WorldWideScience

Sample records for cancer risk behaviors

  1. Exploring perceptions of cancer risk, neighborhood environmental risks, and health behaviors of blacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, LaShanta J; Brandt, Heather M; Hardin, James W; Ingram, Lucy Annang; Wilson, Sacoby M

    2015-06-01

    Cancer risk perceptions and cancer worry are shaped by race/ethnicity, and social, economic, and environmental factors, which in turn shape health decision-making. A paucity of studies has explored risk perceptions and worry in metropolitan areas with disparate environmental conditions and cancer outcomes. This study examined perceptions of cancer risk, neighborhood environmental health risks, and risk-reducing health behaviors among Blacks. A 59-item survey was administered to respondents in Metropolitan Charleston, South Carolina from March to September 2013. A convenience sample of males and females was recruited at local venues and community events. Descriptive statistics, bivariate analyses (Chi square tests), and logistic regression models were estimated using SAS 9.3 software. Respondents (N = 405) were 100% Black, 81% female (n = 323), and ranged from 18 to 87 years of age (M = 49.55, SD = 15.27). Most respondents reported lower perceptions of cancer risk (37%) and equated their cancer beliefs to direct or indirect (i.e. personal or family) experiences. Low perceived cancer risk (absolute risk) was significantly associated (p diet, non-alcohol consumption, and having any colon cancer screening test. Perceived cancer risk is an important indicator of health behaviors among Blacks. Direct or indirect experiences with cancer and/or the environment and awareness of family history of cancer may explain cancer risk perceptions. PMID:25315713

  2. Modifiable Prostate Cancer Risk Reduction and Early Detection Behaviors in Black Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odedina, Folakemi T.; Scrivens, John J., Jr.; Larose-Pierre, Margareth; Emanuel, Frank; Adams, Angela Denise; Dagne, Getachew A.; Pressey, Shannon Alexis; Odedina, Oladapo

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To explore the personal factors related to modifiable prostate cancer risk-reduction and detection behaviors among black men. Methods: Three thousand four hundred thirty (3430) black men were surveyed and structural equation modeling employed to test study hypotheses. Results: Modifiable prostate cancer risk-reduction behavior was found…

  3. Be smart against cancer! A school-based program covering cancer-related risk behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Stölzel, Friederike; Seidel, Nadja; Uhmann, Stefan; Baumann, Michael; Berth, Hendrik; Hoyer, Jürgen; Ehninger, Gerhard

    2014-01-01

    Background: Several studies suggest that most school-age children are poorly informed about cancer risk factors. This study examines the effectiveness of the ‘Be smart against cancer’ (BSAC) program in promoting cancer awareness and intentions to engage in health-promoting behavior. Methods: 235 seventh-grade students were randomized to either the intervention (N = 152) or the wait-control group (N = 83). The intervention included the modules: “What is cancer?,” “Sun protection,” “Non smoking...

  4. Beliefs and Behaviors about Breast Cancer Recurrence Risk Reduction among African American Breast Cancer Survivors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Ansa

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A growing body of evidence suggests that breast cancer recurrence risk is linked to lifestyle behaviors. This study examined correlations between breast cancer recurrence, risk reduction beliefs, and related behaviors among African American breast cancer survivors (AA BCSs. Study participants included 191 AA BCSs, mean age = 56.3 years, who completed a lifestyle assessment tool. Most respondents believed that being overweight (52.7%, lack of physical activity (48.7%, and a high fat diet (63.2% are associated with breast cancer recurrence. Over 65% considered themselves overweight; one third (33.5% agreed that losing weight could prevent recurrence, 33.0% disagreed, while the remaining 33.5% did not know; and nearly half (47.9% believed that recurrence could be prevented by increasing physical activity. Almost 90% survivors with BMI < 25 Kg/M2 reported no recurrence compared to 75.7% with BMI ≥ 25 Kg/M2 (p = 0.06; nearly all of the women (99.2% answered “yes” to seeking professional help to lose weight, 79.7% of which were recurrence-free (p = 0.05. These results provide information about AA BCSs’ beliefs and behaviors protective against breast cancer recurrence. Additional research is warranted to determine the effectiveness of educational interventions for AA BCSs that promote consumption of a healthy diet and engaging in regular physical activity.

  5. Disparities in Health Risk Behavior and Psychological Distress Among Gay Versus Heterosexual Male Cancer Survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamen, Charles; Palesh, Oxana; Gerry, Arianna Aldridge; Andrykowski, Michael A; Heckler, Charles; Mohile, Supriya; Morrow, Gary R; Bowen, Deborah; Mustian, Karen

    2014-06-01

    Gay men have been found to have higher rates of cancer diagnoses than heterosexual men and poorer outcomes postcancer diagnosis. The two aims of this study were to examine rates of cancer diagnosis in a national sample of gay and heterosexual men, and to examine disparities in health risk behavior between gay and heterosexual men and gay and heterosexual cancer survivors. The current study utilized data from a total sample of 14,354 men, including 373 gay men, collected as part of the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System survey conducted in 2009 in the states of Arizona, California, Massachusetts, Ohio, and Wisconsin. This study replicated the finding that prevalence of self-reported cancer diagnoses differed significantly between gay and heterosexual men, with gay men 82% more likely to report a lifetime history of cancer diagnosis (pdiscrimination. Developing behavior change interventions to address these risk behaviors is vital for improving cancer outcomes among gay men. PMID:26789618

  6. Nutrition-Related Cancer Prevention Cognitions and Behavioral Intentions: Testing the Risk Perception Attitude Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Helen W.; Beckjord, Ellen Burke; Finney Rutten, Lila J.; Hesse, Bradford W.

    2008-01-01

    This study tested whether the risk perception attitude framework predicted nutrition-related cancer prevention cognitions and behavioral intentions. Data from the 2003 Health Information National Trends Survey were analyzed to assess respondents' reported likelihood of developing cancer (risk) and perceptions of whether they could lower their…

  7. College Women and Breast Cancer: Knowledge, Behavior, and Beliefs regarding Risk Reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burak, Lydia; Boone, Barbara

    2008-01-01

    Background: Although breast cancer prevention should begin in youth, many young women are not aware of the modifiable lifestyle risk factors for the disease. Purpose: The purposes of this study were to examine the breast cancer-related knowledge, behaviors, and beliefs of young women; to determine whether knowledge about lifestyle risks was…

  8. Risk factors for the onset of prostatic cancer: age, location, and behavioral correlates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leitzmann MF

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Michael F Leitzmann1, Sabine Rohrmann21Department of Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine, Regensburg University Medical Center, Regensburg, Germany; 2Institute of Social and Preventive Medicine, University of Zurich, Zurich, SwitzerlandAbstract: At present, only three risk factors for prostate cancer have been firmly established; these are all nonmodifiable: age, race, and a positive family history of prostate cancer. However, numerous modifiable factors have also been implicated in the development of prostate cancer. In the current review, we summarize the epidemiologic data for age, location, and selected behavioral factors in relation to the onset of prostate cancer. Although the available data are not entirely consistent, possible preventative behavioral factors include increased physical activity, intakes of tomatoes, cruciferous vegetables, and soy. Factors that may enhance prostate cancer risk include frequent consumption of dairy products and, possibly, meat. By comparison, alcohol probably exerts no important influence on prostate cancer development. Similarly, dietary supplements are unlikely to protect against the onset of prostate cancer in healthy men. Several factors, such as smoking and obesity, show a weak association with prostate cancer incidence but a positive relation with prostate cancer mortality. Other factors, such as fish intake, also appear to be unassociated with incident prostate cancer but show an inverse relation with fatal prostate cancer. Such heterogeneity in the relationship between behavioral factors and nonadvanced, advanced, or fatal prostate cancers helps shed light on the carcinogenetic process because it discerns the impact of exposure on early and late stages of prostate cancer development. Inconsistent associations between behavioral factors and prostate cancer risk seen in previous studies may in part be due to uncontrolled detection bias because of current widespread use of prostate-specific antigen

  9. Diabetes Status and Being Up-to-Date on Colorectal Cancer Screening, 2012 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System

    OpenAIRE

    Porter, Nancy R.; Eberth, Jan M.; Samson, Marsha E.; Garcia-Dominic, Oralia; Lengerich, Eugene J.; Schootman, Mario

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Although screening rates for colorectal cancer are increasing, 22 million Americans are not up-to-date with recommendations. People with diabetes are an important and rapidly growing group at increased risk for colorectal cancer. Screening status and predictors of being up-to-date on screening are largely unknown in this population. Methods This study used logistic regression modeling and data from the 2012 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System to examine the association bet...

  10. Coverage of Skin Cancer Risk Factors and UV Behaviors in Popular U.S. Magazines from 2000 to 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McWhirter, Jennifer E; Hoffman-Goetz, Laurie

    2016-06-01

    Mass media is an influential source of skin cancer and tanning information for the public, but we know little about its content or emphasis. The objective of this research was to describe the volume and nature of skin cancer and tanning messages in 20 popular U.S. men's and women's magazines (2000-2012). We used a directed content analysis to determine frequency information about risk factors and ultraviolet (UV) behaviors in 608 articles and 930 images. Chi-square and Fisher's exact tests determined coverage differences based on content type (text vs. image) and target audience (women vs. men). UV exposure was the most common risk factor mentioned (37.7 %) and sunscreen use the most common behavior encouraged (60.0 %); information about other risk factors and protective behaviors was uncommon. Both articles (25.2 %) and images (36.9 %) promoted the tanned look as attractive. In most cases, images infrequently contained helpful information on skin cancer risk factors and prevention, except for high-SPF sunscreens. Women's magazines published more articles on skin cancer and tanning than men's magazines (456 vs. 159, χ(2) = 143.43, P < .01), and the nature of the messages differed between them. Magazine skin cancer and tanning content may contribute to inaccurate public understanding of risks and prevention. These findings are relevant to cancer educators, who may wish to counter potentially harmful messages and enhance positive ones through cancer education efforts. PMID:25761763

  11. Smoking related cancers: a brief report on problem solving, distress, and risk behaviors in patients and caregivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trunzo, Joseph J; Pinto, Bernardine M; Chougule, Prakash B

    2014-01-01

    Cancer diagnoses may adversely affect emotional functioning in patients and their caregivers, which in turn may increase risk behaviors, such as tobacco and alcohol use. This study investigates the relationships among problem-solving ability, distress, and risk behaviors in patients with head/neck and lung cancer and their caregivers. The authors hypothesized that patients and caregivers who experienced higher distress would engage in more risk behaviors, but that Social Problem-Solving (SPS) would moderate this effect, in that those who possessed greater SPS ability would engage in fewer risk behaviors. Twenty-one cancer patients and 11 of their caregivers were surveyed shortly after diagnosis. Participants completed the Profile of Mood States, the Social Problem-Solving Inventory-Revised, and measures of tobacco and alcohol use. Total SPS ability was higher in patients than caregivers but generally low in both groups. Total distress was lower in patients compared to caregivers. Mean comparisons indicated that caregivers smoked more cigarettes per day and consumed more alcohol than patients. Results indicate that patients and caregivers may have a decreased ability to solve problems, and that caregivers engage in more frequent risk behaviors than patients, suggesting that caregivers may be at risk and warrant further study. The study design prevents causative conclusions and limited sample size prohibits more complex analyses. Further research on social problem-solving ability, distress, and risk behaviors may reveal more robust relationships and provide insight for intervention development for these groups. PMID:24392757

  12. Endometrial Cancer Risk Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cancer? Next Topic What causes endometrial cancer? Endometrial cancer risk factors A risk factor is anything that affects your ... to obesity, which is a well-known endometrial cancer risk factor. Many scientists think this is the main way ...

  13. Alcohol and Cancer Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Overview Cancer Prevention Overview–for health professionals Research Alcohol and Cancer Risk On This Page What is ... in the risk of colorectal cancer. Research on alcohol consumption and other cancers: Numerous studies have examined ...

  14. Lung Cancer Risk Prediction Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Developing statistical models that estimate the probability of developing lung cancer over a defined period of time will help clinicians identify individuals at higher risk of specific cancers, allowing for earlier or more frequent screening and counseling of behavioral changes to decrease risk.

  15. Prostate Cancer Risk Prediction Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Developing statistical models that estimate the probability of developing prostate cancer over a defined period of time will help clinicians identify individuals at higher risk of specific cancers, allowing for earlier or more frequent screening and counseling of behavioral changes to decrease risk.

  16. Breast Cancer Risk Prediction Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Developing statistical models that estimate the probability of developing breast cancer over a defined period of time will help clinicians identify individuals at higher risk of specific cancers, allowing for earlier or more frequent screening and counseling of behavioral changes to decrease risk.

  17. Ovarian Cancer Risk Prediction Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Developing statistical models that estimate the probability of developing ovarian cancer over a defined period of time will help clinicians identify individuals at higher risk of specific cancers, allowing for earlier or more frequent screening and counseling of behavioral changes to decrease risk.

  18. Cervical Cancer Risk Prediction Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Developing statistical models that estimate the probability of developing cervical cancer over a defined period of time will help clinicians identify individuals at higher risk of specific cancers, allowing for earlier or more frequent screening and counseling of behavioral changes to decrease risk.

  19. Liver Cancer Risk Prediction Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Developing statistical models that estimate the probability of developing liver cancer over a defined period of time will help clinicians identify individuals at higher risk of specific cancers, allowing for earlier or more frequent screening and counseling of behavioral changes to decrease risk.

  20. Pancreatic Cancer Risk Prediction Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Developing statistical models that estimate the probability of developing pancreatic cancer over a defined period of time will help clinicians identify individuals at higher risk of specific cancers, allowing for earlier or more frequent screening and counseling of behavioral changes to decrease risk.

  1. Colorectal Cancer Risk Prediction Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Developing statistical models that estimate the probability of developing colorectal cancer over a defined period of time will help clinicians identify individuals at higher risk of specific cancers, allowing for earlier or more frequent screening and counseling of behavioral changes to decrease risk.

  2. Oral Cancer Risk Behaviors among Indiana College Students: A Formative Research Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raychowdhury, Swati; Lohrmann, David K.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: In fall 2004, the authors used a survey to assess the knowledge, attitudes, motivations, and behaviors of college students relative to oral cancer prevention to inform development of targeted prevention programming. Participants: A convenience sample of 1,003 undergraduate students at one public university in Indiana participated.…

  3. Health Behaviors of Childhood Cancer Survivors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer S. Ford

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available There has been a dramatic increase in the number of childhood cancer survivors living to an old age due to improved cancer treatments. However, these survivors are at risk of numerous late effects as a result of their cancer therapy. Engaging in protective health behaviors and limiting health damaging behaviors are vitally important for these survivors given their increased risks. We reviewed the literature on childhood cancer survivors’ health behaviors by searching for published data and conference proceedings. We examine the prevalence of a variety of health behaviors among childhood cancer survivors, identify significant risk factors, and describe health behavior interventions for survivors.

  4. Diabetes Status and Being Up-to-Date on Colorectal Cancer Screening, 2012 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Nancy R.; Samson, Marsha E.; Garcia-Dominic, Oralia; Lengerich, Eugene J.; Schootman, Mario

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Although screening rates for colorectal cancer are increasing, 22 million Americans are not up-to-date with recommendations. People with diabetes are an important and rapidly growing group at increased risk for colorectal cancer. Screening status and predictors of being up-to-date on screening are largely unknown in this population. Methods This study used logistic regression modeling and data from the 2012 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System to examine the association between diabetes and colorectal cancer screening predictors with being up-to-date on colorectal cancer screening according to criteria of the US Preventive Services Task Force for adults aged 50 or older. State prevalence rates of up-to-date colorectal cancer screening were also calculated and mapped. Results The prevalence of being up-to-date with colorectal cancer screening for all respondents aged 50 or older was 65.6%; for respondents with diabetes, the rate was 69.2%. Respondents with diabetes were 22% more likely to be up-to-date on colorectal cancer screening than those without diabetes. Among those with diabetes, having a routine checkup within the previous year significantly increased the odds of being up-to-date on colorectal cancer screening (odds ratio, 1.90). Other factors such as age, income, education, race/ethnicity, insurance status, and history of cancer were also associated with up-to-date status. Conclusion Regardless of diabetes status, people who had a routine checkup within the past year were more likely to be up-to-date than people who had not. Among people with diabetes, the duration between routine checkups may be of greater importance than the frequency of diabetes-related doctor visits. Continued efforts should be made to ensure that routine care visits occur regularly to address the preventive health needs of patients with and patients without diabetes. PMID:26851338

  5. Evaluation of educational videos to increase skin cancer risk awareness and sun-safe behaviors among adult Hispanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Claudia; Wang, Stephanie; Abraham, Ivy; Angulo, Maria Isabel; Kim, Hajwa; Meza, Joyce R; Munoz, Anastasia; Rodriguez, Lizbeth; Uddin, Sabrina

    2014-09-01

    Although skin cancer is less common in Hispanics, they are at higher risk for presenting with more advanced stage skin cancer. We performed semi-structured interviews with Hispanic women that found high concern for photoaging from sun exposure. Based on these results, we developed two short Spanish-language films. The first emphasized photoaging benefits of sun protection, while the second focused on its benefits for skin cancer prevention. Our hypothesis was that the reduction of photoaging would be a more persuasive argument than skin cancer prevention for the adoption of sunscreen use by Hispanic women. Study participants were recruited from beauty salons located in predominantly Hispanic neighborhoods. Each of the two Spanish-language films was approximately 3 min long. A pre-intervention questionnaire assessed subjects' general knowledge and sunscreen habits, and a second questionnaire administered after viewing both films assessed for improvements in risk perception and inquired about which film was more persuasive. Eighty Hispanics participated ranging in age from 19 to 75. The pre-education survey found that 54 out of 80 believed that fair-skin Hispanics (FS) were at risk for skin cancer, and 44 out of 80 believed that dark-skin Hispanics (DS) were at risk. These numbers increased to 72 (FS) and 69 (DS) after the intervention (p value: benefits of sun protection for skin cancer prevention as the more persuasive film (74 out of 80). A Spanish-language video has the potential to make an impact in healthy sun-protective behaviors, and information on how to properly apply sunscreen should be included in educational messages. PMID:24595966

  6. Understanding your colon cancer risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colon cancer risk factors are things that increase the chance that you could get cancer. Some risk factors ... risk factors never get cancer. Other people get colon cancer but do not have any known risk factors. ...

  7. Project Pocos de Caldas Plateau: cancer research and natural radioactivity - incidence and risk behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It has been well established by epidemiological studies that long term exposure due to radon increases the risk of lung cancer. While smoking continues to account for the bulk of lung cancers, it is been estimated that radon accounts for around 10% of all lung cancers. There is a synergistic relationship between smoking and radon and exposure due to radon is the primary cause of lung cancer in non-smokers. Recognizing the importance of radon as a source of radiation exposure, the IAEA safety standard Radiation Protection and Safety of Radiation Sources: International Basic Safety Standards (generally referred to simply as the BSS) contains requirements aimed at reducing the associated risks. The BSS requires Member States to provide information on the levels of radon indoors and the associated health effects, and if appropriate, to establish and implement a radon action plan for controlling public exposure due to radon indoors. Although not specifically stated, it is clear that in order to decide whether or not an action plan is necessary, some measurement data must be available on the concentrations of radon present indoors. To assist in the implementation of the BSS, the Agency has also developed a Safety Guide: Protection of the Public against Exposure indoors due do Radon and Other Natural Sources of Radiation. This Safety Guide provides guidance on establishing and implementing a national radon action plan; developing national radon policy; undertaking national and regional surveys of radon in dwellings; measurement protocols; setting a reference level for dwellings; defining radon prone areas; radon control through building codes; and evaluation of programme effectiveness. While many sources of radiation exposure are not amenable to control, proven and effective building practices exist to limit the accumulation of radon in new buildings and cost-effective corrective actions have been developed to reduce high radon concentrations in existing buildings. The

  8. Stomach Cancer Risk Questionnaire

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Jewish Hospital and Washington University School of Medicine Stomach cancer is fairly rare in the US, but ... the early stages. To estimate your risk of stomach cancer and learn about ways to lower that ...

  9. Exploration of risk taking behaviors and perceived susceptibility of colorectal cancer among Malaysian adults: a community based cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Dubai, S. A. R.; Ganasegeran, K.; Alabsi, A. M.; Shah, S. A.; Razali, F. M. M.; Arokiasamy, J. T.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Perceived susceptibility to an illness has been shown to affect Health-risk behavior. The objective of the present study was to determine the risk taking behaviors and the demographic predictors of perceived susceptibility to colorectal cancer in a population-based sample. Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out among 305 Malaysian adults in six major districts, selected from urban, semi-urban, and rural settings in one state in Malaysia. A self-administered questionnaire...

  10. Influence of perception of colorectal cancer risk and patient bowel preparation behaviors: a study in minority populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaduputi V

    2015-01-01

    , sex and ethnicity and were included in group 1. Bowel preparation was graded as good, fair, or poor by the endoscopist performing the study. We observed a significantly higher number of good bowel preparations in group 2 and group 3 (P=0.0001 when compared with group 1 (controls after adjusting for comorbidities and usage of prescription medication that could potentially cause colonic dysmotility. These differences were significant in both Hispanic and African American patients.Conclusion: Our study showed that perception of CRC risk significantly influenced the bowel preparation behaviors of patients belonging to minority populations, with a significantly greater number of patients with a high risk of CRC having adequate bowel preparations. Keywords: colorectal cancer, bowel preparation, quality, screening colonoscopy, high-risk populations, minority populations

  11. Pancreatic Cancer Risk Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... factors can affect a person’s chance of getting cancer of the pancreas. Most of these are risk factors for exocrine ... Chronic pancreatitis, a long-term inflammation of the pancreas, is linked with an increased risk of pancreatic cancer (especially in smokers), but most people with pancreatitis ...

  12. Age-Related Disparities in Cancer Screening: Analysis of 2001 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System Data

    OpenAIRE

    Jerant, Anthony F.; Franks, Peter; Jackson, J. Elizabeth; Doescher, Mark P.

    2004-01-01

    PURPOSE Although few studies have explored age-related health care disparities, some researchers have asserted such disparities uniformly disfavor the elderly and are largely attributable to ageism in the health care system. We compared age-related patterns of screening for colorectal cancer with those for breast and prostate cancer in persons aged 50 years and older.

  13. Energy Balance and Breast Cancer Risk

    OpenAIRE

    Malin, Alecia; Matthews, Charles E.; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Cai, Hui; Dai, Qi; Jin, Fan; Gao, Yu-Tang; Zheng, Wei

    2005-01-01

    We evaluated the hypothesis that a pattern of behavioral exposures indicating positive energy balance [i.e., less exercise/sport activity, high body mass index (BMI), or high energy intake] would be associated with an increased breast cancer risk in the Shanghai Breast Cancer Study, a population-based study of 1,459 incident breast cancer cases and 1,556 age frequency-matched controls. Participants completed in-person interviews that collected information on breast cancer risk factors, usual ...

  14. Bone cancer risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In view of the considerable disparity in published values of the risk for bone cancers from ionising radiation, the article 'An analysis of bone and head sinus cancers in radium dial painters using a two-mutation carcinogenesis model' by Leenhouts and Brugmans in the June 2000 issue of this Journal deserves further comment and consideration. The letter concludes that radiological protection and risk estimation has acquired an extra dimension, and it is clear that the risk of bone cancer from exposure to ionising radiation needs further review. Letter-to-the-editor

  15. Evaluation of educational videos to increase skin cancer risk awareness and sun safe behaviors among adult Hispanics (Revision 1)

    OpenAIRE

    Hernandez, Claudia; Wang, Stephanie; Abraham, Ivy; Angulo, Maria Isabel; Kim, Hajwa; Meza, Joyce R.; Munoz, Anastasia; Rodriguez, Lizbeth; Uddin, Sabrina

    2014-01-01

    Although skin cancer is less common in Hispanics, they are at higher risk for presenting with more advanced stage skin cancer. We performed semi-structured interviews with Hispanic women that found high concern for photo-aging from sun exposure. Based on these results, we developed two short Spanish language films. The first emphasized photo-aging benefits of sun protection, while the second focused on its benefits for skin cancer prevention. Our hypothesis was that the reduction of photo-agi...

  16. [The Dutch Cancer Society Cancer Risk Test].

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elias, S.; Grooters, H.G.; Bausch-Goldbohm, R.A.; Brandt, P.A. van den; Kampman, E.; Leeuwen, F.E. van; Peeters, P.H.M.; Vries, E. de; Wigger, S.; Kiemeney, L.A.L.M.

    2012-01-01

    The Dutch Cancer Society developed the 'KWF Kanker Risico Test' (Cancer Risk Test) to improve the information available to the Dutch population regarding cancer risk factors. This Internet test, based under licence on the American 'Your Disease Risk' test, informs users about risk factors for 12 com

  17. Contralateral breast cancer risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of breast-conserving treatment approaches for breast cancer has now become a standard option for early stage disease. Numerous randomized studies have shown medical equivalence when mastectomy is compared to lumpectomy followed by radiotherapy for the local management of this common problem. With an increased emphasis on patient involvement in the therapeutic decision making process, it is important to identify and quantify any unforeseen risks of the conservation approach. One concern that has been raised is the question of radiation- related contralateral breast cancer after breast radiotherapy. Although most studies do not show statistically significant evidence that patients treated with breast radiotherapy are at increased risk of developing contralateral breast cancer when compared to control groups treated with mastectomy alone, there are clear data showing the amount of scattered radiation absorbed by the contralateral breast during a routine course of breast radiotherapy is considerable (several Gy) and is therefore within the range where one might be concerned about radiogenic contralateral tumors. While radiation related risks of contralateral breast cancer appear to be small enough to be statistically insignificant for the majority of patients, there may exist a smaller subset which, for genetic or environmental reasons, is at special risk for scatter related second tumors. If such a group could be predicted, it would seem appropriate to offer either special counselling or special prevention procedures aimed at mitigating this second tumor risk. The use of genetic testing, detailed analysis of breast cancer family history, and the identification of patients who acquired their first breast cancer at a very early age may all be candidate screening procedures useful in identifying such at- risk groups. Since some risk mitigation strategies are convenient and easy to utilize, it makes sense to follow the classic 'ALARA' (as low as reasonably

  18. Understanding your colon cancer risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... what steps you can take to prevent colon cancer . Risk Factors We do not know what causes colon cancer, ... Society. Colorectal cancer: detailed guide. What are the risk factors for colorectal cancer? Available at: www.cancer.org/cancer/colonandrectumcancer/detailedguide/ ...

  19. Development of an internet intervention to address behaviors associated with skin cancer risk among young adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolyn Heckman

    2015-09-01

    Major conclusions: Development of an acceptable intervention intended to have a significant public health impact requires a relatively large investment in time, money, expertise, and ongoing user input. Lessons learned and recommendations are discussed. The comprehensive process used may help prepare others interested in creating similar behavioral health interventions.

  20. Cigarette smoking and risk of ovarian cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faber, Mette T; Kjær, Susanne K; Dehlendorff, Christian;

    2013-01-01

    The majority of previous studies have observed an increased risk of mucinous ovarian tumors associated with cigarette smoking, but the association with other histological types is unclear. In a large pooled analysis, we examined the risk of epithelial ovarian cancer associated with multiple...... measures of cigarette smoking with a focus on characterizing risks according to tumor behavior and histology....

  1. Breast cancer risk factors

    OpenAIRE

    Marzena Kamińska; Tomasz Ciszewski; Karolina Łopacka-Szatan; Paweł Miotła; Elżbieta Starosławska

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most frequently diagnosed neoplastic disease in women around menopause often leading to a significant reduction of these women's ability to function normally in everyday life. The increased breast cancer incidence observed in epidemiological studies in a group of women actively participating in social and professional life implicates the necessity of conducting multidirectional studies in order to identify risk factors associated with the occurrence of this type of neopla...

  2. Food Habits, Lifestyle Factors, and Risk of Prostate Cancer in Central Argentina: A Case Control Study Involving Self-Motivated Health Behavior Modifications after Diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandaly O. S. Pacheco

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Cancer is the second most important non-communicable disease worldwide and disproportionately impacts low- to middle-income countries. Diet in combination with other lifestyle habits seems to modify the risk for some cancers but little is known about South Americans. Food habits of Argentinean men pre- and post-diagnosis of prostate cancer (n = 326 were assessed along with other lifestyle factors. We studied whether any of the behaviors and risk factors for prostate cancer were found in men with other cancers (n = 394, compared with control subjects (n = 629. Before diagnosis, both cases reported a greater mean consumption of meats and fats and lower intakes of fruits, green vegetables, cruciferous vegetables, legumes, nuts, seeds, and whole grains than the controls (all p < 0.001. After diagnosis, cases significantly reduced the intake of meats and fats, and reported other dietary modifications with increased consumption of fish, fruits (including red fruits in prostate cancer, cruciferous vegetables, legumes, nuts, and black tea (all p < 0.001. Additional lifestyle aspects significantly predominant in cases included a reduced quality of sleep, emotional stress, low physical activity, tobacco smoking, alcohol consumption, living in rural areas, and being exposed to environmental contaminants. Argentinian men were predisposed to modify their unhealthy dietary habits and other lifestyle factors after cancer diagnosis.

  3. Cancer risk from inorganics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inorganic metals and minerals for which there is evidence of carcinogenicity are identified. The risk of cancer from contact with them in the work place, the general environment, and under conditions of clinical (medical) exposure is discussed. The evidence indicates that minerals and metals most often influence cancer development through their action as cocarcinogens. The relationship between the physical form of mineral fibers, smoking and carcinogenic risk is emphasized. Metals are categorized as established (As, Be, Cr, Ni), suspected (Cd, Pb) and possible carcinogens, based on the existing in vitro, animal experimental and human epidemiological data. Cancer risk and possible modes of action of elements in each class are discussed. Views on mechanisms that may be responsible for the carcinogenicity of metals are updated and analysed. Some specific examples of cancer risks associated with the clinical use of potentially carcinogenic metals and from radioactive pharmaceuticals used in therapy and diagnosis are presented. Questions are raised as to the effectiveness of conventional dosimetry in accurately measuring risk from radiopharmaceuticals. 302 references

  4. Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... NGOs Protective Factors Parent Engagement School Connectedness Positive Parenting Practices Sexual Risk Behaviors Program Evaluation Evaluations of ... including— Behaviors that contribute to unintentional injuries and violence Sexual behaviors related to unintended pregnancy and sexually ...

  5. Lifestyle and cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiderpass, Elisabete

    2010-11-01

    The main behavioural and environmental risk factors for cancer mortality in the world are related to diet and physical inactivity, use of addictive substances, sexual and reproductive health, exposure to air pollution and use of contaminated needles. The population attributable fraction for all cancer sites worldwide considering the joint effect of these factors is about 35% (34 % for low-and middle-income countries and 37% for high-income countries). Seventy-one percent(71%) of lung cancer deaths are caused by tobacco use (lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death globally). The combined effects of tobacco use, low fruit and vegetable intake, urban air pollution, and indoor smoke from household use of solid fuels cause 76% of lung cancer deaths. Exposure to these behavioural and environmental factors is preventable; modifications in lifestyle could have a large impact in reducing the cancer burden worldwide (WHO, 2009). The evidence of association between lifestyle factors and cancer, as well as the main international recommendations for prevention are briefly reviewed and commented upon here. PMID:21139406

  6. Immunosuppression and risk of cervical cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dugué, Pierre-Antoine; Rebolj, Matejka; Garred, Peter;

    2013-01-01

    A markedly increased risk of cervical cancer is known in women immunosuppressed due to AIDS or therapy following organ transplantation. The aim of this review is to determine the association between other conditions affecting the immune system and the risk of cervical cancer. Patients with end......-stage renal disease seem to be at an increased risk of cervical cancer. A higher risk of cervical precancerous lesions was found in patients with some autoimmune diseases; particularly if treated with immunosuppressants. Among behavioral factors weakening the immune system, smoking appeared to strongly...... increase the risk of cervical cancer, while poor diet only moderately increased the risk. It is difficult to determine whether sexually transmitted infections other than human papillomavirus infection are independent risk factors. Identifying those groups of women likely to fail in clearing persistent...

  7. Food Habits, Lifestyle Factors, and Risk of Prostate Cancer in Central Argentina: A Case Control Study Involving Self-Motivated Health Behavior Modifications after Diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacheco, Sandaly O S; Pacheco, Fabio J; Zapata, Gimena M J; Garcia, Julieta M E; Previale, Carlos A; Cura, Héctor E; Craig, Winston J

    2016-01-01

    Cancer is the second most important non-communicable disease worldwide and disproportionately impacts low- to middle-income countries. Diet in combination with other lifestyle habits seems to modify the risk for some cancers but little is known about South Americans. Food habits of Argentinean men pre- and post-diagnosis of prostate cancer (n = 326) were assessed along with other lifestyle factors. We studied whether any of the behaviors and risk factors for prostate cancer were found in men with other cancers (n = 394), compared with control subjects (n = 629). Before diagnosis, both cases reported a greater mean consumption of meats and fats and lower intakes of fruits, green vegetables, cruciferous vegetables, legumes, nuts, seeds, and whole grains than the controls (all p vegetables, legumes, nuts, and black tea (all p < 0.001). Additional lifestyle aspects significantly predominant in cases included a reduced quality of sleep, emotional stress, low physical activity, tobacco smoking, alcohol consumption, living in rural areas, and being exposed to environmental contaminants. Argentinian men were predisposed to modify their unhealthy dietary habits and other lifestyle factors after cancer diagnosis. PMID:27409631

  8. Salivary Gland Cancer: Risk Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Factors Request Permissions Print to PDF Salivary Gland Cancer: Risk Factors Approved by the Cancer.Net Editorial Board , 08/ ... anything that increases a person’s chance of developing cancer. Although risk factors often influence the development of cancer, most do ...

  9. Cancer Risk Prediction and Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancer prediction models provide an important approach to assessing risk and prognosis by identifying individuals at high risk, facilitating the design and planning of clinical cancer trials, fostering the development of benefit-risk indices, and enabling estimates of the population burden and cost of cancer.

  10. Understanding breast cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Robin L

    2010-01-01

    With mammography firmly established as an integral part of efforts to reduce breast cancer mortality, many believe it is time to concentrate on prevention. Part of the multifaceted approach to preventing and treating this disease is unraveling its molecular, genetic and physiological makeup. Another aspect is ensuring that women have the information they need to make informed decisions about screening and treatment. Studies also point to the influence of nutrition, exercise, medicines and a patient's adherence to screening on cancer risk and recovery. PMID:20445140

  11. PCOS and cancer risk.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadeusz Issat

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS affects approximately 5 to 10% of women of reproductive age. It is the most common reason of anovulation in infertile women. PCOS is accompanied by such conditions as oligo- or anovulation, hipertestosteronism, lower cell sensitivity to insulin, type II diabetes, hyperlipidemia and obesity. Each of the above-mentioned conditions is an approved risk factor proved to predispose towards cancer. However, PCOS is also a disease entity which differs in its clinical manifestation. For example not all patients suffer from obesity or hipertestosteronism related symptoms. From the analysis of literature it is possible to draw conclusions, that there is a possible correlation between PCOS and endometrial cancer, which emerges from clinical trials or research focused on molecular changes in endometrium patients with PCOS. On the other hand, correlation between PCOS and breast or ovary cancer is not so strong, in spite of single papers which are showing the link. The main problem in researching the correlation between PCOS and any cancer risk, is there is a very small group of women or the trial is imperfect (e.g. no control group. There is no meta-analysis focused on this correlation in literature. The change of criteria of PCOS in the past is also a big problem, because there was a number of definitions of PCOS, which results in inconsistent PCOS diagnoses over time. In this paper we would like to provide a description of studies that aimed at showing correlation between PCOS and cancer risk and underlying theoretical assumptions.

  12. PCOS and cancer risk.

    OpenAIRE

    Tadeusz Issat; Artur J Jakimiuk

    2010-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) affects approximately 5 to 10% of women of reproductive age. It is the most common reason of anovulation in infertile women. PCOS is accompanied by such conditions as oligo- or anovulation, hipertestosteronism, lower cell sensitivity to insulin, type II diabetes, hyperlipidemia and obesity. Each of the above-mentioned conditions is an approved risk factor proved to predispose towards cancer. However, PCOS is also a disease entity which differs in its clinical ...

  13. Diabetes, insulin and cancer risk

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    There is a consensus that both type 1 and type 2 diabetes are associated with a spectrum of cancers but the underlying mechanisms are largely unknown. On the other hand, there are ongoing debates about the risk association of insulin use with cancer. We have briefly reviewed recent related research on exploration of risk factors for cancer and pharmacoepidemiological investigations into drug use in diabetes on the risk of cancer, as well as the current understanding of metabolic pathways impl...

  14. Colorectal Cancer Risk Assessment Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... know before using this tool: The Colorectal Cancer Risk Assessment Tool was designed for use by doctors and other health providers with their patients. If you are not a health ... your personal risk of colorectal cancer. (Colorectal cancer is another way ...

  15. Breast cancer risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamińska, Marzena; Ciszewski, Tomasz; Łopacka-Szatan, Karolina; Miotła, Paweł; Starosławska, Elżbieta

    2015-09-01

    Breast cancer is the most frequently diagnosed neoplastic disease in women around menopause often leading to a significant reduction of these women's ability to function normally in everyday life. The increased breast cancer incidence observed in epidemiological studies in a group of women actively participating in social and professional life implicates the necessity of conducting multidirectional studies in order to identify risk factors associated with the occurrence of this type of neoplasm. Taking the possibility of influencing the neoplastic transformation process in individuals as a criterion, all the risk factors initiating the process can be divided into two groups. The first group would include inherent factors such as age, sex, race, genetic makeup promoting familial occurrence of the neoplastic disease or the occurrence of benign proliferative lesions of the mammary gland. They all constitute independent parameters and do not undergo simple modification in the course of an individual's life. The second group would include extrinsic factors conditioned by lifestyle, diet or long-term medical intervention such as using oral hormonal contraceptives or hormonal replacement therapy and their influence on the neoplastic process may be modified to a certain degree. Identification of modifiable factors may contribute to development of prevention strategies decreasing breast cancer incidence. PMID:26528110

  16. Breast cancer risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marzena Kamińska

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer is the most frequently diagnosed neoplastic disease in women around menopause often leading to a significant reduction of these women’s ability to function normally in everyday life. The increased breast cancer incidence observed in epidemiological studies in a group of women actively participating in social and professional life implicates the necessity of conducting multidirectional studies in order to identify risk factors associated with the occurrence of this type of neoplasm. Taking the possibility of influencing the neoplastic transformation process in individuals as a criterion, all the risk factors initiating the process can be divided into two groups. The first group would include inherent factors such as age, sex, race, genetic makeup promoting familial occurrence of the neoplastic disease or the occurrence of benign proliferative lesions of the mammary gland. They all constitute independent parameters and do not undergo simple modification in the course of an individual’s life. The second group would include extrinsic factors conditioned by lifestyle, diet or long-term medical intervention such as using oral hormonal contraceptives or hormonal replacement therapy and their influence on the neoplastic process may be modified to a certain degree. Identification of modifiable factors may contribute to development of prevention strategies decreasing breast cancer incidence.

  17. Breast Cancer Risk in American Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Breast & Gynecologic Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Breast Cancer Risk in American Women On This Page What ... risk of developing the disease. Personal history of breast cancer : Women who have had breast cancer are more ...

  18. Environmental cancer risks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Peter M.

    In a long-awaited report (‘Assessment of Technologies for Determining Cancer Risks From the Environment’), the U.S. Office of Technology Assessment (OTA) has evaluated the role of environmental factors in cancer diseases. Environment is interpreted broadly as encompassing anything that interacts with humans, including the natural environment, food, radiation, the workplace, etc. Geologic factors range from geographic location to radiation and specific minerals. The report, however, is based on an inadequate data base in most instances, and its major recommendations are related to the establishment of a national cancer registry to record cancer statistics, as is done for many other diseases. Presently, hard statistics are lacking in the establishment of some association between the cause-effect relationship of most environmental factors and most carcinogens. Of particular interest, but unfortunately based on unreliable data, are the effects of mineral substances such as ‘asbestos.’ USGS mineralogist Malcolm Ross will review asbestos and its effects on human health in the forthcoming Mineralogical Society of America's Short Course on the Amphiboles (Reviews in Mineralogy, 9, in press, 1981).

  19. Hair Dyes and Cancer Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Overview Cancer Prevention Overview–for health professionals Research Hair Dyes and Cancer Risk On This Page Why is ... over age 40 use some type of hair dye ( 1 ). Modern hair dyes are classified as permanent (or oxidative), semipermanent, ...

  20. Predicting adolescents’ health risk behaviors

    OpenAIRE

    Kalebić Maglica, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore factors of adolescents’ health risk behaviors regarding smoking and alcohol consumption in the framework of the prototype/willingness model and approach connecting personality traits and health risk behaviors. The sample consisted of 341 high school students. Their task was to complete several questionnaires measuring relevant risk factors (attitudes, subjective norms, prototypes and willingness), frequency of smoking/drinking, and personality traits (BFI)...

  1. A Video Game Promoting Cancer Risk Perception and Information Seeking Behavior Among Young-Adult College Students: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beale, Ivan L; Chen, Minxing; Prokhorov, Alexander V

    2016-01-01

    Background Risky behaviors tend to increase drastically during the transition into young adulthood. This increase may ultimately facilitate the initiation of carcinogenic processes at a young age, highlighting a serious public health problem. By promoting information seeking behavior (ISB), young adults may become aware of cancer risks and potentially take preventive measures. Objective Based on the protection motivation theory, the current study seeks to evaluate the impact of challenge in a fully automated video game called Re-Mission on young adult college students' tendency to perceive the severity of cancer, feel susceptible to cancer, and engage in ISB. Methods A total of 216 young adults were recruited from a university campus, consented, screened, and randomized in a single-blinded format to 1 of 3 conditions: an intervention group playing Re-Mission at high challenge (HC; n=85), an intervention group playing Re-Mission at low challenge (LC; n=81), and a control group with no challenge (NC; presented with illustrated pictures of Re-Mission; n=50). Measurement was conducted at baseline, immediate posttest, 10-day follow-up, and 20-day follow-up. Repeated-measures mixed-effect models were conducted for data analysis of the main outcomes. Results A total of 101 young adults continued until 20-day follow-up. Mixed-effect models showed that participants in the HC and LC groups were more likely to increase in perceived susceptibility to cancer (P=.03), perceived severity of cancer (P=.02), and ISB (P=.01) than participants in the NC group. The LC group took until 10-day follow-up to show increase in perceived susceptibility (B=0.47, standard error (SE) 0.16, P=.005). The HC group showed an immediate increase in perceived susceptibility at posttest (B=0.43, SE 0.14, P=.002). The LC group exhibited no changes in perceived severity (B=0.40, SE 0.33, P=.24). On the other hand, the HC group showed a significant increase from baseline to posttest (B=0.39, SE 0.14, P

  2. Risk Stratification System for Oral Cancer Screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Lutécia H Mateus; Reis, Isildinha M; Reategui, Erika P; Gordon, Claudia; Saint-Victor, Sandra; Duncan, Robert; Gomez, Carmen; Bayers, Stephanie; Fisher, Penelope; Perez, Aymee; Goodwin, W Jarrard; Hu, Jennifer J; Franzmann, Elizabeth J

    2016-06-01

    Oral cavity and oropharyngeal cancer (oral cancer) is a deadly disease that is increasing in incidence. Worldwide 5-year survival is only 50% due to delayed intervention with more than half of the diagnoses at stage III and IV, whereas earlier detection (stage I and II) yields survival rates up to 80% to 90%. Salivary soluble CD44 (CD44), a tumor-initiating marker, and total protein levels may facilitate oral cancer risk assessment and early intervention. This study used a hospital-based design with 150 cases and 150 frequency-matched controls to determine whether CD44 and total protein levels in oral rinses were associated with oral cancer independent of age, gender, race, ethnicity, tobacco and alcohol use, and socioeconomic status (SES). High-risk subjects receiving oral cancer prevention interventions as part of a community-based program (n = 150) were followed over 1 year to determine marker specificity and variation. CD44 ≥5.33 ng/mL was highly associated with case status [adjusted OR 14.489; 95% confidence interval (CI), 5.973-35.145; P cancer. In contrast, specificity in the high-risk community was 74% and reached 95% after annual retesting. Simple and inexpensive salivary CD44 and total protein measurements may help identify individuals at heightened risk for oral cancer from the millions who partake in risky behaviors. Cancer Prev Res; 9(6); 445-55. ©2016 AACR. PMID:27020654

  3. Skin Cancer: Biology, Risk Factors & Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... turn Javascript on. Feature: Skin Cancer Skin Cancer: Biology, Risk Factors & Treatment Past Issues / Summer 2013 Table ... Articles Skin Cancer Can Strike Anyone / Skin Cancer: Biology, Risk Factors & Treatment / Timely Healthcare Checkup Catches Melanoma ...

  4. Risk factors for suicidal behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonova A.A.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available

     

    The article presents data on risk factors that contribute to the development of suicidal behavior. The development of suicidal behavior is infuenced by a number of factors. These include — gender, age, residence, occupation, marital status, health status, etc. A number of studies indicated the impact of economic and social factors on the level of suicidal activity of the population. Observed relationship between mental disorders, substance abuse (particularly alcohol and suicide. In this case, the presence of numerous investigations in the feld of Suicidology, a number of problems still remains unsolved. Further study of issues relating to risk factors that infuence the development of suicidal behavior. Of particular note is the importance of “regional” risk factors that most infuence on the formation of suicidal behavior in a particular region.

  5. Cancer risks in thyroid cancer patients.

    OpenAIRE

    Hall, P.; Holm, L E; Lundell, G.; Bjelkengren, G.; Larsson, L. G.; Lindberg, S.; Tennvall, J.; Wicklund, H.; Boice, J. D.

    1991-01-01

    Cancer risks were studied in 834 thyroid cancer patients given 131I (4,551 MBq, average) and in 1,121 patients treated by other means in Sweden between 1950 and 1975. Record-linkage with the Swedish Cancer Register identified 99 new cancers more than 2 years after 131I therapy [standardised incidence ratio (SIR) = 1.43; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.17-1.75] vs 122 (SIR = 1.19; 95% CI 0.88-1.42) in patients not receiving 131I. In females treated with 131I overall SIR was 1.45 (95% CI 1.14-1....

  6. Population attributable risks of oral cavity cancer to behavioral and medical risk factors in France: results of a large population-based case–control study, the ICARE study

    OpenAIRE

    Radoï, Loredana; Menvielle, Gwenn; Cyr, Diane; Lapôtre-Ledoux, Bénédicte; Stücker, Isabelle; Luce, Danièle

    2015-01-01

    Background Population attributable risks (PARs) are useful tool to estimate the burden of risk factors in cancer incidence. Few studies estimated the PARs of oral cavity cancer to tobacco smoking alone, alcohol drinking alone and their joint consumption but none performed analysis stratified by subsite, gender or age. Among the suspected risk factors of oral cavity cancer, only PAR to a family history of head and neck cancer was reported in two studies. The purpose of this study was to estima...

  7. Risk Factors, Preventive Practices, and Health Care Among Breast Cancer Survivors, United States, 2010

    OpenAIRE

    Homan, Sherri G.; Kayani, Noaman; Yun, Shumei

    2016-01-01

    Introduction We compared behavioral risk factors and preventive measures among female breast cancer survivors, female survivors of other types of cancers, and women without a history of cancer. Survivorship health care indicators for the 2 groups of cancer survivors were compared. Methods Using data from the 2010 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, we calculated the proportion of women with risk factors and their engagement in preventive practices, stratified by cancer status (cancer ...

  8. Diabetes, insulin and cancer risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xi-Lin Yang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a consensus that both type 1 and type 2 diabetes are associated with a spectrum of cancers but the underlying mechanisms are largely unknown. On the other hand, there are ongoing debates about the risk association of insulin use with cancer. We have briefly reviewed recent related research on exploration of risk factors for cancer and pharmacoepidemiological investigations into drug use in diabetes on the risk of cancer, as well as the current understanding of metabolic pathways implicated in intermediary metabolism and cellular growth. Based on the novel findings from the Hong Kong Diabetes Registry and consistent experimental evidence, we argue that use of insulin to control hyperglycemia is unlikely to contribute to increased cancer risk and that dysregulations in the AMP-activated protein kinase pathway due to reduced insulin action and insulin resistance, the insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1-cholesterol synthesis pathway and renin-angiotensin system, presumably due to reduced insulin secretion and hyperglycemia, may play causal roles in the increased risk of cancer in diabetes. Further exploration into the possible causal relationships between abnormalities of these pathways and the risk of cancer in diabetes is warranted.

  9. Reproduction and Breast Cancer Risk

    OpenAIRE

    Hanf, Volker; Hanf, Dorothea

    2014-01-01

    Reproduction is doubtlessly one of the main biological meanings of life. It is therefore not surprising that various aspects of reproduction impact on breast cancer risk. Various developmental levels may become targets of breast tumorigenesis. This review follows the chronologic sequence of events in the life of a female at risk, starting with the intrauterine development. Furthermore, the influence of both contraceptive measures and fertility treatment on breast cancer development is dealt w...

  10. BPH and prostate cancer risk

    OpenAIRE

    Miah, Saiful; Catto, James

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: With the exclusion of non-melanomatous skin malignancy, prostate cancer (PCa) is the second most prevalent cancer in men globally. It has been reported that the majority of men will develop benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) by the time they reach their 60s. Together, these prostatic diseases have a significant morbidity and mortality affecting over a billion men throughout the world. The risk of developing prostate cancer of men suffering BPH is one that has resulted in a healt...

  11. Natural radioactivity and cancer risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report is a review of physical and biological parameters important in the calculation of the risk for cancer induction by natural radioactivity. Based on cited assumptions, natural radioactivity may cause 375 to 530 cases of cancer in Norway per year

  12. Risk Prediction Models for Other Cancers or Multiple Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Developing statistical models that estimate the probability of developing other multiple cancers over a defined period of time will help clinicians identify individuals at higher risk of specific cancers, allowing for earlier or more frequent screening and counseling of behavioral changes to decrease risk.

  13. Work stress and risk of cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heikkilä, Katriina; Nyberg, Solja T; Theorell, Töres;

    2013-01-01

    To investigate whether work related stress, measured and defined as job strain, is associated with the overall risk of cancer and the risk of colorectal, lung, breast, or prostate cancers.......To investigate whether work related stress, measured and defined as job strain, is associated with the overall risk of cancer and the risk of colorectal, lung, breast, or prostate cancers....

  14. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN TYPE C BEHAVIOR AND BREAST CANCER

    OpenAIRE

    ÁNGELA MARÍA TORRES MARIÑO

    2006-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to investigate deeply the relationship between Type C behavior pattern andbreast cancer through an analytical observation design of cases and controls. Three groups of variables were established:demographical, medical and risk factors, including in the last one the Type C behavior, for three groups: a) women withbreast cancer, b) women with cervix cancer, and c) healthy women. The changing answer for ‘having breast cancer’ isdetermined by the family histor...

  15. Obesity and colorectal cancer risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obesity is a chronic and multifactor disease characterized by presence of excess body fat harmful for health. Several studies have been conducted to assess the possible risk character of different factors for colorectal cancer including the following modifying factors: a diet rich in saturated fats, a diet low in vegetables, physical inactivity, alcohol consumption and obesity. A case-control study was conducted to include 276 adult patients (93 cases and 184 controls) consecutively seen from May, 2008 to May, 2009 in the Institute of Gastroenterology determining a possible association between obesity as risk factor and colorectal cancer. Variables measures included: sex, age, skin color, body mass index, hip-waist circumference and endoscopic location of cancer. We conclude that the colorectal cancer with predominance in female sex and in white people in both groups. Obesity according to a great relation hip-waist had an strong relation with colorectal cancer, which had predominance towards distal colon in both sexes

  16. Risk factors for colorectal cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihajlović-Božić Vesna

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Colorectal cancer is one of the most common cancers in human population. It causes significant morbidity and mortality in our country. The incidence of colorectal cancer increases in the fifth decade of life. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between colorectal cancer and potential risk factors. A case-control study of colorectal cancer was carried out between 1998 and 1999 in Clinical Center of Serbia, Center for Digestive Surgery. A total of 100 cases of newly diagnosed patients with colorectal cancer confirmed by histopathology and an equal number of controls, individually matched by gender and age (+/-5 years, were chosen from patients from the same hospital with no history of cancer at all. McNemar test and conditional logistic regression were used in the analysis. According to logistic regression analysis the following risk factors were independently related with the occurrence of colorectal cancer: cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption, and diet rich in red meat and fat promote the carcinogenic process; food rich in vegetables, fruits, grains, vitamin C, physical activity, and oral contraceptive use inhibit the same process. A family history of cancer and long standing inflammatory bowel diseases also have significant role. There is convincing evidence that nutrition affects colorectal carcinogenesis in a complex fashion.

  17. Obesity and Cancer Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... may stimulate or inhibit cell growth. For example, leptin, which is more abundant in obese people, seems ... is known about the relationship between obesity and kidney cancer? Obesity has been consistently associated with renal ...

  18. Asbestos and Cancer Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... done in the lab Tests on several different rodent species, using different methods of exposure, have confirmed ... Voices Blog Programs & Services Breast Cancer Support TLC Hair Loss & Mastectomy Products Hope Lodge® Lodging Rides To ...

  19. Cancer risk in systemic lupus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bernatsky, Sasha; Ramsey-Goldman, Rosalind; Labrecque, Jeremy;

    2013-01-01

    .46, 5.49) and leukemia. In addition, increased risks of cancer of the vulva (SIR 3.78, 95% CI 1.52, 7.78), lung (SIR 1.30, 95% CI 1.04, 1.60), thyroid (SIR 1.76, 95% CI 1.13, 2.61) and possibly liver (SIR 1.87, 95% CI 0.97, 3.27) were suggested. However, a decreased risk was estimated for breast (SIR 0......: These data estimate only a small increased risk in SLE (versus the general population) for cancer over-all. However, there is clearly an increased risk of NHL, and cancers of the vulva, lung, thyroid, and possibly liver. It remains unclear to what extent the association with NHL is mediated by innate versus......OBJECTIVE: To update estimates of cancer risk in SLE relative to the general population. METHODS: A multisite international SLE cohort was linked with regional tumor registries. Standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) were calculated as the ratio of observed to expected cancers. RESULTS: Across 30...

  20. Risk Determination for Pancreatic Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria I Toki

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Pancreatic cancer represents one of the leading causes of cancer related deaths worldwide and constitutes a major public health problem. Despite the advances in diagnosis and treatment, the overall five-year survival remains low, thus leading the focus of medical research towards the identification and modification of potential risk factors. This year, in ASCO Annual Meeting two interesting studies were presented. Ghani et al. (abstract #e15183 sought to investigate the effect of smoking on chemotherapy response in patients with metastatic pancreatic cancer, while Walker et al. (abstract #4117 presented the results of their study regarding the effect of statin use in the prevention of pancreatic cancer. Both studies concluded to useful results that along with the existing literature may further stimulate medical research towards better recognition of risk factors and the application of this knowledge in the clinical practice.

  1. Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBSS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBSS) monitors 6 types of health-risk behaviors that contribute to the leading causes of death and disability among...

  2. CDC Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) is a state-based system of health surveys that collects information on health risk behaviors, preventive...

  3. Northeast Regional Cancer Institute's Cancer Surveillance and Risk Factor Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lesko, Samuel M.

    2007-07-31

    OBJECTIVES The Northeast Regional Cancer Institute is conducting a program of ongoing epidemiologic research to address cancer disparities in northeast Pennsylvania. Of particular concern are disparities in the incidence of, stage at diagnosis, and mortality from colorectal cancer. In northeast Pennsylvania, age-adjusted incidence and mortality rates for colorectal cancer are higher, and a significantly smaller proportion of new colorectal cancer cases are diagnosed with local stage disease than is observed in comparable national data. Further, estimates of the prevalence of colorectal cancer screening in northeast Pennsylvania are lower than the US average. The Northeast Regional Cancer Institute’s research program supports surveillance of common cancers, investigations of cancer risk factors and screening behaviors, and the development of resources to further cancer research in this community. This project has the following specific objectives: I. To conduct cancer surveillance in northeast Pennsylvania. a. To monitor incidence and mortality for all common cancers, and colorectal cancer, in particular, and b. To document changes in the stage at diagnosis of colorectal cancer in this high-risk, underserved community. II. To conduct a population-based study of cancer risk factors and screening behavior in a six county region of northeast Pennsylvania. a. To monitor and document changes in colorectal cancer screening rates, and b. To document the prevalence of cancer risk factors (especially factors that increase the risk of colorectal cancer) and to identify those risk factors that are unusually common in this community. APPROACH Cancer surveillance was conducted using data from the Northeast Regional Cancer Institute’s population-based Regional Cancer Registry, the Pennsylvania Cancer Registry, and NCI’s SEER program. For common cancers, incidence and mortality were examined by county within the region and compared to data for similar populations in the US

  4. Oral Contraceptives and Cancer Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... benefits associated with oral contraception. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 2004; 190(4 Suppl):S5–22. [ ... oral contraceptive use and risk of ovarian cancer. Obstetrics and Gynecology 1992; 80(4):708–714. [PubMed ...

  5. Risks of Colorectal Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... laxatives to clear the colon, shows polyps clearly. DNA stool test This test checks DNA in stool cells for genetic changes that may be a sign of colorectal cancer. Screening clinical trials are taking place in many parts of the ... Screening tests have risks. False-negative test results can occur. ...

  6. Height and Breast Cancer Risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Ben; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Delahanty, Ryan J;

    2015-01-01

    comparisons, including three loci at 1q21.2, DNAJC27, and CCDC91 at genome-wide significance level P < 5×10(-8). CONCLUSIONS: Our study provides strong evidence that adult height is a risk factor for breast cancer in women and certain genetic factors and biological pathways affecting adult height have an...

  7. Myastenia and risk of cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greve Pedersen, Emil; Pottegård, Anton; Hallas, Jesper;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: To evaluate the association between having non-thymoma myasthenia and the risk of extra-thymic cancer in a population-based setting. METHODS: A nationwide case-control study was conducted in Denmark based on medical registries. The study included all cases with a first time...... diagnosis of cancer during 2000-2009. Each case was matched by birth year and gender with eight population controls using risk set sampling. Subjects with myasthenia were identified through a validated register-based algorithm. Conditional logistic regression was used to compute crude and adjusted odds...... ratios (ORs), with 95% confidence intervals (CIs), for cancer associated with a prior diagnosis of myasthenia. RESULTS: In all, 233 437 cases and 1 867 009 controls were identified. A total of 80 cases and 518 controls had a prior diagnosis of myasthenia. Myasthenia was not associated with an increased...

  8. Cancer Worry, Perceived Risk and Cancer Screening in First-Degree Relatives of Patients with Familial Gastric Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jenny; Hart, Tae L; Aronson, Melyssa; Crangle, Cassandra; Govindarajan, Anand

    2016-06-01

    Currently, there is a lack of evidence evaluating the psychological impact of cancer-related risk perception and worry in individuals at high risk for gastric cancer. We examined the relationships between perceived risk, cancer worry and screening behaviors among first-degree relatives (FDRs) of patients with familial gastric cancer. FDRs of patients diagnosed with familial gastric cancer with a non-informative genetic analysis were identified and contacted. Participants completed a telephone interview that assessed socio-demographic information, cancer risk perception, cancer worry, impact of worry on daily functioning, and screening behaviors. Twenty-five FDRs completed the telephone interview. Participants reported high levels of comparative and absolute cancer risk perception, with an average perceived lifetime risk of 54 %. On the other hand, cancer-related worry scores were low, with a significant minority (12 %) experiencing high levels of worry. Study participants exhibited high levels of confidence (median = 70 %) in the effectiveness of screening at detecting a curable cancer. Participants that had undergone screening in the past showed significantly lower levels of cancer-related worry compared to those that had never undergone screening. In conclusion, individuals at high-risk for gastric cancer perceived a very high personal risk of cancer, but reported low levels of cancer worry. This paradoxical result may be attributed to participants' high levels of confidence in the effectiveness of screening. These findings highlight the importance for clinicians to discuss realistic risk appraisals and expectations towards screening with unaffected members of families at risk for gastric cancer, in an effort to help mitigate anxiety and help with coping. PMID:26493173

  9. Colon Cancer Risk Assessment - Gauss Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    An executable file (in GAUSS) that projects absolute colon cancer risk (with confidence intervals) according to NCI’s Colorectal Cancer Risk Assessment Tool (CCRAT) algorithm. GAUSS is not needed to run the program.

  10. Gene Tied to Breast Cancer Raises Uterine Cancer Risk Too

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_159652.html Gene Tied to Breast Cancer Raises Uterine Cancer Risk ... June 30, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Women with a gene mutation known as BRCA1 have an increased risk ...

  11. Abortion, Miscarriage, and Breast Cancer Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Breast & Gynecologic Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Abortion, Miscarriage, and Breast Cancer Risk A woman’s hormone ... be conducted to determine whether having an induced abortion, or a miscarriage (also known as spontaneous abortion), ...

  12. Smog May Boost Risk for Several Cancers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... lower risks of dying from cancer," Brasky said. "Air pollution doesn't just increase the risk for asthma, lung cancer and heart disease, but might also increase the risk of dying from cancer." Thomas said the solution is simple. "We should therefore be aiming to ...

  13. Perceptions of Cancer Risk and Cause of Cancer Risk in Korean Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Kye, Su Yeon; Park, Eun Young; Oh, Kyounghee; Park, Keeho

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The aims of the present study were to assess the prevalence of perceived risk for cancer; to explore associations between sociodemographics and family history of cancer and perceived cancer risk; to identify perceived cause of cancer risk; and to examine the associations between sociodemographics and family history of cancer and perceived cause of cancer risk. Materials and Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted among 1,009 participants aged 30-69 years, selected from a popu...

  14. Risk perception and cancer worries in families at increased risk of familial breast/ovarian cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Mellon, Suzanne; Gold, Robin; Janisse, James; Cichon, Michelle; Tainsky, Michael A; Simon, Michael S.; Korczak, Jeannette

    2008-01-01

    While families at increased risk for familial breast/ovarian cancer continue to overestimate their cancer risk with increased cancer worries about the future, few studies have examined factors that affect inherited cancer risk perception and cancer worries in both survivors and unaffected female relatives. The purpose of this study was to examine variables that may affect cancer worries and risk perceptions from a family-based perspective in a racially diverse, community-based, random sample ...

  15. Cancer risk of patients discharged with acute myocardial infarct

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dreyer, L; Olsen, J H

    1998-01-01

    We studied whether common shared environmental or behavioral risk factors, other than tobacco smoking, underlie both atherosclerotic diseases and cancer. We identified a group of 96,891 one-year survivors of acute myocardial infarct through the Danish Hospital Discharge Register between 1977 and...... acute myocardial infarct patients were similar to those of the general population, as were the rates for hormone-related cancers, including endometrial and postmenopausal breast cancers. We found a moderate increase in the risk for tobacco-related cancers, which was strongest for patients with early...... onset of acute myocardial infarct and for female patients. Overall, there do not seem to be major shared environmental or behavioral risk factors for acute myocardial infarct and cancers, except for smoking, and there seems to be no common inherited susceptibility to the development of these diseases....

  16. Risk Behavior Disclosure During HIV Test Counseling

    OpenAIRE

    Torrone, Elizabeth Ann; Thomas, James C.; Maman, Suzanne; Pettifor, Audrey E; Kaufman, Jay S.; Sena, Arlene C.; Hightow-Weidman, Lisa B.

    2010-01-01

    Individualized risk assessments during HIV testing are an integral component of prevention counseling, a currently recommended behavioral intervention for patients in high-risk settings. Additionally, aggregate risk assessment data are the source of aggregate behavioral statistics that inform prevention programs and allocation of resources. Consequently, inaccurate or incomplete risk behavior disclosure during test counseling may impact the efficacy of the counseling intervention, as well as ...

  17. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and cancer risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kornum, Jette Brommann; Sværke, Claus; Thomsen, Reimar Wernich; Lange, Peter; Sørensen, Henrik Toft

    2012-01-01

    Little is known about the risk of cancer in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), including which cancer sites are most affected. We examined the short- and long-term risk of lung and extrapulmonary cancer in a nationwide cohort of COPD patients.......Little is known about the risk of cancer in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), including which cancer sites are most affected. We examined the short- and long-term risk of lung and extrapulmonary cancer in a nationwide cohort of COPD patients....

  18. Adipocytokines and breast cancer risk

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HOU Wei-kai; XU Yu-xin; YU Ting; ZHANG Li; ZHANG Wen-wen; FU Chun-li; SUN Yu; WU Qing; CHEN Li

    2007-01-01

    Background Many researches suggested that obesity increased the risk of breast cancer, but the mechanism was currently unknown. Adipocytokines might mediate the relationship. Our study was aimed to investigate the relationship between serum levels of resistin, adiponectin and leptin and the onset, invasion and metastasis of breast cancer.Methods Blood samples were collected from 80 newly diagnosed, histologically confirmed breast cancer patients and 50 age-matched healthy controls. Serum levels of resistin, adiponectin and leptin were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA); fasting blood glucose (FBG), lipids, body mass index (BMI), and waist circumference (WC) were assayed simultaneously.Results Serum levels of adiponectin ((8.60±2.92) mg/L vs (10.37±2.81) mg/L, P=0.001) and HDL-c were significantly decreased in breast cancer patients in comparison to controls. Serum levels of resistin ((26.35±5.36) μg/L vs (23.32±4.75)μg/L, P=0.000), leptin ((1.35±0.42) μg/L vs (1.06±0.39) μg/L, P=0.003), FBG and triglyceride (TG) in breast cancer patients were increased in contrast to controls, respectively. However, we did not find the significant difference of the serum levels of resistin, adiponectin and leptin between premenopausal breast cancer patients and healthy controls (P=0.091, 0.109 and 0.084, respectively). The serum levels of resistin, adiponectin and leptin were significantly different between patients with lymph node metastasis (LNM) and those without LNM (P=0.001, 0.000 and 0.006, respectively).The stepwise regression analysis indicated that the tumor size had the close correlation with leptin (R2=0.414, P=0.000)and FBG (R2=0.602, P=0.000). Logistic regression analysis showed that reduced serum levels of adiponectin (OR:0.805;95%CI: 0.704-0.921; P=0.001), HDL (OR: 0.087; 95%CI: 0.011-0.691, P=0.021), elevated leptin (OR:2.235;95%CI:1.898-4.526; P=0.004) and resistin (OR: 1.335; 95%CI: 1.114-2.354; P=0.012) increased the risk for

  19. Vitamins and Prostate Cancer Risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Y.F. Young

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Prostate cancer (PC is the second most common cancer in men worldwide. Its prevention and treatment remain a challenge to clinicians. Here we review the relationship of vitamins to PC risk. Many vitamins and related chemicals, including vitamin A, retinoids, several B vitamins, vitamin C, vitamin D and vitamin E have shown their anti-cancer activities as anti-oxidants, activators of transcription factors or factors influencing epigenetic events. Although laboratory tests including the use of animal models showed these vitamins may have anti-PC properties, whether they can effectively prevent the development and/or progression of PC in humans remains to be intensively studied subjects. This review will provide up-to-date information regarding the recent outcomes of laboratory, epidemiology and/or clinical trials on the effects of vitamins on PC prevention and/or treatment.

  20. Negative Affect, Risk Perception, and Adolescent Risk Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curry, Laura A.; Youngblade, Lise M.

    2006-01-01

    The prevalence, etiology, and consequences of adolescent risk behavior have stimulated much research. The current study examined relationships among anger and depressive symptomatology (DS), risk perception, self-restraint, and adolescent risk behavior. Telephone surveys were conducted with 290 14- to 20-year-olds (173 females; M = 15.98 years).…

  1. Diabetes and Thyroid Cancer Risk: Literature Review

    OpenAIRE

    Chin-Hsiao Tseng; Tien-Chun Chang; Wei-Yih Chiu; Shyang-Rong Shih

    2012-01-01

    Diabetic patients have a higher risk of various types of cancer. However, whether diabetes may increase the risk of thyroid cancer has not been extensively studied. This paper reviews and summarizes the current literature studying the relationship between diabetes mellitus and thyroid cancer, and the possible mechanisms linking such an association. Epidemiologic studies showed significant or nonsignificant increases in thyroid cancer risk in diabetic women and nonsignificant increase or no ch...

  2. Does Diet Affect Breast Cancer Risk?

    OpenAIRE

    Holmes, Michelle D; Willett, Walter C.

    2004-01-01

    The role of specific dietary factors in breast cancer causation is not completely resolved. Results from prospective studies do not support the concept that fat intake in middle life has a major relation to breast cancer risk. However, weight gain in middle life contributes substantially to breast cancer risk. Alcohol is the best established dietary risk factor, probably by increasing endogenous estrogen levels. Hypotheses relating diet during youth to risk decades later will be difficult to ...

  3. Fuzzy sets applications for cancer risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molchanov, P A; Dudatiev, A V; Podobna, Y Y; Molchanova, O P

    2002-09-01

    The method of cancer risk assessment on the basis of the Fuzzy Set Theory is presented. The method is based on a multifactor risk assessment of cancer diseases. The individual risk of cancer disease is evaluated as the probability of disease multiplied by the value of an individual dose. An acupuncture method of cancer risk assessments was developed. The method is based on the analysis of changes of an electromagnetic field (biofield) of a person. The method allows to determine both cancer probability and probable location of the process. PMID:12298344

  4. Gastric cancer: prevention, risk factors and treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Zali, Hakimeh; Rezaei-Tavirani, Mostafa; Azodi, Mona

    2011-01-01

    Cancer starts with a change in one single cell. This change may be initiated by external agents and genetic factors. Cancer is a leading cause of death worldwide and accounts for 7.6 million deaths (around 13% of all deaths) in 2008. Lung, stomach, liver, colon and breast cancer cause the most cancer deaths each year. In this review, different aspects of gastric cancer; including clinical, pathological characteristic of gastric cancer, etiology, incidence, risk factors, prevention and treatme...

  5. What Are the Risk Factors for Bladder Cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cancer Next Topic What causes bladder cancer? Bladder cancer risk factors A risk factor is anything that changes your ... make a person more likely to develop bladder cancer. Risk factors you can change Smoking Smoking is the most ...

  6. Cancer-related intrusive thoughts predict behavioral symptoms following breast cancer treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Dupont, A; Bower, JE; Stanton, AL; Ganz, PA

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Behavioral symptoms are common in breast cancer survivors, including disturbances in energy, sleep, and mood, though few risk factors for these negative outcomes have been identified. Our study examined intrusive thoughts as a predictor of lingering symptoms in breast cancer survivors in the year following treatment. Method: Data come from the Moving Beyond Cancer psychoeducational intervention trial, aimed at easing the transition from patient to survivor. Women (n = 558) complete...

  7. Risks of Cervical Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Treatment Cervical Cancer Prevention Cervical Cancer Screening Research Cervical Cancer Screening (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is screening? Screening ... These are called diagnostic tests . General Information About Cervical Cancer Key Points Cervical cancer is a disease in ...

  8. Risks of Skin Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Genetics of Skin Cancer Skin Cancer Screening Research Skin Cancer Screening (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is screening? Go ... These are called diagnostic tests . General Information About Skin Cancer Key Points Skin cancer is a disease in ...

  9. Risk of second primary cancer following differentiated thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Concerns remain over the risk of cancer following differentiated thyroid carcinoma and its causes. Iodine-131 (131I) and external irradiation are known to have potential carcinogenic effects. Thyroid carcinoma is a polygenic disease which may be associated with other malignancies. We investigated the incidence of second cancer and its aetiology in a cohort of 875 patients (146 men, 729 women) with differentiated thyroid carcinoma originating from Basse-Normandie, France. Cancer incidence was compared with that of the general population of the Departement du Calvados matched for age, gender and period. The cumulative proportion of second cancer was estimated using the life-table method. Factors that correlated with the risk of second cancer were studied using the Cox model. After a median follow-up of 8 years, 58 second cancers had been observed. Compared with general population incidence rates, there was an overall increased risk of second cancer in women [standardised incidence ratio (SIR)=1.52; P0.20). Increased risk related to cancers of the genitourinary tract (SIR=3.31; P131I was related to the risk. These data confirm that women with differentiated thyroid carcinoma are at risk of developing a second cancer of the genitourinary tract and kidney. Only age and medical history of primary cancer before thyroid carcinoma are risk factors for second cancer. Common environmental or genetic factors as well as long-term carcinogenic effects of primary cancer therapy should be considered. (orig.)

  10. Alcohol, Obesity Could Raise Esophageal Cancer Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_160133.html Alcohol, Obesity Could Raise Esophageal Cancer Risk A third ... now linked to 11 types of cancer and alcohol links to six," she said in an institute ...

  11. Risk Profiling May Improve Lung Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    A new modeling study suggests that individualized, risk-based selection of ever-smokers for lung cancer screening may prevent more lung cancer deaths and improve the effectiveness and efficiency of screening compared with current screening recommendations

  12. Stressful life events and cancer risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergelt, C; Prescott, E; Grønbaek, M;

    2006-01-01

    In a prospective cohort study in Denmark of 8736 randomly selected people, no evidence was found among 1011 subjects who developed cancer that self-reported stressful major life events had increased their risk for cancer.......In a prospective cohort study in Denmark of 8736 randomly selected people, no evidence was found among 1011 subjects who developed cancer that self-reported stressful major life events had increased their risk for cancer....

  13. Race/Ethnicity and Multiple Cancer Risk Factors among Individuals Seeking Smoking Cessation Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendzor, Darla E.; Costello, Tracy J.; Li, Yisheng; Vidrine, Jennifer Irvin; Mazas, Carlos A.; Reitzel, Lorraine R.; Cinciripini, Paul M.; Cofta-Woerpel, Ludmila M.; Businelle, Michael S.; Wetter, David W.

    2016-01-01

    Smoking in combination with other behavioral risk factors is known to have a negative influence on health, and individuals who smoke typically engage in multiple risk behaviors. However, little is known about the clustering of risk behaviors among smokers of varying race/ethnicity. The purpose of this study was to examine patterns of cancer risk behaviors and to identify predictors of multiple risk behaviors in a racially/ethnically diverse sample of individuals seeking smoking cessation treatment. Overweight/obesity, at-risk alcohol consumption, and insufficient physical activity were measured in 424 smokers (African American, n = 144; Latino, n = 141; Caucasian, n = 139). Results indicated that 90% of participants reported behavioral cancer risk factors in addition to smoking. Approximately 70% of participants were overweight or obese, 48% engaged in at-risk drinking, and 27% were insufficiently physically active. Univariate analyses indicated that race/ethnicity, p culturally sensitive interventions that target multiple risk behaviors. PMID:18990734

  14. Cancer risk as a radiation detriment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potential radiation detriment means a risk of cancer or other somatic disease, genetic damage of fetal injury. Quantative information about the relation between a radiation dose and cancer risk is needed to enable decision-making in radiation protection. However, assessment of cancer risk by means of the radiation dose is controversial, as epidemiological and biological information about factors affecting the origin of cancers show that risk assessment is imprecise when the radiation dose is used as the only factor. Focusing on radiation risk estimates for breast cancer, lung cancer and leukemia, the report is based on the models given in the Beir V report, on sources of radiation exposure and the uncertainty of risk estimates. Risk estimates are assessed using the relative risk model and the cancer mortality rates in Finland. Cancer incidence and mortality rates for men and women are shown in graphs as a function of age and time. Relative risks are shown as a function of time after exposure and lifetime risks as a function of age at exposure. Uncertainty factors affecting the radiation risk are examined from the point of view of epidemiology and molecular biology. (orig.)

  15. Correlates of positive health behaviors in cancer survivors: results from the 2010 LIVESTRONG survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low, Carissa A; Beckjord, Ellen; Bovbjerg, Dana H; Dew, Mary Amanda; Posluszny, Donna M; Schmidt, John E; Lowery, Amy E; Nutt, Stephanie A; Arvey, Sarah R; Rechis, Ruth

    2014-01-01

    Positive health-promoting behaviors, including lifestyle factors (e.g., physical activity) and appropriate health service utilization (e.g., screening for secondary cancers), can minimize the health risks and challenges facing cancer survivors. The goal of this article is to examine factors associated with positive health behaviors in 2,615 posttreatment cancer survivors who completed the 2010 LIVESTRONG survey. Multivariate logistic regression was used to model odds of reporting each of six positive health behaviors "as a result of your experience with cancer": three "healthy lifestyle" behaviors and three "health care utilization" behaviors. In fully adjusted models, factors associated with greater likelihood of engaging in positive lifestyle behaviors (e.g., physical activity, changing diet) included sociodemographic factors, greater knowledge about how to reduce cancer risk; and reporting more psychological benefits due to cancer (ps Factors associated with greater likelihood of attending medical appointments and obtaining recommended cancer screenings included older age, better patient-provider communication, greater knowledge about how to reduce cancer risk, and more psychological benefits of cancer (ps healthy lifestyle behaviors. Clinical interventions targeting these modifiable factors could maximize positive health behavior changes among cancer survivors, affecting risk for cancer recurrence as well as overall health and well-being. PMID:25176347

  16. Diet and risk of breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotepui, Manas

    2016-01-01

    Diet may play a role in both promoting and inhibiting human breast cancer development. In this review, nutritional risk factors such as consumption of dietary fat, meat, fiber, and alcohol, and intake of phytoestrogen, vitamin D, iron, and folate associated with breast cancer are reviewed. These nutritional factors have a variety of associations with breast cancer risk. Type of fat consumed has different effects on risk of breast cancer: consumption of meat is associated with heterocyclic amine (HCA) exposure; different types of plant fiber have various effects on breast cancer risk; alcohol consumption may increase the risk of breast cancer by producing acetaldehyde and reactive oxygen species (ROS); intake of phytoestrogen may reduce risk of breast cancer through genomic and non-genomic action; vitamin D can reduce the risk of breast cancer by inhibiting the process of cancer invasion and metastasis; intake of dietary iron may lead to oxidative stress, DNA damage, and lipid peroxidation; and lower intake of folate may be linked to a higher risk of breast cancer. PMID:27095934

  17. Behavioral intervention to reduce AIDS risk activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, J A; St Lawrence, J S; Hood, H V; Brasfield, T L

    1989-02-01

    Behavior change can curtail the spread of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). In this study, 104 gay men with a history of frequent AIDS high-risk behavior completed self-report, self-monitoring, and behavioral measures related to AIDS risk. The sample was randomly divided into experimental and waiting-list control groups. The experimental intervention provided AIDS risk education, cognitive-behavioral self-management training, sexual assertion training, and attention to the development of steady and self-affirming social supports. Experimental group participants greatly reduced their frequency of high-risk sexual practices and increased behavioral skills for refusing sexual coercions, AIDS risk knowledge, and adoption of "safer sex" practices. Change was maintained at the 8-month follow-up. PMID:2925974

  18. Vitamin D, Sunlight and Prostate Cancer Risk

    OpenAIRE

    Krishna Vanaja Donkena; Young, Charles Y. F.

    2011-01-01

    Prostate cancer is the second common cancer in men worldwide. The prevention of prostate cancer remains a challenge to researchers and clinicians. Here, we review the relationship of vitamin D and sunlight to prostate cancer risk. Ultraviolet radiation of the sunlight is the main stimulator for vitamin D production in humans. Vitamin D's antiprostate cancer activities may be involved in the actions through the pathways mediated by vitamin D metabolites, vitamin D metabolizing enzymes, vitamin...

  19. Overactive Thyroid Linked to Breast Cancer Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_157203.html Overactive Thyroid Linked to Breast Cancer Risk But researchers added ... 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Women who have an overactive thyroid gland might be at greater risk for breast ...

  20. Statin use and risk for ovarian cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baandrup, L; Dehlendorff, C; Friis, Søren;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Limited data suggest that statin use reduces the risk for ovarian cancer. METHODS: Using Danish nationwide registries, we identified 4103 cases of epithelial ovarian cancer during 2000-2011 and age-matched them to 58,706 risk-set sampled controls. Conditional logistic regression was...... used to estimate adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for epithelial ovarian cancer overall, and for histological types, associated with statin use. RESULTS: We observed a neutral association between ever use of statins and epithelial ovarian cancer risk (OR=0.98, 95% CI=0.......87-1.10), and no apparent risk variation according to duration, intensity or type of statin use. Decreased ORs associated with statin use were seen for mucinous ovarian cancer (ever statin use: OR=0.63, 95% CI=0.39-1.00). CONCLUSIONS: Statin use was not associated with overall risk for epithelial ovarian cancer...

  1. Risk Factors for Smoking Behaviors among Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Sung Suk; Joung, Kyoung Hwa

    2014-01-01

    Many students in Korea begin to use tobacco and develop a regular smoking habit before they reach adulthood. Yet, little is known about various signs contributing to the transition of the student smoking behaviors. This study used a national sample to explore and compare risk factors for smoking behaviors. Three types of smoking behaviors were…

  2. Risk of second primary cancer following differentiated thyroid cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berthe, Emmanuelle; Berthet, Pascaline; Bardet, Stephane [Service de Medecine Nucleaire, CLCC Francois Baclesse, Avenue General Harris, 14076, Caen Cedex 05 (France); Henry-Amar, Michel [Service de Recherche Clinique, CLCC Francois Baclesse, Caen (France); Michels, Jean-Jacques [Service d' Anatomie Pathologique, CLCC Francois Baclesse, Caen (France); Rame, Jean-Pierre [Service de Chirurgie ORL, CLCC Francois Baclesse, Caen (France); Babin, Emmanuel [Service de Chirurgie ORL, Centre Hospitalo-Universitaire, Caen (France); Icard, Philippe [Service de Chirurgie Thoracique, Centre Hospitalo-Universitaire, Caen (France); Samama, Guy [Service de Chirurgie Generale, Centre Hospitalo-Universitaire, Caen (France); Galateau-Salle, Francoise [Service d' Anatomie Pathologique, Centre Hospitalo-Universitaire, Caen (France); Mahoudeau, Jacques [Service d' Endocrinologie, Centre Hospitalo-Universitaire, Caen (France)

    2004-05-01

    Concerns remain over the risk of cancer following differentiated thyroid carcinoma and its causes. Iodine-131 ({sup 131}I) and external irradiation are known to have potential carcinogenic effects. Thyroid carcinoma is a polygenic disease which may be associated with other malignancies. We investigated the incidence of second cancer and its aetiology in a cohort of 875 patients (146 men, 729 women) with differentiated thyroid carcinoma originating from Basse-Normandie, France. Cancer incidence was compared with that of the general population of the Departement du Calvados matched for age, gender and period. The cumulative proportion of second cancer was estimated using the life-table method. Factors that correlated with the risk of second cancer were studied using the Cox model. After a median follow-up of 8 years, 58 second cancers had been observed. Compared with general population incidence rates, there was an overall increased risk of second cancer in women [standardised incidence ratio (SIR)=1.52; P<0.01], but not in men (SIR=1.27; P>0.20). Increased risk related to cancers of the genitourinary tract (SIR=3.31; P<0.001), and particularly to cancer of the kidney (SIR=7.02; P<0.01). Multivariate analysis showed that age above 40 years (P<0.01) and a history of previous primary cancer (P<0.001) correlated with risk. In contrast, neither cervical irradiation nor cumulative activity of {sup 131}I was related to the risk. These data confirm that women with differentiated thyroid carcinoma are at risk of developing a second cancer of the genitourinary tract and kidney. Only age and medical history of primary cancer before thyroid carcinoma are risk factors for second cancer. Common environmental or genetic factors as well as long-term carcinogenic effects of primary cancer therapy should be considered. (orig.)

  3. Genetic cancer risk assessment in practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The advent of genetic testing has made a dramatic impact on the management of individuals with inherited susceptibility to cancer and their relatives. Genetic counsel ing, with or without testing, is warranted when clues to familial cancer are recognized. Today, genetic testing for classic cancer genetic syndromes is now the standard of care, and has been complemented by genetic testing for other situations commonly encountered in clinical practice. Genetic testing for colorectal cancer, breast cancer, kidney cancer, thyroid cancer, melanoma, and pancreatic cancer raise important issues about the parameters for testing. Genetic cancer risk assessment can lead to measurable reductions in morbidity and mortality through strategies that rely on surveillance, chemo prevention, and risk-reducing surgery

  4. Dietary fat and risk of breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathew Aleyamma

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Breast cancer is one of the major public health problems among women worldwide. A number of epidemiological studies have been carried out to find the role of dietary fat and the risk of breast cancer. The main objective of the present communication is to summarize the evidence from various case-control and cohort studies on the consumption of fat and its subtypes and their effect on the development of breast cancer. Methods A Pubmed search for literature on the consumption of dietary fat and risk of breast cancer published from January 1990 through December 2003 was carried out. Results Increased consumption of total fat and saturated fat were found to be positively associated with the development of breast cancer. Even though an equivocal association was observed for the consumption of total monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA and the risk of breast cancer, there exists an inverse association in the case of oleic acid, the most abundant MUFA. A moderate inverse association between consumption of n-3 fatty acids and breast cancer risk and a moderate positive association between n-6 fatty acids and breast cancer risk were observed. Conclusion Even though all epidemiological studies do not provide a strong positive association between the consumption of certain types of dietary fat and breast cancer risk, at least a moderate association does seem to exist and this has a number of implications in view of the fact that breast cancer is an increasing public health concern.

  5. Predicting risk of cancer during HIV infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borges, Álvaro H; Silverberg, Michael J; Wentworth, Deborah;

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the relationship between inflammatory [interleukin-6 (IL-6) and C-reactive protein (CRP)] and coagulation (D-dimer) biomarkers and cancer risk during HIV infection.......To investigate the relationship between inflammatory [interleukin-6 (IL-6) and C-reactive protein (CRP)] and coagulation (D-dimer) biomarkers and cancer risk during HIV infection....

  6. Hormonal contraception and risk of cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cibula, D; Gompel, A; Mueck, A O;

    2010-01-01

    Fear from increased cancer risk is one of the most significant reasons for low acceptance of reliable contraceptive methods and low compliance.......Fear from increased cancer risk is one of the most significant reasons for low acceptance of reliable contraceptive methods and low compliance....

  7. HEALTHY EATING INDEX AND OVARIAN CANCER RISK

    OpenAIRE

    Chandran, Urmila; Elisa V Bandera; Williams-King, Melony G.; Paddock, Lisa E.; Rodriguez-Rodriguez, Lorna; Lu, Shou-En; Faulkner, Shameka; Pulick, Katherine; Olson, Sara H.

    2011-01-01

    The evidence for a role of diet on ovarian cancer prevention remains inconclusive. While many studies have evaluated individual foods and food groups, the evaluation of a comprehensive dietary quality index for predicting cancer risk has received little attention. This study investigates the association between the Healthy Eating Index (HEI), which reflects adherence to the current USDA Dietary Guidelines for Americans, and ovarian cancer risk in a population-based case-control study in New J...

  8. Lung cancer risk factors among women

    OpenAIRE

    Papadopoulos, Alexandra

    2012-01-01

    The incidence of female lung cancer in developed countries has been increasing since 1950 and particularly in France where the cigarettes consumption has also increased. Since 1980, a growing number of epidemiological surveys have pinpointed the risk of female lung cancer related to smoking. Consecutively, a debate on gender differences in lung cancer risk has appeared, but still in progress nowadays. The reproductive factors could explain these differences. In order to have recent and reliab...

  9. Serum Retinol and Risk of Prostate Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Mondul, Alison M.; Watters, Joanne L; Männistö, Satu; Weinstein, Stephanie J.; Snyder, Kirk; Virtamo, Jarmo; Albanes, Demetrius

    2011-01-01

    Greater exposure to retinol (vitamin A) may prevent prostate cancer, although under some conditions it could promote cell growth and de-differentiation. The authors prospectively examined prostate cancer risk and serum retinol levels, measured by using high-performance liquid chromatography, at baseline (n = 29,104) and after 3 years (n = 22,843) in the Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention Study cohort. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate the relative risk of to...

  10. Occupational risks of sinonasal cancer in Denmark.

    OpenAIRE

    Olsen, J H

    1988-01-01

    A new comprehensive data linkage system for the detailed investigation of occupational cancer has been established in the Danish Cancer Registry, providing employment histories back to 1964. All 382 cases of cancers of the sinonasal cavities diagnosed between 1970 and 1984 and kept on file in this data linkage system were analysed using standardised proportional incidence ratios (SPIR) to screen for industrial high risk areas for these malignancies in Denmark. Excess risks were confirmed amon...

  11. Apolipoproteins, lipids and risk of cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borgquist, Signe; Butt, Talha; Almgren, Peter; Shiffman, Dov; Stocks, Tanja; Orho-Melander, Marju; Manjer, Jonas; Melander, Olle

    2016-06-01

    The epidemiological evidence for an obesity-cancer association is solid, whereas the association between obesity-associated lipoprotein levels and cancer is less evident. We investigated circulating levels of Apolipoprotein A1 (ApoA1), Apolipoprotein B (ApoB), LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C) and HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C) and association to risk of overall cancer and common cancer forms. The Malmö Diet and Cancer Study, a population-based prospective cohort study, enrolled 17,035 women and 11,063 men (1991-1996). Incident cancer cases were ascertained by record linkage with the Swedish Cancer Registry until end of follow-up, January 1, 2012. Baseline serum levels of ApoA1 and ApoB were analyzed for the entire cohort and HDL-C and LDL-C levels in 5,281 participants. Hazard ratios, with 95% confidence interval, were calculated using Cox's proportional hazards analysis. In the entire cohort, none of the exposures were related to overall cancer risk (HRadj ApoA1 = 0.98, 95%CI: 0.95,1.01; HRadj ApoB = 1.01, 95%CI: 0.98-1.04). Among men, ApoB was positively associated with cancer risk (HRadj ApoB = 1.06, 95%CI: 1.01,1.10). Female breast cancer risk was inversely associated with ApoB (HRadj = 0.92, 95%CI: 0.86,0.99). Among both genders, ApoA1 was inversely associated with lung cancer risk (HRadj = 0.88, 95%CI: 0.80,0.97), whereas high ApoB increased lung cancer risk (HRadj = 1.08, 95%CI: 0.99,1.18). Colorectal cancer risk was increased with high ApoB (HRadj = 1.08, 95%CI: 1.01,1.16) among both genders. Apolipoprotein levels were not associated with prostate cancer incidence. Circulating levels of apolipoproteins are associated with overall cancer risk in men and across both genders with breast, lung and colorectal cancer risk. Validation of these findings may facilitate future primary prevention strategies for cancer. PMID:26804063

  12. Screening for Psychosocial Risk in Pediatric Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Kazak, Anne E.; Brier, Moriah; Alderfer, Melissa A.; Reilly, Anne; Parker, Stephanie Fooks; Rogerwick, Stephanie; Ditaranto, Susan; Barakat, Lamia P.

    2012-01-01

    Major professional organizations have called for psychosocial risk screening to identify specific psychosocial needs of children with cancer and their families and facilitate the delivery of appropriate evidence-based care to address these concerns. However, systematic screening of risk factors at diagnosis is rare in pediatric oncology practice. Subsequent to a brief summary of psychosocial risks in pediatric cancer and the rationale for screening, this review identified three screening mode...

  13. Hormonal Contraception and Risk of Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cibula D

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Fear from increased cancer risk is one of the most significant reasons for low acceptance of reliable contraceptive methods and low compliance. Methods: In this review, we included all cohort and case-control studies published in English up to December 2008. They were identified through a search of the literature using Pubmed and EMBASE. Results: Data about breast cancer risk indicate a slightly increased risk among current users of oral contraceptives (OC, an effect which disappears 5–10 years after stopping. Combined OC have a significant protective effect on the risk of ovarian cancer, and the protection increases with duration of use (relative risk decreased by 20 % for each 5 years of use. The significant risk reduction has been confirmed for BRCA 1 and 2 mutation carriers. The risk of endometrial cancer is reduced by about 50 % in ever users, a benefit which is greater with increasing duration of use. An association has been found between increased risk of cervical cancer and long-term OC use. Current OC use has been associated with an excess risk of benign liver tumours and a modest increased risk of liver cancer. None of large prospective cohort studies with prolonged follow-up has observed an increased overall risk of cancer incidence or mortality among ever users of OC, indeed several have suggested important long-term benefits. Specifically, protective effect of OC can be used as chemoprevention in young women who are BRCA mutation carriers. Conclusions: Women wishing to use combined OC can be reassured that their decision is unlikely to place them at higher risk of developing cancer.

  14. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN TYPE C BEHAVIOR AND BREAST CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ÁNGELA MARÍA TORRES MARIÑO

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this study was to investigate deeply the relationship between Type C behavior pattern andbreast cancer through an analytical observation design of cases and controls. Three groups of variables were established:demographical, medical and risk factors, including in the last one the Type C behavior, for three groups: a women withbreast cancer, b women with cervix cancer, and c healthy women. The changing answer for ‘having breast cancer’ isdetermined by the family history of sickness, having hormone replace therapy, the history of the ovarian and endometrialcancer, and the age of the participants. One concludes that the behavior pattern, so and as is raised until the moment,is related more to the way the disease is faced, than a type of premorbid personality. New factors are proposed in baseof the Five Factor Model, the Temperament and Character set out.

  15. Behaviors, beliefs, and intentions in skin cancer prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cody, R; Lee, C

    1990-08-01

    This study investigated knowledge, behaviors, and health beliefs of Australian university students (n = 312) regarding skin cancers and evaluated the effects of videotaped presentations. Students' knowledge and health beliefs were assessed, and they then viewed either an informational video, an emotionally involving video, or a control video. Knowledge and beliefs were assessed immediately and 10 weeks later. Postvideo skin protection intentions increased significantly from prevideo assessment among the two intervention groups compared to the controls. Maintenance of skin protection intentions was higher with the emotional video. Health belief variables, particularly perceived barriers, were significant predictors of knowledge, intention, and behavior. However, other variables such as skin type and previous experience with skin cancer were more important. Females had greater knowledge and stronger intentions to prevent skin cancer than males but reported fewer high-risk behaviors. PMID:2246784

  16. Radon exposure and oropharyngeal cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salgado-Espinosa, Tania; Barros-Dios, Juan Miguel; Ruano-Ravina, Alberto

    2015-12-01

    Oropharyngeal cancer is a multifactorial disease. Alcohol and tobacco are the main risk factors. Radon is a human carcinogen linked to lung cancer risk, but its influence in other cancers is not well known. We aim to assess the effect of radon exposure on the risk of oral and pharyngeal cancer through a systematic review of the scientific literature. This review performs a qualitative analysis of the available studies. 13 cohort studies were included, most of them mortality studies, which analysed the relationship between occupational or residential radon exposure with oropharyngeal cancer mortality or incidence. Most of the included studies found no association between radon exposure and oral and pharyngeal cancer. This lack of effect was observed in miners studies and in general population studies. Further research is necessary to quantify if this association really exists and its magnitude, specially performing studies in general population, preferably living in areas with high radon levels. PMID:26335172

  17. ABO blood group and risk of cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vasan, Senthil K; Hwang, Jinseub; Rostgaard, Klaus;

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The associations between ABO blood group and cancer risk have been studied repeatedly, but results have been variable. Consistent associations have only been reported for pancreatic and gastric cancers. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We estimated associations between different ABO blood...... groups and site-specific cancer risk in a large cohort of healthy blood donors from Sweden and Denmark. RESULTS: A total of 1.6 million donors were followed over 27 million person-years (20 million in Sweden and 7 million in Denmark). We observed 119,584 cancer cases. Blood groups A, AB and B were...... associated either with increased or decreased risk of cancer at 13 anatomical sites (p≤0.05), compared to blood group O. Consistent with assessment using a false discovery rate approach, significant associations with ABO blood group were observed for cancer of the pancreas, breast, and upper gastrointestinal...

  18. Awareness of risk factors for cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lagerlund, Magdalena; Hvidberg, Line; Hajdarevic, Senada;

    2015-01-01

    Background: Sweden and Denmark are neighbouring countries with similarities in culture, healthcare, and economics, yet notable differences in cancer statistics. A crucial component of primary prevention is high awareness of risk factors in the general public. We aimed to determine and compare...... awareness of risk factors for cancer between a Danish and a Swedish population sample, and to examine whether there are differences in awareness across age groups. Methods: Data derive from Module 2 of the International Cancer Benchmarking Partnership. Telephone interviews were conducted with 3000 adults in...... Denmark and 3070 in Sweden using the Awareness and Beliefs about Cancer measure. Data reported here relate to awareness of 13 prompted risk factors for cancer. Prevalence ratios with 95 % confidence intervals were calculated to examine associations between country, age, and awareness of risk factors...

  19. DNA repair variants and breast cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grundy, Anne; Richardson, Harriet; Schuetz, Johanna M; Burstyn, Igor; Spinelli, John J; Brooks-Wilson, Angela; Aronson, Kristan J

    2016-05-01

    A functional DNA repair system has been identified as important in the prevention of tumour development. Previous studies have hypothesized that common polymorphisms in DNA repair genes could play a role in breast cancer risk and also identified the potential for interactions between these polymorphisms and established breast cancer risk factors such as physical activity. Associations with breast cancer risk for 99 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from genes in ten DNA repair pathways were examined in a case-control study including both Europeans (644 cases, 809 controls) and East Asians (299 cases, 160 controls). Odds ratios in both additive and dominant genetic models were calculated separately for participants of European and East Asian ancestry using multivariate logistic regression. The impact of multiple comparisons was assessed by correcting for the false discovery rate within each DNA repair pathway. Interactions between several breast cancer risk factors and DNA repair SNPs were also evaluated. One SNP (rs3213282) in the gene XRCC1 was associated with an increased risk of breast cancer in the dominant model of inheritance following adjustment for the false discovery rate (P breast cancer risk or their modification by breast cancer risk factors were observed. Environ. Mol. Mutagen. 57:269-281, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27060854

  20. Influence of Family History of Cancer on Engagement in Protective Health Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amuta, Ann O.; Barry, Adam E.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Approximately 1580 people die from cancer each day. Family history is highlighted as an especially important indicator of cancer risk. Purpose: To determine whether having a family member with cancer influences preventive behaviors (e.g., smoking, physical activity, and screenings). Methods: We conducted a secondary data analysis…

  1. Cognitive Behavioral Therapy in Cancer Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cem Soylu

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive behavioral therapy is one of the structured but flexible psychosocial interventions that could be applied to patients with cancer. In many studies the positive effects of cognitive behavioral therapy in reducing psychological morbidity and improving the quality of life of cancer patients have been shown. In this article, the contents and techniques of adapted cognitive behavioral therapy for patients with cancer and its effectiveness in commonly seen psychiatric disorders have been reviewed. The aim of this article is to contribute positively to physicians and nurses in Turkey for early detection of psychological distress and referral to the therapist that would clearly increase the quality of life of cancer patients. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2014; 6(3.000: 257-270

  2. Healthy Living Slashes Cancer Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 2016 THURSDAY, June 23, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- A healthy lifestyle that includes regular exercise and eating nutritiously can ... cancer cases, researchers said. To see whether a healthy lifestyle would result in fewer cancer cases and deaths, ...

  3. Vitamin D, Sunlight and Prostate Cancer Risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishna Vanaja Donkena

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Prostate cancer is the second common cancer in men worldwide. The prevention of prostate cancer remains a challenge to researchers and clinicians. Here, we review the relationship of vitamin D and sunlight to prostate cancer risk. Ultraviolet radiation of the sunlight is the main stimulator for vitamin D production in humans. Vitamin D's antiprostate cancer activities may be involved in the actions through the pathways mediated by vitamin D metabolites, vitamin D metabolizing enzymes, vitamin D receptor (VDR, and VDR-regulated genes. Although laboratory studies including the use of animal models have shown that vitamin D has antiprostate cancer properties, whether it can effectively prevent the development and/or progression of prostate cancer in humans remains to be inconclusive and an intensively studied subject. This review will provide up-to-date information regarding the recent outcomes of laboratory and epidemiology studies on the effects of vitamin D on prostate cancer prevention.

  4. Use of disulfiram and risk of cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Askgaard, G.; Friis, S.; Hallas, J.;

    2014-01-01

    disulfiram prescription using risk set sampling. Similarly, for secondary analyses, we selected case-control populations for selected tobacco-related and alcohol-related cancer types, that is, cancers of the buccal cavity, liver, lung, and colorectal cancer. Disulfiram use 1 year before cancer diagnosis......Experimental studies have indicated that disulfiram (Antabuse) has antineoplastic effects against melanoma, breast, and prostate cancer. To explore this hypothesis, we examined the association between disulfiram use and these cancers in a nationwide register-based case-control study nested within...... ever-users (>= one prescription) of disulfiram. Cases were all Danish individuals with a histologically verified first-time diagnosis of malignant melanoma, breast, or prostate cancer during 2000-2009. For each case, we selected four cancer-free controls matched for age, sex, and year of first...

  5. Breast cancer epidemiology and risk factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breast cancer is the most common malignancy among women in the Western society. Over the past decades it has become apparent that breast cancer incidence rates are increasing steadily, whereas the mortality rates for breast cancer have remained relatively constant. Information through the media on this rising number of cases has increased breast health awareness but has also introduced anxiety in the female population. This combination of factors has made the need for prevention of breast cancer an urgent matter. Breast cancer does not seem to be a single disease entity. A specific etiologic factor may therefore have more influence on one form may therefore have more influence on one form of breast cancer than another. So far though, as shown in their summary of current knowledge on established and dubious risk factors, no risk factors have been identified that can explain a major part of the incidence. Efforts to identify other ways for primary prevention have also been discouraging, even though breast cancer is one of the most investigated tumours world-wide. Thus, at this point i time, the most important strategy to reduce breast cancer mortality is early detection through individual counselling and organised breast screening programs. The recent isolation of breast cancer susceptibility genes may introduce new ways to reduce the risk of breast cancer in a small subset of women

  6. Tetrachloroethylene exposure and bladder cancer risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vlaanderen, Jelle; Straif, Kurt; Ruder, Avima; Blair, Aaron; Hansen, Johnni; Lynge, Elsebeth; Charbotel, Barbara; Loomis, Dana; Kauppinen, Timo; Kyyronen, Pentti; Pukkala, Eero; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Guha, Neela

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In 2012, the International Agency for Research on Cancer classified tetrachloroethylene, used in the production of chemicals and the primary solvent used in dry cleaning, as "probably carcinogenic to humans" based on limited evidence of an increased risk of bladder cancer in dry...... cleaners. OBJECTIVES: We assessed the epidemiological evidence for the association between tetrachloroethylene exposure and bladder cancer from published studies estimating occupational exposure to tetrachloroethylene or in workers in the dry-cleaning industry. METHODS: Random-effects meta-analyses were......-analysis demonstrates an increased risk of bladder cancer in dry cleaners, reported in both cohort and case-control studies, and some evidence for an exposure-response relationship. Although dry cleaners incur mixed exposures, tetrachloroethylene could be responsible for the excess risk of bladder cancer because it is...

  7. Genetic testing and your cancer risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000842.htm Genetic testing and your cancer risk To use the sharing ... with one or more of the above About Genetic Testing You may first have a an assessment to ...

  8. Regular aspirin use and lung cancer risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cummings K

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although a large number of epidemiological studies have examined the role of aspirin in the chemoprevention of colon cancer and other solid tumors, there is a limited body of research focusing on the association between aspirin and lung cancer risk. Methods We conducted a hospital-based case-control study to evaluate the role of regular aspirin use in lung cancer etiology. Study participants included 868 cases with primary, incident lung cancer and 935 hospital controls with non-neoplastic conditions who completed a comprehensive epidemiological questionnaire. Participants were classified as regular aspirin users if they had taken the drug at least once a week for at least one year. Results Results indicated that lung cancer risk was significantly lower for aspirin users compared to non-users (adjusted OR = 0.57; 95% CI 0.41–0.78. Although there was no clear evidence of a dose-response relationship, we observed risk reductions associated with greater frequency of use. Similarly, prolonged duration of use and increasing tablet years (tablets per day × years of use was associated with reduced lung cancer risk. Risk reductions were observed in both sexes, but significant dose response relationships were only seen among male participants. When the analyses were restricted to former and current smokers, participants with the lowest cigarette exposure tended to benefit most from the potential chemopreventive effect of aspirin. After stratification by histology, regular aspirin use was significantly associated with reduced risk of small cell lung cancer and non-small cell lung cancer. Conclusions Overall, results from this hospital-based case-control study suggest that regular aspirin use may be associated with reduced risk of lung cancer.

  9. Whole Grain Intake Reduces Pancreatic Cancer Risk

    OpenAIRE

    Lei, Qiucheng; Zheng, Huazhen; Bi, Jingcheng; Wang, Xinying; Jiang, Tingting; Gao, Xuejin; Tian, Feng; Xu, Min; Wu, Chao; Zhang, Li; Ning LI; Li, Jieshou

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Mounting evidence from epidemiology studies suggests that whole grain intake may reduce pancreatic cancer risk, but convincing evidence is scarce. We conducted a meta-analysis to assess the association between whole grain intake and pancreatic cancer risk. Relevant observational studies were identified by searching PubMed, Embase, Scopus, and Cochrane library databases for the period from January 1980 to July 2015, with no restrictions. We calculated the summary odds ratios (ORs) for...

  10. BREAST CANCER: IS OBESITY A RISK FACTOR?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anjali

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Most epidemiological studies established obesity as an important risk factor for breast cancer. It is one of the few risk factors that women can modify. Now-a-days breast cancer is considered to be a life-style disease. The relation of obesity to breast cancer is complex one. Obesity is found to be associated with increased risk of cancer in post-menopausal women, but relation is reverse in pre-menopausal women. In these patients, obesity increases risk due to enhanced oestrogenic activity in obese females. Apart from it, other factors like Insulin-like Growth Factor (IGF-1, Leptin has also been involved. Due to big breasts in obese females there is delay in seeking medical attention, delay in diagnosis, poor response to surgery, chemotherapy, radiotherapy and associated complication during treatment. We study the effect of obesity (Weight, BMI, WHR as a risk factor in occurrence of breast cancer in local population of Southern part of Rajasthan in India. We found no significant association between obesity and increased risk of breast cancer in local population of this region where women are multiparous, physically active and usually do not use exogenous hormones.

  11. Risk behavior in malaria in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arasu, G D

    1992-01-01

    The risk behavior in malaria has been identified as one of the factors contributing to malaria in Malaysia. The occurrence of malaria among illegal immigrants and indigenous groups, staying in risk prone areas where conditions are favorable for transmission, highlights the behavior pattern of these groups. In these areas the usual anti-malarial activities are less effective and thus there is a need to identify control measures suited to that particular condition and environment and to community groups. Some of the determinants contributing to the increase in malaria cases like man-vector contact, non-compliance to drugs, complications of the disease, and factors interfering with malaria control measures, factors favoring transmission and proposals to modify risk behavior, which can be applied in an endeavor to control the diseases, have been discussed. PMID:1341845

  12. Risk factors of thyroid cancer in Babol, Northern Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Moazezi, Zoleika; Mahmoudi, Mahmoud; Yahyahpour, Yousef; Alaleh, AliReza

    2011-01-01

    Background : Thyroid cancer is the most common endocrine malignancy. Several risk factors were found to play a role in thyroid cancer. The purpose of the study was to determine the risk factors for thyroid cancer, in Babol, north of Iran.

  13. Risk of cancer formation by radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Described are the difference between exposures to radiation for medical purpose and to environmental radiation at low dose, estimation of carcinogenic risk by medical radiation, and notice for referring the risk at clinical practice. ICRP employs linear non-threshold (LNT) model for risk of cancer formation even at <200 mSv for safety, with a recognition that it is scientifically obscure. The model essentially stands on data of A-bomb survivors (the Gold Standard), where the relationship between 5-10% excess relative risk (ERR) of cancer formation and dose 0.05-2.5 Sv is linear. Analyses of the secondary carcinogenesis after radiotherapy have begun to be reported since around 2005: e.g., the secondary thyroid cancer risk in pediatric patients treated with radiotherapy has a peak at 20 Gy, suggesting the actual risk depends both on the linearity of carcinogenic increase and on the exponential probability of cell death increase. On this concept, the risk of cancer formation is not always linear to dose. At the practical radiotherapy, its secondary carcinogenic risk should be estimated not only on the dose but also on other factors such as the individual organ, patient's age and attainable age/time after the treatment. In treated teen-ager patients, ERRs of mortality/Gy are 2.28 for cancers of the skin of non-malignant melanoma, 1.32 of bladder and 1.21 of thyroid and in patients of fifties, 1.15 of bladder and lung. The EER tends to become lower as the treated age is older. Pediatric cancer patients to be treated with radiotherapy should be informed about the secondary cancer that the low dose risk given by ICRP is not always appropriate, a certain cancer risk has a peak dose, and ERR of cancer mortality is not a cancer risk of an organ. Many factors like anticancers and immuno-modifiers, modify the outcome of radiotherapy and should be carefully speculated for evaluating the outcome. (T.T.)

  14. Nutrients and Risk of Colon Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dietary fats are thought to be important in the etiology of colon cancer. However, the evidence linking them is inconclusive. Studies on dietary protein, cholesterol and carbohydrate and the risk of colon cancer are also inconsistent. This study examined the association between dietary intake of protein, fats, cholesterol and carbohydrates, and the risk of colon cancer. Mailed questionnaires were completed by 1731 individuals with histologically confirmed cases of colon cancer and 3097 population controls between 1994 and 1997 in seven Canadian provinces. Measurements included socio-economic status, lifestyle habits and diet. A 69-item food frequency questionnaire was used to provide data on eating habits from two years before the study. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were computed using unconditional logistic regression. The nutrients were categorized by quartiles based on the distributions among the controls. Intake of polyunsaturated fat, trans-fat and cholesterol were significantly associated with the risk of colon cancer; the ORs for the highest quartiles were 1.36 (95% CI, 1.02–1.80), 1.37 (95% CI, 1.10–1.71) and 1.42 (95% CI, 1.10–1.84), respectively. The association was stronger with proximal colon cancer (PCC). An increased risk was also observed with increasing intake of sucrose for both proximal and distal colon cancers; the ORs for the highest quartiles were 1.67 (95% CI, 1.22–2.29) for PCC and 1.58 (95% CI, 1.18–2.10) for distal colon cancer (DCC). An elevated risk of PCC was also found with increased lactose intake. Our findings provide evidence that a diet low in fat and sucrose could reduce the risk of various colon cancers

  15. Nutrients and Risk of Colon Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Les Mery

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Dietary fats are thought to be important in the etiology of colon cancer. However, the evidence linking them is inconclusive. Studies on dietary protein, cholesterol and carbohydrate and the risk of colon cancer are also inconsistent. This study examined the association between dietary intake of protein, fats, cholesterol and carbohydrates, and the risk of colon cancer. Mailed questionnaires were completed by 1731 individuals with histologically confirmed cases of colon cancer and 3097 population controls between 1994 and 1997 in seven Canadian provinces. Measurements included socio-economic status, lifestyle habits and diet. A 69-item food frequency questionnaire was used to provide data on eating habits from two years before the study. Odds ratios (OR and 95% confidence intervals (CI were computed using unconditional logistic regression. The nutrients were categorized by quartiles based on the distributions among the controls. Intake of polyunsaturated fat, trans-fat and cholesterol were significantly associated with the risk of colon cancer; the ORs for the highest quartiles were 1.36 (95% CI, 1.02–1.80, 1.37 (95% CI, 1.10–1.71 and 1.42 (95% CI, 1.10–1.84, respectively. The association was stronger with proximal colon cancer (PCC. An increased risk was also observed with increasing intake of sucrose for both proximal and distal colon cancers; the ORs for the highest quartiles were 1.67 (95% CI, 1.22–2.29 for PCC and 1.58 (95% CI, 1.18–2.10 for distal colon cancer (DCC. An elevated risk of PCC was also found with increased lactose intake. Our findings provide evidence that a diet low in fat and sucrose could reduce the risk of various colon cancers.

  16. Nutrients and Risk of Colon Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Jinfu, E-mail: Jinfu.hu@phac-aspc.gc.ca [Evidence and Risk Assessment Division, Centre for Chronic Disease Prevention and Control, Public Health Agency of Canada, 785 Carling Avenue, AL: 6807B, Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0K9 (Canada); La Vecchia, Carlo [Istituto di Ricerche Farmacologiche “Mario Negri,” Via La Masa, 19-20156 Milan (Italy); Istituto di Statistica Medica e Biometria, Università degli Studi di Milano, Via Venezian, 1, 20133 Milan (Italy); Negri, Eva [Istituto di Ricerche Farmacologiche “Mario Negri,” Via La Masa, 19-20156 Milan (Italy); Mery, Les [Evidence and Risk Assessment Division, Centre for Chronic Disease Prevention and Control, Public Health Agency of Canada, 785 Carling Avenue, AL: 6807B, Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0K9 (Canada)

    2010-02-10

    Dietary fats are thought to be important in the etiology of colon cancer. However, the evidence linking them is inconclusive. Studies on dietary protein, cholesterol and carbohydrate and the risk of colon cancer are also inconsistent. This study examined the association between dietary intake of protein, fats, cholesterol and carbohydrates, and the risk of colon cancer. Mailed questionnaires were completed by 1731 individuals with histologically confirmed cases of colon cancer and 3097 population controls between 1994 and 1997 in seven Canadian provinces. Measurements included socio-economic status, lifestyle habits and diet. A 69-item food frequency questionnaire was used to provide data on eating habits from two years before the study. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were computed using unconditional logistic regression. The nutrients were categorized by quartiles based on the distributions among the controls. Intake of polyunsaturated fat, trans-fat and cholesterol were significantly associated with the risk of colon cancer; the ORs for the highest quartiles were 1.36 (95% CI, 1.02–1.80), 1.37 (95% CI, 1.10–1.71) and 1.42 (95% CI, 1.10–1.84), respectively. The association was stronger with proximal colon cancer (PCC). An increased risk was also observed with increasing intake of sucrose for both proximal and distal colon cancers; the ORs for the highest quartiles were 1.67 (95% CI, 1.22–2.29) for PCC and 1.58 (95% CI, 1.18–2.10) for distal colon cancer (DCC). An elevated risk of PCC was also found with increased lactose intake. Our findings provide evidence that a diet low in fat and sucrose could reduce the risk of various colon cancers.

  17. Diabetes and Risk of Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Habib, Samy L.; Maciej Rojna

    2013-01-01

    Diabetes and cancer represent two complex, diverse, chronic, and potentially fatal diseases. Cancer is the second leading cause of death, while diabetes is the seventh leading cause of death with the latter still likely underreported. There is a growing body of evidence published in recent years that suggest substantial increase in cancer incidence in diabetic patients. The worldwide prevalence of diabetes was estimated to rise from 171 million in 2000 to 366 million in 2030. About 26.9% of a...

  18. Inflammatory Genetic Markers of Prostate Cancer Risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prostate cancer is the most common cancer in Western society males, with incidence rates predicted to rise with global aging. Etiology of prostate cancer is however poorly understood, while current diagnostic tools can be invasive (digital rectal exam or biopsy) and/or lack specificity for the disease (prostate-specific antigen (PSA) testing). Substantial histological, epidemiological and molecular genetic evidence indicates that inflammation is important in prostate cancer pathogenesis. In this review, we summarize the current status of inflammatory genetic markers influencing susceptibility to prostate cancer. The focus will be on inflammatory cytokines regulating T-helper cell and chemokine homeostasis, together with the Toll-like receptors as key players in the host innate immune system. Although association studies indicating a genetic basis for prostate cancer are presently limited mainly due to lack of replication, larger and more ethnically and clinically defined study populations may help elucidate the true contribution of inflammatory gene variants to prostate cancer risk

  19. Meat Consumption and Cancer Risk

    OpenAIRE

    Cross, Amanda J; Leitzmann, Michael F.; Gail, Mitchell H; Hollenbeck, Albert R; Schatzkin, Arthur; Sinha, Rashmi

    2007-01-01

    Editors' Summary Background. Every year, there are more than 10 million new cases of cancer around the world. These cases are not spread evenly across the globe. The annual incidence of cancer (the number of new cases divided by the population size) and the type of cancer most commonly diagnosed varies widely among countries. Much of the global variation in cancer incidence and type is thought to be due to environmental influences. These include exposure to agents in the air or water that cau...

  20. Tubal ligation and risk of breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Brinton, L. A.; Gammon, M. D.; Coates, R J; Hoover, R. N.

    2000-01-01

    Although it has been demonstrated in previous studies that tubal ligation can have widespread effects on ovarian function, including a decrease in the risk of subsequent ovarian cancer, few studies have evaluated effects on breast cancer risk. In a population-based case–control study of breast cancer among women 20–54 years of age conducted in three geographic areas, previous tubal ligations were reported by 25.3% of the 2173 cases and 25.8% of the 1990 controls. Initially it appeared that tu...

  1. [Diabetes and cancer risk: oncologic considerations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosta, András

    2011-07-17

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus and malignant tumors are frequent diseases worldwide. The incidence of these two diseases is growing continuously and causes serious health care problem. Population based epidemiologic studies show that the coexistence of type 2 diabetes and malignant tumors is more frequent than expected by the age-corrected incidence and prevalence of each disease. Epidemiologic studies and meta-analyses show that type 2 diabetes increases the risk and tumor specific mortality of certain cancers. The overlapping risk factors of the diseases suggest a relationship between type 2 diabetes and malignant tumors, with a significant role of obesity as a major risk factor. In the pathophysiology of type 2 diabetes there are several biological processes, which may explain the higher cancer risk in type 2 diabetes. In vitro experiments, and in vivo animal studies show that the mitotic effect of hyperinsulinemia plays an important role in the relationship of cancer and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Recent studies show that the different treatment modalities, antidiabetic drugs and their combinations used for the treatment of type 2 diabetes can modify cancer risk. The majority of the data show that metformin therapy decreases, while insulin secretagog drugs slightly increase the risk of certain types of cancers in type 2 diabetes. Metformin can decrease cell proliferation and induce apoptosis in certain cancer cell lines. Endogenous and exogenous (therapy induced) hyperinsulinemia may be mitogenic and may increase the risk of cancer in type 2 diabetes. Human studies showed that the analogue insulin glargin increases the risk of certain cancers. As a result of conceptual weaknesses in study design, data collection, and statistical methods the results of these studies are questionable. According to present knowledge, obtaining and maintaining optimal metabolic target values with the appropriate choice of treatment modality is the aim of treatment in type 2 diabetes

  2. Vital exhaustion and risk for cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergelt, Corinna; Christensen, Jane Hvarregaard; Prescott, Eva;

    2005-01-01

    Vital exhaustion, defined as feelings of depression and fatigue, has previously been investigated mainly as a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. The authors investigated the association between depressive feelings and fatigue as covered by the concept of vital exhaustion and the risk for...... cancer....

  3. Diet and colorectal cancer risk: current views

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Giacosa, M. Rondanelli, H. Cena, F. Frascio, M.J. Hill

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available SUMMARY Large bowel cancer (CRC is amongst the most common cancers in North America, Australasia and western Europe. The major risk factors of CRC are genetic and dietary. Evidence regarding genetic polymorphisms which may influence the metabolism of nutrients thought to be important in the aetiology of CRC and colorectal adenomatous polyps is discussed. At present, the strongest evidence of genenutrient interaction in relation to CRC is for folate and genetic variants associated with differences in metabolism of folate. Significant trends of increasing CRC risk with increasing intake emerged for total energy, bread and pasta, cakes and desserts, and refined sugar have been observed in recent Italian studies. Most vegetables, including pulses, were inversely associated with CRC. Among macronutrients, a high intake of starch and saturated fat seemed to lead to an increased risk of cancer. High intakes of polyunsaturated fatty acids (chiefly derived from olive oil and seed oils showed a marginal inverse association with CRC. In the present paper the relation between meat consumption and cancer risk is reviewed showing that there is little evidence to support this relationship. Key words: cancer risk, colorectal cancer, diet, energy intake, genetic polymorphism, prevention, physical activity

  4. Risks of Lung Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and former heavy smokers. Current smokers whose LDCT scan results show possible signs of cancer may be more likely to quit smoking. A Guide is available for patients and doctors to learn more about the benefits and harms of low-dose helical CT screening for lung cancer. Screening with chest x- ...

  5. HUMAN PROSTATE CANCER RISK FACTORS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prostate cancer has the highest prevalence of any non-skin cancer in the human body, with similar likelihood of neoplastic foci found within the prostates of men around the world regardless of diet, occupation, lifestyle, or other factors. Essentially all men with circulating an...

  6. What Are the Risk Factors for Ovarian Cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cancer? What are the risk factors for ovarian cancer? A risk factor is anything that changes your chance of getting ... is a risk factor for a number of cancers. But risk factors don't tell us everything. Having a risk ...

  7. Sexual Risk Behavior: HIV, STD, & Teen Pregnancy Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health STDs Home Page Teen Pregnancy Sexual Risk Behaviors: HIV, STD, & Teen Pregnancy Prevention Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ... tested for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).* Sexual risk behaviors place adolescents at risk for HIV infection, other sexually transmitted ...

  8. Behavioral Counseling to Prevent Skin Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Force found that counseling did result in healthier behaviors in children, teens, and young adults. The Task Force found few studies about counseling adults older than age 24. Therefore, the Task Force could not determine whether counseling changed behaviors enough in adults to reduce their risk of ...

  9. Radiogenic breast cancer risk and mammography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is a general concern that the risks from mammography screening in inducting radiogenic breast cancer may outweigh the possible benefits to be derived from it. A review of epidemiological, case-control and cohort studies of radiogenic breast cancer, age-specific incidence and dose and dose-rate relationship reveals that such a fear is unfounded. The dose to the breast tissues in a quality assured mammography screening programme falls far below the levels that were observed to produce increased relative risk. The age-specific incidence rates also indicate that the need for mammography is for the women of age at which the relative risk is minimum

  10. Risk factors for male breast cancer.

    OpenAIRE

    D'Avanzo, B.; La Vecchia, C

    1995-01-01

    Risk factors for male breast cancer were investigated in a case-control study of 21 cases and 82 controls admitted to hospital for acute, non-neoplastic, non-hormone-related diseases in the Greater Milan area between 1988 and 1994. More educated men tended to be at higher risk of breast cancer, with a multivariate odds ratio (OR) of 2.6 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.7-9.4]. The OR was 3.2 (95% CI 1.1-9.6) for those in the higher social class. Men with no offspring were at higher risk than f...

  11. Statins Might Not Lower Colon Cancer Risk: Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... news/fullstory_158506.html Statins Might Not Lower Colon Cancer Risk: Study But cholesterol levels may be associated ... does not appear to reduce the risk of colon cancer, but a person's cholesterol levels might affect risk, ...

  12. Insulin resistance and breast-cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruning, P F; Bonfrèr, J M; van Noord, P A; Hart, A A; de Jong-Bakker, M; Nooijen, W J

    1992-10-21

    Life-style has a major influence on the incidence of breast cancer. To evaluate the effects of life-style related metabolic-endocrine factors on breast cancer risk we conducted a case-control study comparing 223 women aged 38 to 75 years presenting with operable (stage I or II) breast cancer and 441 women of the same age having no breast cancer, who participated in a population-based breast cancer screening program. Women reporting diabetes mellitus were excluded. Sera from 110 women of the same age group presenting with early stage melanoma, lymphoma or cervical cancer were used as a second 'other-cancer control group'. Serum levels of C-peptide were significantly higher in early breast cancer cases compared to controls. The same was found for the ratios C-peptide to glucose or C-peptide to fructosamine, indicating insulin resistance. Sex hormone binding globulin was inversely, triglycerides and available estradiol were positively related to C-peptide. Serum C-peptide levels were related to body mass index (BMI), and to waist/hip ratio (WHR), in particular in controls. However, the relative increase of C-peptide, C-peptide to glucose or C-peptide to fructosamine in cases was independent of BMI or WHR. The log relative risk was linearly related to the log C-peptide levels. Relative risk according to quintiles, and adjusted for age, family history, BMI and WHR, for women at the 80% level was 2.9 as compared with those at the 20% level for C-peptide. Elevated C-peptide or C-peptide to fructosamine values were not observed in the sera from women belonging to the 'other-cancer control group'. This study suggests that hyperinsulinemia with insulin resistance is a significant risk factor for breast cancer independent of general adiposity or body fat distribution. PMID:1399128

  13. Cardiac risk factors: environmental, sociodemographic, and behavioral cardiovascular risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthony, David; George, Paul; Eaton, Charles B

    2014-06-01

    Several environmental exposures are associated with increased risk of coronary heart disease (CHD). Exposure to secondhand smoke may increase the risk by as much as 25% to 30%. Exposure to third hand smoke, residual components of tobacco smoke that remain in the environment after a cigarette is extinguished, also appears to increase risk. These residual components can remain in rooms and automobiles for up to 30 years and enter the body through the skin or via inhalation or ingestion. Exposure to particulate matter air pollution from automobile emissions, power plants, and other sources is yet another environmental risk factor for CHD, resulting in tens of thousands of deaths annually in the United States. Exposure to other environmental toxins, particularly bisphenol A and phthalates, also has been linked to CHD. There are sociodemographic risks for CHD, with numerous studies showing that lower socioeconomic status is associated with higher risk. Behavioral risk factors include poor diet, such as frequent consumption of fast food and processed meals; sleep disturbance; and psychological stress, particularly related to marital or work issues. Finally, although high alcohol consumption is associated with increased CHD risk, moderate alcohol consumption (ie, less than 1 to 2 drinks/day), particularly of wine and possibly beer, appears to reduce the risk. PMID:24936715

  14. Pregnancy history and risk of endometrial cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pocobelli, Gaia; Doherty, Jennifer A.; Voigt, Lynda F.; Beresford, Shirley A.; Hill, Deirdre A.; Chen, Chu; Rossing, Mary Anne; Holmes, Rebecca S.; Noor, Zorawar S.; Weiss, Noel S.

    2011-01-01

    Background Epidemiologic studies are consistent in finding that women who have had at least one birth are less likely to develop endometrial cancer. Less clear is whether timing of pregnancies during reproductive life influences risk, and the degree to which incomplete pregnancies are associated with a reduced risk. Methods We evaluated pregnancy history in relation to endometrial cancer risk using data from a series of four population-based endometrial cancer case-control studies of women 45–74 years of age (1,712 cases and 2,134 controls) during 1985–2005 in western Washington State. Pregnancy history and information on other potential risk factors were collected by in-person interviews. Results Older age at first birth was associated with a reduced risk of endometrial cancer after adjustment for number of births and age at last birth (test for trend P = 0.004). The odds ratio comparing women at least 35 years of age at their first birth with those younger than 20 years was 0.34 (95% confidence interval = 0.14–0.84). Age at last birth was not associated with risk after adjustment for number of births and age at first birth (test for trend P = 0.830). Overall, a history of incomplete pregnancies was not associated with endometrial cancer risk to any appreciable degree. Conclusions In this study, older age at first birth was more strongly associated with endometrial cancer risk than was older age at last birth. To date, there remains some uncertainty in the literature on this issue. PMID:21691206

  15. Healthy Living Slashes Cancer Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... prevention] guidelines," said lead researcher Lindsay Kohler, a doctoral student in epidemiology at the University of Arizona's Mel ... in Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention . SOURCES: Lindsay Kohler, doctoral student, epidemiology, Mel and Enid Zuckerman College of Public ...

  16. Risks of Endometrial Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... may detect (find) endometrial cancer are being studied: Pap test A Pap test is a procedure to collect cells from ... are abnormal . This procedure is also called a Pap smear. Pap tests are not used to screen ...

  17. Oral contraception and risk of endometrial cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mueck AO

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Alfred O Mueck1, Harald Seeger1, Xiangyan Ruan2 1Department of Endocrinology and Menopause, University Women's Hospital of Tuebingen, Tuebingen, Germany; 2Department of Gynecological Endocrinology, Beijing Obstetrics and Gynecology Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China Abstract: No placebo-controlled studies concerning hormonal contraception in general have been published, and only investigations on biological mechanisms and observational clinical studies are available. Thus, associations can be described but not their causality. Experimental studies strongly suggest protective effects of the progestagen component of hormonal contraception against development of estrogen-related (type 1 endometrial cancer. In light of this research, it seems biologically plausible that, in more than 20 published studies, a reduction in endometrial cancer risk was achieved in up to 50% of users of combined oral contraceptives (COC, compared with nonusers. Few data exist for progestin-only oral preparations. However, in view of the mechanisms involved, a reduction in cancer risk should also be expected. Whereas hormonal dose-dependency has been investigated in only a few studies, which showed a stronger risk reduction with increasing progestagenic potency, a decreased risk dependent on duration of use has been clearly demonstrated, and after stopping COC this effect has persisted for up to 20 years. Possible confounders, including family history, parity, and smoking, have been investigated in a few studies, with only a minor impact on hormonal effect of endometrial cancer risk, with the exception of obesity, which was a strong risk factor in most but not all studies. There are obvious differences in the incidence of endometrial cancer in women using COC when evaluated in absolute numbers for Western and Asian countries, being about 3–5-fold higher in the US than in Asia. Further research should include the noncontraceptive benefit of COC

  18. Obesity and risk of ovarian cancer subtypes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Catherine M; Nagle, Christina M; Whiteman, David C;

    2013-01-01

    Whilst previous studies have reported that higher BMI increases a woman's risk of developing ovarian cancer, associations for the different histological subtypes have not been well defined. As the prevalence of obesity has increased dramatically, and classification of ovarian histology has improv......, it does not increase risk of high-grade invasive serous cancers, and reducing BMI is therefore unlikely to prevent the majority of ovarian cancer deaths. Other modifiable factors must be identified to control this disease.......Whilst previous studies have reported that higher BMI increases a woman's risk of developing ovarian cancer, associations for the different histological subtypes have not been well defined. As the prevalence of obesity has increased dramatically, and classification of ovarian histology has improved...... in the last decade, we sought to examine the association in a pooled analysis of recent studies participating in the Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium. We evaluated the association between BMI (recent, maximum and in young adulthood) and ovarian cancer risk using original data from 15 case...

  19. Colorectal cancer risk in Crohn's disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hugh James Freeman

    2008-01-01

    There is recognized increased risk for colorectal cancer in patients with inflammatory bowel disease, particularly in long-standing and extensive ulcerative colitis. There also appears to be an increased rate of intestinal cancer in Crohn's disease, including both colon and small bowel sites. In Crohn's disease, evidence suggests that detection of colorectal cancer may be delayed with a worse progno sis. Some risk factors for cancer in Crohn's disease include the extent of inflammatory change within the colon and the presence of bypassed or excluded segments, inclu ding rectal "stump" cancer. In addition, the risk for other types of intestinal neoplasms may be increased in Crohn's disease, including lymphoma and carcinoid tumors. Earlier detection of colorectal cancer based on colonoscopy scre ening and surveillance may be achieved but, to date, this has not translated into a positive survival benefit. Moreo ver, newer staining methods and evolving micro-endos copic techniques show promise, but have not significantly altered management. Future research should focus on development of molecular or other bio-markers that might predict future dysplasia or cancer development in Crohn's disease.

  20. Risk, Characteristics, and Prognosis of Breast Cancer after Hodgkin's Lymphoma

    OpenAIRE

    Veit-Rubin, Nikolaus; Rapiti Aylward, Elisabetta; Usel, Massimo; Benhamou, Simone; Vinh Hung, Vincent; Vlastos, Georges; Bouchardy Magnin, Christine

    2012-01-01

    Patients with breast cancer after Hodgkin's lymphoma were compared with patients with other breast cancers using the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results dataset. Hodgkin's lymphoma survivors had a higher risk for breast cancer, more aggressive breast cancers, a higher risk for a second breast cancer, and a poorer prognosis.

  1. Cancer Risk Assessment for the Primary Care Physician

    OpenAIRE

    Korde, Larissa A; Gadalla, Shahinaz M.

    2009-01-01

    Cancer is the second leading cause of death in the United States. Cancer risk assessment can be divided into two major categories: assessment of familial or genetic risk and assessment of environmental factors that may be causally related to cancer. Identification of individuals with a suspected heritable cancer syndrome can lead to additional evaluation and to interventions that can substantially decrease cancer risk. Special attention should also be paid to potentially modifiable cancer ris...

  2. Breast Cancer Risk Reduction, Version 2.2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bevers, Therese B; Ward, John H; Arun, Banu K; Colditz, Graham A; Cowan, Kenneth H; Daly, Mary B; Garber, Judy E; Gemignani, Mary L; Gradishar, William J; Jordan, Judith A; Korde, Larissa A; Kounalakis, Nicole; Krontiras, Helen; Kumar, Shicha; Kurian, Allison; Laronga, Christine; Layman, Rachel M; Loftus, Loretta S; Mahoney, Martin C; Merajver, Sofia D; Meszoely, Ingrid M; Mortimer, Joanne; Newman, Lisa; Pritchard, Elizabeth; Pruthi, Sandhya; Seewaldt, Victoria; Specht, Michelle C; Visvanathan, Kala; Wallace, Anne; Bergman, Mary Ann; Kumar, Rashmi

    2015-07-01

    Breast cancer is the most frequently diagnosed malignancy in women in the United States and is second only to lung cancer as a cause of cancer death. To assist women who are at increased risk of developing breast cancer and their physicians in the application of individualized strategies to reduce breast cancer risk, NCCN has developed these guidelines for breast cancer risk reduction. PMID:26150582

  3. Risk of cancer among atomic bomb survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Y; Kato, H; Schull, W J

    1991-12-01

    This report describes the risk of cancer and in particular cancers other than leukemia among the survivors of the atomic bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Attention focuses primarily on the risk of death from cancer among individuals in the Life Span Study sample of the Radiation Effect Research Foundation in the period 1950-1985 based on the recently revised dosimetry, termed the DS86 doses. Mortality from malignant tumors is increased among A-bomb survivors as a late effect of A-bomb radiation. Besides the well-known increase of leukemia, there also has been demonstrated increase of cancer of the lung, breast, esophagus, stomach, colon, ovary, urinary bladder, thyroid, and of multiple myeloma, but no increase has yet been observed in mortality from cancer of the rectum, gallbladder, pancreas, prostate and uterus, and of malignant lymphoma. The pattern of appearance over time of radiation-induced cancer other than leukemia differs from that of leukemia. In general, radiation-induced solid cancer begins to appear after attaining the age at which the cancer is normally prone to develop (so-called cancer age), and continues to increase proportionately with the increase in mortality of the control group as it ages. Sensitivity to radiation, in terms of cancer induction, is higher for persons who were young at the time of the bomb (ATB) in general than for those who were older ATB. Furthermore, susceptibility to radiation-induced cancer tends to be higher in pre- than in post-natally exposed survivors (at least those exposed as adults). Other radiation effect modifiers and the shape of the dose response curve will also be discussed. PMID:1823367

  4. Risky Business: Exploring Adolescent Risk-Taking Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyatt, Tammy Jordan; Peterson, Fred L.

    2005-01-01

    Ongoing behavioral research has documented the growing prevalence of adolescent health risk behaviors, such as tobacco use, sexual activity, alcohol and other substance use, nutritional behavior, physical inactivity, and intentional injury. Newer youth risk behaviors, such as pathological gambling, are emerging as threats to public health. Risk,…

  5. Risk of prostate, ovarian, and endometrial cancer among relatives of women with breast cancer.

    OpenAIRE

    Tulinius, H.; Egilsson, V.; Olafsdóttir, G. H.; Sigvaldason, H

    1992-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To investigate the risk of prostate, ovarian, and endometrial cancer among relatives of patients with breast cancer. DESIGN--Cohort study of 947 pedigrees in which the proband had breast cancer, linked with the Icelandic cancer registry. SETTING--Iceland. SUBJECTS--The 947 pedigrees included 29,725 people, of whom 1539 had breast cancer, 467 had prostate cancer, 135 ovarian cancer, and 105 endometrial cancer. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Risk of prostate, ovarian, and endometrial cancer ...

  6. On ionising radiation and breast cancer risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A cohort of 3,090 women with clinical diagnosis of benign breast disease (BBD) was studied. Of these, 1,216 were treated with radiation therapy during 1925-54 (median age 40 years). The mean dose to the breasts was 5.8 Gy (range 0-50 Gy). Among other organs the lung received the highest scattered dose (0.75 Gy; range 0.004-8.98 Gy) and the rectum the lowest (0.008 Gy; range 0-0.06 Gy). A pooled analysis of eight breast cancer incidence cohorts was done, including: tumour registry data on breast cancer incidence among women in the Life Span Study cohort of atomic bomb survivors; women in Massachusetts who received repeated chest fluoroscopic during lung collapse treatment for tuberculosis; women who received x-ray therapy for acute post-partum mastitis; women who were irradiated in infancy for enlarged thymus glands ; two Swedish cohorts of women who received radiation treatments during infancy for skin hemangioma; and the BBD) cohort. Together the cohorts included almost 78,000 women (-35,000 were exposed), around 1.8 million woman-years and 1500 cases. The breast cancer incidence rate as a function of breast dose was analysed using linear-quadratic Poisson regression models. Cell-killing effects and other modifying effects were incorporated through additional log-linear terms. Additive (EAR) and multiplicative (ERR) models were compared in estimating the age-at-exposure patterns and time related excess. The carcinogenic risks associated with radiation in mammographic mass screening is evaluated. Assessment was made in terms of breast cancer mortality and years of life. Effects were related to rates not influenced by a mammographic mass screening program and based on a hypothetical cohort of 100,000 40-year old women with no history of breast cancer being followed to 100 years of age. Two radiation risk assumptions were compared. The dose-response relationship is linear with little support in data for an upward curvature at low to medium doses. The competing effect

  7. On ionising radiation and breast cancer risk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mattson, Anders

    1999-05-01

    A cohort of 3,090 women with clinical diagnosis of benign breast disease (BBD) was studied. Of these, 1,216 were treated with radiation therapy during 1925-54 (median age 40 years). The mean dose to the breasts was 5.8 Gy (range 0-50 Gy). Among other organs the lung received the highest scattered dose (0.75 Gy; range 0.004-8.98 Gy) and the rectum the lowest (0.008 Gy; range 0-0.06 Gy). A pooled analysis of eight breast cancer incidence cohorts was done, including: tumour registry data on breast cancer incidence among women in the Life Span Study cohort of atomic bomb survivors; women in Massachusetts who received repeated chest fluoroscopic during lung collapse treatment for tuberculosis; women who received x-ray therapy for acute post-partum mastitis; women who were irradiated in infancy for enlarged thymus glands ; two Swedish cohorts of women who received radiation treatments during infancy for skin hemangioma; and the BBD cohort. Together the cohorts included almost 78,000 women (-35,000 were exposed), around 1.8 million woman-years and 1500 cases. The breast cancer incidence rate as a function of breast dose was analysed using linear-quadratic Poisson regression models. Cell-killing effects and other modifying effects were incorporated through additional log-linear terms. Additive (EAR) and multiplicative (ERR) models were compared in estimating the age-at-exposure patterns and time related excess. The carcinogenic risks associated with radiation in mammographic mass screening is evaluated. Assessment was made in terms of breast cancer mortality and years of life. Effects were related to rates not influenced by a mammographic mass screening program and based on a hypothetical cohort of 100,000 40-year old women with no history of breast cancer being followed to 100 years of age. Two radiation risk assumptions were compared. The dose-response relationship is linear with little support in data for an upward curvature at low to medium doses. The competing effect

  8. Cancer Information Seeking Behaviors of Korean American Women: A Mixed-Methods Study Using Surveys and Focus Group Interviews

    OpenAIRE

    Oh, KM; Jun, J; Zhao, X.; Kreps, GL; Lee, EE

    2015-01-01

    Copyright © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC 2015. Despite the high risk of cancer to the population, Korean Americans are known to have lower knowledge about cancer related information and a lower level of adherence to cancer prevention guidelines. This indicates the necessity of cancer interventions targeting the Korean American population. To reach this population effectively, it is imperative to understand Korean Americans cancer information seeking behaviors. This study (a) identified cancer ...

  9. Risk for oral cancer from smokeless tobacco

    OpenAIRE

    Janbaz, Khalid Hussain; Qadir, M. Imran; Basser, Hibba Tul; Bokhari, Tanveer Hussain; Ahmad, Bashir

    2014-01-01

    Tobacco products which are used in a way other than smoking are known as smokeless tobacco. The most common smokeless tobaccos are chewing tobacco, naswar, snuff, snus, gutka, and topical tobacco paste. Any product which contains tobacco is not safe for human health. There are more than twenty-five compounds in smokeless tobacco which have cancer causing activity. Use of smokeless tobacco has been linked with risk of oral cancer. Smokeless tobacco contains tobacco-specific nitrosamines (TSNAs...

  10. Obesity, Insulin Resistance and Cancer Risk

    OpenAIRE

    Jee, Sun Ha; Kim, Hee Jin; Lee, Jakyoung

    2005-01-01

    Obesity is a known cause of metabolic syndrome which includes Type II diabetes, hypertension, and dyslipidemia. It is well documented that insulin resistance contributes to the mortality and the incidence of metabolic syndromes including central obesity, dyslipidemia, hyperglycemia and hypertension. Both obesity and diabetes are emerging topics for researchers to consider as having a possible causal association with cancer since the two factors have been viewed as risk factors for cancer. The...

  11. Genetic determinants of breast cancer risk

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Jingmei

    2011-01-01

    The main purpose of this thesis was to identify genetic risk factors using both hypothesis-based and hypothesis-free approaches. In an attempt to identify common disease susceptibility alleles for breast cancer, we started off with a hypothesis-free approach, and performed a combined analysis of three genome-wide association studies (GWAS), involving 2,702 women of European ancestry with invasive breast cancer and 5,726 controls. As GWAS has been said to underperform for stu...

  12. Increased stomach cancer risk following radiotherapy for testicular cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauptmann, M; Fossa, S D; Stovall, M;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Abdominal radiotherapy for testicular cancer (TC) increases risk for second stomach cancer, although data on the radiation dose-response relationship are sparse. METHODS: In a cohort of 22,269 5-year TC survivors diagnosed during 1959-1987, doses to stomach subsites were estimated for...... 92 patients who developed stomach cancer and 180 matched controls. Chemotherapy details were recorded. Odds ratios (ORs) were estimated using logistic regression. RESULTS: Cumulative incidence of second primary stomach cancer was 1.45% at 30 years after TC diagnosis. The TC survivors who received...... radiotherapy (87 (95%) cases, 151 (84%) controls) had a 5.9-fold (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.7-20.7) increased risk of stomach cancer. Risk increased with increasing stomach dose (P-trend<0.001), with an OR of 20.5 (3.7-114.3) for ⩾50.0 Gy compared with <10 Gy. Radiation-related risks remained elevated ⩾20...

  13. Cigarette smoking and risk of ovarian cancer: a pooled analysis of 21 case-control studies

    OpenAIRE

    Faber, Mette T.; Kjær, Susanne K.; Dehlendorff, Christian; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Klaus K. Andersen; Høgdall, Estrid; Webb, Penelope M.; Jordan, Susan J; Rossing, Mary Anne; Doherty, Jennifer A; Lurie, Galina; Pamela J Thompson; Carney, Michael E; Goodman, Marc T.; Ness, Roberta B.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose The majority of previous studies have observed an increased risk of mucinous ovarian tumors associated with cigarette smoking, but the association with other histological types is unclear. In a large pooled analysis, we examined the risk of epithelial ovarian cancer associated with multiple measures of cigarette smoking with a focus on characterizing risks according to tumor behavior and histology. Methods We used data from 21 case–control studies of ovarian cancer (19,066...

  14. Risk of treatment-related esophageal cancer among breast cancer survivors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morton, L M; Gilbert, E S; Hall, P;

    2012-01-01

    Radiotherapy for breast cancer may expose the esophagus to ionizing radiation, but no study has evaluated esophageal cancer risk after breast cancer associated with radiation dose or systemic therapy use.......Radiotherapy for breast cancer may expose the esophagus to ionizing radiation, but no study has evaluated esophageal cancer risk after breast cancer associated with radiation dose or systemic therapy use....

  15. Increased risk for depression after breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suppli, Nis P; Johansen, Christoffer; Christensen, Jane;

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE: To investigate the risk for first depression, assessed as incident hospital contacts for depression and incident use of antidepressants, among women with breast cancer. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Danish national registries were used to identify 1,997,669 women with no diagnosis of cancer or a...... major psychiatric disorder. This cohort was followed from 1998 to 2011 for a diagnosis of breast cancer and for the two outcomes, hospital contact for depression and redeemed prescriptions for antidepressants. Rate ratios for incident hospital contacts for depression and incident use of antidepressants...... were estimated with Poisson regression models. Multivariable Cox regression was used to evaluate factors associated with the two outcomes among patients with breast cancer. RESULTS: We identified 44,494 women with breast cancer. In the first year after diagnosis, the rate ratio for a hospital contact...

  16. Reducing Your Risk of Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Double contrast barium enema test Computed tomography Fecal DNA test Women aged 50 years and older Women aged ... the colon. Fecal Occult Blood Test (FOBT): A test of a stool sample for blood, which could be a sign of cancer ... “blueprints” that code for specific traits, such as ...

  17. Menopausal hormone use and ovarian cancer risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beral, V; Gaitskell, K; Hermon, C;

    2015-01-01

    -progestagen preparations, but differed across the four main tumour types (heterogeneity pcommon types, serous (RR 1·53, 95% CI 1·40-1·66; p...BACKGROUND: Half the epidemiological studies with information about menopausal hormone therapy and ovarian cancer risk remain unpublished, and some retrospective studies could have been biased by selective participation or recall. We aimed to assess with minimal bias the effects of hormone therapy...... on ovarian cancer risk. METHODS: Individual participant datasets from 52 epidemiological studies were analysed centrally. The principal analyses involved the prospective studies (with last hormone therapy use extrapolated forwards for up to 4 years). Sensitivity analyses included the retrospective studies...

  18. Cancer risk following radiotherapy of cervical cancer: A preliminary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Women treated for cervical cancer were selected for study because (a) doses to body organs following radiotherapy can be accurately determined and vary sufficiently to permit dose-response evaluations, (b) organs remote from the cervix receive low-dose exposures in the range of current scientific interest, (c) treatment is relatively successful and many patients survive long enough to be at risk of late complications of radiotherapy, and (d) several nonexposed groups of women with cervical cancer are also available for comparison. In addition, population-based cancer registries provide an opportunity to inexpensively study large numbers of individuals over many decades. The careful procedures normally used by cancer registries to record second primary cancers facilitate the study of cancer incidence for which a wider view of radiation risk is expected than can be seen in investigations of mortality. Other special features of studies of cervical cancer patients include the ability to assess the effects of very large partial-body exposures, differences in organ sensitivities to radiation, interactions of radiation with biological factors such as age, and the duration of carcinogenic response

  19. Adaptation of a Counseling Intervention to Address Multiple Cancer Risk Factors among Overweight/Obese Latino Smokers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Yessenia; Fernández, Maria E.; Strong, Larkin L.; Stewart, Diana W.; Krasny, Sarah; Hernandez Robles, Eden; Heredia, Natalia; Spears, Claire A.; Correa-Fernández, Virmarie; Eakin, Elizabeth; Resnicow, Ken; Basen-Engquist, Karen; Wetter, David W.

    2015-01-01

    More than 60% of cancer-related deaths in the United States are attributable to tobacco use, poor nutrition, and physical inactivity, and these risk factors tend to cluster together. Thus, strategies for cancer risk reduction would benefit from addressing multiple health risk behaviors. We adapted an evidence-based intervention grounded in social…

  20. Risks of Esophageal Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... infected with human papillomavirus (HPV). Having tylosis. Having achalasia. Having swallowed lye (a chemical found in some cleaning fluids). Drinking very hot liquids on a regular basis. Risk factors for esophageal adenocarcinoma include the following: Having gastroesophageal reflux disease ( ...

  1. Defining chromosomal translocation risks in cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Marc A Hogenbirk; Heideman, Marinus R.; de Rink, Iris; Velds, Arno; Kerkhoven, Ron M.; Wessels, Lodewyk F. A.; Jacobs, Heinz

    2016-01-01

    Applying innovative integrative analyses of multifactorial genome-wide data, we now demonstrate that an open chromatin configuration, which is generically enriched promoter-proximal but not promoter-specific, is the common denominator and key translocation risk-determinant of active chromatin. The finding that gene size directly correlated with its translocation risk, in both mice and cancer patients, independently emphasized the generic irrelevance of any promoter-specific activity. These da...

  2. Project Pocos de Caldas Plateau: cancer research and natural radioactivity - incidence and risk behavior; Projeto Planalto Pocos de Caldas: pesquisa cancer e radiacao natural - incidencia e comportamento de risco

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antoniazzi, Berenice Navarro [Secretaria de Estado de Saude de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Programa de Avaliacao e Vigilancia do Cancer; Silva, Nivaldo Carlos da [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (LAPOC/CNEN), Pocos de Caldas, MG (Brazil). Laboratorio de Pocos de Caldas; Cunha, Tarcisio Neves da [Instituto Nacional de Cancer Jose Alencar Gomes da Silva (INCa), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Otero, Ubirani Barros [Secretaria Municipal de Saude de Pocos de Caldas (RCBP), MG (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    It has been well established by epidemiological studies that long term exposure due to radon increases the risk of lung cancer. While smoking continues to account for the bulk of lung cancers, it is been estimated that radon accounts for around 10% of all lung cancers. There is a synergistic relationship between smoking and radon and exposure due to radon is the primary cause of lung cancer in non-smokers. Recognizing the importance of radon as a source of radiation exposure, the IAEA safety standard Radiation Protection and Safety of Radiation Sources: International Basic Safety Standards (generally referred to simply as the BSS) contains requirements aimed at reducing the associated risks. The BSS requires Member States to provide information on the levels of radon indoors and the associated health effects, and if appropriate, to establish and implement a radon action plan for controlling public exposure due to radon indoors. Although not specifically stated, it is clear that in order to decide whether or not an action plan is necessary, some measurement data must be available on the concentrations of radon present indoors. To assist in the implementation of the BSS, the Agency has also developed a Safety Guide: Protection of the Public against Exposure indoors due do Radon and Other Natural Sources of Radiation. This Safety Guide provides guidance on establishing and implementing a national radon action plan; developing national radon policy; undertaking national and regional surveys of radon in dwellings; measurement protocols; setting a reference level for dwellings; defining radon prone areas; radon control through building codes; and evaluation of programme effectiveness. While many sources of radiation exposure are not amenable to control, proven and effective building practices exist to limit the accumulation of radon in new buildings and cost-effective corrective actions have been developed to reduce high radon concentrations in existing buildings. The

  3. Occupational risks of sinonasal cancer in Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, J H

    1988-05-01

    A new comprehensive data linkage system for the detailed investigation of occupational cancer has been established in the Danish Cancer Registry, providing employment histories back to 1964. All 382 cases of cancers of the sinonasal cavities diagnosed between 1970 and 1984 and kept on file in this data linkage system were analysed using standardised proportional incidence ratios (SPIR) to screen for industrial high risk areas for these malignancies in Denmark. Excess risks were confirmed among men and women employed in the manufacture of footwear and other leather products and of wooden furniture. No risk significantly above expectancy was observed among wood workers outside the furniture making industry. Excess risks were also seen among men in all areas of basic metal industries (SPIR = 184-562) and in a subset of workers in industries producing metal containers (SPIR = 329-600). Most unexpected were raised risks among employees of both sexes in making cocoa, chocolate, and sugar confectionery (SPIR = 535 for men and 860 for women); these, in combination with the observed risks among female employees in canning and preserving fruits and vegetables (SPIR = 778) and in farming (SPIR = 735) may point to a common aetiology. The obscuring effect of mass significance may, however, be another explanation. The new associations discovered in this large scale linkage study must therefore await further confirmation. PMID:3378013

  4. Cervical cancer risk factors among HIV-infected Nigerian women

    OpenAIRE

    Ononogbu, Uzoma; Almujtaba, Maryam; Modibbo, Fatima; Lawal, Ishak; Offiong, Richard; Olaniyan, Olayinka; Dakum, Patrick; Spiegelman, Donna; Blattner, William; Adebamowo, Clement

    2013-01-01

    Background: Cervical cancer is the third most common cancer among women worldwide, and in Nigeria it is the second most common female cancer. Cervical cancer is an AIDS-defining cancer; however, HIV only marginally increases the risk of cervical pre-cancer and cancer. In this study, we examine the risk factors for cervical pre-cancer and cancer among HIV-positive women screened for cervical cancer at two medical institutions in Abuja, Nigeria. Methods: A total of 2,501 HIV-positive women part...

  5. Risk factors for suicidal behavior in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkcaldy, B D; Siefen, G R; Urkin, J; Merrick, J

    2006-10-01

    Adolescent suicide is today a public health problem among the leading cause of mortality among adolescents and young adults. There seems to be many reasons for this increase (which has different trends in different populations), but associations have been found with increased substance abuse, television and video violence, socio-economic status and easy access to firearms. Gender differences have also been observed with crime, suicide and substance abuse higher among males, while eating disorder, depression and suicidal behavior more prevalent among females. This paper will review prevalence and incidence of adolescent suicidal behavior, socio-demographic and psychological risk factors, associated cognitive factors and socio-economic factors. Risk factors include previous suicide attempts, a history of others in the family who have been suicidal, mental illness, alcohol and drug use, and other self-destructive behaviors as well as consideration being given to hopelessness, hostility, negative self-concept and isolation. At the individual difference level, factors such as trait depression, anger and hostility, perfectionism and social sensitivity would seem critical variables, as would age, gender and intellectual functioning. Sociological and family-related factors may also be implicated including dysfunctional family organizations, a history of physical or psychological abuse (sexual abuse) and limited extent of social support networks. A frequently reported precipitating event of suicidal behavior is family adversity including rejection, separation and interpersonal conflict. At a socio-economic level it would seem essential to provide comprehensive document about the social and economic conditions from which the adolescent comes. PMID:17008855

  6. Menarche menopause breast cancer risk individual

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Collaborative Group on Hormonal Factors in Breast Cancer; Bausch-Goldbohm, R.A.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND:Menarche and menopause mark the onset and cessation, respectively, of ovarian activity associated with reproduction, and affect breast cancer risk. Our aim was to assess the strengths of their effects and determine whether they depend on characteristics of the tumours or the affected wome

  7. Gene variant linked to lung cancer risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    A variation of the gene NFKB1, called rs4648127, is associated with an estimated 44 percent reduction in lung cancer risk. When this information, derived from samples obtained as part of a large NCI-sponsored prevention clinical trial, was compared with d

  8. Nutrition and Gastric Cancer Risk: An Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Data from epidemiologic, experimental, and animal studies indicate that diet plays an important role in the etiology of gastric cancer. High intake of fresh fruit and vegetable, lycopene and lycopene-containing food products, and potentially vitamin C and selenium may reduce the risk for gastric can...

  9. Cell Phones and Cancer Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... phone will be represented on a single phone company account. Do children have a higher risk of ... of Health FOLLOW US Facebook Twitter Instagram YouTube Google+ LinkedIn GovDelivery RSS CONTACT INFORMATION Contact Us LiveHelp ...

  10. Mitochondrial dysfunction and risk of cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, M; Melbye, M; Diaz, L J;

    2015-01-01

    : We used nationwide results on genetic testing for mitochondrial disease and the Danish Civil Registration System, to construct a cohort of 311 patients with mitochondrial dysfunction. A total of 177 cohort members were identified from genetic testing and 134 genetically untested cohort members were......BACKGROUND: Mitochondrial mutations are commonly reported in tumours, but it is unclear whether impaired mitochondrial function per se is a cause or consequence of cancer. To elucidate this, we examined the risk of cancer in a nationwide cohort of patients with mitochondrial dysfunction. METHODS...... mDNA mutation, cases=13. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with mitochondrial dysfunction do not appear to be at increased risk of cancer compared with the general population....

  11. Metabolites of tobacco smoking and colorectal cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Amanda J; Boca, Simina; Freedman, Neal D; Caporaso, Neil E; Huang, Wen-Yi; Sinha, Rashmi; Sampson, Joshua N; Moore, Steven C

    2014-07-01

    Colorectal cancer is not strictly considered a tobacco-related malignancy, but modest associations have emerged from large meta-analyses. Most studies, however, use self-reported data, which are subject to misclassification. Biomarkers of tobacco exposure may reduce misclassification and provide insight into metabolic variability that potentially influences carcinogenesis. Our aim was to identify metabolites that represent smoking habits and individual variation in tobacco metabolism, and investigate their association with colorectal cancer. In a nested case-control study of 255 colorectal cancers and 254 matched controls identified in the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal and Ovarian cancer screening trial, baseline serum was used to identify metabolites by ultra-high-performance liquid-phase chromatography and mass spectrometry, as well as gas chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated by logistic regression. Self-reported current smoking was associated with serum cotinine, O-cresol sulfate and hydroxycotinine. Self-reported current smoking of any tobacco (OR = 1.90, 95% CI: 1.02-3.54) and current cigarette smoking (OR = 1.51, 95% CI: 0.75-3.04) were associated with elevated colorectal cancer risks, although the latter was not statistically significant. Individuals with detectable levels of hydroxycotinine had an increased colorectal cancer risk compared with those with undetectable levels (OR = 2.68, 95% CI: 1.33-5.40). Although those with detectable levels of cotinine had a suggestive elevated risk of this malignancy (OR = 1.81, 95% CI: 0.98-3.33), those with detectable levels of O-cresol sulfate did not (OR = 1.16, 95% CI: 0.57-2.37). Biomarkers capturing smoking behavior and metabolic variation exhibit stronger associations with colorectal cancer than self-report, providing additional evidence for a role for tobacco in this malignancy. PMID:24648381

  12. Breast Cancer Risk Assessment SAS Macro (Gail Model)

    Science.gov (United States)

    A SAS macro (commonly referred to as the Gail Model) that projects absolute risk of invasive breast cancer according to NCI’s Breast Cancer Risk Assessment Tool (BCRAT) algorithm for specified race/ethnic groups and age intervals.

  13. GERD, Barrett's Esophagus and the Risk for Esophageal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Facts About Common Colon Cancer Screening Tests PATIENTS GERD, Barrett's Esophagus and the Risk for Esophageal Cancer ... commonly in Caucasians as well as people with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). This cancer is increasing in frequency. ...

  14. NIH study confirms risk factors for male breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pooled data from studies of about 2,400 men with breast cancer and 52,000 men without breast cancer confirmed that risk factors for male breast cancer include obesity, a rare genetic condition called Klinefelter syndrome, and gynecomastia.

  15. What Are the Risk Factors for Breast Cancer in Men?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... well as that of many other diseases and cancers. Testicular conditions Some studies have suggested that certain conditions, ... Breast Cancer In Men? Causes, Risk Factors, and Prevention Early Detection, Diagnosis, and Staging Treating Breast Cancer ...

  16. Hereditary cancer risk assessment: essential tools for a better approach

    OpenAIRE

    Gomy, Israel; Estevez Diz, Maria Del Pilar

    2013-01-01

    Hereditary cancer risk assessment (HCRA) is a multidisciplinary process of estimating probabilities of germline mutations in cancer susceptibility genes and assessing empiric risks of cancer, based on personal and family history. It includes genetic counseling, testing and management of at-risk individuals so that they can make well-informed choices about cancer surveillance, surgical treatment and chemopreventive measures, including biomolecular cancer therapies. Providing patients and famil...

  17. Study on cancer risk in aircrews

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recently, epidemic surveys on cancer risk in aircrews were performed in several countries such as USA, Canada, UK, Japan, Philippines and Denmark. Here, the authors reviewed those survey reports aiming to elucidate the effects of natural radiation due to cosmic rays, especially neutron in aircrews. Those survey reports demonstrated that incidences of cutaneous cancer, brain tumor, bladder cancer, prostatic cancer, colon cancer and leukemia were higher in the aircrews than ordinary people. The survey made with a total of 1600 women crews in Finland showed that their mean accumulated dose was 20 mSv and the risk for mammary cancer was 1.9. Moreover, the risks of mammary cancer for women crews were also reported to be higher in Denmark and Iceland. However, it was difficult to obtain conclusive information since the number of those survey subjects were not so large and there is a possibility of healthy worker's effects because the cohorts of those surveys are special, i.e., aircrews are very healthy in special. The radiation exposure on airway crews is characterized by neutron radiation, which occupies over than a half of the total dose of natural radiation. Thus, relative biological effectiveness of neutron radiation was evaluated to compare with those of gamma ray and X-ray and it was pointed out that the mammary gland is highly sensitive to neutron exposure and its RBE was comparatively large. Thus, it was thought that it is necessary to further accumulate basic information for carcinogenesis related to low-dose neutron exposure. (M.N.)

  18. Cancer risk among atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Radiation Effects Research Foundation (RERF) and its predecessor, the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission (ABCC), has been conducting a long-term follow-up of a cohort of the atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. The continuing follow-up of this population, known as the Life Span Study (LSS) cohort, has been a major source of epidemiological data for radiation risk assessment. Periodic analyses of the LSS mortality data have resulted in a series of reports that describe and quantify radiation effects on cancer mortality. More recently, a series of comprehensive reports of cancer incidence for this cohort has also been published. The latest report on the LSS cancer mortality data through 1990 will soon be published. The purpose of this presentation is to provide an updated overview of the LSS cancer and leukemia data. (author)

  19. Sociodemographic and reproductive risk factors in cervical cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Tajinder Kaur; Shaveta Garg; Sunita Mor

    2016-01-01

    Background: Cervical cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths in women. In India, cervical cancer is the most common cancer in women followed by breast cancer. A numbers of risk factors reproductive as well as sociodemographic have been widely studied for cervical cancer. The countries where universal screening is restricted because of various reasons economical, lack of resources etcetera, a modified screening procedure which is targeted on the high risk population can help solve the pro...

  20. Diabetes and cancer I: risk, survival, and implications for screening

    OpenAIRE

    Onitilo, Adedayo A.; Engel, Jessica M.; Glurich, Ingrid; Stankowski, Rachel V.; Williams, Gail M.; Doi, Suhail A.

    2012-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) and cancer are common diseases that are frequently diagnosed in the same individual. An association between the two conditions has long been postulated. Here, we review the epidemiological evidence for increased risk of cancer, decreased cancer survival, and decreased rates of cancer screening in diabetic patients. The risk for several cancers, including cancers of the pancreas, liver, colorectum, breast, urinary tract, and endometrium, is increased in patients w...

  1. Cancer surgery: risks and opportunities.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Coffey, J C

    2012-02-03

    In the recent past, several papers have pointed to the possibility that tumour removal generates a permissive environment in which tumour growth is potentiated. This phenomenon has been coined "perioperative tumour growth" and whilst it represents a departure in terms of our attitude to the surgical process, this concept was first hinted at by Paget(1) himself. Despite this, the time interval immediately before and after cancer surgery (i.e. the perioperative period) remains an underutilised interval during which chemotherapeutic regimens are rarely implemented. Herein, we present a summarised review of the literature that supports the concept that tumour removal may potentiate the growth of residual neoplastic disease. We also outline current knowledge regarding underlying mechanisms and in this manner highlight potential therapeutic entry points. Finally, we emphasise the urgent need for trials of agents that could protect patients against the harmful host-tumour interactions that may occur during the perioperative period.

  2. What Are the Risk Factors for Thymus Cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cancer? What are the risk factors for thymus cancer? A risk factor is anything that affects your chance of getting ... Back to top » Guide Topics What Is Thymus Cancer? Causes, Risk Factors, and Prevention Early Detection, Diagnosis, and Staging Treating ...

  3. What Are the Risk Factors for Gallbladder Cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cancer? What are the risk factors for gallbladder cancer? A risk factor is anything that affects your chance of getting ... Back to top » Guide Topics What Is Gallbladder Cancer? Causes, Risk Factors, and Prevention Early Detection, Diagnosis, and Staging Treating ...

  4. Mediterranean dietary pattern and cancer risk in the EPIC cohort

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Couto, E.; Boffetta, P.; Lagiou, P.; Ferrari, P.; Buckland, G.; Overvad, K.; Dahm, C. C.; Tjonneland, A.; Olsen, A.; Clavel-Chapelon, F.; Boutron-Ruault, M-C; Cottet, V.; Trichopoulos, D.; Naska, A.; Benetou, V.; Kaaks, R.; Rohrmann, S.; Boeing, H.; von Ruesten, A.; Panico, S.; Pala, V.; Vineis, P.; Palli, D.; Tumino, R.; May, A.; Peeters, P. H.; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. B.; Buchner, F. L.; Lund, E.; Skeie, G.; Engeset, D.; Gonzalez, C. A.; Navarro, C.; Rodriguez, L.; Sanchez, M-J; Amiano, P.; Barricarte, A.; Hallmans, G.; Johansson, I.; Manjer, J.; Wirfart, E.; Allen, N. E.; Crowe, F.; Khaw, K-T; Wareham, N.; Moskal, A.; Slimani, N.; Jenab, M.; Romaguera, D.; Mouw, T.; Norat, T.; Riboli, E.; Trichopoulou, A.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Although several studies have investigated the association of the Mediterranean diet with overall mortality or risk of specific cancers, data on overall cancer risk are sparse. METHODS: We examined the association between adherence to Mediterranean dietary pattern and overall cancer risk

  5. Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System: 2011 National Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2011

    2011-01-01

    The national Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) monitors six priority health-risk behaviors that contribute markedly to the leading causes of death, disability, and social problems among youth and adults in the United States. These behaviors, often established during childhood and early adolescence, include: (1) Behaviors that contribute to…

  6. Risk of Ovarian Cancer Relapse Score

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzuto, Ivana; Stavraka, Chara; Chatterjee, Jayanta; Borley, Jane; Hopkins, Thomas Glass; Gabra, Hani; Ghaem-Maghami, Sadaf; Huson, Les; Blagden, Sarah P.

    2015-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to construct a prognostic index that predicts risk of relapse in women who have completed first-line treatment for ovarian cancer (OC). Methods A database of OC cases from 2000 to 2010 was interrogated for International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics stage, grade and histological subtype of cancer, preoperative and posttreatment CA-125 level, presence or absence of residual disease after cytoreductive surgery and on postchemotherapy computed tomography scan, and time to progression and death. The strongest predictors of relapse were included into an algorithm, the Risk of Ovarian Cancer Relapse (ROVAR) score. Results Three hundred fifty-four cases of OC were analyzed to generate the ROVAR score. Factors selected were preoperative serum CA-125, International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics stage and grade of cancer, and presence of residual disease at posttreatment computed tomography scan. In the validation data set, the ROVAR score had a sensitivity and specificity of 94% and 61%, respectively. The concordance index for the validation data set was 0.91 (95% confidence interval, 0.85-0.96). The score allows patient stratification into low (0.67) probability of relapse. Conclusions The ROVAR score stratifies patients according to their risk of relapse following first-line treatment for OC. This can broadly facilitate the appropriate tailoring of posttreatment care and support. PMID:25647256

  7. Financial Risk And Share Price Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sobia Quayyoum

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Financial risk fluctuations have a significant effect on overall economy. Macroeconomic variables and stock return are related to each other. Financial risk and share price behavior has been investigated in this dissertation. For this purpose monthly data from 2003 to 2012 and annual data for period of 2003 to 2012 has been used. The stock return data of 115 companies has been used as dependent variable where as exchange rare interest rate financial exposure firm size total risk growth rate and profitability has been used as independent variable. This study employs multivariate regression analysis. This study is focused on financial risk and it impact on firm through different dimensions first on industry level then on firm level and lastly analysis for exporting and non-exporting firms has been done. The industry level analysis shows that statistically significant negative relationship exists between exchange rate interest rate and stock return. The relationship of total risk foreign exposure firm size and growth rate is found insignificant with industry returns. The firm level analysis is done from different dimensions. The interest rate is negatively related to monthly returns of the firm and this relationship is found significant. The relationship of total risk foreign exposure firm size and growth rate is found insignificant with firm level stock returns. For exporting and non-exporting firms the study shows positive relationship between interest rate and firm stock returns and this relation is stronger in exporting firms as compare to other firms operating in same industry. Whereas negative relationship between exchange rate and firm stock return. Thus this dissertation is a spatial extension of the previous researches. Instead of taking the all monetary variables like previous research this researchs focus on firm analysis by using two factor model.

  8. Cancer in first-degree relatives and risk of testicular cancer in Denmark

    OpenAIRE

    Nordsborg, Rikke Baastrup; Meliker, Jaymie R.; Wohlfahrt, Jan; Melbye, Mads; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole

    2011-01-01

    Familial aggregation of testicular cancer has been reported consistently, but it is less clear if there is any association between risk of testicular cancer and other cancers in the family. We conducted a population based case-control study to examine the relationship between risk of testicular cancer and 22 different cancers in first-degree relatives. We included 3297 cases of testicular cancer notified to the Danish Cancer Registry between 1991 and 2003. 6594 matched controls were selected ...

  9. 女性乳腺癌与部分行为因素的病例对照研究分析%Meta-analysis on Partial Behavior Risk Factors of Breast Cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    覃芳葵; 吴朝学

    2011-01-01

    目的 评价女性乳腺癌部分行为危险因素的作用,为乳腺癌的病因学研究和预防提供依据.方法 运用Meta分析方法对国内外2001-2010年间公开发表的有关乳腺癌行为危险因素病例对照研究的30篇文献资料进行定性综合分析.结果 哺乳、饮酒、流产、主动吸烟、口服避孕药合并OR值分别为O.71(O.60~0.85)、0.78(0.49~1.24)、1.43(O.88~2.31)、1.05(0.98~1.13)及1.11(0.93~1.33),敏感分析前后差别不大,被动吸烟敏感分析前后合并OR值分别为1.45(1.11~1.90)和1.06(0.85~1.31),得出结论不一致.结论 被动吸烟是女性乳腺癌发生的危险因素,哺乳是保护因素,不能得出饮酒、主动吸烟及口服避孕药与女性乳腺癌发生危险有关联的结论.%Objective To explore the pathogenesis of breast cancer through appraising the main behavior-risk factors related to the incidence of breast cancer among women in China, provide evidence to nosetiology study and prevention of breast cancer. Methods The data of case-control studies conducted home and abroad were analyzed by Meta analysis with Review Manager 5. 0. Results The random OR of breast feeding, drinking, abortion, active smoking and oral contraceptive were 0. 71 (0. 60 -0. 85) , 0. 78 (0. 49 - 1. 24) , 1. 43 (0. 88 -2. 31) , 1. 05 (0. 98 - 1. 13) and 1. 11(0. 93 - 1. 33) , they were conformed before and after subunit analysis,the random OR of passive smoking before and after subunit analysis were 1. 45 ( 1. 11 - 1. 90) and 1. 06 ( 0. 85 -1. 31) , which was not consistent. Conclusion Passive smoking is risk factor of breast cancer in women, and breast feeding is protective factor. It is not sure that there is any relation between active smoking, oral contraceptive and breast cancer in women.

  10. Risk of Ipsilateral and Contralateral Cancer in BRCA Mutation Carriers with Breast Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Green, Leila; Meric-Bernstam, Funda

    2011-01-01

    BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers with breast cancer have a high risk of ipsilateral breast cancer tumor recurrence (IBTR) and a high lifetime risk of contralateral breast cancer (CBC). The IBTR risk is significantly higher in women who elect breast conservation. Oophorectomy has a protective effect for both ipsilateral breast tumor recurrence and CBC. Patients with younger age of breast cancer onset have a significantly greater risk of CBC. Given the higher risk of IBTR and CBC, when indicat...

  11. Short telomere length, cancer survival, and cancer risk in 47102 individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weischer, Maren; Nordestgaard, Børge G; Cawthon, Richard M; Freiberg, Jacob J; Tybjærg-Hansen, Anne; Bojesen, Stig E

    2013-01-01

    Recent meta-analyses have suggested that short telomere length was associated with increased risk of cancer. We therefore tested the hypotheses that short telomere length was associated with increased risk of cancer and with increased risk of early death after cancer.......Recent meta-analyses have suggested that short telomere length was associated with increased risk of cancer. We therefore tested the hypotheses that short telomere length was associated with increased risk of cancer and with increased risk of early death after cancer....

  12. Lower Gastrointestinal Bleeding And Risk of Gastrointestinal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viborg, Søren; Søgaard, Kirstine Kobberøe; Farkas, Dóra Körmendiné; Nørrelund, Helene; Pedersen, Lars; Sørensen, Henrik Toft

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Lower gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding is a well-known symptom of colorectal cancer (CRC). Whether incident GI bleeding is also a marker of other GI cancers remains unclear. METHODS: This nationwide cohort study examined the risk of various GI cancer types in patients with lower GI bleeding. We used Danish medical registries to identify all patients with a first-time hospital diagnosis of lower GI bleeding during 1995–2011 and followed them for 10 years to identify subsequent GI cancer diagnoses. We computed absolute risks of cancer, treating death as a competing risk, and calculated standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) by comparing observed cancer cases with expected cancer incidence rates in the general population. RESULTS: Among 58,593 patients with lower GI bleeding, we observed 2,806 GI cancers during complete 10-year follow-up. During the first year of follow-up, the absolute GI cancer risk was 3.6%, and the SIR of any GI cancer was 16.3 (95% confidence interval (CI): 15.6–17.0). Colorectal cancers accounted for the majority of diagnoses, but risks of all GI cancers were increased. During 1–5 years of follow-up, the SIR of any GI cancer declined to 1.36 (95% CI: 1.25–1.49), but risks remained increased for several GI cancers. Beyond 5 years of follow-up, the overall GI cancer risk was close to unity, with reduced risk of rectal cancer and increased risk of liver and pancreatic cancers. CONCLUSIONS: A hospital-based diagnosis of lower GI bleeding is a strong clinical marker of prevalent GI cancer, particularly CRC. It also predicts an increased risk of any GI cancer beyond 1 year of follow-up. PMID:27054580

  13. Predicting Cancer Information Seeking Behaviors of Smokers, Former Smokers and Nonsmokers Using the 2012 Health Information National Trends Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Suekyung

    2013-01-01

    Cancer can be one of the most serious diseases that can result in a costly reduction in the quality of life. Among a number of cancer risk factors, tobacco use has been identified as the leading preventable cause of deaths. Prior research has suggested that cancer information seeking may be a pre-step to adopt health protective behaviors that can…

  14. Cancer risk assessments and environmental regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Governmental regulation of toxic substances, such as carcinogens and radiation, prompts both legal and scientific controversies. Industry, environmental activist groups, government regulators, and the general public are all concerned with the question of how environmental risk to public health is to be measured and what level of risk warrants government action under the environmental laws. Several recent events shed light on the fundamental scientific and legal problems inherent in such regulation, and these events may affect the direction of future developments. These events include implementation of generic Risk Assessment Guidelines by the US EPA, litigation challenging EPA's regulation of carcinogenic substances, new scientific understanding of the relative risks from human exposure to natural and man-made sources, and the continuing growth of toxic tort litigation in which victims of cancer seek large damages from industrial emitters of pollution

  15. Linking Genetic Counseling Content to Short-Term Outcomes in Individuals at Elevated Breast Cancer Risk

    OpenAIRE

    Kelly, Kimberly M.; Ellington, Lee; Schoenberg, Nancy; Agarwal, Parul; Jackson, Thomas; Dickinson, Stephanie; Abraham, Jame; Paskett, Electra D.; Leventhal, Howard; Andrykowski, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Few studies have linked actual genetic counseling content to short-term outcomes. Using the Self-regulation Model, the impact of cognitive and affective content in genetic counseling on short-term outcomes was studied in individuals at elevated risk of familial breast-ovarian cancer. Surveys assessed dependent variables: distress, perceived risk, and 6 knowledge measures (Meaning of Positive Test; Meaning of Negative Test; Personal Behavior; Practitioner Knowledge; Mechanisms of Cancer Inheri...

  16. Poor periodontal health: A cancer risk?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K S Rajesh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Evidence indicates that chronic infections and inflammation are associated with increased risk of cancer development. There has also been considerable evidence that proves the interrelationship between bacterial and viral infections and carcinogenesis. Periodontitis is a chronic oral infection thought to be caused by gram-negative anaerobic bacteria in the dental biofilm. Periodontal bacteria and viruses may act synergistically to cause periodontitis. Many studies have shown that periodontal pockets may act as reservoirs for human papilloma virus, cytomegalovirus, Epstein Barr virus, and suspected agents associated with oral cancer. Periodontitis, characterized by epithelial proliferation and migration, results in a chronic release of inflammatory cytokines, chemokines, growth factors, prostaglandins, and enzymes, all of which are associated with cancer development. This review article intends to shed light on the association between periodontal health and carcinogenesis.

  17. Media, Health Communication, and the Cancer Risk Factors of Smoking and Obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Criss, Shaniece

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Smoking is the leading cause of preventable death in the United States, and obesity is the second cause. Both are risk factors for various types of cancer. Specifically, smoking is linked to lung, esophageal, bladder, kidney, and stomach cancers; and obesity is linked to postmenopausal breast, colorectal, endometrial, pancreatic, and gallbladder cancers. Multiple factors affect health behavior, and this dissertation investigated the role of media and health communication as mod...

  18. Risk stratification strategies for cancer-associated thrombosis: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khorana, Alok A; McCrae, Keith R

    2014-05-01

    Rates of venous thromboembolism (VTE) vary substantially between cancer patients. Multiple clinical risk factors including primary site of cancer and systemic therapy, and biomarkers including leukocyte and platelet counts and tissue factor are associated with increased risk of VTE. However, risk cannot be reliably predicted based on single risk factors or biomarkers. New American Society of Clinical Guidelines recommend that patients with cancer be assessed for VTE risk at the time of chemotherapy initiation and periodically thereafter. This narrative review provides an update on risk stratification approaches including a validated Risk Score. Potential applications of risk assessment including targeted thromboprophylaxis are outlined. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. PMID:24862143

  19. Poor periodontal health: A cancer risk?

    OpenAIRE

    K S Rajesh; Deepak Thomas; Shashikanth Hegde; M. S. Arun Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Evidence indicates that chronic infections and inflammation are associated with increased risk of cancer development. There has also been considerable evidence that proves the interrelationship between bacterial and viral infections and carcinogenesis. Periodontitis is a chronic oral infection thought to be caused by gram-negative anaerobic bacteria in the dental biofilm. Periodontal bacteria and viruses may act synergistically to cause periodontitis. Many studies have shown that periodontal ...

  20. Blood Type Influences Pancreatic Cancer Risk | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    A variation in the gene that determines ABO blood type influences the risk of pancreatic cancer, according to the results of the first genome-wide association study (GWAS) for this highly lethal disease. The genetic variation, a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), was discovered in a region of chromosome 9 that harbors the gene that determines blood type, the researchers reported August 2 online in Nature Genetics. |

  1. Inhalation cancer risk assessment of cobalt metal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suh, Mina; Thompson, Chad M; Brorby, Gregory P; Mittal, Liz; Proctor, Deborah M

    2016-08-01

    Cobalt compounds (metal, salts, hard metals, oxides, and alloys) are used widely in various industrial, medical and military applications. Chronic inhalation exposure to cobalt metal and cobalt sulfate has caused lung cancer in rats and mice, as well as systemic tumors in rats. Cobalt compounds are listed as probable or possible human carcinogens by some agencies, and there is a need for quantitative cancer toxicity criteria. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has derived a provisional inhalation unit risk (IUR) of 0.009 per μg/m(3) based on a chronic inhalation study of soluble cobalt sulfate heptahydrate; however, a recent 2-year cancer bioassay affords the opportunity to derive IURs specifically for cobalt metal. The mechanistic data support that the carcinogenic mode of action (MOA) is likely to involve oxidative stress, and thus, non-linear/threshold mechanisms. However, the lack of a detailed MOA and use of high, toxic exposure concentrations in the bioassay (≥1.25 mg/m(3)) preclude derivation of a reference concentration (RfC) protective of cancer. Several analyses resulted in an IUR of 0.003 per μg/m(3) for cobalt metal, which is ∼3-fold less potent than the provisional IUR. Future research should focus on establishing the exposure-response for key precursor events to improve cobalt metal risk assessment. PMID:27177823

  2. Characterizing genetic syndromes involved in cancer and radiogenic cancer risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The COG project 2806A (1995), reviewed the On-line Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM) database of genetic syndromes to identify those syndromes, genes, and DNA sequences implicated in some way in the cancer process, and especially in radiogenic cancer risk. The current report describes a recent update of the survey in light of two years of further progress in the Human Genome project, and is intended to supply a comprehensive list of those genetic syndromes, genes, DNA sequences and map locations that define genes likely to be involved in cancer risk. Of the 8203 syndromes in OMIM in 1997 June, 814 are associated, even if marginally, with cancer. Of the 814 syndromes so linked, 672 have been mapped to a chromosome, and 476 have been mapped to a chromosome and had a DNA sequence associated with their messenger RNA (or cDNA) sequences. In addition, 35 syndromes have sequences not associated with map locations, and the remaining 107 have neither been mapped nor sequenced. We supply the list of the various genetic syndromes sorted by chromosome location and by OMIM descriptor, together with all the associated but unmapped and unsequenced syndromes. (author)

  3. Tea, Coffee, and Milk Consumption and Colorectal Cancer Risk

    OpenAIRE

    Green, Chadwick John; de Dauwe, Palina; Boyle, Terry; Tabatabaei, Seyed Mehdi; Fritschi, Lin; Heyworth, Jane Shirley

    2014-01-01

    Background Data regarding the effects of tea, coffee, and milk on the risk of colorectal cancer are inconsistent. We investigated associations of tea, coffee, and milk consumption with colorectal cancer risk and attempted to determine if these exposures were differentially associated with the risks of proximal colon, distal colon, and rectal cancers. Methods Data from 854 incident cases and 948 controls were analyzed in a case-control study of colorectal cancer in Western Australia during 200...

  4. Risk Factors and Biomarkers of Ischemic Stroke in Cancer Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Kwangsoo; Lee, Ji-Hun

    2014-01-01

    Background and Purpose Stroke is common among cancer patients. However, risk factors and biomarkers of stroke in cancer patients are not well established. This study aimed to investigate risk factors and biomarkers as well as etiology of ischemic stroke in cancer patients. Methods A retrospective review was conducted in cancer patients with ischemic stroke who were admitted to a general hospital in Busan, Korea, between January 2003 and December 2012. The risk factors and biomarkers for strok...

  5. Latest insights into the risk of cancer in diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Noto, Hiroshi; Goto, Atsushi; Tsujimoto, Tetsuro; Osame, Keiichiro; Noda, Mitsuhiko

    2013-01-01

    Abstract A growing body of evidence from observational studies and meta‐analyses of the data suggest that diabetes mellitus is associated with an increased risk of cancer. Meta‐analyses have shown that diabetes increases the risks of total cancer, and of site‐specific cancers of the breast, endometrium, bladder, liver, colorectum and pancreas, and that it decreases the risk of prostate cancer. Insulin resistance and secondary hyperinsulinemia is the most frequently proposed hypothesis, and hy...

  6. Healthy Lifestyle and Risk of Cancer in the European Prospective Investigation Into Cancer and Nutrition Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenzie, Fiona; Biessy, Carine; Ferrari, Pietro; Freisling, Heinz; Rinaldi, Sabina; Chajès, Veronique; Dahm, Christina C.; Overvad, Kim; Dossus, Laure; Lagiou, Pagona; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. Bas; May, Anne; Peeters, Petra H.; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Sanchez, Maria-Jose; Navarro, Carmen; Ardanaz, Eva; Ericson, Ulrika; Wirfält, Elisabet; Travis, Ruth C.; Romieu, Isabelle

    2016-01-01

    Abstract It has been estimated that at least a third of the most common cancers are related to lifestyle and as such are preventable. Key modifiable lifestyle factors have been individually associated with cancer risk; however, less is known about the combined effects of these factors. This study generated a healthy lifestyle index score (HLIS) to investigate the joint effect of modifiable factors on the risk of overall cancers, alcohol-related cancers, tobacco-related cancers, obesity-related cancers, and reproductive-related cancers. The study included 391,608 men and women from the multinational European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort. The HLIS was constructed from 5 factors assessed at baseline (diet, physical activity, smoking, alcohol consumption, and anthropometry) by assigning scores of 0 to 4 to categories of each factor, for which higher values indicate healthier behaviors. Hazard ratios (HR) were estimated by Cox proportional regression and population attributable fractions (PAFs) estimated from the adjusted models. There was a 5% lower risk (adjusted HR 0.952, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.946, 0.958) of all cancers per point score of the index for men and 4% (adjusted HR 0.961, 95% CI: 0.956, 0.966) for women. The fourth versus the second category of the HLIS was associated with a 28% and 24% lower risk for men and women respectively across all cancers, 41% and 33% for alcohol-related, 49% and 46% for tobacco-related, 41% and 26% for obesity-related, and 21% for female reproductive cancers. Findings suggest simple behavior modifications could have a sizeable impact on cancer prevention, especially for men. PMID:27100409

  7. Genomic Biomarkers for Breast Cancer Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Michael F; Nathanson, Katherine L; Couch, Fergus J; Offit, Kenneth

    2016-01-01

    Clinical risk assessment for cancer predisposition includes a three-generation pedigree and physical examination to identify inherited syndromes. Additionally genetic and genomic biomarkers may identify individuals with a constitutional basis for their disease that may not be evident clinically. Genomic biomarker testing may detect molecular variations in single genes, panels of genes, or entire genomes. The strength of evidence for the association of a genomic biomarker with disease risk may be weak or strong. The factors contributing to clinical validity and utility of genomic biomarkers include functional laboratory analyses and genetic epidemiologic evidence. Genomic biomarkers may be further classified as low, moderate or highly penetrant based on the likelihood of disease. Genomic biomarkers for breast cancer are comprised of rare highly penetrant mutations of genes such as BRCA1 or BRCA2, moderately penetrant mutations of genes such as CHEK2, as well as more common genomic variants, including single nucleotide polymorphisms, associated with modest effect sizes. When applied in the context of appropriate counseling and interpretation, identification of genomic biomarkers of inherited risk for breast cancer may decrease morbidity and mortality, allow for definitive prevention through assisted reproduction, and serve as a guide to targeted therapy . PMID:26987529

  8. Parity and Risk of Lung Cancer in Women

    OpenAIRE

    Paulus, Jessica K.; Asomaning, Kofi; Kraft, Peter; Johnson, Bruce E.; Lin, Xihong; Christiani, David C

    2010-01-01

    Patterns of lung cancer incidence suggest that gender-associated factors may influence lung cancer risk. Given the association of parity with risk of some women's cancers, the authors hypothesized that childbearing history may also be associated with lung cancer. Women enrolled in the Lung Cancer Susceptibility Study at Massachusetts General Hospital (Boston, Massachusetts) between 1992 and 2004 (1,004 cases, 848 controls) were available for analysis of the association between parity and lung...

  9. Risk of Cancer in Diabetes: The Effect of Metformin

    OpenAIRE

    Mojtaba Malek; Rokhsareh Aghili; Zahra Emami; Mohammad E Khamseh

    2013-01-01

    Cancer is the second cause of death. Association of diabetes as a growing and costly disease with cancer is a major health concern. Meanwhile, preexisting diabetes is associated with an increased risk of all-cause and cancer-specific mortalities. Presence of diabetes related comorbidities, poorer response to cancer treatment, and excess mortality related to diabetes are among the most important explanations. Although diabetes appear to be a risk factor for cancer and is associated with the mo...

  10. Risk of Cancer Following Hospitalization for Type 2 Diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Hemminki, Kari; Li, Xinjun; Sundquist, Jan; Sundquist, Kristina

    2010-01-01

    Objectives. Cancer and type 2 diabetes (T2D) are two common diseases that may share risk factors. We aimed at determining subsequent cancer risks in patients hospitalized for T2D in Sweden. Methods. T2D patients were obtained from the nationwide Hospital Discharge Register; cancers were recorded from the Swedish Cancer Registry. Standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) were calculated for cancer following last hospitalization for T2D. The comparison group was the general Swedish population. Resul...

  11. Low-risk factor profile, estrogen levels, and breast cancer risk among postmenopausal women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rod, Naja Hulvej; Hansen, Ase Marie; Nielsen, Jens;

    2008-01-01

    Obesity, alcohol consumption, physical inactivity and postmenopausal hormone use are known modifiable risk factors for breast cancer. We aim to measure incidence rates of breast cancer for women with favorable levels on all 4 risk factors (BMI......Obesity, alcohol consumption, physical inactivity and postmenopausal hormone use are known modifiable risk factors for breast cancer. We aim to measure incidence rates of breast cancer for women with favorable levels on all 4 risk factors (BMI...

  12. Smoking Behaviors Among Cancer Survivors: An Observational Clinical Study

    OpenAIRE

    Burke, Lola; Miller, Lesley-Ann; Saad, Ayman; Abraham, Jame

    2009-01-01

    Studies have shown that smoking can adversely affect the outcomes of different modalities of cancer treatment. This study looks at smoking behaviors among cancer survivors to collect necessary information to create successful smoking cessation interventions.

  13. Prevalence and correlates of skin cancer risk behaviors in Madrid (Spain Prevalencia y factores relacionados con las conductas de riesgo de cáncer de piel en Madrid (España

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iñaki Galán

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To estimate the prevalence and correlates of skin cancer-related behaviors in a representative sample of the population of the region of Madrid (Spain. Methods: We performed a cross-sectional study based on a telephone survey. A total of 2,007 participants aged 18-64 years completed a questionnaire that included items on knowledge about the risk of skin cancer, sun exposure, the use of ultraviolet (UV lamps and sunburn during the previous year. Logistic regression models were constructed, adjusted for gender, age, educational level and employment status. Results: Sun exposure as a risk factor for skin cancer was identified by 92.3% of participants and artificial tanning by 73.6%. Knowledge of risk factors was greater among university graduates and women (PObjetivo: Estimar la prevalencia y los factores asociados a las conductas relacionadas con el cáncer de piel en una muestra representativa de la Comunidad de Madrid (España. Métodos: Estudio transversal basado en encuesta telefónica. Un total de 2.007 personas de 18-64 años completaron un cuestionario sobre conocimiento de riesgos del cáncer de piel, la exposición al sol, el uso de aparatos de bronceado artificial y quemaduras solares durante el último año. Se elaboraron modelos de regresión logística, ajustando por sexo, edad, nivel educativo y situación laboral. Resultados: Un 92,3% identificaron la exposición al sol como un factor de riesgo para el cáncer de piel, disminuyendo al 73,6% para el bronceado artificial. Este conocimiento es mayor entre las personas con educación superior y en las mujeres (p<0,001. El 14,6% estuvieron expuestos al sol en verano durante las horas de máxima radiación ultravioleta (UV, y el 4,3% utilizaron lámparas UV en el último año, siendo más frecuente en las mujeres (p <0,001 y jóvenes (p <0,05. La prevalencia de quemaduras solares fue del 13,2%, siendo menor en las mujeres (odds ratio [OR] de 0,68; IC95%: 0,51-0,90, disminuyendo

  14. Diabetes and breast cancer risk: a meta-analysis

    OpenAIRE

    P Boyle; Koechlin, A; Robertson, C; Valentini, F.; Coppens, K; Fairley, L-L; BONIOL,M; Zheng, T.; Zhang, Y.; Pasterk, M; Smans, M; Curado, M.P.; Mullie, P.; Gandini, S; Bota, M.

    2012-01-01

    Background: The potential of an increased risk of breast cancer in women with diabetes has been the subject of a great deal of recent research. Methods: A meta-analysis was undertaken using a random effects model to investigate the association between diabetes and breast cancer risk. Results: Thirty-nine independent risk estimates were available from observational epidemiological studies. The summary relative risk (SRR) for breast cancer in women with diabetes was 1.27 (95% confidence interva...

  15. Perceived Neighborhood Quality and Cancer Screening Behavior: Evidence from the Survey of the Health of Wisconsin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, Kirsten M M; Malecki, Kristen M; Hoormann, Kelly A; Szabo, Aniko; Nattinger, Ann B

    2016-02-01

    Socioeconomic disparities in colorectal and breast cancer screening persist, partially accounting for disparities in cancer outcomes. Some neighborhood characteristics--particularly area level socioeconomic factors--have been linked to cancer screening behavior, but few studies have examined the relationship between perceived neighborhood quality and screening behavior, which may provide more insight into the ways in which neighborhood environments shape cancer related behaviors. This study examines the relationship between several aspects of the perceived neighborhood environment and breast and colorectal cancer screening behavior among a population-based sample of Wisconsin residents. A sub-goal was to compare the relevance of different perceived neighborhood factors for different screening tests. This is a cross-sectional study of 2008-2012 data from the Survey of the Health of Wisconsin, a population-based annual survey of Wisconsin residents. An average risk sample of Black, Hispanic and White women age 50 and older (n = 1265) were selected. Survey regression analyses examined predictors of screening, as well as adherence to screening guidelines. Models controlled for individual socio-demographic information and insurance status. Perceptions of social and physical disorder, including fear of crime and visible garbage, were associated with screening rates. Findings emphasize the particular importance of these factors for colorectal cancer screening, indicating the necessity of improving screening rates in areas characterized by social disorganization, crime, and physical disorder. Additional work should be done to further investigate the pathways that explain the linkage between neighborhood conditions, perceived neighborhood risks and cancer screening behavior. PMID:26275881

  16. Finasteride Concentrations and Prostate Cancer Risk: Results from the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial

    OpenAIRE

    Chau, Cindy H.; Price, Douglas K.; Cathee Till; Goodman, Phyllis J.; Xiaohong Chen; Leach, Robin J; Johnson-Pais, Teresa L.; Hsing, Ann W.; Ashraful Hoque; Tangen, Catherine M.; Lisa Chu; Parnes, Howard L.; Schenk, Jeannette M.; Reichardt, Juergen K. V.; Thompson, Ian M

    2015-01-01

    Objective In the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial (PCPT), finasteride reduced the risk of prostate cancer by 25%, even though high-grade prostate cancer was more common in the finasteride group. However, it remains to be determined whether finasteride concentrations may affect prostate cancer risk. In this study, we examined the association between serum finasteride concentrations and the risk of prostate cancer in the treatment arm of the PCPT and determined factors involved in modifying dru...

  17. Screening for breast cancer in a high-risk series

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A unique cohort of women at increased risk of breast cancer because of prior X-ray treatment of acute mastitis and their selected high-risk siblings were offered periodic breast cancer screening including physical examination of the breasts, mammography, and thermography. Twelve breast cancers were detected when fewer than four would have been expected based on age-specific breast cancer detection rates from the National Cancer Institute/American Cancer Society Breast Cancer Demonstration Detection Projects. Mammography was positive in all cases but physical examination was positive in only three cases. Thermography was an unreliable indicator of disease. Given the concern over radiation-induced risk, use of low-dose technique and of criteria for participation that select women at high risk of breast cancer will maximize the benefit/risk ratio for mammography screening

  18. Risk factors for cancer mortality in the general population

    OpenAIRE

    Taghizadeh, Niloofar

    2015-01-01

    Cancer is a complex disease with many possible causes and is currently a major public health problem in the world. Cancer can occur in individuals of all ages; however the risk of cancer increases with age. It has been estimated that 90-95% of all types of cancer can be attributed to environmental and lifestyle risk factors, and hereditary cancers account for approximately 5-10% of all cancer cases. This thesis describes several potential risk factors for mortality due to most common types of...

  19. Studies of Cancer Risk among Chernobyl liquidators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kesminiene, A.; Cardis, E.; Tenet, V.; Chekin, S.; Ivanov, V. K.; Kurtinaitis, J.; Malakhova, I.; Polyakov, S.; Stengrevics, A.; Tekkel, M.

    2004-07-01

    Two cae-control studies among Chernobyl liquidators- one of leukaemia and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL), the other of thyroid cancer risk were carried out in Belarus, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Russia. These studies were coordinated by the International Agency for Research on Cancer. The specific objective of these studies was to estimate the radiation induced risk of these diseases among liquidators of the Chernobyl accident, and, in particular, to study the effect of exposure protraction and radiation type on the risk of radiation induced cancer in the low to medium (0-500 mSv) radiation dose range. The study population consisted of the approximately 15.000 Baltic countries, 66 000 Balarus and 65 000 Russian liquidators who worked in the 30 km zone in 1986-1987, and who were registered in the Chernobyl registry of these countries. The studies included cases diagnosed in 1993-1998 for all countries but Belarus, where the study period was extended until 2000. for controls were selected in each country from the national cohort for each case, mateched on age, gender and region of residence. Information on study subjects was obtained through face-to-face interview using a standardised questionnaire with questions on demographic factors, time place and conditions of work as a liquidator and potential risk and confoundinf factors for the tumours of interest. Ocerall 126 cases of leukaemia and NHL, 119 cases of thyroid cancer and 1060 controls were interviewed. Individual estimates of kerma in air and of dose to the bone marrow and related uncertainties were derived for each subject in the leukaemia and NHL study, using a method of analytical dose reconstruction developed whiting the study. Estimates of individual doses to the thyroid from external exposures, I-131 and long-lived isotopes were derived for all subjects in the thyroid case-control study. Dose-response analyses have been carried out. Resulting risk estimates will be presented and compared to risk estimates

  20. Studies of Cancer Risk among Chernobyl liquidators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two cae-control studies among Chernobyl liquidators- one of leukaemia and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL), the other of thyroid cancer risk were carried out in Belarus, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Russia. These studies were coordinated by the International Agency for Research on Cancer. The specific objective of these studies was to estimate the radiation induced risk of these diseases among liquidators of the Chernobyl accident, and, in particular, to study the effect of exposure protraction and radiation type on the risk of radiation induced cancer in the low to medium (0-500 mSv) radiation dose range. The study population consisted of the approximately 15.000 Baltic countries, 66 000 Balarus and 65 000 Russian liquidators who worked in the 30 km zone in 1986-1987, and who were registered in the Chernobyl registry of these countries. The studies included cases diagnosed in 1993-1998 for all countries but Belarus, where the study period was extended until 2000. for controls were selected in each country from the national cohort for each case, mateched on age, gender and region of residence. Information on study subjects was obtained through face-to-face interview using a standardised questionnaire with questions on demographic factors, time place and conditions of work as a liquidator and potential risk and confoundinf factors for the tumours of interest. Ocerall 126 cases of leukaemia and NHL, 119 cases of thyroid cancer and 1060 controls were interviewed. Individual estimates of kerma in air and of dose to the bone marrow and related uncertainties were derived for each subject in the leukaemia and NHL study, using a method of analytical dose reconstruction developed whiting the study. Estimates of individual doses to the thyroid from external exposures, I-131 and long-lived isotopes were derived for all subjects in the thyroid case-control study. Dose-response analyses have been carried out. Resulting risk estimates will be presented and compared to risk estimates

  1. Factors Influencing Cancer Risk Perception in High Risk Populations: A Systematic Review

    OpenAIRE

    Tilburt Jon C; James Katherine M; Sinicrope Pamela S; Eton David T; Costello Brian A; Carey Jantey; Lane Melanie A; Ehlers Shawna L; Erwin Patricia J; Nowakowski Katherine E; Murad Mohammad H

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Patients at higher than average risk of heritable cancer may process risk information differently than the general population. However, little is known about clinical, demographic, or psychosocial predictors that may impact risk perception in these groups. The objective of this study was to characterize factors associated with perceived risk of developing cancer in groups at high risk for cancer based on genetics or family history. Methods We searched Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid Em...

  2. Discrepancies between estimated and perceived risk of cancer among individuals with hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Domanska, K; Nilbert, Mef; Soller, M;

    2007-01-01

    Communicating cancer risk and recommending adequate control programs is central for genetic counseling. Individuals affected by hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC) are at about 80% life-time risk of colorectal cancer and for female carriers 40-60% risk of endometrial cancer and 10......-15% risk of ovarian cancer. The perceived risk among mutation carriers may, however, deviate from the risk communicated and has been demonstrated to influence adherence to control programs. We investigated the perceived cancer risk among HNPCC mutation carriers (n = 47) and correlated the findings to...... and an increasing amount of data on the cancer risk in HNPCC, a minority of the mutation carriers report a perceived risk at the same level as that communicated during oncogenetic counseling....

  3. What Are the Risk Factors for Kidney Cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... an oncocytoma , which is almost always benign (not cancer). Other risk factors Family history of kidney cancer People with a ... Back to top » Guide Topics What Is Kidney Cancer? Causes, Risk Factors, and Prevention Early Detection, Diagnosis, and Staging Treating ...

  4. Population attributable risk of breast cancer in white women associated with immediately modifiable risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glaser Sally L

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Estrogen/progestin replacement therapy (EPRT, alcohol consumption, physical activity, and breast-feeding duration differ from other factors associated with breast cancer in being immediately modifiable by the individual, thereby representing attractive targets for future breast cancer prevention efforts. To justify such efforts, it is vital to quantify the potential population-level impacts on breast cancer considering population variations in behavior prevalence, risk estimate, and baseline incidence. Methods For each of these four factors, we calculated population attributable risk percents (PARs using population-based survey (2001 and cancer registry data (1998–2002 for 41 subpopulations of white, non-Hispanic California women aged 40–79 years, and ranges of relative risk (RR estimates from the literature. Results Using a single RR estimate, subpopulation PARs ranged from 2.5% to 5.6% for hormone use, from 0.0% to 6.1% for recent consumption of >= 2 alcoholic drinks daily, and 4.6% to 11.0% for physical inactivity. Using a range of RR estimates, PARs were 2–11% for EPRT use, 1–20% for alcohol consumption and 2–15% for physical inactivity. Subpopulation data were unavailable for breastfeeding, but PARs using published RR estimates ranged from 2% to 11% for lifetime breastfeeding >= 31 months. Thus, of 13,019 breast cancers diagnosed annually in California, as many as 1,432 attributable to EPRT use, 2,604 attributable to alcohol consumption, 1,953 attributable to physical inactivity, and 1,432 attributable to never breastfeeding might be avoidable. Conclusion The relatively feasible lifestyle changes of discontinuing EPRT use, reducing alcohol consumption, increasing physical activity, and lengthening breastfeeding duration could lower population breast cancer incidence substantially.

  5. Whole Grain Intake Reduces Pancreatic Cancer Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Qiucheng; Zheng, Huazhen; Bi, Jingcheng; Wang, Xinying; Jiang, Tingting; Gao, Xuejin; Tian, Feng; Xu, Min; Wu, Chao; Zhang, Li; Li, Ning; Li, Jieshou

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Mounting evidence from epidemiology studies suggests that whole grain intake may reduce pancreatic cancer risk, but convincing evidence is scarce. We conducted a meta-analysis to assess the association between whole grain intake and pancreatic cancer risk. Relevant observational studies were identified by searching PubMed, Embase, Scopus, and Cochrane library databases for the period from January 1980 to July 2015, with no restrictions. We calculated the summary odds ratios (ORs) for pancreatic cancer using random-effects model meta-analysis. Between-study heterogeneity was analyzed using the I2 statistic. A total of 8 studies regarding whole grain intake were included in the meta-analysis. The pooled OR of pancreatic cancer for those with high versus low whole grain intake was 0.76 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.64–0.91; P = 0.002). There was no significant heterogeneity across these studies (I2 = 11.7%; Pheterogeneity = 0.339). In the subgroup analysis by geographic area, the summary ORs of developing pancreatic cancer were 0.64 (95% CI, 0.53–0.79; P < 0.001; I2 = 0%; Pheterogeneity = 0.482) in the United States (n = 4) and 0.95 (95% CI, 0.63–1.43; P = 0.803; I2 = 45.6%; Pheterogeneity = 0.175) in Europe (n = 2). In the subgroup analysis by type of whole grain, the summary ORs were 0.72 (95% CI, 0.60–0.87; P = .001; I2 = 0; Pheterogeneity = 0.876) for grains (n = 4) and 0.74 (95% CI, 0.27–2.02; P = 0.554; I2 = 86.3%; Pheterogeneity = 0.007) for wheat (n = 2). A high intake of whole grains was associated with a reduced risk of pancreatic cancer. Because of the absent of more cohort studies, further prospective studies need to be conducted to ensure conclusions that are more robust. PMID:26945361

  6. Risk of thyroid cancer among Chernobyl liquidators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: While the increased risk of thyroid cancer is well demonstrated in people exposed to radioactive iodines in childhood and adolescence in the most contaminated areas around the Chernobyl power plant, following the accident which took place on 26 April 1986, the effect of exposure on adults remains unclear. A collaborative case-control study of thyroid cancer was set-up, nested within cohorts of Belarus, Russian and Baltic countries liquidators of the Chernobyl accident, to evaluate the radiation-induced risk of this disease among liquidators, and to assess the roles of screening and of radiation exposures in the observed increased thyroid cancer incidence among liquidators. The study population consisted of the cohorts of approximately 66,000 Belarus, 65,000 Russian and 15,000 Baltic countries liquidators who took part in the clean-up activities on the reactor site and in the 30-km zone around the Chernobyl nuclear power plant between 26 April 1986 and 31 December 1987. The liquidators were mainly exposed to external radiation, although substantial dose to the thyroid from iodine isotopes may have been received by liquidators who worked in May-June 1986 and by those who resided in the most contaminated territories of Belarus. Information was collected on study subjects by use of a standardized questionnaire that was administrated during a face-to-face interview with the study subject and/or a proxy (a relative or a colleague). The interview included questions on demographic factors, time, place and conditions of work as a liquidator and on potential risk and confounding factors for thyroid cancer. A method of analytical dose reconstruction, entitled RADRUE (Realistic Analytical Dose Reconstruction with Uncertainty Estimation) was developed within the study and applied to estimate individual doses to the thyroid from external radiation and related uncertainties for each subject. Approaches to derive individual thyroid dose estimates from inhaled and

  7. Establishing a family risk assessment clinic for breast cancer.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Mulsow, Jurgen

    2012-02-01

    Breast cancer is the most common cancer affecting European women and the leading cause of cancer-related death. A total of 15-20% of women who develop breast cancer have a family history and 5-10% a true genetic predisposition. The identification and screening of women at increased risk may allow early detection of breast cancer and improve prognosis. We established a family risk assessment clinic in May 2005 to assess and counsel women with a family history of breast cancer, to initiate surveillance, and to offer risk-reducing strategies for selected high-risk patients. Patients at medium or high risk of developing breast cancer according to NICE guidelines were accepted. Family history was determined by structured questionnaire and interview. Lifetime risk of developing breast cancer was calculated using Claus and Tyrer-Cuzick scoring. Risk of carrying a breast cancer-related gene mutation was calculated using the Manchester system. One thousand two hundred and forty-three patients have been referred. Ninety-two percent were at medium or high risk of developing breast cancer. Formal assessment of risk has been performed in 368 patients, 73% have a high lifetime risk of developing breast cancer, and 72% a Manchester score >or=16. BRCA1\\/2 mutations have been identified in 14 patients and breast cancer diagnosed in two. Our initial experience of family risk assessment has shown there to be a significant demand for this service. Identification of patients at increased risk of developing breast cancer allows us to provide individuals with accurate risk profiles, and enables patients to make informed choices regarding their follow-up and management.

  8. Interest and Inflation Risk: Investor Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, María de la O; Jareño, Francisco; Skinner, Frank S

    2016-01-01

    We examine investor behavior under interest and inflation risk in different scenarios. To that end, we analyze the relation between stock returns and unexpected changes in nominal and real interest rates and inflation for the US stock market. This relation is examined in detail by breaking the results down from the US stock market level to sector, sub-sector, and to individual industries as the ability of different industries to absorb unexpected changes in interest rates and inflation can vary by industry and by contraction and expansion sub-periods. While most significant relations are conventionally negative, some are consistently positive. This suggests some relevant implications on investor behavior. Thus, investments in industries with this positive relation can form a safe haven from unexpected changes in real and nominal interest rates. Gold has an insignificant beta during recessionary conditions hinting that Gold can be a safe haven during recessions. However, Gold also has a consistent negative relation to unexpected changes in inflation thereby damaging the claim that Gold is a hedge against inflation. PMID:27047418

  9. Interest and Inflation Risk: Investor Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, María de la O; Jareño, Francisco; Skinner, Frank S.

    2016-01-01

    We examine investor behavior under interest and inflation risk in different scenarios. To that end, we analyze the relation between stock returns and unexpected changes in nominal and real interest rates and inflation for the US stock market. This relation is examined in detail by breaking the results down from the US stock market level to sector, sub-sector, and to individual industries as the ability of different industries to absorb unexpected changes in interest rates and inflation can vary by industry and by contraction and expansion sub-periods. While most significant relations are conventionally negative, some are consistently positive. This suggests some relevant implications on investor behavior. Thus, investments in industries with this positive relation can form a safe haven from unexpected changes in real and nominal interest rates. Gold has an insignificant beta during recessionary conditions hinting that Gold can be a safe haven during recessions. However, Gold also has a consistent negative relation to unexpected changes in inflation thereby damaging the claim that Gold is a hedge against inflation. PMID:27047418

  10. Interest and Informational Preferences Regarding Genomic Testing for Modest Increases in Colorectal Cancer Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Allison E.; Flores, Kristina G.; Boonyasiriwat, Watcharaporn; Gammon, Amanda; Kohlmann, Wendy; Birmingham, Wendy C.; Schwartz, Marc D.; Samadder, Jewel; Boucher, Ken; Kinney, Anita Y.

    2014-01-01

    Background/Aims To explore interest in genomic testing for modest changes in colorectal cancer risk and preferences for receiving genomic risk communications among individuals with intermediate disease risk due to a family history of colorectal cancer. Methods Surveys were conducted on 278 men and women at intermediate risk for colorectal cancer enrolled in a randomized trial comparing a remote personalized risk communication intervention (TeleCARE) aimed at promoting colonoscopy to a generic print control condition. Guided by Leventhal’s Common Sense Model of Self-regulation, we examined demographic and psychosocial factors possibly associated with interest in SNP testing. Descriptive statistics and logistic regression models were used to identify factors associated with testing interest and preferences for receiving genomic risk communications. Results Three-fourths of participants expressed interest in SNP testing for colorectal cancer risk. Testing interest did not markedly change across behavior modifier scenarios. Participants preferred to receive genomic risk communications from a variety of sources: printed materials, (69.1%), oncologists (59.5%), primary-care physicians (58.1%), and the web (57.9%). Overall, persons who were unmarried (p=0.029), younger (p=0.003), and with greater cancer-related fear (p=0.019) were more likely to express interest in predictive genomic testing for colorectal cancer risk. In a stratified analysis, cancer related fear was associated with interest in predictive genomic testing in the intervention group (p=0.017) but not the control group. Conclusions Individuals with intermediate familial risk for colorectal cancer are highly interested in genomic testing for modest increases in disease risk, specifically unmarried persons, younger age groups, and those with greater cancer fear. PMID:24435063

  11. Measuring, and identifying predictors of, women's perceptions of three types of breast cancer risk: population risk, absolute risk and comparative risk

    OpenAIRE

    Apicella, C.; Peacock, S.J.; Andrews, L.; Tucker, K.; Daly, M B; Hopper, J L

    2009-01-01

    Although a key function of cancer genetics services is to provide risk information, to date there has been little consistency in the way in which breast cancer risk perception has been measured. The aims of the study were to measure estimates of (i) population risk, (ii) absolute risk and (iii) comparative risk of developing breast cancer for Ashkenazi Jewish women, and to determine predictors of breast cancer risk perception. Of 152 women, 107 (70%) completed all questions. The mean (s.d.) e...

  12. Risk behaviors in high school and college sport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovard, Ralph S

    2008-01-01

    Athletes have traditionally been considered greater risk takers than their peers. Some research suggests that athletic participation is associated with increased risk behaviors in males but may be protective in females. Still there is significant intersport variability, and some "nonathlete" risk behaviors exceed those of athletes. Motor vehicle accidents, sensation-seeking behaviors that contribute to unintentional injury and violence, alcohol, illicit drug and tobacco use, sexual misadventure, unhealthy dietary habits, and physical inactivity and obesity are major health risk considerations. There is new focus upon the negative health-related consequences of other risk behaviors such as gambling, sleep apnea and obesity, inappropriate medication, energy drink or contaminated supplement use, and depression/suicide. While it is important to look at the prevalence of "risk behaviors in sport," our cautions regarding these behaviors need to be shared with all youth regardless of athletic disposition. PMID:19005360

  13. Dietary behaviors related to cancer prevention among pre-adolescents and adolescents: the gap between recommendations and reality

    OpenAIRE

    White Mary C; Holman Dawn M

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Diet is thought to play an important role in cancer risk. This paper summarizes dietary recommendations for cancer prevention and compares these recommendations to the dietary behaviors of U.S. youth ages 8-18. Methods We identified cancer prevention-related dietary recommendations from key health organizations and assessed dietary consumption patterns among youth using published statistics from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, the national Youth Risk ...

  14. Risk Taking in Late Adolescence: Relations between Sociomoral Reasoning, Risk Stance, and Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Leigh A.; Amsel, Eric; Schillo, Joshua

    2011-01-01

    This study explored relations among late adolescents' sociomoral reasoning about risk taking, risk stance, and behavior. One-hundred and thirty-two participants (18-20-year-olds) were surveyed about their own risk stance (Avoidant, Opportunistic, Curious, Risk Seeking) and behavior in three realms (Alcohol Use, Drug Use, Reckless Driving), and…

  15. Socioeconomic status, negative affect, and modifiable cancer risk factors in African-American smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendzor, Darla E; Cofta-Woerpel, Ludmila M; Mazas, Carlos A; Li, Yisheng; Vidrine, Jennifer Irvin; Reitzel, Lorraine R; Costello, Tracy J; Businelle, Michael S; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S; Cinciripini, Paul M; Wetter, David W

    2008-10-01

    The purpose of the present study was to describe the prevalence, patterns, and predictors of cooccurring modifiable cancer risk factors among African-Americans seeking smoking cessation treatment and to evaluate previously hypothesized models of the relationship between socioeconomic status (SES) and health behavior. Overweight/obesity, at-risk alcohol consumption, and insufficient physical activity were measured in 399 African-American smokers. Analyses indicated that 92.8% of participants had at least one cancer risk factor in addition to smoking. Univariate ordinal logistic regression analyses revealed that female gender, unemployment, lower positive affect, and greater negative affect were associated with having a greater number of cancer risk factors. Multivariate analyses yielded similar findings. A structural equation modeling approach indicated that stress/negative affect may function as one pathway linking SES and modifiable cancer risk factors among African-American smokers and that gender has a direct effect on modifiable cancer risk factors. Thus, risk patterns identified within each gender group may guide the development of multiple risk factor interventions for African-American smokers. Stress and negative affect may be an important treatment target within behavioral interventions for African-American smokers of low SES. PMID:18842995

  16. Risk factors for cancer mortality in the general population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taghizadeh, Niloofar

    2015-01-01

    Cancer is a complex disease with many possible causes and is currently a major public health problem in the world. Cancer can occur in individuals of all ages; however the risk of cancer increases with age. It has been estimated that 90-95% of all types of cancer can be attributed to environmental a

  17. What Are the Risk Factors for Testicular Cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Do we know what causes testicular cancer? Can testicular cancer be prevented? Previous Topic What are the key statistics about ... 2016 Back to top » Guide Topics What Is Testicular Cancer? Causes, Risk Factors, and Prevention Early Detection, Diagnosis, and Staging Treating Testicular Cancer ...

  18. Occupational exposures and risk of pancreatic cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective was to analyze the relationship between occupation (and specific occupational exposures) and risk of exocrine pancreatic cancer (EPC). We conducted a multicenter hospital-based case-control study in Eastern Spain. We included 161 incident cases of EPC (59.6% men, 94 with histological confirmation, of whom 80% had ductal adenocarcinoma). Cases were frequency-matched with 455 controls by sex, age and province of residence. Information was elicited using structured questionnaires. Occupations were coded according to the Spanish version of the International Standard Classification of Occupations 1988. Occupational exposure to a selection of carcinogenic substances was assessed with the Finnish Job-Exposure Matrix (FINJEM). Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated by multiple logistic regression, adjusting for sex, age, province, education, alcohol and smoking. A higher risk of EPC was associated with having worked as 'Miners, shotfirers, stone cutters and carvers', 'Machinery mechanics and fitters', 'Building trades workers' and 'Motor vehicle drivers' in men, 'Office Clerks' in women, and 'Waiters' in both sexes. Cases with ductal adenocarcinomas were more likely to have been exposed to chlorinated hydrocarbon solvents (OR = 4.1, 95% CI: 1.1-15.2, p-trend = 0.04). We also observed significant associations with exposure to 'synthetic polymer dust exposure' and 'ionizing radiation'. Suggestive increases in risk were observed for 'pesticides', 'diesel and gasoline engine exhaust', and 'hydrocarbon solvents'. Results support the hypothesis that occupational exposure to chlorinated hydrocarbon solvents is associated with exocrine pancreatic cancer.

  19. What Are the Risk Factors for Bile Duct Cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... What are the risk factors for bile duct cancer? A risk factor is anything that affects your chance of getting ... to top » Guide Topics What Is Bile Duct Cancer? Causes, Risk Factors, and Prevention Early Detection, Diagnosis, and Staging Treating ...

  20. DASH - Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBSS): High School

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1991-2015. High School Dataset. The Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBSS) monitors six categories of priority health behaviors among youth and young...

  1. DASH - Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBSS): Middle School

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1991-2015. Middle School Dataset. The Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBSS) monitors six categories of priority health behaviors among youth and young...

  2. Cancer Risk Communication in Mainstream and Ethnic Newspapers

    OpenAIRE

    Stryker, Jo Ellen; Fishman, Jessica; Emmons, Karen Maria; Viswanath, Kasisomayajula

    2008-01-01

    Introduction: We wanted to understand how cancer risks are communicated in mainstream and ethnic newspapers, to determine whether the 2 kinds of newspapers differ and to examine features of news stories and sources that might predict optimal risk communication. Methods: Optimal risk communication was defined as presenting the combination of absolute risk, relative risk, and prevention response efficacy information. We collected data by conducting a content analysis of cancer news coverage fro...

  3. Inactive Women May Face Higher Risk for Cervical Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... html Inactive Women May Face Higher Risk for Cervical Cancer But study found just 30 minutes of exercise ... who are sedentary appear more likely to develop cervical cancer, but just 30 minutes of exercise each week ...

  4. Six Ways to Reduce Your Risk of Colon Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... html Six Ways to Reduce Your Risk of Colon Cancer Diet, weight and physical activity play a significant ... March 8, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Half of the colon cancer cases in the United States could be prevented ...

  5. A Measurement Model of Women’s Behavioral Risk Taking

    OpenAIRE

    VanZILE-TAMSEN, CAROL; Testa, Maria; Livingston, Jennifer A.; Harlow, Lisa L.

    2006-01-01

    The current study was designed to gain a better understanding of the nature of the relationship between substance use and sexual risk taking within a community sample of women (N = 1,004). Using confirmatory factor analysis, the authors examined the factor structure of sexual risk behaviors and substance use to determine whether they are best conceptualized as domains underlying a single, higher order, risk-taking propensity. A 2 higher order factor model (sexual risk behavior and substance u...

  6. Combined effort of alcohol consumption and lifestyle behaviors on risk of type 2 diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Joosten, M.M.; Grobbee, D.E.; De A; Verschuren, W. M.; Hendriks, H.F.J.; Beulens, J W J

    2010-01-01

    ackground: It has been suggested that the inverse association between alcohol and type 2 diabetes could be explained by moderate drinkers’ healthier lifestyles. Objective: We studied whether moderate alcohol consumption is associated with a lower risk of type 2 diabetes in adults with combined low-risk lifestyle behaviors. Design: We prospectively examined 35,625 adults of the Dutch European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC-NL) cohort aged 20–70 y, who were free of di...

  7. Use of analgesic drugs and risk of ovarian cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ammundsen, Henriette B; Faber, Mette T; Jensen, Allan;

    2012-01-01

    The role of analgesic drug use in development of ovarian cancer is not fully understood. We examined the association between analgesic use and risk of ovarian cancer. In addition, we examined whether the association differed according to histological types.......The role of analgesic drug use in development of ovarian cancer is not fully understood. We examined the association between analgesic use and risk of ovarian cancer. In addition, we examined whether the association differed according to histological types....

  8. Exercise, weight loss and biomarkers for breast cancer risk

    OpenAIRE

    Gemert, W.A.M. van

    2015-01-01

    Background: Postmenopausal breast cancer is the most prevalent cancer in Western women. There are several known risk factors for postmenopausal breast cancer of which few are lifestyle-related and, thereby, modifiable. These risk factors provide an opportunity for primary prevention. In this thesis, we estimated that one out of four (25.7%) breast cancer cases in the Dutch female population of >40 years is attributable to lifestyle, i.e., overweight/obesity, physical inactivity, alcohol consu...

  9. Vitamin supplement consumption and breast cancer risk: a review

    OpenAIRE

    Misotti, Alessandro M; Gnagnarella, Patrizia

    2013-01-01

    Background: Breast cancer is the most frequently diagnosed cancer globally, and studies provide contradictory results about the possible effects of vitamin supplementation to reduce cancer risk. Our aim was to conduct a review to better investigate whether vitamin supplements given orally modify breast cancer risk. Methods: We conducted a comprehensive, systematic bibliographic search of the medical literature to identify relevant studies. Case-control, cohort studies, and randomised controll...

  10. Occupational risk factors for female breast cancer: a review.

    OpenAIRE

    Goldberg, M S; Labrèche, F

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Although progress has been made in identifying personal risk factors and in improving treatment for female breast cancer, incidence rates continue to increase. With women now occupying a sizable fraction of the workforce, it is worth inquiring whether there are occupational risk factors for breast cancer. This is a review of occupational studies on female breast cancer. METHODS: Suitable reports and published articles with associations of female breast cancer and occupation were i...

  11. Quality of Life Factor as Breast Cancer Risks

    OpenAIRE

    Gledo, Ibrahim; Pranjic, Nurka; Parsko, Subhija

    2012-01-01

    Background: Numerous studies have observed risk factors for breast cancer. We investigated the association between quality life factors as breast cancer risks in a case-control study in industrial Zenica- Doboj Canton in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Methods: The case-control study was included 200 women, 100 without (control subjects) and 100 women with diagnosed breast cancer. We used questionnaires about breast cancer risks“ as study tool. Logistic regression was used to compute odds ratios (ORs...

  12. Sex differences in risk taking behavior among Dutch cyclists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobey, Kelly D; Stulp, Gert; Laan, Freek; Buunk, Abraham P; Pollet, Thomas V

    2013-01-01

    The majority of research examining sex differences in risk-taking behavior focuses on overt physical risk measures in which failed risk attempts may result in serious injury or death. The present research describes sex differences in patterns of risk taking in day-to-day behavior among Dutch cyclists. Through three observational studies we test sex differences in risk taking in situations of financial risk (fines for failing to use bike lights, Study 1), theft risk (bike locking behavior, Study 2) as well as physical risk (risky maneuvers, Study 3). Results corroborate previous findings by showing that across these domains men are more inclined to take risks than women. We discuss how these findings might be used in an applied context. PMID:23674522

  13. Correlates of misperception of breast cancer risk among Korean-American Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jiyun; Huh, Bo Yun; Han, Hae-Ra

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the authors investigate the factors associated with misperception of breast cancer risk, including unrealistic optimism and unrealistic pessimism, among Korean-American women (KAW). Baseline data were collected between March 2010 and October 2011 from 421 KAW aged 40-65 years who participated in a community-based randomized intervention trial designed to promote breast and cervical cancer screening. Multivariate multinomial regression was performed to identify correlates of misperception of breast cancer risk among KAW. A total of 210 KAW (49.9%) had breast cancer risk perception consistent with their objective risk, whereas 50.1% of KAW in the study had some form of misperception of risk. Specifically, 167 participants (39.7%) were unrealistically optimistic about their own breast cancer risk; 44 (10.5%) were unrealistically pessimistic. In multivariate multinomial logistic regression analysis, living with a partner and higher education were significantly associated with higher odds of having unrealistic optimism. High social support is associated with a lower likelihood of having a pessimistic risk perception. Higher worry is associated with a higher likelihood of having unrealistic pessimism. Misperception of breast cancer risk among KAW and related factors must be considered when developing behavioral interventions for this population. PMID:26580449

  14. Epigenetic processes and cancer risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Guidelines for Carcinogen Risk Assessment encourages the use of mechanistic data in the assessment of human cancer risk at low (environmental) exposure levels. The key events that define a particular mode of action for tumor formation have been concentrated to date more on mutational responses that are broadly the result of induced DNA damage and enhanced cell proliferation. While it is clear that these processes are important in terms of tumor induction, other modes that fall under the umbrella of epigenetic responses are increasingly being considered to play an important role in susceptibility to tumor induction by environmental chemicals and as significant modifiers of tumor responses. Alterations in gene expression, DNA repair, cell cycle control, genome stability and genome reprogramming could be the result of modification of DNA methylation and chromatin remodeling patterns as a consequence of exposure to environmental chemicals. These concepts are described and discussed

  15. Has the lung cancer risk from smoking increased over the last fifty years?

    OpenAIRE

    Burns, David M.; Anderson, Christy M.; Gray, Nigel

    2010-01-01

    Background We examine whether the lung cancer risk due to smoking has increased over time. Methods Lung cancer risk equations based on prospective mortality data collected from 1960 to 1972 were applied to 5-year birth-cohort-specific estimates of smoking behaviors among white males to estimate lung cancer mortality rates for U.S. white males from 1960 to 2000. These estimated rates were compared to U.S. white male mortality rates for the same birth cohorts. Results Observed birth-cohort-spec...

  16. CORRELATION OF RISK FACTORS WITH HPE GRADING IN BREAST CANCER

    OpenAIRE

    Rudramurthy; Pradeep Kumar; Avanthi; Ira

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To correlate risk factors for breast cancer with Histopathological grading. MATERIAL AND METHOD: A four year retrospective study was carried out from 2009-2012. 46 cases which were reported as breast cancer in due course were reviewed with histopathological (Scarff-Bloom-Richardson) grade of the tumor and familial, hormonal and acquired risk factors. The correlation of risk factors and the histopathological grade is done by using‘t’ test. RESULTS: Among 46 cases of breast cancer, a...

  17. Risk of Salivary Gland Cancer After Childhood Cancer: A Report From the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To evaluate effects of radiation therapy, chemotherapy, cigarette smoking, and alcohol consumption on the risk of second primary salivary gland cancer (SGC) in the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study (CCSS). Methods and Materials: Standardized incidence ratios (SIR) and excess absolute risks (EAR) of SGC in the CCSS were calculated using incidence rates from Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results population-based cancer registries. Radiation dose to the salivary glands was estimated based on medical records. Poisson regression was used to assess risks with respect to radiation dose, chemotherapy, smoking, and alcohol consumption. Results: During the time period of the study, 23 cases of SGC were diagnosed among 14,135 childhood cancer survivors. The mean age at diagnosis of the first primary cancer was 8.3 years, and the mean age at SGC diagnosis was 24.8 years. The incidence of SGC was 39-fold higher in the cohort than in the general population (SIR = 39.4; 95% CI = 25.4-57.8). The EAR was 9.8 per 100,000 person-years. Risk increased linearly with radiation dose (excess relative risk = 0.36/Gy; 95% CI = 0.06-2.5) and remained elevated after 20 years. There was no significant trend of increasing risk with increasing dose of chemotherapeutic agents, pack-years of cigarette smoking, or alcohol intake. Conclusion: Although the cumulative incidence of SGC was low, childhood cancer survivors treated with radiation experienced significantly increased risk for at least 2 decades after exposure, and risk was positively associated with radiation dose. Results underscore the importance of long-term follow up of childhood cancer survivors for the development of new malignancies

  18. Risk of Salivary Gland Cancer After Childhood Cancer: A Report From the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boukheris, Houda [Radiation Epidemiology Branch, Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland (United States); Stovall, Marilyn [Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Gilbert, Ethel S. [Radiation Epidemiology Branch, Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland (United States); Stratton, Kayla L. [Division of Public Health Sciences, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, Washington (United States); Smith, Susan A.; Weathers, Rita [Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Hammond, Sue [Department of Pathology, Ohio State University School of Medicine, Columbus, Ohio (United States); Mertens, Ann C. [Department of Pediatrics, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia (United States); Donaldson, Sarah S. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University Medical Center, Stanford, California (United States); Armstrong, Gregory T.; Robison, Leslie L. [Department of Epidemiology and Cancer Control, St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee (United States); Neglia, Joseph P. [Department of Pediatrics, University of Minnesota Medical School, Minneapolis, Minnesota (United States); Inskip, Peter D., E-mail: inskippe@mail.nih.gov [Radiation Epidemiology Branch, Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland (United States)

    2013-03-01

    Purpose: To evaluate effects of radiation therapy, chemotherapy, cigarette smoking, and alcohol consumption on the risk of second primary salivary gland cancer (SGC) in the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study (CCSS). Methods and Materials: Standardized incidence ratios (SIR) and excess absolute risks (EAR) of SGC in the CCSS were calculated using incidence rates from Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results population-based cancer registries. Radiation dose to the salivary glands was estimated based on medical records. Poisson regression was used to assess risks with respect to radiation dose, chemotherapy, smoking, and alcohol consumption. Results: During the time period of the study, 23 cases of SGC were diagnosed among 14,135 childhood cancer survivors. The mean age at diagnosis of the first primary cancer was 8.3 years, and the mean age at SGC diagnosis was 24.8 years. The incidence of SGC was 39-fold higher in the cohort than in the general population (SIR = 39.4; 95% CI = 25.4-57.8). The EAR was 9.8 per 100,000 person-years. Risk increased linearly with radiation dose (excess relative risk = 0.36/Gy; 95% CI = 0.06-2.5) and remained elevated after 20 years. There was no significant trend of increasing risk with increasing dose of chemotherapeutic agents, pack-years of cigarette smoking, or alcohol intake. Conclusion: Although the cumulative incidence of SGC was low, childhood cancer survivors treated with radiation experienced significantly increased risk for at least 2 decades after exposure, and risk was positively associated with radiation dose. Results underscore the importance of long-term follow up of childhood cancer survivors for the development of new malignancies.

  19. Scientific approach to radiation-induced cancer risk

    OpenAIRE

    Sobue, Tomotaka

    2011-01-01

    When evaluating cancer risk of low-dose radiation, it is difficult to distinguish the actual effect from that of chance, bias, and confounding as they become relatively large. This is why the relation between radiation doses of less than 100 mSv and cancer risk is considered unknown. Based on data of atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, the cancer risk at 100 mSv is calculated at 1.05 times. On the other hand, the risk ratio for the relation between passive smoking and lung cancer...

  20. Dairy consumption and ovarian cancer risk in the Netherlands Cohort Study on diet and cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Mommers, M.; Schouten, L J; Goldbohm, R. A.; Brandt, P.A. van den

    2006-01-01

    Ovary cancer risk in relation to consumption of dairy products was investigated using a self-administered questionnaire on dietary habits and other risk factors for cancer, which was completed in 1986 by 62 573 postmenopausal women participating in the Netherlands Cohort Study. Follow-up for cancer was implemented by annual record linkage with the Netherlands Cancer Registry and a nationwide pathology registry. After 11.3 years of follow-up, data of 252 incident epithelial ovarian cancer case...

  1. Serum Oxidized Protein and Prostate Cancer Risk within the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial

    OpenAIRE

    Hoque, Ashraful; Ambrosone, Christine B; Till, Cathee; Goodman, Phyllis J.; Tangen, Cathy; Kristal, Alan; Lucia, Scott; Wang, Qiao; Kappil, Maya; Thompson, Ian; Hsing, Ann W.; Parnes, Howard; Lippman, Scott M.; Santella, Regina M.

    2010-01-01

    To evaluate the role of oxidative stress in prostate cancer risk, we analyzed serum levels of protein carbonyl groups in 1808 prostate cancer cases and 1805 controls, nested in the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial, a randomized, placebo-control trial that found finasteride decreased prostate cancer risk. There were no significant differences in protein carbonyl levels in baseline samples between those later diagnosed with prostate cancer and those without at the end of study biopsy. Adjusted ...

  2. Pigmentation-related phenotypes and risk of prostate cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Weinstein, S J; Virtamo, J; Albanes, D

    2013-01-01

    Background: Solar ultraviolet radiation exposure has been inversely related to prostate cancer incidence and mortality, possibly mediated through vitamin D status. Pigmentation-related traits influence endogenous vitamin D synthesis and may alter risk of prostate cancer. Methods: We examined prostate cancer in relation to hair and eye colour, and skin phototype in the Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention Study cohort. Incident cancer was diagnosed in 1982 out of 20 863 men. Multi...

  3. Visceral adiposity, insulin resistance and cancer risk

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Donohoe, Claire L

    2011-06-22

    Abstract Background There is a well established link between obesity and cancer. Emerging research is characterising this relationship further and delineating the specific role of excess visceral adiposity, as opposed to simple obesity, in promoting tumorigenesis. This review summarises the evidence from an epidemiological and pathophysiological perspective. Methods Relevant medical literature was identified from searches of PubMed and references cited in appropriate articles identified. Selection of articles was based on peer review, journal and relevance. Results Numerous epidemiological studies consistently identify increased risk of developing carcinoma in the obese. Adipose tissue, particularly viscerally located fat, is metabolically active and exerts systemic endocrine effects. Putative pathophysiological mechanisms linking obesity and carcinogenesis include the paracrine effects of adipose tissue and systemic alterations associated with obesity. Systemic changes in the obese state include chronic inflammation and alterations in adipokines and sex steroids. Insulin and the insulin-like growth factor axis influence tumorigenesis and also have a complex relationship with adiposity. There is evidence to suggest that insulin and the IGF axis play an important role in mediating obesity associated malignancy. Conclusions There is much evidence to support a role for obesity in cancer progression, however further research is warranted to determine the specific effect of excess visceral adipose tissue on tumorigenesis. Investigation of the potential mechanisms underpinning the association, including the role of insulin and the IGF axis, will improve understanding of the obesity and cancer link and may uncover targets for intervention.

  4. Genetic testing and your cancer risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to a gene mutation, such as breast or ovarian cancer Your family members had cancer at a younger age than normal for that type of cancer You have had cancer screening results that may point to genetic causes Family ...

  5. Factors Influencing Cancer Risk Perception in High Risk Populations: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tilburt Jon C

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patients at higher than average risk of heritable cancer may process risk information differently than the general population. However, little is known about clinical, demographic, or psychosocial predictors that may impact risk perception in these groups. The objective of this study was to characterize factors associated with perceived risk of developing cancer in groups at high risk for cancer based on genetics or family history. Methods We searched Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid Embase, Ovid PsycInfo, and Scopus from inception through April 2009 for English-language, original investigations in humans using core concepts of "risk" and "cancer." We abstracted key information and then further restricted articles dealing with perceived risk of developing cancer due to inherited risk. Results Of 1028 titles identified, 53 articles met our criteria. Most (92% used an observational design and focused on women (70% with a family history of or contemplating genetic testing for breast cancer. Of the 53 studies, 36 focused on patients who had not had genetic testing for cancer risk, 17 included studies of patients who had undergone genetic testing for cancer risk. Family history of cancer, previous prophylactic tests and treatments, and younger age were associated with cancer risk perception. In addition, beliefs about the preventability and severity of cancer, personality factors such as "monitoring" personality, the ability to process numerical information, as well as distress/worry also were associated with cancer risk perception. Few studies addressed non-breast cancer or risk perception in specific demographic groups (e.g. elderly or minority groups and few employed theory-driven analytic strategies to decipher interrelationships of factors. Conclusions Several factors influence cancer risk perception in patients at elevated risk for cancer. The science of characterizing and improving risk perception in cancer for high risk groups, although

  6. Risk-optimized proton therapy to minimize radiogenic second cancers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rechner, Laura A; Eley, John G; Howell, Rebecca M;

    2015-01-01

    demonstrate the feasibility of risk-optimized proton therapy and to determine the combination of beam angles and fluence weights that minimizes the risk of second cancer in the bladder and rectum for a prostate cancer patient. We used 6 risk models to predict excess relative risk of second cancer. Treatment......Proton therapy confers substantially lower predicted risk of second cancer compared with photon therapy. However, no previous studies have used an algorithmic approach to optimize beam angle or fluence-modulation for proton therapy to minimize those risks. The objectives of this study were to...... planning utilized a combination of a commercial treatment planning system and an in-house risk-optimization algorithm. When normal-tissue dose constraints were incorporated in treatment planning, the risk model that incorporated the effects of fractionation, initiation, inactivation, repopulation and...

  7. Exercise May Cut Risk of 13 Cancers, Study Suggests

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_158854.html Exercise May Cut Risk of 13 Cancers, Study Suggests ... 16, 2016 MONDAY, May 16, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Exercise may significantly reduce your risk for many types ...

  8. Gastric cancer patients at high-risk of having synchronous cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jun Ho Lee; Jae-Gahb Park; Jae-Moon Bae; Ja Seong Bae; Keun Won Ryu; Jong Seok Lee; Sook Ryun Park; Chan Gyoo Kim; Myoung Cheorl Kook; Il Ju Choi; Young Woo Kim

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To identify patients with a high-risk of having a synchronous cancer among gastric cancer patients.METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed the prospective gastric cancer database at the National Cancer Center,Korea from December 2000 to December 2004. The clinicopathological characteristics of patients with synchronous cancers and those of patients without synchronous cancers were compared. Multivariate analysis was performed to identify the risk factors for the presence of a synchronous cancer in gastric cancer patients.RESULTS: 111 of 3291 gastric cancer patients (3.4%)registered in the database had a synchronous cancer.Among these 111 patients, 109 had a single synchronous cancer and 2 patients had two synchronous cancers. The most common form of synchronous cancer was colorectal cancer (42 patients, 37.2%) followed by lung cancer (21 patients, 18.6%). Multivariate analyses revealed that elderly patients with differentiated early gastric cancer have a higher probability of a synchronous cancer.CONCLUSION: Synchronous cancers in gastric cancer patients are not infrequent. The physicians should try to find synchronous cancers in gastric cancer patients,especially in the elderly with a differentiated early gastric cancer.

  9. Cancer risk management decision making for BRCA+ women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonarczyk, Terri Jabaley; Mawn, Barbara E

    2015-01-01

    Women with pathogenic BRCA genetic mutations face high risks for cancer development. Estimates vary among mutation carriers, with lifetime risks ranging from 41% to 90% for breast cancer and 8% to 62% for ovarian cancer. Cancer risk management options for BRCA mutation positive (BRCA+) women have life-altering implications. This qualitative, phenomenological study explored the experience of cancer risk management decision making for women who are unaffected carriers of a BRCA mutation (previvors). Fifteen previvors recruited from Facing Our Risk of Cancer Empowered (FORCE), an online informational and support group, were interviewed. Findings consisted of four major themes: the early previvor experience, intense emotional upheaval; the decisional journey, navigating a personal plan for survival; lack of knowledge and experience among health care providers; and support is essential. Findings highlight the different decisional perspectives of previvors based on age and individual factors and the need for increased competence among health care providers. PMID:24470135

  10. Sexual activity and the risk of prostate cancer: Review article

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Fouad Kotb

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Sexual activity can affect prostate cancer pathogenesis in a variety of ways; including the proposed high androgen status, risk of sexually transmitted infections and the potential effect of retained carcinogens within the prostatic cells. Methods: PubMed review of all publications concerning sexual activity and the risk of prostate cancer was done by two researchers. Results: Few publications could be detected and data were classified as a prostate cancer risk in association with either heterosexual or homosexual activities. Conclusion: Frequent ejaculation seems to be protective from the development of prostate cancer. Multiple sexual partners may be protective from prostate cancer, excluding the risk of sexually transmitted infections. Homosexual men are at a greater risk for the diagnosis of prostate cancer.

  11. Lower Gastrointestinal Bleeding And Risk of Gastrointestinal Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Viborg, Søren; Søgaard, Kirstine Kobberøe; Farkas, Dóra Körmendiné; Nørrelund, Helene; Pedersen, Lars; Sørensen, Henrik Toft

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Lower gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding is a well-known symptom of colorectal cancer (CRC). Whether incident GI bleeding is also a marker of other GI cancers remains unclear. METHODS: This nationwide cohort study examined the risk of various GI cancer types in patients with lower GI...... bleeding. We used Danish medical registries to identify all patients with a first-time hospital diagnosis of lower GI bleeding during 1995-2011 and followed them for 10 years to identify subsequent GI cancer diagnoses. We computed absolute risks of cancer, treating death as a competing risk, and calculated...... standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) by comparing observed cancer cases with expected cancer incidence rates in the general population. RESULTS: Among 58,593 patients with lower GI bleeding, we observed 2,806 GI cancers during complete 10-year follow-up. During the first year of follow-up, the absolute GI...

  12. Health-Risk Behaviors and Dating Violence Victimization: An Examination of the Associated Risk Behaviors Among Detained Female Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Dione Moultrie; Hatcher, Schnavia Smith; Blakey, Joan Marie; Mbizo, Justice

    2015-01-01

    There are many health-risk behaviors that may elevate the risk of adolescents engaging in teenage dating violence. The purpose of this investigation was to examine the health-risk behaviors that are associated with a sample of female juvenile offenders to identify the extent to which those behaviors contribute to dating violence. The survey assessed respondents' health-risk behaviors prior to incarceration, their perceptions of quality of life, post-incarceration expectations, psychosocial factors, and other social determinants. Results indicated youth exposure to dating violence, alcohol, drug, and risky sexual behaviors in the year prior to incarceration. These findings demonstrate the need to address teen dating violence with at-risk adolescents in addition to risky behaviors. PMID:26408099

  13. Perceived Risk Modifies the Effect of HIV Knowledge on Sexual Risk Behaviors

    OpenAIRE

    Noroozinejad, Gholamhossein; Yarmohmmadi Vasel, Mosaieb; Bazrafkan, Fatemeh; Sehat, Mahmoud; Rezazadeh, Majid; Ahmadi, Khodabakhsh

    2013-01-01

    Background: There is a large controversy in the literature about the inter-relations between perceived risk, knowledge, and risk behavior in different settings, and people at HIV risk are not an exception. Aim: To assess additive and multiplicative effect of perceived HIV risk and HIV knowledge on sexual risk behavior of Injecting Drug Users (IDUs). Method: We enrolled 162 street based IDUs to this analysis. Data came from a national survey of IDUs in Iran, with a cross sectional design...

  14. Channel Contract Behavior: the Role of Risk Attitudes, Risk Perceptions, and Channel Members' Market Structures

    OpenAIRE

    Pennings, J.M.E.; Wansink, B.

    2004-01-01

    By integrating elements of both marketing and finance, we show how risk influences channel contract behavior. We model risk behavior as the interaction between risk attitude and risk perception (IRAP). An analysis of the joint channel decisions of 208 producers, wholesalers, and processors provides three results. First, risk attitudes significantly vary across different levels of channel members. Second, IRAP in combination with the channel member's market structure on the buying and selling ...

  15. Risk behaviors for the health of adolescents from High School

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Henrique Ramos

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the risk behaviors (smoking addiction, alcoholism, drug use and sexual risk behavior of adolescents from High School. Methods: It was an analytical and cross-sectional study. The sample consisted of 720 scholars (252 boys and 468 girls from the age group of 16 to 17 years-old, from three public schools in Florianopolis/SC. The data was collected through two types of self administrated questionnaires; one for the parents and another one for the students, from March to December, 2005. The studied variables were legal and illegal drug use and sexual risk behavior. The descriptive statistics and the chi- squared test were used to carry out the data analysis Results: The beginning of risk behaviors occurred between 14 and 15 years old, for both genders. It was observed that 26 (3.6% scholars drank alcohol regularly; 38 (5.3% smoked daily; 66 (9.2 % were drug users or had used drugs several times and 14 (2% were drug dependents. Concerning to sexual risk behavior, 318 (44.5% scholars had sexual risk behavior and from those, 97 (13.6% did not always use condom. From the studied sample, 545 (76.5% scholars did not present any risk behavior. Among risk behaviors, sexual risk prevailed (42.5%. Conclusion: The number of adolescents with risk behavior was not high. Nevertheless, there is a small proportion of adolescents that smoke, drink and do drugs and have sexual risk behavior. This points out to the need of a bigger supervision and guidance for these students.

  16. Behavior-Based Safety and Occupational Risk Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geller, E. Scott

    2005-01-01

    The behavior-based approach to managing occupational risk and preventing workplace injuries is reviewed. Unlike the typical top-down control approach to industrial safety, behavior-based safety (BBS) provides tools and procedures workers can use to take personal control of occupational risks. Strategies the author and his colleagues have been…

  17. HIV Risk Behaviors among African American Male Violent Youth Offenders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Joseph B., Jr.; Brown, Jerry; Van Brakle, Mischelle; Godette, Dionne C.

    2010-01-01

    Bay City (pseudonym) is one of the nation's urban epicenters of the HIV epidemic. Although researchers have examined HIV risk behaviors among juvenile offenders detained in juvenile facilities, no study has examined these risk behaviors among youth offenders who have been waived to adult criminal court and detained in U.S. jails. In the present…

  18. Environmental risk factors for REM sleep behavior disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Postuma, R B; Montplaisir, J Y; Pelletier, A;

    2012-01-01

    Idiopathic REM sleep behavior disorder is a parasomnia characterized by dream enactment and is commonly a prediagnostic sign of parkinsonism and dementia. Since risk factors have not been defined, we initiated a multicenter case-control study to assess environmental and lifestyle risk factors for...... REM sleep behavior disorder....

  19. Health Risk Behavior and Sexual Assault among Ethnically Diverse Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littleton, Heather L.; Grills-Taquechel, Amie E.; Buck, Katherine S.; Rosman, Lindsey; Dodd, Julia C.

    2013-01-01

    Sexual assault is associated with a number of health risk behaviors in women. It has been hypothesized that these risk behaviors, such as hazardous drinking, may represent women's attempts to cope with psychological distress, such as symptoms of depression and anxiety. However, extant research has failed to evaluate these relationships among…

  20. Friends: The Role of Peer Influence across Adolescent Risk Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, Kimberly A.

    2002-01-01

    Examined peer influence for 1,969 adolescents across 5 risk behaviors: smoking, alcohol consumption, marijuana use, tobacco chewing, and sexual debut. Results show that a random same-sex peer predicts a teen's risk behavior initiation through influence to initiate cigarette and marijuana use, and influence to initiate and stop alcohol and chewing…

  1. Substantial contribution of extrinsic risk factors to cancer development | Office of Cancer Genomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recent research has highlighted a strong correlation between tissue-specific cancer risk and the lifetime number of tissue-specific stem-cell divisions. Whether such correlation implies a high unavoidable intrinsic cancer risk has become a key public health debate with the dissemination of the 'bad luck' hypothesis. Here we provide evidence that intrinsic risk factors contribute only modestly (less than ~10-30% of lifetime risk) to cancer development.

  2. Fracture risk in Danish men with prostate cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abrahamsen, Bo; Nielsen, Morten F; Eskildsen, Peter Claes; Andersen, Jens Thorup; Walter, Steen; Brixen, Kim

    2007-01-01

    To assess the risk of fracture attributable to prostate cancer, and the impact of exposure to prescribed gonadotrophin-releasing hormone agonists and antiandrogens on this risk in a nationwide, population-based case-control study.......To assess the risk of fracture attributable to prostate cancer, and the impact of exposure to prescribed gonadotrophin-releasing hormone agonists and antiandrogens on this risk in a nationwide, population-based case-control study....

  3. Molecular Markers for Breast Cancer: Prediction on Tumor Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Bruna Karina Banin Hirata; Julie Massayo Maeda Oda; Roberta Losi Guembarovski; Carolina Batista Ariza; Carlos Eduardo Coral de Oliveira; Maria Angelica Ehara Watanabe

    2014-01-01

    Breast cancer is one of the most common cancers with greater than 1,300,000 cases and 450,000 deaths each year worldwide. The development of breast cancer involves a progression through intermediate stages until the invasive carcinoma and finally into metastatic disease. Given the variability in clinical progression, the identification of markers that could predict the tumor behavior is particularly important in breast cancer. The determination of tumor markers is a useful tool for clinical m...

  4. Risk perception and risk-taking behavior of construction site dumper drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohm, Jonathan; Harris, Don

    2010-01-01

    In the UK construction site dumpers cause more serious accidents than any other type of construction plant. Previous research has indicated that driver behavior plays a pivotal role in the vast majority of these accidents. This study used a paired comparison technique to explore dumper drivers' and subject matter experts' (SMEs') risk perception and its relationship to risk-taking behavior. It was found that driver risk perception significantly differed from measures of "objective risk", derived from accident data and also from SMEs' risk perception. Furthermore, drivers still engaged in undertaking perceived high risk behaviors. The results suggest that driver risk perception was linked to the "perceived dread" of an accident, rather than its likelihood and that risk-taking behavior was often driven by situational factors, such as site safety rules or the behavior of other personnel on the site, together with an overarching culture that prioritizes production over safety. PMID:20331919

  5. Risk Factors, Preventive Practices, and Health Care Among Breast Cancer Survivors, United States, 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sherri G. Homan, RN, FNP, PhD

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction We compared behavioral risk factors and preventive measures among female breast cancer survivors, female survivors of other types of cancers, and women without a history of cancer. Survivorship health care indicators for the 2 groups of cancer survivors were compared. Methods Using data from the 2010 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, we calculated the proportion of women with risk factors and their engagement in preventive practices, stratified by cancer status (cancer survivors or women with no history of cancer, and compared the proportions after adjusting for sociodemographic characteristics. Results A significantly higher proportion of breast cancer survivors had mammography in the previous year (79.5%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 76.0%–83.0% than did other cancer survivors (68.1%; 95% CI, 65.6%–70.7% or women with no history of cancer (66.4%; 95% CI, 65.5%–67.3%. Breast cancer survivors were also more likely to have had a Papanicolaou (Pap test within the previous 3 years than women with no history of cancer (89.4%; 95% CI, 85.9%–93.0 vs 85.1%; 95% CI, 84.4%–85.8% and a colonoscopy within the previous 10 years (75.4%; 95% CI, 71.7%–79.0% than women with no history of cancer (60.0%; 95% CI, 59.0%–61.0%. Current smoking was significantly lower among survivors of breast cancer (10.3%; 95% CI, 7.4%–13.2% than other cancer survivors (20.8%; 95% CI, 18.4%–23.3% and women with no history of cancer (18.3%; 95% CI, 17.5%–19.1%. After adjusting for sociodemographic characteristics, we found that breast cancer survivors were significantly more likely to have had mammography, a Pap test, and colonoscopy, and less likely to be current smokers. Conclusion Breast cancer survivors are more likely to engage in cancer screening and less likely to be current smokers than female survivors of other types of cancer or women with no history of cancer.

  6. Childhood CT scans and cancer risk: impact of predisposing factors for cancer on the risk estimates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journy, N; Roué, T; Cardis, E; Le Pointe, H Ducou; Brisse, H; Chateil, J-F; Laurier, D; Bernier, M-O

    2016-03-01

    To investigate the role of cancer predisposing factors (PFs) on the associations between paediatric computed tomography (CT) scan exposures and subsequent risk of central nervous system (CNS) tumours and leukaemia. A cohort of children who underwent a CT scan in 2000-2010 in 23 French radiology departments was linked with the national childhood cancers registry and national vital status registry; information on PFs was retrieved through hospital discharge databases. In children without PF, hazard ratios of 1.07 (95% CI 0.99-1.10) for CNS tumours (15 cases) and 1.16 (95% CI 0.77-1.27) for leukaemia (12 cases) were estimated for each 10 mGy increment in CT x-rays organ doses. These estimates were similar to those obtained in the whole cohort. In children with PFs, no positive dose-risk association was observed, possibly related to earlier non-cancer mortality in this group. Our results suggest a modifying effect of PFs on CT-related cancer risks, but need to be confirmed by longer follow-up and other studies. PMID:26878249

  7. Polymorphisms of the coagulation system and risk of cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinholt, Mari; Sandset, Per Morten; Iversen, Nina

    2016-04-01

    Hypercoagulability is a frequently finding in patients with cancer, and is associated with an increased risk of venous thrombosis (VT). Cancer-associated VT is associated with poor prognosis and represents the leading non-cancer cause of death among these patients. Conversely, patients experiencing VT are at increased risk of subsequent cancer, suggesting an epidemiological bidirectional link between cancer and hemostasis, and indicating a role of the hemostatic system in cancer development. How the coagulation system relates to cancer etiology at the genetic level is largely unexplored. Data on the association of polymorphisms in genes involved in coagulation with cancer development is important to clarify the role of the coagulation system in cancer pathogenesis. Effects of coagulation-related gene polymorphisms on cancer risk may possibly be translated into novel treatment- and prevention strategies of cancer-associated thrombosis and the cancer itself. This article reviews the current knowledge of the relation between polymorphisms in genes involved in coagulation and cancer risk in solid tumors. PMID:27067978

  8. Lung cancer incidence and risk factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The possibility of developing lung cancer (lc) as a consequence of inhaling hot particles from the Chernobyl accident is discussed. The risk from various factors is reviewed in order to assess the rate of contribution for any of them to carcinogenic process. The conclusions are based on data reported by National Centre of Oncology, Sofia (BG). A total of 2873 new cases have been recorded in 1990. The data for the period 1970-1990 show a crude increase for males and tend to stabilization for females. The similar pattern is obtained in other countries and geographic areas with steady rise of lc cases with about 0.5% per year. The contribution of particular risk factor and its interaction with other factors is assessed on the basis of large number of epidemiologic and experimental studies. The risk of cigarette smoking, as the principal cause for lc, is discussed in various aspects - age, duration, possible dropping the habit. The assessment of another risk factor - exposure to relatively high doses of natural radon daughter products - is more complicated. As an occupational hazard in uranium mines radon and its progeny reveals an increase in excess lc incidence. Regarding radon and its daughters as an environmental risk factor in dwellings, no clear positive relationship between exposure and lc incidence has been observed. In this case the assessment for population living in areas with higher concentration of radon products have to rely on data from uranium mines. Non radiation factors as asbestos, ethers, chromates, metallic iron, nickel, beryllium and arsenic, are also considered. The combined effect of all these factors, as well as of pathological cell processes, viruses, malfunctions of immune system, is mentioned as well. The possibility of interpreting the findings from epidemiological studies within the framework of theoretical multistage models of carcinogenic process is pointed out. (author)

  9. The burden of cancer risk in Canada's indigenous population: a comparative study of known risks in a Canadian region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elias B

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Brenda Elias1, Erich V Kliewer1–3, Madelyn Hall1, Alain A Demers1,2, Donna Turner1,2, Patricia Martens1, Say P Hong1, Lyna Hart4, Caroline Chartrand5, Garry Munro41Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Health Sciences, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB, Canada; 2CancerCare Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB, Canada; 3British Columbia Cancer Agency, Vancouver, BC, Canada; 4Assembly of Manitoba Chiefs Health Information Research Governance Committee, Winnipeg, MB, Canada; 5Manitoba First Nations Diabetes Integration Project, Winnipeg, MB, CanadaBackground: Canadian First Nations, the largest of the Aboriginal groups in Canada, have had lower cancer incidence and mortality rates than non-Aboriginal populations in the past. This pattern is changing with increased life expectancy, a growing population, and a poor social environment that influences risk behaviors, metabolic conditions, and disparities in screening uptake. These factors alone do not fully explain differences in cancer risk between populations, as genetic susceptibility and environmental factors also have significant influence. However, genetics and environment are difficult to modify. This study compared modifiable behavioral risk factors and metabolic-associated conditions for men and women, and cancer screening practices of women, between First Nations living on-reserve and a non-First Nations Manitoba rural population (Canada.Methods: The study used data from the Canadian Community Health Survey and the Manitoba First Nations Regional Longitudinal Health Survey to examine smoking, binge drinking, metabolic conditions, physical activity, fruit/vegetable consumption, and cancer-screening practices.Results: First Nations on-reserve had significantly higher rates of smoking (P < 0.001, binge drinking (P < 0.001, obesity (P < 0.001 and diabetes (P < 0.001, and less leisure-time physical activity (P = 0.029, and consumption of fruits and vegetables (P < 0.001. Sex differences were also

  10. Relationships between bullying, school climate, and student risk behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Jennifer; Cornell, Dewey; Konold, Timothy

    2012-09-01

    This study examined whether characteristics of a positive school climate were associated with lower student risk behavior in a sample of 3,687 high school students who completed the School Climate Bullying Survey and questions about risk behavior from the Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance Survey (YRBS). Confirmatory factor analyses established fit for 20 items with three hypothesized school climate scales measuring (1) prevalence of bullying and teasing; (2) aggressive attitudes; and (3) student willingness to seek help. Structural equation modeling established the relationship of these measures with student reports of risk behavior. Multigroup analyses identified differential effects across gender and race. A positive school climate could be an important protective factor in preventing student risk behavior. PMID:22889138

  11. Multiple risk behaviors and suicidal ideation and behavior among Israeli and Palestinian adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harel-Fisch, Yossi; Abdeen, Ziad; Walsh, Sophie D; Radwan, Qasrowi; Fogel-Grinvald, Haya

    2012-07-01

    Based conceptually on Problem Behavior Theory, Normalization Theory and theories of adolescent ethnic identity formation this study explores relationships between individual and cumulative multiple risk behaviors and suicidal ideation and behavior among mid-adolescents in three different populations in the Middle East. Data from the 2004 Health Behavior in School-Aged Children in the Middle-East (HBSC-ME) study included 8345 10th-grade pupils in three populations: Jewish Israelis (1770), Arab Israelis (2185), and Palestinians in Gaza and the West Bank (4390). We considered risk behaviors and factors including tobacco use, bullying, medically-attended injuries, excessive time with friends, parental disconnectedness, negative school experience, truancy and poor academic performance. Substantial population differences for suicidal tendency and risk behaviors were observed, with notably high levels of suicidal ideation and behavior among Arab-Israeli youth and higher levels of risk behaviors among the Jewish and Arab-Israeli youth. For all populations suicidal tendency was at least 4 times higher among adolescents reporting 4+ risk behaviors, suggesting that similar psychosocial determinants affect patterns of risk behaviors and suicidal tendency. Results highlight the importance of understanding cultural contexts of risk behaviors and suicidal ideation and behavior. PMID:22497848

  12. Awareness of endometrial cancer risk and compliance with screening in hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ketabi, Zohreh; Mosgaard, Berit J; Gerdes, Anne-Marie; Ladelund, Steen; Bernstein, Inge T

    2012-01-01

    Women with hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC) have a 40-60% lifetime risk for endometrial cancer. Guidelines in Denmark recommend gynecologic screening for female members of families with HNPCC. We estimated the knowledge of endometrial cancer risk and identified possible predictors...... of compliance with the screening among women from families with HNPCC....

  13. Risk of gynecologic cancers in Danish hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer families

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boilesen, Astrid Elisabeth Bruun; Bisgaard, Marie Luise; Bernstein, Inge

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Women in hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC) families have an elevated risk of endometrial and ovarian cancer. The risk in Lynch syndrome families with known mutations in mismatch repair genes (MMR genes) seems to be higher than in familial colorectal cancer (CRC) famili...

  14. Dairy consumption and ovarian cancer risk in the Netherlands Cohort Study on diet and cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mommers, M.; Schouten, L.J.; Goldbohm, R.A.; Brandt, P.A. van den

    2006-01-01

    Ovary cancer risk in relation to consumption of dairy products was investigated using a self-administered questionnaire on dietary habits and other risk factors for cancer, which was completed in 1986 by 62 573 postmenopausal women participating in the Netherlands Cohort Study. Follow-up for cancer

  15. Family indicators for the risk of addictive behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Florova N.B.

    2012-01-01

    The empirical findings in family problems relating to addictive behavior in children and adolescents, can serve a foundation for forming up a multiaxial system of indicators and backbone risk factors of addictive behavior in the family. On the ground of analysis of several publications the following risk indicators of addictive behavior in families can be introduced: environmental toxicity, family structure, parents' educational level, quality of parental styles, level of parents' aggravation...

  16. Cancer recurrence worry, risk perception, and informational-coping styles among Appalachian cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Kimberly M; Shedlosky-Shoemaker, Randi; Porter, Kyle; Desimone, Philip; Andrykowski, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Despite a growing literature on the psychosocial impact of the threat of cancer recurrence, underserved populations, such as those from the Appalachian region, have been understudied. To examine worry and perceived risk in cancer survivors, Appalachian and non-Appalachian cancer patients at an ambulatory oncology clinic in a university hospital were surveyed. Appalachians had significantly higher worry than non-Appalachians. Cancer type and lower need for cognition were associated with greater worry. Those with missing perceived risk data were generally older, less educated, and lower in monitoring, blunting, and health literacy. Additional resources are needed to assist Appalachians and those with cancers with poor prognoses (e.g., liver cancer, pancreatic cancer) to cope with worry associated with developing cancer again. More attention for cancer prevention is critical to improve quality of life in underserved populations where risk of cancer is greater. PMID:21240722

  17. Risk attitude and market behavior : evidence from experimental asset markets

    OpenAIRE

    Fellner, Gerlinde; Maciejovsky, Boris

    2002-01-01

    In this paper we relate individual risk attitude as elicited by binary lotteries and certainty equivalents to market behavior. By analyzing 26 independent markets with a total of 280 paticipants we show that binary lottery choices and certainty equivalents are poorly correlated. Only lottery choices are related to market behavior: the higher the degree of risk aversion the lower the observed market activity. Females are more risk averse than males according to binary lotteries, submit fewer o...

  18. Discrepancies between estimated and perceived risk of cancer among individuals with hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Domanska, K; Nilbert, Mef; Soller, M;

    2007-01-01

    Communicating cancer risk and recommending adequate control programs is central for genetic counseling. Individuals affected by hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC) are at about 80% life-time risk of colorectal cancer and for female carriers 40-60% risk of endometrial cancer and 10...... individual characteristics. A perceived risk of colorectal cancer above 60% was reported by 22/45 individuals, and only one out of five mutation carriers reported a perceived risk > 80%. Female mutation carriers, individuals below age 50, and individuals who received their oncogenetic counseling within 1...... and an increasing amount of data on the cancer risk in HNPCC, a minority of the mutation carriers report a perceived risk at the same level as that communicated during oncogenetic counseling....

  19. Tea drinking and risk of pancreatic cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Junbao; Chen Long; Zhu Xiaodong

    2014-01-01

    Background Epidemiologic studies have reported inconsistent results regarding tea consumption and the risk of pancreatic cancer.This study aimed to investigate whether tea consumption is related to the risk of pancreatic cancer.Methods We searched Medline,EMBASE,ISI Web of Science,and the Cochrane library for studies published up to November 2013.We used a meta-analytic approach to estimate overall odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) for the highest versus the lowest tea consumption categories.Results The summary OR for high versus no/almost never tea drinkers was 1.04 (95% CI:0.91-1.20),with no significant heterogeneity across studies (P=0.751;I2=0.0%).The OR was 0.99 (95% CI:0.77-1.28) in males and 1.01 (95% CI:0.79-1.29) in females.The OR was 1.07 (95% CI:0.85-1.34) in Asian studies,1.05 (95% CI:0.84-1.31) in European studies,and 0.98 (95% CI:0.72-1.34) in the US studies.The OR was 0.87 (95% CI:0.69-1.10) without adjustment for a history of diabetes and 1.16 (95% CI:0.97-0.39) after adjustment for a history of diabetes.The OR was 0.90 (95% CI:0.72-1.12) without adjustment for alcohol drinking and 1.16 (95% CI:0.96-1.39) after adjustment for alcohol drinking.The OR was 0.97 (95% CI:0.76-1.25) without adjustment for BMI and 1.07 (95% CI:0.87-1.31) after adjustment for BMI.Conclusion This systematic meta-analysis of cohort studies dose not provide quantitative evidence that tea consumption is appreciably related to the risk of pancreatic cancer,even at high doses.

  20. Multiple Health Behavior Changes in a Cancer Prevention Intervention for Construction Workers, 2001-2003

    OpenAIRE

    Harley, Amy E.; Devine, Carol M.; Beard, Binta; Stoddard, Anne M.; Hunt, Mary K.; Sorensen, Glorian

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: Few multiple behavior change interventions have addressed tobacco use in conjunction with fruit and vegetable consumption, particularly among high-risk blue-collar workers. Tools for Health, a cancer prevention intervention for construction laborers, was effective in achieving behavior change for smoking cessation and fruit and vegetable consumption separately. This study examines whether addressing smoking and fruit and vegetable consumption was successful in achieving positive...

  1. Predictors of colonoscopy use one year after colonoscopy: prospective study of surveillance behavior for colorectal cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Taniguchi, Toshiatsu; Hirai, Kei; Sumi, Ryoko; Hayashi, Noriyuki; Maeda, Kazuhisa; Ito, Toshinori

    2014-01-01

    We hypothesized that perceived risk of colorectal cancer (CRC) and CRC worry would be the main predictors of surveillance behavior in patients undergoing colonoscopy. We therefore assessed factors predicting colonoscopy use for re-examination one year after colonoscopy. Patients who had undergone colonoscopy and were scheduled for re-examination one year later were recruited. Patients were administered questionnaires after baseline colonoscopy assessing demographic factors, perceived risk, CR...

  2. Stomach cancer risk after treatment for hodgkin lymphoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morton, Lindsay M; Dores, Graça M; Curtis, Rochelle E;

    2013-01-01

    Treatment-related stomach cancer is an important cause of morbidity and mortality among the growing number of Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) survivors, but risks associated with specific HL treatments are unclear.......Treatment-related stomach cancer is an important cause of morbidity and mortality among the growing number of Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) survivors, but risks associated with specific HL treatments are unclear....

  3. Communicating Cancer Risk Information: The Challenges of Uncertainty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottorff, Joan L.; Ratner, Pamela A.; Johnson, Joy L.; Lovato, Chris Y.; Joab, S. Amanda

    1998-01-01

    Accurate and sensitive communication of cancer-risk information is important. Based on a literature review of 75 research reports, expert opinion papers, and clinical protocols, a synthesis of what is known about the communication of cancer-risk information is presented. Relevance of information to those not tested is discussed. (Author/EMK)

  4. Physical activity and breast cancer risk in Chinese women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pronk, A.; Ji, B.T.; Shu, X.O.; Chow, W.H.; Xue, S.; Yang, G; Li, H.L.; Rothman, N.; Gao, Y.T.; Zheng, W.; Matthews, C.E.

    2011-01-01

    Background: The influence of different types and intensities of physical activity on risk for breast cancer is unclear. Methods: In a prospective cohort of 73 049 Chinese women (40-70 years), who had worked outside the home, we studied breast cancer risk in relation to specific types of self-reporte

  5. Colorectal Cancer Epidemiology: Incidence, Mortality, Survival, and Risk Factors

    OpenAIRE

    Haggar, Fatima A.; Boushey, Robin P.

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the incidence, mortality, and survival rates for colorectal cancer are reviewed, with attention paid to regional variations and changes over time. A concise overview of known risk factors associated with colorectal cancer is provided, including familial and hereditary factors, as well as environmental lifestyle-related risk factors such as physical inactivity, obesity, smoking, and alcohol consumption.

  6. Cancer incidence after retinoblastoma - Radiation dose and sarcoma risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wong, FL; Boice, JD; Abramson, DH; Tarone, RE; Kleinerman, RA; Stovall, M; Goldman, MB; Seddon, JM; Tarbell, N; Fraumeni, JF; Li, FP

    1997-01-01

    Context.-There is a substantial risk of a second cancer for persons with hereditary retinoblastoma, which is enhanced by radiotherapy. Objective.-To examine long-term risk of new primary cancers in survivors of childhood retinoblastoma and quantify the role of radiotherapy in sarcoma development. De

  7. Risk of cancer in patients using glucose-lowering agents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Charlotte; Vaag, Allan; Selmer, Christian; Schmiegelow, Michelle; Sørensen, Rikke; Lindhardsen, Jesper; Gislason, Gunnar H; Køber, Lars; Torp-Pedersen, Christian

    2012-01-01

    To study the association between exposures to glucose-lowering therapy and risk of cancer using the nationwide administrative registers in Denmark.......To study the association between exposures to glucose-lowering therapy and risk of cancer using the nationwide administrative registers in Denmark....

  8. Dietary acrylamide intake is not associated with gastrointestinal cancer risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hogervorst, J.G.F.; Schouten, L.J.; Konings, E.J.M.; Goldbohm, R.A.; Brandt, P.A. van den

    2008-01-01

    Acrylamide is a probable human carcinogen that was detected in several heat-treated foods, such as French fries and crisps, in 2002. Prospective studies are needed on acrylamide and human cancer risk. We prospectively investigated the association between acrylamide and gastrointestinal cancer risk.

  9. Colorectal (Colon) Cancer: What Are the Risk Factors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Glossary Stay Informed Cancer Home What Are the Risk Factors for Colorectal Cancer? Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend ... who are 50 years old or older. Other risk factors include having— Inflammatory bowel disease such as Crohn’s ...

  10. Contemporary management of low-risk bladder cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Falke, J.; Witjes, J.A.

    2011-01-01

    Bladder cancer comprises a heterogeneous group of tumors, the majority of which are non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) at initial presentation. Low-risk bladder cancer--defined as pTa low-grade papillary tumors--is the type of NMIBC with the most favorable oncologic outcome. Although the ris

  11. Prospective Evaluation of Risk Factors for Male Breast Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Brinton, Louise A.; Richesson, Douglas A.; Gierach, Gretchen L.; Lacey, James V.; Park, Yikyung; Hollenbeck, Albert R.; Schatzkin, Arthur

    2008-01-01

    Most risk factors for male breast cancer have been derived from retrospective studies that may reflect selective recall. In the prospective National Institutes of Health–AARP Diet and Health Study, we studied 324 920 men, among whom 121 developed breast cancer. Men who reported a first-degree relative with breast cancer had an increased risk of breast cancer (relative risk [RR] = 1.92, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.19 to 3.09). Among the medical conditions examined, a new finding emerged r...

  12. Methods to Predict and Lower the Risk of Prostate Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Ercole

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Chemoprevention for prostate cancer (PCa continues to generate interest from both physicians and the patient population. The goal of chemoprevention is to stop the malignant transformation of prostate cells into cancer. Multiple studies on different substances ranging from supplements to medical therapy have been undertaken. Thus far, only the studies on 5α-reductase inhibitors (the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial [PCPT] and Reduction by Dutasteride of Prostate Cancer Events [REDUCE] trial have demonstrated a reduction in the risk of PCa, while results from the Selenium and Vitamin E Cancer Prevention Trial (SELECT concluded no decreased risk for PCa with selenium or vitamin E.

  13. Venous thromboembolism in cancer patients: risk assessment, prevention and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tukaye, Deepali N; Brink, Heidi; Baliga, Ragavendra

    2016-03-01

    Thrombosis and thromboembolic events contribute to significant morbidity in cancer patients. Venous thrombosis embolism (which includes deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism) accounts for a large percentage of thromboembolic events. Appropriate identification of cancer patients at high risk for venous thromboembolism and management of thromboembolic event is crucial in improving the quality of care for cancer patients. However, thromboembolism in cancer patients is a complex problem and the management has to be tailored to each individual. The focus of this review is to understand the complex pathology, physiology and risk factors that drive the process of venous thrombosis and embolism in cancer patients and the current guidelines in management. PMID:26919091

  14. Risk of primary non-breast cancer after female breast cancer by age at diagnosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mellemkjær, Lene; Christensen, Jane; Frederiksen, Kirsten Skovsgaard;

    2011-01-01

    Women diagnosed with breast cancer at young age have been shown to be at higher risk of developing a new primary cancer than women diagnosed at older ages, but little is known about whether adjustment for calendar year of breast cancer diagnosis, length of follow-up, and/or breast cancer treatment...

  15. Air pollution and risk of lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The pilot study among other things was intended to establish and to test a suitable sampling instrument, to develop quantification concepts in order to derive from the large amount of detailed sets of data the appropriate exposure measures, and to determine the distribution pattern of the main risk factors. The approach chosen for epidemiological screening was a case-control study covering a total each of 194 lung cancer cases, hospital controls, and population controls drawn in the Lands of North Rhine-Westfalia and northern Germany. This case-control approach proved to be feasible in principle. In particular, the sampling instrument for description of the risk factors 'occupation', 'smoker', and 'air pollution' proved to be suitable in combination with data in other potential influencing factors. The concepts chosen for a quantification of these factors yielded exposure measures appropriately reducing the large dimension of data of the questionnaire, without however completely exploiting it. The data ascertained within the framework of the pilot study allow to make a risk assessment for only two factors, namely 'smoker' and 'occupation'. For the index of the overall occupational exposure, covering contributions from exposure to asbestos, arsenic, nickel, chronium, PAH, and radionuclides, a relative risk of 1.8 was determined. The study indicated that there is a link between occupational exposure to asbestos or PAH, and the occurence of bronchial carcinoma. The pilot study did not give an answer to the question of whether air pollution contributes to the formation of bronchial carcinoma. This question will have to be solved by a more extensive study. (orig./MG)

  16. Childhood height, adult height, and the risk of prostate cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, Lise Geisler; Aarestrup, Julie; Gamborg, Michael; Lange, Theis; Tjønneland, Anne; Baker, Jennifer L

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: We previously showed that childhood height is positively associated with prostate cancer risk. It is, however, unknown whether childhood height exerts its effects independently of or through adult height. We investigated whether and to what extent childhood height has a direct effect on...... the risk of prostate cancer apart from adult height. METHODS: We included 5,871 men with height measured at ages 7 and 13 years in the Copenhagen School Health Records Register who also had adult (50-65 years) height measured in the Danish Diet, Cancer and Health study. Prostate cancer status was...... obtained through linkage to the Danish Cancer Registry. Direct and total effects of childhood height on prostate cancer risk were estimated from Cox regressions. RESULTS: From 1996 to 2012, 429 prostate cancers occurred. Child and adult heights were positively and significantly associated with prostate...

  17. Effectiveness of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy Techniques on Anxiety and Depression in Cancer Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cem SOYLU

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Depression and anxiety are generally considered to be the most important psychopathological comorbidities of cancer patients and experienced by approximately one-third of cancer patients. In the literature, studies have reported that patient characteristics such as gender, age, education level and disease characteristics such as recurrence, stage of cancer and metestazis are associated with anxiety and depression among cancer patients. Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT and techniques are one of the most frequently used approach in studying the effects of psychological intervention on anxiety and depression in cancer patients and its value has been demonstrated in reducing distress with diverse cancer populations. The aim of cognitive-behavioral interventions is to change particular thoughts and behaviors and teach specific coping skills, such as cognitive restructuring, behavior modification, relaxation training and activity plan by using specific techniques. Cognitive restructing, stress management and desensitization, relaxation and activity scheduling with use of diary sheet are most used among CBT techniques. This review summarizes the diagnosis, prevalence, risk factors and treatment of depression and anxiety in patients with cancer and CBT techniques applied to these symptoms and study findings related to treatment.

  18. Religion and reduced cancer risk: what is the explanation?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoff, Andreas; Johannessen-Henry, Christine Tind; Ross, Lone;

    2008-01-01

    Several studies of members of Christian religious communities have shown significantly lower risks for certain cancers amongst members than in the general population. We identified 17 epidemiological studies of the risk for cancer amongst members of Christian communities published during the past...... also made for healthy habits, no reduction in risk for cancer was observed. We conclude that the most important factor in the correlation between membership in a religious Christian community and risk for cancer is the healthy lifestyle inherent in religious practice in these communities. The...... 40 years. In the studies in which adjustment was made only for age and sex, reductions were observed in the risks for lifestyle-associated cancers, i.e. those associated with tobacco smoking, alcohol consumption, diet, physical activity and reproductive factors. In the studies in which adjustment was...

  19. CARING (CAncer Risk and INsulin analoGues)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Starup-Linde, Jakob; Karlstad, Oystein; Eriksen, Stine Aistrup;

    2013-01-01

    the risk of cancer in diabetic patients versus non-diabetic patients. All types of observational study designs were included. RESULTS: Diabetes patients were at a substantially increased risk of liver (RR=2.1), and pancreas (RR=2.2) cancer. Modestly elevated significant risks were also found for ovary......BACKGROUND: Patients suffering from diabetes mellitus (DM) may experience an increased risk of cancer; however, it is not certain whether this effect is due to diabetes per se. OBJECTIVE: To examine the association between DM and cancers by a systematic review and meta-analysis according to the...... PRISMA guidelines. DATA SOURCES: The systematic literature search includes Medline at PubMed, Embase, Cinahl, Bibliotek.dk, Cochrane library, Web of Science and SveMed+ with the search terms: "Diabetes mellitus", "Neoplasms", and "Risk of cancer". STUDY ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA: The included studies compared...

  20. Risk and prognosis of endometrial cancer after tamoxifen for breast cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergman, L; Beelen, MLR; Gallee, MPW; Hollema, H; Benraadt, J; van Leeuwen, FE

    2000-01-01

    Background Tamoxifen increases the risk of endometrial cancer. However, few studies have produced reliable risk estimates by duration, dose, and recency of use, or addressed the prognosis of endometrial cancers in tamoxifen-treated women. Methods We did a nationwide case-control study on the risk an

  1. Bladder cancer, a review of the environmental risk factors

    OpenAIRE

    Letašiová Silvia; Medveďová Alžbeta; Šovčíková Andrea; Dušinská Mária; Volkovová Katarína; Mosoiu Claudia; Bartonová Alena

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Many epidemiological studies and reviews have been performed to identify the causes of bladder cancer. The aim of this review is to investigate the links between various environmental risk factors and cancer of the bladder. Methods A systematic literature search was performed using PubMed, Science Direct, Scopus, Scholar Google and Russian Google databases to identify reviews and epidemiological studies on bladder cancer risk factors associated with the environment publish...

  2. Tobacco : A Risk Factor In Causation Of Rural Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Ghosh S; Shukla H.S; Mohapatra S.C; Gupta J.N.P

    1995-01-01

    Research Question: What is the degree of risk involved with tobacco chewing in relation to oral cancer? Objective: To study the degree of risk involved with tobacco chewing in relation to oral cancer. Study Design: Case- control study for a period of 1 year. Setting: Hospital based. Participants: Oral cancer patients and controls from the attendants of the patients. Sample size: 52 patients attending Surgical OPD in Sir Sunder Lal Hospital, Institute of Medical Sciences, BHU, Varanasi along w...

  3. Association of dialysis with the risks of cancers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Yen Lin

    Full Text Available To increase the survival span after dialysis in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD, identifying specific cancer risks is crucial in the cancer screening of these patients. The aim of this study was to investigate the risks of various cancers in an incident dialysis group in comparison with a non-dialysis group.We conducted a nationwide cohort study by using data from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database. Patients who initially received long-term dialysis between January 1997 and December 2004, were selected and defined as the dialysis group and were matched with the non-dialysis patients (control group according to age, sex, and index year. Competing risk analysis was used to estimate cumulative incidence and subdistribution hazard ratios (SHRs of the first cancer occurrence.After consideration for the competing risk of mortality, the dialysis group showed a significantly higher 7-year cancer incidence rate than did the control group (6.4%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 6.0%-6.7% vs 1.7%; 95% CI, 1.4%-2.1%; P <0.001.The modified Cox proportional hazard model revealed that the dialysis group had significantly association with increased risks for all cancers (SHR, 3.43; 95% CI, 3.02-3.88. The risk of cancers was dominated in younger and female patients. Specific cancer risks were significantly higher in the dialysis group particularly in the development of oral, colorectal, liver, blood, breast, renal, upper urinary tract, and bladder cancer than in the control group. Multivariable stratified analyses confirmed the association between long-term dialysis and cancer in all subgroups of patients.Dialysis is associated with a higher risk of cancer in patients with ESRD. However, cancer screening in ESRD population should be a selective approach, based on individual patient health condition and life expectancy.

  4. Mediterranean Dietary Pattern and Risk of Breast Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Elisabeth Couto; Sven Sandin; Marie Löf; Giske Ursin; Hans-Olov Adami; Elisabete Weiderpass

    2013-01-01

    Background A Mediterranean diet has a recognized beneficial effect on health and longevity, with a protective influence on several cancers. However, its association with breast cancer risk remains unclear. Objective We aimed to investigate whether adherence to a Mediterranean dietary pattern influences breast cancer risk. Design The Swedish Women’s Lifestyle and Health cohort study includes 49,258 women aged 30 to 49 years at recruitment in 1991–1992. Consumption of foods and beverages was me...

  5. Selected micronutrient intake and the risk of colorectal cancer.

    OpenAIRE

    Ferraroni, M; La Vecchia, C.; D'Avanzo, B; De Negri, E.; Franceschi, S; Decarli, A

    1994-01-01

    The relationship between estimated intake of selected micronutrients and the risk of colorectal cancer was analysed using data from a case-control study conducted in northern Italy. The study was based on 828 patients with colon cancer, 498 with rectal cancer and 2,024 controls in hospital for acute, non-neoplastic, non-digestive tract diseases. Relative risks (RRs) of intake quintiles were computed after allowance for age, sex and other major potential confounding factors, including an estim...

  6. Diabetes, insulin treatment, and cancer risk: what is the evidence?

    OpenAIRE

    Azar, Madona; Lyons, Timothy J.

    2010-01-01

    Diabetes, in particular type 2, is associated with an increased incidence of cancer. Although the mortality attributable to cancer in type 2 diabetes is overshadowed by that due to cardiovascular disease, emerging data from epidemiologic studies suggest that insulin therapy may confer added risk for cancer, perhaps mediated by signaling through the IGF-1 (insulin-like growth factor-1) receptor. Co-administered metformin seems to mitigate the risk associated with insulin. A recent series of pu...

  7. Risk Factors for Renal Cell Cancer in a Japanese Population

    OpenAIRE

    Washio, Masakazu; Mori, Mitsuru

    2009-01-01

    The incidence of renal cell cancer has been increasing worldwide. Although the incidence of renal cell cancer in Japan is lower than the rates in the other industrialized countries, there is no doubt that it is increasing. In this paper, we would like to introduce the result of our studies, which evaluate the risk factors for renal cell cancer in Japan. Hypertension, diabetes mellitus, kidney diseases, fondness for fatty food and black tea showed an increased risk of renal cell carcinoma whil...

  8. Behavioral Risk Factors: Selected Metropolitan Area Risk Trends (SMART) MMSA Prevalence Data (2010 and Prior)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 2002-2010. BRFSS SMART MMSA Prevalence land line only data. The Selected Metropolitan Area Risk Trends (SMART) project uses the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance...

  9. Behavioral Risk Factors: Selected Metropolitan Area Risk Trends (SMART) County Prevalence Data (2010 and prior)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 2002-2010. BRFSS SMART County Prevalence land line only data. The Selected Metropolitan Area Risk Trends (SMART) project uses the Behavioral Risk Factor...

  10. Targeted Cancer Screening in Average-Risk Individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcus, Pamela M; Freedman, Andrew N; Khoury, Muin J

    2015-11-01

    Targeted cancer screening refers to use of disease risk information to identify those most likely to benefit from screening. Researchers have begun to explore the possibility of refining screening regimens for average-risk individuals using genetic and non-genetic risk factors and previous screening experience. Average-risk individuals are those not known to be at substantially elevated risk, including those without known inherited predisposition, without comorbidities known to increase cancer risk, and without previous diagnosis of cancer or pre-cancer. In this paper, we describe the goals of targeted cancer screening in average-risk individuals, present factors on which cancer screening has been targeted, discuss inclusion of targeting in screening guidelines issued by major U.S. professional organizations, and present evidence to support or question such inclusion. Screening guidelines for average-risk individuals currently target age; smoking (lung cancer only); and, in some instances, race; family history of cancer; and previous negative screening history (cervical cancer only). No guidelines include common genomic polymorphisms. RCTs suggest that targeting certain ages and smoking histories reduces disease-specific cancer mortality, although some guidelines extend ages and smoking histories based on statistical modeling. Guidelines that are based on modestly elevated disease risk typically have either no or little evidence of an ability to affect a mortality benefit. In time, targeted cancer screening is likely to include genetic factors and past screening experience as well as non-genetic factors other than age, smoking, and race, but it is of utmost importance that clinical implementation be evidence-based. PMID:26165196

  11. Risk for unemployment of cancer survivors: A Danish cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlsen, Kathrine; Dalton, Susanne Oksbjerg; Diderichsen, Finn;

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To investigate whether cancer survivors are at an increased risk for unemployment after cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A cohort of 65,510 patients who were part of the workforce in the year before diagnosis and a random sample of 316,925 age and gender-matched controls were followed for up to...... that the risk for unemployment was highest amongst persons aged 50-60 years at time of diagnosis. Risk factors for unemployment were found to be manual work, medium income and vocational education. CONCLUSION: Generally, cancer patients were at a small increased risk for unemployment and low...

  12. Delivery by Cesarean Section and risk of childhood cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Momen, Natalie; Olsen, Jørn; Gissler, Mika;

    suggest CS does not influence overall childhood cancer risk. We did not see any difference between the two types of CS. Additionally it was not strongly associated with any specific childhood cancer, but power was limited for some types. Considering the high CS rates, even a small increase in risk of......Introduction Studies suggest delivery by Cesarean section (CS) may impact the development of the immune system. Meta-analyses on CS and risks of type I diabetes mellitus and asthma have found risks increased by 20%. Three different mechanisms have been proposed by which CS may influence immune...... childhood cancer could therefore have public health impact....

  13. Gaps between Adolescent Risk Behaviors and Disclosure during Outpatient Visits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda L. Hill

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The purpose of this study was to determine the gaps between disclosed high-risk behaviors in low-income, mainly Hispanic youth and the identification of these risks by health care providers. Methods. This cross-sectional study included youth 13–19 years old who participated in a study on latent tuberculosis treatment. Youth were interviewed at baseline by bilingual research assistants; the provider visit was assessed by the chart review. Results. Of 221 youth, the majority (96% were identified as Hispanic, 45% were foreign-born, and 46% were male. A total of 399 risk behaviors were revealed to research staff by the participants; only 24 risk behaviors were revealed to providers. Conclusions. The majority of risk behaviors based on the chart review were neither queried nor disclosed to the physicians. Physicians providing care to adolescents should consider strategies to improve disclosure as a necessary precursor to interventions.

  14. Externalizing Behaviors and Eating Disorder Risk Factors in Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    LIVAZOVIĆ, Goran; Ručević, Silvija

    2012-01-01

    The current study examined the relative contribution of risk factors from different domains (i.e. family, peers and school) in the explanation of externalizing behaviors (i.e. proactive aggressive behavior and risky sexual behavior) and disordered eating in a community sample of boys (n=429) and girls (n=307), aged 15–20. In order to examine the predictive value of examined variables on types of externalizing behaviors and disordered eating as criterion variables, several hierarchical regress...

  15. Coffee, tea, and caffeine consumption and risk of epithelial ovarian cancer and borderline ovarian tumors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gosvig, Camilla F; Kjaer, Susanne K; Blaakær, Jan;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Epidemiological studies that have investigated the association between coffee, tea and caffeine consumption and ovarian cancer risk have produced conflicting results. Furthermore, only few studies have examined the role of coffee and tea consumption separately for borderline ovarian...... tumors. By use of data from a large Danish population-based case-control study, we examined the risk of ovarian tumors associated with coffee, tea, and caffeine consumption with a particular focus on characterizing risks by tumor behavior and histology. MATERIAL AND METHODS: From 1995 through 1999, we....... RESULTS: Both coffee (OR = 0.90; 95% CI 0.84-0.97 per cup/day) and total caffeine consumption from coffee and tea combined (OR = 0.93; 95% CI 0.88-0.98 per 100 mg/day) decreased the risk of ovarian cancer. These associations were significant only for the serous and "other" subtypes of ovarian cancer. No...

  16. Intake of dairy products and the risk of breast cancer.

    OpenAIRE

    Knekt, P.; Järvinen, R.; Seppänen, R; Pukkala, E; Aromaa, A

    1996-01-01

    The relationship between intake of dairy products and risk of breast cancer was studied in 4697 initially cancer-free women, aged 15 years or over. During a 25 year follow-up period after the collection of food consumption data, 88 breast cancers were diagnosed. Intakes of foods were calculated from dietary history interviews covering the habitual diet of examinees over the preceding year. There was a significant inverse gradient between milk intake and incidence of breast cancer, the age-adj...

  17. Occupational asbestos exposure and risk of pleural mesothelioma, lung cancer, and laryngeal cancer in the prospective netherlands cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Offermans, N.S.M.; Vermeulen, R.; Burdorf, A.; Goldbohm, R.A.; Kauppinen, T.; Kromhout, H.; Brandt, P.A. van den

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE:: To study the association between occupational asbestos exposure and pleural mesothelioma, lung cancer, and laryngeal cancer, specifically addressing risk associated with the lower end of the exposure distribution, risk of cancer subtypes, and the interaction between asbestos and smoking.

  18. Evaluating a Web-Based Educational Module on Oral Cancer Examination Based on a Behavioral Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wee, Alvin G; Zimmerman, Lani M; Pullen, Carol H; Allen, Carl M; Lambert, Paul M; Paskett, Electra D

    2016-03-01

    Patients at risk of developing oral and/or oropharyngeal cancer (OPC) are more likely to see primary care providers (PCPs) than a dentist. Many PCPs do not regularly perform oral cancer examination (OCE). The purpose of this study was to design a web-based educational program based on a behavioral framework to encourage PCPs to conduct OCE. PCPs were solicited to provide feedback on the program and to evaluate their short-term knowledge. The integrated behavioral model was used to design the program. Fifteen PCPs (five in each group: physicians, physician assistants, and nurse practitioners) reviewed the program and took a posttest: (1) index of knowledge of risk factors for oral cancer (RiskOC) and (2) index of knowledge of diagnostic procedures for oral cancer (DiagOC). Findings from the process evaluation were mainly positive, with comments on the length of the program comprising the ten negative comments. No significant difference among groups of PCPs (physicians, physician assistants, and nurse practitioners) was detected for DiagOC (p = 0.43) or RiskOC (p = 0.201). A program on OPC for PCPs should be less than 40 min. Postviewing knowledge outcomes were similar for all PCPs. The web-based program on OPC based on a behavioral framework could have similar short-term knowledge outcomes for all PCPs and may increase the number of PCPs performing OCEs. PMID:25572460

  19. Lifestyle risk factors for oral cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petti, Stefano

    2009-01-01

    The "style of life is the unique way in which individuals try to realize their fictional final goal and meet or avoid the three main tasks of life: work, community, love" (Alfred Adler, founder of the Individual Psychology). Lifestyle refers to the way individuals live their lives and how they handle problems and interpersonal relations. The lifestyle behaviours associated to oral cancer with convincing evidence are tobacco use, betel quid chewing, alcohol drinking, low fruit and vegetable consumption (the detrimental lifestyle is high fat and/or sugar intake, resulting in low fruit and/or vegetable intake). Worldwide, 25% of oral cancers are attributable to tobacco usage (smoking and/or chewing), 7-19% to alcohol drinking, 10-15% to micronutrient deficiency, more than 50% to betel quid chewing in areas of high chewing prevalence. Carcinogenicity is dose-dependent and magnified by multiple exposures. Conversely, low and single exposures do not significantly increase oral cancer risk. These behaviours have common characteristics: (i) they are widespread: one billion men, 250 million women smoke cigarettes, 600-1200 million people chew betel quid, two billion consume alcohol, unbalanced diet is common amongst developed and developing countries; (ii) they were already used by animals and human forerunners millions of years ago because they were essential to overcome conditions such as cold, hunger, famine; their use was seasonal and limited by low availability, in contrast with the pattern of consumption of the modern era, characterized by routine, heavy usage, for recreational activities and with multiple exposures; (iii) their consumption in small doses is not recognized as detrimental by the human body and activates the dopaminergic reward system of the brain, thus giving instant pleasure, "liking" (overconsumption) and "wanting" (craving). For these reasons, effective Public Health measures aimed at preventing oral cancer and other lifestyle-related conditions

  20. Joint and independent effect of alcohol and tobacco use on the risk of subsequent cancer incidence among cancer survivors: A cohort study using cancer registries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabuchi, Takahiro; Ozaki, Koken; Ioka, Akiko; Miyashiro, Isao

    2015-11-01

    Drinking alcohol and smoking tobacco are major modifiable risk factors for cancer. However, little is known about whether these modifiable factors of cancer survivors are associated with subsequent primary cancer (SPC) incidence, regardless of the first cancer sites. 27,762 eligible cancer survivors diagnosed between 1985 and 2007 were investigated for SPC until the end of 2008, using hospital-based and population-based cancer registries. The association between drinking, smoking and combined drinking and smoking (interaction) at the time of the first cancer diagnosis and incidence of SPCs (i.e., all SPCs, alcohol-related, smoking-related and specific SPCs) was estimated by Poisson regression. Compared with never-drinker/never-smoker, the categories ever-drinker/ever-smoker, current-drinker/current-smoker and heavy-drinker/heavy-smoker had 43-108%, 51-126% and 167-299% higher risk for all, alcohol-related and tobacco-related SPCs, respectively. The interaction of drinking and smoking had significantly high incidence rate ratios (IRRs) for SPCs among ever-drinker/ever-smoker and current-drinker/current-smoker, although ever drinking did not show a significant risk. Ever-drinker/ever-smoker had also significantly higher IRRs for esophageal and lung SPCs than never-drinker/never-smoker. Among comprehensive cancer survivors, ever and current drinkers only had a SPC risk when combined with smoking, while ever and current smokers had a SPC risk regardless of drinking status. Heavy drinking and heavy smoking were considered to be independent additive SPC risk factors. To reduce SPC incidence, it may be necessary (i) to reduce or stop alcohol use, (ii) to stop tobacco smoking and (iii) dual users, especially heavy users, should be treated as a high-risk population for behavioral-change intervention. PMID:25904109

  1. Family History of Diabetes and Pancreatic Cancer as Risk Factors for Pancreatic Cancer: The PACIFIC Study

    OpenAIRE

    Austin, Melissa A.; Kuo, Elena; Van Den Eeden, Stephen K; Mandelson, Margaret T.; Brentnall, Teresa A.; Kamineni, Aruna; Potter, John D.

    2013-01-01

    Genetic association studies have identified more than a dozen genes associated with risk of pancreatic cancer. Given this genetic heterogeneity, family history can be useful for identifying individuals at high-risk for this disease. The goal of this analysis was to evaluate associations of family history of diabetes and family history of pancreatic cancer with risk of pancreatic cancer. PACIFIC is a case-control study based in two large health plans. Cases were diagnosed wit...

  2. High-risk nonmuscle invasive bladder cancer: Definition and epidemiology

    OpenAIRE

    Porten, SP; Cooperberg, MR

    2012-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Nonmuscle invasive bladder cancer represents a large majority of patients diagnosed with this disease. Precise definition and risk stratification are paramount in this group as high-risk patients have higher rates of progression and mortality and may benefit from early identification and aggressive treatment. RECENT FINDINGS: The mainstay definitions of high-risk nonmuscle invasive bladder cancer are based on grade and stage. Recently, efforts have been made to incorporate ...

  3. Risk factors and novel biomarkers in breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Fourkala, E.-O.

    2011-01-01

    Efforts continue to identify and validate novel risk factors / biomarkers for breast cancer and improve current risk prediction models in the general population due to ongoing issues with sensitivity and specificity. The overall goal of this PhD study is to add to this effort. Specific aims are to (1) examine which is the best source of getting notified for breast cancer diagnosis in the general population since accurate data is crucial for risk assessment studies (2) investigate the assoc...

  4. Socioeconomic Status, Negative Affect, and Modifiable Cancer Risk Factors in African American Smokers

    OpenAIRE

    Kendzor, Darla E.; Cofta-Woerpel, Ludmila M.; Mazas, Carlos A.; Li, Yisheng; Vidrine, Jennifer Irvin; Reitzel, Lorraine R.; Costello, Tracy J.; Businelle, Michael S.; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S.; Cinciripini, Paul M.; Wetter, David W.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to describe the prevalence, patterns, and predictors of co-occurring modifiable cancer risk factors among African Americans seeking smoking cessation treatment, and to evaluate previously hypothesized models of the relationship between socioeconomic status and health behavior. Overweight/obesity, at-risk alcohol consumption, and insufficient physical activity were measured in 399 African American smokers. Analyses indicated that 92.8% of participants had a...

  5. Selected medical conditions and risk of pancreatic cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Sara H

    2012-01-01

    We review the current evidence for associations of several medical conditions with risk of pancreatic cancer, including allergies, pancreatitis, gall bladder disease, cholecystectomy, ulcers, gastrectomy, appendectomy, and tonsillectomy. There are consistent findings of reduced risk associated with presence of self-reported allergies, particularly hay fever but not asthma; data on other allergies are limited and inconclusive. Several studies provide evidence that patients with pancreatic cancer are more likely than comparison groups to report pancreatitis. Those studies that investigated the time between onset of pancreatitis and diagnosis of pancreatic cancer found that risk estimates declined with longer periods of time; however, increased risks were noted for long-term pancreatitis, indicating that this condition is both a risk factor and a sign of early disease. Increased risk was reported in association with cholelithiasis, but the few studies that considered time before diagnosis of cancer did not find increased risk for cholelithiasis diagnosed in the more distant past. There is weak evidence that cholecystectomy 2 or more years before cancer diagnosis is related to risk, but this is based on only a few studies. There is no consistent association between ulcers and risk, while gastrectomy may increase risk. Overall, study of these conditions, particularly those that are rare, presents methodologic challenges. Time between diagnoses is likely to be important but is not considered in most studies. Lack of adequate control in several studies for risk factors such as smoking and heavy alcohol use also makes it difficult to draw firm conclusions about these results. PMID:22162233

  6. Evaluating shielding effectiveness for reducing space radiation cancer risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We discuss calculations of probability distribution functions (PDF) representing uncertainties in projecting fatal cancer risk from galactic cosmic rays (GCR) and solar particle events (SPE). The PDFs are used in significance tests for evaluating the effectiveness of potential radiation shielding approaches. Uncertainties in risk coefficients determined from epidemiology data, dose and dose-rate reduction factors, quality factors, and physics models of radiation environments are considered in models of cancer risk PDFs. Competing mortality risks and functional correlations in radiation quality factor uncertainties are included in the calculations. We show that the cancer risk uncertainty, defined as the ratio of the upper value of 95% confidence interval (CI) to the point estimate is about 4-fold for lunar and Mars mission risk projections. For short-stay lunar missions (180d) or Mars missions, GCR risks may exceed radiation risk limits that are based on acceptable levels of risk. For example, the upper 95% CI exceeding 10% fatal risk for males and females on a Mars mission. For reducing GCR cancer risks, shielding materials are marginally effective because of the penetrating nature of GCR and secondary radiation produced in tissue by relativistic particles. At the present time, polyethylene or carbon composite shielding cannot be shown to significantly reduce risk compared to aluminum shielding based on a significance test that accounts for radiobiology uncertainties in GCR risk projection

  7. Evaluating Shielding Effectiveness for Reducing Space Radiation Cancer Risks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucinotta, Francis A.; Kim, Myung-Hee Y.; Ren, Lei

    2007-01-01

    We discuss calculations of probability distribution functions (PDF) representing uncertainties in projecting fatal cancer risk from galactic cosmic rays (GCR) and solar particle events (SPE). The PDF s are used in significance tests of the effectiveness of potential radiation shielding approaches. Uncertainties in risk coefficients determined from epidemiology data, dose and dose-rate reduction factors, quality factors, and physics models of radiation environments are considered in models of cancer risk PDF s. Competing mortality risks and functional correlations in radiation quality factor uncertainties are treated in the calculations. We show that the cancer risk uncertainty, defined as the ratio of the 95% confidence level (CL) to the point estimate is about 4-fold for lunar and Mars mission risk projections. For short-stay lunar missions (risk, however one that is mitigated effectively by shielding, especially for carbon composites structures with high hydrogen content. In contrast, for long duration lunar (>180 d) or Mars missions, GCR risks may exceed radiation risk limits, with 95% CL s exceeding 10% fatal risk for males and females on a Mars mission. For reducing GCR cancer risks, shielding materials are marginally effective because of the penetrating nature of GCR and secondary radiation produced in tissue by relativistic particles. At the present time, polyethylene or carbon composite shielding can not be shown to significantly reduce risk compared to aluminum shielding based on a significance test that accounts for radiobiology uncertainties in GCR risk projection.

  8. Breast cancer risk assessment using genetic variants and risk factors in a Singapore Chinese population

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Charmaine Pei Ling; Irwanto, Astrid; Salim, Agus; Yuan, Jian-Min; Liu, Jianjun; Koh, Woon Puay; Hartman, Mikael

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Genetic variants for breast cancer risk identified in genome-wide association studies (GWAS) in Western populations require further testing in Asian populations. A risk assessment model incorporating both validated genetic variants and established risk factors may improve its performance in risk prediction of Asian women. Methods A nested case-control study of female breast cancer (411 cases and 1,212 controls) within the Singapore Chinese Health Study was conducted to investigat...

  9. Pathological Internet Use and Risk-Behaviors among European Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tony Durkee

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Risk-behaviors are a major contributor to the leading causes of morbidity among adolescents and young people; however, their association with pathological Internet use (PIU is relatively unexplored, particularly within the European context. The main objective of this study is to investigate the association between risk-behaviors and PIU in European adolescents. This cross-sectional study was conducted within the framework of the FP7 European Union project: Saving and Empowering Young Lives in Europe (SEYLE. Data on adolescents were collected from randomized schools within study sites across eleven European countries. PIU was measured using Young’s Diagnostic Questionnaire (YDQ. Risk-behaviors were assessed using questions procured from the Global School-Based Student Health Survey (GSHS. A total of 11,931 adolescents were included in the analyses: 43.4% male and 56.6% female (M/F: 5179/6752, with a mean age of 14.89 ± 0.87 years. Adolescents reporting poor sleeping habits and risk-taking actions showed the strongest associations with PIU, followed by tobacco use, poor nutrition and physical inactivity. Among adolescents in the PIU group, 89.9% were characterized as having multiple risk-behaviors. The significant association observed between PIU and risk-behaviors, combined with a high rate of co-occurrence, underlines the importance of considering PIU when screening, treating or preventing high-risk behaviors among adolescents.

  10. Pathological Internet Use and Risk-Behaviors among European Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durkee, Tony; Carli, Vladimir; Floderus, Birgitta; Wasserman, Camilla; Sarchiapone, Marco; Apter, Alan; Balazs, Judit A; Bobes, Julio; Brunner, Romuald; Corcoran, Paul; Cosman, Doina; Haring, Christian; Hoven, Christina W; Kaess, Michael; Kahn, Jean-Pierre; Nemes, Bogdan; Postuvan, Vita; Saiz, Pilar A; Värnik, Peeter; Wasserman, Danuta

    2016-01-01

    Risk-behaviors are a major contributor to the leading causes of morbidity among adolescents and young people; however, their association with pathological Internet use (PIU) is relatively unexplored, particularly within the European context. The main objective of this study is to investigate the association between risk-behaviors and PIU in European adolescents. This cross-sectional study was conducted within the framework of the FP7 European Union project: Saving and Empowering Young Lives in Europe (SEYLE). Data on adolescents were collected from randomized schools within study sites across eleven European countries. PIU was measured using Young's Diagnostic Questionnaire (YDQ). Risk-behaviors were assessed using questions procured from the Global School-Based Student Health Survey (GSHS). A total of 11,931 adolescents were included in the analyses: 43.4% male and 56.6% female (M/F: 5179/6752), with a mean age of 14.89 ± 0.87 years. Adolescents reporting poor sleeping habits and risk-taking actions showed the strongest associations with PIU, followed by tobacco use, poor nutrition and physical inactivity. Among adolescents in the PIU group, 89.9% were characterized as having multiple risk-behaviors. The significant association observed between PIU and risk-behaviors, combined with a high rate of co-occurrence, underlines the importance of considering PIU when screening, treating or preventing high-risk behaviors among adolescents. PMID:27005644

  11. Pathological Internet Use and Risk-Behaviors among European Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durkee, Tony; Carli, Vladimir; Floderus, Birgitta; Wasserman, Camilla; Sarchiapone, Marco; Apter, Alan; Balazs, Judit A.; Bobes, Julio; Brunner, Romuald; Corcoran, Paul; Cosman, Doina; Haring, Christian; Hoven, Christina W.; Kaess, Michael; Kahn, Jean-Pierre; Nemes, Bogdan; Postuvan, Vita; Saiz, Pilar A.; Värnik, Peeter; Wasserman, Danuta

    2016-01-01

    Risk-behaviors are a major contributor to the leading causes of morbidity among adolescents and young people; however, their association with pathological Internet use (PIU) is relatively unexplored, particularly within the European context. The main objective of this study is to investigate the association between risk-behaviors and PIU in European adolescents. This cross-sectional study was conducted within the framework of the FP7 European Union project: Saving and Empowering Young Lives in Europe (SEYLE). Data on adolescents were collected from randomized schools within study sites across eleven European countries. PIU was measured using Young’s Diagnostic Questionnaire (YDQ). Risk-behaviors were assessed using questions procured from the Global School-Based Student Health Survey (GSHS). A total of 11,931 adolescents were included in the analyses: 43.4% male and 56.6% female (M/F: 5179/6752), with a mean age of 14.89 ± 0.87 years. Adolescents reporting poor sleeping habits and risk-taking actions showed the strongest associations with PIU, followed by tobacco use, poor nutrition and physical inactivity. Among adolescents in the PIU group, 89.9% were characterized as having multiple risk-behaviors. The significant association observed between PIU and risk-behaviors, combined with a high rate of co-occurrence, underlines the importance of considering PIU when screening, treating or preventing high-risk behaviors among adolescents. PMID:27005644

  12. Evaluating the impact of a community-based cancer awareness roadshow on awareness, attitudes and behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Samuel G; Osborne, Kirstie; Tring, Sophie; George, Helen; Power, Emily

    2016-06-01

    Improving public awareness of cancer and encouraging health behavior change are important aspects of cancer control. We investigated whether a community-based roadshow was an effective way of communicating with the public about cancer and encouraging behavior change. Data were from 1196 people who completed questionnaires at a Cancer Research UK Cancer Awareness Roadshow in 2013. Of these, 511 (43%) completed questionnaires immediately before their visit (pre-visit group) and 685 (57%) completed questionnaires immediately after their visit (post-visit group). Among the post-visit sample, 217 (32%) were retained after two months. Self-reported data were available on risk factor and symptom awareness, help-seeking barriers, use of healthcare services and health behaviors. Compared with the pre-visit sample, the post-visit group had greater awareness of cancer risk factors and was more positive about aspects of help-seeking but awareness of potential symptoms was similar. Most effects were maintained over two months. Intentions to eat more fruit and vegetables and to exercise more were comparable between the groups but more people in the post-visit sample intended to quit smoking. At 2-month follow-up, smoking prevalence had significantly reduced but fruit and vegetable consumption decreased and there was no change to physical activity. User of weight loss services and general practitioner visits were high at follow-up and largely attributed to the Roadshow. The Cancer Research UK Roadshow appears to improve risk factor awareness, promote positive attitudes towards help-seeking and increase smoking cessation. This approach could be a useful building block for additional cancer prevention and control strategies. PMID:26921657

  13. Serum YKL-40 in risk assessment for colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Julia Sidenius; Christensen, Ib Jarle; Jørgensen, Lars Nannestad;

    2015-01-01

    to endoscopy due to symptoms or other risk factors for colorectal cancer. Blood samples were collected just before large bowel endoscopy. Serum YKL-40 was determined by ELISA. Serum YKL-40 was higher (P < 0.0001, unadjusted for confounding covariates) in subjects diagnosed with colon cancer (median......The aim of the present study was to test the hypothesis that high serum YKL-40 associates with colorectal cancer in subjects at risk of colorectal cancer. We measured serum YKL-40 in a prospective study of 4,496 Danish subjects [2,064 men, 2,432 women, median age 61 years (range, 18-97)] referred...... useful in combination with other biomarkers in risk assessment for colorectal cancer. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 24(3); 621-6. ©2015 AACR....

  14. Chromosomal aberrations and SCEs as biomarkers of cancer risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norppa, H; Bonassi, S; Hansteen, I-L; Hagmar, L; Strömberg, U; Rössner, P; Boffetta, P; Lindholm, C; Gundy, S; Lazutka, J; Cebulska-Wasilewska, A; Fabiánová, E; Srám, R J; Knudsen, Lisbeth E.; Barale, R; Fucic, A

    Previous studies have suggested that the frequency of chromosomal aberrations (CAs), but not of sister chromatid exchanges (SCEs), predicts cancer risk. We have further examined this relationship in European cohorts comprising altogether almost 22,000 subjects, in the framework of a European...... collaborative project (CancerRiskBiomarkers). The present paper gives an overview of some of the results of the project, especially as regards CAs and SCEs. The results confirm that a high level of CAs is associated with an increased risk of cancer and indicate that this association does not depend on the time...... between CA analysis and cancer detection, i.e., is obviously not explained by undetected cancer. The present evidence indicates that both chromatid-type and chromosome-type CAs predict cancer, even though some data suggest that chromosome-type CAs may have a more pronounced predictive value than chromatid...

  15. Breast cancer prevention and theory of planned behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Tsounis A.; Sarafis P.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction:Breast cancer is considered to be one of the highest of all forms of cancer among women.Understanding the factors that influence the adoption of preventive behaviors in this particular area is very important. Aim:the aim of the present study is to identify the factors associated with mammography screening, according to the theory of the Planned Behavior framework. Method: the methodology which was used included a literature review of Greek and international bibliograp...

  16. Efficacy of a touchscreen computer based family cancer history questionnaire and subsequent cancer risk assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Westman, J; Hampel, H.; Bradley, T.

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—A computer based touchscreen family cancer history questionnaire was developed and implemented to facilitate the provision of cancer risk assessments for the ambulatory and outpatient populations of a free standing cancer hospital.
METHODS—A questionnaire consisting of a series of branched point decision making screens was developed which enables the participant to enter demographic data, personal cancer history, and cancer histories for first and second degree relatives. A freestan...

  17. Increased risk of cancer among relatives of patients with lung cancer in China

    OpenAIRE

    Xu Ming; Xu Yingchun; Jin Yongtang; Xue Saoli

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Background Genetic factors were considered as one of the risk factors for lung cancer or other cancers. The aim of this work was to determine whether a genetic predisposition accounts for such familial aggregation of cancer among relatives of lung cancer probands. Methods A case-control study was conducted in 800 case families identified by lung cancer patients (probands), and in 800 control families identified by the probands'spouses. The data were analysed with logistic regression ...

  18. Behavioral stress accelerates prostate cancer development in mice

    OpenAIRE

    Hassan, Sazzad; Karpova, Yelena; Baiz, Daniele; Yancey, Dana; Pullikuth, Ashok; Flores, Anabel; Register, Thomas; Cline, J. Mark; D’Agostino, Ralph; Danial, Nika; Datta, Sandeep Robert; Kulik, George

    2013-01-01

    Prostate cancer patients have increased levels of stress and anxiety. Conversely, men who take beta blockers, which interfere with signaling from the stress hormones adrenaline and noradrenaline, have a lower incidence of prostate cancer; however, the mechanisms underlying stress–prostate cancer interactions are unknown. Here, we report that stress promotes prostate carcinogenesis in mice in an adrenaline-dependent manner. Behavioral stress inhibited apoptosis and delayed prostate tumor invol...

  19. Trajectory of body shape across the lifespan and cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Mingyang; Willett, Walter C; Hu, Frank B; Spiegelman, Donna; Must, Aviva; Wu, Kana; Chan, Andrew T; Giovannucci, Edward L

    2016-05-15

    The influence of adiposity over life course on cancer risk remains poorly understood. We assessed trajectories of body shape from age 5 up to 60 using a group-based modeling approach among 73,581 women from the Nurses' Health Study and 32,632 men from the Health Professionals Follow-up Study. After a median of approximately 10 years of follow-up, we compared incidence of total and obesity-related cancers (cancers of the esophagus [adenocarcinoma only], colorectum, pancreas, breast [after menopause], endometrium, ovaries, prostate [advanced only], kidney, liver and gallbladder) between these trajectories. We identified five distinct trajectories of body shape: lean-stable, lean-moderate increase, lean-marked increase, medium-stable, and heavy-stable/increase. Compared with women in the lean-stable trajectory, those in the lean-marked increase and heavy-stable/increase trajectories had a higher cancer risk in the colorectum, esophagus, pancreas, kidney, and endometrium (relative risk [RR] ranged from 1.22 to 2.56). Early life adiposity was inversely while late life adiposity was positively associated with postmenopausal breast cancer risk. In men, increased body fatness at any life period was associated with a higher risk of esophageal adenocarcinoma and colorectal cancer (RR ranged from 1.23 to 3.01), and the heavy-stable/increase trajectory was associated with a higher risk of pancreatic cancer, but lower risk of advanced prostate cancer. The trajectory-cancer associations were generally stronger for non-smokers and women who did not use menopausal hormone therapy. In conclusion, trajectories of body shape throughout life were related to cancer risk with varied patterns by sex and organ, indicating a role for lifetime adiposity in carcinogenesis. PMID:26704725

  20. Risk Factors for Invasive Epithelial Ovarian Cancer by Histologic Subtype

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quirk JT

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available It is unclear whether the different histologic subtypes of epithelial ovarian carcinoma have different risk factors. We investigated the relationships between selected epidemiologic variables (i.e., parity, family history of ovarian cancer, oral contraceptive use, a history of tubal ligation and noncontraceptive estrogen use and the major histologic subtypes of epithelial ovarian cancer in a hospital-based case-control study of adult women at Roswell Park Cancer Institute in Buffalo, NY, USA. Multivariate unconditional logistic regression models were used for statistical analysis. We observed a pattern of increased risk associated with family history and a pattern of risk reduction associated with parity, noncontraceptive estrogen use and tubal ligation across all histologic subtype groups. However, we did not observe a consistent pattern of risk associated with oral contraceptive use. These results provide some additional support for the hypothesis that the effects of various ovarian cancer risk factors may differ according to the histologic subtype.

  1. Calculation of background lifetime risk of cancer mortality in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was designed to calculate the background lifetime risk of cancer mortality in Japan. The mortality and population data obtained from national surveys for the vital statistics and population census in 2010 are stratified at 5-year age intervals of 0-4, 5-9, ..., 80-84, with a final open interval of 85+ for use in a life table. It was found that the gender-averaged background lifetime risk of cancer mortality ranges from 23.7% to 28.3% among 47 prefectures, and the arithmetic mean was calculated to be 25.4%. It is important to consider the incremental risk of cancer mortality posed by exposure to ionizing radiation (e.g., an additive lifetime risk of 0.5% at the effective dose of 100 mSv) in the context of the level of the background lifetime risk of cancer mortality of the exposed population. (author)

  2. Obesity and Diabetes: The Increased Risk of Cancer and Cancer-Related Mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Emily Jane; LeRoith, Derek

    2015-07-01

    Obesity and type 2 diabetes are becoming increasingly prevalent worldwide, and both are associated with an increased incidence and mortality from many cancers. The metabolic abnormalities associated with type 2 diabetes develop many years before the onset of diabetes and, therefore, may be contributing to cancer risk before individuals are aware that they are at risk. Multiple factors potentially contribute to the progression of cancer in obesity and type 2 diabetes, including hyperinsulinemia and insulin-like growth factor I, hyperglycemia, dyslipidemia, adipokines and cytokines, and the gut microbiome. These metabolic changes may contribute directly or indirectly to cancer progression. Intentional weight loss may protect against cancer development, and therapies for diabetes may prove to be effective adjuvant agents in reducing cancer progression. In this review we discuss the current epidemiology, basic science, and clinical data that link obesity, diabetes, and cancer and how treating obesity and type 2 diabetes could also reduce cancer risk and improve outcomes. PMID:26084689

  3. Risk of Cardiovascular Disease Using Framingham Risk Score in Korean Cancer Survivors

    Science.gov (United States)

    So, Ji-Hyun; Shin, Jin-Young; Park, Wan

    2016-01-01

    Background Cardiovascular disease is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in cancer survivors. The aim of this study was to investigate the modifiable cardiovascular disease risk factors and 10-year probability of the disease based on the Framingham risk score in cancer survivors, compared with the general population. Methods A total of 1,225 cancer survivors and 5,196 non-cancer controls who participated in the 2007–2013 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys were enrolled. We assessed modifiable cardiovascular disease risk factors including smoking, body mass index, physical inactivity, high blood pressure, high cholesterol, and elevated blood glucose level. The 10-year probability of cardiovascular disease was determined by applying the Framingham cardiovascular disease risk equation among cancer survivors and non-cancer controls, ranging from 30 to 74 years old who had no overt cardiovascular diseases. Results The proportion of subjects who had higher fasting glucose levels, hemoglobin A1c levels, systolic blood pressure, and low density lipoprotein cholesterol levels, and those who had lower high density lipoprotein cholesterol levels was significantly higher in the cancer survivors than in the non-cancer controls. The average 10-year probability of cardiovascular disease among the cancer survivors was higher than that in the non-cancer controls in both men and women. The average 10-year probability of cardiovascular disease in relation to the cancer type was significantly higher in patients with hepatic, colon, lung, breast, and gastric cancer. Conclusion Cancer survivors have a higher cardiovascular disease risk and 10-year probability of cardiovascular disease than non-cancer controls. Control of cardiovascular disease risk factors and implementation of a well-defined cardiovascular disease prevention program are needed for treating cancer survivors. PMID:27468342

  4. AIDS prevention among Hispanics: needs, risk behaviors, and cultural values.

    OpenAIRE

    Marin, G.

    1989-01-01

    Data from different sources show that Hispanics are over-represented in reported cases of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) (twice their proportion of the population) and that their rate of infection by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is three times higher than among non-Hispanic whites. The behavior risk factors most frequently associated with infection in AIDS cases are IV drug use in the Northeast and high-risk sexual behavior in the West. HIV infection prevention strategies for...

  5. Risk behaviors for the health of adolescents from High School

    OpenAIRE

    José Henrique Ramos; Eliane Denise da Silveira Araújo; Nelson Blankb

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the risk behaviors (smoking addiction, alcoholism, drug use and sexual risk behavior) of adolescents from High School. Methods: It was an analytical and cross-sectional study. The sample consisted of 720 scholars (252 boys and 468 girls) from the age group of 16 to 17 years-old, from three public schools in Florianopolis/SC. The data was collected through two types of self administrated questionnaires; one for the parents and another one for the students, from March ...

  6. Health Risk Behavior and Sexual Assault Among Ethnically Diverse Women

    OpenAIRE

    Littleton, Heather L.; Grills-Taquechel, Amie E.; Buck, Katherine S.; Rosman, Lindsey; Dodd, Julia C.

    2012-01-01

    Sexual assault is associated with a number of health risk behaviors in women. It has been hypothesized that these risk behaviors, such as hazardous drinking, may represent women's attempts to cope with psychological distress, such as symptoms of depression and anxiety. However, extant research has failed to evaluate these relationships among ethnic minority samples or identify the mechanisms responsible for this association. The current study examined sexual assault history and two health ris...

  7. Dietary consumption patterns and laryngeal cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlastarakos, Petros V; Vassileiou, Andrianna; Delicha, Evie; Kikidis, Dimitrios; Protopapas, Dimosthenis; Nikolopoulos, Thomas P

    2016-06-01

    We conducted a case-control study to investigate the effect of diet on laryngeal carcinogenesis. Our study population was made up of 140 participants-70 patients with laryngeal cancer (LC) and 70 controls with a non-neoplastic condition that was unrelated to diet, smoking, or alcohol. A food-frequency questionnaire determined the mean consumption of 113 different items during the 3 years prior to symptom onset. Total energy intake and cooking mode were also noted. The relative risk, odds ratio (OR), and 95% confidence interval (CI) were estimated by multiple logistic regression analysis. We found that the total energy intake was significantly higher in the LC group (p zinc was significantly higher in the LC group before and after logistic regression analysis (p = 0.034 and p = 0.011; OR: 30.15, respectively). Cereal consumption (including pastas) was also higher among the LC patients (p = 0.043), with logistic regression analysis showing that their negative effect was possibly associated with the sauces and dressings that traditionally accompany pasta dishes (p = 0.006; OR: 4.78). Conversely, a higher consumption of dairy products was found in controls (p calcium appeared to be protective at the micronutrient level (p < 0.001; OR: 0.27). We found no difference in the overall consumption of fruits and vegetables between the LC patients and controls; however, the LC patients did have a greater consumption of cooked tomatoes and cooked root vegetables (p = 0.039 for both), and the controls had more consumption of leeks (p = 0.042) and, among controls younger than 65 years, cooked beans (p = 0.037). Lemon (p = 0.037), squeezed fruit juice (p = 0.032), and watermelon (p = 0.018) were also more frequently consumed by the controls. Other differences at the micronutrient level included greater consumption by the LC patients of retinol (p = 0.044), polyunsaturated fats (p = 0.041), and linoleic acid (p = 0.008); LC patients younger than 65 years also had greater intake of

  8. Refining Breast Cancer Risk Stratification: Additional Genes, Additional Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurian, Allison W; Antoniou, Antonis C; Domchek, Susan M

    2016-01-01

    Recent advances in genomic technology have enabled far more rapid, less expensive sequencing of multiple genes than was possible only a few years ago. Advances in bioinformatics also facilitate the interpretation of large amounts of genomic data. New strategies for cancer genetic risk assessment include multiplex sequencing panels of 5 to more than 100 genes (in which rare mutations are often associated with at least two times the average risk of developing breast cancer) and panels of common single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), combinations of which are generally associated with more modest cancer risks (more than twofold). Although these new multiple-gene panel tests are used in oncology practice, questions remain about the clinical validity and the clinical utility of their results. To translate this increasingly complex genetic information for clinical use, cancer risk prediction tools are under development that consider the joint effects of all susceptibility genes, together with other established breast cancer risk factors. Risk-adapted screening and prevention protocols are underway, with ongoing refinement as genetic knowledge grows. Priority areas for future research include the clinical validity and clinical utility of emerging genetic tests; the accuracy of developing cancer risk prediction models; and the long-term outcomes of risk-adapted screening and prevention protocols, in terms of patients' experiences and survival. PMID:27249685

  9. Isoflavones - Mechanism of Action and Impact on Breast Cancer Risk

    OpenAIRE

    Stubert, Johannes; Gerber, Bernd

    2009-01-01

    Isoflavones are plant-derived substances with weak es-trogenic effects. Asian populations are high consumers of soy products which are rich in isoflavones. The lower breast cancer incidence in Asian women compared with Western women has been associated with the possibility of a preventive isoflavone effect on cancer risk. The aim of this review is to give an overview of current research data on the influence of isoflavones on the risk of primary breast cancer development as well as the risk o...

  10. A social work study high-risk behavior among teenagers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Iravani

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Teenagers are believed the people who are supposed to build the world's future. High-risk behaviors such as addiction to drugs, smoking cigarettes, sex, etc. could significantly hurts teenagers and there must be some supporting programs to reduce these issues as much as possible. This paper performs an empirical investigation to study the different factors influencing high- risk behavior among teenagers who live in a city of Esfahan, Iran. The proposed study designs a questionnaire and distribute between two groups of female and male teenagers. The results indicate that while there is a meaningful relationship between high-risk behaviors and average high school marks among male students there is no meaningful relationship between high-risk behaviors and high school grades among female students. The results also indicate that there is a meaningful difference between gender and high-risk behavior. The season of birth for female and male students is another important factor for having high-risk behaviors. While the order of birth plays an important role among male students, the order of birth is not an important factor among female teenagers. Finally, the results indicate that teenagers' parental financial affordability plays a vital role on both female and male teenagers.

  11. Korean women: breast cancer knowledge, attitudes and behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryujin Lisa T

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Clustered within the nomenclature of Asian American are numerous subgroups, each with their own ethnic heritage, cultural, and linguistic characteristics. An understanding of the prevailing health knowledge, attitudes, and screening behaviors of these subgroups is essential for creating population-specific health promotion programs. Methods Korean American women (123 completed baseline surveys of breast cancer knowledge, attitudes, and screening behaviors as part of an Asian grocery store-based breast cancer education program evaluation. Follow-up telephone surveys, initiated two weeks later, were completed by 93 women. Results Low adherence to the American Cancer Society's breast cancer screening guidelines and insufficient breast cancer knowledge were reported. Participants' receptiveness to the grocery store-based breast cancer education program underscores the importance of finding ways to reach Korean women with breast cancer early detection information and repeated cues for screening. The data also suggest that the Asian grocery store-based cancer education program being tested may have been effective in motivating a proportion of the women to schedule a breast cancer screening between the baseline and follow-up surveys. Conclusion The program offers a viable strategy to reach Korean women that addresses the language, cultural, transportation, and time barriers they face in accessing breast cancer early detection information.

  12. Middle School Youth Risk Behavior Study, 2003

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whalen, Laura G.; Grunbaum, Jo Anne; Kinchen, Steve; McManus, Tim; Shanklin, Shari L.; Kann, Laura

    2005-01-01

    In the United States, nearly two-thirds of all deaths among young people 10-14 years of age result from only five causes: motor-vehicle crashes (22.1%), other unintentional injuries (16.7%), cancer (12.9%), suicide (6.8%), and homicide (4.7%). Leading causes of illness and death in all age groups in the United States are related to the following:…

  13. Breast Cancer Risk From Modifiable and Nonmodifiable Risk Factors Among White Women in the United States

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maas, Paige; Barrdahl, Myrto; Joshi, Amit D;

    2016-01-01

    Importance: An improved model for risk stratification can be useful for guiding public health strategies of breast cancer prevention. Objective: To evaluate combined risk stratification utility of common low penetrant single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and epidemiologic risk factors. Design...... information on individual level data on epidemiologic risk factors and 24 genotyped SNPs from prospective cohort studies, published estimate of odds ratios for 68 additional SNPs, population incidence rate from the National Cancer Institute-Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program cancer registry......, Setting, and Participants: Using a total of 17 171 cases and 19 862 controls sampled from the Breast and Prostate Cancer Cohort Consortium (BPC3) and 5879 women participating in the 2010 National Health Interview Survey, a model for predicting absolute risk of breast cancer was developed combining...

  14. Cervical cancer awareness and risk factors among female university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buga, G A

    1998-07-01

    Population cervical screening programmes are necessary for meaningfully reducing cervical cancer morbidity and mortality. Because of the high incidence of cervical cancer in South Africa, the need for a national screening programme has become evident. The success of such a programme will depend on, among others, the level of cervical cancer awareness among the target population, and their willingness to utilise cytological services and to comply with treatment and follow up protocols. We conducted a survey among female university students, as an elite group of women, to determine their level of cervical cancer awareness and the prevalence of the major risk factors for cervical cancer among them, their rate of utilisation of existing Pap smear services, and their attitudes to Pap smears in general. The majority of respondents were young, single (93.0%) and sexually active (86.9%,) having initiated sexual activity at a mean age of 17.27 +/- 2.18 years. There was a high prevalence of the major risk factors for cervical cancer among the respondents, and these included initiation of coitus before 18 years (53.3%), multiple sexual partners (73.6%), male partner with other partners (37.7%), and previous history of sexually transmitted diseases (42.2%) and vulval warts (4.7%). Their overall knowledge of cervical cancer was poor, although the majority of respondents were able to identify the major risk factors from a given list. This level of awareness of cervical cancer risk factors, however, did not translate into appreciation of personal risk of cervical cancer, safer sex practices or utilisation of Pap smear services. In conclusion, this elite group of women is at a high risk of cervical cancer and would benefit from cervical screening programmes. This would have to be coupled with measures to increase the level of awareness and knowledge of cervical cancer and its prevention. PMID:9803633

  15. Reduced cancer risk in vegetarians: an analysis of recent reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanou, Amy Joy; Svenson, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    This report reviews current evidence regarding the relationship between vegetarian eating patterns and cancer risk. Although plant-based diets including vegetarian and vegan diets are generally considered to be cancer protective, very few studies have directly addressed this question. Most large prospective observational studies show that vegetarian diets are at least modestly cancer protective (10%-12% reduction in overall cancer risk) although results for specific cancers are less clear. No long-term randomized clinical trials have been conducted to address this relationship. However, a broad body of evidence links specific plant foods such as fruits and vegetables, plant constituents such as fiber, antioxidants and other phytochemicals, and achieving and maintaining a healthy weight to reduced risk of cancer diagnosis and recurrence. Also, research links the consumption of meat, especially red and processed meats, to increased risk of several types of cancer. Vegetarian and vegan diets increase beneficial plant foods and plant constituents, eliminate the intake of red and processed meat, and aid in achieving and maintaining a healthy weight. The direct and indirect evidence taken together suggests that vegetarian diets are a useful strategy for reducing risk of cancer. PMID:21407994

  16. Reduced cancer risk in vegetarians: an analysis of recent reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy Joy Lanou

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Amy Joy Lanou1, Barbara Svenson21Department of Health and Wellness, 2Ramsey Library, University of North Carolina Asheville, Asheville, NC, USAAbstract: This report reviews current evidence regarding the relationship between vegetarian eating patterns and cancer risk. Although plant-based diets including vegetarian and vegan diets are generally considered to be cancer protective, very few studies have directly addressed this question. Most large prospective observational studies show that vegetarian diets are at least modestly cancer protective (10%–12% reduction in overall cancer risk although results for specific cancers are less clear. No long-term randomized clinical trials have been conducted to address this relationship. However, a broad body of evidence links specific plant foods such as fruits and vegetables, plant constituents such as fiber, antioxidants and other phytochemicals, and achieving and maintaining a healthy weight to reduced risk of cancer diagnosis and recurrence. Also, research links the consumption of meat, especially red and processed meats, to increased risk of several types of cancer. Vegetarian and vegan diets increase beneficial plant foods and plant constituents, eliminate the intake of red and processed meat, and aid in achieving and maintaining a healthy weight. The direct and indirect evidence taken together suggests that vegetarian diets are a useful strategy for reducing risk of cancer.Keywords: diet, vegan, prevention

  17. Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance--United States, 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaton, Danice K.; Kann, Laura; Kinchen, Steve; Ross, James; Hawkins, Joseph; Harris, William A.; Lowry, Richard; McManus, Tim; Chyen, David; Shanklin, Shari; Lim, Connie; Grunbaum, Jo Anne; Wechsler, Howell

    2006-01-01

    In the United States, 71% of all deaths among persons aged 10-24 years result from 4 causes: motor vehicle crashes, other unintentional injuries, homicide, and suicide. Results from the 2005 national Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) indicated that during the 30 days preceding the survey, many high school students engaged in behaviors that…

  18. Hormonal risk factors and invasive epithelial ovarian cancer risk by parity

    OpenAIRE

    Bodelon, C; Wentzensen, N; Schonfeld, S. J.; Visvanathan, K; Hartge, P; Park, Y; Pfeiffer, R. M.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Recent studies have suggested that several ovarian cancer risk factors differ by parity status, but these findings have not been confirmed. We evaluated whether known risk factors of ovarian cancer differ between nulliparous and parous women using data from two large prospective cohorts. Methods: Data from the National Institutes of Health-AARP Diet and Health Study and the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial were combined for this analysis. Cox regressio...

  19. BRCA1/BRCA2 founder mutations and cancer risks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Henriette Roed; Nilbert, Mef; Petersen, Janne; Ladelund, Steen; Thomassen, Mads; Pedersen, Inge Søkilde; Hansen, Thomas V O; Skytte, Anne-Bine; Borg, Åke; Therkildsen, Christina

    2016-01-01

    Mutations in the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes significantly contribute to hereditary breast cancer and ovarian cancer, but the phenotypic effect from different mutations is insufficiently recognized. We used a western Danish clinic-based cohort of 299 BRCA families to study the female cancer risk in...... mutation carriers and their untested first-degree relatives. Founder mutations were characterized and the risk of cancer was assessed in relation to the specific mutations. In BRCA1, the cumulative cancer risk at age 70 was 35 % for breast cancer and 29 % for ovarian cancer. In BRCA2, the cumulative risk...... was 44 % for breast cancer and 15 % for ovarian cancer. We identified 47 distinct BRCA1 mutations and 48 distinct mutations in BRCA2. Among these, 8 founder mutations [BRCA1 c.81-?_4986+?del, c.3319G>T (p.Glu1107*), c.3874delT and c.5213G>A (p.Gly1738Glu) and BRCA2 c.6373delA, c.7008-1G>A, c.7617+1G...

  20. Behavioral Risk Assessment of the Guarded Suicidal Patient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Robert I.

    2008-01-01

    Psychiatrists and other mental health professionals are trained to assess patients by direct observation and examination. Short inpatient length of stay, brief outpatient visits, emergency room evaluations, and other time-limited clinical settings require rapid assessment of suicide risk. Recognition of behavioral suicide risk factors can assist…

  1. The Risk of Divorce and Household Saving Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Libertad; Ozcan, Berkay

    2013-01-01

    We analyze the causal impact of an increase in the risk of marital dissolution on the saving behavior of married couples. We use the legalization of divorce in Ireland in 1996 as an exogenous shock to the risk of divorce. We propose several comparison groups (unaffected by the law change) that allow us to use a difference-in-differences approach.…

  2. Risk & Hedging Behavior: The Role and Determinants of Latent Heterogeneity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pennings, J.M.E.; Garcia, P.

    2010-01-01

    The notion of heterogeneous behavior is well grounded in economic theory. Recently it has been shown in a hedging context that the influence of risk attitudes and risk perceptions varies for different segments using a generalized mixture regression model. Here, using recently developed individual ri

  3. Risk Factors and Behaviors Associated with Adolescent Violence and Aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valois, Robert F.; MacDonald, John M.; Bretous, Lena; Fischer, Megan A.; Drane, J. Wanzer

    2002-01-01

    Reviews relevant research to examine risk factors and behaviors associated with adolescent aggression and violence. Adolescent aggression and violence develop and manifest within a complex constellation of factors (individual, family, school/academic, peer-related, community and neighborhood, and situational). Different risk factors are more…

  4. Clinician Perceptions of Childhood Risk Factors for Future Antisocial Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koegl, Christopher J.; Farrington, David P.; Augimeri, Leena K.

    2009-01-01

    We asked 176 mental health clinicians to list factors that place a child at risk for engaging in future antisocial behavior. Participants were randomly assigned to do this in relationship to boys and girls. Listed factors were then coded into broad item categories using the Early Assessment Risk Lists (EARL). Of the 1,695 factors listed, 1,476…

  5. Dietary acrylamide intake and risk of premenopausal breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Kathryn M; Mucci, Lorelei A; Cho, Eunyoung; Hunter, David J; Chen, Wendy Y; Willett, Walter C

    2009-04-15

    Acrylamide, a probable human carcinogen, is formed during high-temperature cooking of many commonly consumed foods. It is widespread; approximately 30% of calories consumed in the United States are from foods containing acrylamide. In animal studies, acrylamide causes mammary tumors, but it is unknown whether the level of acrylamide in foods affects human breast cancer risk. The authors studied the association between acrylamide intake and breast cancer risk among 90,628 premenopausal women in the Nurses' Health Study II. They calculated acrylamide intake from food frequency questionnaires in 1991, 1995, 1999, and 2003. From 1991 through 2005, they documented 1,179 cases of invasive breast cancer. They used Cox proportional hazards models to assess the association between acrylamide and breast cancer risk. The multivariable-adjusted relative risk of premenopausal breast cancer was 0.92 (95% confidence interval: 0.76, 1.11) for the highest versus the lowest quintile of acrylamide intake (P(trend) = 0.61). Results were similar regardless of smoking status or estrogen and progesterone receptor status of the tumors. The authors found no associations between intakes of foods high in acrylamide, including French fries, coffee, cereal, potato chips, potatoes, and baked goods, and breast cancer risk. They found no evidence that acrylamide intake, within the range of US diets, is associated with increased risk of premenopausal breast cancer. PMID:19224978

  6. Chromosome 15q25 (CHRNA3-CHRNB4) Variation Indirectly Impacts Lung Cancer Risk in Chinese Males

    OpenAIRE

    ZHANG, YALEI; Jiang, Mei; Li, Qin; Liang, Wenhua; He, Qihua; Chen, Weiqing; He, Jianxing

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Recently, genome-wide association studies (GWAS) in Caucasian populations have identified an association between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the CHRNA5-A3-B4 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subunit gene cluster on chromosome 15q25, lung cancer risk and smoking behaviors. However, these SNPs are rare in Asians, and there is currently no consensus on whether SNPs in CHRNA5-A3-B4 have a direct or indirect carcinogenic effect through smoking behaviors on lung cancer ri...

  7. Risks of Liver (Hepatocellular) Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cancer is present in the body. Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) is the most widely used tumor marker for ... and other types of cancer, may also increase AFP levels. Specific tumor markers that may lead to ...

  8. Sex Differences in Behavioral Impulsivity in At-Risk and Non-Risk Drinkers

    OpenAIRE

    Weafer, Jessica; De Arcangelis, Jessica; de Wit, Harriet

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Mounting evidence from both animal and human studies suggests that females are more vulnerable to drug and alcohol abuse than males. Some of this increased risk may be related to behavioral traits, such as impulsivity. Here, we examined sex differences in two forms of behavioral impulsivity (inhibitory control and impulsive choice) in young men and women, in relation to their level of alcohol consumption and alcohol-related problems (at-risk or non-risk). Methods Parti...

  9. Disparities in Cancer Genetic Risk Assessment and Testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Underhill, Meghan L; Jones, Tarsha; Habin, Karleen

    2016-07-01

    Scientific and technologic advances in genomics have revolutionized genetic counseling and testing, targeted therapy, and cancer screening and prevention. Among younger women, African American and Hispanic women have a higher rate of cancers that are associated with hereditary cancer risk, such as triple-negative breast cancer, which is linked to poorer outcomes. Therefore, genetic testing is particularly important in diverse populations. Unfortunately, all races and ethnic groups are not well represented in current genetic testing practices, leading to disparities in cancer prevention and early detection. PMID:27314195

  10. Sex- and gender-specific disparities in colorectal cancer risk

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Sung-Eun; Paik, Hee Young; Yoon, Hyuk; Lee, Jung Eun; Kim, Nayoung; Sung, Mi-Kyung

    2015-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is one of the most common causes of cancer morbidity both in men and in women. However, females over 65 years old show higher mortality and lower 5-year survival rate of colorectal cancer compared to their age-matched male counterparts. The objective of this review is to suggest gender-based innovations to improve colorectal cancer outcomes in females. Women have a higher risk of developing right-sided (proximal) colon cancer than men, which is associated with more aggressiv...

  11. Risk factors for subsequent endocrine-related cancer in childhood cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijnen, M; van den Heuvel-Eibrink, M M; Medici, M; Peeters, R P; van der Lely, A J; Neggers, S J C M M

    2016-06-01

    Long-term adverse health conditions, including secondary malignant neoplasms, are common in childhood cancer survivors. Although mortality attributable to secondary malignancies declined over the past decades, the risk for developing a solid secondary malignant neoplasm did not. Endocrine-related malignancies are among the most common secondary malignant neoplasms observed in childhood cancer survivors. In this systematic review, we describe risk factors for secondary malignant neoplasms of the breast and thyroid, since these are the most common secondary endocrine-related malignancies in childhood cancer survivors. Radiotherapy is the most important risk factor for secondary breast and thyroid cancer in childhood cancer survivors. Breast cancer risk is especially increased in survivors of Hodgkin lymphoma who received moderate- to high-dosed mantle field irradiation. Recent studies also demonstrated an increased risk after lower-dose irradiation in other radiation fields for other childhood cancer subtypes. Premature ovarian insufficiency may protect against radiation-induced breast cancer. Although evidence is weak, estrogen-progestin replacement therapy does not seem to be associated with an increased breast cancer risk in premature ovarian-insufficient childhood cancer survivors. Radiotherapy involving the thyroid gland increases the risk for secondary differentiated thyroid carcinoma, as well as benign thyroid nodules. Currently available studies on secondary malignant neoplasms in childhood cancer survivors are limited by short follow-up durations and assessed before treatment regimens. In addition, studies on risk-modifying effects of environmental and lifestyle factors are lacking. Risk-modifying effects of premature ovarian insufficiency and estrogen-progestin replacement therapy on radiation-induced breast cancer require further study. PMID:27229933

  12. Breast Cancer Risk Assessment: Moving Beyond BRCA 1 and 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scalia-Wilbur, Jennifer; Colins, Bradley L; Penson, Richard T; Dizon, Don S

    2016-01-01

    The National Cancer Institute estimates that 12.3% of all women (about 1 in 8) would be diagnosed with breast cancer throughout their lifetime. In 2015, a projected 231,840 new cases are expected in the United States, accompanied by 40,290 deaths. Presently, breast cancer is responsible for 6.8% of all cancer deaths, and roughly 30% of all cancers in women. Since the discovery of the BRCA gene in 1994, efforts have been made to develop effective screening methods for breast cancer detection. Although the BRCA gene certainly opened the door to breast cancer genetics, a wide variety of new genes have recently been linked to breast cancer risk, and the tools to screen for genes beyond just BRCA1 and BRCA2 are available. However, the indications for both screening and prevention of inherited predispositions beyond BRCA1 and BRCA2 are not entirely clear, and as a result, much of the ongoing work is aimed at determining the role of broader genetic screening in women deemed at sufficiently high risk for breast cancer based on family history. On this topic, we provide a brief overview of the genes associated with breast cancer risk as well as the technological platforms available to patients. We conclude by discussing recommendations of expert groups and what they practically mean for patients. PMID:26617204

  13. Insights from Epidemiology into Dichloromethane and Cancer Risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheryl Siegel Scott

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Dichloromethane (methylene chloride is a widely used chlorinated solvent. We review the available epidemiology studies (five cohort studies, 13 case-control studies, including seven of hematopoietic cancers, focusing on specific cancer sites. There was little indication of an increased risk of lung cancer in the cohort studies (standardized mortality ratios ranging from 0.46 to 1.21. These cohorts are relatively small, and variable effects (e.g., point estimates ranging from 0.5 to 2.0 were seen for the rarer forms of cancers such as brain cancer and specific hematopoietic cancers. Three large population-based case-control studies of incident non-Hodgkin lymphoma in Europe and the United States observed odds ratios between 1.5 and 2.2 with dichloromethane exposure (ever exposed or highest category of exposure, with higher risk seen in specific subsets of disease. More limited indications of associations with brain cancer, breast cancer, and liver and biliary cancer were also seen in this collection of studies. Existing cohort studies, given their size and uneven exposure information, are unlikely to resolve questions of cancer risks and dichloromethane exposure. More promising approaches are population-based case-control studies of incident disease, and the combination of data from such studies, with robust exposure assessments that include detailed occupational information and exposure assignment based on industry-wide surveys or direct exposure measurements.

  14. Perception and prevalence of behavioral risk factors: the lifestyle risk scale (LRS)

    OpenAIRE

    Beatrix Algurén; Rolf Weitkunat

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To develop a lifestyle risk scale (LRS) of health-related behaviors based on risk assessments of study participants. Method: By means of pairwise comparisons of assessed risks associated with tobacco, alcohol, obesity, fast-food, physical inactivity, and lack of sleep, each at four levels, 24 behaviors were ranked on a unidimensional risk scale. Results: Overall, use of tobacco was assigned the highest risk score (3.7), consumption of fast-food and lack of sleep the lowest (1.7, 1....

  15. Long-Term Survival and Risk of Second Cancers After Radiotherapy for Cervical Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To evaluate the risk of second cancers after cervical cancer treated with radiotherapy for Asian populations. Methods and Materials: We reviewed 2,167 patients with cervical cancer undergoing radiotherapy between 1961 and 1986. Intracavitary brachytherapy was performed with high-dose rate source (82%) or low-dose rate source (12%). Relative risk (RR), absolute excess risk (AR), and cumulative risk of second cancer were calculated using the Japanese disease expectancy table. For 1,031 patients, the impact of smoking habit on the increasing risk of second cancer was also evaluated. Results: The total number of person-years of follow-up was 25,771, with 60 patients being lost to follow-up. Among the 2,167 patients, 1,063 (49%) survived more than 10 years. Second cancers were observed in 210 patients, representing a significant 1.2-fold risk (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.1-1.4) of developing second cancer compared with the general population, 1.6% excess risk per person per decade of follow-up, and elevating cumulative risk up to 23.8% (95% CI, 20.3-27.3) at 30 years after radiotherapy. The RR of second cancer was 1.6-fold for patients with the smoking habit and 1.4-fold for those without. Conclusions: Small but significant increased risk of second cancer was observed among Japanese women with cervical cancer mainly treated with high-dose rate brachytherapy. Considering the fact that about half of the patients survived more than 10 years, the benefit of radiotherapy outweighs the risk of developing second cancer

  16. Estimating cancer risks to adults undergoing body CT examinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of the study is to estimate cancer risks from the amount of radiation used to perform body computed tomography (CT) examination. The ImPACT CT Patient Dosimetry Calculator was used to compute values of organ doses for adult body CT examinations. The radiation used to perform each examination was quantified by the dose-length product (DLP). Patient organ doses were converted into corresponding age and sex dependent cancer risks using data from BEIR VII. Results are presented for cancer risks per unit DLP and unit effective dose for 11 sensitive organs, as well as estimates of the contribution from 'other organs'. For patients who differ from a standard sized adult, correction factors based on the patient weight and antero-posterior dimension are provided to adjust organ doses and the corresponding risks. At constant incident radiation intensity, for CT examinations that include the chest, risks for females are markedly higher than those for males, whereas for examinations that include the pelvis, risks in males were slightly higher than those in females. In abdominal CT scans, risks for males and female patients are very similar. For abdominal CT scans, increasing the patient age from 20 to 80 resulted in a reduction in patient risks of nearly a factor of 5. The average cancer risk for chest/abdomen/pelvis CT examinations was ∼26 % higher than the cancer risk caused by 'sensitive organs'. Doses and radiation risks in 80 kg adults were ∼10 % lower than those in 70 kg patients. Cancer risks in body CT can be estimated from the examination DLP by accounting for sex, age, as well as patient physical characteristics. (authors)

  17. The Behavioral Risks of Today's College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivakhnenko, G. A.

    2012-01-01

    In the past 10 to 15 years, the wide prevalence of various forms of negative behavior among young people in college has become one of the main causes of their deteriorating health. Traditionally classified among such forms are the excessive consumption of alcohol, smoking, and narcotics abuse. Issues relating to the protection of students' health…

  18. Uncertain Futures: Individual Risk and Social Context in Decision-Making in Cancer Screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Simon J Craddock

    2010-04-01

    A core logic of cancer control and prevention, like much in public health, turns on the notion of decision-making under conditions of uncertainty. Population-level data are increasingly used to develop risk profiles, or estimates, that clinicians and the consumer public may use to guide individual decisions about cancer screening. Individual risk perception forms a piece of a larger social economy of decision-making and choice that makes population screening possible. Individual decision-making depends on accessing and interpreting available clinical information, filtered through the lens of personal values and both cognitive and affective behavioral processes. That process is also mediated by changing social roles and interpersonal relationships. This paper begins to elucidate the influence of this "social context" within the complexity of cancer screening. Reflecting on current work in risk and health, I consider how ethnographic narrative methods can enrich this model. PMID:20563321

  19. Meta analysis of risk factors for colorectal cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kun Chen; Jiong-Liang Qiu; Yang Zhang; Yu-Wan Zhao

    2003-01-01

    AIM: To study the risk factors for colorectal cancer in China.METHODS: A meta-analysis of the risk factors of colorectal cancer was conducted for 14 case-control studies, and reviewed 14 reports within 13 years which included 5034cases and 5205 controls. Dersimonian and Laird random effective models were used to process the results.RESULTS: Meta analysis of the 14 studies demonstrated that proper physical activites and dietary fibers were protective factors (pooled OR<0.8), while fecal mucohemorrhage,chronic diarrhea and polyposis were highly associated with colorectal cancer (all pooled OR>4). The stratified results showed that different OR values of some factors were due to geographic factors or different resourses.CONCLUSION: Risks of colorectal cancer are significantly associated with the histories of intestinal diseases or relative symptoms, high lipid diet, emotional trauma and family history of cancers. The suitable physical activities and dietary fibers are protective factors.

  20. HIV risk sexual behaviors among teachers in Uganda

    OpenAIRE

    Lillian Ayebale; Lynn Atuyambe; William Bazeyo; Erasmus Otolok Tanga

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies reveal that teachers are more likely to engage in high-risk sexual behavior compared to the rest of the adult population. Yet the education sector could be a major vehicle for imparting knowledge and skills of avoiding and/or coping with the pandemic. This study set out to establish HIV risk behaviors among teachers in Uganda, to inform the design of a behavior change communication strategy for HIV prevention among teachers. It was a cross sectional rapid assessment conducted a...

  1. Family indicators for the risk of addictive behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florova N.B.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The empirical findings in family problems relating to addictive behavior in children and adolescents, can serve a foundation for forming up a multiaxial system of indicators and backbone risk factors of addictive behavior in the family. On the ground of analysis of several publications the following risk indicators of addictive behavior in families can be introduced: environmental toxicity, family structure, parents' educational level, quality of parental styles, level of parents' aggravation, presence of empathy in children and adolescents, transgeneration transmission of sociocultural norms and traditions.

  2. [Results of a case-control study of the current effect of various factors on risk of cervix cancer. 1. Factors in reproduction, sex behavior and infectious genital diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köhler, U; Wuttke, P

    1994-01-01

    We performed a case control study to determine factors which influence the development of cervical carcinoma. Factors like reproduction, sexual behaviour and genital infections were considered. 309 patients with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) or invasive cervical carcinoma were interviewed as a study group. 490 patients with no cervical changes served as control group. The two groups of patients had a different age distribution with an early age summit in the study group. No differences were observed in relation to residence areas and attendance of screening for cervical carcinoma. 83.5% of the women in the study group (n = 258) and 81.0% (n = 397) of the control group attended the screening for cervical carcinoma. According to our observation, the following factors increased the risk of CIN or invasive cervical carcinoma: early menarche ( 14 years), multiparity (0 vs 1-3 vs > 4), first pregnancy before the age of 20, divorced women, early sexual contact ( 21 years), multiple sexual partners, vaginal discharge and venereal diseases (gonorrhea, syphilis). Factors like reproductive characteristics and genital infections can be interpreted as expressions of sexual behaviour. Despite the improving social status, increasing health consciousness and extensive mass-screening for cervical cancer, the above mentioned risk factors still play an important role. Risk group should be followed and examined strictly so as to reduce the rate of invasive cervical carcinoma in screened patients. PMID:8048284

  3. Obesity, Aspirin, and Risk of Colorectal Cancer in Carriers of Hereditary Colorectal Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Movahedi, Mohammad; Bishop, D Timothy; Macrae, Finlay;

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: In the general population, increased adiposity is a significant risk factor for colorectal cancer (CRC), but whether obesity has similar effects in those with hereditary CRC is uncertain. This prospective study investigated the association between body mass index and cancer risk in patie...

  4. Risk perception after genetic counseling in patients with increased risk of cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rantala Johanna

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Counselees are more aware of genetics and seek information, reassurance, screening and genetic testing. Risk counseling is a key component of genetic counseling process helping patients to achieve a realistic view for their own personal risk and therefore adapt to the medical, psychological and familial implications of disease and to encourage the patient to make informed choices 12. The aim of this study was to conceptualize risk perception and anxiety about cancer in individuals attending to genetic counseling. Methods The questionnaire study measured risk perception and anxiety about cancer at three time points: before and one week after initial genetic counseling and one year after completed genetic investigations. Eligibility criteria were designed to include only index patients without a previous genetic consultation in the family. A total of 215 individuals were included. Data was collected during three years period. Results Before genetic counseling all of the unaffected participants subjectively estimated their risk as higher than their objective risk. Participants with a similar risk as the population overestimated their risk most. All risk groups estimated the risk for children's/siblings to be lower than their own. The benefits of preventive surveillance program were well understood among unaffected participants. The difference in subjective risk perception before and directly after genetic counseling was statistically significantly lower in all risk groups. Difference in risk perception for children as well as for population was also statistically significant. Experienced anxiety about developing cancer in the unaffected subjects was lower after genetic counseling compared to baseline in all groups. Anxiety about cancer had clear correlation to perceived risk of cancer before and one year after genetic investigations. The affected participants overestimated their children's risk as well as risk for anyone in

  5. Risk-optimized proton therapy to minimize radiogenic second cancers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proton therapy confers substantially lower predicted risk of second cancer compared with photon therapy. However, no previous studies have used an algorithmic approach to optimize beam angle or fluence-modulation for proton therapy to minimize those risks. The objectives of this study were to demonstrate the feasibility of risk-optimized proton therapy and to determine the combination of beam angles and fluence weights that minimizes the risk of second cancer in the bladder and rectum for a prostate cancer patient. We used 6 risk models to predict excess relative risk of second cancer. Treatment planning utilized a combination of a commercial treatment planning system and an in-house risk-optimization algorithm. When normal-tissue dose constraints were incorporated in treatment planning, the risk model that incorporated the effects of fractionation, initiation, inactivation, repopulation and promotion selected a combination of anterior and lateral beams, which lowered the relative risk by 21% for the bladder and 30% for the rectum compared to the lateral-opposed beam arrangement. Other results were found for other risk models. (paper)

  6. Submission Form for Peer-Reviewed Cancer Risk Prediction Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    If you have information about a peer-reviewd cancer risk prediction model that you would like to be considered for inclusion on this list, submit as much information as possible through the form on this page.

  7. Can Certain 'Poor Carb' Diets Raise Nonsmokers' Lung Cancer Risk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... news/fullstory_157612.html Can Certain 'Poor Carb' Diets Raise Nonsmokers' Lung Cancer Risk? Study suggests link ... the disease may rise if they eat a diet rich in certain carbohydrates. These so-called "high ...

  8. Doctors Should Bone Up on CT Scan Cancer Risks

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... fullstory_159909.html Doctors Should Bone Up on CT Scan Cancer Risks Many not aware of exact radiation ... July 15, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Doctors routinely order CT scans as diagnostic tools. But many are ill-informed ...

  9. Alcohol, Processed Meats May Raise Stomach Cancer Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_158407.html Alcohol, Processed Meats May Raise Stomach Cancer Risk Excess ... 21, 2016 WEDNESDAY, April 20, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Alcohol, processed meats -- such as hot dogs, ham and ...

  10. Eat well, keep well and reduce your risk of cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Public Health Agency

    2010-01-01

    This leaflet highlights Northern Ireland's incidence of cancer as an important public health concern, and explains how eating more fruit, vegetables and other fibre rich foods can significantly reduce our risk of getting the disease.

  11. Is Ovary Removal Tied to Colon Cancer Risk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... removed. Often, an oophorectomy is done to treat ovarian cysts, Gaudet explained. But some women have them removed to lower their risk of ovarian cancer -- including women who carry the BRCA gene ...

  12. Cancer risks in Swedish Lapps who breed reindeer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cancer risks during the period 1961-1984 were studied in a cohort of 2,034 Swedish reindeer-breeding Lapps, a unique group whose culture and life-style differ considerably from those in the rest of the Swedish population. A total of 100 cases of cancer were observed versus 163 expected. Statistically significantly decreased risks were found for cancers of the colon, respiratory organs, female breast, male genital organs, and kidneys, and for malignant lymphomas. The stomach was the only site with a significantly increased risk. Reindeer-breeding Lapps have ingested fallout products via the lichen-reindeer-man food chain since the 1950s. However, no increased risk was found for the cancer sites considered to be most sensitive to radiation

  13. Risk of Breast Cancer After Onset of Type 2 Diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Bowker, Samantha L.; Richardson, Kathryn; Marra, Carlo A.; Johnson, Jeffrey A.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To examine the risk of breast cancer in pre- and postmenopausal women with type 2 diabetes (T2D). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS This was a population-based retrospective cohort study. Cox regression, stratified by pre- (

  14. Chemicals in Meat Cooked at High Temperatures and Cancer Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... studies have used detailed questionnaires to examine participants’ meat consumption and meat cooking methods to estimate HCA and ... A, et al. A large prospective study of meat consumption and colorectal cancer risk: An investigation of potential ...

  15. What Are the Risk Factors for Anal Cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... have few or no known risk factors. Human papilloma virus (HPV) infection Most squamous cell anal cancers ... to be linked to infection by the human papilloma virus (HPV), the same virus that causes cervical ...

  16. Risk of thyroid cancer, brain cancer, and non-Hodgkin lymphoma after adult leukemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sune F; Bojesen, Stig E; Birgens, Henrik S; Nordestgaard, Børge G

    2011-01-01

    Patients with childhood leukemia surviving into adulthood have elevated risk of developing thyroid cancer, brain cancer, and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL); these risks cannot automatically be extrapolated to patients surviving adult leukemia. We tested whether survivors of adult leukemia are at...... increased risk of developing thyroid cancer, brain cancer, and NHL. We included the entire adult Danish population (14 years of age or older), in a 28-year follow-up period from 1980 through 2007, composed of 6 542 639 persons; during this period, 18 834 developed adult leukemia, 4561 developed thyroid...... cancer, 13 362 developed brain cancer, and 15 967 developed NHL. In nested studies using Cox regression models on individual participant data, we found that, after adult leukemia, the multivariate adjusted hazard ratios were 4.9 (95% confidence interval [CI], 2.8-8.5) for thyroid cancer, 1.9 (95% CI, 1...

  17. Uneven Magnitude of Disparities in Cancer Risks from Air Toxics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satish Kedia

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This study examines race- and income-based disparities in cancer risks from air toxics in Cancer Alley, LA, USA. Risk estimates were obtained from the 2005 National Air Toxics Assessment and socioeconomic and race data from the 2005 American Community Survey, both at the census tract level. Disparities were assessed using spatially weighted ordinary least squares (OLS regression and quantile regression (QR for five major air toxics, each with cancer risk greater than 10−6. Spatial OLS results showed that disparities in cancer risks were significant: People in low-income tracts bore a cumulative risk 12% more than those in high-income tracts (p < 0.05, and those in black-dominant areas 16% more than in white-dominant areas (p < 0.01. Formaldehyde and benzene were the two largest contributors to the disparities. Contributions from emission sources to disparities varied by compound. Spatial QR analyses showed that magnitude of disparity became larger at the high end of exposure range, indicating worsened disparity in the poorest and most highly concentrated black areas. Cancer risk of air toxics not only disproportionately affects socioeconomically disadvantaged and racial minority communities, but there is a gradient effect within these groups with poorer and higher minority concentrated segments being more affected than their counterparts. Risk reduction strategies should target emission sources, risk driver chemicals, and especially the disadvantaged neighborhoods.

  18. The pharmaceuticalization of sexual risk: vaccine development and the new politics of cancer prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamo, Laura; Epstein, Steven

    2014-01-01

    Vaccine development is a core component of pharmaceutical industry activity and a key site for studying pharmaceuticalization processes. In recent decades, two so-called cancer vaccines have entered the U.S. medical marketplace: a vaccine targeting hepatitis B virus (HBV) to prevent liver cancers and a vaccine targeting human papillomavirus (HPV) to prevent cervical and other cancers. These viruses are two of six sexually transmissible infectious agents (STIs) that are causally linked to the development of cancers; collectively they reference an expanding approach to apprehending cancer that focuses attention simultaneously "inward" toward biomolecular processes and "outward" toward risk behaviors, sexual practices, and lifestyles. This paper juxtaposes the cases of HBV and HPV and their vaccine trajectories to analyze how vaccines, like pharmaceuticals more generally, are emblematic of contemporary pharmaceuticalization processes. We argue that individualized risk, in this case sexual risk, is produced and treated by scientific claims of links between STIs and cancers and through pharmaceutical company and biomedical practices. Simultaneous processes of sexualization and pharmaceuticalization mark these cases. Our comparison demonstrates that these processes are not uniform, and that the production of risks, subjects, and bodies depends not only on the specificities of vaccine development but also on the broader political and cultural frames within which sexuality is understood. PMID:24560236

  19. Sexual risk behaviors among women with bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marengo, Eliana; Martino, Diego J; Igoa, Ana; Fassi, Guillermo; Scápola, María; Urtueta Baamonde, Mariana; Strejilevich, Sergio A

    2015-12-30

    The aim of this study was to investigate sexual health and sexual risk behaviors for sexually transmitted infections (STI) among women with bipolar disorder (BDW). Sixty-three euthymic women diagnosed with bipolar disorder type I, II or not otherwise specified were included and matched with a control group of 63 healthy women. Demographic and clinical data, structured sexual health measures and extensive assessment of sexual risk behavior were obtained and compared between groups. BDW had casual partners, were in non-monogamous sexual partnerships and had sex with partners with unknown HIV condition more frequently than healthy control women. History of two or more STI was more frequent among BDW. Inclusion of sexual behavior risk assessment among BDW in treatment is necessary to better identify those women with higher risk for STI and to take measures to improve their sexual health. PMID:26564549

  20. Cancer Research Repository for Individuals With Cancer Diagnosis and High Risk Individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-12

    Pancreatic Cancer; Thyroid Cancer; Lung Cancer; Esophageal Cancer; Thymus Cancer; Colon Cancer; Rectal Cancer; GIST; Anal Cancer; Bile Duct Cancer; Duodenal Cancer; Gallbladder Cancer; Gastric Cancer; Liver Cancer; Small Intestine Cancer; Peritoneal Surface Malignancies; Familial Adenomatous Polyposis; Lynch Syndrome; Bladder Cancer; Kidney Cancer; Penile Cancer; Prostate Cancer; Testicular Cancer; Ureter Cancer; Urethral Cancer; Hypopharyngeal Cancer; Laryngeal Cancer; Lip Cancer; Oral Cavity Cancer; Nasopharyngeal Cancer; Oropharyngeal Cancer; Paranasal Sinus Cancer; Nasal Cavity Cancer; Salivary Gland Cancer; Skin Cancer; CNS Tumor; CNS Cancer; Mesothelioma

  1. Meat, fish, and colorectal cancer risk: the European Prospective Investigation into cancer and nutrition.

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Current evidence suggests that high red meat intake is associated with increased colorectal cancer risk. High fish intake may be associated with a decreased risk, but the existing evidence is less convincing. METHODS: We prospectively followed 478 040 men and women from 10 European countries who were free of cancer at enrollment between 1992 and 1998. Information on diet and lifestyle was collected at baseline. After a mean follow-up of 4.8 years, 1329 incident colorectal cancers ...

  2. Sugars, sucrose and colorectal cancer risk: the Fukuoka colorectal cancer study

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Zhenjie; Uchida, Kazuhiro; Ohnaka, Keizo; Morita, Makiko; Toyomura, Kengo; Kono, Suminori; Ueki, Takashi; Tanaka, Masao; Kakeji, Yoshihiro; Maehara, Yoshihiko; Okamura, Takeshi; Ikejiri, Koji; Futami, Kitaroh; Maekawa, Takafumi; Yasunami, Yohichi

    2014-01-01

    Objective A diet high in sugars may promote colorectal carcinogenesis, but it remains uncertain whether high intake of sugars or sucrose confers increased risk of colorectal cancer. The authors investigated the associations of sugars and sucrose intake with colorectal cancer risk in a community-based case–control study in Japan. Methods The study subjects comprised 816 incident cases of colorectal cancer and 815 community controls. Consumption frequencies and portion sizes of 148 food and bev...

  3. Diabetes mellitus, other medical conditions and familial history of cancer as risk factors for pancreatic cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Silverman, D.T. (Debra T.); Schiffman, M; Everhart, J; Goldstein, A.; Lillemoe, K D; Swanson, G.M.; Schwartz, A. G.; Brown, L.M.; Greenberg, R S; Schoenberg, J. B.; Pottern, L M; Hoover, R. N.; Fraumeni, J. F.

    1999-01-01

    In a population-based case-control study of pancreatic cancer conducted in three areas of the USA, 484 cases and 2099 controls were interviewed to evaluate the aetiologic role of several medical conditions/interventions, including diabetes mellitus, cholecystectomy, ulcer/gastrectomy and allergic states. We also evaluated risk associated with family history of cancer. Our findings support previous studies indicating that diabetes is a risk factor for pancreatic cancer, as well as a possible c...

  4. Obesity and Diabetes: The Increased Risk of Cancer and Cancer-Related Mortality

    OpenAIRE

    Gallagher, Emily Jane; LeRoith, Derek

    2015-01-01

    Obesity and type 2 diabetes are becoming increasingly prevalent worldwide, and both are associated with an increased incidence and mortality from many cancers. The metabolic abnormalities associated with type 2 diabetes develop many years before the onset of diabetes and, therefore, may be contributing to cancer risk before individuals are aware that they are at risk. Multiple factors potentially contribute to the progression of cancer in obesity and type 2 diabetes, including hyperinsulinemi...

  5. Cancer Risk Map for the Surface of Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Myung-Hee Y.; Cucinotta, Francis A.

    2011-01-01

    We discuss calculations of the median and 95th percentile cancer risks on the surface of Mars for different solar conditions. The NASA Space Radiation Cancer Risk 2010 model is used to estimate gender and age specific cancer incidence and mortality risks for astronauts exploring Mars. Organ specific fluence spectra and doses for large solar particle events (SPE) and galactic cosmic rays (GCR) at various levels of solar activity are simulated using the HZETRN/QMSFRG computer code, and the 2010 version of the Badhwar and O Neill GCR model. The NASA JSC propensity model of SPE fluence and occurrence is used to consider upper bounds on SPE fluence for increasing mission lengths. In the transport of particles through the Mars atmosphere, a vertical distribution of Mars atmospheric thickness is calculated from the temperature and pressure data of Mars Global Surveyor, and the directional cosine distribution is implemented to describe the spherically distributed atmospheric distance along the slant path at each elevation on Mars. The resultant directional shielding by Mars atmosphere at each elevation is coupled with vehicle and body shielding for organ dose estimates. Astronaut cancer risks are mapped on the global topography of Mars, which was measured by the Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter. Variation of cancer risk on the surface of Mars is due to a 16-km elevation range, and the large difference is obtained between the Tharsis Montes (Ascraeus, Pavonis, and Arsia) and the Hellas impact basin. Cancer incidence risks are found to be about 2-fold higher than mortality risks with a disproportionate increase in skin and thyroid cancers for all astronauts and breast cancer risk for female astronauts. The number of safe days on Mars to be below radiation limits at the 95th percent confidence level is reported for several Mission design scenarios.

  6. Factors affecting recognition of cancer risks of nuclear workers.

    OpenAIRE

    Kneale, G. W.; Stewart, A. M.

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVES--To discover whether direct estimates of the risks of cancer for nuclear workers agree with indirect estimates based on survivors of the atomic bomb; whether relations between age at exposure and risk of cancer are the same for workers and survivors, and whether dosimetry standards are sufficiently uniform to allow pooling of data from different nuclear industrial sites. METHOD--Data from five nuclear sites in the United States were included in a cohort analysis that as well as con...

  7. Oral contraceptive use and the risk of epithelial ovarian cancer

    OpenAIRE

    La Vecchia, C; Franceschi, S.; Decarli, A

    1984-01-01

    The relation between the use of combination oral contraceptives (OCs) and the risk of epithelial ovarian cancer was investigated in a case-control study conducted in Milan on 209 women below the age of 60 with histologically confirmed epithelial ovarian cancer, and 418 age-matched controls with a spectrum of acute conditions apparently unrelated to OC use. Combination oral contraceptives were used by 18 (9%) cases, and 59 (14%) controls, giving a relative risk estimate of 0.6 (95% confidence ...

  8. Photosensitizing medication use and risk of skin cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaae, Jeanette; Boyd, Heather A; Hansen, Anne;

    2010-01-01

    Many commonly used medications, including both medications for long-term (daily) use and short-term use (treatment courses of finite duration), have photosensitizing properties. Whether use of these medications affects skin cancer risk, however, is unclear.......Many commonly used medications, including both medications for long-term (daily) use and short-term use (treatment courses of finite duration), have photosensitizing properties. Whether use of these medications affects skin cancer risk, however, is unclear....

  9. Statin use and risk of nonmelanoma skin cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Sidsel Arnspang; Pottegård, A; Friis, S;

    2015-01-01

    Background:Evidence is conflicting regarding statin use and risk of basal cell (BCC) and squamous cell skin cancer (SCC).Methods:Using Danish nationwide registries, we identified all patients with incident BCC/SCC during 2005-2009 and matched them to population controls. We computed odds ratios...... plausibly explains the marginally increased risk of BCC.British Journal of Cancer advance online publication, 7 October 2014; doi:10.1038/bjc.2014.527 www.bjcancer.com....

  10. Physical activity and breast cancer risk in Chinese women

    OpenAIRE

    Pronk, A.; Ji, B. T.; X.O. Shu; Chow, W H; Xue, S.; G. Yang; Li, H. L.; Rothman, N.; Gao, Y.T. (Yu-Tang); Zheng, W.; Matthews, C.E.

    2011-01-01

    Background: The influence of different types and intensities of physical activity on risk for breast cancer is unclear. Methods: In a prospective cohort of 73 049 Chinese women (40–70 years), who had worked outside the home, we studied breast cancer risk in relation to specific types of self-reported and work history-related physical activity, including adolescent and adult exercise and household activity and walking and cycling for transportation. Occupational sitting time and physical activ...

  11. Familial breast cancer: management of ‘lower risk' referrals

    OpenAIRE

    Young, D; McLeish, L; Sullivan, F.; Pitkethly, M; M. Reis; Goudie, D; Vysny, H; Ozakinci, G; Steel, M

    2006-01-01

    Up to 40% of referrals from primary care to ‘breast cancer family clinics' prove to be of women whose assessed risk falls below the guidelines' threshold for management in secondary or tertiary care, despite recommendations that they should be screened out at primary care level. A randomised trial, involving 87 such women referred to the Tayside Familial Breast Cancer Service compared two ways of communicating risk information, letter or personal interview. Both were found to be acceptable to...

  12. Depot medroxyprogesterone (Depo-Provera) and risk of breast cancer.

    OpenAIRE

    C. Paul; Skegg, D C; Spears, G F

    1989-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To determine whether use of the injectable contraceptive depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (Depo-Provera) affects the risk of breast cancer in women. DESIGN--A population based case-control study. SETTING--Nationwide community study. SUBJECTS--891 Women aged 25-54 with newly diagnosed breast cancer were compared with 1864 women selected at random from the electoral rolls. INTERVENTION--Women were interviewed by telephone about past use of contraceptives and about possible risk fact...

  13. Breast Cancer Risk – Genes, Environment and Clinics

    OpenAIRE

    Fasching, P. A.; Ekici, A B; Adamietz, B. R.; Wachter, D. L.; Hein, A; Bayer, C. M.; Häberle, L.; Loehberg, C. R.; Jud, S.M.; Heusinger, K.; Rübner, M.; Rauh, C.; Bani, M. R.; Lux, M. P.; Schulz-Wendtland, R.

    2011-01-01

    The information available about breast cancer risk factors has increased dramatically during the last 10 years. In particular, studies of low-penetrance genes and mammographic density have improved our understanding of breast cancer risk. In addition, initial steps have been taken in investigating interactions between genes and environmental factors. This review concerns with actual data on this topic. Several genome-wide association studies (GWASs) with a case–control design, as well as larg...

  14. Is cancer risk of radiation workers larger than expected?

    OpenAIRE

    P. JACOB; Rühm, W; Walsh, L.; Blettner, M; Hammer, G; Zeeb, H.

    2009-01-01

    Occupational exposures to ionising radiation mainly occur at low-dose rates and may accumulate effective doses of up to several hundred milligray. The objective of the present study is to evaluate the evidence of cancer risks from such low-dose-rate, moderate-dose (LDRMD) exposures. Our literature search for primary epidemiological studies on cancer incidence and mortality risks from LDRMD exposures included publications from 2002 to 2007, and an update of the UK National Registry for Radiati...

  15. Venous Thromboembolism in the Cancer Population: Pathology, Risk, and Prevention

    OpenAIRE

    Hawbaker, Susan

    2012-01-01

    Patients with cancer have an increased risk of developing venous thromboembolism (VTE) and the incidence of these events has been increasing over the past decade. Venous thromboembolic events include both deep venous thrombosis and pulmonary embolism. These events contribute to higher morbidity and mortality rates. Understanding the complex pathogenesis of and risk factors for cancer-associated VTE will help guide advanced practitioners to improve outcomes with prophylaxis. The American Socie...

  16. Citrus Fruit Intake Substantially Reduces the Risk of Esophageal Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Anqiang; Zhu, Chengpei; Fu, Lilan; Wan, Xueshuai; Yang, Xiaobo; Zhang, Haohai; Miao, Ruoyu; He, Lian; Sang, Xinting; ZHAO, HAITAO

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Many epidemiologic studies indicate a potential association between fruit and vegetable intake and various cancers. The purpose of this meta-analysis is to investigate the association between citrus fruit intake and esophageal cancer risk. The authors conducted a comprehensive search on PubMed, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library from inception until July 2014. Studies presenting information about citrus intake and esophageal cancer were analyzed. The authors extracted the categories of...

  17. Gastric Cancer: Descriptive Epidemiology, Risk Factors, Screening, and Prevention

    OpenAIRE

    Karimi, Parisa; Islami, Farhad; Anandasabapathy, Sharmila; Neal D Freedman; Kamangar, Farin

    2014-01-01

    Less than a century ago, gastric cancer (GC) was the most common cancer in the United States and perhaps throughout the world. Despite its worldwide decline in incidence over the past century, GC remains a major killer across the globe. This article reviews the epidemiology, screening, and prevention of gastric cancer. We first discuss the descriptive epidemiology of GC, including its incidence, survival, and mortality, including trends over time. Next, we characterize the risk factors for ga...

  18. Risk Factors for Premenopausal Breast Cancer in Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Iqbal, Javaid; Ferdousy, Tahmina; Dipi, Rahela; Salim, Reza; Wei WU; Narod, Steven A.; Kotsopoulos, Joanne; Mostafa, Mohammad G.; Ginsburg, Ophira

    2015-01-01

    Background. The incidence of premenopausal breast cancer is rising throughout South Asia. Our objective was to determine the role of risk factors associated with Westernization for premenopausal breast cancer in Bangladesh. Methods. We conducted a matched case-control study between January 1, 2007, and December 31, 2010, at four hospitals in Bangladesh. Cases were premenopausal women diagnosed with invasive breast cancer. Controls were premenopausal women with no personal history of breast ca...

  19. How to reduce your cancer risk: mechanisms and myths

    OpenAIRE

    Nahleh Z; Bhatti NS; Mal M

    2011-01-01

    Zeina Nahleh1, Narinder Singh Bhatti2, Meenakshi Mal21Division of Hematology-Oncology, Department of Internal Medicine, TTUHSC-Paul L Foster School of Medicine, El Paso, TX, USA; 2Dayanand Medical College and Hospital, Ludhiana, Punjab, IndiaAbstract: Cancer prevention continues to be a high research priority and the most optimal way to ultimately lower the economic and psychological burden of cancer. Many known risk factors associated with cancer are related to dietary and lifestyle factors ...

  20. Risk Factors of Lymph Edema in Breast Cancer Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Shahpar, Haghighat; Atieh, Akbari; Maryam, Ansari; Fatemeh, Homaei Shandiz; Massoome, Najafi; Mandana, Ebrahimi; Masud, Yunesian; Hamid Reza, Mirzaei; Mohammad Esmaeil, Akbari

    2013-01-01

    Background. Lymphedema secondary to breast cancer treatment is a common and serious problem for disease survivors. The objective of the current study was to identify the risk factors of secondary lymphedema after breast carcinoma treatment. Materials & Methods. The breast cancer patients who were followed up in three centers in Tehran and Mashhad in 2010 were recruited in the study. The circumference measurement was used for defining lymphedema. Results. Among 410 breast cancer patients, 123 ...

  1. Cancer-related fatigue: Mechanisms, risk factors, and treatments

    OpenAIRE

    Bower, Julienne E.

    2014-01-01

    Fatigue is one of the most common and distressing side effects of cancer and its treatment, and may persist for years after treatment completion in otherwise healthy survivors. Cancer-related fatigue causes disruption in all aspects of quality of life and may be a risk factor for reduced survival. The prevalence and course of fatigue in cancer patients has been well characterized, and there is growing understanding of underlying biological mechanisms. Inflammation has emerged as a key biologi...

  2. Dietary Factors and the Risk of Thyroid Cancer: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Wook Jin; Kim, Jeongseon

    2014-01-01

    In the past few decades, the incidence of thyroid cancer has rapidly increased worldwide. Thyroid cancer incidence is relatively high in regions where the population's daily iodine intake is insufficient. While low dietary iodine has been considered as a risk factor for thyroid cancer development, previous studies found controversial results across different food types. Among different ethnic groups, dietary factors are influenced by various dietary patterns, eating habits, life-styles, nutri...

  3. Cadmium burden and the risk and phenotype of prostate cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Wu Tony T; Wu Hsi-Chin; Pu Yeong S; Chen Yi-Chun; Lai Ming; Yang Chun Y; Sung Fung-Chang

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Studies on the association between prostate cancer and cadmium exposure have yielded conflicting results. This study explored cadmium burden on the risk and phenotype of prostate cancer in men with no evident environmental exposure. Methods Hospital-based 261 prostate cancer cases and 267 controls with benign diseases were recruited from four hospitals in Taiwan. Demographic, dietary and lifestyle data were collected by standardized questionnaires. Blood cadmium (BCd) and ...

  4. Drinking Green Tea Modestly Reduces Breast Cancer Risk12

    OpenAIRE

    Shrubsole, Martha J.; Lu, Wei; Chen, Zhi; Shu, Xiao Ou; Zheng, Ying; Dai, Qi; Cai, Qiuyin; Gu, Kai; Ruan, Zhi Xian; Gao, Yu-Tang; Zheng, Wei

    2009-01-01

    Green tea is a commonly consumed beverage in China. Epidemiological and animal data suggest tea and tea polyphenols may be preventive against various cancers, including breast cancer. Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) catalyzes catechol estrogens and tea polyphenols. The COMT rs4680 AA genotype leads to lower COMT activity, which may affect the relationship between green tea consumption and breast cancer risk. We evaluated whether regular green tea consumption was associated with breast can...

  5. REPRODUCTIVE FACTORS AND COLORECTAL CANCER RISK. Case - control study.

    OpenAIRE

    Adriana Ruseva; Radka Lazarova; Ilko Kosturkov; Vesselina Ianachkova; Stella Yordanova; Zhivka Boneva; Diana Nikolovska

    2015-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is one of the most common cancers worldwide. The role of the female sex hormones in the etiology of the disease is very intriguing. Reproductive factors are surrogate measure of lifetime exposition to the sex hormones. Purpose: Our aim is to investigate the association between the reproductive factors and colorectal carcinoma risk. Materials and methods: We include 234 Bulgarian women in our study – 117 cases with colorectal cancer and the same number of healthy contr...

  6. Identifying patients at risk of emergency admission for colorectal cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Wallace, D.; Walker, K.; Kuryba, A; Finan, P; Scott, N.; Van Der Meulen, J.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Patients whose colorectal cancer is treated after an emergency admission tend to have late-stage cancer and a poor prognosis. We identified risk factors for an emergency admission by linking data from the National Bowel Cancer Audit (NBCA) and the English Hospital Episode Statistics (HES), an administrative database of all admissions to English National Health Service hospitals, which includes data on mode of admission. Methods: We identified all adults included in the NBCA with a...

  7. Risk factors for ovarian cancer: a case-control study.

    OpenAIRE

    Booth, M.; Beral, V; SMITH, P.

    1989-01-01

    A hospital-based case-control study of ovarian cancer was conducted in London and Oxford between October 1978 and February 1983. Menstrual characteristics, reproductive and contraceptive history and history of exposure to various environmental factors were compared between 235 women with histologically diagnosed epithelial ovarian cancer and 451 controls. High gravidity, hysterectomy, female sterilisation and oral contraceptive use were associated with a reduced risk of ovarian cancer. Infert...

  8. UNDERSTANDING AND MANAGING CONSUMER RISK BEHAVIOR

    OpenAIRE

    Pennings, J.M.E.; Ittersum, van, M.K.

    2004-01-01

    Abstract We present a conceptual framework for policy makers to analyze consumer behavior in times of crisis. The framework provides policy makers and the agricultural industry with a tool to structure the discussion on how to communicate crises to consumers and serves as a basis for concrete marketing policy. The merits of this conceptualization are illustrated in a field study that examines the reactions of German, Dutch, and American consumers to the BSE (Mad Cow Disease) crisis.

  9. Radiation and cancer risk in atomic-bomb survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodama, K; Ozasa, K; Okubo, T

    2012-03-01

    With the aim of accurately assessing the effects of radiation exposure in the Japanese atomic-bomb survivors, the Radiation Effects Research Foundation has, over several decades, conducted studies of the Life Span Study (LSS) cohort, comprising 93 000 atomic-bomb survivors and 27 000 controls. Solid cancer: the recent report on solid cancer incidence found that at age 70 years following exposure at age 30 years, solid cancer rates increase by about 35%  Gy(-1) for men and 58% Gy(-1) for women. Age-at-exposure is an important risk modifier. In the case of lung cancer, cigarette smoking has been found to be an important risk modifier. Radiation has similar effects on first-primary and second-primary cancer risks. Finally, radiation-associated increases in cancer rates appear to persist throughout life. Leukaemia: the recent report on leukaemia mortality suggests that radiation effects on leukaemia mortality persisted for more than 50 years. Moreover, significant dose-response for myelodysplastic syndrome was observed in Nagasaki LSS members even 40-60 years after radiation exposure. Future perspective: given the continuing solid cancer increase in the survivor population, the LSS will likely continue to provide important new information on radiation exposure and solid cancer risks for another 15-20 years, especially for those exposed at a young age. PMID:22394591

  10. Lifestyle Plays Bigger Part Than Genes In Cancer Risk

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江素序

    2000-01-01

    The world’s biggest study of cancer in twins has shown that the risk ofdeveloping the disease depends on how you live rather than who are your parents.Although genetic factors play a minor role in some cancers, including those of the

  11. What Are the Risk Factors for Stomach Cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... People with PJS have an increased risk of cancers of the breast, colon, pancreas , stomach, and several other organs. This syndrome is caused by mutations in the gene STK1 . A family history of stomach cancer People with first-degree relatives (parents, siblings, or ...

  12. Occupational lung cancer risk among men in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Preller, L.; Balder, H.F.; Tielemans, E.; Brandt, P.A. van den; Goldbohm, R.A.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: To assess male lung cancer risks for industrial sectors in the Netherlands and to estimate the proportion of lung cancer attributed to working in specific industrial sectors. Methods: Associations were studied among men aged 55-69 years (n = 58 279) from the prospective Netherlands Cohor

  13. BRCA1 and BRCA2: Cancer Risk and Genetic Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... BP. Fanconi anemia and the development of leukemia. Best practice & research. Clinical Haematology 2014; 27(3-4):214- ... 2007; 39(2):165–167. [PubMed Abstract] Related Resources Cancer Genetics Risk ... and Human Services National Institutes of Health National Cancer Institute ...

  14. Progestin and breast cancer risk: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samson, Marsha; Porter, Nancy; Orekoya, Olubunmi; Hebert, James R; Adams, Swann Arp; Bennett, Charles L; Steck, Susan E

    2016-01-01

    This systematic review summarizes research on the use of progestin and breast cancer risk. Although mainly used for contraception, progestin can help treat menstrual disorders, and benign breast, uterine, and ovarian diseases. Breast cancer is the leading site of new, non-skin, cancers in females in the United States, and possible factors that may modulate breast cancer risk need to be identified. ProQuest (Ann Arbor, MI) and PubMed-Medline (US National Library of Medicine, Bethesda MD, USA) databases were used to search for epidemiologic studies from 2000 to 2015 that examined the association between progestin and breast cancer. Search terms included epidemiologic studies + progesterone or progestin or progestogen or contraceptive or contraceptive agents + breast cancer or breast neoplasms. A total of six studies were included in the review. Five of the six studies reported no association between progestin-only formulations (including norethindrone oral contraceptives, depot medroxyprogesterone acetate, injectable, levonorgestrel system users, implantable and intrauterine devices) and breast cancer risk. Duration of use was examined in a few studies with heterogeneous results. Unlike studies of other oral contraceptives, studies indicate that progestin-only formulations do not increase the risk of breast cancer, although the literature is hampered by small sample sizes. Future research is needed to corroborate these findings, as further understanding of synthetic progesterone may initiate new prescription practices or guidelines for women's health. PMID:26700034

  15. Statins and the risk of gastric cancer in diabetes patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Jeeyun

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several studies have suggested a cancer risk reduction in statin users although the evidence remains weak for stomach cancer. The purpose of this study was to use an exact-matching case–control design to examine the risk of gastric cancer associated with the use of statins in a cohort of patients with diabetes. Methods Cases were defined as patients with incident gastric cancer identified by International Classification of Diseases 16.0 ~ 16.9 recorded at Samsung Medical Center database during the period of 1999 to 2008, at least 6 months after the entry date of diabetes code. Each gastric cancer case patient was matched with one control patient from the diabetes patient registry in a 1:1 fashion, blinded to patient outcomes. Results A total of 983 cases with gastric cancer and 983 controls without gastric cancer, matched by age and sex, were included in the analysis. The presence of prescription for any statin was inversely associated with gastric cancer risk in the unadjusted conditional logistic regression model (OR: 0.18; 95% CI: 0.14 – 0.24; P Conclusions A strong inverse association was found between the risk of gastric adenocarcinoma and statin use in diabetic patients.

  16. 7q21-rs6964587 and breast cancer risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Milne, Roger L; Lorenzo-Bermejo, Justo; Burwinkel, Barbara;

    2011-01-01

    Using the Breast Cancer Association Consortium, the authors previously reported that the single nucleotide polymorphism 7q21-rs6964587 (AKAP9-M463I) is associated with breast cancer risk. The authors have now assessed this association more comprehensively using 16 independent case-control studies....

  17. Radiation and cancer risk in atomic-bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the aim of accurately assessing the effects of radiation exposure in the Japanese atomic-bomb survivors, the Radiation Effects Research Foundation has, over several decades, conducted studies of the Life Span Study (LSS) cohort, comprising 93 000 atomic-bomb survivors and 27 000 controls. Solid cancer: the recent report on solid cancer incidence found that at age 70 years following exposure at age 30 years, solid cancer rates increase by about 35% Gy−1 for men and 58% Gy−1 for women. Age-at-exposure is an important risk modifier. In the case of lung cancer, cigarette smoking has been found to be an important risk modifier. Radiation has similar effects on first-primary and second-primary cancer risks. Finally, radiation-associated increases in cancer rates appear to persist throughout life. Leukaemia: the recent report on leukaemia mortality suggests that radiation effects on leukaemia mortality persisted for more than 50 years. Moreover, significant dose–response for myelodysplastic syndrome was observed in Nagasaki LSS members even 40–60 years after radiation exposure. Future perspective: given the continuing solid cancer increase in the survivor population, the LSS will likely continue to provide important new information on radiation exposure and solid cancer risks for another 15–20 years, especially for those exposed at a young age. (note)

  18. Plasma prolactin and breast cancer risk: a meta- analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Minghao; Wu, Xiujuan; Chai, Fan; Zhang, Yi; Jiang, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common cancer among women, and its incidence is on a constant rise. Previous studies suggest that higher levels of plasma prolactin are associated with escalated risk of breast cancer, however, these results are contradictory and inconclusive. PubMed and Medline were used to search and identify published observational studies that assessed the relationship between plasma prolactin levels and the risk of breast cancer. The pooled relative risks (RRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using a fixed-effects or random-effects model. A total of 7 studies were included in our analysis. For the highest versus lowest levels of plasma prolactin, the pooled RR (95% CI) of breast cancer were 1.16 (1.04, 1.29). In subgroup analyses, we found a positive association between plasma prolactin levels and the risk of breast cancer among the patients who were postmenopausal, ER(+)/PR(+) or in situ and invasive carcinoma. However, this positive association was not detected in the premenopausal and ER(-)/PR(-) patients. In conclusion, the present study provides evidence supporting a significantly positive association between plasma prolactin levels and the risk of breast cancer. PMID:27184120

  19. Chlamydia Trachomatis Infection-Associated Risk of Cervical Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Haiyan; Shen, Zhaojun; Luo, Hui; Zhang, Wenwen; Zhu, Xueqiong

    2016-01-01

    Abstract As whether Chlamydia trachomatis infection increases the risk of cervical cancer is controversial in the literature, we performed a meta-analysis. Based on a comprehensive search of publications in the Medline, Cochrane, and EMBASE databases, we identified and extracted data from all relevant articles examining C. trachomatis infection and the risk of cervical cancer. The quality of each included study was assessed according to the 9-star Newcastle–Ottawa scale. The strength of association between the C. trachomatis and risk of cervical cancer was estimated by odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). This review was registered at PROSPERO with registration No. CRD42014015672. A total of 22 studies with 4291 cervical cancer cases and 7628 controls were identified. Overall, C. trachomatis was significantly linked to increased cervical cancer risk in prospective studies (OR = 2.21, 95% CI: 1.88–2.61, P papilloma virus and C. trachomatis has a higher risk of cervical cancer (OR = 4.03, 95% CI: 3.15–5.16, P papilloma virus infections. This approach will not only protect against pelvic inflammatory disease and infertility, but may also prevent cervical cancer. PMID:27043670

  20. A KRAS-variant in Ovarian Cancer Acts as a Genetic Marker of Cancer Risk

    OpenAIRE

    Ratner, Elena; Lu, Lingeng; Boeke, Marta; Barnett, Rachel; Nallur, Sunitha; Chin, Lena J; Pelletier, Cory; Blitzblau, Rachel; Tassi, Renata; Paranjape, Trupti; Hui, Pei; Andrew K Godwin; Yu, Herbert; Risch, Harvey; Rutherford, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Ovarian cancer is the single most deadly form of women’s cancer, typically presenting as an advanced disease at diagnosis in part due to a lack of known risk factors or genetic markers of risk. The KRAS oncogene and altered levels of the microRNA let-7 are associated with an increased risk of developing solid tumors. In this study, we investigated a hypothesized association between an increased risk of ovarian cancer and a variant allele of KRAS at rs61764370, referred to as the KRAS-variant,...