reviewed 63 papers. We abstracted information on socioeconomic position (SEP), including occupation, education, income, and combinations of the 3. Five areas were examined: risk factors, diagnosis, treatment, survival, and survivorship. Results Most studies examined area-based measures, not individual measures of SEP. The majority of studies found an increased risk of developing TC with high SEP though recent papers have indicated increased risk in low-income populations. Regarding diagnosis, recent papers have indicated that lower levels of education and SEP are risk factors for later-stage TC diagnosis and hence higher TC mortality. For treatment, 1 study that examined the use of radiation therapy (RT) in stage I seminoma reported that living in a county with lower educational attainment led to lower use of RT. For survival (mortality), several studies found that men living in lower SEP geographic areas experience lower survival and higher mortality. Conclusion The strongest evidence for SEP impact on testicular germ cell tumor (TGCT) was found for the risk of developing cancer as well as survival. The association of SEP with TGCT risk appears to have changed over the last decade. Given the highly curable nature of TGCT, more research is needed to understand how SEP impacts diagnosis and treatment for TGCT and to design interventions to address disparities in TGCT outcomes and SEP

  5. Ultraviolet Radiation Exposure and Its Impact on Skin Cancer Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Meg; Holman, Dawn M.; Maguire-Eisen, Maryellen

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To review research and evidence-based resources on skin cancer prevention and early detection and their importance for oncology nurses. Data Sources Journal articles, federal reports, cancer surveillance data, behavioral surveillance data. Conclusion Most cases of skin cancer are preventable. Survivors of many types of cancer are at increased risk of skin cancers. Implications for Nursing Practice Oncology nurses can play an important role in protecting their patients from future skin cancer morbidity and mortality. PMID:27539279

  6. Erlotinib and the Risk of Oral Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    William, William N.; Papadimitrakopoulou, Vassiliki; Lee, J. Jack; Mao, Li; Cohen, Ezra E.W.; Lin, Heather Y.; Gillenwater, Ann M.; Martin, Jack W.; Lingen, Mark W.; Boyle, Jay O.; Shin, Dong M.; Vigneswaran, Nadarajah; Shinn, Nancy; Heymach, John V.; Wistuba, Ignacio I.; Tang, Ximing; Kim, Edward S.; Saintigny, Pierre; Blair, Elizabeth A.; Meiller, Timothy; Gutkind, J. Silvio; Myers, Jeffrey; El-Naggar, Adel; Lippman, Scott M.

    2016-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Standard molecularly based strategies to predict and/or prevent oral cancer development in patients with oral premalignant lesions (OPLs) are lacking. OBJECTIVE To test if the epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitor erlotinib would reduce oral cancer development in patients with high-risk OPLs defined by specific loss of heterozygosity (LOH) profiles. Secondary objectives included prospective determination of LOH as a prognostic marker in OPLs. DESIGN The Erlotinib Prevention of Oral Cancer (EPOC) study was a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-bind trial. Accrual occurred from November 2006 through July 2012, with a median follow-up time of 35 months in an ambulatory care setting in 5 US academic referral institutions. Patients with OPLs were enrolled in the protocol, and each underwent LOH profiling (N = 379); they were classified as high-risk (LOH-positive) or low-risk (LOH-negative) patients based on their LOH profiles and oral cancer history. The randomized sample consisted of 150 LOH-positive patients. INTERVENTIONS Oral erlotinib treatment (150mg/d) or placebo for 12 months. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Oral cancer–free survival (CFS). RESULTS A total of 395 participants were classified with LOH profiles, and 254 were classified LOH positive. Of these, 150 (59%) were randomized, 75 each to the placebo and erlotinib groups. The 3-year CFS rates in placebo- and erlotinib-treated patients were 74%and 70%, respectively (hazard ratio [HR], 1.27; 95%CI, 0.68–2.38; P = .45). The 3-year CFS was significantly lower for LOH-positive compared with LOH-negative groups (74%vs 87%, HR, 2.19; 95%CI, 1.25–3.83; P = .01). Increased EGFR gene copy number correlated with LOH-positive status (P < .001) and lower CFS (P = .01). The EGFR gene copy number was not predictive of erlotinib efficacy. Erlotinib-induced skin rash was associated with improved CFS (P = .01). CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE In this trial, LOH was validated as a marker of oral cancer risk and

  7. Low-risk factor profile, estrogen levels, and breast cancer risk among postmenopausal women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rod, Naja Hulvej; Hansen, Ase Marie; Nielsen, Jens

    2008-01-01

    Obesity, alcohol consumption, physical inactivity and postmenopausal hormone use are known modifiable risk factors for breast cancer. We aim to measure incidence rates of breast cancer for women with favorable levels on all 4 risk factors (BMI......Obesity, alcohol consumption, physical inactivity and postmenopausal hormone use are known modifiable risk factors for breast cancer. We aim to measure incidence rates of breast cancer for women with favorable levels on all 4 risk factors (BMI...

  8. Screening for breast cancer in a high-risk series

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woodard, E.D.; Hempelmann, L.H.; Janus, J.; Logan, W.; Dean, P.

    1982-01-01

    A unique cohort of women at increased risk of breast cancer because of prior X-ray treatment of acute mastitis and their selected high-risk siblings were offered periodic breast cancer screening including physical examination of the breasts, mammography, and thermography. Twelve breast cancers were detected when fewer than four would have been expected based on age-specific breast cancer detection rates from the National Cancer institute/American Cancer Society Breast Cancer Demonstration Detection Projects. Mammograpy was positive in all cases but physical examination was positive in only three cases. Thermography was an unreliable indicator of disease. Given the concern over radiation-induced risk, use of low-dose technique and of criteria for participation that select women at high risk of breast cancer will maximize the benefit/risk ratio for mammography screening

  9. Lay Awareness of the Relationship between Age and Cancer Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taber, Jennifer M; Klein, William M P; Suls, Jerry M; Ferrer, Rebecca A

    2017-04-01

    Cross-sectional studies suggest many people are unaware that cancer risk increases with age, but this misbelief has rarely been studied prospectively, nor are its moderators known. To assess whether people recognize that cancer risk increases with age and whether beliefs differ according to gender, education, smoking status, and family history of cancer. First, items from the cross-sectional Health Information National Trends Survey (n = 2069) were analyzed to examine the association of age and perceived cancer risk. Second, the prospective National Survey of Midlife Development in the United States (n = 3896) was used to assess whether perceived cancer risk changes over a decade. Third, beliefs about the age at which cancer occurs were analyzed using the US Awareness and Beliefs about Cancer survey (n = 1080). As a comparator, perceived risk of heart disease was also examined. Cross-sectionally, older age was associated with lower perceived cancer risk but higher perceived heart disease risk. Prospectively, perceived cancer risk remained stable, whereas perceived heart attack risk increased. Seventy percent of participants reported a belief that cancer is equally likely to affect people of any age. Across three surveys, women and former smokers/smokers who recently quit tended to misunderstand the relationship between age and cancer risk and also expressed relatively higher perceived cancer risk overall. Data from three national surveys indicated that people are unaware that age is a risk factor for cancer. Moreover, those who were least aware perceived the highest risk of cancer regardless of age.

  10. Geographical variance in the risk of gastric stump cancer: no increased risk in Japan?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tersmette, A. C.; Giardiello, F. M.; Offerhaus, G. J.; Tersmette, K. W.; Ohara, K.; Vandenbroucke, J. P.; Tytgat, G. N.

    1991-01-01

    Geographical differences may exist in the risk of gastric stump cancer. Therefore, we performed meta-analysis of literature reports in Japan (n = 3), the USA (n = 4), and Europe (n = 20) on the risk of postgastrectomy cancer. The weighted mean relative risk of stump cancer in Japan was 0.28, 95%

  11. Lifestyle Changes and the Risk of Colorectal Cancer among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a public health challenge in developed countries and ... of this cancer in sub-Saharan Africa, Middle East, South Asia and the Caribbean. ... populations from low risk regions to countries in North America, Europe and ... risk of colorectal cancer (CRC) in their newly found environment as a result of ...

  12. Exercise, weight loss and biomarkers for breast cancer risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gemert, W.A.M. van

    2015-01-01

    Background: Postmenopausal breast cancer is the most prevalent cancer in Western women. There are several known risk factors for postmenopausal breast cancer of which few are lifestyle-related and, thereby, modifiable. These risk factors provide an opportunity for primary prevention. In this thesis,

  13. Prospective study of blood metabolites associated with colorectal cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Xiang; Xiang, Yong-Bing; Rothman, Nathaniel; Yu, Danxia; Li, Hong-Lan; Yang, Gong; Cai, Hui; Ma, Xiao; Lan, Qing; Gao, Yu-Tang; Jia, Wei; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Zheng, Wei

    2018-02-26

    Few prospective studies, and none in Asians, have systematically evaluated the relationship between blood metabolites and colorectal cancer risk. We conducted a nested case-control study to search for risk-associated metabolite biomarkers for colorectal cancer in an Asian population using blood samples collected prior to cancer diagnosis. Conditional logistic regression was performed to assess associations of metabolites with cancer risk. In this study, we included 250 incident cases with colorectal cancer and individually matched controls nested within two prospective Shanghai cohorts. We found 35 metabolites associated with risk of colorectal cancer after adjusting for multiple comparisons. Among them, 12 metabolites were glycerophospholipids including nine associated with reduced risk of colorectal cancer and three with increased risk [odds ratios per standard deviation increase of transformed metabolites: 0.31-1.98; p values: 0.002-1.25 × 10 -10 ]. The other 23 metabolites associated with colorectal cancer risk included nine lipids other than glycerophospholipid, seven aromatic compounds, five organic acids and four other organic compounds. After mutual adjustment, nine metabolites remained statistically significant for colorectal cancer. Together, these independently associated metabolites can separate cancer cases from controls with an area under the curve of 0.76 for colorectal cancer. We have identified that dysregulation of glycerophospholipids may contribute to risk of colorectal cancer. © 2018 UICC.

  14. Lung Cancer Screening May Benefit Those at Highest Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    People at the highest risk for lung cancer, based on a risk model, may be more likely to benefit from screening with low-dose CT, a new analysis suggests. The study authors believe the findings may better define who should undergo lung cancer screening, as this Cancer Currents blog post explains.

  15. Physical activity can lower risk of 13 types of cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    A new study of the relationship between physical activity and cancer has shown that greater levels of leisure-time physical activity were associated with a lower risk of developing 13 different types of cancer; the risk of developing seven cancer types was 20 percent lower among the most active participants as compared with the least active participants.

  16. Higher Heart Failure Risk Seen in Some Cancers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Some people treated for breast cancer or lymphoma have a higher risk of developing congestive heart failure than people who haven’t had cancer, a new study shows. As this Cancer Currents blog post reports, the risk persisted for at least 20 years.

  17. Risk of gastric cancer by water source: evidence from the Golestan case-control study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Eichelberger

    Full Text Available Gastric cancer (GC is the world's fifth most common cancer, and the third leading cause of cancer-related death. Over 70% of incident cases and deaths occur in developing countries. We explored whether disparities in access to improved drinking water sources were associated with GC risk in the Golestan Gastric Cancer Case Control Study.306 cases and 605 controls were matched on age, gender, and place of residence. We conducted unconditional logistic regression to calculate odds ratios (ORs and 95% confidence intervals (CI, adjusted for age, gender, ethnicity, marital status, education, head of household education, place of birth and residence, homeownership, home size, wealth score, vegetable consumption, and H. pylori seropositivity. Fully-adjusted ORs were 0.23 (95% CI: 0.05-1.04 for chlorinated well water, 4.58 (95% CI: 2.07-10.16 for unchlorinated well water, 4.26 (95% CI: 1.81-10.04 for surface water, 1.11 (95% CI: 0.61-2.03 for water from cisterns, and 1.79 (95% CI: 1.20-2.69 for all unpiped sources, compared to in-home piped water. Comparing unchlorinated water to chlorinated water, we found over a two-fold increased GC risk (OR 2.37, 95% CI: 1.56-3.61.Unpiped and unchlorinated drinking water sources, particularly wells and surface water, were significantly associated with the risk of GC.

  18. Investigation of Breast Cancer Risk Factors in northern states of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Breast cancer is the most common type of cancers and leading cause of death among women worldwide. In Sudan breast cancer is the most common type of cancer and its incidence has been rising for the past two decades. Objective: To investigate whether the breast risk factors of northern states (Northern ...

  19. Risk of thyroid cancer among Chernobyl liquidators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evrard, Anne-Sophie; Kesminiene, Ausrele; Tenet, Vanessa; Cardis, Elisabeth; Ivanov, Viktor K.; Chekin, Sergei; Malakhova, Irina V.; Polyakov, Semion; Kurtinaitis, Juozas; Stengrevics, Aivars; Tekkel, Mare; Drozdovitch, Vladimir; Gavrilin, Yuri; Golovanov, Ivan; Krjuchkov, Viktor P.; Tukov, Aleksandr R.; Maceika, Evaldas; Mirkhaidarov, Anatoly K.

    2008-01-01

    Full text: While the increased risk of thyroid cancer is well demonstrated in people exposed to radioactive iodines in childhood and adolescence in the most contaminated areas around the Chernobyl power plant, following the accident which took place on 26 April 1986, the effect of exposure on adults remains unclear. A collaborative case-control study of thyroid cancer was set-up, nested within cohorts of Belarus, Russian and Baltic countries liquidators of the Chernobyl accident, to evaluate the radiation-induced risk of this disease among liquidators, and to assess the roles of screening and of radiation exposures in the observed increased thyroid cancer incidence among liquidators. The study population consisted of the cohorts of approximately 66,000 Belarus, 65,000 Russian and 15,000 Baltic countries liquidators who took part in the clean-up activities on the reactor site and in the 30-km zone around the Chernobyl nuclear power plant between 26 April 1986 and 31 December 1987. The liquidators were mainly exposed to external radiation, although substantial dose to the thyroid from iodine isotopes may have been received by liquidators who worked in May-June 1986 and by those who resided in the most contaminated territories of Belarus. Information was collected on study subjects by use of a standardized questionnaire that was administrated during a face-to-face interview with the study subject and/or a proxy (a relative or a colleague). The interview included questions on demographic factors, time, place and conditions of work as a liquidator and on potential risk and confounding factors for thyroid cancer. A method of analytical dose reconstruction, entitled RADRUE (Realistic Analytical Dose Reconstruction with Uncertainty Estimation) was developed within the study and applied to estimate individual doses to the thyroid from external radiation and related uncertainties for each subject. Approaches to derive individual thyroid dose estimates from inhaled and

  20. Risk of subsequent gastrointestinal cancer among childhood cancer survivors : A systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teepen, Jop C.; de Vroom, Suzanne L.; van Leeuwen, Flora E.; Tissing, Wim J.; Kremer, Leontien C.; Ronckers, Cecile M.

    Background: Childhood cancer survivors (CCS) are at increased risk of developing subsequent malignant neoplasms, including gastrointestinal (GI) cancer. We performed a systematic review to summarize all available literature on the risk of, risk factors for, and outcome after subsequent GI cancer

  1. Cancer Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... What Is Cancer? Cancer Statistics Cancer Disparities Cancer Statistics Cancer has a major impact on society in ... success of efforts to control and manage cancer. Statistics at a Glance: The Burden of Cancer in ...

  2. Discrepancies between estimated and perceived risk of cancer among individuals with hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Domanska, K; Nilbert, Mef; Soller, M

    2007-01-01

    to individual characteristics. A perceived risk of colorectal cancer above 60% was reported by 22/45 individuals, and only one out of five mutation carriers reported a perceived risk > 80%. Female mutation carriers, individuals below age 50, and individuals who received their oncogenetic counseling within 1......Communicating cancer risk and recommending adequate control programs is central for genetic counseling. Individuals affected by hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC) are at about 80% life-time risk of colorectal cancer and for female carriers 40-60% risk of endometrial cancer and 10...... year prior to the study reported higher, albeit not significantly, perceived risks of colorectal cancer. Higher perceived risks were also reported by individuals who had lost a parent to HNPCC-related cancer at early age, whereas individuals with a personal history of cancer did not report a higher...

  3. Discrepancies between estimated and perceived risk of cancer among individuals with hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Domanska, K; Nilbert, Mef; Soller, M

    2007-01-01

    Communicating cancer risk and recommending adequate control programs is central for genetic counseling. Individuals affected by hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC) are at about 80% life-time risk of colorectal cancer and for female carriers 40-60% risk of endometrial cancer and 10...... to individual characteristics. A perceived risk of colorectal cancer above 60% was reported by 22/45 individuals, and only one out of five mutation carriers reported a perceived risk > 80%. Female mutation carriers, individuals below age 50, and individuals who received their oncogenetic counseling within 1...... year prior to the study reported higher, albeit not significantly, perceived risks of colorectal cancer. Higher perceived risks were also reported by individuals who had lost a parent to HNPCC-related cancer at early age, whereas individuals with a personal history of cancer did not report a higher...

  4. Occupational exposure and ovarian cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Nhu D; Leung, Andy; Brooks-Wilson, Angela; Gallagher, Richard P; Swenerton, Kenneth D; Demers, Paul A; Cook, Linda S

    2014-07-01

    Relatively little work has been done concerning occupational risk factors in ovarian cancer. Although studies conducted in occupational settings have reported positive associations, their usefulness is generally limited by the lack of information on important confounders. In a population-based case-control study, we assessed risk for developing epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) associated with occupational exposure while accounting for important confounders. Participants were identified through provincial population-based registries. Lifetime occupational history and information on potential confounding factors were obtained through a self-administered questionnaire. Unconditional logistic regression and the likelihood ratio test were used to assess EOC risk with each occupation (or industry), relative to all other occupations (or industries), adjusting for potential confounders including body mass index, oral contraceptive use, menopausal hormone therapy, parity, age at first childbirth, age at menarche, age at menopause, family history of breast and ovarian cancer in mother and sister(s), tubal ligation, partial oophorectomy, and hysterectomy. Occupations and industries were coded according to the Canadian Standard Occupational Classification (SOC) and Standard Industrial Classification (SIC). Significant excess risk was observed for several groups of teaching occupations, including SOC 27, teaching and related (adjusted OR 1.77, 95% CI 1.15-2.81) and SOC 279, other teaching and related (adjusted OR 3.11, 95% CI 1.35-8.49). Significant excess was also seen for a four-digit occupational group SOC 4131, bookkeepers and accounting clerks (adjusted OR 2.80, 95% CI 1.30-6.80). Industrial sub-groups showing significant excess risk included SIC 65, other retail stores (adjusted OR 2.19, 95 % CI 1.16-4.38); SIC 85, educational service (adjusted OR 1.45, 95% CI 1.00-2.13); and SIC 863, non-institutional health services (adjusted OR 2.54, 95% CI 1.13-6.52). Our study found

  5. Establishing a family risk assessment clinic for breast cancer.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Mulsow, Jurgen

    2012-02-01

    Breast cancer is the most common cancer affecting European women and the leading cause of cancer-related death. A total of 15-20% of women who develop breast cancer have a family history and 5-10% a true genetic predisposition. The identification and screening of women at increased risk may allow early detection of breast cancer and improve prognosis. We established a family risk assessment clinic in May 2005 to assess and counsel women with a family history of breast cancer, to initiate surveillance, and to offer risk-reducing strategies for selected high-risk patients. Patients at medium or high risk of developing breast cancer according to NICE guidelines were accepted. Family history was determined by structured questionnaire and interview. Lifetime risk of developing breast cancer was calculated using Claus and Tyrer-Cuzick scoring. Risk of carrying a breast cancer-related gene mutation was calculated using the Manchester system. One thousand two hundred and forty-three patients have been referred. Ninety-two percent were at medium or high risk of developing breast cancer. Formal assessment of risk has been performed in 368 patients, 73% have a high lifetime risk of developing breast cancer, and 72% a Manchester score >or=16. BRCA1\\/2 mutations have been identified in 14 patients and breast cancer diagnosed in two. Our initial experience of family risk assessment has shown there to be a significant demand for this service. Identification of patients at increased risk of developing breast cancer allows us to provide individuals with accurate risk profiles, and enables patients to make informed choices regarding their follow-up and management.

  6. [Nutritional risk screening and nutrition assessment for gastrointestinal cancer patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Yan-ping; Li, Ling-ling; He, Qing; Li, Yun; Song, Hu; Lin, Yi-jia; Peng, Jun-sheng

    2012-05-01

    To investigate the nutritional status, and provide evidence for nutritional treatment option. A total of 452 patients with gastrointestinal cancer were selected, including 156 gastric cancer,117 colon cancer, and 180 rectal cancer. The nutritional risk screening 2002(NRS2002) was applied to grade the nutritional risk. A multi-frequency bioelectrical impedance analysis was used to measure the patients' body composition. Albumin (Alb), prealbumin(PA), transferring(Tf), retinol binding protein(RBP), red blood cell(RBC), hemoglobin (Hb), haematocrit(Hct) were measured after fasting. The rate of patients with NRS2002 score more than 3 was 70.5%(110/156) for gastric cancer, 53.8%(63/117) for colon cancer, and 46.7%(86/180) for rectal cancer. The score for impaired nutritional status more than 1 for gastric cancer was higher than that for colorectal cancer(Pgastric cancer(Pgastric cancer patients as compared to colorectal cancer patients(Pgastric cancer patients(Pgastric cancer and colon cancer(Pgastric cancer are prone to fat loss and therefore have a higher nutritional risk and malnutrition than those with colorectal cancer. Combination of body composition analysis and laboratory examination may achieve comprehensive evaluation of the nutritional status of patients, and provide the evidence of nutritional therapy by being combined with NRS2002 score.

  7. Long-Term Survival in Young Women: Hazards and Competing Risks after Thyroid Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stroup, A. M.; Harrell, C. J.; Herget, K. A.

    2012-01-01

    Differentiated thyroid cancers (DTCs) are one of the most common and survivable cancers diagnosed in women. We examine factors associated with long-term survival and competing risks of death in women diagnosed with DTC under the age of 40 (<40) and aged 40 and older (40+). Methods. SEER data was used to identify DTCs diagnosed in women from 1975 to 2009. We examined overall (OS), disease-specific (DSS), other cancer (OCS), and non-cancer-related (NCS) survival using multivariate Cox proportional hazards modeling. Results. Observed survival was 97.2% for <40 (n=14,540) and 82.5% for 40+ (n=20,513). Distant stage (HR=1.96, 95% CI 1.23-3.07), non-Hispanic Black (HR=2.04, 95% CI 1.45-2.87), being unmarried (HR=1.26, 95% 1.03-1.54), and subsequent primary cancers (HR=4.63, 95% CI 3.76-5.71) were significant for OS in women <40. Age was an effect modifier for all survival outcomes. Racial disparities in NCS were most pronounced for young non-Hispanic black women (HR=3.36, 95% CI 2.17-5.22). Women in both age groups were more likely to die from other causes. Conclusions. Age at diagnosis remains one of the strongest prognostic factors for thyroid cancer survival. More directed efforts to ensure effective care for co morbid conditions are needed to reduce mortality from other causes.

  8. Drivers of advanced stage at breast cancer diagnosis in the multicountry African breast cancerdisparities in outcomes (ABC‐DO) study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zietsman, Annelle; Galukande, Moses; Anele, Angelica; Adisa, Charles; Parham, Groesbeck; Pinder, Leeya; Cubasch, Herbert; Joffe, Maureen; Kidaaga, Frederick; Lukande, Robert; Offiah, Awa U.; Egejuru, Ralph O.; Shibemba, Aaron; Schuz, Joachim; Anderson, Benjamin O.; dos Santos Silva, Isabel; McCormack, Valerie

    2017-01-01

    Breast cancer (BC) survival rates in sub‐Saharan Africa (SSA) are low in part due to advanced stage at diagnosis. As one component of a study of the entire journey of SSA women with BC, we aimed to identify shared and setting‐specific drivers of advanced stage BC. Women newly diagnosed in the multicountry African Breast Cancer–Disparities in Outcomes (ABC‐DO) study completed a baseline interview and their stage information was extracted from medical records. Ordinal logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for advanced stage (I, II, III, IV) in relation to individual woman‐level, referral and biological factors. A total of 1795 women were included from Nigeria, Uganda, Zambia, and the multiracial populations of Namibia and South Africa, 1091 of whom (61%) were stage III/IV. Stage was lower in women with greater BC knowledge (OR 0.77 (95% CI: 0.70, 0.85) per point on a 6 point scale). More advanced stage was associated with being black (4.00 (2.79, 5.74)), having attended

  9. Polygenic risk score is associated with increased disease risk in 52 Finnish breast cancer families

    OpenAIRE

    Muranen, Taru A.; Mavaddat, Nasim; Khan, Sofia; Fagerholm, Rainer; Pelttari, Liisa; Lee, Andrew; Aittom?ki, Kristiina; Blomqvist, Carl; Easton, Douglas F.; Nevanlinna, Heli

    2016-01-01

    The risk of developing breast cancer is increased in women with family history of breast cancer and particularly in families with multiple cases of breast or ovarian cancer. Nevertheless, many women with a positive family history never develop the disease. Polygenic risk scores (PRSs) based on the risk effects of multiple common genetic variants have been proposed for individual risk assessment on a population level. We investigate the applicability of the PRS for risk prediction within breas...

  10. Lung cancer risk of airborne particles for Italian population

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buonanno, G., E-mail: buonanno@unicas.it [Department of Civil and Mechanical Engineering, University of Cassino and Southern Lazio, Via Di Biasio 43, 03043 Cassino, FR (Italy); International Laboratory for Air Quality and Health, Queensland University of Technology, 2 George Street 2, 4001 Brisbane, Qld. (Australia); Giovinco, G., E-mail: giovinco@unicas.it [Department of Civil and Mechanical Engineering, University of Cassino and Southern Lazio, Via Di Biasio 43, 03043 Cassino, FR (Italy); Morawska, L., E-mail: morawska@qut.edu.au [International Laboratory for Air Quality and Health, Queensland University of Technology, 2 George Street 2, 4001 Brisbane, Qld. (Australia); Stabile, L., E-mail: stabile@unicas.it [Department of Civil and Mechanical Engineering, University of Cassino and Southern Lazio, Via Di Biasio 43, 03043 Cassino, FR (Italy)

    2015-10-15

    Airborne particles, including both ultrafine and supermicrometric particles, contain various carcinogens. Exposure and risk-assessment studies regularly use particle mass concentration as dosimetry parameter, therefore neglecting the potential impact of ultrafine particles due to their negligible mass compared to supermicrometric particles. The main purpose of this study was the characterization of lung cancer risk due to exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and some heavy metals associated with particle inhalation by Italian non-smoking people. A risk-assessment scheme, modified from an existing risk model, was applied to estimate the cancer risk contribution from both ultrafine and supermicrometric particles. Exposure assessment was carried out on the basis of particle number distributions measured in 25 smoke-free microenvironments in Italy. The predicted lung cancer risk was then compared to the cancer incidence rate in Italy to assess the number of lung cancer cases attributed to airborne particle inhalation, which represents one of the main causes of lung cancer, apart from smoking. Ultrafine particles are associated with a much higher risk than supermicrometric particles, and the modified risk-assessment scheme provided a more accurate estimate than the conventional scheme. Great attention has to be paid to indoor microenvironments and, in particular, to cooking and eating times, which represent the major contributors to lung cancer incidence in the Italian population. The modified risk assessment scheme can serve as a tool for assessing environmental quality, as well as setting up exposure standards for particulate matter. - Highlights: • Lung cancer risk for non-smoking Italian population due to particle inhalation. • The average lung cancer risk for Italian population is equal to 1.90×10{sup −2}. • Ultrafine particle is the aerosol metric mostly contributing to lung cancer risk. • B(a)P is the main (particle-bounded) compound

  11. Lung cancer risk of airborne particles for Italian population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buonanno, G.; Giovinco, G.; Morawska, L.; Stabile, L.

    2015-01-01

    Airborne particles, including both ultrafine and supermicrometric particles, contain various carcinogens. Exposure and risk-assessment studies regularly use particle mass concentration as dosimetry parameter, therefore neglecting the potential impact of ultrafine particles due to their negligible mass compared to supermicrometric particles. The main purpose of this study was the characterization of lung cancer risk due to exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and some heavy metals associated with particle inhalation by Italian non-smoking people. A risk-assessment scheme, modified from an existing risk model, was applied to estimate the cancer risk contribution from both ultrafine and supermicrometric particles. Exposure assessment was carried out on the basis of particle number distributions measured in 25 smoke-free microenvironments in Italy. The predicted lung cancer risk was then compared to the cancer incidence rate in Italy to assess the number of lung cancer cases attributed to airborne particle inhalation, which represents one of the main causes of lung cancer, apart from smoking. Ultrafine particles are associated with a much higher risk than supermicrometric particles, and the modified risk-assessment scheme provided a more accurate estimate than the conventional scheme. Great attention has to be paid to indoor microenvironments and, in particular, to cooking and eating times, which represent the major contributors to lung cancer incidence in the Italian population. The modified risk assessment scheme can serve as a tool for assessing environmental quality, as well as setting up exposure standards for particulate matter. - Highlights: • Lung cancer risk for non-smoking Italian population due to particle inhalation. • The average lung cancer risk for Italian population is equal to 1.90×10 −2 . • Ultrafine particle is the aerosol metric mostly contributing to lung cancer risk. • B(a)P is the main (particle-bounded) compound contributing

  12. Occupational exposures and risk of pancreatic cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santibanez, Miguel; Vioque, Jesus; Alguacil, Juan; Hera, Manuela Garcia de la; Moreno-Osset, Eduardo; Carrato, Alfredo; Porta, Miquel; Kauppinen, Timo

    2010-01-01

    The objective was to analyze the relationship between occupation (and specific occupational exposures) and risk of exocrine pancreatic cancer (EPC). We conducted a multicenter hospital-based case-control study in Eastern Spain. We included 161 incident cases of EPC (59.6% men, 94 with histological confirmation, of whom 80% had ductal adenocarcinoma). Cases were frequency-matched with 455 controls by sex, age and province of residence. Information was elicited using structured questionnaires. Occupations were coded according to the Spanish version of the International Standard Classification of Occupations 1988. Occupational exposure to a selection of carcinogenic substances was assessed with the Finnish Job-Exposure Matrix (FINJEM). Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated by multiple logistic regression, adjusting for sex, age, province, education, alcohol and smoking. A higher risk of EPC was associated with having worked as 'Miners, shotfirers, stone cutters and carvers', 'Machinery mechanics and fitters', 'Building trades workers' and 'Motor vehicle drivers' in men, 'Office Clerks' in women, and 'Waiters' in both sexes. Cases with ductal adenocarcinomas were more likely to have been exposed to chlorinated hydrocarbon solvents (OR = 4.1, 95% CI: 1.1-15.2, p-trend = 0.04). We also observed significant associations with exposure to 'synthetic polymer dust exposure' and 'ionizing radiation'. Suggestive increases in risk were observed for 'pesticides', 'diesel and gasoline engine exhaust', and 'hydrocarbon solvents'. Results support the hypothesis that occupational exposure to chlorinated hydrocarbon solvents is associated with exocrine pancreatic cancer.

  13. Risk of ano-rectal cancer following irradiation for cancer of the uterus. Epidemiological risk or radiation induced cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Domergue, J.; Dubois, J.B.; Joyeux, H.; Pujol, H.

    1985-01-01

    This paper is the report of 9 cases of anal and low rectal cancer following pelvic irradiation for cancer of uterus or cervix. This second cancer appears between the 10th and 20th year after radiotherapy, with a mean of 18,2 years. Its treatment can still be conservative for anal cancer but for low rectal tumor, abdominal resection is necessary. A statistical study has concluded that there is an excess risk for this group of patients, only for patients treated by radiotherapy for uterus cervix cancer. Those patients justify, endoscopic follow-up, especially after the 10th year with anterior rectal wall biopsies. With this attitude, these late complications should not offset the benefit of pelvic irradiation in the treatment of cancer of the uterus [fr

  14. Childhood height, adult height, and the risk of prostate cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, Lise Geisler; Aarestrup, Julie; Gamborg, Michael

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: We previously showed that childhood height is positively associated with prostate cancer risk. It is, however, unknown whether childhood height exerts its effects independently of or through adult height. We investigated whether and to what extent childhood height has a direct effect...... on the risk of prostate cancer apart from adult height. METHODS: We included 5,871 men with height measured at ages 7 and 13 years in the Copenhagen School Health Records Register who also had adult (50-65 years) height measured in the Danish Diet, Cancer and Health study. Prostate cancer status was obtained...... through linkage to the Danish Cancer Registry. Direct and total effects of childhood height on prostate cancer risk were estimated from Cox regressions. RESULTS: From 1996 to 2012, 429 prostate cancers occurred. Child and adult heights were positively and significantly associated with prostate cancer risk...

  15. Original Research Risk factors for common cancers among patients ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusions. Age, smoking, and HIV are important risk factors for the 3 commonest cancer types (oesophageal, KS, and cervical) at this teaching .... cancer (95%) patients had no history of smoking or alcohol ..... Africa: a current perspective.

  16. Establishment of the Fox Chase Network Breast Cancer Risk Registry

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Daly, Mary

    1997-01-01

    .... The development of the Fox Chase Cancer Center Breast Cancer Risk Registry was proposed to facilitate research in the epidemiologic and genetic predictors of disease and will permit evaluation...

  17. Chemicals in Meat Cooked at High Temperatures and Cancer Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Services Directory Cancer Prevention Overview Research Chemicals in Meat Cooked at High Temperatures and Cancer Risk On ... hydrocarbons, and how are they formed in cooked meats? What factors influence the formation of HCA and ...

  18. Levels of Distress in Women at Risk for Ovarian Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kash, Kathryn M

    2008-01-01

    The overall goal of this study was to determine the levels of distress in women with a family history of ovarian cancer and to identify the mediating factors between risk of developing ovarian cancer and distress...

  19. Use of analgesic drugs and risk of ovarian cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ammundsen, Henriette B; Faber, Mette T; Jensen, Allan

    2012-01-01

    The role of analgesic drug use in development of ovarian cancer is not fully understood. We examined the association between analgesic use and risk of ovarian cancer. In addition, we examined whether the association differed according to histological types....

  20. Colorectal cancer screening at US community health centers: Examination of sociodemographic disparities and association with patient-provider communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Sue C; McKinley, Duane; Sripipatana, Alek; Makaroff, Laura

    2017-11-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) screening rates are low among underserved populations. High-quality patient-physician communication potentially influences patients' willingness to undergo CRC screening. Community health centers (HCs) provide comprehensive primary health care to underserved populations. This study's objectives were to ascertain national CRC screening rates and to explore the relations between sociodemographic characteristics and patient-provider communication on the receipt of CRC screening among HC patients. Using 2014 Health Center Patient Survey data, bivariate and multivariate analyses examined the association of sociodemographic variables (sex, race/ethnicity, age, geography, preferred language, household income, insurance, and employment status) and patient-provider communication with the receipt of CRC screening. Patients between the ages of 65 and 75 years (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 2.49; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.33-4.64) and patients not in the labor force (aOR, 2.32; 95% CI, 1.37-3.94) had higher odds of receiving CRC screening, whereas patients who were uninsured (aOR, 0.33; 95% CI, 0.18-0.61) and patients who were non-English-speaking (aOR, 0.42; 95% CI, 0.18-0.99) had lower odds. Patient-provider communication was not associated with the receipt of CRC screening. The CRC screening rate for HC patients was 57.9%, whereas the rate was 65.1% according to the 2012 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System and 58.2% according to the 2013 National Health Interview Survey. The high ratings of patient-provider communication, regardless of the screening status, suggest strides toward a patient-centered medical home practice transformation that will assist in a positive patient experience. Addressing the lack of insurance, making culturally and linguistically appropriate patient education materials available, and training clinicians and care teams in cultural competency are critical for increasing future CRC screening rates. Cancer 2017

  1. Fertility drugs, reproductive strategies and ovarian cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomao, Federica; Lo Russo, Giuseppe; Spinelli, Gian Paolo; Stati, Valeria; Prete, Alessandra Anna; Prinzi, Natalie; Sinjari, Marsela; Vici, Patrizia; Papa, Anselmo; Chiotti, Maria Stefania; Benedetti Panici, Pierluigi; Tomao, Silverio

    2014-01-01

    Several adverse effects have been related to infertility treatments, such as cancer development. In particular, the relationship between infertility, reproductive strategies, and risk of gynecological cancers has aroused much interest in recent years. The evaluation of cancer risk among women treated for infertility is very complex, mainly because of many factors that can contribute to occurrence of cancer in these patients (including parity status). This article addresses the possible association between the use of fertility treatments and the risk of ovarian cancer, through a scrupulous search of the literature published thus far in this field. Our principal objective was to give more conclusive answers on the question whether the use of fertility drug significantly increases ovarian cancer risk. Our analysis focused on the different types of drugs and different treatment schedules used. This study provides additional insights regarding the long-term relationships between fertility drugs and risk of ovarian cancer.

  2. Making sense of cancer risk calculators on the web.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Andrea Gurmankin; Sonnad, Seema S; Kurichi, Jibby E; Sherman, Melani; Armstrong, Katrina

    2008-03-01

    Cancer risk calculators on the internet have the potential to provide users with valuable information about their individual cancer risk. However, the lack of oversight of these sites raises concerns about low quality and inconsistent information. These concerns led us to evaluate internet cancer risk calculators. After a systematic search to find all cancer risk calculators on the internet, we reviewed the content of each site for information that users should seek to evaluate the quality of a website. We then examined the consistency of the breast cancer risk calculators by having 27 women complete 10 of the breast cancer risk calculators for themselves. We also completed the breast cancer risk calculators for a hypothetical high- and low-risk woman, and compared the output to Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results estimates for the average same-age and same-race woman. Nineteen sites were found, 13 of which calculate breast cancer risk. Most sites do not provide the information users need to evaluate the legitimacy of a website. The breast cancer calculator sites vary in the risk factors they assess to calculate breast cancer risk, how they operationalize each risk factor and in the risk estimate they provide for the same individual. Internet cancer risk calculators have the potential to provide a public health benefit by educating individuals about their risks and potentially encouraging preventive health behaviors. However, our evaluation of internet calculators revealed several problems that call into question the accuracy of the information that they provide. This may lead the users of these sites to make inappropriate medical decisions on the basis of misinformation.

  3. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Cancer & Public Health Cancer Health Disparities Childhood Cancers Clinical Trials Global Cancer Research Key Initiatives The RAS Initiative Cancer Moonshot℠ Immunotherapy ...

  4. Automatic breast cancer risk assessment from digital mammograms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karemore, Gopal Raghunath; Brandt, Sami; Karssemeijer, N

    Purpose: Textural characteristics of the breast tissue structure on mammogram have been shown to improve breast cancer risk assessment in several large studies. Currently, however, the texture is not used to assess risk in standard clinical procedures or involved in general breast cancer risk ass...

  5. Perception and risk factors for cervical cancer among women in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: This study assessed the perception of risk of cervical cancer and existence of risk factors for cervical cancer based on five known risk factors among women attending the Tamale Teaching Hospital in Tamale, Ghana. Methods: A consecutive sample of 300 women was interviewed using a semi structured ...

  6. Risk of Salivary Gland Cancer After Childhood Cancer: A Report From the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boukheris, Houda [Radiation Epidemiology Branch, Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland (United States); Stovall, Marilyn [Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Gilbert, Ethel S. [Radiation Epidemiology Branch, Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland (United States); Stratton, Kayla L. [Division of Public Health Sciences, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, Washington (United States); Smith, Susan A.; Weathers, Rita [Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Hammond, Sue [Department of Pathology, Ohio State University School of Medicine, Columbus, Ohio (United States); Mertens, Ann C. [Department of Pediatrics, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia (United States); Donaldson, Sarah S. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University Medical Center, Stanford, California (United States); Armstrong, Gregory T.; Robison, Leslie L. [Department of Epidemiology and Cancer Control, St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee (United States); Neglia, Joseph P. [Department of Pediatrics, University of Minnesota Medical School, Minneapolis, Minnesota (United States); Inskip, Peter D., E-mail: inskippe@mail.nih.gov [Radiation Epidemiology Branch, Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland (United States)

    2013-03-01

    Purpose: To evaluate effects of radiation therapy, chemotherapy, cigarette smoking, and alcohol consumption on the risk of second primary salivary gland cancer (SGC) in the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study (CCSS). Methods and Materials: Standardized incidence ratios (SIR) and excess absolute risks (EAR) of SGC in the CCSS were calculated using incidence rates from Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results population-based cancer registries. Radiation dose to the salivary glands was estimated based on medical records. Poisson regression was used to assess risks with respect to radiation dose, chemotherapy, smoking, and alcohol consumption. Results: During the time period of the study, 23 cases of SGC were diagnosed among 14,135 childhood cancer survivors. The mean age at diagnosis of the first primary cancer was 8.3 years, and the mean age at SGC diagnosis was 24.8 years. The incidence of SGC was 39-fold higher in the cohort than in the general population (SIR = 39.4; 95% CI = 25.4-57.8). The EAR was 9.8 per 100,000 person-years. Risk increased linearly with radiation dose (excess relative risk = 0.36/Gy; 95% CI = 0.06-2.5) and remained elevated after 20 years. There was no significant trend of increasing risk with increasing dose of chemotherapeutic agents, pack-years of cigarette smoking, or alcohol intake. Conclusion: Although the cumulative incidence of SGC was low, childhood cancer survivors treated with radiation experienced significantly increased risk for at least 2 decades after exposure, and risk was positively associated with radiation dose. Results underscore the importance of long-term follow up of childhood cancer survivors for the development of new malignancies.

  7. Risk of Salivary Gland Cancer After Childhood Cancer: A Report From the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boukheris, Houda; Stovall, Marilyn; Gilbert, Ethel S.; Stratton, Kayla L.; Smith, Susan A.; Weathers, Rita; Hammond, Sue; Mertens, Ann C.; Donaldson, Sarah S.; Armstrong, Gregory T.; Robison, Leslie L.; Neglia, Joseph P.; Inskip, Peter D.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate effects of radiation therapy, chemotherapy, cigarette smoking, and alcohol consumption on the risk of second primary salivary gland cancer (SGC) in the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study (CCSS). Methods and Materials: Standardized incidence ratios (SIR) and excess absolute risks (EAR) of SGC in the CCSS were calculated using incidence rates from Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results population-based cancer registries. Radiation dose to the salivary glands was estimated based on medical records. Poisson regression was used to assess risks with respect to radiation dose, chemotherapy, smoking, and alcohol consumption. Results: During the time period of the study, 23 cases of SGC were diagnosed among 14,135 childhood cancer survivors. The mean age at diagnosis of the first primary cancer was 8.3 years, and the mean age at SGC diagnosis was 24.8 years. The incidence of SGC was 39-fold higher in the cohort than in the general population (SIR = 39.4; 95% CI = 25.4-57.8). The EAR was 9.8 per 100,000 person-years. Risk increased linearly with radiation dose (excess relative risk = 0.36/Gy; 95% CI = 0.06-2.5) and remained elevated after 20 years. There was no significant trend of increasing risk with increasing dose of chemotherapeutic agents, pack-years of cigarette smoking, or alcohol intake. Conclusion: Although the cumulative incidence of SGC was low, childhood cancer survivors treated with radiation experienced significantly increased risk for at least 2 decades after exposure, and risk was positively associated with radiation dose. Results underscore the importance of long-term follow up of childhood cancer survivors for the development of new malignancies

  8. Fertility drugs, reproductive strategies and ovarian cancer risk

    OpenAIRE

    Tomao, Federica; Lo Russo, Giuseppe; Spinelli, Gian Paolo; Stati, Valeria; Prete, Alessandra Anna; Prinzi, Natalie; Sinjari, Marsela; Vici, Patrizia; Papa, Anselmo; Chiotti, Maria Stefania; Benedetti Panici, Pierluigi; Tomao, Silverio

    2014-01-01

    Several adverse effects have been related to infertility treatments, such as cancer development. In particular, the relationship between infertility, reproductive strategies, and risk of gynecological cancers has aroused much interest in recent years. The evaluation of cancer risk among women treated for infertility is very complex, mainly because of many factors that can contribute to occurrence of cancer in these patients (including parity status). This article addresses the possible associ...

  9. African Breast Cancer-Disparities in Outcomes (ABC-DO): protocol of a multicountry mobile health prospective study of breast cancer survival in sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenzie, Fiona; Zietsman, Annelle; Galukande, Moses; Anele, Angelica; Adisa, Charles; Cubasch, Herbert; Parham, Groesbeck; Anderson, Benjamin O; Abedi-Ardekani, Behnoush; Schuz, Joachim; Dos Santos Silva, Isabel; McCormack, Valerie

    2016-08-23

    Sub-Saharan African (SSA) women with breast cancer (BC) have low survival rates from this potentially treatable disease. An understanding of context-specific societal, health-systems and woman-level barriers to BC early detection, diagnosis and treatment are needed. The African Breast Cancer-Disparities in Outcomes (ABC-DO) is a prospective hospital-based study of overall survival, impact on quality of life (QOL) and delays along the journey to diagnosis and treatment of BC in SSA. ABC-DO is currently recruiting in Namibia, Nigeria, South Africa, Uganda and Zambia. Women aged 18 years or older who present at participating secondary and tertiary hospitals with a new clinical or histocytological diagnosis of primary BC are invited to participate. For consented women, tumour characteristics, specimen and treatment data are obtained. Over a 2-year enrolment period, we aim to recruit 2000 women who, in the first instance, will be followed for between 1 and 3 years. A face-to-face baseline interview obtains information on socioeconomic, cultural and demographic factors, QOL, health and BC attitudes/knowledge, and timing of all prediagnostic contacts with caregivers in orthodox health, traditional and spiritual systems. Responses are immediately captured on mobile devices that are fed into a tailored mobile health (mHealth) study management system. This system implements the study protocol, by prompting study researchers to phone women on her mobile phone every 3 months and, failing to reach her, prompts contact with her next-of-kin. At follow-up calls, women provide updated information on QOL, care received and disease impacts on family and working life; date of death is asked of her next-of-kin when relevant. The study was approved by ethics committees of all involved institutions. All participants provide written informed consent. The findings from the study will be published in peer-reviewed scientific journals, presented to funders and relevant local

  10. Height, selected genetic markers and prostate cancer risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lophatananon, Artitaya; Stewart-Brown, Sarah; Kote-Jarai, Zsofia

    2017-01-01

    Background:Evidence on height and prostate cancer risk is mixed, however, recent studies with large data sets support a possible role for its association with the risk of aggressive prostate cancer.Methods:We analysed data from the PRACTICAL consortium consisting of 6207 prostate cancer cases...... and 6016 controls and a subset of high grade cases (2480 cases). We explored height, polymorphisms in genes related to growth processes as main effects and their possible interactions.Results:The results suggest that height is associated with high-grade prostate cancer risk. Men with height >180 cm...... are at a 22% increased risk as compared to men with height prostate cancer risk. The aggregate scores of the selected variants identified a significantly increased risk of overall prostate cancer...

  11. Racial/Ethnic Differences in Cancer Risk After Kidney Transplantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, EC; Segev, DL; Engels, EA

    2014-01-01

    Transplant recipients have elevated cancer risk, but it is unknown if cancer risk differs across race and ethnicity as in the general population. U.S. kidney recipients (N=87,895) in the Transplant Cancer Match Study between 1992 and 2008 were evaluated for racial/ethnic differences in risk for six common cancers after transplantation. Compared to white recipients, black recipients had lower incidence of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) (adjusted incidence rate ratio [aIRR] 0.60, pkidney (aIRR 2.09, pcancer (aIRR 2.14, pcancer (aIRR 0.72, p=0.05). Colorectal cancer incidence was similar across groups. Standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) measured the effect of transplantation on cancer risk and were similar for most cancers (p≥0.1). However, black and Hispanic recipients had larger increases in kidney cancer risk with transplantation (SIRs: 8.96 in blacks, 5.95 in Hispanics vs. 4.44 in whites), and only blacks had elevated prostate cancer risk following transplantation (SIR: 1.21). Racial/ethnic differences in cancer risk after transplantation mirror general population patterns, except for kidney and prostate cancers where differences reflect the effects of end-stage renal disease or transplantation. PMID:23331953

  12. Radiation induced cancer: risk assessment and prevention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shore, R.E.

    1984-01-01

    A number of factors have to be considered in defining the cancer risk from ionizing radiation. These include the radiation sensitivity of the target tissue(s), the temporal pattern of risk, the shape of the dose-incidence curve, the effects of low dose rates, host susceptibility factors, and synergism with other environmental exposures. For the population as a whole the largest sources of radiation exposure are natural background radiation and medical/dental radiation. Radiation exposures in the medical field make up the largest volume of occupational exposures as well. Although new technologies offer opportunities to lower exposures, worker training, careful exposure monitoring with remedial feedback, and monitoring to prevent unnecessary radiodiagnostic procedures may be even more important means of reducing radiation exposure. Screening of irradiated populations can serve a useful preventive function, but only for those who have received very high doses

  13. Optimizing the Management of High-Risk, Localized Prostate Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Sundi, Debasish; Jeong, Byong Chang; Lee, Seung Bae; Han, Misop

    2012-01-01

    Prostate cancer has a high prevalence and a rising incidence in many parts of the world. Although many screen-detected prostate cancers may be indolent, prostate cancer remains a major contributor to mortality in men. Therefore, the appropriate diagnosis and treatment of localized prostate cancer with lethal potential are of great importance. High-risk, localized prostate cancer has multiple definitions. Treatment options that should be individualized to each patient include observation, radi...

  14. Lycopene and Risk of Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ping; Zhang, Wenhao; Wang, Xiao; Zhao, Keke; Negi, Devendra Singh; Zhuo, Li; Qi, Mao; Wang, Xinghuan; Zhang, Xinhua

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Prostate cancer (PCa) is a common illness for aging males. Lycopene has been identified as an antioxidant agent with potential anticancer properties. Studies investigating the relation between lycopene and PCa risk have produced inconsistent results. This study aims to determine dietary lycopene consumption/circulating concentration and any potential dose–response associations with the risk of PCa. Eligible studies published in English up to April 10, 2014, were searched and identified from Pubmed, Sciencedirect Online, Wiley online library databases and hand searching. The STATA (version 12.0) was applied to process the dose–response meta-analysis. Random effects models were used to calculate pooled relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) and to incorporate variation between studies. The linear and nonlinear dose–response relations were evaluated with data from categories of lycopene consumption/circulating concentrations. Twenty-six studies were included with 17,517 cases of PCa reported from 563,299 participants. Although inverse association between lycopene consumption and PCa risk was not found in all studies, there was a trend that with higher lycopene intake, there was reduced incidence of PCa (P = 0.078). Removal of one Chinese study in sensitivity analysis, or recalculation using data from only high-quality studies for subgroup analysis, indicated that higher lycopene consumption significantly lowered PCa risk. Furthermore, our dose–response meta-analysis demonstrated that higher lycopene consumption was linearly associated with a reduced risk of PCa with a threshold between 9 and 21 mg/day. Consistently, higher circulating lycopene levels significantly reduced the risk of PCa. Interestingly, the concentration of circulating lycopene between 2.17 and 85 μg/dL was linearly inversed with PCa risk whereas there was no linear association >85 μg/dL. In addition, greater efficacy for the circulating lycopene

  15. Supposed cancer risk from mammography. Reply to previous statements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oeser, H; Koeppe, P; Rach, K [Freie Univ. Berlin (Germany, F.R.). Klinik fuer Radiologie, Nuklearmedizin und Physikalische Therapie

    1976-12-01

    The view that exposure to diagnostic radiation presents a cancer risk to the female breast should be considered together with the fact that the major factor is ageing of the patient. This risk factor is hidden in experimental and statistical studies on cancer production by exongenous agents; for instance, in studies of radiation effects, it is inherent in the time taken. The assumption that mammography presents a cancer risk is unjustifiable and is denied.

  16. Diet and breast cancer: understanding risks and benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, Cynthia A

    2012-10-01

    Breast cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer among women in the United States. Extensive research has been completed to evaluate the relationship between dietary factors and breast cancer risk and survival after breast cancer; however, a summary report with clinical inference is needed. Materials and This review summarizes the current epidemiological and clinical trial evidence relating diet to breast cancer incidence, recurrence, survival, and mortality. The review includes emerging epidemiological studies that assess risk within breast cancer subtypes as well as a summary of previous and ongoing dietary intervention trials designed to modify breast cancer risk. The available literature suggests that both low-fat and high-fiber diets may be weakly protective against breast cancer, whereas total energy intake and alcohol appear to be positively associated. Fiber may be weakly protective possibly through modulation of estrogen, whereas fruit and vegetable intake is not clearly associated with risk. Obesity is a risk factor for postmenopausal disease, and adult weight gain should be avoided to reduce risk. In survivors, diet has the greatest potential influence on overall mortality rather than breast cancer-specific events. Diet is modestly associated with breast cancer risk; associations appear more pronounced for postmenopausal disease, and healthy choices after diagnosis and treatment likely support longevity more so than reduced risk for recurrent disease.

  17. Gender disparities in the association between socio-demographics and non-communicable disease risk factors among adults with disabilities in Shanghai, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youran Zhang

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background Non-communicable disease (NCD risk factors can co-exist with disability and cause a greater burden on the health status of adults with disabilities. A lack of egalitarian social policies in China may result in gender disparities in the NCD risk factors of adults with disabilities. However, little is known about the gender disparities in the association between socio-demographics and NCD risk factors among adults with disabilities in China; consequently, we examined this association among adults with disabilities in Shanghai, China. Methods We used the health examination data of 44,896 adults with disabilities in Shanghai in 2014. Descriptive analyses and logistic regression models were conducted to estimate gender disparities in the association between socio-demographics, disability characteristics, and four selected NCD risk factors among adults with disabilities—including high blood pressure, high blood glucose, high blood lipids, and being overweight. We estimated marginal effects (MEs on NCD risk factors between gender and other confounders. Results Women with disabilities were about 11.6 percentage points more likely to suffer from high blood lipids and less likely to develop the other three risk factors than men were. The association of age group, residence permit, education level, marital status, and disability type with health outcomes varied by gender among adults with disabilities. The difference in age effects between men and women was more pronounced in older age groups. Urban residence was associated with less risk of high blood pressure risk among women (ΔME =  − 0.035, p < 0.01, but no significant difference in other NCD risk factors. Education remained a major protective factor against high blood pressure, high blood glucose and being overweight among women with disabilities (MEs < 0, p < 0.05; however, this did not hold for men. The difference in marriage effects between men and women was observed in

  18. Eating frequency and risk of colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrigue, Martine M; Kantor, Elizabeth D; Hastert, Theresa A; Patterson, Ruth; Potter, John D; Neuhouser, Marian L; White, Emily

    2013-12-01

    Eating frequency is a modifiable aspect of dietary behavior that may affect risk of colorectal cancer (CRC). Although most previous case-control studies indicate a positive association, two prospective studies suggest an inverse association between eating frequency and CRC risk, with evidence of effect modification by diet composition. We examined the association between eating frequency and CRC in a large, prospective cohort study, and explored whether this relationship was modified by sex, coffee consumption, or dietary glycemic load. Between 2000 and 2002, 67,912 western Washington residents aged 50-76 reported average daily meal and snack frequency using a mailed questionnaire as part of the vitamins and lifestyle study. Participants were followed for CRC through linkage with SEER through 2008, over which time 409 CRC cases developed. Hazard Ratios and 95 % Confidence Intervals were obtained using Cox regression. In age- and sex-adjusted models higher (5+ times/d) vs. lower (1-2 times/d) eating frequency was associated with a HR of 0.62 (95 % CI 0.43-0.88, Ptrend = 0.001). However, following further adjustment for BMI, race/ethnicity, alcohol, and other known CRC risk factors, the relationship was no longer statistically significant (HR: 0.76; 95 % CI 0.51, 1.14). No effect modification was observed by sex (Pinteraction = 0.45), coffee consumption (Pinteraction = 0.44), or dietary glycemic load (Pinteraction = 0.90). In subgroup analyses by tumor site, higher vs. lower eating frequency was associated with lower risk for colon (HR 0.65 95 % CI 0.39-1.07, Ptrend = 0.04), but not rectal cancers (HR = 1.08 95 % CI 0.54-2.18, Ptrend = 0.94). The weak inverse association observed between eating frequency and CRC is consistent with findings from other prospective studies. Modification of this relationship by diet quality and participant characteristics should be considered in the future studies.

  19. Cognitive and affective influences on perceived risk of ovarian cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peipins, Lucy A; McCarty, Frances; Hawkins, Nikki A; Rodriguez, Juan L; Scholl, Lawrence E; Leadbetter, Steven

    2015-03-01

    Studies suggest that both affective and cognitive processes are involved in the perception of vulnerability to cancer and that affect has an early influence in this assessment of risk. We constructed a path model based on a conceptual framework of heuristic reasoning (affect, resemblance, and availability) coupled with cognitive processes involved in developing personal models of cancer causation. From an eligible cohort of 16 700 women in a managed care organization, we randomly selected 2524 women at high, elevated, and average risk of ovarian cancer and administered a questionnaire to test our model (response rate 76.3%). Path analysis delineated the relationships between personal and cognitive characteristics (number of relatives with cancer, age, ideas about cancer causation, perceived resemblance to an affected friend or relative, and ovarian cancer knowledge) and emotional constructs (closeness to an affected relative or friend, time spent processing the cancer experience, and cancer worry) on perceived risk of ovarian cancer. Our final model fit the data well (root mean square error of approximation (RMSEA) = 0.028, comparative fit index (CFI) = 0.99, normed fit index (NFI) = 0.98). This final model (1) demonstrated the nature and direction of relationships between cognitive characteristics and perceived risk; (2) showed that time spent processing the cancer experience was associated with cancer worry; and (3) showed that cancer worry moderately influenced perceived risk. Our results highlight the important role that family cancer experience has on cancer worry and shows how cancer experience translates into personal risk perceptions. This understanding informs the discordance between medical or objective risk assessment and personal risk assessment. Published in 2014. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA. Published in 2014. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  20. Racial and ethnic disparities in patient-provider communication, quality-of-care ratings, and patient activation among long-term cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Nynikka R A; Kent, Erin E; Forsythe, Laura P; Arora, Neeraj K; Rowland, Julia H; Aziz, Noreen M; Blanch-Hartigan, Danielle; Oakley-Girvan, Ingrid; Hamilton, Ann S; Weaver, Kathryn E

    2014-12-20

    We examined racial and ethnic disparities in patient-provider communication (PPC), perceived care quality, and patient activation among long-term cancer survivors. In 2005 to 2006, survivors of breast, prostate, colorectal, ovarian, and endometrial cancers completed a mailed survey on cancer follow-up care. African American, Asian/Pacific Islander (Asian), Hispanic, and non-Hispanic white (white) survivors who had seen a physician for follow-up care in the past 2 years (n = 1,196) composed the analytic sample. We conducted linear and logistic regression analyses to identify racial and ethnic differences in PPC (overall communication and medical test communication), perceived care quality, and patient activation in clinical care (self-efficacy in medical decisions and perceived control). We further examined the potential contribution of PPC to racial and ethnic differences in perceived care quality and patient activation. Compared with white survivors (mean score, 85.16), Hispanic (mean score, 79.95) and Asian (mean score, 76.55) survivors reported poorer overall communication (P = .04 and P Asian survivors (mean score, 79.97) reported poorer medical test communication (P = .001). Asian survivors were less likely to report high care quality (odds ratio, 0.47; 95% CI, 0.30 to 0.72) and reported lower self-efficacy in medical decisions (mean score, 74.71; P Asian disparities remained significant. Asian survivors report poorer follow-up care communication and care quality. More research is needed to identify contributing factors beyond PPC, such as cultural influences and medical system factors. © 2014 by American Society of Clinical Oncology.

  1. Visceral adiposity, insulin resistance and cancer risk

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Donohoe, Claire L

    2011-06-22

    Abstract Background There is a well established link between obesity and cancer. Emerging research is characterising this relationship further and delineating the specific role of excess visceral adiposity, as opposed to simple obesity, in promoting tumorigenesis. This review summarises the evidence from an epidemiological and pathophysiological perspective. Methods Relevant medical literature was identified from searches of PubMed and references cited in appropriate articles identified. Selection of articles was based on peer review, journal and relevance. Results Numerous epidemiological studies consistently identify increased risk of developing carcinoma in the obese. Adipose tissue, particularly viscerally located fat, is metabolically active and exerts systemic endocrine effects. Putative pathophysiological mechanisms linking obesity and carcinogenesis include the paracrine effects of adipose tissue and systemic alterations associated with obesity. Systemic changes in the obese state include chronic inflammation and alterations in adipokines and sex steroids. Insulin and the insulin-like growth factor axis influence tumorigenesis and also have a complex relationship with adiposity. There is evidence to suggest that insulin and the IGF axis play an important role in mediating obesity associated malignancy. Conclusions There is much evidence to support a role for obesity in cancer progression, however further research is warranted to determine the specific effect of excess visceral adipose tissue on tumorigenesis. Investigation of the potential mechanisms underpinning the association, including the role of insulin and the IGF axis, will improve understanding of the obesity and cancer link and may uncover targets for intervention.

  2. Racial differences in prostate cancer risk in young HIV-positive and HIV-negative men: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Anupriya; Uno, Hajime; Holman, Alex; Lorenz, David R; Gabuzda, Dana

    2017-07-01

    African American men have the highest incidence of prostate cancer among ethnic groups, and racial disparity is highest in younger men. Prostate cancer prevalence is rising in HIV-infected men due to improved survival on antiretroviral therapies, yet little is known about racial differences in prostate cancer risk by HIV-infection status and age. This is a prospective cohort study of prostate cancer risk in 2,800 HIV-infected and -uninfected men who have sex with men (MSM) aged 40-70 years (22% African American) who were enrolled in the multicenter AIDS cohort study from 1996 to 2010. Poisson regression models were used to examine associations between race and HIV-infection status and prostate cancer risk among men aged 40-70, 40-55, and 56-70 years. Among men aged 40-70 years, incidence rates (IR) per 100,000 person-years were 169 among all men and 276 among African American HIV-infected men. Prostate cancer risk was similar by HIV-infection status (IRR 1.0, 95% CI 0.55-1.82), but nearly threefold higher in African Americans compared to non-African Americans in adjusted models (IRRs 2.66 and 3.22, 95% CIs 1.36-5.18 and 1.27-8.16 for all or HIV-infected men, respectively). Racial disparity in prostate cancer risk was greatest in African American men aged 40-55 years (adjusted IRR 3.31, 95% CI 1.19-9.22). Prostate cancer risk<