WorldWideScience

Sample records for cancer research group

  1. About the Nutritional Science Research Group | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Nutritional Science Research Group (NSRG) promotes and supports studies establishing a comprehensive understanding of the precise role of diet and food components in modulating cancer risk and tumor cell behavior. This focus includes approaches to characterize molecular targets and variability in individual responses to nutrients and dietary patterns. |

  2. Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    NCI is the nation's leader in cancer research. Learn more about NCI's cancer research areas, key initiatives, progress made in cancer research, and resources for researchers like research tools, specimens and data.

  3. Conducting Cancer Control and Survivorship Research via Cooperative Groups: A Report from the American Society of Preventive Oncology

    OpenAIRE

    Palesh, Oxana; Demark-Wahnefried, Wendy; Mustian, Karen; Minasian, Lori; Rowland, Julia; Sprod, Lisa; Janelsins, Michelle; Peppone, Luke; Sloan, Jeff; Engquist, Karen Basen; Jones, Lee; Buist, Diana; Paskett, Electra

    2011-01-01

    As the number of cancer survivors expands, the need for cancer control and survivorship research becomes increasingly important. The National Cancer Institute (NCI) Cooperative Groups may offer a viable platform to perform such research. Observational, preventive, and behavioral research can often be performed within the cooperative group setting, especially if resources needed for evaluation are fairly simple, if protocols are easily implemented within the typical clinical setting, and if in...

  4. Conducting cancer control and survivorship research via cooperative groups: a report from the American Society of Preventive Oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palesh, Oxana; Demark-Wahnefried, Wendy; Mustian, Karen; Minasian, Lori; Rowland, Julia; Sprod, Lisa; Janelsins, Michelle; Peppone, Luke; Sloan, Jeff; Engquist, Karen Basen; Jones, Lee; Buist, Diana; Paskett, Electra D

    2011-05-01

    As the number of cancer survivors expands, the need for cancer control and survivorship research becomes increasingly important. The National Cancer Institute (NCI) Cooperative Groups may offer a viable platform to perform such research. Observational, preventive, and behavioral research can often be performed within the cooperative group setting, especially if resources needed for evaluation are fairly simple, if protocols are easily implemented within the typical clinical setting, and if interventions are well standardized. Some protocols are better suited to cooperative groups than are others, and there are advantages and disadvantages to conducting survivorship research within the cooperative group setting. Behavioral researchers currently involved in cooperative groups, as well as program staff within the NCI, can serve as sources of information for those wishing to pursue symptom management and survivorship studies within the clinical trial setting. The structure of the cooperative groups is currently changing, but going forward, survivorship is bound to be a topic of interest and one that perhaps may be more easily addressed using the proposed more centralized structure. ©2011 AACR.

  5. Cancer research and radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuzawa, Taiju

    1978-01-01

    An actual condition of cancer, and the basis and a future view of radiotherapy were described by adding generally established biological and biochemical knowledge to the author's research. It was described that the relapse of cancer after irradiation was induced from outside of cancerous mass, and the nature of relapsed cancerous cells group was also stated. The histological structure of cancer from a view of cell movement and radioresistant cancerous cells group were described. The differentiation of cancerous cells were described, and a study of inhibition of cancer by redifferentiation was considered. It is important to grasp characteristics and a limit of radiotherapy for cancer, to systematize and materialize reasonable therapy which uses drug and immunotherapy together with surgery, and to use radiotherapy reasonably together with redifferentiation therapy of cancerous cells by extracting characteristics and a limit of radiationtherapy from an actual condition of cancer. (Serizawa, K.)

  6. Challenges and opportunities in international molecular cancer prevention research: An ASPO Molecular Epidemiology and the Environment and International Cancer Prevention Interest Groups Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epplein, Meira; Bostick, Roberd M; Mu, Lina; Ogino, Shuji; Braithwaite, Dejana; Kanetsky, Peter A

    2014-11-01

    The International Agency for Research on Cancer estimates that over half of the new cancer cases and almost two-thirds of the cancer deaths in 2012 occurred in low and middle income countries. To discuss the challenges and opportunities to reducing the burden of cancer worldwide, the Molecular Epidemiology and the Environment and the International Issues in Cancer Special Interest Groups joined forces to hold a session during the 38th Annual Meeting of the American Society of Preventive Oncology (March 2014, Arlington, Virginia). The session highlighted three topics of particular interest to molecular cancer prevention researchers working internationally, specifically: 1) biomarkers in cancer research; 2) environmental exposures and cancer; and 3) molecular pathological epidemiology. A major factor for successful collaboration illuminated during the discussion was the need for strong, committed, and reliable international partners. A key element of establishing such relationships is to thoroughly involve individual international collaborators in the development of the research question; engaged international collaborators are particularly motivated to champion and shepherd the project through all necessary steps, including issues relating to institutional review boards, political sensitivity, laboratory-based assays, and tumor subtyping. Also essential is allotting time for the building, maintaining, and investing in such relationships so that successful international collaborations may take root and bloom. While there are many challenges inherent to international molecular cancer research, the opportunities for furthering the science and prevention of cancer worldwide are great, particularly at this time of increasing cancer incidence and prevalence in low and middle income countries. ©2014 American Association for Cancer Research.

  7. Research and development of the system for group examination of lung cancer by helical CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-03-01

    For the ultimate purpose of heavy particle therapy of lung cancer at an early stage, the system in the title with low dose radiation has been investigated by cooperation of NIRS (as a leading part) and medical/industrial facilities all over the country. The project started essentially in 1984 and has been continuing at 2003. This book described Results hitherto and Materials for application to medical care at disaster (Hanshin-Awaji Earthquake Disaster in 1995) together with reference materials. Results contain all fields of nuclear medicine and of imaging involved in examination/diagnosis of lung cancer, achieved by NIRS, by Health management center and Faculty of Medicine, Chiba University and Japan Anti-Tuberculosis Association in Chiba, by the 3rd Department of Internal Medicine, Fac. Med., Chiba Univ., by Osaka Medical Center for Cancer and Cardiovascular Diseases, by Nippon Med. School, Arakawa-ku cancer protection center and Tokyo Metropolitan Univ. of Health Sciences, by Hitachi health management center, by Fukui Med. College, by Hitachi Medical Corp., by NTT research laboratories, and by Toyohashi Univ. of Technology. The Materials involve Process and summary of conducting the medical care activities, Improvement of the examination automobile, Supplementary equipments and measures for legal problems, System for the medical care activities, Record of the examination automobile activities, Problems in future, and Completion of the medical activities. Reference materials are related with the Materials above. (N.I.)

  8. Designing exercise clinical trials for older adults with cancer: Recommendations from 2015 Cancer and Aging Research Group NCI U13 Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilari, Deepak; Soto-Perez-de-Celis, Enrique; Mohile, Supriya Gupta; Alibhai, Shabbir M.H.; Presley, Carolyn J.; Wildes, Tanya M.; Klepin, Heidi D.; Demark-Wahnefried, Wendy; Jatoi, Amina; Harrison, Robert; Won, Elizabeth; Mustian, Karen M.

    2016-01-01

    Cancer and its treatment can lead to a myriad of adverse events and negatively impact quality of life of older cancer patients and survivors. Unmet physical activity needs vary across the cancer continuum and remain an important yet understudied area of research in this population. Exercise interventions have been shown to be effective in treating both the physical and psychological declines associated with cancer and its treatment, with a potential to improve cancer-related outcomes. Despite the current evidence, exercise is clearly underutilized due to several barriers and knowledge gaps in existing trials that include appropriate population identification, design, and outcome measures selection. The benefits of regular exercise in both the primary and secondary prevention of chronic conditions are well established in the non-cancer population. In older cancer patients and survivors, further research is needed before exercise gains widespread acceptance. The Cancer and Aging Research Group convened experts in exercise, aging and cancer to evaluate current scientific evidence and knowledge gaps in geriatric exercise oncology. This report summarizes these findings and provides future research directions. PMID:27197916

  9. Integration of Translational Research in the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Research (EORTC) Clinical Trial Cooperative Group Mechanisms.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F. Lehmann (Frederick); D. Lacombe (Denis); A.M.M. Eggermont (Alexander)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractThe landscape for cancer research is profoundly different today from that only one decade ago. Basic science is moving rapidly and biotechnological revolutions in molecular targeting and immunology have completely modified the opportunities and concepts for cancer

  10. Inclusion of underserved racial and ethnic groups in cancer intervention research using new media: a systematic literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Hayley S; Shelton, Rachel C; Mitchell, Jamie; Eaton, Tara; Valera, Pamela; Katz, Anne

    2013-12-01

    An increasing number of behavioral and psychosocial cancer interventions incorporate new media elements that are digital, networked, and interactive. However, it is unclear to what extent new media is being leveraged to benefit underserved racial and ethnic groups who disproportionately bear the burden of cancer. This inquiry is timely in light of growing evidence that these groups are receptive to new media. A systematic literature review was conducted to assess the inclusion of these groups in research on cancer-related new media interventions and use of new media to reduce racial and ethnic cancer disparities. A systematic search of three databases was conducted for articles published between January 2000 and March 2012 that presented studies of user experience with a behavioral or psychosocial cancer-related intervention with at least one new media component. Thirty-six articles were included in the final review. In about one-quarter of the studies, less than 20% of participants were African American, Latino, Asian American, or American Indian. In less than 10% of the studies, 80% or more of the samples were members of the aforementioned groups. Almost one-third of the studies reviewed were categorized as disparity focused but limited data were available on racial and ethnic differences in responses to new media interventions. Findings suggest that the promise and potential of new media cancer interventions are largely unrealized among the underserved. Additional research is needed to investigate a wide range of issues related to the development and delivery of such interventions in diverse racial and ethnic groups.

  11. Strategic Plans to Promote Head and Neck Cancer Translational Research Within the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group: A Report From the Translational Research Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Christine H.; Wong, Stuart; Ang, K. Kian; Hammond, Elizabeth H.; Dicker, Adam P.; Harari, Paul M.; Le, Quynh-Thu

    2007-01-01

    Head and neck cancer is the fifth most common cancer in the United States, with an overall survival rate of approximately 40-50%. In an effort to improve patient outcomes, research efforts designed to maximize benefit and reduce toxicities of therapy are in progress. Basic research in cancer biology has accelerated this endeavor and provided preclinical data and technology to support clinically relevant advances in early detection, prognostic and predictive biomarkers. Recent completion of the Human Genome Project has promoted the rapid development of novel 'omics' technologies that allow more broad based study from a systems biology perspective. However, clinically relevant application of resultant gene signatures to clinical trials within cooperative groups has advanced slowly. In light of the large numbers of variables intrinsic to biomarker studies, validation of preliminary data for clinical implementation presents a significant challenge and may only be realized with large trials that involve significant patient numbers. The Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) Head and Neck Cancer Translational Research Program recognizes this problem and brings together three unique features to facilitate this research: (1) availability of large numbers of clinical specimens from homogeneously treated patients through multi-institutional clinical trials; (2) a team of physicians, scientists, and staff focused on patient-oriented head-and-neck cancer research with the common goal of improving cancer care; and (3) a funding mechanism through the RTOG Seed Grant Program. In this position paper we outline strategic plans to further promote translational research within the framework of the RTOG

  12. Radiogenomics of High-Grade Serous Ovarian Cancer: Multireader Multi-Institutional Study from the Cancer Genome Atlas Ovarian Cancer Imaging Research Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, Hebert Alberto; Huang, Erich P; Lakhman, Yulia; Ippolito, Joseph E; Bhosale, Priya; Mellnick, Vincent; Shinagare, Atul B; Anello, Maria; Kirby, Justin; Fevrier-Sullivan, Brenda; Freymann, John; Jaffe, C Carl; Sala, Evis

    2017-11-01

    Purpose To evaluate interradiologist agreement on assessments of computed tomography (CT) imaging features of high-grade serous ovarian cancer (HGSOC), to assess their associations with time-to-disease progression (TTP) and HGSOC transcriptomic profiles (Classification of Ovarian Cancer [CLOVAR]), and to develop an imaging-based risk score system to predict TTP and CLOVAR profiles. Materials and Methods This study was a multireader, multi-institutional, institutional review board-approved, HIPAA-compliant retrospective analysis of 92 patients with HGSOC (median age, 61 years) with abdominopelvic CT before primary cytoreductive surgery available through the Cancer Imaging Archive. Eight radiologists from the Cancer Genome Atlas Ovarian Cancer Imaging Research Group developed and independently recorded the following CT features: characteristics of primary ovarian mass(es), presence of definable mesenteric implants and infiltration, presence of other implants, presence and distribution of peritoneal spread, presence and size of pleural effusions and ascites, lymphadenopathy, and distant metastases. Interobserver agreement for CT features was assessed, as were univariate and multivariate associations with TTP and CLOVAR mesenchymal profile (worst prognosis). Results Interobserver agreement for some features was strong (eg, α = .78 for pleural effusion and ascites) but was lower for others (eg, α = .08 for intraparenchymal splenic metastases). Presence of peritoneal disease in the right upper quadrant (P = .0003), supradiaphragmatic lymphadenopathy (P = .0004), more peritoneal disease sites (P = .0006), and nonvisualization of a discrete ovarian mass (P = .0037) were associated with shorter TTP. More peritoneal disease sites (P = .0025) and presence of pouch of Douglas implants (P = .0045) were associated with CLOVAR mesenchymal profile. Combinations of imaging features contained predictive signal for TTP (concordance index = 0.658; P = .0006) and CLOVAR profile (mean

  13. Small Group Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrath, Joseph E.

    1978-01-01

    Summarizes research on small group processes by giving a comprehensive account of the types of variables primarily studied in the laboratory. These include group structure, group composition, group size, and group relations. Considers effects of power, leadership, conformity to social norms, and role relationships. (Author/AV)

  14. Types of Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    An infographic from the National Cancer Institute (NCI) describing the four broad categories of cancer research: basic research, clinical research, population-based research, and translational research.

  15. Homogeneous group, research, institution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Natascia Vasta

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The work outlines the complex connection among empiric research, therapeutic programs and host institution. It is considered the current research state in Italy. Italian research field is analyzed and critic data are outlined: lack of results regarding both the therapeutic processes and the effectiveness of eating disorders group analytic treatment. The work investigates on an eating disorders homogeneous group, led into an eating disorder outpatient service. First we present the methodological steps the research is based on including the strong connection among theory and clinical tools. Secondly clinical tools are described and the results commented. Finally, our results suggest the necessity of validating some more specifical hypothesis: verifying the relationship between clinical improvement (sense of exclusion and painful emotions reduction and specific group therapeutic processes; verifying the relationship between depressive feelings, relapses and transition trough a more differentiated groupal field.Keywords: Homogeneous group; Eating disorders; Institutional field; Therapeutic outcome

  16. Identification, validation, and clinical implementation of tumor-associated biomarkers to improve therapy concepts, survival, and quality of life of cancer patients: tasks of the Receptor and Biomarker Group of the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmitt, M.; Harbeck, N.; Daidone, M.G.; Brynner, N.; Duffy, M.J.; Foekens, J.A.; Sweep, C.G.J.

    2004-01-01

    Guiding principles are provided and discussed on how to inform the physician scientist and cancer researcher about quality control systems to enable a consistent assessment of the clinical value of tumor-associated biomarkers. Next to cancer research itself, the Receptor and Biomarker Group of the

  17. Doing focus group research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindegaard, Laura Bang

    2014-01-01

    Scholars of ethnomethodologically informed discourse studies are often sceptical of the use of interview data such as focus group data. Some scholars quite simply reject interview data with reference to a general preference for so-called naturally occurring data. Other scholars acknowledge...... that interview data can be of some use if the distinction between natural and contrived data is given up and replaced with a distinction between interview data as topic or as resource. In greater detail, such scholars argue that interview data are perfectly adequate if the researcher wants to study the topic...... of interview interaction, but inadequate as data for studying phenomena that go beyond the phenomenon of interview interaction. Neither of these more and less sceptical positions are, on the face of it, surprising due to the ethnomethodological commitment to study social order as accomplished in situ...

  18. Current cancer research 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stamatiadis-Smidt, H. [ed.

    1998-12-31

    Topics from the Contents: The Fight against Cancer in Germany - A Critical Review. Conditions and Structures in Research. Familial Breast Cancer - A Critical Assessment. Research without Animal Experiments. Cancer Prevention. New Approaches for Tumor Therapy. Genes, Chromosomes and Cancer. Therapy of Brain Tumors with Laser Neurosurgery. The Genome Project. (orig.)

  19. Current cancer research 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stamatiadis-Smidt, H.

    1998-01-01

    Topics from the Contents: The Fight against Cancer in Germany - A Critical Review. Conditions and Structures in Research. Familial Breast Cancer - A Critical Assessment. Research without Animal Experiments. Cancer Prevention. New Approaches for Tumor Therapy. Genes, Chromosomes and Cancer. Therapy of Brain Tumors with Laser Neurosurgery. The Genome Project. (orig.)

  20. Group Work. Research Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Karen

    2010-01-01

    According to Johnson and Johnson, group work helps increase student retention and satisfaction, develops strong oral communication and social skills, as well as higher self-esteem (University of Minnesota, n.d.). Group work, when planned and implemented deliberately and thoughtfully helps students develop cognitive and leadership skills as well as…

  1. Peralta Cancer Research Institute

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1979-01-01

    The investigators in the cell biology program at PCRI have pioneered in the development of techniques for culturing human epithelial cells. The cancer diagnosis program has been concerned with researching new techniques for early diagnosis of breast cancer in women. The cancer treatment program has been concerned with applying cell biology and biochemistry advances to improve cancer management

  2. Danish Colorectal Cancer Group Database

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingeholm, Peter; Gögenur, Ismail; Iversen, Lene H

    2016-01-01

    AIM OF DATABASE: The aim of the database, which has existed for registration of all patients with colorectal cancer in Denmark since 2001, is to improve the prognosis for this patient group. STUDY POPULATION: All Danish patients with newly diagnosed colorectal cancer who are either diagnosed......, and other pathological risk factors. DESCRIPTIVE DATA: The database has had >95% completeness in including patients with colorectal adenocarcinoma with >54,000 patients registered so far with approximately one-third rectal cancers and two-third colon cancers and an overrepresentation of men among rectal...... diagnosis, surgical interventions, and short-term outcomes. The database does not have high-resolution oncological data and does not register recurrences after primary surgery. The Danish Colorectal Cancer Group provides high-quality data and has been documenting an increase in short- and long...

  3. Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Peer; Ejlertsen, Bent; Jensen, Maj-Britt

    2016-01-01

    AIM OF DATABASE: Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group (DBCG), with an associated database, was introduced as a nationwide multidisciplinary group in 1977 with the ultimate aim to improve the prognosis in breast cancer. Since then, the database has registered women diagnosed with primary invasive...... nonmetastatic breast cancer. The data reported from the departments to the database included details of the characteristics of the primary tumor, of surgery, radiotherapy, and systemic therapies, and of follow-up reported on specific forms from the departments in question. DESCRIPTIVE DATA: From 1977 through...... 2014, ~110,000 patients are registered in the nationwide, clinical database. The completeness has gradually improved to more than 95%. DBCG has continuously prepared evidence-based guidelines on diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer and conducted quality control studies to ascertain the degree...

  4. Danish Colorectal Cancer Group Database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingeholm, Peter; Gögenur, Ismail; Iversen, Lene H

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the database, which has existed for registration of all patients with colorectal cancer in Denmark since 2001, is to improve the prognosis for this patient group. All Danish patients with newly diagnosed colorectal cancer who are either diagnosed or treated in a surgical department of a public Danish hospital. The database comprises an array of surgical, radiological, oncological, and pathological variables. The surgeons record data such as diagnostics performed, including type and results of radiological examinations, lifestyle factors, comorbidity and performance, treatment including the surgical procedure, urgency of surgery, and intra- and postoperative complications within 30 days after surgery. The pathologists record data such as tumor type, number of lymph nodes and metastatic lymph nodes, surgical margin status, and other pathological risk factors. The database has had >95% completeness in including patients with colorectal adenocarcinoma with >54,000 patients registered so far with approximately one-third rectal cancers and two-third colon cancers and an overrepresentation of men among rectal cancer patients. The stage distribution has been more or less constant until 2014 with a tendency toward a lower rate of stage IV and higher rate of stage I after introduction of the national screening program in 2014. The 30-day mortality rate after elective surgery has been reduced from >7% in 2001-2003 to database is a national population-based clinical database with high patient and data completeness for the perioperative period. The resolution of data is high for description of the patient at the time of diagnosis, including comorbidities, and for characterizing diagnosis, surgical interventions, and short-term outcomes. The database does not have high-resolution oncological data and does not register recurrences after primary surgery. The Danish Colorectal Cancer Group provides high-quality data and has been documenting an increase in short- and long

  5. Nanotechnology in Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    The NCI Office of Cancer Nanotechnology Research has had a major impact on bringing novel nano-enabled solutions through the pre-clinical space. The strategic framework of this effort is presented here.

  6. Bioprinting for cancer research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowlton, Stephanie; Onal, Sevgi; Yu, Chu Hsiang; Zhao, Jean J; Tasoglu, Savas

    2015-09-01

    Bioprinting offers the ability to create highly complex 3D architectures with living cells. This cutting-edge technique has significantly gained popularity and applicability in several fields. Bioprinting methods have been developed to effectively and rapidly pattern living cells, biological macromolecules, and biomaterials. These technologies hold great potential for applications in cancer research. Bioprinted cancer models represent a significant improvement over previous 2D models by mimicking 3D complexity and facilitating physiologically relevant cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions. Here we review bioprinting methods based on inkjet, microextrusion, and laser technologies and compare 3D cancer models with 2D cancer models. We discuss bioprinted models that mimic the tumor microenvironment, providing a platform for deeper understanding of cancer pathology, anticancer drug screening, and cancer treatment development. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Nutrition and Cancer Prevention Research Practicum | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Nutritional Science Research Group in the Division of Cancer Prevention at the National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health and the Department of Nutrition at the Clinical Center, National Institutes of Health are offering a one week educational opportunity in "Nutrition and Cancer Prevention Research" for individuals with a sustained commitment to nutrition

  8. Association of ABO and Rh blood groups with breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meo, Sultan Ayoub; Suraya, Faryal; Jamil, Badar; Rouq, Fwziah Al; Meo, Anusha Sultan; Sattar, Kamran; Ansari, Mohammad Javed; Alasiri, Saleh A

    2017-11-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the association of "ABO" and "Rhesus" blood groups with incidence of breast cancer. In this study, we identified 70 research documents from data based search engines including "PubMed", "ISI-Web of Knowledge", "Embase" and "Google Scholar". The research papers were selected by using the primary key-terms including "ABO blood type", "Rhesus" blood type and "breast cancer". The research documents in which "ABO" and "Rhesus" blood types and breast cancer was debated were included. After screening, we reviewed 32 papers and finally we selected 25 research papers which met the inclusion criteria and remaining documents were excluded. Blood group "A" has high incidence of breast cancer (45.88%), blood group "O" has (31.69%); "B" (16.16%) and blood group "AB" has (6.27%) incidence of breast cancer. Blood group "A" has highest and blood group "AB" has least association with breast cancer. Furthermore, "Rhesus +ve" blood group has high incidence of breast cancer (88.31%) and "Rhesus -ve" blood group has least association with breast cancer (11.68%). Blood group "A" and "Rhesus +ve" have high risk of breast cancer, while blood type "AB" and "Rhesus -ve" are at low peril of breast cancer. Physicians should carefully monitor the females with blood group "A" and "Rh +ve" as these females are more prone to develop breast cancer. To reduce breast cancer incidence and its burden, preventive and screening programs for breast cancer especially in young women are highly recommended.

  9. Cancer Research UK | IDRC - International Development Research ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Cancer Research UK. Cancer Research UK. https://www.cancerresearchuk.org/. The Economics of Tobacco Control Research Initiative. The Economics of Tobacco Control Research Initiative funds innovative fiscal policy research supporting tobacco control in low and middle-income countries. View more. The Economics ...

  10. Lymph node involvement in gastric cancer for different tumor sites and T stage: Italian Research Group for Gastric Cancer (IRGGC) experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Leo, Alberto; Marrelli, Daniele; Roviello, Franco; Bernini, Marco; Minicozzi, AnnaMaria; Giacopuzzi, Simone; Pedrazzani, Corrado; Baiocchi, Luca Gian; de Manzoni, Giovanni

    2007-09-01

    The aim of lymphadenectomy is to clear all the metastatic nodes achieving a complete removal of the tumor; nevertheless, its role in gastric cancer has been very much debated. The frequency of node metastasis in each lymphatic station according to the International Gastric Cancer Association, was studied in 545 patients who underwent D2 or D3 lymphadenectomy from June 1988 to December 2002. Upper third early cancers have shown an involvement of N2 celiac nodes in 25%. In advanced cancers, there was a high frequency of metastasis in the right gastroepiploic (from 10% in T2 to 50% in T4) and in the paraaortic nodes (26% in T2, 32% in T3, 38 % in T4). N3 left paracardial nodes involvement was observed in an important share of middle third tumors (17% in T3, 36% in T4). Splenic hilum nodes metastasis were common in T3 and T4 cancers located in the upper (39%) and middle (17%) stomach. N2 nodal involvement was frequent in lower third advanced cancers. Metastasis in M left paracardial and short gastric nodes were observed in a small percentage of cases. Given the nodal diffusion in our gastric cancer patients, extended lymphadenectomy is still a rationale to obtain radical resection.

  11. Southeastern Cancer Study Group: breast cancer studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smalley, R.V.; Bartolucci, A.A.; Moore, M.

    1983-01-01

    During the past 10 years, the Southeastern Cancer Study Group (SECSG) has been engaged in one major adjuvant study and three major advanced disease studies for patients with adenocarcinoma of the breast. The adjuvant study is demonstrating that six months of adjuvant CMF is the therapeutic equivalent of 12 months and that post-operative irradiation is of no added therapeutic benefit. In patients with advanced disease, a low dose 5 drug combination of CMFVP induces more objective responses than single agent 5FU, but improves survival only for those patients with liver metastases when compared to the sequential use of the same 5 single agents. The three drug combination, CAF, utilizing doxorubicin, induces more objective responses than low dose CMFVP, but it does not improve overall survival. The addition of a phase active combination, CAMELEON, (i.e., sequentially alternating therapy) of CAF has not improved the duration of disease control and survival for patients with liver metastases, lymphangitic and nodular lung metastases compared to CAF. Aggressive combination chemotherapeutic approaches to patients with advanced disease provide better and longer disease and tumor control but only marginal improvements in overall survival. Adding additional agents to a maximally tolerable regimen has not improved the therapeutic outcome

  12. European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer and Groupe d'Etude des Lymphomes de l'Adulte very favorable and favorable, lymphocyte-predominant Hodgkin disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilder, Richard B; Schlembach, Pamela J; Jones, Dan; Chronowski, Gregory M; Ha, Chul S; Younes, Anas; Hagemeister, Fredrick B; Barista, Ibrahim; Cabanillas, Fernando; Cox, James D

    2002-03-15

    Lymphocyte-predominant Hodgkin disease (LPHD) is rare and has a natural history different from that of classic Hodgkin disease. There is little information in the literature regarding the role of chemotherapy in patients with early-stage LPHD. The objective of this study was to examine recurrence free survival (RFS), overall survival (OS), and patterns of first recurrence in patients with LPHD who were treated with radiotherapy alone or with chemotherapy followed by radiotherapy. From 1963 to 1996, 48 consecutive patients ages 16-49 years (median, 28 years) with Ann Arbor Stage I (n = 30 patients) or Stage II (n = 18 patients), very favorable (VF; n = 5 patients) or favorable (F; n = 43 patients) LPHD, according to the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer and Groupe d'Etude des Lymphomes de l'Adulte (EORTC-GELA) criteria, received radiotherapy alone (n = 37 patients) or received chemotherapy followed by radiotherapy (n = 11 patients). The percentages of patients with VF disease (11% vs. 9% in the radiotherapy group vs. the chemotherapy plus radiotherapy group, respectively) or F disease (89% vs. 91%, respectively) within the two treatment groups were similar (P = 1.00). A median of three cycles of chemotherapy with mechlorethamine, vincristine, procarbazine, and prednisone (MOPP) or with mitoxantrone, vincristine, vinblastine, and prednisone (NOVP) was given initially to six patients and five patients, respectively. A median total radiotherapy dose of 40 grays (Gy) given in daily fractions of 2.0 Gy was delivered to both treatment groups. The median follow-up was 9.3 years, and 98% of patients were observed for > or = 3.0 years. RFS was similar for patients who were treated with radiotherapy alone and patients who were treated with chemotherapy followed by radiotherapy (10-year survival rates: 77% and 68%, respectively; P = 0.89). The OS rate also was similar for the two groups (10-year survival rates: 90% and 100%, respectively; P = 0

  13. Dietary fibre, transit-time, faecal bacteria, steroids, and colon cancer in two Scandinavian populations. Report from the International Agency for Research on Cancer Intestinal Microecology Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maclennan, R; Jensen, O M

    1977-07-30

    A comparison of dietary intake and faecal characteristics in population samples from two areas of Denmark and Finland with 4-fold variation in colon-cancer incidence suggests that the aetiology of colon cancer may be multifactorial and is not associated in a simple manner with dietary fat, neutral steroids, acid steroids, or their bacterial metabolites. However, meat consumption was greater in the high-incidence areas. Higher intakes of dietary fibre and milk in the low-incidence area suggest a possible protective effect, unrelated to mouth-anus transit-time. Further careful dietary and metabolic studies are needed to clarify the relationships between possible carcinogenic and protective effects of diet.

  14. Focus groups in organizational research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Kamfer

    1989-05-01

    Full Text Available Focus groups are commonly used in marketing research. In this article an application of the focus group technique within an organizational context is described. Nine focus groups were conducted during the planning stage of a survey intended to establish employee perceptions of advancement policies and practices in a major South African manufacturing company. Fourteen themes emerged from a content analysis of the discussions. Two of these reflected aspects requiring commitment decisions from management toward the survey. The others indicated areas of concern which should be included in the survey. In this way, the focus groups contributed useful information for the subsequent sample survey. Opsomming Fokusgroepe word algemeen in bemarkingsnavorsing aangewend. In hierdie studie word 'n toepassingvan die fokusgroeptegniek in die konteks van 'n opname binne 'n organisasie beskryf. Nege fokusgroepbesprekings is gevoer tydens die beplanningstadium van 'n opname wat binne 'n Suid-Afrikaanse vervaardigingsonderneming gedoen is. Die doel van die opname was om die persepsies van werknemers teenoor die bestaande personeel- en bestuursontwikkelingsbeleid en -praktyke van die maatskappy te bepaal. Veertien temas is deur middel van 'n inhoudontleding gei'dentifiseer. Twee hiervan het aspekte aangedui waaroor bestuur beginselbesluite t.o.v. die opname sou moes neem. Die ander het probleemareas aangedui wat by die ondersoek selfingesluit behoort te word. Sodoende het die fokusgroepe inligting verskafwat vir die latere vraelysopname belangrik was.

  15. ABO blood group and risk of cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vasan, Senthil K; Hwang, Jinseub; Rostgaard, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    groups and site-specific cancer risk in a large cohort of healthy blood donors from Sweden and Denmark. RESULTS: A total of 1.6 million donors were followed over 27 million person-years (20 million in Sweden and 7 million in Denmark). We observed 119,584 cancer cases. Blood groups A, AB and B were......INTRODUCTION: The associations between ABO blood group and cancer risk have been studied repeatedly, but results have been variable. Consistent associations have only been reported for pancreatic and gastric cancers. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We estimated associations between different ABO blood...... associated either with increased or decreased risk of cancer at 13 anatomical sites (p≤0.05), compared to blood group O. Consistent with assessment using a false discovery rate approach, significant associations with ABO blood group were observed for cancer of the pancreas, breast, and upper gastrointestinal...

  16. Workshop on Cancer Research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vermorken, A.; Durieux, L.

    1991-01-01

    On April, 22-24 April 1991, the Hungarian National Institute of Oncology and the Commission of the European Communities have organized a workshop on Cancer Research. The aim of the meeting was to provide the participants information on the ongoing research in Hungary and in Member States. The topic is of importance for Hungary and it was also considered that the meeting could contribute to identify subjects of possible collaboration between Hungarian and Member State laboratories in the case financial support would become available. Three papers about new therapies under development were presented proton therapy and Boron neutron capture therapy

  17. Basic research on cancer related to radiation associated medical researches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jong In; Hwang, Dae Yong; Bang, Ho Yoon

    2000-12-01

    Basic Research on Cancer related to Radiation Associated Medical Researches including 1. Establishment of animal model of colorectal cancer liver metastasis and measurement of angiogenesis, 2. Tissue expression of Tie-1 and Tie-2 in human colorectal cancer, 3. Enhancement of G2/Mphase Cell Fraction by Adenovirus-mediated p53 Gene Transfer in Ovarian Cancer Cell Lines, 4. Clinical Characteristics of the patients with Non-B Non-C Hepatocellular Carcinoma and Frequency of HBV, HCV and TTV Viremia in these Patients, 5. Significance of serum iron and ferritin in patients with stomach cancer, 6. Telomerase assay for early detection of lung cancer, 7. Study on the Usefulness of Aldehyde dehydrogenase-2 Genotyping for Risk Group of Alcohol-related Cancer Screening, 8. Gene therapy using hepatoma specific promoter, 9. Study on the Influence of DNA repair gene, XRCC1 Genotypes on the Risk of Head and Neck Cancer were performed

  18. Basic research on cancer related to radiation associated medical researches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jong In; Hwang, Dae Yong; Bang, Ho Yoon [and others

    2000-12-01

    Basic Research on Cancer related to Radiation Associated Medical Researches including 1. Establishment of animal model of colorectal cancer liver metastasis and measurement of angiogenesis, 2. Tissue expression of Tie-1 and Tie-2 in human colorectal cancer, 3. Enhancement of G2/Mphase Cell Fraction by Adenovirus-mediated p53 Gene Transfer in Ovarian Cancer Cell Lines, 4. Clinical Characteristics of the patients with Non-B Non-C Hepatocellular Carcinoma and Frequency of HBV, HCV and TTV Viremia in these Patients, 5. Significance of serum iron and ferritin in patients with stomach cancer, 6. Telomerase assay for early detection of lung cancer, 7. Study on the Usefulness of Aldehyde dehydrogenase-2 Genotyping for Risk Group of Alcohol-related Cancer Screening, 8. Gene therapy using hepatoma specific promoter, 9. Study on the Influence of DNA repair gene, XRCC1 Genotypes on the Risk of Head and Neck Cancer were performed.

  19. Modernizing Clinical Trial Eligibility Criteria: Recommendations of the American Society of Clinical Oncology–Friends of Cancer Research HIV Working Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uldrick, Thomas S.; Ison, Gwynn; Rudek, Michelle A.; Noy, Ariela; Schwartz, Karl; Bruinooge, Suanna; Schenkel, Caroline; Miller, Barry; Dunleavy, Kieron; Wang, Judy; Zeldis, Jerome; Little, Richard F.

    2018-01-01

    Purpose People with HIV are living longer as a result of effective antiretroviral therapy. Cancer has become a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in this patient population. However, studies of novel cancer therapeutics have historically excluded patients with HIV. Critical review of eligibility criteria related to HIV is required to accelerate development of and access to effective therapeutics for HIV-infected patients with cancer and make studies more generalizable to this patient population. Methods From January through April 2016, the HIV Working Group conducted a series of teleconferences; a review of 46 New Drug Applications from registration studies of unique agents studied in adults with cancer that led to the initial US Food and Drug Administration approval of that agent from 2011 to 2015; and a review of HIV-related eligibility criteria from National Cancer Institute–sponsored studies. Results were discussed and refined at a multistakeholder workshop held May 12, 2016. The HIV Working Group developed recommendations for eligibility criteria that focus on pharmacologic and immunologic considerations in this patient population and that balance patient safety, access to appropriate investigational agents, and study integrity. Results Exclusion of patients with HIV remains common in most studies of novel cancer agents. Models for HIV-related eligibility criteria in National Cancer Institute–sponsored studies are instructive. HIV infection itself should no longer be an exclusion criterion for most studies. Eligibility criteria related to HIV infection that address concurrent antiretroviral therapy and immune status should be designed in a manner that is appropriate for a given cancer. Conclusion Expanding clinical trial eligibility to be more inclusive of patients with HIV is justified in most cases and may accelerate the development of effective therapies in this area of unmet clinical need. PMID:28968173

  20. Modernizing Clinical Trial Eligibility Criteria: Recommendations of the American Society of Clinical Oncology-Friends of Cancer Research HIV Working Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uldrick, Thomas S; Ison, Gwynn; Rudek, Michelle A; Noy, Ariela; Schwartz, Karl; Bruinooge, Suanna; Schenkel, Caroline; Miller, Barry; Dunleavy, Kieron; Wang, Judy; Zeldis, Jerome; Little, Richard F

    2017-11-20

    Purpose People with HIV are living longer as a result of effective antiretroviral therapy. Cancer has become a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in this patient population. However, studies of novel cancer therapeutics have historically excluded patients with HIV. Critical review of eligibility criteria related to HIV is required to accelerate development of and access to effective therapeutics for HIV-infected patients with cancer and make studies more generalizable to this patient population. Methods From January through April 2016, the HIV Working Group conducted a series of teleconferences; a review of 46 New Drug Applications from registration studies of unique agents studied in adults with cancer that led to the initial US Food and Drug Administration approval of that agent from 2011 to 2015; and a review of HIV-related eligibility criteria from National Cancer Institute-sponsored studies. Results were discussed and refined at a multistakeholder workshop held May 12, 2016. The HIV Working Group developed recommendations for eligibility criteria that focus on pharmacologic and immunologic considerations in this patient population and that balance patient safety, access to appropriate investigational agents, and study integrity. Results Exclusion of patients with HIV remains common in most studies of novel cancer agents. Models for HIV-related eligibility criteria in National Cancer Institute-sponsored studies are instructive. HIV infection itself should no longer be an exclusion criterion for most studies. Eligibility criteria related to HIV infection that address concurrent antiretroviral therapy and immune status should be designed in a manner that is appropriate for a given cancer. Conclusion Expanding clinical trial eligibility to be more inclusive of patients with HIV is justified in most cases and may accelerate the development of effective therapies in this area of unmet clinical need.

  1. A combined analysis of European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer, and Medical Research Council randomized clinical trials for the prophylactic treatment of stage TaT1 bladder cancer. European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Genitourinary Tract Cancer Cooperative Group and the Medical Research Council Working Party on Superficial Bladder Cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pawinski, A.; Sylvester, R.; Kurth, K. H.; Bouffioux, C.; van der Meijden, A.; Parmar, M. K.; Bijnens, L.

    1996-01-01

    The use of prophylactic agents after primary resection can decrease the incidence of tumor recurrence in patients with stage TaT1 bladder cancer. However, the long-term impact on progression to muscle invasive disease as well as on duration of survival is unknown. A combined analysis of individual

  2. Fostering Cooperation in Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thursday, June 25, 2015 Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) was signed between US National Cancer Institute and three agencies of the Indian government - the Department of Biotechnology, the Indian Council of Medical Research, and the Indian National Cancer Institute, a part of the All India Institute of Medical Sciences to foster cooperation in cancer research.

  3. A survey on staging and treatment in uterine cervical carcinoma in the Radiotherapy Cooperative Group of the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coucke, P.A.; Ciernik, I.F.; Maingon, P.; Do, H.P.

    2000-01-01

    The treatment outcome of advanced stage uterine cervical carcinoma remains unsatisfactory. In order to elaborate a novel trial within The Radiotherapy Cooperative Group (RCG) of the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC), we conducted a survey in 1997-1998 to determine the variability of pre-treatment assessment and treatment options. The variability of choosing surgery, defined radiation therapy techniques and chemotherapy are investigated, as well as the center's choices of future treatment strategies. Fifty two of 81 RCG centers from the RCG have participated in the survey. As one would expect, there is a large variation in the techniques used for pretreatment evaluation and treatment options. There is no 'standard' for reporting acute and late side effects. Chemotherapy is used neither systematically nor uniformly, and some centers continue to use neadjuvant chemotherapy modalities. Furthermore, the survey reveals that there is a strong demand for the reduction of overall treatment-time, for clinical investigation of novel combined modality treatment strategies, especially chemo-radiation therapy, and also for the use of new radiation sensitizers. We conclude that a more homogeneous approach to the pretreatment evaluation as well as treatment techniques is required in order to allow adequate quality control in any future trial of the RCG in the EORTC. (author)

  4. Why I Do Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    World Cancer Research Day is recognized on September 24, 2017. This day presents an opportunity for all of us to remind the world of the critically important roles research and cancer researchers play in reducing the global burden of cancer. Together with ten other global partners, NCI participated in the planning and launch of this initiative, highlighting the amplified impact of international cooperation in the clinical research arena.

  5. Summary of Research 1997, Interdisciplinary Academic Groups

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Boger, Dan

    1999-01-01

    This report contains information of research projects in the interdisciplinary groups, Command, Control, and Communications Academic Group, Information Warfare Academic Group, Space Systems Academic...

  6. Cancer Genetics and Signaling | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Cancer, Genetics, and Signaling (CGS) Group at the National Cancer Institute at Frederick  offers a competitive postdoctoral training and mentoring program focusing on molecular and genetic aspects of cancer. The CGS Fellows Program is designed to attract and train exceptional postdoctoral fellows interested in pursuing independent research career tracks. CGS Fellows participate in a structured mentoring program designed for scientific and career development and transition to independent positions.

  7. Research in Danish cancer rehabilitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høybye, Mette Terp; Dalton, Susanne Oksbjerg; Christensen, Jane

    2008-01-01

    rate at baseline was 86% (n = 1876). Most participants were younger women with breast cancer. They were generally well educated and working. The cancer survivors reported having comprehensive social networks and being physically active. Several cancer-related symptoms were reported by women...... site, sex, age, family, working status and social position. These challenges might be addressed optimally in multi-dimensional rehabilitation programmes....... of the cancer survivors with respect to cancer site, sociodemographic variables, social network, lifestyle, self-rated health and the prevalence of cancer-related late effects. The study is part of the FOCARE research project, in which the long-term effects of the rehabilitation programme are evaluated...

  8. Researching the experience of kidney cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, K

    2002-09-01

    The author's personal experience as a kidney cancer patient, researcher and founder of a kidney cancer support group forms the basis for consideration of the challenges involved in researching patients' experiences. The researcher needs to understand the variability of those experiences in both clinical and psychological-emotional terms, and in relation to the personal, familial and social contexts of the patient. It is also essential to define the purpose of the research and to show how an understanding of personal experiences of cancer can be used to enhance the quality of care for cancer patients. The research encounter with a patient is also in some respects a therapeutic encounter requiring a considerable degree of sensitivity on the part of the researcher. The person-centred approach of Carl Rogers is of value in supporting such an encounter.

  9. Modeling Local Control After Hypofractionated Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy for Stage I Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer: A Report From the Elekta Collaborative Lung Research Group

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohri, Nitin, E-mail: ohri.nitin@gmail.com [Department of Radiation Oncology, Jefferson Medical College of Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Werner-Wasik, Maria [Department of Radiation Oncology, Jefferson Medical College of Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Grills, Inga S. [Department of Radiation Oncology, William Beaumont Hospital, Royal Oak, Michigan (United States); Belderbos, Jose [Department of Radiation Oncology, The Netherlands Cancer Institute, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Hope, Andrew [Department of Radiation Oncology, Princess Margaret Hospital and University of Toronto, Toronto, ON (Canada); Yan Di; Kestin, Larry L. [Department of Radiation Oncology, William Beaumont Hospital, Royal Oak, Michigan (United States); Guckenberger, Matthias [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Wuerzburg, Wuerzburg (Germany); Sonke, Jan-Jakob [Department of Radiation Oncology, The Netherlands Cancer Institute, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Bissonnette, Jean-Pierre [Department of Radiation Oncology, Princess Margaret Hospital and University of Toronto, Toronto, ON (Canada); Xiao, Ying [Department of Radiation Oncology, Jefferson Medical College of Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States)

    2012-11-01

    Purpose: Hypofractionated stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) has emerged as an effective treatment option for early-stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Using data collected by the Elekta Lung Research Group, we generated a tumor control probability (TCP) model that predicts 2-year local control after SBRT as a function of biologically effective dose (BED) and tumor size. Methods and Materials: We formulated our TCP model as follows: TCP = e{sup [BED10-c Asterisk-Operator L-TCD50]/k} Division-Sign (1 + e{sup [BED10-c Asterisk-Operator L-TCD50]/k}), where BED10 is the biologically effective SBRT dose, c is a constant, L is the maximal tumor diameter, and TCD50 and k are parameters that define the shape of the TCP curve. Least-squares optimization with a bootstrap resampling approach was used to identify the values of c, TCD50, and k that provided the best fit with observed actuarial 2-year local control rates. Results: Data from 504 NSCLC tumors treated with a variety of SBRT schedules were available. The mean follow-up time was 18.4 months, and 26 local recurrences were observed. The optimal values for c, TCD50, and k were 10 Gy/cm, 0 Gy, and 31 Gy, respectively. Thus, size-adjusted BED (sBED) may be defined as BED minus 10 times the tumor diameter (in centimeters). Our TCP model indicates that sBED values of 44 Gy, 69 Gy, and 93 Gy provide 80%, 90%, and 95% chances of tumor control at 2 years, respectively. When patients were grouped by sBED, the model accurately characterized the relationship between sBED and actuarial 2-year local control (r=0.847, P=.008). Conclusion: We have developed a TCP model that predicts 2-year local control rate after hypofractionated SBRT for early-stage NSCLC as a function of biologically effective dose and tumor diameter. Further testing of this model with additional datasets is warranted.

  10. Modeling Local Control After Hypofractionated Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy for Stage I Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer: A Report From the Elekta Collaborative Lung Research Group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohri, Nitin; Werner-Wasik, Maria; Grills, Inga S.; Belderbos, José; Hope, Andrew; Yan Di; Kestin, Larry L.; Guckenberger, Matthias; Sonke, Jan-Jakob; Bissonnette, Jean-Pierre; Xiao, Ying

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Hypofractionated stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) has emerged as an effective treatment option for early-stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Using data collected by the Elekta Lung Research Group, we generated a tumor control probability (TCP) model that predicts 2-year local control after SBRT as a function of biologically effective dose (BED) and tumor size. Methods and Materials: We formulated our TCP model as follows: TCP = e [BED10−c∗L−TCD50]/k ÷ (1 + e [BED10−c∗L−TCD50]/k ), where BED10 is the biologically effective SBRT dose, c is a constant, L is the maximal tumor diameter, and TCD50 and k are parameters that define the shape of the TCP curve. Least-squares optimization with a bootstrap resampling approach was used to identify the values of c, TCD50, and k that provided the best fit with observed actuarial 2-year local control rates. Results: Data from 504 NSCLC tumors treated with a variety of SBRT schedules were available. The mean follow-up time was 18.4 months, and 26 local recurrences were observed. The optimal values for c, TCD50, and k were 10 Gy/cm, 0 Gy, and 31 Gy, respectively. Thus, size-adjusted BED (sBED) may be defined as BED minus 10 times the tumor diameter (in centimeters). Our TCP model indicates that sBED values of 44 Gy, 69 Gy, and 93 Gy provide 80%, 90%, and 95% chances of tumor control at 2 years, respectively. When patients were grouped by sBED, the model accurately characterized the relationship between sBED and actuarial 2-year local control (r=0.847, P=.008). Conclusion: We have developed a TCP model that predicts 2-year local control rate after hypofractionated SBRT for early-stage NSCLC as a function of biologically effective dose and tumor diameter. Further testing of this model with additional datasets is warranted.

  11. The construction and testing of the EORTC colorectal cancer-specific quality of life questionnaire module (QLQ-CR38). European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Study Group on Quality of Life

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sprangers, M. A.; te Velde, A.; Aaronson, N. K.

    1999-01-01

    The objectives of the current study were to construct a colorectal cancer-specific quality of life (QL) questionnaire module to be used in conjunction with the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) QLQ-C30 and to test its reliability and validity in The Netherlands.

  12. HER2 Gene Amplification Testing by Fluorescent In Situ Hybridization (FISH): Comparison of the ASCO-College of American Pathologists Guidelines With FISH Scores Used for Enrollment in Breast Cancer International Research Group Clinical Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Press, Michael F; Sauter, Guido; Buyse, Marc; Fourmanoir, Hélène; Quinaux, Emmanuel; Tsao-Wei, Denice D; Eiermann, Wolfgang; Robert, Nicholas; Pienkowski, Tadeusz; Crown, John; Martin, Miguel; Valero, Vicente; Mackey, John R; Bee, Valerie; Ma, Yanling; Villalobos, Ivonne; Campeau, Anaamika; Mirlacher, Martina; Lindsay, Mary-Ann; Slamon, Dennis J

    2016-10-10

    Purpose ASCO and the College of American Pathologists (ASCO-CAP) recently recommended further changes to the evaluation of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 gene (HER2) amplification by fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH). We retrospectively assessed the impact of these new guidelines by using annotated Breast Cancer International Research Group (BCIRG) -005, BCIRG-006, and BCIRG-007 clinical trials data for which we have detailed outcomes. Patients and Methods The HER2 FISH status of BCIRG-005/006/007 patients with breast cancers was re-evaluated according to current ASCO-CAP guidelines, which designates five different groups according to HER2 FISH ratio and average HER2 gene copy number per tumor cell: group 1 (in situ hybridization [ISH]-positive): HER2-to-chromosome 17 centromere ratio ≥ 2.0, average HER2 copies ≥ 4.0; group 2 (ISH-positive): ratio ≥ 2.0, copies < 4.0; group 3 (ISH-positive): ratio < 2.0, copies ≥ 6.0; group 4 (ISH-equivocal): ratio < 2.0, copies ≥ 4.0 and < 6.0; and group 5 (ISH-negative): ratio < 2.0, copies < 4.0. We assessed correlations with HER2 protein, clinical outcomes by disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) and benefit from trastuzumab therapy (hazard ratio [HR]). Results Among 10,468 patients with breast cancers who were successfully screened for trial entry, 40.8% were in ASCO-CAP ISH group 1, 0.7% in group 2; 0.5% in group 3, 4.1% in group 4, and 53.9% in group 5. Distributions were similar in screened compared with accrued subpopulations. Among accrued patients, FISH group 1 breast cancers were strongly correlated with immunohistochemistry 3+ status (P < .0001), whereas groups 2, 3, 4, and 5 were not; however, groups 2, 4 and, 5 were strongly correlated with immunohistochemistry 0/1+ status (all P < .0001), whereas group 3 was not. Among patients accrued to BCIRG-005, group 4 was not associated with significantly worse DFS or OS compared with group 5. Among patients accrued to BCIRG-006, only

  13. Postdoctoral Fellow | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Highly motivated postdoctoral fellows sought to work on tumor immunology with a strong background in biology preferentially cellular immunology. The tumor immunology group in the laboratory is exploring mechanisms of improving vaccines and immunotherapy for cancer, especially by discovering new principles to enhance and steer T cell immune responses. The group is focusing on negative immunoregulatory mechanisms used for immune evasion by cancer cells. The postdoctoral fellow will work on a project to understand the negative regulatory mechanisms of tumor immunity especially the mechanisms initiated by NKT cells. Group members also have an opportunity to gain knowledge of HIV/mucosal immunology by interacting with the HIV research group in the lab.

  14. The Δ a research group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maitzen, H. M.; Paunzen, E.; Pöhnl, H.; Rode-Paunzen, M.; Netopil, M.; Stütz, Ch.; Baum, H.

    2004-12-01

    We summarize of more than 25 years of research with the three filter, intermediate-band, Δ a photometric system. It investigates the flux depression at λ 5200 found in magnetic chemically peculiar (CP) objects. Starting with photoelectric measurements it has steadily developed introducing new and more efficient filters as well as the modern CCD technique. So far more than twenty papers were devoted to searching for new CP stars in our Milky Way up to distances of 5000 pc and even in the Large Magellanic Cloud. In the latter, the first extragalactic CP stars were detected. In addition, we have presented theoretical isochrones and synthetic colors from the latest available stellar atmospheres. The theoretical predictions agree very well with observations allowing not only to determine the reddening and age of open clusters from our photometry but also to investigate the flux depression at λ 5200 in more detail. As an outlook, we present a new approach to search for chemically peculiar horizontal branch stars in globular clusters and to detect stellar variability of various objects observed during our photometric observations.

  15. Organization of an undergraduate research group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, J.; Noteboom, E.

    1995-01-01

    Traditionally, research groups consist of senior physicists, staff members, and graduate students. The physics department at Creighton University has formed a Relativistic Heavy Ion physics research group consisting primarily of undergraduate students. Although senior staff and graduate students are actively involved, undergraduate research and the education of undergraduates is the focus of the group. The presentation, given by two undergraduate members of the group, will outline progress made in the group's organization, discuss the benefits to the undergraduate group members, and speak to the balance which must be struck between education concerns and research goals

  16. Research Associate | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    PROGRAM DESCRIPTION The Basic Science Program (BSP) pursues independent, multidisciplinary research in basic and applied molecular biology, immunology, retrovirology, cancer biology, and human genetics. Research efforts and support are an integral part of the Center for Cancer Research (CCR) at the Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research (FNLCR). KEY ROLES/RESPONSIBILITIES - Research Associate III Dr. Zbigniew Dauter is the head investigator of the Synchrotron Radiation Research Section (SRRS) of CCR’s Macromolecular Crystallography Laboratory. The Synchrotron Radiation Research Section is located at Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois; this is the site of the largest U.S. synchrotron facility. The SRRS uses X-ray diffraction technique to solve crystal structures of various proteins and nucleic acids of biological and medical relevance. The section is also specializing in analyzing crystal structures at extremely high resolution and accuracy and in developing methods of effective diffraction data collection and in using weak anomalous dispersion effects to solve structures of macromolecules. The areas of expertise are: Structural and molecular biology Macromolecular crystallography Diffraction data collection Dr. Dauter requires research support in these areas, and the individual will engage in the purification and preparation of samples, crystallize proteins using various techniques, and derivatize them with heavy atoms/anomalous scatterers, and establish conditions for cryogenic freezing. Individual will also participate in diffraction data collection at the Advanced Photon Source. In addition, the candidate will perform spectroscopic and chromatographic analyses of protein and nucleic acid samples in the context of their purity, oligomeric state and photophysical properties.

  17. Current concepts in cancer research

    OpenAIRE

    Ivan Kok Seng Yap; Ammu Kutty Radhakrishnan; Chee Onn Leong

    2013-01-01

    Cancer research is an extremely broadtopic covering many scientific disciplines includingbiology (e.g. biochemistry and signal transduction),chemistry (e.g. drug discover and development),physics (e.g. diagnostic devices) and even computerscience (e.g. bioinformatics). Some would argue thatcancer research will continue in much the same wayas it is by adding further layers of complexity to thescientific knowledge that is already complex and almostbeyond measure. But we anticipate that cancer r...

  18. The database of the Danish Renal Cancer Group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Astrid Christine; Søgaard, Mette; Mehnert, Frank

    2016-01-01

    AIM OF THE DATABASE: The main purpose of the database of the Danish Renal Cancer Group (DaRenCaData) is to improve the quality of renal cancer treatment in Denmark and secondarily to conduct observational research. STUDY POPULATION: DaRenCaData includes all Danish patients with a first......-time diagnosis of renal cancer in the Danish National Pathology Registry since August 1, 2010. MAIN VARIABLES: DaRenCaData holds data on demographic characteristics, treatments, and pathology collected through linkage to central registries and online registration of a few clinical key variables. Eight quality...... indicators have been selected for monitoring treatment quality and outcome after renal cancer. DESCRIPTIVE DATA: The incidence of renal cancer in Denmark has increased from 12.7 per 100,000 population-years in 2010-2011 to 15.9 per 100,000 population-years in 2014-2015. A total of 3,977 Danish patients...

  19. ABO blood groups and pancreatic cancer risk and survival: Results from the PANcreatic Disease ReseArch (PANDoRA) consortium

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rizzato, C.; Campa, D.; Pezzilli, R.; Souček, P.; Greenhalf, W.; Capurso, G.; Talar-Wojnarowska, R.; Heller, A.; Jamroziak, K.; Khaw, K. T.; Key, T.; Bambi, F.; Landi, S.; Mohelníková-Duchoňová, B.; Vodičková, Ludmila; Buechler, M. W.; Bugert, P.; Vodička, Pavel; Neoptolemos, J. P.; Werner, J.; Hoheisel, J. D.; Bauer, A. S.; Giese, N.; Canzian, F.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 29, č. 4 (2013), s. 1637-1644 ISSN 1021-335X Institutional support: RVO:68378041 Keywords : pancreatic cancer * genetic susceptibility * cancer risk Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.191, year: 2013

  20. Cancer Trends: Influencing Care and Research Priorities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Many of the trends being seen in cancer are changing how we view cancer and how we address it, from prompting research to identify the underlying causes of cancers increasing in incidence to informing research on treatment and prevention.

  1. Using Focus Group Research in Public Relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grunig, Larissa A.

    1990-01-01

    Analyzes a recent instance of focus group research applied to a public relations case (rather than a marketing case). Reviews the advantages and disadvantages of this qualitative method, and describes the case of a county department of mental health relying on focus group research to help plan a program aimed at reducing the stigma of mental…

  2. Energy Innovation. IVO Group`s Research and Development Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salminen, P.; Laiho, Y.; Kaikkonen, H.; Leisio, C.; Hinkkanen, S. [eds.

    1996-11-01

    This annual booklet of the IVO Group`s research and development activities presents a number of articles, written by experts from IVO. The products described are examples of the environmentally-oriented selection made available by the IVO Group. In fact, the entire energy technology developed in Finland is environmentally oriented, if seen from the international perspective. The new business potential of environmental technology is great, and it is believed that in the year 2000, exportation of Finnish know-how in the field of energy-saving and efficiency will exceed the value of out energy imports

  3. Energy Innovation. IVO group`s research and development report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salminen, P.; Laiho, Y.; Kaikkonen, H.; Leisio, C.; Hinkkanen, S.; Fletcher, R. [eds.

    1997-11-01

    This annual booklet of the IVO Group`s research and development activities presents a number of articles, written by experts from IVO. The products described are examples of the environmentally-oriented selection made available by the IVO Group. In fact, the entire energy technology developed in Finland is environmentally oriented, if seen from the international perspective. The new business potential of environmental technology is great, and it is believed that in the year 2000, exportation of Finnish know-how in the field of energy-saving and efficiency will exceed the value of out energy imports

  4. Senior Computational Scientist | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Basic Science Program (BSP) pursues independent, multidisciplinary research in basic and applied molecular biology, immunology, retrovirology, cancer biology, and human genetics. Research efforts and support are an integral part of the Center for Cancer Research (CCR) at the Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research (FNLCR). The Cancer & Inflammation Program (CIP),

  5. Including Everyone in Research: The Burton Street Research Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abell, Simon; Ashmore, Jackie; Wilson, Dorothy; Beart, Suzie; Brownley, Peter; Butcher, Adam; Clarke, Zara; Combes, Helen; Francis, Errol; Hayes, Stefan; Hemmingham, Ian; Hicks, Kerry; Ibraham, Amina; Kenyon, Elinor; Lee, Darren; McClimens, Alex; Collins, Michelle; Newton, John; Wilson, Dorothy

    2007-01-01

    In our paper we talk about what it is like to be a group of people with and without learning disabilities researching together. We describe the process of starting and maintaining the research group and reflect on the obstacles that we have come across, and the rewards such research has brought us. Lastly we put forward some ideas about the role…

  6. Cancer Research in the Arab World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamadeh, Randah R.; Borgan, Saif M.; Sibai, Abla M.

    2017-01-01

    This review aimed to examine trends in cancer research in the Arab world and identify existing research gaps. A search of the MEDLINE® database (National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, Maryland, USA) was undertaken for all cancer-related publications published between January 2000 and December 2013 from seven countries, including Bahrain, Kuwait, Iraq, Lebanon, Morocco, Palestine and Sudan. A total of 1,773 articles were identified, with a significant increase in yearly publications over time (P social and structural determinants of health (27.1%), followed by behavioural risk factors (14.1%), particularly tobacco use. Overall, more cancer research is needed in the Arab world, particularly analytical studies with high-quality evidence and those focusing on older age groups and associations with physical activity and diet. PMID:28690885

  7. Research groups in biomedical sciences. Some recommendations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Cardona

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Despite the growing number of scientific publications reflecting a greater number of people interested in the biomedical sciences, many research groups disappear secondary to poor internal organization. From the review of the available literature, we generate a series of recommendations that may be useful for the creation of a research group or to improve the productivity of an existing group. Fluid communication between its members with a common overall policy framework allows the creation of a good foundation that will lead to the consolidation of the group.

  8. Phase II study on paclitaxel in patients with recurrent, metastatic or locally advanced vulvar cancer not amenable to surgery or radiotherapy: a study of the EORTC-GCG (European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer--Gynaecological Cancer Group)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Witteveen, P. O.; van der Velden, J.; Vergote, I.; Guerra, C.; Scarabeli, C.; Coens, C.; Demonty, G.; Reed, N.

    2009-01-01

    No standard treatment options are available for patients with advanced, recurrent or metastatic vulvar carcinoma not amenable for locoregional treatment. In this phase II study, patients with advanced vulvar cancer received paclitaxel (Taxol) every 3 weeks for up to 10 cycles. Primary objective was

  9. Introduction | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Introduction In order to meet increasing demands from both NIH intramural and extramural communities for access to a small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) resource, the Center for Cancer Research (CCR) under the leadership of Jeffrey Strathern and Bob Wiltrout established a partnership user program (PUP) with the Argonne National Laboratory Photon Source in October 2008.

  10. Research Associate | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Basic Science Program (BSP) at the Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research (FNLCR) pursues independent, multidisciplinary research programs in basic or applied molecular biology, immunology, retrovirology, cancer biology or human genetics. As part of the BSP, the Microbiome and Genetics Core (the Core) characterizes microbiomes by next-generation sequencing to determine their composition and variation, as influenced by immune, genetic, and host health factors. The Core provides support across a spectrum of processes, from nucleic acid isolation through bioinformatics and statistical analysis. KEY ROLES/RESPONSIBILITIES The Research Associate II will provide support in the areas of automated isolation, preparation, PCR and sequencing of DNA on next generation platforms (Illumina MiSeq and NextSeq). An opportunity exists to join the Core’s team of highly trained experimentalists and bioinformaticians working to characterize microbiome samples. The following represent requirements of the position: A minimum of five (5) years related of biomedical experience. Experience with high-throughput nucleic acid (DNA/RNA) extraction. Experience in performing PCR amplification (including quantitative real-time PCR). Experience or familiarity with robotic liquid handling protocols (especially on the Eppendorf epMotion 5073 or 5075 platforms). Experience in operating and maintaining benchtop Illumina sequencers (MiSeq and NextSeq). Ability to evaluate experimental quality and to troubleshoot molecular biology protocols. Experience with sample tracking, inventory management and biobanking. Ability to operate and communicate effectively in a team-oriented work environment.

  11. Journal Club: a group of research experience

    OpenAIRE

    Draganov, Patricia Bover; Silva, Maria Regina Guimarães; Neves, Vanessa Ribeiro; Sanna, Maria Cristina

    2018-01-01

    ABSTRACT Introduction: the Journal Club (JC) is a teaching and learning strategy developed by individuals who meet to discuss scientific articles in periodicals. Objective: to describe the experience of the JC strategy at the Group for Studies and Research in Health Services Administration and Nursing Management (Gepag). Method: case studies or scientific research demonstration mode of practical experience for the understanding and justification of facts. Results: Gepag JC emerged in 2008...

  12. A Randomized Trial (Irish Clinical Oncology Research Group 97-01) Comparing Short Versus Protracted Neoadjuvant Hormonal Therapy Before Radiotherapy for Localized Prostate Cancer.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Armstrong, John G

    2010-08-24

    PURPOSE: To examine the long-term outcomes of a randomized trial comparing short (4 months; Arm 1) and long (8 months; Arm 2) neoadjuvant hormonal therapy before radiotherapy for localized prostate cancer. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Between 1997 and 2001, 276 patients were enrolled and the data from 261 were analyzed. The stratification risk factors were prostate-specific antigen level >20 ng\\/mL, Gleason score >\\/=7, and Stage T3 or more. The intermediate-risk stratum had one factor and the high-risk stratum had two or more. Staging was done from the bone scan and computed tomography findings. The primary endpoint was biochemical failure-free survival. RESULTS: The median follow-up was 102 months. The overall survival, biochemical failure-free survival. and prostate cancer-specific survival did not differ significantly between the two treatment arms, overall or at 5 years. The cumulative probability of overall survival at 5 years was 90% (range, 87-92%) in Arm 1 and 83% (range, 80-86%) in Arm 2. The biochemical failure-free survival rate at 5 years was 66% (range, 62-71%) in Arm 1 and 63% (range, 58-67%) in Arm 2. CONCLUSION: No statistically significant difference was found in biochemical failure-free survival between 4 months and 8 months of neoadjuvant hormonal therapy before radiotherapy for localized prostate cancer.

  13. Research group librarian – a cooperating partner in research?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heidi Kristin Olsen

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Academic libraries encounter many challenges when providing services for researchers and it is evident that use of the library in information searches has reduced significantly over time and continues to decrease.However, a study in Norway in 2007, at Vestfold University College (VUC, demonstrated that there is great potential to increase faculty staff’s use of the library’s digital resources with the right form of engagement. The findings led VUC’s library to focus on its services for this particular user group.In 2009, VUC library initiated a study to investigate the possible effects of a librarian participating as a ‘Research Group Librarian’.The research project, in which this new role was tried out, was called ‘Kindergarten space, materiality, learning and meaning-making’. This was a three year project, funded by the Research Council of Norway. There were eight part time researchers involved in this project, two senior researchers and the research group librarian.The study adopted an ethnographic approach. The research group librarian was a fully participating member of the research team throughout the project.The empirical sources for the study included:semi-structured interviews with the project leader and the participating researchers: short individual interviews at the beginning of the project with each of the research group participants; several group interviews with the majority of the research team midway in the project;observation and field notesThe results are presented under the following categories:implications for the researcher; emphasising behaviour in relation to information search and reference management skills;communication and information within, and evolving from, the project;collaboration in writing a review article;implications for the library – internal, and at VUC in general;the librarian’s role – a ‘boundary worker’?The study demonstrated that as a member of a research group a librarian can

  14. Virtual Focus Groups: New Frontiers in Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyn Turney

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available New information and communication technologies in the form of learning management systems provide unique and inventive opportunities for qualitative researchers. Their intrinsic ability to record discursive data in text format accurately and to provide safe, secure, and anonymous environments for participants makes them amenable for use as advanced research tools. In this article, the authors report on a collaborative project that tested the potential of online discussion boards for use in virtual focus groups. What the researchers found was that not only was the method theoretically sound, it actually enhanced their ability to connect with difficult-to-access populations that were disparately spread.

  15. The John Milner Nutrition and Cancer Prevention Research Practicum | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attendee Testimonial Plenty of Food for Thought Served Up at the John Milner Nutrition and Cancer Prevention Research Practicum by Julia Tobacyk Media Folder: research_groupView the Testimonial (PDF, 790 KB) Date: March 12-16, 2018 |

  16. Trans-Agency Early-Life Exposures and Cancer Working Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Trans-Agency Early-Life Exposures and Cancer Working Group promotes integration of early-life events and exposures into public health cancer research, control, prevention, and policy strategies to reduce the cancer burden in the United States and globally.

  17. Journal Club: a group of research experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Bover Draganov

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Introduction: the Journal Club (JC is a teaching and learning strategy developed by individuals who meet to discuss scientific articles in periodicals. Objective: to describe the experience of the JC strategy at the Group for Studies and Research in Health Services Administration and Nursing Management (Gepag. Method: case studies or scientific research demonstration mode of practical experience for the understanding and justification of facts. Results: Gepag JC emerged in 2008 and, in 2014, was computerized with the Google Drive®, in order to increase its scope and optimize the Group›s meetings. From April to May 2014, the instrument was tested and adjusted, resulting in advancements. Final considerations: the advantages involved optimizing the time of meetings, facilitation of access to publications of interest to the Group and creating the database to support future research.

  18. Journal Club: a group of research experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draganov, Patricia Bover; Silva, Maria Regina Guimarães; Neves, Vanessa Ribeiro; Sanna, Maria Cristina

    2018-01-01

    the Journal Club (JC) is a teaching and learning strategy developed by individuals who meet to discuss scientific articles in periodicals. to describe the experience of the JC strategy at the Group for Studies and Research in Health Services Administration and Nursing Management (Gepag). case studies or scientific research demonstration mode of practical experience for the understanding and justification of facts. Gepag JC emerged in 2008 and, in 2014, was computerized with the Google Drive®, in order to increase its scope and optimize the Group›s meetings. From April to May 2014, the instrument was tested and adjusted, resulting in advancements. the advantages involved optimizing the time of meetings, facilitation of access to publications of interest to the Group and creating the database to support future research.

  19. Prostate Cancer Stem-Like Cells | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prostate cancer is the third leading cause of cancer-related death among men, killing an estimated 27,000 men each year in the United States. Men with advanced prostate cancer often become resistant to conventional therapies. Many researchers speculate that the emergence of resistance is due to the presence of cancer stem cells, which are believed to be a small subpopulation

  20. A social comparison theory analysis of group composition and efficacy of cancer support group programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmack Taylor, Cindy L; Kulik, James; Badr, Hoda; Smith, Murray; Basen-Engquist, Karen; Penedo, Frank; Gritz, Ellen R

    2007-07-01

    Group-based psychosocial programs provide an effective forum for improving mood and social support for cancer patients. Because some studies show more benefit for patients with initially high psychosocial distress, and little or no benefit for patients with initially low distress, support programs may better address patient needs by only including distressed patients. However, distressed patients may benefit particularly from the presence of nondistressed patients who model effective coping, an idea many researchers and extensions of social comparison theory support. We present a theoretical analysis, based on a social comparison perspective, of how group composition (heterogeneous group of distressed and nondistressed patients versus homogeneous group of distressed patients) may affect the efficacy of cancer support programs. We propose that a heterogeneous group allows distressed patients maximal opportunity for the various social comparison activities they are likely to prefer; a homogeneous group does not. Though the presence of nondistressed patients in a heterogeneous group potentially benefits distressed patients, the benefits for nondistressed patients are unclear. For nondistressed patients, heterogeneous groups may provide limited opportunities for preferred social comparison activity and may create the possibility for no benefit or even negative effects on quality of life. We also discuss ethical issues with enrolling nondistressed patients whose presence may help others, but whose likelihood of personal benefit is questionable.

  1. Research program of the Neutrino Research Group. Year 2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    For the last two decades, neutrino physics has been producing major discoveries including neutrino oscillations. These results gave clear confirmation that active neutrinos oscillate and therefore have mass with three different mass states. This is a very important result showing that the Minimal Standard Model is incomplete and requires an extension which is not yet known. The neutrino research field is very broad and active, at the frontier of today's particle physics. The creation of a Neutrino Research Group (GDR) was proposed in 2004 with the aim of gathering CEA and CNRS research teams working on Neutrino Physics on experimental or theoretical level. This document presents the Research program of the Neutrino Research Group which is divided into 5 working groups with the following activities: 1 - Determination of neutrino parameters; 2 - Physics beyond the standard model; 3 - Neutrinos in the universe; 4 - Accelerators, detection means, R and D and valorisation; 5 - Common tools to all working groups. The research group participating laboratories and teams are listed at the end of the document

  2. The John Milner Nutrition and Cancer Prevention Research Practicum | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Nutritional Science Research Group in the Division of Cancer Prevention at the National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health and the Department of Nutrition at the Clinical Center, National Institutes of Health, and the U.S. Department of Agriculture’s Beltsville Human Nutrition Research Center are offering a one-week educational opportunity in Nutrition and Cancer Prevention Research for individuals with a sustained commitment to nutrition and health promotion. |

  3. Techniques in cancer research: a laboratory manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deo, M.G.; Seshadri, R.; Mulherkar, R.; Mukhopadhyaya, R.

    1995-01-01

    Cancer Research Institute (CRI) works on all facets of cancer using the latest biomedical tools. For this purpose, it has established modern laboratories in different branches of cancer biology such as cell and molecular biology, biochemistry, immunology, chemical and viral oncogenesis, genetics of cancer including genetic engineering, tissue culture, cancer chemotherapy, neurooncology and comparative oncology. This manual describes the protocols used in these laboratories. There is also a chapter on handling and care of laboratory animals, an essential component of any modern cancer biology laboratory. It is hoped that the manual will be useful to biomedical laboratories, specially those interested in cancer research. refs., tabs., figs

  4. Online support groups for women with breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCaughan, Eilis; Parahoo, Kader; Hueter, Irene; Northouse, Laurel; Bradbury, Ian

    2017-03-10

    . Participants were predominantly white and well educated and were moderate to high earners. Four studies compared an online support group versus a control group, and the other two compared a 'moderated' versus a 'peer-led' online support group, and a 'standard' versus an 'enhanced' online support group, respectively.None of the included studies measured 'emotional distress' or uncertainty. One study (78 women) for which data for analysis were missing reported no positive effects of online support on 'distress' and 'cancer-specific distress' versus support provided by a control group. Two studies measured anxiety: One study (72 women) found no difference in anxiety at the end of the intervention between the online support group and the control group (MD -0.40, 95% CI -6.42 to 5.62; low-quality evidence), and the second study (184 women) reported a reduction in anxiety levels at the end of the intervention when comparing the 'standard' support group (run by participants without prompting from health professionals) versus an 'enhanced' online support group (in which participants were specifically asked by the researcher to respond to one another's need for support).Five studies (414 women) measured depression. Three studies compared depression in the online support group with depression in the control group. Pooled data from two studies (120 women) showed a small to moderate reduction in depression in the online support group compared with control groups at the end of the intervention (SMD -0.37, 95% CI -0.75 to 0.00; very low-quality evidence). The third study, a pilot study (30 women), provided no data for analysis but reported no difference in depression between participants in support and control groups at the end of the intervention. Of the remaining two studies that measured depression, one study (60 women) provided no extractable data for comparison but reported no difference in depressive symptoms between a 'moderated' and a 'peer-led' support group; the other study (184

  5. Research groups: How big should they be?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Isabelle; Grange, Sam; Eyre-Walker, Adam

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the relationship between scientific productivity and research group size is important for deciding how science should be funded. We have investigated the relationship between these variables in the life sciences in the United Kingdom using data from 398 principle investigators (PIs). We show that three measures of productivity, the number of publications, the impact factor of the journals in which papers are published and the number of citations, are all positively correlated to group size, although they all show a pattern of diminishing returns-doubling group size leads to less than a doubling in productivity. The relationships for the impact factor and the number of citations are extremely weak. Our analyses suggest that an increase in productivity will be achieved by funding more PIs with small research groups, unless the cost of employing post-docs and PhD students is less than 20% the cost of a PI. We also provide evidence that post-docs are more productive than PhD students both in terms of the number of papers they produce and where those papers are published.

  6. Research groups: How big should they be?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle Cook

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the relationship between scientific productivity and research group size is important for deciding how science should be funded. We have investigated the relationship between these variables in the life sciences in the United Kingdom using data from 398 principle investigators (PIs. We show that three measures of productivity, the number of publications, the impact factor of the journals in which papers are published and the number of citations, are all positively correlated to group size, although they all show a pattern of diminishing returns—doubling group size leads to less than a doubling in productivity. The relationships for the impact factor and the number of citations are extremely weak. Our analyses suggest that an increase in productivity will be achieved by funding more PIs with small research groups, unless the cost of employing post-docs and PhD students is less than 20% the cost of a PI. We also provide evidence that post-docs are more productive than PhD students both in terms of the number of papers they produce and where those papers are published.

  7. Final report of the group research. Advanced Technology for Medical Imaging Research. 1996-2000 FY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-03-01

    This report involves the organization of the research groups (4 units of radiopharmaceutical chemistry, radiotracer and radiopharmacology, clinical imaging, and molecular informative research), 5 research reports and 38 published research papers. The research reports concern Fundamental researches on the availability and production of PET radiopharmaceuticals using the National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS) cyclotron, Design and evaluation of in vivo radiopharmaceuticals for PET measurement (kinetics and metabolism in small animals and primates), Fundamental studies on development of technique radiation measurement, Clinical application of medical imaging technology in the fields of neuroscience, cardiovascular, cancer diagnosis and others, and A study to establish and evaluate a lung cancer screening system using spiral CT units which is in pilot-progress in Kanto and Kansai regions. (N.I.)

  8. American Institute for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Phytochemicals in your food Red and processed meat Sugar and cancer risk Alcohol and cancer risk Physical Activity Are ... Updates: Diabetes Rates are High and Rising, That Links with Cancer Apples and Oranges, What Americans are Eating and ...

  9. How to conduct focus groups: researching group priorities through discussion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    Focus groups serve to uncover priorities and beliefs of a target group, but health project designers do not always take the time to seek this information beforehand. Focus groups also allow various local subgroups to communicate their concerns before the project starts. Focus groups can also breed ideas and dialogue that individual interviews cannot and they provide baseline information so managers can determine if attitudes or priorities have resulted from the project. Diverse people have different beliefs, e.g., women who have young children view oral rehydration therapy differently from women with no children. Project designers can use these basic differences to arrive at some conclusions about general attitudes. Focus group facilitators should have a discussion outline to help keep the group on the topic of concern. They should limit sessions to 60-90 minutes. Each focus groups should include 8-10 people. It is important to have members of various community subgroups in each group. Yet group designers should be careful not to include within the same group, those who may intimidate other people in the group, e.g., in situations where farmers depend on middlemen, farmers may not be open if middlemen are also in the focus group. Facilitators should launch each session with an attempt to encourage the members to be open and to feel comfortable. For example, in Malawi, a facilitator leads her focus group discussions with songs. Stories are another icebreaker. It is important that all focus groups centering around a certain project discuss the same topics. Facilitators need to stress to the group that all discussions are to be kept confidential. The designers should also carefully word the questions so that facilitators will not impart their bias. Facilitators should not direct the group to certain conclusions, but instead keep the discussions focused.

  10. Dr. Ted Trimble: Why I Do Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    In a video, Dr. Ted Trimble talks about the importance of cancer research. World Cancer Research Day commemorates the important role research and cancer researchers play in reducing the global burden of cancer.

  11. CCR Magazines | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Center for Cancer Research (CCR) has two magazines, MILESTONES and LANDMARKS, that highlight our annual advances and top contributions to the understanding, detection, treatment and prevention of cancer over the years.

  12. NIH Research Leads to Cervical Cancer Vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Issues Sexually Transmitted Diseases NIH Research Leads to Cervical Cancer Vaccine Past Issues / Fall 2008 Table of Contents ... in women, the cause of the majority of cervical cancers. Photo courtesy of Judy Folkenberg, NLM Writer By ...

  13. Children's Oncology Group's 2013 blueprint for research: behavioral science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noll, Robert B; Patel, Sunita K; Embry, Leanne; Hardy, Kristina K; Pelletier, Wendy; Annett, Robert D; Patenaude, Andrea; Lown, E Anne; Sands, Stephen A; Barakat, Lamia P

    2013-06-01

    Behavioral science has long played a central role in pediatric oncology clinical service and research. Early work focused on symptom relief related to side effects of chemotherapy and pain management related to invasive medical procedures. As survival rates improved, the focused has shifted to examination of the psychosocial impact, during and after treatment, of pediatric cancer and its treatment on children and their families. The success of the clinical trials networks related to survivorship highlights an even more critical role in numerous domains of psychosocial research and care. Within the cooperative group setting, the field of behavioral science includes psychologists, social workers, physicians, nurses, and parent advisors. The research agenda of this group of experts needs to focus on utilization of psychometrically robust measures to evaluate the impact of treatment on children with cancer and their families during and after treatment ends. Over the next 5 years, the field of behavioral science will need to develop and implement initiatives to expand use of standardized neurocognitive and behavior batteries; increase assessment of neurocognition using technology; early identification of at-risk children/families; establish standards for evidence-based psychosocial care; and leverage linkages with the broader behavioral health pediatric oncology community to translate empirically supported research clinical trials care to practice. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) Pathobiology Group standard operating procedure for the preparation of human tumour tissue extracts suited for the quantitative analysis of tissue-associated biomarkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Manfred; Mengele, Karin; Schueren, Elisabeth; Sweep, Fred C G J; Foekens, John A; Brünner, Nils; Laabs, Juliane; Malik, Abha; Harbeck, Nadia

    2007-03-01

    With the new concept of 'individualized treatment and targeted therapies', tumour tissue-associated biomarkers have been given a new role in selection of cancer patients for treatment and in cancer patient management. Tumour biomarkers can give support to cancer patient stratification and risk assessment, treatment response identification, or to identifying those patients who are expected to respond to certain anticancer drugs. As the field of tumour-associated biomarkers has expanded rapidly over the last years, it has become increasingly apparent that a strong need exists to establish guidelines on how to easily disintegrate the tumour tissue for assessment of the presence of tumour tissue-associated biomarkers. Several mechanical tissue (cell) disruption techniques exist, ranging from bead mill homogenisation and freeze-fracturing through to blade or pestle-type homogenisation, to grinding and ultrasonics. Still, only a few directives have been given on how fresh-frozen tumour tissues should be processed for the extraction and determination of tumour biomarkers. The PathoBiology Group of the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer therefore has devised a standard operating procedure for the standardised preparation of human tumour tissue extracts which is designed for the quantitative analysis of tumour tissue-associated biomarkers. The easy to follow technical steps involved require 50-300 mg of deep-frozen cancer tissue placed into small size (1.2 ml) cryogenic tubes. These are placed into the shaking flask of a Mikro-Dismembrator S machine (bead mill) to pulverise the tumour tissue in the capped tubes in the deep-frozen state by use of a stainless steel ball, all within 30 s of exposure. RNA is isolated from the pulverised tissue following standard procedures. Proteins are extracted from the still frozen pulverised tissue by addition of Tris-buffered saline to obtain the cytosol fraction of the tumour or by the Tris buffer supplemented with

  15. Bubble Chamber Research Group Microcomputer Unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bairstow, R.; Barlow, J.; Mace, P.R.; Seller, P.; Waters, M.; Watson, J.G.

    1982-05-01

    A distributed data acquisition system has been developed by the Bubble Chamber Research Group at the Rutherford Appleton laboratory for use with their film measuring machines. The system is based upon a set of microcomputers linked together with a VAX 11/780 computer, in a local area computer network. This network is of the star type and uses a packet switching technique. Each film measuring machine is equipped with a microcomputer which controls the function of the table, buffers data and enhances the interface between operators and machines. This paper provides a detailed description of each microcomputer and can be used as a reference manual for these computers. (author)

  16. Kids, Adolescents, and Young Adults Cancer Study-A Methodological Approach in Cancer Epidemiology Research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Link, N. L.; Maurer, E.; Largent, J.; Kent, E.; Sender, E.; Culver, H. A.; Morris, R. A.; Sender, E.

    2009-01-01

    Advances have been made in treatment and outcomes for pediatric cancer. However adolescents and young adults (AYAs) with cancer have not experienced similar relative improvements. We undertook a study to develop the methodology necessary for epidemiologic cancer research in these age groups. Our goal was to create the Kids, Adolescents, and Young Adults Cancer (KAYAC) project to create a resource to address research questions relevant to this population. We used a combination of clinic and population-based ascertainment to enroll 111 cases aged 0-39 for this methodology development study. The largest groups of cancer types enrolled include: breast cancer, leukemia, lymphoma, and melanoma. The overall participation rate is 69.8% and varies by age and tumor type. The study included patients, mothers, and fathers. The methods used to establish this resource are described, and the values of the resource in studies of childhood and young adult cancer are outlined.

  17. Evidence and research in rectal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valentini, Vincenzo; Beets-Tan, Regina; Borras, Josep M.; Krivokapic, Zoran; Leer, Jan Willem; Pahlman, Lars; Roedel, Claus; Schmoll, Hans Joachim; Scott, Nigel; Velde, Cornelius Van de; Verfaillie, Christine

    2008-01-01

    The main evidences of epidemiology, diagnostic imaging, pathology, surgery, radiotherapy, chemotherapy and follow-up are reviewed to optimize the routine treatment of rectal cancer according to a multidisciplinary approach. This paper reports on the knowledge shared between different specialists involved in the design and management of the multidisciplinary ESTRO Teaching Course on Rectal Cancer. The scenario of ongoing research is also addressed. In this time of changing treatments, it clearly appears that a common standard for large heterogeneous patient groups have to be substituted by more individualised therapies based on clinical-pathological features and very soon on molecular and genetic markers. Only trained multidisciplinary teams can face this new challenge and tailor the treatments according to the best scientific evidence for each patient

  18. Towards meeting the research needs of Australian cancer consumers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saunders Carla

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is a growing amount of literature to support the view that active involvement in research by consumers, especially informed and networked consumers, benefits the quality and direction of research itself, the research process and, most importantly, people affected by cancer. Our exploratory project focuses on identifying their priorities and developing a process to assess the research needs of Australian cancer consumers which may be useful beyond the cancer scenario. Methods This project was consumer initiated, developed and implemented, with the assistance of a leading Australian cancer consumer advocacy group, Cancer Voices NSW (CVN. Such direct involvement is unusual and ensures that the priorities identified, and the process itself, are not influenced by other interests, regardless how well-intentioned they may be. The processes established, and data collection via a workshop, followed by a questionnaire to confirm and prioritise findings, and comparison with a similar UK exercise, are detailed in this paper. Results Needs across five topic areas reflecting cancer control domains (prevention and risk; screening and diagnosis; treatment; survivorship; and end of life were identified. Cancer consumers high priority research needs were found to be: earlier diagnosis of metastatic cancers; the extent of use of best practice palliative care guidelines; identifying barriers to cancer risk behaviour change; and environmental, nutrition and lifestyle risk factors for people with cancer. A process for identifying consumers’ research priorities was developed and applied; this may be useful for further investigation in this under-studied area. Conclusion The findings provide a model for developing a consumer derived research agenda in Australia which can be used to inform the strategic direction of cancer research. Consumers have been seeking a workable method to achieve this and have worked in collaboration with a major

  19. Current cancer research. Reports from the German Cancer Research Center 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    Topics from the Contents: The Fight against Cancer in Germany - A Critical Review. Conditions and Structures in Research. Familial Breast Cancer - A Critical Assessment. Research without Animal Experiments. Cancer Prevention. New Approaches for Tumor Therapy. Genes, Chromosomes and Cancer. Therapy of Brain Tumors with Laser Neurosurgery. The Genome Project. (orig.) [de

  20. Biopsychosocial Research Training in Breast Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Antoni, Michael

    1998-01-01

    .... Three others successfully defended their Master's theses. Training throughout YR 4 was closely coordinated with ongoing ACS-funded and NCI-funded biopsychosocial breast cancer research projects...

  1. ETSON strategic orientations on research activities. ETSON research group activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Dorseelaere, J.P.; Barrachin, M. [IRSN, Saint Paul les Durance (France). Centre de Cadarache; Millington, D. [Wood RSD, Warrington (United Kingdom); and others

    2018-01-15

    In 2011, ETSON published the ''Position Paper of the Technical Safety Organizations: Research Needs in Nuclear Safety for Gen 2 and Gen 3 NPPs''. This paper, published only a few months after the Fukushima-Daiichi severe accidents, presented the priorities for R and D on the main pending safety issues. It was produced by the ETSON Research Group (ERG) that has the mandate of identifying and prioritizing safety research needs, sharing information on research projects in which ETSON members are involved, defining and launching new research projects and disseminating knowledge among ETSON members. Six years after this publication, many R and D international projects finished in diverse frames, and other ones have started. In particular a lot of work was done (and is going on..) on the analysis of the Fukushima-Daiichi severe accidents. Meanwhile a roadmap on research on Gen. 2 and 3 nuclear power plants (NPP), including safety aspects, was produced by the NUGENIA association, followed by a more detailed document as ''NUGENIA global vision''. It was also demonstrated that the ETSON R and D priorities were consistent with the implementation of the 2014 Euratom Directive on safety of nuclear installations.

  2. Practice patterns of radiotherapy in endometrial cancer among member groups of the gynecologic cancer intergroup

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Small, W.Jr.; Bois, A. Du; Bhatnagar, S.

    2009-01-01

    PURPOSE: To describe radiotherapeutic practice of the treatment of endometrial cancer in members of the Gynecologic Cancer Intergroup (GCIG). METHODS: A survey was developed and distributed to the members of the GCIG. The GCIG is a global association of cooperative groups involved in the research.......57 [10.13] Gy in a mean of 4.3 insertions), and 5 groups used low-dose-rate brachytherapy (41.45 [17.5] Gy). Nineteen of the 28 respondents measured the doses to the bladder and the rectum when performing VBT. For brachytherapy, there was no uniformity in the fraction of the vagina treated or the doses...... and schedules used. CONCLUSIONS: Radiotherapy practices among member groups of the GCIG are similar in doses and dose per fraction with external beam. There is a moderate discrepancy in the brachytherapy practice after hysterectomy. There are no serious impediments to intergroup participation in radiation...

  3. Lysyl oxidase in cancer research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perryman, Lara; Erler, Janine Terra

    2014-01-01

    Metastasis is the main reason for cancer-associated deaths and therapies are desperately needed to target the progression of cancer. Lysyl oxidase (LOX) plays a pivotal role in cancer progression, including metastasis, and is therefore is an attractive therapeutic target. In this review we...

  4. Remote Sensing Information Sciences Research Group: Santa Barbara Information Sciences Research Group, year 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estes, John E.; Smith, Terence; Star, Jeffrey L.

    1987-01-01

    Information Sciences Research Group (ISRG) research continues to focus on improving the type, quantity, and quality of information which can be derived from remotely sensed data. Particular focus in on the needs of the remote sensing research and application science community which will be served by the Earth Observing System (EOS) and Space Station, including associated polar and co-orbiting platforms. The areas of georeferenced information systems, machine assisted information extraction from image data, artificial intelligence and both natural and cultural vegetation analysis and modeling research will be expanded.

  5. Cancer Biotechnology | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biotechnology advances continue to underscore the need to educate NCI fellows in new methodologies. The Cancer Biotechnology course will be held on the NCI-Frederick campus on January 29, 2016 (Bldg. 549, Main Auditorium) and the course will be repeated on the Bethesda campus on February 9, 2016 (Natcher Balcony C). The latest advances in DNA, protein and image analysis will

  6. Setting Research Priorities for Kidney Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jennifer M; Bhatt, Jaimin; Avery, Jonathan; Laupacis, Andreas; Cowan, Katherine; Basappa, Naveen S; Basiuk, Joan; Canil, Christina; Al-Asaaed, Sohaib; Heng, Daniel Y C; Wood, Lori; Stacey, Dawn; Kollmannsberger, Christian; Jewett, Michael A S

    2017-12-01

    Defining disease-specific research priorities in cancer can facilitate better allocation of limited resources. Involving patients and caregivers as well as expert clinicians in this process is of value. We undertook this approach for kidney cancer as an example. The Kidney Cancer Research Network of Canada sponsored a collaborative consensus-based priority-setting partnership that identified ten research priorities in the management of kidney cancer. These are discussed in the context of current initiatives and gaps in knowledge. Copyright © 2017 European Association of Urology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Lysimeter Research Group - A scientific community network for lysimeter research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cepuder, Peter; Nolz, Reinhard; Bohner, Andreas; Baumgarten, Andreas; Klammler, Gernot; Murer, Erwin; Wimmer, Bernhard

    2014-05-01

    A lysimeter is a vessel that isolates a volume of soil between ground surface and a certain depth, and includes a sampling device for percolating water at its bottom. Lysimeters are traditionally used to study water and solute transport in the soil. Equipped with a weighing system, soil water sensors and temperature sensors, lysimeters are valuable instruments to investigate hydrological processes in the system soil-plant-atmosphere, especially fluxes across its boundary layers, e.g. infiltration, evapotranspiration and deep drainage. Modern lysimeter facilities measure water balance components with high precision and high temporal resolution. Hence, lysimeters are used in various research disciplines - such as hydrology, hydrogeology, soil science, agriculture, forestry, and climate change studies - to investigate hydrological, chemical and biological processes in the soil. The Lysimeter Research Group (LRG) was established in 1992 as a registered nonprofit association with free membership (ZVR number: 806128239, Austria). It is organized as an executive board with an international scientific steering committee. In the beginning the LRG focused mainly on nitrate contamination in Austria and its neighboring countries. Today the main intention of the LRG is to advance interdisciplinary exchange of information between researchers and users working in the field of lysimetry on an international level. The LRG also aims for the dissemination of scientific knowledge to the public and the support of decision makers. Main activities are the organization of a lysimeter conference every two years in Raumberg-Gumpenstein (Styria, Austria), the organization of excursions to lysimeter stations and related research sites around Europe, and the maintenance of a website (www.lysimeter.at). The website contains useful information about numerous European lysimeter stations regarding their infrastructure, instrumentation and operation, as well as related links and references which

  8. Relationship between ABO blood groups and oral cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bushranaaz Fathima Jaleel

    2012-01-01

    Conclusion: By employing a simple blood grouping test during community field programs, people with blood group A in the age group of 40-59 years having tobacco chewing habits can be apprised that they are more at risk to develop oral cancer than people with other blood groups.

  9. Psychosocial group intervention for patients with primary breast cancer: A randomised trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boesen, E. H.; Karlsen, R.; Christensen, J.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To test the effectiveness of a psycho-educational group intervention to improve psychological distress measured by POMS TMD, Quality of Life measured by European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC), the core and breast cancer module, Mental Adjustment measured by MA...

  10. Laboratory Animal Technician | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    PROGRAM DESCRIPTION The Laboratory Animal Sciences Program (LASP) provides exceptional quality animal care and technical support services for animal research performed at the National Cancer Institute at the Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research. LASP executes this mission by providing a broad spectrum of state-of-the-art technologies and services that are focused

  11. Communications Specialist | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Be part of our mission to support research against cancer. We have an exciting opportunity for a talented communicator to join our team and be part of the effort to find cures for cancer. We are looking for a creative, team-oriented communications professional, with strong writing skills to publicize our research advances, employment and training opportunities and clinical

  12. Correlation between Duffy blood group phenotype and breast cancer incidence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Xiao-feng; Li, Lian-fang; Ou, Zhou-luo; Shen, Rong; Shao, Zhi-min

    2012-01-01

    Different ethnicities have different distribution of Duffy blood group (DBG) phenotypes and different breast cancer morbidity. A study in our lab demonstrated that Duffy antigen/receptor for chemokines (DARC, also known as DBGP, the Duffy protein phenotype), led to the inhibition of tumorigenesis. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that DBGP is correlated with breast cancer occurrence. DBGP proteins were examined by indirect antiglobulin testing with anti-FYa and anti-FYb antibodies. The phenotypes were classified into four groups according to the agglutination reactions: FYa + FYb+, FYa + FYb-, FYa-FYb + and FYa-FYb-. The phenotypes and pathological diagnosis of consecutively hospitalized female patients (n = 5,022) suffering from breast cancer at the Shanghai Cancer Hospital and Henan Province Cancer Hospital were investigated. The relationships between DBGP expression with breast cancer occurrence, axillary lymph status, histological subtype, tumor size pathological grade and overall survival were analyzed. The incidence of breast cancer was significantly different between FYa + FYb + (29.8%), FYa + FYb- (33.2%), FYa-FYb + (45.6%) and FYa-FYb- (59.1%; P = 0.001). Significant different numbers of breast cancer patients had metastases to the axillary lymph nodes in the FYa + FYb + group (25.1%), FYa + FYb- (36.9%), FYa-FYb + (41.0%) and FYa-FYb- (50.0%, (P = 0.005). There was a statistical significance (p = 0.022) of the overall survival difference between patients with difference phenotypes. No significant difference was observed in cancer size (t-test, p > 0.05), histological cancer type (Fisher's exact test, p > 0.05) or histological grade (Fisher's exact test, p > 0.05) between every each DBGP group. DBGP is correlated with breast cancer incidence and axillary lymph node metastasis and overall survival. Further investigations are required to determine the underlying mechanism of Duffy blood group phenotype on breast cancer risk

  13. Lessons learned in the trenches: facilitating exercise adherence among breast cancer survivors in a group setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Laura Q; Vicari, Sandy; Courneya, Kerry S

    2010-01-01

    Improving effectiveness of group exercise counseling for breast cancer survivors is needed. The objective of this study was to describe clinical observations, with research and translation implications, derived during group exercise counseling for breast cancer survivors. While implementing group session components of an effective social cognitive theory-based exercise intervention, observations were made through verbal discussion with study staff, review of participant feedback, and prospective journaling by the group facilitator. The intervention has been implemented 11 times (ie, 63 survivors; 66 group sessions). Thematic consistency, application to intervention goals and design, and implications were reconciled between 2 investigators. Breast cancer diagnosis was a strong source of commonality among group participants. Participant age, time since diagnosis, and expectation for group sessions (eg, group support vs health education) hindered group commonality. Barriers unique to the breast cancer experience were infrequent, but people-pleasing behavior was often identified as a barrier to adherence. Feeling at risk for cancer recurrence was a major concern. Some participants required referral for mental health evaluation for preexisting conditions (eg, depression). Although participants easily understood time management, application of other behavioral modification techniques was more difficult. A breast cancer diagnosis alone is not sufficient for commonality among group members. Teaching time management and positive reframing is essential. Protocols for appropriate mental health referrals are needed. Our observations will assist group facilitators in enhancing group dynamics and addressing obstacles hindering counseling effectiveness. Moreover, our results suggest hypotheses related to enhancing behavior change in a group setting worthy of future study.

  14. Sparse Group Penalized Integrative Analysis of Multiple Cancer Prognosis Datasets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jin; Huang, Jian; Xie, Yang; Ma, Shuangge

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY In cancer research, high-throughput profiling studies have been extensively conducted, searching for markers associated with prognosis. Because of the “large d, small n” characteristic, results generated from the analysis of a single dataset can be unsatisfactory. Recent studies have shown that integrative analysis, which simultaneously analyzes multiple datasets, can be more effective than single-dataset analysis and classic meta-analysis. In most of existing integrative analysis, the homogeneity model has been assumed, which postulates that different datasets share the same set of markers. Several approaches have been designed to reinforce this assumption. In practice, different datasets may differ in terms of patient selection criteria, profiling techniques, and many other aspects. Such differences may make the homogeneity model too restricted. In this study, we assume the heterogeneity model, under which different datasets are allowed to have different sets of markers. With multiple cancer prognosis datasets, we adopt the AFT (accelerated failure time) model to describe survival. This model may have the lowest computational cost among popular semiparametric survival models. For marker selection, we adopt a sparse group MCP (minimax concave penalty) approach. This approach has an intuitive formulation and can be computed using an effective group coordinate descent algorithm. Simulation study shows that it outperforms the existing approaches under both the homogeneity and heterogeneity models. Data analysis further demonstrates the merit of heterogeneity model and proposed approach. PMID:23938111

  15. Growing researchers from the historically disadvantaged groups ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article provides an overview of the nature and quality of research supervision and mentorship practices employed by supervisors and mentors of interns in a South African research council in an attempt to increase the pool and change the face of researchers in the country. Through a series of studies conducted by the ...

  16. Quality Control Specialist | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Within the Leidos Biomedical Research Inc.’s Clinical Research Directorate, the Clinical Monitoring Research Program (CMRP) provides high-quality comprehensive and strategic operational support to the high-profile domestic and international clinical research initiatives of the National Cancer Institute (NCI), National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID),

  17. Research Areas: Causes of Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Understanding the exposures and risk factors that cause cancer, as well as the genetic abnormalities associated with the disease, has helped us to reduce certain exposures and to ameliorate their harmful effects.

  18. NCI Cancer Research Data Ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    An infographic explaining NCI’s present and future efforts to promote a culture of sharing data—clinical, genomic, proteomic, imaging, patient histories, and outcomes data—among stakeholders to impact cancer care.

  19. Retractions in cancer research: a systematic survey

    OpenAIRE

    Bozzo, Anthony; Bali, Kamal; Evaniew, Nathan; Ghert, Michelle

    2017-01-01

    Background The annual number of retracted publications in the scientific literature is rapidly increasing. The objective of this study was to determine the frequency and reason for retraction of cancer publications and to determine how journals in the cancer field handle retracted articles. Methods We searched three online databases (MEDLINE, Embase, The Cochrane Library) from database inception until 2015 for retracted journal publications related to cancer research. For each article, the re...

  20. Summer Student Breast Cancer Research Training Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-05-01

    kinase inhibition on ERK activity in breast cancer cells, the role of the calpain proteolytic pathway in breast cancer-induced cachexia , and the...research training; breast cancer; fatty acids and prevention; nutrition and prevention; alternative prevention 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF...growth. In in vivo experiments, mice were fed diets that were rich in either omega-3 (fish oil) or omega-6 (corn oil) fatty acids. Three weeks after

  1. Prostate Cancer Research Training Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-01

    pathways underlying pathological cell proliferation in the setting of cancer. Current efforts are focused on selecting RNA aptamers to antigens...of restaurants ranging from fast food to fine dining. Application to the Program - Application forms, distributed with this brochure...pathological cell proliferation in the setting of cancer. Current efforts are focused on selecting RNA aptamers to antigens expressed on the surface of target

  2. Diagnosis and Management of High Risk Group for Gastric Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Hyuk; Kim, Nayoung

    2015-01-01

    Gastric cancer is associated with high morbidity and mortality worldwide. To reduce the socioeconomic burden related to gastric cancer, it is very important to identify and manage high risk group for gastric cancer. In this review, we describe the general risk factors for gastric cancer and define high risk group for gastric cancer. We discuss strategies for the effective management of patients for the prevention and early detection of gastric cancer. Atrophic gastritis (AG) and intestinal metaplasia (IM) are the most significant risk factors for gastric cancer. Therefore, the accurate selection of individuals with AG and IM may be a key strategy for the prevention and/or early detection of gastric cancer. Although endoscopic evaluation using enhanced technologies such as narrow band imaging-magnification, the serum pepsinogen test, Helicobacter pylori serology, and trefoil factor 3 have been evaluated, a gold standard method to accurately select individuals with AG and IM has not emerged. In terms of managing patients at high risk of gastric cancer, it remains uncertain whether H. pylori eradication reverses and/or prevents the progression of AG and IM. Although endoscopic surveillance in high risk patients is expected to be beneficial, further prospective studies in large populations are needed to determine the optimal surveillance interval. PMID:25547086

  3. Collaborating to Move Research Forward: Proceedings of the 10th Annual Bladder Cancer Think Tank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamat, Ashish M; Agarwal, Piyush; Bivalacqua, Trinity; Chisolm, Stephanie; Daneshmand, Sia; Doroshow, James H; Efstathiou, Jason A; Galsky, Matthew; Iyer, Gopa; Kassouf, Wassim; Shah, Jay; Taylor, John; Williams, Stephen B; Quale, Diane Zipursky; Rosenberg, Jonathan E

    2016-04-27

    The 10th Annual Bladder Cancer Think Tank was hosted by the Bladder Cancer Advocacy Network and brought together a multidisciplinary group of clinicians, researchers, representatives and Industry to advance bladder cancer research efforts. Think Tank expert panels, group discussions, and networking opportunities helped generate ideas and strengthen collaborations between researchers and physicians across disciplines and between institutions. Interactive panel discussions addressed a variety of timely issues: 1) data sharing, privacy and social media; 2) improving patient navigation through therapy; 3) promising developments in immunotherapy; 4) and moving bladder cancer research from bench to bedside. Lastly, early career researchers presented their bladder cancer studies and had opportunities to network with leading experts.

  4. Research on cancer diagnosis in Malaysia: current status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Looi, L M; Zubaidah, Z; Cheah, P L; Cheong, S K; Gudum, H R; Iekhsan, O; Ikram, S I; Jamal, R; Mak, J W; Othman, N H; Puteri, J N; Rosline, H; Sabariah, A R; Seow, H F; Sharifah, N A

    2004-06-01

    Cancer is a major morbidity and mortality concern in Malaysia. Based on National Cancer Registry data, the Malaysian population is estimated to bear a cancer burden of about 40,000 new cases per year, and a cumulative lifetime risk of about 1:4. Cancer research in Malaysia has to consider needs relevant to our population, and resources constraints. Hence, funding bodies prioritise cancers of high prevalence, unique to our community and posing specific clinical problems. Cancer diagnosis is crucial to cancer management. While cancer diagnosis research largely aims at improvements in diagnostic information towards more appropriate therapy, it also impacts upon policy development and other areas of cancer management. The scope of cancer diagnosis upon which this paper is based, and their possible impact on other R&D areas, has been broadly categorized into: (1) identification of aetiological agents and their linkages to the development of precancer and cancer (impact on policy development, cancer prevention and treatment), (2) cancer biology and pathogenesis (impact on cancer prevention, treatment strategies and product development), (3) improvements in accuracy, sensitivity and specificity in cancer detection, monitoring and classification (impact on technology development) and (4) prognostic and predictive parameters (impact on treatment strategies). This paper is based on data collected by the Working Group on Cancer Diagnosis Research for the First National Conference on Cancer Research Coordination in April 2004. Data was collated from the databases of Institutions/Universities where the authors are employed, the Ministry of Science, Technology and Innovation (MOSTI) and targeted survey feedback from key cancer researchers. Under the 7th Malaysia Plan, 76 cancer projects were funded through the Intensified Research in Priority Areas (IRPA) scheme of MOSTI, amounting to almost RM15 million of grant money. 47(61.8%) of these projects were substantially in cancer

  5. Palbociclib as a first-line treatment in oestrogen receptor-positive, HER2-negative, advanced breast cancer not cost-effective with current pricing: a health economic analysis of the Swiss Group for Clinical Cancer Research (SAKK).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matter-Walstra, K; Ruhstaller, T; Klingbiel, D; Schwenkglenks, M; Dedes, K J

    2016-07-01

    Endocrine therapy continues to be the optimal systemic treatment for metastatic ER(+)HER2(-) breast cancer. The CDK4/6 inhibitor palbociclib combined with letrozole has recently been shown to significantly improve progression-free survival. Here we examined the cost-effectiveness of this regimen for the Swiss healthcare system. A Markov cohort simulation based on the PALOMA-1 trial (Finn et al. in Lancet Oncol 16:25-35, 2015) was used as the clinical course. Input parameters were based on summary trial data. Costs were assessed from the Swiss healthcare system perspective. Adding palbociclib to letrozole (PALLET) compared to letrozole monotherapy was estimated to cost an additional CHF342,440 and gain 1.14 quality-adjusted life years, resulting in an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) of CHF301,227/QALY gained. In univariate sensitivity analyses, no tested variation in key parameters resulted in an ICER below a willingness-to-pay threshold of CHF100,000/QALY. PALLET had a 0 % probability of being cost-effective in probabilistic sensitivity analyses. Lowering PALLET's price by 75 % resulted in an ICER of CHF73,995/QALY and a 73 % probability of being cost-effective. At current prices, PALLET would cost the Swiss healthcare system an additional CHF155 million/year. Palbociclib plus letrozole cannot be considered cost-effective for the first-line treatment of patients with metastatic breast cancer in the Swiss healthcare system.

  6. Staff Clinician | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Neuro-Oncology Branch (NOB), Center for Cancer Research (CCR), National Cancer Institute (NCI), National Institutes of Health (NIH) is seeking staff clinicians to provide high-quality patient care for individuals with primary central nervous system (CNS) malignancies.  The NOB is comprised of a multidisciplinary team of physicians, healthcare providers, and scientists who

  7. Researchers studying alternative to bladder removal for bladder cancer patients | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    A new phase I clinical trial conducted by researchers at the Center for Cancer Research (CCR) is evaluating the safety and tolerability, or the degree to which any side effects can be tolerated by patients, of a two-drug combination as a potential alternative to bladder removal for bladder cancer patients. The trial targets patients with non-muscle invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) whose cancers have stopped responding to traditional therapies. Read more...

  8. Qualitative Research in Group Work: Status, Synergies, and Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubel, Deborah; Okech, Jane E. Atieno

    2017-01-01

    The article aims to advance the use of qualitative research methods to understand group work. The first part of this article situates the use of qualitative research methods in relationship to group work research. The second part examines recent qualitative group work research using a framework informed by scoping and systematic review methods and…

  9. Flow Cytometry Technician | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    PROGRAM DESCRIPTION The Basic Science Program (BSP) pursues independent, multidisciplinary research in basic and applied molecular biology, immunology, retrovirology, cancer biology, and human genetics. Research efforts and support are an integral part of the Center for Cancer Research (CCR) at the Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research (FNLCR). KEY ROLES/RESPONSIBILITIES The Flow Cytometry Core (Flow Core) of the Cancer and Inflammation Program (CIP) is a service core which supports the research efforts of the CCR by providing expertise in the field of flow cytometry (using analyzers and sorters) with the goal of gaining a more thorough understanding of the biology of cancer and cancer cells. The Flow Core provides service to 12-15 CIP laboratories and more than 22 non-CIP laboratories. Flow core staff provide technical advice on the experimental design of applications, which include immunological phenotyping, cell function assays, and cell cycle analysis. Work is performed per customer requirements, and no independent research is involved. The Flow Cytometry Technician will be responsible for: Monitor performance of and maintain high dimensional flow cytometer analyzers and cell sorters Operate high dimensional flow cytometer analyzers and cell sorters Monitoring lab supply levels and order lab supplies, perform various record keeping responsibilities Assist in the training of scientific end users on the use of flow cytometry in their research, as well as how to operate and troubleshoot the bench-top analyzer instruments Experience with sterile technique and tissue culture

  10. Theory Loves Practice: A Teacher Researcher Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hochtritt, Lisa; Thulson, Anne; Delaney, Rachael; Dornbush, Talya; Shay, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    Once a month, art educators from the Denver metro area have been gathering together in the spirit of inquiry to explore issues of the perceived theory and daily practice divide. The Theory Loves Practice (TLP) group was started in 2010 by Professors Rachael Delaney and Anne Thulson from Metropolitan State University of Denver (MSU) and now has 40…

  11. Patient-centered prioritization of bladder cancer research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Angela B; Chisolm, Stephanie; Deal, Allison; Spangler, Alejandra; Quale, Diane Z; Bangs, Rick; Jones, J Michael; Gore, John L

    2018-05-04

    Patient-centered research requires the meaningful involvement of patients and caregivers throughout the research process. The objective of this study was to create a process for sustainable engagement for research prioritization within oncology. From December 2014 to 2016, a network of engaged patients for research prioritization was created in partnership with the Bladder Cancer Advocacy Network (BCAN): the BCAN Patient Survey Network (PSN). The PSN leveraged an online bladder cancer community with additional recruitment through print advertisements and social media campaigns. Prioritized research questions were developed through a modified Delphi process and were iterated through multidisciplinary working groups and a repeat survey. In year 1 of the PSN, 354 patients and caregivers responded to the research prioritization survey; the number of responses increased to 1034 in year 2. The majority of respondents had non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC), and the mean time since diagnosis was 5 years. Stakeholder-identified questions for noninvasive, invasive, and metastatic disease were prioritized by the PSN. Free-text questions were sorted with thematic mapping. Several questions submitted by respondents were among the prioritized research questions. A final prioritized list of research questions was disseminated to various funding agencies, and a highly ranked NMIBC research question was included as a priority area in the 2017 Patient-Centered Outcomes Research Institute announcement of pragmatic trial funding. Patient engagement is needed to identify high-priority research questions in oncology. The BCAN PSN provides a successful example of an engagement infrastructure for annual research prioritization in bladder cancer. The creation of an engagement network sets the groundwork for additional phases of engagement, including design, conduct, and dissemination. Cancer 2018. © 2018 American Cancer Society. © 2018 American Cancer Society.

  12. Location | Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research campus is located 50 miles northwest of Washington, D.C., and 50 miles west of Baltimore, Maryland, in Frederick, Maryland. Satellite locations include leased and government facilities extending s

  13. DCB - Cancer Immunology, Hematology, and Etiology Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Part of NCI’s Division of Cancer Biology’s research portfolio, studies supported include the characterization of basic mechanisms relevant to anti-tumor immune responses and hematologic malignancies.

  14. Modern International Research Groups: Networks and Infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katehi, Linda

    2009-05-01

    In a globalized economy, education and research are becoming increasing international in content and context. Academic and research institutions worldwide try to internationalize their programs by setting formal or informal collaborations. An education that is enhanced by international experiences leads to mobility of the science and technology workforce. Existing academic cultures and research structures are at odds with efforts to internationalize education. For the past 20-30 years, the US has recognized the need to improve the abroad experience of our scientists and technologists: however progress has been slow. Despite a number of both federally and privately supported programs, efforts to scale up the numbers of participants have not been satisfactory. The exchange is imbalanced as more foreign scientists and researchers move to the US than the other way around. There are a number of issues that contribute to this imbalance but we could consider the US academic career system, as defined by its policies and practices, as a barrier to internationalizing the early career faculty experience. Strict curricula, pre-tenure policies and financial commitments discourage students, post doctoral fellows and pre-tenure faculty from taking international leaves to participate in research abroad experiences. Specifically, achieving an international experience requires funding that is not provided by the universities. Furthermore, intellectual property requirements and constraints in pre-tenure probationary periods may discourage students and faculty from collaborations with peers across the Atlantic or Pacific or across the American continent. Environments that support early career networking are not available. This presentation will discuss the increasing need for international collaborations and will explore the need for additional programs, more integration, better conditions and improved infrastructures that can encourage and support mobility of scientists. In addition

  15. Meaning making in cancer survivors: a focus group study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia van der Spek

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Confrontation with a life-threatening disease like cancer can evoke existential distress, which can trigger a search for meaning in people after having survived this disease. METHODS: In an effort to gain more insight in the meaning making process, we conducted four focus groups with 23 cancer survivors on this topic. Participants responded to questions about experienced meaning making, perceived changes in meaning making after cancer and the perceived need for help in this area. RESULTS: Most frequently mentioned meaning making themes were relationships and experiences. We found that, in general, cancer survivors experienced enhanced meaning after cancer through relationships, experiences, resilience, goal-orientation and leaving a legacy. Some participants, however, also said to have (also experienced a loss of meaning in their lives through experiences, social roles, relationships and uncertainties about the future. CONCLUSIONS: The results indicated that there is a group of cancer survivors that has succeeded in meaning making efforts, and experienced sometimes even more meaning in life than before diagnosis, while there is also a considerable group of survivors that struggled with meaning making and has an unmet need for help with that. The results of this study contribute to develop a meaning centered intervention for cancer survivors.

  16. Histologic Appearance After Preoperative Radiation Therapy for Soft Tissue Sarcoma: Assessment of the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer-Soft Tissue and Bone Sarcoma Group Response Score.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, Inga-Marie; Hornick, Jason L; Barysauskas, Constance M; Raut, Chandrajit P; Patel, Sagar A; Royce, Trevor J; Fletcher, Christopher D M; Baldini, Elizabeth H

    2017-06-01

    To critically assess the prognostic value of the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer-Soft Tissue and Bone Sarcoma Group (EORTC-STBSG) response score and define histologic appearance after preoperative radiation therapy (RT) for soft tissue sarcoma (STS). For a cohort of 100 patients with STS of the extremity/trunk treated at our institution with preoperative RT followed by resection, 2 expert sarcoma pathologists evaluated the resected specimens for percent residual viable cells, necrosis, hyalinization/fibrosis, and infarction. The EORTC response score and other predictors of recurrence-free survival (RFS) and overall survival (OS) were assessed by Kaplan-Meier and proportional hazard models. Median tumor size was 7.5 cm; 92% were intermediate or high grade. Most common histologies were unclassified sarcoma (34%) and myxofibrosarcoma (25%). Median follow-up was 60 months. The 5-year local recurrence rate was 5%, 5-year RFS was 68%, and 5-year OS was 75%. Distribution of cases according to EORTC response score tiers was as follows: no residual viable tumor for 9 cases (9% pathologic complete response); <1% viable tumor for 0, ≥1% to <10% for 9, ≥10% to <50% for 44, and ≥50% for 38. There was no association between EORTC-STBSG response score and RFS or OS. Conversely, hyalinization/fibrosis was a significant independent favorable predictor for RFS (hazard ratio 0.49, P=.007) and OS (hazard ratio 0.36, P=.02). Histologic evaluation after preoperative RT for STS showed a 9% pathologic complete response rate. The EORTC-STBSG response score and percent viable cells were not prognostic. Hyalinization/fibrosis was associated with favorable outcome, and if validated, may become a valid endpoint for neoadjuvant trials. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Statistical Tutorial | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recent advances in cancer biology have resulted in the need for increased statistical analysis of research data.  ST is designed as a follow up to Statistical Analysis of Research Data (SARD) held in April 2018.  The tutorial will apply the general principles of statistical analysis of research data including descriptive statistics, z- and t-tests of means and mean

  18. CCR Interns | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Cancer Research Interns (CRI) Summer Program was inaugurated in 2004 to provide an open door for students looking for an initial training opportunity. The goal is to enhance diversity within the CCR (Center for Cancer Research) training program and we have placed 338 students from 2004 to 2017, in labs and branches across the division.  The CCR and the Center for Cancer Training’s Office of Training and Education provide stipend support, some Service & Supply funds, and travel support for those students who meet the financial eligibility criteria (

  19. Electron Microscopist | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    PROGRAM DESCRIPTION The Cancer Research Technology Program (CRTP) develops and implements emerging technology, cancer biology expertise and research capabilities to accomplish NCI research objectives. The CRTP is an outward-facing, multi-disciplinary hub purposed to enable the external cancer research community and provides dedicated support to NCI’s intramural Center for Cancer Research (CCR). The dedicated units provide electron microscopy, protein characterization, protein expression, optical microscopy and genetics. These research efforts are an integral part of CCR at the Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research (FNLCR). CRTP scientists also work collaboratively with intramural NCI investigators to provide research technologies and expertise. KEY ROLES/RESPONSIBILITIES - THIS POSITION IS CONTINGENT UPON FUNDING APPROVAL The Electron Microscopist will: Operate ultramicrotomes (Leica) and other instrumentation related to the preparation of embedded samples for EM (TEM and SEM) Operate TEM microscopes, (specifically Hitachi, FEI T20 and FEI T12) as well as SEM microscopes (Hitachi); task will include loading samples, screening, and performing data collection for a variety of samples: from cells to proteins Manage maintenance for the TEM and SEM microscopes Provide technical advice to investigators on sample preparation and data collection

  20. Phase II study of docetaxel in combination with epirubicin and protracted venous infusion 5-fluorouracil (ETF) in patients with recurrent or metastatic breast cancer. A Yorkshire breast cancer research group study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphreys, A C; Dent, J; Rodwell, S; Crawford, S M; Joffe, J K; Bradley, C; Dodwell, D; Perren, T J

    2004-06-01

    This study was originally designed as a phase I/II study, with a dose escalation of docetaxel in combination with epirubicin 50 mg m(-2) and 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) 200 mg m(-2) day(-1). However, as dose escalation was not possible, the study is reported as a phase II study of the combination to assess response and toxicity. A total of 51 patients with locally advanced or metastatic breast cancer were treated on this phase II study, with doses of docetaxel 50 mg m(-2), epirubicin 50 mg m(-2) and infusional 5-FU 200 mg m(-2) day(-1) for 21 days. The main toxicity of this combination was neutropenia with 89% of patients having grade 3 and 4 neutropenia, and 39% of patients experiencing febrile neutropenia. Nonhaematological toxicity was mild. The overall response rate in the assessable patients was 64%, with median progression-free survival of 38 weeks, and median survival of 70 weeks. The ETF regimen was found to be toxic, and it was not possible to escalate the dose of docetaxel above the first dose level. This regimen has therefore not been taken any further, but as a development of this a new study is ongoing, combining 3-weekly epirubicin, weekly docetaxel and capecitabine, days 1-14.

  1. Hydrodynamic model research in Waseda group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muroya, Shin

    2010-01-01

    Constructing 'High Energy Material Science' had been proposed by Namiki as the guiding principle for the scientists of the high energy physics group lead by himself in Waseda University when the author started to study multiple particle production in 1980s toward the semi-phenomenological model for the quark gluon plasma (QGP). Their strategy was based on three stages to build an intermediate one between the fundamental theory of QCD and the phenomenological model. The quantum theoretical Langevin equation was taken up as the semi-phenomenological model at the intermediate stage and the Landau hydrodynamic model was chosen as the phenomenological model to focus on the 'phase transition' of QGP. A review is given here over the quantum theoretical Langevin equation formalism developed there and followed by the further progress with the 1+1 dimensional viscous fluid model as well as the hydrodynamic model with cylindrical symmetry. The developments of the baryon fluid model and Hanbury-Brown Twiss effect are also reviewed. After 1995 younger generation physicists came to the group to develop those models further. Activities by Hirano, Nonaka and Morita beyond the past generation's hydrodynamic model are picked up briefly. (S. Funahashi)

  2. Researching Style: Epistemology, Paradigm Shifts and Research Interest Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayner, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    This paper identifies the need for a deliberate approach to theory building in the context of researching cognitive and learning style differences in human performance. A case for paradigm shift and a focus upon research epistemology is presented, building upon a recent critique of style research. A proposal for creating paradigm shift is made,…

  3. Cancer prevention strategies: use of cancer prevention research registries.

    OpenAIRE

    Anton-Culver, H

    1995-01-01

    We present a model to plan a rational strategy for cancer prevention that has two main functions--assessment and intervention. The assessment function includes three main components: to identify populations at high cancer risk, which may be due to their ethnic group, occupational and environmental exposures, family history, cigarette smoking, or other risk factors; to assess exposure to known carcinogens through the general and occupational environments, lifestyle factors, and the home as wel...

  4. Double-blind, randomized phase 3 trial of low-dose 13-cis retinoic acid in the prevention of second primaries in head and neck cancer: Long-term follow-up of a trial of the Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group-ACRIN Cancer Research Group (C0590).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatia, Aarti K; Lee, Ju-Whei; Pinto, Harlan A; Jacobs, Charlotte D; Limburg, Paul J; Rubin, Philip; Arusell, Robert M; Dunphy, Eamonn P; Khandekar, Janardan D; Reiner, Seth A; Baez-Diaz, Luis; Celano, Paul; Li, Shuli; Li, Yi; Burtness, Barbara A; Adams, George L; Pandya, Kishan J

    2017-12-01

    13-Cis retinoic acid (13-CRA) is a synthetic vitamin A derivative. High-dose 13-CRA in patients with squamous cell cancers of the head and neck (SCCHNs) reduces the incidence of second primary tumors (SPTs). The authors report long-term results from a phase 3 randomized trial that compared treatment with low-dose 13-CRA versus placebo for patients who had early stage SCCHN, with a focus on the development of SPTs and overall survival (OS). In total, 176 patients who received treatment for stage I/II SCCHN were randomized to receive either low-dose 13-CRA (weight-based dose of 7.5 mg or 10 mg) or placebo for 2 years. A competing-risk approach and the log-rank test were used to compare the time to SPT and OS, respectively, between groups. 13-CRA neither significantly reduced the cumulative incidence of SPT (P = .61) nor improved the time to SPT (hazard ratio [HR] for 13-CRA/placebo; 0.86; P = .61). Despite limited power, there was a trend toward improved OS for the 13-CRA arm (HR, 0.75; P = .14), particularly among patients whose index tumor was surgically excised (N = 26; HR, 0.50; P = .057) and among women (N = 39; HR, 0.44; P = .065) and never/former smokers (N = 129; HR, 0.61; P = .055), with a median follow-up of 16 years. The main 13-CRA related toxicities were dry skin and cheilitis. Treatment with low-dose 13-CRA for 2 years did not decrease the incidence of SPT; subset analysis indicates a potential survival advantage among patients who are women and never/former smokers. More targeted interventions based on clinical risk factors and molecular characterization of tumors may yield greater success in future prevention trials. Cancer 2017;123:4653-4662. © 2017 American Cancer Society. © 2017 American Cancer Society.

  5. Radiation related basic cancer research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Seung Hoon; Yoo, Young Do; Hong, Seok Il

    2000-04-01

    We studied the mechanism of radiation-induced apoptosis, the factors involved signaling, and the establishment of radiation-resistant cell lines in this study. During the TGF beta-stimulated epithelial mesenchymal transition(EMT), actin rearrangement occurred first and fibronectin matrix assembly followed. These two events were considered independent since cytochalasin-D did not inhibit TGF stimulated matrix assembly and fibronectin supplementation did not induce EMT. During EMT, alpha 5 beta 1 integrin and alpha v integrin have increased but MMP activation was not accompanied, which suggest that induction of extracellular matrix and activation of integrins may be main contributor for the EMT. Serum depriving induced apoptosis of HUVECs was prevented by vascular endothelial growth factor(VEGF) and PMA. The apoptosis prevention by VEGF and PMA were conformed by DNA fragmentation assay. The p53 expression level was down regulated by VEGF and PMA compared with serum deprived HUVECs. However, VEGF and PMA induces c-Myc expression level on these cells. We made the 5 radiation-resistant clones from breast, lung and cervical cancer cells. More than 70%, 100% and 50% increased resistance was detected in breast cancer cells, lung cancer cells, and cervical cells, respectively. We carried out differential display-PCR to clone the radiation-resistant genes. 9 out of 10 genes were analyzed their sequence

  6. Radiation related basic cancer research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Seung Hoon; Yoo, Young Do; Hong, Seok Il [and others

    2000-04-01

    We studied the mechanism of radiation-induced apoptosis, the factors involved signaling, and the establishment of radiation-resistant cell lines in this study. During the TGF beta-stimulated epithelial mesenchymal transition(EMT), actin rearrangement occurred first and fibronectin matrix assembly followed. These two events were considered independent since cytochalasin-D did not inhibit TGF stimulated matrix assembly and fibronectin supplementation did not induce EMT. During EMT, alpha 5 beta 1 integrin and alpha v integrin have increased but MMP activation was not accompanied, which suggest that induction of extracellular matrix and activation of integrins may be main contributor for the EMT. Serum depriving induced apoptosis of HUVECs was prevented by vascular endothelial growth factor(VEGF) and PMA. The apoptosis prevention by VEGF and PMA were conformed by DNA fragmentation assay. The p53 expression level was down regulated by VEGF and PMA compared with serum deprived HUVECs. However, VEGF and PMA induces c-Myc expression level on these cells. We made the 5 radiation-resistant clones from breast, lung and cervical cancer cells. More than 70%, 100% and 50% increased resistance was detected in breast cancer cells, lung cancer cells, and cervical cells, respectively. We carried out differential display-PCR to clone the radiation-resistant genes. 9 out of 10 genes were analyzed their sequence.

  7. The Effectiveness of Group Therapy on Rescuing Patients with Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Malekzadeh Fini

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies show that the cancer has several negative results. The anxiety, depression and disappointment are more common than the others.  Hopefully thinking and cancer in two ways are related together. First the hopeful people use The problem-focused coping strategies more than the others and show less anxious and more agreement to diagnosis and treatment of cancer. So the goal of this survey is the effect of group hope therapy on reciliency of cancer patients. In this survey the Quasi-experiment and pre-test and pro test with control group is used. The society are all of the cancer patients who are coming to Kashan Imam Hassan institution and 16 of them are chose by available sampling and randomly put in two trial and control group. The trial group participated in nine group consultation sessions and the control group had no education. For toleration testing the Conroy Davidson questionnaire 2003 is used. Data are analysed by co variance analysis. The results show that the group hope therapy had a meaning full effect on toleration and the idea of personal competency, negative affection tolerance and acceptation of positive changing and spiritual control and affection s are affected the scales. Hope let people to have no stress and enable them to try to reach to their goals, the hope therapy try to enable people to have a view beyond the current situation and pain and suffering. So the toleration is not more than tolerance of the difficult situations and every things that make better the situation of cancer patients will increase the toreciliency.

  8. Cancer research priorities and gaps in Iran: the influence of cancer burden on cancer research outputs between 1997 and 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majidi, A; Salimzadeh, H; Beiki, O; Delavari, F; Majidi, S; Delavari, A; Malekzadeh, R

    2017-03-01

    As a developing country, Iran is experiencing the increasing burden of cancers, which are currently the third leading cause of mortality in Iran. This study aims to demonstrate that cancer research in Iran concentrates on the cancer research priorities based on the global burden of disease (GBD) reports. Descriptive evaluation of all cancers disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) was performed using GBD data. Also a comprehensive search was conducted using cancer-associated keywords to obtain all cancer-related publications from Iran, indexed in Web of Science. Multiple regression analysis and correlation coefficients (R 2 ) were used to evaluate the possible associations between cancer research publications and GBD. During 1996-2014, the majority of cancer-related publications in Iran focused on breast cancer, leukaemia and stomach cancer, respectively. This study found hypothetical correlations between cancer publications in Iran in line with the burden of cancer as reported by GBD. Particularly, correlations between years lived with disability (YLD) and cancer-related publications were more obvious. This study introduces a new outline in setting cancer research priorities in the region. Copyright © 2016 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Collaborating to Move Research Forward: Proceedings of the 10th Annual Bladder Cancer Think Tank

    OpenAIRE

    Kamat, Ashish M.; Agarwal, Piyush; Bivalacqua, Trinity; Chisolm, Stephanie; Daneshmand, Sia; Doroshow, James H.; Efstathiou, Jason A.; Galsky, Matthew; Iyer, Gopa; Kassouf, Wassim; Shah, Jay; Taylor, John; Williams, Stephen B.; Quale, Diane Zipursky; Rosenberg, Jonathan E.

    2016-01-01

    The 10th Annual Bladder Cancer Think Tank was hosted by the Bladder Cancer Advocacy Network and brought together a multidisciplinary group of clinicians, researchers, representatives and Industry to advance bladder cancer research efforts. Think Tank expert panels, group discussions, and networking opportunities helped generate ideas and strengthen collaborations between researchers and physicians across disciplines and between institutions. Interactive panel discussions addressed a variety o...

  10. Phase III study by the Norwegian lung cancer study group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønberg, Bjørn H; Bremnes, Roy M; Fløtten, Oystein

    2009-01-01

    PURPOSE To compare pemetrexed/carboplatin with a standard regimen as first-line therapy in advanced non-small-cell lung cancer NSCLC. PATIENTS AND METHODS Patients with stage IIIB or IV NSCLC and performance status of 0 to 2 were randomly assigned to receive pemetrexed 500 mg/m(2) plus carboplatin......, and fatigue reported on the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire C30 and the lung cancer-specific module LC13 during the first 20 weeks. Secondary end points were overall survival and toxicity. Results Four hundred thirty-six eligible patients were enrolled...

  11. Ethical Issues in the Research of Group Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodrich, Kristopher M.; Luke, Melissa

    2017-01-01

    This article provides a primer for researchers exploring ethical issues in the research of group work. The article begins with an exploration of relevant ethical issues through the research process and current standards guiding its practice. Next, the authors identify resources that group work researchers can consult prior to constructing their…

  12. Evaluation of support groups for women with breast cancer: importance of the navigator role

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Till James E

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background At least some forms of breast cancer are increasingly being viewed as a chronic illness, where an emphasis is placed on meeting the various ongoing needs of people living with cancer, their families and other members of their social support networks. This commentary outlines some approaches to the evaluation of cancer-related support groups, with a particular emphasis on those designed to provide long-distance support, via the internet, for women with breast cancer. Discussion The literature on evaluations of community-based cancer support groups indicates that they offer a number of benefits, and that it is more reasonable to expect an impact of such interventions on psychosocial functioning and/or health-related quality of life than on survival. The literature on both face-to-face and online social support groups suggests that they offer many advantages, although evaluation of the latter delivery mechanism presents some ethical issues that need to be addressed. Many popular online support groups are peer-moderated, rather than professionally-moderated. In an evaluation of online support groups, different models of the role of the "navigator" need to be taken into account. Some conceptual models are outlined for the evaluation of the "navigator role" in meeting the informational, decisional and educational needs of women with breast cancer. The Breast-Cancer Mailing List, an example of an unmoderated internet-based peer-support group, is considered within the context of a Shared or Tacit Model of the navigator role. Conclusion Application of the concept of a "navigator role" to support groups in general, and to unmoderated online ones in particular, has received little or no attention in the research literature. The navigator role should be taken into account in research on this increasingly important aspect of cancer communication.

  13. Antiproton radiation found effective in cancer research

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    "An international collaboration of scientists has completed the first ever antiproton beam experiments designed to reveal the biological effectiveness of antiproton radiation in terminating cells used for cancer research...PBar Labs assembled the collaboration at CERN (European Organization for Nuclear Research in Geneva) to perform the measurements" (1 page).

  14. NHSBSP type 1 interval cancers: a scientifically valid grouping?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porter, G.J.R.; Evans, A.J.; Burrell, H.C.; Lee, A.H.S.; Chakrabarti, J.

    2007-01-01

    Aim: To assess whether there are differences in the pathological features or survival between the new National Health Service Breast Screening Programme (NHSBSP) interval cancer classification system category of type 1 interval cancers, and the previously used, separate categories of occult, unclassified, and true interval cancers. Materials and methods: The prognostic pathological features (grade, lymph node stage, size, vascular invasion, oestrogen receptor status, and histological type) and survival of 428 type 1 interval invasive breast cancers were analysed by subgroup (occult, unclassified and true interval). Results: Occult cancers compared with other type 1 interval cancers were of significantly lower grade [38 of 52 (73%) versus 151 of 340 (44%) grade 1 or 2, p = 0.0005], more likely to be smaller size [37 of 51 (73%) versus 158 of 341 (46%) <20 mm, p = 0.0003] and more frequently of lobular type at histology [14 of 42 (32%) versus 50 of 286 (17%), p = 0.03]. There was no significant difference in pathological features of unclassified tumours compared with other type 1 tumours. There was no significant survival difference between different type 1 subgroups (p = 0.12). Conclusion: The NHSBSP type 1 interval cancers are a heterogeneous grouping with markedly differing pathological features. However, no significant survival difference is seen between the different type 1 subgroups

  15. NHSBSP type 1 interval cancers: a scientifically valid grouping?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porter, G.J.R. [Nottingham Breast Institute, City Hospital, Nottingham (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: garethporter@doctors.org.uk; Evans, A.J. [Nottingham Breast Institute, City Hospital, Nottingham (United Kingdom); Burrell, H.C. [Nottingham Breast Institute, City Hospital, Nottingham (United Kingdom); Lee, A.H.S. [Nottingham Breast Institute, City Hospital, Nottingham (United Kingdom); Chakrabarti, J. [Nottingham Breast Institute, City Hospital, Nottingham (United Kingdom)

    2007-03-15

    Aim: To assess whether there are differences in the pathological features or survival between the new National Health Service Breast Screening Programme (NHSBSP) interval cancer classification system category of type 1 interval cancers, and the previously used, separate categories of occult, unclassified, and true interval cancers. Materials and methods: The prognostic pathological features (grade, lymph node stage, size, vascular invasion, oestrogen receptor status, and histological type) and survival of 428 type 1 interval invasive breast cancers were analysed by subgroup (occult, unclassified and true interval). Results: Occult cancers compared with other type 1 interval cancers were of significantly lower grade [38 of 52 (73%) versus 151 of 340 (44%) grade 1 or 2, p = 0.0005], more likely to be smaller size [37 of 51 (73%) versus 158 of 341 (46%) <20 mm, p = 0.0003] and more frequently of lobular type at histology [14 of 42 (32%) versus 50 of 286 (17%), p = 0.03]. There was no significant difference in pathological features of unclassified tumours compared with other type 1 tumours. There was no significant survival difference between different type 1 subgroups (p = 0.12). Conclusion: The NHSBSP type 1 interval cancers are a heterogeneous grouping with markedly differing pathological features. However, no significant survival difference is seen between the different type 1 subgroups.

  16. Physician peer group characteristics and timeliness of breast cancer surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachand, Jacqueline; Soulos, Pamela R; Herrin, Jeph; Pollack, Craig E; Xu, Xiao; Ma, Xiaomei; Gross, Cary P

    2018-04-24

    Little is known about how the structure of interdisciplinary groups of physicians affects the timeliness of breast cancer surgery their patients receive. We used social network methods to examine variation in surgical delay across physician peer groups and the association of this delay with group characteristics. We used linked Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results-Medicare data to construct physician peer groups based on shared breast cancer patients. We used hierarchical generalized linear models to examine the association of three group characteristics, patient racial composition, provider density (the ratio of potential vs. actual connections between physicians), and provider transitivity (clustering of providers within groups), with delayed surgery. The study sample included 8338 women with breast cancer in 157 physician peer groups. Surgical delay varied widely across physician peer groups (interquartile range 28.2-50.0%). For every 10% increase in the percentage of black patients in a peer group, there was a 41% increase in the odds of delayed surgery for women in that peer group regardless of a patient's own race [odds ratio (OR) 1.41, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.15-1.73]. Women in physician peer groups with the highest provider density were less likely to receive delayed surgery than those in physician peer groups with the lowest provider density (OR 0.65, 95% CI 0.44-0.98). We did not find an association between provider transitivity and delayed surgery. The likelihood of surgical delay varied substantially across physician peer groups and was associated with provider density and patient racial composition.

  17. National Working Group Meeting on ALK diagnostics in lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Wendy; Fox, Stephen; O'Toole, Sandra; Morey, Adrienne; Frances, Glenn; Pavlakis, Nick; O'Byrne, Kenneth; Dettrick, Andrew; Leong, Trishe; Rathi, Vivek; Spagnolo, Dominic; Hemmings, Chris; Singh, Mahendra; Moffat, David; Tsao, Ming-Sound; Wilner, Keith; Buller, Richard; Pitman Lowenthal, Susan; Arifeen, Shams; Binko, Justin; Alam, Mahmood

    2014-04-01

    The global landscape of molecular testing is rapidly changing, with the recent publication of the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer (IASLC)/College of American Pathologists (CAP) guidelines and the ALK Atlas. The IASLC/CAP guidelines recommend that tumors from patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) be tested for ALK rearrangements in addition to epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutations. The spur for this recommendation is the availability of novel therapies that target these rearrangements. This article is based on coverage of a Pfizer-sponsored National Working Group Meeting on ALK Diagnostics in Lung Cancer, held around the 15th World Lung Cancer Conference, in Sydney on October 31, 2013. It is based on the presentations given by the authors at the meeting and the discussion that ensued. The content for this article was discussed and agreed on by the authors. © 2014 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  18. Automation of Technology for Cancer Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Ent, Wietske; Veneman, Wouter J; Groenewoud, Arwin; Chen, Lanpeng; Tulotta, Claudia; Hogendoorn, Pancras C W; Spaink, Herman P; Snaar-Jagalska, B Ewa

    2016-01-01

    Zebrafish embryos can be obtained for research purposes in large numbers at low cost and embryos develop externally in limited space, making them highly suitable for high-throughput cancer studies and drug screens. Non-invasive live imaging of various processes within the larvae is possible due to their transparency during development, and a multitude of available fluorescent transgenic reporter lines.To perform high-throughput studies, handling large amounts of embryos and larvae is required. With such high number of individuals, even minute tasks may become time-consuming and arduous. In this chapter, an overview is given of the developments in the automation of various steps of large scale zebrafish cancer research for discovering important cancer pathways and drugs for the treatment of human disease. The focus lies on various tools developed for cancer cell implantation, embryo handling and sorting, microfluidic systems for imaging and drug treatment, and image acquisition and analysis. Examples will be given of employment of these technologies within the fields of toxicology research and cancer research.

  19. Practices for caring in nursing: Brazilian research groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdmann, A L; de Andrade, S R; de Mello, A L Ferreira; Klock, P; do Nascimento, K C; Koerich, M Santos; Backes, D Stein

    2011-09-01

    The present study considers the production of knowledge and the interactions in the environment of research and their relationships in the system of caring in nursing and health. To elaborate a theoretical model of the organization of the practices used for caring, based on the experiences made by the research groups of administration and management in nursing, in Brazil. The study is based on grounded theory. Twelve leaders of research groups, working as professors in public universities in the south and the south-east of Brazil, distributed in sample groups, were interviewed. The core phenomenon 'research groups of administration and management in nursing: arrangements and interactions in the system of caring in nursing' was derived from the categories: conceptual bases and contexts of the research groups; experiencing interactions in the research groups; functionality of the research groups; and outputs of the research groups. The research groups are integrated in the system of caring in nursing. The activities of the Brazilian administration and management in nursing research groups are process oriented and in a process of constant renovation, socially relevant, operate in a complex scenario and contribute to the advancement of the organizations of the system of caring in nursing through strengthening the connection among academia, service and community. © 2011 The Authors. International Nursing Review © 2011 International Council of Nurses.

  20. Prostate Cancer Research Trial Helps John Spencer Treat His Cancer | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Prostate Cancer Prostate Cancer Research Trial Helps John Spencer Treat His Cancer ... because of timely detection and treatment of his prostate cancer. He participated in an NIH-sponsored clinical trial. ...

  1. Sustaining leaders of cancer support groups: the role, needs, and difficulties of leaders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butow, Phyllis; Ussher, Jane; Kirsten, Laura; Hobbs, Kim; Smith, Katharine; Wain, Gerald; Sandoval, Mirjana; Stenlake, Annie

    2005-01-01

    Cancer support groups are an important source of support for cancer patients, yet little is known about the characteristics of, and barriers to, effective leadership, and the training needs of both professionally trained and untrained leaders. This study explored the views of 179 leaders of 184 cancer support groups in NSW, Australia, regarding these issues. Four hundred and sixteen members of 50 groups selected from the larger cohort completed questionnaires eliciting the importance of group processes, including leader qualities, and satisfaction with group leadership. Finally, members of nine groups participated in focus groups regarding effective group processes. The importance of the leader(s) was emphasized in all stages of the research. Fifty-nine percent of group leaders were currently experiencing a difficulty, primarily related to infrastructure or group process. Three characteristics of effective leaders were identified: educational qualities, facilitation skills, and personal qualities. There is clearly a need to develop and evaluate effective interventions to maintain leaders in these roles, if the proven benefits for cancer patients are to be protected.

  2. Nebraska Prostate Cancer Research Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    STUDENT ENGAGEMENT Welcome 2 UNMC 3 Omaha 4 Arrival 5-6 Living 7 Events 8...Graduates 9-11 Channing Bunch, M.B.A Director of Recruitment and Student Engagement channing.bunch...Program, Eppley Institute, Office of Research and Development, and Recruitment and Student Engagement Responses to Nebraska Prostate

  3. Radiotherapy of esophageal cancer. Clinical usefulness of new grouping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hishinuma, Tamio

    1997-01-01

    A total of 188 cases of nonresected esophageal cancer were categorized into the following groups based on T category (1987 UICC) and radiological classification (Japanese Society of Esophageal Diseases): Group 1: superficial or early (T2 or less) tumorous type; Group 2: advanced tumorous type, early serrated or early spiral type; Group 3: others. The response to radiotherapy was significantly related to the group. According to the proportional hazard model, the important factors predicting long-term survival were T category, radiotherapy response at the end of treatment, and group. There was a tendency to obtain better local control in group 1 patients than in group 2 patients, but cause-specific survival was the same for both groups (mainly the appearance of distant metastases). Local control was poor in group 3. If the tumor response at 40 Gy was excellent in group 2 patients, the main cause of death was distant metastases, much the same as in group 1 patients. However, if response at 40 Gy was not excellent, the main cause of death was local failure even though final tumor response was excellent. It seemed that therapy that may improve local control is valuable for group 3 patient, and for group 2 patients whose tumor response at 40 Gy was not excellent. (author)

  4. Research collaboration in groups and networks: differences across academic fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyvik, Svein; Reymert, Ingvild

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to give a macro-picture of collaboration in research groups and networks across all academic fields in Norwegian research universities, and to examine the relative importance of membership in groups and networks for individual publication output. To our knowledge, this is a new approach, which may provide valuable information on collaborative patterns in a particular national system, but of clear relevance to other national university systems. At the system level, conducting research in groups and networks are equally important, but there are large differences between academic fields. The research group is clearly most important in the field of medicine and health, while undertaking research in an international network is most important in the natural sciences. Membership in a research group and active participation in international networks are likely to enhance publication productivity and the quality of research.

  5. Assessing excellence in translational cancer research: a consensus based framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajan, Abinaya; Caldas, Carlos; van Luenen, Henri; Saghatchian, Mahasti; van Harten, Wim H

    2013-10-29

    It takes several years on average to translate basic research findings into clinical research and eventually deliver patient benefits. An expert-based excellence assessment can help improve this process by: identifying high performing Comprehensive Cancer Centres; best practices in translational cancer research; improving the quality and efficiency of the translational cancer research process. This can help build networks of excellent Centres by aiding focused partnerships. In this paper we report on a consensus building exercise that was undertaken to construct an excellence assessment framework for translational cancer research in Europe. We used mixed methods to reach consensus: a systematic review of existing translational research models critically appraised for suitability in performance assessment of Cancer Centres; a survey among European stakeholders (researchers, clinicians, patient representatives and managers) to score a list of potential excellence criteria, a focus group with selected representatives of survey participants to review and rescore the excellence criteria; an expert group meeting to refine the list; an open validation round with stakeholders and a critical review of the emerging framework by an independent body: a committee formed by the European Academy of Cancer Sciences. The resulting excellence assessment framework has 18 criteria categorized in 6 themes. Each criterion has a number of questions/sub-criteria. Stakeholders favoured using qualitative excellence criteria to evaluate the translational research "process" rather than quantitative criteria or judging only the outputs. Examples of criteria include checking if the Centre has mechanisms that can be rated as excellent for: involvement of basic researchers and clinicians in translational research (quality of supervision and incentives provided to clinicians to do a PhD in translational research) and well designed clinical trials based on ground-breaking concepts (innovative

  6. Nebraska Prostate Cancer Research Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-01

    chemotherapy can cure the disease, in many cases it will spread and kill the patient. Better basic scientific understanding of this disease is needed...Dixon Patent Development at UNEMED 10:30 T. Wasmoen Vaccine Research/Development at Intervet/Schering- Plough July 19 UNMC...cytokines and has been shown to inhibit the secretion of TNF-α by activated macrophages and thereby reduce the tumor killing activity of macrophages

  7. Children's Oncology Group's 2013 blueprint for research: acute myeloid leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamis, Alan S; Alonzo, Todd A; Perentesis, John P; Meshinchi, Soheil

    2013-06-01

    For the 365 children diagnosed with acute myeloid leukemia in the US annually, 5-year survival for patients on COG trials with low, intermediate, and high risk disease is 83%, 62%, and 23%, respectively. Recent advances include improved therapeutic stratification, improved survival with dose intensification, and further elucidation of the heterogeneity specific to childhood AML. These discoveries now guide current strategy incorporating targeted agents to pathways specific to childhood AML as well as evaluating methods to increase the sensitivity of the leukemic stem cell, first in Phase II feasibility trials followed by Phase III efficacy trials of the most promising agents. Acute myeloid leukemia in children, though with similar subgroups to adults, remains uniquely different based upon quite different prevalence of subtypes as well as overall response to therapy. The Children's Oncology Group's research agenda builds upon earlier efforts to better elucidate the leukemogenic steps distinct to childhood AML in order to more scientifically develop and test novel therapeutic approaches to the treatment and ultimate cure for children with this disorder. Pediatr Blood Cancer 2013; 60: 964-971. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. GRIP LANGLEY AEROSOL RESEARCH GROUP EXPERIMENT (LARGE) V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Langley Aerosol Research Group Experiment (LARGE) measures ultrafine aerosol number density, total and non-volatile aerosol number density, dry aerosol size...

  9. Institutional shared resources and translational cancer research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Paoli Paolo

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The development and maintenance of adequate shared infrastructures is considered a major goal for academic centers promoting translational research programs. Among infrastructures favoring translational research, centralized facilities characterized by shared, multidisciplinary use of expensive laboratory instrumentation, or by complex computer hardware and software and/or by high professional skills are necessary to maintain or improve institutional scientific competitiveness. The success or failure of a shared resource program also depends on the choice of appropriate institutional policies and requires an effective institutional governance regarding decisions on staffing, existence and composition of advisory committees, policies and of defined mechanisms of reporting, budgeting and financial support of each resource. Shared Resources represent a widely diffused model to sustain cancer research; in fact, web sites from an impressive number of research Institutes and Universities in the U.S. contain pages dedicated to the SR that have been established in each Center, making a complete view of the situation impossible. However, a nation-wide overview of how Cancer Centers develop SR programs is available on the web site for NCI-designated Cancer Centers in the U.S., while in Europe, information is available for individual Cancer centers. This article will briefly summarize the institutional policies, the organizational needs, the characteristics, scientific aims, and future developments of SRs necessary to develop effective translational research programs in oncology. In fact, the physical build-up of SRs per se is not sufficient for the successful translation of biomedical research. Appropriate policies to improve the academic culture in collaboration, the availability of educational programs for translational investigators, the existence of administrative facilitations for translational research and an efficient organization

  10. Institutional shared resources and translational cancer research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Paoli, Paolo

    2009-06-29

    The development and maintenance of adequate shared infrastructures is considered a major goal for academic centers promoting translational research programs. Among infrastructures favoring translational research, centralized facilities characterized by shared, multidisciplinary use of expensive laboratory instrumentation, or by complex computer hardware and software and/or by high professional skills are necessary to maintain or improve institutional scientific competitiveness. The success or failure of a shared resource program also depends on the choice of appropriate institutional policies and requires an effective institutional governance regarding decisions on staffing, existence and composition of advisory committees, policies and of defined mechanisms of reporting, budgeting and financial support of each resource. Shared Resources represent a widely diffused model to sustain cancer research; in fact, web sites from an impressive number of research Institutes and Universities in the U.S. contain pages dedicated to the SR that have been established in each Center, making a complete view of the situation impossible. However, a nation-wide overview of how Cancer Centers develop SR programs is available on the web site for NCI-designated Cancer Centers in the U.S., while in Europe, information is available for individual Cancer centers. This article will briefly summarize the institutional policies, the organizational needs, the characteristics, scientific aims, and future developments of SRs necessary to develop effective translational research programs in oncology.In fact, the physical build-up of SRs per se is not sufficient for the successful translation of biomedical research. Appropriate policies to improve the academic culture in collaboration, the availability of educational programs for translational investigators, the existence of administrative facilitations for translational research and an efficient organization supporting clinical trial recruitment

  11. The effectiveness of support groups in Asian breast cancer patients: An integrative review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang-Yu Chou

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cancer support group has been studied as an intervention to improve patient psychosocial well-being. The effectiveness of support groups among Asian breast cancer (BC patients has been unclear and received limited attention to the evidence of its effectiveness. The social-cognitive processing theory underlies the principles of support groups and advocates that a positive, supportive social environment can improve cognitive processing. The purpose of this paper is to present an integrative review of research evidence on the effectiveness of cancer support groups with Asian BC patients. Empirical studies related to support group among Asian and Asian American BC patients published between 1982 and April 2014 are reviewed. There are 15 studies selected (12 from the Asian-Pacific region and 3 from Western countries. The review includes 1 qualitative study, 3 descriptive studies, 1 mixed method design, and 10 experimental or quasi-experimental studies. The support group intervention activities include psycho-educational program such as health education, problem-solving, and stress management. These studies support the effectiveness of support group in alleviating psychological distress and supporting quality of life of Asian BC women. Overall, there is limited research on the use and effectiveness of support groups with Asians cancer patients in Asia and in Western countries. Without accounting for Asian immigrants overseas, the Asian population is expected to grow from 4.3 to 5.3 billion by 2050. As cancer patients become more diverse due to global emigration, more rigorous studies examining the effectiveness of psychosocial intervention among transcultural cancer patients are needed.

  12. The Effectiveness of Support Groups in Asian Breast Cancer Patients: An Integrative Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Fang-Yu; Lee-Lin, Frances; Kuang, Lily Y

    2016-01-01

    Cancer support group has been studied as an intervention to improve patient psychosocial well-being. The effectiveness of support groups among Asian breast cancer (BC) patients has been unclear and received limited attention to the evidence of its effectiveness. The social-cognitive processing theory underlies the principles of support groups and advocates that a positive, supportive social environment can improve cognitive processing. The purpose of this paper is to present an integrative review of research evidence on the effectiveness of cancer support groups with Asian BC patients. Empirical studies related to support group among Asian and Asian American BC patients published between 1982 and April 2014 are reviewed. There are 15 studies selected (12 from the Asian-Pacific region and 3 from Western countries). The review includes 1 qualitative study, 3 descriptive studies, 1 mixed method design, and 10 experimental or quasi-experimental studies. The support group intervention activities include psycho-educational program such as health education, problem-solving, and stress management. These studies support the effectiveness of support group in alleviating psychological distress and supporting quality of life of Asian BC women. Overall, there is limited research on the use and effectiveness of support groups with Asians cancer patients in Asia and in Western countries. Without accounting for Asian immigrants overseas, the Asian population is expected to grow from 4.3 to 5.3 billion by 2050. As cancer patients become more diverse due to global emigration, more rigorous studies examining the effectiveness of psychosocial intervention among transcultural cancer patients are needed.

  13. Research Award: Policy and Planning Group (PPG) Deadline: 12 ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Jean-Claude Dumais

    2012-09-12

    Sep 12, 2012 ... mentorship in research, research management, and grant administration allows research awardees to pursue their research goals in a dynamic team environment in one of the world's leaders in generating new knowledge to meet global challenges. The Policy and Planning Group (PPG) is responsible for ...

  14. Impact of proteomics on bladder cancer research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Celis, Julio E; Gromova, Irina; Moreira, José Manuel Alfonso

    2004-01-01

    Detecting bladder cancer at an early stage and predicting how a tumor will behave and act in response to therapy, as well as the identification of new targets for therapeutic intervention, are among the main areas of research that will benefit from the current explosion in the number of powerful ...

  15. Practice patterns of radiotherapy in cervical cancer among member groups of the Gynecologic Cancer Intergroup (GCIG)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaffney, David K; Du Bois, Andreas; Narayan, Kailash

    2007-01-01

    PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to describe radiotherapeutic practice of the treatment of cervical cancer in member groups of the Gynecologic Cancer Intergroup (GCIG). METHODS AND MATERIALS: A survey was developed and distributed to the members of the GCIG focusing on details of radiotherapy...... practice. Different scenarios were queried including advanced cervical cancer, postoperative patients, and para-aortic-positive lymph node cases. Items focused on indications for radiation therapy, radiation fields, dose, use of chemotherapy, brachytherapy and others. The cooperative groups from North...... America were compared with the other groups to evaluate potential differences in radiotherapy doses. RESULTS: A total of 39 surveys were returned from 13 different cooperative groups. For the treatment of advanced cervical cancer, external beam pelvic doses and total doses to point A were 47 + 3.5 Gy...

  16. Postdoctoral Fellow | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dr. St. Croix’s laboratory at the Mouse Cancer Genetics Program (MCGP), National Cancer Institute, USA has an open postdoctoral position. We seek a highly motivated, creative and bright individual to participate in a collaborative project that involves the targeting of tumor-associated stroma using T-cells engineered to express chimeric antigen receptors (CARs). The laboratory focuses on the characterization and exploitation of molecules associated with tumor angiogenesis. The successful candidate would be involved in developing, producing and characterizing new therapeutic antibodies and CARs that recognize cancer cells or its associated stroma, and preclinical testing of these agents using mouse tumor models. The tumor angiogenesis lab is located at the National Cancer Institute in Frederick with access to state-of-the-art facilities for antibody engineering, genomic analysis, pathology, and small animal imaging, among others. Detailed information about Dr. St. Croix’s research and publications can be accessed at https://ccr.cancer.gov/Mouse-Cancer-Genetics-Program/brad-st-croix.

  17. Seeking support on facebook: a content analysis of breast cancer groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bender, Jacqueline L; Jimenez-Marroquin, Maria-Carolina; Jadad, Alejandro R

    2011-02-04

    Social network sites have been growing in popularity across broad segments of Internet users, and are a convenient means to exchange information and support. Research on their use for health-related purposes is limited. This study aimed to characterize the purpose, use, and creators of Facebook groups related to breast cancer. We searched Facebook (www.Facebook.com) using the term breast cancer. We restricted our analysis to groups that were related to breast cancer, operated in English, and were publicly available. Two of us independently extracted information on the administrator and purpose of the group, as well as the number of user-generated contributions. We developed a coding scheme to guide content analysis. We found 620 breast cancer groups on Facebook containing a total of 1,090,397 members. The groups were created for fundraising (277/620, 44.7%), awareness (236, 38.1%), product or service promotion related to fundraising or awareness (61, 9%), or patient/caregiver support (46, 7%). The awareness groups as a whole contained by far the most members (n = 957,289). The majority of groups (532, 85.8%) had 25 wall posts or fewer. The support oriented groups, 47% (27/57) of which were established by high school or college students, were associated with the greatest number of user-generated contributions. Facebook groups have become a popular tool for awareness-raising, fundraising, and support-seeking related to breast cancer attracting over one million users. Given their popularity and reach, further research is warranted to explore the implications of social network sites as a health resource across various health conditions, cultures, ages, and socioeconomic groups.

  18. Testicular Cancer Survivorship: Research Strategies and Recommendations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beard, Clair; Allan, James M.; Dahl, Alv A.; Feldman, Darren R.; Oldenburg, Jan; Daugaard, Gedske; Kelly, Jennifer L.; Dolan, M. Eileen; Hannigan, Robyn; Constine, Louis S.; Oeffinger, Kevin C.; Okunieff, Paul; Armstrong, Greg; Wiljer, David; Miller, Robert C.; Gietema, Jourik A.; van Leeuwen, Flora E.; Williams, Jacqueline P.; Nichols, Craig R.; Einhorn, Lawrence H.; Fossa, Sophie D.

    2010-01-01

    Testicular cancer represents the most curable solid tumor, with a 10-year survival rate of more than 95%. Given the young average age at diagnosis, it is estimated that effective treatment approaches, in particular, platinum-based chemotherapy, have resulted in an average gain of several decades of life. This success, however, is offset by the emergence of considerable long-term morbidity, including second malignant neoplasms, cardiovascular disease, neurotoxicity, nephrotoxicity, pulmonary toxicity, hypogonadism, decreased fertility, and psychosocial problems. Data on underlying genetic or molecular factors that might identify those patients at highest risk for late sequelae are sparse. Genome-wide association studies and other translational molecular approaches now provide opportunities to identify testicular cancer survivors at greatest risk for therapy-related complications to develop evidence-based long-term follow-up guidelines and interventional strategies. We review research priorities identified during an international workshop devoted to testicular cancer survivors. Recommendations include 1) institution of lifelong follow-up of testicular cancer survivors within a large cohort setting to ascertain risks of emerging toxicities and the evolution of known late sequelae, 2) development of comprehensive risk prediction models that include treatment factors and genetic modifiers of late sequelae, 3) elucidation of the effect(s) of decades-long exposure to low serum levels of platinum, 4) assessment of the overall burden of medical and psychosocial morbidity, and 5) the eventual formulation of evidence-based long-term follow-up guidelines and interventions. Just as testicular cancer once served as the paradigm of a curable malignancy, comprehensive follow-up studies of testicular cancer survivors can pioneer new methodologies in survivorship research for all adult-onset cancer. PMID:20585105

  19. Group heterogeneity increases the risks of large group size: a longitudinal study of productivity in research groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummings, Jonathon N; Kiesler, Sara; Bosagh Zadeh, Reza; Balakrishnan, Aruna D

    2013-06-01

    Heterogeneous groups are valuable, but differences among members can weaken group identification. Weak group identification may be especially problematic in larger groups, which, in contrast with smaller groups, require more attention to motivating members and coordinating their tasks. We hypothesized that as groups increase in size, productivity would decrease with greater heterogeneity. We studied the longitudinal productivity of 549 research groups varying in disciplinary heterogeneity, institutional heterogeneity, and size. We examined their publication and citation productivity before their projects started and 5 to 9 years later. Larger groups were more productive than smaller groups, but their marginal productivity declined as their heterogeneity increased, either because their members belonged to more disciplines or to more institutions. These results provide evidence that group heterogeneity moderates the effects of group size, and they suggest that desirable diversity in groups may be better leveraged in smaller, more cohesive units.

  20. Recommendations for Collection and Handling of Specimens From Group Breast Cancer Clinical Trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leyland-Jones, Brian R.; Ambrosone, Christine B.; Bartlett, John; Ellis, Matthew J.C.; Enos, Rebecca A.; Raji, Adekunle; Pins, Michael R.; Zujewski, Jo Anne; Hewitt, Stephen M.; Forbes, John F.; Abramovitz, Mark; Braga, Sofia; Cardoso, Fatima; Harbeck, Nadia; Denkert, Carsten; Jewell, Scott D.

    2008-01-01

    Recommendations for specimen collection and handling have been developed for adoption across breast cancer clinical trials conducted by the Breast International Group (BIG)-sponsored Groups and the National Cancer Institute (NCI)-sponsored North American Cooperative Groups. These recommendations are meant to promote identifiable standards for specimen collection and handling within and across breast cancer trials, such that the variability in collection/handling practices that currently exists is minimized and specimen condition and quality are enhanced, thereby maximizing results from specimen-based diagnostic testing and research. Three working groups were formed from the Cooperative Group Banking Committee, BIG groups, and North American breast cancer cooperative groups to identify standards for collection and handling of (1) formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue; (2) blood and its components; and (3) fresh/frozen tissue from breast cancer trials. The working groups collected standard operating procedures from multiple group specimen banks, administered a survey on banking practices to those banks, and engaged in a series of discussions from 2005 to 2007. Their contributions were synthesized into this document, which focuses primarily on collection and handling of specimens to the point of shipment to the central bank, although also offers some guidance to central banks. Major recommendations include submission of an FFPE block, whole blood, and serial serum or plasma from breast cancer clinical trials, and use of one fixative and buffer type (10% neutral phosphate-buffered formalin, pH 7) for FFPE tissue across trials. Recommendations for proper handling and shipping were developed for blood, serum, plasma, FFPE, and fresh/frozen tissue. PMID:18955459

  1. Prostate Cancer: Improving the Flow of Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawton, Colleen A F

    2018-04-01

    Prostate cancer is the most common nonskin cancer diagnosed in U.S. men and kills over 27 000 men annually. Thus, improving the outcomes for patients diagnosed with this disease is imperative. There has been a considerable amount of research done over the past several decades resulting in more cures than ever, but the death rate is still unacceptable. This oration addresses the progress that we have made over the past several decades and outlines the work yet to be done, as well as some processes to make that work happen. © RSNA, 2018.

  2. Quantitative Approaches to Group Research: Suggestions for Best Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Christopher J.; Whittaker, Tiffany A.; Boyle, Lauren H.; Eyal, Maytal

    2017-01-01

    Rigorous scholarship is essential to the continued growth of group work, yet the unique nature of this counseling specialty poses challenges for quantitative researchers. The purpose of this proposal is to overview unique challenges to quantitative research with groups in the counseling field, including difficulty in obtaining large sample sizes…

  3. Statistical Analysis of Research Data | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recent advances in cancer biology have resulted in the need for increased statistical analysis of research data. The Statistical Analysis of Research Data (SARD) course will be held on April 5-6, 2018 from 9 a.m.-5 p.m. at the National Institutes of Health's Natcher Conference Center, Balcony C on the Bethesda Campus. SARD is designed to provide an overview on the general principles of statistical analysis of research data.  The first day will feature univariate data analysis, including descriptive statistics, probability distributions, one- and two-sample inferential statistics.

  4. Focus Group in Community Mental Health Research: Need for Adaption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zupančič, Vesna; Pahor, Majda; Kogovšek, Tina

    2018-04-27

    The article presents an analysis of the use of focus groups in researching community mental health users, starting with the reasons for using them, their implementation in mental health service users' research, and the adaptations of focus group use when researching the experiences of users. Based on personal research experience and a review of scientific publications in the Google Scholar, Web of Science, ProQuest, EBSCOhost, and Scopus databases, 20 articles published between 2010 and 2016 were selected for targeted content analysis. A checklist for reporting on the use of focus groups with community mental health service users, aiming to improve the comparability, verifiability and validity was developed. Adaptations of the implementation of focus groups in relation to participants' characteristics were suggested. Focus groups are not only useful as a scientific research technique, but also for ensuring service users' participation in decision-making in community mental health and evaluating the quality of the mental health system and services .

  5. Research Groups & Research Subjects - RED | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available rch Groups & Research Subjects Data detail Data name Research Groups & Research Sub... Number of data entries 174 entries Data item Description Research ID Research ID (Subject number) Institute...tion Download License Update History of This Database Site Policy | Contact Us Research Groups & Research Subjects - RED | LSDB Archive ... ...switchLanguage; BLAST Search Image Search Home About Archive Update History Data List Contact us RED Resea... Organization Section Section (Department) User name User name Experimental title Experimental title (Rese

  6. A survey of etiologic hypotheses among testicular cancer researchers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stang, A; Trabert, B; Rusner, C; Poole, C; Almstrup, K; Rajpert-De Meyts, E; McGlynn, K A

    2015-01-01

    Basic research results can provide new ideas and hypotheses to be examined in epidemiological studies. We conducted a survey among testicular cancer researchers on hypotheses concerning the etiology of this malignancy. All researchers on the mailing list of Copenhagen Testis Cancer Workshops and corresponding authors of PubMed-indexed articles identified by the search term 'testicular cancer' and published within 10 years (in total 2750 recipients) were invited to respond to an e-mail-based survey. Participants of the 8th Copenhagen Testis Cancer Workshop in May 2014 were subsequently asked to rate the plausibility of the suggested etiologic hypotheses on a scale of 1 (very implausible) to 10 (very plausible). This report describes the methodology of the survey, the score distributions by individual hypotheses, hypothesis group, and the participants' major research fields, and discuss the hypotheses that scored as most plausible. We also present plans for improving the survey that may be repeated at a next international meeting of experts in testicular cancer. Overall 52 of 99 (53%) registered participants of the 8th Copenhagen Testis Cancer Workshop submitted the plausibility rating form. Fourteen of 27 hypotheses were related to exposures during pregnancy. Hypotheses with the highest mean plausibility ratings were either related to pre-natal exposures or exposures that might have an effect during pregnancy and in post-natal life. The results of the survey may be helpful for triggering more specific etiologic hypotheses that include factors related to endocrine disruption, DNA damage, inflammation, and nutrition during pregnancy. The survey results may stimulate a multidisciplinary discussion about new etiologic hypotheses of testicular cancer. Published 2014. This article is a U. S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  7. In silico cancer research towards 3R.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jean-Quartier, Claire; Jeanquartier, Fleur; Jurisica, Igor; Holzinger, Andreas

    2018-04-12

    Improving our understanding of cancer and other complex diseases requires integrating diverse data sets and algorithms. Intertwining in vivo and in vitro data and in silico models are paramount to overcome intrinsic difficulties given by data complexity. Importantly, this approach also helps to uncover underlying molecular mechanisms. Over the years, research has introduced multiple biochemical and computational methods to study the disease, many of which require animal experiments. However, modeling systems and the comparison of cellular processes in both eukaryotes and prokaryotes help to understand specific aspects of uncontrolled cell growth, eventually leading to improved planning of future experiments. According to the principles for humane techniques milestones in alternative animal testing involve in vitro methods such as cell-based models and microfluidic chips, as well as clinical tests of microdosing and imaging. Up-to-date, the range of alternative methods has expanded towards computational approaches, based on the use of information from past in vitro and in vivo experiments. In fact, in silico techniques are often underrated but can be vital to understanding fundamental processes in cancer. They can rival accuracy of biological assays, and they can provide essential focus and direction to reduce experimental cost. We give an overview on in vivo, in vitro and in silico methods used in cancer research. Common models as cell-lines, xenografts, or genetically modified rodents reflect relevant pathological processes to a different degree, but can not replicate the full spectrum of human disease. There is an increasing importance of computational biology, advancing from the task of assisting biological analysis with network biology approaches as the basis for understanding a cell's functional organization up to model building for predictive systems. Underlining and extending the in silico approach with respect to the 3Rs for replacement, reduction and

  8. European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) Pathobiology Group standard operating procedure for the preparation of human tumour tissue extracts suited for the quantitative analysis of tissue-associated biomarkers.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmitt, M.; Mengele, K.; Schueren, E. van der; Sweep, C.G.J.; Foekens, J.A.; Brunner, N.; Laabs, J.; Malik, A.; Harbeck, N.

    2007-01-01

    With the new concept of 'individualized treatment and targeted therapies', tumour tissue-associated biomarkers have been given a new role in selection of cancer patients for treatment and in cancer patient management. Tumour biomarkers can give support to cancer patient stratification and risk

  9. Applications of genetic programming in cancer research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worzel, William P; Yu, Jianjun; Almal, Arpit A; Chinnaiyan, Arul M

    2009-02-01

    The theory of Darwinian evolution is the fundamental keystones of modern biology. Late in the last century, computer scientists began adapting its principles, in particular natural selection, to complex computational challenges, leading to the emergence of evolutionary algorithms. The conceptual model of selective pressure and recombination in evolutionary algorithms allow scientists to efficiently search high dimensional space for solutions to complex problems. In the last decade, genetic programming has been developed and extensively applied for analysis of molecular data to classify cancer subtypes and characterize the mechanisms of cancer pathogenesis and development. This article reviews current successes using genetic programming and discusses its potential impact in cancer research and treatment in the near future.

  10. Translating basic research in cancer patient care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcello Maugeri-Saccà

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available With the advent of molecular targeted therapies and the development of high-throughput biotechnologies, it has become evident that progress in cancer research is largely due to the creation of multidisciplinary teams able to plan clinical trials supported by appropriate molecular hypotheses. These efforts have culminated in the identification and validation of biomarkers predictive of response, as well as in the generation of more accurate prognostic tools. The identification of cancer stem cells has provided further insights into mechanisms of cancer, and many studies have tried to translate this biological notion into prognostic and predictive information. In this regard, new agents targeting key stemness-related pathways have entered the clinical development, and preliminary data suggested an encouraging antitumor activity.

  11. Developing an organizing framework to guide nursing research in the Children’s Oncology Group (COG)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Katherine Patterson; Hooke, Mary C.; Ruccione, Kathleen; Landier, Wendy; Haase, Joan

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To describe the development and application of an organizing research framework to guide COG Nursing research. Data Sources Research articles, reports and meeting minutes Conclusion An organizing research framework helps to outline research focus and articulate the scientific knowledge being produced by nurses in the pediatric cooperative group. Implication for Nursing Practice The use of an organizing framework for COG nursing research can facilitate clinical nurses’ understanding of how children and families sustain or regain optimal health when faced with a pediatric cancer diagnosis through interventions designed to promote individual and family resilience. The Children’s Oncology Group (COG) is the sole National Cancer Institute (NCI)-supported cooperative pediatric oncology clinical trials group and the largest organization in the world devoted exclusively to pediatric cancer research. It was founded in 2000 following the merger of the four legacy NCI-supported pediatric clinical trials groups (Children’s Cancer Group [CCG], Pediatric Oncology Group [POG], National Wilms Tumor Study Group, and Intergroup Rhabdomyosarcoma Study Group). The COG currently has over 200 member institutions across North America, Australia, New Zealand and Europe and a multidisciplinary membership of over 8,000 pediatric, radiation, and surgical oncologists, nurses, clinical research associates, pharmacists, behavioral scientists, pathologists, laboratory scientists, patient/parent advocates and other pediatric cancer specialists. The COG Nursing Discipline was formed from the merger of the legacy CCG and POG Nursing Committees, and current membership exceeds 2000 registered nurses. The discipline has a well-developed infrastructure that promotes nursing involvement throughout all levels of the organization, including representation on disease, protocol, scientific, executive and other administrative committees (e.g., nominating committee, data safety monitoring

  12. Electron Microscopy-Data Analysis Specialist | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    PROGRAM DESCRIPTION The Cancer Research Technology Program (CRTP) develops and implements emerging technology, cancer biology expertise and research capabilities to accomplish NCI research objectives.  The CRTP is an outward-facing, multi-disciplinary hub purposed to enable the external cancer research community and provides dedicated support to NCI’s intramural Center for

  13. Application of Metabolomics in Thyroid Cancer Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Wojakowska

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Thyroid cancer is the most common endocrine malignancy with four major types distinguished on the basis of histopathological features: papillary, follicular, medullary, and anaplastic. Classification of thyroid cancer is the primary step in the assessment of prognosis and selection of the treatment. However, in some cases, cytological and histological patterns are inconclusive; hence, classification based on histopathology could be supported by molecular biomarkers, including markers identified with the use of high-throughput “omics” techniques. Beside genomics, transcriptomics, and proteomics, metabolomic approach emerges as the most downstream attitude reflecting phenotypic changes and alterations in pathophysiological states of biological systems. Metabolomics using mass spectrometry and magnetic resonance spectroscopy techniques allows qualitative and quantitative profiling of small molecules present in biological systems. This approach can be applied to reveal metabolic differences between different types of thyroid cancer and to identify new potential candidates for molecular biomarkers. In this review, we consider current results concerning application of metabolomics in the field of thyroid cancer research. Recent studies show that metabolomics can provide significant information about the discrimination between different types of thyroid lesions. In the near future, one could expect a further progress in thyroid cancer metabolomics leading to development of molecular markers and improvement of the tumor types classification and diagnosis.

  14. Remote Sensing Information Sciences Research Group, Santa Barbara Information Sciences Research Group, year 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estes, J. E.; Smith, T.; Star, J. L.

    1986-01-01

    Research continues to focus on improving the type, quantity, and quality of information which can be derived from remotely sensed data. The focus is on remote sensing and application for the Earth Observing System (Eos) and Space Station, including associated polar and co-orbiting platforms. The remote sensing research activities are being expanded, integrated, and extended into the areas of global science, georeferenced information systems, machine assissted information extraction from image data, and artificial intelligence. The accomplishments in these areas are examined.

  15. Statistical study on cancer patients of cancer research hospital

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shim, Yoon Sang; Choi, Soo Yong; Won, Hyuk; Kim, Kee Hwa

    1991-01-01

    The total number of malignant neoplasms included on this study 7,787 cases(10.4%) among 74,928 cases for 2 years. On sex, females with 57.6% were much more than males with 42.4%. The highest proportion of cancer 50-59 age group. The most frequent primary site among males was found to be stomach with 36.2%, followed by liver(12.3%), lung(12.2%), esophagus(15.5%) and larynx(4.9%). In females, the first order was uterine cervix with 47.3%, followed most common type of morphology of malignant neoplasms was adenocarcinoma(39.0%) in males an squamous cell carcinoma(56.2%) in females. Among the cancer patients initially diagnosed in this hospital, the proportion of malignant neoplasms by the extent of disease was 4.6% for patient with carcinoma-in-situ, 76.3% for patients with localized involvement, 11.6% for patients with regional involvement and 7.5% for patients with distant involvement. Among,the cancer patients initially treatment in this hospital, the proportion of malignant neoplasms by the method of treatment was 19.0% for surgery, 27.7 for radiotherapy and 24.2% for chemotherapy. Among the cancer patients confirmed by medical records, 11.2% was traced more than 5 years. (Author)

  16. Assessing women's sexuality after cancer therapy: checking assumptions with the focus group technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruner, D W; Boyd, C P

    1999-12-01

    Cancer and cancer therapies impair sexual health in a multitude of ways. The promotion of sexual health is therefore vital for preserving quality of life and is an integral part of total or holistic cancer management. Nursing, to provide holistic care, requires research that is meaningful to patients as well as the profession to develop educational and interventional studies to promote sexual health and coping. To obtain meaningful research data instruments that are reliable, valid, and pertinent to patients' needs are required. Several sexual functioning instruments were reviewed for this study and found to be lacking in either a conceptual foundation or psychometric validation. Without a defined conceptual framework, authors of the instruments must have made certain assumptions regarding what women undergoing cancer therapy experience and what they perceive as important. To check these assumptions before assessing women's sexuality after cancer therapies in a larger study, a pilot study was designed to compare what women experience and perceive as important regarding their sexuality with what is assessed in several currently available research instruments, using the focus group technique. Based on the focus group findings, current sexual functioning questionnaires may be lacking in pertinent areas of concern for women treated for breast or gynecologic malignancies. Better conceptual foundations may help future questionnaire design. Self-regulation theory may provide an acceptable conceptual framework from which to develop a sexual functioning questionnaire.

  17. Immunotherapy: A breakthrough in cancer research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Editorial Office

    2016-12-01

    test the effectiveness of the tuberculosis vaccine Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG in treating superficial bladder cancer. The BCG treatment, in which BCG bacilli are inserted directly into a patient’s bladder via a catheter, proved to be an effective form of immunotherapy and the groundbreaking technique is still used today. In general, studies on immunotherapy have presented researchers with two important conclusions: First and foremost, researchers were finally able to prove that the immune system is indeed capable of recognizing cancer cells as a ‘foreign entity’ although they originate from the body’s own tissues. Secondly, by boosting the immune response, researchers are able to enhance other cancer-killing agents at the same time, thus increasing the chances of a successful treatment via immunotherapy. Based on these conclusions, researchers all over the world now face the challenge of figuring out which therapy works best for a specific type of cancer and why some cancer patients respond better than others to the prescribed treatments.At the ESMO Asia 2016 congress, lead author Dr. Makoto Tahara presented his paper ‘Asian head and neck cancer patients live longer with immunotherapy than mixed race group’, in which his team of researchers reported the sub-analysis results on the safety and efficacy of pembrolizumab in 26 patients (of Asian Pacific origin who received a fixed dose of the humanized antibody for 24 months until the detection of disease progression or adverse events. They observed that both the median overall survival and the disease control rate were better in Asians than the overall population, i.e. 11.5 versus 8.4 months and 50.5% versus 37.9%, respectively.According to Dr. Tahara, “The fixed dose of pembrolizumab was well-tolerated in Asian Pacific patients with recurrent/metastatic head and neck cancer. Although the Asian population was small, our findings suggest that they have better median overall survival with pembrolizumab than

  18. The effect of short term neo-adjuvant androgen deprivation on erectile function in patients treated with external beam radiotherapy for localised prostate cancer: an analysis of the 4- versus 8-month randomised trial (Irish Clinical Oncology Research Group 97-01).

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Daly, Patricia E

    2012-07-01

    Erectile dysfunction is a common consequence of external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) for prostate cancer. The addition of neo-adjuvant androgen deprivation (NAD) has an indeterminate additive effect. We examined the long-term effect on erectile function (EF) of two durations (4 months: arm 1 and 8 months: arm 2) of NAD prior to radiation (RT) for patients with localised prostate cancer from the Irish Clinical Oncology Research Group (ICORG 97-01) 4- versus 8-month trial. In this study we aimed to (1) analyse the overall effect on EF of NAD in an EBRT population, (2) compare the probability of retained EF over time in an EBRT population treated with either 4 or 8 months of NAD and (3) identify any variables such as risk group and age which may have an additive detrimental effect. This analysis provides unique long term follow up data.

  19. Antibody Characterization Lab | Office of Cancer Clinical Proteomics Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Antibody Characterization Lab (ACL), an intramural reference laboratory located at the Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research in Frederick, Maryland, thoroughly characterizes monoclonal antibodies or other renewable affinity binding reagents for use in cancer related research.

  20. A Seat at the Table: Culturally based cancer research

    Science.gov (United States)

    NCI supports research to address cancer disparities among American Indian and Alaska Native populations. In this video, two researchers advocate for more culturally sensitive practices to help people who are most disproportionately affected by cancer disparities.

  1. Basic and technical research on lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyamoto, Tadaaki

    2004-01-01

    In association with clinical study of carbon beam therapy for lung cancer, the basic research for lung cancer and the patients with this disease has been carried out for the past 10 years. With regard to lung damage by the carbon beams, firstly pulmonary function was measured and analyzed for the patients with stage I non-small cell lung cancer. Force expiratory volume in 1 second (FVE 1.0) and TLC (total lung capacity) was found to be reduced significantly at 6 and 12 months after therapy but the reduction rate was a little, which can support the safety of this treatment modality. Secondly, the regional lung damage by the beams was investigated by using correct fusion of CT images with carbon beam dose distribution, diagnostic follow-up CT images and blood flow and ventilation spect images. It demonstrated the graded decrease blood flow by dose and the compensatory increase of blood flow in the adjacent lobe of lung unexposed to irradiation. On the other hand, the biological study of carbon beam effects on lung cancer cells and tumors line was conducted. Firstly, by using 7 or 4 human lung cancer cell line, the radiosensitivity of carbon beams was compared with that of photons by different histological patterns. It was found that there was no essential difference in the sensitivity pattern for lung cancer histology between the carbon beams and photons though the former doubled the later in power. Secondly, by using IA cell lines among them, the dynamic of clonogenic cells (clonogen) in a nude tumor and the changes in its morphology following irradiation was investigated, clarifying that the clonogen proliferating under anoxic or hypoxic conditions played a pivotal role for tumor regrowth and stemmed from the different clone which had been genetically selected and developed under these conditions. The finding of clonogen becomes one of the evidence supporting the superiority of a single-dose radiotherapy to fractionated radiotherapy. (author)

  2. Activity report of the Neutrino Research Group. Year 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    For the last two decades, neutrino physics has been producing major discoveries including neutrino oscillations. These results gave clear confirmation that active neutrinos oscillate and therefore have mass with three different mass states. This is a very important result showing that the Minimal Standard Model is incomplete and requires an extension which is not yet known. The neutrino research field is very broad and active, at the frontier of today's particle physics. The Neutrino Research Group (GDR) was created in January 2005 with the aim of gathering CEA and CNRS research teams working on Neutrino Physics on experimental or theoretical level. This document is the 2006 activity report of the research group, two years after its creation. It presents the results of the 5 working groups: 1 - Determination of neutrino parameters; 2 - Physics beyond the standard model; 3 - Neutrinos in the universe; 4 - Accelerators, detection means, R and D and valorisation; 5 - Common tools to all working groups. The proposed neutrino physics road-map and the actual and future short-, medium- and long-term projects are presented in appendixes. The Neutrino research group organization, the Memphys specific mission group, the research group participating laboratories and teams, as well as the Memphys project are presented too

  3. Group functioning of a collaborative family research team.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, S K; Halm, M A; Titler, M G; Craft, M; Kleiber, C; Montgomery, L A; Nicholson, A; Buckwalter, K; Cram, E

    1993-07-01

    Collaborative research teams are an attractive means of conducting nursing research in the clinical setting because of the many opportunities that collaboration can supply. These opportunities include a chance to: (1) network with other nurses who have similar interests, (2) share knowledge and expertise for designing clinical studies that directly affect daily practice, (3) develop instruments, (4) write grant proposals, (5) collect and analyze data, and (6) prepare manuscripts for publication. The effectiveness of research teams, however, is strongly influenced by group functioning. This article describes the functioning of a collaborative family interventions research team of nursing faculty members and CNSs at a large Midwestern university setting. The formation of the group and membership characteristics are described, along with strategies used to identify the research focus and individual and group goals. Aspects related to the influence of the group on members and the internal operations of the group are also addressed. Future strategies to be explored will focus on the size of the group and joint authorship issues. The authors also set forth a number of recommendations for development of collaborative research groups.

  4. Mapping cancer, cardiovascular and malaria research in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.S. Rodrigues

    2000-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents performance indicators for the Brazilian cancer, cardiovascular and malaria research areas from 1981 to 1995. The data show an increasing number of papers since 1981 and author numbers indicate a continuous growth of the scientific community and suggest an expected impact of scientific activity on biomedical education. The data also characterize cardiovascular research as a well-established area and cancer research as a faster growing consolidating field. The 1989-1994 share of Brazilian articles among world publications shows a growing trend for the cancer (1.61 and cardiovascular (1.59 areas, and a decrease for the malaria area (0.89. The burden of the three diseases on society is contrasted by the small number of consolidated Brazilian research groups, and a questionable balance of thematic activity, especially with regard to malaria. Brazilian periodicals play an important role in increasing the international visibility of science produced in the country. Cancer and cardiovascular research is strongly concentrated in the Southeastern and in Southern regions of Brazil, especially in São Paulo (at least one address from São Paulo in 64.5% of the 962 cancer articles and in 66.9% of the 2250 cardiovascular articles, the second state being Rio de Janeiro with at least one address in 14.1 and 11% of those articles, respectively. Malaria research (468 articles is more evenly distributed across the country, following the pattern of the endemic distribution of the disease. Surveying these national indicator trends can be useful to establish policies in the decision process about health sciences, medical education and public health.

  5. NAMMA LANGLEY AEROSOL RESEARCH GROUP EXPERIMENT NAVIGATION DATA V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The NAMMA Langley Aerosol Research Group Experiment Navigation Data is the DC-8 NAV data (ICATS) extracted into columns with time correction. These data files were...

  6. Medicinal Plant Research Group, School of Pharmacy, College of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Medicinal Plant Research Group, School of Pharmacy, College of Health Sciences, University of Nairobi,. P.O. Box 19676-00202, ... of plant used, the dosage form and procedures for preparation and ... by thermal gravimetric methods. In finely.

  7. Molecular Profiling to Optimize Treatment in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer: A Review of Potential Molecular Targets for Radiation Therapy by the Translational Research Program of the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ausborn, Natalie L.; Le, Quynh Thu; Bradley, Jeffrey D.; Choy, Hak; Dicker, Adam P.; Saha, Debabrata; Simko, Jeff; Story, Michael D.; Torossian, Artour; Lu, Bo

    2012-01-01

    Therapeutic decisions in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) have been mainly based on disease stage, performance status, and co-morbidities, and rarely on histological or molecular classification. Rather than applying broad treatments to unselected patients that may result in survival increase of only weeks to months, research efforts should be, and are being, focused on identifying predictive markers for molecularly targeted therapy and determining genomic signatures that predict survival and response to specific therapies. The availability of such targeted biologics requires their use to be matched to tumors of corresponding molecular vulnerability for maximum efficacy. Molecular markers such as epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), K-ras, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), and anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) represent potential parameters guide treatment decisions. Ultimately, identifying patients who will respond to specific therapies will allow optimal efficacy with minimal toxicity, which will result in more judicious and effective application of expensive targeted therapy as the new paradigm of personalized medicine develops.

  8. Translational Partnership Development Lead | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    PROGRAM DESCRIPTION The Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research (FNLCR) is a Federally Funded Research and Development Center operated by Leidos Biomedical Research, Inc on behalf of the National Cancer Institute (NCI). The staff of FNLCR support the NCI’s mission in the fight against cancer and HIV/AIDS. Currently we are seeking a Translational Partnership

  9. UCLA Particle Physics Research Group annual progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nefkens, B.M.K.

    1983-11-01

    The objectives, basic research programs, recent results, and continuing activities of the UCLA Particle Physics Research Group are presented. The objectives of the research are to discover, to formulate, and to elucidate the physics laws that govern the elementary constituents of matter and to determine basic properties of particles. The research carried out by the Group last year may be divided into three separate programs: (1) baryon spectroscopy, (2) investigations of charge symmetry and isospin invariance, and (3) tests of time reversal invariance. The main body of this report is the account of the techniques used in our investigations, the results obtained, and the plans for continuing and new research. An update of the group bibliography is given at the end

  10. Research on Fast Track Surgery Application in Lung Cancer Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaiyun YANG

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective Fast track surgery (FTS is a systematical method to accelerate the recovery of surgical patients by reducing the physical and mental trauma stress of them. The research is to investigate the feasibility of FTS application in lung cancer surgery. Methods A total of 80 cases of lung cancer patients with single leaf lobotomy resection were randomized into two groups. While the experimental group was treated with the conception of FTS, and the control group was treated with the traditional methods. The incident rate of post-operation pain degrees, telecasts, pleural effusion, the post-operation time stay in hospital time and the total cost during hospitalization in two groups were compared respectively. Results In FTS group: the VAS score of post-operation pain at 1 h, 6 h, 12 h, 24 h and 48 h all significantly decreased compared to the traditional therapy group. The incidence rate of telecast was 10.53%. The incidence rate of pleural effusion was 26.31%. The length of stay after operation was (4±1 d and the total cost was RMB 15 600±7 600. In the control group, the above values were 77.78%, 33.33%, 22.22%, (9±1 d, RMB 23 600±5 400, respectively. The post operation pain (VAS method of FTS group was remarkablely below the control group. There has significant difference of the incident rate of telecasts, stay time in hospital and the total cast in two groups (P < 0.05. No significant difference was observed in the incident rate of pleural effusion. Conclusion The new methods of FTS can apparently accelerates recovery after lung cancer resection, reduces complications, shorten timestay in hospital and cut down the total cost.

  11. Return of individual research results and incidental findings in the clinical trials cooperative group setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferriere, Michael; Van Ness, Brian

    2012-04-01

    The National Cancer Institute (NCI)-funded cooperative group cancer clinical trial system develops experimental therapies and often collects samples from patients for correlative research. The cooperative group bank (CGB) system maintains biobanks with a current policy not to return research results to individuals. An online survey was created, and 10 directors of CGBs completed the surveys asking about understanding and attitudes in changing policies to consider return of incidental findings (IFs) and individual research results (IRRs) of health significance. The potential impact of the 10 consensus recommendations of Wolf et al. presented in this issue are examined. Reidentification of samples is often not problematic; however, changes to the current banking and clinical trial systems would require significant effort to fulfill an obligation of recontact of subjects. Additional resources, as well as a national advisory board would be required to standardize implementation.

  12. Outcomes of Mixed-Age Groupings. Research Highlights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stegelin, Dolores A.

    1997-01-01

    A review of the literature on mixed-age settings reveals benefits in the areas of social and cognitive development. Research on the psychosocial advantages of mixed-age groupings is less consistent. Factors such as group size, age range, time together, and context-specific curriculum activities may have a relationship to the level of success and…

  13. Sustainable Transportation Systems Research Group: Ongoing and Past Activities

    OpenAIRE

    Gkritza, Konstantina "Nadia"; Hurtado, Davis Chacon; Gkartzonikas, Christos; Ke, Yue; Losada, Lisa L

    2017-01-01

    This presentation describes the ongoing and past activities of the Sustainable Transportation Systems Research (STSR) group at Purdue University (https://engineering.purdue.edu/STSRG). The STSR group aims to achieve green, safe, efficient, and equitable transportation systems by studying and modeling transportation externalities, using state of the art statistical, econometric, and economic analysis tools.

  14. Quantitative Image Informatics for Cancer Research (QIICR) | Informatics Technology for Cancer Research (ITCR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imaging has enormous untapped potential to improve cancer research through software to extract and process morphometric and functional biomarkers. In the era of non-cytotoxic treatment agents, multi- modality image-guided ablative therapies and rapidly evolving computational resources, quantitative imaging software can be transformative in enabling minimally invasive, objective and reproducible evaluation of cancer treatment response. Post-processing algorithms are integral to high-throughput analysis and fine- grained differentiation of multiple molecular targets.

  15. Bridging the practitioner-scientist gap in group psychotherapy research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Mark A; Ogrodniczuk, John; Joyce, Anthony S; Sochting, Ingrid

    2010-04-01

    Bridging the practitioner-scientist gap requires a different clinical research paradigm: participatory research that encourages community agency-academic partnerships. In this context, clinicians help define priorities, determine the type of evidence that will have an impact on their practice (affecting the methods that are used to produce the evidence), and develop strategies for translating, implementing, and disseminating their findings into evidence-based practice. Within this paradigm, different roles are assumed by the partners, and sometimes these roles are blended. This paper will consider the perspectives of people who assume these different roles (clinician, researcher, and clinician-researcher) with group psychotherapy as the specific focus. Finally, the establishment of a practice-research network will be discussed as a potentially promising way to better engage group therapists in research.

  16. UCLA Particle Physics Research Group annual progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nefkens, B.M.K.

    1981-08-01

    The objectives, basic research programs, recent results and continuing activities of the UCLA Particle Physics Research Group are presented. The objectives of the research are to discover, to formulate, and to elucidate the physics laws that govern the elementary constituents of matter and to determine basic properties of particles. A synopsis of research carried out last year is given. The main body of this report is the account of the techniques used in our investigations, the results obtained, and the plans for continuing and new research

  17. Psychosexual distress in women with gynecologic cancer: a feasibility study of an online support group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Classen, Catherine C; Chivers, Meredith L; Urowitz, Sara; Barbera, Lisa; Wiljer, David; O'Rinn, Susan; Ferguson, Sarah E

    2013-04-01

    The psychosexual concerns of gynecologic cancer patients are often unaddressed and there are limited resources available for women to deal with this highly sensitive topic. This feasibility study examines the participation rates and preliminary outcomes for an online support group designed specifically for women who are sexually distressed subsequent to gynecologic cancer treatment A 12-week online intervention was developed to address the psychosexual impact of gynecologic cancer. This intervention included a professionally moderated, asynchronous discussion forum as well as the provision of psycho-educational materials addressing the psychosexual impact of gynecologic cancer. Each week, a new topic was introduced and relevant material was posted on the website. Women were encouraged to share their experiences related to the topic. Twenty-seven, sexually distressed, remitted gynecologic cancer patients were randomly assigned to immediate treatment or a waitlist control condition. Participants completed questionnaires at baseline, 4-month and 8-month follow-ups assessing sexual distress as the primary outcome as well as anxiety, depression, and illness intrusiveness. Participation rates differed between the two groups, with greater participation occurring in the second group. Exit interviews indicated that the majority of the participants were satisfied with the intervention. Intent-to-treat analyses suggest a small effect for reduction in sexual distress This feasibility study suggests that women find this intervention acceptable. Further research is required to determine efficacy. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Original Research Cervical cancer in southern Malawi: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    by the fact that many cancers may go unrecorded and that ... International Agency for Research on Cancer's (IARC) ... All patients with a new diagnosis of cervical cancer presenting to QECH between ..... A specialist cervical cancer nurse could be appointed to ... Zuma, T., et al., The role of traditional health practitioners in.

  19. Statistical study on cancer patients of cancer research hospital

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shim, Yun Sang; Choi, Soo Yong; Kim, Ki Wha; Kang, Sung Mok

    1993-01-01

    The total number of malignant neoplasms included in this study 15,737 cases(11.8%) among 133,251 cases for 3 years. On sex, females with 52.9% were much more than males with 47.1%. The highest proportion of cancer patients by age was 33.7% in males and 28.5% in females, respectivelty for 50-59 age group. The most frequent primary site among males was found to be stomach with 35.5%, followed by liver(14.7%), lung(13.0%), esophagus(5.4%) and colon (3.2%). In females, the first order was uterine cervix with 40.6%, followed by stomach(17.2%), breast(14.4), rectum(3.7%) and lung(3.4%). The most common type of morphology of malignant neoplasms was adenocarcinoma(47.4%) in males an squamous cell carcinoma(58.0%) in females. Among the cancer patients initially diagnosed in this hospital, the proportion of malignant neoplasms by the exent of disease was 2.5% for patient with carcinoma-in-situ, 54.1% for patients with localized involvement, 13.3% for patients with regional involvement and 8.5% for patients with distant involvement. Among the cancer patients initially treatment in this hospital, the proportion of malignant neoplasms by the method of treatment was 23.6% for surgery, 25.3% for radiotherapy and 30.3% for chemotherapy. Among the cancer patients confirmed by medical records, 7.7% was traced more than 5 years. (Author)

  20. A Milestone in Cancer Research and Treatment in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tata Memorial Center is celebrating 75 years of leadership service towards cancer control and research in India. In honor of this anniversary, TMC is hosting A Conference of New Ideas in Cancer – Challenging Dogmas on February 26-28th, 2016 as part of its platinum jubilee events. CGH Director, Dr. Ted Trimble, will give a plenary talk: "Thinking Outside the Box in Cancer Research - Perspectives from the US NCI” in the session titled: Future of Cancer Research: US and European perspectives.

  1. Neutrino Research Group. 2011-2014 activity report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    For the last two decades, neutrino physics has been producing major discoveries including neutrino oscillations. These results gave clear confirmation that active neutrinos oscillate and therefore have mass with three different mass states. This is a very important result showing that the Minimal Standard Model is incomplete and requires an extension which is not yet known. The neutrino research field is very broad and active, at the frontier of today's particle physics. The Neutrino Research Group (GDR) was created in January 2005 with the aim of gathering CEA and CNRS research teams working on Neutrino Physics on experimental or theoretical level. This document is the 2011-2014 activity report of the research group, ten years after its creation. It presents the results of the 5 working groups: 1 - Determination of neutrino parameters; 2 - Physics beyond the standard model; 3 - Neutrinos in the universe; 4 - Accelerators, detection means, R and D and valorisation; 5 - Common tools to all working groups. The research group structure, participating laboratories and teams and the neutrino physics road-map are presented in appendixes

  2. The sustainable development thematic in the research groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cristina Comunian Ferraz

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available The technological innovation brought for the debate the question of the sustainable technological development. The article presents an entirety of theoretical reflections on the science, technology and sustainable development themes and to aim the contributions of the Information Science, while interdisciplinary science, with respect to the understanding of the sustainable development. With basis in this reference it was carried through the investigation of descriptive exploratory nature with quanti-qualitative boarding, having as main objective to identify the presence of the sustainable development thematic in research groups of the UFSCar registered in cadastre in the National Directory of Research Groups of the CNPq. The results had shown that the sustainable development thematic is present in eleven researchgroups of the UFSCar distributed in different knowledge areas. Comparing the data gotten with the research groups of the country that had participated of 2004 Census of the National Directory of Research Groups of the CNPq it was verified that it has similarity between both the data. In accordance with scientific literature, confirms that the sustainable development thematic is interdisciplinar and that the knowledge production of the research groups is result to know articulated in some of the knowledge areas.

  3. Practice patterns of radiotherapy in cervical cancer among member groups of the Gynecologic Cancer Intergroup (GCIG).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaffney, David K; Du Bois, Andreas; Narayan, Kailash; Reed, Nick; Toita, Takafumi; Pignata, Sandro; Blake, Peter; Portelance, Lorraine; Sadoyze, Azmat; Pötter, Richard; Colombo, Alessandro; Randall, Marcus; Mirza, Mansoor R; Trimble, Edward L

    2007-06-01

    The aim of this study was to describe radiotherapeutic practice of the treatment of cervical cancer in member groups of the Gynecologic Cancer Intergroup (GCIG). A survey was developed and distributed to the members of the GCIG focusing on details of radiotherapy practice. Different scenarios were queried including advanced cervical cancer, postoperative patients, and para-aortic-positive lymph node cases. Items focused on indications for radiation therapy, radiation fields, dose, use of chemotherapy, brachytherapy and others. The cooperative groups from North America were compared with the other groups to evaluate potential differences in radiotherapy doses. A total of 39 surveys were returned from 13 different cooperative groups. For the treatment of advanced cervical cancer, external beam pelvic doses and total doses to point A were 47 + 3.5 Gy (mean + SD) and 79.1 + 7.9 Gy, respectively. Point A doses were not different between the North American cooperative groups compared with the others (p = 0.103). All groups used concomitant chemotherapy, with 30 of 36 respondents using weekly cisplatin. Of 33 respondents, 31 intervened for a low hemoglobin level. For a para-aortic field, the upper border was most commonly (15 of 24) at the T12-L1 interspace. Maintenance chemotherapy (after radiotherapy) was not performed by 68% of respondents. For vaginal brachytherapy after hysterectomy, 23 groups performed HDR brachytherapy and four groups used LDR brachytherapy. In the use of brachytherapy, there was no uniformity in dose prescription. Radiotherapy practices among member groups of the GCIG are similar in terms of both doses and use of chemotherapy.

  4. Global Manufacturing Research: Experience Exchange Group (EEG) contributions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Peter

    1998-01-01

    of preliminary studies found interesting to set upan EEG composed of representatives from industry and a researcher. Inthe paper some general research methods pertinent to the areaindustrial management is discussed. The EEG concept is introduced andcharacterised in comparison with the other methods. EEG...... activities aredescribed and a tentative coupling to the phases in a research processis proposed. Following this is a discussion of methodological andquality requirements. It is considered how EEG activities couldpossible contribute to an industrial rooted research. The paper endsup looking at future research......The intention of this paper is to clarify if and how an ExperienceExchange Group (EEG) can be involved in a research process in the areaof industrial management. For exemplification of the topic an ongoingresearch in global manufacturing is referred to. In this research itwas after a series...

  5. Breast cancer and support group in the life of mastectomized women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa da Luz Adorna

    Full Text Available AbstractObjectives To identify the importance of participation in support groups for mastectomized women’s recovery and their knowledge about this type of cancer.Material and methods Qualitative descriptive study with ten mastectomized women participants of the “Reborn” (“Renascer”, in portuguese support group. Data were collected by means of interviews, using a questionnaire prepared by the researcher as an instrument. The data collected were then qualitatively analyzed according to the systematization proposed by Minayo (4.Results Six categories were identified. This study addressed the knowledge of the participants on breast cancer and their participation in the support group.Conclusion A change of concepts and ideas about cancer in the interviewed women was identified, as well as the importance of information and explanation about this cancer, its treatment and consequences for the patient. The relevance of the support group in these women’s recovery is also noteworthy, due to the opportunity of socializing with other people with similar stories.

  6. A feasibility study of group cognitive rehabilitation for cancer survivors: enhancing cognitive function and quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuurs, Alana; Green, Heather J

    2013-05-01

    This research aimed to address the gap in evidence-based treatment available for cancer survivors who are experiencing cognitive dysfunction, through piloting a novel treatment intervention. The overall research question was whether a group cognitive rehabilitation intervention would be feasible for improving cognitive function and quality of life for people who have completed cancer treatment. Three groups of adults were recruited as follows: an intervention group of 23 cancer survivors who completed a 4-week group cognitive rehabilitation treatment, a comparison group of nine cancer survivors, and a community sample of 23 adults who had never experienced cancer. Measures of objective and subjective cognitive function, quality of life, psychosocial distress, and illness perceptions were used. The research design was non-randomised. The results indicated that the intervention was effective in improving overall cognitive function, visuospatial/constructional performance, immediate memory, and delayed memory beyond practice effects alone. It was helpful in reducing participants' perceptions of cognitive impairment and psychosocial distress, as well as promoting social functioning and understanding of cognition. The improvements were maintained at 3 months after the intervention. Participants reported a high level of satisfaction with the treatment. The results provided evidence for the feasibility of a brief group-based cognitive rehabilitation intervention to treat cognitive problems experienced by cancer survivors. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Summer Student Breast Cancer Research Training Program

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zaloga, Gary P

    2005-01-01

    ... projects addressed the effects of omega-3 lipids upon breast cancer cells. 0mega-3 lipids were found to decrease breast cancer-induced muscle cell proteolysis and to induce apoptosis in cancer cells...

  8. Ganando Confianza: Research Focus Groups with Immigrant Mexican Mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hausmann-Stabile, Carolina; Zayas, Luis H; Runes, Sandra; Abenis-Cintron, Anna; Calzada, Esther

    2011-03-01

    Immigrant families with children with developmental disabilities must be served using culturally sensitive approaches to service and research to maximize treatment benefits. In an effort to better understand cultural issues relevant to the provision of parenting programs for immigrant Mexican mothers of children with developmental disabilities, we conducted sustained focus groups through which we could learn more about our participants and thereby improve services. This paper reports on the challenges and lessons learned from these groups. We characterize the key lessons as (a) recruitment and retention is more than agreement to participate; (b) confidentiality is not just a word but an activity; (c) the complicated nature of language; (d) cultural norms shape the group process; (e) appreciating the value of taking time; and (f) gender issues and group interaction. Service providers and researchers who work with Mexican families may benefit from our experiences as they promote and develop programs and projects in the developmental disabilities field.

  9. Focus Group Interview in Family Practice Research: Implementing a qualitative research method

    OpenAIRE

    Wood, Marjorie L.

    1992-01-01

    Focus group interviews, described as a qualitative research method with good potential in family medicine, are traced from their origins in market research to their growing role in sociology and medicine. Features of this method are described, including design, conduct, and analysis. Both proven and potential areas for primary care research using focus groups are outlined.

  10. Research Summaries: The 11th Biennial Rivkin Center Ovarian Cancer Research Symposium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Deborah K

    2017-11-01

    In September 2016, the 11th biennial ovarian cancer research symposium was presented by the Rivkin Center for Ovarian Cancer and the American Association for Cancer Research. The 2016 symposium focused on 4 broad areas of research: Mechanisms of Initiation and Progression of Ovarian Cancer, Tumor Microenvironment and Models of Ovarian Cancer, Detection and Prevention of Ovarian Cancer, and Novel Therapeutics for Ovarian Cancer. The presentations and abstracts from each of these areas are reviewed in this supplement to the International Journal of Gynecologic Oncology.

  11. [The virtual environment of a research group: the tutors' perspective].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prado, Cláudia; Casteli, Christiane Pereira Martins; Lopes, Tania Oliveira; Kobayashi, Rika M; Peres, Heloísa Helena Ciqueto; Leite, Maria Madalena Januário

    2012-02-01

    The Grupo de Estudos e Pesquisas de Tecnologia da Informação nos Processos de Trabalho em Enfermagem (Study and Research Group for Information Technology in the Nursing Working Processes, GEPETE) has the purpose of producing and socializing knowledge in information technology and health and nursing communication, making associations with research groups in this field and promoting student participation. This study was performed by the group tutors with the objective to report on the development of the virtual learning environment (VLE) and the tutors' experience as mediators of a research group using the Moodle platform. To do this, a VLE was developed and pedagogical mediation was performed following the theme of mentoring. An initial diagnosis was made of the difficulties in using this technology in interaction and communication, which permitted the proposal of continuing to use the platform as a resource to support research activities, offer lead researchers the mechanisms to socialize projects and offer the possibility of giving advice at a distance.

  12. Developing a physics expert identity in a biophysics research group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Idaykis; Goertzen, Renee Michelle; Brewe, Eric; Kramer, Laird H.

    2015-06-01

    We investigate the development of expert identities through the use of the sociocultural perspective of learning as participating in a community of practice. An ethnographic case study of biophysics graduate students focuses on the experiences the students have in their research group meetings. The analysis illustrates how the communities of practice-based identity constructs of competencies characterize student expert membership. A microanalysis of speech, sound, tones, and gestures in video data characterize students' social competencies in the physics community of practice. Results provide evidence that students at different stages of their individual projects have opportunities to develop social competencies such as mutual engagement, negotiability of the repertoire, and accountability to the enterprises as they interact with group members. The biophysics research group purposefully designed a learning trajectory including conducting research and writing it for publication in the larger community of practice as a pathway to expertise. The students of the research group learn to become socially competent as specific experts of their project topic and methodology, ensuring acceptance, agency, and membership in their community of practice. This work expands research on physics expertise beyond the cognitive realm and has implications for how to design graduate learning experiences to promote expert identity development.

  13. Combined androgen blockade in the treatment of advanced prostate cancer--an overview. The Scandinavian Prostatic Cancer Group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, P

    1997-01-01

    The value of combined androgen blockade in the treatment of patients with advanced prostate cancer is still controversial. In this review by the Scandinavian Prostatic Cancer Group, the literature addressing the concept and its clinical use is critically reviewed....

  14. Translational Partnership Development Lead | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    , intellectual property, mouse study design, pharmacokinetics (PK), drug screening, industrial project management and other areas needed to facilitate rapid translation. Currently, FNLCR is seeking an expert who can work across organizational boundaries to catalyze these interactions with the primary objective to develop and enable strategies that will facilitate the identification of partners who can collaborate with CCR Investigators. The TPDL will work with the partners and NCI to facilitate the swift and effective translation of pre-clinical discoveries with high potential toward clinical application. A critical part of the TPDL function will be to strengthen interactions among groups with strong translational interests located at NCI-Frederick, including the Molecular Targets Laboratory (MTL), and the NIH main campus, including the National Center for Advancing Translational Science (NCATS). KEY ROLES/RESPONSIBILITIES Advise Principal Investigators and senior leadership on project-based and organizational/translational strategies for discoveries. Enable partnerships and strengthen communications/collaborations within and outside of NIH with biotech industry and groups with strong translational interests/expertise. This includes continuing and strengthening the close collaboration with the Molecular Targets Laboratory (MTL) in Frederick as well as increasing interactions with groups that can facilitate drug development and translational work such as those at NCATS, the NCI’s Division of Cancer Treatment and Diagnosis (DCTD) and with current and potential industry partners. Facilitate outreach to biotech/pharma to develop partnerships furthering translational research projects that may lead to licensing or other agreements. Create outreach opportunities aimed at engaging PIs with potential drug development projects and provide guidance through the translational pipeline. Identify strategic improvements in CCR's technology and drug development process and infrastructure.

  15. Exploring Forms of Triangulation to Facilitate Collaborative Research Practice: Reflections From a Multidisciplinary Research Group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarja Tiainen

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available This article contains critical reflections of a multidisciplinary research group studying the human and technological dynamics around some newly offered electronic services in a specific rural area of Finland. For their research, the group adopted ethnography. On facing the challenges of doing ethnographic research in a multidisciplinary setting, the group evolved its own breed of research practice based on multiple forms of triangulation. This implied the use of multiple data sources, methods, theories, and researchers, in different combinations. One of the outcomes of the work is a model for collaborative research. It highlights, among others, the importance of creating a climate for collaboration within the research group and following a process of individual and collaborative writing to achieve the potential benefits of such research. The article also identifies a set of remaining challenges relevant to collaborative research.

  16. Published Research - NCI Alliance for Nanotechnology in Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    The NCI Alliance for Nanotechnology in Cancer has published much exciting and impactful research over the years. Find here a list of all of these listed in PubMed and others across the field of Cancer Nanotechnology.

  17. Training Program in Biostatistics for Breast Cancer Research

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Little, Roderick

    1998-01-01

    The current training program terminates in the summer of 1998. We had originally planned to develop a training program in biostatistics for cancer research for submission to the National Cancer Institute (Task 9...

  18. Biomedical Research Group, Health Division annual report 1954

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langham, W.H.; Storer, J.B.

    1955-12-31

    This report covers the activities of the Biomedical Research Group (H-4) of the Health Division during the period January 1 through December 31, 1954. Organizationally, Group H-4 is divided into five sections, namely, Biochemistry, Radiobiology, Radiopathology, Biophysics, and Organic Chemistry. The activities of the Group are summarized under the headings of the various sections. The general nature of each section`s program, publications, documents and reports originating from its members, and abstracts and summaries of the projects pursued during the year are presented.

  19. Gender, cancer experience and internet use: a comparative keyword analysis of interviews and online cancer support groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seale, Clive; Ziebland, Sue; Charteris-Black, Jonathan

    2006-05-01

    A new method, comparative keyword analysis, is used to compare the language of men and women with cancer in 97 research interviews and two popular internet based support groups for people with cancer. The method is suited to the conjoint qualitative and quantitative analysis of differences between large bodies of text, an alternative to the 'code and retrieval' approach used in much thematic analysis of qualitative materials. Web forums are a rich source of data about illness experience and gender differences. Marked differences in the performance of gender are evident. These differences follow linguistic and other behavioural patterns (such as social network differences) established in other contexts. Men with prostate cancer indicate in research interviews that they are more likely to seek information on the internet; women with breast cancer that they are more likely to seek social and emotional support. Men's concerns cluster around treatment information, medical personnel and procedures. Their experience of disease is more localised on particular areas of the body, while women's experience is more holistic. Women's forum postings orientate much more towards the exchange of emotional support, including concern with the impact of illness on a wide range of other people. Women's use of superlatives as well as words referring to feelings indicate their enactment of greater emotional expressivity. Web forums are platforms for an intensification of men's knowledge gathering activities. Web forums, though actually quite publicly visible, appear to be subjectively experienced by both sexes as relatively private places for the exchange of intimate personal information. The 'privacy' of the breast cancer forum facilitated interactions found in other studies to be characteristic of women's friendship groups.

  20. Global variations in cancer survival. Study Group on Cancer Survival in Developing Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankaranarayanan, R; Swaminathan, R; Black, R J

    1996-12-15

    Population-based cancer registries from Algeria, China, Costa Rica, Cuba, India, the Philippines, and Thailand are collaborating with the International Agency for Research on Cancer in a study of cancer survival in developing countries. Comparisons with the SEER program results of the National Cancer Institute in the United States, and the EUROCARE study of survival in European countries revealed considerable differences in the survival of patients with certain tumors associated with intensive chemotherapeutic treatment regimes (Hodgkin's disease and testicular tumors), more modest differences in the survival of patients with tumors for which early diagnosis and treatment confer an improved prognosis (carcinomas of the large bowel, breast, and cervix), and only slight differences for tumors associated with poor prognosis (carcinomas of the stomach, pancreas, and lung). With limited resources to meet the challenge of the increasing incidence of cancer expected in the next few decades, health authorities in developing countries should be aware of the importance of investing in a range of cancer control activities, including primary prevention and early detection programs as well as treatment.

  1. The ethics of research using electronic mail discussion groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kralik, Debbie; Warren, Jim; Price, Kay; Koch, Tina; Pignone, Gino

    2005-12-01

    The aim of this paper is to identify and discuss the ethical considerations that have confronted and challenged the research team when researchers facilitate conversations using private electronic mail discussion lists. The use of electronic mail group conversations, as a collaborative data generation method, remains underdeveloped in nursing. Ethical challenges associated with this approach to data generation have only begun to be considered. As receipt of ethics approval for a study titled; 'Describing transition with people who live with chronic illness' we have been challenged by many ethical dilemmas, hence we believe it is timely to share the issues that have confronted the research team. These discussions are essential so we can understand the possibilities for research interaction, communication, and collaboration made possible by advanced information technologies. Our experiences in this study have increased our awareness for ongoing ethical discussions about privacy, confidentiality, consent, accountability and openness underpinning research with human participants when generating data using an electronic mail discussion group. We describe how we work at upholding these ethical principles focusing on informed consent, participant confidentiality and privacy, the participants as threats to themselves and one another, public-private confusion, employees with access, hackers and threats from the researchers. A variety of complex issues arise during cyberspace research that can make the application of traditional ethical standards troublesome. Communication in cyberspace alters the temporal, spatial and sensory components of human interaction, thereby challenging traditional ethical definitions and calling to question some basic assumptions about identity and ones right to keep aspects of it confidential. Nurse researchers are bound by human research ethics protocols; however, the nature of research by electronic mail generates moral issues as well as ethical

  2. Group Organization and Communities of Practice in Translational Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor J. Krawczyk

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The collective lived experience of translational research teams requires further appreciation, particularly at the stages of group formation. To achieve this, we conducted a case study of a translational research team (n = 16. Through the case description and then discussing case-based themes with community of practice theory, themes such as “Being Open” and “Working as a Group” found that this team’s mutual respect, cooperation, and their sharing of knowledge uncovered an alternative way that professionals organize themselves for translational research projects. In conjunction to this finding, our analysis showed that the team has qualities of a community of practice.

  3. [Clinical research activity of the French cancer cooperative network: Overview and perspectives].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubois, Claire; Morin, Franck; Moro-Sibilot, Denis; Langlais, Alexandra; Seitz, Jean-François; Girault, Cécile; Salles, Gilles; Haioun, Corinne; Deschaseaux, Pascal; Casassus, Philippe; Mathiot, Claire; Pujade-Lauraine, Éric; Votan, Bénédicte; Louvet, Christophe; Delpeut, Christine; Bardet, Étienne; Vintonenko, Nadejda; Hoang Xuan, Khê; Vo, Maryline; Michon, Jean; Milleron, Bernard

    The French Cancer Plan 2014-2019 stresses the importance of strengthening collaboration between all stakeholders involved in the fight against cancer, including cancer cooperative groups and intergroups. This survey aimed to describe the basics characteristics and clinical research activity among the Cancer Cooperative Groups (Groupes coopérateurs en oncologie). The second objective was to identify facilitators and barriers to their research activity. A questionnaire was sent to all the clinicians involved in 2014 as investigators in a clinical trial sponsored by one of the ten members of the Cancer Cooperative Groups network. The questions were related to their profile, research activity and the infrastructure existing within their healthcare center to support clinical research and related compliance activities. In total, 366 investigators responded to our survey. The academic clinical trials sponsored by the Cancer Cooperative Groups represented an important part of the research activity of the investigators in France in 2014. These academic groups contributed to the opening of many research sites throughout all regions in France. Factors associated with a higher participation of investigators (more than 10 patients enrolled in a trial over a year) include the existing support of healthcare professionals (more than 2 clinical research associate (CRA) OR=11.16 [3.82-32.6] compared to none) and the practice of their research activity in a University Hospital Center (CHU) rather than a Hospital Center (CH) (OR=2.15 [1.20-3.83]). This study highlighted factors that can strengthen investigator clinical research activities and subsequently improve patient access to evidence-based new cancer therapies in France. Copyright © 2017 Société Française du Cancer. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Activity report of the Neutrino Research Group. Year 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    For the last two decades, neutrino physics has been producing major discoveries including neutrino oscillations. These results gave clear confirmation that active neutrinos oscillate and therefore have mass with three different mass states. This is a very important result showing that the Minimal Standard Model is incomplete and requires an extension which is not yet known. The neutrino research field is very broad and active, at the frontier of today's particle physics. The Neutrino Research Group (GDR) was created in January 2005 with the aim of gathering CEA and CNRS research teams working on Neutrino Physics on experimental or theoretical level. This document is the 2010 activity report of the research group, six years after its creation. It presents the results of the 5 working groups: 1 - Determination of neutrino parameters; 2 - Physics beyond the standard model; 3 - Neutrinos in the universe; 4 - Accelerators, detection means, R and D and valorisation; 5 - Common tools to all working groups. The proposed neutrino physics road-map and the actual and future short-, medium- and long-term projects are presented in appendixes

  5. Collaborating in Life Science Research Groups: The Question of Authorship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, Ruth

    2012-01-01

    This qualitative study explores how life science postdocs' perceptions of contemporary academic career rationales influence how they relate to collaboration within research groups. One consequential dimension of these perceptions is the high value assigned to publications. For career progress, postdocs consider producing publications and…

  6. Preparing School Leaders: Action Research on the Leadership Study Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamler, Estelle

    2016-01-01

    This article reports an action research study that examined the Leadership Study Group, one learning activity designed to build knowledge and skills for aspiring school leaders and implemented in a six-credit introductory course for school leader certification. Through analysis of a variety of qualitative data collected over nine semesters, I…

  7. Gaps in nutritional research among older adults with cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presley, Carolyn J.; Dotan, Efrat; Soto-Perez-de-Celis, Enrique; Jatoi, Aminah; Mohile, Supriya G.; Won, Elizabeth; Alibhai, Shabbir; Kilari, Deepak; Harrison, Robert; Klepin, Heidi D.; Wildes, Tanya M.; Mustian, Karen; Demark-Wahnefried, Wendy

    2016-01-01

    Nutritional issues among older adults with cancer are an understudied area of research despite significant prognostic implications for treatment side effects, cancer-specific mortality, and overall survival. In May of 2015, the National Cancer Institute and the National Institute on Aging co-sponsored a conference focused on future directions in geriatric oncology research. Nutritional research among older adults with cancer was highlighted as a major area of concern as most nutritional cancer research has been conducted among younger adults, with limited evidence to guide the care of nutritional issues among older adults with cancer. Cancer diagnoses among older adults are increasing, and the care of the older adult with cancer is complicated due to multimorbidity, heterogeneous functional status, polypharmacy, deficits in cognitive and mental health, and several other non-cancer factors. Due to this complexity, nutritional needs are dynamic, multifaceted, and dependent on the clinical scenario. This manuscript outlines the proceedings of this conference including knowledge gaps and recommendations for future nutritional research among older adults with cancer. Three common clinical scenarios encountered by oncologists include (1) weight loss during anti-cancer therapy, (2) malnutrition during advanced disease, and (3) obesity during survivorship. In this manuscript, we provide a brief overview of relevant cancer literature within these three areas, knowledge gaps that exist, and recommendations for future research. PMID:27197919

  8. A social epistemology of research groups collaboration in scientific practice

    CERN Document Server

    Wagenknecht, Susann

    2016-01-01

    This book investigates how collaborative scientific practice yields scientific knowledge. At a time when most of today’s scientific knowledge is created in research groups, the author reconsiders the social character of science to address the question of whether collaboratively created knowledge should be considered as collective achievement, and if so, in which sense. Combining philosophical analysis with qualitative empirical inquiry, this book provides a comparative case study of mono- and interdisciplinary research groups, offering insight into the day-to-day practice of scientists. The book includes field observations and interviews with scientists to present an empirically-grounded perspective on much-debated questions concerning research groups’ division of labor, relations of epistemic dependence and trust.

  9. The Asian American Network for Cancer Awareness, Research, and Training’s Role in Cancer Awareness, Research, and Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Moon S.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to describe the content for the Asian American Network for Cancer Awareness Research and Training (AANCART) with respect to Asian American demographic characteristics and their cancer burden, highlights of accomplishments in various AANCART regions, aspirations for AANCART, and an interim assessment of AANCART’s activities to date. Methods The author compiled literature and other data references to describe the context for Asian American demographic characteristics and their cancer burden. As the AANCART Principal Investigator, he collected data from internal AANCART reports to depict highlights of accomplishments in various AANCART regions and offer evidence that AANCART’s first two specific aims have been attained. Principal Findings With respect to our first specific aim, we have built an infrastructure for cancer awareness, research and training operationally at a Network-wide basis through program directors for biostatistics, community, clinical, and research and in our four original AANCART regions: New York, Seattle, San Francisco, and Los Angeles. With respect to our second specific aim, we have established partnerships as exemplified by working collaboratively with New York’s Charles B. Wang Community Health Center in securing external funding with them for a tobacco control initiative and nationally with the American Cancer Society. With respect to our third specific aim, we have been fortunate to assist at least eight junior investigators in receiving NCI-funded pilot studies. The most notable change was the transfer of AANCART’s national headquarters from Columbus, Ohio to Sacramento, California along with potentially an increased diversification of Asian American ethnic groups as well as an expansion to Hawaii and Houston. Conclusion As of the end of year 2 of AANCART, AANCART’s two specific aims have been achieved. We are focusing on our third specific aim. PMID:15352772

  10. An overview of cancer research in South African academic and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    [1] Based on the most recent. South African .... health system research, environmental and occupational ... Research activity in the five most commonly diagnosed male .... that there were no costing or costeffectiveness cancer research projects.

  11. Current cancer research. Reports from the German Cancer Research Center 1998; Krebsforschung heute. Berichte aus dem Deutschen Krebsforschungszentrum 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-31

    Topics from the Contents: The Fight against Cancer in Germany - A Critical Review. Conditions and Structures in Research. Familial Breast Cancer - A Critical Assessment. Research without Animal Experiments. Cancer Prevention. New Approaches for Tumor Therapy. Genes, Chromosomes and Cancer. Therapy of Brain Tumors with Laser Neurosurgery. The Genome Project. (orig.) [Deutsch] Krebsbekaempfung in Deutschland - kritische Ueberlegungen. Forschungsbedingungen und -strukturen. Forschung ohne Tierversuche. Familiaerer Brustkrebs - eine Risikoabschaetzung. Krebspraevention. Neue Therapieansaetze. Laser-Neurochirurgie bei Hirntumoren. Das Genomprojekt. Gene, Chromosomen und Krebs. (orig.)

  12. Improving Indigenous access to cancer screening and treatment services: descriptive findings and a preliminary report on the Midwest Indigenous Women’s Cancer Support Group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisabeth D Finn

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundHigher cancer morbidity and mortality rates for the Indigenous population comparedto the overall Australian population has underlined the critical need to improve accessfor Aboriginal people to cancer treatment services. This paper describes anIndigenous Women’s Cancer Support Group (IWCSG established to supportIndigenous people with cancer and their carers/relatives and to facilitate Aboriginalaccess to cancer screening and treatment. Preliminary findings from an evaluation ofthe group are presented.MethodsThe study employed qualitative research methods to describe IWCSG operations andinvestigate the group’s effectiveness. It included one-on-one interviews with 11Geraldton-based health service providers, the IWCSG coordinator, and 10 womenwho have been linked to IWCSG support, as well as observation of group meetings.ResultsDescriptive outcomes relate to group operations, group effectiveness, group benefitsand future development of the group. A cultural strength of IWCSG is its ability tooperate confidentially behind the scenes, providing emotional support and practicalhelp directly to Indigenous people concerned about privacy and shame issues. Theimportant cultural role IWCSG plays in overcoming communication and othercultural barriers to accessing cancer treatment was unanimously recognised by healthservice providers. Aboriginal women supported by IWCSG spoke about an increasedsense of safety, trust and support in accessing and navigating mainstream cancerservices. A critical issue emerging from the research is the need for further development of effective collaborative working relationships between IWCSGmembers and health service providers.ConclusionsThe IWCSG has the potential to inform an effective model for facilitating Indigenousaccess both to cancer treatment and to mainstream treatment for a variety of healthproblems. Future research is required to explore the applicability of Indigenoussupport groups and to focus on the

  13. Consumer input into research: the Australian Cancer Trials website.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dear, Rachel F; Barratt, Alexandra L; Crossing, Sally; Butow, Phyllis N; Hanson, Susan; Tattersall, Martin Hn

    2011-06-26

    The Australian Cancer Trials website (ACTO) was publicly launched in 2010 to help people search for cancer clinical trials recruiting in Australia, provide information about clinical trials and assist with doctor-patient communication about trials. We describe consumer involvement in the design and development of ACTO and report our preliminary patient evaluation of the website. Consumers, led by Cancer Voices NSW, provided the impetus to develop the website. Consumer representative groups were consulted by the research team during the design and development of ACTO which combines a search engine, trial details, general information about trial participation and question prompt lists. Website use was analysed. A patient evaluation questionnaire was completed at one hospital, one week after exposure to the website. ACTO's main features and content reflect consumer input. In February 2011, it covered 1, 042 cancer trials. Since ACTO's public launch in November 2010, until the end of February 2011, the website has had 2, 549 new visits and generated 17, 833 page views. In a sub-study of 47 patient users, 89% found the website helpful for learning about clinical trials and all respondents thought patients should have access to ACTO. The development of ACTO is an example of consumers working with doctors, researchers and policy makers to improve the information available to people whose lives are affected by cancer and to help them participate in their treatment decisions, including consideration of clinical trial enrolment. Consumer input has ensured that the website is informative, targets consumer priorities and is user-friendly. ACTO serves as a model for other health conditions.

  14. Consumer input into research: the Australian Cancer Trials website

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Butow Phyllis N

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Australian Cancer Trials website (ACTO was publicly launched in 2010 to help people search for cancer clinical trials recruiting in Australia, provide information about clinical trials and assist with doctor-patient communication about trials. We describe consumer involvement in the design and development of ACTO and report our preliminary patient evaluation of the website. Methods Consumers, led by Cancer Voices NSW, provided the impetus to develop the website. Consumer representative groups were consulted by the research team during the design and development of ACTO which combines a search engine, trial details, general information about trial participation and question prompt lists. Website use was analysed. A patient evaluation questionnaire was completed at one hospital, one week after exposure to the website. Results ACTO's main features and content reflect consumer input. In February 2011, it covered 1, 042 cancer trials. Since ACTO's public launch in November 2010, until the end of February 2011, the website has had 2, 549 new visits and generated 17, 833 page views. In a sub-study of 47 patient users, 89% found the website helpful for learning about clinical trials and all respondents thought patients should have access to ACTO. Conclusions The development of ACTO is an example of consumers working with doctors, researchers and policy makers to improve the information available to people whose lives are affected by cancer and to help them participate in their treatment decisions, including consideration of clinical trial enrolment. Consumer input has ensured that the website is informative, targets consumer priorities and is user-friendly. ACTO serves as a model for other health conditions.

  15. Revisiting the use of focus group in social research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betina Freidin

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The methodological reflections on focus groups presented in this article draw from a research project on middle-class people living in Metropolitan Buenos Aires. The study addresses health discourses and practices in the contemporary scenario characterized by the diversification of specialists, the growing media coverage of recommendations of healthy living and wellbeing, the implementation of public policies on health promotion, and the expansion of the industry of related products and services.  The objective of the article is to reflect, based on our fieldwork experience, on two aspects that have received special attention in the recent methodological literature: the criteria to compose the groups and their consequences on the conversational dynamic, and the strategies to account for the group interaction in data analysis. Included in the latter, we explore the potential of GF research to observe health identity work. We frame our study and the decisions about design issues into the current debates on the variety of uses of the research group methodology.

  16. Out-FOXing Pancreatic Cancer | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pancreatic cancer is one of the most lethal cancer types worldwide with increasing incidence and mortality rates in the United States. Consequently, it is projected to become the second leading cause of cancer death by 2020. Poor patient outcomes are due to a combination of diagnosis at an advanced stage and a lack of effective treatments. However, a better understanding of the molecular pathways at work in pancreatic cancers may lead to the identification of novel therapeutic targets.

  17. Customizing Therapies for Lung Cancer | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related death in both men and women. Although there have been modest improvements in short-term survival over the last few decades, five-year survival rates for lung cancer remain low at only 16 percent. Treatment for lung cancer depends on the stage of the disease at diagnosis, but generally consists of some combination of surgery,

  18. Systematic review of control groups in nutrition education intervention research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrd-Bredbenner, Carol; Wu, FanFan; Spaccarotella, Kim; Quick, Virginia; Martin-Biggers, Jennifer; Zhang, Yingting

    2017-07-11

    Well-designed research trials are critical for determining the efficacy and effectiveness of nutrition education interventions. To determine whether behavioral and/or cognition changes can be attributed to an intervention, the experimental design must include a control or comparison condition against which outcomes from the experimental group can be compared. Despite the impact different types of control groups can have on study outcomes, the treatment provided to participants in the control condition has received limited attention in the literature. A systematic review of control groups in nutrition education interventions was conducted to better understand how control conditions are described in peer-reviewed journal articles compared with experimental conditions. To be included in the systematic review, articles had to be indexed in CINAHL, PubMed, PsycINFO, WoS, and/or ERIC and report primary research findings of controlled nutrition education intervention trials conducted in the United States with free-living consumer populations and published in English between January 2005 and December 2015. Key elements extracted during data collection included treatment provided to the experimental and control groups (e.g., overall intervention content, tailoring methods, delivery mode, format, duration, setting, and session descriptions, and procedures for standardizing, fidelity of implementation, and blinding); rationale for control group type selected; sample size and attrition; and theoretical foundation. The search yielded 43 publications; about one-third of these had an inactive control condition, which is considered a weak study design. Nearly two-thirds of reviewed studies had an active control condition considered a stronger research design; however, many failed to report one or more key elements of the intervention, especially for the control condition. None of the experimental and control group treatments were sufficiently detailed to permit replication of the

  19. Relationship between ABO blood groups and head and neck cancer among Greek patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakava, Kassiani; Karelas, Ioannis; Koutrafouris, Ioannis; Damianidis, Savvas; Stampouloglou, Paulos; Papadakis, Georgios; Xenos, Antonios; Krania, Foteini; Sarof, Paulos; Tasopoulos, Georgios; Petridis, Nikolaos

    2016-01-01

    We examined the association of ABO blood groups with the different types of head and neck cancers. 195 diagnosed cases and 801 controls were selected from a Greek tertiary cancer center. Information regarding type of head and neck cancer and ABO blood group was collected and registered. The O blood group was found to be most prevalent followed by A, B and AB among the controls, whereas blood group A followed by O, B and AB was most prevalent among cancer patients. The difference among the distribution between the cases and controls was statistically significant in blood group A (pblood group A had 1.52-fold higher risk of developing head and neck cancer compared to people of other blood groups. Blood group A was found to be a potential risk factor for the development of head and neck cancers.

  20. Brazilian pediatric research groups, lines of research, and main areas of activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscila H.A. Oliveira

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The Brazilian scientific production in the pediatrics field has been increasing significantly. It is important to identify the distribution and activity of these groups in the country and the main study areas, contributing with data for better resource allocation by institutions. METHODS: An active research was conducted in the National Council of Technological and Scientific Development (Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico [CNPq] website, using as filters the macro area of the research group (Health Sciences, the area (Medicine, and descriptors related to pediatrics. Research lines and main area of pediatric research groups were classified according to the subject predominantly studied by each group. The scientific production of the leader of the pediatric research group between 2011 and 2014 was also analyzed. RESULTS: Most pediatric research groups in Brazil have more than five years of activity and are concentrated in the Southeast and South regions of the country; São Paulo, Rio Grande do Sul, and Minas Gerais are the states with most groups. Of the 132 specific pediatric research groups analyzed, 14.4% have lines of research in multiple areas and 11.4% in child and adolescent health. Among the 585 lines of research of these groups, the most prevalent areas were: oncology, infectious diseases, epidemiology, and gastroenterology. CONCLUSIONS: The pediatric research groups in Brazil have relevant scientific production, including works published in international publications, and are concentrated in regions with higher socioeconomic index. Most groups registered in CNPq started their activity in the last five years (46%, reflecting the recent growth of scientific production in this area.

  1. Patient Care Coordinator | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    PROGRAM DESCRIPTION Within the Leidos Biomedical Research Inc.’s Clinical Research Directorate, the Clinical Monitoring Research Program (CMRP) provides high-quality comprehensive and strategic operational support to the high-profile domestic and international clinical research initiatives of the National Cancer Institute (NCI), National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), Clinical Center (CC), National Institute of Heart, Lung and Blood Institute (NHLBI), National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases (NIAMS), National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences (NCATS), National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS), and the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH). Since its inception in 2001, CMRP’s ability to provide rapid responses, high-quality solutions, and to recruit and retain experts with a variety of backgrounds to meet the growing research portfolios of NCI, NIAID, CC, NHLBI, NIAMS, NCATS, NINDS, and NIMH has led to the considerable expansion of the program and its repertoire of support services. CMRP’s support services are strategically aligned with the program’s mission to provide comprehensive, dedicated support to assist National Institutes of Health researchers in providing the highest quality of clinical research in compliance with applicable regulations and guidelines, maintaining data integrity, and protecting human subjects. For the scientific advancement of clinical research, CMRP services include comprehensive clinical trials, regulatory, pharmacovigilance, protocol navigation and development, and programmatic and project management support for facilitating the conduct of 400+ Phase I, II, and III domestic and international trials on a yearly basis. These trials investigate the prevention, diagnosis, treatment of, and therapies for cancer, influenza, HIV, and other infectious diseases and viruses such as hepatitis C, tuberculosis, malaria, and Ebola virus; heart, lung, and

  2. Capacity for Cancer Care Delivery Research in National Cancer Institute Community Oncology Research Program Community Practices: Availability of Radiology and Primary Care Research Partners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlos, Ruth C; Sicks, JoRean D; Chang, George J; Lyss, Alan P; Stewart, Teresa L; Sung, Lillian; Weaver, Kathryn E

    2017-12-01

    Cancer care spans the spectrum from screening and diagnosis through therapy and into survivorship. Delivering appropriate care requires patient transitions across multiple specialties, such as primary care, radiology, and oncology. From the program's inception, the National Cancer Institute Community Oncology Research Program (NCORP) sites were tasked with conducting cancer care delivery research (CCDR) that evaluates structural, organizational, and social factors, including care transitions that determine patient outcomes. The aim of this study is to describe the capacity of the NCORP to conduct multidisciplinary CCDR that includes radiology and primary care practices. The NCORP includes 34 community and 12 minority and underserved community sites. The Landscape Capacity Assessment was conducted in 2015 across these 46 sites, composed of the 401 components and subcomponents designated to conduct CCDR. Each respondent had the opportunity to designate an operational practice group, defined as a group of components and subcomponents with common care practices and resources. The primary outcomes were the proportion of adult oncology practice groups with affiliated radiology and primary care practices. The secondary outcomes were the proportion of those affiliated radiology and primary care groups that participate in research. Eighty-seven percent of components and subcomponents responded to at least some portion of the assessment, representing 230 practice groups. Analyzing the 201 adult oncology practice groups, 85% had affiliated radiologists, 69% of whom participate in research. Seventy-nine percent had affiliated primary care practitioners, 31% of whom participate in research. Institutional size, multidisciplinary group practice, and ownership by large regional or multistate health systems was associated with research participation by affiliated radiology and primary care groups. Research participation by these affiliated specialists was not significantly

  3. DOE Research Contributions to Radiation and Cancer Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    dropdown arrow Site Map A-Z Index Menu Synopsis DOE Research Contributions to Radiation and Cancer Therapy Possible: DOE Advanced Biomedical Technology Research, page 10 Over the time span of many years, DOE's research has made many contributions to radiation and cancer therapy, including PEREGRINE and Boron Neutron

  4. Energy Innovation 1996. IVO Group's Research and Development Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salminen, P.; Laiho, Y.; Kaikkonen, H.; Leisio, C.; Hinkkanen, S.

    1996-01-01

    This annual booklet of the IVO Group's research and development activities presents a number of articles, written by experts from IVO. The products described are examples of the environmentally-oriented selection made available by the IVO Group. In fact, the entire energy technology developed in Finland is environmentally oriented, if seen from the international perspective. The new business potential of environmental technology is great, and it is believed that in the year 2000, exportation of Finnish know-how in the field of energy-saving and efficiency will exceed the value of out energy imports

  5. UCLA Particle and Nuclear Physics Research Group, 1993 progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nefkens, B.M.K.; Clajus, M.; Price, J.W.; Tippens, W.B.; White, D.B.

    1993-09-01

    The research programs of the UCLA Particle and Nuclear Physics Research Group, the research objectives, results of experiments, the continuing activities and new initiatives are presented. The primary goal of the research is to test the symmetries and invariances of particle/nuclear physics with special emphasis on investigating charge symmetry, isospin invariance, charge conjugation, and CP. Another important part of our work is baryon spectroscopy, which is the determination of the properties (mass, width, decay modes, etc.) of particles and resonances. We also measure some basic properties of light nuclei, for example the hadronic radii of 3 H and 3 He. Special attention is given to the eta meson, its production using photons, electrons, π ± , and protons, and its rare and not-so-rare decays. In Section 1, the physics motivation of our research is outlined. Section 2 provides a summary of the research projects. The status of each program is given in Section 3. We discuss the various experimental techniques used, the results obtained, and we outline the plans for the continuing and the new research. Details are presented of new research that is made possible by the use of the Crystal Ball Detector, a highly segmented NaI calorimeter and spectrometer with nearly 4π acceptance (it was built and used at SLAC and is to be moved to BNL). The appendix contains an update of the bibliography, conference participation, and group memos; it also indicates our share in the organization of conferences, and gives a listing of the colloquia and seminars presented by us

  6. Developmental Scientist | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    PROGRAM DESCRIPTION Within the Leidos Biomedical Research Inc.’s Clinical Research Directorate, the Clinical Monitoring Research Program (CMRP) provides high-quality comprehensive and strategic operational support to the high-profile domestic and international clinical research initiatives of the National Cancer Institute (NCI), National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), Clinical Center (CC), National Institute of Heart, Lung and Blood Institute (NHLBI), National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases (NIAMS), National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences (NCATS), National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS), and the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH). Since its inception in 2001, CMRP’s ability to provide rapid responses, high-quality solutions, and to recruit and retain experts with a variety of backgrounds to meet the growing research portfolios of NCI, NIAID, CC, NHLBI, NIAMS, NCATS, NINDS, and NIMH has led to the considerable expansion of the program and its repertoire of support services. CMRP’s support services are strategically aligned with the program’s mission to provide comprehensive, dedicated support to assist National Institutes of Health researchers in providing the highest quality of clinical research in compliance with applicable regulations and guidelines, maintaining data integrity, and protecting human subjects. For the scientific advancement of clinical research, CMRP services include comprehensive clinical trials, regulatory, pharmacovigilance, protocol navigation and development, and programmatic and project management support for facilitating the conduct of 400+ Phase I, II, and III domestic and international trials on a yearly basis. These trials investigate the prevention, diagnosis, treatment of, and therapies for cancer, influenza, HIV, and other infectious diseases and viruses such as hepatitis C, tuberculosis, malaria, and Ebola virus; heart, lung, and

  7. Partnering Research Involving Mentoring and Education (PRIME) in Prostate Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Price, Marva M

    2006-01-01

    Partnering Research Involving Mentoring and Education in Prostate Cancer (PRIME) is a partnership between two nursing schools, Duke University School of Nursing and North Carolina Central University (NCCU...

  8. Partnering Research Involving Mentoring and Education (PRIME) in Prostate Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Price, Marva M

    2008-01-01

    Partnering Research Involving Mentoring and Education in Prostate Cancer (PRIME) was a partnership between two nursing schools, Duke University School of Nursing and North Carolina Central University (NCCU...

  9. Partnering Research Involving Mentoring and Education (PRIME) in Prostate Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Price, Marva M

    2007-01-01

    Partnering Research Involving Mentoring and Education in Prostate Cancer (PRIME) is a partnership between two nursing schools, Duke University School of Nursing and North Carolina Central University (NCCU...

  10. Research Activities of Geotechnical Research Group of NIIS from the Past to Present

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horii, N.; Toyosawa, Y.; Tamate, S.; Itoh, K.

    In this paper, firstly the memories of Prof. Tatsuoka's laboratory and research works carried out when the first author visited Prof. Tatsuoka's laboratory as a visiting researcher from May 1986 for about 1 year are described. Secondly, the research activities of Geotechnical Research Group of NIIS are introduced. Main emphasis is given on the research activities conducted using old geotechnical centrifuge (NIIS Mark-I centrifuge) and newly developed geotechnical centrifuge (NIIS Mark-II centrifuge).

  11. Collecting School Counseling Group Work Data: Initiating Consensual Qualitative Research through Practitioner-Researcher Partnerships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springer, Sarah I.; Land, Christy W.; Moss, Lauren J.; Cinotti, Daniel

    2018-01-01

    Group counseling interventions can be complex to assess and research. Over the years, The "Journal for Specialists in Group Work" ("JSGW") has highlighted many of these challenges and offered valued approaches to designing projects that promote the efficacy and meaningfulness of group work in various settings. Similarly, school…

  12. Awareness, knowledge, perceptions, and attitudes towards genetic testing for cancer risk among ethnic minority groups: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hann, Katie E J; Freeman, Madeleine; Fraser, Lindsay; Waller, Jo; Sanderson, Saskia C; Rahman, Belinda; Side, Lucy; Gessler, Sue; Lanceley, Anne

    2017-05-25

    Genetic testing for risk of hereditary cancer can help patients to make important decisions about prevention or early detection. US and UK studies show that people from ethnic minority groups are less likely to receive genetic testing. It is important to understand various groups' awareness of genetic testing and its acceptability to avoid further disparities in health care. This review aims to identify and detail awareness, knowledge, perceptions, and attitudes towards genetic counselling/testing for cancer risk prediction in ethnic minority groups. A search was carried out in PsycInfo, CINAHL, Embase and MEDLINE. Search terms referred to ethnicity, genetic testing/counselling, cancer, awareness, knowledge, attitudes, and perceptions. Quantitative and qualitative studies, written in English, and published between 2000 and 2015, were included. Forty-one studies were selected for review: 39 from the US, and two from Australia. Results revealed low awareness and knowledge of genetic counselling/testing for cancer susceptibility amongst ethnic minority groups including African Americans, Asian Americans, and Hispanics. Attitudes towards genetic testing were generally positive; perceived benefits included positive implications for personal health and being able to inform family. However, negative attitudes were also evident, particularly the anticipated emotional impact of test results, and concerns about confidentiality, stigma, and discrimination. Chinese Australian groups were less studied, but of interest was a finding from qualitative research indicating that different views of who close family members are could impact on reported family history of cancer, which could in turn impact a risk assessment. Interventions are needed to increase awareness and knowledge of genetic testing for cancer risk and to reduce the perceived stigma and taboo surrounding the topic of cancer in ethnic minority groups. More detailed research is needed in countries other than the US and

  13. Understanding coping with cancer: how can qualitative research help?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chittem, Mahati

    2014-01-01

    Research in psycho-oncology investigates the psycho-social and emotional aspects of cancer and how this is related to health, well-being and overall patient care. Coping with cancer is a prime focus for researchers owing to its impact on patients' psychological processing and life in general. Research so far has focused mainly on quantitative study designs such as questionnaires to examine the coping strategies used by cancer patients. However, in order to gain a rich and deep understanding of the reasons, processes and types of strategies that patients use to deal with cancer, qualitative study designs are necessary. Few studies have used qualitative designs such as semi-structured interviews to explore coping with cancer. The current paper aims to review the suitability and benefits of using qualitative research designs to understand coping with cancer with the help of some key literature in psycho-oncology research.

  14. End-of-Life Care for Blood Cancers: A Series of Focus Groups With Hematologic Oncologists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odejide, Oreofe O.; Salas Coronado, Diana Y.; Watts, Corey D.; Wright, Alexi A.; Abel, Gregory A.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Hematologic cancers are associated with aggressive cancer-directed care near death and underuse of hospice and palliative care services. We sought to explore hematologic oncologists' perspectives and decision-making processes regarding end-of-life (EOL) care. Methods: Between September 2013 and January 2014, 20 hematologic oncologists from the Dana-Farber/Harvard Cancer Center participated in four focus groups regarding EOL care for leukemia, lymphoma, multiple myeloma, and hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation. Focus groups employed a semistructured format with case vignettes and open-ended questions and were followed by thematic analysis. Results: Many participants felt that identifying the EOL phase for patients with hematologic cancers was challenging as a result of the continuing potential for cure with advanced disease and the often rapid pace of decline near death. This difficulty was reported to result in later initiation of EOL care. Barriers to high-quality EOL care were also reported to be multifactorial, including unrealistic expectations from both physicians and patients, long-term patient-physician relationships resulting in difficulty conducting EOL discussions, and inadequacy of existing home-based EOL services. Participants also expressed concern that some EOL quality measures developed for solid tumors may be unacceptable for patients with blood cancers given their unique needs at the EOL (eg, palliative transfusions). Conclusion: Our analysis suggests that hematologic oncologists need better clinical markers for when to initiate EOL care. In addition, current quality measures may be inappropriate for identifying overly aggressive care for patients with blood cancers. Further research is needed to develop effective interventions to improve EOL care for this patient population. PMID:25294393

  15. Cancer Prevention and Control Research Manpower Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-10-01

    for preeclampsia in twin pregnancies: a population-based cohort study. Obstet Gynecol 1995;85:645-50. 17. Gu Y , He S, Shi L, Li 0, Zhu Kr, Yin Z, Wang...Gestational Diabetes, Sickle Cell Anemia in the laboratories of Jayduff Vadgama, P.D. and of Steven Taylor, M.D. at Charles Drew University of Medicine...California RESEARCH EXPERIENCE: Sickle Cell Anemia Infant Neurodevelopment and language acquisistion Deviant sexual behavior and group therapy

  16. Designing Trojan Horses | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waging battle against cancer cells without inflicting damage on normal tissue has long been a goal for cancer treatment. A new type of drug called immunotoxins may help make this goal a reality. Much like the Greeks used a wooden horse to get soldiers inside the gates of Troy, immunotoxins use clever genetic engineering to get a lethal toxin inside cancer cells. Each

  17. PVAMU/XULA/BCM Summer Prostate Cancer Research Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    degradation of several cancer -related proteins, including the androgen receptor , which is dysregulated in certain prostate cancers . Overall, the goal of my...Behavior of Androgen Receptor Splice Variants in Androgen Dependent Prostate Cancer Cells Turner, Williamson D., Xavier University of Louisiana, Class...AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-15-1-0677 TITLE: PVAMU/XULA/BCM Summer Prostate Cancer Research Program PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Nancy L. Weigel

  18. Building Interdisciplinary Qualitative Research Networks: Reflections on Qualitative Research Group (QRG) at the University of Manitoba

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roger, Kerstin Stieber; Halas, Gayle

    2012-01-01

    As qualitative research methodologies continue to evolve and develop, both students and experienced researchers are showing greater interest in learning about and developing new approaches. To meet this need, faculty at the University of Manitoba created the Qualitative Research Group (QRG), a community of practice that utilizes experiential…

  19. The 2011-2016 Transdisciplinary Research on Energetics and Cancer (TREC) initiative: rationale and design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Ruth E; Colditz, Graham A; Hu, Frank B; Schmitz, Kathryn H; Ahima, Rexford S; Brownson, Ross C; Carson, Kenneth R; Chavarro, Jorge E; Chodosh, Lewis A; Gehlert, Sarah; Gill, Jeff; Glanz, Karen; Haire-Joshu, Debra; Herbst, Karen Louise; Hoehner, Christine M; Hovmand, Peter S; Irwin, Melinda L; Jacobs, Linda A; James, Aimee S; Jones, Lee W; Kerr, Jacqueline; Kibel, Adam S; King, Irena B; Ligibel, Jennifer A; Meyerhardt, Jeffrey A; Natarajan, Loki; Neuhouser, Marian L; Olefsky, Jerrold M; Proctor, Enola K; Redline, Susan; Rock, Cheryl L; Rosner, Bernard; Sarwer, David B; Schwartz, J Sanford; Sears, Dorothy D; Sesso, Howard D; Stampfer, Meir J; Subramanian, S V; Taveras, Elsie M; Tchou, Julia; Thompson, Beti; Troxel, Andrea B; Wessling-Resnick, Marianne; Wolin, Kathleen Y; Thornquist, Mark D

    2013-04-01

    Recognition of the complex, multidimensional relationship between excess adiposity and cancer control outcomes has motivated the scientific community to seek new research models and paradigms. The National Cancer Institute developed an innovative concept to establish a center grant mechanism in nutrition, energetics, and physical activity, referred to as the Transdisciplinary Research on Energetics and Cancer (TREC) Initiative. This paper gives an overview of the 2011-2016 TREC Collaborative Network and the 15 research projects being conducted at the centers. Four academic institutions were awarded TREC center grants in 2011: Harvard University, University of California San Diego, University of Pennsylvania, and Washington University in St. Louis. The Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center is the Coordination Center. The TREC research portfolio includes three animal studies, three cohort studies, four randomized clinical trials, one cross-sectional study, and two modeling studies. Disciplines represented by TREC investigators include basic science, endocrinology, epidemiology, biostatistics, behavior, medicine, nutrition, physical activity, genetics, engineering, health economics, and computer science. Approximately 41,000 participants will be involved in these studies, including children, healthy adults, and breast and prostate cancer survivors. Outcomes include biomarkers of cancer risk, changes in weight and physical activity, persistent adverse treatment effects (e.g., lymphedema, urinary and sexual function), and breast and prostate cancer mortality. The NIH Science of Team Science group will evaluate the value added by this collaborative science. However, the most important outcome will be whether this transdisciplinary initiative improves the health of Americans at risk of cancer as well as cancer survivors.

  20. Group interventions for patients with cancer and HIV disease: part IV. Clinical and policy recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leszcz, Molyn; Sherman, Allen; Mosier, Julie; Burlingame, Gary M; Cleary, Trish; Ulman, Kathleen Hubbs; Simonton, Stephanie; Latif, Umaira; Strauss, Bernhard; Hazelton, Lara

    2004-10-01

    Group interventions have assumed a growing role in primary prevention and supportive care for cancer and HIV disease. Earlier sections of this Special Report examined empirical findings for these interventions and provided recommendations for future research. The current section offers brief recommendations for service providers, policymakers, and stakeholders. Group services now occupy an increasingly prominent place in primary prevention programs and medical settings. In previous sections of this Special Report (Sherman, Leszcz et al., 2004; Sherman, Mosier et al., 2004a, 2004b) we examined the efficacy of different group interventions at different phases of cancer or HIV disease, considered characteristics of the intervention and the participants that might influence outcomes, and discussed mechanisms of action. Methodological challenges and priorities for future research were highlighted. In this, the final section, we offer brief recommendations for service providers, policymakers, and other stakeholders. We consider some of the barriers that constrain use of empirically-based group interventions and note how these programs might be implemented more widely and effectively.

  1. A POX on Renal Cancer Cells | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proline oxidase, or POX, is an enzyme responsible for metabolizing the amino acid proline. POX contributes to the regulation of cell death that occurs when cellular systems malfunction, a process called apoptosis. Previous studies have determined that levels of POX are reduced in several types of human cancer. Likewise, many cancer cells become resistant to apoptosis, suggesting a link between POX and cancer cell survival.

  2. Researching experiences of cancer: the importance of methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Entwistle, V; Tritter, J Q; Calnan, M

    2002-09-01

    This paper draws on contributions to and discussions at a recent MRC HSRC-sponsored workshop 'Researching users' experiences of health care: the case of cancer'. We focus on the methodological and ethical challenges that currently face researchers who use self-report methods to investigate experiences of cancer and cancer care. These challenges relate to: the theoretical and conceptual underpinnings of research; participation rates and participant profiles; data collection methods (the retrospective nature of accounts, description and measurement, and data collection as intervention); social desirability considerations; relationship considerations; the experiences of contributing to research; and the synthesis and presentation of findings. We suggest that methodological research to tackle these challenges should be integrated into substantive research projects to promote the development of a strong knowledge base about experiences of cancer and cancer care.

  3. Research activities of the nuclear graphite research group at the University of Manchester, UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marsden, B.J.; Fok, A.S.L.; Marrow, J.; Mummery, P.

    2004-01-01

    In 2001 the Nuclear Safety Division (NSD) of the UK Health and Safety Executive (HSE) decided to underwrite the Nuclear Graphite Research Group (NGRG) at the University of Manchester, UK with the aim of providing a source of independent research and advice to the HSE (NSD). Since then the group has rapidly expanded to 16 members and attracted considerable funding from the nuclear power industry and the regulator for a wide range of research and consultancy work. It is now also part of the Material Performance Centre within the BNFL Universities Research Alliance. Extensive collaboration exists between the group and other nuclear research institutes, both in the UK and overseas. This paper briefly describes some of the research programmes being carried out by the NGRG at Manchester. (author)

  4. Relation Analysis of Knowledge Management, Research, and Innovation in University Research Groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heyder Paez-Logreira

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge is a competitive advantage for companies. Knowledge Management helps to keep this competitiveness. Universities face with challenges in research, innovation and international competitiveness. The purpose of this paper includes studying Knowledge Management Models, and Innovation Models apply to Research Groups of Universities, through an analysis of relation in inter-organizational level. Some researchers and leaders of research groups participated in a survey about knowledge management and innovation. Here we show the relationship between knowledge management, innovation and research, including processes and operations performed by universities around these. We organize the results in three dimensions: Knowledge Management perception, the relationship between Knowledge Management and Innovation, and Strategic Knowledge organization. Too, we identify a generality of good practices, challenges, and limitations on Research Groups for Knowledge Management.

  5. Research methods to change clinical practice for patients with rare cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billingham, Lucinda; Malottki, Kinga; Steven, Neil

    2016-02-01

    Rare cancers are a growing group as a result of reclassification of common cancers by molecular markers. There is therefore an increasing need to identify methods to assess interventions that are sufficiently robust to potentially affect clinical practice in this setting. Methods advocated for clinical trials in rare diseases are not necessarily applicable in rare cancers. This Series paper describes research methods that are relevant for rare cancers in relation to the range of incidence levels. Strategies that maximise recruitment, minimise sample size, or maximise the usefulness of the evidence could enable the application of conventional clinical trial design to rare cancer populations. Alternative designs that address specific challenges for rare cancers with the aim of potentially changing clinical practice include Bayesian designs, uncontrolled n-of-1 trials, and umbrella and basket trials. Pragmatic solutions must be sought to enable some level of evidence-based health care for patients with rare cancers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Creating and sustaining a military women's Health Research Interest Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Candy; Trego, Lori; Rychnovsky, Jacqueline; Steele, Nancy; Foradori, Megan

    2015-01-01

    In 2008, four doctorate military nurse scientists representing the triservices (Army, Navy, and Air Force) identified a common interest in the health and care of all women in the armed forces. For 7 years, the team's shared vision to improve servicewomen's health inspired them to commit to a rigorous schedule of planning, developing, and implementing an innovative program that has the capability of advancing scientific knowledge and influencing health policy and practice through research. The ultimate goal of the Military Women's Health Research Interest Group (MWHRIG) is to support military clinicians and leaders in making evidence-based practice and policy decisions. They developed a 4-pronged approach to cultivate the science of military women's healthcare: evaluate the existing evidence, develop a research agenda that addresses gaps in knowledge, facilitate the collaboration of multidisciplinary research, and build the bench of future researchers. The MWHRIG has been a resource to key leaders; its value has been validated by multiservice and multidisciplinary consultations. However, the journey to goal attainment has only been achieved by the enduring commitment of these MWHRIG leaders and their passion to ensure the health and wellbeing of the many women who serve in the United States military. This article describes their journey of dedication.

  7. Energy Innovation 1998. IVO group`s research and development report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salminen, P; Laiho, Y; Kaikkonen, H; Leisio, C; McConchie, R; Fletcher, R [eds.

    1998-07-01

    The IVO Group is a Finnish company mastering all aspects of the entire energy chain, and also operating extensively on the international market. The Group`s operations concentrate on five business areas: energy, engineering, operation and maintenance, grid services, and energy measurement. The personnel numbers well over 8 800, and the turnover is about FIM 14 billion. The services to customers include the supply of electricity and heat, the planning, construction, operation and maintenance of power plants and transmission systems, the transmission of power, and other services requiring expertise in all the key fields of energy engineering. Mastery of the entire energy chain gives us a substantial competitive edge on international markets, where the IVO Group has been a player for decades. The operations have expanded to the other Nordic countries, which now constitute the home market. Focal areas also include Great Britain, Central and Eastern Europe and Southeast Asia. The IVO Group annually invests some FIM 250 million in research and development. A large proportion of this money is used for the development of environmentally benign solutions

  8. US-LA CRN Clinical Cancer Research in Latin America

    Science.gov (United States)

    The United States – Latin America Cancer Research Network (US-LA CRN) convened its Annual Meeting, in coordination with the Ministry of Health of Chile to discuss the Network’s first multilateral clinical research study: Molecular Profiling of Breast Cancer (MPBC).

  9. Staff Scientist - RNA Bioinformatics | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    The newly established RNA Biology Laboratory (RBL) at the Center for Cancer Research (CCR), National Cancer Institute (NCI), National Institutes of Health (NIH) in Frederick, Maryland is recruiting a Staff Scientist with strong expertise in RNA bioinformatics to join the Intramural Research Program’s mission of high impact, high reward science. The RBL is the equivalent of an

  10. Senior Laboratory Animal Technician | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    PROGRAM DESCRIPTION The Laboratory Animal Sciences Program (LASP) provides exceptional quality animal care and technical support services for animal research performed at the National Cancer Institute at the Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research. LASP executes this mission by providing a broad spectrum of state-of-the-art technologies and services that are focused

  11. Relative Risk of Various Head and Neck Cancers among Different Blood Groups: An Analytical Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Khushboo; Kote, Sunder; Patthi, Basavaraj; Singla, Ashish; Singh, Shilpi; Kundu, Hansa; Jain, Swati

    2014-04-01

    Cancer is a unique disease characterized by abnormal growth of cells which have the ability to invade the adjacent tissues and sometimes even distant organs. The limited and contrasting evidence regarding the association of ABO blood groups with the different types of head and neck cancers in the Indian population warrants the need for the present study. To assess the relative risk of various Head & Neck cancers among different blood groups. Three hundred sixty two diagnosed cases of different type of head and neck cancers and 400 controls were selected from four hospitals of New Delhi, India. The information regarding the type of head and neck cancer was obtained from the case sheets of the patients regarding their socio demographic profile, dietary history using a structured performa. The information regarding type of cancer (cases only), ABO blood group was collected. Statistical Tests: The data was analysed using the SPSS 19 version. Chi square test and odd ratios were calculated. The level of significance was fixed at 5%. The O blood group was found to be most prevalent followed by B, A and AB among the cases as well as the controls. Oral cancer patients showed maximum number in blood group O followed by B, A and AB. Significant pattern of distribution was seen among the patients of esophageal cancer, laryngeal cancer and salivary gland cancer as well (p= 0.003, p=0.000 p=0.112 respectively. The present study reveals that there is an inherited element in the susceptibility or protection against different types of head and neck cancers. Blood group A was found to be a potential risk factor for the development of oral cancers, esophageal cancers and salivary gland cancers while blood group B was found to be a potential risk factor for laryngeal cancers.

  12. Relative Risk of Various Head and Neck Cancers among Different Blood Groups: An Analytical Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kote, Sunder; Patthi, Basavaraj; Singla, Ashish; Singh, Shilpi; Kundu, Hansa; Jain, Swati

    2014-01-01

    Background: Cancer is a unique disease characterized by abnormal growth of cells which have the ability to invade the adjacent tissues and sometimes even distant organs. The limited and contrasting evidence regarding the association of ABO blood groups with the different types of head and neck cancers in the Indian population warrants the need for the present study. Aim and Objective: To assess the relative risk of various Head & Neck cancers among different blood groups. Materials and Method: Three hundred sixty two diagnosed cases of different type of head and neck cancers and 400 controls were selected from four hospitals of New Delhi, India. The information regarding the type of head and neck cancer was obtained from the case sheets of the patients regarding their socio demographic profile, dietary history using a structured performa. The information regarding type of cancer (cases only), ABO blood group was collected. Statistical Tests: The data was analysed using the SPSS 19 version. Chi square test and odd ratios were calculated. The level of significance was fixed at 5%. Results: The O blood group was found to be most prevalent followed by B, A and AB among the cases as well as the controls. Oral cancer patients showed maximum number in blood group O followed by B, A and AB. Significant pattern of distribution was seen among the patients of esophageal cancer, laryngeal cancer and salivary gland cancer as well (p= 0.003, p=0.000 p=0.112 respectively. Conclusion: The present study reveals that there is an inherited element in the susceptibility or protection against different types of head and neck cancers. Blood group A was found to be a potential risk factor for the development of oral cancers, esophageal cancers and salivary gland cancers while blood group B was found to be a potential risk factor for laryngeal cancers. PMID:24959511

  13. Scientist, Single Cell Analysis Facility | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Cancer Research Technology Program (CRTP) develops and implements emerging technology, cancer biology expertise and research capabilities to accomplish NCI research objectives.  The CRTP is an outward-facing, multi-disciplinary hub purposed to enable the external cancer research community and provides dedicated support to NCI’s intramural Center for Cancer Research (CCR).  The dedicated units provide electron microscopy, protein characterization, protein expression, optical microscopy and nextGen sequencing. These research efforts are an integral part of CCR at the Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research (FNLCR).  CRTP scientists also work collaboratively with intramural NCI investigators to provide research technologies and expertise. KEY ROLES AND RESPONSIBILITIES We are seeking a highly motivated Scientist II to join the newly established Single Cell Analysis Facility (SCAF) of the Center for Cancer Research (CCR) at NCI. The SCAF will house state of the art single cell sequencing technologies including 10xGenomics Chromium, BD Genomics Rhapsody, DEPPArray, and other emerging single cell technologies. The Scientist: Will interact with close to 200 laboratories within the CCR to design and carry out single cell experiments for cancer research Will work on single cell isolation/preparation from various tissues and cells and related NexGen sequencing library preparation Is expected to author publications in peer reviewed scientific journals

  14. Advanced research on separating prostate cancer stem cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hao Yumei; He Xin; Song Naling

    2013-01-01

    Prostate cancer is a common malignant tumor in male urinary system,and may easily develop into the hormone refractory prostate cancer which can hardly be cured. Recent studies had found that the prostate cancer stem cells may be the source of the prostate cancer's occurrence,development, metastasis and recurrence. The therapy targeting the prostate cancer stem cells may be the effective way to cure prostate cancer. But these cells is too low to be detected. The difficulty lies in the low separation efficiency of prostate cancer stem cell, so the effectively separating prostate cancer stem cells occupied the main position for the more in-depth research of prostate cancer stem cells. This paper reviews the research progress and existing problems on the several main separating methods of prostate cancer stem cells, includes the fluorescence activated cells sorting and magnetic activated cells sorting based on prostate cancer stem cell surface markers, the side-population sorting and serum-free medium sphere forming sorting based on prostate cancer stem cell's biology. (authors)

  15. Clinical gait analysis : A review of research at the Interdepartmental Research group of Kinesiology in Leiden

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daanen, H. A M

    1990-01-01

    In this article the methodology used in the Interdepartmental Research Group of Kinesiology to quantify (clinical) human gait is elaborated upon. Four methods are described: analysis of temporal parameters, goniometry, accelerometry and electromyography. A correct representation of electromyographic

  16. A standard for test reliability in group research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Jules L

    2013-03-01

    Many authors adhere to the rule that test reliabilities should be at least .70 or .80 in group research. This article introduces a new standard according to which reliabilities can be evaluated. This standard is based on the costs or time of the experiment and of administering the test. For example, if test administration costs are 7 % of the total experimental costs, the efficient value of the reliability is .93. If the actual reliability of a test is equal to this efficient reliability, the test size maximizes the statistical power of the experiment, given the costs. As a standard in experimental research, it is proposed that the reliability of the dependent variable be close to the efficient reliability. Adhering to this standard will enhance the statistical power and reduce the costs of experiments.

  17. Contribution of DNA Repair Xeroderma Pigmentosum Group D Genotype to Gastric Cancer Risk in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Hong-Xue; Chang, Wen-Shin; Tsai, Chia-Wen; Wang, Ju-Yu; Huang, Nai-Kuei; Lee, An-Sheng; Shen, Ming-Yi; Chen, Wei-Yu; Chiang, Yao-Chang; Shih, Tzu-Ching; Hsu, Chin-Mu; Bau, Da-Tian

    2015-09-01

    It has been proposed that genetic variations of DNA repair genes confer susceptibility to cancer, and the DNA repair gene xeroderma pigmentosum group D (XPD), the caretaker of genome stability, is thought to play a major role in the nucleotide excision repair system. We investigated three genotypes of XPD, at promoter -114 (rs3810366), and codon 312 (rs1799793), 751 (rs13181), and their associated with gastric cancer susceptibility in a Taiwanese population. In the present study, 121 patients with gastric cancer and 363 gender- and age-matched healthy controls were recruited and genotyped for XPD by polymerase chain reaction-based restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) methodology, and the association of XPD genotype with gastric cancer risk was investigated. We found a significant difference in the distribution of A allele-bearing XPD codon 312 genotypes [odds ratio (OR)=1.64, 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.20-2.25, p=0.0019], but not in XPD codon 751 or promoter -114 sites, between the gastric cancer and control groups. Those who had G/A or A/A at XPD codon 312 had a 1.83-fold (95% CI=1.14-2.95, p=0.0159) and 1.87-fold (95% CI=1.04-3.34, p=0.0378) increased risk of gastric cancer compared to those with G/G. The risk for G/A and A/A genotypes had synergistic effects with alcohol drinking (OR=11.27, 95% CI=3.72-34.17, p=0.0001), cigarette smoking (OR=23.20, 95% CI=6.24-86.23, p=0.0001) and Helicobacter pylori infection (OR=5.38, 95% CI=2.76-10.52, p=0.0001) on gastric cancer susceptibility. Our findings suggest that the A allele of XPD codon 312 may contribute to gastric carcinogenesis and may be useful for early detection and prevention of gastric cancer. Copyright© 2015 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  18. A survey of etiologic hypotheses among testicular cancer researchers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stang, A; Trabert, B; Rusner, C

    2015-01-01

    Basic research results can provide new ideas and hypotheses to be examined in epidemiological studies. We conducted a survey among testicular cancer researchers on hypotheses concerning the etiology of this malignancy. All researchers on the mailing list of Copenhagen Testis Cancer Workshops...... and corresponding authors of PubMed-indexed articles identified by the search term 'testicular cancer' and published within 10 years (in total 2750 recipients) were invited to respond to an e-mail-based survey. Participants of the 8th Copenhagen Testis Cancer Workshop in May 2014 were subsequently asked to rate...... that scored as most plausible. We also present plans for improving the survey that may be repeated at a next international meeting of experts in testicular cancer. Overall 52 of 99 (53%) registered participants of the 8th Copenhagen Testis Cancer Workshop submitted the plausibility rating form. Fourteen of 27...

  19. Brazilian pediatric research groups, lines of research, and main areas of activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscila H.A. Oliveira

    2015-05-01

    Conclusions: The pediatric research groups in Brazil have relevant scientific production, including works published in international publications, and are concentrated in regions with higher socioeconomic index. Most groups registered in CNPq started their activity in the last five years (46%, reflecting the recent growth of scientific production in this area.

  20. Cancer and the experience of meaning: a group psychotherapy program for people with cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenstein, M; Breitbart, W

    2000-01-01

    Cancer illness affects people in many ways, physical, financial, and existential. In this paper, we describe a proposed group intervention for individuals with advanced disease who want help finding a sense of meaning at this critical juncture in their lives. This intervention has a brief, semi-structured format, and is informed by the work of Viktor Frankl, empirical findings in the area of meaning and trauma, and the empirical findings of other group interventions for cancer patients. Individual sessions focus on different aspects of meaning, including responsibility to others, creativity, transcendence, and ascertaining one's values and priorities. Having goals on which to focus and feeling like part of a larger whole are critically important to the ability to find meaning and cope with terminal illness. Such goals may be generated by a number of sources, including connectedness with others, or a sense of the temporal continuity of one's own life despite the disruption posed by severe illness. Didactic discussions and experiential exercises help to facilitate exploration of these various elements in group members' lives. The finite structure of the intervention may also highlight these issues, as people who are faced with similar issues work together in a limited time frame in order to accomplish the goals they set out for themselves.

  1. Summary of the 6th Annual Bladder Cancer Think Tank: new directions in urologic research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svatek, Robert S; Rosenberg, Jonathan E; Galsky, Matthew D; Lee, Cheryl T; Latini, David M; Bochner, Bernard H; Weizer, Alon Z; Apolo, Andrea B; Sridhar, Srikala S; Kamat, Ashish M; Hansel, Donna; Flaig, Thomas W; Smith, Norm D; Lotan, Yair

    2013-10-01

    The 6th Annual Bladder Cancer Think Tank brought together a multidisciplinary group of clinicians, researchers, and representatives from the National Cancer Institute and Industry in an effort to advance bladder cancer research efforts. This year's meeting comprised panel discussions and research involving 5 separate working groups, including the Survivorship, Clinical Trials, Standardization of Care, Data Mining, and Translational Science working groups. In this manuscript, the accomplishments and objectives of the working groups are summarized. Notable efforts include: (1) the development of a survivorship care plan for early and late-stage bladder cancer; (2) the development of consensus criteria for eligibility and endpoints for bladder cancer clinical trials; (3) an improved understanding of current practice patterns regarding the use of perioperative chemotherapy in an effort to standardize care; (4) creation of a comprehensive handbook to assist researchers with developing bladder cancer databases; and (5) identification of response to therapy of high-grade non muscle invasive disease through a collaborative exchange of expertise and resources. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Lack of any association between blood groups and lung cancer, independent of histology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oguz, Arzu; Unal, Dilek; Tasdemir, Arzu; Karahan, Samet; Aykas, Fatma; Mutlu, Hasan; Cihan, Yasemin Benderli; Kanbay, Mehmet

    2013-01-01

    Lung cancer, the leading cause of cancer deaths, is divided into 2 main classes based on its biology, therapy and prognosis: non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and small cell lung cancer (SCLC). Many cases are at an advanced stage at diagnosis, which is a major obstacle to improving outcomes. It is important to define the high risk group patients for early diagnosis and chance of cure. Blood group antigens are chemical components on erythrocyte membranes but they are also expressed on a variety of epithelial cells. Links between ABO blood groups with benign or malignant diseases, such as gastric and pancreas cancers, have been observed for a long time. In this study, we aimed to investigate any possible relationship between lung cancer histological subtypes and ABO-Rh blood groups. The files of 307 pathologically confirmed lung cancer patients were were reviewed retrospectively. Cases with a serologically determined blood group and Rh factor were included and those with a history of another primary cancer were excluded, leaving a total of 221. The distribution of blood groups of the lung cancer patients were compared with the distribution of blood groups of healthy donors admitted to the Turkish Red Crescent Blood Service in our city in the year 2012. There was no significant difference between patients with lung cancer of either type and the control group in terms of distribution of ABO blood groups and Rh factor (p: 0.073). There was also no relationship with non small cell cancer histological subtypes. In this study, we found no relationship between the ABO-Rhesus blood groups and NSCLC and SCLC groups. To our knowledge this is the first analysis of ABO blood groups in SCLC patients.

  3. International Partnerships for Clinical Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    CGH co-sponsors the 2015 International Symposium on Cancer Clinical Trials and related meetings held in partnership with the Japanese National Cancer Center (JNCC) and Embassies of France, Korea, United Kingdom (UK), and United States (US) in Tokyo on May 14 - 15, 2015.

  4. Veterinary Oncologist | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    The NCI is implementing a program intended to connect and closely coordinate the Division of Cancer Treatment and Diagnosis’ (DCTD’s) immunotherapeutics and other drug development activities with the translational oriented clinical trials of the Center for Cancer Research’s (CCR’s) Comparative Oncology Program (COP), especially the treatment of dogs with natural occurring

  5. Eliminating cancer stem cells: an interview with CCR’s Steven Hou | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steven Hou, Ph.D., senior investigator in the Basic Research Laboratory at the Center for Cancer Research describes his latest research that has uncovered potential ways to eliminate cancer stem cells and may offer hope to patients with reoccurring tumors.  Learn more...

  6. Fostering Undergraduate Research Experiences in Management Information Systems through the "Research Group" Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartkus, Ken; Mills, Robert; Olsen, David

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to propose an innovative approach to engaged learning. Founded on the principles of a scholarly think-tank and administered along the lines of a consulting organization, the proposed "Research Group" framework is designed to facilitate effective and efficient undergraduate research experiences in Management…

  7. Differential mental health impact of cancer across racial/ethnic groups: findings from a population-based study in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcalá, Héctor E

    2014-09-08

    Little research has examined the interactive effect of cancer status and race/ethnicity on mental health. As such, the present study examined the mental health of adults, 18 and over, diagnosed with cancer. This study examined the extent to which a cancer diagnosis is related to poorer mental health because it erodes finances and the extent to which the mental health impact of cancer differs across racial/ethnic groups. Furthermore, this study aimed to test the stress process model, which posits that the proliferation of stress can lead to mental illness and this process can differ across racial/ethnic groups. Data from the 2005 Adult California Health Interview Survey was used (N = 42,879). The Kessler 6, a validated measure of psychological distress, was used to measure mental health, with higher scores suggesting poorer mental health. Scores on the Kessler 6 ranged from 0 to 24. Linear regression models estimating psychological distress tested each aim. The mediating effect of income and the race by cancer interaction were tested. After controlling for gender, age, insurance status, education and race/ethnicity, cancer was associated with higher Kessler 6 scores. About 6% of this effect was mediated by household income (t = 4.547; SE = 0.011; p groups. Future work should explore reasons for these disparities. Efforts to increase access to mental health services among minorities with cancer are needed.

  8. Cancer Center Clinic and Research Team Perceptions of Identity and Interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reimer, Torsten; Lee, Simon J Craddock; Garcia, Sandra; Gill, Mary; Duncan, Tobi; Williams, Erin L; Gerber, David E

    2017-12-01

    Conduct of cancer clinical trials requires coordination and cooperation among research and clinic teams. Diffusion of and confusion about responsibility may occur if team members' perceptions of roles and objectives do not align. These factors are critical to the success of cancer centers but are poorly studied. We developed a survey adapting components of the Adapted Team Climate Inventory, Measure of Team Identification, and Measure of In-Group Bias. Surveys were administered to research and clinic staff at a National Cancer Institute-designated comprehensive cancer center. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, t tests, and analyses of variance. Responses were received from 105 staff (clinic, n = 55; research, n = 50; 61% response rate). Compared with clinic staff, research staff identified more strongly with their own group ( P teams, we also identified key differences, including perceptions of goal clarity and sharing, understanding and alignment with cancer center goals, and importance of outcomes. Future studies should examine how variation in perceptions and group dynamics between clinic and research teams may impact function and processes of cancer care.

  9. Research priorities in cancer cachexia: The University of Rochester Cancer Center NCI Community Oncology Research Program Research Base Symposium on Cancer Cachexia and Sarcopenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunne, Richard F; Mustian, Karen M; Garcia, Jose M; Dale, William; Hayward, Reid; Roussel, Breton; Buschmann, Mary M; Caan, Bette J; Cole, Calvin L; Fleming, Fergal J; Chakkalakal, Joe V; Linehan, David C; Hezel, Aram F; Mohile, Supriya G

    2017-12-01

    Cancer cachexia remains understudied and there are no standard treatments available despite the publication of an international consensus definition and the completion of several large phase III intervention trials in the past 6 years. In September 2015, The University of Rochester Cancer Center NCORP Research Base led a Symposium on Cancer Cachexia and Sarcopenia with goals of reviewing the state of the science, identifying knowledge gaps, and formulating research priorities in cancer cachexia through active discussion and consensus. Research priorities that emerged from the discussion included the implementation of morphometrics into clinical decision making, establishing specific diagnostic criteria for the stages of cachexia, expanding patient selection in intervention trials, identifying clinically meaningful trial endpoints, and the investigation of exercise as an intervention for cancer cachexia. Standardizing how we define and measure cancer cachexia, targeting its complex biologic mechanisms, enrolling patients early in their disease course, and evaluating exercise, either alone or in combination, were proposed as initiatives that may ultimately result in the improved design of cancer cachexia therapeutic trials.

  10. Bringing global cancer leaders together at the 4th Annual Symposium on Global Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Annual Symposium on Global Cancer Research held in April 2016 was developed with a special focus on innovative and low-cost technologies in global cancer control, and brought inspiring keynote speakers such as John Seffrin, Former CEO of the American Cancer Society, and Tom Bollyky, Senior Fellow for Global Health at the Council on Foreign Relations.

  11. Who helps the leaders? Difficulties experienced by cancer support group leaders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirsten, Laura; Butow, Phyllis; Price, Melanie; Hobbs, Kim; Sunquist, Kendra

    2006-07-01

    Cancer support groups are an important source of support for cancer patients, yet little is known about the challenges and training needs of both professionally trained and untrained leaders. The aim of this study was to discover the difficulties experienced and training desired by cancer support group leaders. Twenty-seven leaders of 34 cancer support groups participated in focus groups or individual interviews. Groups were purposively selected as representative of 173 support groups identified in New South Wales which were for adults with cancer and/or their adult carers and were not therapeutic or education-only groups. Difficulties identified included dealing with people's different communication styles and needs; dealing with recurrence, metastases and death; practical issues, including resources, setting the programme and funding security; maintaining personal balance and preventing burn out; establishing group credibility; dealing with group cycles; and leading groups in rural areas. Leaders also identified benefits and rewards from group leadership such as contributing to others' well-being, self-development and insight into others' lives. Non-professionally trained leaders experienced more difficulties, particularly in dealing with group process and practical issues. Difficulties identified were related both to working with a cancer population specifically and to working with groups in general. While some issues were common to both health professionals and non-health professionals, non-health professionals reported greater supportive needs. Clear guidelines, targeted training and development of better methods of support to reduce the stress and burn out experienced by group leaders are needed.

  12. The importance of early detection of lip cancer risk groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fratila, M.; Rosu, S.

    2014-03-01

    Oral maxillo-facial region cancer carries major importance in the tumour pathology of the organism being characterized by a high frequency as well as by the variety of the clinical anatomical and topographic forms through which it is presented. Over 60% of labial carcinoma begins as an asymptomatic ulceration, therefore patients do not pay due attention, considering it a "rebellious thrush" and they make a specialized medical appointment in an advanced stage of the tumor. In this study we pursued the frequency of the lip cancer pathology compared to the total CMF; the distribution the lip cancer by sex and age in patients who submitted to the specialized service; the originating environment of the patient with lip cancer; the anatomical location of the lip cancer; the frequency of relapses after treatment; the presence of adenopathy in the first consultation. The study was performed at the Clinic of Cranio-Maxillofacial Surgery, University of Medicine and Pharmacy "Victor Babes" Timişoara and pursued statistical aspects of the lip cancer incidence over a period of five years (2007-2012). Pre- and postoperative patients were monitored constantly, registering in individual sheets the evolution of the disease, monitoring the relapses after treatment and the presence of adenopathy in the first consultation. As shown in the statistics made in the last five years (2007-2012), from a total of 8135 cases with CMF pathology hospitalized in the Timisoara surgery clinic, 163 cases, or 2%, were cancer of the lip. Analyzing the gender distribution shows that males represent 81% of cases while the remaining 19% were found in women. From the study of age distribution, we found that the number of cases increases with age: 153 cases over 60 years old and 58 cases between 20 - 60 years. Personal statistics from the 212 cases of cancer of the lip reveal that 143 (67%) patients were from the rural areas and 69 (33%) from urban areas. Neoplastic pathology is constantly increasing both

  13. The importance of early detection of lip cancer risk groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Victor Babeş Timişoara, Piaţa Eftimie Murgu No. 2, 300041 (Romania))" data-affiliation=" (Maxillo-facial surgeon, University of Medicine and Pharmacy Victor Babeş Timişoara, Piaţa Eftimie Murgu No. 2, 300041 (Romania))" >Fratila, M; Victor Babeş Timişoara, Piaţa Eftimie Murgu No. 2, 300041 (Romania))" data-affiliation=" (Maxillo-facial surgeon, University of Medicine and Pharmacy Victor Babeş Timişoara, Piaţa Eftimie Murgu No. 2, 300041 (Romania))" >Rosu, S

    2014-01-01

    Oral maxillo-facial region cancer carries major importance in the tumour pathology of the organism being characterized by a high frequency as well as by the variety of the clinical anatomical and topographic forms through which it is presented. Over 60% of labial carcinoma begins as an asymptomatic ulceration, therefore patients do not pay due attention, considering it a ''rebellious thrush'' and they make a specialized medical appointment in an advanced stage of the tumor. In this study we pursued the frequency of the lip cancer pathology compared to the total CMF; the distribution the lip cancer by sex and age in patients who submitted to the specialized service; the originating environment of the patient with lip cancer; the anatomical location of the lip cancer; the frequency of relapses after treatment; the presence of adenopathy in the first consultation. The study was performed at the Clinic of Cranio-Maxillofacial Surgery, University of Medicine and Pharmacy ''Victor Babes'' Timişoara and pursued statistical aspects of the lip cancer incidence over a period of five years (2007-2012). Pre- and postoperative patients were monitored constantly, registering in individual sheets the evolution of the disease, monitoring the relapses after treatment and the presence of adenopathy in the first consultation. As shown in the statistics made in the last five years (2007-2012), from a total of 8135 cases with CMF pathology hospitalized in the Timisoara surgery clinic, 163 cases, or 2%, were cancer of the lip. Analyzing the gender distribution shows that males represent 81% of cases while the remaining 19% were found in women. From the study of age distribution, we found that the number of cases increases with age: 153 cases over 60 years old and 58 cases between 20 – 60 years. Personal statistics from the 212 cases of cancer of the lip reveal that 143 (67%) patients were from the rural areas and 69 (33%) from urban areas

  14. Prostate Cancer Clinical Trials Group: The University of Michigan Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-01

    2931 alhawary@umich.edu Stephanie Daignault, MS, Biostatistician, Biostatistics Core University of Michigan Comprehensive Cancer Center NI8D11...Consortium; The Cancer Institute of New Jersey/University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey, New Brunswick, NJ; Robert Wood Johnson Medical School...University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey, New Brunswick, NJ; University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI; University of Wisconsin Carbone

  15. Group-effort Applied Research: Expanding Opportunities for Undergraduate Research through Original, Class-Based Research Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Sean D.; Teter, Ken

    2014-01-01

    Undergraduate research clearly enriches the educational development of participating students, but these experiences are limited by the inherent inefficiency of the standard one student-one mentor model for undergraduate research. Group-effort applied research (GEAR) was developed as a strategy to provide substantial numbers of undergraduates with…

  16. Clinical perspectives of cancer stem cell research in radiation oncology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bütof, Rebecca; Baumann, Michael; Dubrovska, Anna

    2013-01-01

    Radiotherapy has a proven potential to eradicate cancer stem cells which is reflected by its curative potential in many cancer types. Considerable progress has been made in identification and biological characterisation of cancer stem cells during the past years. Recent biological findings indicate significant inter- and intratumoural and functional heterogeneity of cancer stem cells and lead to more complex models which have potential implications for radiobiology and radiotherapy. Clinical evidence is emerging that biomarkers of cancer stem cells may be prognostic for the outcome of radiotherapy in some tumour entities. Perspectives of cancer stem cell based research for radiotherapy reviewed here include their radioresistance compared to the mass of non-cancer stem cells which form the bulk of all tumour cells, implications for image- and non-image based predictive bio-assays of the outcome of radiotherapy and a combination of novel systemic treatments with radiotherapy

  17. Effect of a group intervention for children and their parents who have cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Mariko; Heiney, Sue P; Osawa, Kaori; Ozawa, Miwa; Matsushima, Eisuke

    2017-10-01

    Although support programs for children whose parents have cancer have been described and evaluated, formal research has not been conducted to document outcomes. We adapted a group intervention called CLIMB®, originally developed in the United States, and implemented it in Tokyo, Japan, for school-aged children and their parents with cancer. The purpose of this exploratory pilot study was to examine the feasibility, acceptability, and impact of the Japanese version of the CLIMB® Program on children's stress and parents' quality of life and psychosocial distress. We enrolled children and parents in six waves of replicate sets for the six-week group intervention. A total of 24 parents (23 mothers and 1 father) diagnosed with cancer and 38 school-aged children (27 girls and 11 boys) participated in our study. Intervention fidelity, including parent and child satisfaction with the program, was examined. The impact of the program was analyzed using a quasiexperimental within-subject design comparing pre- and posttest assessments of children and parents in separate analyses. Both children and parents experienced high levels of satisfaction with the program. Children's posttraumatic stress symptoms related to a parent's illness decreased after the intervention as measured by the Posttraumatic Stress Disorder-Reaction Index. No difference was found in children's psychosocial stress. The Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy scores indicated that parents' quality of life improved after the intervention in all domains except for physical well-being. However, no differences were found in parents' psychological distress and posttraumatic stress symptoms. Our results suggest that the group intervention using the CLIMB® Program relieved children's posttraumatic stress symptoms and improved parents' quality of life. The intervention proved the feasibility of delivering the program using manuals and training. Further research is needed to provide more substantiation

  18. Manufacturing/Cell Therapy Specialist | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Within the Leidos Biomedical Research Inc.’s Clinical Research Directorate, the Clinical Monitoring Research Program (CMRP) provides high-quality comprehensive and strategic operational support to the high-profile domestic and international clinical research initiatives of the National Cancer Institute (NCI), National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID),

  19. The African Organization for Research and Training in Cancer: historical perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, S I; Williams, C K; Ndom, P; Holland, J F

    2012-10-01

    The African Organization for Research and Training in Cancer (aortic) is a bilingual (English and French) nonprofit organization dedicated to the promotion of cancer control and palliation in Africa. Its mission in respect to cancer control in Africa includes support of research and training;provision of relevant and accurate information on the prevention, early diagnosis, treatment, and palliation of cancer;promotion of public awareness about cancer and reduction of the stigma associated with it.In seeking to achieve its goal of cancer control in Africa, aortic strives to unite the continent and to make a positive impact throughout the region by collaboration with health ministries and global cancer organizations. The organization's key objectives are to further research relating to cancers prevalent in Africa, to support training programs in oncology for health care workers, to deal with the challenges of creating cancer control and prevention programs, and to raise public awareness of cancer in Africa. It also plans to organize symposia, workshops, meetings, and conferences that support its mission.Founded in September 1982, aortic was active only between 1983 (when its inaugural conference was held in the City of Lome, Togo, West Africa) and the late 1980s. The organization subsequently became inactive and moribund. In 2000, a group of expatriate African physicians and scientists joined in an effort with their non-African friends and colleagues to reactivate the dormant organization. Since its reactivation, aortic has succeeded in putting cancer on the public health agenda in many African countries by highlighting Africa's urgent need for cancer control and by holding meetings every two years in various African cities. National and international cancer control organizations worldwide have recognized the challenges facing Africa and have joined in aortic's mission.

  20. Policy challenges for cancer research: a call to arms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, R

    2007-01-01

    Research has delivered remarkable benefits for cancer patients and their families since James Watson and Francis Crick wrote the now immortal line, 'We wish to propose a structure for the salt of deoxyribonucleic acid' thus setting the molecular foundations for the modern era of cancer control. The pace of technological innovation from fundamental scientific discoveries to the policy impact of huge population studies has been breathtaking. One has only to contrast a paper on the treatment of solid epithelial cancers written by Henri Tagnon and colleagues in 1966 (Eur J Cancer2 51-7) with the myriad of chemotherapeutic approaches at the oncologists disposal today. Inevitably, as the tide of research has risen so it has bought the flotsam and jetsam of regulations and policies. Some have been helpful, many pointless and too many actually harmful. Naturally, some of these regulatory and general policies (by this I mean those concerned with funding, structure and organization) have been specifically targeted at cancer research, e.g. US National Cancer Act 1971, whilst others have been a product of the general regulatory environment with indirect consequences for cancer research, e.g. EU Data Protection Directive 1995. Policy issues thus cover a vast terrain criss-crossed by complex interdependencies between scientific areas, countries S&T policies and socio-political constructs. Unfortunately, there has been little attention paid to the consequences of these policy issues from which the research community has, by and large, been passenger rather than driver.Global investment in cancer research is now at unprecedented levels. The recently published report by the European Cancer Research Managers Forum has found some 14 billion euros being annually spent worldwide on cancer research (this figure includes industry but overall probably underestimates spend by at least one billion [2]). With the ageing demographics of developed countries and the catch-up effect in

  1. Chromatin Pioneers | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taking advantage of their ability to explore provocative ideas, NCI investigators pioneered the study of chromatin to demonstrate its functional importance and lay the groundwork for understanding its role in cancer and other diseases.

  2. Cellular Imaging | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Innovative imaging methods developed and refined within CCR revealed atomic-level structures of biological molecules and unveiled dynamic views of a cell’s interior that are driving the design of new treatments and diagnostics for cancer.

  3. Summer Student Breast Cancer Research Training Program

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zaloga, Gary P

    2005-01-01

    .... Methyl and ethyl forms of omega-3 lipids failed to induce apoptosis. Ganoderma lucidum, a Chinese mushroom, was found to inhibit breast cancer cell growth and decrease EGF receptor phosphorylation...

  4. Skin Cancer: NIH Research to Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... her skin cancer cells. Another method is to train a person's immune cells to attack the skin ... journal Pediatrics . The biggest increase was among adolescent girls, ages 15 to 19, according to the study ...

  5. Finding Your New Normal: Outcomes of a Wellness-Oriented Psychoeducational Support Group for Cancer Survivors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shannonhouse, Laura; Myers, Jane; Barden, Sejal; Clarke, Philip; Weimann, Rochelle; Forti, Allison; Moore-Painter, Terry; Knutson, Tami; Porter, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Group interventions have been useful for survivors to overcome the challenges of cancer. This study employed a pre/post, mixed-methods design to explore the influence of an 8-week support group on the holistic wellness of 14 breast cancer survivors. Pairing experiential activities with wellness-centered psychoeducation was viewed positively by…

  6. Cancer chemoprevention and cancer preventive vaccines--a call to action: leaders of diverse stakeholder groups present strategies for overcoming multiple barriers to meet an urgent need.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herberman, Ronald B; Pearce, Homer L; Lippman, Scott M; Pyenson, Bruce S; Alberts, David S

    2006-12-15

    The emerging field of cancer prevention through chemoprevention agents and cancer vaccines offers significant promise for reducing suffering and death from cancer. However, that promise may not be kept unless major barriers to progress are lowered or eliminated. Among the most significant barriers are the relatively small investment from government and industry in research and development of cancer preventive agents; a predominant emphasis of translational cancer research on therapeutic interventions for metastatic or advanced cancer; complexities of prevention trial design; a relatively uncharted Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval process for preventive agents; insufficient public and patient understanding of the importance and potential for cancer preventive measures, with consequent unpredictable public and patient willingness to take preventive agents; an uncertain reimbursement from payors; and limitations in patent law, liability protection, and data package exclusivity that undermine the opportunity for recouping investment. Viewed individually or collectively, each of these barriers serves as a substantial deterrent to intellectual and financial investment by all sectors of the cancer community. In an effort to ultimately overcome these barriers, a Cancer Prevention Research Summit was assembled June 12-13, 2006 in Bethesda, Maryland, organized by C-Change with support from the AACR. The Summit brought together some 120 leaders from private, public, and not-for-profit entities, including cancer researchers and clinicians; federal health officials; regulatory agency representatives; pharmaceutical, biotech, and food industry leaders; patent attorneys; economists; public and private provider group executives; and advocates. Participants engaged in a detailed process to more carefully define the major barriers, identify potential solutions, and formulate initial priorities and recommendations for action. At the conclusion of this dialogue among

  7. Biomedical text mining and its applications in cancer research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Fei; Patumcharoenpol, Preecha; Zhang, Cheng; Yang, Yang; Chan, Jonathan; Meechai, Asawin; Vongsangnak, Wanwipa; Shen, Bairong

    2013-04-01

    Cancer is a malignant disease that has caused millions of human deaths. Its study has a long history of well over 100years. There have been an enormous number of publications on cancer research. This integrated but unstructured biomedical text is of great value for cancer diagnostics, treatment, and prevention. The immense body and rapid growth of biomedical text on cancer has led to the appearance of a large number of text mining techniques aimed at extracting novel knowledge from scientific text. Biomedical text mining on cancer research is computationally automatic and high-throughput in nature. However, it is error-prone due to the complexity of natural language processing. In this review, we introduce the basic concepts underlying text mining and examine some frequently used algorithms, tools, and data sets, as well as assessing how much these algorithms have been utilized. We then discuss the current state-of-the-art text mining applications in cancer research and we also provide some resources for cancer text mining. With the development of systems biology, researchers tend to understand complex biomedical systems from a systems biology viewpoint. Thus, the full utilization of text mining to facilitate cancer systems biology research is fast becoming a major concern. To address this issue, we describe the general workflow of text mining in cancer systems biology and each phase of the workflow. We hope that this review can (i) provide a useful overview of the current work of this field; (ii) help researchers to choose text mining tools and datasets; and (iii) highlight how to apply text mining to assist cancer systems biology research. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Ethical, Legal, and Social Implication of Cancer Research | Resources | CDP

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Cancer Diagnosis Program strives to improve the diagnosis and assessment of cancer by effectively moving new scientific knowledge into clinical practice. This national program stimulates, coordinates and funds resources and research for the development of innovative in vitro diagnostics, novel diagnostic technologies and appropriate human specimens in order to better characterize cancers and allow improved medical decision making and evaluation of response to treatment.

  9. The Cervix Cancer Research Network (CCRN: Increasing access to cancer clinical trials in low- and middle-income countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gita eSuneja

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The burden of cervical cancer is large and growing in developing countries, due in large part to limited access to screening services and lack of human papillomavirus (HPV vaccination. In spite of modern advances in diagnostic and therapeutic modalities, outcomes from cervical cancer have not markedly improved in recent years. Novel clinical trials are urgently needed to improve outcomes from cervical cancer worldwide. Methods: The Cervix Cancer Research Network (CCRN, a subsidiary of the Gynecologic Cancer InterGroup (GCIG, is a multi-national, multi-institutional consortium of physicians and scientists focused on improving cervical cancer outcomes worldwide by making cancer clinical trials available in low-, middle-, and high-income countries. Standard operating procedures for participation in CCRN include a pre-qualifying questionnaire to evaluate clinical activities and research infrastructure, followed by a site visit. Once a site is approved, they may choose to participate in one of four currently accruing clinical trials.Results: To date, 13 different CCRN site visits have been performed. Of these 13 sites visited, 10 have been approved as CCRN sites including Tata Memorial Hospital, India; Bangalore, India; Trivandrum, India; Ramathibodi, Thailand; Siriaj, Thailand; Pramongkutklao, Thailand; Ho Chi Minh, Vietnam; Blokhin Russian Cancer Research Center; the Hertzen Moscow Cancer Research Institute; and the Russian Scientific Center of Roentgenoradiology. The four currently accruing clinical trials are TACO, OUTBACK, INTERLACE, and SHAPE.Discussion: The CCRN has successfully enrolled 10 sites in developing countries to participate in four randomized clinical trials. The primary objectives are to provide novel therapeutics to regions with the greatest need and to improve the validity and generalizability of clinical trial results by enrolling a diverse sample of patients.

  10. International Piping Integrity Research Group (IPIRG) Program. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilkowski, G.; Schmidt, R.; Scott, P.

    1997-06-01

    This is the final report of the International Piping Integrity Research Group (IPIRG) Program. The IPIRG Program was an international group program managed by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission and funded by a consortium of organizations from nine nations: Canada, France, Italy, Japan, Sweden, Switzerland, Taiwan, the United Kingdom, and the United States. The program objective was to develop data needed to verify engineering methods for assessing the integrity of circumferentially-cracked nuclear power plant piping. The primary focus was an experimental task that investigated the behavior of circumferentially flawed piping systems subjected to high-rate loadings typical of seismic events. To accomplish these objectives a pipe system fabricated as an expansion loop with over 30 meters of 16-inch diameter pipe and five long radius elbows was constructed. Five dynamic, cyclic, flawed piping experiments were conducted using this facility. This report: (1) provides background information on leak-before-break and flaw evaluation procedures for piping, (2) summarizes technical results of the program, (3) gives a relatively detailed assessment of the results from the pipe fracture experiments and complementary analyses, and (4) summarizes advances in the state-of-the-art of pipe fracture technology resulting from the IPIRG program

  11. Phase 2 of the International Piping Integrity Research Group programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darlaston, B.J.

    1994-01-01

    The results of phase 1 of the International Piping Integrity Research Group (IPIRG-1) programme have been widely reported. The significance of the results is reviewed briefly, in order to put the phase 2 programme into perspective. The success of phase 1 led the participants to consider further development and validation of pipe and pipe component fracture analysis technology as part of another international group programme (IPIRG-2). The benefits of combined funding and of the technical exchanges and interactions are considered to be of significant advantage and value. The phase 2 programme has been designed with the overall objective of developing and experimentally validating methods of predicting the fracture behaviour of nuclear reactor safety-related piping, to both normal operating and accident loads. The programme will add to the engineering estimation analysis methods that have been developed for straight pipes. The pipe system tests will expand the database to include seismic loadings and flaws in fittings, such as bends, elbows and tees, as well as ''short'' cracks. The results will be used to validate further the analytical methods, expand the capability to make fittings and extend the quasi-static results for the USNRC's new programme on short cracks in piping and piping welds. The IPIRG-2 programme is described to provide a clear understanding of the content, strategy, potential benefits and likely significance of the work. ((orig.))

  12. International piping integrity research group (IPIRG) program final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, R.; Wilkowski, G.; Scott, P.; Olsen, R.; Marschall, C.; Vieth, P.; Paul, D.

    1992-04-01

    This is the final report of the International Piping Integrity Research Group (IPIRG) Programme. The IPIRG Programme was an international group programme managed by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission and funded by a consortium of organizations from nine nations: Canada, France, Italy, Japan, Sweden, Switzerland, Taiwan, the United Kingdom, and the United states. The objective of the programme was to develop data needed to verify engineering methods for assessing the integrity of nuclear power plant piping that contains circumferential defects. The primary focus was an experimental task that investigated the behaviour of circumferentially flawed piping and piping systems to high-rate loading typical of seismic events. To accomplish these objectives a unique pipe loop test facility was designed and constructed. The pipe system was an expansion loop with over 30 m of 406-mm diameter pipe and five long radius elbows. Five experiments on flawed piping were conducted to failure in this facility with dynamic excitation. The report: provides background information on leak-before-break and flaw evaluation procedures in piping; summarizes the technical results of the programme; gives a relatively detailed assessment of the results from the various pipe fracture experiments and complementary analyses; and, summarizes the advances in the state-of-the-art of pipe fracture technology resulting from the IPIRG Program

  13. International Piping Integrity Research Group (IPIRG) Program. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilkowski, G.; Schmidt, R.; Scott, P. [and others

    1997-06-01

    This is the final report of the International Piping Integrity Research Group (IPIRG) Program. The IPIRG Program was an international group program managed by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission and funded by a consortium of organizations from nine nations: Canada, France, Italy, Japan, Sweden, Switzerland, Taiwan, the United Kingdom, and the United States. The program objective was to develop data needed to verify engineering methods for assessing the integrity of circumferentially-cracked nuclear power plant piping. The primary focus was an experimental task that investigated the behavior of circumferentially flawed piping systems subjected to high-rate loadings typical of seismic events. To accomplish these objectives a pipe system fabricated as an expansion loop with over 30 meters of 16-inch diameter pipe and five long radius elbows was constructed. Five dynamic, cyclic, flawed piping experiments were conducted using this facility. This report: (1) provides background information on leak-before-break and flaw evaluation procedures for piping, (2) summarizes technical results of the program, (3) gives a relatively detailed assessment of the results from the pipe fracture experiments and complementary analyses, and (4) summarizes advances in the state-of-the-art of pipe fracture technology resulting from the IPIRG program.

  14. Relationships between skin cancers and blood groups--link between non-melanomas and ABO/Rh factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cihan, Yasemin Benderli; Baykan, Halit; Kavuncuoglu, Erhan; Mutlu, Hasan; Kucukoglu, Mehmet Burhan; Ozyurt, Kemal; Oguz, Arzu

    2013-01-01

    This investigation focused on possible relationships between skin cancers and ABO/Rh blood groups. Between January 2005 and December 2012, medical data of 255 patients with skin cancers who were admitted to Kayseri Training and Research Hospital, Radiation Oncology and Plastic Surgery Outpatient Clinics were retrospectively analyzed. Blood groups of these patients were recorded. The control group consisted of 25701 healthy volunteers who were admitted to Kayseri Training and Research Hospital, Blood Donation Center between January 2010 and December 2011. The distribution of the blood groups of the patients with skin cancers was compared to the distribution of ABO/Rh blood groups of healthy controls. The association of the histopathological subtypes of skin cancer with the blood groups was also investigated. Of the patients, 50.2% had A type, 26.3% had O type, 16.1% had B type, and 7.5% had AB blood group with a positive Rh (+) in 77.3%. Of the controls, 44.3% had A type, 31.5% had 0 type, 16.1% had B type, and 8.1% had AB blood group with a positive Rh (+) in 87.8%. There was a statistically significant difference in the distribution of blood groups and Rh factors (A Rh (-) and 0 Rh positive) between the patients and controls. A total of 36.8% and 20.4% of the patients with basal cell carcinoma (BCC) had A Rh (+) and B Rh (+), respectively, while 39.2% and 27.6% of the controls had A Rh (+) and B Rh (+), respectively. A significant relationship was observed between the patients with BCC and controls in terms of A Rh (-) (p=0.001). Our study results demonstrated that there is a significant relationship between non-melanoma skin cancer and ABO/Rh factors.

  15. Depression, anxiety, and somatic symptoms in older cancer patients: a comparison across age groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Miri

    2014-02-01

    Previous studies have reported that older cancer patients experience lower psychological distress than younger patients, but most prior studies do not differentiate between age groups within the 'older' category. The aim of this study was to assess the intensity of the symptoms of depression, anxiety, and somatic symptoms among different age groups of older cancer patients. Participants were composed of 321 cancer patients 60 years and older, who were divided into three age groups: 60-69, 70-79, and 80+ years. The participants answered the Brief Symptom Inventory-18, which included subscales for depression, anxiety, and somatic symptoms and the cancer-related problem list, in addition to providing personal and cancer-related details. Depressive, anxiety, and somatic symptoms and cancer-related problems were lowest in the 70-79 years age group and highest in the 80+ years age group. Comparisons between pairs of groups showed significant differences between each of the groups in Brief Symptom Inventory total scores and between the 80+ years age group and the other two groups in regard to depressive symptoms and cancer-related problems. Differences, related to anxiety and somatic symptoms, were significant for the 70-79 year olds, in comparison with the youngest and oldest groups. Intensity of symptoms was explained by older age, higher number of cancer-related problems, female gender, and lower income. Nonlinear relations exist between age and psychological symptoms, which is in line with the postponement of age-related health and functional decline in the modern era. These results suggest that the study of psychological reactions to cancer should examine differences between age groups among older cancer patients. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Cohort Profile: The Applied Research Group for Kids (TARGet Kids!).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carsley, Sarah; Borkhoff, Cornelia M; Maguire, Jonathon L; Birken, Catherine S; Khovratovich, Marina; McCrindle, Brian; Macarthur, Colin; Parkin, Patricia C

    2015-06-01

    The Applied Research Group for Kids (TARGet Kids!) is an ongoing open longitudinal cohort study enrolling healthy children (from birth to 5 years of age) and following them into adolescence. The aim of the TARGet Kids! cohort is to link early life exposures to health problems including obesity, micronutrient deficiencies and developmental problems. The overarching goal is to improve the health of Canadians by optimizing growth and developmental trajectories through preventive interventions in early childhood. TARGet Kids!, the only child health research network embedded in primary care practices in Canada, leverages the unique relationship between children and families and their trusted primary care practitioners, with whom they have at least seven health supervision visits in the first 5 years of life. Children are enrolled during regularly scheduled well-child visits. To date, we have enrolled 5062 children. In addition to demographic information, we collect physical measurements (e.g. height, weight), lifestyle factors (nutrition, screen time and physical activity), child behaviour and developmental screening and a blood sample (providing measures of cardiometabolic, iron and vitamin D status, and trace metals). All data are collected at each well-child visit: twice a year until age 2 and every year until age 10. Information can be found at: http://www.targetkids.ca/contact-us/. © The Author 2014; all rights reserved. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Epidemiological Association.

  17. Cancer in human immunodeficiency virus-infected children : A case series from the Children's Cancer Group and the National Cancer Institute

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Granovsky, MO; Mueller, BU; Nicholson, HS; Rosenberg, PS; Rabkin, CS

    Purpose: To describe the spectrum of malignancies in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected children and the clinical outcome of patients with these tumors. Methods: We retrospectively surveyed the Children's Cancer Group (CCG) and the National Cancer institute (NCI) for cases of cancer that

  18. Women's reflections and actions regarding working after breast cancer surgery - a focus group study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, M I; Olsson, M; Wennman-Larsen, A; Petersson, L-M; Alexanderson, K

    2013-07-01

    To better understand processes affecting return to work (RTW) after breast cancer, more knowledge from the perspective of sickness absentees is warranted. Still, research based on women's own reasoning and actions in RTW is very scarce. This study aims to elucidate how women with breast cancer reflect and act on work-related issues. Thematic analyses of data from four focus group interviews with 23 women who had had breast cancer surgery in the previous 3-13 months were carried out. The five following themes of reflections regarding RTW were identified: 'health and functioning', 'self-esteem/integrity', 'value of work', 'relationships at work', and 'social circumstances'. These reflections were associated with the three identified themes of actions taken by the women: 'to work or to be sickness absent', 'to adjust work according to own needs or not', and 'to disclose or to hide one's cancer'. There was a distinct difference between women who experienced work as a source of well-being and those who needed a respite from work. This study adds knowledge to the process of RTW after breast cancer and focuses on factors that lead the women to an active role in this process. We point to the interplay between women's own preferences, perceived competence, outer opportunities, and the actions each woman take with regard to RTW, which need to be recognized by all stakeholders involved. Furthermore, it continues to be essential to address the specific issue of disclosure in the workplace because this may be distressing for women. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Towards discovery-driven translational research in breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Celis, Julio E; Moreira, José M A; Gromova, Irina

    2005-01-01

    , promise to have a major impact on the way breast cancer will be diagnosed, treated and monitored in the future. Here we present a brief report on long-term ongoing strategies at the Danish Centre for Translational Breast Cancer Research to search for markers for early detection and targets for therapeutic...

  20. Antibody Portal | Office of Cancer Clinical Proteomics Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Central to reproducibility in biomedical research is being able to use well-characterized and defined reagents. The CPTAC Antibody Portal serves as a National Cancer Institute (NCI) community resource that provides access to a large number of standardized renewable affinity reagents (to cancer-associated targets) and accompanying characterization data.

  1. End-of-Life Care for People With Cancer From Ethnic Minority Groups: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LoPresti, Melissa A; Dement, Fritz; Gold, Heather T

    2016-04-01

    Ethnic/racial minorities encounter disparities in healthcare, which may carry into end-of-life (EOL) care. Advanced cancer, highly prevalent and morbid, presents with worsening symptoms, heightening the need for supportive and EOL care. To conduct a systematic review examining ethnic/racial disparities in EOL care for cancer patients. We searched four electronic databases for all original research examining EOL care use, preferences, and beliefs for cancer patients from ethnic/racial minority groups. Twenty-five studies were included: 20 quantitative and five qualitative. All had a full-text English language article and focused on the ethnic/racial minority groups of African Americans, Hispanics Americans, or Asian Americans. Key themes included EOL decision making processes, family involvement, provider communication, religion and spirituality, and patient preferences. Hospice was the most studied EOL care, and was most used among Whites, followed by use among Hispanics, and least used by African and Asian Americans. African Americans perceived a greater need for hospice, yet more frequently had inadequate knowledge. African Americans preferred aggressive treatment, yet EOL care provided was often inconsistent with preferences. Hispanics and African Americans less often documented advance care plans, citing religious coping and spirituality as factors. EOL care differences among ethnic/racial minority cancer patients were found in the processes, preferences, and beliefs regarding their care. Further steps are needed to explore the exact causes of differences, yet possible explanations include religious or cultural differences, caregiver respect for patient autonomy, access barriers, and knowledge of EOL care options. © The Author(s) 2014.

  2. Stereotactic body radiotherapy for renal cell cancer and pancreatic cancer. Literature review and practice recommendations of the DEGRO Working Group on Stereotactic Radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panje, Cedric; Andratschke, Nikolaus; Guckenberger, Matthias; Brunner, Thomas B.; Niyazi, Maximilian

    2016-01-01

    This report of the Working Group on Stereotactic Radiotherapy of the German Society of Radiation Oncology (DEGRO) aims to provide a literature review and practice recommendations for stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) of primary renal cell cancer and primary pancreatic cancer. A literature search on SBRT for both renal cancer and pancreatic cancer was performed with focus on prospective trials and technical aspects for clinical implementation. Data on renal and pancreatic SBRT are limited, but show promising rates of local control for both treatment sites. For pancreatic cancer, fractionated SBRT should be preferred to single-dose treatment to reduce the risk of gastrointestinal toxicity. Motion-compensation strategies and image guidance are paramount for safe SBRT delivery in both tumor entities. SBRT for renal cancer and pancreatic cancer have been successfully evaluated in phase I and phase II trials. Pancreatic SBRT should be practiced carefully and only within prospective protocols due to the risk of severe gastrointestinal toxicity. SBRT for primary renal cell cancer appears a viable option for medically inoperable patients but future research needs to better define patient selection criteria and the detailed practice of SBRT. (orig.) [de

  3. The psychosocial experiences of breast cancer amongst Black, South Asian and White survivors: do differences exist between ethnic groups?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel-Kerai, Geeta; Harcourt, Diana; Rumsey, Nichola; Naqvi, Habib; White, Paul

    2017-04-01

    Very little UK-based research has examined breast cancer-related experiences of Black and Minority Ethnic populations, and we do not know whether the psychosocial impact of diagnosis and treatment in this group is any different to that of White women. Therefore, this study examined similarities and differences amongst Black, South Asian and White breast cancer survivors. A quantitative, cross-sectional survey was conducted; 173 breast cancer survivors (80 White, 53 South Asian and 40 Black) completed a questionnaire, which assessed psychological functioning, social support, body image and beliefs about cancer. Significant differences (p Asian participants: compared with White women, South Asian participants reported higher levels of anxiety and depression, poorer quality of life and held higher levels of internal and fatalistic beliefs pertaining to cancer. Black and South Asian women reported higher levels of body image concerns than White women, and held stronger beliefs that God was in control of their cancer. South Asian women turned to religion as a source of support more than Black and White women. This study enhances current understanding of the experience and impact of breast cancer amongst Black and South Asian women, and demonstrates similarities and differences between the ethnic groups. The findings highlight implications for healthcare professionals, particularly in relation to providing culturally sensitive care and support to their patients. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Opportunities for Cancer-relevant Innovative Technologies with Transformative Potential | Office of Cancer Clinical Proteomics Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    The National Cancer Institute (NCI) is seeking input from the community on identifying priorities with regards to supporting innovative technology development for cancer-relevant research. While the NCI provides support for technology development through a variety of mechanisms, it is important to understand whether or not these are sufficient for catalyzing and supporting the development of tools with significant potential for advancing important fields of cancer research or clinical care.

  5. The protocols for the 10/66 dementia research group population-based research programme

    OpenAIRE

    Salas Aquiles; Rodriguez Juan; McKeigue Paul; Jacob KS; Krishnamoorthy ES; Huang Yueqin; Guerra Mariella; Gavrilova Svetlana I; Dewey Michael; Arizaga Raul; Albanese Emiliano; Acosta Daisy; Ferri Cleusa P; Prince Martin; Sosa Ana

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background Latin America, China and India are experiencing unprecedentedly rapid demographic ageing with an increasing number of people with dementia. The 10/66 Dementia Research Group's title refers to the 66% of people with dementia that live in developing countries and the less than one tenth of population-based research carried out in those settings. This paper describes the protocols for the 10/66 population-based and intervention studies that aim to redress this imbalance. Meth...

  6. Adoptive Cell Therapies: One Cancer at a Time | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    After completing medical school and a general surgery residency at the University of Missouri, Kansas City, Christian Hinrichs, M.D., planned on doing cancer research at the start of his fellowship at Roswell Park Cancer Institute in 1996. However, a detour sent him into surgical oncology, and Hinrichs only returned to his research interests through a subsequent surgical

  7. Lipid Biomarkers Identified for Liver Cancer | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is an aggressive cancer of the liver with poor prognosis and growing incidence in developed countries. Pathology and genetic profiles of HCC are heterogeneous, suggesting that it can begin growing in different cell types. Although human tumors such as HCC have been profiled in-depth by genomics-based studies, not much is known about their overall

  8. Racial, ethnic, and gender variations in cancer risk: considerations for future epidemiologic research.

    OpenAIRE

    Zahm, S H; Fraumeni, J F

    1995-01-01

    There is no question that the risk of many cancers varies substantially by race, ethnic group, and gender. Although important clues to cancer etiology may come from investigating the differences in risk across subgroups of the population, epidemiologic research has often focused on white men. More descriptive and analytic studies are needed to identify and explain variations in risk among population subgroups. Especially important are studies to clarify the role of differential exposures, sus...

  9. Research Progress of Exosomes in Lung Cancer Diagnosis and Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongbo ZOU

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available As the leading cause of morbidity and cancer related-death worldwide, lung cancer has a serious threat to human health. Exosomes are nanoscale lipid membrane vesicles derived from multivesicles, which containing active biomolecules including proteins, lipids, nucleic acids and etc. Exosomes play important roles in lung cancer initiation and progression by promoting the formation of tumor microenvironment, enhancing tumor invasive and metastasis capability, leading to immunosuppression and resistance to chemoradiotherapy, and also have the application value in early diagnosis and treatment. This review summarizes the research progress of exosomes in tumor initiation and progression, and its roles in diagnosis and treatment of lung cancer.

  10. Cancer as a Social Dysfunction - Why Cancer Research Needs New Thinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pienta, Kenneth J; Axelrod, Robert

    2018-05-21

    The incidence and mortality for many cancers continues to rise. As such, critical action is needed on many fronts to reshape how a society thinks, discusses, and fights cancer especially as the population grows and ages. Cancer can be described as a broken social contract which requires different conceptual frameworks such as game theory. To this end, it is our hope that this perspective will catalyze a discussion to rethink the way we approach, communicate, and fund cancer research - thinking of cancer as a broken social contract is only one example. Importantly, this endeavor will require infusion of ideas from other fields such as physics, computational medicine, complexity science, agent-based modeling, sociology, and ecology all of which have the capacity to drive new insights into cancer biology and clinical medicine. Copyright ©2018, American Association for Cancer Research.

  11. Investments in cancer research awarded to UK institutions and the global burden of cancer 2000-2013: a systematic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruthappu, Mahiben; Head, Michael G; Zhou, Charlie D; Gilbert, Barnabas J; El-Harasis, Majd A; Raine, Rosalind; Fitchett, Joseph R; Atun, Rifat

    2017-04-20

    To systematically categorise cancer research investment awarded to United Kingdom (UK) institutions in the period 2000-2013 and to estimate research investment relative to disease burden as measured by mortality, disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) and years lived with disability (YLDs). Systematic analysis of all open-access data. Public and philanthropic funding to all UK cancer research institutions, 2000-2013. Number and financial value of cancer research investments reported in 2013 UK pounds (UK£). Mortality, DALYs and YLDs data were acquired from the Global Burden of Disease Study. A compound metric was adapted to estimate research investment relative to disease burden as measured by mortality, DALYs and YLDs. We identified 4299 funded studies with a total research investment of £2.4 billion. The highest fundings by anatomical sites were haematological, breast, prostate, colorectal and ovarian cancers. Relative to disease burden as determined by a compound metric combining mortality, DALYs and YLDs, gender-specific cancers were found to be highest funded-the five sites that received the most funding were prostate, ovarian, breast, mesothelioma and testicular cancer; the least well-funded sites were liver, thyroid, lung, upper gastrointestinal (GI) and bladder. Preclinical science accounted for 66.2% of award numbers and 62.2% of all funding. The top five areas of primary research focus by funding were pathogenesis, drug therapy, diagnostic, screening and monitoring, women's health and immunology. The largest individual funder was the Medical Research Council. In combination, the five lowest funded site-specific cancers relative to disease burden account for 47.9%, 44.3% and 20.4% of worldwide cancer mortality, DALYs and YLDs. Research funding for cancer is not allocated according to relative disease burden. These findings are in line with earlier published studies. Funding agencies and industry should openly document their research investments to

  12. Building capacity for sustainable research programmes for cancer in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adewole, Isaac; Martin, Damali N; Williams, Makeda J; Adebamowo, Clement; Bhatia, Kishor; Berling, Christine; Casper, Corey; Elshamy, Karima; Elzawawy, Ahmed; Lawlor, Rita T; Legood, Rosa; Mbulaiteye, Sam M; Odedina, Folakemi T; Olopade, Olufunmilayo I; Olopade, Christopher O; Parkin, Donald M; Rebbeck, Timothy R; Ross, Hana; Santini, Luiz A; Torode, Julie; Trimble, Edward L; Wild, Christopher P; Young, Annie M; Kerr, David J

    2014-05-01

    Cancer research in Africa will have a pivotal role in cancer control planning in this continent. However, environments (such as those in academic or clinical settings) with limited research infrastructure (laboratories, biorespositories, databases) coupled with inadequate funding and other resources have hampered African scientists from carrying out rigorous research. In September 2012, over 100 scientists with expertise in cancer research in Africa met in London to discuss the challenges in performing high-quality research, and to formulate the next steps for building sustainable, comprehensive and multi-disciplinary programmes relevant to Africa. This was the first meeting among five major organizations: the African Organisation for Research and Training in Africa (AORTIC), the Africa Oxford Cancer Foundation (AfrOx), and the National Cancer Institutes (NCI) of Brazil, France and the USA. This article summarizes the discussions and recommendations of this meeting, including the next steps required to create sustainable and impactful research programmes that will enable evidenced-based cancer control approaches and planning at the local, regional and national levels.

  13. Global Impact | Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Through its direct support of clinical research, Frederick National Laboratory activities are not limited to national programs. The labis actively involved in more than 400 domestic and international studies related to cancer; influenza, HIV, E

  14. Philanthropic partnerships and the future of cancer research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murciano-Goroff, Yonina R

    2015-02-01

    Complementing government and industry funding, philanthropies have made distinct contributions to altering the trajectory of cancer research, often in ways that reflect both the business training of their donors and their close ties to the lay public.

  15. Technical Service Agreement (TSA) | Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research (FNLCR) scientists provide services and solutions to collaborators through the Technical Services Program, whose portfolio includes more than 200 collaborations with more than 80 partners. The Frederi

  16. Clinical research on cancer treatment with combined radiotherapy and chemotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuwa, Nobukazu; Ito, Yoshiyuki; Kato, Eriko; Koyama, Kazuyuki; Morita, Kozo

    1993-01-01

    There are two purposes of using combined chemotherapy and radiotherapy in the treatment of cancers. One is to suppress distant metastasis, especially micrometastasis; the other is to improve localized control. As a trial of the utility of the former, systemic chemotherapy with CDDP and 5 FU was given successively with radiotherapy to treat nasopharyngeal cancer. The survival rate was significantly improved compared with historical control cases. The main reason for this effectiveness was the improvement of localized control. The suppression of distant metastasis is the subject of future research. As a trial of the utility of the latter, a super-selective intraarterial chemotherapy with CBDCA combined with radiotherapy was used to head and neck localized progressive cancers. The control of localized cancer was remarkably effective. This treatment is considered to be especially suitable for locally advanced tongue cancer and cancer of the root of the tongue. (author)

  17. Clinical application and research of tumor markers in colorectal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Yumei

    2005-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is one of the most common malignant tumors. There are many tumor markers for detecting colorectal cancer, some of which have been widely used in clinical area. However, still lack an ideal tumor marker of colorectal cancer. In this review, we simply characterized some common tumor markers including carcinoembryonic antigen, CA19-9, CA50, CA242 etc and their dignostic value. And here we discussed some combined detecting procedures which improve diagnostic accuracy of colorectal cancer. In addition, with the development of the biomoleculer technique, some newly discovered tumor markers and genetic marekers have gained great progress in the research of colorectal cancer, and will become a promissing technique in the diagnosis of colorectal cancer. (authors)

  18. Improvement in patient–reported outcomes after group poetry therapy of women with breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ali Gozashti

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: One of the best ways of achieving the patients’ views and expectations about the effects of a therapeutic or palliative intervention on their quality of life is using PatientReported Outcome Measures (PROMs. Poetry therapy as a psychotherapy intervention has been used for palliation of stressful conditions of several chronic diseases and disabilities. In the present study, we aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of group poetry therapy on the quality of life measures in women with breast cancer.Methods: A total of 30 women with breast cancer, undergoing chemotherapy at a referral center in the north of Iran, participated in the current quasi-experimental before-after study conducted in 2016. The study protocol included eight weekly sessions of group poetry therapy using poems from the great Persian poets. The European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire (EORTC-QLQ-C30 was completed by the patients before beginning group poetry therapy and, twice more, one week and two months after the last session. Items of the questionnaire were manually scored and then analyzed using appropriate statistical tests in IBM SPSS Statistics for Windows, Version 21.0. Armonk, NY: IBM Corp.Results: A total of 28 patients participated in all the group poetry therapy sessions and completed the questionnaire. The mean and standard deviation of age were 45±66. The changes in the score of quality of life from 51.8 to 65.5 and 69 were observed to be significant in the one-week and two-month follow ups (both with P=0.002. Also, changes in symptom score from 34.5 to 23.7 (P=0.01 and functional score from 65.6 to 77.2 (P=0.01 in the two-month follow up were found to be statistically significant.Conclusion: Based on the findings of the study, it can be concluded that group poetry therapy, as a psychotherapy approach, can be used to improve quality of life in breast cancer patients.

  19. A comparison of cancer burden and research spending reveals discrepancies in the distribution of research funding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carter Ashley JR

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ideally, the distribution of research funding for different types of cancer should be equitable with respect to the societal burden each type of cancer imposes. These burdens can be estimated in a variety of ways; “Years of Life Lost” (YLL measures the severity of death in regard to the age it occurs, "Disability-Adjusted Life-Years" (DALY estimates the effects of non-lethal disabilities incurred by disease and economic metrics focus on the losses to tax revenue, productivity or direct medical expenses. We compared research funding from the National Cancer Institute (NCI to a variety of burden metrics for the most common types of cancer to identify mismatches between spending and societal burden. Methods Research funding levels were obtained from the NCI website and information for societal health and economic burdens were collected from government databases and published reports. We calculated the funding levels per unit burden for a wide range of different cancers and burden metrics and compared these values to identify discrepancies. Results Our analysis reveals a considerable mismatch between funding levels and burden. Some cancers are funded at levels far higher than their relative burden suggests (breast cancer, prostate cancer, and leukemia while other cancers appear underfunded (bladder, esophageal, liver, oral, pancreatic, stomach, and uterine cancers. Conclusions These discrepancies indicate that an improved method of health care research funding allocation should be investigated to better match funding levels to societal burden.

  20. Integrating spirituality into a group psychological therapy program for cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Alastair J

    2005-06-01

    Although the importance of spiritual issues to people with cancer is by now widely acknowledged, there has been almost no research on the value of interventions specifically designed to enhance the spiritual experience of these patients. The present report describes an exploratory study on the effects of a brief psychoeducational course emphasizing spiritual aspects of coping and healing. Ninety-seven patients with various types and stages of cancer took part in the 8-session course as the third stage in a progressive, stepwise program of support and psychological education. Standard psychometric tests were administered at entry, 8 weeks, and 6 months. Written home assignments, returned by participants, provided an insight into their experience. Significant improvements in scores were found immediately following the intervention; by 6 months, however, these improvements above entry level had declined to about half the 8-week value. In their written homework, patients grappled with such issues as doubts about the existence of a god, judgment and forgiveness, guilt, projection, self-importance, and the meaning of love. As the course progressed, many claimed to be better able to accept their condition and to experience an enhanced sense of meaning in their lives, coupled with a heightened appreciation for the events of everyday life and less tendency to conflict with others. These preliminary findings indicate that further, more rigorous investigation would be worthwhile and support the growing view that addressing spiritual issues within the framework of group therapy can be of great benefit to people with cancer.

  1. Advancing Prostate Cancer Research by Providing Summer Research Opportunities for HBCU Students at the Cancer Center at UTHSCSA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-01

    encouraging the students to attend the American Association for Cancer Research (AACR) meeting in Chicago in April 2018. The abstracts for this...Updates: Elucidating the Effects of Obesity on Bladder Cancer Progression - completed CTRC at UTHSCSA: Genomics Shared Resource; reduced from

  2. Ethical aspect of the clinical research. Informed consent in the clinical research for heavy ion radiotherapy of cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murata, Hajime

    2003-01-01

    The research center for heavy ion therapy of cancer was decided to be built in 1984 as a part of the national 10-year anticancer campaign, and construction of Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator in Chiba (HIMAC) was completed at the National Institute of Radiological Sciences in 1993. The HIMAC is the first heavy ion accelerator for only medical use in the world, and the clinical research of cancer radiotherapy was begun in 1994 using carbon ion generated by HIMAC. The purposes of the clinical research are to evaluate the safety and usefulness of carbon ion for cancer treatment, and to establish carbon ion therapy as a new and valuable tool for cancer therapy. Therefore, to obtain exact data in ethical aspect as well as scientific aspect of the clinical research, many special committees have been organized like as the committees of protocol planning for each organ, clinical study groups for each organ, evaluating committee of clinical data, and the ethical committee. Each clinical research is performed according to the research protocol of each organ, in which study purpose, rationale, patient condition, end-point of the study, adverse reaction are described. The document of informed consent (IC) contains study purpose, patient condition, method, predicted effect and demerit, protection of privacy, etc.. IC to each patient is done precisely by the doctor, and the freely-given IC of the patient is obtained. After the IC was completed, judgement of propriety for carbon ion therapy is done by the ethical committee for IC of each patient. Since 1994 carbon ion therapy has been performed over 1300 patients with cancer in various organs, and its safety and usefulness for cancer treatment has been clarified gradually. The carbon ion therapy is thought to be a new and promising tool for cancer treatment near future. (authors)

  3. Nuclear decay data files of the Dosimetry Research Group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eckerman, K.F.; Westfall, R.J.; Ryman, J.C.; Cristy, M.

    1993-12-01

    This report documents the nuclear decay data files used by the Dosimetry Research Group at Oak Ridge National Laboratory and the utility DEXRAX which provides access to the files. The files are accessed, by nuclide, to extract information on the intensities and energies of the radiations associated with spontaneous nuclear transformation of the radionuclides. In addition, beta spectral data are available for all beta-emitting nuclides. Two collections of nuclear decay data are discussed. The larger collection contains data for 838 radionuclides, which includes the 825 radionuclides assembled during the preparation of Publications 30 and 38 of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) and 13 additional nuclides evaluated in preparing a monograph for the Medical Internal Radiation Dose (MIRD) Committee of the Society of Nuclear Medicine. The second collection is composed of data from the MIRD monograph and contains information for 242 radionuclides. Abridged tabulations of these data have been published by the ICRP in Publication 38 and by the Society of Nuclear Medicine in a monograph entitled ''MIRD: Radionuclide Data and Decay Schemes.'' The beta spectral data reported here have not been published by either organization. Electronic copies of the files and the utility, along with this report, are available from the Radiation Shielding Information Center at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

  4. Group-Effort Applied Research (GEAR): Expanding Opportunities for Undergraduate Research Through Original, Class-Based Research Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Sean D.; Teter, Ken

    2014-01-01

    Undergraduate research clearly enriches the educational development of participating students, but these experiences are limited by the inherent inefficiency of the standard one student - one mentor model for undergraduate research. Group-Effort Applied Research (GEAR) was developed as a strategy to provide substantial numbers of undergraduates with meaningful research experiences. The GEAR curriculum delivers concept-driven lecture material and provides hands-on training in the context of an active research project from the instructor's lab. Because GEAR is structured as a class, participating students benefit from intensive, supervised research training that involves a built-in network of peer support and abundant contact with faculty mentors. The class format also ensures a relatively standardized and consistent research experience. Furthermore, meaningful progress toward a research objective can be achieved more readily with GEAR than with the traditional one student - one mentor model of undergraduate research because sporadic mistakes by individuals in the class are overshadowed by the successes of the group as a whole. Three separate GEAR classes involving three distinct research projects have been offered to date. In this paper, we provide an overview of the GEAR format and review some of the recurring themes for GEAR instruction. We propose GEAR can serve as a template to expand student opportunities for life science research without sacrificing the quality of the mentored research experience. PMID:24898007

  5. Using Mechanical Turk for research on cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arch, Joanna J; Carr, Alaina L

    2017-10-01

    The successful recruitment and study of cancer survivors within psycho-oncology research can be challenging, time-consuming, and expensive, particularly for key subgroups such as young adult cancer survivors. Online crowdsourcing platforms offer a potential solution that has not yet been investigated with regard to cancer populations. The current study assessed the presence of cancer survivors on Amazon's Mechanical Turk (MTurk) and the feasibility of using MTurk as an efficient, cost-effective, and reliable psycho-oncology recruitment and research platform. During a <4-month period, cancer survivors living in the United States were recruited on MTurk to complete two assessments, spaced 1 week apart, relating to psychosocial and cancer-related functioning. The reliability and validity of responses were investigated. Within a <4-month period, 464 self-identified cancer survivors on MTurk consented to and completed an online assessment. The vast majority (79.09%) provided reliable and valid study data according to multiple indices. The sample was highly diverse in terms of U.S. geography, socioeconomic status, and cancer type, and reflected a particularly strong presence of distressed and young adult cancer survivors (median age = 36 years). A majority of participants (58.19%) responded to a second survey sent one week later. Online crowdsourcing represents a feasible, efficient, and cost-effective recruitment and research platform for cancer survivors, particularly for young adult cancer survivors and those with significant distress. We discuss remaining challenges and future recommendations. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Testicular Cancer Survivorship : Research Strategies and Recommendations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Travis, Lois B.; Beard, Clair; Allan, James M.; Dahl, Alv A.; Feldman, Darren R.; Oldenburg, Jan; Daugaard, Gedske; Kelly, Jennifer L.; Dolan, M. Eileen; Hannigan, Robyn; Constine, Louis S.; Oeffinger, Kevin C.; Okunieff, Paul; Armstrong, Greg; Wiljer, David; Miller, Robert C.; Gietema, Jourik A.; van Leeuwen, Flora E.; Williams, Jacqueline P.; Nichols, Craig R.; Einhorn, Lawrence H.; Fossa, Sophie D.

    2010-01-01

    Testicular cancer represents the most curable solid tumor, with a 10-year survival rate of more than 95%. Given the young average age at diagnosis, it is estimated that effective treatment approaches, in particular, platinum-based chemotherapy, have resulted in an average gain of several decades of

  7. Promising Tools in Prostate Cancer Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonomo, Silvia; Hansen, Cecilie H; Petrunak, Elyse M

    2016-01-01

    Cytochrome P450 17A1 (CYP17A1) is an important target in the treatment of prostate cancer because it produces androgens required for tumour growth. The FDA has approved only one CYP17A1 inhibitor, abiraterone, which contains a steroidal scaffold similar to the endogenous CYP17A1 substrates...

  8. Transgenic Rat Models for Breast Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-10-01

    colleagues, Dr. Henry Pitot , an expert in hepatocarcinogenesis, and Dr. Michael Gould, an expert in breast cancer. Through our initial attempts at...974-978. 29. Dragan, Y.P. and H.C. Pitot . 1992. The role of the stages of initiation and promotion in phenotypic diversity during hepatocarcinogenesis

  9. Cancer in Africa: opportunities for collaborative research and training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adebamowo, C A; Akarolo-Anthony, S

    2009-06-01

    Cancer is a worldwide public health problem causing increasing morbidity and mortality, particularly in the developing world. Underlying trends are changing the pattern of cancer and this is also being influenced by the HIV/AIDS pandemic, particularly in Sub-Saharan Africa. Even though the pattern of cancer varies across Africa, there are identifiable trends. Breast and cervical cancers, and Kaposi sarcoma are the commonest cancers in women, while Kaposi sarcoma, liver and prostate cancers are the commonest in men. Cancer causes more morbidity and mortality in Africa compared to other parts of the world. Infections account for a disproportionate amount of cancers in Africa. The HIV epidemic is contributing to increased prevalence of many cancers particularly those associated with Herpes and Papilloma viruses. Tobacco use, another major carcinogen, is increasing, particularly among the young. Dietary factors, alcohol use, physical inactivity and environmental pollution are also important aetiological factors of cancer in Africa. In developing countries, poverty, limited government health budget and poor health care systems complicate cancer prevention, treatment and outcomes. Coordinated response by international agencies and NGOs is needed to help developing countries and several successful models exist. More action is also needed on ensuring safety and quality of chemotherapy and the price needs to be reduced. Responses advocated for cancer control in Africa include banning tobacco use, better regulation of alcohol sale, better environmental planning and immunization against cancer associated viruses. Training of health care workers to diagnose cancer and treat it effectively within limited budgets is needed. Research to develop these new treatments and others, particularly from natural products is urgently needed and this can be done safely within established health research ethics regulatory frameworks. Several opportunities for collaborative research and

  10. Engaging men with penile cancer in qualitative research: reflections from an interview-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witty, Karl; Branney, Peter; Bullen, Kate; White, Alan; Evans, Julie; Eardley, Ian

    2014-01-01

    To explore the challenges of engaging men with penile cancer in qualitative interview research. Qualitative interviewing offers an ideal tool for exploring men's experiences of illness, complementing and providing context to gendered health inequalities identified in epidemiological research on men. But conducting interviews with men can be challenging and embarking on a qualitative interview study with males can feel like a daunting task, given the limited amount of practical, gender-sensitive guidance for researchers. Reflecting on a researcher's experience of conducting qualitative research on men with penile cancer, this paper explores the potential challenges of interviewing this group, but also documents how engagement and data collection were achieved. This is a reflective paper, informed by the experiences of a male researcher (KW) with no nurse training, who conducted 28 interviews with men who had been treated for penile cancer. The researcher's experiences are reported in chronological order, from the methodological challenges of recruitment to those of conducting the interview. The paper offers a resource for the novice researcher, highlighting some advantages and disadvantages of conducting qualitative interview research as a nurse researcher, as well as recommendations on how to overcome challenges. Engaging men with penile cancer in qualitative interview raises practical, methodological, ethical and emotional challenges for the researcher. However, when these challenges are met, men will talk about their health. Methodological procedures must enable an open and ongoing dialogue with clinical gatekeepers and potential participants to promote engagement. Support from colleagues is essential for any interviewer, no matter how experienced the researcher is.

  11. Understanding participation by African Americans in cancer genetics research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Jasmine A; Barg, Frances K; Weathers, Benita; Guerra, Carmen E; Troxel, Andrea B; Domchek, Susan; Bowen, Deborah; Shea, Judy A; Halbert, Chanita Hughes

    2012-01-01

    Understanding genetic factors that contribute to racial differences in cancer outcomes may reduce racial disparities in cancer morbidity and mortality. Achieving this goal will be limited by low rates of African American participation in cancer genetics research. We conducted a qualitative study with African American adults (n = 91) to understand attitudes about participating in cancer genetics research and to identify factors that are considered when making a decision about participating in this type of research. Participants would consider the potential benefits to themselves, family members, and their community when making a decision to participate in cancer genetics research. However, concerns about exploitation, distrust of researchers, and investigators' motives were also important to participation decisions. Individuals would also consider who has access to their personal information and what would happen to these data. Side effects, logistical issues, and the potential to gain knowledge about health issues were also described as important factors in decision making. African Americans may consider a number of ethical, legal, and social issues when making a decision to participate in cancer genetics research. These issues should be addressed as part of recruitment efforts.

  12. A Review of Lung Cancer Research in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kan, C S; Chan, K M J

    2016-06-01

    Lung cancer is a major cause of mortality and morbidity in Malaysia and worldwide. This paper reviews all research and publications on lung cancer in Malaysia published between 2000-2015. 89 papers were identified, of which 64 papers were selected and reviewed on the basis of their relevance to the review. The epidemiology, risk factors, cell types, clinical presentation, diagnosis, treatment, outcomes, prevention, and the social impact of lung cancer in the country are reviewed and summarized. The clinical relevance of the studies done in the country are discussed along with recommendations for future research.

  13. Prostate Cancer Clinical Trials Group: The University of Michigan Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-01

    Michigan Cancer Center, Ann Arbor, MI Abstract Disclosures Abstract: Background: Cabozantinib ( Cabo ) is an inhibitor of MET and VEGFR2. MET signaling...promotes tumor growth, invasion and metastasis. Methods: mCRPC patients (pts) with progressive measurable disease (mRECIST) received Cabo at 100 mg...qd PO over a 12 week (wk) lead-in stage. Response was assessed q6 wks. Treatment ≥ wk 12 was based on response: pts with PR continued open-label Cabo

  14. Refractory Research Group - U.S. DOE, Albany Research Center [Institution Profile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennett, James P.

    2004-09-01

    The refractory research group at the Albany Research Center (ARC) has a long history of conducting materials research within the U.S. Bureau of Mines, and more recently, within the U.S. Dept. of Energy. When under the U.S. Bureau of Mines, research was driven by national needs to develop substitute materials and to conserve raw materials. This mission was accomplished by improving refractory material properties and/or by recycling refractories using critical and strategic materials. Currently, as a U.S. Dept of Energy Fossil Energy field site, research is driven primarily by the need to assist DOE in meeting its vision to develop economically and environmentally viable technologies for the production of electricity from fossil fuels. Research at ARC impacts this vision by: • Providing information on the performance characteristics of materials being specified for the current generation of power systems; • Developing cost-effective, high performance materials for inclusion in the next generation of fossil power systems; and • Solving environmental emission and waste problems related to fossil energy systems. A brief history of past refractory research within the U.S. Bureau of Mines, the current refractory research at ARC, and the equipment and capabilities used to conduct refractory research at ARC will be discussed.

  15. Design and analysis of group-randomized trials in cancer: A review of current practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, David M; Pals, Sherri L; George, Stephanie M; Kuzmichev, Andrey; Lai, Gabriel Y; Lee, Jocelyn A; Myles, Ranell L; Nelson, Shakira M

    2018-06-01

    The purpose of this paper is to summarize current practices for the design and analysis of group-randomized trials involving cancer-related risk factors or outcomes and to offer recommendations to improve future trials. We searched for group-randomized trials involving cancer-related risk factors or outcomes that were published or online in peer-reviewed journals in 2011-15. During 2016-17, in Bethesda MD, we reviewed 123 articles from 76 journals to characterize their design and their methods for sample size estimation and data analysis. Only 66 (53.7%) of the articles reported appropriate methods for sample size estimation. Only 63 (51.2%) reported exclusively appropriate methods for analysis. These findings suggest that many investigators do not adequately attend to the methodological challenges inherent in group-randomized trials. These practices can lead to underpowered studies, to an inflated type 1 error rate, and to inferences that mislead readers. Investigators should work with biostatisticians or other methodologists familiar with these issues. Funders and editors should ensure careful methodological review of applications and manuscripts. Reviewers should ensure that studies are properly planned and analyzed. These steps are needed to improve the rigor and reproducibility of group-randomized trials. The Office of Disease Prevention (ODP) at the National Institutes of Health (NIH) has taken several steps to address these issues. ODP offers an online course on the design and analysis of group-randomized trials. ODP is working to increase the number of methodologists who serve on grant review panels. ODP has developed standard language for the Application Guide and the Review Criteria to draw investigators' attention to these issues. Finally, ODP has created a new Research Methods Resources website to help investigators, reviewers, and NIH staff better understand these issues. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. Big Data-Led Cancer Research, Application, and Insights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, James A L; Ni Chonghaile, Triona; Matchett, Kyle B; Lynam-Lennon, Niamh; Kiely, Patrick A

    2016-11-01

    Insights distilled from integrating multiple big-data or "omic" datasets have revealed functional hierarchies of molecular networks driving tumorigenesis and modifiers of treatment response. Identifying these novel key regulatory and dysregulated elements is now informing personalized medicine. Crucially, although there are many advantages to this approach, there are several key considerations to address. Here, we examine how this big data-led approach is impacting many diverse areas of cancer research, through review of the key presentations given at the Irish Association for Cancer Research Meeting and importantly how the results may be applied to positively affect patient outcomes. Cancer Res; 76(21); 6167-70. ©2016 AACR. ©2016 American Association for Cancer Research.

  17. Attitudes Toward Breast Cancer Genetic Testing in Five Special Population Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, Amelie G; Chalela, Patricia; Gallion, Kipling J; Muñoz, Edgar; Holden, Alan E; Burhansstipanov, Linda; Smith, Selina A; Wong-Kim, Evaon; Wyatt, Stephen W; Suarez, Lucina

    2015-01-01

    This study examined interest in and attitudes toward genetic testing in 5 different population groups. The survey included African American, Asian American, Latina, Native American, and Appalachian women with varying familial histories of breast cancer. A total of 49 women were interviewed in person. Descriptive and nonparametric statistical techniques were used to assess ethnic group differences. Overall, interest in testing was high. All groups endorsed more benefits than risks. There were group differences regarding endorsement of specific benefits and risks: testing to "follow doctor recommendations" (p=0.017), "concern for effects on family" (p=0.044), "distrust of modern medicine" (p=0.036), "cost" (p=0.025), and "concerns about communication of results to others" (p=0.032). There was a significant inverse relationship between interest and genetic testing cost (p<0.050), with the exception of Latinas, who showed the highest level of interest regardless of increasing cost. Cost may be an important barrier to obtaining genetic testing services, and participants would benefit by genetic counseling that incorporates the unique cultural values and beliefs of each group to create an individualized, culturally competent program. Further research about attitudes toward genetic testing is needed among Asian Americans, Native Americans, and Appalachians for whom data are severely lacking. Future study of the different Latina perceptions toward genetic testing are encouraged.

  18. Assessing stakeholder opinion on relations between cancer patient groups and pharmaceutical companies in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leto di Priolo, Susanna; Fehervary, Andras; Riggins, Phil; Redmond, Kathy

    2012-01-01

    The relationship between the pharmaceutical industry and cancer patient groups has been the subject of much scrutiny and skepticism, and some high-profile negative media coverage has focused attention on some of the problematic aspects of the relationship. Both the pharmaceutical industry and cancer patient groups have made an effort in recent years to improve the transparency and openness of their relations, specifically with regard to the financial support offered by pharmaceutical companies to patient groups. The objectives of this survey were to benchmark perceptions held by different stakeholder groups about current relationships between cancer patient groups and pharmaceutical companies in Europe, and to explore opinions about ways in which partnerships between patient groups and pharmaceutical companies could evolve to the benefit of cancer patients. The survey was conducted using a structured questionnaire that contained a combination of matrix, scaled, and open-ended questions. The questionnaire was developed based on a literature search and the findings from ten in-depth interviews conducted with policy makers and advocates working at an EU level. Telephone interviews were carried out using a structured questionnaire with a convenience sample of 161 policy makers, cancer healthcare group representatives, and cancer patient group leaders from France, Germany, Hungary, Italy, Latvia, the Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Spain, Sweden, and the UK. The interviews took place in the relevant language of the country. The current relationship between the pharmaceutical industry and cancer patient groups in Europe is generally viewed as positive, but it is also viewed as being unequal, not transparent enough, and not sufficiently patient-centric. There is broad agreement that cancer patient groups can help companies identify unmet needs and contribute to the development of innovative medicines; however, there is some concern about cancer patients

  19. Summer Prostate Cancer Research Training Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-01

    pathways underlying pathological cell proliferation in the setting of cancer. Current efforts are focused on selecting RNA aptamers to receptors...museums (art, natural history, and sports). In addition, there are a large number of restaurants ranging from fast food to fine dining. Application...there are a large number of restaurants ranging from fast food to fine dining. Application to the Program - Application forms, distributed with

  20. MBCP - Approach - Immunotherapy | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Immunotherapy CCR investigators pioneered the use of the tuberculosis vaccine—Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG)—in the treatment of bladder cancer. In cases where the tumor burden is not too high and direct contact can be made with the urothelium surface of the bladder, BCG application appears to elicit an immune response that attacks the tumor as well as the attenuated virus.

  1. Breast Cancer Translational Research Center of Excellence

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    CBCP) Breast Center is the Army-recognized and Military-recognized specialty referral center for t r i - se rv ice active duty personnel from around...development of customized treatment options in patients with HER2+ breast cancer. Objective 1 Evaluate differences in the molecular profiles of...2014CBCP & CCBB Analysis of Errors & Corrections 11/7/2014Customer Satisfaction Results Analysis 1/7/2015Audit of signed-out tissue samples in -80 freezer

  2. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Cancer Research Common Cancer Types Recurrent Cancer Common Cancer Types Bladder Cancer Breast Cancer Colorectal Cancer Kidney (Renal Cell) Cancer ... Genomics Research Research on Causes of Cancer Cancer Diagnosis Research Cancer Prevention Research Screening & Early Detection Cancer ...

  3. Translating Research into Policy: Reducing Breast Cancer Disparities in Illinois

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dr. Carol Ferrans is internationally recognized for her work in disparities in health care and quality of life outcomes. She has a distinguished record of research that includes major grants funded by three institutes of the National Institutes of Health (National Cancer Institute, National Institute for Minority Health and Health Disparities, and National Institute for Nursing Research).    Dr. Ferrans’ work has been instrumental in reducing the disparity in breast cancer mortality Chicago, which at its peak was among the worst in the nation.  Efforts led by Dr. Ferrans and colleagues led directly to statewide legislation, to address the multifaceted causes of black/white disparity in deaths from breast cancer.  She was one of the founders of the Metropolitan Chicago Breast Cancer Task Force (MCBCTF), leading the team focusing on barriers to mammography screening, to identify reasons for the growing disparity in breast cancer mortality. Their findings (citing Ferrans’ research and others) and recommendations for action were translated directly into the Illinois Reducing Breast Cancer Disparities Act and two additional laws strengthening the Act.  These laws and other statewide efforts have improved access to screening and quality of mammography throughout the Illinois. In addition, Dr. Ferrans and her team identified cultural beliefs contributing to later stage diagnosis of breast cancer in African American and Latino women in Chicago, and most importantly, showed that these beliefs can be changed.  They reached more than 8,000 African American women in Chicago with a short film on DVD, which was effective in changing beliefs and promoting screening.  Her team’s published findings were cited by the American Cancer Society in their guidelines for breast cancer screening.  The Chicago black/white disparity in breast cancer deaths has decreased by 35% since the MCBCTF first released its report, according to data from the Illinois Department of Public

  4. ABO and Rh blood groups frequency in women with HER2 positive breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urun, Y; Utkan, G; Altundag, K; Arslan, O; Onur, H; Arslan, U Y; Kocer, M; Dogan, I; Senler, F C; Yalcin, B; Demirkazik, A; Akbulut, H; Icli, F

    2012-01-01

    The role of genetic factors in the development of cancer is widely accepted. Data on the role of ABO blood group and Rh factor in breast cancer is inconclusive. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of a possible association between HER2 (+) breast cancer in Turkish women and ABO blood groups and Rh factor. In 294 female patients with HER2 (+) breast cancer, ABO blood groups and Rh factor were examined. The relationship of blood groups with age, menopausal status, and family history of cancer, estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR) and HER2 status of these patients was evaluated. Blood groups distribution of 22,821 healthy blood donors was also assessed and compared with the patients' blood groups distribution. The median patient age was 47 years (range 20-80) and 56% of the patients were premenopausal. ER and PR were positive in 50 and 60% of the patients, respectively. Overall, the ABO blood group distribution of the 294 HER2 (+) breast cancer patients was similar to that of the healthy blood donors (p=0.36). Likewise there was no correlation between blood type and ER, PR and menopausal status. Rh (-) patients had more frequent family cancer history and this difference was significant for patients with blood group B Rh (-) and O Rh (-) (p = 0.04). In the present study we didn't find any relationship between HER2 status and ABO blood group and Rh factor. However, further studies with larger number of patients are needed to establish the role (if any) of blood groups in patients with breast cancer.

  5. Contributions of 3D Cell Cultures for Cancer Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravi, Maddaly; Ramesh, Aarthi; Pattabhi, Aishwarya

    2017-10-01

    Cancer cell lines have contributed immensely in understanding the complex physiology of cancers. They are excellent material for studies as they offer homogenous samples without individual variations and can be utilised with ease and flexibility. Also, the number of assays and end-points one can study is almost limitless; with the advantage of improvising, modifying or altering several variables and methods. Literally, a new dimension to cancer research has been achieved by the advent of 3Dimensional (3D) cell culture techniques. This approach increased many folds the ways in which cancer cell lines can be utilised for understanding complex cancer biology. 3D cell culture techniques are now the preferred way of using cancer cell lines to bridge the gap between the 'absolute in vitro' and 'true in vivo'. The aspects of cancer biology that 3D cell culture systems have contributed include morphology, microenvironment, gene and protein expression, invasion/migration/metastasis, angiogenesis, tumour metabolism and drug discovery, testing chemotherapeutic agents, adaptive responses and cancer stem cells. We present here, a comprehensive review on the applications of 3D cell culture systems for these aspects of cancers. J. Cell. Physiol. 232: 2679-2697, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Wnt Inactivation for Liver Cancer Therapy | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the fifth most common and third most deadly type of cancer in the world. The majority of cases occur in Asia and Africa, resulting in most cases being diagnosed only at advanced stages of the disease when drug resistance is high. HCC typically follows damage to the liver such as cirrhosis, making radiation and chemotherapy a more challenging prospect. Surgery is also not a very viable option because less than one in four carcinomas can be completely removed. The limitations in these treatment modalities create the need for alternative therapeutic approaches.

  7. Long-term follow-up of a randomized study of support group intervention in women with primary breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Björneklett, Helena Granstam; Rosenblad, Andreas; Lindemalm, Christina; Ojutkangas, Marja-Leena; Letocha, Henry; Strang, Peter; Bergkvist, Leif

    2013-04-01

    Despite a fairly good prognosis, many breast-cancer patients suffer from symptoms such as anxiety, depression and fatigue, which may affect health-related quality of life and may persist for several years. The aim of the present study was to perform a long-term follow-up of a randomized study of support group intervention in women after primary breast cancer treatment. Three hundred and eighty two women with primary breast cancer were randomized to support group intervention or control group, 181 in each group. Women in the intervention group participated in 1 week of intervention followed by 4 days of follow-up 2 months later. This is a long-term follow-up undertaken, in average, 6.5 years after randomization. Patients answered the questionnaires the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer, quality of life questionnaire (EORTC QLQ-C30) and the breast cancer module questionnaire (BR 23), the hospital anxiety and depression scale (HAD) and the Norwegian version of the fatigue scale (FQ). After adjusting for treatment with chemotherapy, age, marriage, education and children at home, there was a significant improvement in physical, mental and total fatigue (FQ), cognitive function, body image and future perspective (EORTC QLQ C30 and BR23) in the intervention group compared with controls. The proportion of women affected by high anxiety and depression scores were not significantly different between the groups. Support intervention significantly improved cognitive function, body image, future perspective and fatigue, compared with to the findings in the control group. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. A Review of Barriers to Minorities' Participation in Cancer Clinical Trials: Implications for Future Cancer Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salman, Ali; Nguyen, Claire; Lee, Yi-Hui; Cooksey-James, Tawna

    2016-04-01

    To enhance nurses' awareness and competencies in practice and research by reporting the common barriers to participation of minorities in cancer clinical trials and discussing facilitators and useful strategies for recruitment. Several databases were searched for articles published in peer reviewed journals. Some of the barriers to minorities' participation in clinical trials were identified within the cultural social-context of cancer patients. The involvement of community networking was suggested as the most effective strategy for the recruitment of minorities in cancer clinical trials. Using culturally sensitive approaches to enhance ethnic minorities' participation is important for advancing cancer care and eliminating health disparities. Awareness of barriers and potential facilitators to the enrollment of ethnic minority cancer patients may contribute to enhancing nurses' competencies of recruiting ethnic minorities in nursing research, playing efficient roles in cancer clinical trials team, and providing culturally competent quality care.

  9. Invasive Species Working Group: Research Summary and Expertise Directory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jack Butler; Dean Pearson; Mee-Sook Kim

    2009-01-01

    Rocky Mountain Research Station (RMRS) personnel have scientific expertise in widely ranging disciplines and conduct multidisciplinary research on invasive species issues with emphasis in terrestrial and aquatic habitats throughout the Interior West, Great Plains, and related areas (fig. 1; Expertise Directory; appendix). RMRS invasive species research covers an array...

  10. Physician Assistant | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    counseling within the boundaries of his/her specialty area of education and clinical preparation (pediatrics, adults, urologic, surgical, etc.). Review assigned patient resident reports and carry and answer the resident pager. Provide coverage for the post-call resident’s patients, while working closely with the Inpatient/Fellowship staff.  Support in-patient and out-patient care of subjects enrolled in experimental protocols and clinical trials. Work as a member of a multidisciplinary clinical team to provide comprehensive care to patients in a research environment. Write prescriptions. Explain the care management/discharge plan to all members of the covering team (inpatient NPs, attendings) at signout. This position is located in Bethesda, Maryland in support of the Center for Cancer Research (CCR).

  11. Cancer Ward Staff Group: An Intervention Designed to Prevent Disaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, William H.

    1985-01-01

    Describes a case study illustrating organizational and system contingencies for introducing and maintaining a support group for oncology nursing staff in a large general hospital culture. Criteria for long-run survivability of innovation in a work system are applied to a group structured like that described by Balint for training physicians in…

  12. ABO blood group and risk of pancreatic cancer in a Turkish population in Western Blacksea region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engin, Huseyin; Bilir, Cemil; Üstün, Hasan; Gökmen, Ayla

    2012-01-01

    We aimed to investigate the relationship between blood groups and pancreatic cancer in a Turkish population in Western Blacksea region. This is a retrospective study. Zonguldak Karaelmas University outpatient oncology clinic records were screened for the period between 2004 and 2011. The median age of patients were 56 (± 16) and 132 of 633 study population had pancreatic cancer. Pancreatic cancer patients had significantly higher rates of blood group A compared to controls (OR 1.8, 95%CI, p 0.005). Rates of blood group AB was significantly lower than the control group (OR 0.37, 95% CI, p 0.04). The median survival (IR) time in subjects having the blood groups A, B, AB and O were 7.0 (1-28), 7.0 (2-38), 10 (2-36) and 9.0 (2-48) months respectively; the blood group 0 had significantly higher overall survival (OS) compared to the non-0 groups (p 0.04). Pancreatic cancer patients had more common blood group A in our population. Moreover, blood group AB appeared to be a protective factor against pancreatic cancer in our population. Blood group 0 had a significantly longer survival compared to non-0, regardless of prognostic factors.

  13. Breast cancer awareness and barriers to symptomatic presentation among women from different ethnic groups in East London

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbes, L J L; Atkins, L; Thurnham, A; Layburn, J; Haste, F; Ramirez, A J

    2011-01-01

    Background: During 2001 to 2005, 1-year breast cancer survival was low in ethnically diverse East London. We hypothesised that this was due to low breast cancer awareness and barriers to symptomatic presentation, leading to late stage at diagnosis in women from ethnic minorities. We examined ethnic differences in breast cancer awareness and barriers to symptomatic presentation in East London. Methods: We carried out a population-based survey of 1515 women aged 30+ using the Cancer Research UK Breast Cancer Awareness Measure. We analysed the data using logistic regression adjusting for age group and level of deprivation. Results: South Asian and black women had lower breast cancer awareness than white women. South Asian women, but not black women, reported more emotional barriers to seeking medical help than white women. White women were more likely than non-white women to report worry about wasting the doctor's time as a barrier to symptomatic presentation. Conclusion: Interventions to promote early presentation of breast cancer for South Asian and black women should promote knowledge of symptoms and skills to detect changes, and tackle emotional barriers to symptomatic presentation and for white women tackle the idea that going to the doctor to discuss a breast symptom will waste the doctor's time. PMID:21989188

  14. Moderators of the effects of group-based physical exercise on cancer survivors' quality of life

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalter, Joeri; Buffart, Laurien M.; Korstjens, Irene; van Weert, Ellen; Brug, Johannes; Verdonck-de Leeuw, Irma M.; Mesters, Ilse; van den Borne, Bart; Hoekstra-Weebers, Josette E. H. M.; Ros, Wynand J. G.; May, Anne M.

    This study explored demographic, clinical, and psychological moderators of the effect of a group-based physical exercise intervention on global quality of life (QoL) among cancer survivors who completed treatment. Cancer survivors were assigned to a 12-week physical exercise (n = 147) or a wait-list

  15. An Effectiveness Study of a CBT Group Program for Women with Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beatty, Lisa; Koczwara, Bogda

    2010-01-01

    Cognitive Behaviour Stress Management for women with breast cancer has demonstrable empirical efficacy, however its effectiveness in the applied clinical setting has not been examined to date in an Australian setting. A 10-week group program was offered to five women with early stage breast cancer. Clinical changes in distress, coping, and social…

  16. Identification of the Mechanisms Underlying Antiestrogen Resistance: Breast Cancer Research Partnership between FIU-UM Braman Family Breast Cancer Institute

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Roy, Deodutta

    2008-01-01

    This research proposal has two primary objectives which are to (1) increase FIU investigators' research expertise and competitive ability to succeed as independent breast cancer researchers; and (2...

  17. Male Oncology Research and Education program for men at high risk for prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorentz, J; Liu, S K; Vesprini, D

    2018-04-01

    Three groups of men are at high risk of developing prostate cancer: men with a strong family history of prostate cancer, men of West African or Caribbean ancestry, and men with a germline pathogenic variant in a prostate cancer-associated gene. Despite the fact that those men constitute a significant portion of the male population in North America, few recommendations for prostate cancer screening specific to them have been developed. For men at general population risk for prostate cancer, screening based on prostate-specific antigen (psa) has remained controversial despite the abundance of literature on the topic. As a result, recommendations made by major screening authorities are inconsistent (ranging from no psa screening to baseline psa screening at age 45), allowing physicians to pick and choose how to screen their patients. The Male Oncology Research and Education (more) program is an observational research program that serves as an academic platform for multiple research foci. For its participants, serum and dna are biobanked, medical information is collected, and contact for relevant research-related opportunities is maintained. This research program is paired with a specialized clinic called the more clinic, where men at high risk are regularly screened for prostate cancer in a standard approach that includes physical examination and serum psa measurement. In this article, we describe the goals, participant accrual to date, and projects specific to this unique program.

  18. Obesity-Linked Mouse Models of Liver Cancer | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimmy Stauffer, Ph.D., and colleagues working with Robert  Wiltrout, Ph.D., in CCR’s Cancer and Inflammation Program, along with collaborators in the Laboratory of Human Carcinogenesis, have developed a novel mouse model that demonstrates how fat-producing phenotypes can influence the development of hepatic cancer.   The team recently reported their findings in Cancer Research.

  19. Hospital-Based Cancer Profile at the Shaukat Khanum Memorial Cancer Hospital and Research Centre, Lahore, Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badar, F.; Mahmood, S.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To determine a frequency distribution of the type and clinical profile of cancer cases registered at the Shaukat Khanum Memorial Cancer Hospital and Research Centre (SKMCH and RC). Study Design: A retrospective, observational study. Place and Duration of Study: The SKMCH and RC, Lahore, from December 1994 to December 2012. Methodology: The time period taken into consideration for the three most common diagnoses was December 1994 - December 2012. Summaries were obtained for gender, age-group, and cancer type on: (i) all age-groups, both genders combined; (ii) adults (> 18 years); (iii) adult males (> 18 years); (iv) adult females (> 18 years); and (v) children (18 years). For a subset of cases registered between January 2004 to December 31, 2012 (9 years), summaries on cancers, age, addiction, family history, disease stage, and grade were obtained for the above groups. Statistical Package for Social Sciences, version 19, was used to analyze the data. Results: The most common malignancies, for the 18-year time period, among adults, were those of breast (11,848/ 49,765, 23.81%), lip and oral cavity (3, 291/49, 765, 6.61%), and liver and intrahepatic bile ducts (2, 836/49, 765, 5.70%). Conclusion: Hospital-based results obtained from various oncology hospital and departments, can be considered as an effective way forward in getting a preview of cancer burden in the region. (author)

  20. [A study of the occupational stress norm and it' s application for the technical group and scientific research group].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xin-wei; Liu, Ze-jun; Zhao, Pei-qing; Bai, Shao-ying; Pang, Xing-huo; Wang, Zhi-ming; Jin, Tai-yi; Lan, Ya-jia

    2006-11-01

    A study of the occupational stress norm and it' s application for the technical group and scientific research group. In this study, cross-sectional study method is used, and a synthetic way of sorting and randomized sampling is adopted to deal with research targets(235 scientific research group, 857 technical group). Descriptive statistics for OSI-R scale scores for the technical group and scientific research group were modulated. Scale raw score to T-score conversion tables derived from the OSI-R normative sample for technical group and scientific research group were established. OSI-R profile from for technical group and scientific research group were established. For the ORQ and PSQ scales, scores at or above 70T indicate a strong levels of maladaptive stress and strain. Score in the range of 60T to 69T suggest middle levels of maladaptive stress and strain. Score in the range of 40T to 59T indicate normal levels of stress and strain. Score below 40T indicate a relative absence of occupational stress and strain. For the PRQ scales, score below 30T indicate a significant lack of coping resources. Score in the range of 30T to 39T suggest middle deficits in coping resources. Score in the range of 40T to 59T indicate average coping resources. Scores at or above 60T indicate a strong levels of coping resources. Different intervention measure should be take to reduce the occupational stress so as to improve the work ability.

  1. Advancing cancer control research in an emerging news media environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Katherine C; Niederdeppe, Jeff; Blake, Kelly D; Cappella, Joseph N

    2013-12-01

    Cancer is both highly feared and highly newsworthy, and there is a robust body of research documenting the content and effects of cancer news coverage on health behaviors and policy. Recent years have witnessed ongoing, transformative shifts in American journalism alongside rapid advances in communication technology and the public information environment. These changes create a pressing need to consider a new set of research questions, sampling strategies, measurement techniques, and theories of media effects to ensure continued relevance and adaptation of communication research to address critical cancer control concerns. This paper begins by briefly reviewing what we know about the role of cancer news in shaping cancer-related beliefs, attitudes, behaviors, and policies. We then outline challenges and opportunities, both theoretical and methodological, posed by the rapidly changing news media environment and the nature of audience engagement. We organize our discussion around three major shifts associated with the emerging news media environment as it relates to health communication: 1) speed and dynamism of news diffusion, 2) increased narrowcasting of media content for specialized audiences, and 3) broadened participation in shaping media content. In so doing, we articulate a set of questions for future theory and research, in an effort to catalyze innovative communication scholarship to improve cancer prevention and control.

  2. Application of single-cell technology in cancer research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Shao-Bo; Fu, Li-Wu

    2017-07-01

    In this review, we have outlined the application of single-cell technology in cancer research. Single-cell technology has made encouraging progress in recent years and now provides the means to detect rare cancer cells such as circulating tumor cells and cancer stem cells. We reveal how this technology has advanced the analysis of intratumor heterogeneity and tumor epigenetics, and guided individualized treatment strategies. The future prospects now are to bring single-cell technology into the clinical arena. We believe that the clinical application of single-cell technology will be beneficial in cancer diagnostics and treatment, and ultimately improve survival in cancer patients. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. FAR Research Project: What do we know about group audits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hanes Downey, Denise; Gold, A.H.

    Despite concerns about the quality of group audits, recently raised by practice, inspectors, regulators, and standard setters, only a limited number of academic studies have specifically examined these engagements to date. This paper first describes some of the concerns about group audits to explain

  4. Identifying relevant group of miRNAs in cancer using fuzzy mutual information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Jayanta Kumar; Ray, Shubhra Sankar; Pal, Sankar K

    2016-04-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) act as a major biomarker of cancer. All miRNAs in human body are not equally important for cancer identification. We propose a methodology, called FMIMS, which automatically selects the most relevant miRNAs for a particular type of cancer. In FMIMS, miRNAs are initially grouped by using a SVM-based algorithm; then the group with highest relevance is determined and the miRNAs in that group are finally ranked for selection according to their redundancy. Fuzzy mutual information is used in computing the relevance of a group and the redundancy of miRNAs within it. Superiority of the most relevant group to all others, in deciding normal or cancer, is demonstrated on breast, renal, colorectal, lung, melanoma and prostate data. The merit of FMIMS as compared to several existing methods is established. While 12 out of 15 selected miRNAs by FMIMS corroborate with those of biological investigations, three of them viz., "hsa-miR-519," "hsa-miR-431" and "hsa-miR-320c" are possible novel predictions for renal cancer, lung cancer and melanoma, respectively. The selected miRNAs are found to be involved in disease-specific pathways by targeting various genes. The method is also able to detect the responsible miRNAs even at the primary stage of cancer. The related code is available at http://www.jayanta.droppages.com/FMIMS.html .

  5. Social and psychological determinants of participation in internet-based cancer support groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høybye, Mette Terp; Dalton, Susanne Oksbjerg; Christensen, Jane

    2010-01-01

    PURPOSE: In this study, we identified the social and psychological characteristics of Danish cancer patients that determine use of the internet for support. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We invited 230 cancer patients taking part in a public rehabilitation program to participate in an internet module...... observed no difference between the two groups in quality of life or psychological well-being, while coping to some extent seemed related to participation in internet support groups. CONCLUSION: This study adds to the discussion on social inequality in internet use by cancer patients, showing that patients...... comprising training in the retrieval of cancer-related information from the internet and self-support groups. Persons who were motivated to join the internet groups (N = 100; 47%) were compared with persons who chose not to participate (N = 111) on the basis of self-reported baseline questionnaire data...

  6. Quality of life in a group of Cuban women with breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Izquierdo-Gonzalez, Marlen

    2009-01-01

    Was studied a group of 16 Cuban patients, undergoing surgery and treatment for breast cancer oncospecific with survival greater than anno to assess the impact of the diagnosis, surgery and concomitant treatment on quality of life. The quality of life in the study group is similar to that of reference groups and other breast cancer patients with more than one year of survival, with better physical functioning. The evaluation of the exponents of emotional state, such as nervousness, worry, irritability and depression, showed that the evaluation of the quality of the emotional scale offers significantly lower values of other country groups, but corresponds with that reported for women with breast cancer survival time with the same and equal to the value obtained for cancer patients in treatment and less than a year survival. (Author)

  7. Factors influencing work functioning after cancer diagnosis : a focus group study with cancer survivors and occupational health professionals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dorland, H. F.; Abma, F. I.; Roelen, C. A. M.; Smink, J. G.; Ranchor, A. V.; Bultmann, U.

    Cancer survivors (CSs) frequently return to work, but little is known about work functioning after return to work (RTW). We aimed to identify barriers and facilitators of work functioning among CSs. Three focus groups were conducted with CSs (n = 6, n = 8 and n = 8) and one focus group with

  8. Brachyury Protein: A Potential Target in Lung Cancer Therapy | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Previous research has shown that Brachyury protein plays a role in initiating the processes that lead to the growth and spread of cancer. Now CCR scientists have for the first time demonstrated the expression of Brachyury protein in lung cancer tumors, as well as a correlation between the overexpression of Brachyury protein and drug resistance.

  9. Mortality and survival of lung cancer in Denmark: Results from the Danish Lung Cancer Group 2000-2012

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Erik; Rasmussen, Torben Riis; Green, Anders

    2016-01-01

    Background In the 1990s outcomes in Danish lung cancer patients were poor compared with the other Nordic countries. The five-year survival was only about 5%, only 10% of patients were operated on and less than 60% received active surgical or oncologic treatment. This paper describes trends...... in mortality and survival of lung cancer in Denmark from 2000 to 2012. Methods The study population comprised 52 435 patients with a diagnosis of cancer of the trachea and the lung, primarily ascertained from the Danish Lung Cancer Register and grouped into three cohorts by year of diagnosis. The outcome...... for all strata by gender, comorbidity, stage and surgery status and was accompanied by corresponding improvements in both absolute and relative survival. Conclusions The mortality has been significantly declining and the prognosis correspondingly improving in lung cancer in Denmark since the turn...

  10. Assessing excellence in translational cancer research: a consensus based framework

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rajan, A.; Caldas, C.; van Luenen, H.; Saghatchian, M.; van Harten, Willem H.

    2013-01-01

    Background: It takes several years on average to translate basic research findings into clinical research and eventually deliver patient benefits. An expert-based excellence assessment can help improve this process by: identifying high performing Comprehensive Cancer Centres; best practices in

  11. Kaposi's Sarcoma-Associated Herpesvirus | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    The discovery of KSHV in 1994 was a historical landmark in tumor virology and human cancer research. KSHV's subsequent identification as a cause of Kaposi sarcoma and its association with primary effusion lymphoma and multicentric Castleman disease soon attracted the attention of hundreds of research laboratories and motivated thousands of virologists and oncologists to switch

  12. Computer-mediated and face-to-face communication in metastatic cancer support groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilhauer, Ruvanee P

    2014-08-01

    To compare the experiences of women with metastatic breast cancer (MBC) in computer-mediated and face-to-face support groups. Interviews from 18 women with MBC, who were currently in computer-mediated support groups (CMSGs), were examined using interpretative phenomenological analysis. The CMSGs were in an asynchronous mailing list format; women communicated exclusively via email. All the women were also, or had previously been, in a face-to-face support group (FTFG). CMSGs had both advantages and drawbacks, relative to face-to-face groups (FTFGs), for this population. Themes examined included convenience, level of support, intimacy, ease of expression, range of information, and dealing with debilitation and dying. CMSGs may provide a sense of control and a greater level of support. Intimacy may take longer to develop in a CMSG, but women may have more opportunities to get to know each other. CMSGs may be helpful while adjusting to a diagnosis of MBC, because women can receive support without being overwhelmed by physical evidence of disability in others or exposure to discussions about dying before they are ready. However, the absence of nonverbal cues in CMSGs also led to avoidance of topics related to death and dying when women were ready to face them. Agendas for discussion, the presence of a facilitator or more time in CMSGs may attenuate this problem. The findings were discussed in light of prevailing research and theories about computer-mediated communication. They have implications for designing CMSGs for this population.

  13. The role of organizational affiliations and research networks in the diffusion of breast cancer treatment innovation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, William R; Reeder-Hayes, Katherine; Bainbridge, John; Meyer, Anne-Marie; Amos, Keith D; Weiner, Bryan J; Godley, Paul A

    2011-02-01

    The National Institutes of Health (NIH) sees provider-based research networks and other organizational linkages between academic researchers and community practitioners as promising vehicles for accelerating the translation of research into practice. This study examines whether organizational research affiliations and teaching affiliations are associated with accelerated diffusion of sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB), an innovation in the treatment of early-stage breast cancer. Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results-Medicare data were used to examine the diffusion of SLNB for treatment of early-stage breast cancer among women aged 65 years and older diagnosed between 2000 and 2002, shortly after Medicare approved and began reimbursing for the procedure. In this population, patients treated at an organization affiliated with a research network--the American College of Surgeons Oncology Group (ACOSOG) or other National Cancer Institute (NCI) cooperative groups--were more likely to receive the innovative treatment (SLNB) than patients treated at unaffiliated organizations (odds ratio: 2.70, 95% confidence interval: 1.77-4.12; odds ratio: 1.84, 95% confidence interval: 1.26-2.69, respectively). Neither hospital teaching status nor surgical volume was significantly associated with differences in SLNB use. Patients who receive cancer treatment at organizations affiliated with cancer research networks have an enhanced probability of receiving SLNB, an innovative procedure that offers the promise of improved patient outcomes. Study findings support the NIH Roadmap and programs such as the NCI's Community Clinical Oncology Program, as they seek to accelerate the translation of research into practice by simultaneously accelerating and broadening cancer research in the community.

  14. Societal output and use of research performed by health research groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Ark Gerrit

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The last decade has seen the evaluation of health research pay more and more attention to societal use and benefits of research in addition to scientific quality, both in qualitative and quantitative ways. This paper elaborates primarily on a quantitative approach to assess societal output and use of research performed by health research groups (societal quality of research. For this reason, one of the Dutch university medical centres (i.e. the Leiden University Medical Center (LUMC was chosen as the subject of a pilot study, because of its mission to integrate top patient care with medical, biomedical and healthcare research and education. All research departments were used as units of evaluation within this university medical centre. The method consisted of a four-step process to reach a societal quality score per department, based on its (research outreach to relevant societal stakeholders (the general public, healthcare professionals and the private sector. For each of these three types of stakeholders, indicators within four modes of communication were defined (knowledge production, knowledge exchange, knowledge use and earning capacity. These indicators were measured by a bottom-up approach in a qualitative way (i.e. all departments of the LUMC were asked to list all activities they would consider to be of societal relevance, after which they were converted into quantitative scores. These quantitative scores could then be compared to standardised scientific quality scores that are based on scientific publications and citations of peer-reviewed articles. Based on the LUMC pilot study, only a weak correlation was found between societal and scientific quality. This suggests that societal quality needs additional activities to be performed by health research groups and is not simply the consequence of high scientific quality. Therefore we conclude that scientific and societal evaluation should be considered to be synergistic in terms

  15. Implementation of proteomics for cancer research: past, present, and future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi, Parisa; Shahrokni, Armin; Ranjbar, Mohammad R Nezami

    2014-01-01

    Cancer is the leading cause of the death, accounts for about 13% of all annual deaths worldwide. Many different fields of science are collaborating together studying cancer to improve our knowledge of this lethal disease, and find better solutions for diagnosis and treatment. Proteomics is one of the most recent and rapidly growing areas in molecular biology that helps understanding cancer from an omics data analysis point of view. The human proteome project was officially initiated in 2008. Proteomics enables the scientists to interrogate a variety of biospecimens for their protein contents and measure the concentrations of these proteins. Current necessary equipment and technologies for cancer proteomics are mass spectrometry, protein microarrays, nanotechnology and bioinformatics. In this paper, we provide a brief review on proteomics and its application in cancer research. After a brief introduction including its definition, we summarize the history of major previous work conducted by researchers, followed by an overview on the role of proteomics in cancer studies. We also provide a list of different utilities in cancer proteomics and investigate their advantages and shortcomings from theoretical and practical angles. Finally, we explore some of the main challenges and conclude the paper with future directions in this field.

  16. Empowering Promotores de Salud as partners in cancer education and research in rural southwest Kansas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cupertino, Ana Paula; Saint-Elin, Mercedes; de Los Rios, Johana Bravo; Engelman, Kimberly K; Greiner, K Allen; Ellerbeck, Edward F; Nápoles, Anna M

    2015-01-01

    To describe community-based participatory processes used to develop promotore training on cancer research, and to assess the feasibility of training promotores from rural communities to disseminate cancer research information. Prospective, cohort design. Rural communities in the state of Kansas. 34 Spanish-speaking promotores attended an information session; 27 enrolled and 22 completed training. With input from a community advisory board, the authors developed a leadership and cancer curriculum and trained Spanish-speaking promotores to disseminate information on cancer research. Promotores completed pretraining and post-training surveys in Spanish to assess demographic characteristics and changes in knowledge of cancer, cancer treatment and cancer research studies, and intent to participate in cancer research. Cancer knowledge, awareness of cancer clinical trials, interest in participating in cancer clinical research studies. Compared to pretraining, after training, promotores were more likely to correctly define cancer, identify biopsies, describe cancer stages, and report ever having heard of cancer research studies. Completion rates of the training and willingness to participate in cancer research were high, supporting the feasibility of training promotores to deliver community-based education to promote cancer research participation. Nursing professionals and researchers can collaborate with promotores to disseminate cancer education and research among underserved rural Latino communities in Kansas and elsewhere. Members of these communities appear willing and interested in improving their knowledge of cancer and cancer clinical trials.

  17. Exploring Asian Indian and Pakistani views about cancer and participation in cancer genetics research: toward the development of a community genetics intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leader, Amy E; Mohanty, Salini; Selvan, Preethi; Lum, Ray; Giri, Veda N

    2018-01-01

    Cancer is a leading cause of mortality among the three million Asian Indian/Pakistanis (AIPs) in the USA. AIPs have traditionally been underrepresented in cancer-related research, although reasons remain largely unexplored. We sought to understand AIP's awareness and perceptions of cancer to improve their participation in risk assessment and cancer genetics research. Four focus groups, stratified by gender and birthplace (US-born vs. foreign-born), were held at an AIP cultural center. Discussions focused on knowledge and awareness of cancer risk; how AIP culture influences cancer perceptions; access to health care services for cancer screening, diagnosis, or treatment; and willingness to or experiences with participating in cancer genetics research. Sessions were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim, and content analyzed using NVivo ® 11 for dominant themes. Thirty-two AIP adults participated in a focus group. Information on family cancer history is challenging to obtain due to the desire for privacy, cancer stigma, and loss of medical records. Interest in genetic testing for cancer risk was mixed: some were in favor of knowing their personal risk, yet many noted that future generations in their family would benefit more by knowing their risk. Participants felt that the AIP community has largely been overlooked in recruitment efforts for research studies. Recommendations for improving recruitment efforts included partnering with community events and festivities, posting culturally and linguistically relevant recruitment materials, and focusing on population-wide health improvement. Understanding the culture and perceptions of AIPs, separate from Asian Americans at large, will allow for more tailored approaches for including this population in cancer genetics research.

  18. Dedicated researcher brings cancer care to rural communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharan Bhuller

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available As an ardent cancer researcher, Dr. Smita Asthana has a vision to create wider awareness on cancer and its prevention, and aims to work on translational research to benefit the general public through the implementation of evidence-based research. “I have been associated with the National Institute of Cancer Prevention and Research (NICPR and Institute of Cytology and Preventive Oncology (ICPO since November 2004 and have progressed over a period of time from being a staff scientist to the current role of a senior scientist,” says Dr. Asthana, who is presently with NICPR’s Biostatistics and Epidemiology division.“I have been working in various positions that deal with the design, execution, and evaluation of medical projects. Recently, we have concluded two major cervical cancer screening projects and conducted a screening of 10,000 women in rural areas,” she tells AMOR. One project, funded by the Indian Council of Medical Research, was carried out 100 km west of New Delhi in the rural town of Dadri “as part of an operational research to see the implementation of VIA (visual inspection with acetic acid and VILI (visual inspection with Lugol's iodine screenings with the help of existing healthcare infrastructure,” she explains.As a leading researcher in cervical cancer screening, she completed an Indo-US collaborative project on the clinical performance of a human papillomavirus (HPV test, used as a strategy for screening cervical cancer in rural communities, with funding from the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation via the international non-profit global health organization PATH. “The primary objective of the project was to observe the performance of careHPV, a new diagnostic kit, in a rural setup,” she says.CareHPV is a highly sensitive DNA test, which detects 14 different types of the human papillomavirus that cause cervical cancer, providing results more rapidly than other DNA tests and is designed especially for use in clinics

  19. Wireless Spectrum Research & Development Senior Steering Group's Testbed Information Portal

    Data.gov (United States)

    Networking and Information Technology Research and Development, Executive Office of the President — This application contains a list of Federal R&D sites that are available for public-private collaborative research efforts in the field of spectrum and wireless...

  20. ESPEN expert group recommendations for action against cancer-related malnutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arends, J; Baracos, V; Bertz, H; Bozzetti, F; Calder, P C; Deutz, N E P; Erickson, N; Laviano, A; Lisanti, M P; Lobo, D N; McMillan, D C; Muscaritoli, M; Ockenga, J; Pirlich, M; Strasser, F; de van der Schueren, M; Van Gossum, A; Vaupel, P; Weimann, A

    2017-10-01

    Patients with cancer are at particularly high risk for malnutrition because both the disease and its treatments threaten their nutritional status. Yet cancer-related nutritional risk is sometimes overlooked or under-treated by clinicians, patients, and their families. The European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism (ESPEN) recently published evidence-based guidelines for nutritional care in patients with cancer. In further support of these guidelines, an ESPEN oncology expert group met for a Cancer and Nutrition Workshop in Berlin on October 24 and 25, 2016. The group examined the causes and consequences of cancer-related malnutrition, reviewed treatment approaches currently available, and built the rationale and impetus for clinicians involved with care of patients with cancer to take actions that facilitate nutrition support in practice. The content of this position paper is based on presentations and discussions at the Berlin meeting. The expert group emphasized 3 key steps to update nutritional care for people with cancer: (1) screen all patients with cancer for nutritional risk early in the course of their care, regardless of body mass index and weight history; (2) expand nutrition-related assessment practices to include measures of anorexia, body composition, inflammatory biomarkers, resting energy expenditure, and physical function; (3) use multimodal nutritional interventions with individualized plans, including care focused on increasing nutritional intake, lessening inflammation and hypermetabolic stress, and increasing physical activity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  1. Effect of Internet peer-support groups on psychosocial adjustment to cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høybye, Mette Terp; Dalton, S O; Deltour, I

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We conducted a randomised study to investigate whether providing a self-guided Internet support group to cancer patients affected mood disturbance and adjustment to cancer. METHODS: Baseline and 1-, 6- and 12-month assessments were conducted from 2004 to 2006 at a national rehabilitat......BACKGROUND: We conducted a randomised study to investigate whether providing a self-guided Internet support group to cancer patients affected mood disturbance and adjustment to cancer. METHODS: Baseline and 1-, 6- and 12-month assessments were conducted from 2004 to 2006 at a national...... rehabilitation centre in Denmark. A total of 58 rehabilitation course weeks including 921 survivors of various cancers were randomly assigned to a control or an intervention group by cluster randomisation. The intervention was a lecture on the use of the Internet for support and information followed...... by participation in an Internet support group. Outcome measures included self-reported mood disturbance, adjustment to cancer and self-rated health. Differences in scores were compared between the control group and the intervention group. RESULTS: The effect of the intervention on mood disturbance and adjustment...

  2. Standard versus prosocial online support groups for distressed breast cancer survivors: a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Golant Mitch

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Internet can increase access to psychosocial care for breast cancer survivors through online support groups. This study will test a novel prosocial online group that emphasizes both opportunities for getting and giving help. Based on the helper therapy principle, it is hypothesized that the addition of structured helping opportunities and coaching on how to help others online will increase the psychological benefits of a standard online group. Methods/Design A two-armed randomized controlled trial with pretest and posttest. Non-metastatic breast cancer survivors with elevated psychological distress will be randomized to either a standard facilitated online group or to a prosocial facilitated online group, which combines online exchanges of support with structured helping opportunities (blogging, breast cancer outreach and coaching on how best to give support to others. Validated and reliable measures will be administered to women approximately one month before and after the interventions. Self-esteem, positive affect, and sense of belonging will be tested as potential mediators of the primary outcomes of depressive/anxious symptoms and sense of purpose in life. Discussion This study will test an innovative approach to maximizing the psychological benefits of cancer online support groups. The theory-based prosocial online support group intervention model is sustainable, because it can be implemented by private non-profit or other organizations, such as cancer centers, which mostly offer face-to-face support groups with limited patient reach. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01396174

  3. Standard versus prosocial online support groups for distressed breast cancer survivors: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepore, Stephen J; Buzaglo, Joanne S; Lieberman, Morton A; Golant, Mitch; Davey, Adam

    2011-08-25

    The Internet can increase access to psychosocial care for breast cancer survivors through online support groups. This study will test a novel prosocial online group that emphasizes both opportunities for getting and giving help. Based on the helper therapy principle, it is hypothesized that the addition of structured helping opportunities and coaching on how to help others online will increase the psychological benefits of a standard online group. A two-armed randomized controlled trial with pretest and posttest. Non-metastatic breast cancer survivors with elevated psychological distress will be randomized to either a standard facilitated online group or to a prosocial facilitated online group, which combines online exchanges of support with structured helping opportunities (blogging, breast cancer outreach) and coaching on how best to give support to others. Validated and reliable measures will be administered to women approximately one month before and after the interventions. Self-esteem, positive affect, and sense of belonging will be tested as potential mediators of the primary outcomes of depressive/anxious symptoms and sense of purpose in life. This study will test an innovative approach to maximizing the psychological benefits of cancer online support groups. The theory-based prosocial online support group intervention model is sustainable, because it can be implemented by private non-profit or other organizations, such as cancer centers, which mostly offer face-to-face support groups with limited patient reach. ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01396174.

  4. Multimorbidity and cancer outcomes: a need for more research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sørensen HT

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Henrik Toft Sørensen Editor in Chief Department of Clinical Epidemiology, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus, DenmarkCancer incidence increases with age, and about 43% of men and 30% of women aged 65 will develop cancer in their remaining lifetimes.1 The global population is rapidly aging, and by 2030 about 70% of cancer in, for example, the US, will be diagnosed in older patients.2 Fortunately, cancer survival has improved and 5-year survival exceeds 80% for many common cancers.3 As a result of these two complementary trends, the population of cancer survivors is growing at a rate of almost 2% per year.4As comorbidities accumulate with age, the number of patients with multimorbidity, ie, the coexistence of several chronic diseases, is increasing dramatically.5 In the US, about 80% of Medicare funds are spent on patients with four or more chronic conditions. Multimorbidity is associated with mortality, disability, low functional status, and risks of adverse drug events.6,7Clinical and epidemiological research on cancer prognosis has mainly focused on cancers in isolation, ignoring the impact of comorbidity and co-medication on the risk of complications and mortality. Comorbidity is a medical condition that exists at the time of diagnosis of the cancer or later, but which is not a consequence of the cancer itself.8Comorbidity is common in cancer patients, who often have adverse lifestyle factors such as alcohol use, obesity, and smoking, which cause other chronic diseases. Thus, many cancer patients have chronic disorders such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, acute myocardial infarction, stroke, metabolic syndrome, and osteoporosis.9–13 With the growing population of elderly patients with cancer and other chronic diseases, modern medicine will need to address multiple medical problems at once, focusing on mortality, treatment complications, quality of life, and implications for screening.7,14 In this issue of Clinical Epidemiology

  5. RESEARCH AND UNIVERSITY IN BRAZIL: organization and institutionalization of research groups in Geography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janaina Francisca de Souza Campos Vinha

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents reflections on the still poorly treated and discussed theme. The formation of research groups is a "new" form of organization of academic and scientific work that has recently been institutionalized by the major institutions of higher education, research and development agencies in Brazil. The research groups in Geography were treated mainly on two aspects: as important spaces for socialization of knowledge that has been growing steadily and that subsidize the training of future teachers, foster critical and reflective stance, highlighting the collective work in the study of common themes; and as important socialization spaces of knowledge that has been growing steadily, and as part of the restructuring process initiated in the 1990s, a period that the Groups Directory Research of Brazil (DGPB formalizes the groups with CNPq. By analyzing the role of postgraduate research and its relation to the formation of research groups have demonstrated that besides the expressiveness achieved with the increase of the groups in all regions of the country, this form of organization also brought repercussions to the fields of education and research segments that incorporated resets the world of work and readjusted neoliberal policies. Este artigo apresenta reflexões sobre uma temática ainda pouco tratada e discutida. A formação de grupos de pesquisa é uma “nova” forma de organização do trabalho acadêmico e científico que recentemente foi institucionalizado pelos principais centros de Ensino Superior, pesquisas e agências de fomento no Brasil. Os grupos de pesquisa em Geografia foram tratados, sobretudo, diante de dois aspectos: como espaços importantes de socialização do conhecimento que vem crescendo progressivamente e que subsidiam a formação do futuro docente e fomentam a postura crítica e reflexiva, com destaque ao trabalho coletivo no estudo de temas em comum; e como parte do processo de reestruturação produtiva

  6. Research Note: Headteacher Support Groups Initiative within the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Eastern Africa Social Science Research Review. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 18, No 1 (2002) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  7. In silico modification of Zn2+ binding group of suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA) by organoselenium compounds as Homo sapiens class II HDAC inhibitor of cervical cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumo Friend Tambunan, Usman; Bakri, Ridla; Aditya Parikesit, Arli; Ariyani, Titin; Dyah Puspitasari, Ratih; Kerami, Djati

    2016-02-01

    Cervical cancer is the most common cancer in women, and ranks seventh of all cancers worldwide, with 529000 cases in 2008 and more than 85% cases occur in developing countries. One way to treat this cancer is through the inhibition of HDAC enzymes which play a strategic role in the regulation of gene expression. Suberoyl Anilide Hydroxamic Acid (SAHA) or Vorinostat is a drug which commercially available to treat the cancer, but still has some side effects. This research present in silico SAHA modification in Zinc Binding Group (ZBG) by organoselenium compound to get ligands which less side effect. From molecular docking simulation, and interaction analysis, there are five best ligands, namely CC27, HA27, HB28, IB25, and KA7. These five ligands have better binding affinity than the standards, and also have interaction with Zn2+ cofactor of inhibited HDAC enzymes. This research is expected to produce more potent HDAC inhibitor as novel drug for cervical cancer treatment.

  8. Present status of research activities conducted by research group for heavy elements microbiology in JAERI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohnuki, Toshihiko; Ozaki, Takuo; Yoshida, Takahiro

    2004-01-01

    It has been recognized that microbial transformations of radionuclides and toxic metals could be significant in the environment, but there is a paucity of information on the mechanisms of biotransformation of radionuclides by the microorganisms. An understanding at the fundamental level the mechanisms of mobilization, immobilization and bioavailability of radioactive elements in particular the actinides is important from the standpoint of mobility of actinides in the environment, disposal of radioactive wastes in deep geological formation, remediation of contaminated soils and materials, and development of strategies for the long-term stewardship of the contaminated sites. The microbiology research group in Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) is conducting basic scientific research on microbial interactions with actinides. Fundamental research on microbial transformations of actinides include elucidation of the mechanisms of dissolution and precipitation of various chemical forms such as ionic, oxides, organic and inorganic complexes of actinides by aerobic or anaerobic microorganisms under relevant microbial process conditions. State-of-the-art analytical techniques are used to determine the interaction of actinides with microorganisms at the molecular level to understand the structure function relationship. These techniques include time-resolved laser fluorescence spectroscopy (TRLFS) to determine the coordination number, oxidation states and the nearest neighbor by X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) and extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) at the Synchrotron Light Source, identification of functional groups by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), determination of chemical forms by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and genomic (DNA) manipulation by molecular techniques. We here report the present status of our research activities on accumulation of lanthanides(III) by microorganisms, application of micro-particle induced X

  9. Quality of life in Arab Muslim cancer survivors following hematopoietic stem cell transplantation: comparison with matched healthy group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alaloul, Fawwaz; Brockopp, Dorothy Y; Andrykowski, Michael A; Hall, Lynne A; Al Nusairat, Taghreed S

    2015-07-01

    The aims of this study were to determine if quality of life (QOL) among Arab Muslim hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) survivors differs from that of a healthy matched comparison group and to examine the relationships of demographic and medical variables and perceived social support with post-HSCT QOL. HSCT survivors (n = 63) were recruited from the King Hussein Cancer Center outpatient clinic. A matched (age, gender, education), healthy comparison group (n = 63) was recruited through public advertisements. Participants completed the EORTC-30 QOL scale and the Medical Outcomes Study Social Support Survey. Differences were found between the Arab Muslim HSCT survivor and healthy comparison groups for physical functioning (p Western HSCT survivors in the social and emotional QOL domains. Given growing numbers of Arab and Muslim cancer survivors in the USA and other Western countries, future research is warranted.

  10. The flat‐funding years and the National Cancer Institute: Consequences for cancer research

    OpenAIRE

    Hitt, Emma

    2008-01-01

    The National Cancer Institute (NCI), the principal federal agency for cancer research and training in the US, has contended with a flat budget since 2004, which according to the institute's director is preventing the organisation from keeping pace with the increasing costs of biomedical research. Although the impact of these budget shortfalls are still being debated, Niederhuber believes these so‐called “flat‐funding years” may pave the way for worrying future trends, resulting in a paucity o...

  11. Advancing Global Cancer Research @ AACR 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Research Priorities for NCI’s Center for Global Health' and included presentations on our mission, objectives, currently funded programs, and future programs given by Dr. Lisa Stevens and Paul Pearlman, as well as three special presentations by NCI grantees.

  12. Team Members | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Our Team Members The Foregut Team includes experts in the diagnosis and treatment of the diseases listed below. Our clinical experience and active research offers patients the highest quality care in the setting of groundbreaking clinical trials.

  13. Breast Cancer Translational Research Center of Excellence

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-11-01

    FACS, COL MC USA CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION: Henry M. Jackson Foundation for the Advancement of Military Medicine 6720-A Rockledge Drive Bethesda...reported to other officials or ethically requires action, e.g., child or spouse abuse ii. When will you destroy the research source documents, data file...requires to be reported to other officials or ethically requires action, e.g., child or spouse abuse When will you destroy the research source documents

  14. Time, trust, and transparency: Lessons learned from collecting blood biospecimens for cancer research from the Asian American community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Julie H T; Chen, Moon S

    2018-04-01

    Biospecimens from racially diverse groups are needed to advance cancer research. The Asian American Cancer Education Study was developed to increase the number and proportion of blood biospecimen donations from Asian Americans for cancer research. The authors' targeted approach included 2 types of community engagement, in-reach (within institution to Asian American patients with cancer) and outreach (external to institution to the general Asian American community). Participants received in-language biospecimen education followed by the opportunity to donate blood biospecimens. Outreach participants donated through our community biospecimen blood drives, and in-reach participants consented to donating an extra tube of blood during their routine blood draws as a patient. Donated blood biospecimens were spun down to serum and plasma to be stored in a biorepository or were sent to the laboratory to test for cancer-related risk factors. Three hundred eighty-eight Asian Americans donated 1127 blood biospecimens for cancer research. Four hundred twenty tubes of plasma and serum are currently being stored at the cancer center's biorepository, 39 tubes have been used for cancer genomic research, and 668 tubes were used to characterize cancer-related risk factors. Building upon the past decade of the National Cancer Institute-funded Asian American Network for Cancer Awareness, Research, and Training's foundation of trust and service among Asian Americans, researchers were able to leverage relationships not only to introduce the idea of biospecimen contribution to the community but to also exceed expectations with regard to the quantity of blood biospecimens collected from Asian Americans. Cancer 2018;124:1614-21. © 2018 American Cancer Society. © 2018 American Cancer Society.

  15. Research on group enterprise multimedia information publishing system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhimin Dong

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A electric power group enterprises to actively explore the innovation of enterprise culture management, making full use of modern information and communication technologies, construction of trans-regional multimedia information publishing platform. Construction of a municipal pilot units in Group region, for example, through consolidation, Office LANs, corporate networks in electric power communication network, cable TV network, realized with pictures, video, PPT, FLASH animations, WORD documents, WEB pages, video conference streams, radio, television, and other media as the carrier’s digital communications.

  16. Proposed Special Issue: Progress of cancer research in developing countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.S. Jong

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available As developing economies[1] around the world become more socially affluent in the coming decades, the incidence of cancer-related mortality is expected rise significantly owing to a combination of lifestyle changes and multiple environmental factors (Figure 1. Based on statistics from the World Health Organization, developing countries accounted for nearly 72% of cancer mortality in 2008 even though the average disease incidence in these countries is lower compared to that of high-income nations[3]It has been projected that up to 60% (ca. 15–20 million of new cancer cases will occur in developing countries by the year 2020[4-6], causing more deaths than AIDS, malaria, and tuberculosis combined. In the past, cancer management in developing countries has focused heavily on disease prevention, general awareness improvement, and early detection, while deprioritizing treatment and research efforts as a result of limited resources[7]. However, given the severity of the situation, it is now necessary to recalibrate our focus and reprioritize the investment of valuable resources in the fight against cancer.With respect to cancer research in developing countries, a major challenge faced by international researchers is the lack of reliable data[6], along with a limited research output from the developing world, which hampers our general understanding of the capability of these countries in dealing with the cancer pandemic. From 2011 to 2015, the average combined research output from developing countries constituted only 20% of the total publication output of the world’s top 100 most published countries in the field of oncology (Figure 2. Nonetheless, developing countries have recorded an impressive 20% average year-on-year increase in terms of their publication output during this period, and five of these countries contributed to more than three quarter of the total number of papers published (Figure 3.In contrast, developed nations only registered a 4

  17. Online support groups for young women with breast cancer: a proof-of-concept study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephen, Joanne; Rojubally, Adina; Linden, Wolfgang; Zhong, Lihong; Mackenzie, Gina; Mahmoud, Sahar; Giese-Davis, Janine

    2017-07-01

    This initial study examined a therapist-led, synchronous, online support group (OSG) with psycho-education (OSG + E) compared to self-help psycho-education (E). The study aims were to examine proof of concept-feasibility, acceptability, and usefulness-and to hone methods for a formal RCT. One hundred five young breast cancer survivors (<50 years) post-treatment were randomized either to OSG + E or E. OSG + E received a therapist-led 10-week synchronous online intervention. E received a self-help workbook. Assessments were at baseline, 10 weeks, and 3 months, with willing OSG + E members completing post-study interviews. Researchers used inductive analysis, generating qualitative themes for feasibility, acceptability, and usefulness. We examined trajectories for one primary and two secondary quantitative outcomes and a combined moderator to discover who preferentially benefitted from the intervention. Qualitative analyses revealed that synchronous chat was at times challenging, but minimal technical coaching, structure, set topics, and professional facilitation enabled conversations that were focused and meaningful. A combined moderator indicated that generally more women benefitted from OSG + E relative to E and particularly those women in semi-rural and rural areas. This study suggests that therapist-led synchronous OSGs are feasible, acceptable, and useful for young breast cancer survivors and that a future RCT with a larger sample size, perhaps more focused on non-urban areas, is needed to establish its effectiveness.

  18. Analysis of cancer mortality risk among workers of a research uranium metallurgy division in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jejati, H.; Laurier, D.; Tirmarche, M.; Giraud, J.M.

    1997-01-01

    This cohort study has been undertaken in response to a suspected cluster of cancers mentioned by workers involved in research activities concerning the metallurgy of uranium. The studied population included all persons having worked between 1950 and 1968 at the Metallurgy Division of the French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA). Exposures were registered on an individual annual basis. For analysis, they were grouped in three categories: use of chemicals agents (Benzene, beryllium, alcohols, solvents ...), manipulation of radioactive materials (uranium, thorium, fission decay products), and exposure to external radiation. This relatively small cohort included 356 workers followed up to December 1990. Out of observed deaths, 21 were from cancer. Total mortality from cancer was less than expected from national rates (Standardised Mortality Ratio = 0.73). Cancer mortality did not increase with duration of exposure to external radiation or with duration of manipulation of radioactive materials. Risk of cancer was increasing with the number of years of exposure to chemicals. The small size of this cohort limits the conclusion of the observed results. The purpose, despite this lack of power, was to answer a worry of the workers, more than to estimate a clear dose-response relationship linked to a specific cancer site. The effect studied here is ''all cancers'', a distinction of the different sites being uninformative because of the very small number of cases observed. Nevertheless, this study suggests some routes for further research: it highlights the importance of considering concomitant exposures like chemical ones in studies of nuclear workers. (author)

  19. ABO blood groups as a prognostic factor for recurrence in ovarian and vulvar cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montavon Sartorius, Céline; Schoetzau, Andreas; Kettelhack, Henriette; Fink, Daniel; Hacker, Neville F; Fedier, André; Jacob, Francis; Heinzelmann-Schwarz, Viola

    2018-01-01

    The relationship between ABO blood groups (BG) and risk of incidence in cancers including gynecological cancers has been widely studied, showing increased incidence risk for BG A patients. As available data are inconsistent we investigated whether BG and their anti-glycan antibodies (anti-A and anti-B) have prognostic values in gynecological cancers. We retrospectively evaluated 974 patients with gynecological cancers in three cancer centers (Switzerland and Australia) between 1974 and 2014 regarding the relationships between clinico-pathological findings and the BG. Time to disease recurrence was significantly influenced by BG in patients with ovarian (n = 282) and vulvar (n = 67) cancer. BG O or B patients showed a significantly increased risk for ovarian cancer relapse compared to A, 59% and 82%, respectively (p = 0.045; HR O vs A = 1.59 (CI 1.01-2.51) and (p = 0.036; HR A vs B = 0.55 (CI 0.32-0.96). Median time to relapse for advanced stage (n = 126) ovarian cancer patients was 18.2 months for BG O and 32.2 for A (p = 0.031; HR O vs A = 2.07 (CI 1.07-4.02)). BG also significantly influenced relapse-free survival in patients with vulvar cancer (p = 0.002), with BG O tending to have increased relapse risk compared to A (p = 0.089). Blood groups hence associate with recurrence in ovarian and vulvar cancer: women with BG O seem to have a lower ovarian cancer incidence, however are more likely to relapse earlier. The significance of the BG status as a prognostic value is evident and may be helpful to oncologists in prognosticating disease outcome and selecting the appropriate therapy.

  20. "Ganando Confianza": Research Focus Groups with Immigrant Mexican Mothers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hausmann-Stabile, Carolina; Zayas, Luis H.; Runes, Sandra; Abenis-Cintron, Anna; Calzada, Esther

    2011-01-01

    Immigrant families with children with developmental disabilities must be served using culturally sensitive approaches to service and research to maximize treatment benefits. In an effort to better understand cultural issues relevant to the provision of parenting programs for immigrant Mexican mothers of children with developmental disabilities, we…

  1. Pattern of Skin disorders across age groups | Ayanlowo | Research ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Research Journal of Health Sciences. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 5, No 3 (2017) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Download this PDF file. The PDF file you selected ...

  2. Delphi Study to Determine Rehabilitation Research Priorities for Older Adults With Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Kathleen Doyle; Radomski, Mary Vining; Alfano, Catherine M; Finkelstein, Marsha; Sleight, Alix G; Marshall, Timothy F; McKenna, Raymond; Fu, Jack B

    2017-05-01

    To solicit expert opinions and develop consensus around the research that is needed to improve cancer rehabilitation for older adults. Delphi methods provided a structured process to elicit and prioritize research questions from national experts. National, Web-based survey. Members (N=32) of the American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine completed at least 1 of 3 investigator-developed surveys. Not applicable. In the first survey, participants identified up to 5 research questions that needed to be answered to improve cancer rehabilitation for older adults. In 2 subsequent surveys, participants viewed the compilation of questions, rated the importance of each question, and identified the 5 most important questions. This generated priority scores for each question. Consensus scores were created to describe the degree of agreement around the priority of each question. Highest priority research concerns the epidemiology and measurement of function and disability in older adult cancer survivors; the effects of cancer rehabilitation interventions on falls, disability, participation, survival, costs, quality of care, and health care utilization; and testing models of care that facilitate referrals from oncology to rehabilitation providers as part of coordinated, multicomponent care. A multipronged approach is needed to fill these gaps, including targeted funding opportunities developed with an advisory panel of cancer rehabilitation experts, development of a research network to facilitate novel collaborations and grant proposals, and coordinated efforts of clinical groups to advocate for funding, practice change, and policy change. Copyright © 2016 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Research advances in traditional Chinese medicine syndromes in cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Qing; Luo, Yun-quan; Wang, Wen-hai; Liu, Xuan; Li, Qi; Su, Shi-bing

    2016-01-01

    Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) syndrome, also known as TCM ZHENG or TCM pattern, is an integral and essential part of TCM theory that helps to guide the design of individualized treatments. A TCM syndrome, in essence, is a characteristic profile of all clinical manifestations in one patient that can be readily identified by a TCM practitioner. In this article, the authors reviewed the presentations of TCM syndromes in seven common malignancies (liver, lung, gastric, breast, colorectal, pancreatic and esophageal cancers), the objectivity and the standardization of TCM syndrome differentiation, the evaluation of TCM syndrome modeling in cancer research, and syndrome differentiation-guided TCM treatment of cancers. A better understanding of TCM syndrome theory, as well as its potential biological basis, may contribute greatly to the clinical TCM diagnosis and the treatment of cancer.

  4. XMRV Discovery and Prostate Cancer-Related Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David E. Kang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus (XMRV was first reported in 2006 in a study of human prostate cancer patients with genetic variants of the antiviral enzyme, RNase L. Subsequent investigations in North America, Europe, Asia, and Africa have either observed or failed to detect XMRV in patients (prostate cancer, chronic fatigue syndrome-myalgic encephalomyelitis (CFS-ME, and immunosuppressed with respiratory tract infections or normal, healthy, control individuals. The principal confounding factors are the near ubiquitous presence of mouse-derived reagents, antibodies and cells, and often XMRV itself, in laboratories. XMRV infects and replicates well in many human cell lines, but especially in certain prostate cancer cell lines. XMRV also traffics to prostate in a nonhuman primate model of infection. Here, we will review the discovery of XMRV and then focus on prostate cancer-related research involving this intriguing virus.

  5. Animal Resource Program | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    CCR Animal Resource Program The CCR Animal Resource Program plans, develops, and coordinates laboratory animal resources for CCR’s research programs. We also provide training, imaging, and technology development in support of moving basic discoveries to the clinic. The ARP Manager:

  6. Writing Essentials | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    To effectively communicate research results, the manuscript should be carefully structured to tell a compelling story. As a rule, the introduction should bring the reader from a broad understanding of the topic to the specific question being addressed. In contrast, the discussion should transition the reader from the specific results to their broader implications.

  7. Animal Resource Program | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    CCR Animal Resource Program The CCR Animal Resource Program plans, develops, and coordinates laboratory animal resources for CCR’s research programs. We also provide training, imaging, and technology development in support of moving basic discoveries to the clinic. The ARP Office:

  8. Education and counselling group intervention for women treated for gynaecological cancer: does it help?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekse, Ragnhild Johanne Tveit; Blaaka, Gunnhild; Buestad, Ingjerd; Tengesdal, Ellen; Paulsen, Anita; Vika, Margrethe

    2014-03-01

    Women who have been through gynaecological cancer, experience challenges on many levels after diagnosis and treatment. Studies show that, in order to help women in their rehabilitation process, there is a need for holistic care and follow-up. The aim of this qualitative study is to provide insight into women's own lived experiences of participating in an education and counselling group intervention after curative treatment for gynaecological cancer. A qualitative study based on data from three focus groups with 17 women who had participated in a nurse-led education and counselling group intervention after treatment for gynaecological cancer. The main findings show that participation in the rehabilitation group was described as a special community of mutual understanding and belonging. Education and the sharing of knowledge provided a clearer vocabulary for, and understanding of, the women's own lived experiences. The presence of dedicated and professional care workers was reported to be essential for the outcome of the group intervention. Attending a nurse-led education and counselling group intervention had a positive impact on various aspects of the women's lived experiences. The programme also provided professionals with important insights into the patients' views and feelings regarding cancer treatment, trajectories and rehabilitation. This knowledge has already proven itself useful in clinical practice for improving staff communication skills and psycho-social support related to gynaecological cancer care. © 2013 The Authors Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences © 2013 Nordic College of Caring Science.

  9. Public figure announcements about cancer and opportunities for cancer communication: a review and research agenda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noar, Seth M; Willoughby, Jessica Fitts; Myrick, Jessica Gall; Brown, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    Announcements by public figures and celebrities about cancer diagnosis or death represent significant events in public life. But what are the substantive effects of such events, if any? The purpose of this article is to systematically review studies that examined the impact of public figure cancer announcements on cancer-oriented outcomes. Using comprehensive search procedures, we identified k = 19 studies that examined 11 distinct public figures. The most commonly studied public figures were Jade Goody, Kylie Minogue, Nancy Reagan, and Steve Jobs, with the most common cancers studied being breast (53%), cervical (21%), and pancreatic (21%) cancer. Most studies assessed multiple outcome variables, including behavioral outcomes (k = 15), media coverage (k = 10), information seeking (k = 8), cancer incidence (k = 3), and interpersonal communication (k = 2). Results fairly consistently indicated that cancer announcements from public figures had meaningful effects on many, if not most, of these outcome variables. While such events essentially act as naturally occurring interventions, the effects tend to be relatively short term. Gaps in this literature include few contemporary studies of high-profile public figures in the United States and a general lack of theory-based research. Directions for future research as well as implications for cancer communication and prevention are discussed.

  10. Screening for psychological distress in cancer: renewing the research agenda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmon, Peter; Clark, Louise; McGrath, Elly; Fisher, Peter

    2015-03-01

    Although health policy for cancer care promotes screening of patients for emotional distress, the utility and validity of screening have been questioned. Continued research to refine detection of distress or to evaluate outcomes of screening programmes is unlikely to end this controversy. Instead, we need to identify more fundamental research questions that address the validity or utility of screening in this context. We critically and selectively review research and policy literature on psychological screening in cancer care, drawing also from research literature about the nature of psychological needs in cancer care and from relevant literature on psychological screening in mental health. We identify three broad research questions: (i) Apart from intensity of distress, what further information should screening seek about the context of distress, psychological processes that promote distress and patients' own perspective on their needs? (ii) What are the implications of the contextual dependence of disclosure of emotional feelings, given that screening questions can be asked in contexts ranging from an impersonal questionnaire to dialogue with a trusted practitioner? (iii) How should a screen be responded to, given the inherent uncertainty associated with screening results and given that distress in a cancer context can indicate instrumental as well as psychological needs? Examining these questions will mean exchanging a diagnostic framework for screening, in which health need is indicated by the presence of a psychological disorder, for a public health framework, in which health need is identified from multiple perspectives. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Human tissue models in cancer research: looking beyond the mouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel J. Jackson

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Mouse models, including patient-derived xenograft mice, are widely used to address questions in cancer research. However, there are documented flaws in these models that can result in the misrepresentation of human tumour biology and limit the suitability of the model for translational research. A coordinated effort to promote the more widespread development and use of ‘non-animal human tissue’ models could provide a clinically relevant platform for many cancer studies, maximising the opportunities presented by human tissue resources such as biobanks. A number of key factors limit the wide adoption of non-animal human tissue models in cancer research, including deficiencies in the infrastructure and the technical tools required to collect, transport, store and maintain human tissue for lab use. Another obstacle is the long-standing cultural reliance on animal models, which can make researchers resistant to change, often because of concerns about historical data compatibility and losing ground in a competitive environment while new approaches are embedded in lab practice. There are a wide range of initiatives that aim to address these issues by facilitating data sharing and promoting collaborations between organisations and researchers who work with human tissue. The importance of coordinating biobanks and introducing quality standards is gaining momentum. There is an exciting opportunity to transform cancer drug discovery by optimising the use of human tissue and reducing the reliance on potentially less predictive animal models.

  12. Human tissue models in cancer research: looking beyond the mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Samuel J; Thomas, Gareth J

    2017-08-01

    Mouse models, including patient-derived xenograft mice, are widely used to address questions in cancer research. However, there are documented flaws in these models that can result in the misrepresentation of human tumour biology and limit the suitability of the model for translational research. A coordinated effort to promote the more widespread development and use of 'non-animal human tissue' models could provide a clinically relevant platform for many cancer studies, maximising the opportunities presented by human tissue resources such as biobanks. A number of key factors limit the wide adoption of non-animal human tissue models in cancer research, including deficiencies in the infrastructure and the technical tools required to collect, transport, store and maintain human tissue for lab use. Another obstacle is the long-standing cultural reliance on animal models, which can make researchers resistant to change, often because of concerns about historical data compatibility and losing ground in a competitive environment while new approaches are embedded in lab practice. There are a wide range of initiatives that aim to address these issues by facilitating data sharing and promoting collaborations between organisations and researchers who work with human tissue. The importance of coordinating biobanks and introducing quality standards is gaining momentum. There is an exciting opportunity to transform cancer drug discovery by optimising the use of human tissue and reducing the reliance on potentially less predictive animal models. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  13. Accelerating cancer systems biology research through Semantic Web technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhihui; Sagotsky, Jonathan; Taylor, Thomas; Shironoshita, Patrick; Deisboeck, Thomas S

    2013-01-01

    Cancer systems biology is an interdisciplinary, rapidly expanding research field in which collaborations are a critical means to advance the field. Yet the prevalent database technologies often isolate data rather than making it easily accessible. The Semantic Web has the potential to help facilitate web-based collaborative cancer research by presenting data in a manner that is self-descriptive, human and machine readable, and easily sharable. We have created a semantically linked online Digital Model Repository (DMR) for storing, managing, executing, annotating, and sharing computational cancer models. Within the DMR, distributed, multidisciplinary, and inter-organizational teams can collaborate on projects, without forfeiting intellectual property. This is achieved by the introduction of a new stakeholder to the collaboration workflow, the institutional licensing officer, part of the Technology Transfer Office. Furthermore, the DMR has achieved silver level compatibility with the National Cancer Institute's caBIG, so users can interact with the DMR not only through a web browser but also through a semantically annotated and secure web service. We also discuss the technology behind the DMR leveraging the Semantic Web, ontologies, and grid computing to provide secure inter-institutional collaboration on cancer modeling projects, online grid-based execution of shared models, and the collaboration workflow protecting researchers' intellectual property. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Impact of cancer support groups on childhood cancer treatment and abandonment in a private pediatric oncology centre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arathi Srinivasan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: To analyze the impact of two cancer support groups in the treatment and abandonment of childhood cancer. Materials and Methods: This is a retrospective review of children with cancer funded and non-funded who were treated at Kanchi Kamakoti CHILDS Trust Hospital from 2010 to 2013. A total of 100 patients were funded, 57 by Ray of Light Foundation and 43 by Pediatric Lymphoma Project and 70 non-funded. Results: The total current survival of 80%, including those who have completed treatment and those currently undergoing treatment, is comparable in both the groups. Abandonment of treatment after initiating therapy was not seen in the financially supported group whereas abandonment of treatment after initiation was seen in one child in the non-funded group. Conclusions: Besides intensive treatment with good supportive care, financial support also has an important impact on compliance and abandonment in all socioeconomic strata of society. Financial support from private cancer support groups also has its impact beyond the patient and family, in reducing the burden on government institutions by non-governmental funding in private sector. Improvement in the delivery of pediatric oncology care in developing countries could be done by financial support from the private sector.

  15. Research on stored biological samples: views of African American and White American cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pentz, Rebecca D; Billot, Laurent; Wendler, David

    2006-04-01

    Proposals on consent for research with biological samples should be informed by empirical studies of individuals' views. Studies to date queried mostly white research subjects. The aim of this study was to compare the views of two groups of patients: cancer patients at a university clinic (Winship Cancer Institute at Emory Healthcare) and cancer patients at an inner city county hospital (Grady) who were given the option of tissue banking. Overall, 315/452 (70%) patients completed the survey. The Grady cohort was 86% African American; the Winship cohort was 82% White. The vast majority (95%) of individuals in both cohorts agreed to provide a biological sample for future research. Both cohorts were willing for their samples to be used to study cancer and other diseases, including Alzheimer disease. Few participants preferred to control the disease to be studied (10%) or wished to be contacted again for consent for each future research project (11%). In our sample, almost all clinical patients, regardless of site of care, ethnicity or socioeconomic status, were willing to provide a biological sample for research purposes and allow investigators to determine the research to be done without contacting the patients again. These findings support the recommendation to offer individuals a simplified consent with a one-time binary choice whether to provide biological samples for future research. Copyright 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  16. Cervical cancer screening and Chinese women: Insights from focus groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabrina Chia Hsuan Chang

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Despite extensive efforts to raise awareness, Papanicolaou (Pap testing rates among Chinese women living in North America remain low compared with Euro-American women. Although the lower Pap testing rate and ensuing health repercussions among Chinese women are well characterized, mechanisms underlying such health disparities are not. The aim of this study was to use a qualitative approach to delineate such mechanisms. Qualitative approaches to understand constructs within the domain of sexual and reproductive health have been shown to be particularly appropriate, and offer a nuanced view of sexuality that is not afforded by traditional quantitative methods.Method: We carried out two focus groups aimed at exploring how Mandarin-speaking and English-speaking Chinese women experience Pap testing (N = 12. The women were invited to partake in the focus groups from having participated in a large-scale quantitative study. We used content analyses to analyze transcripts and extract themes. Results: The women heavily endorsed Chinese medicine philosophy, conceptualizing physical health holistically, and valuing preventative measures over screening and interceptive measures. Pap testing was described as qualitatively different from other screening procedures, such that women assigned a sexually charged meaning to Pap testing, often discussing it in relation to sexual activity and promiscuity. Women expressed their preference for the compulsory and depersonalized manner that Pap tests are performed in their home country of China, as this lessens the embarrassment associated with undergoing Pap testing. Conclusion: Three mechanisms may contribute to lower Pap testing among Chinese women: preference for Chinese medicine philosophy, perceived sexualization of Pap testing, and the institutionalization of medical care. Implications for improving the reproductive health of Chinese women are discussed.

  17. A pan-European survey of research in end-of-life cancer care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigurdardottir, Katrin Ruth; Haugen, Dagny Faksvåg; Bausewein, Claudia; Higginson, Irene J; Harding, Richard; Rosland, Jan Henrik; Kaasa, Stein

    2012-01-01

    To date, there is no coordinated strategy for end-of-life (EOL) cancer care research in Europe. The PRISMA (Reflecting the Positive Diversities of European Priorities for Research and Measurement in End-of-life Care) project is aiming to develop a programme integrating research and measurement in EOL care. This survey aimed to map and describe present EOL cancer care research in Europe and to identify priorities and barriers. A questionnaire of 62 questions was developed and 201 researchers in 41 European countries were invited to complete it online in May 2009. An open invitation to participate was posted on the internet. Invited contacts in 36 countries sent 127 replies; eight additional responses came through websites. A total of 127 responses were eligible for analysis. Respondents were 69 male and 58 female, mean age 49 (28-74) years; 85% of the scientific team leaders were physicians. Seventy-one of 127 research groups were located in a teaching hospital or cancer centre. Forty-five percent of the groups had only one to five members and 28% six to ten members. Sixty-three of 92 groups reported specific funding for EOL care research. Seventy-five percent of the groups had published papers in journals with impact factor ≤ 5 in the last 3 years; 8% had published in journals with impact factor >10. Forty-four out of 90 groups reported at least one completed Ph.D. in the last 3 years. The most frequently reported active research areas were pain, assessment and measurement tools, and last days of life and quality of death. Very similar areas--last days of life and quality of death, pain, fatigue and cachexia, and assessment and measurement tools--were ranked as the most important research priorities. The most important research barriers were lack of funding, lack of time, and insufficient knowledge/expertise. Most research groups in EOL care are small. The few large groups (14%) had almost half of the reported publications, and more than half of the current Ph

  18. 75 FR 57768 - Access to Confidential Business Information by Eastern Research Group and Its Identified...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-22

    ... Business Information by Eastern Research Group and Its Identified Subcontractor AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: EPA has authorized its contractor, Eastern Research Group... the information may be claimed or determined to be Confidential Business Information (CBI). DATES...

  19. Consumer attitudes towards the establishment of a national Australian familial cancer research database by the Inherited Cancer Connect (ICCon) Partnership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrest, Laura; Mitchell, Gillian; Thrupp, Letitia; Petelin, Lara; Richardson, Kate; Mascarenhas, Lyon; Young, Mary-Anne

    2018-01-01

    Clinical genetics units hold large amounts of information which could be utilised to benefit patients and their families. In Australia, a national research database, the Inherited Cancer Connect (ICCon) database, is being established that comprises clinical genetic data held for all carriers of mutations in cancer predisposition genes. Consumer input was sought to establish the acceptability of the inclusion of clinical genetic data into a research database. A qualitative approach using a modified nominal group technique was used to collect data through consumer forums conducted in three Australian states. Individuals who had previously received care from Familial Cancer Centres were invited to participate. Twenty-four consumers participated in three forums. Participants expressed positive attitudes about the establishment of the ICCon database, which were informed by the perceived benefits of the database including improved health outcomes for individuals with inherited cancer syndromes. Most participants were comfortable to waive consent for their clinical information to be included in the research database in a de-identified format. As major stakeholders, consumers have an integral role in contributing to the development and conduct of the ICCon database. As an initial step in the development of the ICCon database, the forums demonstrated consumers' acceptance of important aspects of the database including waiver of consent.

  20. Abnormal expression of blood group-related antigens in uterine endometrial cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsukazaki, K; Sakayori, M; Arai, H; Yamaoka, K; Kurihara, S; Nozawa, S

    1991-08-01

    The expression of A, B, and H group antigens, Lewis group antigens (Lewis(a), Lewis(b), Lewis(x), and Lewis(y)), and Lc4 and nLc4 antigens, the precursor antigens of both groups, was examined immunohistochemically with monoclonal antibodies in 9 normal endometria, 6 endometrial hyperplasias, and 31 endometrial cancers. 1) A, B and/or H antigens were detected in endometrial cancers at an incidence of 51.6%, while no distinct localization of these antigens was observed in normal endometria. H antigen, the precursor of A and B antigens, was particularly frequently detected in endometrial cancers. 2) An increased rate of expression of Lewis group antigens, particularly Lewis(b) antigen, was observed in endometrial cancers compared with its expression in normal endometria. 3) Lc4 and nLc4 antigens were detected in endometrial cancers at rates of 41.9% and 38.7%, respectively, these expressions being increased compared with those in normal endometria. 4) These results suggest that a highly abnormal expression of blood group-related antigens in endometrial cancers occurs not only at the level of A, B, and H antigens and Lewis group antigens, but also at the level of their precursor Lc4 and nLc4 antigens. 5) Lewis(a), Lewis(b), and Lc4 antigens, built on the type-1 chain, are more specific to endometrial cancers than their respective positional isomers, Lewis(x), Lewis(y), and nLc4 antigens, built on the type-2 chain.

  1. Bridging the Gap: Racial concordance as a strategy to increase African American participation in breast cancer research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frierson, Georita M; Pinto, Bernardine M; Denman, Deanna C; Leon, Pierre A; Jaffe, Alex D

    2017-11-01

    Lack of African American females in breast cancer research has been receiving substantial attention. This study seeks to identify research perceptions and motivating factors needed to increase racial/ethnic minority participation in breast cancer research. A total of 57 African American women (Σ = 47.8 years), from Rhode Island and Texas, completed a questionnaire and focus group. While many participants were not breast cancer survivors, they reported knowledge of their racial group's risk for breast cancer. One major finding that could be seen as both a facilitator and barrier is racial concordance between participant and researcher. Cultural sensitivity and trust building is recommended to increase minority participation.

  2. Colon cancer trends in Norway and Denmark by socio-economic group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynge, Elsebeth; Martinsen, Jan Ivar; Larsen, Inger Kristin

    2015-01-01

    in incidence by socio-economic group. METHODS: Persons participating in the 1970 censuses in Norway and Denmark were aged 55-75 years in 1971-1980 (called pre-crossing period) and in 1991-2000 (called post-crossing period), respectively. Country, sex, age and socio-economic group-specific colon cancer......AIMS: Norway has experienced an unprecedented rapid and so far unexplained increase in colon cancer incidence. Norwegian rates passed Danish rates for men in 1985 and for women in 1990. This study aimed to unravel clues to the development in colon cancer incidence by investigating changes over time...... incidence rates. Percent change in the average rate from the pre- to the post-crossing period. RESULTS: In the pre-crossing period, Norwegian male managers/administrators had the highest colon cancer incidence, but the largest increase in incidence from the pre-to the post-crossing period was seen...

  3. Fifth Ovarian Cancer Consensus Conference of the Gynecologic Cancer InterGroup

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilson, M K; Pujade-Lauraine, E; Aoki, D

    2017-01-01

    This manuscript reports the consensus statements regarding recurrent ovarian cancer (ROC), reached at the fifth Ovarian Cancer Consensus Conference (OCCC), which was held in Tokyo, Japan, in November 2015. Three important questions were identified: (i) What are the subgroups for clinical trials i...... including pre-defined patient reported outcomes (PROs), time to second subsequent therapy (TSST), or time until definitive deterioration of quality of life (TUDD)....

  4. Palliative care experiences of adult cancer patients from ethnocultural groups: a qualitative systematic review protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busolo, David; Woodgate, Roberta

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this review is to synthesize the best available evidence on palliative care experiences of adult cancer patients from ethnocultural groups.More specifically, this systematic review seeks to answer the following questions:1. What are the palliative care experiences of adult cancer patients from diverse ethnocultural groups?2. What meanings do adult patients with cancer from diverse ethnocultural groups assign to their experiences with palliative care? Globally, over 20.4 million people need palliative care services annually. The majority of these people (19 million) are adults, with 34% of them being patients diagnosed with cancer. With the current increase in the aging population, especially in developed countries, the number of adults requiring palliative care is expected to rise. Furthermore, how palliative care is offered and received continues to be shaped by culture and ethnicity. Likewise, culture and ethnicity influence how palliative care patients experience diseases like cancer, and seek and utilize palliative care services. Also, healthcare providers sometimes find it challenging to address the palliative care needs of patients from different ethnocultural groups. Sometimes these challenges are believed to be due to cultural incompetence of the care provider. When palliative care patients and their providers differ in their perception of care needs and how to address them, negative palliative care experiences are likely to ensue. Therefore, as the demand for palliative care increases, and ethnocultural factors continue to affect palliation, it is important to gain a better understanding of palliative care experiences of patients from different ethnocultural groups.The terms culture and ethnicity have been defined and used differently in literature which sometimes lead to confusion. Ethnicity has been defined as distinctive shared origins or social backgrounds and traditions of a group of people that are maintained between generations and

  5. Pediatric Oncology Branch - Support Services | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Support Services As part of the comprehensive care provided at the NCI Pediatric Oncology Branch, we provide a wide range of services to address the social, psychological, emotional, and practical facets of pediatric cancer and to support patients and families while they are enrolled in clinical research protocols.

  6. Mexican breast cancer research output, 2003-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Santos, Jose Luis Martin; Anaya-Ruiz, Maricruz

    2013-01-01

    The objetive of this study was to explore a bibliometric approach to quantitatively assess current research trends with regard to breast cancer in Mexico. Articles were analyzed by scientific output and research performances of individuals, institutes, and collaborative countries with Mexico. Data were retrieved from the Web of Science database from 2003 to 2012; this was searched using different terms related to breast cancer, including "breast cancer", "mammary ductal carcinoma" and "breast tumour". Data were then extracted from each file, transferred to Excel charts and visualised as diagrams. A total of 256 articles were retrieved. The institutions with the majority of publications were the National Autonomous University of Mexico (22.3%), the National Institute of Cancerology (21.9%), and Social Security Mexican Institute (20.3%); clinical observation studies were the dominant investigation type (64%), and the main types of research were metabolics (24.2%) and pathology (21.5%). This article demonstrates the usefulness of bibliometrics to address key evaluation questions and to establish priorities, define future areas of research, and develop breast cancer control strategies in Mexico.

  7. NCI RNA Biology 2017 symposium recap | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    The recent discovery of new classes of RNAs and the demonstration that alterations in RNA metabolism underlie numerous human cancers have resulted in enormous interest among CCR investigators in RNA biology. In order to share the latest research in this exciting field, the CCR Initiative in RNA Biology held its second international symposium April 23-24, 2017, in Natcher Auditorium. Learn more...

  8. Barrett's Esophagus Translational Research Network (BETRNet) | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    The goal of BETRNet is to reduce the incidence, morbidity, and mortality of esophageal adenocarcinoma by answering key questions related to the progression of the disease, especially in the premalignant stage. In partnership with NCI’s Division of Cancer Biology, multidisciplinary translational research centers collaborate to better understand the biology of Barrett's

  9. Software Tools | Office of Cancer Clinical Proteomics Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    The CPTAC program develops new approaches to elucidate aspects of the molecular complexity of cancer made from large-scale proteogenomic datasets, and advance them toward precision medicine.  Part of the CPTAC mission is to make data and tools available and accessible to the greater research community to accelerate the discovery process.

  10. What's New in Vulvar Cancer Research and Treatment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... with cancer that has spread to lymph nodes benefit from chemotherapy or pelvic radiation therapy. The use of internal radiation therapy, called brachytherapy, along with external beam radiation is ... vulvar tumors might benefit from it, too. More research is needed to ...

  11. Cancer Research UK | CRDI - Centre de recherches pour le ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Cancer Research UK. https://www.cancerresearchuk.org/. Initiative de recherche sur la dimension économique de la lutte antitabac. L'Initiative de recherche sur la dimension économique de la lutte antitabac finance la recherche novatrice sur les politiques fiscales qui appuient la lutte antitabac dans les pays à faible revenu ...

  12. NCI RNA Biology 2017 symposium recap | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    The recent discovery of new classes of RNAs and the demonstration that alterations in RNA metabolism underlie numerous human cancers have resulted in enormous interest among CCR investigators in RNA biology. In order to share the latest research in this exciting field, the CCR Initiative in RNA Biology held its second international symposium April 23-24, 2017, in Natcher

  13. Cancer research in need of a scientific revolution: Using `paradigm ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    It has been proposed that science proceeds not only by accumulating data but also through paradigm shifts. Here, we propose to use the concept of `paradigm shift' as a method of investigation when dominant paradigms fail to achieve their promises. The first step in using the `paradigm shift' method in cancer research ...

  14. Cancer screening promotion among medically underserved Asian American women: integration of research and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Mei-yu; Seetoo, Amy D; Hong, Oi Saeng; Song, Lixin; Raizade, Rekha; Weller, Adelwisa L Agas

    2002-01-01

    Mammography and Pap smear tests are known to be effective early detection measures for breast and cervical cancers, respectively, but Asian Americans are reluctant to make visits for routine preventive care. Quantitative and qualitative research conducted by the Healthy Asian Americans Project (HAAP) between 1996 and 1999 indicated that Asian residents in southeastern Michigan, like the general Asian population in the US, underutilized early cancer screening programs due to cultural, psychosocial, linguistic, and economic barriers. This article reports how the HAAP's research findings guided the Michigan Breast and Cervical Cancer Control Program (BCCCP) promotion (conducted from 2000 to 2001 among medically underserved Asian women residing in southeastern Michigan), and how evaluation of the HAAP's BCCCP promotion will direct future research and health promotion programs. The article presents strategies used to improve access to cancer screening programs for diverse Asian sub-groups as well as outcomes of the 2-year HAAP's BCCCP promotion among the target population. Discussion regarding lessons and experiences gained from integration of research and practice has implications on design and implementation of the cancer screening promotion for the rapidly increasing Asian American population as well as other medically underserved minority populations in the US.

  15. Facilitation of self-transcendence in a breast cancer support group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coward, D D

    1998-01-01

    To examine the feasibility and patterns of effectiveness of a breast cancer support group intervention specifically designed to facilitate self-transcendence views and perspectives that would enhance emotional and physical well-being. Pre-experimental design pilot intervention study with a quantitative approach to data analysis. Survivor-established breast cancer resource center in Austin, TX. Women with recently diagnosed breast cancer (N = 16) participating in 90-minute support group sessions that met weekly for eight weeks. Theory-driven support group intervention facilitated by an oncology clinical nurse specialist, a psychotherapist, and a breast cancer survivor. Activities planned for individual sessions were based on self-transcendence theory, cancer support group literature, and the facilitators' extensive previous support group experience. Self-transcendence, emotional well-being, physical well-being. Good networking, coordination, and follow-up were essential for participant recruitment and retention throughout the intervention period. Although specific theory-driven activities were planned for group sessions, facilitators maintained flexibility in meeting immediate concerns of the participants. Relationships among participants' scores on study variables indicated an association between self-transcendence and emotional well-being. Scores on self-transcendence and well-being variables at the end of the intervention increased from baseline, but only functional performance status, mood state, and satisfaction with life reached statistical significance. The pilot study was invaluable in providing direction for the conduct of future experimental studies. Provides preliminary support for the use of theory-driven activities for promotion of self-transcendence views and behaviors within a cancer support group setting.

  16. CRISPR/Cas9 for cancer research and therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Tianzuo; Rindtorff, Niklas; Betge, Johannes; Ebert, Matthias P; Boutros, Michael

    2018-04-16

    CRISPR/Cas9 has become a powerful method for making changes to the genome of many organisms. First discovered in bacteria as part of an adaptive immune system, CRISPR/Cas9 and modified versions have found a widespread use to engineer genomes and to activate or to repress the expression of genes. As such, CRISPR/Cas9 promises to accelerate cancer research by providing an efficient technology to dissect mechanisms of tumorigenesis, identify targets for drug development, and possibly arm cells for cell-based therapies. Here, we review current applications of the CRISPR/Cas9 technology for cancer research and therapy. We describe novel Cas9 variants and how they are used in functional genomics to discover novel cancer-specific vulnerabilities. Furthermore, we highlight the impact of CRISPR/Cas9 in generating organoid and mouse models of cancer. Finally, we provide an overview of the first clinical trials that apply CRISPR/Cas9 as a therapeutic approach against cancer. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  17. Applications of slow positrons to cancer research: Search for selectivity of positron annihilation to skin cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jean, Y.C.; Li Ying; Liu Gaung; Chen, Hongmin; Zhang Junjie; Gadzia, Joseph E.

    2006-01-01

    Slow positrons and positron annihilation spectroscopy (PAS) have been applied to medical research in searching for positron annihilation selectivity to cancer cells. We report the results of positron lifetime and Doppler broadening energy spectroscopies in human skin samples with and without cancer as a function of positron incident energy (up to 8 μm depth) and found that the positronium annihilates at a significantly lower rate and forms at a lower probability in the samples having either basal cell carcinoma (BCC) or squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) than in the normal skin. The significant selectivity of positron annihilation to skin cancer may open a new research area of developing positron annihilation spectroscopy as a novel medical tool to detect cancer formation externally and non-invasively at the early stages

  18. Applications of slow positrons to cancer research: Search for selectivity of positron annihilation to skin cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jean, Y.C. [Department of Chemistry, University of Missouri-Kansas City, 205 Spenscer Chemistry Building, 5009 Rockhill Road, Kansas City, MO 64110 (United States)]. E-mail: jeany@umkc.edu; Li Ying [Department of Chemistry, University of Missouri-Kansas City, 205 Spenscer Chemistry Building, 5009 Rockhill Road, Kansas City, MO 64110 (United States); Liu Gaung [Department of Chemistry, University of Missouri-Kansas City, 205 Spenscer Chemistry Building, 5009 Rockhill Road, Kansas City, MO 64110 (United States); Chen, Hongmin [Department of Chemistry, University of Missouri-Kansas City, 205 Spenscer Chemistry Building, 5009 Rockhill Road, Kansas City, MO 64110 (United States); Zhang Junjie [Department of Chemistry, University of Missouri-Kansas City, 205 Spenscer Chemistry Building, 5009 Rockhill Road, Kansas City, MO 64110 (United States); Gadzia, Joseph E. [Dermatology, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, KS 66103 (United States); Kansas Medical Clinic, Topeka, KS 66614 (United States)

    2006-02-28

    Slow positrons and positron annihilation spectroscopy (PAS) have been applied to medical research in searching for positron annihilation selectivity to cancer cells. We report the results of positron lifetime and Doppler broadening energy spectroscopies in human skin samples with and without cancer as a function of positron incident energy (up to 8 {mu}m depth) and found that the positronium annihilates at a significantly lower rate and forms at a lower probability in the samples having either basal cell carcinoma (BCC) or squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) than in the normal skin. The significant selectivity of positron annihilation to skin cancer may open a new research area of developing positron annihilation spectroscopy as a novel medical tool to detect cancer formation externally and non-invasively at the early stages.

  19. Moving beyond the prostate: benefits in broadening the scope of research on men and cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenger, Lisa M; Oliffe, John L

    2013-03-01

    As researchers recognize the value in considering gender dynamics within the cancer experience, a majority of the masculinities work has centered on men with prostate cancer. This focus has positioned prostate cancer as the flagship of men's cancer (and perhaps men's health). There is value in this research. However, as 78% of men experience cancers of a different type, a narrow focus on prostate cancer does not necessarily account for broader intersections of cancer and masculinity. Argued here are the benefits to expanding the focus of research on men's cancer experiences. As researchers consider patterns and diversities among men managing an array of cancers, there is opportunity to broaden understanding of the challenges "cancer" can present for men, disrupt assumptions that the study of men's gendered experience of cancer must be tethered to male sex-specific biology, and enhance the relevance and impact of psychosocial interventions for men living with cancer.

  20. Challenges in cancer research and multifaceted approaches for cancer biomarker quest

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Martinková, Jiřina; Gadher, S. J.; Hajduch, M.; Kovářová, Hana

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 583, - (2009), s. 1772-1784 ISSN 0014-5793 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC07017 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50450515 Keywords : cancer research * proteomics * genomics Subject RIV: FD - Oncology ; Hematology Impact factor: 3.541, year: 2009

  1. Metrics for evaluating patient navigation during cancer diagnosis and treatment: crafting a policy-relevant research agenda for patient navigation in cancer care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guadagnolo, B Ashleigh; Dohan, Daniel; Raich, Peter

    2011-08-01

    Racial and ethnic minorities as well as other vulnerable populations experience disparate cancer-related health outcomes. Patient navigation is an emerging health care delivery innovation that offers promise in improving quality of cancer care delivery to these patients who experience unique health-access barriers. Metrics are needed to evaluate whether patient navigation can improve quality of care delivery, health outcomes, and overall value in health care during diagnosis and treatment of cancer. Information regarding the current state of the science examining patient navigation interventions was gathered via search of the published scientific literature. A focus group of providers, patient navigators, and health-policy experts was convened as part of the Patient Navigation Leadership Summit sponsored by the American Cancer Society. Key metrics were identified for assessing the efficacy of patient navigation in cancer diagnosis and treatment. Patient navigation data exist for all stages of cancer care; however, the literature is more robust for its implementation during prevention, screening, and early diagnostic workup of cancer. Relatively fewer data are reported for outcomes and efficacy of patient navigation during cancer treatment. Metrics are proposed for a policy-relevant research agenda to evaluate the efficacy of patient navigation in cancer diagnosis and treatment. Patient navigation is understudied with respect to its use in cancer diagnosis and treatment. Core metrics are defined to evaluate its efficacy in improving outcomes and mitigating health-access barriers. Copyright © 2011 American Cancer Society.

  2. VIDEO: Dr. Henry Rodriguez - Proteogenomics in Cancer Medicine | Office of Cancer Clinical Proteomics Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dr. Henry Rodriguez, director of the Office of Cancer Clinical Proteomics Research (OCCPR) at NCI, speaks with ecancer television at WIN 2017 about the translation of the proteins expressed in a patient's tumor into a map for druggable targets. By combining genomic and proteomic information (proteogenomics), leading scientists are gaining new insights into ways to detect and treat cancer due to a more complete and unified understanding of complex biological processes.

  3. The EULAR Scleroderma Trials and Research Group (EUSTAR): an international framework for accelerating scleroderma research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyndall, Alan; Ladner, Ulf M; Matucci-Cerinic, Marco

    2008-11-01

    Systemic sclerosis has a complex pathogenesis and a multifaceted clinical spectrum without a specific treatment. Under the auspices of the European League Against Rheumatism, the European League Against Rheumatism Scleroderma Trials And Research group (EUSTAR) has been founded in Europe to foster the study of systemic sclerosis with the aim of achieving equality of assessment and care of systemic sclerosis patients throughout the world according to evidence-based principles. EUSTAR created the minimal essential data set, a simple two-page form with basic demographics and mostly yes/no answers to clinical and laboratory parameters, to track patients throughout Europe. Currently, over 7000 patients are registered from 150 centres in four continents, and several articles have been published with the data generated by the minimal essential data set. A commitment of EUSTAR is also to teaching and educating, and for this reason there are two teaching courses and a third is planned for early in 2009. These courses have built international networks among young investigators improving the quality of multicentre clinical trials. EUSTAR has organized several rounds of 'teach the teachers' to further standardize the skin scoring. EUSTAR activities have extended beyond European borders, and EUSTAR now includes experts from several nations. The growth of data and biomaterial might ensure many further fruitful multicentre studies, but the financial sustainability of EUSTAR remains an issue that may jeopardize the existence of this group as well as that of other organizations in the world.

  4. Cancer Health Disparities Research: Where have we been and where should we go?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarlett Lin Gomez, PhD, MPH, is Professor in the Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics and a member of the Helen Diller Family Comprehensive Cancer Center at the University of California, San Francisco. She is also Director of the Greater Bay Area Cancer Registry, a part of the California Cancer Registry and the NCI Surveillance Epidemiology End Results (SEER) Program. Her research focuses primarily on cancer health disparities and aims to understand the multilevel drivers of those disparities. She has contributed surveillance data regarding cancer incidence and outcome patterns and trends for distinct Asian American, Native Hawaiian, and Pacific Islander and Hispanic ethnic groups, as well as cancer patterns by nativity status and neighborhood characteristics. She developed the California Neighborhoods Data System, a compilation of small-area level data on social and built environment characteristics, and has used these data in more than a dozen funded studies to evaluate the impact of social and built neighborhood environment factors on disease outcomes. Since 1996, Dr. Lin Gomez has received many honors and awards, including being named Author of the Year in 2010 by the American Journal of Public Health, the Above and Beyond Excellence Award in 2012 and the Mentoring Award in 2014, both by the Cancer Prevention Institute of California. She completed her education in epidemiology with an MPH at the University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, and her PhD at Stanford.

  5. Facilitation of self-transcendence in a breast cancer support group: II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coward, Doris Dickerson

    2003-01-01

    To pilot a second support group intervention study promoting self-transcendence perspectives and activities and to document changes over time in well-being in support group participants compared with nonparticipants. Quasiexperimental, partial randomization, preference trial design. An urban breast cancer resource center established by survivors. 41 women with newly diagnosed breast cancer were recruited, and 39 completed the study. 22 women participated in three intervention support groups; 17 were in a comparison group. The intervention was an eight-week, closed support group based on self-transcendence theory. Data were collected three times during 14 months. Support group intervention, self-transcendence, and emotional and physical well-being. The intervention group had lower scores than the comparison group on self-transcendence and well-being variables at baseline (time [T] 1). Scores were higher for both groups postintervention (T2), with no differences between groups. One year postintervention (T3), intervention group scores again were lower than comparison group scores. Intervention group T3 scores were unchanged from T2. Most potential participants were unwilling to risk being randomized into a nonpreferred group. Activities based on self-transcendence theory were associated with expanded perspectives and activities and an improved sense of well-being in support group participants at the end of the intervention, but not one year later. Findings from the pilot studies informed a study currently in progress. Nurses should maintain awareness of local resources for support and make that information available to women when they are newly diagnosed with breast cancer, during their treatment, and later.

  6. Adjustment to cancer: exploring patients' experiences of participating in a psychodramatic group intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menichetti, J; Giusti, L; Fossati, I; Vegni, E

    2016-09-01

    The main purpose of the present study was to understand the subjective experience of patients adjusting to cancer by focusing on how that experience might be affected by participating in a psychodramatic group intervention. In-depth interviews using an interpretative-phenomenological approach were conducted with eight cancer patients involved in a psychodrama group. Four key themes were identified: (1) outside and inside relationships; (2) identities: nurturing other selves; (3) a feelings' gym: performing the internal world; and (4) many ends: mourning death and dying. Participation in cancer group using a psychodramatic approach provided positive results. In detail, the group setting: (1) favoured relationships in which it was possible to freely express oneself and (2) empowered patients in their feelings of being able to give and receive help; the psychodramatic approach: (1) supported the physical mobilisation of sense of agency and (2) permitted to deal with the grieving process. Cancer healthcare pathways would benefit from psychotherapeutic programmes using a similar approach, since psychodrama by actively involving body seems to works on areas that are often underwhelmed by other approaches, such as (i.e., physical mobilisation, body engagement, grieving adjustment). Psychodrama supports patients to achieve insights into their own possibilities to actively participate in their own life situations despite having cancer and undergoing treatment for it. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Xeroderma pigmentosum, complementation group D expression in H1299 lung cancer cells following benzo[a]pyrene exposure as well as in head and neck cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chang-Shen; Chiou, Wen-Yen; Lee, Ka-Wo; Chen, Tzu-Fen; Lin, Yuan-Jen; Huang, Jau-Ling

    2016-01-01

    DNA repair genes play critical roles in response to carcinogen-induced and anticancer therapy-induced DNA damage. Benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), the most carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH), is classified as a group 1 carcinogen by International Agency for Research on Cancer. The aims of this study were to (1) evaluate the effects of BaP on DNA repair activity and expression of DNA repair genes in vitro and (2) examine the role of xeroderma pigmentosum, complementation group D (XPD) mRNA expression in human head and neck cancers. Host cell reactivation assay showed that BaP inhibited nucleotide excision repair in H1299 lung cancer cells. DNA repair through the non-homologous end-joining pathway was not affected by BaP. Real-time quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and Western blot demonstrated that XPD was downregulated by BaP treatment. BaP exposure did not apparently affect expression of another 11 DNA repair genes. BaP treatment increased the DNA damage marker γ-H2AX and ultraviolet (UV) sensitivity, supporting an impairment of DNA repair in BaP-treated cells. XPD expression was also examined by quantitative RT-PCR in 68 head and neck cancers, and a lower XPD mRNA level was found in smokers' cancer specimens. Importantly, reduced XPD expression was correlated with patient 5-year overall survival rate (35 vs. 56%) and was an independent prognostic factor (hazard ratio: 2.27). Data demonstrated that XPD downregulation was correlated with BaP exposure and human head and neck cancer survival.

  8. When life gives you lemons: The effectiveness of culinary group intervention among cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barak-Nahum, Ayelet; Haim, Limor Ben; Ginzburg, Karni

    2016-10-01

    Previous studies have shown that the dietary habits of cancer patients and survivors have significant implications for their recovery and quality of life. The current study examined the effectiveness of an innovative culinary group intervention on cancer patients' quality of life through changes in their eating behaviors, as manifested by an increase in their tendency towards intuitive eating and healthy food choices. In total, 190 cancer patients participated in this study, and were allocated to an intervention or a wait-list control group. A battery of self-report questionnaires assessing food choices, intuitive eating, health-related quality of life, and subjective well-being was administered at two time points: Before the intervention (T1) and at the end of the three month intervention (T2). Analyses revealed an increase in health-related quality of life and well-being among the intervention group. Intuitive eating and healthy food choices also increased among the intervention but not wait-list control group. Finally, results indicated that participation in the culinary group intervention and improvements in health-related quality of life and well-being were mediated by changes in eating behaviors. Our findings demonstrate that nutrition and eating behaviors have a significant effect on cancer patients' physical and emotional adjustment. A culinary group intervention seems to target patients' physical and emotional needs and promote their adjustment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Barriers to cancer symptom presentation among people from low socioeconomic groups: a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grace McCutchan

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Socioeconomic inequalities in cancer survival can in part be explained by long patient intervals among people from deprived groups; however, the reasons for this are unclear. This qualitative study explores the actual and anticipated barriers to cancer symptom presentation in the context of socioeconomic deprivation. Methods Thirty participants were recruited through the International Cancer Benchmarking Partnership Welsh database (n = 20, snowball sampling (n = 8 and community partners (n = 2. Semi-structured qualitative interviews were conducted with symptomatic and asymptomatic adults over the age of 50 years, who were identified as being from a low socioeconomic group based on multiple individual and group level indicators. Transcripts were analysed using a Framework approach based on the COM-B model (Capability, Opportunity, Motivation-Behaviour. Results There was evidence of poor awareness of non-specific cancer symptoms (Capability, fearful and fatalistic beliefs about cancer (Motivation, and various barriers to accessing an appointment with the family physician (Opportunity and full disclosure of symptoms (Capability. These in combination were associated with a lengthened patient interval among participants. Social networks (Opportunity were influential on the formation of knowledge and beliefs about cancer. Participants’ behavioural and normative beliefs were usually formed and reinforced by people they knew with cancer, and such beliefs were considered to lengthen the patient interval. Discussing symptoms with a family member or friend before a visit to the family physician was the norm, and could act as a barrier or facilitator depending on the quality of advice given (Opportunity. Economic hardship meant fulfilling basic day-to-day needs such as finding money for food were prioritised over medical help seeking (Opportunity. Conclusions The complex interaction between individual characteristics and

  10. Medical Genetics at McGill: The History of a Pioneering Research Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canning, Christopher; Weisz, George; Tone, Andrea; Cambrosio, Alberto

    2013-01-01

    The McGill Group in Medical Genetics was formed in 1972, supported by the Medical Research Council and successor Canadian Institutes for Health Research until September 2009, making it the longest active biomedical research group in the history of Canada. We document the history of the McGill Group and situate its research within a broader history of medical genetics. Drawing on original oral histories with the Group's members, surviving documents, and archival materials, we explore how the Group's development was structured around epistemological trends in medical genetics, policy choices made by research agencies, and the development of genetics at McGill University and its hospitals.

  11. Contrasting the ethical perspectives of biospecimen research among individuals with familial risk for hereditary cancer and biomedical researchers: implications for researcher training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Gwendolyn P; Koskan, Alexis; Sehovic, Ivana; Pal, Tuya; Meade, Cathy; Gwede, Clement K

    2014-07-01

    While ethical concerns about participating in biospecimen research have been previously identified, few studies have reported the concerns among individuals with familial risk for hereditary cancer (IFRs). At the same time, biomedical researchers often lack training in discussing such concerns to potential donors. This study explores IFRs' and biomedical researchers' perceptions of ethical concerns about participating in biobanking research. In separate focus groups, IFRs and biomedical researchers participated in 90-min telephone focus groups. Focus group questions centered on knowledge about laws that protect the confidentiality of biospecimen donors, understanding of informed consent and study procedures, and preferences for being recontacted about potential incidental discovery and also study results. A total of 40 IFRs and 32 biomedical researchers participated in the focus groups. Results demonstrated discrepancies between the perceptions of IFRs and researchers. IFRs' concerns centered on health information protection; potential discrimination by insurers and employers; and preferences for being recontacted upon discovery of gene mutations or to communicate study results. Researchers perceived that participants understood laws protecting donors' privacy and (detailed study information outlined in the informed consent process), study outcomes were used to create a training tool kit to increase researchers' understanding of IFRs' concerns about biobanking.

  12. How prostate cancer support groups do and do not survive: British Columbian perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliffe, John L; Halpin, Michael; Bottorff, Joan L; Hislop, T Gregory; McKenzie, Michael; Mroz, Lawrence

    2008-06-01

    Many prostate cancer support groups (PCSGs) have formed in North America during the past decade, yet their operation or factors influencing sustainability are poorly understood. This article reports micro (intragroup), meso (intergroup), and macro (group/structure) analyses drawn from the fieldwork and participant observations conducted for an ethnographic study of PCSGs based in British Columbia, Canada. The findings indicate that effective group leadership is integral to group sustainability and the recruitment and retention of attendees. At the meso level, intergroup connections and communication were often informal; however, the primary purpose of all the PCSGs was to provide information and support to men and their families. Many PCSGs were uncertain how formal associations with cancer fund-raising societies would influence group effectiveness. Macro issues such as prostate cancer activism resided with individual group "champions" through activities coordinated by provincial and national PCSG organizations. However, activism did not guarantee group sustainability. The study findings reveal why some groups flourish while others appear untenable, and form the basis for discussion about how PCSG sustainability might be best achieved.

  13. Brazilian research groups in nursing: comparison of 2006 and 2016 profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdmann, Alacoque Lorenzini; Peiter, Caroline Cechinel; Lanzoni, Gabriela Marcellino de Melo

    2017-07-13

    To compare the profile of nursing research groups registered at the CNPq Research Groups Directory in 2006 and 2016. Descriptive and documentary analysis, The data has been collected in 2006 and in 2016, with parameterized search with the term "nursing" at the CNPq Research Groups Directory. The selected variables have been organized in a Microsoft Office Exce spreadsheetl. The research groups have increased from 251 in 2006 to 617 in 2016, with important increase of the number of participants, among students and researchers. There was a decrease of the number of groups without students. However, 22% remain without undergraduate students' participation. It has been observed an important increase regarding the interest on research activities, when comparing both scenarios. The nursing research groups reflect structural and political advances in generation of science, technology and innovation, however, the undergraduate students' and the foreign researchers' participation should still be encouraged.

  14. Qualitative evaluation of mobile cancer apps with particular attention to the target group, content, and advertising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böhme, Cathleen; von Osthoff, Marc Baron; Frey, Katrin; Hübner, Jutta

    2018-01-01

    Medical apps are gaining importance rapidly. Also in the field of cancer care, apps are offered. Yet, so far little is known with respect to their quality. In a pilot phase we developed a rating tool based on formal and content-related criteria for the assessment of cancer apps. We used this instrument on cancer apps available in the App Store (iOS) concerning breast, prostate and colorectal cancer. The results were stratified according to target group, content and advertising. We assessed 41 mobile cancer apps. Six apps (14.63%) scored very high, fifteen apps (36.59%) high, seventeen apps (41.46%) were deficient, and three apps (7.32%) were insufficient. The largest group of apps represents those apps with the "deficient" rating. The very good to good apps had reliable sources, a concrete intent/ purpose in their app description, and a strict distinction of scientific content and advertisement. Apps with the predicates "deficient" or "insufficient" had particularly poor ratings, e.g. in the subscales "information on sources" and "data protection". Almost half of the tested apps were deficient or insufficient. In order to improve safety of patients using apps, some regulation seems mandatory. Putting apps under the legislation for medical products might be one way to better regulate and control quality. Second, efforts should focus on the development of checklists that make it easier for patients to search for suitable cancer apps.

  15. The Effectiveness of Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Group Therapy in Reducing Negative Automatic Thoughts and Dysfunctional Attitudes in Cancer Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Mehdipour

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of mindfulness-based cognitive group therapy (MBCT in reducing negative automatic thoughts and dysfunctional attitudes in cancer patients. Methods The study was an applied and quasi-experimental research conducted by pre- and post-testing. The sample consisted of 30 cancer patients selected by purposive sampling and randomly placed in the control and the experimental group (15 individuals per group. The members of both groups filled out the automatic thoughts questionnaire (ATQ and the dysfunctional attitudes scale (DAS-26 at the pre- and the post-test stage. The collected data were analyzed by the SPSS software and multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA tests. Results The results indicated that MBCT significantly reduced negative automatic thoughts (F = 126.15, P < 0.01 and dysfunctional attitudes (F = 179.53, P < 0.01 in the experimental group at the post-test stage in comparison to the control group. Conclusions Based on the results of this study, it is essential that therapeutic centers and support forums related to patients with refractory disorders use MBCT in their programs for reducing negative automatic thoughts and dysfunctional attitudes.

  16. Guidelines for target volume definition in post-operative radiotherapy for prostate cancer, on behalf of the EORTC Radiation Oncology Group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poortmans, Philip; Bossi, Alberto; Vandeputte, Katia; Bosset, Mathieu; Miralbell, Raymond; Maingon, Philippe; Boehmer, Dirk; Budiharto, Tom; Symon, Zvi; Bergh, Alfons C.M. van den; Scrase, Christopher; Poppel, Hendrik van; Bolla, Michel

    2007-01-01

    The appropriate application of 3-D conformal radiotherapy, intensity modulated radiotherapy or image guided radiotherapy for patients undergoing post-operative radiotherapy for prostate cancer requires a standardisation of the target volume definition and delineation as well as standardisation of the clinical quality assurance procedures. Recommendations for this are presented on behalf of the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) Radiation Oncology Group and in addition to the already published guidelines for radiotherapy as the primary treatment

  17. Making patient and public involvement in cancer and palliative research a reality: academic support is vital for success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Karen; Boote, Jonathan; Ardron, David; Gath, Jacqui; Green, Tracy; Ahmedzai, Sam H

    2015-06-01

    Patient and public involvement (PPI) has become an established theme within the UK health research policy and is recognised as an essential force in the drive to improve the quality of services and research. These developments have been particularly rapid in the cancer field. This paper outlines a model of PPI in research (known as the North Trent Cancer Research Network Consumer Research Panel, NTCRN CRP; comprising 38 cancer and palliative care patients/carers) and the key benefits and challenges to effective PPI in cancer research. The PPI model has become a sustainable, inclusive and effective way of implementing PPI within the cancer context. Challenges include (1) a lack of time and funding available to support the PPI model; (2) tensions between different stakeholder groups when developing and conducting health research; (3) panel members finding it difficult to effectively integrate into research meetings when their role and contribution is not made clear at the outset or when unfamiliar language and jargon are used and not explained; (4) some professionals remain unclear about the role and practical implications of PPI in research. However, notwithstanding its financial and organisational challenges, the way that the NTCRN CRP is supported has provided a solid base for it to flourish. PPI provides considerable opportunities for patients and the public to work collaboratively with professionals to influence the cancer research agenda, with the contribution of PPI to the research process being integral to the entire process from the outset, rather than appended to it. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  18. Final report of the group research. Genome analysis on the biological effects of radiation. Second research group of NIRS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-10-01

    This report concerns investigations on the title conducted by 5 subgroups of National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS) during the period of 1993-2001. The report involves the organization of research teams and summary reports from the subgroups for Genome sequencing and informatics, Genome analysis on model organisms, The genome analysis on the specific chromosomal region related to radiation-sensitivity, Molecular analysis on the structure and function of particular regions of human genome, and Generation and characterization of DNA repair-deficient model mice. Significant results are as follows: Sequencing of the radiation sensitivity gene ATM, finding of a novel cell cycle regulator gene NPAT and regulation of gene expression of ATM/NPAT; Findings that the cause of the variability related to instability of human genome is derived from particular repeat structures of 5 and 35 bases and of the instability mutation, from the mutation of EPILS (mRNA synthase gene); Program development for novel human genome finding in the DNA sequences and making novel human gene as a resource by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique; and generation of the highly UV-sensitive mouse model for human xeroderma pigmentosum G. Conclusion is that findings will contribute for better understanding of the genes functioning radiation sensitivity and also biodefense mechanism against radiation and other environmental stress. (N.I.)

  19. [Prostate cancer patients with lymph node metastasis. Outcome in a consecutive group of 59 patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roder, M.A.; Reinhardt, S.; Brasso, K.

    2008-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The optimal management of prostate cancer patients with lymph node metastasis remains controversial. In this article, the outcome in a consecutive group of patients with newly diagnosed lymph node positive prostate cancer is presented. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In 59 patients...... with histological verified lymph node positive disease but without osseous metastasis, outcome is described by time to biochemical progression, time to metastasis and survival. RESULTS: Median age at diagnosis was 62 years. Median pre-treatment PSA was 21 ng/ml. Endocrine treatment was initiated within median 2...... patients died during follow-up, 15 deaths were attributable to prostate cancer. Estimated median survival was 5.5 years. CONCLUSION: Despite early androgen deprivation therapy, patients with lymph node positive prostate cancer have a grave prognosis with a high risk of progression and disease...

  20. Second primary cancers after adjuvant radiotherapy in early breast cancer patients: A national population based study under the Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group (DBCG)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grantzau, Trine; Mellemkjær, Lene; Overgaard, Jens

    2013-01-01

    Background and purpose: To analyze the long-term risk of second primary solid non-breast cancer in a national population-based cohort of 46,176 patients treated for early breast cancer between 1982 and 2007. Patients and methods: All patients studied were treated according to the national guidelines of the Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group. The risk of second primary cancers was estimated by Standardised incidence ratios (SIRs) and multivariate Cox regression models were used to estimate adjusted hazard ratios (HR) among irradiated women compared to non-irradiated. All irradiated patients were treated on linear accelerators. Second cancers were a priori categorized into two groups; radiotherapy-associated- (oesophagus, lung, heart/mediastinum, pleura, bones, and connective tissue) and non-radiotherapy-associated sites (all other cancers). Results: 2358 second cancers had occurred during the follow-up. For the radiotherapy-associated sites the HR among irradiated women was 1.34 (95% CI 1.11–1.61) with significantly increased HRs for the time periods of 10–14 years (HR 1.55; 95% CI 1.08–2.24) and ⩾15 years after treatment (HR 1.79; 95% CI 1.14–2.81). There was no increased risk for the non-radiotherapy-associated sites (HR 1.04; 95% CI 0.94–1.1). The estimated attributable risk related to radiotherapy for the radiotherapy-associated sites translates into one radiation-induced second cancer in every 200 women treated with radiotherapy. Conclusions: Radiotherapy treated breast cancer patients have a small but significantly excess risk of second cancers