WorldWideScience

Sample records for cancer research highlights

  1. Workshop Highlight - Office of Cancer Clinical Proteomics Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    As omics science moves forward, identifying methodologies and applications based on specific types of omic data, as well as their integration, becomes increasingly important as it provides new insights to be rapidly tested in basic or applied research.

  2. Highlights of recent developments and trends in cancer nanotechnology research--view from NCI Alliance for Nanotechnology in Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hull, L C; Farrell, D; Grodzinski, P

    2014-01-01

    Although the incidence of cancer and cancer related deaths in the United States has decreased over the past two decades due to improvements in early detection and treatment, cancer still is responsible for a quarter of the deaths in this country. There is much room for improvement on the standard treatments currently available and the National Cancer Institute (NCI) has recognized the potential for nanotechnology and nanomaterials in this area. The NCI Alliance for Nanotechnology in Cancer was formed in 2004 to support multidisciplinary researchers in the application of nanotechnology to cancer diagnosis and treatment. The researchers in the Alliance have been productive in generating innovative solutions to some of the central issues of cancer treatment including how to detect tumors earlier, how to target cancer cells specifically, and how to improve the therapeutic index of existing chemotherapies and radiotherapy treatments. Highly creative ideas are being pursued where novelty in nanomaterial development enables new modalities of detection or therapy. This review highlights some of the innovative materials approaches being pursued by researchers funded by the NCI Alliance. Their discoveries to improve the functionality of nanoparticles for medical applications includes the generation of new platforms, improvements in the manufacturing of nanoparticles and determining the underlying reasons for the movement of nanoparticles in the blood.

  3. FY 2016 Research Highlights

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2017-03-23

    This fact sheet summarizes the research highlights for the Clean Energy Manufacturing Analysis Center (CEMAC) for Fiscal Year 2106. Topics covered include additive manufacturing for the wind industry, biomass-based chemicals substitutions, carbon fiber manufacturing facility siting, geothermal power plant turbines, hydrogen refueling stations, hydropower turbines, LEDs and lighting, light-duty automotive lithium-ion cells, magnetocaloric refrigeration, silicon carbide power electronics for variable frequency motor drives, solar photovoltaics, and wide bandgap semiconductor opportunities in power electronics.

  4. On the path to translation: Highlights from the 2010 Canadian Conference on Ovarian Cancer Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thériault Brigitte L

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Ovarian cancer continues to be the most lethal of the gynaecologic malignancies due to the lack of early detection, screening strategies and ineffective therapeutics for late-stage metastatic disease, particularly in the recurrent setting. The gathering of researchers investigating fundamental pathobiology of ovarian cancer and the clinicians who treat patients with this insidious disease is paramount to meeting the challenges we face. Since 2002, the Canadian Conference on Ovarian Cancer Research, held every two years, has served this essential purpose. The objectives of this conference have been to disseminate new information arising from the most recent ovarian cancer research and identify the most pressing challenges we still face as scientists and clinicians. This is best accomplished through direct encounters and exchanges of innovative ideas among colleagues and trainees from the realms of basic science and clinical disciplines. This meeting has and continues to successfully facilitate rapid networking and establish new collaborations from across Canada. This year, more guest speakers and participants from other countries have extended the breadth of the research on ovarian cancer that was discussed at the meeting. This report summarizes the key findings presented at the fifth biennial Canadian Conference on Ovarian Cancer Research held in Toronto, Ontario, and includes the important issues and challenges we still face in the years ahead to make a significant impact on this devastating disease.

  5. Research Highlights of CAS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    @@ 1. Basic Research Basic research has always been one of the major tasks of CAS. Over the more than 50 years since its founding, CAS has gradually branched out to cover many fundamental fields of the natural sciences, such as mathematics, physics, chemistry, mechanics,astronomy, space science, life science, geoscience and environmental science - with nearly 10,000 research professionals and 117 open laboratories (including 50 key State laboratories). At present, there are 29 research institutes (including observatories) covering such fields as physical science, mathematics, mechanics and astronomy; with 31 open laboratories (nine key State laboratories, four State laboratories and 18 CAS open laboratories).

  6. OCLC Research: 2014 Highlights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dempsey, Lorcan

    2015-01-01

    OCLC Research is one of the world's leading centers devoted exclusively to the challenges facing libraries and archives in a rapidly changing information technology environment. The mission of OCLC is to expand knowledge that advances OCLC's public purposes of advancing libraries and librarianship. The goal is to help libraries plan with…

  7. 1996 Research Highlights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    physicist Dr. Tom Gladd (Berkeley Research Associates), and electrical engineer Dr. Mark Rader , who managed an OOPIC software repository at historically...identify the exact location of underground bunkers or tunnels "tagged" by ground forces. Wolff’s work also holds promise for improved flight safety

  8. Atmospheric Research 2014 Technical Highlights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platnick, Steven

    2015-01-01

    Earth Sciences Division in atmospheric science research. Figure 1.1 shows the 20-year record of peer-reviewed publications and proposals among the various Laboratories. This data shows that the scientific work being conducted in the Laboratories is competitive with the work being done elsewhere in universities and other government agencies. The office of Deputy Director for Atmospheric Research will strive to maintain this record by rigorously monitoring and promoting quality while emphasizing coordination and integration among atmospheric disciplines. Also, an appropriate balance will be maintained between the scientists' responsibility for large collaborative projects and missions and their need to carry out active science research as a principal investigator. This balance allows members of the Laboratories to improve their scientific credentials, and develop leadership potentials. Interdisciplinary research is carried out in collaboration with other laboratories and research groups within the Earth Sciences Division, across the Sciences and Exploration Directorate, and with partners in universities and other government agencies. Members of the Laboratories interact with the general public to support a wide range of interests in the atmospheric sciences. Among other activities, the Laboratories raise the public's awareness of atmospheric science by presenting public lectures and demonstrations, by making scientific data available to wide audiences, by teaching, and by mentoring students and teachers. The Atmosphere Laboratories make substantial efforts to attract and recruit new scientists to the various areas of atmospheric research. We strongly encourage the establishment of partnerships with Federal and state agencies that have operational responsibilities to promote the societal application of our science products. This report describes our role in NASA's mission, provides highlights of our research scope and activities, and summarizes our scientists' major

  9. Survivorship conference highlights research for survivor care

    Science.gov (United States)

    More than 400 leading experts in cancer survivorship convened today for a conference, Cancer Survivorship Research: Translating Science to Care, to focus on such current concerns as how obesity might not have the same effects on all cancer survivors, and

  10. Spring Research Festival Highlighted on WHAG-TV | Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    WHAG-TV (Hagerstown, Md.) visited Fort Detrick to highlight the 2015 Spring Research Festival (SRF), sponsored by the National Interagency Confederation for Biological Research (NICBR). Visit the WHAG-TV website to see the video broadcast, which aired May 6. The video was produced by WHAG Reporter Mallory Sofastaii. The video featured Linganore High School senior Rebecca Matthews, a Werner H. Kirsten student intern in the Human Retrovirus Pathogenesis Section, Vaccine Branch, NCI Center for Cancer Research; Lanessa Hill, public affairs specialist,

  11. NCI intramural research highlighted at 2014 AACR meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    This year’s American Association for Cancer Research meeting featured plenary talks by two NCI scientists, Steven Rosenberg, M.D., and Louis Staudt, M.D., Ph.D., that highlighted the challenges in developing varied and potentially synergistic treatments f

  12. Highlights from the prostate cancer genome report

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shyh-Han Tan; Gyorgy Petrovics; Shiv Srivastava

    2011-01-01

    @@ Prostate cancer (Cap) is the second most frequently diagnosed cancer of men worldwide (899 000 new cases,13.6% of the total),with nearly 75% of the registered cases occurring in developed countries (644000 cases).1 Blood prostate-specific antigen test has revolutionized the early detection of Cap and organ-confined Cap is effectively managed by state-of-the-art treatments including radical prostatectomy or radiation therapy.2 In the past decade,tremendous progress has also been made in our understanding of the biology and common genomicalterations in Cap 3.4 New molecular marker assays have promise in improving CaP diagnosis.Despite these advances,major challenges remain with our ability to distinguish indolent cancers from the more aggressive cancers detected early due to widely used prostate-specific antigen test.Furthermore,development of molecular stratification of CaP for targeted and more effective therapies is critically needed.

  13. [San Antonio Breast Cancer Symposium -- highlights 2004].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rody, A; V Minckwitz, G; Loibl, S; Kaufmann, M

    2005-04-01

    The adjuvant therapy of postmenopausal, hormonereceptor positive breast cancer patients with aromatase inhibitors in ATAC, ABCSG 8/ ARNO 95 and IES trial revealed just a benefit in terms of disease-free survival, but not for over-all survival. Thus MA-17 trial is so far the only study which could demonstrate a survival benefit for node positive disease by "extended adjuvant" therapy with letrozole. Node- and receptorpositive, postmenopausal women show a higher benefit by anthracycline containing chemotherapy in combination with tamoxifen, than by endocrine therapy alone. But tamoxifen should given sequentially to chemotherapy (Intergroup 0100/ SWOG-8814 trial). Adjuvant chemotherapy with three cycles FEC followed by three cycles docetaxel reveals a survival benefit compared to six cycles FEC, especially in women older than 50 years (PACS 01 trial). Furthermore there is evolving evidence that dose-dense, interval shortened chemotherapy is superior to standard chemotherapy in adjuvant setting. The impaired survival of receptornegative, nodalpositive breast cancer patients seems to be converted to a survival improvement compared with receptorpositive patients by modern adjuvant cytotoxic regimens (metaanalysis CALGB 8541, 9344, 9741). In primary systemic chemotherapy survival is strongly associated with the rate of pathohistological complete remissions (NSABP B-27). The combination of cytotoxic drugs has no further influence on survival, but the sequential administration of taxane increases the rate of pCR. A difference in survival stratified by pCR and non-pCR in breast and positive nodal status could not be detected, so that the number of involved lymph nodes seems to be the strongest prognostic factor and is independent of tumor response in the breast. The sentinel node biopsy is a safe and reliable method, but the rate of false negative findings depends on the pathohistological methods (NSABP B-32). The morbidity of this method is low compared with conventional

  14. Highlights from the Ninth European Breast Cancer Conference, Glasgow, 19–21 March 2014

    OpenAIRE

    Munzone, Elisabetta

    2014-01-01

    The Ninth European Breast Cancer Conference (EBCC-9), one of the largest breast cancer conferences in the world, was held in Glasgow in March 2014, and brought together the voices of doctors, researchers, nurses, and patients. All the major breast cancer advocacy groups and institutions were united in one forum (Europa Donna, the EORTC Breast Cancer group, and EUSOMA). The Scientific Programme for EBCC-9 highlighted a holistic picture of breast cancer, including research, prevention, treatmen...

  15. Research highlights: printing the future of microfabrication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Peter; Murray, Coleman; Kim, Donghyuk; Di Carlo, Dino

    2014-05-07

    In this issue we highlight emerging microfabrication approaches suitable for microfluidic systems with a focus on "additive manufacturing" processes (i.e. printing). In parallel with the now-wider availability of low cost consumer-grade 3D printers (as evidenced by at least three brands of 3D printers for sale in a recent visit to an electronics store in Akihabara, Tokyo), commercial-grade 3D printers are ramping to higher and higher resolution with new capabilities, such as printing of multiple materials of different transparency, and with different mechanical and electrical properties. We highlight new work showing that 3D printing (stereolithography approaches in particular) has now risen as a viable technology to print whole microfluidic devices. Printing on 2D surfaces such as paper is an everyday experience, and has been used widely in analytical chemistry for printing conductive materials on paper strips for glucose and other electrochemical sensors. We highlight recent work using electrodes printed on paper for digital microfluidic droplet actuation. Finally, we highlight recent work in which printing of membrane-bound droplets that interconnect through bilayer membranes may open up an entirely new approach to microfluidic manufacturing of soft devices that mimic physiological systems.

  16. Introducing Open Highlights: Highlighting Open Access Research from PLOS and Beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-01

    PLOS Biology announces a new article type, Open Highlights, which uses a recent research article to nucleate a short synthesis of up to ten related research articles from other PLOS journals and from the wider Open Access corpus.

  17. Research highlights: digital assays on chip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Donghyuk; Wei, Qingshan; Kong, Janay Elise; Ozcan, Aydogan; Di Carlo, Dino

    2015-01-07

    The ability to break up a volume of fluid into smaller pieces that are confined or separated to prevent molecular communication/transport is a key capability intrinsic to microfluidic systems. This capability has been used to develop or implement digital versions of traditional molecular analysis assays, including digital PCR and digital immunoassays/ELISA. In these digital versions, the concentration of the target analyte is in a range such that, when sampled into smaller fluid volumes, either a single molecule or no molecule may be present. Subsequent amplification is sensitive enough to obtain a digital readout of the presence of these target molecules. Advantages of such approaches that are claimed include quantification without calibration and robustness to variations in reaction conditions or times because the digital readout is less sensitive to absolute signal intensity levels. Weaknesses of digital approaches include a lower dynamic range of concentrations over which the assay is sensitive, which depends on the total volume that can be analyzed. We highlight recent efforts to expand the dynamic range of digital assays based on exploiting reaction/diffusion phenomena. A side-by-side study that evaluates the strengths of digital assays reveals that the majority of these claims are supported, with specific caveats. Finally, we highlight approaches to apply digital assays to analyze new types of reactions, including the active transport of protons across membranes by ATPases at the single protein level - perhaps opening up new biophysical understanding and screening opportunities, similar to widely deployed single-molecule ion channel analysis.

  18. HIGHLIGHTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DEGYI

    2002-01-01

    King Gesar is a focus of study in and outside China. Accomplished scholars include:——Alexandra David-Neel (1868-1969): A noted French expert in Oriental studies, Chinese and Tibetan studies in the 20th century, she visited Tibet and surrounding areas five times for survey. Her treatises and diaries related to the Orient, especially to Tibet and related areas, were translated into many languages and published repeatedly.——Ren Neiqiang (1894-1989): A noted geologist, an expert in ethnic groups and a pioneer in Tibetan studies. From 1939 to 1944, he published his Initial Introduction to "Tibetan Three Kingdoms" and "On the Three Kingdoms" in Border Government Affairs Forum and Kangdao Month.——R.A. Stein (1911-1999): He is held as the most successful Tibetan study worker in France in the 20th century. And he was one of the few who could do research in both Tibetan and Chinese. His contribution to the study of King Gesarfinds expression in his effort to translate the epic.——Wang Yinuan (1907-1998): A

  19. Research highlights: impacts of microplastics on plankton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Vivian S

    2016-02-01

    Each year, millions of metric tons of the plastic produced for food packaging, personal care products, fishing gear, and other human activities end up in lakes, rivers, and the ocean. The breakdown of these primary plastics in the environment results in microplastics, small fragments of plastic typically less than 1-5 mm in size. These synthetic particles have been detected in all of the world's oceans and also in many freshwater systems, accumulating in sediment, on shorelines, suspended in surface waters, and being ingested by plankton, fish, birds, and marine mammals. While the occurrence of plastics in surface waters has been surveyed in a number of studies, the impacts of microplastics on marine organisms are still being elucidated. This highlight features three recent publications that explore the interactions of microplastics with planktonic organisms to clarify the effects of these pollutants on some of the ocean's smallest and most important inhabitants.

  20. Research highlights: microfluidics meets big data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Peter; Weaver, Westbrook M; Masaeli, Mahdokht; Owsley, Keegan; Di Carlo, Dino

    2014-03-07

    In this issue we highlight a collection of recent work in which microfluidic parallelization and automation have been employed to address the increasing need for large amounts of quantitative data concerning cellular function--from correlating microRNA levels to protein expression, increasing the throughput and reducing the noise when studying protein dynamics in single-cells, and understanding how signal dynamics encodes information. The painstaking dissection of cellular pathways one protein at a time appears to be coming to an end, leading to more rapid discoveries which will inevitably translate to better cellular control--in producing useful gene products and treating disease at the individual cell level. From these studies it is also clear that development of large scale mutant or fusion libraries, automation of microscopy, image analysis, and data extraction will be key components as microfluidics contributes its strengths to aid systems biology moving forward.

  1. Chemical Engineering Division research highlights, 1977

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-08-01

    Separate abstracts are included for sections with information on lithium/metal sulfide batteries; electrochemical energy development; advanced fuel cell development; utilization of coal; magnetohydrodynamics technology; LMFBR and GCFR support work; fuel cycle studies; fusion reactor research; solar energy development; and basic energy science.

  2. Chemical Engineering Division research highlights, 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burris, L.; Webster, D. S.; Barney, D. L.; Cafasso, F. A.; Steindler, M. J.

    1980-06-01

    In 1979, CEN conducted research and development in the following areas: (1) high-temperature, rechargeable lithium/iron sulfide batteries for electric vehicles and electric utility load leveling; (2) ambient-temperature batteries - improved lead-acid, nickel/zinc, and nickel/iron - for electric vehicles; (3) molten carbonate fuel cells for use by electric utilities; (4) coal technology - mainly fluidized-bed combustion of coal in the presence of SO/sub 2/ sorbent of limestone; (5) heat- and seed- recovery technology for open-cycle magnetohydrodynamic systems; (6) solar energy collectors and thermal energy storage; (7) fast breeder reactor chemistry research - chemical support of reactor safety studies, chemistry of irradiated fuels, and sodium technology; (8) fuel cycle technology - reprocessing of nuclear fuels, management of nuclear wastes, geologic migration studies, and proof-of-breeding studies for the Light Water Breeder Reactor; (9) magnetic fusion research - lithium processing technology and materials research; and (10) basic energy sciences - homogeneous catalysis, thermodynamics of inorganic and organic materials, environmental chemistry, electrochemistry, and physical properties of salt vapors. Separate abstracts were prepared for each of these areas.

  3. Profiles in Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    These articles put a face to some of the thousands of individuals who contribute to NCI’s cancer research efforts. The profiles highlight the work of scientists and clinicians and describe the circumstances and motivation behind their work.

  4. FY 1995 research highlights: PNL accomplishments in OER programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-10-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) conducts fundamental and applied research in support of the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) core missions in science and technology, environmental quality, energy resources, and national security. Much of this research is funded by the program offices of DOE`s Office of Energy Research (DOE-ER), primarily the Office of Basic Energy Sciences (BES) and the Office of Health and Environmental Research (OHER), and by PNL`s Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) Program. This document is a collection of research highlights that describe PNL`s accomplishments in DOE-ER funded programs during Fiscal Year 1995. Included are accomplishments in research funded by OHER`s Analytical Technologies, Environmental Research, Health Effects, General Life Sciences, and Carbon Dioxide Research programs; BES`s Materials Science, Chemical Sciences, Engineering and Geoscience, and Applied Mathematical Sciences programs; and PNL`s LDRD Program. Summaries are given for 70 projects.

  5. Tourette syndrome research highlights 2015 [version 1; referees: 3 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheryl A. Richards

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available We present selected highlights from research that appeared during 2015 on Tourette syndrome and other tic disorders. Topics include phenomenology, comorbidities, developmental course, genetics, animal models, neuroimaging, electrophysiology, pharmacology, and treatment. We briefly summarize articles whose results we believe may lead to new treatments, additional research or modifications in current models of TS.

  6. Types of Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    An infographic from the National Cancer Institute (NCI) describing the four broad categories of cancer research: basic research, clinical research, population-based research, and translational research.

  7. Breast Cancer Research Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... JavaScript on. Feature: Breast Cancer Breast Cancer Research Update Winter 2017 Table of Contents National Cancer Institute ... Addressing Breast Cancer's Unequal Burden / Breast Cancer Research Update Winter 2017 Issue: Volume 11 Number 4 Page ...

  8. Technology meets research 60 years of CERN technology : selected highlights

    CERN Document Server

    Taylor, Thomas; Treille, Daniel; Wenninger, Horst

    2017-01-01

    "Big" science and advanced technology are known to cross-fertilize. This book emphasizes the interplay between particle physics and technology at CERN that has led to breakthroughs in both research and technology over the laboratory's first 60 years. The innovations, often the work of individuals or by small teams, are illustrated with highlights describing selected technologies from the domains of accelerators and detectors. The book also presents the framework and conditions prevailing at CERN that enabled spectacular advances in technology and contributed to propel the European organization into the league of leading research laboratories in the world. While the book is specifically aimed at providing information for the technically interested general public, more expert readers may also appreciate the broad variety of subjects presented. Ample references are given for those who wish to further explore a given topic.

  9. Highlights on recurrence after surgery for cervical cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fuglsang, Katrine; Petersen, Lone Kjeld; Blaakær, Jan

    Objective After surgery due to cervical cancer women are offered to attend a follow-up program 10 times during five years with the purpose for early diagnosis of recurrence. The aim of this study is to evaluate the follow-up program, which has remained unchanged for 20 years even though reminding...... and concerning women, who we consider healthy after surgery. Methods A retrospective longitudinal study of women attending follow-up program after surgery due to cervical cancer at the Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Aarhus University Hospital. 524 patients were identified from 1996 to 2011...... with the diagnosis of cervical cancer combined with a surgical procedure. From the national pathological database and patient files information was extracted. Information was stored in Epidata. Associations were calculated using stratified analysis and logistic regression. Results 133(25%) women of 524 needed...

  10. Infectious Agents and Cancer Epidemiology Research Webinar Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Infectious Agents and Cancer Epidemiology Research Webinar Series highlights emerging and cutting-edge research related to infection-associated cancers, shares scientific knowledge about technologies and methods, and fosters cross-disciplinary discussions on infectious agents and cancer epidemiology.

  11. Highlights of the Latest Advances in Research on CDK Inhibitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonas Cicenas

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Uncontrolled proliferation is the hallmark of cancer and other proliferative disorders and abnormal cell cycle regulation is, therefore, common in these diseases. Cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs play a crucial role in the control of the cell cycle and proliferation. These kinases are frequently deregulated in various cancers, viral infections, neurodegenerative diseases, ischemia and some proliferative disorders. This led to a rigorous pursuit for small-molecule CDK inhibitors for therapeutic uses. Early efforts to block CDKs with nonselective CDK inhibitors led to little specificity and efficacy but apparent toxicity, but the recent advance of selective CDK inhibitors allowed the first successful efforts to target these kinases for the therapies of several diseases. Major ongoing efforts are to develop CDK inhibitors as monotherapies and rational combinations with chemotherapy and other targeted drugs.

  12. Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory research highlights for FY 1975

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sessler, Andrew M.

    1978-01-01

    Brief, nontechnical reviews are presented of work in the following areas: solar energy projects, fusion research, silicon cell research, superconducting magnetometers, psi particles, positron--electron project (PEP), pulsar measurements, nuclear dynamics, element 106, computer control of accelerators, the Bevalac biomedical facility, blood--lipid analysis, and bungarotoxin and the brain. Financial data and personnel lists are given, along with citations to well over a thousand research papers. (RWR)

  13. SPS Research into superconductivity highlighted in Physical Review Letters

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Research conducted by Dr Jorge Quintanilla as part of an international collaboration has been chosen as an Editors' Suggestion on the Physical Review Letters website. The full article can be accessed here. Below is a summary from Dr Quintanilla about what the research was and how it is useful.

  14. Research Program of the TEXONO Collaboration Status and Highlights

    CERN Document Server

    Wong, H T K; Wong, Henry Tsz-King; Li, Jin

    2002-01-01

    This article reviews the research program and efforts for the TEXONO Collaboration among scientists from Taiwan and China. These include reactor-based neutrino physics at the Kuo-Sheng Power Plant in Taiwan as well as various R&D efforts related to the various experimental techniques in neutrino and astro-particle physics.

  15. Clean Energy Manufacturing Analysis Center (CEMAC) 2015 Research Highlights

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woodhouse, Michael; Mone, Christopher; Chung, Donald; Elgqvist, Emma; Das, Sujit; Mann, Margaret; Gossett, Scott

    2016-03-01

    CEMAC has conducted four major studies on the manufacturing of clean energy technologies. Three of these focused on the end product: solar photovoltaic modules, wind turbines, and automotive lithium-ion batteries. The fourth area focused on a key material for manufacturing clean energy technologies, carbon fiber. This booklet summarizes key findings of CEMAC work to date, describes CEMAC's research methodology, and describes work to come.

  16. The microball and Gammasphere: Research highlights and future directions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Devlin, M.; Sarantites, D.G.; LaFosse, D.R.; Lerma, F. [Washington Univ., Saint Louis, MO (United States)

    1996-12-31

    The Microball, a compact, 4{pi} charged-particle detector array, has been used in conjunction with Gammasphere for numerous physics experiments, and more are planned in the near future. A summary of this research program is presented, and the device and its capabilities are described. An example of its use in the study of the population and entry state excitation energy distributions of normal and superdeformed bands in {sup 82}Sr is presented.

  17. CERTS: Consortium for Electric Reliability Technology Solutions - Research Highlights

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eto, Joseph

    2003-07-30

    Historically, the U.S. electric power industry was vertically integrated, and utilities were responsible for system planning, operations, and reliability management. As the nation moves to a competitive market structure, these functions have been disaggregated, and no single entity is responsible for reliability management. As a result, new tools, technologies, systems, and management processes are needed to manage the reliability of the electricity grid. However, a number of simultaneous trends prevent electricity market participants from pursuing development of these reliability tools: utilities are preoccupied with restructuring their businesses, research funding has declined, and the formation of Independent System Operators (ISOs) and Regional Transmission Organizations (RTOs) to operate the grid means that control of transmission assets is separate from ownership of these assets; at the same time, business uncertainty, and changing regulatory policies have created a climate in which needed investment for transmission infrastructure and tools for reliability management has dried up. To address the resulting emerging gaps in reliability R&D, CERTS has undertaken much-needed public interest research on reliability technologies for the electricity grid. CERTS' vision is to: (1) Transform the electricity grid into an intelligent network that can sense and respond automatically to changing flows of power and emerging problems; (2) Enhance reliability management through market mechanisms, including transparency of real-time information on the status of the grid; (3) Empower customers to manage their energy use and reliability needs in response to real-time market price signals; and (4) Seamlessly integrate distributed technologies--including those for generation, storage, controls, and communications--to support the reliability needs of both the grid and individual customers.

  18. 2003 Biology and Biotechnology Research Program Overview and Highlights

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prange, C

    2003-03-01

    LLNL conducts multidisciplinary bioscience to fill national needs. Our primary roles are to: develop knowledge and tools which enhance national security, including biological, chemical and nuclear capabilities, and energy and environmental security; develop understanding of genetic and biochemical processes to enhance disease prevention, detection and treatment; develop unique biochemical measurement and computational modeling capabilities which enable understanding of biological processes; and develop technology and tools which enhance healthcare. We execute our roles through integrated multidisciplinary programs that apply our competencies in: microbial and mammalian genomics--the characterization of DNA, the genes it encodes, their regulation and function and their role in living systems; protein function and biochemistry - the structure, function, and interaction of proteins and other molecules involved in the integrated biochemical function of the processes of life; computational modeling and understanding of biochemical systems--the application of high-speed computing technology to simulate and visualize complex, integrated biological processes; bioinformatics--databasing, networking, and analysis of biological data; and bioinstrumentation--the application of physical and engineering technologies to novel biological and biochemical measurements, laboratory automation, medical device development, and healthcare technologies. We leverage the Laboratory's exceptional capabilities in the physical, computational, chemical, environmental and engineering sciences. We partner with industry and universities to utilize their state-of-the art technology and science and to make our capabilities and discoveries available to the broader research community.

  19. NSTX: Facility/Research Highlights and Near Term Facility Plans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. Ono

    2008-11-19

    The National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) is a collaborative mega-ampere-class spherical torus research facility with high power heating and current drive systems and the state-of-the-art comprehensive diagnostics. For the 2008 experimental campaign, the high harmonic fast wave (HHFW) heating efficiency in deuterium improved significantly with lithium evaporation and produced a record central Te of 5 keV. The HHFW heating of NBI-heated discharges was also demonstrated for the first time with lithium application. The EBW emission in H-mode was also improved dramatically with lithium which was shown to be attributable to reduced edge collisional absorption. Newly installed FIDA energetic particle diagnostic measured significant transport of energetic ions associated with TAE avalanche as well as n=1 kink activities. A full 75 channel poloidal CHERS system is now operational yielding tantalizing initial results. In the near term, major upgrade activities include a liquid-lithium divertor target to achieve lower collisionality regime, the HHFW antenna upgrades to double its power handling capability in H-mode, and a beam-emission spectroscopy diagnostic to extend the localized turbulence measurements toward the ion gyro-radius scale from the present concentration on the electron gyro-radius scale. For the longer term, a new center stack to significantly expand the plasma operating parameters is planned along with a second NBI system to double the NBI heating and CD power and provide current profile control. These upgrades will enable NSTX to explore fully non-inductive operations over a much expanded plasma parameter space in terms of higher plasma temperature and lower collisionality, thereby significantly reducing the physics parameter gap between the present NSTX and the projected next-step ST experiments.

  20. Evaluating Membrane Processes for Air Conditioning; Highlights in Research and Development, NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-06-01

    This NREL Highlight discusses a recent state-of-the-art review of membrane processes for air conditioning that identifies future research opportunities. This highlight is being developed for the June 2015 S&T Alliance Board meeting.

  1. Identifying gaps in the locoregional management of early breast cancer: highlights from the kyoto consensus conference.

    OpenAIRE

    Toi, Masakazu; Winer, Eric P.; INAMOTO, TAKASHI; BENSON, JOHN R.; Forbes, John F.; Mitsumori, Michihide; Robertson, John F. R.; Sasano, Hironobu; von Minckwitz, Gunter; Yamauchi, Akira; KLIMBERG, V. SUZANNE

    2011-01-01

    A consensus conference was held to investigate issues related to the local management of early breast cancer. Here, we highlight the major topics discussed at the conference and propose ideas for future studies. Regarding axillary management, we examined three major issues. First, we discussed whether the use of axillary reverse mapping could clarify the lymphatic system of breast and whether the ipsilateral arm might help avoid lymphedema. Second, the use of an indocyanine green fluorescent ...

  2. Global cancer research initiative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard R Love

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Richard R LoveThe Ohio State University Comprehensive Cancer Center, Columbus, OH, USAAbstract: Cancer is an increasing problem for low- and middle-income countries undergoing an epidemiologic transition from dominantly acute communicable disease to more frequent chronic disease with increased public health successes in the former domain. Progress against cancer in high-income countries has been modest and has come at enormous expense. There are several well-conceived global policy and planning initiatives which, with adequate political will, can favorably impact the growing global cancer challenges. Most financial resources for cancer, however, are spent on diagnosis and management of patients with disease in circumstances where specific knowledge about effective approaches is significantly limited, and the majority of interventions, other than surgery, are not cost-effective in resource-limited countries by global standards. In summary, how to intervene effectively on a global scale for the majority of citizens who develop cancer is poorly defined. In contrast to technology-transfer approaches, markedly increased clinical research activities are more likely to benefit cancer sufferers. In these contexts, a global cancer research initiative is proposed, and mechanisms for realizing such an effort are suggested.Keywords: breast cancer, research, global, international, low-income, middle-income

  3. Bioprinting for cancer research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowlton, Stephanie; Onal, Sevgi; Yu, Chu Hsiang; Zhao, Jean J; Tasoglu, Savas

    2015-09-01

    Bioprinting offers the ability to create highly complex 3D architectures with living cells. This cutting-edge technique has significantly gained popularity and applicability in several fields. Bioprinting methods have been developed to effectively and rapidly pattern living cells, biological macromolecules, and biomaterials. These technologies hold great potential for applications in cancer research. Bioprinted cancer models represent a significant improvement over previous 2D models by mimicking 3D complexity and facilitating physiologically relevant cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions. Here we review bioprinting methods based on inkjet, microextrusion, and laser technologies and compare 3D cancer models with 2D cancer models. We discuss bioprinted models that mimic the tumor microenvironment, providing a platform for deeper understanding of cancer pathology, anticancer drug screening, and cancer treatment development.

  4. CPTAC Scientific Symposium Highlights - Office of Cancer Clinical Proteomics Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    The first CPTAC Public Scientific Symposium was recently held on November 13, 2013 at the National Institutes of Health in Bethesda, MD. The symposium brought together a record number of registrants, 450 scientists, who shared and discussed novel biological discoveries, analytical methods, and translational approaches using CPTAC data.

  5. The wonderous chaperones: A highlight on therapeutics of cancer and potentially malignant disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nutan Tyagi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Diverse environmental and physiological factors are known to induce the transcription of a set of genes encoding special protective molecules known as "molecular chaperones" within our cells. Literature abounds in evidence regarding the varied roles; these "guides" can effectively perform in our system. Highly conserved through evolution, from the prokaryotes to the eukaryotes, these make perfect study tools for verifying their role in both the pathogenesis as well as the therapeutics of varied neurodegenerative, autoimmune and potentially malignant disorders and varied cancer states. We present a concise review of this ever dynamic molecule, highlighting the probable role in a potentially malignant disorder, oral lichen planus.

  6. Frontiers: Research highlights 1946-1996 [50th Anniversary Edition. Argonne National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-31

    This special edition of 'Frontiers' commemorates Argonne National Laboratory's 50th anniversary of service to science and society. America's first national laboratory, Argonne has been in the forefront of U.S. scientific and technological research from its beginning. Past accomplishments, current research, and future plans are highlighted.

  7. Opportunities During Early Life for Cancer Prevention: Highlights From a Series of Virtual Meetings With Experts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holman, Dawn M; Buchanan, Natasha D

    2016-11-01

    Compelling evidence suggests that early life exposures can affect lifetime cancer risk. In 2014, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's (CDC's) Cancer Prevention Across the Lifespan Workgroup hosted a series of virtual meetings with select experts to discuss the state of the evidence linking factors during the prenatal period and early childhood to subsequent risk of both pediatric and adult cancers. In this article, we present the results from a qualitative analysis of the meeting transcripts and summarize themes that emerged from our discussions with meeting participants. Themes included the state of the evidence linking early life factors to cancer risk, research gaps and challenges, the level of evidence needed to support taking public health action, and the challenges of communicating complex, and sometimes conflicting, scientific findings to the public. Opportunities for collaboration among public health agencies and other stakeholders were identified during these discussions. Potential next steps for the CDC and its partners included advancing and building upon epidemiology and surveillance work, developing and using evidence from multiple sources to inform decision-making, disseminating and communicating research findings in a clear and effective way, and expanding collaborations with grantees and other partners. As the science on early life factors and cancer risk continues to evolve, there are opportunities for collaboration to translate science into actionable public health practice.

  8. Lysyl oxidase in cancer research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perryman, Lara; Erler, Janine T

    2014-01-01

    Metastasis is the main reason for cancer-associated deaths and therapies are desperately needed to target the progression of cancer. Lysyl oxidase (LOX) plays a pivotal role in cancer progression, including metastasis, and is therefore is an attractive therapeutic target. In this review we will breakdown the process of cancer progression and the various roles that LOX plays has in the advancement of cancer. We will highlight why LOX is an exciting therapeutic target for the future.

  9. Professor Mansour Ali Haseeb: Highlights from a pioneer of biomedical research, physician and scientist

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    The article highlights the career of Professor Mansour Ali Haseeb (1910 – 1973; DKSM, Dip Bact, FRCPath, FRCP [Lond]), a pioneer worker in health, medical services, biomedical research and medical education in the Sudan. After his graduation from the Kitchener School of Medicine (renamed, Faculty of Medicine, University of Khartoum [U of K]) in 1934, he devoted his life for the development of laboratory medicine. He became the first Sudanese Director of Stack Medical Research Laboratories (19...

  10. Gaps in nutritional research among older adults with cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Presley, Carolyn J.; Dotan, Efrat; Soto-Perez-de-Celis, Enrique; Jatoi, Aminah; Mohile, Supriya G.; Won, Elizabeth; Alibhai, Shabbir; Kilari, Deepak; Harrison, Robert; Klepin, Heidi D.; Wildes, Tanya M.; Mustian, Karen; Demark-Wahnefried, Wendy

    2016-01-01

    Nutritional issues among older adults with cancer are an understudied area of research despite significant prognostic implications for treatment side effects, cancer-specific mortality, and overall survival. In May of 2015, the National Cancer Institute and the National Institute on Aging co-sponsored a conference focused on future directions in geriatric oncology research. Nutritional research among older adults with cancer was highlighted as a major area of concern as most nutritional cance...

  11. Aeroacoustics research in Europe: The CEAS-ASC report on 2014 highlights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Detandt, Yves

    2015-11-01

    The Council of European Aerospace Societies (CEAS) Aeroacoustics Specialists Committee (ASC) supports and promotes the interests of the scientific and industrial aeroacoustics community on an European scale and European aeronautics activities internationally. Each year the committee highlights some of the research and development projects in Europe. This paper is the 2014 issue of this collection of Aeroacoustic Highlights, compiled from informations submitted to the CEAS-ASC. The contributions are classified in different topics; the first categories being related to specific aeroacoustic challenges (airframe noise, fan and jet noise, helicopter noise, aircraft interior noise) and two last sections are respectively devoted to recent improvements and emerging techniques and to general advances in aeroacoustics. For each section, the present paper focus on accomplished projects, providing the state of the art in each research category in 2014. A number of research programmes involving aeroacoustics were funded by the European Commission. Some of the highlights from these programmes are summarised in this paper, as well as highlights funded by national programmes or by industry.

  12. Recent highlights in anti-protozoan drug development and resistance research

    OpenAIRE

    Buckner, Frederick S.; Waters, Norman C; Avery, Vicky M.

    2012-01-01

    This article summarizes the highlights of research presented in January, 2012, at the Keystone Symposium on “Drug Discovery for Protozoan Parasites” held in Santa Fe, New Mexico. This symposium which convenes approximately every 2 years provides a forum for leading investigators around the world to present data covering basic sciences to clinical trials relating to anti-protozoan drug development and drug resistance. Many talks focused on malaria, but other protozoan diseases receiving attent...

  13. Brookhaven highlights. Report on research, October 1, 1992--September 30, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rowe, M.S.; Belford, M.; Cohen, A.; Greenberg, D.; Seubert, L. [eds.

    1993-12-31

    This report highlights the research activities of Brookhaven National Laboratory during the period dating from October 1, 1992 through September 30, 1993. There are contributions to the report from different programs and departments within the laboratory. These include technology transfer, RHIC, Alternating Gradient Synchrotron, physics, biology, national synchrotron light source, applied science, medical science, advanced technology, chemistry, reactor physics, safety and environmental protection, instrumentation, and computing and communications.

  14. Highlights of the 2012 research workshop: Using nutrigenomics and metabolomics in clinical nutrition research

    Science.gov (United States)

    The American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition (A.S.P.E.N.) Research Workshop, "Using Nutrigenomics and Metabolomics in Clinical Nutrition Research," was held on January 21, 2012, in Orlando, Florida. The conference brought together experts in human nutrition who use nutrigenomic and meta...

  15. Identifying gaps in the locoregional management of early breast cancer: highlights from the Kyoto Consensus Conference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toi, Masakazu; Winer, Eric P; Inamoto, Takashi; Benson, John R; Forbes, John F; Mitsumori, Michihide; Robertson, John F R; Sasano, Hironobu; von Minckwitz, Gunter; Yamauchi, Akira; Klimberg, V Suzanne

    2011-10-01

    A consensus conference was held to investigate issues related to the local management of early breast cancer. Here, we highlight the major topics discussed at the conference and propose ideas for future studies. Regarding axillary management, we examined three major issues. First, we discussed whether the use of axillary reverse mapping could clarify the lymphatic system of breast and whether the ipsilateral arm might help avoid lymphedema. Second, the use of an indocyanine green fluorescent navigation system was discussed for intraoperative lymphatic mapping. These new issues should be examined further in practice. Finally, some agreement was reached on the importance of "four-node diagnosis" to aid in the diagnostic accuracy of sentinel nodes. Regarding breast treatment, there was general agreement that the clinical value of surgical margins in predicting local failure was dependent on the tumor's intrinsic biology and subtypes. For patients treated with preoperative chemotherapy, less extensive excision may be feasible in those who respond to systemic therapy in an acceptable manner. Most trials of preoperative chemotherapy lack outcome data on local recurrence. Therefore, there is a need for such data for overview analysis. We also agreed that radiation after mastectomy may be beneficial in node-positive cases where more than four nodes are involved. Throughout the discussions for both invasive and noninvasive disease, the investigation of nomograms was justified for major issues in the decision-making process, such as the presence or absence of microinvasion and the involvement of nonsentinel nodes in sentinel node-positive patients.

  16. Fostering Cooperation in Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thursday, June 25, 2015 Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) was signed between US National Cancer Institute and three agencies of the Indian government - the Department of Biotechnology, the Indian Council of Medical Research, and the Indian National Cancer Institute, a part of the All India Institute of Medical Sciences to foster cooperation in cancer research.

  17. Understanding Energy Impacts of Oversized Air Conditioners; NREL Highlights, Research & Development, NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-06-01

    This NREL highlight describes a simulation-based study that analyzes the energy impacts of oversized residential air conditioners. Researchers found that, if parasitic power losses are minimal, there is very little increase in energy use for oversizing an air conditioner. The research demonstrates that new residential air conditioners can be sized primarily based on comfort considerations, because capacity typically has minimal impact on energy efficiency. The results of this research can be useful for contractors and homeowners when choosing a new air conditioner or heat pump during retrofits of existing homes. If the selected unit has a crankcase heater, performing proper load calculations to be sure the new unit is not oversized will help avoid excessive energy use.

  18. Highlights of the 2009 SEG summer research workshop on"CO2 Sequestration Geophysics"

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lumley, D.; Sherlock, D.; Daley, T.; Huang, L.; Lawton, D.; Masters, R.; Verliac, M.; White, D.

    2010-01-15

    The 2009 SEG Summer Research Workshop on CO2 Sequestration Geophysics was held August 23-27, 2009 in Banff, Canada. The event was attended by over 100 scientists from around the world, which proved to be a remarkably successful turnout in the midst of the current global financial crisis and severe corporate travel restrictions. Attendees included SEG President Larry Lines (U. Calgary), and CSEG President John Downton (CGG Veritas), who joined SRW Chairman David Lumley (UWA) in giving the opening welcome remarks at the Sunday Icebreaker. The workshop was organized by an expert technical committee (see side bar) representing a good mix of industry, academic, and government research organizations. The format consisted of four days of technical sessions with over 60 talks and posters, plus an optional pre-workshop field trip to the Columbia Ice Fields to view firsthand the effects of global warming on the Athabasca glacier (Figures 1-2). Group technical discussion was encouraged by requiring each presenter to limit themselves to 15 minutes of presentation followed by a 15 minute open discussion period. Technical contributions focused on the current and future role of geophysics in CO2 sequestration, highlighting new research and field-test results with regard to site selection and characterization, monitoring and surveillance, using a wide array of geophysical techniques. While there are too many excellent contributions to mention all individually here, in this paper we summarize some of the key workshop highlights in order to propagate new developments to the SEG community at large.

  19. Highlights of the 2009 SEG summer research workshop on ""CO2 sequestration geophysics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Lianjie [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Lumley, David [U. W. AUSTRALIA; Sherlock, Don [CHEVRON; Daley, Tom [LBNL; Lawton, Don [U CALGARY; Masters, Ron [SHELL; Verliac, Michel [SCHLUMBERGER; White, Don [GEOL. SURVEY CANADA

    2009-01-01

    The 2009 SEG Summer Research Workshop on 'CO{sub 2} Sequestration Geophysics' was held August 23-27, 2009 in Banff, Canada. The event was attended by over 100 scientists from around the world, which proved to be a remarkably successful turnout in the midst of the current global financial crisis and severe corporate travel restrictions. Attendees included SEG President Larry Lines (U. Calgary), and CSEG President John Downton (CGG Veritas), who joined SRW Chairman David Lumley (UWA) in giving the opening welcome remarks at the Sunday Icebreaker. The workshop was organized by an expert technical committee representing a good mix of industry, academic, and government research organizations. The format consisted of four days of technical sessions with over 60 talks and posters, plus an optional pre-workshop field trip to the Columbia Ice Fields to view firsthand the effects of global warming on the Athabasca glacier. Group technical discussion was encouraged by requiring each presenter to limit themselves to 15 minutes of presentation followed by a 15 minute open discussion period. Technical contributions focused on the current and future role of geophysics in CO{sub 2} sequestration, highlighting new research and field-test results with regard to site selection and characterization, monitoring and surveillance, using a wide array of geophysical techniques. While there are too many excellent contributions to mention all individually here, in this paper we summarize some of the key workshop highlights in order to propagate new developments to the SEG community at large.

  20. Aeroacoustics research in Europe: The CEAS-ASC report on 2003 highlights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schröder, W.

    2004-11-01

    This is a report on some highlights of aeroacoustics research in Europe in 2003, compiled from information provided to the Aeroacoustics Specialists Committee of the Confederation of European Aerospace Societies (CEAS). The CEAS currently comprises the national Aerospace Societies of France (Association Aéronautique et Astronautique de France), Germany (Deutsche Gesellschaft für Luft- und Raumfahrt), Italy (Associazione Italiana di Aeronautica e Astronautica), The Netherlands (Nederlandse Vereniging voor Luchtvaarttechniek), Spain (Asociación de Ingenieros Aeronáuticos de España), Sweden (Flygtekniska Föreningen), Switzerland (Schweizerische Vereinigung für Flugwissenschaften) and the UK (The Royal Aeronautical Society).

  1. EURECCA consensus conference highlights about colorectal cancer clinical management: the pathologists expert review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quirke, P; West, N P; Nagtegaal, I D

    2014-02-01

    Care for patients with colon and rectal cancer has improved in the last 20 years; however, a considerable variation still exists in cancer management and outcome between European countries. Large variation is also apparent between national guidelines and patterns of cancer care in Europe. Therefore, EURECCA, which is the acronym of European Registration of Cancer Care, is aiming at defining core treatment strategies and developing a European audit structure in order to improve the quality of care for all patients with colon and rectal cancer. In December 2012, the first multidisciplinary consensus conference about cancer of the colon and rectum was held. The expert panel consisted of representatives of European scientific organizations involved in cancer care of patients with colon and rectal cancer and representatives of national colorectal registries.

  2. EURECCA consensus conference highlights about colorectal cancer clinical management: the pathologists expert review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quirke, P.; West, N.P.; Nagtegaal, I.D.

    2014-01-01

    Care for patients with colon and rectal cancer has improved in the last 20 years; however, a considerable variation still exists in cancer management and outcome between European countries. Large variation is also apparent between national guidelines and patterns of cancer care in Europe. Therefore,

  3. Research in Danish cancer rehabilitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høybye, Mette Terp; Dalton, Susanne Oksbjerg; Christensen, Jane

    2008-01-01

    of the cancer survivors with respect to cancer site, sociodemographic variables, social network, lifestyle, self-rated health and the prevalence of cancer-related late effects. The study is part of the FOCARE research project, in which the long-term effects of the rehabilitation programme are evaluated...

  4. Basic research in kidney cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosterwijk, E.; Rathmell, W.K.; Junker, K.; Brannon, A.R.; Pouliot, F.; Finley, D.S.; Mulders, P.F.A.; Kirkali, Z.; Uemura, H.; Belldegrun, A.

    2011-01-01

    CONTEXT: Advances in basic research will enhance prognosis, diagnosis, and treatment of renal cancer patients. OBJECTIVE: To discuss advances in our understanding of the molecular basis of renal cancer, targeted therapies, renal cancer and immunity, and genetic factors and renal cell carcinoma (RCC)

  5. Professor Mansour Ali Haseeb: Highlights from a pioneer of biomedical research, physician and scientist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salih, Mustafa Abdalla M

    2013-01-01

    The article highlights the career of Professor Mansour Ali Haseeb (1910 - 1973; DKSM, Dip Bact, FRCPath, FRCP [Lond]), a pioneer worker in health, medical services, biomedical research and medical education in the Sudan. After his graduation from the Kitchener School of Medicine (renamed, Faculty of Medicine, University of Khartoum [U of K]) in 1934, he devoted his life for the development of laboratory medicine. He became the first Sudanese Director of Stack Medical Research Laboratories (1952 - 1962). He made valuable contributions by his services in the vaccine production and implementation programs, most notably in combating small pox, rabies and epidemic meningitis. In 1963 he became the first Sudanese Professor of Microbiology and Parasitology and served as the first Sudanese Dean of the Faculty of Medicine, U of K (1963-1969). He was an active loyal citizen in public life and served in various fields outside the medical profession. As Mayor of Omdurman, he was invited to visit Berlin in 1963 by Willy Brandt, Mayor of West Berlin (1957-1966) and Chancellor of the Federal Republic of Germany (1969 to 1974). Also as Mayor of Omdurman, he represented the City in welcoming Queen Elizabeth II during her visit to Sudan in February 1965. He also received State Medals from Egypt and Ethiopia. In 1973 he was appointed Chairman of the Sudan Medical Research Council, and was awarded the international Dr. Shousha Foundation Prize and Medal by the WHO for his contribution in the advancement of health, research and medical services.

  6. A prospective highlight on exosomal nanoshuttles and cancer immunotherapy and vaccination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad A. Rafi

    2015-08-01

    Conclusions: As complex systems, these vesicular micro-/nano-machines convey important cellular messages dependent upon the cells/tissue setting(s. In addition to their potential in diagnosis of cancers, they have been exploited for cancer immunotherapy/vaccination. However, such treatment strategies need to be carefully designed to attain desired clinical outcomes.

  7. Biomarkers for cervical cancer screening: the role of p16(INK4a) to highlight transforming HPV infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Knebel Doeberitz, Magnus; Reuschenbach, Miriam; Schmidt, Dietmar; Bergeron, Christine

    2012-04-01

    Biomarkers indicating the initiation of neoplastic transformation processes in human papillomavirus (HPV)-infected epithelial cells are moving into the focus of cancer prevention research, particularly for anogenital cancer, including cancer of the uterine cervix. Based on the in-depth understanding of the molecular events leading to neoplastic transformation of HPV-infected human cells, the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p16(INK4a) turned out to be substantially overexpressed in virtually all HPV-transformed cells. This finding opened novel avenues in diagnostic histopathology to substantially improve the diagnostic accuracy of cervical cancer and its precursor lesions. Furthermore, it provides a novel technical platform to substantially improve the accuracy of cytology-based cancer early-detection programs. Here, we review the molecular background and the current evidence for the clinical utility of the p16(INK4a) biomarker for HPV-related cancers, and cervical cancer prevention in particular.

  8. Ubiquitin proteasome system research in gastrointestinal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Jia-Ling; Huang, Chang-Zhi

    2016-02-15

    The ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS) is important for the degradation of proteins in eukaryotic cells. It is involved in nearly every cellular process and plays an important role in maintaining body homeostasis. An increasing body of evidence has linked alterations in the UPS to gastrointestinal malignancies, including esophageal, gastric and colorectal cancers. Here, we summarize the current literature detailing the involvement of the UPS in gastrointestinal cancer, highlighting its role in tumor occurrence and development, providing information for therapeutic targets research and anti-gastrointestinal tumor drug design.

  9. EURECCA consensus conference highlights about colon & rectal cancer multidisciplinary management: the radiology experts review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tudyka, V; Blomqvist, L; Beets-Tan, R G H; Boelens, P G; Valentini, V; van de Velde, C J; Dieguez, A; Brown, G

    2014-04-01

    Some interesting shifts have taken place in the diagnostic approach for detection of colorectal lesions over the past decade. This article accompanies the recent EURECCA consensus group reccomendations for optimal management of colon and rectal cancers. In summary, imaging has a crucial role to play in the diagnosis, staging assessment and follow up of patients with colon and rectal cancer. Recent advances include the use of CT colonography instead of Barium Enema in the diagnosis of colonoic cancer and as an alternative to colonoscopy. Modern mutlidetector CT scanning techniques have also shown improvements in prognostic stratification of patients with colonic cancer and clinical trials are underway testing the selective use of neoadjuvant therapy for imaging identified high risk colon cancers. In rectal cancer, high resolution MRI with a voxel size less or equal to 3 × 1 × 1 mm3 on T2-weighted images has a proven ability to accurately stage patients with rectal cancer. Moreover, preoperative identification of prognostic features allows stratification of patients into different prognostic groups based on assessment of depth of extramural spread, relationship of the tumour edge to the mesorectal fascia (MRF) and extramural venous invasion (EMVI). These poor prognostic features predict an increased risk of local recurrence and/or metastatic disease and should form the basis for preoperative local staging and multidisciplinary preoperative discussion of patient treatment options.

  10. Current concepts in cancer research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Kok Seng Yap

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Cancer research is an extremely broadtopic covering many scientific disciplines includingbiology (e.g. biochemistry and signal transduction,chemistry (e.g. drug discover and development,physics (e.g. diagnostic devices and even computerscience (e.g. bioinformatics. Some would argue thatcancer research will continue in much the same wayas it is by adding further layers of complexity to thescientific knowledge that is already complex and almostbeyond measure. But we anticipate that cancer researchwill undergo a dramatic paradigm shift due to therecent explosion of new discoveries in cancer biology.This review article focuses on the latest horizons incancer research concerning cancer epigenetics, cancerstem cells, cancer immunology and cancer metabolism.

  11. Nebraska Prostate Cancer Research Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-01

    2011.  LaTayia Aaron and Joann Powell. (2012). Dioxin exposure enhances nuclear localization of androgen receptor...to be trained in different areas of prostate cancer research. For example, the focus areas or research include Biomarkers , Therapy, Genetics, and...example, the focus areas or research include Biomarkers , Therapy, Genetics, and Tumor Biology as outlined by the laboratory research descriptions in the

  12. American Institute for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... About Cancer By Cancer Site What Is Cancer Foods That Fight Cancer Tools You Can Use Cancer Infographics & Multimedia Studying ... About Cancer By Cancer Site What Is Cancer Foods That Fight Cancer Tools You Can Use Cancer Infographics & Multimedia Studying ...

  13. Nursing highlights from the 2015 European Cancer Congress (ECCO18-ESMO40), 25-29 September 2015, Vienna: reinforcing multidisciplinarity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caruso, Rosario; Lichosik, Danuta

    2015-01-01

    The 2015 European Cancer Congress (ECC2015) was the widest European platform for every professional involved in the struggle against cancer (17,656 participants, 2482 abstracts submitted). In this context, the nursing contribution was very relevant, involving high quality research and experience. The major nursing issues were: online information and support; innovations in cancer nursing roles; patient safety and the nursing workforce; managing older people with cancer and other co-morbidities; living with and beyond cancer; nutrition and body image changes; the changing face of cancer care for oncology nurses. Indeed, an important amount of research was presented during proffered papers and poster presentations by nurses from all over the world, concerning challenging issues, such as advanced nursing roles, end of life care, impact of cancer on patients and families, new developments, supportive and palliative care, survivorship and rehabilitation, symptom management and transitions in care. Nurses' presentations were mainly focused on understanding patients' needs and on sharing the best evidence-based approach to meet those needs. This is particularly significant in a field where innovation develops rapidly in every area of clinical practice, such as cancer care, bridging the weaknesses between different approaches and profiles, within the paradigm of multidisciplinarity.

  14. Emerging roles for microtubules in angiosperm pollen tube growth highlight new research cues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra eMoscatelli

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In plants, actin filaments have an important role in organelle movement and cytoplasmic streaming. Otherwise microtubules have a role in restricting organelles to specific areas of the cell and in maintaining organelle morphology. In somatic plant cells, microtubules also participate in cell division and morphogenesis, allowing cells to take their definitive shape in order to perform specific functions. In the latter case, microtubules influence assembly of the cell wall, controlling the delivery of enzymes involved in cellulose synthesis and of wall modulation material to the proper sites.In angiosperm pollen tubes, organelle movement is generally attributed to the acto-myosin system, the main role of which is in distributing organelles in the cytoplasm and in carrying secretory vesicles to the apex for polarized growth. Recent data on membrane trafficking suggests a role of microtubules in fine delivery and repositioning of vesicles to sustain pollen tube growth. This review examines the role of microtubules in secretion and endocytosis, highlighting new research cues regarding cell wall construction and pollen tube-pistil crosstalk, that help unravel the role of microtubules in polarized growth.

  15. Highlights from the Tenth European Breast Cancer Conference (EBCC10), Amsterdam, 9–11 March 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Joana; Cardoso, Maria João

    2016-01-01

    The Tenth European Breast Cancer Conference, EBCC 10, was held in Amsterdam in March 2016 with a total of 3061 participants from 95 different countries spread over five continents. The EBCC council is a joint venture of ESO, EORTC Breast Cancer Group, EUSOMA, and Europa Donna. The Scientific Programme for EBCC-10 tried to bring to the stage all the active participants in the diagnostic and treatment of breast cancer along with patients themselves. The need to achieve ‘patient’s access to high quality treatment’ through breast units that have been accredited through a European certification process was the basis of the EBCC 10 manifesto. The congress scientific programme allowed participants to review the most up-to-date knowledge in the breast cancer field presented by experts having in mind its application to every day practice. The purpose of this summary is to describe to the readers the results of the late-breaking and best abstracts presented at EBCC10. PMID:27350789

  16. Paper Highlight: Biomarker Identified for Predicting Early Prostate Cancer Aggressiveness — Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    A team led by Cory Abate-Shen, Michael Shen, and Andrea Califano at Columbia University found that measuring the expression levels of three genes associated with aging can be used to predict the aggressiveness of seemingly low-risk prostate cancer.

  17. What's New in Thyroid Cancer Research and Treatment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Thyroid Cancer About Thyroid Cancer What’s New in Thyroid Cancer Research and Treatment? Important research into thyroid cancer ... in Thyroid Cancer Research and Treatment? More In Thyroid Cancer About Thyroid Cancer Causes, Risk Factors, and Prevention ...

  18. What's New in Testicular Cancer Research and Treatment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Testicular Cancer About Testicular Cancer What’s New in Testicular Cancer Research and Treatment? Important research into testicular cancer ... in Testicular Cancer Research and Treatment? More In Testicular Cancer About Testicular Cancer Causes, Risk Factors, and Prevention ...

  19. Prostate Cancer Research Training Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-01

    evaluate medication safety. Examples of HERCe research include recent publications on breast cancer treatments, complications of chemotherapy for...with specific interest in minimally invasive procedures, new techniques, and outcomes. Dr. Brown initiated many of the laparoscopic and robotic ... surgery as it is one of the main areas of his clinical expertise. Currently, he performs more prostate cancer surgery than any other physician in

  20. Helminth parasites in pigs: new challenges in pig production and current research highlights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roepstorff, A; Mejer, H; Nejsum, P; Thamsborg, S M

    2011-08-04

    Helminths in pigs have generally received little attention from veterinary parasitologists, despite Ascaris suum, Trichuris suis, and Oesophagostomum sp. being common worldwide. The present paper presents challenges and current research highlights connected with these parasites. In Danish swine herds, new indoor production systems may favour helminth transmission and growing knowledge on pasture survival and infectivity of A. suum and T. suis eggs indicates that they may constitute a serious threat to outdoor pig production. Furthermore, it is now evident that A. suum is zoonotic and the same may be true for T. suis. With these 'new' challenges and the economic impact of the infections, further research is warranted. Better understanding of host-parasite relationships and A. suum and T. suis egg ecology may also improve the understanding and control of human A. lumbricoides and T. trichiura infections. The population dynamics of the three parasites are well documented and may be used to study phenomena, such as predisposition and worm aggregation. Furthermore, better methods to recover larvae have provided tools for quantifying parasite transmission. Thus, an on-going study using helminth naïve tracer pigs has surprisingly demonstrated that soil infectivity with A. suum and T. suis increases during the first 2-3 years after pasture contamination. Though all three helminth species stimulate the Th2 arm of the immune system, Oesophagostomum seems weakly immunogenic, perhaps via specific modulation of the host immune system. A. suum and T. suis potently modulate the host immune response, up-regulating Th2 and down-regulating Th1. As a consequence, A. suum may compromise the efficacy of certain bacterial vaccines, whereas T. suis, which establish only short-term in humans, is a favourite candidate for down-regulating autoimmune Th1-related diseases in man. Some basic research findings have offered new possibilities for future sustainable control measures. For example

  1. Gaps in nutritional research among older adults with cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presley, Carolyn J; Dotan, Efrat; Soto-Perez-de-Celis, Enrique; Jatoi, Aminah; Mohile, Supriya G; Won, Elizabeth; Alibhai, Shabbir; Kilari, Deepak; Harrison, Robert; Klepin, Heidi D; Wildes, Tanya M; Mustian, Karen; Demark-Wahnefried, Wendy

    2016-07-01

    Nutritional issues among older adults with cancer are an understudied area of research despite significant prognostic implications for treatment side effects, cancer-specific mortality, and overall survival. In May of 2015, the National Cancer Institute and the National Institute on Aging co-sponsored a conference focused on future directions in geriatric oncology research. Nutritional research among older adults with cancer was highlighted as a major area of concern as most nutritional cancer research has been conducted among younger adults, with limited evidence to guide the care of nutritional issues among older adults with cancer. Cancer diagnoses among older adults are increasing, and the care of the older adult with cancer is complicated due to multimorbidity, heterogeneous functional status, polypharmacy, deficits in cognitive and mental health, and several other non-cancer factors. Due to this complexity, nutritional needs are dynamic, multifaceted, and dependent on the clinical scenario. This manuscript outlines the proceedings of this conference including knowledge gaps and recommendations for future nutritional research among older adults with cancer. Three common clinical scenarios encountered by oncologists include (1) weight loss during anti-cancer therapy, (2) malnutrition during advanced disease, and (3) obesity during survivorship. In this manuscript, we provide a brief overview of relevant cancer literature within these three areas, knowledge gaps that exist, and recommendations for future research.

  2. Mouse models for cancer research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Zhang; Lynette Moore; Ping Ji

    2011-01-01

    Mouse models of cancer enable researchers to leamn about tumor biology in complicated and dynamic physiological systems. Since the development of gene targeting in mice, cancer biologists have been among the most frequent users of transgenic mouse models, which have dramatically increased knowledge about how cancers form and grow. The Chinese Joumnal of Cancer will publish a series of papers reporting the use of mouse models in studying genetic events in cancer cases. This editorial is an overview of the development and applications of mouse models of cancer and directs the reader to upcoming papers describing the use of these models to be published in coming issues, beginning with three articles in the current issue.

  3. Nebraska Prostate Cancer Research Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    Annual National Symposium on Prostate Cancer by CCRTD, CAU, March 16-19, 2014. 15. Appendix #15: Peer- reviewed scientific publication with inputs...and  Immunology Y. Tu CU Regulation of G‐Protein‐Coupled  Receptors in Prostate  Cancer     Acknowledgements: DOD CDMRP PCa Research Program PC121645...AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-13-1-0264 TITLE: Nebraska Prostate Cancer Research Program PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Ming-Fong Lin, Ph.D

  4. Highlights on FOX03 and tumor-associated dendritic cells in prostate cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kwong Y Tsang; James L Gulley

    2011-01-01

    @@ Cancer immunotherapy sometimes fails to provoke effective immune responses because of immunosuppressive mechanisms present in the tumor-bearing host.Dendritic cells (DCs) are the most potent antigenpresenting cells.After internalizing tumorassociated antigens (TAAs) at the tumor site,CCR7+ DCs traffic to the tumor-draining lymph nodes,where they influence the maturation of T cells.DCs may also be present at the tumor site.These tumor-associated DCs (TADCs) cross-present TAAs to recruited CD8+ T cells,which develop into TAA-specific effector cells.When activated,TADCs can mediate the sensitization of naive T cells that have been recruited into the tumor site.For this reason,interaction between tumor-infiltrating T cells and TADCs is essential for activating and maintaining specific antitumor immune responses.

  5. Breast Cancer Research Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    tion of tumor cells with red indicating the highest density of tumor cells at the primary tumor (4th mammary fat pad ) and purple/blue showing the...Idea Award Elaine Hardman and Philippe Georgel “ Maternal Consumption of Omega 3 Fatty Acids to Reduce Breast Cancer Risk in Offspring” FY09

  6. Treatment regimens for rifampicin-resistant tuberculosis: highlighting a research gap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stagg, H R; Hatherell, H-A; Lipman, M C; Harris, R J; Abubakar, I

    2016-07-01

    Treatment guidance for non-multidrug-resistant (MDR) rifampicin-resistant (RMP-R) tuberculosis (TB) is variable. We aimed to undertake a systematic review and meta-analysis of the randomised controlled trial (RCT) data behind such guidelines to identify the most efficacious treatment regimens. Ovid MEDLINE, the Web of Science and EMBASE were mined using search terms for TB, drug therapy and RCTs. Despite 12 604 records being retrieved, only three studies reported treatment outcomes by regimen for patients with non-MDR RMP-R disease, preventing meta-analysis. Our systematic review highlights a substantial gap in the literature regarding evidence-based treatment regimens for RMP-R TB.

  7. Osteoarthritis year in review 2014: highlighting innovations in basic research and clinical applications in regenerative medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Osch, G J V M

    2014-12-01

    Regenerative medicine is an emerging area that will influence the treatment of joint diseases in the future. It involves the use of biomaterials, cell therapy, and bioactive factors such as growth factors, drugs and small molecules, to regenerate damaged tissues. This "year in review" highlights a personal selection of promising studies published between March 2013 and March 2014 that inform on the direction in which this field is moving. This multidisciplinary field has been very active, with rapid development of new technologies that emerge from basic sciences such as the possibility to generate pluripotent stem cells without genetic modification and genetic engineering of growth factors to enhance their capacity to induce tissue repair. The increasing knowledge of the interaction between all tissues in the joint, such as the effect of bone remodeling and synovial inflammation on cartilage repair, will eventually make tissue regeneration in a compromised joint environment possible.

  8. What's New in Liver Cancer Research and Treatment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Liver Cancer About Liver Cancer What's New in Liver Cancer Research and Treatment? Because there are only a ... in Liver Cancer Research and Treatment? More In Liver Cancer About Liver Cancer Causes, Risk Factors, and Prevention ...

  9. What's New in Ovarian Cancer Research and Treatment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Ovarian Cancer About Ovarian Cancer What's New in Ovarian Cancer Research and Treatment? Risk factors and causes Scientists ... in Ovarian Cancer Research and Treatment? More In Ovarian Cancer About Ovarian Cancer Causes, Risk Factors, and Prevention ...

  10. Highlighting the Informationist As a Data Librarian Embedded in a Research Team

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine R. Martin

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available JESLIB Editor Elaine R. Martin introduces the papers in Volume 2, Issue 1 (2013, which focuses on the role of and the Informationist or Embedded Librarian in the scientific research process. As biomedical science becomes more data intensive, researchers are faced with a range of data management challenges, problems, and needs. Health sciences librarians are ideal partners for offering scientists at their institutions a range of data management services.

  11. Gene-Environment Research and Cancer Epidemiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Epidemiology and Genomics Research Program supports extramural research that investigates both genetic and environmental factors that may contribute to the etiology of cancer and/or impact cancer outcomes.

  12. Center for Herbal Research on Colorectal Cancer

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Research Area: Herbs Program:Centers of Excellence for Research on CAM Description:Colorectal cancer is the third most common cancer and the third leading cause of...

  13. Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Among the many cancer research laboratories operated by NCI, the Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research(FNLCR) is unique in that it is a Federally Funded...

  14. What's New in Research and Treatment for Thymus Cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cancer What’s New in Research and Treatment for Thymus Cancer? There is always research going on in ... Research and Treatment for Thymus Cancer? More In Thymus Cancer About Thymus Cancer Causes, Risk Factors, and ...

  15. Activating the Teaching-Research Nexus in Smaller Universities: Case Studies Highlighting Diversity of Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, William E.; O'Reilly, Meg; Bucher, Danny; Fisher, Kath; Morton, Anja; Harrison, Peter Lynton; Nuske, Elaine; Coyle, Rebecca; Rendall, Karyn

    2010-01-01

    The teaching-research nexus (TRN) has become an important process in the modern University, providing both identity to university scholarship and a device for the integration of academics' work. Over the last decade many reports have identified the need to both establish institution-wide processes to embed and support TRN, and assist in academic…

  16. Measuring Young Children's Attitudes toward Peers with Disabilities: Highlights from the Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, SeonYeong; Ostrosky, Michaelene M.; Fowler, Susan A.

    2012-01-01

    Young children with disabilities are increasingly attending inclusive early childhood programs with their typically developing peers. Within these programs, research efforts and practice have supported young children's understanding and acceptance of peers with disabilities. However, there is limited information about the measures used to assess…

  17. USDA forest service global change research program highlights: 1991-1995. Forest Service general technical report (Final)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Birdsey, R.; Mickler, R.; Sandberg, D.; Tinus, R.; Zerbe, J.

    1997-12-29

    The report summarizes research findings of the USDA Forest Service`s Global Change Research Program. Research highlights are presented at national and regional scales within the following topic areas: atmosphere/biosphere gas and energy exchange; ecosystem dynamics; disturbance ecology; and human activities and natural resource interactions. Selected topics are reviewed in depth with individual papers covering the global carbon cycle, climate scenarios, multiple stress studies, changes in vegetation distribution, the United States carbon budget, and the human dimensions of global change. Also included is a progress report on development of an integrated national model of the effects of global change on forests and people.

  18. AGARD (Advisory Group for Aerospace Research & Development) Highlights 89/1

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-03-01

    LANGUAGE IN LUXEMBOURG by J.Chrlstophory 31 THE SOCIAL SCENE 34 A BRIEF HISTORY OF ROCKETRY by AJ.Cruttenden 36 FLIGHT TESTING AND FLIGHT RESEARCH by...Barcelona Central University he worked for the Government in the 3rd Plan for Social and Economic Development until 1972. In 1974 he entered the...low speed subsonic wind tunnels. In one of them the ESTRUCTURAS Y STRUCTURES AND aerodynamic coefficients of the latest Spanish MATERIALES MATERIALS I

  19. Role of community pharmacists in asthma – Australian research highlighting pathways for future primary care models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saini B

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Asthma is one of the most common chronic conditions affecting the Australian population. Amongst primary healthcare professionals, pharmacists are the most accessible and this places pharmacists in an excellent position to play a role in the management of asthma. Globally, trials of many community pharmacy-based asthma care models have provided evidence that pharmacist delivered interventions can improve clinical, humanistic and economic outcomes for asthma patients. In Australia, a decade of coordinated research efforts, in various aspects of asthma care, has culminated in the implementation trial of the Pharmacy Asthma Management Service (PAMS, a comprehensive disease management model. There has been research investigating asthma medication adherence through data mining, ways in which usual asthma care can be improved. Our research has focused on self-management education, inhaler technique interventions, spirometry trials, interprofessional models of care, and regional trials addressing the particular needs of rural communities. We have determined that inhaler technique education is a necessity and should be repeated if correct technique is to be maintained. We have identified this effectiveness of health promotion and health education, conducted within and outside the confines of the pharmacy, in public for a and settings such as schools, and established that this outreach role is particularly well received and increases the opportunity for people with asthma to engage in their asthma management. Our research has identified that asthma patients have needs which pharmacists delivering specialized models of care, can address. There is a lot of evidence for the effectiveness of asthma care by pharmacists, the future must involve integration of this role into primary care.

  20. BBG Highlights

    Data.gov (United States)

    Broadcasting Board of Governors — BBG Highlights is a monthly summary of the BBG's accomplishments and news and developments affecting the Agency's work. Now, for the first time, this monthly update...

  1. Highlights of the TEXONO Research Program on Neutrino and Astroparticle Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Wong, H T; Zhou, Z Y

    2003-01-01

    This article reviews the research program and efforts for the TEXONO Collaboration on neutrino and astro-particle physics. The ``flagship'' program is on reactor-based neutrino physics at the Kuo-Sheng (KS) Power Plant in Taiwan. A limit on the neutrino magnetic moment of $munuebar < 1.3 X 10^{-10} mub}$ at 90% confidence level was derived from measurements with a high purity germanium detector. Other physics topics at KS, as well as the various R&D program, are discussed

  2. The microstructure of polar ice. Part I: Highlights from ice core research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faria, Sérgio H.; Weikusat, Ilka; Azuma, Nobuhiko

    2014-04-01

    Polar ice sheets play a fundamental role in Earth's climate system, by interacting actively and passively with the environment. Active interactions include the creeping flow of ice and its effects on polar geomorphology, global sea level, ocean and atmospheric circulation, and so on. Passive interactions are mainly established by the formation of climate records within the ice, in form of air bubbles, dust particles, salt microinclusions and other derivatives of airborne impurities buried by recurrent snowfalls. For a half-century scientists have been drilling deep ice cores in Antarctica and Greenland for studying such records, which can go back to around a million years. Experience shows, however, that the ice-sheet flow generally disrupts the stratigraphy of the bottom part of deep ice cores, destroying the integrity of the oldest records. For all these reasons glaciologists have been studying the microstructure of polar ice cores for decades, in order to understand the genesis and fate of ice-core climate records, as well as to learn more about the physical properties of polar ice, aiming at better climate-record interpretations and ever more precise models of ice-sheet dynamics. In this Part I we review the main difficulties and advances in deep ice core drilling in Antarctica and Greenland, together with the major contributions of deep ice coring to the research on natural ice microstructures. In particular, we discuss in detail the microstructural findings from Camp Century, Byrd, Dye 3, GRIP, GISP2, NorthGRIP, Vostok, Dome C, EDML, and Dome Fuji, besides commenting also on the earlier results of some pioneering ventures, like the Jungfraujoch Expedition and the Norwegian-British-Swedish Antarctic Expedition, among others. In the companion Part II of this work (Faria et al., 2014), the review proceeds with a survey of the state-of-the-art understanding of natural ice microstructures and some exciting prospects in this field of research.

  3. Future directions for bone metastasis research - highlights from the 2015 bone and the Oncologist new updates conference (BONUS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Ricardo; Siegel, Peter; Komarova, Svetlana; Hilton, John; Addison, Christina; Ibrahim, Mohammed F K; Werier, Joel; Dennis, Kristopher; Singh, Gurmit; Amir, Eitan; Jarvis, Virginia; Emmenegger, Urban; Mazzarello, Sasha; Clemons, Mark

    2016-06-01

    In an era of reduced peer-reviewed grant funding, performing academic bone oncology-related research has become increasingly challenging. Over the last 10 years we have held an annual meeting to bring together clinicians, clinician/scientists and basic biomedical researchers interested in the effects of cancer and its treatment on skeletal tissues. In the past these "Bone and the Oncologist New Updates Conference (BONUS)" meetings have served as critical catalyst for initiating productive research collaborations between attendees. The 2015 BONUS meeting format focused on potential key research themes that could form the basis of a coordinated national research strategy to tackle unmet clinical and research needs related to complications associated with cancer metastasis to bone. The three themes planned for discussion were: Is bone metastases-related pain the main issue facing patients? Are there new therapeutic targets for patients with bone metastases? How do we more firmly link basic science with clinical practice? We present a summary of lectures and commentaries from the attendees to serve as an example that other similarly motivated groups can model and share their experiences. It is our hope that these presentations will result in comments, feedback and suggestions from all those researchers interested in this important area.

  4. Future directions for bone metastasis researchhighlights from the 2015 bone and the Oncologist new updates conference (BONUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Fernandes

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In an era of reduced peer-reviewed grant funding, performing academic bone oncology-related research has become increasingly challenging. Over the last 10 years we have held an annual meeting to bring together clinicians, clinician/scientists and basic biomedical researchers interested in the effects of cancer and its treatment on skeletal tissues. In the past these “Bone and the Oncologist New Updates Conference (BONUS” meetings have served as critical catalyst for initiating productive research collaborations between attendees. The 2015 BONUS meeting format focused on potential key research themes that could form the basis of a coordinated national research strategy to tackle unmet clinical and research needs related to complications associated with cancer metastasis to bone. The three themes planned for discussion were: Is bone metastases-related pain the main issue facing patients? Are there new therapeutic targets for patients with bone metastases? How do we more firmly link basic science with clinical practice? We present a summary of lectures and commentaries from the attendees to serve as an example that other similarly motivated groups can model and share their experiences. It is our hope that these presentations will result in comments, feedback and suggestions from all those researchers interested in this important area.

  5. Drosophila models for cancer research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal, Marcos; Cagan, Ross L

    2006-02-01

    Drosophila is a model system for cancer research. Investigation with fruit flies has facilitated a number of important recent discoveries in the field: the hippo signaling pathway, which coordinates cell proliferation and death to achieve normal tissue size; 'social' behaviors of cells, including cell competition and apoptosis-induced compensatory proliferation, that help ensure normal tissue size; and a growing understanding of how oncogenes and tumor suppressors cooperate to achieve tumor growth and metastasis in situ. In the future, Drosophila models can be extended beyond basic research in the search for human therapeutics.

  6. The New Zealand experience of varroa invasion highlights research opportunities for Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwasaki, Jay M; Barratt, Barbara I P; Lord, Janice M; Mercer, Alison R; Dickinson, Katharine J M

    2015-11-01

    The Varroa mite (Varroa destructor) is implicated as a major disease factor in honey bee (Apis mellifera) populations worldwide. Honey bees are extensively relied upon for pollination services, and in countries such as New Zealand and Australia where honey bees have been introduced specifically for commercial pollinator services, the economic effects of any decline in honey bee numbers are predicted to be profound. V. destructor established in New Zealand in 2000 but as yet, Australia remains Varroa-free. Here we analyze the history of V. destructor invasion and spread in New Zealand and discuss the likely long-term impacts. When the mite was discovered in New Zealand, it was considered too well established for eradication to be feasible. Despite control efforts, V. destructor has since spread throughout the country. Today, assessing the impacts of the arrival of V. destructor in this country is compromised by a paucity of data on pollinator communities as they existed prior to invasion. Australia's Varroa-free status provides a rare and likely brief window of opportunity for the global bee research community to gain understanding of honey bee-native pollinator community dynamics prior to Varroa invasion.

  7. Implementation of next-generation sequencing for molecular diagnosis of hereditary breast and ovarian cancer highlights its genetic heterogeneity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Pedro; Paulo, Paula; Santos, Catarina; Rocha, Patrícia; Pinto, Carla; Veiga, Isabel; Pinheiro, Manuela; Peixoto, Ana; Teixeira, Manuel R

    2016-09-01

    Molecular diagnosis of hereditary breast and ovarian cancer (HBOC) by standard methodologies has been limited to the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes. With the recent development of new sequencing methodologies, the speed and efficiency of DNA testing have dramatically improved. The aim of this work was to validate the use of next-generation sequencing (NGS) for the detection of BRCA1/BRCA2 point mutations in a diagnostic setting and to study the role of other genes associated with HBOC in Portuguese families. A cohort of 94 high-risk families was included in the study, and they were initially screened for the two common founder mutations with variant-specific methods. Fourteen index patients were shown to carry the Portuguese founder mutation BRCA2 c.156_157insAlu, and the remaining 80 were analyzed in parallel by Sanger sequencing for the BRCA1/BRCA2 genes and by NGS for a panel of 17 genes that have been described as involved in predisposition to breast and/or ovarian cancer. A total of 506 variants in the BRCA1/BRCA2 genes were detected by both methodologies, with a 100 % concordance between them. This strategy allowed the detection of a total of 39 deleterious mutations in the 94 index patients, namely 10 in BRCA1 (25.6 %), 21 in BRCA2 (53.8 %), four in PALB2 (10.3 %), two in ATM (5.1 %), one in CHEK2 (2.6 %), and one in TP53 (2.6 %), with 20.5 % of the deleterious mutations being found in genes other than BRCA1/BRCA2. These results demonstrate the efficiency of NGS for the detection of BRCA1/BRCA2 point mutations and highlight the genetic heterogeneity of HBOC.

  8. Interdisciplinary Research Training in Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-07-01

    University. An Internet-Based Low- Literacy Cancer Communication Intervention. $1,500, funded. * 2004- Pfizer Clear Health Communication Program. An...Internet-Based Low- Literacy Cancer Communication Intervention. $195,000, not funded. 0 2004- DOD Breast Cancer Research Program, Multidisciplinary...of Connecticut and Yale University. While providing didactic experience in advanced research, methodology, it allows the candidate to have sustained

  9. Biomedical text mining and its applications in cancer research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Fei; Patumcharoenpol, Preecha; Zhang, Cheng; Yang, Yang; Chan, Jonathan; Meechai, Asawin; Vongsangnak, Wanwipa; Shen, Bairong

    2013-04-01

    Cancer is a malignant disease that has caused millions of human deaths. Its study has a long history of well over 100years. There have been an enormous number of publications on cancer research. This integrated but unstructured biomedical text is of great value for cancer diagnostics, treatment, and prevention. The immense body and rapid growth of biomedical text on cancer has led to the appearance of a large number of text mining techniques aimed at extracting novel knowledge from scientific text. Biomedical text mining on cancer research is computationally automatic and high-throughput in nature. However, it is error-prone due to the complexity of natural language processing. In this review, we introduce the basic concepts underlying text mining and examine some frequently used algorithms, tools, and data sets, as well as assessing how much these algorithms have been utilized. We then discuss the current state-of-the-art text mining applications in cancer research and we also provide some resources for cancer text mining. With the development of systems biology, researchers tend to understand complex biomedical systems from a systems biology viewpoint. Thus, the full utilization of text mining to facilitate cancer systems biology research is fast becoming a major concern. To address this issue, we describe the general workflow of text mining in cancer systems biology and each phase of the workflow. We hope that this review can (i) provide a useful overview of the current work of this field; (ii) help researchers to choose text mining tools and datasets; and (iii) highlight how to apply text mining to assist cancer systems biology research.

  10. Prostate cancer research in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shan-Cheng Ren; Rui Chen; Ying-Hao Sun

    2013-01-01

    Prostate cancer (PCa) research in China has been on a rocketing trend in recent years.The first genome-wide association study (GWAS)in China identified two new PCa risk associated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs).Next generation sequencing is beginning to be used,yielding novel findings:gene fusions,long non-coding RNAs and other variations.Mechanisms of PCa progression have been illustrated while various diagnosis biomarkers have been investigated extensively.Personalized therapy based on genetic factors,nano-medicine and traditional Chinese medicine has been the focus of experimental therapeutic research for PCa.This review intends to shed light upon the recent progress in PCa research in China and points out the possible breakthroughs in the future.

  11. Breast Cancer and the Environment Research Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Breast Cancer and the Environment Research Program supports a multidisciplinary network of scientists, clinicians, and community partners to examine the effects of environmental exposures that may predispose a woman to breast cancer throughout her life.

  12. Expo Highlights

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG ZHIPING; SHAO DA

    2010-01-01

    @@ The 2010 World Expo opened in Shanghai on May 1.While serving as a platform to display the latest global scientific achievements and economic growth,it otters a wonderful opportunity for Chinese culture to be shared with the rest of the world as well.On this occasion,participants from 246 nations and international organizations gathered in Shanghai to create an Expo stage that goes beyond national,ethnic and religious boundaries,and to convey the Expo ideas of "understanding,communication,togetherness and cooperation" to the world.Currently,four highlights of the Expo are available to visitors.

  13. Design of an Experimental Contemporary Physics Course which Develops the Full Experience of Scientific Research and Highlights Current Faculty Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarrison-Rice, Jan M.; Jaeger, Herbert; Eid, Khalid F.

    2013-03-01

    From background literature searches and reading, to conducting experiments, to presenting results and writing a journal manuscript, Miami University has revised its second-year Experimental Contemporary Physics Course, Phy293, to follow a basic research model. We examined research that faculty were conducting and chose experiments which were strongly related to understanding the ongoing research in the Department, while being based in fundamental quantum mechanics and recent 21st century physics. Experiments often had common instrumentation and data analysis techniques which allowed for grouping them into 3 basic categories: 1) Spectroscopy of gases and solids, 2) Characterization of contemporary samples, and 3) Quantized systems in electronic, magnetic and nuclear physics. These experiments also supported our secondary goal of preparing students to enter our research laboratories. At Miami, we generally have between 25-35 second year students, so the laboratory course must be managed to maintain groups of 2-3 for the best student learning outcomes. We will report on course logistics, the grouping of experiments, and methods for assessing students' learning. Having run the revised, full experimental format of Phy293 a 3rd time, we feel confident stating that this course demonstrates to students ``how physics research in the 21st century is actually conducted!''

  14. Brookhaven highlights

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rowe, M.S.; Cohen, A.; Greenberg, D.; Seubert, L. (eds.)

    1992-01-01

    This publication provides a broad overview of the research programs and efforts being conducted, built, designed, and planned at Brookhaven National Laboratory. This work covers a broad range of scientific disciplines. Major facilities include the Alternating Gradient Synchrotron (AGS), with its newly completed booster, the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS), the High Flux Beam Reactor (HFBR), and the RHIC, which is under construction. Departments within the laboratory include the AGS department, accelerator development, physics, chemistry, biology, NSLS, medical, nuclear energy, and interdepartmental research efforts. Research ranges from the pure sciences, in nuclear physics and high energy physics as one example, to environmental work in applied science to study climatic effects, from efforts in biology which are a component of the human genome project to the study, production, and characterization of new materials. The paper provides an overview of the laboratory operations during 1992, including staffing, research, honors, funding, and general laboratory plans for the future.

  15. Gastric cancer research in Mexico: a public health priority.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampieri, Clara Luz; Mora, Mauricio

    2014-04-28

    This study aimed review studies conducted on Mexican patients diagnosed with gastric cancer and/or diseases associated with its development, in which at least one Mexican institute has participated, and to assess their contributions to the primary and secondary prevention of this disease. A search of the Medline database was conducted using the following keywords: gastric/stomach cancer, Mexico. Studies of the Mexican population were selected in which at least one Mexican Institute had participated and where the findings could support public policy proposals directed towards the primary or secondary prevention of gastric cancer. Of the 148 studies found in the Medline database, 100 were discarded and 48 were reviewed. According to the analysis presented, these studies were classified as: epidemiology of gastric cancer (5/48); risk factors and protectors relating to gastric cancer (9/48); relationship between Helicobacter pylori and pathologies associated with gastric cancer and the development of the disease (16/48); relationship between the Epstein-Barr virus and pathologies associated with gastric cancer and the development of the disease (3/48); molecular markers for the development of diseases associated with gastric cancer and gastric cancer (15/48). Mexico requires a program for the prevention and control of gastric cancer based on national health indicators. This should be produced by a multidisciplinary committee of experts who can propose actions that are relevant in the current national context. The few studies of gastric cancer conducted on the Mexican population in national institutes highlight the poor connection that currently exists between the scientific community and the health sector in terms of resolving this health issue. Public policies for health research should support projects with findings that can be translated into benefits for the population. This review serves to identify national research groups studying gastric cancer in the Mexican

  16. Gastric cancer research in Mexico: A public health priority

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampieri, Clara Luz; Mora, Mauricio

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed review studies conducted on Mexican patients diagnosed with gastric cancer and/or diseases associated with its development, in which at least one Mexican institute has participated, and to assess their contributions to the primary and secondary prevention of this disease. A search of the Medline database was conducted using the following keywords: gastric/stomach cancer, Mexico. Studies of the Mexican population were selected in which at least one Mexican Institute had participated and where the findings could support public policy proposals directed towards the primary or secondary prevention of gastric cancer. Of the 148 studies found in the Medline database, 100 were discarded and 48 were reviewed. According to the analysis presented, these studies were classified as: epidemiology of gastric cancer (5/48); risk factors and protectors relating to gastric cancer (9/48); relationship between Helicobacter pylori and pathologies associated with gastric cancer and the development of the disease (16/48); relationship between the Epstein-Barr virus and pathologies associated with gastric cancer and the development of the disease (3/48); molecular markers for the development of diseases associated with gastric cancer and gastric cancer (15/48). Mexico requires a program for the prevention and control of gastric cancer based on national health indicators. This should be produced by a multidisciplinary committee of experts who can propose actions that are relevant in the current national context. The few studies of gastric cancer conducted on the Mexican population in national institutes highlight the poor connection that currently exists between the scientific community and the health sector in terms of resolving this health issue. Public policies for health research should support projects with findings that can be translated into benefits for the population. This review serves to identify national research groups studying gastric cancer in the Mexican

  17. Basic research on cancer related to radiation associated medical researches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jong In; Hwang, Dae Yong; Bang, Ho Yoon [and others

    2000-12-01

    Basic Research on Cancer related to Radiation Associated Medical Researches including 1. Establishment of animal model of colorectal cancer liver metastasis and measurement of angiogenesis, 2. Tissue expression of Tie-1 and Tie-2 in human colorectal cancer, 3. Enhancement of G2/Mphase Cell Fraction by Adenovirus-mediated p53 Gene Transfer in Ovarian Cancer Cell Lines, 4. Clinical Characteristics of the patients with Non-B Non-C Hepatocellular Carcinoma and Frequency of HBV, HCV and TTV Viremia in these Patients, 5. Significance of serum iron and ferritin in patients with stomach cancer, 6. Telomerase assay for early detection of lung cancer, 7. Study on the Usefulness of Aldehyde dehydrogenase-2 Genotyping for Risk Group of Alcohol-related Cancer Screening, 8. Gene therapy using hepatoma specific promoter, 9. Study on the Influence of DNA repair gene, XRCC1 Genotypes on the Risk of Head and Neck Cancer were performed.

  18. Novel translational strategies in colorectal cancer research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Defining translational research is still a complex task. In oncology, translational research implies using our basic knowledge learnt from in vitro and in vivo experiments to directly improve diagnostic tools and therapeutic approaches in cancer patients. Moreover, the better understanding of human cancer and its use to design more reliable tumor models and more accurate experimental systems also has to be considered a good example of translational research. The identification and characterization of new molecular markers and the discovery of novel targeted therapies are two main goals in colorectal cancer translational research. However, the straightforward translation of basic research findings, specifically into colorectal cancer treatment and vice versa is still underway. In the present paper, a summarized view of some of the new available approaches on colorectal cancer translational research is provided. Pros and cons are discussed for every approach exposed.

  19. Nutrition and Cancer Prevention Research Practicum | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Nutritional Science Research Group in the Division of Cancer Prevention at the National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health and the Department of Nutrition at the Clinical Center, National Institutes of Health are offering a one week educational opportunity in "Nutrition and Cancer Prevention Research" for individuals with a sustained commitment to nutrition and health promotion. This one-week intense learning session provides specialized instruction in the role of diet and bioactive food components as modifiers of cancer incidence and tumor behavior. |

  20. Research and comprehensive cancer control coalitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinson, Cynthia; La Porta, Madeline; Todd, William; Palafox, Neal A; Wilson, Katherine M; Fairley, Temeika

    2010-12-01

    The goal of cancer control research is "to generate basic knowledge about how to monitor and change individual and collective behavior and to ensure that knowledge is translated into practice and policy rapidly, effectively, and efficiently" (Division of Cancer Control and Population Sciences in Cancer control framework and synthese rationale, 2010). Research activities span the cancer control continuum from prevention to early detection and diagnosis through treatment and survivorship (Division of Cancer Control and Population Sciences in Cancer control framework and synthese rationale, 2010). While significant advancements have been made in understanding, preventing and treating cancer in the past few decades, these benefits have yielded disproportionate results in cancer morbidity and mortality across various socioeconomic and racial/ethnic subgroups (Ozols et al in J Clin Oncol, 25(1):146-1622, 2007). It has been a high priority since the beginning of the Comprehensive Cancer Control (CCC) movement to utilize research in the development and implementation of cancer plans in the states, tribes and tribal organizations, territories and US Pacific Island Jurisdictions. Nevertheless, dissemination and implementation of research in coalition activities has been challenging for many programs. Lessons learned from programs and coalitions in the implementation and evaluation of CCC activities, as well as resources provided by national partners, can assist coalitions with the translation of research into practice.

  1. Genomic Datasets for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    A variety of datasets from genome-wide association studies of cancer and other genotype-phenotype studies, including sequencing and molecular diagnostic assays, are available to approved investigators through the Extramural National Cancer Institute Data Access Committee.

  2. Nebraska Prostate Cancer Research Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-01

    MacDonald, Richard G; Mehta, Parmender P; Mott, Justin L; Naslavsky, Naava; Palanimuthu Ponnusamy, Moorthy; Ramaley, Robert F; Sorgen, Paul L; Steinke...feedback regulation of PI3K and androgen receptor signaling in PTEN-deficient prostate cancer, Cancer Cell 19 (2011) 575–586. [29] B.J. Feldman , D... Feldman , The development of androgen-independent prostate cancer, Nat. Rev. Cancer 1 (2001) 34–45. [30] J.D. Debes, D.J. Tindall, Mechanisms of androgen

  3. The Descent of the Serpent: Using a Successful Ancient Solar Observatories Webcast from Chichen Itza to Highlight Space Weather Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, I.; Higdon, R.; Cline, T.

    2006-12-01

    Over the past seven years, NASA's Sun-Earth Connection Education Forum has sponsored and coordinated education and public outreach events to highlight NASA's heliophysics research and discoveries. Our strategy involves using celestial events, such as total solar eclipses and the Transit of Venus, as well as Sun-Earth Day during the March Equinox, to engage K-12 schools and the general public in space science activities, demonstrations, and interactions with space scientists. In collaboration with partners that include the Exploratorium and other museums, Ideum, NASA TV, NASA heliophysics missions, and others, we produce webcasts, other multi-media, and print resources for use by school and informal educators nation-wide and internationally. We provide training and professional development to K-12 educators, museum personnel, amateur astronomers, Girl Scout leaders, etc., so they can implement their own outreach programs taking advantage of our resources. A coordinated approach promotes multiple programs occurring each year under a common theme. As part of an Ancient Observatories theme in 2005, we have successfully featured solar alignments with ancient structures made by indigenous cultures that mark the equinoxes and/or solstices in cultural and historical parks in the Americas. In partnership with the Exploratorium, we produced broadcast-quality and webcast programming during the March equinox that shared heliophysics within a broad cultural context with formal and informal education audiences internationally. The program: "Descent of the Serpent" featured the light and shadow effect at sunset that takes place during the spring equinox at the Pyramid of El Castillo, in Chichén Itzá (México). This program made unique and authentic cultural connections to the knowledge of solar astronomy of the Maya, the living Mayan culture of today, and the importance of the Sun across the ages. We involved Sun-Earth Connection scientists, their missions, and research

  4. African Organization for Research and Training in Cancer: position and vision for cancer research on the African Continent

    OpenAIRE

    Ogunbiyi, J. Olufemi; Stefan, D. Cristina; Timothy R. Rebbeck

    2016-01-01

    The African Organization for Research and training in Cancer (AORTIC) bases the following position statements on a critical appraisal of the state on cancer research and cancer care in Africa including information on the availability of data on cancer burden, screening and prevention for cancer in Africa, cancer care personnel, treatment modalities, and access to cancer care.

  5. Highlights, predictions, and changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeang, Kuan-Teh

    2012-11-15

    Recent literature highlights at Retrovirology are described. Predictions are made regarding "hot" retrovirology research trends for the coming year based on recent journal access statistics. Changes in Retrovirology editor and the frequency of the Retrovirology Prize are announced.

  6. PHYSICS FOR HEALTH: CONFERENCE HIGHLIGHTS

    CERN Multimedia

    2016-01-01

    Highlights of ICTR-PHE 2016 - International Conference on Translational Research in Radio-Oncology and Physics for Health -, co organized by CERN, aims at developing new strategies to better diagnose and treat cancer, by uniting biology and physics with clinics. Through the various sessions and symposia, the scientific programme offers the delegates the opportunity to discuss, in a friendly atmosphere, the latest progress in physics breakthroughs for health applications. The third edition of this conference took place at CICG (Centre International de Conférence Genève) from 15 to 19 Feb 2016.

  7. Pathway analysis of genome-wide association study data highlights pancreatic development genes as susceptibility factors for pancreatic cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duell, Eric J.; Yu, Kai; Risch, Harvey A.; Olson, Sara H.; Kooperberg, Charles; Wolpin, Brian M.; Jiao, Li; Dong, Xiaoqun; Wheeler, Bill; Arslan, Alan A.; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. Bas; Fuchs, Charles S.; Gallinger, Steven; Gross, Myron; Hartge, Patricia; Hoover, Robert N.; Holly, Elizabeth A.; Jacobs, Eric J.; Klein, Alison P.; LaCroix, Andrea; Mandelson, Margaret T.; Petersen, Gloria; Zheng, Wei; Agalliu, Ilir; Albanes, Demetrius; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Bracci, Paige M.; Buring, Julie E.; Canzian, Federico; Chang, Kenneth; Chanock, Stephen J.; Cotterchio, Michelle; Gaziano, J.Michael; Giovannucci, Edward L.; Goggins, Michael; Hallmans, Göran; Hankinson, Susan E.; Hoffman Bolton, Judith A.; Hunter, David J.; Hutchinson, Amy; Jacobs, Kevin B.; Jenab, Mazda; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Kraft, Peter; Krogh, Vittorio; Kurtz, Robert C.; McWilliams, Robert R.; Mendelsohn, Julie B.; Patel, Alpa V.; Rabe, Kari G.; Riboli, Elio; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Tjønneland, Anne; Tobias, Geoffrey S.; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Virtamo, Jarmo; Visvanathan, Kala; Watters, Joanne; Yu, Herbert; Zeleniuch-Jacquotte, Anne; Stolzenberg-Solomon, Rachael Z.

    2012-01-01

    Four loci have been associated with pancreatic cancer through genome-wide association studies (GWAS). Pathway-based analysis of GWAS data is a complementary approach to identify groups of genes or biological pathways enriched with disease-associated single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) whose individual effect sizes may be too small to be detected by standard single-locus methods. We used the adaptive rank truncated product method in a pathway-based analysis of GWAS data from 3851 pancreatic cancer cases and 3934 control participants pooled from 12 cohort studies and 8 case–control studies (PanScan). We compiled 23 biological pathways hypothesized to be relevant to pancreatic cancer and observed a nominal association between pancreatic cancer and five pathways (P < 0.05), i.e. pancreatic development, Helicobacter pylori lacto/neolacto, hedgehog, Th1/Th2 immune response and apoptosis (P = 2.0 × 10−6, 1.6 × 10−5, 0.0019, 0.019 and 0.023, respectively). After excluding previously identified genes from the original GWAS in three pathways (NR5A2, ABO and SHH), the pancreatic development pathway remained significant (P = 8.3 × 10−5), whereas the others did not. The most significant genes (P < 0.01) in the five pathways were NR5A2, HNF1A, HNF4G and PDX1 for pancreatic development; ABO for H. pylori lacto/neolacto; SHH for hedgehog; TGFBR2 and CCL18 for Th1/Th2 immune response and MAPK8 and BCL2L11 for apoptosis. Our results provide a link between inherited variation in genes important for pancreatic development and cancer and show that pathway-based approaches to analysis of GWAS data can yield important insights into the collective role of genetic risk variants in cancer. PMID:22523087

  8. Nursing highlights from the 2015 European Cancer Congress (ECCO18–ESMO40), 25–29 September 2015, Vienna: reinforcing multidisciplinarity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caruso, Rosario; Lichosik, Danuta

    2015-01-01

    The 2015 European Cancer Congress (ECC2015) was the widest European platform for every professional involved in the struggle against cancer (17,656 participants, 2482 abstracts submitted). In this context, the nursing contribution was very relevant, involving high quality research and experience. The major nursing issues were: online information and support; innovations in cancer nursing roles; patient safety and the nursing workforce; managing older people with cancer and other co-morbidities; living with and beyond cancer; nutrition and body image changes; the changing face of cancer care for oncology nurses. Indeed, an important amount of research was presented during proffered papers and poster presentations by nurses from all over the world, concerning challenging issues, such as advanced nursing roles, end of life care, impact of cancer on patients and families, new developments, supportive and palliative care, survivorship and rehabilitation, symptom management and transitions in care. Nurses’ presentations were mainly focused on understanding patients’ needs and on sharing the best evidence-based approach to meet those needs. This is particularly significant in a field where innovation develops rapidly in every area of clinical practice, such as cancer care, bridging the weaknesses between different approaches and profiles, within the paradigm of multidisciplinarity. PMID:26635893

  9. Prevention and Treatment of Cancer: Hypes and Hopes 6th International Translational Cancer Research Conference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Prabhudas; Vora, Hemangini; Aggarwal, Bharat B; Gandhi, Varsha; Mehta, Kapil; Pathak, Sen

    2016-09-01

    Cancer is primarily an "old-age" disease that has an "age-old" history. The overall incidence of cancer is much higher in Western countries, but is rapidly growing in Eastern countries perhaps due to change in life-style. Almost three million studies published to date indicate that cancer is a hyperproliferative disorder that arises from dysregulation of multiple cell signaling pathways. The cancer genome landscape indicates that approximately 140 genes and 12 cell signaling pathways drive almost all cancers. "Targeted therapy," a buzz word in cancer treatment for the past two decades, has provided antibodies, as well as small-molecule inhibitors. These therapies have been successful only in few instances. However, in most cases, minor increase in overall survival has been reported at the cost of huge expense. An alternative strategy is to prevent cancer or to diagnose and treat the disease at an early stage to gain survival benefits. Such interventions are also cost-effective. To address some of these issues, the 6th International Translational Cancer Research Conference was held during February 4-7th, 2016, in Ahmedabad, Gujarat, India; the homeland of Mahatma Gandhi. This conference was focused on utilizing multidisciplinary approaches for prevention and early treatment that would likely simultaneously or sequentially target many key pathways. Several distinguished speakers were invited from around the world. This article highlights primary features of this conference.

  10. Community-based participatory research: its role in future cancer research and public health practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonds, Vanessa W; Wallerstein, Nina; Duran, Bonnie; Villegas, Malia

    2013-05-16

    The call for community-based participatory research approaches to address cancer health disparities is increasing as concern grows for the limited effectiveness of existing public health practice and research in communities that experience a disparate burden of disease. A national study of participatory research projects, Research for Improved Health, funded by the National Institutes of Health (2009-2013), identified 64 of 333 projects focused on cancer and demonstrated the potential impact participatory approaches can have in reducing cancer disparities. Several projects highlight the success of participatory approaches to cancer prevention and intervention in addressing many of the challenges of traditional practice and research. Best practices include adapting interventions within local contexts, alleviating mistrust, supporting integration of local cultural knowledge, and training investigators from communities that experience cancer disparities. The national study has implications for expanding our understanding of the impact of participatory approaches on alleviating health disparities and aims to enhance our understanding of the barriers and facilitators to effective community-based participatory research.

  11. Overexpression and knock-down studies highlight that a disintegrin and metalloproteinase 28 controls proliferation and migration in human prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudnicka, Caroline; Mochizuki, Satsuki; Okada, Yasunori; McLaughlin, Claire; Leedman, Peter J; Stuart, Lisa; Epis, Michael; Hoyne, Gerard; Boulos, Sherif; Johnson, Liam; Schlaich, Markus; Matthews, Vance

    2016-10-01

    Prostate cancer is one of the most prevalent cancers in men. It is critical to identify and characterize oncogenes that drive the pathogenesis of human prostate cancer. The current study builds upon previous research showing that a disintegrin and metallproteinase (ADAM)28 is involved in the pathogenesis of numerous cancers. Our novel study used overexpression, pharmacological, and molecular approaches to investigate the biological function of ADAM28 in human prostate cancer cells, with a focus on cell proliferation and migration. The results of this study provide important insights into the role of metalloproteinases in human prostate cancer.The expression of ADAM28 protein levels was assessed within human prostate tumors and normal adjacent tissue by immunohistochemistry. Immunocytochemistry and western blotting were used to assess ADAM28 protein expression in human prostate cancer cell lines. Functional assays were conducted to assess proliferation and migration in human prostate cancer cells in which ADAM28 protein expression or activity had been altered by overexpression, pharmacological inhibition, or by siRNA gene knockdown.The membrane bound ADAM28 was increased in human tumor biopsies and prostate cancer cell lines. Pharmacological inhibition of ADAM28 activity and/or knockdown of ADAM28 significantly reduced proliferation and migration of human prostate cancer cells, while overexpression of ADAM28 significantly increased proliferation and migration.ADAM28 is overexpressed in primary human prostate tumor biopsies, and it promotes human prostate cancer cell proliferation and migration. This study supports the notion that inhibition of ADAM28 may be a potential novel therapeutic strategy for human prostate cancer.

  12. DCB - Cancer Immunology, Hematology, and Etiology Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Part of NCI’s Division of Cancer Biology’s research portfolio, studies supported include the characterization of basic mechanisms relevant to anti-tumor immune responses and hematologic malignancies.

  13. Research Areas: Causes of Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Understanding the exposures and risk factors that cause cancer, as well as the genetic abnormalities associated with the disease, has helped us to reduce certain exposures and to ameliorate their harmful effects.

  14. Cancer systems biology: signal processing for cancer research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Olli Yli-Harja; Antti Ylip(a)(a); Matti Nykter; Wei Zhang

    2011-01-01

    In this editorial we introduce the research paradigms of signal processing in the era of systems biology. Signal processing is a field of science traditionally focused on modeling electronic and communications systems, but recently it has turned to biological applications with astounding results. The essence of signal processing is to describe the natural world by mathematical models and then, based on these models, develop efficient computational tools for solving engineering problems. Here, we underline, with examples, the endless possibilities which arise when the battle-hardened tools of engineering are applied to solve the problems that have tormented cancer researchers. Based on this approach, a new field has emerged, called cancer systems biology. Despite its short history, cancer systems biology has already produced several success stories tackling previously impracticable problems. Perhaps most importantly, it has been accepted as an integral part of the major endeavors of cancer research, such as analyzing the genomic and epigenomic data produced by The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) project. Finally, we show that signal processing and cancer research, two fields that are seemingly distant from each other, have merged into a field that is indeed more than the sum of its parts.

  15. Cancer systems biology: signal processing for cancer research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yli-Harja, Olli; Ylipää, Antti; Nykter, Matti; Zhang, Wei

    2011-04-01

    In this editorial we introduce the research paradigms of signal processing in the era of systems biology. Signal processing is a field of science traditionally focused on modeling electronic and communications systems, but recently it has turned to biological applications with astounding results. The essence of signal processing is to describe the natural world by mathematical models and then, based on these models, develop efficient computational tools for solving engineering problems. Here, we underline, with examples, the endless possibilities which arise when the battle-hardened tools of engineering are applied to solve the problems that have tormented cancer researchers. Based on this approach, a new field has emerged, called cancer systems biology. Despite its short history, cancer systems biology has already produced several success stories tackling previously impracticable problems. Perhaps most importantly, it has been accepted as an integral part of the major endeavors of cancer research, such as analyzing the genomic and epigenomic data produced by The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) project. Finally, we show that signal processing and cancer research, two fields that are seemingly distant from each other, have merged into a field that is indeed more than the sum of its parts.

  16. TCGA researchers identify 4 subtypes of stomach cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stomach cancers fall into four distinct molecular subtypes, researchers with The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) Network have found. Scientists report that this discovery could change how researchers think about developing treatments for stomach cancer, also c

  17. About the Breast and Gynecologic Cancer Research Group | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Breast and Gynecologic Cancer Research Group conducts and fosters the development of research on the prevention and early detection of breast cancer, cervix and human papillomavirus (HPV)-related cancers, endometrial cancers, ovarian cancers, and precursor conditions related to these cancers. |

  18. Phenomenology in pediatric cancer nursing research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fochtman, Dianne

    2008-01-01

    What does it mean to have cancer as a child or adolescent? To understand this, researchers must study the illness from the child's point of view and listen to these children's descriptions of their "lived world." Phenomenology is a qualitative research methodology that can be used to discover and interpret meaning. To use phenomenology congruently, the philosophical background must be understood as well as the adaptation of the philosophical basis to research in the caring sciences. Only when clinicians truly understand the meaning of this illness to the child can they design nursing interventions to ease suffering and increase quality of life in children and adolescents with cancer.

  19. NIH Research Leads to Cervical Cancer Vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Current Issue Past Issues Sexually Transmitted Diseases NIH Research Leads to Cervical Cancer Vaccine Past Issues / Fall 2008 Table of Contents For ... mystery. Most important, however, is to have a vaccine which potentially can ... focusing their research on helping to produce second-generation HPV vaccines ...

  20. Antiproton radiation found effective in cancer research

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    "An international collaboration of scientists has completed the first ever antiproton beam experiments designed to reveal the biological effectiveness of antiproton radiation in terminating cells used for cancer research...PBar Labs assembled the collaboration at CERN (European Organization for Nuclear Research in Geneva) to perform the measurements" (1 page).

  1. Updates in colorectal cancer stem cell research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Jie Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Colorectal cancer (CRC is one of the world most common malignant tumors, also is the main disease, which cause tumor-associated death. Surgery and chemotherapy are the most used treatment of CRC. Recent research reported that, cancer stem cells (CSCs are considered as the origin of tumor genesis, development, metastasis and recurrence in theory. At present, it has been proved that, CSCs existed in many tumors including CRC. In this review, we summary the identification of CSCs according to the cell surface markers, and the development of drugs that target colorectal cancer stem cells.

  2. Factor interaction analysis for chromosome 8 and DNA methylation alterations highlights innate immune response suppression and cytoskeletal changes in prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lengauer Thomas

    2007-02-01

    interaction in innate immune response suppression and cytoskeletal changes during prostate cancer progression. The study thus highlights novel mechanisms in prostate cancer progression and identifies novel candidate genes for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. In particular, TLR3 expression might be useful for prostate cancer prognosis and EPB41L3 hypermethylation for its detection.

  3. Radiation related basic cancer research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Seung Hoon; Yoo, Young Do; Hong, Seok Il [and others

    2000-04-01

    We studied the mechanism of radiation-induced apoptosis, the factors involved signaling, and the establishment of radiation-resistant cell lines in this study. During the TGF beta-stimulated epithelial mesenchymal transition(EMT), actin rearrangement occurred first and fibronectin matrix assembly followed. These two events were considered independent since cytochalasin-D did not inhibit TGF stimulated matrix assembly and fibronectin supplementation did not induce EMT. During EMT, alpha 5 beta 1 integrin and alpha v integrin have increased but MMP activation was not accompanied, which suggest that induction of extracellular matrix and activation of integrins may be main contributor for the EMT. Serum depriving induced apoptosis of HUVECs was prevented by vascular endothelial growth factor(VEGF) and PMA. The apoptosis prevention by VEGF and PMA were conformed by DNA fragmentation assay. The p53 expression level was down regulated by VEGF and PMA compared with serum deprived HUVECs. However, VEGF and PMA induces c-Myc expression level on these cells. We made the 5 radiation-resistant clones from breast, lung and cervical cancer cells. More than 70%, 100% and 50% increased resistance was detected in breast cancer cells, lung cancer cells, and cervical cells, respectively. We carried out differential display-PCR to clone the radiation-resistant genes. 9 out of 10 genes were analyzed their sequence.

  4. Methods and Rationale for the Early Detection of Pancreatic Cancer Highlights from the "2010 ASCO Gastrointestinal Cancers Symposium". Orlando, FL, USA. January 22-24, 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott Bussom

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Pancreatic cancer often presents at an advanced stage that result in a very dismal five-year survival rates. Novel methods to detect tumors as early as possible are desperately needed. The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF recommends against routine screening for pancreatic cancer in asymptomatic adults using abdominal palpation, ultrasonography, or serologic markers. The evidence for diet-based prevention of pancreatic cancer is limited and conflicting. Recommendations about lifestyle changes, such as stopping the use of tobacco products, moderating alcohol intake, and eating a balanced diet with sufficient fruit and vegetables is generally made. However, screening for persons with hereditary predisposition to develop pancreatic cancer has not been included in this review. Biomarkers represent one tool for the early detection of small, surgically resectable cancers in both the general and high risk populations. Some of the currently utilized biomarkers including carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA, CA 19-9, SPan-1, and DUPAN-2 unfortunately have yet to show the sensitivity and specificity needed to be used for screening asymptomatic patients in the general population for pancreatic cancer. Herein, the authors report some updated information from the 2010 ASCO Gastrointestinal Cancers Symposium in detecting early stage pancreatic cancer.

  5. Neutrino Experiments Highlights

    CERN Document Server

    Wong, H T

    2001-01-01

    This article consists of two parts. The first section presents the highlights on the goals of neutrino physics, status of the current neutrino experiments and future directions and program. The second section describes the theme, program and research efforts for the TEXONO Collaboration among scientists from Taiwan and China.

  6. Highlights, predictions, and changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeang Kuan-Teh

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Recent literature highlights at Retrovirology are described. Predictions are made regarding “hot” retrovirology research trends for the coming year based on recent journal access statistics. Changes in Retrovirology editor and the frequency of the Retrovirology Prize are announced.

  7. Highlights, predictions, and changes

    OpenAIRE

    Jeang Kuan-Teh

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Recent literature highlights at Retrovirology are described. Predictions are made regarding “hot” retrovirology research trends for the coming year based on recent journal access statistics. Changes in Retrovirology editor and the frequency of the Retrovirology Prize are announced.

  8. Automation of Technology for Cancer Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Ent, Wietske; Veneman, Wouter J; Groenewoud, Arwin; Chen, Lanpeng; Tulotta, Claudia; Hogendoorn, Pancras C W; Spaink, Herman P; Snaar-Jagalska, B Ewa

    2016-01-01

    Zebrafish embryos can be obtained for research purposes in large numbers at low cost and embryos develop externally in limited space, making them highly suitable for high-throughput cancer studies and drug screens. Non-invasive live imaging of various processes within the larvae is possible due to their transparency during development, and a multitude of available fluorescent transgenic reporter lines.To perform high-throughput studies, handling large amounts of embryos and larvae is required. With such high number of individuals, even minute tasks may become time-consuming and arduous. In this chapter, an overview is given of the developments in the automation of various steps of large scale zebrafish cancer research for discovering important cancer pathways and drugs for the treatment of human disease. The focus lies on various tools developed for cancer cell implantation, embryo handling and sorting, microfluidic systems for imaging and drug treatment, and image acquisition and analysis. Examples will be given of employment of these technologies within the fields of toxicology research and cancer research.

  9. Leveraging epidemiology and clinical studies of cancer outcomes: recommendations and opportunities for translational research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elena, Joanne W; Travis, Lois B; Simonds, Naoko I; Ambrosone, Christine B; Ballard-Barbash, Rachel; Bhatia, Smita; Cerhan, James R; Hartge, Patricia; Heist, Rebecca S; Kushi, Lawrence H; Lash, Timothy L; Morton, Lindsay M; Onel, Kenan; Pierce, John P; Robison, Leslie L; Rowland, Julia H; Schrag, Deborah; Sellers, Thomas A; Seminara, Daniela; Shu, Xiao Ou; Thomas, Nancy E; Ulrich, Cornelia M; Freedman, Andrew N

    2013-01-16

    As the number of cancer survivors continues to grow, research investigating the factors that affect cancer outcomes, such as disease recurrence, risk of second malignant neoplasms, and the late effects of cancer treatments, becomes ever more important. Numerous epidemiologic studies have investigated factors that affect cancer risk, but far fewer have addressed the extent to which demographic, lifestyle, genomic, clinical, and psychosocial factors influence cancer outcomes. To identify research priorities as well as resources and infrastructure needed to advance the field of cancer outcomes and survivorship research, the National Cancer Institute sponsored a workshop titled "Utilizing Data from Cancer Survivor Cohorts: Understanding the Current State of Knowledge and Developing Future Research Priorities" on November 3, 2011, in Washington, DC. This commentary highlights recent findings presented at the workshop, opportunities to leverage existing data, and recommendations for future research, data, and infrastructure needed to address high priority clinical and research questions. Multidisciplinary teams that include epidemiologists, clinicians, biostatisticians, and bioinformaticists will be essential to facilitate future cancer outcome studies focused on improving clinical care of cancer patients, identifying those at high risk of poor outcomes, and implementing effective interventions to ultimately improve the quality and duration of survival.

  10. Implementing visual cervical cancer screening in Senegal: a cross-sectional study of risk factors and prevalence highlighting service utilization barriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dykens, J Andrew; Linn, Annē M; Irwin, Tracy; Peters, Karen E; Pyra, Maria; Traoré, Fatoumata; Touré Diarra, Mariama; Hasnain, Memoona; Wallner, Katie; Linn, Patrick; Ndiaye, Youssoupha

    2017-01-01

    Background Senegal ranks 15th in the world in incidence of cervical cancer, the number one cause of cancer mortality among women in this country. The estimated participation rate for cervical cancer screening throughout Senegal is very low (6.9% of women 18–69 years old), especially in rural areas and among older age groups (only 1.9% of women above the age of 40 years). There are no reliable estimates of the prevalence of cervical dysplasia or risk factors for cervical dysplasia specific to rural Senegal. The goals of this study were to estimate the prevalence of cervical dysplasia in a rural region using visual inspection of the cervix with acetic acid (VIA) and to assess risk factors for cervical cancer control. Patients and methods We conducted a cross-sectional study in which we randomly selected 38 villages across the Kédougou region using a three-stage clustering process. Between October 2013 and March 2014, we collected VIA screening results for women aged 30–50 years and cervical cancer risk factors linked to the screening result. Results We screened 509 women; 5.6% of the estimated target population (9,041) in the region. The point prevalence of cervical dysplasia (positive VIA test) was 2.10% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.99–3.21). Moreover, 287 women completed the cervical cancer risk factor survey (56.4% response rate) and only 38% stated awareness of cervical cancer; 75.9% of the screened women were less than 40 years of age. Conclusion The overall prevalence of dysplasia in this sample was lower than anticipated. Despite both overall awareness and screening uptake being less than expected, our study highlights the need to address challenges in future prevalence estimates. Principally, we identified that the highest-risk women are the ones least likely to seek screening services, thus illustrating a need to fully understand demand-side barriers to accessing health services in this population. Targeted efforts to educate and motivate older

  11. Institutional shared resources and translational cancer research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Paoli Paolo

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The development and maintenance of adequate shared infrastructures is considered a major goal for academic centers promoting translational research programs. Among infrastructures favoring translational research, centralized facilities characterized by shared, multidisciplinary use of expensive laboratory instrumentation, or by complex computer hardware and software and/or by high professional skills are necessary to maintain or improve institutional scientific competitiveness. The success or failure of a shared resource program also depends on the choice of appropriate institutional policies and requires an effective institutional governance regarding decisions on staffing, existence and composition of advisory committees, policies and of defined mechanisms of reporting, budgeting and financial support of each resource. Shared Resources represent a widely diffused model to sustain cancer research; in fact, web sites from an impressive number of research Institutes and Universities in the U.S. contain pages dedicated to the SR that have been established in each Center, making a complete view of the situation impossible. However, a nation-wide overview of how Cancer Centers develop SR programs is available on the web site for NCI-designated Cancer Centers in the U.S., while in Europe, information is available for individual Cancer centers. This article will briefly summarize the institutional policies, the organizational needs, the characteristics, scientific aims, and future developments of SRs necessary to develop effective translational research programs in oncology. In fact, the physical build-up of SRs per se is not sufficient for the successful translation of biomedical research. Appropriate policies to improve the academic culture in collaboration, the availability of educational programs for translational investigators, the existence of administrative facilitations for translational research and an efficient organization

  12. Impact of proteomics on bladder cancer research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Celis, Julio E; Gromova, Irina; Moreira, José Manuel Alfonso

    2004-01-01

    Detecting bladder cancer at an early stage and predicting how a tumor will behave and act in response to therapy, as well as the identification of new targets for therapeutic intervention, are among the main areas of research that will benefit from the current explosion in the number of powerful ...

  13. Analysis of BMP4 and BMP7 signaling in breast cancer cells unveils time-dependent transcription patterns and highlights a common synexpression group of genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodriguez-Martinez Alejandra

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs are members of the TGF-beta superfamily of growth factors. They are known for their roles in regulation of osteogenesis and developmental processes and, in recent years, evidence has accumulated of their crucial functions in tumor biology. BMP4 and BMP7, in particular, have been implicated in breast cancer. However, little is known about BMP target genes in the context of tumor. We explored the effects of BMP4 and BMP7 treatment on global gene transcription in seven breast cancer cell lines during a 6-point time series, using a whole-genome oligo microarray. Data analysis included hierarchical clustering of differentially expressed genes, gene ontology enrichment analyses and model based clustering of temporal data. Results Both ligands had a strong effect on gene expression, although the response to BMP4 treatment was more pronounced. The cellular functions most strongly affected by BMP signaling were regulation of transcription and development. The observed transcriptional response, as well as its functional outcome, followed a temporal sequence, with regulation of gene expression and signal transduction leading to changes in metabolism and cell proliferation. Hierarchical clustering revealed distinct differences in the response of individual cell lines to BMPs, but also highlighted a synexpression group of genes for both ligands. Interestingly, the majority of the genes within these synexpression groups were shared by the two ligands, probably representing the core molecular responses common to BMP4 and BMP7 signaling pathways. Conclusions All in all, we show that BMP signaling has a remarkable effect on gene transcription in breast cancer cells and that the functions affected follow a logical temporal pattern. Our results also uncover components of the common cellular transcriptional response to BMP4 and BMP7. Most importantly, this study provides a list of potential novel BMP target

  14. Prostate Cancer Research Training Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-01

    Associate, Department of Internal Medicine (319-356-4159) http://www.int- med.uiowa.edu/Divisions/ Cardiology /Directory/Micha elSchultz.html Dr. Schultz’s...Core, DNA Core, Flow Cytometry Core, to name but a few. For research that includes laboratory animals, professional, humane veterinary care is

  15. Materials research at selected Japanese laboratories. Based on a 1992 visit: Overview, summary of highlights, notes on laboratories and topics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-02-01

    I visited Japan from June 29 to August 1, 1992. The purpose of this visit was to assess the status of materials science research at selected governmental, university and industrial laboratories and to established acquaintances with Japanese researchers. The areas of research covered by these visits included ceramics, oxide superconductors, intermetallics alloys, superhard materials and diamond films, high-temperature materials and properties, mechanical properties, fracture, creep, fatigue, defects, materials for nuclear reactor applications and irradiation effects, high pressure synthesis, self-propagating high temperature synthesis, microanalysis, magnetic properties and magnetic facilities, and surface science.

  16. [Construction of Research-Oriented State Key Clinical Department by Highlighting the Characteris- tics and Advantages of Chinese Medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Shi-yu; Guo, Li-heng; Han, Yun; Li, Jian; Zhang, Min-zhou

    2016-04-01

    As the largest research-oriented specialty department in national traditional Chinese medicine hospitals, the Department of Critical Care Medicine in Guangdong Provincial Hospital of Chinese Medicine insists on the development mode combined with clinical medicine and scientific research. By taking clinical and basic researches for integrative medicine preventing and treating acute myocardial in-farction and sepsis as a breakthrough, authors explored key problems of Chinese medicine in improving the prognosis related diseases and patients' quality of life. In recent 3 years our department has successively become the principal unit of the national key specialties cooperative group of critical care medicine (awarded by State Administration of Traditional Chinese Medicine), the key clinical specialties (awarded by National Health and Family Planning Commission), and Guangzhou key laboratory construction unit, and achieved overall lap in clinical medical treatment, personnel training, scientific research, and social service.

  17. Prostate Cancer Research Training Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-01

    Iowa. It is conveniently located on the northern edge of the campus and is served by the free Cambus transportation system. The Mayflower has...and museums (art, natural history, and sports). In addition, there are a large number of restaurants ranging from fast food to fine dining...of Iowa. It is conveniently located on the west campus near the research labs and is served by the free Cambus transportation system. The

  18. The Convective and Orographically Induced Precipitation Study (COPS): The Scientific Strategy, the Field Phase, and Research Highlights

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wulfmeyer, Volker; Behrendt, Andreas; Kottmeir, Christoph; Corsmeier, Ulrich; Barthlott, Christian; Craig, George C.; Hagen, Martin; Althausen, Dietrich; Aoshima, Fumiko; Arpagaus, Marco; Bauer, Hans-Stefan; Bennett, Lindsay; Blyth, Alan; Brandau, Christine; Champollion, Cedric; Crewell, Susanne; Dick, Galina; di Girolamo, Paolo; Dorninger, Manfred; Dufournet, Yann; Eigenmann, Rafael; Engelmann, Ronny; Flamant, C.; Foken, Thomas; Gorgas, Theresa; Grzeschik, Matthias; Handwerker, Jan; Hauck, Christian; Holler, Hartmut; Junkermann, W.; Kalthoff, Norbert; Kiemle, Christoph; Klink, Stefan; Konig, Marianne; Krauss, Liane; Long, Charles N.; Madonna, Fabio; Mobbs, S.; Neininger, Bruno; Pal, Sandip; Peters, Gerhard; Pigeon, Gregoire; Richard, Evelyne; Rotach, Mathias W.; Russchenberg, Herman; Schwitalla, Thomas; Smith, Victoria; Steinacker, Reinhold; Trentman, Jorg; Turner, David D.; van Baelen, Joel; Vogt, Siegfried; Volkert, Hans; Weckwerth, Tammy; Wernli, Heini; Wieser, Andreas; Wirth, Martin

    2011-02-24

    Within the frame of the international field campaign COPS (Convective and Orographically-induced Precipitation Study), a large suite of state-of-the-art meteorological instrumentation was operated, partially combined for the first time. The COPS field phase was performed from 01 June - 31 August 2007 in a low-mountain area in southwestern Germany/eastern France covering the Vosges Mountains, the Rhine valley and the Black Forest Mountains. The collected data set covers the entire evolution of convective precipitation events in complex terrain from their initiation, to their development and mature phase up to their decay. 18 Intensive Operation Periods (IOPs) with 34 operation days and 8 additional Special Observation Periods (SOPs) were performed providing a comprehensive data set covering different forcing conditions. In this paper an overview of the COPS scientific strategy, the field phase, and its first accomplishments is given. Some highlights of the campaign are illustrated with several measurement examples. It is demonstrated that COPS provided new insight in key processes leading to convection initiation and to the modification of precipitation by orography, in the improvement of QPF by the assimilation of new observations, and in the performance of ensembles of convection permitting models in complex terrain.

  19. Translating basic research in cancer patient care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcello Maugeri-Saccà

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available With the advent of molecular targeted therapies and the development of high-throughput biotechnologies, it has become evident that progress in cancer research is largely due to the creation of multidisciplinary teams able to plan clinical trials supported by appropriate molecular hypotheses. These efforts have culminated in the identification and validation of biomarkers predictive of response, as well as in the generation of more accurate prognostic tools. The identification of cancer stem cells has provided further insights into mechanisms of cancer, and many studies have tried to translate this biological notion into prognostic and predictive information. In this regard, new agents targeting key stemness-related pathways have entered the clinical development, and preliminary data suggested an encouraging antitumor activity.

  20. Microarray Applications in Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Il-Jin; Kang, Hio Chung

    2004-01-01

    DNA microarray technology permits simultaneous analysis of thousands of DNA sequences for genomic research and diagnostics applications. Microarray technology represents the most recent and exciting advance in the application of hybridization-based technology for biological sciences analysis. This review focuses on the classification (oligonucleotide vs. cDNA) and application (mutation-genotyping vs. gene expression) of microarrays. Oligonucleotide microarrays can be used both in mutation-genotyping and gene expression analysis, while cDNA microarrays can only be used in gene expression analysis. We review microarray mutation analysis, including examining the use of three oligonucleotide microarrays developed in our laboratory to determine mutations in RET, β-catenin and K-ras genes. We also discuss the use of the Affymetrix GeneChip in mutation analysis. We review microarray gene expression analysis, including the classifying of such studies into four categories: class comparison, class prediction, class discovery and identification of biomarkers. PMID:20368836

  1. Creating a "one-stop shop" for all the most interesting findings from across the field of andrology——Asian Journal of Andrology launches Research Highlights

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yi-Fei Wang

    2010-01-01

    @@ Thumbing the pages of various scientific journals a researcher might wonder: how do 1 efficiently and accurately identify articles that invoke my enthusiasm while informing me of important breakthroughs across the field of andrology? Skimming through an interesting article: how do 1 thoroughly and incisively comprehend the significance of the findings? Closing the article pages: how do 1 integrate the conclusions derived from the findings into my own research? Asian Journal of Andrology (AJA) would like to provide you an efficient information platform to address these questions through a brand new article type--Research Highlights.

  2. Conference Report: Eighth Annual AACR International Conference on Frontiers in Cancer Prevention Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewster, Abenaa M; Patterson, Sherri L; Forman, Michele R; Hughes-Halbert, Chanita; Limburg, Paul J; Ondrey, Frank G; Paskett, Electra D; Wetter, David W; Hawk, Ernest T

    2010-08-01

    The Eighth Annual Frontiers in Cancer Prevention Research meeting was held in Houston, Texas, in November 2009. This report highlights significant presentations that advance the fields of chemoprevention, clinical trial recruitment and retention, cancer screening including optical imaging, energy balance, and nutritional epidemiology, and health communications and decision making. In findings from the randomized Reduction by Dutasteride of Prostate Cancer Events trial, dutasteride reduced the risk of biopsy-detectable prostate cancer in high-risk men by 23% compared with placebo. Important clues about the dosing and window of susceptibility for supplementation with choline, vitamin D, and folate were revealed from epigenetic research that has implications for future nutritional epidemiology research. Noninvasive optical imaging techniques using endoscopic ultrasound and autofluorescence for the early detection of cancers in the lung, pancreas, and oral cavity are being studied. The report also addresses the challenges of promoting cancer prevention. Understanding how individuals process risk information and make sustained behavior changes and the effect of socioeconomic status on health disparities were identified as critical areas of research. This multidisciplinary research meeting of basic, clinical, and behavioral scientists and epidemiologists continues to play a major role in identifying the research priority areas of cancer prevention, elucidating new mechanisms of carcinogenesis for targeted chemoprevention therapies and delivering a comprehensive strategy for engaging individuals in the unifying goal to reduce cancer incidence.

  3. Early avian research at the Savannah River Site, South Carolina: historical highlights and possibilities for the future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyers, J.M.; Odum, E.P.; Dunning, John B.=; Kilgo, John C.

    2000-01-01

    Avian biology and collection of baseline population data was a major part of the first decade (1951-1961) of field research at the Savannah River Site (SRS). Baseline inventories involving organisms and land-use types were part of the mission in the early contracts between the Atomic Energy Commission (now the Department of Energy) and the University of Georgia prior to the establishment of the Savannah River Ecology Laboratory (SREL) as a National Environmental Research Park Laboratory. About 27% of the SREL publications during this first decade dealt with birds. Since that time, research on the SRS landscape has expanded and broadened with less than 10% of the publications dealing with birds. SRS changed also from an agriculturally dominated area with ca. 40% open areas (fields, crops, pastures) to a timber-managed area with ca. 80% forests, 12% open areas, and 2% open water impoundments. Baseline breeding bird populations of the SRS in the 1950s were typical for the region with avian species richness and density increasing with the age and succession of the vegetation (0-26 species and densities of 0-741 pairs/km2 for the habitats surveyed). During the first decade at the SRS, the resident game bird population of Northern Bobwhites (Colinus virginianus) increased and the Mourning Dove (Zenaida rnacroura) population, a migratory upland game bird, remained stable. Current avian research efforts, as well as new opportunities to reexamine the breeding bird populations and the landscape of SRS, will provide a better understanding of the potential causes of declines of neotropical migratory birds, declines of resident and migratory game birds, and how habitat influences invasions and extinctions of breeding birds in the region. Emphasis for future research and monitoring should be on neotropical migratory bird populations in decline (Yellow-billed Cuckoo, Coccyzus americanus; Eastern Wood-Pewee, Contopus virens; Wood Thrush, Hylocichla mustelina; Prairie Warbler

  4. New Multijunction Design Leads to Ultra-Efficient Solar Cell; Highlights in Research & Development, NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-09-01

    NREL has demonstrated a 45.7% conversion efficiency for a four-junction solar cell at 234 suns concentration. This achievement represents one of the highest photovoltaic research cell efficiencies ever achieved across all types of solar cells. NREL's new solar cell, which is designed for operation in a concentrator photovoltaic (CPV) system where it can receive more than 1,000 suns of concentrated sunlight, greatly improves earlier designs by adding an additional high quality absorber layer to achieve an ultra-high efficiency.

  5. Introduction: Epidemiologic research and prevention of occupational cancer in Europe.

    OpenAIRE

    Boffetta, P.; Kogevinas, M.

    1999-01-01

    Research on occupational cancer epidemiology has been an important area of occupational health in Europe since the early studies were conducted in the United Kingdom in the 1950s and 1960s. During the last decade, occupational cancer research in Europe has gained an international dimension and become increasingly interdisciplinary in nature. At present, occupational exposures might be responsible for 13 to 18% of lung cancers, 2 to 10% of bladder cancers, and 2 to 8% of laryngeal cancers in E...

  6. Frederick W. Alt received the 2015 Szent-Györgi Prize forProgress inCancer Research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PeterScully; JieZhao; SujuanBa

    2016-01-01

    The Szent-Györgyi Prize for Progress in Cancer Research is a prestigious scientiifc award established by the National Foundation for Cancer Research (NFCR)—a leading cancer research charitable organization in the United States that is committed to supporting scientiifc research and public education relating to the prevention, early diagnosis, better treatments, and ultimately, a cure for cancer. Each year, the Szent-Györgyi Prize honors an outstanding researcher, nominated by colleagues or peers, who has contributed outstanding, signiifcant research to the ifght against cancer, and whose accomplishments have helped improve treatment options for cancer patients. The Prize also promotes public awareness of the importance of basic cancer research and encourages the sustained investment needed to accelerate the translation of these research discoveries into new cancer treatments. This report highlights the pio-neering work led by the 2015 Prize winner, Dr. Frederick Alt. Dr. Alt’s work in the area of cancer genetics over four decades has helped to shape the very roots of modern cancer research. His work continues to profoundly impact the approaches that doctors around the globe use to diagnose and treat cancer. In particular, his seminal discoveries of gene ampliifcation and his pioneering work on molecular mechanisms of DNA damage repair have helped to usher in the era of genetically targeted therapy and personalized medicine.

  7. New Progress in Modern Research on Chinese Herbal Medicines Published in Chinese Traditional and Herbal Drugs in 2010: Annual Highlights and Comments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Chun-nian; LIU Yan-ze; XIAO Pei-gen

    2011-01-01

    As a series of and continuous publication,the papers published on Chinese Traditional and Herbal Drugs in 2010 were selectively and briefly highlighted to reflect the new progress on modern research of Chinese herbal medicines.Within 617 articles,chemical constituents (127),pharmaceutics and technology (149),pharmacological studies and clinical observation,and medicinal materials are still major categories.Some comments have also been personally provided.

  8. Improving Cancer Care Through Nursing Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Deborah K

    2015-09-01

    Nursing research and nurse researchers have been an integral and significant part of the Oncology Nursing Society's (ONS's) history, as evidenced by the development of the Nursing Research Committee within a few years of ONS's establishment. Ruth McCorkle, PhD, RN, FAAN, was the committee's first chairperson in 1979. This was followed by the creation of the Advanced Nursing Research Special Interest Group in 1989 under the leadership of Jean Brown, PhD, RN, FAAN. ONS also began to recognize nurse researchers in 1994 by creating the annual ONS Distinguished Researcher Award to recognize the contributions of a member who has conducted or promoted research that has enhanced the science and practice of oncology nursing. The list of recipients and of their work is impressive and reflects the wide range of our practice areas (see http://bit.ly/1MTC5cp for the recipient list). In addition, the ONS Foundation began funding research in 1981 and has distributed more than $24 million in research grants, research fellowships, and other scholarships, lectures, public education projects, and career development awards (ONS Foundation, 2015). And, in 2006, the Putting Evidence Into Practice resource was unveiled, which provides evidence-based intervention reviews for the 20 most common problems experienced by patients with cancer and their caregivers (www.ons
.org/practice-resources/pep)
.

  9. A Milestone in Cancer Research and Treatment in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tata Memorial Center is celebrating 75 years of leadership service towards cancer control and research in India. In honor of this anniversary, TMC is hosting A Conference of New Ideas in Cancer – Challenging Dogmas on February 26-28th, 2016 as part of its platinum jubilee events. CGH Director, Dr. Ted Trimble, will give a plenary talk: "Thinking Outside the Box in Cancer Research - Perspectives from the US NCI” in the session titled: Future of Cancer Research: US and European perspectives.

  10. Biomarkers for Early Detection a nd Screening in Pancreatic Cancer Highlights from the “45 th ASCO Annual Meeting”. Orlando, FL, USA. May 29 - June 2, 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher J Hoimes

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Pancreatic cancer is the second most frequent gastrointestinal malignancy with an unabated mortality that reflects the advanced stage of presentation. Detection of early disease through screening likely is the best way to meaningfully prolong survival. The development of biomarkers for screening holds enormous promise for increasing early detection and impacting mortality. Many biomarkers have been studied including the serum protein carbohydrate antigen 19-9, vascular endothelial growth factor, and nuclear factor kappa B, however, still no blood test or other fluid analysis reliably predicts patients with disease. The authors review abstracts from the 2009 annual meeting of the American Society of Clinical Oncology, Orlando, FL, U.S.A., that report evidence for early detection using a salivary biomarker array (#4630; a mucin epitope to PAM4 (#4613; a plasma nucleotide marker of hypoxia, miR-210 (#4624; and a cleavage product of complement pathway component C3b, iC3b (#4626. The meeting featured pancreatic cancer in over 100 research abstracts, of which, four are reviewed that focus on potential markers for early detection. When applied to a population of high risk patients, biomarkers of early pancreatic cancer could provide a minimally invasive way of identifying patients that require further evaluation using endoscopic tools. These molecular beacons may even be found to be sufficiently sensitive, specific, and cost effective to be applied to a broader population of patients.

  11. James P. Allison received the 2014 Szent-Györgi Prize for Progress in Cancer Research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jie Zhao,Peter Scully; Sujuan Ba

    2014-01-01

    The Szent-Györgyi Prize for Progress in Cancer Research is a prestigious scientific award established by the National Foundation for Cancer Research (NFCR)-a leading cancer research charitable organization in the United States that is committed to supporting innovative cancer research on the global scale that aims to cure cancer. Each year, the Szent-Györgyi Prize honors an outstanding researcher whose original discoveries have expanded our understanding of cancer and resulted in notable advances in cancer prevention, diagnosis, or treatment. The prize also promotes public awareness of the importance of basic cancer research and encourages the sustained investment needed to accelerate the translation of these research discoveries into new cancer treatments. This report highlights the history and mission of the Szent-Györgyi Prize, its role in promoting discovery-oriented cancer research, and the pioneering work led by the 2014 prize winner, Dr. James Alison. Dr. Alison’s work in the area of cancer immunotherapy led to the successful development of immune checkpoint therapy, and the first drug approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of metastatic melanoma.

  12. The cancer translational research informatics platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnson Kimberly

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite the pressing need for the creation of applications that facilitate the aggregation of clinical and molecular data, most current applications are proprietary and lack the necessary compliance with standards that would allow for cross-institutional data exchange. In line with its mission of accelerating research discoveries and improving patient outcomes by linking networks of researchers, physicians, and patients focused on cancer research, caBIG (cancer Biomedical Informatics Grid™ has sponsored the creation of the caTRIP (Cancer Translational Research Informatics Platform tool, with the purpose of aggregating clinical and molecular data in a repository that is user-friendly, easily accessible, as well as compliant with regulatory requirements of privacy and security. Results caTRIP has been developed as an N-tier architecture, with three primary tiers: domain services, the distributed query engine, and the graphical user interface, primarily making use of the caGrid infrastructure to ensure compatibility with other tools currently developed by caBIG. The application interface was designed so that users can construct queries using either the Simple Interface via drop-down menus or the Advanced Interface for more sophisticated searching strategies to using drag-and-drop. Furthermore, the application addresses the security concerns of authentication, authorization, and delegation, as well as an automated honest broker service for deidentifying data. Conclusion Currently being deployed at Duke University and a few other centers, we expect that caTRIP will make a significant contribution to further the development of translational research through the facilitation of its data exchange and storage processes.

  13. TU-CD-BRB-10: 18F-FDG PET Image-Derived Tumor Features Highlight Altered Pathways Identified by Trancriptomic Analysis in Head and Neck Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tixier, F [CHU Miletrie, Poitiers (France); INSERM UMR1101 LaTIM, Brest (France); Cheze-Le-Rest, C; Dufour, X [CHU Miletrie, Poitiers (France); Hatt, M; Visvikis, D [INSERM UMR1101 LaTIM, Brest (France); Valette, G; Potard, G [CHRU Brest, Brest (France); Corcos, L [INSERM, UMR 1078, Brest (France)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Several quantitative features can be extracted from 18F-FDG PET images, such as standardized uptake values (SUVs), metabolic tumor volume (MTV), shape characterization (SC) or intra-tumor radiotracer heterogeneity quantification (HQ). Some of these features calculated from baseline 18F-FDG PET images have shown a prognostic and predictive clinical value. It has been hypothesized that these features highlight underlying tumor patho-physiological processes at smaller scales. The objective of this study was to investigate the ability of recovering alterations of signaling pathways from FDG PET image-derived features. Methods: 52 patients were prospectively recruited from two medical centers (Brest and Poitiers). All patients underwent an FDG PET scan for staging and biopsies of both healthy and primary tumor tissues. Biopsies went through a transcriptomic analysis performed in four spates on 4×44k chips (Agilent™). Primary tumors were delineated in the PET images using the Fuzzy Locally Adaptive Bayesian algorithm and characterized using 10 features including SUVs, SC and HQ. A module network algorithm followed by functional annotation was exploited in order to link PET features with signaling pathways alterations. Results: Several PET-derived features were found to discriminate differentially expressed genes between tumor and healthy tissue (fold-change >2, p<0.01) into 30 co-regulated groups (p<0.05). Functional annotations applied to these groups of genes highlighted associations with well-known pathways involved in cancer processes, such as cell proliferation and apoptosis, as well as with more specific ones such as unsaturated fatty acids. Conclusion: Quantitative features extracted from baseline 18F-FDG PET images usually exploited only for diagnosis and staging, were identified in this work as being related to specific altered pathways and may show promise as tools for personalizing treatment decisions.

  14. Challenges and opportunities in international molecular cancer prevention research: An ASPO Molecular Epidemiology and the Environment and International Cancer Prevention Interest Groups Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epplein, Meira; Bostick, Roberd M; Mu, Lina; Ogino, Shuji; Braithwaite, Dejana; Kanetsky, Peter A

    2014-11-01

    The International Agency for Research on Cancer estimates that over half of the new cancer cases and almost two-thirds of the cancer deaths in 2012 occurred in low and middle income countries. To discuss the challenges and opportunities to reducing the burden of cancer worldwide, the Molecular Epidemiology and the Environment and the International Issues in Cancer Special Interest Groups joined forces to hold a session during the 38th Annual Meeting of the American Society of Preventive Oncology (March 2014, Arlington, Virginia). The session highlighted three topics of particular interest to molecular cancer prevention researchers working internationally, specifically: 1) biomarkers in cancer research; 2) environmental exposures and cancer; and 3) molecular pathological epidemiology. A major factor for successful collaboration illuminated during the discussion was the need for strong, committed, and reliable international partners. A key element of establishing such relationships is to thoroughly involve individual international collaborators in the development of the research question; engaged international collaborators are particularly motivated to champion and shepherd the project through all necessary steps, including issues relating to institutional review boards, political sensitivity, laboratory-based assays, and tumor subtyping. Also essential is allotting time for the building, maintaining, and investing in such relationships so that successful international collaborations may take root and bloom. While there are many challenges inherent to international molecular cancer research, the opportunities for furthering the science and prevention of cancer worldwide are great, particularly at this time of increasing cancer incidence and prevalence in low and middle income countries.

  15. About the Prostate and Urologic Cancer Research Group | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Prostate and Urologic Cancer Research Group conducts and supports research on prostate and bladder cancers, and new approaches to clinical prevention studies including cancer immunoprevention. The group develops, implements and monitors research efforts in chemoprevention, nutrition, genetic, and immunologic interventions, screening, early detection and other prevention strategies. |

  16. NCI Community Oncology Research Program Approved | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    On June 24, 2013, the National Cancer Institute (NCI) Board of Scientific Advisors approved the creation of the NCI Community Oncology Research Program (NCORP). NCORP will bring state-of-the art cancer prevention, control, treatment and imaging clinical trials, cancer care delivery research, and disparities studies to individuals in their own communities. |

  17. Adherence to the World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute for Cancer Research recommendations and breast cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Holly R; Bergkvist, Leif; Wolk, Alicja

    2016-06-01

    The World Cancer Research Fund/American Association for Cancer Research (WCRF/AICR) has published eight nutrition-related recommendations for the prevention of cancer. However, few prospective studies have examined these recommendations by breast cancer hormone receptor subtype and only one case-control study has included the dietary supplements recommendation in their evaluation. We investigated whether adherence to the WCRF/AICR cancer prevention recommendations was associated with breast cancer incidence, overall and by hormone receptor subtype, in the Swedish Mammography Cohort. Among 31,514 primarily postmenopausal women diet and lifestyle factors were assessed with a self-administered food frequency questionnaire. A score was constructed based on adherence to the recommendations for body fatness, physical activity, energy density, plant foods, animal foods, alcoholic drinks and dietary supplements (score range 0-7). Cox proportional hazard models were used to calculate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs). During 15 years of follow-up 1,388 cases of breast cancer were identified. Women who met six to seven recommendations had a 51% decreased risk of breast cancer compared to women meeting only zero to two recommendations (95% CI = 0.35-0.70). The association between each additional recommendation met and breast cancer risk was strongest for the ER-positive/PR-positive subtype (HR = 0.86; 95% CI = 0.79-0.94), while for the ER-negative/PR-negative subtype the individual recommendations regarding plant and animal foods were most strongly associated with reduced risk. Our findings support that adherence to the WCRF/AICR recommendations reduces breast cancer risk in a population of primarily postmenopausal women. Promoting these recommendations to the public could help reduce breast cancer incidence.

  18. Cancer survivorship research: a review of the literature and summary of current NCI-designated cancer center projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrop, J Phil; Dean, Julie A; Paskett, Electra D

    2011-10-01

    The number of cancer survivors and the amount of cancer survivorship research have grown substantially during the past three decades. This article provides a review of interventional and observational cancer survivorship research efforts as well as a summary of current cancer survivorship research projects being conducted by National Cancer Institute-designated cancer centers in an effort to identify areas that need further attention.

  19. Highlights of the optical highlighter fluorescent proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, G H

    2011-07-01

    The development of super-resolution microscopy techniques using molecular localization, such as photoactivated localization microscopy, fluorescence photoactivated localization microscopy, stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy, photoactivated localization microscopy with independent running acquisition and many others, has heightened interest in molecules that will be grouped here into a category referred to as 'optical highlighter' fluorescent proteins. This review will survey many of the advances in development of fluorescent proteins for optically highlighting sub-populations of fluorescently labelled molecules.

  20. Perfluoroalkyl acids: recent research highlights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perfluorinated compounds are organic chemicals in which all hydrogen molecules of the carbon-chain are substituted by fluorine molecules. Generally, there are two types of perfluorinated compounds, the perfluoroalkanes that are primarily used clinically for oxygenation and respir...

  1. Progress through Collaboration - Office of Cancer Clinical Proteomics Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    The National Cancer Institute (NCI), through the Office of Cancer Clinical Proteomics Research (OCCPR), has signed two Memorandums of Understanding (MOUs) in the areas of sharing proteomics reagents and protocols and also in regulatory science.

  2. Collaborative Research in Childhood Cancer Survivorship: The Current Landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatia, Smita; Armenian, Saro H; Armstrong, Gregory T; van Dulmen-den Broeder, Eline; Hawkins, Michael M; Kremer, Leontien C M; Kuehni, Claudia E; Olsen, Jørgen H; Robison, Leslie L; Hudson, Melissa M

    2015-09-20

    Survivors of childhood cancer carry a substantial burden of morbidity and are at increased risk for premature death. Furthermore, clear associations exist between specific therapeutic exposures and the risk for a variety of long-term complications. The entire landscape of health issues encountered for decades after successful completion of treatment is currently being explored in various collaborative research settings. These settings include large population-based or multi-institutional cohorts and single-institution studies. The ascertainment of outcomes has depended on self-reporting, linkage to registries, or clinical assessments. Survivorship research in the cooperative group setting, such as the Children's Oncology Group, has leveraged the clinical trials infrastructure to explore the molecular underpinnings of treatment-related adverse events, and to understand specific complications in the setting of randomized risk-reduction strategies. This review highlights the salient findings from these large collaborative initiatives, emphasizing the need for life-long follow-up of survivors of childhood cancer, and describing the development of several guidelines and efforts toward harmonization. Finally, the review reinforces the need to identify populations at highest risk, facilitating the development of risk prediction models that would allow for targeted interventions across the entire trajectory of survivorship.

  3. Aquatic invasive species: Lessons from cancer research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepulveda, Adam; Ray, Andrew; Al-Chokhachy, Robert K.; Muhlfeld, Clint C.; Gresswell, Robert E.; Gross, Jackson A.; Kershner, Jeffrey L.

    2014-01-01

    Aquatic invasive species are disrupting ecosystems with increasing frequency. Successful control of these invasions has been rare: Biologists and managers have few tools for fighting aquatic invaders. In contrast, the medical community has long worked to develop tools for preventing and fighting cancer. Its successes are marked by a coordinated research approach with multiple steps: prevention, early detection, diagnosis, treatment options and rehabilitation. The authors discuss how these steps can be applied to aquatic invasive species, such as the American bullfrog (Lithobates catesbeianus), in the Northern Rocky Mountain region of the United States, to expedite tool development and implementation along with achievement of biodiversity conservation goals.

  4. Investigators Retreat: A Forum to Bridge Frederick and Bethesda Cancer Research | Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    By Andrea Frydl, Contributing Writer Nearly 700 researchers, scientists, and laboratory technicians convened in the Ronald Reagan Building and International Trade Center in Washington, DC, for the 2014 NCI Intramural Scientific Investigators Retreat on Jan. 14. The event featured presentations and posters exploring topics in cancer research from KRAS signaling to animal care. One of the highlights of the event was a presentation made by Valerie Beral, Ph.D., from University of Oxford, discussing “Rosalind Franklin and Cancer in Women.” 

  5. Current Research and Management of Ovarian Cancer in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUMeijiao; SHIWei

    2002-01-01

    Ovarian cancer is ne of the most lethal malignant tumors in China,represents the third most common cancer after cervical cancer and endometrial cancer,and the first leading cause of death from hynaecological cancers.Due to the lack of effective screening strategies and the absence of symptoms in early-stage of disease,over 70% of patients present at an advanced stage.Despite the advances in surgical techniques and conventional chemotheraphy,the prognosis of ovarian cancer has not been improved significantly,and indeed the long-term survival for patients with advanced disease does not exceed 20%.The aetiology of ovarian cancer temains poorly understood.In China,the major focus of research is to clarify the mechanism underlying ovarian cancer,develop more effective life-saving diagnostic and therapeutic measures,and undertake more population-based studies.This article summarizes current research,diagnosis and management of ovarian cancer in China.

  6. 1999 NCCS Highlights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Jerome (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The NASA Center for Computational Sciences (NCCS) is a high-performance scientific computing facility operated, maintained and managed by the Earth and Space Data Computing Division (ESDCD) of NASA Goddard Space Flight Center's (GSFC) Earth Sciences Directorate. The mission of the NCCS is to advance leading-edge science by providing the best people, computers, and data storage systems to NASA's Earth and space sciences programs and those of other U.S. Government agencies, universities, and private institutions. Among the many computationally demanding Earth science research efforts supported by the NCCS in Fiscal Year 1999 (FY99) are the NASA Seasonal-to-Interannual Prediction Project, the NASA Search and Rescue Mission, Earth gravitational model development efforts, the National Weather Service's North American Observing System program, Data Assimilation Office studies, a NASA-sponsored project at the Center for Ocean-Land-Atmosphere Studies, a NASA-sponsored microgravity project conducted by researchers at the City University of New York and the University of Pennsylvania, the completion of a satellite-derived global climate data set, simulations of a new geodynamo model, and studies of Earth's torque. This document presents highlights of these research efforts and an overview of the NCCS, its facilities, and its people.

  7. Do firms underinvest in long-term research? Evidence from cancer clinical trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budish, Eric; Roin, Benjamin N.

    2015-01-01

    We investigate whether private research investments are distorted away from long-term projects. Our theoretical model highlights two potential sources of this distortion: short-termism and the fixed patent term. Our empirical context is cancer research, where clinical trials – and hence, project durations – are shorter for late-stage cancer treatments relative to early-stage treatments or cancer prevention. Using newly constructed data, we document several sources of evidence that together show private research investments are distorted away from long-term projects. The value of life-years at stake appears large. We analyze three potential policy responses: surrogate (non-mortality) clinicaltrial endpoints, targeted R&D subsidies, and patent design. PMID:26345455

  8. Job Opening for Medical Officer in DCP’s Breast and Gynecologic Cancer Research Group | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Breast and Gynecologic Cancer Research Group (BGCRG), Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP), National Cancer Institute (NCI), has an opening for an experienced Medical Officer. BGCRG focuses on fostering the development and conduct of research on the prevention and early detection of breast cancer, cervix and human papillomavirus (HPV)-related cancers, endometrial cancers, ovarian cancers, and precursor conditions related to these cancers. Learn more about BGCRG. |

  9. Towards meeting the research needs of Australian cancer consumers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saunders Carla

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is a growing amount of literature to support the view that active involvement in research by consumers, especially informed and networked consumers, benefits the quality and direction of research itself, the research process and, most importantly, people affected by cancer. Our exploratory project focuses on identifying their priorities and developing a process to assess the research needs of Australian cancer consumers which may be useful beyond the cancer scenario. Methods This project was consumer initiated, developed and implemented, with the assistance of a leading Australian cancer consumer advocacy group, Cancer Voices NSW (CVN. Such direct involvement is unusual and ensures that the priorities identified, and the process itself, are not influenced by other interests, regardless how well-intentioned they may be. The processes established, and data collection via a workshop, followed by a questionnaire to confirm and prioritise findings, and comparison with a similar UK exercise, are detailed in this paper. Results Needs across five topic areas reflecting cancer control domains (prevention and risk; screening and diagnosis; treatment; survivorship; and end of life were identified. Cancer consumers high priority research needs were found to be: earlier diagnosis of metastatic cancers; the extent of use of best practice palliative care guidelines; identifying barriers to cancer risk behaviour change; and environmental, nutrition and lifestyle risk factors for people with cancer. A process for identifying consumers’ research priorities was developed and applied; this may be useful for further investigation in this under-studied area. Conclusion The findings provide a model for developing a consumer derived research agenda in Australia which can be used to inform the strategic direction of cancer research. Consumers have been seeking a workable method to achieve this and have worked in collaboration with a major

  10. Differential network analysis in human cancer research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Ryan; Datta, Somnath; Datta, Susmita

    2014-01-01

    A complex disease like cancer is hardly caused by one gene or one protein singly. It is usually caused by the perturbation of the network formed by several genes or proteins. In the last decade several research teams have attempted to construct interaction maps of genes and proteins either experimentally or reverse engineer interaction maps using computational techniques. These networks were usually created under a certain condition such as an environmental condition, a particular disease, or a specific tissue type. Lately, however, there has been greater emphasis on finding the differential structure of the existing network topology under a novel condition or disease status to elucidate the perturbation in a biological system. In this review/tutorial article we briefly mention some of the research done in this area; we mainly illustrate the computational/statistical methods developed by our team in recent years for differential network analysis using publicly available gene expression data collected from a well known cancer study. This data includes a group of patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia and a group with acute myeloid leukemia. In particular, we describe the statistical tests to detect the change in the network topology based on connectivity scores which measure the association or interaction between pairs of genes. The tests under various scores are applied to this data set to perform a differential network analysis on gene expression for human leukemia. We believe that, in the future, differential network analysis will be a standard way to view the changes in gene expression and protein expression data globally and these types of tests could be useful in analyzing the complex differential signatures.

  11. Lung Cancer:Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatments & Research | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Lung Cancer Lung Cancer: Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatments & Research Past Issues / Winter 2013 ... lung cancer are given intravenously or by mouth. Lung Cancer Research The large-scale National Lung Screening Trial, ...

  12. Cancer immunoinformatics: a new assistant tool for malignant disease research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Weijia; Zhang Rupeng; Liang Han; Zhang Hui; Li Fangxuan; Yu Jinpu; Li Hui

    2014-01-01

    Objective To introduce the recent developments in cancer immunoinformatics with an emphasis on the latest trends and future direction.Data sources All related articles in this review were searched from PubMed published in English from 1992 to 2013.The search terms were cancer,immunoinformatics,immunological databases,and computational vaccinology.Study selection Original articles and reviews those were related to application of cancer immunoinformatics about tumor basic and clinical research were selected.Results Cancer immunoinformatics has been widely researched and applied in a series of fields of cancer research,including computational tools for cancer,cancer immunological databases,computational vaccinology,and cancer diagnostic workflows.Furthermore,the improvement of its theory and technology brings an enlightening insight into understanding and researching cancer and helps expound more deep and complete mechanisms of tumorigenesis and progression.Conclusion Cancer immunoinformatics provides promising methods and novel strategies for the discovery and development of tumor basic and clinical research.

  13. The John Milner Nutrition and Cancer Prevention Research Practicum | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Nutritional Science Research Group in the Division of Cancer Prevention at the National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health and the Department of Nutrition at the Clinical Center, National Institutes of Health, and the U.S. Department of Agriculture’s Beltsville Human Nutrition Research Center are offering a one-week educational opportunity in Nutrition and Cancer Prevention Research for individuals with a sustained commitment to nutrition and health promotion. |

  14. ASPECTS OF STEM CELLS THAT GIVE RISE TO CANCER AS A NEW GOAL OF RESEARCH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tume F., Luis F.

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Cancer stem cells are responsible for the formation and development of tumors, where they contribute to a functional heterogeneity in various cancers, including those involved in metastasis. The detailed study of the biology of these cells implicate new, targeted treatments in the elimination of these cells in order to avoid the self-renewal of the tumors. The present review highlights aspects of stem cells in the progression of cancer according to their properties of selfrenewal, heterogeneity and resistance to apoptosis related to certain markers that could serve as a basis for diagnosis. Processes that cause epigenetic alterations and mutations of the genes responsible for promoting the formation of cancer stem cells are detailed, in addition to the prospects of research involving these cells that could specifically target drugs or other alternative therapies.

  15. Screening for Early Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma: An Urgent Call! Highlights from the "2009 ASCO Gastrointestinal Cancers Symposium". San Francisco, CA, USA. January 15-17, 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Xiang Lee

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Cancer of the pancreas is the fourth leading cause of cancer mortality in the United States. The annual death rate from the disease almost equals the annual incidence due to the aggressive nature of the cancer as well as to the lack of effective means of screening for it during its early curable stage. Molecular markers and imaging have not proven to be accurate modalities for screening for pancreatic cancer. The diagnosis and management of pancreatic cancer continues to be an overwhelming challenge. The authors discuss the current status of screening for pancreatic cancer and summarize relevant studies presented in the 2009 GI Cancers Symposium: utility of endoscopic ultrasound in screening high risk patients (Abstract #112, diagnostic performance of a highly specific antibody for MUC1 (Abstract #113, use of metabonomics for the early detection of pancreatic adenocarcinoma (Abstract #126, and a report on the potential impact of delay in diagnosis and treatment on pancreatic cancer outcomes at a tertiary care center (Abstract #137.

  16. Clinical Outcome of Pancreatic Cancer Patients with Diabetes Mellitus: Is Diabetes a Poor Prognostic Factor? Highlights from the "2010 ASCO Annual Meeting". Chicago, IL, USA. June 4-8, 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soonmo Peter Kang

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus and its related factors such as hyperinsulinemia have been linked to various cancer risks and outcomes. Previous research has offered inconsistent results in terms of relationship between diabetes and pancreatic cancers. Establishing clear association between these two entities may guide us in improving clinical outcomes of pancreatic cancer patients. Two abstracts that examined the association between diabetes mellitus and pancreatic cancer are updated in this paper. Herein, the authors report updated information from the 2010 American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO Annual Meeting in association between pancreatic cancer and diabetes mellitus. The present paper illustrates insufficient knowledge base to draw a conclusion in this topic. However, validation and understanding of the association could have significant clinical implications with respect to cancer prevention, early detection, and treatment. As such, further investigations are warranted to explore the link diabetes and pancreatic cancers.

  17. Biography: Dr Iain Frame, director of research, prostate cancer UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frame, Iain; Maprayil, Sophia

    2014-11-01

    Sophia Maprayil, Commissioning Editor for Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy, talks to Dr Iain Frame, Director of Research for Prostate Cancer UK. Iain is Prostate Cancer UK's first Director of Research, responsible for overseeing the development and implementation of the charity's ambitious new research strategy. He joined Prostate Cancer UK in 2012 from Diabetes UK where he held the post of Research Director for 5 years. Since joining Prostate Cancer UK in 2012 Iain has overseen a dramatic increase in the charity's research spend, from 2 million a year, to 7.5 million a year. Previously Iain worked in research management at the Wellcome Trust and before that as a parasitologist and researcher exploring various aspects of molecular biology of a number of different parasites.

  18. The potential consequences for cancer care and cancer research of Brexit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selby, Peter; Lawler, Mark; Baird, Richard; Banks, Ian; Johnston, Patrick; Nurse, Paul

    2017-01-01

    Following the UK “Brexit” vote in June 2016, there are many uncertainties and risks for cancer research and cancer care in the UK. These are summarised and the importance of sustained engagement and influence from the cancer community on UK governments is emphasised. PMID:28275394

  19. Bringing global cancer leaders together at the 4th Annual Symposium on Global Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Annual Symposium on Global Cancer Research held in April 2016 was developed with a special focus on innovative and low-cost technologies in global cancer control, and brought inspiring keynote speakers such as John Seffrin, Former CEO of the American Cancer Society, and Tom Bollyky, Senior Fellow for Global Health at the Council on Foreign Relations.

  20. The potential consequences for cancer care and cancer research of Brexit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selby, Peter; Lawler, Mark; Baird, Richard; Banks, Ian; Johnston, Patrick; Nurse, Paul

    2017-01-01

    Following the UK "Brexit" vote in June 2016, there are many uncertainties and risks for cancer research and cancer care in the UK. These are summarised and the importance of sustained engagement and influence from the cancer community on UK governments is emphasised.

  1. Cancer complementary and alternative medicine research at the US National Cancer Institute.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Libin

    2012-05-01

    The United States National Cancer Institute (NCI) supports complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) research which includes different methods and practices (such as nutrition therapies) and other medical systems (such as Chinese medicine). In recent years, NCI has spent around $120 million each year on various CAM-related research projects on cancer prevention, treatment, symptom/side effect management and epidemiology. The categories of CAM research involved include nutritional therapeutics, pharmacological and biological treatments, mind-body interventions, manipulative and body based methods, alternative medical systems, exercise therapies, spiritual therapies and energy therapies on a range of types of cancer. The NCI Office of Cancer Complementary and Alternative Medicine (OCCAM) supports various intramural and extramural cancer CAM research projects. Examples of these cancer CAM projects are presented and discussed. In addition, OCCAM also supports international research projects.

  2. Prostate Cancer Stem Cells: Research Advances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaworska, Dagmara; Król, Wojciech; Szliszka, Ewelina

    2015-01-01

    Cancer stem cells have been defined as cells within a tumor that possesses the capacity to self-renew and to cause the heterogeneous lineages of cancer cells that comprise the tumor. Experimental evidence showed that these highly tumorigenic cells might be responsible for initiation and progression of cancer into invasive and metastatic disease. Eradicating prostate cancer stem cells, the root of the problem, has been considered as a promising target in prostate cancer treatment to improve the prognosis for patients with advanced stages of the disease.

  3. Prostate Cancer Stem Cells: Research Advances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dagmara Jaworska

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Cancer stem cells have been defined as cells within a tumor that possesses the capacity to self-renew and to cause the heterogeneous lineages of cancer cells that comprise the tumor. Experimental evidence showed that these highly tumorigenic cells might be responsible for initiation and progression of cancer into invasive and metastatic disease. Eradicating prostate cancer stem cells, the root of the problem, has been considered as a promising target in prostate cancer treatment to improve the prognosis for patients with advanced stages of the disease.

  4. New blocking antibodies impede adhesion, migration and survival of ovarian cancer cells, highlighting MFGE8 as a potential therapeutic target of human ovarian carcinoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzo Tibaldi

    Full Text Available Milk Fat Globule--EGF--factor VIII (MFGE8, also called lactadherin, is a secreted protein, which binds extracellularly to phosphatidylserine and to αvβ3 and αvβ5 integrins. On human and mouse cells expressing these integrins, such as endothelial cells, phagocytes and some tumors, MFGE8/lactadherin has been shown to promote survival, epithelial to mesenchymal transition and phagocytosis. A protumoral function of MFGE8 has consequently been documented for a few types of human cancers, including melanoma, a subtype of breast cancers, and bladder carcinoma. Inhibiting the functions of MFGE8 could thus represent a new type of therapy for human cancers. Here, we show by immunohistochemistry on a collection of human ovarian cancers that MFGE8 is overexpressed in 45% of these tumors, and we confirm that it is specifically overexpressed in the triple-negative subtype of human breast cancers. We have established new in vitro assays to measure the effect of MFGE8 on survival, adhesion and migration of human ovarian and triple-negative breast cancer cell lines. Using these assays, we could identify new MFGE8-specific monoclonal antibodies, which efficiently blocked these three tumor-promoting effects of MFGE8. Our results suggest future use of MFGE8-blocking antibodies as new anti-cancer therapeutics in subgroups of ovarian carcinoma, and triple-negative breast carcinoma patients.

  5. Research on cancer diagnosis in Malaysia: current status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Looi, L M; Zubaidah, Z; Cheah, P L; Cheong, S K; Gudum, H R; Iekhsan, O; Ikram, S I; Jamal, R; Mak, J W; Othman, N H; Puteri, J N; Rosline, H; Sabariah, A R; Seow, H F; Sharifah, N A

    2004-06-01

    Cancer is a major morbidity and mortality concern in Malaysia. Based on National Cancer Registry data, the Malaysian population is estimated to bear a cancer burden of about 40,000 new cases per year, and a cumulative lifetime risk of about 1:4. Cancer research in Malaysia has to consider needs relevant to our population, and resources constraints. Hence, funding bodies prioritise cancers of high prevalence, unique to our community and posing specific clinical problems. Cancer diagnosis is crucial to cancer management. While cancer diagnosis research largely aims at improvements in diagnostic information towards more appropriate therapy, it also impacts upon policy development and other areas of cancer management. The scope of cancer diagnosis upon which this paper is based, and their possible impact on other R&D areas, has been broadly categorized into: (1) identification of aetiological agents and their linkages to the development of precancer and cancer (impact on policy development, cancer prevention and treatment), (2) cancer biology and pathogenesis (impact on cancer prevention, treatment strategies and product development), (3) improvements in accuracy, sensitivity and specificity in cancer detection, monitoring and classification (impact on technology development) and (4) prognostic and predictive parameters (impact on treatment strategies). This paper is based on data collected by the Working Group on Cancer Diagnosis Research for the First National Conference on Cancer Research Coordination in April 2004. Data was collated from the databases of Institutions/Universities where the authors are employed, the Ministry of Science, Technology and Innovation (MOSTI) and targeted survey feedback from key cancer researchers. Under the 7th Malaysia Plan, 76 cancer projects were funded through the Intensified Research in Priority Areas (IRPA) scheme of MOSTI, amounting to almost RM15 million of grant money. 47(61.8%) of these projects were substantially in cancer

  6. Cancer Research Repository for Individuals With Cancer Diagnosis, High Risk Individuals, and Individuals With No History of Cancer (Control)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-14

    Pancreatic Cancer; Thyroid Cancer; Lung Cancer; Esophageal Cancer; Thymus Cancer; Colon Cancer; Rectal Cancer; GIST; Anal Cancer; Bile Duct Cancer; Duodenal Cancer; Gallbladder Cancer; Gastric Cancer; Liver Cancer; Small Intestine Cancer; Peritoneal Surface Malignancies; Familial Adenomatous Polyposis; Lynch Syndrome; Bladder Cancer; Kidney Cancer; Penile Cancer; Prostate Cancer; Testicular Cancer; Ureter Cancer; Urethral Cancer; Hypopharyngeal Cancer; Laryngeal Cancer; Lip Cancer; Oral Cavity Cancer; Nasopharyngeal Cancer; Oropharyngeal Cancer; Paranasal Sinus Cancer; Nasal Cavity Cancer; Salivary Gland Cancer; Skin Cancer; CNS Tumor; CNS Cancer; Mesothelioma; Breastcancer; Leukemia; Melanoma; Sarcoma; Unknown Primary Tumor; Multiple Myeloma; Ovarian Cancer; Endometrial Cancer; Vaginal Cancer

  7. Towards discovery-driven translational research in breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2005-01-01

    Discovery-driven translational research in breast cancer is moving steadily from the study of cell lines to the analysis of clinically relevant samples that, together with the ever increasing number of novel and powerful technologies available within genomics, proteomics and functional genomics......, promise to have a major impact on the way breast cancer will be diagnosed, treated and monitored in the future. Here we present a brief report on long-term ongoing strategies at the Danish Centre for Translational Breast Cancer Research to search for markers for early detection and targets for therapeutic...... biology approach to fight breast cancer....

  8. [The applications and advantages of Drosophila melanogaster in cancer research].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huo, Guitao; Lu, Jianjun; Qu, Zhe; Lin, Zhi; Zhang, Di; Yang, Yanwei; Li, Bo

    2014-01-01

    The common fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, has been used to study human disease as a model organism for many years. Many basic biological, physiological, and neurological properties are conserved between mammals and fly. Moreover, Drosophila melanogaster has its unique advantage as a model organism. Recent studies showed that the high level of signaling pathway conservation in tumorigenesis between fly and human and its feasible genetic operation make fly an effective model for oncology research. Numerous research findings showed Drosophila melanogaster was an ideal model for studying the molecular mechanisms of tumorigenesis, invasion and metastasis. This review mainly focuses on the advantages of Drosophila melanogaster in cancer research, established models used for the research of specific cancers and prospective research direction of oncology. It is hoped that this paper can provide insight for cancer research and development of anti-cancer drugs.

  9. Next generation distributed computing for cancer research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Pankaj; Owzar, Kouros

    2014-01-01

    Advances in next generation sequencing (NGS) and mass spectrometry (MS) technologies have provided many new opportunities and angles for extending the scope of translational cancer research while creating tremendous challenges in data management and analysis. The resulting informatics challenge is invariably not amenable to the use of traditional computing models. Recent advances in scalable computing and associated infrastructure, particularly distributed computing for Big Data, can provide solutions for addressing these challenges. In this review, the next generation of distributed computing technologies that can address these informatics problems is described from the perspective of three key components of a computational platform, namely computing, data storage and management, and networking. A broad overview of scalable computing is provided to set the context for a detailed description of Hadoop, a technology that is being rapidly adopted for large-scale distributed computing. A proof-of-concept Hadoop cluster, set up for performance benchmarking of NGS read alignment, is described as an example of how to work with Hadoop. Finally, Hadoop is compared with a number of other current technologies for distributed computing.

  10. Major clinical research advances in gynecologic cancer in 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    In 2015, fourteen topics were selected as major research advances in gynecologic oncology. For ovarian cancer, high-level evidence for annual screening with multimodal strategy which could reduce ovarian cancer deaths was reported. The best preventive strategies with current status of evidence level were also summarized. Final report of chemotherapy or upfront surgery (CHORUS) trial of neoadjuvant chemotherapy in advanced stage ovarian cancer and individualized therapy based on gene characteristics followed. There was no sign of abating in great interest in immunotherapy as well as targeted therapies in various gynecologic cancers. The fifth Ovarian Cancer Consensus Conference which was held in November 7–9 in Tokyo was briefly introduced. For cervical cancer, update of human papillomavirus vaccines regarding two-dose regimen, 9-valent vaccine, and therapeutic vaccine was reviewed. For corpus cancer, the safety concern of power morcellation in presumed fibroids was explored again with regard to age and prevalence of corpus malignancy. Hormone therapy and endometrial cancer risk, trabectedin as an option for leiomyosarcoma, endometrial cancer and Lynch syndrome, and the radiation therapy guidelines were also discussed. In addition, adjuvant therapy in vulvar cancer and the updated of targeted therapy in gynecologic cancer were addressed. For breast cancer, palbociclib in hormone-receptor-positive advanced disease, oncotype DX Recurrence Score in low-risk patients, regional nodal irradiation to internal mammary, supraclavicular, and axillary lymph nodes, and cavity shave margins were summarized as the last topics covered in this review. PMID:27775259

  11. [Research progression of translational medicine in gastric cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Maoran; Zhao, Gang; Zhu, Chunchao

    2014-02-01

    Gastric cancer is one of the most common malignant tumors which is a great threat to human health. In recent years, the reform of surgical mordalities and the optimization of radiation and chemotherapy is still far from reducing morbidity and mortality of gastric cancer. As a new research pattern, translational medicine has emerged in various clinical subjects, which leads to remarkable effects. In this paper, the definition and development of translational medicine, molecular markers and drug treatment of gastric cancer will be discussed and the feasibility of translational medicine in the treatment of gastric cancer will be explained. In our opinion, the intervention of translational medicine could change the current situation that scientific researches is severely disconnected with clinical practice and increase the detection rate of gastric cancer and the effective rate of adjuvant therapy after surgery to improve the prognosis of patients with gastric cancer.

  12. The Changing Landscape of Lung Cancer Research and Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Along with the Lung Cancer Social Media (#LCSM) community, the National Cancer Institute will be co-hosting a lively and interactive Google Hangout on Air about the changing landscape of lung cancer research and treatment. During the chat, viewers will have the opportunity to pose questions to a panel of lung cancer experts including NCI's Dr. Shakun Malik, the head of thoracic oncology therapeutics, Roy S. Herbst, MD, PhD, Chief of Medical Oncology, Yale Cancer Center and Smilow Cancer Hospital at Yale-New Haven and David Tom Cooke MD FACS, Head, Section of General Thoracic Surgery University of California, Davis. You can also learn more and follow along on the #LCSM Chat page. The chat will be moderated by lung cancer advocate and #LCSM co-founder, Janet Freeman-Daily. To ask questions of our experts, simply use the #LCSM hashtag during the chat.

  13. Maintaining success, reducing treatment burden, focusing on survivorship: highlights from the third European consensus conference on diagnosis and treatment of germ-cell cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, J; Albers, P; Altena, R; Aparicio, J; Bokemeyer, C; Busch, J; Cathomas, R; Cavallin-Stahl, E; Clarke, N W; Claßen, J; Cohn-Cedermark, G; Dahl, A A; Daugaard, G; De Giorgi, U; De Santis, M; De Wit, M; De Wit, R; Dieckmann, K P; Fenner, M; Fizazi, K; Flechon, A; Fossa, S D; Germá Lluch, J R; Gietema, J A; Gillessen, S; Giwercman, A; Hartmann, J T; Heidenreich, A; Hentrich, M; Honecker, F; Horwich, A; Huddart, R A; Kliesch, S; Kollmannsberger, C; Krege, S; Laguna, M P; Looijenga, L H J; Lorch, A; Lotz, J P; Mayer, F; Necchi, A; Nicolai, N; Nuver, J; Oechsle, K; Oldenburg, J; Oosterhuis, J W; Powles, T; Rajpert-De Meyts, E; Rick, O; Rosti, G; Salvioni, R; Schrader, M; Schweyer, S; Sedlmayer, F; Sohaib, A; Souchon, R; Tandstad, T; Winter, C; Wittekind, C

    2013-04-01

    In November 2011, the Third European Consensus Conference on Diagnosis and Treatment of Germ-Cell Cancer (GCC) was held in Berlin, Germany. This third conference followed similar meetings in 2003 (Essen, Germany) and 2006 (Amsterdam, The Netherlands) [Schmoll H-J, Souchon R, Krege S et al. European consensus on diagnosis and treatment of germ-cell cancer: a report of the European Germ-Cell Cancer Consensus Group (EGCCCG). Ann Oncol 2004; 15: 1377-1399; Krege S, Beyer J, Souchon R et al. European consensus conference on diagnosis and treatment of germ-cell cancer: a report of the second meeting of the European Germ-Cell Cancer Consensus group (EGCCCG): part I. Eur Urol 2008; 53: 478-496; Krege S, Beyer J, Souchon R et al. European consensus conference on diagnosis and treatment of germ-cell cancer: a report of the second meeting of the European Germ-Cell Cancer Consensus group (EGCCCG): part II. Eur Urol 2008; 53: 497-513]. A panel of 56 of 60 invited GCC experts from all across Europe discussed all aspects on diagnosis and treatment of GCC, with a particular focus on acute and late toxic effects as well as on survivorship issues. The panel consisted of oncologists, urologic surgeons, radiooncologists, pathologists and basic scientists, who are all actively involved in care of GCC patients. Panelists were chosen based on the publication activity in recent years. Before the meeting, panelists were asked to review the literature published since 2006 in 20 major areas concerning all aspects of diagnosis, treatment and follow-up of GCC patients, and to prepare an updated version of the previous recommendations to be discussed at the conference. In addition, ∼50 E-vote questions were drafted and presented at the conference to address the most controversial areas for a poll of expert opinions. Here, we present the main recommendations and controversies of this meeting. The votes of the panelists are added as online supplements.

  14. NSI organization and highlights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rounds, Fred

    1991-01-01

    The agenda of the NASA Science Internet (NSI) Users Working Group is given. The NSI project organization is laid out in view graph format. Also given are NSI highlights which are divided into three areas: administration, engineering, and operations.

  15. Highlights from Fermilab

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parke, Stephen J.; /Fermilab

    2009-12-01

    In these two lectures I will chose some highlights from the Tevatron experiments (CDF/D0) and the Neutrino experiments and then discuss the future direction of physics at Fermilab after the Tevatron collider era.

  16. The Future of Prostate Cancer Research and Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    On January 12, 2017 prostate cancer experts William Dahut, M.D. of the National Cancer Institute and Dr. Heather Cheng, M.D. of the University of Washington had a vibrant discussion about current and future research areas and treatment options for prostate cancer. The panel was moderated by Ana Fadich, MPH, CHES Vice President at Men’s Health of the Men's Health Network.

  17. Meharry-Johns Hopkins Center for Prostate Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-01

    Prostate cancer, Dietary risk factors , Lycopene, Genetic predisposition, African-Americans, Cancer research training, Quality of life, Community...that of CA men (73.9 per 100,000 AA / 25.6 per 100,000 C). Genetic and dietary factors have been identified in explaining a portion of the excess...cancer may occur earlier and be more aggressive among African-American men.  Other possible risk factors include obesity , lifestyle and environmental

  18. Supportive and Palliative Care Research | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Supportive and palliative care research includes studies to prevent or treat the acute and chronic symptoms and morbidities related to cancer and its treatment, and to examine the effects of cancer and its treatment on quality of life and psychosocial issues and treatment strategies at the end of life. Active Projects can range from caregiver issues to geriatrics, physical functioning to cognitive dysfunction. | Examining symptoms and morbidities related to cancer, its treatment, quality of life and end of life.

  19. International Partnerships for Clinical Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    CGH co-sponsors the 2015 International Symposium on Cancer Clinical Trials and related meetings held in partnership with the Japanese National Cancer Center (JNCC) and Embassies of France, Korea, United Kingdom (UK), and United States (US) in Tokyo on May 14 - 15, 2015.

  20. Cervical Cancer Cell Line Secretome Highlights the Roles of Transforming Growth Factor-Beta-Induced Protein ig-h3, Peroxiredoxin-2, and NRF2 on Cervical Carcinogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoidakis, Jerome; Makridakis, Manousos; Lygirou, Vasiliki; Mermelekas, George; Vougas, Konstantinos; Drakakis, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Cancer cells acquire unique secretome compositions that contribute to tumor development and metastasis. The aim of our study was to elucidate the biological processes involved in cervical cancer, by performing a proteomic analysis of the secretome from the following informative cervical cell lines: SiHa (HPV16+), HeLa (HPV18+), C33A (HPV−), and HCK1T (normal). Proteins were analyzed by 2D gel electrophoresis coupled to MALDI-TOF-MS. Enrichment of secreted proteins with characteristic profiles for each cell line was followed by the identification of differentially expressed proteins. Particularly, transforming growth factor-beta-induced protein ig-h3 (Beta ig-h3) and peroxiredoxin-2 (PRDX2) overexpression in the secretome of cancer cell lines was detected and confirmed by Western blot. Bioinformatics analysis identified the transcription factor NRF2 as a regulator of differentially expressed proteins in the cervical cancer secretome. NRF2 levels were measured by both Western blot and Multiple Reaction Monitoring (MRM) in the total cell extract of the four cell lines. NRF2 was upregulated in SiHa and C33A compared to HCK1T. In conclusion, the secreted proteins identified in cervical cancer cell lines indicate that aberrant NRF2-mediated oxidative stress response (OSR) is a prominent feature of cervical carcinogenesis.

  1. Graphic Evolution Witness the Development of Lung Cancer Translational Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao ZHANG

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Lung cancer treatment has altered from conventional chemotherapy to targeted treatment, which now has been turned to the immunotherapy. Translational research has played an irreplaceable role during this progression which graphic evolution has witnessed. The evolution has gone through forest plot, KM-curve, waterfall plot, spider plot and timeline-area, showing us the refining concept and gradual process of lung cancer treatment undergoing from community towards individual. Even though the latest immunotherapy is getting increasingly hot, the result isn’t quite expected. Meanwhile, the limitations of conventional treatment still exist which require further research. This article will primarily illustrate the development of translational research of lung cancer via the aspect of curve evolution and analysis some abortive clinical trials in lung cancer surgery for inspiring the next graphic style and lung cancer treatment.

  2. [Recommendations for cancer prevention of World Cancer Research Fund (WCRF): situational analysis for Chile].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crovetto, Mirta; Uauy, Ricardo

    2013-05-01

    The main diet-related cancers include colorectal, lung, breast in (postmenopausal) women, stomach, esophagus, prostate and pancreas. After tobacco, obesity is the leading cause of cancer; it accounts for one third of all cancers. Cancer is associated with high total body fat, abdominal fat and weight gain in adult life. These are all potentially modifiable risk factors. Consumption of a "healthy diet" and living an "active life" can significantly reduce the risk of cancer. The aim of this study was to analyze the recommendations published by the World Cancer Research Fund (WCRF) and American Institute for Cancer Research (AICR) for the prevention of cancer in 2007. We compared the recommendations of Food, Nutrition and Physical Activity and the Prevention of Cancer: a global perspective", with the national situation in Chile, analyzing the national report on the prevalence of risk factors. Our main finding was that the pattern of consumption and lifestyles differ markedly from the WCRF recommendations: we observed an over consumption of sugary drinks and high intake of processed foods high in sodium and total fat and low consumption of legumes, vegetables, fruits high in antioxidants and fiber that protect from cancer. Chile has an increased cancer prevalence which is associated with poor quality diets, rising mean body mass index and a sedentary behavior. We recommend the strengthening programs to promote healthy diets and active living, in order to reduce cancer risk.

  3. Neutrino Physics and Astrophysics Highlights

    CERN Document Server

    Wong, H T K

    2005-01-01

    This article presents an overview of neutrino physics research, with highlights on the physics goals, results and interpretations of the current neutrino experiments and future directions and program. It is not meant to be a comprehensive account or detailed review article. Interested readers can pursue the details via the listed references.

  4. NCI Community Oncology Research Program (NCORP) | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The NCI Community Oncology Research Program (NCORP) is a national network of cancer care investigators, providers, academia, and other organizations that care for diverse populations in health systems. View the list of publications from NCORP. | Clinical Trials network of cancer care professionals who care for diverse populations across the U.S.

  5. Biospecimen Core Resource - Office of Cancer Clinical Proteomics Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    The purpose of this notice is to notify the community that the National Cancer Institute's (NCI’s) Office of Cancer Clinical Proteomics Research (OCCPR) is seeking sources to establish a Biospecimen Core Resource (BCR), capable of receiving, qualifying, processing, and distributing annotated biospecimens.

  6. Does cancer research focus on areas of importance to patients?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moorcraft, Sing Yu; Sangha, Amrit; Peckitt, Clare; Sanchez, Rodrigo; Lee, Martin; Pattison, Natalie; Wiseman, Theresa

    2016-01-01

    The majority of research ideas are proposed by clinicians or scientists and little is currently known about which areas of research patients feel are important. We performed a 4 week pilot patient survey at the Royal Marsden (a specialist cancer centre) to investigate patients' views on priorities for cancer research. A total of 780 patients completed the survey and the top research priorities were identified as: detection and prevention of cancer, scientific understanding, curative treatment and personalised treatment. The top research priorities were remarkably consistent across age, gender and a variety of tumour types. We believe that patients' views should be considered alongside those of clinicians and researchers when devising research proposals and strategies.

  7. Building capacity for sustainable research programmes for cancer in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adewole, Isaac; Martin, Damali N; Williams, Makeda J; Adebamowo, Clement; Bhatia, Kishor; Berling, Christine; Casper, Corey; Elshamy, Karima; Elzawawy, Ahmed; Lawlor, Rita T; Legood, Rosa; Mbulaiteye, Sam M; Odedina, Folakemi T; Olopade, Olufunmilayo I; Olopade, Christopher O; Parkin, Donald M; Rebbeck, Timothy R; Ross, Hana; Santini, Luiz A; Torode, Julie; Trimble, Edward L; Wild, Christopher P; Young, Annie M; Kerr, David J

    2014-05-01

    Cancer research in Africa will have a pivotal role in cancer control planning in this continent. However, environments (such as those in academic or clinical settings) with limited research infrastructure (laboratories, biorespositories, databases) coupled with inadequate funding and other resources have hampered African scientists from carrying out rigorous research. In September 2012, over 100 scientists with expertise in cancer research in Africa met in London to discuss the challenges in performing high-quality research, and to formulate the next steps for building sustainable, comprehensive and multi-disciplinary programmes relevant to Africa. This was the first meeting among five major organizations: the African Organisation for Research and Training in Africa (AORTIC), the Africa Oxford Cancer Foundation (AfrOx), and the National Cancer Institutes (NCI) of Brazil, France and the USA. This article summarizes the discussions and recommendations of this meeting, including the next steps required to create sustainable and impactful research programmes that will enable evidenced-based cancer control approaches and planning at the local, regional and national levels.

  8. Stem cell concepts renew cancer research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dick, John E

    2008-12-15

    Although uncontrolled proliferation is a distinguishing property of a tumor as a whole, the individual cells that make up the tumor exhibit considerable variation in many properties, including morphology, proliferation kinetics, and the ability to initiate tumor growth in transplant assays. Understanding the molecular and cellular basis of this heterogeneity has important implications in the design of therapeutic strategies. The mechanistic basis of tumor heterogeneity has been uncertain; however, there is now strong evidence that cancer is a cellular hierarchy with cancer stem cells at the apex. This review provides a historical overview of the influence of hematology on the development of stem cell concepts and their linkage to cancer.

  9. Maintaining success, reducing treatment burden, focusing on survivorship : highlights from the third European consensus conference on diagnosis and treatment of germ-cell cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beyer, J.; Albers, P.; Altena, R.; Aparicio, J.; Bokemeyer, C.; Busch, J.; Cathomas, R.; Cavallin-Stahl, E.; Clarke, N. W.; Classen, J.; Cohn-Cedermark, G.; Dahl, A. A.; Daugaard, G.; De Giorgi, U.; De Santis, M.; De Wit, M.; De Wit, R.; Dieckmann, K. P.; Fenner, M.; Fizazi, K.; Flechon, A.; Fossa, S. D.; Germa Lluch, J. R.; Gietema, J. A.; Gillessen, S.; Giwercman, A.; Hartmann, J.T.; Heidenreich, A.; Hentrich, M.; Honecker, F.; Horwich, A.; Huddart, R. A.; Kliesch, S.; Kollmannsberger, C.; Krege, S.; Laguna, M. P.; Looijenga, L. H. J.; Lorch, A.; Lotz, J. P.; Mayer, F.; Necchi, A.; Nicolai, N.; Nuver, J.; Oechsle, K.; Oldenburg, J.; Oosterhuis, J.W.; Powles, T.; Rajpert-De Meyts, E.; Rick, O.; Rosti, G.; Salvioni, R.; Schrader, M.; Schweyer, S.; Sedlmayer, F.; Sohaib, A.; Souchon, R.; Tandstad, T.; Wittekind, C.; Winter, E.

    2013-01-01

    In November 2011, the Third European Consensus Conference on Diagnosis and Treatment of Germ-Cell Cancer (GCC) was held in Berlin, Germany. This third conference followed similar meetings in 2003 (Essen, Germany) and 2006 (Amsterdam, The Netherlands) [Schmoll H-J, Souchon R, Krege S et al. European

  10. Maintaining success, reducing treatment burden, focusing on survivorship: Highlights from the third European Consensus Conference on Diagnosis and Treatment of Germ-Cell Cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Beyer (Jörg); P. Albers (Peter); R. Altena (Renske); J. Aparicio (Jorge); C. Bokemeyer; J. Busch (Jamie); R. Cathomas (Richard); E. Cavallin-Stahl (Eva); N.W. Clarke (Noel); J. Claßen (Johannes); G. Cohn-Cedermark (Gabriella); A.A. Dahl; G. Daugaard (Gedske); U. de Giorgi (Ugo); M. de Santis (Maria); M. De Wit (Meike); R. de Wit (Ronald); K.P. Dieckmann; M. Fenner (Martin); K. Fizazi (Karim); A. Flechon (Aude); S.D. Fossa (Sophie); J.R. Germá Lluch (José Ramón); J.A. Gietema (Jourik); S. Gillessen (Silke); A. Giwercman (Aleksander); J.T. Hartmann; A. Heidenreich (Axel); M. Hentrich (Marcus); F.U. Honecker (Friedemann); A. Horwich; R.A. Huddart (Robbert); S. Kliesch (Sabine); C. Kollmannsberger (Christian); S. Krege (Susanne); M.P. Laguna (Maria Pilar); L.H.J. Looijenga (Leendert); A. Lorch (Anja); J.P. Lotz (Jean Pierre); F. Mayer; A. Necchi (Andrea); N. Nicolai (Nicola); J. Nuver (Janine); K. Oechsle (Karin); J. Oldenburg (Jan); J.W. Oosterhuis (Wolter); T. Powles (Tom); E. Rajpert-De Meyts (Ewa); O. Rick (Oliver); G. Rosti (Giovanni); R. Salvioni (Roberto); C. Winter (Christopher); C. Wittekind (Christian)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractIn November 2011, the Third European Consensus Conference on Diagnosis and Treatment of Germ-Cell Cancer (GCC) was held in Berlin, Germany. This third conference followed similar meetings in 2003 (Essen, Germany) and 2006 (Amsterdam, The Netherlands) [Schmoll H-J, Souchon R, Krege S et a

  11. Maintaining success, reducing treatment burden, focusing on survivorship: highlights from the third European consensus conference on diagnosis and treatment of germ-cell cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, J.; Albers, P.; Altena, R.; Aparicio, J.; Bokemeyer, C.; Busch, J.; Cathomas, R.; Cavallin-Stahl, E.; Clarke, N. W.; Claßen, J.; Cohn-Cedermark, G.; Dahl, A. A.; Daugaard, G.; De Giorgi, U.; De Santis, M.; De Wit, M.; De Wit, R.; Dieckmann, K. P.; Fenner, M.; Fizazi, K.; Flechon, A.; Fossa, S. D.; Germá Lluch, J. R.; Gietema, J. A.; Gillessen, S.; Giwercman, A.; Hartmann, J. T.; Heidenreich, A.; Hentrich, M.; Honecker, F.; Horwich, A.; Huddart, R. A.; Kliesch, S.; Kollmannsberger, C.; Krege, S.; Laguna, M. P.; Looijenga, L. H. J.; Lorch, A.; Lotz, J. P.; Mayer, F.; Necchi, A.; Nicolai, N.; Nuver, J.; Oechsle, K.; Oldenburg, J.; Oosterhuis, J. W.; Powles, T.; Rajpert-De Meyts, E.; Rick, O.; Rosti, G.; Salvioni, R.; Schrader, M.; Schweyer, S.; Sedlmayer, F.; Sohaib, A.; Souchon, R.; Tandstad, T.; Winter, C.; Wittekind, C.

    2013-01-01

    In November 2011, the Third European Consensus Conference on Diagnosis and Treatment of Germ-Cell Cancer (GCC) was held in Berlin, Germany. This third conference followed similar meetings in 2003 (Essen, Germany) and 2006 (Amsterdam, The Netherlands) [Schmoll H-J, Souchon R, Krege S et al. European consensus on diagnosis and treatment of germ-cell cancer: a report of the European Germ-Cell Cancer Consensus Group (EGCCCG). Ann Oncol 2004; 15: 1377–1399; Krege S, Beyer J, Souchon R et al. European consensus conference on diagnosis and treatment of germ-cell cancer: a report of the second meeting of the European Germ-Cell Cancer Consensus group (EGCCCG): part I. Eur Urol 2008; 53: 478–496; Krege S, Beyer J, Souchon R et al. European consensus conference on diagnosis and treatment of germ-cell cancer: a report of the second meeting of the European Germ-Cell Cancer Consensus group (EGCCCG): part II. Eur Urol 2008; 53: 497–513]. A panel of 56 of 60 invited GCC experts from all across Europe discussed all aspects on diagnosis and treatment of GCC, with a particular focus on acute and late toxic effects as well as on survivorship issues. The panel consisted of oncologists, urologic surgeons, radiooncologists, pathologists and basic scientists, who are all actively involved in care of GCC patients. Panelists were chosen based on the publication activity in recent years. Before the meeting, panelists were asked to review the literature published since 2006 in 20 major areas concerning all aspects of diagnosis, treatment and follow-up of GCC patients, and to prepare an updated version of the previous recommendations to be discussed at the conference. In addition, ∼50 E-vote questions were drafted and presented at the conference to address the most controversial areas for a poll of expert opinions. Here, we present the main recommendations and controversies of this meeting. The votes of the panelists are added as online supplements. PMID:23152360

  12. Research Progress of Exosomes in Lung Cancer Diagnosis and Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongbo ZOU

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available As the leading cause of morbidity and cancer related-death worldwide, lung cancer has a serious threat to human health. Exosomes are nanoscale lipid membrane vesicles derived from multivesicles, which containing active biomolecules including proteins, lipids, nucleic acids and etc. Exosomes play important roles in lung cancer initiation and progression by promoting the formation of tumor microenvironment, enhancing tumor invasive and metastasis capability, leading to immunosuppression and resistance to chemoradiotherapy, and also have the application value in early diagnosis and treatment. This review summarizes the research progress of exosomes in tumor initiation and progression, and its roles in diagnosis and treatment of lung cancer.

  13. Breast Cancer Translational Research Center of Excellence

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    the standard of care for treating breast diseases and breast cancer. This approach integrates prevention , screening, diagnosis, treatment and...follow a healthy lifestyle ?” (submitted for publication clearance April 2015). Ellsworth RE, Mamula KA, Costantino NS, Deyarmin B, Kostyniak PJ, Chi...disorders. The project will continue utilizing a multidisciplinary approach as the standard of care for treating breast diseases and breast cancer. This

  14. Big Data-Led Cancer Research, Application, and Insights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, James A L; Ni Chonghaile, Triona; Matchett, Kyle B; Lynam-Lennon, Niamh; Kiely, Patrick A

    2016-11-01

    Insights distilled from integrating multiple big-data or "omic" datasets have revealed functional hierarchies of molecular networks driving tumorigenesis and modifiers of treatment response. Identifying these novel key regulatory and dysregulated elements is now informing personalized medicine. Crucially, although there are many advantages to this approach, there are several key considerations to address. Here, we examine how this big data-led approach is impacting many diverse areas of cancer research, through review of the key presentations given at the Irish Association for Cancer Research Meeting and importantly how the results may be applied to positively affect patient outcomes. Cancer Res; 76(21); 6167-70. ©2016 AACR.

  15. ATLAS Outreach Highlights

    CERN Document Server

    Cheatham, Susan; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The ATLAS outreach team is very active, promoting particle physics to a broad range of audiences including physicists, general public, policy makers, students and teachers, and media. A selection of current outreach activities and new projects will be presented. Recent highlights include the new ATLAS public website and ATLAS Open Data, the very recent public release of 1 fb-1 of ATLAS data.

  16. A survey of etiologic hypotheses among testicular cancer researchers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stang, A; Trabert, B; Rusner, C

    2015-01-01

    the plausibility of the suggested etiologic hypotheses on a scale of 1 (very implausible) to 10 (very plausible). This report describes the methodology of the survey, the score distributions by individual hypotheses, hypothesis group, and the participants' major research fields, and discuss the hypotheses......Basic research results can provide new ideas and hypotheses to be examined in epidemiological studies. We conducted a survey among testicular cancer researchers on hypotheses concerning the etiology of this malignancy. All researchers on the mailing list of Copenhagen Testis Cancer Workshops...

  17. A comparison of cancer burden and research spending reveals discrepancies in the distribution of research funding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carter Ashley JR

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ideally, the distribution of research funding for different types of cancer should be equitable with respect to the societal burden each type of cancer imposes. These burdens can be estimated in a variety of ways; “Years of Life Lost” (YLL measures the severity of death in regard to the age it occurs, "Disability-Adjusted Life-Years" (DALY estimates the effects of non-lethal disabilities incurred by disease and economic metrics focus on the losses to tax revenue, productivity or direct medical expenses. We compared research funding from the National Cancer Institute (NCI to a variety of burden metrics for the most common types of cancer to identify mismatches between spending and societal burden. Methods Research funding levels were obtained from the NCI website and information for societal health and economic burdens were collected from government databases and published reports. We calculated the funding levels per unit burden for a wide range of different cancers and burden metrics and compared these values to identify discrepancies. Results Our analysis reveals a considerable mismatch between funding levels and burden. Some cancers are funded at levels far higher than their relative burden suggests (breast cancer, prostate cancer, and leukemia while other cancers appear underfunded (bladder, esophageal, liver, oral, pancreatic, stomach, and uterine cancers. Conclusions These discrepancies indicate that an improved method of health care research funding allocation should be investigated to better match funding levels to societal burden.

  18. In vivo models for cancer stem cell research: a practical guide for frequently used animal models and available biomarkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skidan, I; Steiniger, S C J

    2014-04-01

    The identification of a rare population of cancer stem cells whose presence in tumors is believed to determine their growth and metastatic activity, has provided a novel approach for targeted anti-cancer therapy. At the in vivo stage of the development of new therapeutic approaches for killing cancer stem cells, the most significant issues are the appropriate choice of rational animal models that offer the option to select animal species, strains and substrains, essential techniques for the inoculation of tumors, and methods of tumor detection in animals. The identification and validation of various types of cancer stem cell markers, which could serve as potential marker(s) of therapeutic efficacy of applied drugs, is a considerable challenge. The aim of this review is to provide a guide for the in vivo study of novel therapeutics that target cancer stem cells. This review describes frequently used mouse solid tumor models and evaluates their usefulness for cancer stem cell research. The classification of existing compounds that are used in today's experimental anti-cancer stem cell therapy and examples of exploratory first-in-human studies using these compounds for selective elimination of cancer stem cells will also be discussed. Finally, this review will examine the current status of available cancer stem cell markers, and highlight several important cancer stem cell properties that are still not well understood, but could influence the anti-cancer drug development process.

  19. ESO Highlights in 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    As is now the tradition, the European Southern Observatory looks back at the exciting moments of last year. 2008 was in several aspects an exceptionally good year. Over the year, ESO's telescopes provided data for more than 700 scientific publications in refereed journals, making ESO the most productive ground-based observatory in the world. ESO PR Highlights 2008 ESO PR Photo 01a/09 The image above is a clickable map. These are only some of the press releases issued by ESO in 2008. For a full listing, please go to ESO 2008 page. Austria signed the agreement to join the other 13 ESO member states (ESO 11/08 and 20/08), while the year marked the 10th anniversary of first light for ESO's "perfect science machine", the Very Large Telescope (ESO 16/08 and 17/08). The ALMA project, for which ESO is the European partner, had a major milestone in December, as the observatory was equipped with its first antenna (ESO 49/08). Also the Atacama Pathfinder Experiment (APEX) telescope impressed this year with some very impressive and publicly visible results. Highlights came in many fields: Astronomers for instance used the Very Large Telescope (VLT) to discover and image a probable giant planet long sought around the star Beta Pictoris (ESO 42/08). This is now the eighth extrasolar planet to have been imaged since the VLT imaged the first extrasolar planet in 2004 (three of eight were imaged with VLT). The VLT also enabled three students to confirm the nature of a unique planet (ESO 45/08). This extraordinary find, which turned up during their research project, is a planet about five times as massive as Jupiter. This is the first planet discovered orbiting a fast-rotating hot star. The world's foremost planet-hunting instrument, HARPS, located at ESO's La Silla observatory, scored a new first, finding a system of three super-Earths around a star (ESO 19/08). Based on the complete HARPS sample, astronomers now think that one Sun-like star out of three harbours short orbit, low

  20. Paper Highlight — Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    In a recent paper published in Cancer Cell, ICBP investigators at the University of Texas Health Science Center, want to provide the potential mechanistic explanation how the known 20q13 and 17q23 amplicons transcriptionally control gene expression through long-range chromatin proximity. This paper describes how different large sets of data can be integrated for finding new biological mechanisms.

  1. Nutrigenetics in cancer research--folate metabolism and colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulrich, Cornelia M

    2005-11-01

    The B vitamin folate is essential for one-carbon transfer reactions, including those related to the methylation of DNA or other substrates and nucleotide synthesis. Epidemiologic and experimental studies implicate low-folate intakes in elevated risk of colorectal neoplasia and suggest that biologic mechanisms underlying this relation include disturbances in DNA methylation patterns or adverse effects on DNA synthesis and repair. With the completion of the Human Genome Project, a vast amount of data on inherited genetic variability has become available. This genetic information can be used in studies of molecular epidemiology to provide information on multiple aspects of folate metabolism. First, studies linking polymorphisms in folate metabolism to an altered risk of cancer provide evidence for a causal link between this pathway and colorectal carcinogenesis. Second, studies on genetic characteristics can help clarify whether certain individuals may benefit from higher or lower intakes of folate or nutrients relevant to folate metabolism. Third, studies on genetic polymorphisms can generate hypotheses regarding possible biologic mechanisms that connect this pathway to carcinogenesis. Last, genetic variability in folate metabolism may predict survival after a cancer diagnosis, possibly via pharmacogenetic effects. To solve the puzzle of the folate-cancer relation, a transdisciplinary approach is needed that integrates knowledge from epidemiology, clinical studies, experimental nutrition, and mathematical modeling. This review illustrates knowledge that can be gained from molecular epidemiology in the context of nutrigenetics, and the questions that this approach can answer or raise.

  2. Rectal cancer: future directions and priorities for treatment, research and policy in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Christopher; Ehrenberg, Nieves; Frizelle, Frank; Sarfati, Diana; Balasingam, Adrian; Pearse, Maria; Parry, Susan; Print, Cristin; Findlay, Michael; Bissett, Ian

    2014-06-06

    New Zealand has one of the highest incidences of rectal cancer in the world, and its optimal management requires a multidisciplinary approach. A National Rectal Cancer Summit was convened in August 2013 to discuss management of rectal cancer in the New Zealand context, to highlight controversies and discuss domestic priorities for the future. This paper summarises the priorities for treatment, research and policy for rectal cancer services in New Zealand identified as part of the Summit in August. The following priorities were identified: - Access to high-quality information for service planning, review of outcomes, identification of inequities and gaps in provision, and quality improvement; - Engagement with the entire sector, including private providers; - Focus on equity; - Emerging technologies; - Harmonisation of best practice; - Importance of multidisciplinary team meetings. In conclusion, improvements in outcomes for patients with rectal cancer in New Zealand will require significant engagement between policy makers, providers, researchers, and patients in order to ensure equitable access to high quality treatment, and strategic incorporation of emerging technologies into clinical practice. A robust clinical information framework is required in order to facilitate monitoring of quality improvements and to ensure that equitable care is delivered.

  3. Brain Cancer in Workers Employed at a Laboratory Research Facility.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James J Collins

    Full Text Available An earlier study of research facility workers found more brain cancer deaths than expected, but no workplace exposures were implicated.Adding four additional years of vital-status follow-up, we reassessed the risk of death from brain cancer in the same workforce, including 5,284 workers employed between 1963, when the facility opened, and 2007. We compared the work histories of the brain cancer decedents in relationship to when they died and their ages at death.As in most other studies of laboratory and research workers, we found low rates of total mortality, total cancers, accidents, suicides, and chronic conditions such as heart disease and diabetes. We found no new brain cancer deaths in the four years of additional follow-up. Our best estimate of the brain cancer standardized mortality ratio (SMR was 1.32 (95% confidence interval [95% CI] 0.66-2.37, but the SMR might have been as high as 1.69. Deaths from benign brain tumors and other non-malignant diseases of the nervous system were at or below expected levels.With the addition of four more years of follow-up and in the absence of any new brain cancers, the updated estimate of the risk of brain cancer death is smaller than in the original study. There was no consistent pattern among the work histories of decedents that indicated a common causative exposure.

  4. Advances in cancer research. Volume 41

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klein, G.; Weinhouse, S.

    1984-01-01

    This book contains seven chapters. They are: The Epidemiology of Diet and Cancer; Molecular Aspects of Immunoglobin Expression by Human B Cell Leukemias and Lymphomas; Mouse Mammary Tumor Virus: Transcriptional Control and Involvement in Tumorigenesis; Dominant Susceptibility to Cancer in Man; Multiple Myeloma; Waldenstreom's Macroglobulinemia, and Benign Monoclonal Gammopathy: Characteristics of the B Cell Clone, Immunoregulatory Cell Populations and Clinical Implications; Idiotype Network Interactions in Tumor Immunity; and Chromosomal Location of Immunoglobulin Genes: Partial Mapping of these Genes in the Rabbit and Comparison with Ig Genes Carrying Chromosomes of Man and Mouse.

  5. Pancreatic Cancer: Updates on Translational Research and Future Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evangelos G Sarris

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Pancreatic cancer is one of the most lethal malignancies with a mortality rate almost equal to its incidence. It is ranked as the fourth leading cause of cancer-related deaths in the United States, and despite intensive basic and clinical research over the last few years, the survival benefit for the majority of patients with pancreatic cancer is still disappointing. Due to the absence of specific symptoms and the lack of early detection tests, pancreatic cancer is usually diagnosed at an advanced inoperrable stage and palliative chemotherapy with the purine analogue gemcitabine in combination with the targeted agent erlotinib, remains the mainstay method in the management of these patients. Therefore, there is an imperative need for new findings in the translational research field with prognostic, predictive and therapeutic value. In this paper we summarize five most interesting research abstracts as presented at the 2013 American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO Gastrointestinal Cancers Symposium. In particular, we focus on Abstract #141 which investigates the interaction between liver and pancreatic organ damage in patients with pancreatic cancer and the potential contribution of the patatin-like phospholipase domain containing 3 (PNPLA3 gene variation in pancreatic cancer development and on Abstract #149, in which, the prognostic and predictive role of SWI/SNF complex, a chromatin-remodeling complex, is examined. The key role of pharmacogenomics, in terms of predicting response and resistance to chemotherapy in pancreatic cancer patients, is analyzed in Abstract #142 and the contribution of circulating tumor cell detection in the early diagnosis of pancreatic cancer, allowing the avoidance of more invasive procedures like EUS-FNA, is discussed in Abstract #157. Lastly, in Abstract #164, the diagnostic utility of YKL-40 and IL-6 in pancreatic cancer patients is investigated.

  6. Clinical highlights from Amsterdam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jouke T. Annema

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This article contains highlights and a selection of the scientific advances from the Clinical Assembly that were presented at the 2015 European Respiratory Society International Congress in Amsterdam, the Netherlands. The most relevant topics for clinicians will be discussed, covering a wide range of areas including interventional pulmonology, rehabilitation and chronic care, thoracic imaging, diffuse and parenchymal lung diseases, and general practice and primary care. In this comprehensive review, exciting novel data will be discussed and put into perspective.

  7. Epigenetic research in cancer epidemiology: trends, opportunities, and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Mukesh; Rogers, Scott; Divi, Rao L; Schully, Sheri D; Nelson, Stefanie; Joseph Su, L; Ross, Sharon A; Pilch, Susan; Winn, Deborah M; Khoury, Muin J

    2014-02-01

    Epigenetics is emerging as an important field in cancer epidemiology that promises to provide insights into gene regulation and facilitate cancer control throughout the cancer care continuum. Increasingly, investigators are incorporating epigenetic analysis into the studies of etiology and outcomes. To understand current progress and trends in the inclusion of epigenetics in cancer epidemiology, we evaluated the published literature and the National Cancer Institute (NCI)-supported research grant awards in this field to identify trends in epigenetics research. We present a summary of the epidemiologic studies in NCI's grant portfolio (from January 2005 through December 2012) and in the scientific literature published during the same period, irrespective of support from the NCI. Blood cells and tumor tissue were the most commonly used biospecimens in these studies, although buccal cells, cervical cells, sputum, and stool samples were also used. DNA methylation profiling was the focus of the majority of studies, but several studies also measured microRNA profiles. We illustrate here the current status of epidemiologic studies that are evaluating epigenetic changes in large populations. The incorporation of epigenomic assessments in cancer epidemiology studies has and is likely to continue to provide important insights into the field of cancer research.

  8. Promising Tools in Prostate Cancer Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonomo, Silvia; Hansen, Cecilie H; Petrunak, Elyse M

    2016-01-01

    Cytochrome P450 17A1 (CYP17A1) is an important target in the treatment of prostate cancer because it produces androgens required for tumour growth. The FDA has approved only one CYP17A1 inhibitor, abiraterone, which contains a steroidal scaffold similar to the endogenous CYP17A1 substrates...

  9. Evidence and research in rectal cancer.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valentini, V.; Beets-Tan, R.; Borras, J.M.; Krivokapic, Z.; Leer, J.W.H.; Pahlman, L.; Rodel, C.; Schmoll, H.J.; Scott, N.; Velde, C.V.; Verfaillie, C.

    2008-01-01

    The main evidences of epidemiology, diagnostic imaging, pathology, surgery, radiotherapy, chemotherapy and follow-up are reviewed to optimize the routine treatment of rectal cancer according to a multidisciplinary approach. This paper reports on the knowledge shared between different specialists inv

  10. Testicular Cancer Survivorship : Research Strategies and Recommendations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Travis, Lois B.; Beard, Clair; Allan, James M.; Dahl, Alv A.; Feldman, Darren R.; Oldenburg, Jan; Daugaard, Gedske; Kelly, Jennifer L.; Dolan, M. Eileen; Hannigan, Robyn; Constine, Louis S.; Oeffinger, Kevin C.; Okunieff, Paul; Armstrong, Greg; Wiljer, David; Miller, Robert C.; Gietema, Jourik A.; van Leeuwen, Flora E.; Williams, Jacqueline P.; Nichols, Craig R.; Einhorn, Lawrence H.; Fossa, Sophie D.

    2010-01-01

    Testicular cancer represents the most curable solid tumor, with a 10-year survival rate of more than 95%. Given the young average age at diagnosis, it is estimated that effective treatment approaches, in particular, platinum-based chemotherapy, have resulted in an average gain of several decades of

  11. MicroRNAs – important molecules in lung cancer research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra eLeidinger

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs (miRNA are important regulators of gene expression. They are involved in many physiological processes ensuring the cellular homeostasis of human cells. Alterations of the miRNA expression have increasingly been associated with pathophysiological changes of cancer cells making miRNAs currently to one of the most analyzed molecules in cancer research. Here we provide an overview of miRNAs in lung cancer. Specifically, we address biological functions of miRNAs in lung cancer cells, miRNA signatures generated from tumor tissue and from patients’ body fluids, the potential of miRNAs as diagnostic and prognostic biomarker for lung cancer, and its role as therapeutical target.

  12. Highlights from ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Charlton, D; The ATLAS collaboration

    2013-01-01

    Highlights of recent results from ATLAS were presented. The data collected to date, the detector and physics performance, and measurements of previously established Standard Model processes were reviewed briefly before summarising the latest ATLAS results in the Brout-Englert-Higgs sector, where big progress has been made in the year since the discovery. Finally, selected prospects for measurements including the data from the HL-LHC luminosity upgrade were presented, for both ATLAS and CMS. Many of the results mentioned are preliminary. These proceedings reflect only a brief summary of the material presented, and the status at the time of the conference is reported.

  13. Acupuncture Research at Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javdan, Bahar; Cassileth, Barrie

    2015-06-01

    Acupuncture may help treat specific cancer-related symptoms. Here, we summarize our clinical trials that sought to determine acupuncture's role in managing cancer-related symptoms. Trials have been conducted to determine acupuncture's ability to mitigate cancer-related symptoms including dyspnea, fatigue, xerostomia, lymphedema, hot flashes, postoperative ileus, pain and dysfunction after neck dissection, and postthoracotomy pain. Published studies indicate that acupuncture versus placebo acupuncture failed to reduce cancer-related dyspnea. Both true and sham acupuncture alleviated fatigue slightly, but no significant differences between groups emerged. Compared with sham acupuncture, our research showed that acupuncture significantly improved saliva production in patients with xerostomia and significantly reduced lymphedema patients' arm circumference in a pilot study. However, acupuncture failed to significantly reduce hot flashes and was no more successful than sham acupuncture in reducing postoperative ileus. Significant reductions in pain and dysfunction occurred in cancer patients after neck dissection. In a feasibility study, acupuncture was found to be acceptable to lung cancer patients and did not interfere with standard postoperative care. In summary, acupuncture is a potential candidate for the treatment of some important cancer-related symptoms. Large clinical trials and research to investigate mechanistic pathways are warranted.

  14. Summer Prostate Cancer Research Training Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-01

    addition, contributed patients for study of circulating tumor cells before and after prostatectomy, and, more recently, helped to develop a prospective...gynecologic cancers and gestational disorders such as pre-eclampsia and pre-term birth. PLAC1 is expressed in numerous tissues during fetal development...exclusively in placental trophoblasts in reproductive age women and in gynecologic tumors. It is, thus, the only known example of an onco- fetal

  15. Network for Translational Research - Cancer Imaging Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooperative agreement (U54) awards to establish Specialized Research Resource Centers that will participate as members of a network of inter-disciplinary, inter-institutional research teams for the purpose of supporting translational research in optical imaging and/or spectroscopy in vivo, with an emphasis on multiple modalities.

  16. Cancer Prevention and Control Research Manpower Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-10-01

    34 : problem areas such as self-care (Dodd & Dibble, lishing a multisite team to conduct research with a ’r 1993), communication ( Northouse & Wortman, 1990...Guidelines for collaborative research. Applied Nurs- Northouse , L.L., & Wortman, C.B. (1990). Models of helping and cop- ing Research, 2, 150-183. ing in

  17. Beyond treatment – Psychosocial and behavioural issues in cancer survivorship research and practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neil K. Aaronson

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The population of cancer survivors has grown steadily over the past several decades. Surviving cancer, however, is not synonymous with a life free of problems related to the disease and its treatment. In this paper we provide a brief overview of selected physical and psychosocial health problems prevalent among cancer survivors, namely pain, fatigue, psychological distress and work participation. We also address issues surrounding self-management and e-Health interventions for cancer survivors, and programmes to encourage survivors to adopt healthier lifestyles. Finally, we discuss approaches to assessing health-related quality of life in cancer survivors, and the use of cancer registries in conducting psychosocial survivorship research. We highlight research and practice priorities in each of these areas. While the priorities vary per topic, common themes that emerged included: (1 Symptoms should not be viewed in isolation, but rather as part of a cluster of interrelated symptoms. This has implications for both understanding the aetiology of symptoms and for their treatment; (2 Psychosocial interventions need to be evidence-based, and where possible should be tailored to the needs of the individual cancer survivor. Relatively low cost interventions with self-management and e-Health elements may be appropriate for the majority of survivors, with resource intensive interventions being reserved for those most in need; (3 More effort should be devoted to disseminating and implementing interventions in practice, and to evaluating their cost-effectiveness; and (4 Greater attention should be paid to the needs of vulnerable and high-risk populations of survivors, including the socioeconomically disadvantaged and the elderly.

  18. Multimorbidity and cancer outcomes: a need for more research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sørensen HT

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Henrik Toft Sørensen Editor in Chief Department of Clinical Epidemiology, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus, DenmarkCancer incidence increases with age, and about 43% of men and 30% of women aged 65 will develop cancer in their remaining lifetimes.1 The global population is rapidly aging, and by 2030 about 70% of cancer in, for example, the US, will be diagnosed in older patients.2 Fortunately, cancer survival has improved and 5-year survival exceeds 80% for many common cancers.3 As a result of these two complementary trends, the population of cancer survivors is growing at a rate of almost 2% per year.4As comorbidities accumulate with age, the number of patients with multimorbidity, ie, the coexistence of several chronic diseases, is increasing dramatically.5 In the US, about 80% of Medicare funds are spent on patients with four or more chronic conditions. Multimorbidity is associated with mortality, disability, low functional status, and risks of adverse drug events.6,7Clinical and epidemiological research on cancer prognosis has mainly focused on cancers in isolation, ignoring the impact of comorbidity and co-medication on the risk of complications and mortality. Comorbidity is a medical condition that exists at the time of diagnosis of the cancer or later, but which is not a consequence of the cancer itself.8Comorbidity is common in cancer patients, who often have adverse lifestyle factors such as alcohol use, obesity, and smoking, which cause other chronic diseases. Thus, many cancer patients have chronic disorders such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, acute myocardial infarction, stroke, metabolic syndrome, and osteoporosis.9–13 With the growing population of elderly patients with cancer and other chronic diseases, modern medicine will need to address multiple medical problems at once, focusing on mortality, treatment complications, quality of life, and implications for screening.7,14 In this issue of Clinical Epidemiology

  19. Cancer immunotherapy out of the gate: the 22nd annual Cancer Research Institute International Immunotherapy Symposium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tontonoz, Matthew; Gee, Connie E

    2015-05-01

    The 22nd annual Cancer Research Institute (CRI) International Immunotherapy Symposium was held from October 5-8, 2014, in New York City. Titled "Cancer Immunotherapy: Out of the Gate," the symposium began with a Cancer Immunotherapy Consortium satellite meeting focused on issues in immunotherapy drug development, followed by five speaker sessions and a poster session devoted to basic and clinical cancer immunology research. The second annual William B. Coley lecture was delivered by Lieping Chen, one of the four recipients of the 2014 William B. Coley Award for Distinguished Research in Tumor Immunology; the other three recipients were Gordon Freeman, Tasuku Honjo, and Arlene Sharpe. Prominent themes of the conference were the use of genomic technologies to identify neoantigens and the emergence of new immune modulatory molecules, beyond CTLA-4 and PD-1/PD-L1, as new therapeutic targets for immunotherapy.

  20. Integrating Heterogeneous Biomedical Data for Cancer Research: the CARPEM infrastructure

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Summary Cancer research involves numerous disciplines. The multiplicity of data sources and their heterogeneous nature render the integration and the exploration of the data more and more complex. Translational research platforms are a promising way to assist scientists in these tasks. In this article, we identify a set of scientific and technical principles needed to build a translational research platform compatible with ethical requirements, data protection and data-integration problems. W...

  1. Intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasia (IPMN). Highlights from the "2010 ASCO Gastrointestinal Cancers Symposium". Orlando, FL, USA. January 22-24, 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bussom, Scott; Saif, Muhammad Wasif

    2010-03-05

    The diagnosis and treatment of intraductal papillary mucinous tumors (IPMN) of the pancreas has evolved over the last decade. IPMN is a disease of the ductal epithelium and represent a spectrum of disease, ranging from benign to malignant lesions, making the early detection and characterization of these lesions important. As with villous adenomas of the colon, not all IPMNs will develop into adenocarcinoma. Definitive management is surgical resection for appropriate candidates, as benign lesions harbor malignant potential. Growing controversy revolves around issues of natural history, management of small-branch-duct lesions, ability to predict malignancy and/or progression, and surveillance strategies. Given these controversies, novel methods are needed to help in detecting and classifying IPMNs' malignant potential so that appropriate treatment can be administered. The authors review abstracts from the 2010 ASCO Gastrointestinal Cancers Symposium held in January 2010, including biomarkers helping to classify IPMNs: IL-8 and IL-1beta from IPMN cyst aspirates (Abstract #133), and Foxp3/CD4/CD25 cells (Abstract #148) in peripheral blood. Future studies will hopefully provide insight into the many unanswered questions.

  2. Special conference of the American Association for Cancer Research on molecular imaging in cancer: linking biology, function, and clinical applications in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luker, Gary D

    2002-04-01

    The AACR Special Conference on Molecular Imaging in Cancer: Linking Biology, Function, and Clinical Applications In Vivo, was held January 23-27, 2002, at the Contemporary Hotel, Walt Disney World, Orlando, FL. Co-Chairs David Piwnica-Worms, Patricia Price and Thomas Meade brought together researchers with diverse expertise in molecular biology, gene therapy, chemistry, engineering, pharmacology, and imaging to accelerate progress in developing and applying technologies for imaging specific cellular and molecular signals in living animals and humans. The format of the conference was the presentation of research that focused on basic and translational biology of cancer and current state-of-the-art techniques for molecular imaging in animal models and humans. This report summarizes the special conference on molecular imaging, highlighting the interfaces of molecular biology with animal models, instrumentation, chemistry, and pharmacology that are essential to convert the dreams and promise of molecular imaging into improved understanding, diagnosis, and management of cancer.

  3. Science Highlights from VERITAS

    CERN Document Server

    Staszak, D; Archambault, S; Archer, A; Barnacka, A; Benbow, W; Bird, R; Biteau, J; Buchovecky, M; Buckley, J H; Bugaev, V; Byrum, K; Cardenzana, J V; Cerruti, M; Chen, X; Christiansen, J L; Ciupik, L; Collins-Hughes, E; Connolly, M P; Coppi, P; Cui, W; Dwarkadas, V V; Eisch, J D; Errando, M; Falcone, A; Feng, Q; Alonso, M Fernandez; Finley, J P; Fleischhack, H; Flinders, A; Fortin, P; Fortson, L; Furniss, A; Gillanders, G H; Griffin, S; Griffiths, S T; Gyuk, G; Hütten, M; Hanna, D; Holder, J; Humensky, T B; Johnson, C A; Kaaret, P; Kar, P; Kertzman, M; Khassen, Y; Kieda, D; Krause, M; Krennrich, F; Kumar, S; Lang, M J; Maier, G; McArthur, S; McCann, A; Meagher, K; Moriarty, P; Mukherjee, R; Nguyen, T; Nieto, D; de Bhróithe, A O'Faoláin; Ong, R A; Otte, A N; Pandel, D; Park, N; Pelassa, V; Perkins, J S; Pohl, M; Popkow, A; Pueschel, E; Quinn, J; Ragan, K; Reynolds, P T; Richards, G T; Roache, E; Rovero, A C; Santander, M; Schlenstedt, S; Sembroski, G H; Shahinyan, K; Smith, A W; Telezhinsky, I; Tucci, J V; Tyler, J; Vassiliev, V V; Vincent, S; Wakely, S P; Weiner, O M; Weinstein, A; Wilhelm, A; Williams, D A; Zitzer, B

    2015-01-01

    The Very Energetic Radiation Imaging Telescope Array System (VERITAS) is a ground-based array located at the Fred Lawrence Whipple Observatory in southern Arizona and is one of the world's most sensitive gamma-ray instruments at energies of 85 GeV to $>$30 TeV. VERITAS has a wide scientific reach that includes the study of extragalactic and Galactic objects as well as the search for astrophysical signatures of dark matter and the measurement of cosmic rays. In this paper, we will summarize the current status of the VERITAS observatory and present some of the scientific highlights from the last two years, focusing in particular on those results shown at the 2015 ICRC in The Hague, Netherlands.

  4. Public figure announcements about cancer and opportunities for cancer communication: a review and research agenda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noar, Seth M; Willoughby, Jessica Fitts; Myrick, Jessica Gall; Brown, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    Announcements by public figures and celebrities about cancer diagnosis or death represent significant events in public life. But what are the substantive effects of such events, if any? The purpose of this article is to systematically review studies that examined the impact of public figure cancer announcements on cancer-oriented outcomes. Using comprehensive search procedures, we identified k = 19 studies that examined 11 distinct public figures. The most commonly studied public figures were Jade Goody, Kylie Minogue, Nancy Reagan, and Steve Jobs, with the most common cancers studied being breast (53%), cervical (21%), and pancreatic (21%) cancer. Most studies assessed multiple outcome variables, including behavioral outcomes (k = 15), media coverage (k = 10), information seeking (k = 8), cancer incidence (k = 3), and interpersonal communication (k = 2). Results fairly consistently indicated that cancer announcements from public figures had meaningful effects on many, if not most, of these outcome variables. While such events essentially act as naturally occurring interventions, the effects tend to be relatively short term. Gaps in this literature include few contemporary studies of high-profile public figures in the United States and a general lack of theory-based research. Directions for future research as well as implications for cancer communication and prevention are discussed.

  5. A survey of etiologic hypotheses among testicular cancer researchers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stang, A; Trabert, B; Rusner, C; Poole, C; Almstrup, K; Rajpert-De Meyts, E; McGlynn, K A

    2015-01-01

    Basic research results can provide new ideas and hypotheses to be examined in epidemiological studies. We conducted a survey among testicular cancer researchers on hypotheses concerning the etiology of this malignancy. All researchers on the mailing list of Copenhagen Testis Cancer Workshops and corresponding authors of PubMed-indexed articles identified by the search term 'testicular cancer' and published within 10 years (in total 2750 recipients) were invited to respond to an e-mail-based survey. Participants of the 8th Copenhagen Testis Cancer Workshop in May 2014 were subsequently asked to rate the plausibility of the suggested etiologic hypotheses on a scale of 1 (very implausible) to 10 (very plausible). This report describes the methodology of the survey, the score distributions by individual hypotheses, hypothesis group, and the participants' major research fields, and discuss the hypotheses that scored as most plausible. We also present plans for improving the survey that may be repeated at a next international meeting of experts in testicular cancer. Overall 52 of 99 (53%) registered participants of the 8th Copenhagen Testis Cancer Workshop submitted the plausibility rating form. Fourteen of 27 hypotheses were related to exposures during pregnancy. Hypotheses with the highest mean plausibility ratings were either related to pre-natal exposures or exposures that might have an effect during pregnancy and in post-natal life. The results of the survey may be helpful for triggering more specific etiologic hypotheses that include factors related to endocrine disruption, DNA damage, inflammation, and nutrition during pregnancy. The survey results may stimulate a multidisciplinary discussion about new etiologic hypotheses of testicular cancer.

  6. Research Donor Program Needs Your Help to Advance Cancer and AIDS Research | Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    NCI at Frederick employees have a unique opportunity to contribute directly to cancer and AIDS research by donating blood, saliva, and other samples through the Research Donor Program (RDP). Donors are compensated for their time, which is typically between 10 and 30 minutes. The RDP, which is administered by Occupational Health Services (OHS), Leidos Biomedical Research, provides samples from healthy donors for use in in vitro research conducted at NCI at Frederick and Fort Detrick. Samples are provided anonymously to researchers.

  7. Frontiers in cancer epidemiology: a challenge to the research community from the Epidemiology and Genomics Research Program at the National Cancer Institute.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoury, Muin J; Freedman, Andrew N; Gillanders, Elizabeth M; Harvey, Chinonye E; Kaefer, Christie; Reid, Britt C; Rogers, Scott; Schully, Sheri D; Seminara, Daniela; Verma, Mukesh

    2012-07-01

    The Epidemiology and Genomics Research Program (EGRP) at the National Cancer Institute (NCI) is developing scientific priorities for cancer epidemiology research in the next decade. We would like to engage the research community and other stakeholders in a planning effort that will include a workshop in December 2012 to help shape new foci for cancer epidemiology research. To facilitate the process of defining the future of cancer epidemiology, we invite the research community to join in an ongoing web-based conversation at http://blog-epi.grants.cancer.gov/ to develop priorities and the next generation of high-impact studies.

  8. CRISPR-Cas9: from Genome Editing to Cancer Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Si; Sun, Heng; Miao, Kai; Deng, Chu-Xia

    2016-01-01

    Cancer development is a multistep process triggered by innate and acquired mutations, which cause the functional abnormality and determine the initiation and progression of tumorigenesis. Gene editing is a widely used engineering tool for generating mutations that enhance tumorigenesis. The recent developed clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats-CRISPR-associated 9 (CRISPR-Cas9) system renews the genome editing approach into a more convenient and efficient way. By rapidly introducing genetic modifications in cell lines, organs and animals, CRISPR-Cas9 system extends the gene editing into whole genome screening, both in loss-of-function and gain-of-function manners. Meanwhile, the system accelerates the establishment of animal cancer models, promoting in vivo studies for cancer research. Furthermore, CRISPR-Cas9 system is modified into diverse innovative tools for observing the dynamic bioprocesses in cancer studies, such as image tracing for targeted DNA, regulation of transcription activation or repression. Here, we view recent technical advances in the application of CRISPR-Cas9 system in cancer genetics, large-scale cancer driver gene hunting, animal cancer modeling and functional studies.

  9. Advanced Research on Circulating Tumor Cells in Lung Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui LI

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Lung cancer is the malignant disease with the highest rate in terms of incidence and mortality in China. Early diagnosis and timely monitoring tumor recurrence and metastasis are extremely important for improving 5-year survival rate of lung cancer patients. Circulating tumor cells (CTCs, as a "liquid biopsy specimens” for the primary tumor, provide the possibility to perform real-time, non-invasive histological identification for lung cancer patients. The detection of CTCs contributes to early diagnosis, surveillance of tumor recurrence and metastasis, and prediction of therapeutic efficacy and prognosis. Furthermore, CTCs-dependent detection emerges as a new approach for molecularly pathologic examination, study of molecular mechanisms involved in drug resistance, and resolution for tumor heterogeneity. This study reviewed the recent progress of CTCs in lung cancer research field.

  10. Research advances in traditional Chinese medicine syndromes in cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Qing; Luo, Yun-quan; Wang, Wen-hai; Liu, Xuan; Li, Qi; Su, Shi-bing

    2016-01-01

    Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) syndrome, also known as TCM ZHENG or TCM pattern, is an integral and essential part of TCM theory that helps to guide the design of individualized treatments. A TCM syndrome, in essence, is a characteristic profile of all clinical manifestations in one patient that can be readily identified by a TCM practitioner. In this article, the authors reviewed the presentations of TCM syndromes in seven common malignancies (liver, lung, gastric, breast, colorectal, pancreatic and esophageal cancers), the objectivity and the standardization of TCM syndrome differentiation, the evaluation of TCM syndrome modeling in cancer research, and syndrome differentiation-guided TCM treatment of cancers. A better understanding of TCM syndrome theory, as well as its potential biological basis, may contribute greatly to the clinical TCM diagnosis and the treatment of cancer.

  11. Researchers Identify Early Sign of Pancreatic Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... be detected before the disease is diagnosed.” The researchers utilized blood samples collected years earlier from 1,500 people participating in large health-tracking studies. They analyzed the samples for more than ...

  12. Cancer therapies in HIV cure research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Thomas A; Anderson, Jenny L; Wightman, Fiona;

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This article provides an overview of anticancer therapies in various stages of clinical development as potential interventions to target HIV persistence. RECENT FINDINGS: Epigenetic drugs developed for cancer have been investigated in vitro, ex vivo and in clinical trials...... as interventions aimed at reversing HIV latency and depleting the amount of virus that persists on antiretroviral therapy. Treatment with histone deacetylase inhibitors induced HIV expression in patients on antiretroviral therapy but did not reduce the frequency of infected cells. Other interventions that may...... accelerate the decay of latently infected cells, in the presence or absence of latency-reversing therapy, are now being explored. These include apoptosis-promoting agents, nonhistone deacetylase inhibitor compounds to reverse HIV latency and immunotherapy interventions to enhance antiviral immunity...

  13. Alliance Against Cancer, the network of Italian cancer centers bridging research and care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Paoli, Paolo; Ciliberto, Gennaro; Ferrarini, Manlio; Pelicci, PierGiuseppe; Dellabona, Paolo; De Lorenzo, Francesco; Mantovani, Alberto; Musto, Pellegrino; Opocher, Giuseppe; Picci, Piero; Ricciardi, Walter; De Maria, Ruggero

    2015-11-14

    Alliance Against Cancer (ACC) was established in Rome in 2002 as a consortium of six Italian comprehensive cancer centers (Founders). The aims of ACC were to promote a network among Italian oncologic institutions in order to develop specific, advanced projects in clinical and translational research. During the following years, many additional full and associate members joined ACC, that presently includes the National Institute of Health, 17 research-oriented hospitals, scientific and patient organizations. Furthermore, in the last three years ACC underwent a reorganization process that redesigned the structure, governance and major activities. The present goal of ACC is to achieve high standards of care across Italy, to implement and harmonize principles of modern personalized and precision medicine, by developing cost effective processes and to provide tailored information to cancer patients. We herein summarize some of the major initiatives that ACC is currently developing to reach its goal, including tumor genetic screening programs, establishment of clinical trial programs for cancer patients treated in Italian cancer centers, facilitate their access to innovative drugs under development, improve quality through an European accreditation process (European Organization of Cancer Institutes), and develop international partnerships. In conclusion, ACC is a growing organization, trying to respond to the need of networking in Italy and may contribute significantly to improve the way we face cancer in Europe.

  14. Multi-targeted approach to cancer treatment: an international translational cancer research symposium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Kapil; Gandhi, Varsha; Pathak, Sen; Aggarwal, Bharat B; Grover, Rajesh K

    2014-11-01

    Whether it is chronic myeloid leukemia, ALK-expressing malignancies, or HER2-positive breast cancer, targeted-therapies for treatment of human cancers have shown great promise. However, as they hit a single molecule expressed in neoplastic cells, their use is frequently associated with development of resistance. In cancer cells many signaling pathways operate in parallel, hence the idea of multi-targeted therapy is prevailing. The Society of Translational Cancer Research held its biennial meeting in the capital city of India, Delhi from February 6th through 9th, 2014 to discuss 'Multi-targeted Approach to Treatment of Cancer'. Over 200 scientists, clinicians, trainees, and industry representatives from different countries gathered in Vigyan Bhavan, the hotspot of Delhi for four days to talk and discuss on a variety of topics related to multi-targeted therapeutic approaches. Talks were presented by leaders in the cancer research field from various countries. It became clear from this conference that coupling multiple targeted-agents or using an agent that hits an individual target in several independent locations in the disease-causing pathway(s) may be the best approach to treat different cancers.

  15. Translational genomics in cancer research:converting proifles into personalized cancer medicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lalit Patel; Brittany Parker; Da Yang; Wei Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Cancer genomics is a rapidly growing discipline in which the genetic molecular basis of malignancy is studied at the scale of whole genomes. While the discipline has been successful with respect to identifying specific oncogenes and tumor suppressors involved in oncogenesis, it is also challenging our approach to managing patients suffering from this deadly disease. Speciifcally cancer genomics is driving clinical oncology to take a more molecular approach to diagnosis, prognostication, and treatment selection. We review here recent work undertaken in cancer genomics with an emphasis on translation of genomic ifndings. Finally, we discuss scientiifc challenges and research opportunities emerging from ifndings derived through analysis of tumors with high-depth sequencing.

  16. Mapping cancer, cardiovascular and malaria research in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.S. Rodrigues

    2000-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents performance indicators for the Brazilian cancer, cardiovascular and malaria research areas from 1981 to 1995. The data show an increasing number of papers since 1981 and author numbers indicate a continuous growth of the scientific community and suggest an expected impact of scientific activity on biomedical education. The data also characterize cardiovascular research as a well-established area and cancer research as a faster growing consolidating field. The 1989-1994 share of Brazilian articles among world publications shows a growing trend for the cancer (1.61 and cardiovascular (1.59 areas, and a decrease for the malaria area (0.89. The burden of the three diseases on society is contrasted by the small number of consolidated Brazilian research groups, and a questionable balance of thematic activity, especially with regard to malaria. Brazilian periodicals play an important role in increasing the international visibility of science produced in the country. Cancer and cardiovascular research is strongly concentrated in the Southeastern and in Southern regions of Brazil, especially in São Paulo (at least one address from São Paulo in 64.5% of the 962 cancer articles and in 66.9% of the 2250 cardiovascular articles, the second state being Rio de Janeiro with at least one address in 14.1 and 11% of those articles, respectively. Malaria research (468 articles is more evenly distributed across the country, following the pattern of the endemic distribution of the disease. Surveying these national indicator trends can be useful to establish policies in the decision process about health sciences, medical education and public health.

  17. Brookhaven highlights 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-12-31

    Established in 1947 on Long Island, New York, on the site of the former army Camp Upton, BNL is a multidisciplinary laboratory that carries out basic and applied research in the physical, biomedical and environmental sciences and in selected energy technologies. The Laboratory is managed by Associated Universities, Inc., under contract to the US Department of Energy. BNL`s annual budget is about $400 million, and the Laboratory`s facilities are valued at replacements cost in excess of over $2.8 billion. Employees number around 3,300,and over 4,000 guests, collaborators and students come each year to use the Laboratory`s facilities and work with the staff. Scientific and technical achievements at BNL have made their way into daily life in areas as varied as health care, construction materials and video games. The backbone of these developments is fundamental research, which is and always will be an investment in the future.

  18. Impact of the Cancer Prevention and Control Research Network: Accelerating the Translation of Research Into Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribisl, Kurt M; Fernandez, Maria E; Friedman, Daniela B; Hannon, Peggy A; Leeman, Jennifer; Moore, Alexis; Olson, Lindsay; Ory, Marcia; Risendal, Betsy; Sheble, Laura; Taylor, Vicky M; Williams, Rebecca S; Weiner, Bryan J

    2017-03-01

    The Cancer Prevention and Control Research Network (CPCRN) is a thematic network dedicated to accelerating the adoption of evidence-based cancer prevention and control practices in communities by advancing dissemination and implementation science. Funded by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and National Cancer Institute, CPCRN has operated at two levels: Each participating network center conducts research projects with primarily local partners as well as multicenter collaborative research projects with state and national partners. Through multicenter collaboration, thematic networks leverage the expertise, resources, and partnerships of participating centers to conduct research projects collectively that might not be feasible individually. Although multicenter collaboration is often advocated, it is challenging to promote and assess. Using bibliometric network analysis and other graphical methods, this paper describes CPCRN's multicenter publication progression from 2004 to 2014. Searching PubMed, Scopus, and Web of Science in 2014 identified 249 peer-reviewed CPCRN publications involving two or more centers out of 6,534 total. The research and public health impact of these multicenter collaborative projects initiated by CPCRN during that 10-year period were then examined. CPCRN established numerous workgroups around topics such as: 2-1-1, training and technical assistance, colorectal cancer control, federally qualified health centers, cancer survivorship, and human papillomavirus. This paper discusses the challenges that arise in promoting multicenter collaboration and the strategies that CPCRN uses to address those challenges. The lessons learned should broadly interest those seeking to promote multisite collaboration to address public health problems, such as cancer prevention and control.

  19. Integrating precision cancer medicine into healthcare-policy, practice, and research challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertier, Gabrielle; Carrot-Zhang, Jian; Ragoussis, Vassilis; Joly, Yann

    2016-10-24

    Precision medicine (PM) can be defined as a predictive, preventive, personalized, and participatory healthcare service delivery model. Recent developments in molecular biology and information technology make PM a reality today through the use of massive amounts of genetic, 'omics', clinical, environmental, and lifestyle data. With cancer being one of the most prominent public health threats in developed countries, both the research community and governments have been investing significant time, money, and efforts in precision cancer medicine (PCM). Although PCM research is extremely promising, a number of hurdles still remain on the road to an optimal integration of standardized and evidence-based use of PCM in healthcare systems. Indeed, PCM raises a number of technical, organizational, ethical, legal, social, and economic challenges that have to be taken into account in the development of an appropriate health policy framework. Here, we highlight some of the more salient issues regarding the standards needed for integration of PCM into healthcare systems, and we identify fields where more research is needed before policy can be implemented. Key challenges include, but are not limited to, the creation of new standards for the collection, analysis, and sharing of samples and data from cancer patients, and the creation of new clinical trial designs with renewed endpoints. We believe that these issues need to be addressed as a matter of priority by public health policymakers in the coming years for a better integration of PCM into healthcare.

  20. Research on image highlight removal based on fast bilateral filter%基于快速双边滤波的图像高光去除研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢桂荣; 汤景凡; 姜明

    2014-01-01

    在各向异性的物体中,高光被视为是漫反射分量以及镜面反射分量的一种线性组合。单幅图像的高光去除是计算机视觉中一项非常有挑战性的课题。很多方法试图将漫反射分量、镜面反射分量进行分离,然而这些方法往往需要图像分割等预处理过程,方法鲁棒性较差且比较耗时。基于双边滤波器设计了一种高效的高光消除方法,该方法利用最大漫反射色度存在着局部平滑这一性质,使用双边滤波器对色度的最大取值进行传播与扩散,从而完成整幅图像高光去除。方法采用一种加速策略对双边滤波器进行速度优化,与目前流行的方法相比,有效提升了方法的执行效率。与传统方法相比,该方法高光去除效果更好,处理速度更快,非常适用于一些实时应用的场合。%In inhomogeneous objects, highlights are linear combinations of diffuse and specular reflection components, and highlight removal from a single input image is treated as a non-trivial task in computer vision. A number of methods have been proposed to separate or decompose diffuse and specular reflection components. However, all methods require explicit color segmentation process, causing low robustness and high computational complexity. In this paper, an effective specula highlight removal method using the bilateral filter is proposed. The method utilizes a key property-the maximum diffuse chromaticity in local patches in colorful images generally changes smoothly. Using such observation, then the max-imum diffuse chromaticity values of the specular pixels are computed by directly applying bilateral filter to the maximum fraction of the color components of the original image, such that specular highlight can be removed ultimately. The fast bilateral filtering techniques is utilized to enable the method to run much faster than the state-of-the-art. Compared to tradi-tional methods, the method can get

  1. About the Nutritional Science Research Group | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Nutritional Science Research Group (NSRG) promotes and supports studies establishing a comprehensive understanding of the precise role of diet and food components in modulating cancer risk and tumor cell behavior. This focus includes approaches to characterize molecular targets and variability in individual responses to nutrients and dietary patterns. |

  2. Mexican breast cancer research output, 2003-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Santos, Jose Luis Martin; Anaya-Ruiz, Maricruz

    2013-01-01

    The objetive of this study was to explore a bibliometric approach to quantitatively assess current research trends with regard to breast cancer in Mexico. Articles were analyzed by scientific output and research performances of individuals, institutes, and collaborative countries with Mexico. Data were retrieved from the Web of Science database from 2003 to 2012; this was searched using different terms related to breast cancer, including "breast cancer", "mammary ductal carcinoma" and "breast tumour". Data were then extracted from each file, transferred to Excel charts and visualised as diagrams. A total of 256 articles were retrieved. The institutions with the majority of publications were the National Autonomous University of Mexico (22.3%), the National Institute of Cancerology (21.9%), and Social Security Mexican Institute (20.3%); clinical observation studies were the dominant investigation type (64%), and the main types of research were metabolics (24.2%) and pathology (21.5%). This article demonstrates the usefulness of bibliometrics to address key evaluation questions and to establish priorities, define future areas of research, and develop breast cancer control strategies in Mexico.

  3. Tumor Cold Ischemia - Office of Cancer Clinical Proteomics Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    In a recently published manuscript in the journal of Molecular and Cellular Proteomics, researchers from the National Cancer Institutes (NCI) Clinical Proteomic Tumor Analysis Consortium (CPTAC) investigated the effect of cold ischemia on the proteome of fresh frozen tumors.

  4. Systems biology in the frontier of cancer research:a report of the Second International Workshop of Cancer Systems Biology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Juan Cui; Yan-Chun Liang; Ying Xu

    2012-01-01

    The report summarizes the Second International Workshop of Cancer Systems Biology held on July 5-6,2012 in Changchun,China.The goal of the workshop was to bring together cancer researchers with different backgrounds to share their views about cancer and their experiences in fighting against cancer,and to gain new and systems-level understanding about cancer formation,progression,diagnosis,and treatment through exchanging ideas.

  5. Targeting hedgehog signaling in cancer: research and clinical developments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xie J

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Jingwu Xie, Christopher M Bartels, Scott W Barton, Dongsheng GuWells Center for Pediatric Research, Division of Hematology and Oncology, Department of Pediatrics, Indiana University Simon Cancer Center, Indiana University, Indianapolis, IN, USAAbstract: Since its first description in Drosophila by Drs Nusslein-Volhard and Wieschaus in 1980, hedgehog (Hh signaling has been implicated in regulation of cell differentiation, proliferation, tissue polarity, stem cell maintenance, and carcinogenesis. The first link of Hh signaling to cancer was established through studies of Gorlin syndrome in 1996 by two independent teams. Later, it was shown that Hh signaling may be involved in many types of cancer, including skin, leukemia, lung, brain, and gastrointestinal cancers. In early 2012, the US Food and Drug Administration approved the clinical use of Hh inhibitor Erivedge/vismodegib for treatment of locally advanced and metastatic basal cell carcinomas. With further investigation, it is possible to see more clinical applications of Hh signaling inhibitors. In this review, we will summarize major advances in the last 3 years in our understanding of Hh signaling activation in human cancer, and recent developments in preclinical and clinical studies using Hh signaling inhibitors.Keywords: hedgehog, smoothened, PTCH1, cancer, signal transduction, clinical trials, animal model

  6. 76 FR 66728 - Government-Owned Inventions; Licensing and Collaborative Research Opportunity for PANVAC-Cancer...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-27

    ... the Laboratory of Tumor Immunology and Biology, Center for Cancer Research, NCI. The CRADA partner... Research Opportunity for PANVAC--Cancer Vaccine for the Prevention and Treatment of Colorectal Cancer... Technology Transfer Center, National Cancer Institute, 6120 Executive Boulevard, Suite 450, Rockville,...

  7. Leveraging the power of pooled data for cancer outcomes research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kiara Hugh-Yeun; Winson Y. Cheung

    2016-01-01

    Background: Clinical trials continue to be the gold standard for determining the effcacy of novel cancer treatments, but they may also expose participants to the potential risks of unpredictable or severe toxicities. The development of validated tools that better inform patients of the beneifts and risks associated with clinical trial participation can facilitate the informed consent process. The design and validation of such instruments are strengthened when we leverage the power of pooled data analysis for cancer outcomes research. Main body: In a recent study published in the Journal of Clinical Oncology entitled“Determinants of early mortal‑ity among 37,568 patients with colon cancer who participated in 25 clinical trials from the adjuvant colon cancer endpoints database,”using a large pooled analysis of over 30,000 study participants who were enrolled in clinical trials of adjuvant therapy for early‑stage colon cancer, we developed and validated a nomogram depicting the predictors of early cancer mortality. This database of pooled individual‑level data allowed for a comprehensive analysis of poor prognostic factors associated with early death;furthermore, it enabled the creation of a nomogram that was able to reliably capture and quantify the beneift‑to‑risk proifle for patients who are considering clinical trial participation. This tool can facilitate treatment decision‑making discussions. Conclusion: As China and other Asian countries continue to conduct oncology clinical trials, efforts to collate patient‑level information from these studies into a large data repository should be strongly considered since pooled data can increase future capacity for cancer outcomes research, which, in turn, can enhance patient‑physician discus‑sions and optimize clinical care.

  8. Cancer research and therapy: Where are we today?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sampada Sawant

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Till date scientists are struggling to understand the complete mechanism of carcinogenesis. In future, the real time detection of cancer may help scientists to identify some of the complicated biological mechanisms. Certain special features of cancer cells enable researchers to deliver the drug or to develop the right drug therapy. These cell properties include over expression or over activity in uptake of certain nutrients e.g. folic acid and increased permeability. Listed properties might vary depending upon the type of cancer and can be fully exploited by using nanoparticles either to detect the site of cancer or to direct the drug at the affected site. Product approach like drug conjugates, complexes serves as a good platform to solve issues like solubility, toxicity, poor penetration and stability related to cancer drugs. Beside this, several drug delivery platforms are under development by researchers in academia as well as in industry to deliver therapeutic molecules and new chemical entities to the targeted site in body. Amongst them, nanotechnology both at molecular and supramolecular level is a leading platform and can help to image, detect and treat cancer. Surface modification of nanoparticles by coating or anchoring their surface with special markers, materials, peptide, proteins, antibodies or antigens add extra feature and thereby can enhance the effectiveness. These treatments can be used individually or in combined form. In this review, advances on nanotechnological platform are discussed together with some assisting techniques like magnetic field, photo or light field, sonic rays are touched upon. New biological therapies that are advancing in this direction include the antisense therapy, cell therapy, gene therapy, radiation therapy and SiRNA interfaces which are discussed in brief in this article. This article gives short overview on use of complementary and alternative medicine for treatment of cancer such as traditional

  9. Collaboration - Office of Cancer Clinical Proteomics Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Despite great strides in proteomics and the growing number of articles citing the discovery of potential biomarkers, the actual rate of introduction of Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved protein analytes has been relatively unchanged over the past 10 years. One of reasons for the lack of new protein-based biomarkers approved has been a lack of information and understanding by the proteomics research community to the regulatory process used by the FDA.

  10. CPTAC Scientific Symposium - Office of Cancer Clinical Proteomics Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    On behalf of the National Cancer Institute and the Office of Cancer Clinical Proteomics Research, you are invited to the First Annual CPTAC Scientific Symposium on Wednesday, November 13, 2013. The purpose of this symposium, which consists of plenary and poster sessions, is for investigators from CPTAC community and beyond to share and discuss novel biological discoveries, analytical methods, and translational approaches using CPTAC data. All scientists who use, or wish to use CPTAC data are welcome to participate at this free event. The symposium will be held at the Natcher Conference Facility on the main campus of the National Institutes of Health in Bethesda, Maryland.

  11. The value of research collaborations and consortia in rare cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blay, Jean-Yves; Coindre, Jean-Michel; Ducimetière, Françoise; Ray-Coquard, Isabelle

    2016-02-01

    Rare cancers are defined by an incidence of less than six per 100,000 people per year. They represent roughly 20% of all human cancers and are associated with worse survival than are so-called frequent tumours, because of delays to accurate diagnosis, inadequate treatments, and fewer opportunities to participate in clinical trials (because of a paucity of dedicated trials from both academic and industrial sponsors). In this Series paper, we discuss how these challenges can be addressed by research consortia and suggest the integration of these consortia with reference networks, which gather multidisciplinary expert centres, for management of rare tumours.

  12. Clinical cancer research: the past, present and the future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeVita, Vincent T; Eggermont, Alexander M M; Hellman, Samuel; Kerr, David J

    2014-11-01

    In the past decade, we have witnessed unprecedented changes and some remarkable advances that have enabled true personalized medicine. Nevertheless, many challenges in clinical cancer research remain and need to be overcome if we are to witness similar progress in the next decade. Such hurdles include, but are not limited to, clinical development and testing of multiple agents in combination, design of clinical trials to best accommodate the ever increasing knowledge of heterogeneity of the disease, regulatory challenges relating to drug development and trial design, and funding for basic research. With this in mind, we asked four leading cancer researchers from around the world, and who have been associated with the journal since its launch in November 2004 what, in their opinion, we have learnt over the past 10 years and how we should progress in the next 10 years.

  13. Why is it crucial to reintegrate pathology into cancer research?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Canales, Jaime; Eberle, Franziska C; Jaffe, Elaine S; Emmert-Buck, Michael R

    2011-07-01

    The integration of pathology with molecular biology is vital if we are to enhance the translational value of cancer research. Pathology represents a bridge between medicine and basic biology, it remains the gold standard for cancer diagnosis, and it plays an important role in discovery studies. In the past, pathology and cancer research were closely associated; however, the molecular biology revolution has shifted the focus of investigators toward the molecular alterations of tumors. The reductionist approach taken in molecular studies is producing great insight into the inner workings of neoplasia, but it can also minimize the importance of histopathology and of understanding the disease as a whole. In turn, pathologists can underestimate the role of molecular studies in developing new ancillary techniques for clinical diagnosis. A multidisciplinary approach that integrates pathology and molecular biology within a translational research system is needed. This process will require overcoming cultural barriers and can be achieved through education, a more effective incorporation of pathology into biological research, and conversely an integration of biological research into the pathology laboratory.

  14. HIGHLIGHTS OF MAGNETOELECTROPOLISHING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadeusz eHryniewicz

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The research work has been concerned on the studies and development of electrochemical polishing in the magnetic field (MEP in comparison with the standard electropolishing methods performed without stirring (EP and the process with the forced electrolyte mixing (MIX. Advanced techniques were used in the studies, to measure the effects of the surface treatment. They are as follows: scanning electron microscopy (SEM/EDS, X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS, Secondary Ion Mass Spectroscopy (SIMS, surface roughness, and nanoindentation measurements. For the corrosion studies, the electrochemical methods were used, such as: open circuit potential OCP, potentiodynamic curves PC, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy EIS measurements. The MEP process is advised mainly due to the opportunity to enrich the surface layer with the chromium compounds (austenitic stainless steels, or titanium compounds (CP Ti Grade 2, Nitinol. The surface layers of biomaterials after MEP process contain much lower amount of carcinogenic compounds, like chromium VI oxidation stage (Cr6+ (austenitic stainless steels and nickel compounds (austenitic stainless steel & Nitinol versus those ones obtained after EP & MIX treatments. It is interesting that apart from the significant modification of the surface layer obtained after MEP, also mechanical properties, such as nanohardness, modulus of elasticity, and mechanical resistance to bending and torsion, undergo considerable advantageous changes. All they make the MEP process very promising for application in many clean industries, such as medical equipment and devices, electronics, food industry, etc.

  15. ENRICH Forum: Ethical aNd Regulatory Issues in Cancer ResearcH

    Science.gov (United States)

    ENRICH Forum: Ethical aNd Regulatory Issues in Cancer ResearcH, designed to stimulate dialogue on ethical and regulatory issues in cancer research and promote awareness of developing policies and best practices.

  16. Proteomics in epigenetics: new perspectives for cancer research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartke, Till; Borgel, Julie; DiMaggio, Peter A

    2013-05-01

    The involvement of epigenetic processes in the origin and progression of cancer is now widely appreciated. Consequently, targeting the enzymatic machinery that controls the epigenetic regulation of the genome has emerged as an attractive new strategy for therapeutic intervention. The development of epigenetic drugs requires a detailed knowledge of the processes that govern chromatin regulation. Over the recent years, mass spectrometry (MS) has become an indispensable tool in epigenetics research. In this review, we will give an overview of the applications of MS-based proteomics in studying various aspects of chromatin biology. We will focus on the use of MS in the discovery and mapping of histone modifications and how novel proteomic approaches are being utilized to identify and study chromatin-associated proteins and multi-subunit complexes. Finally, we will discuss the application of proteomic methods in the diagnosis and prognosis of cancer based on epigenetic biomarkers and comment on their future impact on cancer epigenetics.

  17. Embracing an integromic approach to tissue biomarker research in cancer: Perspectives and lessons learned.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Gerald; Bankhead, Peter; Dunne, Philip D; O'Reilly, Paul G; James, Jacqueline A; Salto-Tellez, Manuel; Hamilton, Peter W; McArt, Darragh G

    2016-06-02

    Modern approaches to biomedical research and diagnostics targeted towards precision medicine are generating 'big data' across a range of high-throughput experimental and analytical platforms. Integrative analysis of this rich clinical, pathological, molecular and imaging data represents one of the greatest bottlenecks in biomarker discovery research in cancer and other diseases. Following on from the publication of our successful framework for multimodal data amalgamation and integrative analysis, Pathology Integromics in Cancer (PICan), this article will explore the essential elements of assembling an integromics framework from a more detailed perspective. PICan, built around a relational database storing curated multimodal data, is the research tool sitting at the heart of our interdisciplinary efforts to streamline biomarker discovery and validation. While recognizing that every institution has a unique set of priorities and challenges, we will use our experiences with PICan as a case study and starting point, rationalizing the design choices we made within the context of our local infrastructure and specific needs, but also highlighting alternative approaches that may better suit other programmes of research and discovery. Along the way, we stress that integromics is not just a set of tools, but rather a cohesive paradigm for how modern bioinformatics can be enhanced. Successful implementation of an integromics framework is a collaborative team effort that is built with an eye to the future and greatly accelerates the processes of biomarker discovery, validation and translation into clinical practice.

  18. EORTC cutaneous lymphoma task force. European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knobler, R; Burg, G; Whittaker, S; Baila, L

    2002-03-01

    The Cutaneous Lymphoma Task Force has represented the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) over the last two decades and has received worldwide acceptance and the highest respect. The group has been able to bring together the world's experts in this field to try to solve the basic problems associated with primary lymphomas of the skin and to create a productive scientific research basis. The definition and the classification of the disease per se has been a major controversial problem and the development of an EORTC classification for primary cutaneous lymphoma has been one of the main goals of the group. The purpose of this paper is to highlight and to provide a historical perspective regarding the contribution of the EORTC Cutaneous Lymphoma Group to the development of consensus guidelines for securing uniform diagnosis, classification and management of the heterogeneous group of primary cutaneous lymphomas. Some future perspectives and strategies of the group are also presented.

  19. Funding Opportunities Available for Innovative SBIR Development - Office of Cancer Clinical Proteomics Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Does your small business need early-stage financing to take its cancer research to the next level? The National Cancer Institute Small Business Innovation Research (NCI SBIR) Development Center has released $5 million for new contract funding opportunities to support cancer research and technology development in key emerging areas of need.

  20. A bibliometric analysis of diets and breast cancer research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotepui, Manas; Wannaiampikul, Sivaporn; Chupeerach, Chaowanee; Duangmano, Suwit

    2014-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common cancer among women worldwide. The primary aim of this work was to provide an in-depth evaluation of research publications in the field of diets and breast cancer. The impact of economic outcome on national academic productivity was also investigated. Data were retrieved using Pubmed for English-language publications. The search included all research for which articles included words relating to "diets and breast cancer". Population and national income data were obtained from publicly available databases. Impact factors for journals were obtained from Journal Citation Reports® (Thomson Scientific). There were 2,396 publications from 60 countries in 384 journals with an impact factor. Among them, 1,652 (68.94%) publications were Original articles. The United States had the highest quantity (51% of total) and highest of mean impact factor (8.852) for publication. Sweden had the highest productivity of publication when adjusted for number of population (6 publications per million population). Publications from the Asian nation increased from 5.3% in 2006 to 14.6% in 2012. The Original article type was also associated with geography (p<0.001; OR=2.183; 95%CI=1.526-3.123), Asian countries produced more proportion of Original articles (82%) than those of rest of the world (67.6%). Diets and breast cancer-associated research output continues to increase annually worldwide including publications from Asian countries. Although the United States produced the most publications, European nations per capita were higher in publication output.

  1. Tissue-engineered models of human tumors for cancer research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villasante, Aranzazu; Vunjak-Novakovic, Gordana

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Drug toxicity often goes undetected until clinical trials, which are the most costly and dangerous phase of drug development. Both the cultures of human cells and animal studies have limitations that cannot be overcome by incremental improvements in drug-testing protocols. A new generation of bioengineered tumors is now emerging in response to these limitations, with potential to transform drug screening by providing predictive models of tumors within their tissue context, for studies of drug safety and efficacy. An area that could greatly benefit from these models is cancer research. Areas covered In this review, the authors first describe the engineered tumor systems, using Ewing's sarcoma as an example of human tumor that cannot be predictably studied in cell culture and animal models. Then, they discuss the importance of the tissue context for cancer progression and outline the biomimetic principles for engineering human tumors. Finally, they discuss the utility of bioengineered tumor models for cancer research and address the challenges in modeling human tumors for use in drug discovery and testing. Expert opinion While tissue models are just emerging as a new tool for cancer drug discovery, they are already demonstrating potential for recapitulating, in vitro, the native behavior of human tumors. Still, numerous challenges need to be addressed before we can have platforms with a predictive power appropriate for the pharmaceutical industry. Some of the key needs include the incorporation of the vascular compartment, immune system components, and mechanical signals that regulate tumor development and function. PMID:25662589

  2. 中国农业水问题:若干研究重点与讨论%Agricultural water issues in China - Discussions on research highlights

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘昌明

    2014-01-01

    农业用水是水资源的主要消耗方式,尤其在华北地区,因地表水资源不足,大量农田灌溉导致地下水超采现象严重;而社会经济的快速发展和气候变化加剧了水资源的不足。水循环过程是农业节水的科学基础。从水循环过程出发,开展水量转化研究,在农田水文过程界面加以调控,进行系统的节水研究,是节水研究的重点。重视水资源的科学管理,提高水分利用效率,建立节水农业的市场机制,促进节水设施建设;同时深入开展水循环的基础研究,充分利用非传统水资源,是解决我国农业水问题的有效途径。%Agricultural water use is a major consuming way of water resources, especially in the North China where irrigation has induced severe over-exploitation of groundwater as surface water systems are lacking. With rapid socio-economic development, shortage of water resources intensified over the years. Water cycle remained the scientific basis of research on agricultural water-saving in China and around the globe. Clarifying water cycle and exploring transformation among precipitation, plant water, surface water, soil water and groundwater laid the critical bases for agricultural water-saving research. The core elements of agricultural water-saving research included the regulation and control of the interfaces of agricultural water processes such as soil- atmosphere, root-soil and vegetation-atmosphere interfaces. Researches on agricultural water-saving and systems engineering (which involved studies on rational utilization of water resources, water-saving technology, water-saving agricultural practices and water- saving management measures) ensured the realization of high-production, water-saving agriculture. The paper argued that among the effective ways, meeting agricultural water issues in China were paying more attention on scientific management of water resources, improving water use efficiency

  3. Highlighting inconsistencies regarding metal biosorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robalds, Artis; Naja, Ghinwa Melodie; Klavins, Maris

    2016-03-01

    Thousands of articles have been devoted to examine different types of biosorbents and their use in cleaning polluted waters. An important objective of some studies has been the identification of the biosorption mechanisms. This type of investigation is not always performed, as it can only be done if scientists are aware of all mechanisms that, at least theoretically, control the removal of the target substances. Mistakes are often made, even in highly cited review articles, where biosorption mechanisms are named and/or grouped. The aim of this article is to highlight errors and inaccuracies as well as to discuss different classification systems of the biosorption mechanisms. This article serves as a guide, as well as a platform for discussion among researchers involved in the investigation of biosorbents, in an effort to avoid reproducing errors in subsequent articles.

  4. Highlights in pathogenesis of vitiligo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, Ghada F; Gomaa, Amal Ha; Al-Dhubaibi, Mohammed Saleh

    2015-03-16

    Vitiligo is a common pigmentary disorder. Many studies across decades and all over the world have attempted to illustrate the pathogenesis behind it; however, the pathogenesis of vitiligo remains elusive. This review article, we present the findings behind the most and updated theories behind this psychologically debilitating and disfiguring disease. The discussion begun with the role of genetic predisposition followed by neural theory first proposed in the 1950s. We highlight the autoimmune hypothesis, followed by the reactive oxygen species model, zinc-α2-glycoprotein deficiency hypothesis, viral theory, intrinsic theory and biochemical, molecular and cellular alterations accounting for loss of functioning melanocytes in vitiligo. Many theories were elaborated to clarify vitiligo pathogenesis. It is a multifactorial disease involving the interplay of several factors. Future research is needed to clarify the interaction of these factors for better understanding of vitiligo pathogenesis and subsequent successful treatment.

  5. Cancer Treatment-Related Cardiotoxicity: Understanding the Current State of Knowledge and Developing Future Research Priorities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancer Treatment-Related Cardiotoxicity: Understanding the Current State of Knowledge and Developing Future Research Priorities, a 2013 workshop sponsored by the Epidemiology and Genomics Research Program.

  6. Cancer genomics object model: an object model for multiple functional genomics data for cancer research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Yu Rang; Lee, Hye Won; Cho, Sung Bum; Kim, Ju Han

    2007-01-01

    The development of functional genomics including transcriptomics, proteomics and metabolomics allow us to monitor a large number of key cellular pathways simultaneously. Several technology-specific data models have been introduced for the representation of functional genomics experimental data, including the MicroArray Gene Expression-Object Model (MAGE-OM), the Proteomics Experiment Data Repository (PEDRo), and the Tissue MicroArray-Object Model (TMA-OM). Despite the increasing number of cancer studies using multiple functional genomics technologies, there is still no integrated data model for multiple functional genomics experimental and clinical data. We propose an object-oriented data model for cancer genomics research, Cancer Genomics Object Model (CaGe-OM). We reference four data models: Functional Genomic-Object Model, MAGE-OM, TMAOM and PEDRo. The clinical and histopathological information models are created by analyzing cancer management workflow and referencing the College of American Pathology Cancer Protocols and National Cancer Institute Common Data Elements. The CaGe-OM provides a comprehensive data model for integrated storage and analysis of clinical and multiple functional genomics data.

  7. Overcoming the challenges to consumer involvement in cancer research

    OpenAIRE

    Stevens, Tony; Wilde, David; Hunt, John; Ahmedzai, Sam H

    2003-01-01

    Introduction  Within the last decade, there have been many government initiatives to promote consumer involvement in research, especially in cancer. At the same time, the number and influence of consumer groups themselves have expanded. However, the organizational infrastructure necessary to facilitate consumer involvement has not been developed. Consequently, consumer involvement has tended to remain essentially localized and project driven, with no strategic or regional lead.

  8. Harnessing information and communication technologies to leverage scarce resources for cancer education, research and practice in developing countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andela Valentine B

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In developing countries, low levels of awareness, cost and organizational constraints on access to specialized care contribute to inadequate patient help-seeking behavior. As much as 95% of cancer patients in developing countries are diagnosed at late to end stage disease. Consequently, treatment outcome is dismally poor and a vicious cycle sets in, with public mystification of cancer and the admonishment of cancer medicine as a futile effort, all, to the further detriment of patient help-seeking behavior and treatment engagement. The situation spirals down, when the practice of cancer medicine is not gratifying to the medical practitioner and does not appeal as a medical specialty to those in training. The future of cancer medicine in developing countries thus hinges on the demystification of cancer through positive information, coupled to an effective organization that allows for the optimal use of available resources, facilitates access to specialized care and promotes the flow of knowledge and technology amongst various stakeholders. This paper strives to make a cogent argument and highlight the capital importance of information and communication technologies in organizing and leveraging scarce resources for cancer education, research and practice in developing countries.

  9. Support for a special symposium to highlight the research of early career women physical chemists at the 2011 fall ACS nationall meeting, Aug 28-Sept

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geraldine Richmond

    2012-12-19

    The symposium was well attended during the 4-day symposium. The invited speakers were primarily women in early career stage (~4-8 years) with a few senior women and men as invited speakers or session chairs. Included in each day was a Poster Session for graduate students and a lunch in which the turn out was strong and the posters presented encouraged much of dialogue with the invited speakers, guests and others attending the ACS meeting and wanted to discuss the student’s research and meet with the speakers. Most all speakers and participants were very positive about the sessions and expressed that the funding to cover some expenses made it possible for them to attend the conference and the poster session luncheon. There was a total of 51 presenters, below are the speakers and their abstracts, in order presented:

  10. Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cancer Non-Hodgkin lymphoma Ovarian cancer Pancreatic cancer Testicular cancer Thyroid cancer Uterine cancer Symptoms Symptoms of cancer ... tumor Obesity Pancreatic cancer Prostate cancer Stomach cancer Testicular cancer Throat or larynx cancer Thyroid cancer Patient Instructions ...

  11. Highlights from the 14th St Gallen International Breast Cancer Conference 2015 in Vienna: Dealing with classification, prognostication, and prediction refinement to personalize the treatment of patients with early breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, Angela; Criscitiello, Carmen; Curigliano, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    The refinement of the classification, the risk of relapse and the prediction of response to multidisciplinary treatment for early breast cancer has been the major theme of the 14th St Gallen International Breast Cancer Consensus Conference 2015. The meeting, held in Vienna, assembled 3500–4000 participants from 134 countries worldwide. It culminated, on the final day, with the International Consensus Session, delivered by 40–50 of the world’s most experienced opinion leaders in the field of breast cancer treatment. The panelist addressed the “semantic” classification of breast cancer subtypes by pathology-based biomarkers (e.g. estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor and HER2) vs genomic classifiers. They also refined the biomarker prognostication dissecting the impact of the various gene signatures and pathologic variables in predicting the outcome of patients with early breast cancer in terms of early and late relapse. Finally they addressed the challenges stemming from the intra- and inter-observer variability in the assessment of pathologic variables and the role of gene signatures for the prediction of response to specific therapeutic approach such as endocrine therapy and chemotherapy and for personalizing local treatment of patients with early breast cancer. The vast majority of the questions asked during the consensus were about controversial issues. The opinion of the panel members has been used to implement guidance for treatment choice. This is the unique feature of the St. Gallen Consensus, ensuring that the resulting recommendations will take due cognizance of the variable resource limitations in different countries. Information derived from evidence based medicine and large meta-analyses is of obvious and enormous value. The weakness of this approach is that it gives particular weight to older trials (which have accumulated more event endpoints) and is frequently unable to collect sufficient detail on the patients and tumors in the trials

  12. Highlights from the 14(th) St Gallen International Breast Cancer Conference 2015 in Vienna: Dealing with classification, prognostication, and prediction refinement to personalize the treatment of patients with early breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, Angela; Criscitiello, Carmen; Curigliano, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    The refinement of the classification, the risk of relapse and the prediction of response to multidisciplinary treatment for early breast cancer has been the major theme of the 14(th) St Gallen International Breast Cancer Consensus Conference 2015. The meeting, held in Vienna, assembled 3500-4000 participants from 134 countries worldwide. It culminated, on the final day, with the International Consensus Session, delivered by 40-50 of the world's most experienced opinion leaders in the field of breast cancer treatment. The panelist addressed the "semantic" classification of breast cancer subtypes by pathology-based biomarkers (e.g. estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor and HER2) vs genomic classifiers. They also refined the biomarker prognostication dissecting the impact of the various gene signatures and pathologic variables in predicting the outcome of patients with early breast cancer in terms of early and late relapse. Finally they addressed the challenges stemming from the intra- and inter-observer variability in the assessment of pathologic variables and the role of gene signatures for the prediction of response to specific therapeutic approach such as endocrine therapy and chemotherapy and for personalizing local treatment of patients with early breast cancer. The vast majority of the questions asked during the consensus were about controversial issues. The opinion of the panel members has been used to implement guidance for treatment choice. This is the unique feature of the St. Gallen Consensus, ensuring that the resulting recommendations will take due cognizance of the variable resource limitations in different countries. Information derived from evidence based medicine and large meta-analyses is of obvious and enormous value. The weakness of this approach is that it gives particular weight to older trials (which have accumulated more event endpoints) and is frequently unable to collect sufficient detail on the patients and tumors in the trials to allow

  13. HIGHLIGHTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1996-01-01

    HIGHLIGHTS¥//ZhaxiPuncogprayedwhilehisassistantsplacedneedlesintotheflamingstove.Hethenappliedneedlesto30-oddacupointsonthepa...

  14. Consumer input into research: the Australian Cancer Trials website

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Butow Phyllis N

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Australian Cancer Trials website (ACTO was publicly launched in 2010 to help people search for cancer clinical trials recruiting in Australia, provide information about clinical trials and assist with doctor-patient communication about trials. We describe consumer involvement in the design and development of ACTO and report our preliminary patient evaluation of the website. Methods Consumers, led by Cancer Voices NSW, provided the impetus to develop the website. Consumer representative groups were consulted by the research team during the design and development of ACTO which combines a search engine, trial details, general information about trial participation and question prompt lists. Website use was analysed. A patient evaluation questionnaire was completed at one hospital, one week after exposure to the website. Results ACTO's main features and content reflect consumer input. In February 2011, it covered 1, 042 cancer trials. Since ACTO's public launch in November 2010, until the end of February 2011, the website has had 2, 549 new visits and generated 17, 833 page views. In a sub-study of 47 patient users, 89% found the website helpful for learning about clinical trials and all respondents thought patients should have access to ACTO. Conclusions The development of ACTO is an example of consumers working with doctors, researchers and policy makers to improve the information available to people whose lives are affected by cancer and to help them participate in their treatment decisions, including consideration of clinical trial enrolment. Consumer input has ensured that the website is informative, targets consumer priorities and is user-friendly. ACTO serves as a model for other health conditions.

  15. Collaborating to Move Research Forward: Proceedings of the 10th Annual Bladder Cancer Think Tank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamat, Ashish M; Agarwal, Piyush; Bivalacqua, Trinity; Chisolm, Stephanie; Daneshmand, Sia; Doroshow, James H; Efstathiou, Jason A; Galsky, Matthew; Iyer, Gopa; Kassouf, Wassim; Shah, Jay; Taylor, John; Williams, Stephen B; Quale, Diane Zipursky; Rosenberg, Jonathan E

    2016-04-27

    The 10th Annual Bladder Cancer Think Tank was hosted by the Bladder Cancer Advocacy Network and brought together a multidisciplinary group of clinicians, researchers, representatives and Industry to advance bladder cancer research efforts. Think Tank expert panels, group discussions, and networking opportunities helped generate ideas and strengthen collaborations between researchers and physicians across disciplines and between institutions. Interactive panel discussions addressed a variety of timely issues: 1) data sharing, privacy and social media; 2) improving patient navigation through therapy; 3) promising developments in immunotherapy; 4) and moving bladder cancer research from bench to bedside. Lastly, early career researchers presented their bladder cancer studies and had opportunities to network with leading experts.

  16. A systematic review of visual image theory, assessment, and use in skin cancer and tanning research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McWhirter, Jennifer E; Hoffman-Goetz, Laurie

    2014-01-01

    Visual images increase attention, comprehension, and recall of health information and influence health behaviors. Health communication campaigns on skin cancer and tanning often use visual images, but little is known about how such images are selected or evaluated. A systematic review of peer-reviewed, published literature on skin cancer and tanning was conducted to determine (a) what visual communication theories were used, (b) how visual images were evaluated, and (c) how visual images were used in the research studies. Seven databases were searched (PubMed/MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, Sociological Abstracts, Social Sciences Full Text, ERIC, and ABI/INFORM) resulting in 5,330 citations. Of those, 47 met the inclusion criteria. Only one study specifically identified a visual communication theory guiding the research. No standard instruments for assessing visual images were reported. Most studies lacked, to varying degrees, comprehensive image description, image pretesting, full reporting of image source details, adequate explanation of image selection or development, and example images. The results highlight the need for greater theoretical and methodological attention to visual images in health communication research in the future. To this end, the authors propose a working definition of visual health communication.

  17. Active Barrett's Esophagus Translational Research Network Grants | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  18. Supportive and Palliative Care Research Clinical Trials | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  19. Supportive and Palliative Care Research Funding Opportunities | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  20. Stars in Nutrition and Cancer Lecture Series | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    This lecture series features extraordinary contributors or "stars" in the field of cancer and nutrition research. Speakers highlight the important role that nutrition plays in modifying cancer development. Past lectures are videotaped and available for viewing. |

  1. Cancer Research Participation Beliefs and Behaviors of a Southern Black Population: A Quantitative Analysis of the Role of Structural Factors in Cancer Research Participation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farr, Deeonna E; Brandt, Heather M; Comer, Kimberly D; Jackson, Dawnyéa D; Pandya, Kinjal; Friedman, Daniela B; Ureda, John R; Williams, Deloris G; Scott, Dolores B; Green, Wanda; Hébert, James R

    2015-09-01

    Increasing the participation of Blacks in cancer research is a vital component of a strategy to reduce racial inequities in cancer burden. Community-based participatory research (CBPR) is especially well-suited to advancing our knowledge of factors that influence research participation to ultimately address cancer-related health inequities. A paucity of literature focuses on the role of structural factors limiting participation in cancer research. As part of a larger CBPR project, we used survey data from a statewide cancer needs assessment of a Black faith community to examine the influence of structural factors on attitudes toward research and the contributions of both structural and attitudinal factors on whether individuals participate in research. Regression analyses and non-parametric statistics were conducted on data from 727 adult survey respondents. Structural factors, such as having health insurance coverage, experiencing discrimination during health care encounters, and locale, predicted belief in the benefits, but not the risks, of research participation. Positive attitudes toward research predicted intention to participate in cancer research. Significant differences in structural and attitudinal factors were found between cancer research participants and non-participants; however, directionality is confounded by the cross-sectional survey design and causality cannot be determined. This study points to complex interplay of structural and attitudinal factors on research participation as well as need for additional quantitative examinations of the various types of factors that influence research participation in Black communities.

  2. What's New in Stomach Cancer Research and Treatment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the body’s immune system fight the cancer. A Korean study showed that combining chemotherapy with an immunotherapy ... Cancer Atlas Press Room Cancer Statistics Center Volunteer Learning Center Follow Us Twitter Facebook Instagram Cancer Information, ...

  3. Lower Breast Cancer Risk among Women following the World Cancer Research Fund and American Institute for Cancer Research Lifestyle Recommendations: EpiGEICAM Case-Control Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adela Castelló

    Full Text Available According to the "World Cancer Research Fund" and the "American Institute of Cancer Research" (WCRF/AICR one in four cancer cases could be prevented through a healthy diet, weight control and physical activity.To explore the association between the WCRF/AICR recommendations and risk of breast cancer.During the period 2006 to 2011 we recruited 973 incident cases of breast cancer and 973 controls from 17 Spanish Regions. We constructed a score based on 9 of the WCRF/AICR recommendations for cancer prevention:: 1Maintain adequate body weight; 2Be physically active; 3Limit the intake of high density foods; 4Eat mostly plant foods; 5Limit the intake of animal foods; 6Limit alcohol intake; 7Limit salt and salt preserved food intake; 8Meet nutritional needs through diet; S1Breastfeed infants exclusively up to 6 months. We explored its association with BC by menopausal status and by intrinsic tumor subtypes (ER+/PR+ & HER2-; HER2+; ER&PR-&HER2- using conditional and multinomial logistic models respectively.Our results point to a linear association between the degree of noncompliance and breast cancer risk. Taking women who met 6 or more recommendations as reference, those meeting less than 3 showed a three-fold excess risk (OR=2.98(CI95%:1.59-5.59, especially for postmenopausal women (OR=3.60(CI95%:1.24;10.47 and ER+/PR+&HER2- (OR=3.60(CI95%:1.84;7.05 and HER2+ (OR=4.23(CI95%:1.66;10.78 tumors. Noncompliance of recommendations regarding the consumption of foods and drinks that promote weight gain in premenopausal women (OR=2.24(CI95%:1.18;4.28; p for interaction=0.014 and triple negative tumors (OR=2.93(CI95%:1.12-7.63; the intake of plant foods in postmenopausal women (OR=2.35(CI95%:1.24;4.44 and triple negative tumors (OR=3.48(CI95%:1.46-8.31; and the alcohol consumption in ER+/PR+&HER2- tumors (OR=1.52 (CI95%:1.06-2.19 showed the strongest associations.Breast cancer prevention might be possible by following the "World Cancer Research Fund" and the

  4. Building capacity for clinical research in developing countries: the INDOX Cancer Research Network experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Raghib; Finlayson, Alexander; Indox Cancer Research Network

    2012-01-01

    Transnational Organisations increasingly prioritise the need to support local research capacity in low and middle income countries in order that local priorities are addressed with due consideration of contextual issues. There remains limited evidence on the best way in which this should be done or the ways in which external agencies can support this process.We present an analysis of the learning from the INDOX Research Network, established in 2005 as a partnership between the Institute of Cancer Medicine at the University of Oxford and India's top nine comprehensive cancer centres. INDOX aims to enable Indian centres to conduct clinical research to the highest international standards; to ensure that trials are developed to address the specific needs of Indian patients by involving Indian investigators from the outset; and to provide the training to enable them to design and conduct their own studies. We report on the implementation, outputs and challenges of simultaneously trying to build capacity and deliver meaningful research output.

  5. A New Phase in Cancer Research at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    The first meeting of the ENLIGHT network, set up to co-ordinate the development of light ion cancer therapy projects in Europe, took place at CERN last week. This is a form of therapy ideally suited to the treatment of deep-seated tumours and those near critical organs. Hans Hoffmann, Director for Technology transfer and scientific computing, and Director General Luciano Maiani during the opening of the first meeting of the ENLIGHT network that was held at CERN last week. The fruit of several years of work, this meeting offers new hope for the treatment of certain types of cancer. Around 70 specialists, including radiotherapists, oncologists, physicists and engineers, got together at CERN for the first meeting of a European cancer therapy research network named ENLIGHT (European Network for research in LIGHt ion Therapy(1)). This initiative, headed by oncologists and funded by the European Commission, aims to promote the development of light ion (hadron) therapy projects. The choice of CERN as a venue for ...

  6. Integration of Translational Research in the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Research (EORTC) Clinical Trial Cooperative Group Mechanisms.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F. Lehmann (Frederick); D. Lacombe (Denis); A.M.M. Eggermont (Alexander)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractThe landscape for cancer research is profoundly different today from that only one decade ago. Basic science is moving rapidly and biotechnological revolutions in molecular targeting and immunology have completely modified the opportunities and concepts for cancer treat

  7. Recent progress in 8igenomic research of liver cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Along the course of occurrence and development of liver cancer,the corresponding somatic cells accumulate some important genetic variations.These variations may be divided into two categories.For the genetic changes closely related to etiology of liver cancer,the well-known cases include insertion and integration of the hepatitis B virus(HBV) DNA after infection,and mutations at site 249 of the tumor suppressor gene p53 induced by exposure to aflatoxin B1.The secondary genetic changes include amplification and deletion of certain chromosome regions,mutations in p53 at the sites other than 249,as well as the mutational activation of the Wnt/β-catenin signal pathway.The tumor cells with these genetic variations may gradually become the dominant clones under evolutionary selection.Besides,identification of genetic susceptible against risk of liver malignancy is also an important aspect of research in this field.

  8. Recent progress in 8igenomic research of liver cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAN ZeGuang

    2009-01-01

    Along the course of occurrence and development of liver cancer, the corresponding somatic cells ac-cumulate some important genetic variations. These variations may be divided into two categories. For the genetic changes closely related to etiology of liver cancer, the well-known cases include insertion and integration of the hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA after infection, and mutations at site 249 of the tumor suppressor gene p53 induced by exposure to aflatoxin B1. The secondary genetic changes include amplification and deletion of certain chromosome regions, mutations in p53 at the sites other than 249, as well as the mutational activation of the Wnt/β-catenin signal pathway. The tumor cells with these genetic variations may gradually become the dominant clones under evolutionary selection. Besides, identification of genetic susceptible against risk of liver malignancy is also an important aspect of re-search in this field.

  9. Research Progress of Lung Cancer with Leptomeningeal Metastasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunhua MA

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Leptomeningeal metastases is one of the most serious complications of lung cancer, the patients with poor prognosis. Leptomeningeal metastasis in patients with lack specificity of clinical manifestations. The main clinical performance are the damage of cerebral symptoms, cranial nerve and spinal nerve. The diagnosis primarily based on the history of tumor, clinical symptoms, enhance magnetic resnance image (MRI scan and cerebrospinal fluid cytology. In recent years, new ways of detecting clinically, significantly increase the rate of early detection of leptomeningeal metastases. The effect of comprehensive treatments are still sad. The paper make a review of research progress in pathologic physiology, clinical manifestations, diagnosis methods and treatments of lung cancer with leptomeningeal metastases.

  10. Research highlights of partial neuromuscular disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng ZHANG

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to understand the latest progression on neuromuscular disorders for clinicians, this review screened and systemized the papers on neuromuscular disorders which were collected by PubMed from January 2013 to February 2014. This review also introduced the clinical diagnosis and treatment hightlights on glycogen storage disease type Ⅱ (GSD Ⅱ, Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS and spinal muscular atrophy (SMA. The important references will be useful for clinicians. doi: 10.3969/j.issn.1672-6731.2014.05.004

  11. Molecular cytogenetic characterization of canine histiocytic sarcoma: A spontaneous model for human histiocytic cancer identifies deletion of tumor suppressor genes and highlights influence of genetic background on tumor behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abadie Jerome

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Histiocytic malignancies in both humans and dogs are rare and poorly understood. While canine histiocytic sarcoma (HS is uncommon in the general domestic dog population, there is a strikingly high incidence in a subset of breeds, suggesting heritable predisposition. Molecular cytogenetic profiling of canine HS in these breeds would serve to reveal recurrent DNA copy number aberrations (CNAs that are breed and/or tumor associated, as well as defining those shared with human HS. This process would identify evolutionarily conserved cytogenetic changes to highlight regions of particular importance to HS biology. Methods Using genome wide array comparative genomic hybridization we assessed CNAs in 104 spontaneously occurring HS from two breeds of dog exhibiting a particularly elevated incidence of this tumor, the Bernese Mountain Dog and Flat-Coated Retriever. Recurrent CNAs were evaluated further by multicolor fluorescence in situ hybridization and loss of heterozygosity analyses. Statistical analyses were performed to identify CNAs associated with tumor location and breed. Results Almost all recurrent CNAs identified in this study were shared between the two breeds, suggesting that they are associated more with the cancer phenotype than with breed. A subset of recurrent genomic imbalances suggested involvement of known cancer associated genes in HS pathogenesis, including deletions of the tumor suppressor genes CDKN2A/B, RB1 and PTEN. A small number of aberrations were unique to each breed, implying that they may contribute to the major differences in tumor location evident in these two breeds. The most highly recurrent canine CNAs revealed in this study are evolutionarily conserved with those reported in human histiocytic proliferations, suggesting that human and dog HS share a conserved pathogenesis. Conclusions The breed associated clinical features and DNA copy number aberrations exhibited by canine HS offer a valuable model

  12. Cancer vaccines: the perspective of the Cancer Immunology Branch, NCI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sogn, J A; Finerty, J F; Heath, A K; Shen, G L; Austin, F C

    1993-08-12

    The Cancer Immunology Branch, NCI, is supporting a great deal of exciting research relevant to cancer vaccine development. The few areas highlighted here are representative of ongoing research opportunities, but further progress depends largely on a continued infusion of investigator-initiated ideas to realize the potential of current research areas and open new ones.

  13. Adherence to the World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute for Cancer Research guidelines and risk of death in Europe : results from the European Prospective Investigation into Nutrition and Cancer cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vergnaud, Anne-Claire; Romaguera, Dora; Peeters, Petra H.; van Gils, Carla H.; Chan, Doris S. M.; Romieu, Isabelle; Freisling, Heinz; Ferrari, Pietro; Clavel-Chapelon, Francoise; Fagherazzi, Guy; Dartois, Laureen; Li, Kuanrong; Tikk, Kaja; Bergmann, Manuela M.; Boeing, Heiner; Tjonneland, Anne; Olsen, Anja; Overvad, Kim; Dahm, Christina C.; Luisa Redondo, Maria; Agudo, Antonio; Sanchez, Maria-Jose; Amiano, Pilar; Chirlaque, Maria-Dolores; Ardanaz, Eva; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nick J.; Crowe, Francesca; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Orfanos, Philippos; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Masala, Giovanna; Sieri, Sabina; Tumino, Rosario; Vineis, Paolo; Panico, Salvatore; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. Bas; Ros, Martine M.; May, Anne; Wirfalt, Elisabet; Sonestedt, Emily; Johansson, Ingegerd; Hallmans, Goeran; Lund, Eiliv; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Parr, Christine L.; Riboli, Elio; Norat, Teresa

    2013-01-01

    Background: In 2007, the World Cancer Research Fund (WCRF) and the American Institute for Cancer Research (AICR) issued recommendations on diet, physical activity, and weight management for cancer prevention on the basis of the most comprehensive collection of available evidence. Objective: We inves

  14. Adherence to the World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute for Cancer Research guidelines and risk of death in Europe: results from the European Prospective Investigation into Nutrition and Cancer cohort study1,4

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vergnaud, A.C.; Romaguera, D.; Peeters, P.H.M.; Gils, C.H. van; Chan, D.S.; Romieu, I.; Freisling, H.; Ferrari, P.; Clavel-Chapelon, F.; Fagherazzi, G.; Dartois, L.; Li, K.; Tikk, K.; Bergmann, M.M.; Boeing, H.; Tjonneland, A.; Olsen, A.; Overvad, K.; Dahm, C.C.; Redondo, M.L.; Agudo, A.; Sanchez, M.J.; Amiano, P.; Chirlaque, M.D.; Ardanaz, E.; Khaw, K.T.; Wareham, N.J.; Crowe, F.; Trichopoulou, A.; Orfanos, P.; Trichopoulos, D.; Masala, G.; Sieri, S.; Tumino, R.; Vineis, P.; Panico, S.; Bueno-De-Mesquita, H.B.; Ros, M.M.; May, A.; Wirfalt, E.; Sonestedt, E.; Johansson, I.; Hallmans, G.; Lund, E.; Weiderpass, E.; Parr, C.L.; Riboli, E.; Norat, T.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In 2007, the World Cancer Research Fund (WCRF) and the American Institute for Cancer Research (AICR) issued recommendations on diet, physical activity, and weight management for cancer prevention on the basis of the most comprehensive collection of available evidence. OBJECTIVE: We inves

  15. Differential Regulatory Analysis Based on Coexpression Network in Cancer Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junyi Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available With rapid development of high-throughput techniques and accumulation of big transcriptomic data, plenty of computational methods and algorithms such as differential analysis and network analysis have been proposed to explore genome-wide gene expression characteristics. These efforts are aiming to transform underlying genomic information into valuable knowledges in biological and medical research fields. Recently, tremendous integrative research methods are dedicated to interpret the development and progress of neoplastic diseases, whereas differential regulatory analysis (DRA based on gene coexpression network (GCN increasingly plays a robust complement to regular differential expression analysis in revealing regulatory functions of cancer related genes such as evading growth suppressors and resisting cell death. Differential regulatory analysis based on GCN is prospective and shows its essential role in discovering the system properties of carcinogenesis features. Here we briefly review the paradigm of differential regulatory analysis based on GCN. We also focus on the applications of differential regulatory analysis based on GCN in cancer research and point out that DRA is necessary and extraordinary to reveal underlying molecular mechanism in large-scale carcinogenesis studies.

  16. Multi-modality molecular imaging for gastric cancer research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Jimin; Chen, Xueli; Liu, Junting; Hu, Hao; Qu, Xiaochao; Wang, Fu; Nie, Yongzhan

    2011-12-01

    Because of the ability of integrating the strengths of different modalities and providing fully integrated information, multi-modality molecular imaging techniques provide an excellent solution to detecting and diagnosing earlier cancer, which remains difficult to achieve by using the existing techniques. In this paper, we present an overview of our research efforts on the development of the optical imaging-centric multi-modality molecular imaging platform, including the development of the imaging system, reconstruction algorithms and preclinical biomedical applications. Primary biomedical results show that the developed optical imaging-centric multi-modality molecular imaging platform may provide great potential in the preclinical biomedical applications and future clinical translation.

  17. Cancer research in Brazil - stuck in second gear?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.P. Lepique

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the main issues regarding clinical cancer research in Brazil, including both the opportunities and the hurdles. Scientists and clinicians in this field had the opportunity to talk to regulatory agencies and to the Health Ministry representative at a meeting held in the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, in April 2014. Our conclusions are that we do indeed have opportunities; however, we need to move forward regarding partnerships between academia and industry, increase the availability of funding, and provide easier navigation through the regulatory processes.

  18. Barrett's Esophagus Translational Research Network (BETRNet) | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The goal of BETRNet is to reduce the incidence, morbidity, and mortality of esophageal adenocarcinoma by answering key questions related to the progression of the disease, especially in the premalignant stage. In partnership with NCI’s Division of Cancer Biology, multidisciplinary translational research centers collaborate to better understand the biology of Barrett's esophagus and esophageal adenocarcinoma to improve risk stratification and develop prevention strategies.  | Multi-disciplinary, multi-institutional collaboration to enhance understanding of Barrett's esophagus and to prevent esophageal adenocarcinoma.

  19. Impact of biospecimens handling on biomarker research in breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Callari Maurizio

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gene expression profiling is moving from the research setting to the practical clinical use. Gene signatures able to correctly identify high risk breast cancer patients as well as to predict response to treatment are currently under intense investigation. While technical issues dealing with RNA preparation, choice of array platforms, statistical analytical tools are taken into account, the tissue collection process is seldom considered. The time elapsed between surgical tissue removal and freezing of samples for biological characterizations is rarely well defined and/or recorded even for recently stored samples, despite the publications of standard operating procedures for biological sample collection for tissue banks. Methods Breast cancer samples from 11 patients were collected immediately after surgical removal and subdivided into aliquots. One was immediately frozen and the others were maintained at room temperature for respectively 2, 6 and 24 hrs. RNA was extracted and gene expression profile was determined using cDNA arrays. Phosphoprotein profiles were studied in parallel. Results Delayed freezing affected the RNA quality only in 3 samples, which were not subjected to gene profiling. In the 8 breast cancer cases with apparently intact RNA also in sample aliquots frozen at delayed times, 461 genes were modulated simply as a function of freezing timing. Some of these genes were included in gene signatures biologically and clinically relevant for breast cancer. Delayed freezing also affected detection of phosphoproteins, whose pattern may be crucial for clinical decision on target-directed drugs. Conclusion Time elapsed between surgery and freezing of samples appears to have a strong impact and should be considered as a mandatory variable to control for clinical implications of inadequate tissue handling.

  20. Highlighting Impact and the Impact of Highlighting: PRB Editors' Suggestions

    CERN Document Server

    Antonoyiannakis, Manolis

    2016-01-01

    Associate Editor Manolis Antonoyiannakis discusses the highlighting, as Editors' Suggestions, of a small percentage of the papers published each week. We highlight papers primarily for their importance and impact in their respective fields, or because we find them particularly interesting or elegant. It turns out that the additional layer of scrutiny involved in the selection of papers as Editors' Suggestions is associated with a significantly elevated and sustained citation impact.

  1. Research on Immunotherapy: Using the Immune System to Treat Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cells that suppress immune responses. These advances in cancer immunotherapy are the result of long-term investments in ... Engineering Patients’ Immune Cells to Treat Their Cancers Cancer immunotherapy in children: How does it differ from approaches ...

  2. Implementation of tissue microarrays technique for cancer research in Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tania Lahera-Sánchez

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The tissue microarray (TMA technique is based on making cylindrical cores from paraffin donor blocks and transfer to a single recipient block. The TMA has revolutionized the field of pathology for the possibility to evaluate multiple samples in one slide. There is no precedent of this subject in Cuba, so the objective of this research was to implement the TMA technique. The concordance of the results obtained by complete section and the TMA were evaluated for this purpose, in the evaluation of the estrogen receptors (ER, progesterone (PR and epidermal growth factor type 2 (HER2 in samples of breast cancer. Forty-five paraffin-embedded samples from women diagnosed with breast cancer at the Institute of Oncology in 2012 were studied. Two TMA blocks were constructed, and subsequently the expression of markers ER, PR and HER2 was determined by immunohistochemistry, in the complete section of tissue and in the TMA. Kappa index was used for concordance analysis. A good concordance was obtained for all three markers (ER k=0.8272; PR k=0.793 and HER2 k=0.716. This study constitutes the first report on the TMA technique in Cuba and shows that it is a valuable tool, suggesting its potential use in translational research and clinical trials on vaccines.

  3. Stem cell research: paths to cancer therapies and regenerative medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weissman, Irving

    2005-09-21

    Most tissues in complex metazoans contain a rare subset of cells that, at the single-cell level, can self-renew and also give rise to mature daughter cells. Such stem cells likely in development build tissues and are retained in adult life to regenerate them. Cancers and leukemias are apparently not an exception: rare leukemia stem cells and cancer stem cells have been isolated that contain all of the tumorigenicity of the whole tumor, and it is their properties that will guide future therapies. None of this was apparent just 20 years ago, yet this kind of stem cell thinking already provides new perspectives in medical science and could usher in new therapies. Today, political, religious, and ethical issues surround embryonic stem cell and patient-specific pluripotent stem cell research and are center stage in the attempts by governments to ban these fields for discovery and potential therapies. These interventions require physicians and physician-scientists to determine for themselves whether patient welfare or personal ethics will dominate in their practices, and whether all aspects of stem cell research can be pursued in a safe and regulated fashion.

  4. Public involvement in breast cancer research: an analysis and model for future research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormick, Sabrina; Brody, Julia; Brown, Phil; Polk, Ruth

    2004-01-01

    Public involvement in health program planning has been taking place for many years, and has provided a precedent for the emergence of public involvement in research conducted since the early 1990s. Such involvement is now widely seen in breast cancer research, due to the large public concern and major social movement activity. This article reviews current practices and general models of public involvement in research and constructs a prototype. The authors interviewed researchers, program officers, and laypeople in order to understand the obstacles, processes, and benefits. They conclude that public involvement has major ramifications for the democratization of science and the construction of knowledge by teaching lay people about science and sensitizing researchers to concerns of the public. There is growing support on the part of scientists and government agents for public involvement.

  5. Translational Research in Oncology Research & Development and Its Impact on Early Development in China: report of the 5th Annual Meeting of the US Chinese Anti-Cancer Association (USCACA) at 2013 AACR Annual Meeting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lingjie Guan; Yun Dai; Roger Luo

    2013-01-01

    In April 2013,the US Chinese Anti-Cancer Association (USCACA) held its 5th annual meeting in conjunction with the American Association for Cancer Research (AACR) 2013 Annual Meeting in Washington DC.The USCACA executive committee reported activities and programs and highlighted the partnership and collaboration between USCACA and other major organizations.The key initiatives and programs of USCACA included 1) USCACA-TIGM Esophageal Cancer Program that funds translational research of esophageal cancer prevention and treatment at the Xinxiang Medical University in Henan province,China; 2) the USCACA-NFCR-AFCR Scholarship Program,which has supported 10 young outstanding Chinese cancer researchers and will award 4 fellowships at the Guangzhou International Symposium on Oncology in November this year; 3) USCACA-Hengrui Training Program for Early Phase Clinical Research,which has supported the training of a Chinese scholar at two major cancer centers in the US; and 4) USCACA has continued its partnership with the Chinese Journal of Cancer,which has reached significant international impact.

  6. The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) evaluation of the carcinogenicity of outdoor air pollution: focus on China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loomis, Dana; Huang, Wei; Chen, Guosheng

    2014-04-01

    The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) has classified outdoor air pollution and the particulate matter (PM) in outdoor air pollution as carcinogenic to humans, as based on sufficient evidence of carcinogenicity in humans and experimental animals and strong support by mechanistic studies. The data with important contributions to the evaluation are reviewed, highlighting the data with particular relevance to China, and implications of the evaluation with respect to China are discussed. The air pollution levels in Chinese cities are among the highest observed in the world today and frequently exceed health-based national and international guidelines. Data from high-quality epidemiologic studies in Asia, Europe, and North America consistently show positive associations between lung cancer and PM exposure and other indicators of air pollution, which persist after adjustment for important lung cancer risk factors, such as tobacco smoking. Epidemiologic data from China are limited but nevertheless indicate an increased risk of lung cancer associated with several air pollutants. Excess cancer risk is also observed in experimental animals exposed to polluted outdoor air or extracted PM. The exposure of several species to outdoor air pollution is associated with markers of genetic damage that have been linked to increased cancer risk in humans. Numerous studies from China, especially genetic biomarker studies in exposed populations, support that the polluted air in China is genotoxic and carcinogenic to humans. The evaluation by IARC indicates both the need for further research into the cancer risks associated with exposure to air pollution in China and the urgent need to act to reduce exposure to the population.

  7. The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) evaluation of the carcinogenicity of outdoor air pollution:focus on China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dana Loomis; Wei Huang; Guosheng Chen

    2014-01-01

    The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) has classified outdoor air pol ution and the particulate matter (PM) in outdoor air pol ution as carcinogenic to humans, as based on sufficient evidence of carcinogenicity in humans and experimental animals and strong support by mechanistic studies. The data with important contributions to the evaluation are reviewed, highlighting the data with particular relevance to China, and implications of the evaluation with respect to China are discussed. The air pol ution levels in Chinese cities are among the highest observed in the world today and frequently exceed health-based national and international guidelines. Data from high-quality epidemiologic studies in Asia, Europe, and North America consistently show positive associations between lung cancer and PM exposure and other indicators of air pol ution, which persist after adjustment for important lung cancer risk factors, such as tobacco smoking. Epidemiologic data from China are limited but nevertheless indicate an increased risk of lung cancer associated with several air pol utants. Excess cancer risk is also observed in experimental animals exposed to pol uted outdoor air or extracted PM. The exposure of several species to outdoor air pollution is associated with markers of genetic damage that have been linked to increased cancer risk in humans. Numerous studies from China, especially genetic biomarker studies in exposed populations, support that the polluted air in China is genotoxic and carcinogenic to humans. The evaluation by IARC indicates both the need for further research into the cancer risks associated with exposure to air pol ution in China and the urgent need to act to reduce exposure to the population.

  8. Assessing tobacco use by cancer patients and facilitating cessation: an American Association for Cancer Research policy statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toll, Benjamin A; Brandon, Thomas H; Gritz, Ellen R; Warren, Graham W; Herbst, Roy S

    2013-04-15

    When diagnosed with cancer, patients can immediately make a meaningful positive impact on their health by stopping their tobacco use. Scientific evidence clearly shows that tobacco use in patients with cancer leads to poorer outcomes. The specific biological processes driving tobacco consumption's interference in cancer therapy are the subject of continuing research, but the evidence is clear that tobacco use in patients with cancer leads to decreased treatment efficacy and safety, decreased survival, decreased quality of life, increased treatment-related toxicity, and increased risk of cancer recurrence and second primary tumors. Data suggest that tobacco cessation can improve outcomes and survival in patients with cancer, yet full execution of evidence-based cessation interventions is infrequent in oncology settings. Therefore, both improved provision of cessation assistance to all patients with cancer who use tobacco or have recently quit and further study of the deleterious effects of tobacco use and benefits of tobacco cessation on cancer progression and treatment are needed and recommended by the American Association for Cancer Research. Progress on both fronts begins with universal assessment and documentation of tobacco use as a standard of quality cancer care regardless of treatment setting and will be further facilitated through the development of reliable, valid, and standard measures of tobacco use, incorporation of evidence-based procedures into quality and accreditation procedures, and the development of appropriate training, clinical infrastructure, and incentives for delivery of tobacco cessation interventions.

  9. False "highlighting" with Wood's lamp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverberg, Jonathan I; Silverberg, Nanette B

    2014-01-01

    Wood's lamp evaluation is used to diagnose pigmentary disorders. For example, vitiligo typically demonstrates lesional enhancement under Wood's lamp evaluation. Numerous false positive enhancing lesions can be noted in the skin. We describe a 5-year-old Hispanic boy who had painted his face with highlighter, producing enhancing lesions under Wood's lamp. Physicians who use Wood's lamp should be aware that the appearance of markers and highlighter can mimic that of true clinical illnesses.

  10. Redes En Acción. Increasing Hispanic participation in cancer research, training, and awareness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, Amelie G; Talavera, Gregory A; Marti, Jose; Penedo, Frank J; Medrano, Martha A; Giachello, Aida L; Pérez-Stable, Eliseo J

    2006-10-15

    Hispanics are affected by many health care disparities. The National Cancer Institute (NCI), through its Special Populations Branch, is supporting networking and capacity-building activities designed to increase Hispanic participation and leadership in cancer research. Redes En Acción established a national network of cancer research centers, community-based organizations, and federal partners to facilitate opportunities for junior Hispanic scientists to participate in training and research projects on cancer control. Since 2000, Redes En Acción has established a network of more than 1800 Hispanic leaders involved in cancer research and education. The project has sustained 131 training positions and submitted 29 pilot projects to NCI for review, with 16 awards for a total of $800,000, plus an additional $8.8 million in competing grant funding based on pilot study results to date. Independent research has leveraged an additional $32 million in non-Redes funding, and together the national and regional network sites have participated in more than 1400 community and professional awareness events. In addition, the program conducted extensive national survey research that provided the basis for the Redes En Acción Latino Cancer Report, a national agenda on Hispanic cancer issues. Redes En Acción has increased participation in cancer control research, training, and awareness among Hispanic scientists and within Hispanic communities. Cancer 2006. (c) 2006 American Cancer Society.

  11. ADVANTAGES AND APPLICATIONS OF TISSUE MICROARRAY TECHNOLOGY ON CANCER RESEARCH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张喜平; 苏丹; 程琪辉

    2003-01-01

    S To provide evidences for exploiting tissue microarray (TMA) technology, we reviewed advantages and applications of TMA on tumor research. TMA has many advantages, including (1) section from TMA blocks can be utilized for the simultaneous analysis of up to 1,000 different tumors at DNA, RNA or protein level; (2) TMA is highly representative of their donor tissues; (3) TMA can improve conservation of tissue resources and experimental reagents, improve internal experimental control, and increase sample numbers per experiment, and can be used for large-scale, massively parallel in situ analysis; (4) TMA facilitates rapid translation of molecular discoveries to clinical applications. TMA has been applied to tumor research, such as glioma, breast tumor, lung cancer and so on. The development of novel biochip technologies has opened up new possibilities for the high-throughput molecular profiling of human tumors. Novel molecular markers emerging from high-throughput expression surveys could be analyzed on tumor TMA. It is anticipated that TMA, a new member of biochip, will soon become a widely used tool for all types of tissue-based research. TMA will lead to a significant acceleration of the transition of basic research findings into clinical applications.

  12. Multidisciplinary Meeting on Male Breast Cancer : Summary and Research Recommendations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korde, Larissa A.; Zujewski, Jo Anne; Kamin, Leah; Giordano, Sharon; Domchek, Susan; Anderson, William F.; Bartlett, John M. S.; Gelmon, Karen; Nahleh, Zeina; Bergh, Jonas; Cutuli, Bruno; Pruneri, Giancarlo; McCaskill-Stevens, Worta; Gralow, Julie; Hortobagyi, Gabriel; Cardoso, Fatima

    2010-01-01

    Male breast cancer is a rare disease, accounting for less than 1% of all breast cancer diagnoses worldwide. Most data on male breast cancer comes from small single-institution studies, and because of the paucity of data, the optimal treatment for male breast cancer is not known. This article summari

  13. Cancer patient and survivor research from the cancer information service research consortium: a preview of three large randomized trials and initial lessons learned.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcus, Alfred C; Diefenbach, Michael A; Stanton, Annette L; Miller, Suzanne M; Fleisher, Linda; Raich, Peter C; Morra, Marion E; Perocchia, Rosemarie Slevin; Tran, Zung Vu; Bright, Mary Anne

    2013-01-01

    The authors describe 3 large randomized trials from the Cancer Information Service Research Consortium. Three web-based multimedia programs are being tested to help newly diagnosed prostate (Project 1) and breast cancer patients (Project 2) make informed treatment decisions and breast cancer patients prepare for life after treatment (Project 3). Project 3 also tests a telephone callback intervention delivered by a cancer information specialist. All participants receive standard print material specific to each project. Preliminary results from the 2-month follow-up interviews are reported for the initial wave of enrolled participants, most of whom were recruited from the Cancer Information Service (1-800-4-CANCER) telephone information program (Project 1: n =208; Project 2: n =340; Project 3: n =792). Self-reported use of the multimedia program was 51%, 52%, and 67% for Projects 1, 2, and 3, respectively. Self-reported use of the print materials (read all, most, or some) was 90%, 85%, and 83% for Projects 1, 2, and 3, respectively. The callback intervention was completed by 92% of Project 3 participants. Among those using the Cancer Information Service Research Consortium interventions, perceived usefulness and benefit was high, and more than 90% reported that they would recommend them to other cancer patients. The authors present 5 initial lessons learned that may help inform future cancer communications research.

  14. Brookhaven highlights - Brookhaven National Laboratory 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-09-01

    This report highlights research conducted at Brookhaven National Laboratory in the following areas: alternating gradient synchrotron; physics; biology; national synchrotron light source; department of applied science; medical; chemistry; department of advanced technology; reactor; safety and environmental protection; instrumentation; and computing and communications.

  15. Brookhaven highlights, October 1979-September 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-01-01

    Highlights are given for the research areas of the Brookhaven National Laboratory. These areas include high energy physics, physics and chemistry, life sciences, applied energy science (energy and environment, and nuclear energy), and support activities (including mathematics, instrumentation, reactors, and safety). (GHT)

  16. Research on Fast Track Surgery Application in Lung Cancer Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaiyun YANG

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective Fast track surgery (FTS is a systematical method to accelerate the recovery of surgical patients by reducing the physical and mental trauma stress of them. The research is to investigate the feasibility of FTS application in lung cancer surgery. Methods A total of 80 cases of lung cancer patients with single leaf lobotomy resection were randomized into two groups. While the experimental group was treated with the conception of FTS, and the control group was treated with the traditional methods. The incident rate of post-operation pain degrees, telecasts, pleural effusion, the post-operation time stay in hospital time and the total cost during hospitalization in two groups were compared respectively. Results In FTS group: the VAS score of post-operation pain at 1 h, 6 h, 12 h, 24 h and 48 h all significantly decreased compared to the traditional therapy group. The incidence rate of telecast was 10.53%. The incidence rate of pleural effusion was 26.31%. The length of stay after operation was (4±1 d and the total cost was RMB 15 600±7 600. In the control group, the above values were 77.78%, 33.33%, 22.22%, (9±1 d, RMB 23 600±5 400, respectively. The post operation pain (VAS method of FTS group was remarkablely below the control group. There has significant difference of the incident rate of telecasts, stay time in hospital and the total cast in two groups (P < 0.05. No significant difference was observed in the incident rate of pleural effusion. Conclusion The new methods of FTS can apparently accelerates recovery after lung cancer resection, reduces complications, shorten timestay in hospital and cut down the total cost.

  17. Growth Analysis of Cancer Biology Research, 2000-2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keshava,

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Methods and Material: The PubMed database was used for retrieving data on 'cancer biology.' Articles were downloaded from the years 2000 to 2011. The articles were classified chronologically and transferred to a spreadsheet application for analysis of the data as per the objectives of the study. Statistical Method: To investigate the nature of growth of articles via exponential, linear, and logistics tests. Result: The year wise analysis of the growth of articles output shows that for the years 2000 to 2005 and later there is a sudden increase in output, during the years 2006 to 2007 and 2008 to 2011. The high productivity of articles during these years may be due to their significance in cancer biology literature, having received prominence in research. Conclusion: There is an obvious need for better compilations of statistics on numbers of publications in the years from 2000 to 2011 on various disciplines on a worldwide scale, for informed critical assessments of the amount of new knowledge contributed by these publications, and for enhancements and refinements of present Scientometric techniques (citation and publication counts, so that valid measures of knowledge growth may be obtained. Only then will Scientometrics be able to provide accurate, useful descriptions and predictions of knowledge growth.

  18. Research progress in the treatment of small cell lung cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Yan-fang; Liu, Zhi-gang; Yang, Wen-juan; Zhao, Yu; Tang, Jiao; Tang, Wei-zhi; Jin, Yi; Li, Fang; Zhong, Rui; Wang, Hui

    2017-01-01

    Small cell lung cancer (SCLC) accounts for approximately 10-15% of all lung cancers. No significant improvement has been made for patients with SCLC in the past several decades. The main progresses were the thoracic radiation and prophylactic cranial irradiation (PCI) that improved the patient survival rate. For patients with limited disease and good performance status (PS), concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT) followed by PCI should be considered. For extensive disease, the combination of etoposide and platinum-based chemotherapy remains the standard treatment and consolidative thoracic radiotherapy is beneficial for patients who have a significant respond to initial chemotherapy. However, the prognosis still remains poor. Recently, efforts have been focused on molecular targets and immunotherapy. But numerous molecular targets methods have failed to show a significant clinical benefit in patients with SCLC. It is anticipated that further development of research will depend on the on-going trials for molecular targeted therapy and immunotherapy which are promising and may improve the outcomes for SCLC in the next decade.

  19. Stakeholder engagement for comparative effectiveness research in cancer care: experience of the DEcIDE Cancer Consortium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, Caprice C; Wind, Jennifer K; Chang, George J; Chen, Ronald C; Schrag, Deborah

    2013-03-01

    Stakeholder input is a critical component of comparative effectiveness research. To ensure that the research activities of the Developing Evidence to Inform Decisions about Effectiveness (DEcIDE) Network, supported by the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, translate into the greatest impact for everyday practice and policy-making in cancer, we were tasked with soliciting stakeholder input regarding priority areas in cancer-related comparative effectiveness research for the DEcIDE Cancer Consortium. Given the increasing emphasis on stakeholder engagement in research, many investigators are facing a similar task, yet there is limited literature to guide such efforts, particularly in cancer care. To help fill this gap, we present our approach to operationalizing stakeholder engagement and discuss it in the context of other recent developments in the area. We describe challenges encountered in convening stakeholders from multiple vantage points to prioritize topics and strategies used to mitigate these barriers. We offer several recommendations regarding how to best solicit stakeholder input to inform comparative effectiveness research in cancer care. These recommendations can inform other initiatives currently facing the challenges of engaging stakeholders in priority setting for cancer.

  20. Tobacco and cancer: an American Association for Cancer Research policy statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viswanath, Kasisomayajula; Herbst, Roy S; Land, Stephanie R; Leischow, Scott J; Shields, Peter G

    2010-05-01

    The evidence against tobacco use is clear, incontrovertible, and convincing; so is the need for urgent and immediate action to stem the global tide of tobacco-related death and suffering and to improve public health. The American Association for Cancer Research makes an unequivocal call to all who are concerned about public health to take the following immediate steps:Increase the investment in tobacco-related research, commensurate with the enormous toll that tobacco use takes on human health, to provide the scientific evidence to drive the development of effective policies and treatments necessary to dramatically reduce tobacco use and attendant disease. Develop new evidence-based strategies to more effectively prevent the initiation of tobacco use, especially for youth and young adults. Promote the further development of evidence-based treatments for tobacco cessation, including individualized therapies, and ensure coverage of and access to evidence-based behavioral and pharmacological treatments. Develop evidence-based strategies for more effective public communication to prevent, reduce, and eliminate tobacco use and to guide health policies and clinical practice. Develop effective, evidence-based policies to reduce disparities across the tobacco continuum among social groups and developed and developing nations. Implement to the fullest extent existing evidence-based, systems-wide tobacco control programs to prevent initiation and foster cessation. Adapt and implement appropriate approaches to reduce the growing burden of tobacco use in the developing world. Enhance and coordinate surveillance efforts, both in the United States and globally, to monitor tobacco products, tobacco use, and tobacco-related disease, including tobacco use in oncology clinical trials. Establish a comprehensive, science-based regulatory framework to evaluate tobacco products and manufacturers' claims. Promote research that addresses the following: the potential harms of current and

  1. From Reductionism to Holism: Systems-oriented Approaches in Cancer Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kienle, Gunver; Kiene, Helmut

    2012-11-01

    Somatic mutation theory of cancer has directed cancer research during the last century. A deluge of information on cellular, molecular, and genetic behavior was uncovered, but so was a mind-numbing complexity that still challenges research and concepts, and expectations in the war on cancer have by and large not been fulfilled. A change of paradigm beyond reductionism has been called for, especially as research ubiquitously points at the importance of tissue, microenvironment, extracellular matrix, embryonic and morphogenetic fields, and fields of tissue maintenance and organization in the processes of carcinogenesis, cancer control, and cancer progression, as well as in the control of cellular and genetic behavior. Holistic, organismic systems concepts open new perspectives for cancer research and treatment, as well as general biological understanding.

  2. [The application of CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing technology in cancer research].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dayong; Ma, Ning; Hui, Yang; Gao, Xu

    2016-01-01

    The CRISPR/Cas9 (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats/CRISPR-associated protein-9 nuclease) genome editing technology has become more and more popular in gene editing because of its simple design and easy operation. Using the CRISPR/Cas9 system, researchers can perform site-directed genome modification at the base level. Moreover, it has been widely used in genome editing in multiple species and related cancer research. In this review, we summarize the application of the CRISPR/Cas9 system in cancer research based on the latest research progresses as well as our understanding of cancer research and genome editing techniques.

  3. DCP's Early Detection Research Guides Future Science | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Early detection research funded by the NCI's Division of Cancer Prevention has positively steered both public health and clinical outcomes, and set the stage for findings in the next generation of research. |

  4. Setting a Health Policy Research Agenda for Controlling Cancer Burden in Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Jang, Sung-In; Cho, Kyoung-hee; Kim, Sun Jung; Lee, Kwang-Sig; Park, Eun-Cheol

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The aim of study was to provide suggestions for prioritizing research in effort to reduce cancer burden in Korea based on a comprehensive analysis of cancer burden and Delphi consensus among cancer experts. Materials and Methods Twenty research plans covering 10 topics were selected based on an assessment of the literature, and e-mail surveys were analyzed using a two-round modified Delphi method. Thirty-four out of 79 experts were selected from four organizations to participate in ro...

  5. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Cancers Metastatic Cancer Recurrent Cancer Research NCI’s Role in Cancer Research Intramural Research Extramural Research Bioinformatics and ... Annual Report to the Nation Cancer Snapshots Milestones in Cancer Research and Discovery Stories of Discovery R& ...

  6. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Adult Cancers Metastatic Cancer Recurrent Cancer Research NCI’s Role in Cancer Research Intramural Research Extramural Research Bioinformatics ... Terminology Resources NCI Data Catalog Cryo-EM NCI's Role in Cancer Research Intramural Research Extramural Research Bioinformatics ...

  7. What's New in Prostate Cancer Research and Treatment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of MRI (such as diffusion weighted imaging [DWI], dynamic contrast enhanced [DCE] MRI, or MR spectroscopy). The ... Please share your thoughts about your cancer.org website experience. If you need immediate cancer-related information ...

  8. Director's Update - Office of Cancer Clinical Proteomics Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    The National Cancer Institute’s Clinical Proteomic Tumor Analysis Consortium (NCI-CPTAC) has recently begun the proteomic interrogation of genomically-characterized tumors from The Cancer Genome Atlas.

  9. What's New in Laryngeal and Hypopharyngeal Cancer Research and Treatment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... that blocks EGFR, is sometimes used to treat cancers of larynx and hypopharynx. Other EGFR blockers are under study for use in head and neck cancers, including panitumumab (Vectibix ® ), lapatinib (Tykerb ® ), and erlotinib (Tarceva ® ). ...

  10. Prostate Cancer Research Training in Health Disparities for Minority Undergraduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-01

    that may be associated with prostate cancer . The overlap between environment and diet, toxicology , exposure assessment, risk assessment/risk...of the Vanderbilt Ingram Cancer Center. She completed her doctoral training in the Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology at the University of...Microbiology and Immunology , and Associate Professor of Cancer Biology at Vanderbilt University. He earned the MBBS (MD) degree from Ahmadu Bello

  11. Computational Omics - Office of Cancer Clinical Proteomics Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    The National Cancer Institute's Clinical Proteomic Tumor Analysis Consortium (CPTAC) and the NVIDIA Foundation are pleased to announce funding opportunities in the fight against cancer. Each organization has launched a request for proposals (RFP) that will collectively fund up to $2 million to help to develop a new generation of data-intensive scientific tools to find new ways to treat cancer.

  12. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Information Advance Directives Using Trusted Resources Cancer Types Adolescents and Young Adults with Cancer Reports, Research, and ... of Cancers Cancers by Body Location Childhood Cancers Adolescent & Young Adult Cancers Metastatic Cancer Recurrent Cancer Research ...

  13. Brookhaven highlights, October 1, 1989--September 30, 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rowe, M.S.; Cohen, A.; Greenberg, D.; Seubert, L.; Kuper, J.B.H. (eds.)

    1990-01-01

    This report discusses research being conducted at Brookhaven National Laboratory. Highlights from all the department are illustrated. The main topics are on accelerator development and applications. (LSP)

  14. The Cervix Cancer Research Network (CCRN: Increasing access to cancer clinical trials in low- and middle-income countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gita eSuneja

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The burden of cervical cancer is large and growing in developing countries, due in large part to limited access to screening services and lack of human papillomavirus (HPV vaccination. In spite of modern advances in diagnostic and therapeutic modalities, outcomes from cervical cancer have not markedly improved in recent years. Novel clinical trials are urgently needed to improve outcomes from cervical cancer worldwide. Methods: The Cervix Cancer Research Network (CCRN, a subsidiary of the Gynecologic Cancer InterGroup (GCIG, is a multi-national, multi-institutional consortium of physicians and scientists focused on improving cervical cancer outcomes worldwide by making cancer clinical trials available in low-, middle-, and high-income countries. Standard operating procedures for participation in CCRN include a pre-qualifying questionnaire to evaluate clinical activities and research infrastructure, followed by a site visit. Once a site is approved, they may choose to participate in one of four currently accruing clinical trials.Results: To date, 13 different CCRN site visits have been performed. Of these 13 sites visited, 10 have been approved as CCRN sites including Tata Memorial Hospital, India; Bangalore, India; Trivandrum, India; Ramathibodi, Thailand; Siriaj, Thailand; Pramongkutklao, Thailand; Ho Chi Minh, Vietnam; Blokhin Russian Cancer Research Center; the Hertzen Moscow Cancer Research Institute; and the Russian Scientific Center of Roentgenoradiology. The four currently accruing clinical trials are TACO, OUTBACK, INTERLACE, and SHAPE.Discussion: The CCRN has successfully enrolled 10 sites in developing countries to participate in four randomized clinical trials. The primary objectives are to provide novel therapeutics to regions with the greatest need and to improve the validity and generalizability of clinical trial results by enrolling a diverse sample of patients.

  15. California Breast Cancer Prevention Initiatives: Setting a research agenda for prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, P; Kavanaugh-Lynch, M H E; Plumb, M; Yen, I H; Sarantis, H; Thomsen, C L; Campleman, S; Galpern, E; Dickenson, C; Woodruff, T J

    2015-07-01

    The environment is an underutilized pathway to breast cancer prevention. Current research approaches and funding streams related to breast cancer and the environment are unequal to the task at hand. We undertook the California Breast Cancer Prevention Initiatives, a four-year comprehensive effort to set a research agenda related to breast cancer, the environment, disparities and prevention. We identified 20 topics for Concept Proposals reflecting a life-course approach and the complex etiology of breast cancer; considering the environment as chemical, physical and socially constructed exposures that are experienced concurrently: at home, in the community and at work; and addressing how we should be modifying the world around us to promote a less carcinogenic environment. Redirecting breast cancer research toward prevention-oriented discovery could significantly reduce the incidence and associated disparities of the disease among future generations.

  16. Cancer Patient and Survivor Research from the Cancer Information Service Research Consortium: A Preview of Three Large Randomized Trials and Initial Lessons Learned

    Science.gov (United States)

    MARCUS, ALFRED C.; DIEFENBACH, MICHAEL A.; STANTON, ANNETTE L.; MILLER-HALEGOUA, SUZANNE N.; FLEISHER, LINDA; RAICH, PETER C.; MORRA, MARION E.; PEROCCHIA, ROSEMARIE SLEVIN; TRAN, ZUNG VU; BRIGHT, MARY ANNE

    2014-01-01

    Three large randomized trials are described from the Cancer Information Service Research Consortium (CISRC). Three web-based multimedia programs are being tested to help newly diagnosed prostate (Project 1) and breast cancer patients (Project 2) make informed treatment decisions and breast cancer patients prepare for life after treatment (Project 3). Project 3 is also testing a telephone callback intervention delivered by a cancer information specialist. All participants receive standard print material specific to each project. Preliminary results from the two-month follow-up interviews are reported for the initial wave of enrolled participants, most of whom were recruited from the Cancer Information Service (1-800-4-CANCER) telephone information program (Project 1 = 208, Project 2 = 340, Project 3 = 792). Self-reported use of the multimedia program was 51%, 52% and 67% for Projects 1–3, respectively. Self-reported use of the print materials (read all, most or some) was 90%, 85% and 83% for Projects 1–3, respectively. The callback intervention was completed by 92% of Project 3 participants. Among those using the CISRC interventions, perceived utility and benefit was high, and more than 90% would recommend them to other cancer patients. Five initial lessons learned are presented that may help inform future cancer communications research. PMID:23448232

  17. Energy Policy. Highlights. 2013 Edition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-07-01

    Energy Policy Highlights showcases recent developments in energy policies among all 28 IEA member countries. Each contribution underscores the changing nature of both global and domestic energy challenges, as well as the commonality of energy concerns among member countries. The policies highlighted in this publication identify an urgent need to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions as a clear policy objective. Electricity, enhancing energy efficiency and increasing the share of renewables in the energy mix in a cost effective manner are likewise areas of common focus. On the end-user side, increasing public awareness of domestic energy policies through improved transparency and engagement is an important facet of policy support among IEA member countries. The successful implementation of policies and other initiatives benefitted from efforts to inform the public.

  18. Twenty-third annual Pezcoller Symposium: engineering influences in cancer research.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Friedl, P.H.; Hubbell, J.; Livingston, D.; Mihich, E.

    2012-01-01

    The cross-disciplinary focus of the meeting highlighted recent progress in physical and genetic analysis and engineering of cancer disease models. As the central theme, mechanical forces affecting cell signaling, growth, differentiation, and metastasis were discussed with emphasis on the tumor micro

  19. LHC Results Highlights (CLASHEP 2013)

    CERN Document Server

    Gonzalez, O

    2015-01-01

    The good performance of the LHC provided enough data at 7 TeV and 8 TeV to allow the experiments to perform very competitive measurements and to expand the knowledge about the fundamental interaction far beyond that from previous colliders. This report summarizes the highlights of the results obtained with these data samples by the four large experiments, covering all the topics of the physics program and focusing on those exploiting the possibilities of the LHC.

  20. Optical highlighter molecules in neurobiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datta, Sandeep Robert; Patterson, George H

    2012-02-01

    The development of advanced optical methods has played a key role in propelling progress in neurobiology. Genetically-encoded fluorescent molecules found in nature have enabled labeling of individual neurons to study their physiology and anatomy. Here we discuss the recent use of both native and synthetic optical highlighter proteins to address key problems in neurobiology, including questions relevant to synaptic function, neuroanatomy, and the organization of neural circuits.

  1. Highlights in pathogenesis of vitiligo

    OpenAIRE

    Ghada F. Mohammed; Gomaa, Amal HA; Al-Dhubaibi, Mohammed Saleh

    2015-01-01

    Vitiligo is a common pigmentary disorder. Many studies across decades and all over the world have attempted to illustrate the pathogenesis behind it; however, the pathogenesis of vitiligo remains elusive. This review article, we present the findings behind the most and updated theories behind this psychologically debilitating and disfiguring disease. The discussion begun with the role of genetic predisposition followed by neural theory first proposed in the 1950s. We highlight the autoimmune ...

  2. Moving forward in colorectal cancer research, what proteomics has to tell

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is the third most common cancer and is highly fatal. During the last several years, research has been primarily based on the study of expression profiles using microarray technology. But now, investigators are putting into practice proteomic analyses of cancer tissues and cells to identify new diagnostic or therapeutic biomarkers for this cancer. Because the proteome reflects the state of a cell, tissue or organism more accurately, much is expected from proteomics to yield better tumor markers for disease diagnosis and therapy monitoring. This review summarizes the most relevant applications of proteomics the biomarker discovery for colorectal cancer.

  3. Trends and highlights of VCI 2004

    CERN Document Server

    Fabjan, Christian Wolfgang

    2004-01-01

    This report attempts to summarize the presentations given at this conference. Topics related to R&D of gaseous and solid state detectors clearly point to several trends in particle physics instrumentation. More established techniques are represented by reports on recent experiments and facilities which can be considered the highlights in this research field. The extension of these techniques to space, arctic ice and deep sea are opening new frontiers of particle physics.

  4. A cloud-based data network approach for translational cancer research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Wei; Tsoumakos, Dimitrios; Ghanem, Moustafa

    2015-01-01

    We develop a new model and associated technology for constructing and managing self-organizing data to support translational cancer research studies. We employ a semantic content network approach to address the challenges of managing cancer research data. Such data is heterogeneous, large, decentralized, growing and continually being updated. Moreover, the data originates from different information sources that may be partially overlapping, creating redundancies as well as contradictions and inconsistencies. Building on the advantages of elasticity of cloud computing, we deploy the cancer data networks on top of the CELAR Cloud platform to enable more effective processing and analysis of Big cancer data.

  5. A breast cancer clinical registry in an Italian comprehensive cancer center: an instrument for descriptive, clinical, and experimental research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baili, Paolo; Torresani, Michele; Agresti, Roberto; Rosito, Giuseppe; Daidone, Maria Grazia; Veneroni, Silvia; Cavallo, Ilaria; Funaro, Francesco; Giunco, Marco; Turco, Alberto; Amash, Hade; Scavo, Antonio; Minicozzi, Pamela; Bella, Francesca; Meneghini, Elisabetta; Sant, Milena

    2015-01-01

    In clinical research, many potentially useful variables are available via the routine activity of cancer center-based clinical registries (CCCR). We present the experience of the breast cancer clinical registry at Fondazione IRCCS "Istituto Nazionale dei Tumori" to give an example of how a CCCR can be planned, implemented, and used. Five criteria were taken into consideration while planning our CCCR: (a) available clinical and administrative databases ought to be exploited to the maximum extent; (b) open source software should be used; (c) a Web-based interface must be designed; (d) CCCR data must be compatible with population-based cancer registry data; (e) CCCR must be an open system, able to be connected with other data repositories. The amount of work needed for the implementation of a CCCR is inversely linked with the amount of available coded data: the fewer data are available in the input databases as coded variables, the more work will be necessary, for information technology staff, text mining analysis, and registrars (for collecting data from clinical records). A cancer registry in a comprehensive cancer center can be used for several research aspects, such as estimate of the number of cases needed for clinical studies, assessment of biobank specimens with specific characteristics, evaluation of clinical practice and adhesion to clinical guidelines, comparative studies between clinical and population sets of patients, studies on cancer prognosis, and studies on cancer survivorship.

  6. Bioengineered models of solid human tumors for cancer research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marturano-Kruik, Alessandro; Villasante, Aranzazu; Vunjak-Novakovic, Gordana

    2016-01-01

    Summary The lack of controllable in vitro models that can recapitulate the features of solid tumors such as Ewing’s sarcoma limits our understanding of the tumor initiation and progression and impedes the development of new therapies. Cancer research still relies of the use of simple cell culture, tumor spheroids, and small animals. Tissue-engineered tumor models are now being grown in vitro to mimic the actual tumors in patients. Recently, we have established a new protocol for bioengineering the Ewing’s sarcoma, by infusing tumor cell aggregates into the human bone engineered from the patient’s mesenchymal stem cells. The bone niche allows crosstalk between the tumor cells, osteoblasts and supporting cells of the bone, extracellular matrix and the tissue microenvironment. The bioreactor platform used in these experiments also allows the implementation of physiologically relevant mechanical signals. Here, we describe a method to build an in vitro model of Ewing’s sarcoma that mimics the key properties of the native tumor and provides the tissue context and physical regulatory signals. PMID:27115504

  7. Cancer Research Center Indiana University School of Medicine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-08-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) proposes to authorize the Indiana School of Medicine to proceed with the detailed design, construction and equipping of the proposed Cancer Research Center (CRC). A grant was executed with the University on April 21, 1992. A four-story building with basement would be constructed on the proposed site over a 24-month period. The proposed project would bring together, in one building, three existing hematology/oncology basic research programs, with improved cost-effectiveness through the sharing of common resources. The proposed site is currently covered with asphaltic pavement and is used as a campus parking lot. The surrounding area is developed campus, characterized by buildings, walkways, with minimal lawns and plantings. The proposed site has no history of prior structures and no evidence of potential sources of prior contamination of the soil. Environmental impacts of construction would be limited to minor increases in traffic, and the typical noises associated with standard building construction. The proposed CRC project operation would involve the use radionuclides and various hazardous materials in conducting clinical studies. Storage, removal and disposal of hazardous wastes would be managed under existing University programs that comply with federal and state requirements. Radiological safety programs would be governed by Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) license and applicable Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) regulations. There are no other NEPA reviews currently active which are in relationship to this proposed site. The proposed project is part of a Medical Campus master plan and is consistent with applicable local zoning and land use requirements.

  8. Use of genome-wide association studies for cancer research and drug repositioning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jizhun Zhang

    Full Text Available Although genome-wide association studies have identified many risk loci associated with colorectal cancer, the molecular basis of these associations are still unclear. We aimed to infer biological insights and highlight candidate genes of interest within GWAS risk loci. We used an in silico pipeline based on functional annotation, quantitative trait loci mapping of cis-acting gene, PubMed text-mining, protein-protein interaction studies, genetic overlaps with cancer somatic mutations and knockout mouse phenotypes, and functional enrichment analysis to prioritize the candidate genes at the colorectal cancer risk loci. Based on these analyses, we observed that these genes were the targets of approved therapies for colorectal cancer, and suggested that drugs approved for other indications may be repurposed for the treatment of colorectal cancer. This study highlights the use of publicly available data as a cost effective solution to derive biological insights, and provides an empirical evidence that the molecular basis of colorectal cancer can provide important leads for the discovery of new drugs.

  9. Highlights from BNL-RHIC

    CERN Document Server

    Tannenbaum, M J

    2012-01-01

    Recent highlights from Brookhaven National Laboratory and the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) are reviewed and discussed. Topics include: Discovery of the strongly interacting Quark Gluon Plasma (sQGP) in 2005; RHIC machine operation in 2011 as well as latest achievements from the superconducting Magnet Division and the National Synchrotron Light Source II project. Highlights from QGP physics at RHIC include: comparison of new measurements of charged multiplicity in A+A collisions by ALICE at the LHC to previous RHIC measurements; Observation of the anti-alpha particle by the STAR experiment; Collective Flow, including the Triangular Flow discovery and the latest results on v3; the RHIC beam energy scan in search of the QCD critical point. The pioneering use at RHIC of hard-scattering as a probe of the sQGP will also be reviewed and the latest results presented including: jet-quenching via suppression of high pT particles and two particle correlations; new results on fragmentation functions using gamma...

  10. Open-Access Cancer Genomics - Office of Cancer Clinical Proteomics Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    The completion of the Human Genome Project sparked a revolution in high-throughput genomics applied towards deciphering genetically complex diseases, like cancer. Now, almost 10 years later, we have a mountain of genomics data on many different cancer type

  11. Research methods to change clinical practice for patients with rare cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billingham, Lucinda; Malottki, Kinga; Steven, Neil

    2016-02-01

    Rare cancers are a growing group as a result of reclassification of common cancers by molecular markers. There is therefore an increasing need to identify methods to assess interventions that are sufficiently robust to potentially affect clinical practice in this setting. Methods advocated for clinical trials in rare diseases are not necessarily applicable in rare cancers. This Series paper describes research methods that are relevant for rare cancers in relation to the range of incidence levels. Strategies that maximise recruitment, minimise sample size, or maximise the usefulness of the evidence could enable the application of conventional clinical trial design to rare cancer populations. Alternative designs that address specific challenges for rare cancers with the aim of potentially changing clinical practice include Bayesian designs, uncontrolled n-of-1 trials, and umbrella and basket trials. Pragmatic solutions must be sought to enable some level of evidence-based health care for patients with rare cancers.

  12. Astronomy and Cancer Research: X-Rays and Nanotechnology from Black Holes to Cancer Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradhan, Anil K.; Nahar, Sultana N.

    It seems highly unlikely that any connection is to be found between astronomy and medicine. But then it also appears to be obvious: X-rays. However, that is quite superficial because the nature of X-rays in the two disciplines is quite different. Nevertheless, we describe recent research on exactly that kind of link. Furthermore, the linkage lies in atomic physics, and via spectroscopy which is a vital tool in astronomy and may also be equally valuable in biomedical research. This review begins with the physics of black hole environments as viewed through X-ray spectroscopy. It is then shown that similar physics can be applied to spectroscopic imaging and therapeutics using heavy-element (high-Z) moieties designed to target cancerous tumors. X-ray irradiation of high-Z nanomaterials as radiosensitizing agents should be extremely efficient for therapy and diagnostics (theranostics). However, broadband radiation from conventional X-ray sources (such as CT scanners) results in vast and unnecessary radiation exposure. Monochromatic X-ray sources are expected to be considerably more efficient. We have developed a new and comprehensive methodology—Resonant Nano-Plasma Theranostics (RNPT)—that encompasses the use of monochromatic X-ray sources and high-Z nanoparticles. Ongoing research entails theoretical computations, numerical simulations, and in vitro and in vivo biomedical experiments. Stemming from basic theoretical studies of Kα resonant photoabsorption and fluorescence in all elements of the Periodic Table, we have established a comprehensive multi-disciplinary program involving researchers from physics, chemistry, astronomy, pathology, radiation oncology and radiology. Large-scale calculations necessary for theory and modeling are done at a variety of computational platforms at the Ohio Supercomputer Center. The final goal is the implementation of RNPT for clinical applications.

  13. Breast Cancer in Young Women: Research Priorities. A Report of the Young Survival Coalition Research Think Tank Meeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korde, Larissa A; Partridge, Ann H; Esser, Michelle; Lewis, Stacy; Simha, Joy; Johnson, Rebecca H

    2015-03-01

    Breast cancer in young women is a significant issue-7% of all female breast cancer is diagnosed in women under 40 years of age. Young women with breast cancer (YWBC) face significant and unique challenges, including a higher likelihood of biologically aggressive disease and metastatic disease at diagnosis, leading to poorer prognosis, more aggressive treatment and long-term treatment-related toxicities, and unique psychosocial concerns. This article summarizes the Young Survival Coalition (YSC) Research Think Tank Meeting, held in Arlington, Virginia, in February 2013, and presents the process that led to YSC's priorities for YWBC research. The meeting's participants focused on six broad categories of investigation in which additional advancements in research on YWBC are crucial: risk factors; treatment; fertility; pregnancy-associated breast cancer; quality of life and survivorship; and metastasis. Several key themes emerged from this meeting. Researchers and advocates felt that a large-scale data registry focused on YWBC is necessary to collect quality information to guide future research for YWBC. This database should include clinical data, genomic profiling of primary tumor and metastatic sites, and an increased focus on fertility and pregnancy following breast cancer treatment. The participants also felt that more must be done to elucidate how and why YWBC develop more aggressive tumors, and to what degree treatment should be modified for young women. The discussions summarized here led to the formulation of YSC's Research Agenda, published in May 2014.

  14. The Emergency Care of Patients With Cancer: Setting the Research Agenda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Jeremy; Grudzen, Corita; Kyriacou, Demetrios N; Obermeyer, Ziad; Quest, Tammie; Rivera, Donna; Stone, Susan; Wright, Jason; Shelburne, Nonniekaye

    2016-12-01

    To identify research priorities and appropriate resources and to establish the infrastructure required to address the emergency care of patients with cancer, the National Institutes of Health's National Cancer Institute and the Office of Emergency Care Research sponsored a one-day workshop, "Cancer and Emergency Medicine: Setting the Research Agenda," in March 2015 in Bethesda, MD. Participants included leading researchers and clinicians in the fields of oncology, emergency medicine, and palliative care, and representatives from the National Institutes of Health. Attendees were charged with identifying research opportunities and priorities to advance the understanding of the emergency care of cancer patients. Recommendations were made in 4 areas: the collection of epidemiologic data, care of the patient with febrile neutropenia, acute events such as dyspnea, and palliative care in the emergency department setting.

  15. Breast cancer research in Asia : Adopt or adapt Western knowledge?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bhoo-Pathy, Nirmala; Yip, Cheng-Har; Hartman, Mikael; Uiterwaal, Cuno S. P. M.; Devi, Beena C. R.; Peeters, Petra H. M.; Taib, Nur Aishah; van Gils, Carla H.; Verkooijen, Helena M.

    2013-01-01

    The incidence and mortality of breast cancer continues to rise rapidly in Asian countries. However, most of our current knowledge on breast cancer has been generated in Western populations. As the socio-economic profile, life style and culture of Asian and Western women are substantially different,

  16. What's New In Eye Cancer Research and Treatment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... try to get it to attack the cancer. Cytokines, monoclonal antibodies, cancer vaccines, and other immunotherapies are among the most promising approaches for treating melanoma and lymphoma. Although most clinical trials of these treatments include people with melanomas of the skin and ...

  17. Translational Research on Esophageal Cancer: From Cell Line to Clinic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.J. Boonstra (Jurjen)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractWorldwide esophageal cancer is a signifi cant and an increasing health problem. In 2005, there were 497,700 new cases, and the prevalence is expected to increase by approximately 140% by 2025. Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) accounts for most of the cases of esophageal cancer w

  18. A Cross-Cultural Perspective on Challenges Facing Comparative Cancer Survivorship Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Astri Syse

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Cancer survivorship research includes the study of physical, psychosocial, and economic consequences of cancer diagnosis and treatment among pediatric and adult cancer survivors. Historically, the majority of cancer survivorship studies were from the United States, but survivorship issues are increasingly being addressed in other developed countries. Cross-cultural studies remain, however, scarce. The degree to which knowledge attained may or may not be transferred across cultures, countries, or regions is not known. Some important challenges for comparative research are therefore discussed in a cross-cultural perspective. Several substantive and methodological challenges that complicate the execution of cross-cultural cancer survivorship research are presented with examples and discussed to facilitate comparative research efforts in the establishment of new survivorship cohorts and in the planning and implementation of survivorship studies. Comparative research is one key to understanding the nature of cancer survivorship, distinguishing modifiable from nonmodifiable factors at individual, hospital, societal, and system levels and may thus guide appropriate interventions. Lastly, suggested future courses of action within the field of comparative cancer survivorship research are provided.

  19. [Cancer treatment in elderly patients: evidence and clinical research].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Repetto, Lazzaro; Luciani, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    showed a good sensibility (87.3%) but a low specificity (62%) with respect to CGA for the diagnosis of patients with disabilities. Overcash et al. proposed an abbreviated form of CGA using a reduced number of items of ADL, IADL, MMSE and GDS. There was a good correlation between complete and reduced scales (coefficient of correlation 0.8). G8 is a screening tool composed of 8 questions that explore functional, cognitive and nutritional status. The score with the best equilibrium between sensibility and specificity was 14 (sensibility 85% and specificity 65%). In the first observational trial age, hystotype, chemotherapy dose, haemoglobin (man: 11 g/dL; women: 10 g/dL), creatinine clearance less than 34 mL/min (Jelliffe formula), earing problems, at least a fall in the last six months, walking problems, low social activity, were related to a major risk of toxicity; in another trial IADL, diastolic blood pressure, LDH and MAX2 index were predictive of haematological toxicity, while performance status, Mini-Mental Status score, Mini-Nutritional Assessment (MNA) score and MAX2 index were predictive of non haematological toxicity. Based on these parameters a 0-2 score was developed. A recent "position article" of EORTC (European organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer) and SIOG analyzed the pro and the contra of the use of some indicators in elderly patients. The overall survival (OS) frequently used in classical clinical trial could give wrong messages as there are some competitive risks of death in elderly patients. Another important indicator is the disease specific survival (DSS). Concerning the design of clinical trials, a possible strategy is to enrol elderly patients without upper age limit and to plan stratification. An interesting trial design is the so called "extended trial" that allow to re-open the arm of a trial in which a too low number of older patients was enrolled.

  20. Eurocan plus report: feasibility study for coordination of national cancer research activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    The EUROCAN+PLUS Project, called for by the European Parliament, was launched in October 2005 as a feasibility study for coordination of national cancer research activities in Europe. Over the course of the next two years, the Project process organized over 60 large meetings and countless smaller meetings that gathered in total over a thousand people, the largest Europe-wide consultation ever conducted in the field of cancer research.Despite a strong tradition in biomedical science in Europe, fragmentation and lack of sustainability remain formidable challenges for implementing innovative cancer research and cancer care improvement. There is an enormous duplication of research effort in the Member States, which wastes time, wastes money and severely limits the total intellectual concentration on the wide cancer problem. There is a striking lack of communication between some of the biggest actors on the European scene, and there are palpable tensions between funders and those researchers seeking funds.It is essential to include the patients' voice in the establishment of priority areas in cancer research at the present time. The necessity to have dialogue between funders and scientists to establish the best mechanisms to meet the needs of the entire community is evident. A top priority should be the development of translational research (in its widest form), leading to the development of effective and innovative cancer treatments and preventive strategies. Translational research ranges from bench-to-bedside innovative cancer therapies and extends to include bringing about changes in population behaviours when a risk factor is established.The EUROCAN+PLUS Project recommends the creation of a small, permanent and independent European Cancer Initiative (ECI). This should be a model structure and was widely supported at both General Assemblies of the project. The ECI should assume responsibility for stimulating innovative cancer research and facilitating processes

  1. Research from the Early Detection Research Network on New Methods to Detect Prostate Cancer | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prostate cancer is the most frequently diagnosed non-skin cancer in men in the United States. In 2010 there were 218,000 men diagnosed with prostate cancer. The prevalence of the diagnosis makes the disease a major health burden. While the majority of the diagnosed men will survive the disease, about 15% will die from it, a rate that is affected by over-diagnosis and the consequent over-treatment. |

  2. Short-term outcomes of the prospective multicentre 'Prostate Cancer Research International : Active Surveillance' study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Bergh, Roderick C. N.; Vasarainen, Hanna; van der Poel, Henk G.; Vis-Maters, Jenneke J.; Rietbergen, John B.; Pickles, Tom; Cornel, Erik B.; Valdagni, Riccardo; Jaspars, Joris J.; van der Hoeven, John; Staerman, Frederic; Oomens, Eric H. G. M.; Rannikko, Antti; Roemeling, Stijn; Steyerberg, Ewout W.; Roobol, Monique J.; Schroder, Fritz H.; Bangma, Chris H.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate the short-term outcomes of the prospective international Prostate Cancer Research International: Active Surveillance ('PRIAS') study (Dutch Trial Register NTR1718), as active surveillance (AS) for early prostate cancer might provide a partial solution to the current overtreatme

  3. Research Strategies for Nutritional and Physical Activity Epidemiology and Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    In response to a series of controversial articles about nutritional epidemiology and cancer published in 2014, staff from the Environmental Epidemiology Branch initiated a series of meetings to refine programmatic priorities for human nutrition/physical activity and cancer etiology research in the near term.

  4. New Funding Opportunity: Biospecimen Core Resource - Office of Cancer Clinical Proteomics Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    The purpose of this notice is to notify the community that the National Cancer Institute's (NCI’s) Office of Cancer Clinical Proteomics Research (OCCPR) is seeking sources to establish a Biospecimen Core Resource (BCR), capable of receiving, qualifying, processing, and distributing annotated biospecimens.

  5. Research data supporting "Crowdsourcing the General Public for Large Scale Molecular Pathology Studies in Cancer"

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Complete data set for the manuscript "Crowdsourcing the general public for large scale molecular pathology studies in cancer". Published at: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ebiom.2015.05.009 This work was supported by the Cancer Research UK [C490/A10124, C490/A16561

  6. New Funding Opportunity: Tissue Purchase Order Acquisitions - Office of Cancer Clinical Proteomics Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    The National Cancer Institute (NCI) is expanding its basic and translational research programs that rely heavily on sufficient availability of high quality, well annotated biospecimens suitable for use in genomic and proteomic studies. The NCI’s overarching goal with such programs is to improve the ability to diagnose, treat, and prevent cancer.

  7. Leininger's Ethnonursing Research Methodology and Studies of Cancer Survivors: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farren, Arlene T

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of this article is to present the findings of a literature review regarding the use of Leininger's ethnonursing research methodology (ENRM) in studies addressing adult cancer survivors. It is important to learn about differences and similarities among cancer survivors' experiences so that patient-centered, culturally congruent care can be provided. A review of the literature was conducted using databases such as CINAHL and MEDLINE. Search terms included variations on ENRM and cancer survivors. The results were a small number of published studies that used the ENRM examining breast cancer survivors' perceptions and experiences. A review instrument was developed to estimate study quality based on established criteria. The studies are critiqued in relation to the theory-based methodology, evaluation criteria for qualitative research, and study findings are summarized. The author concludes that although there is a paucity of research using ENRM with adult cancer survivors, the preliminary findings of the included studies contribute to what is known about breast cancer survivors. Implications for research include recommendations to increase the use of ENRM to discover the universal and diverse experiences of care practices in adult cancer survivors and use the evidence to develop patient-centered, culturally congruent, quality care for cancer survivors.

  8. Critical research gaps and translational priorities for the successful prevention and treatment of breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Eccles, Suzanne A.; Aboagye, Eric O; Ali, Simak; Anderson, Annie S; Armes, Jo; Berditchevski, Fedor; Blaydes, Jeremy P.; Brennan, Keith; Brown, Nicola J; Bryant, Helen E; Bundred, Nigel J; Burchell, Joy M; Campbell, Anna M; Carroll, Jason S.; Clarke, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Breast cancer remains a significant scientific, clinical and societal challenge. This gap analysis has reviewed and critically assessed enduring issues and new challenges emerging from recent research, and proposes strategies for translating solutions into practice.Methods: More than 100 internationally recognised specialist breast cancer scientists, clinicians and healthcare professionals collaborated to address nine thematic areas: genetics, epigenetics and epidemiology; molec...

  9. Critical Appraisal of Translational Research Models for Suitability in Performance Assessment of Cancer Centers

    OpenAIRE

    Rajan, Abinaya; Sullivan, Richard; Bakker, Suzanne; van Harten, Wim H.

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to critically appraise translational research models for suitability in performance assessment of cancer centers. Process models, such as the Process Marker Model and Lean and Six Sigma applications, seem to be suitable for performance assessment of cancer centers. However, they must be thoroughly tested in practice.

  10. Cancer, Employment, and American Indians: A Participatory Action Research Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Sharon R.; Finifrock, DeAnna; Marshall, Catherine A.; Jaakola, Julia; Setterquist, Janette; Burross, Heidi L.; Hodge, Felicia Schanche

    2011-01-01

    American Indian cancer survivors are an underserved and understudied group. In this pilot study we attempted to address, through participatory action research, missing information about those factors that serve to either facilitate employment or hinder it for adult cancer survivors. One task of the study was to develop and/or modify…

  11. Approaches to Art Therapy for Cancer Inpatients: Research and Practice Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nainis, Nancy A.

    2008-01-01

    Common symptoms reported by cancer patients include pain, fatigue, breathlessness, insomnia, lack of appetite, and anxiety. A study conducted by an interdisciplinary research team (Nainis et al., 2006) demonstrated statistically significant reductions in these cancer symptoms with the use of traditional art therapy methods. The study found a…

  12. Caring for caregivers and patients: Research and clinical priorities for informal cancer caregiving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, Erin E; Rowland, Julia H; Northouse, Laurel; Litzelman, Kristin; Chou, Wen-Ying Sylvia; Shelburne, Nonniekaye; Timura, Catherine; O'Mara, Ann; Huss, Karen

    2016-07-01

    Informal/family caregivers are a fundamental source of care for cancer patients in the United States, yet the population of caregivers and their tasks, psychosocial needs, and health outcomes are not well understood. Changes in the nature of cancer care and its delivery, along with the growing population of survivors and their caregivers, warrant increased attention to the roles and demands of caregiving. This article reviews current evidence presented at a 2-day meeting examining the state of the science of informal cancer caregiving that was convened by the National Cancer Institute and the National Institute of Nursing Research. The meeting sought to define who is an informal cancer caregiver, summarize the state of the science in informal cancer caregiving, and describe both the kinds of interventions developed to address caregiving challenges and the various outcomes used to evaluate their impact. This article offers recommendations for moving science forward in 4 areas: 1) improving the estimation of the prevalence and burden of informal cancer caregiving; 2) advancing the development of interventions designed to improve outcomes for cancer patients, caregivers, and patient-caregiver dyads; 3) generating and testing strategies for integrating caregivers into formal health care settings; and 4) promoting the use of technology to support informal cancer caregivers. Cancer 2016;122:1987-95. © 2016 American Cancer Society.

  13. [Prostate cancer stem cells: advances in current research].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Gang; Wu, Deng-long

    2015-02-01

    Prostate cancer is one of the most common malignancies threatening men's health, and the mechanisms underlying its initiation and progression are poorly understood. Last decade has witnessed encouraging progress in the studies of prostate cancer stem cells (PCSCs), which are considered to play important roles in tumor initiation, recurrence and metastasis, castration resistance, and drug resistance. Therefore, a deeper insight into PCSCs is of great significance for the successful management of prostate cancer. This article presents an overview on the location, origin, and markers of PCSCs as well as their potential correlation with tumor metastasis and castration resistance.

  14. About the Community Oncology and Prevention Trials Research Group | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Community Oncology and Prevention Trials Research Group supports clinical oncology trials in cancer prevention and control in community settings. The group also supports investigator-initiated research projects in supportive, palliative and end-of-life care, and coordinates clinical oncology research projects with other NCI programs to be done in the community setting. |

  15. HIV and cancer in Africa: mutual collaboration between HIV and cancer programs may provide timely research and public health data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mbulaiteye Sam M

    2011-10-01

    merits for integrating cancer research in established HIV programs to obtain timely data about the incidence and burden of cancer in HIV-infected persons in Africa.

  16. Highlights of DAMA/LIBRA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernabei R.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The DAMA project develops and uses new/improved low background scintillation detectors to investigate the Dark Matter (DM particle component(s in the galactic halo and rare processes deep underground at the Gran Sasso National Laboratory (LNGS of the I.N.F.N.. Here some highlights of DAMA/LIBRA (Large sodium Iodide Bulk for Rare processes as a unique apparatus in direct DM investigation for its full sensitive mass, target material, intrinsic radio-purity, methodological approach and all the controls performed on the experimental parameters are outlined. The DAMA/LIBRA–phase1 and the former DAMA/NaI data (cumulative exposure 1.33 ton × yr, corresponding to 14 annual cycles have reached a model-independent evidence at 9.3 σ C.L. for the presence of DM particles in the galactic halo exploiting the DM annual modulation signature with highly radio-pure NaI(Tl target. Some of the perspectives of the presently running DAMA/LIBRA–phase2 are summarised and the powerful tools offered by a model independent strategy of DM investigation are pointed out.

  17. What's New in Breast Cancer Research and Treatment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Evolving Trends in Breast Surgery: Oncoplastic to Onco-Aesthetic Surgery. Arch Plast Surg . 2016;43(2):222- ... LR, Wilkinson D. The role of general nuclear medicine in breast cancer. J Med Radiat Sci . 2015; ...

  18. Antibody Request - Office of Cancer Clinical Proteomics Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    In an effort to provide well-characterized monoclonal antibodies to the scientific community, NCI's Antibody Characterization Program requests cancer-related protein targets for affinity production and distribution.

  19. Development of Meharry Medical College Prostate Cancer Research Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-03-01

    October 2007. Capetown , South Africa. 4. Khandaker A. Taher, Rodney Davis, Carlton Z. ADams, Philip Akumabor, Usifo Osime, Flora A. M. Ukoli: “A...fatty acid profiles of African-Americans and Africans: Implication for prostate cancer risk. AORTIC 2007 OAREC. October 2007. Capetown , South...African-Americans and Africans: Implication for prostate cancer risk:. AORTIC 2007 OAREC. October 2007. Capetown , South Africa. 4. Khandaker A

  20. Fifty years of tobacco carcinogenesis research: from mechanisms to early detection and prevention of lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hecht, Stephen S; Szabo, Eva

    2014-01-01

    The recognition of the link between cigarette smoking and lung cancer in the 1964 Surgeon General's Report initiated definitive and comprehensive research on the identification of carcinogens in tobacco products and the relevant mechanisms of carcinogenesis. The resultant comprehensive data clearly illustrate established pathways of cancer induction involving carcinogen exposure, metabolic activation, DNA adduct formation, and consequent mutation of critical genes along with the exacerbating influences of inflammation, cocarcinogenesis, and tumor promotion. This mechanistic understanding has provided a framework for the regulation of tobacco products and for the development of relevant tobacco carcinogen and toxicant biomarkers that can be applied in cancer prevention. Simultaneously, the recognition of the link between smoking and lung cancer paved the way for two additional critical approaches to cancer prevention that are discussed here: detection of lung cancer at an early, curable stage, and chemoprevention of lung cancer. Recent successes in more precisely identifying at-risk populations and in decreasing lung cancer mortality with helical computed tomography screening are notable, and progress in chemoprevention continues, although challenges with respect to bringing these approaches to the general population exist. Collectively, research performed since the 1964 Report demonstrates unequivocally that the majority of deaths from lung cancer are preventable.

  1. Pancreatic cancer: Translational research aspects and clinical implications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Daniel Ansari; Bi-Cheng Chen; Lei Dong; Meng-Tao Zhou; Roland Andersson

    2012-01-01

    Despite improvements in surgical techniques and adjuvant chemotherapy,the overall mortality rates in pancreatic cancer have generally remained relatively unchanged and the 5-year survival rate is actually below 2%.This paper will address the importance of achieving an early diagnosis and identifying markers for prognosis and response to therapy such as genes,proteins,microRNAs or epigenetic modifications.However,there are still major hurdles when translating investigational biomarkers into routine clinical practice.Furthermore,novel ways of secondary screening in high-risk individuals,such as artificial neural networks and modern imaging,will be discussed.Drug resistance is ubiquitous in pancreatic cancer.Several mechanisms of drug resistance have already been revealed,including human equilibrative nucleoside transporter-1 status,multidrug resistance proteins,aberrant signaling pathways,microRNAs,stromal influence,epithelial-mesenchymal transition-type cells and recently the presence of cancer stem cells/cancer-initiating cells.These factors must be considered when developing more customized types of intervention ("personalized medicine").In the future,multifunctional nanoparticles that combine a specific targeting agent,an imaging probe,a cell-penetrating agent,a biocompatible polymer and an anti-cancer drug may become valuable for the management of patients with pancreatic cancer.

  2. Patients´ vulnerability in follow-up after colorectal cancer: a qualitative action research study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Thora Grothe; Hølge-Hazelton, Bibi

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND:: In the transition between being a hospitalized patient with cancer and resuming “normal” life, many patients experience physical, mental, and social challenges. Scientifically, as well as politically, it is therefore recommended to undertake research with a focus on rethinking...... and reorganizing follow-up after cancer treatment. OBJECTIVE:: The aim of this study was to identify the perspectives of fast-track colorectal cancer surgery patients on challenges experienced in the transition from being a hospitalized patient with cancer to being a cancer survivor. METHODS:: The current article...... represents phase 1 in an ongoing action research project. Data were analyzed by using the “interpretive description” method. RESULTS:: Twelve patients (6 male and 6 female patients; mean age, 72.4 years) participated in the study. The analyses show that the patients physically experienced readiness to leave...

  3. A Federated Network for Translational Cancer Research Using Clinical Data and Biospecimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Rebecca S; Becich, Michael J; Bollag, Roni J; Chavan, Girish; Corrigan, Julia; Dhir, Rajiv; Feldman, Michael D; Gaudioso, Carmelo; Legowski, Elizabeth; Maihle, Nita J; Mitchell, Kevin; Murphy, Monica; Sakthivel, Mayurapriyan; Tseytlin, Eugene; Weaver, JoEllen

    2015-12-15

    Advances in cancer research and personalized medicine will require significant new bridging infrastructures, including more robust biorepositories that link human tissue to clinical phenotypes and outcomes. In order to meet that challenge, four cancer centers formed the Text Information Extraction System (TIES) Cancer Research Network, a federated network that facilitates data and biospecimen sharing among member institutions. Member sites can access pathology data that are de-identified and processed with the TIES natural language processing system, which creates a repository of rich phenotype data linked to clinical biospecimens. TIES incorporates multiple security and privacy best practices that, combined with legal agreements, network policies, and procedures, enable regulatory compliance. The TIES Cancer Research Network now provides integrated access to investigators at all member institutions, where multiple investigator-driven pilot projects are underway. Examples of federated search across the network illustrate the potential impact on translational research, particularly for studies involving rare cancers, rare phenotypes, and specific biologic behaviors. The network satisfies several key desiderata including local control of data and credentialing, inclusion of rich phenotype information, and applicability to diverse research objectives. The TIES Cancer Research Network presents a model for a national data and biospecimen network.

  4. Three interrelated themes in current breast cancer research: gene addiction, phenotypic plasticity, and cancer stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardiff, Robert D; Couto, Suzana; Bolon, Brad

    2011-10-25

    Recent efforts to understand breast cancer biology involve three interrelated themes that are founded on a combination of clinical and experimental observations. The central concept is gene addiction. The clinical dilemma is the escape from gene addiction, which is mediated, in part, by phenotypic plasticity as exemplified by epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition and mesenchymal-to-epithelial transition. Finally, cancer stem cells are now recognized as the basis for minimal residual disease and malignant progression over time. These themes cooperate in breast cancer, as induction of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition enhances self-renewal and expression of cancer stem cells, which are believed to facilitate tumor resistance.

  5. Ovarian Cancer Proteomic, Phosphoproteomic, and Glycoproteomic Data Released - Office of Cancer Clinical Proteomics Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Cancer Institute (NCI) Clinical Proteomic Tumor Analysis Consortium (CPTAC) scientists have just released a comprehensive dataset of the proteomic analysis of high grade serous ovarian tumor samples,

  6. Biomimetic tissue-engineered systems for advancing cancer research: NCI Strategic Workshop report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuessler, Teresa K; Chan, Xin Yi; Chen, Huanhuan Joyce; Ji, Kyungmin; Park, Kyung Min; Roshan-Ghias, Alireza; Sethi, Pallavi; Thakur, Archana; Tian, Xi; Villasante, Aranzazu; Zervantonakis, Ioannis K; Moore, Nicole M; Nagahara, Larry A; Kuhn, Nastaran Z

    2014-10-01

    Advanced technologies and biomaterials developed for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine present tractable biomimetic systems with potential applications for cancer research. Recently, the National Cancer Institute convened a Strategic Workshop to explore the use of tissue biomanufacturing for development of dynamic, physiologically relevant in vitro and ex vivo biomimetic systems to study cancer biology and drug efficacy. The workshop provided a forum to identify current progress, research gaps, and necessary steps to advance the field. Opportunities discussed included development of tumor biomimetic systems with an emphasis on reproducibility and validation of new biomimetic tumor models, as described in this report.

  7. What Is Thymus Cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cancer? Thymus Cancer About Thymus Cancer What Is Thymus Cancer? Cancer starts when cells in the body ... Research and Treatment for Thymus Cancer? More In Thymus Cancer About Thymus Cancer Causes, Risk Factors, and ...

  8. ESO PR Highlights in 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    2005 was the year of Physics. It was thus also in part the year of astronomy and this is clearly illustrated by the numerous breakthroughs that were achieved, in particular using ESO's telescopes. One of the highlights was without any doubt the confirmation of the first image of an exoplanet , around the star 2M1207 (see ESO PR 12/05). ESO's telescopes also found a Neptune-mass exoplanet around a small star ( PR 30/05) - a discovery that proves crucial in the census of other planetary systems, and imaged a tiny companion in the close vicinity of the star GQ Lupi, a very young object still surrounded by a disc, with an age between 100,000 and 2 million years ( PR 09/05). Moreover, using a new high-contrast adaptive optics camera on the VLT, the NACO Simultaneous Differential Imager, or NACO SDI, astronomers were able for the first time to image a companion 120 times fainter than its star , very near the star AB Doradus A. This companion appears to be almost twice as heavy as theory predicts it to be ( PR 02/05). ESO's telescopes proved very useful in helping to solve a 30-year old puzzle . Astronomers have for the first time observed the visible light from a short gamma-ray burst (GRB). Using the 1.5m Danish telescope at La Silla (Chile), they showed that these short, intense bursts of gamma-ray emission most likely originate from the violent collision of two merging neutron stars ( PR 26/05). Additional evidence came from witnessing another event with the VLT ( PR 32/05). Also in this field, astronomers found the farthest known gamma-ray burst with ESO's VLT, observing an object with a redshift 6.3, i.e. that is seen when the Universe was less than 900 million years old ( PR 22/05). On July 4, NASA's Deep Impact spacecraft plunged onto Comet 9P/Tempel 1 with the aim to create a crater and expose pristine material from beneath the surface. For two days before and six days after, all major ESO telescopes have been observing the comet, in a coordinated fashion and in

  9. Psychometric validation of the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire-Endometrial Cancer Module (EORTC QLQ-EN24)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greimel, Elfriede; Nordin, Andy; Lanceley, Anne

    2011-01-01

    A validation study was conducted to evaluate the psychometric properties of the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) Quality of Life Questionnaire-Endometrial Cancer Module (EORTC QLQ-EN24). This module was designed to assess disease and treatment specific aspects...... of the quality of life (QoL) of patients with endometrial cancer....

  10. Developing a Philippine Cancer Grid. Part 1: Building a Prototype for a Data Retrieval System for Breast Cancer Research Using Medical Ontologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coronel, Andrei D.; Saldana, Rafael P.

    Cancer is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in the Philippines. Developed within the context of a Philippine Cancer Grid, the present study used web development technologies such as PHP, MySQL, and Apache server to build a prototype data retrieval system for breast cancer research that incorporates medical ontologies from the Unified Medical Language System (UMLS).

  11. Educating Low-SES and LEP Survivors About Breast Cancer Research: Pilot Test of the Health Research Engagement Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickell, Alyssa; Burke, Nancy J.; Cohen, Elly; Caprio, Maria

    2015-01-01

    The Health Research Engagement Intervention (HREI) aims to reduce information and access disparities for breast cancer research opportunities among low-socioeconomic status (SES) and limited English proficient (LEP) breast cancer survivors by providing neutral, non-trial-specific information about health research via a trusted patient navigator. Qualitative methods in the context of a community-based participatory research design were used to iteratively design the HREI in collaboration with community-based care navigators from a trusted community organization, Shanti Project, and to locate appropriate research studies in collaboration with a web-based trial-matching service, BreastCancerTrials.org (BCT). Navigators were first trained in clinical trials and health research and then to deliver the HREI, providing feedback that was incorporated into both the HREI design and BCT's interface. Our intervention pilot with low SES and LEP survivors (n=12) demonstrated interest in learning about “health research.” All 12 participants opted to obtain more information when offered the opportunity. Post-intervention questionnaires showed that three of 11 (27 %) participants independently pursued additional information about research opportunities either online or by phone in the week following the intervention. Post-intervention navigator questionnaires indicated that navigators could confidently and efficiently deliver the intervention. LEP patients who pursued information independently faced language barriers. The HREI is a promising and potentially scalable intervention to increase access to neutral information about breast cancer research opportunities for low-SES and LEP individuals. However, in order for it to be effective, systems barriers to participation such as language accessibility at sources of health research information must be addressed. PMID:24744119

  12. Educating low-SES and LEP survivors about breast cancer research: pilot test of the Health Research Engagement Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickell, Alyssa; Burke, Nancy J; Cohen, Elly; Caprio, Maria; Joseph, Galen

    2014-12-01

    The Health Research Engagement Intervention (HREI) aims to reduce information and access disparities for breast cancer research opportunities among low-socioeconomic status (SES) and limited English proficient (LEP) breast cancer survivors by providing neutral, non-trial-specific information about health research via a trusted patient navigator. Qualitative methods in the context of a community-based participatory research design were used to iteratively design the HREI in collaboration with community-based care navigators from a trusted community organization, Shanti Project, and to locate appropriate research studies in collaboration with a web-based trial-matching service, BreastCancerTrials.org (BCT). Navigators were first trained in clinical trials and health research and then to deliver the HREI, providing feedback that was incorporated into both the HREI design and BCT's interface. Our intervention pilot with low SES and LEP survivors (n = 12) demonstrated interest in learning about "health research." All 12 participants opted to obtain more information when offered the opportunity. Post-intervention questionnaires showed that three of 11 (27 %) participants independently pursued additional information about research opportunities either online or by phone in the week following the intervention. Post-intervention navigator questionnaires indicated that navigators could confidently and efficiently deliver the intervention. LEP patients who pursued information independently faced language barriers. The HREI is a promising and potentially scalable intervention to increase access to neutral information about breast cancer research opportunities for low-SES and LEP individuals. However, in order for it to be effective, systems barriers to participation such as language accessibility at sources of health research information must be addressed.

  13. Selected National Cancer Institute Breast Cancer Research Topics | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... associated with risk of recurrence in women with early-stage breast cancer can be used to identify the most appropriate ... novel agents, technologies, and markers for better diagnosis, prognosis, screening, prevention, and treatment of breast cancer. Summer 2014 Issue: Volume 9 Number 2 Page ...

  14. Multifunctional fluorescent magnetic nanoparticles for lung cancer stem cells research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xuan; Chen, Lisha; Wang, Anxin; Ma, Yufei; Zhang, Hailu; Zhu, Yimin

    2015-10-01

    In this paper, a multifunctional peptide-fluorescent-magnetic nanocomposites (Fe₃O₄@PEI@Cy5.5@PEG@HCBP-1 NPs) was synthesized via a layer-by-layer approach for potential application to cancer diagnoses. The multifunctional nanocomposites have great dispersibility and homogeneous particle sizes in aqueous solution. Meanwhile, it has perfect hemocompatibility and satisfying cytocompatibility in a relatively high concentration. Data from in vitro cytotoxicity assay indicated that the nanocomposites could recognize the lung cancer stem cells (CSCs) specifically and enrich the HCBP-1 positive CSCs from H460 tumor xenografts effectively. Additionally, the results of in vivo live fluorescent imaging and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed that the nanocomposites could identify lung CSCs in tumor xenografts. These results suggested that the nanocomposites could be used as a potential cancer diagnostic agent through modifying diverse fluorescence dyes and targeting ligands on its surface.

  15. Physical Sciences 2007 Science & Technology Highlights

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hazi, A U

    2008-04-07

    The Physical Sciences Directorate applies frontier physics and technology to grand challenges in national security. Our highly integrated and multidisciplinary research program involves collaborations throughout Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, the National Nuclear Security Administration, the Department of Energy, and with academic and industrial partners. The Directorate has a budget of approximately $150 million, and a staff of approximately 350 employees. Our scientists provide expertise in condensed matter and high-pressure physics, plasma physics, high-energy-density science, fusion energy science and technology, nuclear and particle physics, accelerator physics, radiation detection, optical science, biotechnology, and astrophysics. This document highlights the outstanding research and development activities in the Physical Sciences Directorate that made news in 2007. It also summarizes the awards and recognition received by members of the Directorate in 2007.

  16. The European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) Quality-of-Life questionnaire cervical cancer module

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greimel, Elfriede R; Kuljanic Vlasic, Karin; Waldenstrom, Ann-Charlotte

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The authors report on the development and validation of a cervical cancer module for the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) Quality-of-Life (QoL) questionnaire (QLQ), which was designed to assess disease-specific and treatment-specific aspects of Qo...... with Cronbach alpha coefficients ranging from .72 to .87 (Symptom Experience, .72; Body Image, .86; Sexual/Vaginal Functioning, .87). Convergent and discriminant validity were fulfilled with scaling errors below 3%. The QLQ-CX24 was capable of discriminating between clinical subgroups. All items exhibited good...

  17. Cancer research in need of a scientific revolution: Using 'paradigm shift' as a method of investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wion, Didier; Appaix, Florence; Burruss, Meriwether; Berger, Francois; van der Sanden, Boudewijn

    2015-09-01

    Despite important human and financial resources and considerable accumulation of scientific publications, patents, and clinical trials, cancer research has been slow in achieving a therapeutic revolution similar to the one that occurred in the last century for infectious diseases. It has been proposed that science proceeds not only by accumulating data but also through paradigm shifts. Here, we propose to use the concept of 'paradigm shift' as a method of investigation when dominant paradigms fail to achieve their promises. The first step in using the 'paradigm shift' method in cancer research requires identifying its founding paradigms. In this review, two of these founding paradigms will be discussed: (i) the reification of cancer as a tumour mass and (ii) the translation of the concepts issued from infectious disease in cancer research. We show how these founding paradigms can generate biases that lead to over-diagnosis and over-treatment and also hamper the development of curative cancer therapies. We apply the 'paradigm shift' method to produce perspective reversals consistent with current experimental evidence. The 'paradigm shift' method enlightens the existence of a tumour physiologic-prophylactic-pathologic continuum. It integrates the target/antitarget concept and that cancer is also an extracellular disease. The 'paradigm shift' method has immediate implications for cancer prevention and therapy. It could be a general method of investigation for other diseases awaiting therapy.

  18. An integrative review of South African cancer nursing research published from 2002–2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna Maree

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: This integrative review aimed to quantify the publication output of South African cancer nursing research conducted between 2002 and 2012 and to identify key trends relevant to cancer nurse researchers.Objectives: To describe the publication output of cancer nursing research in terms of the journals of publication, authors, focus, participants and methods used, to explore whether the published work was funded and to assess the quality of the studies published.Methods: An integrative review was conducted using the key words South Africa in combination with cancer nursing and oncology nursing to search the databases Pubmed, PsycINFO, CINAHL, Sabinet, Web of Science, Medline and OvidSP. A data extraction sheet was developed to document the required information from each paper and all publications were reviewed independently by the authors.Results: A total of 181 publications for potential inclusion were identified and 26 papers were included in this review. Cervical cancer, specifically the prevention of this disease, was the most popular diagnostic focus and theme of investigation. Most of the studies were descriptive and none of the studies met the criteria of the highest quality.Conclusion: Nursing added to the body of knowledge regarding the primary and secondary prevention of cancer. There is a need for work on both men and women diagnosed withthe most common cancers, as well as the family and care giver. There is also a need for multidisciplinary work using complex interventions focusing on symptom management to improve patient outcomes.

  19. Highlights of the LINEAR survey

    CERN Document Server

    Palaversa, Lovro

    2015-01-01

    Lincoln Near-Earth Asteroid Research asteroid survey (LINEAR) observed approximately 10,000 deg$^2$ of the northern sky in the period roughly from 1998 to 2013. Long baseline of observations combined with good cadence and depth ($14.5 < r_{SDSS}< 17.5$) provides excellent basis for investigation of variable and transient objects in this relatively faint and underexplored part of the sky. Details covering the repurposing of this survey for use in time domain astronomy, creation of a highly reliable catalogue of approximately 7,200 periodically variable stars (RR Lyrae, eclipsing binaries, SX Phe stars and LPVs) as well as search for optical signatures of exotic transient events (such as tidal disruption event candidates), are presented.

  20. Dietary-induced cancer prevention: An expanding research arena of emerging diet related to healthcare system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilipkumar Pal

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Diet plays a vital role in the management of cancer because they are the source of important physiologically functional components. Scientific observations support the idea that dietary supplement can prevent breast cancer recurrences. Strong correlations are established between the high intake of saturated fat and the incidence of different types of cancer. It is found that chronic alcohol consumption is associated with increased risk of cancers of oral cavity, pharynx, esophagus, and larynx. Again, some evidences are also found regarding phosphorous, glutamate level in the body, and incidence of cancer. Different physiologically functional components are found in the dietary materials. Fibers, the major dietary components, have long been recognized for the unique properties in the treatment of cancer, which are related to its antineoplastic functions. Antioxidant rich diet has been added to the list of cancer-preventing dietary components. Also, recently published research has shown that natural carotenoids in the diet leads to a normalization of body epithelial cells and protects against the risk of stomach and esophagus cancer, and improves the immune system′s response. Again, fruit juices, processed vegetable juices, orange peel, green tea, vitamins, flavonoids, and trace materials have cancer inhibitory properties. Clearly, there has been increasing recognition of chemoprotective functions. Now, it can be recognized for another kind of functionality for the improvement of the health of mankind.

  1. Biomarkers for diet and cancer prevention research: potentials and challenges

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cindy D DAVIS; John A MILNER

    2007-01-01

    As cancer incidence is projected to increase for decades there is a need for effec-tive preventive strategies. Fortunately, evidence continues to mount that altering dietary habits is an effective and cost-efficient approach for reducing cancer risk and for modifying the biological behavior of tumors. Predictive, validated and sensitive biomarkers, including those that reliably evaluate "intake" or exposure to a specific food or bioactive component, that assess one or more specific bio-logical "effects" that are linked to cancer, and that effectively predict individual "susceptibility" as a function of nutrient-nutrient interactions and genetics, are fundamental to evaluating who will benefit most from dietary interventions. These biomarkers must be readily accessible, easily and reliably assayed, and predictive of a key process(es) involved in cancer. The response to a food is determined not only by the effective concentration of the bioactive food component(s) reaching the target tissue, but also by the amount of the target requiring modification.Thus, this threshold response to foods and their components will vary from indi-vidual to individual. The key to understanding a personalized response is a greater knowledge of nutrigenomics, proteomics and metabolomics.

  2. Exercise for Breast Cancer Survivors: Research Evidence and Clinical Guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courneya, Kerry S.; Mackey, John R.; McKenzie, Donald C.

    2002-01-01

    Exercise can significantly benefit breast cancer survivors during and after treatment. Moderate intensity aerobic exercise as well as resistance training are important. Psychological health is optimized by enjoyable exercise that develops new skills, incorporates social interaction, and occurs in a stimulating environment. Several conditions…

  3. Genetic Factors in Breast Cancer: Center for Interdisciplinary Biobehavioral Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-10-01

    Cancer Institute of New Jersey); Erin Moshier, Elizabeth Zaita, Katie Dorn, Anneisha Camp- bell, Ana Estevez, Joan Bratton, Melissa Solis, Sherly Jacob...18) Costa -Pinto FA, Palermo-Neto J: Neuroimmune interactions in stress, Neuroimmunomodulation 2010; 17(3):196-9. 19) Smith AJP, Humphries SE

  4. ESO PR Highlights in 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    Last year proved to be another exceptional year for the European organisation for ground-based astronomy. ESO should begin the New Year with two new member states: Spain (PR 05/06) and the Czech Republic (PR 52/06). ESO PR Highlights 2006 2006 was a year of renovation and revolution in the world of planets. A new Earth-like exoplanet has been discovered (PR 03/06) using a network of telescopes from all over the world (including the Danish 1.54-m one at ESO La Silla). It is not the only child of this fruitful year: thanks to the combined use of ESO's Very Large Telescope (VLT) and La Silla instruments, a surprising system of twin giant exoplanets was found (PR 29/06), and a trio of Neptune-like planets hosted by a nearby star were identified (PR 18/06). These results open new perspectives on the search for habitable zones and on the understanding of the mechanism of planet formation. The VISIR instrument on the VLT has been providing unique information to answer this last question, by supplying a high resolution view of a planet-forming disc (PR 36/06). There are not only new members in the planets' register: during the General Assembly of the International Astronomical Union held in Prague (Czech Republic), it was decided that Pluto is not a planet anymore but a 'dwarf planet'. Whatever its status, Pluto still has a satellite, Charon, whose radius and density have been measured more accurately by observing a rare occultation from different sites, including Cerro Paranal (PR 02/06). The scientific community dedicated 2006 to the great physicist James Clerk Maxwell (it was the 175th anniversary of the birth): without his electromagnetic theory of light, none of the astonishing discoveries of modern physics could have been achieved. Nowadays we can look at distant galaxies in great detail: the GIRAFFE spectrograph on the VLT revealed that galaxies 6 billion years ago had the same amount of dark matter relative to stars than nowadays (PR 10/06), while SINFONI gave an

  5. Summary of the 6th Annual Bladder Cancer Think Tank: new directions in urologic research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svatek, Robert S; Rosenberg, Jonathan E; Galsky, Matthew D; Lee, Cheryl T; Latini, David M; Bochner, Bernard H; Weizer, Alon Z; Apolo, Andrea B; Sridhar, Srikala S; Kamat, Ashish M; Hansel, Donna; Flaig, Thomas W; Smith, Norm D; Lotan, Yair

    2013-10-01

    The 6th Annual Bladder Cancer Think Tank brought together a multidisciplinary group of clinicians, researchers, and representatives from the National Cancer Institute and Industry in an effort to advance bladder cancer research efforts. This year's meeting comprised panel discussions and research involving 5 separate working groups, including the Survivorship, Clinical Trials, Standardization of Care, Data Mining, and Translational Science working groups. In this manuscript, the accomplishments and objectives of the working groups are summarized. Notable efforts include: (1) the development of a survivorship care plan for early and late-stage bladder cancer; (2) the development of consensus criteria for eligibility and endpoints for bladder cancer clinical trials; (3) an improved understanding of current practice patterns regarding the use of perioperative chemotherapy in an effort to standardize care; (4) creation of a comprehensive handbook to assist researchers with developing bladder cancer databases; and (5) identification of response to therapy of high-grade non muscle invasive disease through a collaborative exchange of expertise and resources.

  6. 2011 Ground Testing Highlights Article

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, James C.; Buchholz, Steven J.

    2011-01-01

    Two tests supporting development of the launch abort system for the Orion MultiPurpose Crew Vehicle were run in the NASA Ames Unitary Plan wind tunnel last year. The first test used a fully metric model to examine the stability and controllability of the Launch Abort Vehicle during potential abort scenarios for Mach numbers ranging from 0.3 to 2.5. The aerodynamic effects of the Abort Motor and Attitude Control Motor plumes were simulated using high-pressure air flowing through independent paths. The aerodynamic effects of the proximity to the launch vehicle during the early moments of an abort were simulated with a remotely actuated Service Module that allowed the position relative to the Crew Module to be varied appropriately. The second test simulated the acoustic environment around the Launch Abort Vehicle caused by the plumes from the 400,000-pound thrust, solid-fueled Abort Motor. To obtain the proper acoustic characteristics of the hot rocket plumes for the flight vehicle, heated Helium was used. A custom Helium supply system was developed for the test consisting of 2 jumbo high-pressure Helium trailers, a twelve-tube accumulator, and a 13MW gas-fired heater borrowed from the Propulsion Simulation Laboratory at NASA Glenn Research Center. The test provided fluctuating surface pressure measurements at over 200 points on the vehicle surface that have now been used to define the ground-testing requirements for the Orion Launch Abort Vehicle.

  7. Advancement in research of anti-cancer effects of toad venom (ChanSu) and perspectives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Miao Liu; Li-Xing Feng; Li-Hong Hu; Xuan Liu; De-An Guo

    2015-01-01

    Toad venom, called as ChanSu in China, is a widely used traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) whose active components are mainly bufadienolides. ChanSu could exhibit cardiotonic, anti-microbial, anti-inflammatory and, most importantly, anti-cancer effects. In the present review, reports about the in vitro, in vivo and clinical anti-cancer effects of ChanSu or its representative component, bufalin, were summarized. And, reported anti-cancer mechanisms of cardenolides, structure analogues of bufadienolides, were also introduced. Based on the results got from research of ChanSu/bufalin and the results from cardenolides, possible signal network related to the anti-cancer effects of ChanSu/bufalin was predicted. Furthermore, future potential use of ChanSu in anti-cancer therapy was discussed.

  8. Critical appraisal of the suitability of translational research models for performance assessment of cancer institutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rajan, A.; Sullivan, R.; Bakker, S.; Harten, van W.H.

    2012-01-01

    Background. Translational research is a complex cumulative process that takes time. However, the operating environment for cancer centers engaged in translational research is now financially insecure. Centers are challenged to improve results and reduce time from discovery to practice innovations. P

  9. Critical Appraisal of Translational Research Models for Suitability in Performance Assessment of Cancer Centers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rajan, Abinaya; Sullivan, Richard; Bakker, Suzanne; Harten, van Wim H.

    2012-01-01

    Background. Translational research is a complex cumulative process that takes time. However, the operating environment for cancer centers engaged in translational research is now financially insecure. Centers are challenged to improve results and reduce time from discovery to practice innovations. P

  10. A survey of the barriers associated with academic-based cancer research commercialization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderford, Nathan L; Weiss, L Todd; Weiss, Heidi L

    2013-01-01

    Commercialization within the academic setting is associated with many challenges and barriers. Previous studies investigating these challenges/barriers have, in general, broadly focused on multiple disciplines and, oftentimes, several institutions simultaneously. The goal of the study presented here was to analyze a range of barriers that may be broadly associated with commercializing academic-based cancer research. This goal was addressed via a study of the barriers associated with cancer research commercialization at the University of Kentucky (UK). To this end, a research instrument in the form of an electronic survey was developed. General demographic information was collected on study participants and two research questions were addressed: 1) What are the general barriers inhibiting cancer research commercialization at UK? and 2) Would mitigation of the barriers potentially enhance faculty engagement in commercialization activities? Descriptive and statistical analysis of the data reveal that multiple barriers likely inhibit cancer research commercialization at UK with expense, time, infrastructure, and lack of industry partnerships being among the most commonly cited factors. The potential alleviation of these factors in addition to revised University policies/procedures, risk mitigation, more emphasis on commercialization by academia research field, and increased information on how to commercialize significantly correlated with the potential for increased commercialization activity. Furthermore, multivariate logistic regression modeling demonstrated that research commercialization would incrementally increase as barriers to the process are removed and that PhD-holding respondents and respondents in commercialization-supportive research fields would be more likely to commercialize their research upon barrier removal. Overall, as with other disciplines, these data suggest that for innovations derived from academic cancer-research to move more effectively and

  11. Three interrelated themes in current breast cancer research: gene addiction, phenotypic plasticity, and cancer stem cells

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Recent efforts to understand breast cancer biology involve three interrelated themes that are founded on a combination of clinical and experimental observations. The central concept is gene addiction. The clinical dilemma is the escape from gene addiction, which is mediated, in part, by phenotypic plasticity as exemplified by epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition and mesenchymal-to-epithelial transition. Finally, cancer stem cells are now recognized as the basis for minimal residual disease an...

  12. The crossroads of GIS and health information: a workshop on developing a research agenda to improve cancer control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lewis Denise

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Cancer control researchers seek to reduce the burden of cancer by studying interventions, their impact in defined populations, and the means by which they can be better used. The first step in cancer control is identifying where the cancer burden is elevated, which suggests locations where interventions are needed. Geographic information systems (GIS and other spatial analytic methods provide such a solution and thus can play a major role in cancer control. This report presents findings from a workshop held June 16–17, 2005, to bring together experts and stakeholders to address current issues in GIScience and cancer control. A broad range of areas of expertise and interest was represented, including epidemiology, geography, statistics, environmental health, social science, cancer control, cancer registry operations, and cancer advocacy. The goals of this workshop were to build consensus on important policy and research questions, identify roadblocks to future progress in this field, and provide recommendations to overcome these roadblocks.

  13. Mouse models in liver cancer research: A review of current literature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Martijn WH Leenders; Maarten W Nijkamp; Inne HM Borel Rinkes

    2008-01-01

    Primary liver cancer remains one of the most lethal malignancies worldwide. Due to differences in prevalence of etiological factors the incidence of primary liver cancer varies among the world, with a peak in EasL-Asia. As this disease is still lethal in most of the cases, research has to be done to improve our understanding of the disease, offering insights for possible treatment options. For this purpose, animal models are widely used,especially mouse models. In this review, we describe the different types of mouse models used in liver cancer research, with emphasis on genetically engineered mice used in this field. We focus on hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), as this is by far the most common Lype of primary liver cancer, accounting for 70%-85% of cases.

  14. Physical and Life Sciences 2008 Science & Technology Highlights

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Correll, D L; Hazi, A U

    2009-05-06

    This document highlights the outstanding research and development activities in the Physical and Life Sciences Directorate that made news in 2008. It also summarizes the awards and recognition received by members of the Directorate in 2008.

  15. Molecular targets of selenium in prostate cancer prevention (Review).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdulah, Rizky; Kobayashi, Kenji; Yamazaki, Chiho; Koyama, Hiroshi

    2011-08-01

    Prostate cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer-related deaths among males. Although use of the micro-nutrient selenium in prostate cancer clinical trials is limited, the outcomes indicate that selenium is a promising treatment. Furthermore, selenium inhibits prostate cancer through multiple mechanisms, and it is beneficial in controlling the development of this disease. This review highlights the latest epidemiological and biomolecular research on selenium in prostate cancer, as well as its prospects for future clinical use.

  16. Health psychology and translational genomic research: bringing innovation to cancer-related behavioral interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBride, Colleen M; Birmingham, Wendy C; Kinney, Anita Y

    2015-01-01

    The past decade has witnessed rapid advances in human genome sequencing technology and in the understanding of the role of genetic and epigenetic alterations in cancer development. These advances have raised hopes that such knowledge could lead to improvements in behavioral risk reduction interventions, tailored screening recommendations, and treatment matching that together could accelerate the war on cancer. Despite this optimism, translation of genomic discovery for clinical and public health applications has moved relatively slowly. To date, health psychologists and the behavioral sciences generally have played a very limited role in translation research. In this report we discuss what we mean by genomic translational research and consider the social forces that have slowed translational research, including normative assumptions that translation research must occur downstream of basic science, thus relegating health psychology and other behavioral sciences to a distal role. We then outline two broad priority areas in cancer prevention, detection, and treatment where evidence will be needed to guide evaluation and implementation of personalized genomics: (a) effective communication, to broaden dissemination of genomic discovery, including patient-provider communication and familial communication, and (b) the need to improve the motivational impact of behavior change interventions, including those aimed at altering lifestyle choices and those focusing on decision making regarding targeted cancer treatments and chemopreventive adherence. We further discuss the role that health psychologists can play in interdisciplinary teams to shape translational research priorities and to evaluate the utility of emerging genomic discoveries for cancer prevention and control.

  17. Fifth annual report of cancer research at the University of Chicago

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berk, A.J. (ed.)

    1978-01-01

    Research on viral oncology included molecular organization and functions of herpes simplex virus and mechanism of type C RNA virus activation by 5-BrdU. Cancer biology studies included molecular studies of all differentiation and cell interactions, mechanism of inhibition of DNA synthesis by nalidixic acid and other agents, and sensitivity of cells to uv and x radiation. Tumor immunology studies included the role of immunoglobulin D in lymphoproliferative disorders, mechanisms of suppression of rat renal allograft rejection, and effects of drugs on sensitivity of tumor cells to antibody and complement. Studies on carcinogenesis included chemistry of metabolites of hydrocarbons, radiation toxicity in dogs, detection and prevention of neoplasia, carcinogenic and genetic effects of tritium, and effects of DES during pregnancy. Clinical research included studies on gallium scanning, chemotherapy, control of thyroid cancer, leukopoietic mechanisms, and diagnostic and therapetutic techniques. Research on radiotherapy, radiation physics, and radiation biology included neutron dosimetry, computerized dosimetry for radiotherapy, DNA damage, and mammalian cell killing. Research at core facilities is reported with regard to the core immunology laboratory, computerized oncology radiation and data system, and application of nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy to cancer research. Activities of the cancer control center are described with regard to education and dissemination of knowledge about cancer. (HLW)

  18. Quantitative multimodality imaging in cancer research and therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yankeelov, Thomas E; Abramson, Richard G; Quarles, C Chad

    2014-11-01

    Advances in hardware and software have enabled the realization of clinically feasible, quantitative multimodality imaging of tissue pathophysiology. Earlier efforts relating to multimodality imaging of cancer have focused on the integration of anatomical and functional characteristics, such as PET-CT and single-photon emission CT (SPECT-CT), whereas more-recent advances and applications have involved the integration of multiple quantitative, functional measurements (for example, multiple PET tracers, varied MRI contrast mechanisms, and PET-MRI), thereby providing a more-comprehensive characterization of the tumour phenotype. The enormous amount of complementary quantitative data generated by such studies is beginning to offer unique insights into opportunities to optimize care for individual patients. Although important technical optimization and improved biological interpretation of multimodality imaging findings are needed, this approach can already be applied informatively in clinical trials of cancer therapeutics using existing tools. These concepts are discussed herein.

  19. Breast cancer research output, 1945-2008: a bibliometric and density-equalizing analysis

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Glynn, Ronan W

    2010-12-22

    Abstract Introduction Breast cancer is the most common form of cancer among women, with an estimated 194,280 new cases diagnosed in the United States in 2009 alone. The primary aim of this work was to provide an in-depth evaluation of research yield in breast cancer from 1945 to 2008, using large-scale data analysis, the employment of bibliometric indicators of production and quality, and density-equalizing mapping. Methods Data were retrieved from the Web of Science (WOS) Science Citation Expanded database; this was searched using the Boolean operator, \\'OR\\

  20. Tissue Microarray A New Tool for Cancer Research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Shanghai Outdo Biotech Co.Ltd. (Outdo Biotech) is a leading company in human/animal Tissue Microarrays (TMA) and "Clinical-Type" Gene Chip (CTGC) in China. Our shareholders are Shanghai Biochip Co., Ltd. & National Engineering Center for Biochip at Shanghai, Shanghai Cancer institute and Eastern Liver and Bladder Hospital of Second Military Medical University. TMA is a mean of combining tens to hundreds of specimens of tissue, paraffin embedded or frozen, onto a single slide for analysis at once. Our constr...

  1. Training Program in the Molecular Basis of Breast Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-10-01

    regulating the proteasomes in a protozoan species, the Trypanosomes" Francis Barany "New methods of detecting genetic diseases and cancers" Steven...WA Burkhart, MB Moyer, W Ramos, ZB Mackey, JM Besterman and J Chen. 1995 Purification and characterization of DNA ligase III from bovine testes ...hypothesis under test is that BRCA1 can influence negatively the expression of a repertoire of AP12-regulated genes. This control function may be

  2. Interest and attitudes of patients, cancer physicians, medical students and cancer researchers towards a spectrum of genetic tests relevant to breast cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngoi, Natalie; Lee, Soo-Chin; Hartman, Mikael; Khin, Lay-Wai; Wong, Andrea

    2013-02-01

    The perspectives of patients and healthcare professionals towards breast cancer genetic tests that are becoming increasingly available is unexplored in Asians. We surveyed the interest and attitudes of 200 breast cancer patients, 67 cancer physicians, 485 medical students and cancer researchers towards three genetic tests, BRCA1/2 mutation, CYP2D6 genotype and Oncotype DX testing, using hypothetical scenarios. Approximately 60% of patients expressed initial interest in each genetic test, although the majority reversed their decisions once test limitations were conveyed, with <15% maintaining interest in each test. Cancer physicians were most likely to recommend BRCA1/2 mutation testing (73%) and least likely to recommend CYP2D6 genotyping (12%), while patients were more likely to choose Oncotype DX testing (28%) over CYP2D6 (21%) and BRCA1/2 testing (15%). Cost concerns, low educational level and lack of prior awareness of genetic testing were the main barriers against breast cancer genetic testing among Asian patients.

  3. In vitro models of pancreatic cancer for translational oncology research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldmann, Georg; Rauenzahn, Sherri; Maitra, Anirban

    2009-01-01

    Background Pancreatic cancer is a disease of near uniform fatality and the overwhelming majority of patients succumb to their advanced malignancy within a few months of diagnosis. Despite considerable advances in our understanding of molecular mechanisms underlying pancreatic carcinogenesis, this knowledge has not yet been fully translated into clinically available treatment strategies that yield significant improvements in disease free or overall survival. Objective Cell line-based in vitro model systems provide powerful tools to identify potential molecular targets for therapeutic intervention as well as for initial pre-clinical evaluation of novel drug candidates. Here we provide a brief overview of recent literature on cell line-based model systems of pancreatic cancer and their application in the search for novel therapeutics against this vicious disease. Conclusion While in vitro models of pancreatic cancer are of tremendous value for genetic studies and initial functional screenings in drug discovery, they carry several imanent drawbacks and are often poor in predicting therapeutic response in humans. Therefore, in most instances they are successfully exploited to generate hypothesis and identify molecular targets for novel therapeutics, which are subsequently subject to further in-depth characterization using more advanced in vivo model systems and clinical trials. PMID:20160967

  4. Enhancing cancer registry data for comparative effectiveness research (CER) project: overview and methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Vivien W; Eheman, Christie R; Johnson, Christopher J; Hernandez, Monique N; Rousseau, David; Styles, Timothy S; West, Dee W; Hsieh, Meichin; Hakenewerth, Anne M; Celaya, Maria O; Rycroft, Randi K; Wike, Jennifer M; Pearson, Melissa; Brockhouse, Judy; Mulvihill, Linda G; Zhang, Kevin B

    2014-01-01

    Following the Institute of Medicine's 2009 report on the national priorities for comparative effectiveness research (CER), funding for support of CER became available in 2009 through the American Recovery and Re-investment Act. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) received funding to enhance the infrastructure of population-based cancer registries and to expand registry data collection to support CER. The CDC established 10 specialized registries within the National Program of Cancer Registries (NPCR) to enhance data collection for all cancers and to address targeted CER questions, including the clinical use and prognostic value of specific biomarkers. The project also included a special focus on detailed first course of treatment for cancers of the breast, colon, and rectum, as well as chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) diagnosed in 2011. This paper describes the methodology and the work conducted by the CDC and the NPCR specialized registries in collecting data for the 4 special focused cancers, including the selection of additional data variables, development of data collection tools and software modifications, institutional review board approvals, training, collection of detailed first course of treatment, and quality assurance. It also presents the characteristics of the study population and discusses the strengths and limitations of using population-based cancer registries to support CER as well as the potential future role of population-based cancer registries in assessing the quality of patient care and cancer control.

  5. Facilitating pictorial comprehension with color highlighting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDougald, Brannan R; Wogalter, Michael S

    2014-09-01

    Pictorials can aid in communicating warning information, but viewers may not always correctly comprehend them. Two experiments focused on whether the use of relevant highlighting could benefit pictorial comprehension. A set of warning-related pictorials were manipulated according to three-color highlighting conditions: highlighting areas more relevant to correct comprehension, highlighting areas less relevant to comprehension, and no highlighting. Participants were asked to describe the purpose and meaning of each pictorial presented to them. The findings from both experiments indicate that comprehension of warning pictorials is higher for the relevant highlighting condition than the other two conditions. The highlighting of less relevant areas reduced comprehension compared to no highlighting. Use of appropriately placed highlighting could benefit the design of a complex symbol by pointing out pertinent areas to aid in determining its intended conceptual meaning.

  6. Current state of the art, multimodality research and future visions for the treatment of patients with prostate cancer: consensus results from "Challenges and Chances in Prostate Cancer Research Meeting 2013".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Combs, Stephanie E; Debus, Jürgen; Feick, Günter; Hadaschik, Boris; Hohenfellner, Markus; Schüle, Roland; Zacharias, Jens-Peter; Schwardt, Malte

    2014-11-04

    A brainstorming and consensus meeting organized by the German Cancer Aid focused on modern treatment of prostate cancer and promising innovative techniques and research areas. Besides optimization of screening algorithms, molecular-based stratification and individually tailored treatment regimens will be the future of multimodal prostate cancer management. Effective interdisciplinary structures, including biobanking and data collection mechanisms are the basis for such developments.

  7. [How to understand and facilitate return to school of high school students treated for cancer: analysis of a sociology research-action project].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rollin, Zoé

    2015-01-01

    Based on a sociology research-action project, this article analyses the specific issue of return to school of high school students with cancer. Three detailed cases, illustrating the global results of the study, are presented to highlight the academic trajectories of these students. This situation has a particular impact on juvenile sociability. Moreover, the education of these students does not comply with French educational standards and is very complex for professionals. Finally, social inequalities in education are reinforced by the experience of serious illness, as pedagogical negotiations are even more complex due to the fact that families are not familiar with school practices.

  8. Strengthening cancer biology research, prevention, and control while reducing cancer disparities: student perceptions of a collaborative master's degree program in cancer biology, preventions, and control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jillson, I A; Cousin, C E; Blancato, J K

    2013-09-01

    This article provides the findings of a survey of previous and current students in the UDC/GU-LCCC master's degree program. This master's degree program, Cancer Biology, Prevention, and Control is administered and taught jointly by faculty of a Minority Serving Institution, the University of the District of Columbia, and the Lombardi Comprehensive Cancer Center to incorporate the strengths of a community-based school with a research intensive medical center. The program was initiated in 2008 through agreements with both University administrations and funding from the National Cancer Institute. The master's degree program is 36 credits with a focus on coursework in biostatistics, epidemiology, tumor biology, cancer prevention, medical ethics, and cancer outreach program design. For two semesters during the second year, students work full-time with a faculty person on a laboratory or outreach project that is a requirement for graduation. Students are supported and encouraged to transition to a doctoral degree after they obtain the master's and many of them are currently in doctorate programs. Since the inception of the program, 45 students have initiated the course of study, 28 have completed the program, and 13 are currently enrolled in the program. The survey was designed to track the students in their current activities, as well as determine which courses, program enhancements, and research experiences were the least and most useful, and to discern students' perceptions of knowledge acquired on various aspects of Cancer Biology Prevention, and Control Master's Program. Thirty of the 35 individuals to whom email requests were sent responded to the survey, for a response rate of 85.7%. The results of this study will inform the strengthening of the Cancer Biology program by the Education Advisory Committee. They can also be used in the development of comparable collaborative master's degree programs designed to address the significant disparities in prevalence of

  9. Highlights from the Pierre Auger Observatory

    CERN Document Server

    Kampert, Karl-Heinz

    2012-01-01

    This paper summarizes some highlights from the Pierre Auger Observatory that were presented at the ICRC 2011 in Beijing. The cumulative exposure has grown by more than 60% since the previous ICRC to above 21000 km^2 sr yr. Besides giving important updates on the energy spectrum, mass composition, arrival directions, and photon- and neutrino upper limits, we present first measurements of the energy spectrum down to 3 x 10^{17} eV, first distributions of the shower maximum, X_max, together with new surface detector related observables sensitive to X_max, and we present first measurements of the p-air cross section at ~ 10^{18} eV. Serendipity observations such as of atmospheric phenomena showing time evolutions of elves extend the breadth of the astrophysics research program.

  10. De-Risking Immunotherapy: Report of a Consensus Workshop of the Cancer Immunotherapy Consortium of the Cancer Research Institute.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellman, Ira; Hubbard-Lucey, Vanessa M; Tontonoz, Matthew J; Kalos, Michael D; Chen, Daniel S; Allison, James P; Drake, Charles G; Levitsky, Hy; Lonberg, Nils; van der Burg, Sjoerd H; Fearon, Douglas T; Wherry, E John; Lowy, Israel; Vonderheide, Robert H; Hwu, Patrick

    2016-04-01

    With the recent FDA approvals of pembrolizumab and nivolumab, and a host of additional immunomodulatory agents entering clinical development each year, the field of cancer immunotherapy is changing rapidly. Strategies that can assist researchers in choosing the most promising drugs and drug combinations to move forward through clinical development are badly needed in order to reduce the likelihood of late-stage clinical trial failures. On October 5, 2014, the Cancer Immunotherapy Consortium of the Cancer Research Institute, a collaborative think tank composed of stakeholders from academia, industry, regulatory agencies, and patient interest groups, met to discuss strategies for de-risking immunotherapy development, with a focus on integrating preclinical and clinical studies, and conducting smarter early-phase trials, particularly for combination therapies. Several recommendations were made, including making better use of clinical data to inform preclinical research, obtaining adequate tissues for biomarker studies, and choosing appropriate clinical trial endpoints to identify promising drug candidates and combinations in nonrandomized early-phase trials.

  11. Laboratory for Atmospheres 2008 Technical Highlights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cote, Charles E.

    2009-01-01

    The 2008 Technical Highlights describes the efforts of all members of the Laboratory for Atmospheres. Their dedication to advancing Earth Science through conducting research, developing and running models, designing instruments, managing projects, running field campaigns, and numerous other activities, is highlighted in this report. The Laboratory for Atmospheres (Code 613) is part of the Earth Sciences Division (Code 610), formerly the Earth Sun Exploration Division, under the Sciences and Exploration Directorate (Code 600) based at NASA s Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Maryland. In line with NASA s Exploration Initiative, the Laboratory executes a comprehensive research and technology development program dedicated to advancing knowledge and understanding of the atmospheres of Earth and other planets. The research program is aimed at understanding the influence of solar variability on the Earth s climate; predicting the weather and climate of Earth; understanding the structure, dynamics, and radiative properties of precipitation, clouds, and aerosols; understanding atmospheric chemistry, especially the role of natural and anthropogenic trace species on the ozone balance in the stratosphere and the troposphere; and advancing our understanding of physical properties of Earth s atmosphere. The research program identifies problems and requirements for atmospheric observations via satellite missions. Laboratory scientists conceive, design, develop, and implement ultraviolet, infrared, optical, radar, laser, and lidar technology for remote sensing of the atmosphere. Laboratory members conduct field measurements for satellite data calibration and validation, and carry out numerous modeling activities. These modeling activities include climate model simulations, modeling the chemistry and transport of trace species on regional-to-global scales, cloud-resolving models, and development of next-generation Earth system models. Interdisciplinary research is carried

  12. Human breast biomonitoring and environmental chemicals: use of breast tissues and fluids in breast cancer etiologic research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaKind, Judy S; Wilkins, Amy A; Bates, Michael N

    2007-09-01

    Extensive research indicates that the etiology of breast cancer is complex and multifactorial and may include environmental risk factors. Breast cancer etiology and exposure to xenobiotic compounds, diet, electromagnetic fields, and lifestyle have been the subject of numerous scientific inquiries, but research has yielded inconsistent results. Biomonitoring has been used to explore associations between breast cancer and levels of environmental chemicals in the breast. Research using breast tissues and fluids to cast light on the etiology of breast cancer is, for the most part, predicated on the assumption that the tissue or fluid samples either contain measurable traces of the environmental agent(s) associated with the cancer or that they retain biological changes that are biomarkers of such exposure or precursors of carcinogenic effect. In this paper, we review breast cancer etiology research utilizing breast biomonitoring. We first provide a brief synopsis of the current state of understanding of associations between exposure to environmental chemicals and breast cancer etiology. We then describe the published breast cancer research on tissues and fluids, which have been used for biomonitoring, specifically human milk and its components, malignant and benign breast tissue, nipple aspirate fluid (NAF) and breast cyst fluid. We conclude with a discussion on recommendations for biomonitoring of breast tissues and fluids in future breast cancer etiology research. Both human milk and NAF fluids, and the cells contained therein, hold promise for future biomonitoring research into breast cancer etiology, but must be conducted with carefully delineated hypotheses and a scientifically supportable epidemiological approach.

  13. Nanoparticle drug delivery systems and three-dimensional cell cultures in cancer treatments and research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenjin Shi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Being a great threat to human health, with no permanent cure yet, better treatment and further research in cancer are inevitable. Nanoparticle drug delivery systems (NDDSs, especially pH-sensitive NDDSs, such as lipid-based, polymeric, and mesoporous silica nanoparticles have played a significant role in cancer treatments. Further, three-dimensional (3D cell cultures models, which include tumor spheroid models, microfluidic systems, and matrix/scaffolds-based 3D tumor, better mimic the tumor microenvironment than the conventional two-dimensional cultures, making it possible to better understand the disease while serving as a useful in vitro model for future research. The present review mainly focuses on such 3D cell cultures and drug delivery systems that are applied in cancer research and treatments.

  14. Liposome Delivery Systems for Inhalation: A Critical Review Highlighting Formulation Issues and Anticancer Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudokas, Mindaugas; Najlah, Mohammad; Alhnan, Mohamed Albed; Elhissi, Abdelbary

    2016-01-01

    This is a critical review on research conducted in the field of pulmonary delivery of liposomes. Issues relating to the mechanism of nebulisation and liposome composition were appraised and correlated with literature reports of liposome formulations used in clinical trials to understand the role of liposome size and composition on therapeutic outcome. A major highlight was liposome inhalation for the treatment of lung cancers. Many in vivo studies that explored the potential of liposomes as anticancer carrier systems were evaluated, including animal studies and clinical trials. Liposomes can entrap anticancer drugs and localise their action in the lung following pulmonary delivery. The safety of inhaled liposomes incorporating anticancer drugs depends on the anticancer agent used and the amount of drug delivered to the target cancer in the lung. The difficulty of efficient targeting of liposomal anticancer aerosols to the cancerous tissues within the lung may result in low doses reaching the target site. Overall, following the success of liposomes as inhalable carriers in the treatment of lung infections, it is expected that more focus from research and development will be given to designing inhalable liposome carriers for the treatment of other lung diseases, including pulmonary cancers. The successful development of anticancer liposomes for inhalation may depend on the future development of effective aerosolisation devices and better targeted liposomes to maximise the benefit of therapy and reduce the potential for local and systemic adverse effects.

  15. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Partners & Collaborators Spotlight on Scientists Research Areas Cancer Biology Cancer Genomics Causes of Cancer Diagnosis Prevention Screening & ... Collaborators Spotlight on Scientists NCI Research Areas Cancer Biology Cancer Genomics Causes of Cancer Diagnosis Prevention Screening & ...

  16. HBCU Summer Undergraduate Training Program in Prostate Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-01

    prostate cell line (BPH1). ERG knockdown inhibited the cell growth and altered the morphology of VCaP cells. ERG knockdown in VCaP cells correlated with... Morphology and quantification of prostate cancer cells recovered from urine has led to development of an optimized protocol. • Recovered cells could...Grant From DoD-PCRP: ………………………..…...Attachment 4-6 University of the District of Columbia Newsletters “Fire Bird” ………………...Attachment 7, 8 28

  17. What Is Breast Cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Research? Breast Cancer About Breast Cancer What Is Breast Cancer? Breast cancer starts when cells in the breast ... spread, see our section on Cancer Basics . Where breast cancer starts Breast cancers can start from different parts ...

  18. The latest advances of experimental research on targeted gene therapy for prostate cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dongliang Pan; Lianchao Jin; Xianghua Zhang

    2013-01-01

    The absence of ef ective therapies for castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) establishes the need to de-velop novel therapeutic modality, such as targeted gene therapy, which is ideal for the treatment of CRPC. But its application has been limited due to lack of favorable gene vector and the reduction of“bystander ef ect”. Consequently, scientists al over the world focus their main experimental research on the fol owing four aspects:targeted gene, vector, transfer means and comprehensive therapy. In this paper, we reviewed the latest advances of experimental research on targeted gene therapy for prostate cancer .

  19. Communication in context. New directions in cancer communication research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bensing, J.; Dulmen, A.M. van; Tates, K.

    2007-01-01

    Communication research is sometimes described as analyzing the black box of the doctor's healing power (Bensing, 2000; White, 1988), but, every now and then you get a flash which shows communication researchers analyzing this black box as if it was found in the bush after a plane crash: as an object

  20. Nanosensors – a promising tool for cancer research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, E.M.

    2006-01-01

    Human cell biology is emerging as a new fi eld of research at Risø. Risø’s plant scientists are able to apply their unique expertise within the analysis and manipulation of individual cells to conduct research into human cells. Risø’s core competence inthis area centres, in particular...

  1. Uses of cancer registries for public health and clinical research in Europe: Results of the European Network of Cancer Registries survey among 161 population-based cancer registries during 2010–2012

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siesling, S.; Louwman, W.J.; Kwast, A.; Hurk, van den C.J.G.; O'Callaghan, M.; Rosso, S.; Zanetti, R.; Storm, H.; Comber, H.; Steliarova-Foucher, E.; Coebergh, J.W.W.

    2015-01-01

    Aim To provide insight into cancer registration coverage, data access and use in Europe. This contributes to data and infrastructure harmonisation and will foster a more prominent role of cancer registries (CRs) within public health, clinical policy and cancer research, whether within or outside the

  2. YM500v3: a database for small RNA sequencing in human cancer research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, I-Fang; Chang, Shing-Jyh; Chen, Chen-Yang; Liu, Shu-Hsuan; Li, Chia-Yang; Chan, Chia-Hao; Shih, Chuan-Chi; Cheng, Wei-Chung

    2017-01-01

    We previously presented the YM500 database, which contains >8000 small RNA sequencing (smRNA-seq) data sets and integrated analysis results for various cancer miRNome studies. In the updated YM500v3 database (http://ngs.ym.edu.tw/ym500/) presented herein, we not only focus on miRNAs but also on other functional small non-coding RNAs (sncRNAs), such as PIWI-interacting RNAs (piRNAs), tRNA-derived fragments (tRFs), small nuclear RNAs (snRNAs) and small nucleolar RNAs (snoRNAs). There is growing knowledge of the role of sncRNAs in gene regulation and tumorigenesis. We have also incorporated >10 000 cancer-related RNA-seq and >3000 more smRNA-seq data sets into the YM500v3 database. Furthermore, there are two main new sections, ‘Survival' and ‘Cancer', in this updated version. The ‘Survival’ section provides the survival analysis results in all cancer types or in a user-defined group of samples for a specific sncRNA. The ‘Cancer’ section provides the results of differential expression analyses, miRNA–gene interactions and cancer miRNA-related pathways. In the ‘Expression’ section, sncRNA expression profiles across cancer and sample types are newly provided. Cancer-related sncRNAs hold potential for both biotech applications and basic research. PMID:27899625

  3. Research Progress of Nutrition Support for Patients with Lung Cancer 
During Chemotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiqiao LUO

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Primary lung cancer is one of the most common malignancies. Nowadays, both its morbidity and mortality rank first, patients with lung cancer are often goes with some affiliating symptoms such as malnutrition and weight loss. The side effects of cytotoxicity during chemotherapy may lead to further deteriorate of the nutritional status and worsen the anti-tumor therapy’s efficacy and the patients’ quality of life. With the development of palliative treatment and the higher request of patients for quality of life, nutritional support will be an important adjunctive treatment to maintain a good nutritional status and enhance the patients’ immunity during chemotherapy. It will play an active role in improving tolerability of chemotherapy and prognosis for patients with lung cancer. Here is a review about research progress of nutrition support treatment during chemotherapy for the patients with lung cancer.

  4. [Research progress of nutrition support for patients with lung cancer during chemotherapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yiqiao; Zhu, Jiang

    2014-12-01

    Primary lung cancer is one of the most common malignancies. Nowadays, both its morbidity and mortality rank first, patients with lung cancer are often goes with some affiliating symptoms such as malnutrition and weight loss. The side effects of cytotoxicity during chemotherapy may lead to further deteriorate of the nutritional status and worsen the anti-tumor therapy's efficacy and the patients' quality of life. With the development of palliative treatment and the higher request of patients for quality of life, nutritional support will be an important adjunctive treatment to maintain a good nutritional status and enhance the patients' immunity during chemotherapy. It will play an active role in improving tolerability of chemotherapy and prognosis for patients with lung cancer. Here is a review about research progress of nutrition support treatment during chemotherapy for the patients with lung cancer.

  5. Fatalistic Cancer Beliefs and Information Seeking in Formerly Incarcerated African-American and Hispanic Men: Implications for Cancer Health Communication and Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valera, Pamela; Lian, Zi; Brotzman, Laura; Reid, Andrea

    2017-03-03

    African-American and Hispanic men are disproportionately affected by cancer experiencing higher rates of cancer-related morbidity and mortality for many cancers (but not all). These challenges may be magnified for a subpopulation of African-American and Hispanic men who have been incarcerated. A survey assessing demographics, incarceration experience, psychosocial, behavioral, and cancer health information seeking was administered to 230 previously incarcerated men aged 35 years and older. Data analysis was performed to assess the association between fatalism, perceived susceptibility, and health information seeking in this population. This study revealed the following: the majority of the participants (68.7%) held the fatalistic belief: "When I think of cancer, I automatically think of death." Second, the fatalistic belief, "There's not much you can do to lower your chances of getting cancer," is more prevalent among those who perceived a higher risk of developing cancer. Third, older participants (those between 55 and 70 years old) and widowed are less likely to think of death when they think of cancer. In addition, those who use the Internet to look for health or medical information (i.e., engaging in health information seeking) are less likely to agree with the fatalistic belief: "It seems like everything causes cancer." Given the high incidence of certain cancers among African-American and Hispanic men and the vulnerability of those involved in the criminal justice system, our findings highlight the importance of understanding perceived susceptibility to cancer, fatalistic beliefs about cancer, and information seeking in formerly incarcerated men.

  6. Compliance in Early-Phase Cancer Clinical Trials Research

    OpenAIRE

    Kurzrock, Razelle; Stewart, David J

    2013-01-01

    The issue of compliance in a research environment in which investigators are subject to disciplinary action if they fail to ensure that patients adhere precisely to the intense monitoring mandates of a clinical trial is explored.

  7. History of the Rare Cancer Network and past research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    René-Olivier Mirimanoff

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Approximately, twenty years ago, the Rare Cancer Network (RCN was formed in Lausanne, Switzerland, to support the study of rare malignancies. The RCN has grown over the years and now includes 130 investigators from twenty-four nations on six continents. The network held its first international symposium in Nice, France, on March 21-22, 2014. The proceedings of that meeting are presented in two companion papers. This manuscript reviews the history of the growth of the RCN and contains the abstracts of fourteen oral presentations made at the meeting of prior RCN studies. From 1993 to 2014, 74 RCN studies have been initiated, of which 54 were completed, 10 are in progress or under analysis, and 9 were stopped due to poor accrual. Forty-four peer reviewed publications have been written on behalf of the RCN.

  8. Biology of large bowel cancer. Present status and research frontiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipkin, M

    1975-12-01

    Man and laboratory rodents exposed to chemical carcinogens both show changes in growth characteristics of colonic epithelial cells during neoplastic transformation. Progressive phases of abnormal cell development appear in colonic epithelial cells which gain an increased ability to proliferate and accumulate in the mucosa. These phases in the expression of neoplastic transformation of colonic cells are best defined in the dominant inherited disease of man as adenomatosis of the colon and rectum. Individuals with inherited adenomatosis and those in lesser risk categories can be classified by cell phenotype based on changes in the proliferation and maturation of colonic and other cells. These classifications are leading to new predictive indices which identify heightened degrees of susceptibility of individuals who are at increased risk for colon cancer, and the stage of development of their disease. The indices also are being used to study the contribution of specific elements in the enviroment that modify or accelerate the progression of disease.

  9. Meharry-Johns Hopkins Center for Prostate Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-01

    formerly at the Institute for Health, Social, and Community Research (IHSCR) Center for Survey Research ( CSR ) at Shaw University in Raleigh, NC...survey will be conducted at CSR which is now located at Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health (JHBSPH) located in Raleigh, NC. The Sons...at Meharry. 4 Dr. LaVeist secured definitive IRB approval at JHU. 5 Working budgets were developed and sub-contract with JHU was signed by both

  10. Breast Cancer Research: A Scientometric Analysis of Indian Publications during 2004–2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ritu Gupta

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper examines 5189 Indian publications on breast cancer research, as covered in Scopus database during 2005–2014, experiencing an annual average growth rate of 21.94% and citation impact of 3.38. The world breast cancer output (203,879 publications came from several countries, of which the top 15 most productive countries (United States, U.K., China, Germany, Italy, Canada, France, Japan, etc., accounted for 89.89% share of the global output during 2005–2014. India’s global publication share was 2.55% and hold 12th rank in global output during 2005–2014. The Indian publications on breast cancer came from several organizations, of which the top 15 most productive contributed 27.89% share in the national breast cancer output during 2005–2014. India’s international collaborative publications share in breast cancer was 19.89% during 2005–2014, which increased from 19.25% to 20.11% from 2005–2009 to 2010–2014. Medicine accounted for the largest share (54.58% of output in breast cancer, followed by biochemistry, genetics and molecular biology (38.08%, pharmacology, toxicology and pharmaceutics (23.11%, chemistry (11.29%, agricultural and biological sciences (3.87% share and immunology and microbiology (2.04% share during 2005–2014. Diagnosis, chemotherapy, screening, prognosis, surgery and radiotherapy together account for 72.58% publications share among treatments methods used in Indian breast cancer research during 2005–2014. Maharashtra, Delhi, Tamil Nadu and Karnataka together accounted for 53.52% of the India’s breast cancer output during 2005–2014.

  11. Using an Electronic Highlighter to Eliminate the Negative Effects of Pre-Existing, Inappropriate Highlighting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gier, Vicki; Kreiner, David; Hudnell, Jason; Montoya, Jodi; Herring, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the present experiment was to determine whether using an active learning technique, electronic highlighting, can eliminate the negative effects of pre-existing, poor highlighting on reading comprehension. Participants read passages containing no highlighting, appropriate highlighting, or inappropriate highlighting. We hypothesized…

  12. Prostate cancer research in India: A scientometric analysis of publications output during 2004-13

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brij Mohan Gupta

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This review article examines 1,368 publications on prostate cancer in India, as covered in Scopus database during 2004-13, experiencing an annual average growth rate of 18.77% and citation impact of 5.23. The world prostate cancer output (89,994 publications came from several countries, of which the top 15 (United States, United Kingdom, Germany, Canada, Italy, Japan, and China accounts for 94.80% share of the global output during 2004-13. India’s global publication share was 1.52% and hold 14th rank in global publication output during 2004-13. The Indian prostate cancer output came from several organizations and authors, of which the top 20 and 19 contributed 41.81% and 24.05% share, respectively, during 2004-13. India’s international collaborative share in prostate cancer was 23.39%, which decreased from 24.42% to 22.98% from 2004-08 to 2009-13. Medicine accounted for the largest share (59.50% of output in prostate cancer followed by biochemistry, genetics and molecular biology (40.13%, pharmacology, toxicology & pharmaceutics (27.63%, chemistry (8.55%, agricultural and biological sciences (4.31% share, and immunology and microbiology (2.70% share during 2004-13. Diagnosis, screening, chemotherapy, radiotherapy, pathology and prognosis together account for 60.24% publications share among treatments methods used in Indian prostate cancer research during 2004-13. Only Delhi, Maharashtra, Uttar Pradesh and Tamil Nadu together contributed 57.82% share in Indian publications output in prostate cancer during 2004-13. The authors stressed the need for developing national policy for prostate cancer which should take care of screening for detection and diagnosis, management and treatment options of the prostate cancer patients in India.  

  13. The future of cancer research: prevention, screening, vaccines, and tumor-specific drug combos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanck, George

    2014-01-01

    New cancer research strategies have developed very rapidly over the past five years, including extensive DNA sequencing of tumor and normal cells; use of highly sensitive cancer cell detection methods; vaccine development and tumor-specific (designer) drugs. These developments have raised questions about where to concentrate efforts in the near future when establishing clinical trials, particularly important in an age of diminishing resources and during a period when competing strategies for cancer control are likely to overwhelm the opportunities for establishing large, effective clinical trials. In particular, it behooves the research community to be mindful of the inevitable, challenging obligation to responsibly choose between clinical trials that offer the credible hope of incremental advances vs. trials that are less traditional but may have revolutionary outcomes.

  14. Involving Children With Cancer in Health Promotive Research: A Case Study Describing Why, What, and How

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindberg, Susanne; Wärnestål, Pontus; Svedberg, Petra

    2017-01-01

    Background Participatory research approaches have been introduced to meet end-users’ needs in the development of health promotion interventions among children. However, whereas children are increasingly involved as passive informants in particular parts of research, they are rarely involved as partners, equal to adult researchers, throughout the research process. This is especially prominent in the context of child health where the child is commonly considered to be vulnerable or when the research concerns sensitive situations. In these cases, researchers and gatekeepers to children’s involvement base their resistance to active involvement of children on potential adverse effects on the accuracy or quality of the research or on ethical or moral principles that participation might harm the child. Thus most research aimed at developing health promotion interventions for children in health care is primarily based on the involvement of parents, caregivers, and other stakeholders. Objective The objective of this paper is to discuss reasons for involving children in health promotive research and to explore models for children’s participation in research as a basis for describing how researchers can use design methodology and participatory approaches to support the participation and contribution of children in a vulnerable context. Methods We developed and applied a model for children's participation in research to the development of a digital peer support service for children cancer survivors. This guided the selection of appropriate research and design methodologies (such as interviews, focus groups, design sessions, and usability evaluation) for involving the children cancer survivors (8-12 years) in the design of a digital peer support service. Results We present a model for what children’s participation in research means and describe how we practically implemented this model in a research project on children with cancer. This paper can inform researchers in

  15. CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Kavoussi

    1973-09-01

    Full Text Available There are many carcinogenetic elements in industry and it is for this reason that study and research concerning the effect of these materials is carried out on a national and international level. The establishment and growth of cancer are affected by different factors in two main areas:-1 The nature of the human or animal including sex, age, point and method of entry, fat metabolism, place of agglomeration of carcinogenetic material, amount of material absorbed by the body and the immunity of the body.2 The different nature of the carcinogenetic material e.g. physical, chemical quality, degree of solvency in fat and purity of impurity of the element. As the development of cancer is dependent upon so many factors, it is extremely difficult to determine whether a causative element is principle or contributory. Some materials are not carcinogenetic when they are pure but become so when they combine with other elements. All of this creates an industrial health problem in that it is almost impossible to plan an adequate prevention and safety program. The body through its system of immunity protects itself against small amounts of carcinogens but when this amount increases and reaches a certain level the body is not longer able to defend itself. ILO advises an effective protection campaign against cancer based on the Well –equipped laboratories, Well-educated personnel, the establishment of industrial hygiene within factories, the regular control of safety systems, and the implementation of industrial health principles and research programs.

  16. A Cervical Cancer Community-Based Participatory Research Project in a Native American Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher, Suzanne; Gidley, Allison L.; Letiecq, Bethany; Smith, Adina; McCormick, Alma Knows His Gun

    2008-01-01

    The Messengers for Health on the Apsaalooke Reservation project uses a community-based participatory research (CBPR) approach and lay health advisors (LHAs) to generate knowledge and awareness about cervical cancer prevention among community members in a culturally competent manner. Northern Plains Native Americans, of whom Apsaalooke women are a…

  17. Patient-Derived Xenograft Models : An Emerging Platform for Translational Cancer Research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hidalgo, Manuel; Amant, Frederic; Biankin, Andrew V.; Budinska, Eva; Byrne, Annette T.; Caldas, Carlos; Clarke, Robert B.; de Jong, Steven; Jonkers, Jos; Maelandsmo, Gunhild Mari; Roman-Roman, Sergio; Seoane, Joan; Trusolino, Livio; Villanueva, Alberto

    2014-01-01

    Recently, there has been an increasing interest in the development and characterization of patient-derived tumor xenograft (PDX) models for cancer research. PDX models mostly retain the principal histologic and genetic characteristics of their donor tumor and remain stable across passages. These mod

  18. Is systems biology a promising approach to resolve controversies in cancer research?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soto Ana M

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract At the beginning of the 21st century cancer research has reached an impasse similar to that experienced in developmental biology in the first decades of the 20th century when conflicting results and interpretations co-existed for a long time until these differences were resolved and contradictions were eliminated. In cancer research, instead of this healthy "weeding-out" process, there have been attempts to reach a premature synthesis, while no hypothesis is being rejected. Systems Biology could help cancer research to overcome this stalemate by resolving contradictions and identifying spurious data. First, in silico experiments should allow cancer researchers to be bold and a priori reject sets of data and hypotheses in order to gain a deeper understanding of how each dataset and each hypothesis contributes to the overall picture. In turn, this process should generate novel hypotheses and rules, which could be explored using these in silico approaches. These activities are significantly less costly and much faster than "wet-experiments". Consequently, Systems Biology could be advantageously used both as a heuristic tool to guide "wet-experiments" and to refine hypotheses and test predictions.

  19. Integrating proteomic and functional genomic technologies in discovery-driven translational breast cancer research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Celis, Julio E; Gromov, Pavel; Gromova, Irina

    2003-01-01

    The application of state-of-the-art proteomics and functional genomics technologies to the study of cancer is rapidly shifting toward the analysis of clinically relevant samples derived from patients, as the ultimate aim of translational research is to bring basic discoveries closer to the bedsid...

  20. Research Progress in the Use of Drugs for Breast Cancer Targeted Therapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shun'e Yang; Bing Zhao

    2008-01-01

    In recent years,many significant advances have been made on molecular target therapy to aim directly at epidermal growth factor receptors and vascular endothelial growth factor in breast cancers.Clinical studies of such agents as trastuzumab,lapatinib,erlotinib and bevacituzumab have been widely conducted.This paper will review the recent research progress related to targeted therapy.